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Sample records for t-test results showed

  1. Comparing Groups in a Before-After Design: When t Test and ANCOVA Produce Different Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Daniel B.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Researchers often test people before and after some treatment and compare these scores with a control group. Sometimes it is not possible to allocate people into conditions randomly, which means the initial scores for the two groups may differ. There are two main approaches: t test on the gain scores and ANCOVA partialling out the…

  2. 13. DETAIL VIEW OF BUTTRESS 4 SHOWING THE RESULTS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL VIEW OF BUTTRESS 4 SHOWING THE RESULTS OF POOR CONSTRUCTION WORK. THOUGH NOT A SERIOUS STRUCTURAL DEFICIENCY, THE 'HONEYCOMB' TEXTURE OF THE CONCRETE SURFACE WAS THE RESULT OF INADEQUATE TAMPING AT THE TIME OF THE INITIAL 'POUR'. - Hume Lake Dam, Sequioa National Forest, Hume, Fresno County, CA

  3. The Bayesian t-test and beyond.

    PubMed

    Gönen, Mithat

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter we will explore Bayesian alternatives to the t-test. We saw in Chapter 1 how t-test can be used to test whether the expected outcomes of the two groups are equal or not. In Chapter 3 we saw how to make inferences from a Bayesian perspective in principle. In this chapter we will put these together to develop a Bayesian procedure for a t-test. This procedure depends on the data only through the t-statistic. It requires prior inputs and we will discuss how to assign them. We will use an example from a microarray study as to demonstrate the practical issues. The microarray study is an important application for the Bayesian t-test as it naturally brings up the question of simultaneous t-tests. It turns out that the Bayesian procedure can easily be extended to carry several t-tests on the same data set, provided some attention is paid to the concept of the correlation between tests.

  4. Bayesian Estimation Supersedes the "t" Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruschke, John K.

    2013-01-01

    Bayesian estimation for 2 groups provides complete distributions of credible values for the effect size, group means and their difference, standard deviations and their difference, and the normality of the data. The method handles outliers. The decision rule can accept the null value (unlike traditional "t" tests) when certainty in the estimate is…

  5. Gun shows and gun violence: fatally flawed study yields misleading results.

    PubMed

    Wintemute, Garen J; Hemenway, David; Webster, Daniel; Pierce, Glenn; Braga, Anthony A

    2010-10-01

    A widely publicized but unpublished study of the relationship between gun shows and gun violence is being cited in debates about the regulation of gun shows and gun commerce. We believe the study is fatally flawed. A working paper entitled "The Effect of Gun Shows on Gun-Related Deaths: Evidence from California and Texas" outlined this study, which found no association between gun shows and gun-related deaths. We believe the study reflects a limited understanding of gun shows and gun markets and is not statistically powered to detect even an implausibly large effect of gun shows on gun violence. In addition, the research contains serious ascertainment and classification errors, produces results that are sensitive to minor specification changes in key variables and in some cases have no face validity, and is contradicted by 1 of its own authors' prior research. The study should not be used as evidence in formulating gun policy.

  6. Astronomy Diagnostic Test Results Reflect Course Goals and Show Room for Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopresto, Michael C.

    The results of administering the Astronomy Diagnostic Test (ADT) to introductory astronomy students at Henry Ford Community College over three years have shown gains comparable with national averages. Results have also accurately corresponded to course goals, showing greater gains in topics covered in more detail, and lower gains in topics covered in less detail. Also evident in the results were topics for which improvement of instruction is needed. These factors and the ease with which the ADT can be administered constitute evidence of the usefulness of the ADT as an assessment instrument for introductory astronomy.

  7. Long-Term Trial Results Show No Mortality Benefit from Annual Prostate Cancer Screening

    Cancer.gov

    Thirteen year follow-up data from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) cancer screening trial show higher incidence but similar mortality among men screened annually with the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test and digital rectal examination

  8. Results From Mars Show Electrostatic Charging of the Mars Pathfinder Sojourner Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolecki, Joseph C.; Siebert, Mark W.

    1998-01-01

    Indirect evidence (dust accumulation) has been obtained indicating that the Mars Pathfinder rover, Sojourner, experienced electrostatic charging on Mars. Lander camera images of the Sojourner rover provide distinctive evidence of dust accumulation on rover wheels during traverses, turns, and crabbing maneuvers. The sol 22 (22nd Martian "day" after Pathfinder landed) end-of-day image clearly shows fine red dust concentrated around the wheel edges with additional accumulation in the wheel hubs. A sol 41 image of the rover near the rock "Wedge" (see the next image) shows a more uniform coating of dust on the wheel drive surfaces with accumulation in the hubs similar to that in the previous image. In the sol 41 image, note particularly the loss of black-white contrast on the Wheel Abrasion Experiment strips (center wheel). This loss of contrast was also seen when dust accumulated on test wheels in the laboratory. We believe that this accumulation occurred because the Martian surface dust consists of clay-sized particles, similar to those detected by Viking, which have become electrically charged. By adhering to the wheels, the charged dust carries a net nonzero charge to the rover, raising its electrical potential relative to its surroundings. Similar charging behavior was routinely observed in an experimental facility at the NASA Lewis Research Center, where a Sojourner wheel was driven in a simulated Martian surface environment. There, as the wheel moved and accumulated dust (see the following image), electrical potentials in excess of 100 V (relative to the chamber ground) were detected by a capacitively coupled electrostatic probe located 4 mm from the wheel surface. The measured wheel capacitance was approximately 80 picofarads (pF), and the calculated charge, 8 x 10(exp -9) coulombs (C). Voltage differences of 100 V and greater are believed sufficient to produce Paschen electrical discharge in the Martian atmosphere. With an accumulated net charge of 8 x 10(exp

  9. Stem cells show promising results for lymphoedema treatment--a literature review.

    PubMed

    Toyserkani, Navid Mohamadpour; Christensen, Marlene Louise; Sheikh, Søren Paludan; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    2015-04-01

    Lymphoedema is a debilitating condition, manifesting in excess lymphatic fluid and swelling of subcutaneous tissues. Lymphoedema is as of yet still an incurable condition and current treatment modalities are not satisfactory. The capacity of mesenchymal stem cells to promote angiogenesis, secrete growth factors, regulate the inflammatory process, and differentiate into multiple cell types make them a potential ideal therapy for lymphoedema. Adipose tissue is the richest and most accessible source of mesenchymal stem cells and they can be harvested, isolated, and used for therapy in a single stage procedure as an autologous treatment. The aim of this paper was to review all studies using mesenchymal stem cells for lymphoedema treatment with a special focus on the potential use of adipose-derived stem cells. A systematic search was performed and five preclinical and two clinical studies were found. Different stem cell sources and lymphoedema models were used in the described studies. Most studies showed a decrease in lymphoedema and an increased lymphangiogenesis when treated with stem cells and this treatment modality has so far shown great potential. The present studies are, however, subject to bias and more preclinical studies and large-scale high quality clinical trials are needed to show if this emerging therapy can satisfy expectations.

  10. AMS 14C analysis of teeth from archaeological sites showing anomalous esr dating results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grün, Rainer; Abeyratne, Mohan; Head, John; Tuniz, Claudio; Hedges, Robert E. M.

    We have carried out AMS radiocarbon analysis on two groups of samples: the first one gave reasonable ESR age estimates and the second one yielded serious age underestinations. All samples were supposedly older than 35 ka, the oldest being around 160 ka. Two pretreatment techniques were used for radiocarbon dating: acid evolution and thermal release. Heating to 600, 750 and 900°C combined with total de-gassing at these temperatures was chosen to obtain age estimates on the organic fraction, secondary carbonates and original carbonate present in the hydroxyapatite mineral phase, respectively. All radiocarbon results present serious age underestimations. The secondary carbonate fraction gives almost modern results indicating an extremely rapid exchange of this component. Owing to this very rapid carbonate exchange it is not likely that the ESR signals used for dating are associated with the secondary carbonates. One tooth from Tabun with independent age estimates of >150 ka was further investigated by the Oxford AMS laboratory, yielding an age estimate of 1930±100 BP on the residual collagen from dentine and 18,000±160 BP on the carbonate component of the enamel bioapatite. We did not, however, find an explanation of why some samples give serious ESR underestimatioils whilst many others provide reasonable results.

  11. Animation shows promise in initiating timely cardiopulmonary resuscitation: results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Attin, Mina; Winslow, Katheryn; Smith, Tyler

    2014-04-01

    Delayed responses during cardiac arrest are common. Timely interventions during cardiac arrest have a direct impact on patient survival. Integration of technology in nursing education is crucial to enhance teaching effectiveness. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of animation on nursing students' response time to cardiac arrest, including initiation of timely chest compression. Nursing students were randomized into experimental and control groups prior to practicing in a high-fidelity simulation laboratory. The experimental group was educated, by discussion and animation, about the importance of starting cardiopulmonary resuscitation upon recognizing an unresponsive patient. Afterward, a discussion session allowed students in the experimental group to gain more in-depth knowledge about the most recent changes in the cardiac resuscitation guidelines from the American Heart Association. A linear mixed model was run to investigate differences in time of response between the experimental and control groups while controlling for differences in those with additional degrees, prior code experience, and basic life support certification. The experimental group had a faster response time compared with the control group and initiated timely cardiopulmonary resuscitation upon recognition of deteriorating conditions (P < .0001). The results demonstrated the efficacy of combined teaching modalities for timely cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Providing opportunities for repetitious practice when a patient's condition is deteriorating is crucial for teaching safe practice.

  12. Aortic emboli show surprising size dependent predilection for cerebral arteries: Results from computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Ian; Schwartz, Robert; Shadden, Shawn

    2012-11-01

    Cardiac emboli can have devastating consequences if they enter the cerebral circulation, and are the most common cause of embolic stroke. Little is known about relationships of embolic origin/density/size to cerebral events; as these relationships are difficult to observe. To better understand stoke risk from cardiac and aortic emboli, we developed a computational model to track emboli from the heart to the brain. Patient-specific models of the human aorta and arteries to the brain were derived from CT angiography from 10 MHIF patients. Blood flow was modeled by the Navier-Stokes equations using pulsatile inflow at the aortic valve, and physiologic Windkessel models at the outlets. Particulate was injected at the aortic valve and tracked using modified Maxey-Riley equations with a wall collision model. Results demonstrate aortic emboli that entered the cerebral circulation through the carotid or vertebral arteries were localized to specific locations of the proximal aorta. The percentage of released particles embolic to the brain markedly increased with particle size from 0 to ~1-1.5 mm in all patients. Larger particulate became less likely to traverse the cerebral vessels. These findings are consistent with sparse literature based on transesophageal echo measurements. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation, award number 1157041.

  13. Initiative To Reduce Avoidable Hospitalizations Among Nursing Facility Residents Shows Promising Results.

    PubMed

    Ingber, Melvin J; Feng, Zhanlian; Khatutsky, Galina; Wang, Joyce M; Bercaw, Lawren E; Zheng, Nan Tracy; Vadnais, Alison; Coomer, Nicole M; Segelman, Micah

    2017-03-01

    Nursing facility residents are frequently admitted to the hospital, and these hospital stays are often potentially avoidable. Such hospitalizations are detrimental to patients and costly to Medicare and Medicaid. In 2012 the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services launched the Initiative to Reduce Avoidable Hospitalizations among Nursing Facility Residents, using evidence-based clinical and educational interventions among long-stay residents in 143 facilities in seven states. In state-specific analyses, we estimated net reductions in 2015 of 2.2-9.3 percentage points in the probability of an all-cause hospitalization and 1.4-7.2 percentage points in the probability of a potentially avoidable hospitalization for participating facility residents, relative to comparison-group members. In that year, average per resident Medicare expenditures were reduced by $60-$2,248 for all-cause hospitalizations and by $98-$577 for potentially avoidable hospitalizations. The effects for over half of the outcomes in these analyses were significant. Variability in implementation and engagement across the nursing facilities and organizations that customized and implemented the initiative helps explain the variability in the estimated effects. Initiative models that included registered nurses or nurse practitioners who provided consistent clinical care for residents demonstrated higher staff engagement and more positive outcomes, compared to models providing only education or intermittent clinical care. These results provide promising evidence of an effective approach for reducing avoidable hospitalizations among nursing facility residents.

  14. Power of the Independent Samples t Test under a Prevalent Psychometric Measure Distribution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawilowsky, Shlomo S.; Hillman, Stephen B.

    1992-01-01

    Notes that studies in psychology often have low power because of inadequate sample size and that prevalent psychometric distributions are sometimes radically nonnormal. Demonstrates robustness of independent samples t-test with respect to Type I error. Shows that researchers may use power tables based on population normality without modification…

  15. Determining Differences in Efficacy of Two Disinfectants Using t-Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brehm, Michael A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents an experiment to compare the effectiveness of 95% ethanol to 20% bleach as disinfectants using t-tests for the statistical analysis of the data. Reports that bleach is a better disinfectant. Discusses the statistical and practical significance of the results. (JRH)

  16. [Clinical research XV. From the clinical judgment to the statistical model. Difference between means. Student's t test].

    PubMed

    Rivas-Ruiz, Rodolfo; Pérez-Rodríguez, Marcela; Talavera, Juan O

    2013-01-01

    Among the test to show differences between means, the Student t test is the most characteristic. Its basic algebraic structure shows the difference between two means weighted by their dispersion. In this way, you can estimate the p value and the 95 % confidence interval of the mean difference. An essential feature is that the variable from which the mean is going to be calculated must have a normal distribution. The Student t test is used to compare two unrelated means (compared between two maneuvers), this is known as t test for independent samples. It is also used to compare two related means (a comparison before and after a maneuver in just one group), what is called paired t test. When the comparison is between more than two means (three or more dependent means, or three or more independent means) an ANOVA test (or an analysis of variance) it is used to perform the analysis.

  17. Conventional physical therapy and physical therapy based on reflex stimulation showed similar results in children with myelomeningocele.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Carolina Y P; Morales, Mariana P; Lundberg, Carolina; Moura, Maria Clara D Soares de; Pinto, Fernando C G; Voos, Mariana C; Hasue, Renata H

    2017-03-01

    We aimed to investigate whether infants with myelomeningocele would improve their motor ability and functional independence after ten sessions of physical therapy and compare the outcomes of conventional physical therapy (CPT) to a physical therapy program based on reflex stimulation (RPT). Twelve children were allocated to CPT (n = 6, age 18.3 months) or RPT (n = 6, age 18.2 months). The RPT involved proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation. Children were assessed with the Gross Motor Function Measure and the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory before and after treatment. Mann-Whitney tests compared the improvement on the two scales of CPT versus RPT and the Wilcoxon test compared CPT to RPT (before vs. after treatment). Possible correlations between the two scales were tested with Spearman correlation coefficients. Both groups showed improvement on self-care and mobility domains of both scales. There were no differences between the groups, before, or after intervention. The CPT and RPT showed similar results after ten weeks of treatment.

  18. Comparison of student's t-test and the Dorfman-Berbaum-Metz (DBM) method for the statistical comparison of competing diagnostic modalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yulei

    2002-04-01

    Both student's t-test for paired data and the Dorfman- Berbaum-Metz (DBM) method report a P value in comparing ROC curves of competing diagnostic modalities. We empirically compared the P values from the t-test and the DBM method using data of two observer studies involving the lung-nodule detection (15 readers 240 cases) and breast-lesion classification (10 readers 104 cases). We made 596,637 comparisons based on data drawn from different combinations and subsets of the readers and cases. The average difference in the P values was 0.11 and 0.058 in the lung nodule study (of two separate analyses) and 0.0061 in the breast lesion study. The lung nodule study showed, in the analysis that demonstrated statistical significance with the original full dataset, both P<0.05 or both p>0.05 in 83% of the comparisons. The t-test alone reported P<0.05 in 17%, and the DBM method alone reported P<0.05 in 1% of the comparisons. A second analysis of the part of the lung nodule study that did not show statistical significance with the original full dataset found both P<0.05 or both P>0.05 in 99% of the comparisons. The t-test alone reported P<0.05 in 1%, and the DBM method alone reported P<0.05 in less than 1% of the comparisons. The breast lesion study showed both P<0.05 or both P>0.05 in 91% of the comparisons. The t-test alone reported P<0.05 in 5%, and the DBM method alone reported P<0.05 in 4% of the comparisons. These results indicate that the t-test and the DBM method generally report similar P values, but their conclusions regarding statistical significance often differ and the DBM method should be used because it accounts for both reader and case variances.

  19. Genomic and Enzymatic Results Show Bacillus cellulosilyticus Uses a Novel Set of LPXTA Carbohydrases to Hydrolyze Polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Mead, David; Drinkwater, Colleen; Brumm, Phillip J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Alkaliphilic Bacillus species are intrinsically interesting due to the bioenergetic problems posed by growth at high pH and high salt. Three alkaline cellulases have been cloned, sequenced and expressed from Bacillus cellulosilyticus N-4 (Bcell) making it an excellent target for genomic sequencing and mining of biomass-degrading enzymes. Methodology/Principal Findings The genome of Bcell is a single chromosome of 4.7 Mb with no plasmids present and three large phage insertions. The most unusual feature of the genome is the presence of 23 LPXTA membrane anchor proteins; 17 of these are annotated as involved in polysaccharide degradation. These two values are significantly higher than seen in any other Bacillus species. This high number of membrane anchor proteins is seen only in pathogenic Gram-positive organisms such as Listeria monocytogenes or Staphylococcus aureus. Bcell also possesses four sortase D subfamily 4 enzymes that incorporate LPXTA-bearing proteins into the cell wall; three of these are closely related to each other and unique to Bcell. Cell fractionation and enzymatic assay of Bcell cultures show that the majority of polysaccharide degradation is associated with the cell wall LPXTA-enzymes, an unusual feature in Gram-positive aerobes. Genomic analysis and growth studies both strongly argue against Bcell being a truly cellulolytic organism, in spite of its name. Preliminary results suggest that fungal mycelia may be the natural substrate for this organism. Conclusions/Significance Bacillus cellulosilyticus N-4, in spite of its name, does not possess any of the genes necessary for crystalline cellulose degradation, demonstrating the risk of classifying microorganisms without the benefit of genomic analysis. Bcell is the first Gram-positive aerobic organism shown to use predominantly cell-bound, non-cellulosomal enzymes for polysaccharide degradation. The LPXTA-sortase system utilized by Bcell may have applications both in anchoring

  20. A collaborative accountable care model in three practices showed promising early results on costs and quality of care.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Richard B; Sanderson, Mark I; Walters, Barbara A; Kennedy, Karen; Flores, Robert C; Muney, Alan M

    2012-11-01

    Cigna's Collaborative Accountable Care initiative provides financial incentives to physician groups and integrated delivery systems to improve the quality and efficiency of care for patients in commercial open-access benefit plans. Registered nurses who serve as care coordinators employed by participating practices are a central feature of the initiative. They use patient-specific reports and practice performance reports provided by Cigna to improve care coordination, identify and close care gaps, and address other opportunities for quality improvement. We report interim quality and cost results for three geographically and structurally diverse provider practices in Arizona, New Hampshire, and Texas. Although not statistically significant, these early results revealed favorable trends in total medical costs and quality of care, suggesting that a shared-savings accountable care model and collaborative support from the payer can enable practices to take meaningful steps toward full accountability for care quality and efficiency.

  1. Volar locking distal radius plates show better short-term results than other treatment options: A prospective randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Drobetz, Herwig; Koval, Lidia; Weninger, Patrick; Luscombe, Ruth; Jeffries, Paula; Ehrendorfer, Stefan; Heal, Clare

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare the outcomes of displaced distal radius fractures treated with volar locking plates and with immediate postoperative mobilisation with the outcomes of these fractures treated with modalities that necessitate 6 wk wrist immobilisation. METHODS A prospective, randomised controlled single-centre trial was conducted with 56 patients who had a displaced radius fracture were randomised to treatment either with a volar locking plate (n = 29), or another treatment modality (n = 27; cast immobilisation with or without wires or external fixator). Outcomes were measured at 12 wk. Functional outcome scores measured were the Patient-Rated Wrist Evaluation (PRWE) Score; Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand and activities of daily living (ADLs). Clinical outcomes were wrist range of motion and grip strength. Radiographic parameters were volar inclination and ulnar variance. RESULTS Patients in the volar locking plate group had significantly better PRWE scores, ADL scores, grip strength and range of extension at three months compared with the control group. All radiological parameters were significantly better in the volar locking plate group at 3 mo. CONCLUSION The present study suggests that volar locking plates produced significantly better functional and clinical outcomes at 3 mo compared with other treatment modalities. Anatomical reduction was significantly more likely to be preserved in the plating group. Level of evidence: II. PMID:27795951

  2. Selection Indices and Multivariate Analysis Show Similar Results in the Evaluation of Growth and Carcass Traits in Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Brito Lopes, Fernando; da Silva, Marcelo Corrêa; Magnabosco, Cláudio Ulhôa; Goncalves Narciso, Marcelo; Sainz, Roberto Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This research evaluated a multivariate approach as an alternative tool for the purpose of selection regarding expected progeny differences (EPDs). Data were fitted using a multi-trait model and consisted of growth traits (birth weight and weights at 120, 210, 365 and 450 days of age) and carcass traits (longissimus muscle area (LMA), back-fat thickness (BF), and rump fat thickness (RF)), registered over 21 years in extensive breeding systems of Polled Nellore cattle in Brazil. Multivariate analyses were performed using standardized (zero mean and unit variance) EPDs. The k mean method revealed that the best fit of data occurred using three clusters (k = 3) (P < 0.001). Estimates of genetic correlation among growth and carcass traits and the estimates of heritability were moderate to high, suggesting that a correlated response approach is suitable for practical decision making. Estimates of correlation between selection indices and the multivariate index (LD1) were moderate to high, ranging from 0.48 to 0.97. This reveals that both types of indices give similar results and that the multivariate approach is reliable for the purpose of selection. The alternative tool seems very handy when economic weights are not available or in cases where more rapid identification of the best animals is desired. Interestingly, multivariate analysis allowed forecasting information based on the relationships among breeding values (EPDs). Also, it enabled fine discrimination, rapid data summarization after genetic evaluation, and permitted accounting for maternal ability and the genetic direct potential of the animals. In addition, we recommend the use of longissimus muscle area and subcutaneous fat thickness as selection criteria, to allow estimation of breeding values before the first mating season in order to accelerate the response to individual selection. PMID:26789008

  3. Selection Indices and Multivariate Analysis Show Similar Results in the Evaluation of Growth and Carcass Traits in Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Brito Lopes, Fernando; da Silva, Marcelo Corrêa; Magnabosco, Cláudio Ulhôa; Goncalves Narciso, Marcelo; Sainz, Roberto Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This research evaluated a multivariate approach as an alternative tool for the purpose of selection regarding expected progeny differences (EPDs). Data were fitted using a multi-trait model and consisted of growth traits (birth weight and weights at 120, 210, 365 and 450 days of age) and carcass traits (longissimus muscle area (LMA), back-fat thickness (BF), and rump fat thickness (RF)), registered over 21 years in extensive breeding systems of Polled Nellore cattle in Brazil. Multivariate analyses were performed using standardized (zero mean and unit variance) EPDs. The k mean method revealed that the best fit of data occurred using three clusters (k = 3) (P < 0.001). Estimates of genetic correlation among growth and carcass traits and the estimates of heritability were moderate to high, suggesting that a correlated response approach is suitable for practical decision making. Estimates of correlation between selection indices and the multivariate index (LD1) were moderate to high, ranging from 0.48 to 0.97. This reveals that both types of indices give similar results and that the multivariate approach is reliable for the purpose of selection. The alternative tool seems very handy when economic weights are not available or in cases where more rapid identification of the best animals is desired. Interestingly, multivariate analysis allowed forecasting information based on the relationships among breeding values (EPDs). Also, it enabled fine discrimination, rapid data summarization after genetic evaluation, and permitted accounting for maternal ability and the genetic direct potential of the animals. In addition, we recommend the use of longissimus muscle area and subcutaneous fat thickness as selection criteria, to allow estimation of breeding values before the first mating season in order to accelerate the response to individual selection.

  4. Use of the one sample t-test in the real world.

    PubMed

    Cressie, N A; Sheffield, L J; Whitford, H J

    1984-01-01

    This work discusses how Student's t-tests might still be validly applied to medical data that may violate the usual statistical assumptions. Here the one sample t-test, which includes as a special case the paired comparisons t-test, is treated in detail. Practical "rules-of-thumb" are given, along with their applications to various examples, so that readers will easily be able to use them on their own data sets.

  5. Improving regions of deviation gait symmetry analysis with pointwise T tests.

    PubMed

    DiBerardino, Louis A; Ragetly, Chantal A; Hong, Sungjin; Griffon, Dominique J; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T

    2012-05-01

    The regions of deviation method has been proposed as a technique for identifying regions of the gait cycle where joint motion deviates from normal (Shorter et al., 2008). The original statistical analysis distinguished only peak values during stance and swing. In the current article, we extend the approach by examining deviations from normal throughout the entire gait cycle using pointwise t tests. These methods were demonstrated on hind-limb joint angles of 21 Labrador Retrievers without and with cranial cruciate ligament disease. Results were compared with peak difference analysis previously performed on these subjects. All points in the gait cycle where symmetry deviations were significantly affected by cranial cruciate ligament disease (via pointwise t tests) were defined as regions of deviation from symmetry. Discriminant function analysis was used to consider single subjects and validate that these regions were truly areas of difference between groups. Regions of deviation encompassed previously determined significant peak differences, while extending analysis to additional areas of asymmetry. Discriminant function analysis suggested that the region of deviation method is a viable approach for distinguishing motion pattern differences. This enhanced method may help researchers better understand the mechanisms behind lameness and compensation.

  6. When "t"-Tests or Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney Tests Won't Do

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElduff, Fiona; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Chan, Shun-Kai; Wade, Angie

    2010-01-01

    "t"-Tests are widely used by researchers to compare the average values of a numeric outcome between two groups. If there are doubts about the suitability of the data for the requirements of a "t"-test, most notably the distribution being non-normal, the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test may be used instead. However, although often…

  7. Using the Student's "t"-Test with Extremely Small Sample Sizes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Winter, J. C .F.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers occasionally have to work with an extremely small sample size, defined herein as "N" less than or equal to 5. Some methodologists have cautioned against using the "t"-test when the sample size is extremely small, whereas others have suggested that using the "t"-test is feasible in such a case. The present…

  8. Reassess the t Test: Interact with All Your Data via ANOVA

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Siobhan M.; Burow, Meike; Busch, Wolfgang; Carlborg, Örjan; Denby, Katherine J.; Glazebrook, Jane; Hamilton, Eric S.; Harmer, Stacey L.; Haswell, Elizabeth S.; Maloof, Julin N.; Springer, Nathan M.; Kliebenstein, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Plant biology is rapidly entering an era where we have the ability to conduct intricate studies that investigate how a plant interacts with the entirety of its environment. This requires complex, large studies to measure how plant genotypes simultaneously interact with a diverse array of environmental stimuli. Successful interpretation of the results from these studies requires us to transition away from the traditional standard of conducting an array of pairwise t tests toward more general linear modeling structures, such as those provided by the extendable ANOVA framework. In this Perspective, we present arguments for making this transition and illustrate how it will help to avoid incorrect conclusions in factorial interaction studies (genotype × genotype, genotype × treatment, and treatment × treatment, or higher levels of interaction) that are becoming more prevalent in this new era of plant biology. PMID:26220933

  9. Can the Immune System Perform a t-Test?

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Bruno Filipe; Mostardinha, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    The self-nonself discrimination hypothesis remains a landmark concept in immunology. It proposes that tolerance breaks down in the presence of nonself antigens. In strike contrast, in statistics, occurrence of nonself elements in a sample (i.e., outliers) is not obligatory to violate the null hypothesis. Very often, what is crucial is the combination of (self) elements in a sample. The two views on how to detect a change seem challengingly different and it could seem difficult to conceive how immunological cellular interactions could trigger responses with a precision comparable to some statistical tests. Here it is shown that frustrated cellular interactions reconcile the two views within a plausible immunological setting. It is proposed that the adaptive immune system can be promptly activated either when nonself ligands are detected or self-ligands occur in abnormal combinations. In particular we show that cellular populations behaving in this way could perform location statistical tests, with performances comparable to t or KS tests, or even more general data mining tests such as support vector machines or random forests. In more general terms, this work claims that plausible immunological models should provide accurate detection mechanisms for host protection and, furthermore, that investigation on mechanisms leading to improved detection in “in silico” models can help unveil how the real immune system works. PMID:28046042

  10. "The Show"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, John

    2004-01-01

    For the past 16 years, the blue-collar city of Huntington, West Virginia, has rolled out the red carpet to welcome young wrestlers and their families as old friends. They have come to town chasing the same dream for a spot in what many of them call "The Show". For three days, under the lights of an arena packed with 5,000 fans, the…

  11. Analysis of conservative tracer measurement results using the Frechet distribution at planted horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands filled with coarse gravel and showing the effect of clogging processes.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Ernő; Klincsik, Mihály

    2015-11-01

    A mathematical process, developed in Maple environment, has been successful in decreasing the error of measurement results and in the precise calculation of the moments of corrected tracer functions. It was proved that with this process, the measured tracer results of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands filled with coarse gravel (HSFCW-C) can be fitted more accurately than with the conventionally used distribution functions (Gaussian, Lognormal, Fick (Inverse Gaussian) and Gamma). This statement is true only for the planted HSFCW-Cs. The analysis of unplanted HSFCW-Cs needs more research. The result of the analysis shows that the conventional solutions (completely stirred series tank reactor (CSTR) model and convection-dispersion transport (CDT) model) cannot describe these types of transport processes with sufficient accuracy. These outcomes can help in developing better process descriptions of very difficult transport processes in HSFCW-Cs. Furthermore, a new mathematical process can be developed for the calculation of real hydraulic residence time (HRT) and dispersion coefficient values. The presented method can be generalized to other kinds of hydraulic environments.

  12. T-cell lines from 2 patients with adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency showed the restoration of ADA activity resulted from the reversion of an inherited mutation.

    PubMed

    Ariga, T; Oda, N; Yamaguchi, K; Kawamura, N; Kikuta, H; Taniuchi, S; Kobayashi, Y; Terada, K; Ikeda, H; Hershfield, M S; Kobayashi, K; Sakiyama, Y

    2001-05-01

    Inherited deficiency of adenosine deaminase (ADA) results in one of the autosomal recessive forms of severe combined immunodeficiency. This report discusses 2 patients with ADA deficiency from different families, in whom a possible reverse mutation had occurred. The novel mutations were identified in the ADA gene from the patients, and both their parents were revealed to be carriers. Unexpectedly, established patient T-cell lines, not B-cell lines, showed half-normal levels of ADA enzyme activity. Reevaluation of the mutations in these T-cell lines indicated that one of the inherited ADA gene mutations was reverted in both patients. At least one of the patients seemed to possess the revertant cells in vivo; however, the mutant cells might have overcome the revertant after receiving ADA enzyme replacement therapy. These findings may have significant implications regarding the prospects for stem cell gene therapy for ADA deficiency.

  13. How often do German children and adolescents show signs of common mental health problems? Results from different methodological approaches – a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Child and adolescent mental health problems are ubiquitous and burdensome. Their impact on functional disability, the high rates of accompanying medical illnesses and the potential to last until adulthood make them a major public health issue. While methodological factors cause variability of the results from epidemiological studies, there is a lack of prevalence rates of mental health problems in children and adolescents according to ICD-10 criteria from nationally representative samples. International findings suggest only a small proportion of children with function impairing mental health problems receive treatment, but information about the health care situation of children and adolescents is scarce. The aim of this epidemiological study was a) to classify symptoms of common mental health problems according to ICD-10 criteria in order to compare the statistical and clinical case definition strategies using a single set of data and b) to report ICD-10 codes from health insurance claims data. Methods a) Based on a clinical expert rating, questionnaire items were mapped on ICD-10 criteria; data from the Mental Health Module (BELLA study) were analyzed for relevant ICD-10 and cut-off criteria; b) Claims data were analyzed for relevant ICD-10 codes. Results According to parent report 7.5% (n = 208) met the ICD-10 criteria of a mild depressive episode and 11% (n = 305) showed symptoms of depression according to cut-off score; Anxiety is reported in 5.6% (n = 156) and 11.6% (n = 323), conduct disorder in 15.2% (n = 373) and 14.6% (n = 357). Self-reported symptoms in 11 to 17 year olds resulted in 15% (n = 279) reporting signs of a mild depression according to ICD-10 criteria (vs. 16.7% (n = 307) based on cut-off) and 10.9% (n = 201) reported symptoms of anxiety (vs. 15.4% (n = 283)). Results from routine data identify 0.9% (n = 1,196) with a depression diagnosis, 3.1% (n = 6,729) with anxiety and 1.4% (n

  14. Use of "t"-Test and ANOVA in Career-Technical Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojewski, Jay W.; Lee, In Heok; Gemici, Sinan

    2012-01-01

    Use of t-tests and analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedures in published research from three scholarly journals in career and technical education (CTE) during a recent 5-year period was examined. Information on post hoc analyses, reporting of effect size, alpha adjustments to account for multiple tests, power, and examination of assumptions…

  15. Type I Error Rate and Power of Some Alternative Methods to the Independent Samples "t" Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nthangeni, Mbulaheni; Algina, James

    2001-01-01

    Examined Type I error rates and power for four tests for treatment control studies in which a larger treatment mean may be accompanied by a larger treatment variance and examined these aspects of the independent samples "t" test and the Welch test. Evaluated each test and suggested conditions for the use of each approach. (SLD)

  16. SU-E-T-769: T-Test Based Prior Error Estimate and Stopping Criterion for Monte Carlo Dose Calculation in Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, X; Gao, H; Schuemann, J; Paganetti, H

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The Monte Carlo (MC) method is a gold standard for dose calculation in radiotherapy. However, it is not a priori clear how many particles need to be simulated to achieve a given dose accuracy. Prior error estimate and stopping criterion are not well established for MC. This work aims to fill this gap. Methods: Due to the statistical nature of MC, our approach is based on one-sample t-test. We design the prior error estimate method based on the t-test, and then use this t-test based error estimate for developing a simulation stopping criterion. The three major components are as follows.First, the source particles are randomized in energy, space and angle, so that the dose deposition from a particle to the voxel is independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.).Second, a sample under consideration in the t-test is the mean value of dose deposition to the voxel by sufficiently large number of source particles. Then according to central limit theorem, the sample as the mean value of i.i.d. variables is normally distributed with the expectation equal to the true deposited dose.Third, the t-test is performed with the null hypothesis that the difference between sample expectation (the same as true deposited dose) and on-the-fly calculated mean sample dose from MC is larger than a given error threshold, in addition to which users have the freedom to specify confidence probability and region of interest in the t-test based stopping criterion. Results: The method is validated for proton dose calculation. The difference between the MC Result based on the t-test prior error estimate and the statistical Result by repeating numerous MC simulations is within 1%. Conclusion: The t-test based prior error estimate and stopping criterion are developed for MC and validated for proton dose calculation. Xiang Hong and Hao Gao were partially supported by the NSFC (#11405105), the 973 Program (#2015CB856000) and the Shanghai Pujiang Talent Program (#14PJ1404500)

  17. Transgene silencing of the Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome mutation results in a reversible bone phenotype, whereas resveratrol treatment does not show overall beneficial effects.

    PubMed

    Strandgren, Charlotte; Nasser, Hasina Abdul; McKenna, Tomás; Koskela, Antti; Tuukkanen, Juha; Ohlsson, Claes; Rozell, Björn; Eriksson, Maria

    2015-08-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare premature aging disorder that is most commonly caused by a de novo point mutation in exon 11 of the LMNA gene, c.1824C>T, which results in an increased production of a truncated form of lamin A known as progerin. In this study, we used a mouse model to study the possibility of recovering from HGPS bone disease upon silencing of the HGPS mutation, and the potential benefits from treatment with resveratrol. We show that complete silencing of the transgenic expression of progerin normalized bone morphology and mineralization already after 7 weeks. The improvements included lower frequencies of rib fractures and callus formation, an increased number of osteocytes in remodeled bone, and normalized dentinogenesis. The beneficial effects from resveratrol treatment were less significant and to a large extent similar to mice treated with sucrose alone. However, the reversal of the dental phenotype of overgrown and laterally displaced lower incisors in HGPS mice could be attributed to resveratrol. Our results indicate that the HGPS bone defects were reversible upon suppressed transgenic expression and suggest that treatments targeting aberrant progerin splicing give hope to patients who are affected by HGPS.

  18. Storytelling Slide Shows to Improve Diabetes and High Blood Pressure Knowledge and Self-Efficacy: Three-Year Results among Community Dwelling Older African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertera, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    This study combined the African American tradition of oral storytelling with the Hispanic medium of "Fotonovelas." A staggered pretest posttest control group design was used to evaluate four Storytelling Slide Shows on health that featured community members. A total of 212 participants were recruited for the intervention and 217 for the…

  19. Mathematical modelling in Matlab of the experimental results shows the electrochemical potential difference - temperature of the WC coatings immersed in a NaCl solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benea, M. L.; Benea, O. D.

    2016-02-01

    The method used for purchasing the corrosion behaviour the WC coatings deposited by plasma spraying, on a martensitic stainless steel substrate consists in measuring the electrochemical potential of the coating, respectively that of the substrate, immersed in a NaCl solution as corrosive agent. The mathematical processing of the obtained experimental results in Matlab allowed us to make some correlations between the electrochemical potential of the coating and the solution temperature is very well described by some curves having equations obtained by interpolation order 4.

  20. In axial spondyloarthritis, never smokers, ex-smokers and current smokers show a gradient of increasing disease severity - results from the Scotland Registry for Ankylosing Spondylitis (SIRAS).

    PubMed

    Jones, Gareth T; Ratz, Tiara; Dean, Linda E; Macfarlane, Gary J; Atzeni, Fabiola

    2016-11-29

    Objectives To examine the relationship between smoking, smoking cessation, and disease characteristics/quality of life (QoL) in spondyloarthritis. Methods The Scotland Registry for Ankylosing Spondylitis collects data from clinically diagnosed patients with spondyloarthritis. Clinical data, including Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis indices of disease activity (BASDAI) and function (BASFI), was obtained from medical records. Postal questionnaires provided information on smoking status and QoL (Ankylosing Spondylitis QoL questionnaire; ASQoL). Linear and logistic regression quantified the effect of smoking, and smoking cessation, on various disease-specific and QoL outcomes, adjusting for age, sex, deprivation, education and alcohol status. Results are presented as regression coefficients (β) or odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals. Results 946 participants provided data (male 73.5%, mean age 52yrs). Current smoking was reported by 22%, and 38% were ex-smokers. Ever smokers experienced poorer BASDAI (β = 0.5; 0.2 to 0.9) and BASFI (β = 0.8; 0.4 to 1.2), and reported worse QoL (ASQoL, β = 1.5; 0.7 to 2.3). Compared to current smokers, ex-smokers reported lower disease activity (BASDAI, β = -0.5; -1.0 to -0.04) and significantly better QoL (ASQoL, β = -1.2; -2.3 to -0.2). They also were more likely to have a uveitis history (OR = 2.4; 1.5 to 3.8). Conclusions Smokers with spondyloarthritis experience worse disease than never smokers. However, we provide new evidence that, among smokers, smoking cessation is associated with lower disease activity and better physical function and QoL. Clinicians should specifically promote smoking cessation as an adjunct to usual therapy in patients with spondyloarthritis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. "First Things First" Shows Promising Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrie, Caroline

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses a school improvement model, First Things First, developed by James P. Connell, a former tenured professor of psychology at the University of Rochester in New York. The model has three pillars for the high school level: (1) small, themed learning communities that each keep a group of students together…

  2. The power of a paired t-test with a covariate.

    PubMed

    Hedberg, E C; Ayers, Stephanie

    2015-03-01

    Many researchers employ the paired t-test to evaluate the mean difference between matched data points. Unfortunately, in many cases this test in inefficient. This paper reviews how to increase the precision of this test through using the mean centered independent variable x, which is familiar to researchers that use analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). We add to the literature by demonstrating how to employ these gains in efficiency as a factor for use in finding the statistical power of the test. The key parameters for this factor are the correlation between the two measures and the variance ratio of the dependent measure on the predictor. The paper then demonstrates how to compute the gains in efficiency a priori to amend the power computations for the traditional paired t-test. We include an example analysis from a recent intervention, Families Preparing the New Generation (Familias Preparando la Nueva Generación). Finally, we conclude with an analysis of extant data to derive reasonable parameter values.

  3. The power of a paired t-test with a covariate

    PubMed Central

    Hedberg, E. C.; Ayers, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Many researchers employ the paired t-test to evaluate the mean difference between matched data points. Unfortunately, in many cases this test in inefficient. This paper reviews how to increase the precision of this test through using the mean centered independent variable x, which is familiar to researchers that use analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). We add to the literature by demonstrating how to employ these gains in efficiency as a factor for use in finding the statistical power of the test. The key parameters for this factor are the correlation between the two measures and the variance ratio of the dependent measure on the predictor. The paper then demonstrates how to compute the gains in efficiency a priori to amend the power computations for the traditional paired t -test. We include an example analysis from a recent intervention, Families Preparing the New Generation (Familias Preparando la Nueva Generación). Finally, we conclude with an analysis of extant data to derive reasonable parameter values. PMID:25592936

  4. In favour of the definition "adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis": juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis braced after ten years of age, do not show different end results. SOSORT award winner 2014

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The most important factor discriminating juvenile (JIS) from adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the risk of deformity progression. Brace treatment can change natural history, even when risk of progression is high. The aim of this study was to compare the end of growth results of JIS subjects, treated after 10 years of age, with final results of AIS. Methods Design: prospective observational controlled cohort study nested in a prospective database. Setting: outpatient tertiary referral clinic specialized in conservative treatment of spinal deformities. Inclusion criteria: idiopathic scoliosis; European Risser 0–2; 25 degrees to 45 degrees Cobb; start treatment age: 10 years or more, never treated before. Exclusion criteria: secondary scoliosis, neurological etiology, prior treatment for scoliosis (brace or surgery). Groups: 27 patients met the inclusion criteria for the AJIS, (Juvenile Idiopathic Scoliosis treated in adolescence), demonstrated by an x-ray before 10 year of age, and treatment start after 10 years of age. AIS group included 45 adolescents with a diagnostic x-ray made after the threshold of age 10 years. Results at the end of growth were analysed; the threshold of 5 Cobb degree to define worsened, improved and stabilized curves was considered. Statistics: Mean and SD were used for descriptive statistics of clinical and radiographic changes. Relative Risk of failure (RR), Chi-square and T-test of all data was calculated to find differences among the two groups. 95% Confidence Interval (CI) , and of radiographic changes have been calculated. Results We did not find any Cobb angle significant differences among groups at baseline and at the end of treatment. The only difference was in the number of patients progressed above 45 degrees, found in the JIS group. The RR of progression of AJIS was, 1.35 (IC95% 0.57-3.17) versus AIS, and it wasn't statistically significant in the AJIS group, in respect to AIS group (p = 0.5338). Conclusion

  5. Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

  6. t-Tests, F-tests and Otsu's methods for image thresholding.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jing-Hao; Titterington, D Michael

    2011-08-01

    Otsu's binarization method is one of the most popular image-thresholding methods; Student's t -test is one of the most widely-used statistical tests to compare two groups. This paper aims to stress the equivalence between Otsu's binarization method and the search for an optimal threshold that provides the largest absolute Student's t-statistic. It is then naturally demonstrated that the extension of Otsu's binarization method to multi-level thresholding is equivalent to the search for optimal thresholds that provide the largest F -statistic through one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Furthermore, general equivalences between some parametric image-thresholding methods and the search for optimal thresholds with the largest likelihood-ratio test statistics are briefly discussed.

  7. A sieve bootstrap two-sample t-test under serial correlation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bei; Gel, Yulia R

    2011-11-01

    The classical two-sample t-test assumes that observations are independent. A violation of this assumption could lead to unreliable or even erroneous conclusions. However, in many biological studies, data are recorded over time and hence exhibit serial correlation. In order to take such temporal dependence into account, we suggest applying the sieve bootstrap method to generate replications of the observed data and then using these proxy-dependent processes to construct the empirical distribution for the t-statistic. The proposed method is fast, distribution-free, and well approximates the nominal significance level. We illustrate our approach in application to detection problem of brain activity in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a longitudinal study of weight growth in rats.

  8. A closer look at the effect of preliminary goodness-of-fit testing for normality for the one-sample t-test.

    PubMed

    Rochon, Justine; Kieser, Meinhard

    2011-11-01

    Student's one-sample t-test is a commonly used method when inference about the population mean is made. As advocated in textbooks and articles, the assumption of normality is often checked by a preliminary goodness-of-fit (GOF) test. In a paper recently published by Schucany and Ng it was shown that, for the uniform distribution, screening of samples by a pretest for normality leads to a more conservative conditional Type I error rate than application of the one-sample t-test without preliminary GOF test. In contrast, for the exponential distribution, the conditional level is even more elevated than the Type I error rate of the t-test without pretest. We examine the reasons behind these characteristics. In a simulation study, samples drawn from the exponential, lognormal, uniform, Student's t-distribution with 2 degrees of freedom (t(2) ) and the standard normal distribution that had passed normality screening, as well as the ingredients of the test statistics calculated from these samples, are investigated. For non-normal distributions, we found that preliminary testing for normality may change the distribution of means and standard deviations of the selected samples as well as the correlation between them (if the underlying distribution is non-symmetric), thus leading to altered distributions of the resulting test statistics. It is shown that for skewed distributions the excess in Type I error rate may be even more pronounced when testing one-sided hypotheses.

  9. Distribution of the two-sample t-test statistic following blinded sample size re-estimation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Kaifeng

    2016-05-01

    We consider the blinded sample size re-estimation based on the simple one-sample variance estimator at an interim analysis. We characterize the exact distribution of the standard two-sample t-test statistic at the final analysis. We describe a simulation algorithm for the evaluation of the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis at given treatment effect. We compare the blinded sample size re-estimation method with two unblinded methods with respect to the empirical type I error, the empirical power, and the empirical distribution of the standard deviation estimator and final sample size. We characterize the type I error inflation across the range of standardized non-inferiority margin for non-inferiority trials, and derive the adjusted significance level to ensure type I error control for given sample size of the internal pilot study. We show that the adjusted significance level increases as the sample size of the internal pilot study increases. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Correcting Two-Sample "z" and "t" Tests for Correlation: An Alternative to One-Sample Tests on Difference Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Donald W.

    2012-01-01

    In order to circumvent the influence of correlation in paired-samples and repeated measures experimental designs, researchers typically perform a one-sample Student "t" test on difference scores. That procedure entails some loss of power, because it employs N - 1 degrees of freedom instead of the 2N - 2 degrees of freedom of the…

  11. Public medical shows.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) became famous for the quality of his teaching and his innovative neurological discoveries, bringing many French and foreign students to Paris. A hunger for recognition, together with progressive and anticlerical ideals, led Charcot to invite writers, journalists, and politicians to his lessons, during which he presented the results of his work on hysteria. These events became public performances, for which physicians and patients were transformed into actors. Major newspapers ran accounts of these consultations, more like theatrical shows in some respects. The resultant enthusiasm prompted other physicians in Paris and throughout France to try and imitate them. We will compare the form and substance of Charcot's lessons with those given by Jules-Bernard Luys (1828-1897), Victor Dumontpallier (1826-1899), Ambroise-Auguste Liébault (1823-1904), Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919), Joseph Grasset (1849-1918), and Albert Pitres (1848-1928). We will also note their impact on contemporary cinema and theatre.

  12. Television Quiz Show Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jonnie Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.

  13. The Great Cometary Show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-01-01

    The ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer, which allows astronomers to scrutinise objects with a precision equivalent to that of a 130-m telescope, is proving itself an unequalled success every day. One of the latest instruments installed, AMBER, has led to a flurry of scientific results, an anthology of which is being published this week as special features in the research journal Astronomy & Astrophysics. ESO PR Photo 06a/07 ESO PR Photo 06a/07 The AMBER Instrument "With its unique capabilities, the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) has created itself a niche in which it provide answers to many astronomical questions, from the shape of stars, to discs around stars, to the surroundings of the supermassive black holes in active galaxies," says Jorge Melnick (ESO), the VLT Project Scientist. The VLTI has led to 55 scientific papers already and is in fact producing more than half of the interferometric results worldwide. "With the capability of AMBER to combine up to three of the 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescopes, we can really achieve what nobody else can do," added Fabien Malbet, from the LAOG (France) and the AMBER Project Scientist. Eleven articles will appear this week in Astronomy & Astrophysics' special AMBER section. Three of them describe the unique instrument, while the other eight reveal completely new results about the early and late stages in the life of stars. ESO PR Photo 06b/07 ESO PR Photo 06b/07 The Inner Winds of Eta Carinae The first results presented in this issue cover various fields of stellar and circumstellar physics. Two papers deal with very young solar-like stars, offering new information about the geometry of the surrounding discs and associated outflowing winds. Other articles are devoted to the study of hot active stars of particular interest: Alpha Arae, Kappa Canis Majoris, and CPD -57o2874. They provide new, precise information about their rotating gas envelopes. An important new result concerns the enigmatic object Eta Carinae. Using AMBER with

  14. Stretched View Showing 'Victoria'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Stretched View Showing 'Victoria'

    This pair of images from the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity served as initial confirmation that the two-year-old rover is within sight of 'Victoria Crater,' which it has been approaching for more than a year. Engineers on the rover team were unsure whether Opportunity would make it as far as Victoria, but scientists hoped for the chance to study such a large crater with their roving geologist. Victoria Crater is 800 meters (nearly half a mile) in diameter, about six times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' where Opportunity spent several months in 2004 examining rock layers affected by ancient water.

    When scientists using orbital data calculated that they should be able to detect Victoria's rim in rover images, they scrutinized frames taken in the direction of the crater by the panoramic camera. To positively characterize the subtle horizon profile of the crater and some of the features leading up to it, researchers created a vertically-stretched image (top) from a mosaic of regular frames from the panoramic camera (bottom), taken on Opportunity's 804th Martian day (April 29, 2006).

    The stretched image makes mild nearby dunes look like more threatening peaks, but that is only a result of the exaggerated vertical dimension. This vertical stretch technique was first applied to Viking Lander 2 panoramas by Philip Stooke, of the University of Western Ontario, Canada, to help locate the lander with respect to orbiter images. Vertically stretching the image allows features to be more readily identified by the Mars Exploration Rover science team.

    The bright white dot near the horizon to the right of center (barely visible without labeling or zoom-in) is thought to be a light-toned outcrop on the far wall of the crater, suggesting that the rover can see over the low rim of Victoria. In figure 1, the northeast and southeast rims are labeled

  15. Showing What They Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Scott J.

    2008-01-01

    Having students show their skills in three dimensions, known as performance-based assessment, dates back at least to Socrates. Individual schools such as Barrington High School--located just outside of Providence--have been requiring students to actively demonstrate their knowledge for years. The Rhode Island's high school graduating class became…

  16. The Ozone Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieu, Aaron

    2000-01-01

    Uses a talk show activity for a final assessment tool for students to debate about the ozone hole. Students are assessed on five areas: (1) cooperative learning; (2) the written component; (3) content; (4) self-evaluation; and (5) peer evaluation. (SAH)

  17. What Do Maps Show?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geological Survey (Dept. of Interior), Reston, VA.

    This curriculum packet, appropriate for grades 4-8, features a teaching poster which shows different types of maps (different views of Salt Lake City, Utah), as well as three reproducible maps and reproducible activity sheets which complement the maps. The poster provides teacher background, including step-by-step lesson plans for four geography…

  18. Show Me the Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicks, Matthew J.

    2005-01-01

    Because today's students have grown up steeped in video games and the Internet, most of them expect feedback, and usually gratification, very soon after they expend effort on a task. Teachers can get quick feedback to students by showing them videotapes of their learning performances. The author, a 3rd grade teacher describes how the seemingly…

  19. Chemistry Game Shows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Susan; Muzyka, Jennifer

    2002-04-01

    We present a technological improvement to the use of game shows to help students review for tests. Our approach uses HTML files interpreted with a browser on a computer attached to an LCD projector. The HTML files can be easily modified for use of the game in a variety of courses.

  20. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  1. Talk Show Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  2. Stage a Water Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, Debra

    2008-01-01

    In the author's book titled "The Incredible Water Show," the characters from "Miss Alaineus: A Vocabulary Disaster" used an ocean of information to stage an inventive performance about the water cycle. In this article, the author relates how she turned the story into hands-on science teaching for real-life fifth-grade students. The author also…

  3. Not a "reality" show.

    PubMed

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show.

  4. Children's school-breakfast reports and school-lunch reports (in 24-h dietary recalls): conventional and reporting-error-sensitive measures show inconsistent accuracy results for retention interval and breakfast location.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Suzanne D; Guinn, Caroline H; Smith, Albert F; Hitchcock, David B; Royer, Julie A; Puryear, Megan P; Collins, Kathleen L; Smith, Alyssa L

    2016-04-14

    Validation-study data were analysed to investigate retention interval (RI) and prompt effects on the accuracy of fourth-grade children's reports of school-breakfast and school-lunch (in 24-h recalls), and the accuracy of school-breakfast reports by breakfast location (classroom; cafeteria). Randomly selected fourth-grade children at ten schools in four districts were observed eating school-provided breakfast and lunch, and were interviewed under one of eight conditions created by crossing two RIs ('short'--prior-24-hour recall obtained in the afternoon and 'long'--previous-day recall obtained in the morning) with four prompts ('forward'--distant to recent, 'meal name'--breakfast, etc., 'open'--no instructions, and 'reverse'--recent to distant). Each condition had sixty children (half were girls). Of 480 children, 355 and 409 reported meals satisfying criteria for reports of school-breakfast and school-lunch, respectively. For breakfast and lunch separately, a conventional measure--report rate--and reporting-error-sensitive measures--correspondence rate and inflation ratio--were calculated for energy per meal-reporting child. Correspondence rate and inflation ratio--but not report rate--showed better accuracy for school-breakfast and school-lunch reports with the short RI than with the long RI; this pattern was not found for some prompts for each sex. Correspondence rate and inflation ratio showed better school-breakfast report accuracy for the classroom than for cafeteria location for each prompt, but report rate showed the opposite. For each RI, correspondence rate and inflation ratio showed better accuracy for lunch than for breakfast, but report rate showed the opposite. When choosing RI and prompts for recalls, researchers and practitioners should select a short RI to maximise accuracy. Recommendations for prompt selections are less clear. As report rates distort validation-study accuracy conclusions, reporting-error-sensitive measures are recommended.

  5. Effects of Experiment Learning Strategy versus Expository and Cognitive Style for Physical Learning Result for Senior High School Student at Class XI of Senior High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prayekti

    2016-01-01

    The research was aimed to know Effects of Experiment Learning Strategy versus Expository and Cognitive Style for Physical Learning Result of Senior High School Student at Class XI of Senior High School. Data was collected by test and observation. It is processed by ANCOVA and different test (t-test). (1) The result showed that all learning system…

  6. 2-Year follow-up to STeP trial shows sustainability of structured self-monitoring of blood glucose utilization: results from the STeP practice logistics and usability survey (STeP PLUS).

    PubMed

    Friedman, Kevin; Noyes, Jeannette; Parkin, Christopher G

    2013-04-01

    We report findings from a follow-up survey of clinicians from the STeP study that assessed their attitudes toward and current use of the Accu-Chek(®) 360° View tool (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN) approximately 2 years after the study was completed. The Accu-Chek 360° View tool enables patients to record/plot a seven-point self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) profile (fasting, preprandial/2-h postprandial at each of the three meals, and bedtime) on 3 consecutive days, document meal sizes and energy levels, and comment on their SMBG experiences. Our findings showed that the majority of these physicians continue to use the tool with their patients, citing enhanced patient understanding and engagement, better discussions with patients regarding the impact of lifestyle behaviors, improved clinical outcomes, and better practice efficiencies as significant benefits of the tool.

  7. Clinical consequences of the Calypso trial showing superiority of PEG-liposomal doxorubicin and carboplatin over paclitaxel and carboplatin in recurrent ovarian cancer: results of an Austrian gynecologic oncologists' expert meeting.

    PubMed

    Petru, Edgar; Reinthaller, Alexander; Angleitner-Boubenizek, Lukas; Schauer, Christian; Zeimet, Alain; Dirschlmayer, Wolfgang; Medl, Michael; Stummvoll, Wolfgang; Sevelda, Paul; Marth, Christian

    2010-11-01

    The Calypso trial showed an improved progression-free survival with PEG-liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) and carboplatin (P) as compared with the standard regimen paclitaxel (PCLTX) and P in the second- or third-line treatment of platinum-sensitive epithelial ovarian cancer [1]. A panel of Austrian gynecologic oncologists discussed the clinical consequences of the data from the Calypso study for the routine practice. PLD + P had a significantly lower rate of alopecia and neuropathy than the taxane regimen, both toxicities which compromise the quality of life. Due to possible significant thrombocytopenia, the blood counts of patients undergoing PLD + P therapy should be monitored weekly. Patients receiving PLD/P are at higher risk of nausea and vomiting. Palmoplantar erythrodysesthesia (hand-foot syndrome) is a significant toxicity of PLD + P most prevalent after the third or fourth cycle. Prophylaxis consists of avoiding pressure on feet and hands and other parts of the body. Similarly, prophylaxis of mucositis seems important and includes avoiding consumption of hot, spicy and salty foods and drinks. Mouth dryness should be avoided. Premedication with antiemetics and dexamethasone dissolved in 5% glucose is done to prevent hypersensitivity to PLD. In conclusion, the therapeutic index is more favorable for PLD + P than for PCTX + P.

  8. Numerical and analytic results showing the suppression of secondary electron emission from velvet and foam, and a geometric view factor model to guide the development of a surface to suppress SEE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, Charles; Kaganovich, I. D.

    2016-09-01

    The technique of suppressing secondary electron emission (SEE) from a surface by texturing it is developing rapidly in recent years. We have specific and general results in support of this technique: We have performed numerical and analytic calculations for determining the effective secondary electron yield (SEY) from velvet, which is an array of long cylinders on the micro-scale, and found velvet to be suitable for suppressing SEY from a normally incident primary distribution. We have performed numerical and analytic calculations also for metallic foams, which are an isotropic lattice of fibers on the micro-scale, and found foams to be suitable for suppressing SEY from an isotropic primary distribution. More generally, we have created a geometric weighted view factor model for determining the SEY suppression of a given surface geometry, which has optimization of SEY as a natural application. The optimal surface for suppressing SEY does not have finite area and has no smallest feature size, making it fractal in nature. This model gives simple criteria for a physical, non-fractal surface to suppress SEY. We found families of optimal surfaces to suppress SEY given a finite surface area. The research is supported by Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFSOR).

  9. Development of a Regression Model for Estimating the Effects of Assumption Violations on Type I Error Rates in the Student's T-Test: Implications for Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Isadore; Hall, Rosalie J.; Fraas, John

    Multiple linear regression is used to model the effects of violating statistical assumptions on the likelihood of making a Type I error. This procedure is illustrated for the student's t-test (for independent groups) using data from previous Monte Carlo studies in which the actual alpha levels associated with violations of the normality…

  10. National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Jimenez Sheri Raborn, CPA; Tom Baker

    2008-03-31

    National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration created a 400KW Photovoltaic self-generation plant at the National Orange Show Events Center (NOS). The NOS owns a 120-acre state fairground where it operates an events center and produces an annual citrus fair known as the Orange Show. The NOS governing board wanted to employ cost-saving programs for annual energy expenses. It is hoped the Photovoltaic program will result in overall savings for the NOS, help reduce the State's energy demands as relating to electrical power consumption, improve quality of life within the affected grid area as well as increase the energy efficiency of buildings at our venue. In addition, the potential to reduce operational expenses would have a tremendous effect on the ability of the NOS to service its community.

  11. 15. Detail showing lower chord pinconnected to vertical member, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Detail showing lower chord pin-connected to vertical member, showing floor beam riveted to extension of vertical member below pin-connection, and showing brackets supporting cantilevered sidewalk. View to southwest. - Selby Avenue Bridge, Spanning Short Line Railways track at Selby Avenue between Hamline & Snelling Avenues, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  12. Hey Teacher, Your Personality's Showing!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsen, James R.

    1977-01-01

    A study of 30 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade teachers and 300 of their students showed that a teacher's age, sex, and years of experience did not relate to students' mathematics achievement, but that more effective teachers showed greater "freedom from defensive behavior" than did less effective teachers. (DT)

  13. Planning a Successful Tech Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikirk, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Tech shows are a great way to introduce prospective students, parents, and local business and industry to a technology and engineering or career and technical education program. In addition to showcasing instructional programs, a tech show allows students to demonstrate their professionalism and skills, practice public presentations, and interact…

  14. Satellite Animation Shows California Storms

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of visible and infrared imagery from NOAA's GOES-West satellite shows a series of moisture-laden storms affecting California from Jan. 6 through Jan. 9, 2017. TRT: 00:36 Credit: NASA...

  15. Satellite Movie Shows Erika Dissipate

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of visible and infrared imagery from NOAA's GOES-West satellite from Aug. 27 to 29 shows Tropical Storm Erika move through the Eastern Caribbean Sea and dissipate near eastern Cuba. ...

  16. Phyllodes tumor showing intraductal growth.

    PubMed

    Makidono, Akari; Tsunoda, Hiroko; Mori, Miki; Yagata, Hiroshi; Onoda, Yui; Kikuchi, Mari; Nozaki, Taiki; Saida, Yukihisa; Nakamura, Seigo; Suzuki, Koyu

    2013-07-01

    Phyllodes tumor of the breast is a rare fibroepithelial lesion and particularly uncommon in adolescent girls. It is thought to arise from the periductal rather than intralobular stroma. Usually, it is seen as a well-defined mass. Phyllodes tumor showing intraductal growth is extremely rare. Here we report a girl who has a phyllodes tumor with intraductal growth.

  17. Magic Carpet Shows Its Colors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The upper left image in this display is from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, showing the 'Magic Carpet' region near the rover at Gusev Crater, Mars, on Sol 7, the seventh martian day of its journey (Jan. 10, 2004). The lower image, also from the panoramic camera, is a monochrome (single filter) image of a rock in the 'Magic Carpet' area. Note that colored portions of the rock correlate with extracted spectra shown in the plot to the side. Four different types of materials are shown: the rock itself, the soil in front of the rock, some brighter soil on top of the rock, and some dust that has collected in small recesses on the rock face ('spots'). Each color on the spectra matches a line on the graph, showing how the panoramic camera's different colored filters are used to broadly assess the varying mineral compositions of martian rocks and soils.

  18. Graphene Oxides Show Angiogenic Properties.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sudip; Sriram, Pavithra; Barui, Ayan Kumar; Nethi, Susheel Kumar; Veeriah, Vimal; Chatterjee, Suvro; Suresh, Kattimuttathu Ittara; Patra, Chitta Ranjan

    2015-08-05

    Angiogenesis, a process resulting in the formation of new capillaries from the pre-existing vasculature plays vital role for the development of therapeutic approaches for cancer, atherosclerosis, wound healing, and cardiovascular diseases. In this report, the synthesis, characterization, and angiogenic properties of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) have been demonstrated, observed through several in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis assays. The results here demonstrate that the intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species as well as activation of phospho-eNOS and phospho-Akt might be the plausible mechanisms for GO and rGO induced angiogenesis. The results altogether suggest the possibilities for the development of alternative angiogenic therapeutic approach for the treatment of cardiovascular related diseases where angiogenesis plays a significant role.

  19. "Medicine show." Alice in Doctorland.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    This is an excerpt from the script of a 1939 play provided to the Institute of Social Medicine and Community Health by the Library of Congress Federal Theater Project Collection at George Mason University Library, Fairfax, Virginia, pages 2-1-8 thru 2-1-14. The Federal Theatre Project (FTP) was part of the New Deal program for the arts 1935-1939. Funded by the Works Progress Administration (WPA) its goal was to employ theater professionals from the relief rolls. A number of FTP plays deal with aspects of medicine and public health. Pageants, puppet shows and documentary plays celebrated progress in medical science while examining social controversies in medical services and the public health movement. "Medicine Show" sharply contrasts technological wonders with social backwardness. The play was rehearsed by the FTP but never opened because funding ended. A revised version ran on Broadway in 1940. The preceding comments are adapted from an excellent, well-illustrated review of five of these plays by Barabara Melosh: "The New Deal's Federal Theatre Project," Medical Heritage, Vol. 2, No. 1 (Jan/Feb 1986), pp. 36-47.

  20. What Do Blood Tests Show?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Range Results* Red blood cell (varies with altitude) Male: 5 to 6 million cells/mcL Female: 4 to 5 million cells/mcL ... cells/mcL Platelets 140,000 to 450,000 cells/mcL Hemoglobin (varies with altitude) Male: 14 to 17 gm/dL Female: 12 to ...

  1. "Show me" bioethics and politics.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Myra J

    2007-10-01

    Missouri, the "Show Me State," has become the epicenter of several important national public policy debates, including abortion rights, the right to choose and refuse medical treatment, and, most recently, early stem cell research. In this environment, the Center for Practical Bioethics (formerly, Midwest Bioethics Center) emerged and grew. The Center's role in these "cultural wars" is not to advocate for a particular position but to provide well researched and objective information, perspective, and advocacy for the ethical justification of policy positions; and to serve as a neutral convener and provider of a public forum for discussion. In this article, the Center's work on early stem cell research is a case study through which to argue that not only the Center, but also the field of bioethics has a critical role in the politics of public health policy.

  2. Phoenix Scoop Inverted Showing Rasp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 49, or the 49th Martian day of the mission (July 14, 2008), shows the silver colored rasp protruding from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm scoop. The scoop is inverted and the rasp is pointing up.

    Shown with its forks pointing toward the ground is the thermal and electrical conductivity probe, at the lower right. The Robotic Arm Camera is pointed toward the ground.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. ShowMe3D

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.

  4. Casimir experiments showing saturation effects

    SciTech Connect

    Sernelius, Bo E.

    2009-10-15

    We address several different Casimir experiments where theory and experiment disagree. First out is the classical Casimir force measurement between two metal half spaces; here both in the form of the torsion pendulum experiment by Lamoreaux and in the form of the Casimir pressure measurement between a gold sphere and a gold plate as performed by Decca et al.; theory predicts a large negative thermal correction, absent in the high precision experiments. The third experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between a metal plate and a laser irradiated semiconductor membrane as performed by Chen et al.; the change in force with laser intensity is larger than predicted by theory. The fourth experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between an atom and a wall in the form of the measurement by Obrecht et al. of the change in oscillation frequency of a {sup 87}Rb Bose-Einstein condensate trapped to a fused silica wall; the change is smaller than predicted by theory. We show that saturation effects can explain the discrepancies between theory and experiment observed in all these cases.

  5. Mimas Showing False Colors #1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    False color images of Saturn's moon, Mimas, reveal variation in either the composition or texture across its surface.

    During its approach to Mimas on Aug. 2, 2005, the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera obtained multi-spectral views of the moon from a range of 228,000 kilometers (142,500 miles).

    The image at the left is a narrow angle clear-filter image, which was separately processed to enhance the contrast in brightness and sharpness of visible features. The image at the right is a color composite of narrow-angle ultraviolet, green, infrared and clear filter images, which have been specially processed to accentuate subtle changes in the spectral properties of Mimas' surface materials. To create this view, three color images (ultraviolet, green and infrared) were combined into a single black and white picture that isolates and maps regional color differences. This 'color map' was then superimposed over the clear-filter image at the left.

    The combination of color map and brightness image shows how the color differences across the Mimas surface materials are tied to geological features. Shades of blue and violet in the image at the right are used to identify surface materials that are bluer in color and have a weaker infrared brightness than average Mimas materials, which are represented by green.

    Herschel crater, a 140-kilometer-wide (88-mile) impact feature with a prominent central peak, is visible in the upper right of each image. The unusual bluer materials are seen to broadly surround Herschel crater. However, the bluer material is not uniformly distributed in and around the crater. Instead, it appears to be concentrated on the outside of the crater and more to the west than to the north or south. The origin of the color differences is not yet understood. It may represent ejecta material that was excavated from inside Mimas when the Herschel impact occurred. The bluer color of these materials may be caused by subtle differences in

  6. Ovarian Function in Samoan Women Shows Stronger Association with Signals of Energy Metabolism than Fat Reserves

    PubMed Central

    McGarvey, Stephen T.; Sesepasara, Margaret L.; Ellison, Peter T.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The relative influence of prominent energetic hormones such as insulin and leptin on ovarian steroid production has yet to be determined and demonstrated consistently in vivo. This study reports preliminary findings on the relationship between insulin, leptin, and estradiol, a major ovarian steroid, in a sample of Samoan women. Methods Participants were 34 regularly cycling, premenopausal women in the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle with indicators of normal glucose tolerance. Fasting serum samples provided one-time, cross-sectional measures of glucose, insulin, leptin, and estradiol. Main statistical analyses consisted of Student's t-tests, used to determine significant differences in mean estradiol level between contrasting groups of insulin and leptin. Results Relatively high insulin levels within the normal range of variation showed a positive association with estradiol levels whereas relatively high leptin levels did not. The relationship between insulin and estradiol appeared to conform to a step-like categorical function -- with the highest insulin levels exerting the greatest positive effect -- rather than a dose-response linear function. Conslusions The current study adds to the growing evidence that peripheral regulation of ovarian function likely involves permissive signals that emphasize a state of energy surplus, related primarily to energy metabolism rather than energy reserves, and warrant more extensive study. PMID:24375833

  7. Now you see it, now you don't: Testing environments modulate the association between hippocampal volume and cortisol levels in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Sindi, Shireen; Fiocco, Alexandra J; Juster, Robert-Paul; Lord, Catherine; Pruessner, Jens; Lupien, Sonia J

    2014-12-01

    The hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis production of the stress hormone cortisol interacts with the hippocampal formation and impacts memory function. A growing interest is to determine whether hippocampal volume (HV) predicts basal and/or reactive cortisol levels in young and older adults. Recent evidence shows that contextual features in testing environments might be stressful and inadvertently induce a stress response in young and/or older populations. This latter result suggests that variations in testing environments might influence associations between HV and cortisol levels in young and older adults. To this end, we investigated 28 healthy young adults (ages 18-35) and 32 healthy older adults (ages 60-75) in two different environments constructed to be more or less stressful for each age group (Favoring-Young versus Favoring-Old conditions). Cortisol levels were repeatedly assessed in each environment, and young and older participants underwent an anatomical magnetic resonance imaging scan for subsequent assessment of HV. Results in both age groups showed that HV was significantly associated with cortisol levels only in the unfavorable stressful testing conditions specific for each age group. This association was absent when testing environments were designed to decrease stress for each age group. These findings are fundamental in showing that unless the nature of the testing environment is taken into consideration, detected associations between HV and cortisol levels in both young and older populations might be confounded by environmental stress.

  8. Human platelet sulfotransferase shows seasonal rhythms.

    PubMed

    Marazziti, D; Palego, L; Mazzanti, C; Silvestri, S; Cassano, G B

    1995-04-01

    Our study aimed to investigate the possible presence of seasonal changes in platelet phenolsulfotransferase (ST) in a group of 20 healthy, drug-free subjects of both sexes between 24 and 37 years of age. Blood samples were taken four times a year in the period immediately following the equinoxes and the solstices. The results showed that both Sts underwent seasonal changes: the lowest values were found in autumn and in winter, and the highest in the summer. A positive correlation between the two STs and the length of the photoperiod was observed in winter whereas in the spring we detected a negative correlation between the TL ST and the photoperiod length. Future studies should clarify whether platelet ST of patients with mood disorders shows a similar seasonality.

  9. Increasing physicians' awareness of the impact of statistics on research outcomes: comparative power of the t-test and and Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test in small samples applied research.

    PubMed

    Bridge, P D; Sawilowsky, S S

    1999-03-01

    To effectively evaluate medical literature, practicing physicians and medical researchers must understand the impact of statistical tests on research outcomes. Applying inefficient statistics not only increases the need for resources, but more importantly increases the probability of committing a Type I or Type II error. The t-test is one of the most prevalent tests used in the medical field and is the uniformally most powerful unbiased test (UMPU) under normal curve theory. But does it maintain its UMPU properties when assumptions of normality are violated? A Monte Carlo investigation evaluates the comparative power of the independent samples t-test and its nonparametric counterpart, the Wilcoxon Rank-Sum (WRS) test, to violations from population normality, using three commonly occurring distributions and small sample sizes. The t-test was more powerful under relatively symmetric distributions, although the magnitude of the differences was moderate. Under distributions with extreme skews, the WRS held large power advantages. When distributions consist of heavier tails or extreme skews, the WRS should be the test of choice. In turn, when population characteristics are unknown, the WRS is recommended, based on the magnitude of these power differences in extreme skews, and the modest variation in symmetric distributions.

  10. Tetrahydrobiopterin shows chaperone activity for tyrosine hydroxylase.

    PubMed

    Thöny, Beat; Calvo, Ana C; Scherer, Tanja; Svebak, Randi M; Haavik, Jan; Blau, Nenad; Martinez, Aurora

    2008-07-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of catecholamine neurotransmitters. Primary inherited defects in TH have been associated with l-DOPA responsive and non-responsive dystonia and infantile parkinsonism. In this study, we show that both the cofactor (6R)-l-erythro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) and the feedback inhibitor and catecholamine product dopamine increase the kinetic stability of human TH isoform 1 in vitro. Activity measurements and synthesis of the enzyme by in vitro transcription-translation revealed a complex regulation by the cofactor including both enzyme inactivation and conformational stabilization. Oral BH(4) supplementation to mice increased TH activity and protein levels in brain extracts, while the Th-mRNA level was not affected. All together our results indicate that the molecular mechanisms for the stabilization are a primary folding-aid effect of BH(4) and a secondary effect by increased synthesis and binding of catecholamine ligands. Our results also establish that orally administered BH(4) crosses the blood-brain barrier and therapeutic regimes based on BH(4) supplementation should thus consider the effect on TH. Furthermore, BH(4) supplementation arises as a putative therapeutic agent in the treatment of brain disorders associated with TH misfolding, such as for the human TH isoform 1 mutation L205P.

  11. Brain Jogging Training to Improve Motivation and Learning Result of Tennis Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafaqur, M.; Komarudin; Mulyana; Saputra, M. Y.

    2017-03-01

    This research is aimed to determine the effect of brain jogging towards improvement of motivation and learning result of tennis skills. The method used in this research is experimental method. The population of this research is 15 tennis athletes of Core Siliwangi Bandung Tennis Club. The sampling technique used in this research is purposive sampling technique. Sample of this research is the 10 tennis athletes of Core Siliwangi Bandung Tennis Club. Design used for this research is pretest-posttest group design. Data analysis technique used in this research is by doing Instrument T-test to measure motivation using The Sport Motivation Scale questionnaire (SMS-28) and Instrument to measure learning result of tennis skill by using tennis skills test, which include: (1) forehand test, (2) backhand test, and (3) service placement test. The result of this research showed that brain jogging significantly impact the improvement of motivation and learning result of tennis skills.

  12. NASA GIBS Use in Live Planetarium Shows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmart, C. B.

    2015-12-01

    The American Museum of Natural History's Hayden Planetarium was rebuilt in year 2000 as an immersive theater for scientific data visualization to show the universe in context to our planet. Specific astrophysical movie productions provide the main daily programming, but interactive control software, developed at AMNH allows immersive presentation within a data aggregation of astronomical catalogs called the Digital Universe 3D Atlas. Since 2006, WMS globe browsing capabilities have been built into a software development collaboration with Sweden's Linkoping University (LiU). The resulting Uniview software, now a product of the company SCISS, is operated by about fifty planetariums around that world with ability to network amongst the sites for global presentations. Public presentation of NASA GIBS has allowed authoritative narratives to be presented within the range of data available in context to other sources such as Science on a Sphere, NASA Earth Observatory and Google Earth KML resources. Specifically, the NOAA supported World Views Network conducted a series of presentations across the US that focused on local ecological issues that could then be expanded in the course of presentation to national and global scales of examination. NASA support of for GIBS resources in an easy access multi scale streaming format like WMS has tremendously enabled particularly facile presentations of global monitoring like never before. Global networking of theaters for distributed presentations broadens out the potential for impact of this medium. Archiving and refinement of these presentations has already begun to inform new types of documentary productions that examine pertinent, global interdependency topics.

  13. Ancient bacteria show evidence of DNA repair

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sarah Stewart; Hebsgaard, Martin B.; Christensen, Torben R.; Mastepanov, Mikhail; Nielsen, Rasmus; Munch, Kasper; Brand, Tina; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Zuber, Maria T.; Bunce, Michael; Rønn, Regin; Gilichinsky, David; Froese, Duane; Willerslev, Eske

    2007-01-01

    Recent claims of cultivable ancient bacteria within sealed environments highlight our limited understanding of the mechanisms behind long-term cell survival. It remains unclear how dormancy, a favored explanation for extended cellular persistence, can cope with spontaneous genomic decay over geological timescales. There has been no direct evidence in ancient microbes for the most likely mechanism, active DNA repair, or for the metabolic activity necessary to sustain it. In this paper, we couple PCR and enzymatic treatment of DNA with direct respiration measurements to investigate long-term survival of bacteria sealed in frozen conditions for up to one million years. Our results show evidence of bacterial survival in samples up to half a million years in age, making this the oldest independently authenticated DNA to date obtained from viable cells. Additionally, we find strong evidence that this long-term survival is closely tied to cellular metabolic activity and DNA repair that over time proves to be superior to dormancy as a mechanism in sustaining bacteria viability. PMID:17728401

  14. The Physics of Equestrian Show Jumping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinner, Art

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the kinematics and dynamics of equestrian show jumping. For some time I have attended a series of show jumping events at Spruce Meadows, an international equestrian center near Calgary, Alberta, often referred to as the "Wimbledon of equestrian jumping." I have always had a desire to write an article such as this…

  15. Serving Up Activities for TV Cooking Shows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katchen, Johanna E.

    This paper documents a presentation given on the use of English-language television cooking shows in English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) and English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) classrooms in Taiwan. Such shows can be ideal for classroom use, since they have a predictable structure consisting of short segments, are of interest to most students,…

  16. 47 CFR 90.505 - Showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Developmental Operation § 90.505 Showing required. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each application for developmental operation shall be accompanied by a showing that: (1) The applicant has an organized plan of development leading to a specific objective;...

  17. The Language of Show Biz: A Dictionary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sergel, Sherman Louis, Ed.

    This dictionary of the language of show biz provides the layman with definitions and essays on terms and expressions often used in show business. The overall pattern of selection was intended to be more rather than less inclusive, though radio, television, and film terms were deliberately omitted. Lengthy explanations are sometimes used to express…

  18. The benefits of health information technology: a review of the recent literature shows predominantly positive results.

    PubMed

    Buntin, Melinda Beeuwkes; Burke, Matthew F; Hoaglin, Michael C; Blumenthal, David

    2011-03-01

    An unprecedented federal effort is under way to boost the adoption of electronic health records and spur innovation in health care delivery. We reviewed the recent literature on health information technology to determine its effect on outcomes, including quality, efficiency, and provider satisfaction. We found that 92 percent of the recent articles on health information technology reached conclusions that were positive overall. We also found that the benefits of the technology are beginning to emerge in smaller practices and organizations, as well as in large organizations that were early adopters. However, dissatisfaction with electronic health records among some providers remains a problem and a barrier to achieving the potential of health information technology. These realities highlight the need for studies that document the challenging aspects of implementing health information technology more specifically and how these challenges might be addressed.

  19. Simulation shows hospitals that cooperate on infection control obtain better results than hospitals acting alone.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bruce Y; Bartsch, Sarah M; Wong, Kim F; Yilmaz, S Levent; Avery, Taliser R; Singh, Ashima; Song, Yeohan; Kim, Diane S; Brown, Shawn T; Potter, Margaret A; Platt, Richard; Huang, Susan S

    2012-10-01

    Efforts to control life-threatening infections, such as with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), can be complicated when patients are transferred from one hospital to another. Using a detailed computer simulation model of all hospitals in Orange County, California, we explored the effects when combinations of hospitals tested all patients at admission for MRSA and adopted procedures to limit transmission among patients who tested positive. Called "contact isolation," these procedures specify precautions for health care workers interacting with an infected patient, such as wearing gloves and gowns. Our simulation demonstrated that each hospital's decision to test for MRSA and implement contact isolation procedures could affect the MRSA prevalence in all other hospitals. Thus, our study makes the case that further cooperation among hospitals--which is already reflected in a few limited collaborative infection control efforts under way--could help individual hospitals achieve better infection control than they could achieve on their own.

  20. Gene Therapy Shows Promise for Aggressive Lymphoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_163824.html Gene Therapy Shows Promise for Aggressive Lymphoma Over one-third of patients appeared disease- ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental gene therapy for aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma beat back more than a ...

  1. Poverty Harder on Women's Hearts, Research Shows

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163168.html Poverty Harder on Women's Hearts, Research Shows Poor females ... reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease around the world," Peters said. The study findings were published online ...

  2. Do dogs (Canis familiaris) show contagious yawning?

    PubMed

    Harr, Aimee L; Gilbert, Valerie R; Phillips, Kimberley A

    2009-11-01

    We report an experimental investigation into whether domesticated dogs display contagious yawning. Fifteen dogs were shown video clips of (1) humans and (2) dogs displaying yawns and open-mouth expressions (not yawns) to investigate whether dogs showed contagious yawning to either of these social stimuli. Only one dog performed significantly more yawns during or shortly after viewing yawning videos than to the open-mouth videos, and most of these yawns occurred to the human videos. No dogs showed significantly more yawning to the open-mouth videos (human or dog). The percentage of dogs showing contagious yawning was less than chimpanzees and humans showing this behavior, and considerably less than a recently published report investigating this behavior in dogs (Joly-Mascheroni et al. in Biol Lett 4:446-448, 2008).

  3. Spacecraft Image Mashup Shows Galactic Collision

    NASA Video Gallery

    This new composite image from the Chandra X-ray Observatory, the Hubble Space Telescope, and the Spitzer Space Telescope shows two colliding galaxies more than a 100 million years after they first ...

  4. Study Shows How Zika Attacks Infant Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_162514.html Study Shows How Zika Attacks Infant Brain Virus can copy itself thousands ... New research paints a chilling portrait of how Zika ravages the infant brain. Scientists from the U.S. ...

  5. Fecal Transplant Shows Early Promise Against Autism

    MedlinePlus

    ... 163263.html Fecal Transplant Shows Early Promise Against Autism Small study found giving healthy gut bacteria to ... study suggests a novel treatment for kids with autism: Give these young patients a fresh supply of ...

  6. TRMM Satellite Shows Heavy Rainfall in Cristina

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's TRMM satellite rainfall data was overlaid on an enhanced visible/infrared image from NOAA's GOES-East satellite showing cloud and rainfall extent. Green areas indicate rainfall at over 20 mm...

  7. GOES Satellite Data Shows Tornado Development

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of NOAA's GOES-East satellite data shows the development and movement of the weather system that spawned tornadoes affecting the southern and eastern U.S. states on April 27-29, 2014...

  8. Educational Outreach: The Space Science Road Show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, N. L. J.

    2002-01-01

    The poster presented will give an overview of a study towards a "Space Road Show". The topic of this show is space science. The target group is adolescents, aged 12 to 15, at Dutch high schools. The show and its accompanying experiments would be supported with suitable educational material. Science teachers at schools can decide for themselves if they want to use this material in advance, afterwards or not at all. The aims of this outreach effort are: to motivate students for space science and engineering, to help them understand the importance of (space) research, to give them a positive feeling about the possibilities offered by space and in the process give them useful knowledge on space basics. The show revolves around three main themes: applications, science and society. First the students will get some historical background on the importance of space/astronomy to civilization. Secondly they will learn more about novel uses of space. On the one hand they will learn of "Views on Earth" involving technologies like Remote Sensing (or Spying), Communication, Broadcasting, GPS and Telemedicine. On the other hand they will experience "Views on Space" illustrated by past, present and future space research missions, like the space exploration missions (Cassini/Huygens, Mars Express and Rosetta) and the astronomy missions (Soho and XMM). Meanwhile, the students will learn more about the technology of launchers and satellites needed to accomplish these space missions. Throughout the show and especially towards the end attention will be paid to the third theme "Why go to space"? Other reasons for people to get into space will be explored. An important question in this is the commercial (manned) exploration of space. Thus, the questions of benefit of space to society are integrated in the entire show. It raises some fundamental questions about the effects of space travel on our environment, poverty and other moral issues. The show attempts to connect scientific with

  9. Liquid Crystal Research Shows Deformation By Drying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    These images, from David Weitz's liquid crystal research, show ordered uniform sized droplets (upper left) before they are dried from their solution. After the droplets are dried (upper right), they are viewed with crossed polarizers that show the deformation caused by drying, a process that orients the bipolar structure of the liquid crystal within the droplets. When an electric field is applied to the dried droplets (lower left), and then increased (lower right), the liquid crystal within the droplets switches its alignment, thereby reducing the amount of light that can be scattered by the droplets when a beam is shone through them.

  10. Show Them You Really Want the Job

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlmutter, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Showing that one really "wants" the job entails more than just really wanting the job. An interview is part Broadway casting call, part intellectual dating game, part personality test, and part, well, job interview. When there are 300 applicants for a position, many of them will "fit" the required (and even the preferred) skills listed in the job…

  11. EFFECT OF REPETITIVE FILM SHOWINGS ON LEARNING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCTAVISH, C.L.; AND OTHERS

    A DETERMINATION OF THE INCREMENT IN LEARNING ATTRIBUTABLE SOLELY TO ONE, TWO, AND THREE REPETITIONS OF A FILM OVER AND ABOVE A SINGLE SHOWING WAS INVESTIGATED. THE SUBJECTS WERE 319 COLLEGE FRESHMEN WHO WERE DIVIDED INTO FOUR GROUPS AND WHO WERE SHOWN FOUR GENERAL SCIENCE FILMS. EACH GROUP SAW ONE OF THE FILMS ONCE, A SECOND FILM TWICE, A THIRD…

  12. Showing Enantiomorphous Crystals of Tartaric Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade-Gamboa, Julio

    2007-01-01

    Most of the articles and textbooks that show drawings of enantiomorphous crystals use an inadequate view to appreciate the fact that they are non-superimposable mirror images of one another. If a graphical presentation of crystal chirality is not evident, the main attribute of crystal enantiomorphism can not be recognized by students. The classic…

  13. Laser entertainment and light shows in education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabaratnam, Andrew T.; Symons, Charles

    2002-05-01

    Laser shows and beam effects have been a source of entertainment since its first public performance May 9, 1969, at Mills College in Oakland, California. Since 1997, the Photonics Center, NgeeAnn Polytechnic, Singapore, has been using laser shows as a teaching tool. Students are able to exhibit their creative skills and learn at the same time how lasers are used in the entertainment industry. Students will acquire a number of skills including handling three- phase power supply, operation of cooling system, and laser alignment. Students also acquire an appreciation of the arts, learning about shapes and contours as they develop graphics for the shows. After holography, laser show animation provides a combination of the arts and technology. This paper aims to briefly describe how a krypton-argon laser, galvanometer scanners, a polychromatic acousto-optic modulator and related electronics are put together to develop a laser projector. The paper also describes how students are trained to make their own laser animation and beam effects with music, and at the same time have an appreciation of the operation of a Class IV laser and the handling of optical components.

  14. 47 CFR 90.505 - Showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Developmental Operation § 90.505 Showing required. (a) Except as provided in...) The actual transmission by radio is essential to proceed beyond the present stage of the program;...

  15. 47 CFR 90.505 - Showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Developmental Operation § 90.505 Showing required. (a) Except as provided in...) The actual transmission by radio is essential to proceed beyond the present stage of the program;...

  16. Tilapia show immunization response against Ich

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compares the immune response of Nile tilapia and red tilapia against parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) using a cohabitation challenge model. Both Nile and red tilapia showed strong immune response post immunization with live Ich theronts by IP injection or immersion. Blood serum...

  17. A Talk Show from the Past.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Arlene F.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a two-day activity in which elementary students examine voting rights, the right to assemble, and women's suffrage. Explains the game, "Assemble, Reassemble," and a student-produced talk show with five students playing the roles of leaders of the women's suffrage movement. Profiles Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Susan…

  18. State Data Show Gains in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2007-01-01

    Schools taking part in the federal Reading First program are showing significant progress in boosting students' reading fluency and comprehension, according to state-reported data compiled and released by the U.S. Department of Education last week. In releasing for the first time detailed, multiyear data on how Reading First schools are performing…

  19. Male genital leiomyomas showing androgen receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Peñaranda, José Manuel; Vieites, Begoña; Evgenyeva, Elena; Vázquez-Veiga, Hugo; Forteza, Jeronimo

    2007-12-01

    Genital leiomyoma in men include those superficial leiomyomas arising in the scrotum and the areola. They are unusual neoplasms: few cases have been reported in the literature and they usually escape clinical diagnosis. Three cases of male genital leiomyomas are reported: two in the scrotum and one in the areola. They were all conservatively excised and the behaviour was completely benign in all cases. Histopathological examination showed the typical findings of superficial leiomyomas, with some minor differences between cases arising in the scrotum and those from the areola. Immunohistochemical findings not only confirmed the smooth muscle nature of all cases but also showed unequivocal immunostaining for androgen receptors in the leiomyomas from the scrotum. Immunostaining for androgen receptors in scrotal leiomyomas is, as far as we are aware, a previously unknown characteristic of male genital leiomyomas. This finding supports the role of steroid hormones in the growth of genital leiomyomas, similar to leiomyomas found in other locations.

  20. Kepler Systems That Show Multiple Transiting Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, Jason H.; Fabrycky, D. C.; Ford, E. B.; Holman, M. J.; Lissauer, J. J.; Ragozzine, D.; Welsh, W. F.; Kepler Science Team

    2011-01-01

    Exoplanetary systems that have multiple transiting planets provide unique and important insight into the formation, evolution, and dynamics of exoplanetary systems. Kepler has announced the discovery of a confirmed planetary system with multiple transiting planets (Kepler 9, Holman et al. 2010) as well as several candidate planetary systems that show multiple transiting objects (Steffen et al. 2010). Kepler 9 shows deviations from a constant period due to the ongoing dynamical interactions between the confirmed planets. From these transit timing variations (TTV) one can measure the planetary masses from the photometric data alone. The presence of several systems with multiple transiting candidates from the first quarter of data indicate that Kepler should continue to find systems with multiple transiting planets. Such systems will provide important, general information about the histories of planetary systems.

  1. Mercury's Core Molten, Radar Study Shows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-05-01

    Scientists using a high-precision planetary radar technique for the first time have discovered that the innermost planet Mercury probably has a molten core, resolving a mystery of more than three decades. The discovery, which used the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope in West Virginia and Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico, and NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory antennas in California, is an important step toward a better understanding of how planets form and evolve. Planetary Radar High-precision planetary radar technique sent signal to Mercury, received reflection. CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for high-resolution file (447 KB) "For a long time it was thought we'd have to land spacecraft on Mercury to learn if its core is solid or molten. Now we've answered that question using ground-based telescopes," said Jean-Luc Margot, of Cornell University, leader of the research team, which published its results in the May 4 issue of the journal Science. Mercury is one of the least-understood of the planets in our Solar System. Its distance from the Sun is just over one-third that of the Earth, and it contains a mass just 5½ percent that of Earth. Only about half of Mercury's surface has been photographed by a spacecraft, Mariner 10, back in 1974. Mariner 10 also discovered that Mercury has a weak magnetic field, about one percent as strong as Earth's. That discovery spurred a scientific debate about the planet's core. Scientists normally expect a rocky planet's magnetic field to be caused by an electromagnetic dynamo in a molten core. However, Mercury is so small that most scientists expected its core to have cooled and solidified long ago. Those scientists speculated that the magnetic field seen today may have been "frozen" into the planet when the core cooled. "Whether the core is molten or solid today depends greatly on the chemical composition of the core. That chemical composition can provide important clues about the

  2. Non-Coronary Patients with Severe Chest Pain Show More Irrational Beliefs Compared to Patients with Mild Pain

    PubMed Central

    Bahremand, Mostafa; Saeidi, Mozhgan

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite providing insufficient medical evidence of the existence of a real cardiac condition, patients with non-coronary chest pain still interpret their pain incorrectly. The present study, therefore, sought to compare the irrational beliefs in non-coronary patients with mild chest pain against those with severe chest pain. Methods A cross-sectional design was used. The statistical population comprised non-coronary patients who presented to the Heart Emergency Center of Kermanshah city, Iran. Using a matching method, 96 participants were selected and studied in two groups of 48. The instruments used were the Comorbidity Index, Brief Pain Index, and the Jones Irrational Beliefs Test (short-form). The multivariate analysis of variance, chi-square test, and t-test were used for data analysis. Results Controlling for the effects of age and comorbid conditions, the severity of three types of irrational beliefs, including emotional irresponsibility (P<0.001), hopelessness changes (P<0.001), and problem avoiding (P=0.002) was higher among patients with severe chest pain (according to effect level). However, in terms of demand for approval, no difference was seen between the two groups (P=0.180). Conclusion Non-coronary patients with severe chest pain showed a greater number of irrational beliefs in comparison to patients with mild pain. Irrational beliefs are common mental occurrences in patients with non-coronary chest pain, and they should be attended to by health professionals, especially in severe non-coronary chest pain. Further investigation to determine the association between irrational beliefs and non-coronary chest pain is necessary. PMID:26217482

  3. Latest European coelacanth shows Gondwanan affinities.

    PubMed

    Cavin, Lionel; Forey, Peter L; Buffetaut, Eric; Tong, Haiyan

    2005-06-22

    The last European fossil occurrence of a coelacanth is from the Mid-Cretaceous of the English Chalk (Turonian, 90 million years ago). Here, we report the discovery of a coelacanth from Late Cretaceous non-marine rocks in southern France. It consists of a left angular bone showing structures that imply close phylogenetic affinities with some extinct Mawsoniidae. The closest relatives are otherwise known from Cretaceous continental deposits of southern continents and suggest that the dispersal of freshwater organisms from Africa to Europe occurred in the Late Cretaceous.

  4. Show Me the Invisible: Visualizing Hidden Content

    PubMed Central

    Geymayer, Thomas; Steinberger, Markus; Lex, Alexander; Streit, Marc; Schmalstieg, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Content on computer screens is often inaccessible to users because it is hidden, e.g., occluded by other windows, outside the viewport, or overlooked. In search tasks, the efficient retrieval of sought content is important. Current software, however, only provides limited support to visualize hidden occurrences and rarely supports search synchronization crossing application boundaries. To remedy this situation, we introduce two novel visualization methods to guide users to hidden content. Our first method generates awareness for occluded or out-of-viewport content using see-through visualization. For content that is either outside the screen’s viewport or for data sources not opened at all, our second method shows off-screen indicators and an on-demand smart preview. To reduce the chances of overlooking content, we use visual links, i.e., visible edges, to connect the visible content or the visible representations of the hidden content. We show the validity of our methods in a user study, which demonstrates that our technique enables a faster localization of hidden content compared to traditional search functionality and thereby assists users in information retrieval tasks. PMID:25325078

  5. Trials show delayed recurrence in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Bender, Eric

    2013-06-01

    Phase I trials of 2 treatments for recurrent ovarian cancer-a 2-step immunotherapy treatment and an antibody-drug conjugate-demonstrated promising early results in delaying recurrence, in work presented at the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2013.

  6. EXPERT SYSTEMS SHOW PROMISE FOR CUSTOMER INQUIRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article describes results of an agreement between the North Penn Water Authority in Lansdale, Pa., and the US Environmental Protection Agency, Drinking Water Research Division, Cincinnati, Ohio, to study use of expert systems technology in a water utility. The threeyear stud...

  7. Tomato Fruits Show Wide Phenomic Diversity but Fruit Developmental Genes Show Low Genomic Diversity.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Vijee; Gupta, Soni; Thomas, Sherinmol; Mickey, Hanjabam; Charakana, Chaitanya; Chauhan, Vineeta Singh; Sharma, Kapil; Kumar, Rakesh; Tyagi, Kamal; Sarma, Supriya; Gupta, Suresh Kumar; Kilambi, Himabindu Vasuki; Nongmaithem, Sapana; Kumari, Alka; Gupta, Prateek; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju; Sharma, Rameshwar

    2016-01-01

    Domestication of tomato has resulted in large diversity in fruit phenotypes. An intensive phenotyping of 127 tomato accessions from 20 countries revealed extensive morphological diversity in fruit traits. The diversity in fruit traits clustered the accessions into nine classes and identified certain promising lines having desirable traits pertaining to total soluble salts (TSS), carotenoids, ripening index, weight and shape. Factor analysis of the morphometric data from Tomato Analyzer showed that the fruit shape is a complex trait shared by several factors. The 100% variance between round and flat fruit shapes was explained by one discriminant function having a canonical correlation of 0.874 by stepwise discriminant analysis. A set of 10 genes (ACS2, COP1, CYC-B, RIN, MSH2, NAC-NOR, PHOT1, PHYA, PHYB and PSY1) involved in various plant developmental processes were screened for SNP polymorphism by EcoTILLING. The genetic diversity in these genes revealed a total of 36 non-synonymous and 18 synonymous changes leading to the identification of 28 haplotypes. The average frequency of polymorphism across the genes was 0.038/Kb. Significant negative Tajima'D statistic in two of the genes, ACS2 and PHOT1 indicated the presence of rare alleles in low frequency. Our study indicates that while there is low polymorphic diversity in the genes regulating plant development, the population shows wider phenotype diversity. Nonetheless, morphological and genetic diversity of the present collection can be further exploited as potential resources in future.

  8. Tomato Fruits Show Wide Phenomic Diversity but Fruit Developmental Genes Show Low Genomic Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Vijee; Gupta, Soni; Thomas, Sherinmol; Mickey, Hanjabam; Charakana, Chaitanya; Chauhan, Vineeta Singh; Sharma, Kapil; Kumar, Rakesh; Tyagi, Kamal; Sarma, Supriya; Gupta, Suresh Kumar; Kilambi, Himabindu Vasuki; Nongmaithem, Sapana; Kumari, Alka; Gupta, Prateek; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju; Sharma, Rameshwar

    2016-01-01

    Domestication of tomato has resulted in large diversity in fruit phenotypes. An intensive phenotyping of 127 tomato accessions from 20 countries revealed extensive morphological diversity in fruit traits. The diversity in fruit traits clustered the accessions into nine classes and identified certain promising lines having desirable traits pertaining to total soluble salts (TSS), carotenoids, ripening index, weight and shape. Factor analysis of the morphometric data from Tomato Analyzer showed that the fruit shape is a complex trait shared by several factors. The 100% variance between round and flat fruit shapes was explained by one discriminant function having a canonical correlation of 0.874 by stepwise discriminant analysis. A set of 10 genes (ACS2, COP1, CYC-B, RIN, MSH2, NAC-NOR, PHOT1, PHYA, PHYB and PSY1) involved in various plant developmental processes were screened for SNP polymorphism by EcoTILLING. The genetic diversity in these genes revealed a total of 36 non-synonymous and 18 synonymous changes leading to the identification of 28 haplotypes. The average frequency of polymorphism across the genes was 0.038/Kb. Significant negative Tajima’D statistic in two of the genes, ACS2 and PHOT1 indicated the presence of rare alleles in low frequency. Our study indicates that while there is low polymorphic diversity in the genes regulating plant development, the population shows wider phenotype diversity. Nonetheless, morphological and genetic diversity of the present collection can be further exploited as potential resources in future. PMID:27077652

  9. Surveys show support for green 'activities'.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2012-03-01

    Two independently conducted surveys on sustainability - one into the 'views and values' of NHS 'leaders', and the other questioning the public about the importance of the 'green agenda' in the NHS, and their opinions on how the service might most effectively reduce its carbon footprint, form the basis of Sustainability in the NHS: Health Check 2012, a new NHS Sustainable Development Unit (NHS SDU) publication. As HEJ editor Jonathan Baillie reports, the new document also presents updated data on the 'size' of the carbon footprint of the NHS in England, showing that, although good work by a number of Trusts in the past two years has seen healthcare-generated carbon emissions start to 'level off', the biggest contributors have been the current health service spending review, and the increased national availability of renewable energy.

  10. Star Shows It Has The Right Stuff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-01-01

    Astronomers have used an observation by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory to make the best case yet that a star can be engulfed by its companion star and survive. This discovery will help astronomers better understand how closely coupled stars, and perhaps even stars and planets, evolve when one of the stars expands enormously in its red giant phase. The binary star system known as V471 Tauri comprises a white dwarf star (the primary) in a close orbit -- one thirtieth of the distance between Mercury and the Sun -- with a normal Sun-like star (the secondary). Chandra's data showed that the hot upper atmosphere of the secondary star has a deficit of carbon atoms relative to nitrogen atoms. "This deficit of carbon atoms is the first clear observational evidence that the normal star was engulfed by its companion in the past," according to Jeremy Drake of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, MA, who coauthored an article on V471 in The Astrophysical Journal Letters with Marek Sarna of the N. Copernicus Astronomical Center in Poland. The white dwarf star was once a star several times as massive as the Sun. Nuclear fusion reactions in the core of such a star convert carbon into nitrogen over a period of about a billion years. When the fuel in the core of the star is exhausted, the core collapses, triggering more energetic nuclear reactions that cause the star to expand and transform into a red giant before eventually collapsing to become a white dwarf. The carbon-poor material in the core of the red giant is mixed with outer part of the star, so its atmosphere shows a deficit of carbon, as compared with Sun-like stars. The X-ray spectra of a red giant star (top panel) and a Sun-like star (bottom panel) show the large difference in the peaks due to carbon atoms in the two stars. Theoretical calculations indicate that a red giant in a binary system can completely envelop its companion star and dramatically affect its evolution. During this common envelope

  11. Microbiological and environmental issues in show caves.

    PubMed

    Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2012-07-01

    Cultural tourism expanded in the last half of the twentieth century, and the interest of visitors has come to include caves containing archaeological remains. Some show caves attracted mass tourism, and economical interests prevailed over conservation, which led to a deterioration of the subterranean environment and the rock art. The presence and the role of microorganisms in caves is a topic that is often ignored in cave management. Knowledge of the colonisation patterns, the dispersion mechanisms, and the effect on human health and, when present, over rock art paintings of these microorganisms is of the utmost importance. In this review the most recent advances in the study of microorganisms in caves are presented, together with the environmental implications of the findings.

  12. Mesenchymal stem cells show radioresistance in vivo.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sarvpreet; Kloss, Frank R; Brunauer, Regina; Schimke, Magdalena; Jamnig, Angelika; Greiderer-Kleinlercher, Brigitte; Klima, Günter; Rentenberger, Julia; Auberger, Thomas; Hächl, Oliver; Rasse, Michael; Gassner, Robert; Lepperdinger, Günter

    2012-04-01

    Irradiation impacts on the viability and differentiation capacity of tissue-borne mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), which play a pivotal role in bone regeneration. As a consequence of radiotherapy, bones may develop osteoradionecrosis. When irradiating human bone-derived MSC in vitro with increasing doses, the cells' self-renewal capabilities were greatly reduced. Mitotically stalled cells were still capable of differentiating into osteoblasts and pre-adipocytes. As a large animal model comparable to the clinical situation, pig mandibles were subjected to fractionized radiation of 2 χ 9 Gy within 1 week. This treatment mimics that of a standardized clinical treatment regimen of head and neck cancer patients irradiated 30 χ 2 Gy. In the pig model, fractures which had been irradiated, showed delayed osseous healing. When isolating MSC at different time points post-irradiation, no significant changes regarding proliferation capacity and osteogenic differentiation potential became apparent. Therefore, pig mandibles were irradiated with a single dose of either 9 or 18 Gy in vivo, and MSC were isolated immediately afterwards. No significant differences between the untreated and 9 Gy irradiated bone with respect to proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were unveiled. Yet, cells isolated from 18 Gy irradiated specimens exhibited a reduced osteogenic differentiation capacity, and during the first 2 weeks proliferation rates were greatly diminished. Thereafter, cells recovered and showed normal proliferation behaviour. These findings imply that MSC can effectively cope with irradiation up to high doses in vivo. This finding should thus be implemented in future therapeutic concepts to protect regenerating tissue from radiation consequences.

  13. Delayed Gadolinium-Enhanced MRI of Cartilage (dGEMRIC) Shows No Change in Cartilage Structural Composition after Viscosupplementation in Patients with Early-Stage Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    van Tiel, Jasper; Reijman, Max; Bos, Pieter K.; Hermans, Job; van Buul, Gerben M.; Bron, Esther E.; Klein, Stefan; Verhaar, Jan A. N.; Krestin, Gabriel P.; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M. A.; Weinans, Harrie; Kotek, Gyula; Oei, Edwin H. G.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Viscosupplementation with hyaluronic acid (HA) of osteoarthritic (OA) knee joints has a well-established positive effect on clinical symptoms. This effect, however, is only temporary and the working mechanism of HA injections is not clear. It was suggested that HA might have disease modifying properties because of its beneficial effect on cartilage sulphated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) content. Delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) is a highly reproducible, non-invasive surrogate measure for sGAG content and hence composition of cartilage. The aim of this study was to assess whether improvement in cartilage structural composition is detected using dGEMRIC 14 weeks after 3 weekly injections with HA in patients with early-stage knee OA. Methods In 20 early-stage knee OA patients (KLG I-II), 3D dGEMRIC at 3T was acquired before and 14 weeks after 3 weekly injections with HA. To evaluate patient symptoms, the knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS) and a numeric rating scale (NRS) for pain were recorded. To evaluate cartilage composition, six cartilage regions in the knee were analyzed on dGEMRIC. Outcomes of dGEMRIC, KOOS and NRS before and after HA were compared using paired t-testing. Since we performed multiple t-tests, we applied a Bonferroni-Holm correction to determine statistical significance for these analyses. Results All KOOS subscales (‘pain’, ‘symptoms’, ‘daily activities’, ‘sports’ and ’quality of life’) and the NRS pain improved significantly 14 weeks after Viscosupplementation with HA. Outcomes of dGEMRIC did not change significantly after HA compared to baseline in any of the cartilage regions analyzed in the knee. Conclusions Our results confirm previous findings reported in the literature, showing persisting improvement in symptomatic outcome measures in early-stage knee OA patients 14 weeks after Viscosupplementation. Outcomes of dGEMRIC, however, did not change after Viscosupplementation

  14. Nature's Late-Night Light Shows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Carolyn Collins

    2002-09-01

    In addition to stars and planets, there are other interesting lights to be seen in the night sky. The northern and southern lights, called the aurora borealis and aurora australis, are created by charged particles from the Sun reacting in Earth's magnetic field. Night-shining clouds or noctilucent clouds appear at evening twilight as a result of water vapor in the polar mesosphere. Zodiacal light can be seen stretching up from the horizon after sunset or before sunrise.

  15. VLA Shows "Boiling" in Atmosphere of Betelgeuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-04-01

    A team of astronomers says that observations with the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope show that a neighboring bloated star has giant convective plumes propelling gas from its surface (photosphere) up into the star's atmosphere. This new information contradicts long-held ideas that such stellar atmospheres are more uniform, and may resolve questions about how the star's atmosphere attains its enormous size as well as how dust and gas is driven away from the star. Jeremy Lim of the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy & Astrophysics in Taiwan; Chris Carilli, Anthony Beasley, and Ralph Marson of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM; and Stephen White of the University of Maryland studied the red-supergiant star Betelgeuse, about 430 light-years away in the constellation Orion. They reported their findings in the April 9 issue of the scientific journal Nature. "These radio-telescope images confirm that Betelgeuse -- already more than 600 times larger than our Sun -- has a dense atmosphere that extends to many times larger still than the star itself," said Lim. "The highest-resolution image shows the star's atmosphere to have a remarkably complex structure." "To our surprise," added White, "the images also show that most of the gas in the atmosphere is only about as hot as that on the surface. Previously, all of it was thought to be very much hotter." The astronomers used the VLA to make images of Betelgeuse at a variety of radio frequencies. The series of radio observations measured the temperature of the star's atmosphere at different heights. Previous observations with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) at ultraviolet wavelengths showed that the star's atmosphere contains very hot gas at about twice the surface temperature. The VLA images showed that there also is lower-temperature gas throughout the atmosphere. This gas is near the surface temperature at low heights and decreases in temperature

  16. Cold-fusion television show angers APS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, Jon

    2009-06-01

    Cold fusion has been controversial since its inception on 23 March 1989, when chemists Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons at the University of Utah in the US announced that they had achieved a sustained nuclear-fusion reaction at room temperature. Two decades on, a US television documentary about the field has stirred up fresh debate after it linked the American Physical Society (APS) to an evaluation of some cold-fusion results by Robert Duncan, a physicist and vice chancellor of the University of Missouri.

  17. The earliest published electrocardiogram showing ventricular preexcitation.

    PubMed

    Von Knorre, Georg H

    2005-03-01

    When in 1930, Wolff, Parkinson, and White published what is today known as the WPW, or preexcitation syndrome, they, and subsequently others, found few comparable cases in the preceding literature. Among these the report of Cohn and Fraser, published in 1913, was the earliest. However, another even earlier documentation in a 1909 article by Hoffmann escaped notice till now. The ECG of a patient with paroxysmal tachycardia reveals a short PR interval and a delta-wave-induced widening of the QRS complex, even though the reproduced tachycardia was not preexcitation related. The interpretation of this poorly reproduced ECG can be confirmed by another and more detailed description of the patient in an electrocardiography textbook published in 1914 by the same author. Thus, the earliest publication of an ECG showing ventricular preexcitation now can be dated back to 1909. Moreover, the Hoffmann monograph contains two additional examples of the WPW syndrome not noticed until now. All three cases published by Hoffmann had their first ECG recordings in 1912 or earlier.

  18. Temperature Data Shows Warming in 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    TThe figure above depicts how much air temperatures near the Earth's surface changed relative to the global mean temperature from 1951 to 1980. NASA researchers used maps of urban areas derived from city lights data to account for the 'heat island' effect of cities. The red and orange colors show that temperatures are warmer in most regions of the world when compared to the 1951 to 1980 'normal' temperatures. Warming around the world has been widespread, but it is not present everywhere. The largest warming is in Northern Canada, Alaska and Siberia, as indicated by the deeper red colors. The lower 48 United States have become warmer recently, but only enough to make the temperatures comparable to what they were in the 1930s. The scale on the bottom of these temperature anomaly images represent degrees in Celsius. The negative numbers represent cooling and the positive numbers depict warming. Overall, the air temperature near the Earth's surface has warmed by 1oF (0.6oC) globally, on average, over the last century. For more information and additional images, read Satellites Shed Light on a Warmer World. Image courtesy Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS).

  19. First K2 mutiplanatary system showing TTVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barros, Susana C. C.

    2015-08-01

    In traditional transit timing variations (TTVs) analysis of multi-planetary systems, the individual TTVs are first derived from transit fitting and later modeled using n-body dynamic simulations to constrain planetary masses.I will show that fitting simultaneously the transit light curves with the system dynamics (photo-dynamical model) increases the precision of the TTV measurements and helps constrain the system architecture. I will exemplify the advantages of applying this photo-dynamical model to a multi-planetary system found in K2 data very close to 3:2 mean motion resonance. In this case the period of the larger TTV variations (libration period) is much longer (~1.5 years) than the duration of the K2 observations (~80 days). However, our method allows to detect the short period TTVs produced by the orbital conjunctions between the planets that in turn permits to uniquely characterize the system. Therefore, our method can be used to constrain the masses of near-resonant systems even when the full libration curve is not observed and hence will help understanding evolution of these interesting systems.

  20. Lockheed Electra - animation showing air turbulence detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    On Mar. 24, 1998, an L-188 Electra aircraft owned by the National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia, and operated by the National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado, flew near Boulder with an Airborne Coherent LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) for Advanced In-flight Measurement. This aircraft was on its first flight to test its ability to detect previously invisible forms of clear air turbulence. Coherent Technologies Inc., Lafayette, Colorado, built the LiDAR device for the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. NASA Dryden participated in the effort as part of the NASA Aviation Safety Program, for which the lead center was Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Results of the test indicated that the device did successfully detect the clear air turbulence. Computer animation of the clear air turbulence (CAT) detection system known as the 'Airborne Coherent LiDAR for Advanced In-flight Measurement' was tested aboard the National Science Foundation L-188 Lockheed Electra.

  1. HUBBLE SHOWS EXPANSION OF ETA CARINAE DEBRIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The furious expansion of a huge, billowing pair of gas and dust clouds are captured in this NASA Hubble Space Telescope comparison image of the supermassive star Eta Carinae. To create the picture, astronomers aligned and subtracted two images of Eta Carinae taken 17 months apart (April 1994, September 1995). Black represents where the material was located in the older image, and white represents the more recent location. (The light and dark streaks that make an 'X' pattern are instrumental artifacts caused by the extreme brightness of the central star. The bright white region at the center of the image results from the star and its immediate surroundings being 'saturated' in one of the images.)Photo Credit: Jon Morse (University of Colorado), Kris Davidson (University of Minnesota), and NASA Image files in GIF and JPEG format and captions may be accessed on Internet via anonymous ftp from oposite.stsci.edu in /pubinfo.

  2. AD-1 multiple exposure showing wing sweep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This photograph is a multiple exposure showing the AD-1 aircraft with its wing swept at different angles between zero and 60 degrees. The Ames-Dryden-1 (AD-1) aircraft was designed to investigate the concept of an oblique (pivoting) wing. The wing could be rotated on its center pivot, so that it could be set at its most efficient angle for the speed at which the aircraft was flying. NASA Ames Research Center Aeronautical Engineer Robert T. Jones conceived the idea of an oblique wing. His wind tunnel studies at Ames (Moffett Field, CA) indicated that an oblique wing design on a supersonic transport might achieve twice the fuel economy of an aircraft with conventional wings. The oblique wing on the AD-1 pivoted about the fuselage, remaining perpendicular to it during slow flight and rotating to angles of up to 60 degrees as aircraft speed increased. Analytical and wind tunnel studiesthat Jones conducted at Ames indicated that a transport-sized oblique-wing aircraft flying at speeds of up to Mach 1.4 (1.4 times the speed of sound) would have substantially better aerodynamic performance than aircraft with conventional wings. The AD-1 structure allowed the project to complete all of its technical objectives. The type of low-speed, low-cost vehicle - as expected - exhibited aeroelastic and pitch-roll-coupling effects that contributed to poor handling at sweep angles above 45 degrees. The fiberglass structure limited the wing stiffness that would have improved the handling qualities. Thus, after completion of the AD-1 project, there was still a need for a transonic oblique-wing research aircraft to assess the effects of compressibility, evaluate a more representative structure, and analyze flight performance at transonic speeds (those on either side of the speed of sound). The aircraft was delivered to the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA, in March 1979 and its first flight was on December 21, 1979. Piloting the aircraft on that flight, as well as on its last

  3. Cassini UVIS Observations Show Active Saturn's Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, L.; Colwell, J. E.; UVIS Team

    2004-12-01

    The Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) is part of the remote sensing payload of the NASA/ESA Cassini spacecraft. This spectrograph includes channels for extreme UV and far UV spectroscopic imaging, high speed photometry of stellar occultations, solar EUV occultation, and a hydrogen/deuterium absorption cell. We report our initial results from UVIS observations of Saturn's rings. Dynamic interactions between neutrals, ions, rings, moons and meteoroids produce a highly structured and time variable Saturn system Oxygen in the Saturn system dominates the magnetosphere. Observed fluctuations indicate close interactions with plasma sources. Stochastic events in the E ring may be the ultimate source. The spectral signature of water ice is seen on Phoebe and in Saturn's rings. Water ice is mixed non-uniformly with darker constituents. The high structure of the UV ring reflectance argues that collisional transport dominates ballistic transport in darkening the rings. Our preliminary results support the idea that rings are recycled fragments of moons: the current processes are more important than history and initial conditions. The spectra along the UVIS SOI radial scan indicate varying amounts of water ice. In the A ring, the ice fraction increases outward to a maximum at the outer edge. This large-scale variation is consistent with initially pure ice that has suffered meteoritic bombardment over the age of the Solar system (Cuzzi and Estrada 1998). We also see variations over scales of 1000 - 3000 km, which cannot be explained by this mechanism. Ballistic transport of spectrally neutral extrinsic pollutants from meteoroids striking the rings has a typical throw distance of 6000 km (Durisen et al 1989), too long to explain this finer structure. We propose a class of smaller renewal events, in which a small moon residing within the rings is shattered by an external impactor (Colwell and Esposito 1993, Barbara and Esposito 2002, Esposito and Colwell 2003). The

  4. STD studies show spermicides protect against Chlamydia.

    PubMed

    1986-01-01

    Evidence which suggests that spermicides provide protection against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is accumulating. Laboratory tests have repeatedly demonstrated that spermicides are capable of killing the bacteria responsible for several types of STDs, as well as the virus responsible for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Recently, studies conducted in Bangkok, Thailand and in New York City suggest that these protective effects are not confined to the laboratory but that they also occur among women who use spermicides in the real world. In the New York City study, Family Health International (FHI), using data collected by Planned Parenthood of New York City, compared STD prevalence rates for women using different contraceptive methods. Women who used spermicides, in comparison with women who used oral contraceptives (OCs), were 20% less likely to have contracted a STD, 30% less likely to have gonorrhea, and 60% less likely to have chlamydia. In the Thai study, conducted jointly by the FHI and the Ministry of Health, women at high risk of STDs were allocated either to a group which was instructed to use a vaginal sponge impregnated with nonoxynol-9 during intercourse or to a control group which received no vaginal contraceptives. All the women were either sterilized or using OCs, IUDs, or injectable contraceptives. Preliminary results suggest that the women who used the vaginal sponges were significantly less likely to contract chlamydia than the control group. In regard to the incidence of gonorrhea, no differences between the 2 groups was detected. In the Thai study methodological problems forced the researchers to redesign the study. In accordance with the new design, the women in the 2 groups will be crossed over after 6 weeks. This will allow the researchers to examine the effect of using or not using a vaginal spermicide on specific individuals. The findings of the 2 studies have special relevance given the increasing prevalence of STDs in many

  5. Molars and incisors: show your microarray IDs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background One of the key questions in developmental biology is how, from a relatively small number of conserved signaling pathways, is it possible to generate organs displaying a wide range of shapes, tissue organization, and function. The dentition and its distinct specific tooth types represent a valuable system to address the issues of differential molecular signatures. To identify such signatures, we performed a comparative transcriptomic analysis of developing murine lower incisors, mandibular molars and maxillary molars at the developmental cap stage (E14.5). Results 231 genes were identified as being differentially expressed between mandibular incisors and molars, with a fold change higher than 2 and a false discovery rate lower than 0.1, whereas only 96 genes were discovered as being differentially expressed between mandibular and maxillary molars. Numerous genes belonging to specific signaling pathways (the Hedgehog, Notch, Wnt, FGF, TGFβ/BMP, and retinoic acid pathways), and/or to the homeobox gene superfamily, were also uncovered when a less stringent fold change threshold was used. Differential expressions for 10 out of 12 (mandibular incisors versus molars) and 9 out of 10 selected genes were confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). A bioinformatics tool (Ingenuity Pathway Analysis) used to analyze biological functions and pathways on the group of incisor versus molar differentially expressed genes revealed that 143 genes belonged to 9 networks with intermolecular connections. Networks with the highest significance scores were centered on the TNF/NFκB complex and the ERK1/2 kinases. Two networks ERK1/2 kinases and tretinoin were involved in differential molar morphogenesis. Conclusion These data allowed us to build several regulatory networks that may distinguish incisor versus molar identity, and may be useful for further investigations of these tooth-specific ontogenetic programs. These programs may be dysregulated in

  6. Showing Emulsion Properties with Common Dairy Foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravo-Diaz, Carlos; Gonzalez-Romero, Elisa

    1996-09-01

    Foods are mixtures of different chemical compounds, and the quality we sense (taste, texture, color, etc.) are all manifestations of its chemical properties. Some of them can be visualized with the aid of simple, safe and inexpensive experiments using dairy products that can be found in any kitchen and using almost exclusively kitchen utensils. In this paper we propose some of them related with food emulsions. Food emulsions cover an extremely wide area of daily-life applications such as milk, sauces, dressings and beverages. Experimentation with some culinary recipes to prepare them and the analyisis of the observed results is close to ideal subject for the introduction of chemical principles, allowing to discuss about the nature and composition of foods, the effects of additives, etc. At the same time it allows to get insights into the scientific reasons that underlie on the recipes (something that it is not usually found in most cookbooks). For example, when making an emulsion like mayonnaise, why the egg yolks and water are the first materials in the bowl , and the oil is added to them rather than in the other way around? How you can "rescue" separate emulsions (mayonnaise)? Which parameters affect emulsion stability? Since safety, in its broad sense, is the first requisite for any food, concerns about food exist throughout the world and the more we are aware of our everyday life, the more likely we will be to deal productively with the consequences. On the other hand, understanding what foods are and how cooking works destroys no delightful mystery of the art of cuisine, instead the mystery expands.

  7. DAST in Flight Showing Diverging Wingtip Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    normal stiffness. This was done because stiffness requires structural weight but ensures freedom from flutter-an uncontrolled, divergent oscillation of the structure, driven by aerodynamic forces and resulting in structural failure. The program used refined theoretical tools to predict at what speed flutter would occur. It then designed a high-response control system to counteract the motion and permit a much lighter wing structure. The wing had, in effect, 'electronic stiffness.' Flight research with this concept was extremely hazardous because an error in either the flutter prediction or control system implementation would result in wing structural failure and the loss of the vehicle. Because of this, flight demonstration of a sub-scale vehicle made sense from the standpoint of both safety and cost. The program anticipated structural failure during the course of the flight research. The Firebee II was a supersonic drone selected as the DAST testbed because its wing could be easily replaced, it used only tail-mounted control surfaces, and it was available as surplus from the U. S. Air Force. It was capable of 5-g turns (that is, turns producing acceleration equal to 5 times that of gravity). Langley outfitted a drone with an aeroelastic, supercritical research wing suitable for a Mach 0.98 cruise transport with a predicted flutter speed of Mach 0.95 at an altitude of 25,000 feet. Dryden and Langley, in conjunction with Boeing, designed and fabricated a digital flutter suppression system (FSS). Dryden developed an RPRV (remotely piloted research vehicle) flight control system; integrated the wing, FSS, and vehicle systems; and conducted the flight program. In addition to a digital flight control system and aeroelastic wings, each DAST drone had research equipment mounted in its nose and a mid-air retrieval system in its tail. The drones were originally launched from the NASA B-52 bomber and later from a DC-130. The DAST vehicle's flight was monitored from the sky by an F

  8. Conservation Project Shows Substantial Reduction in Home Water Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, William E.; Smith, Donald

    1978-01-01

    Describes a water use study-conservation project conducted by the Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission in Maryland. Results show a significant decrease in the amount of water used by home customers over a ten-year period. (Author/MA)

  9. Late results.

    PubMed

    Daly, B D

    1999-08-01

    Pneumonectomy is performed for a number of benign and malignant conditions. It is most commonly performed for lung cancer. Adjuvant and neoadjuvant protocols have increased the number of these operations being performed and the long-term results are improving. Pneumonectomy may also be performed for metastases to lung and for mesothelioma with encouraging results. Some bronchial adenomas require pneumonectomy. Treatment of resistant mycobacteria or the complications of tuberculosis frequently require pneumonectomy. Late bronchopleural fistulae, esophagopleural fistulae, and empyema may occur.

  10. Research Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-12-01

    Research on Global Carbon Emission and Sequestration NSFC Funded Project Made Significant Progress in Quantum Dynamics Functional Human Blood Protein Obtained from Rice How Giant Pandas Thrive on a Bamboo Diet New Evidence of Interpersonal Violence from 129,000 Years Ago Found in China Aptamer-Mediated Efficient Capture and Release of T Lymphocytes on Nanostructured Surfaces BGI Study Results on Resequencing 50 Accessions of Rice Cast New Light on Molecular Breeding BGI Reports Study Results on Frequent Mutation of Genes Encoding UMPP Components in Kidney Cancer Research on Habitat Shift Promoting Species Diversification

  11. Showing and Telling Farming: Agricultural Shows and Re-Imaging British Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Lewis

    2004-01-01

    Some actors in the ''mainstream'' agricultural sector are beginning to engage in strategies of influencing public perceptions of farming, responding to public anxieties over industrialised agriculture and to a supposed separation of non-farming publics from food production. This paper focuses on agricultural shows as sites and events central to…

  12. Tevatron results

    SciTech Connect

    Lefevre, R.; /Barcelona, Autonoma U.

    2005-01-01

    Recent results obtained by the CDF and D0 experiments at the Tevatron Run II are presented. A first part is dedicated to QCD physics where inclusive jet production, dijet azimuthal decorrelations and jet shapes measurements are reported. Electroweak physics is then discussed relating measurements of the W and Z bosons productions, of the forward-backward charge asymmetry in W production, of the W width and of the top quarks mass. The extensive Run II exploration program is finally approached reporting about searches for neutral supersymmetric Higgs bosons in multijet events and for sbottom quark from gluino decays.

  13. Dolphin shows and interaction programs: benefits for conservation education?

    PubMed

    Miller, L J; Zeigler-Hill, V; Mellen, J; Koeppel, J; Greer, T; Kuczaj, S

    2013-01-01

    Dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs are two types of education programs within zoological institutions used to educate visitors about dolphins and the marine environment. The current study examined the short- and long-term effects of these programs on visitors' conservation-related knowledge, attitude, and behavior. Participants of both dolphin shows and interaction programs demonstrated a significant short-term increase in knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions. Three months following the experience, participants of both dolphin shows and interaction programs retained the knowledge learned during their experience and reported engaging in more conservation-related behaviors. Additionally, the number of dolphin shows attended in the past was a significant predictor of recent conservation-related behavior suggesting that repetition of these types of experiences may be important in inspiring people to conservation action. These results suggest that both dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs can be an important part of a conservation education program for visitors of zoological facilities.

  14. Mass extinctions show selective patterns in crinoid body size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, A.; Tang, C.; Pelagio, M.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2013-12-01

    There have been five major extinctions on planet Earth: the end of the Ordovician, late Devonian, late Permian, late Triassic and the late Cretaceous and through all of these, Crinoids have still managed to prosper. Our project attempts to find a correlation between these five mass extinctions and the body size of Crinoids. Past research has shown that bigger animals are more prone to extinction compared to smaller sized ones because of their complex environmental niches. We hypothesized that small-sized Crinoids would have a higher possibility of survival compared to the larger-sized Crinoids. We first graphed Crinoids' maximum body size and the five major extinctions throughout time for any visual correlation between them. We then used t-tests as our statistical analyses to find any differences between the size of survivors and. There was no mean difference between the mean size of victims and survivors with the exception of the end of the Triassic extinction. There are many possible explanations for this difference in the end of the Triassic such as 1) a rise in atmospheric CO2, 2) a combination was volcanic CO2 and catastrophic dissociation of gas hydrate, and/or 3) a cooling in temperature and oceanic changes occurred.

  15. Time dependent patient no-show predictive modelling development.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Li; Hanauer, David A

    2016-05-09

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop evident-based predictive no-show models considering patients' each past appointment status, a time-dependent component, as an independent predictor to improve predictability. Design/methodology/approach - A ten-year retrospective data set was extracted from a pediatric clinic. It consisted of 7,291 distinct patients who had at least two visits along with their appointment characteristics, patient demographics, and insurance information. Logistic regression was adopted to develop no-show models using two-thirds of the data for training and the remaining data for validation. The no-show threshold was then determined based on minimizing the misclassification of show/no-show assignments. There were a total of 26 predictive model developed based on the number of available past appointments. Simulation was employed to test the effective of each model on costs of patient wait time, physician idle time, and overtime. Findings - The results demonstrated the misclassification rate and the area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic gradually improved as more appointment history was included until around the 20th predictive model. The overbooking method with no-show predictive models suggested incorporating up to the 16th model and outperformed other overbooking methods by as much as 9.4 per cent in the cost per patient while allowing two additional patients in a clinic day. Research limitations/implications - The challenge now is to actually implement the no-show predictive model systematically to further demonstrate its robustness and simplicity in various scheduling systems. Originality/value - This paper provides examples of how to build the no-show predictive models with time-dependent components to improve the overbooking policy. Accurately identifying scheduled patients' show/no-show status allows clinics to proactively schedule patients to reduce the negative impact of patient no-shows.

  16. Snacking on Television: A Content Analysis of Adolescents’ Favorite Shows

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Nicole I.; Gollust, Sarah E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Snacking is a complex behavior that may be influenced by entertainment media. Research suggests that snacking and unhealthy foods are commonly shown in programming that targets young audiences, but shows selected for study have been limited. We conducted a content analysis on shows that were named as favorites by adolescents to characterize portrayals of snacking on popular television. Methods A diverse sample of 2,130 adolescents (mean age, 14.3 y) listed 3 favorite television shows in a 2010 school-based survey. Three episodes each of the 25 most popular shows were coded for food-related content, including healthfulness, portion size, screen time use, setting, and social context. We also analyzed the characteristics of characters involved in eating incidents, the show type, and the show rating. We used χ2 tests, binomial tests, and multilevel regression models to compare incidence of snacks versus meals, the characteristics of those involved, and snacking across show characteristics. Results Almost half of food incidents on television shows were snacks. Snacks were significantly more likely than meals to be “mostly unhealthy” (69.3% vs 22.6%, P < .001) and were more likely to include screen time use (25.0% of snacking incidents vs 4.0% of meals, P < .001). Young characters and those coded as being of low socioeconomic status or overweight were overrepresented in snacking incidents. Sitcoms and shows rated for a youth audience were significantly more likely to portray snacking than were shows for adult audiences. Conclusion Media awareness and literacy programs should include foods and snacking behaviors among the issues they address. More healthful portrayals of food and dietary intake in entertainment shows’ content would create a healthier media environment for youth. PMID:27197079

  17. Distributing and Showing Farmer Learning Videos in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Jeffery W.; Van Mele, Paul; Harun-ar-Rashid, Md.; Krupnik, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the results of showing farmer learning videos through different types of volunteers. Design/Methodology/Approach: Semi-structured interviews with volunteers from different occupational groups in Bangladesh, and a phone survey with 227 respondents. Findings: Each occupational group acted differently. Shop keepers, tillage…

  18. Reciprocal Ontological Models Show Indeterminism Comparable to Quantum Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Somshubhro; Banik, Manik; Bhattacharya, Some Sankar; Ghosh, Sibasish; Kar, Guruprasad; Mukherjee, Amit; Roy, Arup

    2017-02-01

    We show that within the class of ontological models due to Harrigan and Spekkens, those satisfying preparation-measurement reciprocity must allow indeterminism comparable to that in quantum theory. Our result implies that one can design quantum random number generator, for which it is impossible, even in principle, to construct a reciprocal deterministic model.

  19. Learning from a dive show in an aquarium setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Lori M.

    A study was conducted at an aquarium next to a theme park to understand information recalled from two versions of shows viewed at the largest display. The goal of this research was to determine if learning was enhanced by having a diver in water as the treatment group. This project focused on the knowledge recalled about shark and ray feeding adaptations, the information recalled about the mentioned conservation message about sustainable seafood and the potential of the two shows to make memorable experiences. During the project, 30 adult participants from each group were given a survey with five open-ended questions. Results suggest that the diver might distract from biological content information, or that the diver is such a novel element that it interferes with recall. While guests seemed to recall information about rays and sharks, the amount of information was not substantial. It appears that the diver does not affect content messaging but does impact whether guests attend to Seafood Watch messaging. The diver may have been so novel that the treatment group could not attend to the conservation message that was delivered, regardless of topic, or the control group recalled the message because the guests were not distracted by the diver or feeding. The absence of a diver seems to allow the guests to better attend to what is happening outside of the tank. While adding a diver increases photo opportunities and may bring guests to a show, the results seem to indicate that it does not significantly increase recall. The results of this study show that guests in a theme park setting can recall information from an educational program. Guests may not enter this hybrid aquarium with the intention of learning, but recall, one of the components in learning, does occur.

  20. Measuring political polarization: Twitter shows the two sides of Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, A. J.; Borondo, J.; Losada, J. C.; Benito, R. M.

    2015-03-01

    We say that a population is perfectly polarized when divided in two groups of the same size and opposite opinions. In this paper, we propose a methodology to study and measure the emergence of polarization from social interactions. We begin by proposing a model to estimate opinions in which a minority of influential individuals propagate their opinions through a social network. The result of the model is an opinion probability density function. Next, we propose an index to quantify the extent to which the resulting distribution is polarized. Finally, we apply the proposed methodology to a Twitter conversation about the late Venezuelan president, Hugo Chávez, finding a good agreement between our results and offline data. Hence, we show that our methodology can detect different degrees of polarization, depending on the structure of the network.

  1. Bonobos (Pan paniscus) show an attentional bias toward conspecifics’ emotions

    PubMed Central

    Kret, Mariska E.; Jaasma, Linda; Bionda, Thomas; Wijnen, Jasper G.

    2016-01-01

    In social animals, the fast detection of group members’ emotional expressions promotes swift and adequate responses, which is crucial for the maintenance of social bonds and ultimately for group survival. The dot-probe task is a well-established paradigm in psychology, measuring emotional attention through reaction times. Humans tend to be biased toward emotional images, especially when the emotion is of a threatening nature. Bonobos have rich, social emotional lives and are known for their soft and friendly character. In the present study, we investigated (i) whether bonobos, similar to humans, have an attentional bias toward emotional scenes compared with conspecifics showing a neutral expression, and (ii) which emotional behaviors attract their attention the most. As predicted, results consistently showed that bonobos’ attention was biased toward the location of the emotional versus neutral scene. Interestingly, their attention was grabbed most by images showing conspecifics such as sexual behavior, yawning, or grooming, and not as much—as is often observed in humans—by signs of distress or aggression. The results suggest that protective and affiliative behaviors are pivotal in bonobo society and therefore attract immediate attention in this species. PMID:26976586

  2. Bonobos (Pan paniscus) show an attentional bias toward conspecifics' emotions.

    PubMed

    Kret, Mariska E; Jaasma, Linda; Bionda, Thomas; Wijnen, Jasper G

    2016-04-05

    In social animals, the fast detection of group members' emotional expressions promotes swift and adequate responses, which is crucial for the maintenance of social bonds and ultimately for group survival. The dot-probe task is a well-established paradigm in psychology, measuring emotional attention through reaction times. Humans tend to be biased toward emotional images, especially when the emotion is of a threatening nature. Bonobos have rich, social emotional lives and are known for their soft and friendly character. In the present study, we investigated (i) whether bonobos, similar to humans, have an attentional bias toward emotional scenes compared with conspecifics showing a neutral expression, and (ii) which emotional behaviors attract their attention the most. As predicted, results consistently showed that bonobos' attention was biased toward the location of the emotional versus neutral scene. Interestingly, their attention was grabbed most by images showing conspecifics such as sexual behavior, yawning, or grooming, and not as much-as is often observed in humans-by signs of distress or aggression. The results suggest that protective and affiliative behaviors are pivotal in bonobo society and therefore attract immediate attention in this species.

  3. Housekeeping genes tend to show reduced upstream sequence conservation

    PubMed Central

    Farré, Domènec; Bellora, Nicolás; Mularoni, Loris; Messeguer, Xavier; Albà, M Mar

    2007-01-01

    Background Understanding the constraints that operate in mammalian gene promoter sequences is of key importance to understand the evolution of gene regulatory networks. The level of promoter conservation varies greatly across orthologous genes, denoting differences in the strength of the evolutionary constraints. Here we test the hypothesis that the number of tissues in which a gene is expressed is related in a significant manner to the extent of promoter sequence conservation. Results We show that mammalian housekeeping genes, expressed in all or nearly all tissues, show significantly lower promoter sequence conservation, especially upstream of position -500 with respect to the transcription start site, than genes expressed in a subset of tissues. In addition, we evaluate the effect of gene function, CpG island content and protein evolutionary rate on promoter sequence conservation. Finally, we identify a subset of transcription factors that bind to motifs that are specifically over-represented in housekeeping gene promoters. Conclusion This is the first report that shows that the promoters of housekeeping genes show reduced sequence conservation with respect to genes expressed in a more tissue-restricted manner. This is likely to be related to simpler gene expression, requiring a smaller number of functional cis-regulatory motifs. PMID:17626644

  4. Deaf Individuals Show a Leftward Bias in Numerical Bisection.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Zaira; Cecchetto, Carlo; Papagno, Costanza

    2016-01-01

    Consistent evidence suggests that deaf individuals conceive of numerical magnitude as a left-to-right-oriented mental number line, as typically observed in hearing individuals. When accessing this spatial representation of numbers, normally hearing individuals typically show an attentional bias to the left (pseudoneglect), resembling the attentional bias they show in physical space. Deaf individuals do not show pseudoneglect in representing external space, as assessed by a visual line bisection task. However, whether deaf individuals show attentional biases in representing numerical space has never been investigated before. Here we instructed groups of deaf and hearing individuals to quickly estimate (without calculating) the midpoint of a series of numerical intervals presented in ascending and descending order. Both hearing and deaf individuals were significantly biased toward lower numbers (i.e., the leftward side of the mental number line) in their estimations. Nonetheless, the underestimation bias was smaller in deaf individuals than in the hearing when bisecting pairs of numbers given in descending order. This result may depend on the use of different strategies by deaf and hearing participants or a less pronounced lateralization of deaf individuals in the control of spatial attention.

  5. Face and body recognition show similar improvement during childhood.

    PubMed

    Bank, Samantha; Rhodes, Gillian; Read, Ainsley; Jeffery, Linda

    2015-09-01

    Adults are proficient in extracting identity cues from faces. This proficiency develops slowly during childhood, with performance not reaching adult levels until adolescence. Bodies are similar to faces in that they convey identity cues and rely on specialized perceptual mechanisms. However, it is currently unclear whether body recognition mirrors the slow development of face recognition during childhood. Recent evidence suggests that body recognition develops faster than face recognition. Here we measured body and face recognition in 6- and 10-year-old children and adults to determine whether these two skills show different amounts of improvement during childhood. We found no evidence that they do. Face and body recognition showed similar improvement with age, and children, like adults, were better at recognizing faces than bodies. These results suggest that the mechanisms of face and body memory mature at a similar rate or that improvement of more general cognitive and perceptual skills underlies improvement of both face and body recognition.

  6. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING QBOP FURNACE IN BLOW. OXYGEN AND NATURAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING Q-BOP FURNACE IN BLOW. OXYGEN AND NATURAL GAS ARE BLOWN INTO THE FURNACE THROUGH THE TUYERES TO CHARGE 460,000 LBS. OF HOT METAL, 100,000 LBS. OF SCRAP WITH 30,000 LBS. OF LIME. BLOW TIME IS 16 MINUTES. THE TIME TO BLOW AND TAP THE FURNACES OF THE RESULTING 205,000 TONS OF STEEL AND SLAG IS 35 MINUTES. - U.S. Steel, Fairfield Works, Q-Bop Furnace, North of Valley Road & West of Ensley, Pleasant Grove Road, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

  7. SUMOylated IRF-1 shows oncogenic potential by mimicking IRF-2

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sun-Mi; Chae, Myounghee; Kim, Bo-Kyoung; Seo, Taegun; Jang, Ik-Soon; Choi, Jong-Soon; Kim, Il-Chul; Lee, Je-Ho; Park, Junsoo

    2010-01-01

    Interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) is an interferon-induced transcriptional activator that suppresses tumors by impeding cell proliferation. Recently, we demonstrated that the level of SUMOylated IRF-1 is elevated in tumor cells, and that SUMOylation of IRF-1 attenuates its tumor-suppressive function. Here we report that SUMOylated IRF-1 mimics IRF-2, an antagonistic repressor, and shows oncogenic potential. To demonstrate the role of SUMOylated IRF-1 in tumorigenesis, we used SUMO-IRF-1 recombinant protein. Stable expression of SUMO-IRF-1 in NIH3T3 cells resulted in focus formation and anchorage-independent growth in soft agar. Inoculation of SUMO-IRF-1-transfected cells into athymic nude mice resulted in tumor formation and infiltration of adipose tissues. Finally, we demonstrated that SUMO-IRF-1 transforms NIH3T3 cells in a dose-dependent manner suggesting that SUMOylated IRF-1 may act as an oncogenic protein in tumor cells.

  8. Eccentric muscle challenge shows osteopontin polymorphism modulation of muscle damage.

    PubMed

    Barfield, Whitney L; Uaesoontrachoon, Kitipong; Wu, Chung-Sheih; Lin, Stephen; Chen, Yue; Wang, Paul C; Kanaan, Yasmine; Bond, Vernon; Hoffman, Eric P

    2014-08-01

    A promoter polymorphism of the osteopontin (OPN) gene (rs28357094) has been associated with multiple inflammatory states, severity of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and muscle size in healthy young adults. We sought to define the mechanism of action of the polymorphism, using allele-specific in vitro reporter assays in muscle cells, and a genotype-stratified intervention in healthy controls. In vitro reporter constructs showed the G allele to respond to estrogen treatment, whereas the T allele showed no transcriptional response. Young adult volunteers (n = 187) were enrolled into a baseline study, and subjects with specific rs28357094 genotypes enrolled into an eccentric muscle challenge intervention [n = 3 TT; n = 3 GG/GT (dominant inheritance model)]. Female volunteers carrying the G allele showed significantly greater inflammation and increased muscle volume change as determined by magnetic resonance imaging T1- and T2-weighted images after eccentric challenge, as well as greater decrement in biceps muscle force. Our data suggest a model where the G allele enables enhanced activities of upstream enhancer elements due to loss of Sp1 binding at the polymorphic site. This results in significantly greater expression of the pro-inflammatory OPN cytokine during tissue remodeling in response to challenge in G allele carriers, promoting muscle hypertrophy in normal females, but increased damage in DMD patients.

  9. The postmitotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae after spaceflight showed higher viability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Zong-Chun; Li, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Yan; Wang, Jie; Sun, Yan; Zhuang, Feng-Yuan

    2011-06-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been proposed as an ideal model organism for clarifying the biological effects caused by spaceflight conditions. The postmitotic S. cerevisiae cells onboard Practice eight recoverable satellite were subjected to spaceflight for 15 days. After recovery, the viability, the glycogen content, the activities of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes, the DNA content and the lipid peroxidation level in yeast cells were analyzed. The viability of the postmitotic yeast cells after spaceflight showed a three-fold increase as compared with that of the ground control cells. Compared to the ground control cells, the lipid peroxidation level in the spaceflight yeast cells markedly decreased. The spaceflight yeast cells also showed an increase in G2/M cell population and a decrease in Sub-G1 cell population. The glycogen content and the activities of hexokinase and succinate dehydrogenase significantly decreased in the yeast cells after spaceflight. In contrast, the activity of malate dehydrogenase showed an obvious increase after spaceflight. These results suggested that microgravity or spaceflight could promote the survival of postmitotic S. cerevisiae cells through regulating carbohydrate metabolism, ROS level and cell cycle progression.

  10. New World cattle show ancestry from multiple independent domestication events

    PubMed Central

    McTavish, Emily Jane; Decker, Jared E.; Schnabel, Robert D.; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Hillis, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous archeological and genetic research has shown that modern cattle breeds are descended from multiple independent domestication events of the wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) ∼10,000 y ago. Two primary areas of domestication in the Middle East/Europe and the Indian subcontinent resulted in taurine and indicine lines of cattle, respectively. American descendants of cattle brought by European explorers to the New World beginning in 1493 generally have been considered to belong to the taurine lineage. Our analyses of 47,506 single nucleotide polymorphisms show that these New World cattle breeds, as well as many related breeds of cattle in southern Europe, actually exhibit ancestry from both the taurine and indicine lineages. In this study, we show that, although European cattle are largely descended from the taurine lineage, gene flow from African cattle (partially of indicine origin) contributed substantial genomic components to both southern European cattle breeds and their New World descendants. New World cattle breeds, such as Texas Longhorns, provide an opportunity to study global population structure and domestication in cattle. Following their introduction into the Americas in the late 1400s, semiferal herds of cattle underwent between 80 and 200 generations of predominantly natural selection, as opposed to the human-mediated artificial selection of Old World breeding programs. Our analyses of global cattle breed population history show that the hybrid ancestry of New World breeds contributed genetic variation that likely facilitated the adaptation of these breeds to a novel environment. PMID:23530234

  11. PARK2 patient neuroprogenitors show increased mitochondrial sensitivity to copper.

    PubMed

    Aboud, Asad A; Tidball, Andrew M; Kumar, Kevin K; Neely, M Diana; Han, Bingying; Ess, Kevin C; Hong, Charles C; Erikson, Keith M; Hedera, Peter; Bowman, Aaron B

    2015-01-01

    Poorly-defined interactions between environmental and genetic risk factors underlie Parkinson's disease (PD) etiology. Here we tested the hypothesis that human stem cell derived forebrain neuroprogenitors from patients with known familial risk for early onset PD will exhibit enhanced sensitivity to PD environmental risk factors compared to healthy control subjects without a family history of PD. Two male siblings (SM and PM) with biallelic loss-of-function mutations in PARK2 were identified. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from SM, PM, and four control subjects with no known family histories of PD or related neurodegenerative diseases were utilized. We tested the hypothesis that hiPSC-derived neuroprogenitors from patients with PARK2 mutations would show heightened cell death, mitochondrial dysfunction, and reactive oxygen species generation compared to control cells as a result of exposure to heavy metals (PD environmental risk factors). We report that PARK2 mutant neuroprogenitors showed increased cytotoxicity with copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) exposure but not manganese (Mn) or methyl mercury (MeHg) relative to control neuroprogenitors. PARK2 mutant neuroprogenitors also showed a substantial increase in mitochondrial fragmentation, initial ROS generation, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential following Cu exposure. Our data substantiate Cu exposure as an environmental risk factor for PD. Furthermore, we report a shift in the lowest observable effect level (LOEL) for greater sensitivity to Cu-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction in patients SM and PM relative to controls, correlating with their increased genetic risk for PD.

  12. New World cattle show ancestry from multiple independent domestication events.

    PubMed

    McTavish, Emily Jane; Decker, Jared E; Schnabel, Robert D; Taylor, Jeremy F; Hillis, David M

    2013-04-09

    Previous archeological and genetic research has shown that modern cattle breeds are descended from multiple independent domestication events of the wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) ∼10,000 y ago. Two primary areas of domestication in the Middle East/Europe and the Indian subcontinent resulted in taurine and indicine lines of cattle, respectively. American descendants of cattle brought by European explorers to the New World beginning in 1493 generally have been considered to belong to the taurine lineage. Our analyses of 47,506 single nucleotide polymorphisms show that these New World cattle breeds, as well as many related breeds of cattle in southern Europe, actually exhibit ancestry from both the taurine and indicine lineages. In this study, we show that, although European cattle are largely descended from the taurine lineage, gene flow from African cattle (partially of indicine origin) contributed substantial genomic components to both southern European cattle breeds and their New World descendants. New World cattle breeds, such as Texas Longhorns, provide an opportunity to study global population structure and domestication in cattle. Following their introduction into the Americas in the late 1400s, semiferal herds of cattle underwent between 80 and 200 generations of predominantly natural selection, as opposed to the human-mediated artificial selection of Old World breeding programs. Our analyses of global cattle breed population history show that the hybrid ancestry of New World breeds contributed genetic variation that likely facilitated the adaptation of these breeds to a novel environment.

  13. Children with autism spectrum disorder show reduced adaptation to number

    PubMed Central

    Turi, Marco; Burr, David C.; Igliozzi, Roberta; Aagten-Murphy, David; Muratori, Filippo; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Autism is known to be associated with major perceptual atypicalities. We have recently proposed a general model to account for these atypicalities in Bayesian terms, suggesting that autistic individuals underuse predictive information or priors. We tested this idea by measuring adaptation to numerosity stimuli in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). After exposure to large numbers of items, stimuli with fewer items appear to be less numerous (and vice versa). We found that children with ASD adapted much less to numerosity than typically developing children, although their precision for numerosity discrimination was similar to that of the typical group. This result reinforces recent findings showing reduced adaptation to facial identity in ASD and goes on to show that reduced adaptation is not unique to faces (social stimuli with special significance in autism), but occurs more generally, for both parietal and temporal functions, probably reflecting inefficiencies in the adaptive interpretation of sensory signals. These results provide strong support for the Bayesian theories of autism. PMID:26056294

  14. Highly reflective reasoners show no signs of belief inhibition.

    PubMed

    Svedholm-Häkkinen, Annika M

    2015-01-01

    The processes underlying individual differences in reasoning performance are not entirely understood. What do people who do well on reasoning tasks where beliefs and logic conflict do differently from other people? Because abundant evidence shows that even poorer reasoners detect these conflicts, it has been suggested that individual differences in reasoning performance arise from inhibition failures later in the reasoning process. The present paper argues that a minority of highly skilled reasoners may deviate from this general reasoning process from an early stage. Two studies investigated signs of belief inhibition using a lexical access paradigm (Study 1) and a negative priming paradigm (Study 2). Study 1 showed that while other people exhibited signs of belief inhibition following a belief-logic conflict, people with the highest disposition for cognitive reflection did not. In Study 2, this finding was replicated and similar results were also obtained when comparing groups with higher and lower general cognitive ability. Two possible explanations are discussed. The reasoners with a highly reflective cognitive style or high general cognitive ability may have engaged and inhibited belief processing but if so, they may have been exceptionally efficient at recovering from it, wherefore no belief inhibition effects were found. An alternative account is that these reasoners started Type 2 processing directly, without first engaging in and then inhibiting belief-based processing. Under either explanation, the results indicate that individual differences in reasoning may partly arise from differences that occur early in the reasoning process.

  15. Dogs show left facial lateralization upon reunion with their owners.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Miho; Kawai, Emi; Mogi, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2013-09-01

    Domestic dogs demonstrate behavioral laterality in response to emotional stimuli; those responses include tail wagging and head turning. The dog is the species with the closest relationship to humans; dogs can express strong social emotions (e.g., attachment and separation anxiety) to specific persons, such as their owners. In this study, we examined whether dogs demonstrate more facial laterality when reunited with their owners than when they encounter an unfamiliar person in an unfamiliar situation. We also examined whether the observed laterality was specific to positive social stimuli (i.e., the owner) or a general response to nonsocial positive stimuli (i.e., toys). The dogs' facial expressions were recorded by a high-speed video camera during the presentation of emotional stimuli and the acceleration rates of parts of their faces were analyzed. The results showed that the left eyebrow moved more when the owner was present than at baseline. No bias in terms of eyebrow movement was observed when the dogs saw attractive toys. These results suggest that dogs show facial laterality in response to emotional stimuli. This laterality was specific to social stimuli, probably reflecting the dog's attachment to the owner.

  16. Double polymer sheathed carbon nanotube supercapacitors show enhanced cycling stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wenqi; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Chunhui; Wu, Shiting; Xu, Wenjing; Zou, Mingchu; Ouyang, An; Cao, Anyuan; Li, Yibin

    2015-12-01

    Pseudo-materials are effective in boosting the specific capacitance of supercapacitors, but during service their degradation may also be very strong, causing reduced cycling stability. Here, we show that a carbon nanotube sponge grafted by two conventional pseudo-polymer layers in sequence can serve as a porous supercapacitor electrode with significantly enhanced cycling stability compared with single polymer grafting. Creating conformal polymer coatings on the nanotube surface and the resulting double-sheath configuration are important structural factors leading to the enhanced performance. Combining different polymers as double sheaths as reported here might be a potential route to circumvent the dilemma of pseudo-materials, and to simultaneously improve the capacitance and stability for various energy storage devices.Pseudo-materials are effective in boosting the specific capacitance of supercapacitors, but during service their degradation may also be very strong, causing reduced cycling stability. Here, we show that a carbon nanotube sponge grafted by two conventional pseudo-polymer layers in sequence can serve as a porous supercapacitor electrode with significantly enhanced cycling stability compared with single polymer grafting. Creating conformal polymer coatings on the nanotube surface and the resulting double-sheath configuration are important structural factors leading to the enhanced performance. Combining different polymers as double sheaths as reported here might be a potential route to circumvent the dilemma of pseudo-materials, and to simultaneously improve the capacitance and stability for various energy storage devices. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05978j

  17. Hydrocarbon shows in the scientific ocean drilling programs

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, B.J. ); Emeis, K.C. )

    1990-05-01

    For more than 20 yr, two major programs, the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) and the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP), have been coring the deep oceans for scientific purposes. For technological as well as financial reasons, drilling was and is performed without a riser. Precruise preparation, therefore, is aimed at preventing an accidental hydrocarbon discovery. During the course of drilling, at the more than 700 locations studied to date, numerous black shales of various ages were encountered. Many of these represent thermally immature hydrocarbon source rocks. Although these organic-rich rocks (up to 34 wt.% total organic carbon) by themselves did not pose a safety problem, hydrocarbon shows were detected on no less than ten legs. These shows represent heavy (C{sub 15+}), thermally generated hydrocarbons. Commonly, these shows can be attributed to migration through a porous and permeable network into the penetrated section. In these situations, migration commonly occurs over distances on the order of several tens of miles from a more mature, structurally deeper section (e.g., Challenger Knoll, DSDP Site 2). There are, however, instances where there is strong geochemical evidence for in-situ hydrocarbon generation. In-situ hydrocarbon generation appears to be the result of anomalous thermal conditions associated with high heat flow, igneous and/or hydrothermal activity (e.g., Tyrrhenian Sea, ODP Site 652). Such conditions are more commonly associated with young marginal basins. The distribution of these shows provides valuable information on the long-term exploratory potential of the deep oceans and continental margins.

  18. Map showing locations of damaging landslides in Santa Clara County, California, resulting from 1997-98 El Nino rainstorms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, William L.; Harp, Edwin L.; Arnal, Caroline H.; Godt, Jonathan W.

    1999-01-01

    Heavy rainfall associated with a strong El Nino caused over $150 million in landslide damage in the 10-county San Francisco Bay region during the winter and spring of 1998. A team of USGS scientists collected information on landslide locations and damage costs. About $7.6 million in damages were assessed in Santa Clara County.

  19. Native trees show conservative water use relative to invasive trees: results from a removal experiment in a Hawaiian wet forest

    PubMed Central

    Cavaleri, Molly A.; Ostertag, Rebecca; Cordell, Susan; Sack, Lawren

    2014-01-01

    While the supply of freshwater is expected to decline in many regions in the coming decades, invasive plant species, often ‘high water spenders’, are greatly expanding their ranges worldwide. In this study, we quantified the ecohydrological differences between native and invasive trees and also the effects of woody invasive removal on plot-level water use in a heavily invaded mono-dominant lowland wet tropical forest on the Island of Hawaii. We measured transpiration rates of co-occurring native and invasive tree species with and without woody invasive removal treatments. Twenty native Metrosideros polymorpha and 10 trees each of three invasive species, Cecropia obtusifolia, Macaranga mappa and Melastoma septemnervium, were instrumented with heat-dissipation sap-flux probes in four 100 m2 plots (two invaded, two removal) for 10 months. In the invaded plots, where both natives and invasives were present, Metrosideros had the lowest sap-flow rates per unit sapwood, but the highest sap-flow rates per whole tree, owing to its larger mean diameter than the invasive trees. Stand-level water use within the removal plots was half that of the invaded plots, even though the removal of invasives caused a small but significant increase in compensatory water use by the remaining native trees. By investigating the effects of invasive species on ecohydrology and comparing native vs. invasive physiological traits, we not only gain understanding about the functioning of invasive species, but we also highlight potential water-conservation strategies for heavily invaded mono-dominant tropical forests worldwide. Native-dominated forests free of invasive species can be conservative in overall water use, providing a strong rationale for the control of invasive species and preservation of native-dominated stands. PMID:27293637

  20. Early results from adoption of bundled payment for diabetes care in the Netherlands show improvement in care coordination.

    PubMed

    de Bakker, Dinny H; Struijs, Jeroen N; Baan, Caroline B; Raams, Joop; de Wildt, Jan-Erik; Vrijhoef, Hubertus J M; Schut, Frederik T

    2012-02-01

    In 2010 a bundled payment system for diabetes care, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease care, and vascular risk management was introduced in the Netherlands. Health insurers now pay a single fee to a contracting entity, the care group, to cover all of the primary care needed by patients with these chronic conditions. The initial evaluation of the program indicated that it improved the organization and coordination of care and led to better collaboration among health care providers and better adherence to care protocols. Negative consequences included dominance of the care group by general practitioners, large price variations among care groups that were only partially explained by differences in the amount of care provided, and an administrative burden caused by outdated information and communication technology systems. It is too early to draw conclusions about the effects of the new payment system on the quality or the overall costs of care. However, the introduction of bundled payments might turn out to be a useful step in the direction of risk-adjusted integrated capitation payments for multidisciplinary provider groups offering primary and specialty care to a defined group of patients.

  1. Native trees show conservative water use relative to invasive trees: results from a removal experiment in a Hawaiian wet forest.

    PubMed

    Cavaleri, Molly A; Ostertag, Rebecca; Cordell, Susan; Sack, Lawren

    2014-01-01

    While the supply of freshwater is expected to decline in many regions in the coming decades, invasive plant species, often 'high water spenders', are greatly expanding their ranges worldwide. In this study, we quantified the ecohydrological differences between native and invasive trees and also the effects of woody invasive removal on plot-level water use in a heavily invaded mono-dominant lowland wet tropical forest on the Island of Hawaii. We measured transpiration rates of co-occurring native and invasive tree species with and without woody invasive removal treatments. Twenty native Metrosideros polymorpha and 10 trees each of three invasive species, Cecropia obtusifolia, Macaranga mappa and Melastoma septemnervium, were instrumented with heat-dissipation sap-flux probes in four 100 m(2) plots (two invaded, two removal) for 10 months. In the invaded plots, where both natives and invasives were present, Metrosideros had the lowest sap-flow rates per unit sapwood, but the highest sap-flow rates per whole tree, owing to its larger mean diameter than the invasive trees. Stand-level water use within the removal plots was half that of the invaded plots, even though the removal of invasives caused a small but significant increase in compensatory water use by the remaining native trees. By investigating the effects of invasive species on ecohydrology and comparing native vs. invasive physiological traits, we not only gain understanding about the functioning of invasive species, but we also highlight potential water-conservation strategies for heavily invaded mono-dominant tropical forests worldwide. Native-dominated forests free of invasive species can be conservative in overall water use, providing a strong rationale for the control of invasive species and preservation of native-dominated stands.

  2. Map showing locations of damaging landslides in Alameda County, California, resulting from 1997-98 El Nino rainstorms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coe, J.A.; Godt, J.W.; Brian, Dianne; Houdre, Nicolas

    1999-01-01

    Heavy rainfall associated with a strong El Nino caused over $150 million in landslide damage in the 10-county San Francisco Bay region during the winter and spring of 1998. A team of USGS scientists collected information on landslide locations and damage costs. In Alameda County more than $20 million in damages were assessed. Debris flows occurred in rural portions of the county, but were only responsible for $400 thousand in damages.

  3. Map showing locations of damaging landslides in Solano County, California, resulting from 1997-98 El Nino rainstorms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howell, David G.; Godt, Jonathan W.

    1999-01-01

    Heavy rainfall associated with a strong El Nino caused over $150 million in landslide damage in the 10-county San Francisco Bay region during the winter and spring of 1998. A team of USGS scientists collected information on landslide locations and damage costs. About $13.5 million in damages were assessed in Solano County.

  4. Map showing locations of damaging landslides in Santa Cruz County, California, resulting from 1997-98 El Nino rainstorms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baum, Rex L.; Schuster, Robert L.; Godt, Jonathan W.

    1999-01-01

    Heavy rainfall associated with a strong El Nino caused over $150 million in landslide damage in the 10-county San Francisco Bay region during the winter and spring of 1998. A team of USGS scientists collected information on landslide locations and damage costs. About $14.5 million in damages were assessed in Santa Cruz County.

  5. Map showing locations of damaging landslides in Marin County, California, resulting from 1997-98 El Nino rainstorms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrissey, Meghan M.; Wieczorek, Gerald F.; Godt, Jonathan W.

    1999-01-01

    Heavy rainfall associated with a strong El Nino caused over $150 million in landslide damage in the 10-county San Francisco Bay region during the winter and spring of 1998. A team of USGS scientists collected information on landslide locations and damage costs. About $2.5 million in damages were assessed in Marin County.

  6. Map showing locations of damaging landslides in Contra Costa County, California, resulting from 1997-98 El Nino rainstorms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graymer, Russell W.; Godt, Jonathan W.

    1999-01-01

    Heavy rainfall associated with a strong El Nino caused over $150 million in landslide damage in the 10-county San Francisco Bay region during the winter and spring of 1998. A team of USGS scientists collected information on landslide locations and damage costs. About $27 million in damages were assessed in Contra Costa County.

  7. Map showing locations of damaging landslides in San Mateo County, California, resulting from 1997-98 El Nino rainstorms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jayko, Angela S.; De Mouthe, Jean; Lajoie, Kenneth R.; Ramsey, David W.; Godt, Jonathan W.

    1999-01-01

    Heavy rainfall associated with a strong El Nino caused over $150 million in landslide damage in the 10-county San Francisco Bay region during the winter and spring of 1998. A team of USGS scientists collected information on landslide locations and damage costs. About $55 million in damages were assessed in San Mateo County. The only fatality attributed to landsliding in the region during the period occurred in San Mateo County near Loma Mar.

  8. Map showing locations of damaging landslides in Sonoma County, California, resulting from 1997-98 El Nino rainstorms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsey, David W.; Godt, Jonathan W.

    1999-01-01

    Heavy rainfall associated with a strong El Nino caused over $150 million in landslide damage in the 10-county San Francisco Bay region during the winter and spring of 1998. A team of USGS scientists collected information on landslide locations and damage costs. About $21 million in damages were assessed in Sonoma County.

  9. [First results with a resorbable MgYREZr compression screw in unstable scaphoid fractures show extensive bone cysts].

    PubMed

    Meier, Reinhard; Panzica, Martin

    2017-03-08

    Osteosynthesis with headless compression screws is an established treatment option for unstable scaphoid fractures. Common implants are made of titanium alloy or steel and usually remain in place. Due to implant density and ferromagnetic properties, artefacts are common in postoperative imaging procedures, e.g. MRI. Now resorbable implants made of magnesium alloy (MgYREZr) have become available. They have biomechanical properties equivalent to human bone and may be used as an alternative to the nonresorbable screw systems.5 patients with acute scaphoid fractures were treated with a double-threaded screw made of MgYREZr. The fractures included three type A2 fractures, one type B2 fracture, and one type B3 fracture. All patients underwent clinical and radiological follow-up postoperatively, 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months and 1 year after surgery. ROM, gross grip strength and pain (VAS) were documented. The Modified Mayo Wrist Score was used. Standard X-rays of the wrist were taken preoperatively and at all follow-up visits. A CT scan was performed at least before and three months after surgery. In all X-rays malunion, resorption of the implant, implant loosening, cysts and bone healing (bridging trabecular structures) were described.All patients had a very good wrist score (95-100 points) after one year. There were no clinical complications. However, the X-rays revealed extensive resorption cysts in 3 out of the 5 patients. It was only after 6 months that the fractures were consolidated enough to allow physical work. Due to this considerable osteolysis, we did not include any further patients. Due to the observed extensive bone cysts and the long time period for bone healing, MgYREZr compression screws are currently not recommended for clinical use in scaphoid fractures. Further fundamental research is necessary.

  10. SNA Releases Back to School Nutrition Trends Report: Results Show What Schools Are Doing to Increase Healthy Options for Kids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article talks about the School Nutrition Association's 2008 Back to School Nutrition Trends Report that was released on August 19. According to the report, the trend towards more healthful school meal choices continues this fall with district nutrition programs emphasizing whole grains, fruits, and vegetables while cutting back on trans fats,…

  11. Map showing locations of damaging landslides in Napa County, California, resulting from 1997-98 El Nino rainstorms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Godt, Jonathan W.; Savage, William Z.; Wilson, Raymond C.

    1999-01-01

    Heavy rainfall associated with a strong El Nino caused over $150 million in landslide damage in the 10-county San Francisco Bay region during the winter and spring of 1998. A team of USGS scientists collected information on landslide locations and damage costs. Napa County was relatively unaffected in comparison to other counties in the region with approximately $1.1 million in damages assessed.

  12. Arthrocentesis and temporomandibular joint disorders: clinical and radiological results of a prospective study.

    PubMed

    De Riu, Giacomo; Stimolo, Mirella; Meloni, Silvio Mario; Soma, Damiano; Pisano, Milena; Sembronio, Salvatore; Tullio, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. We evaluated the efficacy of arthrocentesis in the treatment of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders. Material and Methods. In this prospective clinical case series, 30 consecutive patients with TMJ disorders underwent arthrocentesis using saline and sodium hyaluronate injections. Outcome measures were TMJ pain, maximum mouth opening (MMO), joint noises, and anatomical changes in the TMJ architecture. Patients were evaluated using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the beginning of treatment and 60 days after the last arthrocentesis. Pretreatment and posttreatment clinical parameters were compared using paired and unpaired t-tests, and McNemar's test was used to evaluate CBCT and MRI changes (P < 0.05). Results. At 1-year follow-up examinations, visual analogue scale scores indicated that pain was reduced significantly and mean postoperative MMO was increased significantly. CBCT findings showed no significant change, and MRI showed only slight reductions in inflammatory signs. Conclusions. Within the limitations of this study, we can conclude that arthrocentesis is a simple, minimally invasive procedure with a relatively low risk of complications and significant clinical benefits in patients with TMJ disorders. This trial is registered with NCT01903512.

  13. Arthrocentesis and Temporomandibular Joint Disorders: Clinical and Radiological Results of a Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    De Riu, Giacomo; Soma, Damiano; Pisano, Milena; Sembronio, Salvatore; Tullio, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. We evaluated the efficacy of arthrocentesis in the treatment of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders. Material and Methods. In this prospective clinical case series, 30 consecutive patients with TMJ disorders underwent arthrocentesis using saline and sodium hyaluronate injections. Outcome measures were TMJ pain, maximum mouth opening (MMO), joint noises, and anatomical changes in the TMJ architecture. Patients were evaluated using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the beginning of treatment and 60 days after the last arthrocentesis. Pretreatment and posttreatment clinical parameters were compared using paired and unpaired t-tests, and McNemar's test was used to evaluate CBCT and MRI changes (P < 0.05). Results. At 1-year follow-up examinations, visual analogue scale scores indicated that pain was reduced significantly and mean postoperative MMO was increased significantly. CBCT findings showed no significant change, and MRI showed only slight reductions in inflammatory signs. Conclusions. Within the limitations of this study, we can conclude that arthrocentesis is a simple, minimally invasive procedure with a relatively low risk of complications and significant clinical benefits in patients with TMJ disorders. This trial is registered with NCT01903512. PMID:24319462

  14. site plan, floor plan, southeast and east elevations, detail showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    site plan, floor plan, southeast and east elevations, detail showing original front entrance, interior detail showing fireplace in elevation - Neiman House, 1930 Providence Road, Charlotte, Mecklenburg County, NC

  15. Female Migraineurs Show Lack of Insular Thinning with Age

    PubMed Central

    Maleki, Nasim; Barmettler, Gabi; Moulton, Eric A.; Scrivani, Steven; Veggeberg, Rosanna; Spierings, Egilius L.H.; Burstein, Rami; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David

    2015-01-01

    Gray matter loss in cortical regions is a normal ageing process for the healthy brain. There have been few studies on the process of ageing of the brain in chronic neurological disorders. In this study, we evaluated changes in the cortical thickness by age in 92 female subjects (46 migraine patients, and 46 healthy controls) using high field MRI. The results indicate that in contrast to healthy subjects migraineurs show lack of thinning in the insula by age. The functional significance of the lack of thinning is unknown, but may contribute to the overall cortical hyperexcitability of the migraine brain since the region is tightly involved in a number of majo brain networks involved in interoception, salience, nociception, and autonomic function, including the default mode network. PMID:25775358

  16. Malignant melanoma showing a rapid response to nivolumab.

    PubMed

    Tsutsumi, Miho; Asai, Jun; Wada, Makoto; Takenaka, Hideya; Katoh, Norito

    2016-02-01

    Malignant melanoma is a highly aggressive skin tumour, with a recent rise in incidence. Nivolumab is a recently developed anti-programmed cell death-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor and its usage has resulted in a significant improvement in the overall survival of patients with metastatic melanomas. We report a case of advanced melanoma that showed a significant and rapid response to nivolumab treatment. The patient displayed multiple melanoma-associated vitiligo prior to treatment; this symptom was theorised to indicate potentially immunoreactive melanoma and the need for nivolumab. In addition, interferon-β was injected prior to nivolumab treatment. The significant rapid response to nivolumab suggested the induction of a marked immune response against melanoma by interferon-β. Therefore, interferon-β could be a useful and effective adjuvant for nivolumab therapy.

  17. The Oral Antimalarial Drug Tafenoquine Shows Activity against Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Luis; Martínez-García, Marta; Pérez-Victoria, Ignacio; Manzano, José Ignacio; Yardley, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei causes human African trypanosomiasis, or sleeping sickness, a neglected tropical disease that requires new, safer, and more effective treatments. Repurposing oral drugs could reduce both the time and cost involved in sleeping sickness drug discovery. Tafenoquine (TFQ) is an oral antimalarial drug belonging to the 8-aminoquinoline family which is currently in clinical phase III. We show here that TFQ efficiently kills different T. brucei spp. in the submicromolar concentration range. Our results suggest that TFQ accumulates into acidic compartments and induces a necrotic process involving cell membrane disintegration and loss of cytoplasmic content, leading to parasite death. Cell lysis is preceded by a wide and multitarget drug action, affecting the lysosome, mitochondria, and acidocalcisomes and inducing a depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential, elevation of intracellular Ca2+, and production of reactive oxygen species. This is the first report of an 8-aminoquinoline demonstrating significant in vitro activity against T. brucei. PMID:26195527

  18. Could Acoustic Emission Testing Show a Pipe Failure in Advance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, S. D.; Teixeira, J. C. G.

    2004-02-01

    During the last 20 years PETROBRAS has been attempting to use Acoustic Emission (AE) as an inspection tool. In this period the AE concept has changed from a revolutionary method to a way of finding areas to make a complete inspection. PETROBRAS has a lot of pressure vessels inspected by AE and with other NDTs techniques to establish their relationship. In other hand, PETROBRAS R&D Center has conducted destructive hydrostatic tests in pipelines samples with artificial defects made by milling. Those tests were monitored by acoustic emission and manual ultrasonic until the complete failure of pipe sample. This article shows the results obtained and a brief proposal of analysis criteria for this environment of test.

  19. Bex1 knock out mice show altered skeletal muscle regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Koo, Jae Hyung Smiley, Mark A.; Lovering, Richard M.; Margolis, Frank L.

    2007-11-16

    Bex1 and Calmodulin (CaM) are upregulated during skeletal muscle regeneration. We confirm this finding and demonstrate the novel finding that they interact in a calcium-dependent manner. To study the role of Bex1 and its interaction with CaM in skeletal muscle regeneration, we generated Bex1 knock out (Bex1-KO) mice. These mice appeared to develop normally and are fertile, but displayed a functional deficit in exercise performance compared to wild type (WT) mice. After intramuscular injection of cardiotoxin, which causes extensive and reproducible myotrauma followed by recovery, regenerating muscles of Bex1-KO mice exhibited elevated and prolonged cell proliferation, as well as delayed cell differentiation, compared to WT mice. Thus, our results provide the first evidence that Bex1-KO mice show altered muscle regeneration, and allow us to propose that the interaction of Bex1 with Ca{sup 2+}/CaM may be involved in skeletal muscle regeneration.

  20. ESP precharger shows promise in solving ash-resistivity problems

    SciTech Connect

    Schwieger, B.

    1984-09-01

    Recent tests of a temperature-controlled electrode charger (TCEP) show that it may be an economical fix for both high-resistivity-related problems and increased particulate loadings resulting from application of a particular SO2 control strategy. The TCEP would reportedly be relatively easy to install in an existing precipitator. Operation of the TCEP in a low-sulfur coal flue gas stream is demonstrated as well as the pipe-manifold design of the TCEP. Several advantages to this design are presented. Two of them include: the welded pipe structure is simple to fabricate and is very durable; and the structural rigidity of the system effectively distributes the rapping force and provides effective cleaning. An economical analysis by Denver Research Institute is presented which indicates that the installation of two TCEPs in the ESP was half the cost of SO3 conditioning and less expensive than a fabric filter.

  1. Tropical Aquatic Archaea Show Environment-Specific Community Composition

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Cynthia B.; Cardoso, Alexander M.; Coutinho, Felipe H.; Lima, Joyce L.; Pinto, Leonardo H.; Albano, Rodolpho M.; Clementino, Maysa M.; Martins, Orlando B.; Vieira, Ricardo P.

    2013-01-01

    The Archaea domain is ubiquitously distributed and extremely diverse, however, environmental factors that shape archaeal community structure are not well known. Aquatic environments, including the water column and sediments harbor many new uncultured archaeal species from which metabolic and ecological roles remain elusive. Some environments are especially neglected in terms of archaeal diversity, as is the case of pristine tropical areas. Here we investigate the archaeal composition in marine and freshwater systems from Ilha Grande, a South Atlantic tropical environment. All sampled habitats showed high archaeal diversity. No OTUs were shared between freshwater, marine and mangrove sediment samples, yet these environments are interconnected and geographically close, indicating environment-specific community structuring. Group II Euryarchaeota was the main clade in marine samples, while the new putative phylum Thaumarchaeota and LDS/RCV Euryarchaeota dominated freshwaters. Group III Euryarchaeota, a rare clade, was also retrieved in reasonable abundance in marine samples. The archaeal community from mangrove sediments was composed mainly by members of mesophilic Crenarchaeota and by a distinct clade forming a sister-group to Crenarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota. Our results show strong environment-specific community structuring in tropical aquatic Archaea, as previously seen for Bacteria. PMID:24086729

  2. Human lice show photopositive behaviour to white light.

    PubMed

    Mougabure-Cueto, Gastón; Picollo, María Inés; Lazzari, Claudio R

    2011-10-01

    We studied the behavioural response of body lice and head lice to white light. We also evaluated the influence of starvation and the presence of other individuals on this response. Experiments were performed in a rectangular arena, half of which was illuminated and the other half kept in the dark. Two experiments were performed: in the first, a single louse was released into the arena for 60 min and the percentage of time spent in the illuminated half was recorded; in the second experiment, a group of lice was released and the number of insects in the illuminated half was recorded. The results showed that the average number of lice and time spent in the illuminated side of the arena was statistically higher than for the controls. Starvation did not influence the reaction of lice, but the number of insects in the illuminated area did increase with the size of the group. This study shows that human lice are photopositive towards white light and that this behaviour is not affected by the nutritional state of the insects. Moreover, it is enhanced by the presence of other lice.

  3. Tropical aquatic Archaea show environment-specific community composition.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Cynthia B; Cardoso, Alexander M; Coutinho, Felipe H; Lima, Joyce L; Pinto, Leonardo H; Albano, Rodolpho M; Clementino, Maysa M; Martins, Orlando B; Vieira, Ricardo P

    2013-01-01

    The Archaea domain is ubiquitously distributed and extremely diverse, however, environmental factors that shape archaeal community structure are not well known. Aquatic environments, including the water column and sediments harbor many new uncultured archaeal species from which metabolic and ecological roles remain elusive. Some environments are especially neglected in terms of archaeal diversity, as is the case of pristine tropical areas. Here we investigate the archaeal composition in marine and freshwater systems from Ilha Grande, a South Atlantic tropical environment. All sampled habitats showed high archaeal diversity. No OTUs were shared between freshwater, marine and mangrove sediment samples, yet these environments are interconnected and geographically close, indicating environment-specific community structuring. Group II Euryarchaeota was the main clade in marine samples, while the new putative phylum Thaumarchaeota and LDS/RCV Euryarchaeota dominated freshwaters. Group III Euryarchaeota, a rare clade, was also retrieved in reasonable abundance in marine samples. The archaeal community from mangrove sediments was composed mainly by members of mesophilic Crenarchaeota and by a distinct clade forming a sister-group to Crenarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota. Our results show strong environment-specific community structuring in tropical aquatic Archaea, as previously seen for Bacteria.

  4. Silver nanoparticles synthesised using plant extracts show strong antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Avnesh; Guliani, Anika; Singla, Rubbel; Yadav, Ramdhan; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2015-06-01

    In this study, three plants Populus alba, Hibiscus arboreus and Lantana camara were explored for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (SNPs). The effect of reaction temperature and leaf extract (LE) concentration of P. alba, H. arboreus and L. camara was evaluated on the synthesis and size of SNPs. The SNPs were characterised by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The synthesis rate of SNPs was highest with LE of L. camara followed by H. arboreus and P. alba under similar conditions. L. camara LE showed maximum potential of smaller size SNPs synthesis, whereas bigger particles were formed by H. arboreous LE. The size and shape of L. camara LE synthesised SNPs were analysed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). TEM analysis revealed the formation of SNPs of average size 17±9.5 nm with 5% LE of L. camara. The SNPs synthesised by LE of L. camara showed strong antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli. The results document that desired size SNPs can be synthesised using these plant LEs at a particular temperature for applications in the biomedical field.

  5. 42 CFR 456.655 - Validation of showings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Validation of showings. 456.655 Section 456.655... Showing of an Effective Institutional Utilization Control Program § 456.655 Validation of showings. (a) The Administrator will periodically validate showings submitted under § 456.654. Validation...

  6. 42 CFR 456.655 - Validation of showings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Validation of showings. 456.655 Section 456.655... Showing of an Effective Institutional Utilization Control Program § 456.655 Validation of showings. (a) The Administrator will periodically validate showings submitted under § 456.654. Validation...

  7. A Bayesian bird's eye view of 'Replications of important results in social psychology'.

    PubMed

    Marsman, Maarten; Schönbrodt, Felix D; Morey, Richard D; Yao, Yuling; Gelman, Andrew; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

    2017-01-01

    We applied three Bayesian methods to reanalyse the preregistered contributions to the Social Psychology special issue 'Replications of Important Results in Social Psychology' (Nosek & Lakens. 2014 Registered reports: a method to increase the credibility of published results. Soc. Psychol.45, 137-141. (doi:10.1027/1864-9335/a000192)). First, individual-experiment Bayesian parameter estimation revealed that for directed effect size measures, only three out of 44 central 95% credible intervals did not overlap with zero and fell in the expected direction. For undirected effect size measures, only four out of 59 credible intervals contained values greater than [Formula: see text] (10% of variance explained) and only 19 intervals contained values larger than [Formula: see text]. Second, a Bayesian random-effects meta-analysis for all 38 t-tests showed that only one out of the 38 hierarchically estimated credible intervals did not overlap with zero and fell in the expected direction. Third, a Bayes factor hypothesis test was used to quantify the evidence for the null hypothesis against a default one-sided alternative. Only seven out of 60 Bayes factors indicated non-anecdotal support in favour of the alternative hypothesis ([Formula: see text]), whereas 51 Bayes factors indicated at least some support for the null hypothesis. We hope that future analyses of replication success will embrace a more inclusive statistical approach by adopting a wider range of complementary techniques.

  8. A Bayesian bird's eye view of ‘Replications of important results in social psychology’

    PubMed Central

    Schönbrodt, Felix D.; Yao, Yuling; Gelman, Andrew; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

    2017-01-01

    We applied three Bayesian methods to reanalyse the preregistered contributions to the Social Psychology special issue ‘Replications of Important Results in Social Psychology’ (Nosek & Lakens. 2014 Registered reports: a method to increase the credibility of published results. Soc. Psychol. 45, 137–141. (doi:10.1027/1864-9335/a000192)). First, individual-experiment Bayesian parameter estimation revealed that for directed effect size measures, only three out of 44 central 95% credible intervals did not overlap with zero and fell in the expected direction. For undirected effect size measures, only four out of 59 credible intervals contained values greater than 0.10 (10% of variance explained) and only 19 intervals contained values larger than 0.05. Second, a Bayesian random-effects meta-analysis for all 38 t-tests showed that only one out of the 38 hierarchically estimated credible intervals did not overlap with zero and fell in the expected direction. Third, a Bayes factor hypothesis test was used to quantify the evidence for the null hypothesis against a default one-sided alternative. Only seven out of 60 Bayes factors indicated non-anecdotal support in favour of the alternative hypothesis (BF10>3), whereas 51 Bayes factors indicated at least some support for the null hypothesis. We hope that future analyses of replication success will embrace a more inclusive statistical approach by adopting a wider range of complementary techniques. PMID:28280547

  9. Sugarcane transgenics expressing MYB transcription factors show improved glucose release

    DOE PAGES

    Poovaiah, Charleson R.; Bewg, William P.; Lan, Wu; ...

    2016-07-15

    In this study, sugarcane, a tropical C4 perennial crop, is capable of producing 30-100 tons or more of biomass per hectare annually. The lignocellulosic residue remaining after sugar extraction is currently underutilized and can provide a significant source of biomass for the production of second-generation bioethanol. As a result, MYB31 and MYB42 were cloned from maize and expressed in sugarcane with and without the UTR sequences. The cloned sequences were 98 and 99 % identical to the published nucleotide sequences. The inclusion of the UTR sequences did not affect any of the parameters tested. There was little difference in plantmore » height and the number of internodes of the MYB-overexpressing sugarcane plants when compared with controls. MYB transgene expression determined by qPCR exhibited continued expression in young and maturing internodes. MYB31 downregulated more genes within the lignin biosynthetic pathway than MYB42. MYB31 and MYB42 expression resulted in decreased lignin content in some lines. All MYB42 plants further analyzed showed significant increases in glucose release by enzymatic hydrolysis in 72 h, whereas only two MYB31 plants released more glucose than control plants. This correlated directly with a significant decrease in acid-insoluble lignin. Soluble sucrose content of the MYB42 transgenic plants did not vary compared to control plants. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the use of MYB transcription factors to improve the production of bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse remaining after sugar extraction.« less

  10. Prosimian Primates Show Ratio Dependence in Spontaneous Quantity Discriminations

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Sarah M.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2012-01-01

    We directly tested the predictions of the approximate number system (ANS) and the object file system in the spontaneous numerical judgments of prosimian primates. Prior work indicates that when human infants and a few species of non-human animals are given a single-trial choice between two sequentially baited buckets they choose the bucket with the greater amount of food but only when the quantities are small. This pattern of results has been interpreted as evidence that a limited capacity object file system is used to track small numbers of objects and that the ANS is not invoked under these circumstances. Here we tested prosimian primates in food choice comparisons that were chosen to contrast predictions of the ANS and object file systems. We found that prosimian primates consistently chose the larger of two sets when they differed by a 1:3 ratio regardless of whether both values were small (≤3), both values were large (>3), or there was one small and one large value. Prosimians were not able to robustly discriminate quantities that differed by a 1:2 ratio for the same three conditions, nor did they show a preference for small quantities that differed by a 2:3 ratio. These results implicate the ANS in the spontaneous numerical discriminations of non-human primates. PMID:23420691

  11. Sequential extracts of human bone show differing collagen synthetic rates.

    PubMed

    Babraj, J; Cuthbertson, D J; Rickhuss, P; Meier-Augenstein, W; Smith, K; Bohé, J; Wolfe, R R; Gibson, J N A; Adams, C; Rennie, M J

    2002-04-01

    Type I collagen is the major bone protein. Little is known quantitatively about human bone collagen synthesis in vivo, despite its importance for the understanding of bone formation and turnover. Our aim was to develop a method that could be used for the physiological and pathophysiological investigation of human bone collagen synthesis. We have carried out preliminary studies in patients undergoing hip replacement and in pigs to validate the use of the flooding dose method using (13)C- or (15)N-labelled proline and we have now refined our techniques to allow them to be used in a normal clinical or physiological setting. The results show that the application of a flooding dose causes bone free-proline labelling to equilibrate with that of blood in pigs and human beings, so that only 150 mg of bone will provide enough sample to prepare and measure the labelling of three fractions of bone collagen (dissolved in NaCl, acetic acid and pepsin/acetic acid) which have the same relative labelling (1.0:0.43:0.1) as measured by GC-combustion-isotope ratio MS. The rates of incorporation were substantially faster than in skeletal muscle samples taken at the same time. The results suggest that different fractions of human bone collagen turnover at markedly higher rates than had been previously considered. This approach should allow us to discover how growth and development, food, activity and drugs affect bone collagen turnover and to measure the effects on it of ageing and bone disease.

  12. Electron diffraction from polycrystalline materials showing stress induced preferred orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, D. R.; Bilek, M. M. M.

    1999-07-01

    The Gibbs free energy as generalized by J. F. Nye [Physical Properties of Crystals (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1957), p. 179] is minimized in thermodynamic systems held at constant temperature and constant stress. This function is orientation dependent in all crystal systems in stress fields which are not purely hydrostatic. There are situations in which preferred orientation arises as a result of the synthesis of materials under impressed stress conditions such as thin film growth under ion bombardment and the pressing of powders into solids. Here, we derive the orientational constraints for cubic crystals which result from growth under a general biaxial stress field. The sign of the expression δ=s11-s12-1/2s44 determines the behavior of a cubic crystal. Electron diffraction patterns of face-centered-cubic specimens with both positive and negative values of δ are calculated using a program in MATLAB and displayed in a form suitable for direct comparison with experiment. The use of a biaxial stress with unequal principal components for producing highly oriented polycrystalline material is discussed. In the case of δ positive, as occurs in silicon, the preferred orientation is simply an alignment of the <100> directions along the principal stresses. For δ negative, as occurs in titanium nitride, the preferred orientation depends on the ratio of the principal stresses and low index directions are aligned with the principal stresses only when the principal stresses are either equal or one of them is zero. In the general case, arc-like diffraction patterns are produced. The results of a calculation of a diffraction pattern from a cross-sectional TiN film are compared with diffraction patterns reported by L. Hultman et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 78, 5395 (1995)] and show good agreement.

  13. Survey on New Perkins Loan Proposal: NASFAA Survey Results Show Most Schools Oppose Proposed Perkins Loan Changes. Quick Scan Survey Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    More than three-quarters of postsecondary institutions (79 percent) would prefer expanding the current Perkins Loan program rather than replacing it with the Direct Perkins Loan program being proposed in Congress, according to a recent survey of NASFAA-member schools. In fact, increasing unsubsidized Stafford Loan limits (80 percent) and lowering…

  14. Astronomers Make "Movie" of Radio Images Showing Supernova Explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-11-01

    Astronomers using an international network of radio telescopes have produced a "movie" showing details of the expansion of debris from an exploding star. Their sequence of images constitutes the best determination yet made of the details of a new supernova remnant, and already has raised new questions about such events. The scientists used radio telescopes in Europe and the United States, including the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) and Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), to make very high- resolution images of Supernova 1993J, which was discovered by a Spanish amateur astronomer on March 28, 1993 in the galaxy M81, some 11 million light-years distant in the constellation Ursa Major. Their results are reported in the December 1 issue of the journal Science. The "movie" is based on five images of the supernova, made during 1993 and 1994. The work was done by: Jon Marcaide and Eduardo Ros of the University of Valencia, Spain; Antxon Alberdi of the Special Laboratory for Astrophysics and Fundamental Physics of Madrid, Spain and the Institute of Astrophysics at Andalucia, Spain; Philip Diamond of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Socorro, NM; Irwin Shapiro of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, MA; Jose-Carlos Guirado, Dayton Jones and Robert Preston of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, CA; Thomas Krichbaum and Arno Witzel of the Max-Planck Institute for Radioastronomy in Bonn, Germany; Franco Mantovani of the Institute of Radioastronomy in Bologna, Italy; Antonio Rius of the Special Laboratory for Astrophysics and Fundamental Physics of Madrid, Spain and the Center for Advanced Studies at Blanes, Spain; Richard Schilizzi of the Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe and Leiden Observatory in the Netherlands; Corrado Trigilio of the Institute of Radioastronomy in Noto, Italy; and Alan Whitney of the MIT- Haystack Observatory in Massachusetts. The capability to make such high-quality images with widely

  15. TRMM Satellite Shows Bertha's Heavy Rain Pushed From Wind Shear

    NASA Video Gallery

    TRMM Satellite Shows Bertha's Heavy Rain Pushed From Wind Shear This 3-D flyby of Tropical Storm Bertha on Aug. 1 was created from TRMM satellite data. It shows (from the south) intense thunderstor...

  16. 78. VIEW OF UNCOMPLETED RESERVOIR, SHOWING FOREBAY AND FLUME; ALSO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    78. VIEW OF UNCOMPLETED RESERVOIR, SHOWING FOREBAY AND FLUME; ALSO SHOWING POOL ARRANGEMENT FOR TEMPORARILY UTILIZING WATER WITHOUT FILLING THE RESERVOIR, Print No. 232, April 1904 - Electron Hydroelectric Project, Along Puyallup River, Electron, Pierce County, WA

  17. 1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING COVERED BARGE (VESSEL 37) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING COVERED BARGE (VESSEL 37) IN CENTER OF PICTURE WITH FOUR HATCHES SHOWING IN SUPERSTRUCTURE Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 37, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  18. 22. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING FISH LADDER AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING FISH LADDER AT NORTH END OF DAM/SPILLWAY; VIEW SHOWS SECTION OF FISH LADDER NEAR WHERE IT ENTERS THE COLUMBIA RIVER. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  19. 16. SECOND FLOOR, EAST ROOM, SHOWING DOORWAYS TO BOXED WINDER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. SECOND FLOOR, EAST ROOM, SHOWING DOORWAYS TO BOXED WINDER STAIRWAYS-- UP AND DOWN-- AND WALL CABINET WITH DOORS OPEN TO SHOW STAIRWAY - High Farm, House, Creek Road, 1 mile West of Easton Road, Pipersville, Bucks County, PA

  20. 94. View looking south showing foundation equipment at work on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    94. View looking south showing foundation equipment at work on two of the piers. The view also shows the two completed cylinders in the midstream cluster of four. - Carquinez Bridge, Spanning Carquinez Strait at Interstate 80, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  1. 21 CFR 1314.150 - Order To show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Order To show cause. 1314.150 Section 1314.150 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Order to Show Cause § 1314.150 Order To show cause. (a) If, upon information gathered...

  2. 20. MEMBER 'A' SHOWS TENON AS USED IN POST 'A' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. MEMBER 'A' SHOWS TENON AS USED IN POST 'A' (TN-159A-19), MEMBER 'B' IS BEAM 'B' IN TN-159A-19 AND SHOWS METHOD OF JOINING THESE MEMBERS. MEMBER 'C' SHOWS MORTISE IN BEAM 'B'. - Caleb Crosby Threshing Barn, Noeton (moved to Norris Dam State Park, Lake City), Morristown, Hamblen County, TN

  3. Giant pandas failed to show mirror self-recognition.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaozan; Jin, Yuan; Luo, Bo; Zhang, Guiquan; Wei, Rongping; Liu, Dingzhen

    2015-05-01

    Mirror self-recognition (MSR), i.e., the ability to recognize oneself in a mirror, is considered a potential index of self-recognition and the foundation of individual development. A wealth of literature on MSR is available for social animals, such as chimpanzees, Asian elephants and dolphins, yet little is known about MSR in solitary mammalian species. We aimed to evaluate whether the giant panda can recognize itself in the mirror, and whether this capacity varies with age. Thirty-four captive giant pandas (F:M = 18:16; juveniles, sub-adults and adults) were subjected to four mirror tests: covered mirror tests, open mirror tests, water mark control tests, and mark tests. The results showed that, though adult, sub-adult and juvenile pandas exposed to mirrors spent similar amounts of time in social mirror-directed behaviors (χ(2) = 0.719, P = 0.698), none of them used the mirror to touch the mark on their head, a self-directed behavior suggesting MSR. Individuals of all age groups initially displayed attacking, threatening, foot scraping and backwards walking behaviors when exposed to their self-images in the mirror. Our data indicate that, regardless of age, the giant pandas did not recognize their self-image in the mirror, but instead considered the image to be a conspecific. Our results add to the available information on mirror self-recognition in large mammals, provide new information on a solitary species, and will be useful for enclosure design and captive animal management.

  4. Human-directed social behaviour in dogs shows significant heritability.

    PubMed

    Persson, M E; Roth, L S V; Johnsson, M; Wright, D; Jensen, P

    2015-04-01

    Through domestication and co-evolution with humans, dogs have developed abilities to attract human attention, e.g. in a manner of seeking assistance when faced with a problem solving task. The aims of this study were to investigate within breed variation in human-directed contact seeking in dogs and to estimate its genetic basis. To do this, 498 research beagles, bred and kept under standardized conditions, were tested in an unsolvable problem task. Contact seeking behaviours recorded included both eye contact and physical interactions. Behavioural data was summarized through a principal component analysis, resulting in four components: test interactions, social interactions, eye contact and physical contact. Females scored significantly higher on social interactions and physical contact and age had an effect on eye contact scores. Narrow sense heritabilities (h(2) ) of the two largest components were estimated at 0.32 and 0.23 but were not significant for the last two components. These results show that within the studied dog population, behavioural variation in human-directed social behaviours was sex dependent and that the utilization of eye contact seeking increased with age and experience. Hence, heritability estimates indicate a significant genetic contribution to the variation found in human-directed social interactions, suggesting that social skills in dogs have a genetic basis, but can also be shaped and enhanced through individual experiences. This research gives the opportunity to further investigate the genetics behind dogs' social skills, which could also play a significant part into research on human social disorders such as autism.

  5. Sugarcane transgenics expressing MYB transcription factors show improved glucose release

    SciTech Connect

    Poovaiah, Charleson R.; Bewg, William P.; Lan, Wu; Ralph, John; Coleman, Heather D.

    2016-07-15

    In this study, sugarcane, a tropical C4 perennial crop, is capable of producing 30-100 tons or more of biomass per hectare annually. The lignocellulosic residue remaining after sugar extraction is currently underutilized and can provide a significant source of biomass for the production of second-generation bioethanol. As a result, MYB31 and MYB42 were cloned from maize and expressed in sugarcane with and without the UTR sequences. The cloned sequences were 98 and 99 % identical to the published nucleotide sequences. The inclusion of the UTR sequences did not affect any of the parameters tested. There was little difference in plant height and the number of internodes of the MYB-overexpressing sugarcane plants when compared with controls. MYB transgene expression determined by qPCR exhibited continued expression in young and maturing internodes. MYB31 downregulated more genes within the lignin biosynthetic pathway than MYB42. MYB31 and MYB42 expression resulted in decreased lignin content in some lines. All MYB42 plants further analyzed showed significant increases in glucose release by enzymatic hydrolysis in 72 h, whereas only two MYB31 plants released more glucose than control plants. This correlated directly with a significant decrease in acid-insoluble lignin. Soluble sucrose content of the MYB42 transgenic plants did not vary compared to control plants. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the use of MYB transcription factors to improve the production of bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse remaining after sugar extraction.

  6. New UN projections show uncertainty of future world.

    PubMed

    Haub, C

    1992-02-01

    The 1990 world population extensions, published by the United Nations Population Division, differ dramatically from the 1980 long-range projections and suggest reason for serious concern about future trends. In the 1980 extensions, it was assumed that all countries would achieve replacement fertility. The 3 scenarios developed--high, middle, and low--resulted in a population estimate for the year 2150 that ranged from 10,139 to 28,025 billion. In contrast, the 1990 extensions show 7 divergent long-range scenarios that yield totals for 2150 ranging from 4,299 to 694,213 billion. The latter projection assumes no change in current population growth rates. the medium-high series, based on the assumption that fertility will settle on a value 5% above replacement level, yields an estimate of 20,772 billion for 2150; the medium-low series, which projects a fertility level 5% below replacement level, produces a population estimate of 5,633 billion. In both the 1980 and 1990 series, the medium estimate was based on achievement of replacement-level fertility on a schedule that varied region by region on the basis of current birth rates, population policies, and socioeconomic factors. This estimate for 2050 increased from 10,139 billion in 1980 to 11,543 billion in the 1990 series, due to upward revisions in life expectancy in the latter calculations. These projections are of great significance since they form the basis for food production, labor force, and other socioeconomic planning.

  7. Wild chimpanzees show group differences in selection of agricultural crops

    PubMed Central

    McLennan, Matthew R.; Hockings, Kimberley J.

    2014-01-01

    The ability of wild animals to respond flexibly to anthropogenic environmental changes, including agriculture, is critical to survival in human-impacted habitats. Understanding use of human foods by wildlife can shed light on the acquisition of novel feeding habits and how animals respond to human-driven land-use changes. Little attention has focused on within-species variation in use of human foods or its causes. We examined crop-feeding in two groups of wild chimpanzees – a specialist frugivore – with differing histories of exposure to agriculture. Both groups exploited a variety of crops, with more accessible crops consumed most frequently. However, crop selection by chimpanzees with long-term exposure to agriculture was more omnivorous (i.e., less fruit-biased) compared to those with more recent exposure, which ignored most non-fruit crops. Our results suggest chimpanzees show increased foraging adaptations to cultivated landscapes over time; however, local feeding traditions may also contribute to group differences in crop-feeding in this species. Understanding the dynamic responses of wildlife to agriculture can help predict current and future adaptability of species to fast-changing anthropogenic landscapes. PMID:25090940

  8. Extracts of marine algae show inhibitory activity against osteoclast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Tomoyuki

    2011-01-01

    Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells that play a crucial role in bone resorption. The imbalance between bone resorption and bone formation results in osteoporosis. Therefore, substances that can suppress osteoclast formation are potential candidate materials for drug development or functional foods. There have been reports that extracts or purified compounds from marine micro- and macroalgae can suppress osteoclast differentiation. Symbioimine, isolated from the cultured dinoflagellate Symbiodinium sp., had suppressive effects against osteoclast differentiation in osteoclast-like cells. Norzoanthamine, isolated from the colonial zoanthid Zoanthas sp., has been shown to have antiosteoporosis activity in ovariectomized mice. With regard to marine extracts, the fucoxanthin-rich component from brown algae has been shown to have suppressive effects against osteoclast differentiation. An extract of Sargassum fusiforme has recently been shown to have antiosteoporosis activity. This extract suppressed both osteoclast differentiation and accelerated osteoblast formation in separate in vitro experiments. It also showed antiosteoporosis activity in ovariectomized mice by regulating the balance between bone resorption and bone formation. These marine algae and their extracts may be sources of marine medicinal foods for the prevention of osteoporosis.

  9. Limb proportions show developmental plasticity in response to embryo movement

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, A. S.; Charlton, B. G.; Hutchinson, J. R.; Gustafsson, T.; McGonnell, I. M.; Timmons, J. A.; Pitsillides, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    Animals have evolved limb proportions adapted to different environments, but it is not yet clear to what extent these proportions are directly influenced by the environment during prenatal development. The developing skeleton experiences mechanical loading resulting from embryo movement. We tested the hypothesis that environmentally-induced changes in prenatal movement influence embryonic limb growth to alter proportions. We show that incubation temperature influences motility and limb bone growth in West African Dwarf crocodiles, producing altered limb proportions which may, influence post-hatching performance. Pharmacological immobilisation of embryonic chickens revealed that altered motility, independent of temperature, may underpin this growth regulation. Use of the chick also allowed us to merge histological, immunochemical and cell proliferation labelling studies to evaluate changes in growth plate organisation, and unbiased array profiling to identify specific cellular and transcriptional targets of embryo movement. This disclosed that movement alters limb proportions and regulates chondrocyte proliferation in only specific growth plates. This selective targeting is related to intrinsic mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) pathway activity in individual growth plates. Our findings provide new insights into how environmental factors can be integrated to influence cellular activity in growing bones and ultimately gross limb morphology, to generate phenotypic variation during prenatal development. PMID:28165010

  10. European Neolithic societies showed early warning signals of population collapse

    PubMed Central

    Downey, Sean S.; Haas, W. Randall; Shennan, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystems on the verge of major reorganization—regime shift—may exhibit declining resilience, which can be detected using a collection of generic statistical tests known as early warning signals (EWSs). This study explores whether EWSs anticipated human population collapse during the European Neolithic. It analyzes recent reconstructions of European Neolithic (8–4 kya) population trends that reveal regime shifts from a period of rapid growth following the introduction of agriculture to a period of instability and collapse. We find statistical support for EWSs in advance of population collapse. Seven of nine regional datasets exhibit increasing autocorrelation and variance leading up to collapse, suggesting that these societies began to recover from perturbation more slowly as resilience declined. We derive EWS statistics from a prehistoric population proxy based on summed archaeological radiocarbon date probability densities. We use simulation to validate our methods and show that sampling biases, atmospheric effects, radiocarbon calibration error, and taphonomic processes are unlikely to explain the observed EWS patterns. The implications of these results for understanding the dynamics of Neolithic ecosystems are discussed, and we present a general framework for analyzing societal regime shifts using EWS at large spatial and temporal scales. We suggest that our findings are consistent with an adaptive cycling model that highlights both the vulnerability and resilience of early European populations. We close by discussing the implications of the detection of EWS in human systems for archaeology and sustainability science. PMID:27573833

  11. Diatom Cooccurrence Shows Less Segregation than Predicted from Niche Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Soininen, Janne; Alard, Didier; Rosebery, Juliette

    2016-01-01

    Species cooccurrence patterns give significant insights into the processes shaping communities. While biotic interactions have been widely studied using cooccurrence analyses in animals and larger plants, studies about cooccurrences among micro-organisms are still relatively rare. We examined stream diatom cooccurrences in France through a national database of samples. In order to test the relative influence of environmental, biotic and spatial constraints on species’ incidence distribution, cooccurrence and nestedness patterns of real communities were compared with the patterns generated from a set of standard and environmentally constrained null models. Real communities showed a higher level of segregation than the most conservative standard null models, but a general aggregation of cooccurrences when compared to environmentally constrained null models. We did not find any evidence of limiting similarity between cooccurring species. Aggregations of species cooccurrences were associated with the high levels of nestedness. Altogether, these results suggested that biotic interactions were not structuring cooccurrences of diatom species at our study scale. Instead, the patterns were more likely to be related with colonization patterns, mass effect, and local temporal dynamics of diatom biofilms. We further highlight that the association of standard and environmentally constrained null models may give realistic insight into the cooccurrence patterns of microbial communities. PMID:27128737

  12. Fluvoxamine, a new antidepressant drug, fails to show antiserotonin activity.

    PubMed

    Maj, J; Rogóz, Z; Skuza, G

    1982-07-09

    Fluvoxamine, (E)-5-methoxy-4'-(trifluoromethyl)valerophenone O-2(2-aminoethyl)oxime, a new antidepressant drug inhibiting serotonin (5-HT) uptake, was studied in rats and mice in order to check whether it has any central anti-5-HT activity, as do some tricyclic antidepressants, e.g. amitriptyline and doxepin. Fluvoxamine did not influence either the 5-hydroxytryptophan-induced head twitch response in mice or the tryptamine convulsions in rats. In the hind limb flexor reflex of the spinal rat the stimulation induced by fenfluramine was inhibited, that induced by LSD was not changed. Fluvoxamine also antagonized the hyperthermia (at ambient temperature of 28 degrees C), induced in rats by fenfluramine or p-chloroamphetamine. The hyperthermia caused by m-chlorophenylpiperazine was not inhibited. Fluvoxamine did not antagonize the 5-HT pressor effect in pithed rats. It has no effect on the immobility time in the behavioural despair test in rats. The results indicate that fluvoxamine fails to show anti-5-HT activity.

  13. Limb proportions show developmental plasticity in response to embryo movement.

    PubMed

    Pollard, A S; Charlton, B G; Hutchinson, J R; Gustafsson, T; McGonnell, I M; Timmons, J A; Pitsillides, A A

    2017-02-06

    Animals have evolved limb proportions adapted to different environments, but it is not yet clear to what extent these proportions are directly influenced by the environment during prenatal development. The developing skeleton experiences mechanical loading resulting from embryo movement. We tested the hypothesis that environmentally-induced changes in prenatal movement influence embryonic limb growth to alter proportions. We show that incubation temperature influences motility and limb bone growth in West African Dwarf crocodiles, producing altered limb proportions which may, influence post-hatching performance. Pharmacological immobilisation of embryonic chickens revealed that altered motility, independent of temperature, may underpin this growth regulation. Use of the chick also allowed us to merge histological, immunochemical and cell proliferation labelling studies to evaluate changes in growth plate organisation, and unbiased array profiling to identify specific cellular and transcriptional targets of embryo movement. This disclosed that movement alters limb proportions and regulates chondrocyte proliferation in only specific growth plates. This selective targeting is related to intrinsic mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) pathway activity in individual growth plates. Our findings provide new insights into how environmental factors can be integrated to influence cellular activity in growing bones and ultimately gross limb morphology, to generate phenotypic variation during prenatal development.

  14. Quick Phases of Infantile Nystagmus Show the Saccadic Inhibition Effect

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, James J.; Sumner, Petroc; Dunn, Matt J.; Erichsen, Jonathan T.; Freeman, Tom C. A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Infantile nystagmus (IN) is a pathological, involuntary oscillation of the eyes consisting of slow, drifting eye movements interspersed with rapid reorienting quick phases. The extent to which quick phases of IN are programmed similarly to saccadic eye movements remains unknown. We investigated whether IN quick phases exhibit ‘saccadic inhibition,' a phenomenon typically related to normal targeting saccades, in which the initiation of the eye movement is systematically delayed by task-irrelevant visual distractors. Methods. We recorded eye position from 10 observers with early-onset idiopathic nystagmus while task-irrelevant distractor stimuli were flashed along the top and bottom of a large screen at ±10° eccentricity. The latency distributions of quick phases were measured with respect to these distractor flashes. Two additional participants, one with possible albinism and one with fusion maldevelopment nystagmus syndrome, were also tested. Results. All observers showed that a distractor flash delayed the execution of quick phases that would otherwise have occurred approximately 100 ms later, exactly as in the standard saccadic inhibition effect. The delay did not appear to differ between the two main nystagmus types under investigation (idiopathic IN with unidirectional and bidirectional jerk). Conclusions. The presence of the saccadic inhibition effect in IN quick phases is consistent with the idea that quick phases and saccades share a common programming pathway. This could allow quick phases to take on flexible, goal-directed behavior, at odds with the view that IN quick phases are stereotyped, involuntary eye movements. PMID:25670485

  15. Children with Autism Show Reduced Somatosensory Response: An MEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Marco, Elysa J.; Khatibi, Kasra; Hill, Susanna S.; Siegel, Bryna; Arroyo, Monica S.; Dowling, Anne F.; Neuhaus, John M.; Sherr, Elliott H.; Hinkley, Leighton N. B.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.

    2012-01-01

    Lay Abstract Autism spectrum disorders are reported to affect nearly one out of every one hundred children, with over 90% of these children showing behavioral disturbances related to the processing of basic sensory information. Behavioral sensitivity to light touch, such as profound discomfort with clothing tags and physical contact, is a ubiquitous finding in children on the autism spectrum. In this study, we investigate the strength and timing of brain activity in response to simple, light taps to the fingertip. Our results suggest that children with autism show a diminished early response in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1). This finding is most evident in the left hemisphere. In exploratory analysis, we also show that tactile sensory behavior, as measured by the Sensory Profile, may be a better predictor of the intensity and timing of brain activity related to touch than a clinical autism diagnosis. We report that children with atypical tactile behavior have significantly lower amplitude somatosensory cortical responses in both hemispheres. Thus sensory behavioral phenotype appears to be a more powerful strategy for investigating neural activity in this cohort. This study provides evidence for atypical brain activity during sensory processing in autistic children and suggests that our sensory behavior based methodology may be an important approach to investigating brain activity in people with autism and neurodevelopmental disorders. Scientific Abstract The neural underpinnings of sensory processing differences in autism remain poorly understood. This prospective magnetoencephalography (MEG) study investigates whether children with autism show atypical cortical activity in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) in comparison to matched controls. Tactile stimuli were clearly detectable, painless taps applied to the distal phalanx of the second (D2) and third (D3) fingers of the right and left hands. Three tactile paradigms were administered: an oddball

  16. Parenting in 2 Worlds: Pilot Results from a Culturally Adapted Parenting Program for Urban American Indians

    PubMed Central

    Kulis, Stephen; Ayers, Stephanie L.; Baker, Tahnee

    2014-01-01

    This study reports the implementation and feasibility of a culturally adapted parenting curriculum, Parenting in 2 Worlds (P2W), which we designed specifically for urban American Indian families by means of community-based participatory research and then pilot tested in three Arizona cities. Data come from matched pre- and post-test surveys completed in 2012 by 75 American Indian parents of adolescents aged 10–17 who participated in the pilot version of P2W. P2W is a 10-workshop program administered twice a week for five weeks by trained American Indian community facilitators. Parents completed pretest surveys during Workshop 1 and post-test surveys five weeks later during Workshop 10. Paired t tests assessed changes in parenting outcomes, cultural identity, and child anti-social behavior. Changes from pre- to post-test demonstrated statistically significant improvements in several parenting outcomes (discipline, involvement, self-agency, and supervision), a strengthened sense of ethnic and cultural identity and Native spirituality, and a decrease in the child’s anti-social behavior. These results, which show significant if preliminary improvements in parenting skills and family functioning, suggest the feasibility of implementing a culturally grounded parenting intervention for urban American Indian parents. PMID:25367804

  17. Parenting in 2 Worlds: pilot results from a culturally adapted parenting program for urban American Indians.

    PubMed

    Kulis, Stephen; Ayers, Stephanie L; Baker, Tahnee

    2015-02-01

    This study reports the implementation and feasibility of a culturally adapted parenting curriculum, Parenting in 2 Worlds (P2W), which we designed specifically for urban American Indian families by means of community-based participatory research and then pilot tested in three Arizona cities. Data come from matched pre- and post-test surveys completed in 2012 by 75 American Indian parents of adolescents aged 10-17 who participated in the pilot version of P2W. P2W is a 10-workshop program administered twice a week for 5 weeks by trained American Indian community facilitators. Parents completed pre-test surveys during Workshop 1 and post-test surveys 5 weeks later during Workshop 10. Paired t tests assessed changes in parenting outcomes, cultural identity, and child anti-social behavior. Changes from pre- to post-test demonstrated statistically significant improvements in several parenting outcomes (discipline, involvement, self-agency, and supervision), a strengthened sense of ethnic and cultural identity and Native spirituality, and a decrease in the child's anti-social behavior. These results, which show significant preliminary improvements in parenting skills and family functioning, suggest the feasibility of implementing a culturally grounded parenting intervention for urban American Indian parents.

  18. Does a Quality Improvement Intervention for Anxiety Result in Differential Outcomes for Lower Income Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Greer; Sherbourne, Cathy; Chavira, Denise A.; Craske, Michelle G.; Gollineli, Daniela; Han, Xiaotong; Rose, Raphael D.; Bystritsky, Alexander; Stein, Murray B.; Roy-Byrne, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examined the effects of a collaborative care intervention for anxiety disorders in primary care on lower income participants relative to those with higher incomes. The authors hypothesized that lower income patients might show less improvement or improve at a lower rate given that they experience greater economic stress over the treatment course. Alternatively, lower income patients could improve at a higher rate because the intervention facilitates access to evidence-based treatment, which typically is less available to persons with lower incomes. Method The authors compared baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with lower (n=287) and higher (n=717) income using t-tests and chi-square tests for continuous and categorical variables respectively. For the longitudinal analysis of intervention effects by income group, the authors jointly modeled the outcomes at the four assessment times by study site; income; time; intervention; time and intervention; income and time; income and intervention; and time, intervention and income. Results Although lower-income participants were more ill and disabled at baseline than those in the higher income group, the two income groups were very similar in their clinical response. The lower income participants experienced a comparable degree of clinical improvement, despite receiving fewer treatment sessions, less relapse prevention, and less continuous care. Conclusions These findings contribute to the ongoing discussion as to whether or not, and to what extent, quality improvement interventions work equally well across income groups or require tailoring for specific vulnerable populations. PMID:23377641

  19. Association of gingival biotype with the results of scaling and root planing

    PubMed Central

    Sin, Yeon-Woo; Chang, Hee-Yung; Yun, Woo-Hyuk; Jeong, Seong-Nyum; Pi, Sung-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The concept of gingival biotype has been used as a predictor of periodontal therapy outcomes since the 1980s. In the present study, prospective and controlled experiments were performed to compare periodontal pocket depth (PPD) reduction and gingival shrinkage (GSH) after scaling and root planing (SRP) according to gingival biotype. Methods Twenty-five patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis participated in the present study. The PPD and GSH of the labial side of the maxillary anterior teeth (from the right canine to the left canine) were evaluated at baseline and 3 months after SRP. Changes in the PPD following SRP were classified into 4 groups according to the gingival thickness and initial PPD. Two more groups representing normal gingival crevices were added in evaluation of the GSH. The results were statistically analyzed using the independent t-test. Results In the end, 16 patients participated in the present study. With regard to PPD reduction, there were no significant differences according to gingival biotype (P>0.05). Likewise, sites with a PPD of over 3 mm failed to show any significant differences in the GSH (P>0.05). However, among the sites with a PPD of under 3 mm, those with the thin gingival biotype showed more GSH (P<0.05). Conclusions PPD changes after SRP were not affected by gingival biotype with either shallow or deep periodontal pockets. GSH also showed equal outcomes in all the groups without normal gingival crevices. The results of SRP seem not to differ according to gingival biotype. PMID:24455441

  20. 56. View looking east. Detail showing an end of three ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. View looking east. Detail showing an end of three crib side walls, being flown by the derrick. The upper part of the fourth member, marked with an identifying tag, shows evidence of burning. Notice how well the lower members fit together. This view shows that individual timber members were worked, in part, after assembly. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN

  1. 52. View from ground level showing lower radar scanner switch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. View from ground level showing lower radar scanner switch with open port door in radar scanner building 105 showing emanating waveguides from lower switch in vertical run; photograph also shows catwalk to upper scanner switch in upper left side of photograph and structural supports. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  2. 26. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHWEST INSIDE TRANSFORMER ROOM, SHOWING OIL FILLED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHWEST INSIDE TRANSFORMER ROOM, SHOWING OIL- FILLED TRANSFORMER POTS - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  3. 4. View facing southwest showing the Silvertop Diner, Providence Fruit ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View facing southwest showing the Silvertop Diner, Providence Fruit & Produce Building, and Merchants' Cold Storage Warehouse. - Provisions Warehouse Historic District, Kinsley & Harris Avenues, Providence, Providence County, RI

  4. 29. Detail view north showing amperage and voltage meters, operator's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Detail view north showing amperage and voltage meters, operator's room, west operator's house. - Yellow Mill Bridge, Spanning Yellow Mill Channel at Stratford Avenue, Bridgeport, Fairfield County, CT

  5. 11. Exterior detail view of northeast corner, showing stucco finish ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Exterior detail view of northeast corner, showing stucco finish and woodwork details - American Railway Express Company Freight Building, 1060 Northeast Division Street, Bend, Deschutes County, OR

  6. EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF BLOWER HOUSE SHOWING POWER WHEELS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF BLOWER HOUSE SHOWING POWER WHEELS AND RACEWAY, LOOKING SOUTH. - Tannehill Furnace, 12632 Confederate Parkway, Tannehill Historical State Park, Bucksville, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  7. 17. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING SORTING AND SHIPPING SHED WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING SORTING AND SHIPPING SHED WITH SAWMILL BEHIND - Ichabod T. Williams & Sons Sawmill & Veneer Plant, Roosevelt Avenue at Carteret Avenue, Carteret, Middlesex County, NJ

  8. 25. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST INSIDE TRANSFORMER ROOM, SHOWING TRANSFORMERS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST INSIDE TRANSFORMER ROOM, SHOWING TRANSFORMERS AND KNIFE SWITCHES - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  9. Contextual view showing northeastern eucalyptus windbreak and portion of citrus ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view showing northeastern eucalyptus windbreak and portion of citrus orchard. Camera facing 118" east-southeast. - Goerlitz House, 9893 Highland Avenue, Rancho Cucamonga, San Bernardino County, CA

  10. 14. View showing detail of truss (unidentified). Drawing courtesy Engineering ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. View showing detail of truss (unidentified). Drawing courtesy Engineering Department, City of Cleveland. - Superior Avenue Viaduct, Cleveland East & West side, Cuyahoga Valley Vicinity, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  11. 4. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF MAIN AND EAST ELEVATIONS, SHOWING VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF MAIN AND EAST ELEVATIONS, SHOWING VIEW TOWARD CARPENTER'S HALL - Carpenters' Company, Front Store, 322 Chestnut Street & Carpenters' Court, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. 54. VIEW SHOWING THE PLACEMENT OF SPIDER WEB BRACING, SHOOFLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. VIEW SHOWING THE PLACEMENT OF SPIDER WEB BRACING, SHOOFLY BRIDGE, January 1935 - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  13. 246. View showing the curvilinear alignment of the parkway on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    246. View showing the curvilinear alignment of the parkway on a ridge. Looking northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  14. 5. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING BRIDGE COUNTERWEIGHT New York, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING BRIDGE COUNTERWEIGHT - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Niantic Bridge, Spanning Niantic River between East Lyme & Waterford, Old Lyme, New London County, CT

  15. 2. GENERAL VIEW FROM SOUTH SHOWING SOUTHWEST AND SOUTHEAST SIDES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL VIEW FROM SOUTH SHOWING SOUTHWEST AND SOUTHEAST SIDES AND CLERESTORY ARRANGEMENT - Sulphur Springs Methodist Campground, Sulphur Springs Road (Sulphur Springs), Sulphur Springs, Washington County, TN

  16. New rain shed (Building No. 241) interior showing posts, braces, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    New rain shed (Building No. 241) interior showing posts, braces, and roof structure. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  17. 13. VIEW INTO BLOCK AREA SHOWING KEY MECHANISM, NOTE FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW INTO BLOCK AREA SHOWING KEY MECHANISM, NOTE FLOOR SEPARATION AT THRESHOLD AND KEY-WINDING MECHANISM - Montgomery County Jail, Washington & Spring Streets, Crawfordsville, Montgomery County, IN

  18. 1. Aerial view, looking northeast up Newark Bay, showing entire ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Aerial view, looking northeast up Newark Bay, showing entire island Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  19. PERSPECTIVE VIEW SHOWING SOUTH SIDE OF BUILDING, LOOKING WESTNORTHWEST DOWN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW SHOWING SOUTH SIDE OF BUILDING, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST DOWN HARRISON AVENUE - Pearce Manufacturing Company, Factory A, Harrison Avenue West at Wilkens, Latrobe, Westmoreland County, PA

  20. INTERIOR VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO LABORATORY, SHOWING HANDHAMMERED ALUMINUM DOORS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO LABORATORY, SHOWING HAND-HAMMERED ALUMINUM DOORS AND MARBLE. NOTE ALUMINUM LIGHT FIXTURE - Alcoa Research Laboratory, Freeport Road, New Kensington, Westmoreland County, PA

  1. Interior view, detail of the staircase to show the burnished ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, detail of the staircase to show the burnished aluminum and brass balustrade - Departmental Auditorium, Constitution Avenue between Twelfth and Fourteenth Streets, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  2. 7. Photocopy of photograph (from Broome County Historical Society) showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of photograph (from Broome County Historical Society) showing SWIMMERS, PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN FACING NORTHEAST - Charles F. Johnson Pool, Charles F. Johnson Park, Johnson City, Broome County, NY

  3. 5. GENERAL VIEW, SECOND FLOOR, SHOWING TYPICAL WINDOW TRIM AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. GENERAL VIEW, SECOND FLOOR, SHOWING TYPICAL WINDOW TRIM AND THE PRESSED METAL CEILING, VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST. - 443 Seventh Street, Northwest (Commercial Building), Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  4. 23. VIEW SHOWING SALT RIVER PROJECT CREWS SLIPFORMING LATERAL DURING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW SHOWING SALT RIVER PROJECT CREWS SLIPFORMING LATERAL DURING REHABILITATION AND BETTERMENT PROGRAM Photographer: unknown. April 1968 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  5. 1. Southeast elevation of Oil House showing loading platform. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Southeast elevation of Oil House showing loading platform. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Scranton Yards, Oil House, 650 feet Southeast of Cliff & Mechanic Streets, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  6. 24. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS VIEW TO NORTHWEST, SHOWING BLOWER BUILDING. INEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS VIEW TO NORTHWEST, SHOWING BLOWER BUILDING. INEEL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-60-4407. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. Detail view of upper southwest corner, showing representative view of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of upper southwest corner, showing representative view of cornice and window ornamentation - Hungarian Sick Benefit Societies Building, 1406-1418 State Street, Bridgeport, Fairfield County, CT

  8. 13. FOURTH FLOOR ROASTING ROOM, SHOWING CLERESTORY. VIEW TO SOUTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. FOURTH FLOOR ROASTING ROOM, SHOWING CLERESTORY. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, McFadden Coffee & Spice Company, Factory & Warehouse, 145 First Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  9. 12. TRANSMISSION GEARING SHOWING RELATION TO SEGMENT GEAR ON WATERWHEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. TRANSMISSION GEARING SHOWING RELATION TO SEGMENT GEAR ON WATERWHEEL william E. Barrett, photographer, 1973 (copy negative) - Thomas Shepherd's Grist Mill, High Street Vicinity, Shepherdstown, Jefferson County, WV

  10. 2. VIEW SOUTH SHOWING NORTHEAST ELEVATION; BRICK CORBELLING, BUTTRESSES AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTH SHOWING NORTHEAST ELEVATION; BRICK CORBELLING, BUTTRESSES AND ART DECO STAINED GLASS - Poletown Historic District, St. Michael's Greek Catholic Church, 2390 East Grand Boulevard, Detroit, MI

  11. 6. SOUTHEAST ABUTMENT AT CALVERT STREET, SHOWING LEON HERMANT ALLEGORICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. SOUTHEAST ABUTMENT AT CALVERT STREET, SHOWING LEON HERMANT ALLEGORICAL RELIEF OF TRANSPORTATION BY AUTOMOBILE - Calvert Street Bridge, Spanning Rock Creek & Potomac Parkway, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  12. 25. DETAIL SHOWING BRAKING MECHANISM FOR TRAIN, NOTE HOT RAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. DETAIL SHOWING BRAKING MECHANISM FOR TRAIN, NOTE HOT RAIL ON LEFT - Jefferson National Expansion Memorial Arch, Mississippi River between Washington & Poplar Streets, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  13. 3. Photocopy of 1932 photograph showing another general view of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopy of 1932 photograph showing another general view of the mansion, looking northwest. Original photograph at the Philadelphia Museum of Art. - Strawberry Mansion, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. 13. Detail showing canopy at southeast corner; note single column ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Detail showing canopy at southeast corner; note single column supporting structure - Fort Hood, World War II Temporary Buildings, Cold Storage Building, Seventeenth Street, Killeen, Bell County, TX

  15. A novel nucleic acid analogue shows strong angiogenic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Tsukamoto, Ikuko; Sakakibara, Norikazu; Maruyama, Tokumi; Igarashi, Junsuke; Kosaka, Hiroaki; Kubota, Yasuo; Tokuda, Masaaki; Ashino, Hiromi; Hattori, Kenichi; Tanaka, Shinji; Kawata, Mitsuhiro; Konishi, Ryoji

    2010-09-03

    Research highlights: {yields} A novel nucleic acid analogue (2Cl-C.OXT-A, m.w. 284) showed angiogenic potency. {yields} It stimulated the tube formation, proliferation and migration of HUVEC in vitro. {yields} 2Cl-C.OXT-A induced the activation of ERK1/2 and MEK in HUVEC. {yields} Angiogenic potency in vivo was confirmed in CAM assay and rabbit cornea assay. {yields} A synthesized small angiogenic agent would have great clinical therapeutic value. -- Abstract: A novel nucleic acid analogue (2Cl-C.OXT-A) significantly stimulated tube formation of human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC). Its maximum potency at 100 {mu}M was stronger than that of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a positive control. At this concentration, 2Cl-C.OXT-A moderately stimulated proliferation as well as migration of HUVEC. To gain mechanistic insights how 2Cl-C.OXT-A promotes angiogenic responses in HUVEC, we performed immunoblot analyses using phospho-specific antibodies as probes. 2Cl-C.OXT-A induced robust phosphorylation/activation of MAP kinase ERK1/2 and an upstream MAP kinase kinase MEK. Conversely, a MEK inhibitor PD98059 abolished ERK1/2 activation and tube formation both enhanced by 2Cl-C.OXT-A. In contrast, MAP kinase responses elicited by 2Cl-C.OXT-A were not inhibited by SU5416, a specific inhibitor of VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase. Collectively these results suggest that 2Cl-C.OXT-A-induces angiogenic responses in HUVEC mediated by a MAP kinase cascade comprising MEK and ERK1/2, but independently of VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase. In vivo assay using chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and rabbit cornea also suggested the angiogenic potency of 2Cl-C.OXT-A.

  16. Curcumin shows excellent therapeutic effect on psoriasis in mouse model.

    PubMed

    Kang, Di; Li, Bowen; Luo, Lei; Jiang, Wenbing; Lu, Qiumin; Rong, Mingqing; Lai, Ren

    2016-04-01

    Curcumin is an active herbal ingredient possessing surprisingly wide range of beneficial properties, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activity. Recently, it has been reported to exhibit inhibitory activity on potassium channel subtype Kv1.3. As Kv1.3 channels are mainly expressed in T cells and play a key role in psoriasis, the effects of curcumin were investigated on inflammatory factors secretion in T cells and psoriasis developed in keratin (K) 14-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) transgenic mouse model. Results showed that, 10 μM of curcumin significantly inhibited secretion of inflammatory factors including interleukin (IL)-17,IL-22, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-8 and TNF-α in T cells by 30-60% in vitro. Notably, more than 50% of T cells proliferation was inhibited by application of 100 μM curcumin. Compared with severe psoriatic symptoms observed in the negative control mice, all psoriasis indexes including ear redness, weight, thickness and lymph node weight were significantly improved by oral application of curcumin in treatment mouse group. Histological examination indicated that curcumin had anti-inflammatory function in the experimental animals. More than 50% level of inflammatory factors including TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-12, IL-22 and IL-23 in mouse serum was decreased by curcumin treatment as well as cyclosporine. Compared with renal fibrosis observed in the mouse group treated by cyclosporine, no obvious side effect in mouse kidney was found after treated by curcumin. Taken together, curcumin, with high efficacy and safety, has a great potential to treat psoriasis.

  17. 13. VIEW SHOWING MOST OF THE PERIMETER FROM SPILLWAY BOX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW SHOWING MOST OF THE PERIMETER FROM SPILLWAY BOX TO END OF EAST DAM. FOREGROUND VIEW SHOWS TRIPLE WALL CONSTRUCTION OF TONGUE AND GROOVE PLANKING USED IN CRIBBING - Three Bears Lake & Dams, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

  18. 2. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING WOODEN CRIBBING WITH LOWERED LAKE LEVEL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING WOODEN CRIBBING WITH LOWERED LAKE LEVEL, EAST DAM, LOOKING NORTHEAST (View is middle of the perimeter showing in MT-88-A-1 above.) - Three Bears Lake & Dams, East Dam, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

  19. 47 CFR 101.411 - Supplementary showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Supplementary showing required. 101.411 Section 101.411 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Developmental Authorizations § 101.411 Supplementary showing required....

  20. Cross Section; Half Longitudinal Section Showing Middle Wall Reinforced with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cross Section; Half Longitudinal Section Showing Middle Wall Reinforced with Arch; Part Long Section Showing Inside of External Side Wall; East Entrance; Part Side South External; Part Reflected Plan of Soffite of Floor; Part Reflected Plan of Soffite of Roof - Blenheim Covered Bridge, Spanning Schoharie River, North Blenheim, Schoharie County, NY

  1. Showing and Telling: The Difference That Makes a Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, David

    2001-01-01

    Attempts to clarify an essential difference between the ways in which pictures and words convey meaning. Examines one attempt to differentiate and characterize various types of picture books and concludes by showing how Anthony Browne exploits the distinction between showing and telling to create the atmosphere of uncertainty and mystery in his…

  2. 47 CFR 73.33 - Antenna systems; showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna systems; showing required. 73.33... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.33 Antenna systems; showing required. (a) An application for authority to install a broadcast antenna shall specify a definite site and include...

  3. 47 CFR 73.33 - Antenna systems; showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna systems; showing required. 73.33... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.33 Antenna systems; showing required. (a) An application for authority to install a broadcast antenna shall specify a definite site and include...

  4. 47 CFR 73.33 - Antenna systems; showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna systems; showing required. 73.33... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.33 Antenna systems; showing required. (a) An application for authority to install a broadcast antenna shall specify a definite site and include...

  5. 47 CFR 73.33 - Antenna systems; showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna systems; showing required. 73.33... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.33 Antenna systems; showing required. (a) An application for authority to install a broadcast antenna shall specify a definite site and include...

  6. 47 CFR 73.33 - Antenna systems; showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna systems; showing required. 73.33... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.33 Antenna systems; showing required. (a) An application for authority to install a broadcast antenna shall specify a definite site and include...

  7. 31. Photographic copy of drawing showing profile of bridge after ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Photographic copy of drawing showing profile of bridge after the 1888-1889 and 1899-1900 reconstructions; also shows profile of bridge before 1888 (Martin Sigvart Grytbak, Wabasha St. Bridge, Formerly St. Paul Bridge, 1919); profile of Wabasha street bridge - Wabasha Street Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River at Wabasha Street, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  8. 15. BALD MOUNTAIN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRECIPITATION AREA FROM NORTH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. BALD MOUNTAIN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRECIPITATION AREA FROM NORTH, c. 1934. SHOWS PRECIPITATION TANK No. 1 (NOTE LOCKS), ZINC FEEDER WITH MIXING CONE, VACUUM RECEIVER AND PIPING. CREDIT WR. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  9. 77 FR 1513 - Air Show and Air Races; Public Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD Air Show and Air Races; Public Hearing TIME AND DATE: 9 a.m., Tuesday, January 10, 2012... hearing is to examine current regulations and oversight practices for air shows and air races,...

  10. TV shows on Light Pollution Education for the Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigore, Valentin

    2015-03-01

    TV shows have the biggest impact for the public, so we can use them to inform and educate the public about light pollution and the importance of the dark sky for humanity and for the contemporary society. Some examples used in the TV show Us and the Sky at Columna TV, Romania, are presented.

  11. Survey Shows Blacks Not Concerned Enough about Kidney Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Health officials may have an uphill battle in educating Blacks about a disease that's being called a "silent killer," a recent survey shows. Kidney disease is an illness that's become more prevalent, especially in the nation's Black population, but a survey conducted in Jackson, Atlanta, Baltimore and Cleveland shows only 15 percent of those…

  12. Computer Slide Shows: A Trap for Bad Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemm, W. R.

    2007-01-01

    Slide shows presented with software such as PowerPoint or WordPerfect Presentations can trap instructors into bad teaching practices. Research on memory suggests that slide-show instruction can actually be less effective than traditional lecturing when the teacher uses a blackboard or overhead projector. The author proposes a model of classroom…

  13. The Easy Way to Create Computer Slide Shows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Mary Alice

    1995-01-01

    Discusses techniques for creating computer slide shows. Topics include memory; format; color use; HyperCard and CD-ROM; font styles and sizes; graphs and graphics; the slide show option; special effects; and tips for effective presentation. (Author/AEF)

  14. 43 CFR 3430.2-1 - Initial showing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-1 Initial showing. All preference right coal lease applications shall have contained or shall have... analysis, sulfur content and BTU content of the coal, and all supporting geological and geophysical data... to be mined by surface mining methods, isopachous maps of the overburden. These maps shall show...

  15. The Presentation of Science in Everyday Life: The Science Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watermeyer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This paper constitutes a case-study of the "science show" model of public engagement employed by a company of science communicators focused on the popularization of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) subject disciplines with learner constituencies. It examines the potential of the science show to foster the interest…

  16. 47 CFR 73.24 - Broadcast facilities; showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Broadcast facilities; showing required. 73.24... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.24 Broadcast facilities; showing required. An authorization for a new AM broadcast station or increase in facilities of an existing station will be...

  17. 47 CFR 101.411 - Supplementary showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplementary showing required. 101.411 Section 101.411 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Developmental Authorizations § 101.411 Supplementary showing required....

  18. 47 CFR 101.411 - Supplementary showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Supplementary showing required. 101.411 Section 101.411 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Developmental Authorizations § 101.411 Supplementary showing required....

  19. "The Daily Show with Jon Stewart": Part 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trier, James

    2008-01-01

    Comedy Central's popular program "The Daily Show With Jon Stewart" is the best critical media literacy program on television, and it can be used in valuable ways in the classroom as part of a media literacy pedagogy. This Media Literacy column provides an overview of the show and its accompanying website and considers ways it might be used in the…

  20. The Daily Show with Jon Stewart: Part 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trier, James

    2008-01-01

    "The Daily Show With Jon Stewart" is one of the best critical literacy programs on television, and in this Media Literacy column the author suggests ways that teachers can use video clips from the show in their classrooms. (For Part 1, see EJ784683.)

  1. View of Lake Sabrina Dam showing wooden planks along the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Lake Sabrina Dam showing wooden planks along the upstream face and concrete base added in 1916/1917 and showing the iron grating covering upstream side of outlet structure is visible at lower photo center, view northeast - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 2, Lake Sabrina Dam, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  2. 28. VIEW SOUTHWEST, EAST ABUTMENT SHOWING BASCULE LEAF IN RAISED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. VIEW SOUTHWEST, EAST ABUTMENT SHOWING BASCULE LEAF IN RAISED POSITION WITH THE EXTREME UPPER PORTION OF THE BASCULE RACK GEAR SHOWING IN THE LOWER RIGHT PORTION OF THE PHOTOGRAPH - Tomlinson Bridge, Spanning Quinnipiac River at Forbes Street (U.S. Route 1), New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  3. 108. View showing storage yard where material is received and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    108. View showing storage yard where material is received and sorted: also shows derrick framed to raise material from tracks and land on deck of approach. Material is then moved by narrow gage locomotive out to erection traveler. - Carquinez Bridge, Spanning Carquinez Strait at Interstate 80, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  4. 27. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING SOUTH CORNER OF SHED WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING SOUTH CORNER OF SHED WITH ONE-STORY OFFICES, SHOWING TYPICAL COLUMN BASE WITH TIMBER BOLTED TO STEEL 'L' SHOE - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  5. 15. Photocopy of historic view No. 31001 showing expansion of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photocopy of historic view No. 31001 showing expansion of Building 461 (9/4/56) showing Building 463 tanks to the right of the photo. Original is on file Mare Island Naval Shipyard-Photography Lab. Photographer unknown. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Acid Mixing Facility, California Avenue & E Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  6. Game Show Mathematics: Specializing, Conjecturing, Generalizing, and Convincing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Catherine Pullin; Harkness, Shelly Sheats

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the authors' use of three game shows--"Survivor," "The Biggest Loser," and "Deal or No Deal?"--to determine to what degree students engaged in mathematical thinking: specializing, conjecturing, generalizing, and convincing (Burton, 1984). Student responses to the task of creating winning strategies to these shows were…

  7. ShowFlow: A practical interface for groundwater modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Tauxe, J.D.

    1990-12-01

    ShowFlow was created to provide a user-friendly, intuitive environment for researchers and students who use computer modeling software. What traditionally has been a workplace available only to those familiar with command-line based computer systems is now within reach of almost anyone interested in the subject of modeling. In the case of this edition of ShowFlow, the user can easily experiment with simulations using the steady state gaussian plume groundwater pollutant transport model SSGPLUME, though ShowFlow can be rewritten to provide a similar interface for any computer model. Included in this thesis is all the source code for both the ShowFlow application for Microsoft{reg sign} Windows{trademark} and the SSGPLUME model, a User's Guide, and a Developer's Guide for converting ShowFlow to run other model programs. 18 refs., 13 figs.

  8. X-31 Unloading Returning from Paris Air Show

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    After being flown in the Paris Air Show in June 1995, the X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability Technology Demonstrator Aircraft, based at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards Air Force Base, California, is off-loaded from an Air Force Reserve C-5 transport after the ferry flight back to Edwards. At the air show, the X-31 demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with advanced flight control systems to provide controlled flight at very high angles of attack. The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator flew at the Ames- Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994) from February 1992 until 1995 and before that at the Air Force's Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. The goal of the project was to provide design information for the next generation of highly maneuverable fighter aircraft. This program demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with an advanced flight control system to provide controlled flight to very high angles of attack. The result was a significant advantage over most conventional fighters in close-in combat situations. The X-31 flight program focused on agile flight within the post-stall regime, producing technical data to give aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. Stall is a condition of an airplane or an airfoil in which lift decreases and drag increases due to the separation of airflow. Thrust vectoring compensates for the loss of control through normal aerodynamic surfaces that occurs during a stall. Post-stall refers to flying beyond the normal stall angle of attack, which in the X-31 was at a 30-degree angle of attack. During Dryden flight testing, the X-31 aircraft established several milestones. On November 6, 1992, the X-31 achieved

  9. Finite frequency tomography shows a variety of plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolet, G.; Montelli, R.; Masters, G.; Dahlen, F. A.; Hung, S.

    2003-04-01

    The new technique of finite-frequency tomography (see abstract by Montelli et al., this meeting) is very powerful in imaging objects of small dimension in the lower mantle. The first global images of P velocity anomalies obtained by using this technique to invert a small but very accurate data set of long period P arrivals bottoming in the lower mantle show 18 low velocity anomalies in excess of -0.5%, all but two of which are associated with a known hotspot at the surface, and they serve as an unprecented glimpse into the deep mechanisms that give rise to hotspots. The following synopsis is given under the caveat that we have not yet incorporated high frequency waves into the interpretation, nor completed a full resolution analysis at the time of writing of this abstract (both will be presented at the meeting). We observe six or seven hotspots fed by a plume extending to the core-mantle boundary: Cap Verde, Easter Island, Hawaii, Kerguelen, St Helena, Tahiti, and perhaps also Azores. Several hotspots, among which are Bouvet, Bowie, and Mount Erebus, seem to originate at mid-mantle depth, while others (Afar, Ascension, Galapagos, Iceland, la Reunion and others) seem to be mostly confined to the upper mantle. Many renowned hotspots (such as Eifel, Samoa and Yellowstone) have only very weak low velocity anomalies at depth and may be the result of superficial processes confined to the top of the upper mantle. We confirm the existence of the two superplumes which both have Δ V_P < -0.5% extending as high as 2000 km depth. It is clear that no one plume/hotspot model can explain the variety in deep expressions of hotspots in the mantle. If midmantle plume origins represent originally deep plumes in their end stage, while the two unidentified anomalies are either beginning new plumes (Greenland) or plumes cut off in their initial ascent (W. Pacific), the large number of plumes caught in this phase would point to lengthy rise times of the order of tens of millions of

  10. 1. DISTANT VIEW OF FRONT FROM SOUTHWEST SHOWING AREA OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. DISTANT VIEW OF FRONT FROM SOUTHWEST SHOWING AREA OF COUNCIL CHAMBERS, SHOP WITH PORTION OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT AND TRACK FILL AREA IN RIGHT HAND CORNER - Hardin City Water Works, 101 East Fourth Street, Hardin, Big Horn County, MT

  11. 2. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SOUTHWEST SHOWING DOLPHIN MANUFACTURING CO., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SOUTHWEST SHOWING DOLPHIN MANUFACTURING CO., BARBOUR FLAX SPINNING CO. -- SPRUCE ST. MILL, ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS -- MILLWRIGHT SHOP AND FITTING SHOP. - Great Falls S. U. M. Historic District, Oliver Street, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  12. 42. View forward on afterdeck, showing steering gear box in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. View forward on afterdeck, showing steering gear box in foreground, aft elevation of cabin beyond; weather canopy overhead is not an original or permanent feature - Schooner WAWONA, 1018 Valley Street, Seattle, King County, WA

  13. PERSPECTIVE FROM SOUTH SHOWING WEATHERED BOARD AND BATTEN SIDING. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE FROM SOUTH SHOWING WEATHERED BOARD AND BATTEN SIDING. NOTE BRIDGE SITS ON ONE CONCRETEFACED ABUTMENT AND ONE STONE PIER. - Beaverkill Bridge, Spanning Beaver Kill, TR 30 (Craigie Claire Road), Roscoe, Sullivan County, NY

  14. 17. Building 202, observation room for test cell, showing panel, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Building 202, observation room for test cell, showing panel, abort button, phones, and observation window. View looking northwest. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 202, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  15. Detail of smokestack base on east side, showing door manufactured ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of smokestack base on east side, showing door manufactured by Heine Chimney Co., Chicago. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Power House, Northwest Corner of East Harlow Avenue & North Page Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  16. North side, showing ramp at western section but photograph taken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North side, showing ramp at western section but photograph taken to east of CO-172-BR-8 and looking southwesterly. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Infirmary, Northwest Corner of East Bushnell Avenue & South Page Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  17. East side, middle section, looking southwest, shows slightly more northerly ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East side, middle section, looking southwest, shows slightly more northerly section than CO-172-AO-4. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Quartermaster's Storehouse, Southwest Corner of East I Avenue & North Twelfth Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  18. 4. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 313, SHOWING LABORATORY. VIEW TO EAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 313, SHOWING LABORATORY. VIEW TO EAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Laboratory Building, 510 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 175 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  19. 3. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 313, SHOWING LABORATORY. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 313, SHOWING LABORATORY. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Laboratory Building, 510 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 175 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  20. 6. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 313, SHOWING LABORATORY. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 313, SHOWING LABORATORY. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Laboratory Building, 510 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 175 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  1. 5. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 313, SHOWING LABORATORY. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 313, SHOWING LABORATORY. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Laboratory Building, 510 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 175 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  2. 7. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 313, SHOWING LABORATORY. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 313, SHOWING LABORATORY. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Laboratory Building, 510 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 175 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  3. 12. OFFSHORE VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING LIFEGUARD TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. OFFSHORE VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING LIFEGUARD TOWER AND 2ND TEE (CENTER), REFUGE BAY (RIGHT) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  4. 11. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM WATERLINE; SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM WATERLINE; SHOWING LIFEGUARD TOWER TO END OF PIER - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  5. 14. OFFSHORE VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING (LEFTRIGHT) PUMPHOUSE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. OFFSHORE VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING (LEFT-RIGHT) PUMPHOUSE, TACKLE BOX, RESTROOMS ON 3RD TEE - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  6. 22. GROUND VIEW OF PIERS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING BENTS 13, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. GROUND VIEW OF PIERS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING BENTS 1-3, STAIRWAY (RIGHT), RESTROOMS UNDER PIER (CENTER), MAXWELL'S RESTAURANT IN BACKGROUND - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  7. Oblique view showing western abutment, looking ENE along main line. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view showing western abutment, looking ENE along main line. Septa commuter train in foreground. - Pennsylvania Railroad, Whitford Bridge, Spanning Amtrak tracks at Whitford Road, Whitford, Chester County, PA

  8. 4. Building 11 north elevation oblique, showing detail of concrete ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Building 11 north elevation oblique, showing detail of concrete landings, window treatments. Very obscured by unremovable vegetation. View looking west. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), Building No. 11, 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. 3. Front of Mansion, facing east, shows portico, raised section ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Front of Mansion, facing east, shows portico, raised section of second story, and section (south of extreme left chimney) added c. 1914. Winter view. - Sotterly, State Route 245 & Vista Road Vicinity, Hollywood, St. Mary's County, MD

  10. 3. HJELM FARMSTEAD. OVERVIEW SHOWING EDGE OF GRANARY, SMALL BARN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. HJELM FARMSTEAD. OVERVIEW SHOWING EDGE OF GRANARY, SMALL BARN, WINDMILL, AND POTATO CELLAR. VIEW TO SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. - Hjelm Farmstead, U.S. Highway 20 at New Sweden, Idaho Falls, Bonneville County, ID

  11. 3. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING A SMALL FIELDSTONE DAM (KNOWN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING A SMALL FIELD-STONE DAM (KNOWN LOCALLY AS DAM NO. 2), BUILT BY THE CCC - J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge Dams, Along Lower Souris River, Kramer, Bottineau County, ND

  12. 8. VIEW OF DAM 83, SHOWING OLD SOURIS RIVER CHANNEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF DAM 83, SHOWING OLD SOURIS RIVER CHANNEL FROM THE DOWNSTREAM FACE OF THE DAM WITH POND A IN THE BACKGROUND, LOOKING SOUTH - Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 83, Souris River Basin, Foxholm, Surrey (England), ND

  13. 11. VIEW OF SPILLWAY AT DAM 83, SHOWING REFUGE HEADQUARTERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF SPILLWAY AT DAM 83, SHOWING REFUGE HEADQUARTERS ON THE HORIZON (LEFT, CENTER), LOOKING EAST - Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 83, Souris River Basin, Foxholm, Surrey (England), ND

  14. 9. VIEW OF SPILLWAY AT DAM 83, SHOWING LOCATION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF SPILLWAY AT DAM 83, SHOWING LOCATION OF FORMER CONCRETE FLASHBOARD STRUCTURE ON RIGHT, LOOKING WEST - Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 83, Souris River Basin, Foxholm, Surrey (England), ND

  15. 4. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING A LARGE FIELDSTONE DAM (KNOWN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING A LARGE FIELD-STONE DAM (KNOWN LOCALLY AS DAM NO. 1), BUILT BY THE CCC - J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge Dams, Along Lower Souris River, Kramer, Bottineau County, ND

  16. 6. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING BASE OF LIGHT TOWER, LOOKING SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING BASE OF LIGHT TOWER, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Monomoy Point Light Station, Approximately 3500 feet Northeast Powder Hole Pond, Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge, Chatham, Barnstable County, MA

  17. 10. DETAIL VIEW OF SPILLWAY AT DAM 83, SHOWING RIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL VIEW OF SPILLWAY AT DAM 83, SHOWING RIVER COBBLE PAVING (FOREGROUND) AND WINGWALL, LOOKING EAST - Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 83, Souris River Basin, Foxholm, Surrey (England), ND

  18. 22. VIEW OF A SINGLE BEEHIVE COKE OVEN SHOWING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. VIEW OF A SINGLE BEEHIVE COKE OVEN SHOWING THE INTERIOR STRUCTURE OF THE OVEN. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

  19. 9. DETAIL OF THE FAN HOUSE INTERIOR, SHOWING FAN OPENINGS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL OF THE FAN HOUSE INTERIOR, SHOWING FAN OPENINGS. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

  20. 18. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE GENERATOR HOUSE, SHOWING CONCRETE MACHINERY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE GENERATOR HOUSE, SHOWING CONCRETE MACHINERY FOOTINGS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

  1. 28. CROSS SECTION OF A RECTANGULAR COKE OVEN SHOWING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. CROSS SECTION OF A RECTANGULAR COKE OVEN SHOWING THE INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF THE OVEN. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

  2. Detail unit 5, showing discharge pipe and vacuum valve on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail unit 5, showing discharge pipe and vacuum valve on discharge side of pump - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  3. 32. VIEW LOOKING WEST SHOWING UNIT #3. VACUUM PUMP ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. VIEW LOOKING WEST SHOWING UNIT #3. VACUUM PUMP ON LEFT, CONDENSER TURBINE ON RIGHT, JET CONDENSER IN CENTER REAR - Georgetown Steam Plant, South Warsaw Street, King County Airport, Seattle, King County, WA

  4. South side. Also showing forebay, wing for the main control ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South side. Also showing forebay, wing for the main control room, and evaporative cooling unit at left - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 2, Bounded by Interstate 8 to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  5. 13. TOOL ROOM SHOWING W. ROBERTSON MACHINE & FOUNDRY CO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. TOOL ROOM SHOWING W. ROBERTSON MACHINE & FOUNDRY CO. NO. 5 POWER HACKSAW (FOREGROUND) AND WELLS METAL BAND SAW (BACKGROUND). VIEW SOUTHEAST - Oldman Boiler Works, Office/Machine Shop, 32 Illinois Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  6. Genital Herpes Vaccine Shows Promise in Animal Trials

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163137.html Genital Herpes Vaccine Shows Promise in Animal Trials Two-pronged approach ... THURSDAY, Jan. 19, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A new vaccine for genital herpes could be nearing human clinical ...

  7. 6. EXTERIOR OF REAR (EAST END) AND NORTH SIDE SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. EXTERIOR OF REAR (EAST END) AND NORTH SIDE SHOWING ASBESTOS SIDING, BACKYARD LAWN, AND CLOTHESLINE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  8. BLDG 101, CENTRAL ENTRY/ PASSAGE SHOWING LEAD FLOOR, STEEL WALLS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLDG 101, CENTRAL ENTRY/ PASSAGE SHOWING LEAD FLOOR, STEEL WALLS AND ASBESTOS CEILING - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Operational Storage Building, Fifteenth Street near Kolekole Road intersection, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, SHOWING MULTIPLE COMPARTMENTS, VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, SHOWING MULTIPLE COMPARTMENTS, VIEW FACING SOUTH. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Large Gun Position, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  10. FEATURE A. CONCRETE ANTIAIRCRAFT GUN POSITION, SHOWING CORAL RUBBLE BERM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE A. CONCRETE ANTI-AIRCRAFT GUN POSITION, SHOWING CORAL RUBBLE BERM, VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Battery-Anti-Aircraft Gun Position, South of Point Cruz Road & west of Coral Sea Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  11. Satellite Movie Shows Hurricane Cristobal Speeding Through North Atlantic

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of NOAA's GOES-East satellite imagery from August 26 through 29 shows Hurricane Cristobal changing into a post-tropical storm in the North Atlantic Ocean. Credit: NASA/NOAA GOES Project

  12. 8. Environmental view facing northwest showing pond in relationship to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Environmental view facing northwest showing pond in relationship to house - John Bly House, East side of County Road 857, just north of intersection with Quarry Run Road, Cheat Neck, Monongalia County, WV

  13. 7. William E. Barrett, Photographer, 1974. SKEWED VIEW SHOWING CHEAT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. William E. Barrett, Photographer, 1974. SKEWED VIEW SHOWING CHEAT RIVER VALLEY, REMAINS OF 1887 PIER AND c. 1900 MASONRY ARCHES. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Tray Run Viaduct, Spanning Tray Run, Rowlesburg, Preston County, WV

  14. Environmental perspective facing south showing chicken house, tractor shed, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Environmental perspective facing south showing chicken house, tractor shed, and homestead - Norris Farm, .5 mile west of County Road 857 & .25 mile east of County Road 88/1, Cheat Neck, Monongalia County, WV

  15. 2. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING EAST SHOWING SOUTH SIDE OF BRIDGE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING EAST SHOWING SOUTH SIDE OF BRIDGE. SHALLOW ARCH ON EXTREME RIGHT SPANS ELLIS ST. - Sudbury River Aqueduct, Echo Bridge, Spanning Charles River at Upper Newton Falls, Newton, Middlesex County, MA

  16. 20. BANKING ROOM, LOOKING SOUTH FROM NORTHWEST CORNER, SHOWING ESCALATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. BANKING ROOM, LOOKING SOUTH FROM NORTHWEST CORNER, SHOWING ESCALATOR ENTRANCE FROM STREET ON RIGHT AND BALCONY EDGES OF TWO MEZZANINES BEYOND - Philadelphia Saving Fund Society, Twelfth & Market Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. 1. View southeast showing Kenyon Village from bridge over tracks ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View southeast showing Kenyon Village from bridge over tracks on Main Street in village of Shamrock, Richmond-Charlestown, Rhode Island. - Kenyon Village, Kenyon School Road, Sherman Avenue, & Lewiston Avenue, Richmond (historical), Providence County, RI

  18. 8. 320 FOOT LEVEL, SWING ARM NINE SHOWING BACK SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. 320 FOOT LEVEL, SWING ARM NINE SHOWING BACK SIDE OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHAMBER (WHITE ROOM). WHITE ROOM MADE CONNECTION WITH CAPSULE ON LAUNCH VEHICLE. - Mobile Launcher One, Kennedy Space Center, Titusville, Brevard County, FL

  19. 34. View of pier 3, showing supporting main anchor arm ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. View of pier 3, showing supporting main anchor arm and cantilever arm spans, as seen from shore near pier 4, looking north - Williamstown-Marietta Bridge, Spanning Ohio River between Williamstown & Marietta, Williamstown, Wood County, WV

  20. 7. DETAIL VIEW OF ROCKER ARM, SHOWING POCKETS, LUGS, INCLINED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL VIEW OF ROCKER ARM, SHOWING POCKETS, LUGS, INCLINED STOPPING BLOCK AT SHOREWARD END OF TRACK GIRDER - Seddon Island Scherzer Rolling Lift Bridge, Spanning Garrison Channel from Tampa to Seddon Island, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  1. 22. View showing main anchor arm, as viewed from main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. View showing main anchor arm, as viewed from main cantilever arm looking south. Note upper chord eyebar arrangement. - Williamstown-Marietta Bridge, Spanning Ohio River between Williamstown & Marietta, Williamstown, Wood County, WV

  2. 6. DETAIL VIEW OF NORTHEAST END OF BRIDGE, SHOWING ROCKER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL VIEW OF NORTHEAST END OF BRIDGE, SHOWING ROCKER ARM PORTION OF BASCULE - Seddon Island Scherzer Rolling Lift Bridge, Spanning Garrison Channel from Tampa to Seddon Island, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  3. Interior view, detail view of southeast elevation to show niche ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, detail view of southeast elevation to show niche four tiers down from the east/one up from the south corner; bust is of Mendelssohn - National Park Seminary, Ballroom, Linden Lane, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  4. Interior view, close view of northwest elevation to show niche ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, close view of northwest elevation to show niche two tiers down from the west corner (niche also shown in MD-1109-F-8) - National Park Seminary, Ballroom, Linden Lane, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  5. Interior view, close view of the northwest elevation to show ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, close view of the northwest elevation to show niche four tiers down from the west corner/one from the north - National Park Seminary, Ballroom, Linden Lane, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  6. Interior view, close view of northwest elevation to show niche ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, close view of northwest elevation to show niche one tier down from the west corner; here the bust is of Beethoven - National Park Seminary, Ballroom, Linden Lane, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  7. 7. Building 7 interior, west end of building showing tier ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Building 7 interior, west end of building showing tier of skylight windows and modern equipment. View looking west. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), Building No. 7, 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. 10. NORTHWEST END OF WHITSETT PLANT SHOWING PIPELINES PROBABLY FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. NORTHWEST END OF WHITSETT PLANT SHOWING PIPELINES PROBABLY FOR FIRE WATER STORAGE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Whitsett Pump Plant, West side of Colorado River, north of Parker Dam, Parker Dam, San Bernardino County, CA

  9. 6. VIEW OF SPILLWAY TIMBERS AND WATER CONTROL BOX, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF SPILLWAY TIMBERS AND WATER CONTROL BOX, SHOWING WATER CONTROL BOX WITH LOWERED LAKE LEVEL - Three Bears Lake & Dams, Water Control Box, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

  10. 12. June 1988 INTERIOR, SOUTHWEST CORNER; SHOWING FIREFINDER (FOREGROUND), LIGHTNING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. June 1988 INTERIOR, SOUTHWEST CORNER; SHOWING FIREFINDER (FOREGROUND), LIGHTNING STOOL AND BED (BOTH TO RIGHT OF FIREFINDER) - Suntop Lookout, Forest Road 510, Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest, Greenwater, Pierce County, WA

  11. Overview of transformer platform showing three original stepup transformer (center), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of transformer platform showing three original step-up transformer (center), steel switchback (right), and modern step-down transformer (foreground), view to northwest - Morony Hydroelectric Facility, Dam and Powerhouse, Morony Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  12. 45. SELAH LINE, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING END OF LINE AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. SELAH LINE, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING END OF LINE AT LARSON FRUIT COMPANY - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  13. 36. ORCHARD LINE, LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING PACIFIC FRUIT PACKING HOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. ORCHARD LINE, LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING PACIFIC FRUIT PACKING HOUSE NEAR END OF LINE - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  14. 2. View facing east showing the south elevation (rear) of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View facing east showing the south elevation (rear) of the garage, loading docks and rail spur, with Providence Fruit & Produce Building beyond. - Armour & Company Building, 100 Harris Avenue, Providence, Providence County, RI

  15. 19. VERTICAL VIEW, FROM DECK, SHOWING CONNECTION OF CENTER TRUSS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VERTICAL VIEW, FROM DECK, SHOWING CONNECTION OF CENTER TRUSS TENSION BARS, DIAGONAL TENSION RODS, AND LATTICE-JOINED VERTICAL CHANNELS - Lenox Bridge, Spanning Obion River, Rural Road S8025, Lenox, Dyer County, TN

  16. 13. View South, showing the remaining pier footings for the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View South, showing the remaining pier footings for the steam engine water tower for the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad. - Cotton Hill Station Bridge, Spanning New River at State Route 16, Cotton Hill, Fayette County, WV

  17. 9. INTERIOR VIEW OF OPERATING HOUSE NO. 1, SHOWING DETAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. INTERIOR VIEW OF OPERATING HOUSE NO. 1, SHOWING DETAIL OF ELECTRICAL CONTROL PANELS, WORM WHEEL GEAR ASSEMBLY, AND NO. 1 CONTROL GATE HAND BRAKE, LOOKING WEST - Long Lake Hydroelectric Plant, Spillway Dam, Spanning Spokane River, Ford, Stevens County, WA

  18. Interior view of bedroom 2 showing louvers in former exterior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of bedroom 2 showing louvers in former exterior window opening, facing northwest. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  19. Interior view of groundfloor servants bath showing original casement windows, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of ground-floor servants bath showing original casement windows, shower stall, and pipes at ceiling, facing southeast. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  20. General view of building in context showing residences fronting Dargue ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of building in context showing residences fronting Dargue Avenue Circle, facing south. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  1. View of southwest corner showing ell addition and carport, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of southwest corner showing ell addition and carport, facing northeast. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  2. Interior view of hall to bath 1 showing typical doors ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of hall to bath 1 showing typical doors and attic scuttle, facing east. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  3. Oblique view of northwest corner showing screened openings at ground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of northwest corner showing screened openings at ground floor and mission scrolls, facing east. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  4. Interior view of groundfloor porch showing exposed concrete floor slab ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of ground-floor porch showing exposed concrete floor slab system, facing west. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  5. Interior view of bath 1 showing original tub and shower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of bath 1 showing original tub and shower stall, facing southwest. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  6. 12. INTERIOR VIEW OF TRANSFORMER BUILDING, HIGHLINE PUMP PLANT, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. INTERIOR VIEW OF TRANSFORMER BUILDING, HIGHLINE PUMP PLANT, SHOWING NEW SWITCHES AND METERS, December 3, 1952 - Highline Canal & Pumping Station, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  7. 8. Close view looking from the east to show cistern ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Close view looking from the east to show cistern and electric meter - Piece Sur Piece Building (House), On dirt road off of Highway 494, about 1 1/2 miles Northwest of Bermuda, Bermuda, Natchitoches Parish, LA

  8. 49. Photocopy of photograph, AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING VIEW OF CNJ ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. Photocopy of photograph, AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING VIEW OF CNJ BRIDGE PRIOR TO DEVELOPMENT OF PORT ELIZABETH - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Newark Bay Lift Bridge, Spanning Newark Bay, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  9. 39. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1944. VIEW SHOWING SHEEP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1944. VIEW SHOWING SHEEP CROSSING BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST FROM CORRAL AT EAST APPROACH TO WALKWAY. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  10. 34. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, October 10, 1944. VIEW SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, October 10, 1944. VIEW SHOWING HORSESHOE DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, LOOKING WEST. ONLY THE BRIDGE TOWERS REMAIN. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  11. 3. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING THE ENTIRE BRIDGE FROM EAST CABLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING THE ENTIRE BRIDGE FROM EAST CABLE ANCHORAGE (EXTREME LEFT) TO WEST CABLE ANCHORAGE (UPPER RIGHT CORNER). March 1987. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  12. 38. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1944. VIEW SHOWING BURROS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1944. VIEW SHOWING BURROS (OR MULES) CROSSING BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  13. 90. STARBOARD CATAPULT AFT LOOKING FORWARD SHOWING CROSSHEAD, RAILS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    90. STARBOARD CATAPULT - AFT LOOKING FORWARD SHOWING CROSSHEAD, RAILS, RAM CYLINDER, RAM (ON DECK) AND RETRACTING ENGINE SHEAVE IN THE OVERHEAD. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  14. 6. DETAIL VIEW OF ENTRANCE GATES, SHOWING IRON GATE, STONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL VIEW OF ENTRANCE GATES, SHOWING IRON GATE, STONE WORK, AND GATE STOP FROM SOUTHEAST OF NORTHWEST ELEMENTS. - William Enston Home, Entrance Gate, 900 King Street, Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  15. 11. UNDERSIDE FROM SOUTH ABUTMENT SHOWING FLOOR SYSTEM, WALKWAY, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. UNDERSIDE FROM SOUTH ABUTMENT SHOWING FLOOR SYSTEM, WALKWAY, AND FIRST PIER. LOOKING NORTH. - Rue Road Bridge, Rue Road, spanning Matchaponix Brook, .35 mile east of intersection with Route 613, Jamesburg, Middlesex County, NJ

  16. 12. Exterior detail view of roof structure at eave, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Exterior detail view of roof structure at eave, showing exposed rafter tails, skip sheathing and gutter - American Railway Express Company Freight Building, 1060 Northeast Division Street, Bend, Deschutes County, OR

  17. GPM Shows Large Rainfall Totals from Typhoon Dujuan

    NASA Video Gallery

    GPM showed that Taiwan's heaviest rainfall totals of over 275 mm (10.8 inches) were located along the coast south of where Typhoon Dujuan made landfall. The highest rainfall totals were found over ...

  18. East side, showing ruin of brownstone column capital that originally ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East side, showing ruin of brownstone column capital that originally supported the east side portico, a feature that was destroyed in the 1886 earthquake - William Ravenel House, 13 East Battery Street, Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  19. 53. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH NORTHEAST SHOWING THE REMAINS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH NORTHEAST SHOWING THE REMAINS OF A WOODEN SETTLING BOX IN THE BACKGROUND RIGHT. AMALGAMATING PANS IN THE FOREGROUND. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  20. CRIB DAM, LOOKING ALONG DAM FROM WEST ABUTMENT, SHOWING PLANK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CRIB DAM, LOOKING ALONG DAM FROM WEST ABUTMENT, SHOWING PLANK SHEATHING IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO EAST - Kachess Dam, 1904 Cascade Canal Company Crib Dam, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  1. View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, showing floor boards, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, showing floor boards, cross beams and notches for wall post beams. - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  2. View of double floor boards with mortises cross beams, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of double floor boards with mortises cross beams, showing spikes and flooring nails (Lower board layer exposed) - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  3. View of Northwest corner of the Merry Generator House showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Northwest corner of the Merry Generator House showing floor boards and cross beams. Shifting of structure evident in staggered wall board profile. - Arthur Holmes Merry Generator House, Signal Lake North of Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  4. View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, showing floor boards, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, showing floor boards, wall boards, tenoned uprights and mortised sill beams. - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  5. 16. MASONRY DETAIL NO. 2, NORTH TRAINING WALL, SHOWING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. MASONRY DETAIL NO. 2, NORTH TRAINING WALL, SHOWING THE RUBBLE CORE WHERE THE FACING STONES HAVE BEEN REMOVED. - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  6. 8. WEST END OF NORTH TRAINING WALL, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. WEST END OF NORTH TRAINING WALL, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING THE LIGHTHOUSE SITE OFFSHORE, AND THE UNIDENTIFIED STRUCTURE FOUNDATIONS ONSHORE AT FAR RIGHT. - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  7. 10. UPSTREAM SIDE OF UPPER MITER GATES SHOWING STOWED LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. UPSTREAM SIDE OF UPPER MITER GATES SHOWING STOWED LEFT WING OF UPPER GUARD GATE (FAR LEFT). VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Starved Rock Locks & Dam, Illinois Waterway River mile 231, Peru, La Salle County, IL

  8. 19. STAIRWAY TO TAINTER GATE SECTION OF SPILLWAY, SHOWING STEAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. STAIRWAY TO TAINTER GATE SECTION OF SPILLWAY, SHOWING STEAM PIPES EMERGING FROM BOILERHOUSE (RIGHT) AND CONCRETE TAINTER GATE COUNTER WEIGHTS (BACKGROUND RIGHT). VIEW TO SOUTH. - Starved Rock Locks & Dam, Illinois Waterway River mile 231, Peru, La Salle County, IL

  9. 3. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING (FROM LEFT TO RIGHT) LOCKMASTER'S HOUSE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING (FROM LEFT TO RIGHT) LOCKMASTER'S HOUSE, VISITORS CENTER, AND NEW GARAGE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Starved Rock Locks & Dam, Illinois Waterway River mile 231, Peru, La Salle County, IL

  10. 1. FRONT (SOUTH) SIDE OF LOCKMASTER'S HOUSE SHOWING PORTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. FRONT (SOUTH) SIDE OF LOCKMASTER'S HOUSE SHOWING PORTION OF LOCK CHAMBER IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO NORTH. - Starved Rock Locks & Dam, Lockmaster's House, Illinois Waterway River mile 231, Peru, La Salle County, IL

  11. 23. VIEW, FROM EAST, SHOWING DIVING AND MAIN POOLS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW, FROM EAST, SHOWING DIVING AND MAIN POOLS AND WEST ELEVATION OF OFFICE AND FIRST AID BUILDING - Glen Echo Park, Crystal Swimming Pool, 7300 McArthur Boulevard, Glen Echo, Montgomery County, MD

  12. 5. South wall of Gas House showing connection to bridge. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. South wall of Gas House showing connection to bridge. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Scranton Yards, Gas House, 100 block of South Washington Avenue, west side, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  13. 32. Otter Lake Dam. View from downstream show how the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Otter Lake Dam. View from downstream show how the dam blends into its environment. Looking east-northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  14. 58. VIEW SHOWING GRAFFITI IN STAIRWELL INSIDE 'CATFISH' SILO Everett ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. VIEW SHOWING GRAFFITI IN STAIRWELL INSIDE 'CATFISH' SILO Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. 23. Surrender interview site, showing Pemberton Avenue concrete slab road ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Surrender interview site, showing Pemberton Avenue concrete slab road type with gutter (asphalt construction typical on Union and Confederate Avenues), view to the sw. - Vicksburg National Military Park Roads & Bridges, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  16. 1. EAST SIDE SHOWING LOW CINDERBLOCK WALL AND ASPHALTPAVED PARKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EAST SIDE SHOWING LOW CINDER-BLOCK WALL AND ASPHALT-PAVED PARKING LOT FOR NEW CONTROL BUILDING. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Control Station, Hydrographer's Office, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  17. 12. VIEW NORTH, ACROSS DECK CENTER AREA SHOWING ASPHALT AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW NORTH, ACROSS DECK CENTER AREA SHOWING ASPHALT AND NORTH SIDE GUARD WALL - Route 1 Extension, South Street Viaduct, Spanning Conrail & Wheeler Point Road at South Street, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  18. 9. VIEW NORTH, ACROSS DECK AT EAST SIDE SHOWING GRANITE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW NORTH, ACROSS DECK AT EAST SIDE SHOWING GRANITE BLOCK PAVING, EXPANSION JOINT AND NORTH SIDE PIPE RAILING - Route 1 Extension, South Street Viaduct, Spanning Conrail & Wheeler Point Road at South Street, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  19. 16. PIER CAP DETAIL, SHOWING EXPANSION AND FIXED BEARING SHOES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. PIER CAP DETAIL, SHOWING EXPANSION AND FIXED BEARING SHOES, BOTTOM CHORD / END POST CONNECTION AND CANTILEVERED SIDEWALK. VIEW TO WEST. - Holbrook Bridge, Spanning Little Colorado River at AZ 77, Holbrook, Navajo County, AZ

  20. 13. Interior, Hangar 1301, showing bottom of a truss, steel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Interior, Hangar 1301, showing bottom of a truss, steel hinge point and expansion joint, and concrete buttress, looking north northwest - Dover Air Force Base, Hangar No. 1301, Dover, Kent County, DE

  1. 13. VIEW LOOKING INSIDE SILO, SHOWING ELEVATOR (ON LEFT) AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW LOOKING INSIDE SILO, SHOWING ELEVATOR (ON LEFT) AND AIR CONDITIONING UNIT Everett Weinreb, photographer, April 1988 - Los Pinetos Nike Missile Site, Santa Clara Road, Los Angeles National Forest, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. 9. Roof. A view looking north, showing the elevator bulkheads ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Roof. A view looking north, showing the elevator bulkheads and the retrofit air-conditioning compressors and air handlers. - John T. Beasley Building, 632 Cherry Street (between Sixth & Seventh Streets), Terre Haute, Vigo County, IN

  3. 32. Coffee bean sluiceway on ground floor showing chute bringing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Coffee bean sluiceway on ground floor showing chute bringing beans from first floor hopper. HAER PR, 6-MAGU, 1B-17 - Hacienda Buena Vista, PR Route 10 (Ponce to Arecibo), Magueyes, Ponce Municipio, PR

  4. 7. DETAIL VIEW OF PIN CONNECTION, NORTH WEB, SHOWING FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL VIEW OF PIN CONNECTION, NORTH WEB, SHOWING FLOOR BEANS, STRINGERS, LATTICE BRACING, EYEBARS AND DECKING, LOOKING SOUTH - Four Mile Bridge, Spanning Elk River on County Road 42, Steamboat Springs, Routt County, CO

  5. 8. DETAIL: GENERATOR FLOOR DIABLO POWERHOUSE SHOWING BUTTERFLY VALVE CONTROL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL: GENERATOR FLOOR DIABLO POWERHOUSE SHOWING BUTTERFLY VALVE CONTROL, MOSAIC TILE FLOOR, AS SEEN FROM VISITORS GALLERY, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Diablo Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 6.1 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  6. Detail of exciter turbine showing shaft, scroll case, servomotor and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of exciter turbine showing shaft, scroll case, servo-motor and operating ring (left foreground) and hand wheel for butterfly valve (right background) - Morony Hydroelectric Facility, Dam and Powerhouse, Morony Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  7. 6. Photocopy of drawing showing pile bridge construction on Erie ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy of drawing showing pile bridge construction on Erie Railway in 1841. Original illustration in DeGolyer Collection, Dallas, Texas. - Erie Railway, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Deposit, Broome County, NY

  8. 1. Photocopy of drawing showing pile superstructure of early railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of drawing showing pile superstructure of early railroad track construction. Original illustration in Degolyer Collection, Dallas, Texas - Erie Railway, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Deposit, Broome County, NY

  9. Interior view of coffee processing structure No. 1, showing concrete ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of coffee processing structure No. 1, showing concrete reservoirs on floor, view towards the west - Finca Silem, Coffee Processing Structure No. 1, Highway 139, Kilometer 9.3, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

  10. 9. INTERIOR, VIEW SHOWING MAIN STAIRWAY AND ENTRY HALL THROUGH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. INTERIOR, VIEW SHOWING MAIN STAIRWAY AND ENTRY HALL THROUGH ENTRY INTO PARLOR. TAKEN FROM SOUTHWEST CORNER OF PARLOR, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Farquhar House, 1601 Sandy Spring Road (Route 108), Sandy Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  11. EPA Survey Shows $271 Billion Needed for Nations Wastewater Infrastructure

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) today released a survey showing that $271 billion is needed to maintain and improve the nation's wastewater infrastructure, including the pipes that carry wastewater to treatment plants, th

  12. 5. View showing Crooked River High Bridge in background and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View showing Crooked River High Bridge in background and Ralph Modjeski railroad bridge in foreground - Crooked River High Bridge, Spanning Crooked River Gorge at Dalles-California Highway, Terrebonne, Deschutes County, OR

  13. 9. MAIN (WEST) ELEVATION, DETAIL OF DOORWAY, SHOWING FRONTISPIECE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. MAIN (WEST) ELEVATION, DETAIL OF DOORWAY, SHOWING FRONTISPIECE OF COMPOSITE ATTACHED COLUMNS, SWAN'S NECK PEDIMENT WITH PINEAPPLE, EGG-AND-DART RELIEF AROUND ARCH - Mt. Harmon Plantation at World's End, Earleville, Cecil County, MD

  14. GOES-West Shows U.S. West's Record Rainfall

    NASA Video Gallery

    A new time-lapse animation of data from NOAA's GOES-West satellite provides a good picture of why the U.S. West Coast continues to experience record rainfall. The new animation shows the movement o...

  15. 2. Looking West, showing a view of the two through ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Looking West, showing a view of the two through trusses and only two of the pony trusses from the downstream side of the structure. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA

  16. 2. View of NE elevation of corn crib showing doubletrack ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View of NE elevation of corn crib showing double-track rail system leading to upper level. - Laurel Valley Sugar Plantation, Corn Crib, 2 miles South of Thibodaux on State Route 308, Thibodaux, Lafourche Parish, LA

  17. 3. Interior view of corn crib showing heavytimber framing, railed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Interior view of corn crib showing heavy-timber framing, railed trackway and corn car at upper level. - Laurel Valley Sugar Plantation, Corn Crib, 2 miles South of Thibodaux on State Route 308, Thibodaux, Lafourche Parish, LA

  18. 11. DETAIL VIEW OF GENERATOR NO. 1, GENERATOR ROOM, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DETAIL VIEW OF GENERATOR NO. 1, GENERATOR ROOM, SHOWING GRAVITY LUBRICATING OIL BOX ABOVE GENERATOR - Nine Mile Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, State Highway 291 along Spokane River, Nine Mile Falls, Spokane County, WA

  19. 30. Photocopy of lithograph showing Empire Stores at corner (Baker, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Photocopy of lithograph showing Empire Stores at corner (Baker, Ostheimer and Co.) from Everts, Ensign & Everts, Combination Atlas Map of Erie County, 1876 - Empire Stores, 501-505 State Street, Erie, Erie County, PA

  20. Interior view, detail to show the ornate bronze doors to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, detail to show the ornate bronze doors to the entrance lobby elevators - United States Department of Commerce, Bounded by Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and E streets and Constitution Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  1. Interior view, law library closer view to show painted details ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, law library closer view to show painted details on the groin vaults - United States Department of Commerce, Bounded by Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and E streets and Constitution Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  2. Detail view to show richness of materials such as the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view to show richness of materials such as the Fourteenth Street vestibule with its gilded groin-vaulted ceiling - United States Department of Commerce, Bounded by Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and E streets and Constitution Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. 129. FULL AERIAL VIEW SHOWING FORWARD PORT QUARTER, ENTERING PEARL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    129. FULL AERIAL VIEW SHOWING FORWARD PORT QUARTER, ENTERING PEARL HARBOR AFTER APOLLO 11 RECOVERY. 26 JULY 1969. (NATIONAL ARCHIVES NO. 428-KN-18090) - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  4. 9. VIEW SHOWING TRUSSES FROM DECK WITH 4' RANGE POLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW SHOWING TRUSSES FROM DECK WITH 4' RANGE POLE AT SECOND VERTICAL POST ON SOUTH SIDE, LOOKING WEST - White River Bridge, Spanning White River at U.S. Highway 70, De Valls Bluff, Prairie County, AR

  5. 8. LOOKING EAST FROM TOP OF WATER TOWER: VIEW SHOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. LOOKING EAST FROM TOP OF WATER TOWER: VIEW SHOWS BUILDING #626 AND PORTION OF QUADRANGLE - Fort Sam Houston, San Antonio Depot, Water-Watch Tower, Grayson Street & New Braunfels Avenue, San Antonio, Bexar County, TX

  6. General view of the archaeological site showing excavation and revealing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the archaeological site showing excavation and revealing the steps leading down into the eighteenth-century burial vault - Harry Buck House, North of Main Street (14800 Governor Oden Bowie Drive), Upper Marlboro, Prince George's County, MD

  7. Detail view of stone entrance gate pylon showing carved site ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of stone entrance gate pylon showing carved site name and Great Seal of the United States. View looking northeast. - Flanders Field American Cemetery & Memorial, Wortegemseweg 117, Waregem, West Flanders (Belgium)

  8. 8. IRON MOUNTAIN SHAFT ROOM TO UNIT #5 SHOWING TYPICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. IRON MOUNTAIN SHAFT ROOM TO UNIT #5 SHOWING TYPICAL ARRANGEMENT OF SHAFT AND PUMP IN COLORADO RIVER AQUEDUCT PUMPHOUSES. - Iron Mountain Pump Plant, South of Danby Lake, north of Routes 62 & 177 junction, Rice, San Bernardino County, CA

  9. 19. Interior view of eastern segment of Roundhouse showing clerestory ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Interior view of eastern segment of Roundhouse showing clerestory lighting and locomotive smoke flues. - Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Roundhouse, Site Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  10. 12. VIEW OF ELEVATOR MACHINE ROOM, SHOWING LOW CABINET TEAT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF ELEVATOR MACHINE ROOM, SHOWING LOW CABINET TEAT HOUSES HYDRAULIC CYLINDER AND CLOSET AT LEFT THAT HOUSES OPERATING VALVE, LOOKING NORTHEAST - 72 Marlborough Street, Residential Hydraulic Elevator, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  11. 22. VIEW SOUTH, INTERIOR OF SOUTH PIT, SHOWING FINAL STEP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. VIEW SOUTH, INTERIOR OF SOUTH PIT, SHOWING FINAL STEP IN GEARING THAT DRIVES OPERATING WHEEL, WITH HYDRAULIC SHAFT BRAKE - Mystic River Bridge, Spanning Mystic River at U.S. Route 1, Groton, New London County, CT

  12. 4. VENTILATION FAN SHOWING RELATIVE POSITION IN THE AIR TUNNEL. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VENTILATION FAN SHOWING RELATIVE POSITION IN THE AIR TUNNEL. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Ozark Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  13. 3. General view showing rear of looking glass aircraft. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. General view showing rear of looking glass aircraft. View to north. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  14. 4. View showing underside of wing, looking glass aircraft. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View showing underside of wing, looking glass aircraft. View to north. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  15. 18. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN NO. 1 SHOWING STAINED CABINETRY ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN NO. 1 SHOWING STAINED CABINETRY ON OPPOSITE WALL FROM PAINTED CABINETS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 6, Cashbaugh-Kilpatrick House, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  16. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE LANAI. SHOWING THE ORIGINAL STAINED CONCRETE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF THE LANAI. SHOWING THE ORIGINAL STAINED CONCRETE FLOOR WITH INCISED LINES, AND HINGED DOOR TO GARAGE WITH VERTICAL BOARD PANELING (BACKGROUND). VIEW FACING NORTHWEST. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type J, 701 Beard Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  17. INTERIOR VIEW OF ENTRY. SHOWING THE STAINED CONCRETE FLOOR AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF ENTRY. SHOWING THE STAINED CONCRETE FLOOR AND WINDOW WITH DIAMOND PATTERN MUNTINS. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type F, 602 Beard Avenue, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  18. DETAIL OF THE FRONT PORCH SHOWING THE SQUARE COLUMN, COVED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF THE FRONT PORCH SHOWING THE SQUARE COLUMN, COVED CEILING, AND STAINED CONCRETE FLOOR. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type H, 208 Sixth Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  19. 4. GENERAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING BRIDGE PARAPETS AND SETTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. GENERAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING BRIDGE PARAPETS AND SETTING (SCALE ROD IS MEASURED IN FEET) - Spring Lake Bridge, Spanning Bob Barnes Branch at County Road No. 36D, Belleville, Yell County, AR

  20. 6. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING DRAINAGE HOLE AT BASE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING DRAINAGE HOLE AT BASE OF THE INTERIOR NORTH WALL OF THE NORTH ARCH - Spring Lake Bridge, Spanning Bob Barnes Branch at County Road No. 36D, Belleville, Yell County, AR

  1. Overview of interior showing turbine (center) and transformer (left). View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of interior showing turbine (center) and transformer (left). View to north-northwest - Flint Creek Hydroelectric Project, Powerhouse, Approximately 3 miles southeast of Porters Corner on Powerhouse Road, Philipsburg, Granite County, MT

  2. 4. DETAIL ALONG WEST SIDE, SHOWING EXTERIOR STAIRWAY, BUILDING NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL ALONG WEST SIDE, SHOWING EXTERIOR STAIRWAY, BUILDING NO. 1 IN THE CENTER DISTANCE, AND ONE OF THE BENDING SHOPS AT RIGHT. - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Engineering Building, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  3. 23. VIEW NORTHWEST ON VIRGINIA AVENUE AXIS SHOWING NEW JERSEY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW NORTHWEST ON VIRGINIA AVENUE AXIS SHOWING NEW JERSEY AVENUE OVERPASS AND WASHINGTON MONUMENT. TAKEN FROM UNDERNEATH THE SOUTHEAST/SOUTHWEST FREEWAY. - Virginia Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  4. 22. VIEW SOUTHWEST ON VIRGINIA AVENUE AXIS SHOWING SOUTH SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. VIEW SOUTHWEST ON VIRGINIA AVENUE AXIS SHOWING SOUTH SIDE OF GARFIELD PARK, NARROW ROADWAY, RAILROAD TRACKS ENTERING THE TUNNEL, AND THE SOUTHEAST/SOUTHWEST FREEWAY. TAKEN FROM THE NEW JERSEY AVENUE OVERPASS. - Virginia Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. 2. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING COKE MACHINE (CENTER), INTERMEDIATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING COKE MACHINE (CENTER), INTERMEDIATE TIPPLE (RIGHT), AND OVENS - Shoaf Mine & Coke Works, East side of Shoaf, off Township Route 472, Shoaf, Fayette County, PA

  6. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF COKE WORKS LOOKING WEST, SHOWING OVENS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF COKE WORKS LOOKING WEST, SHOWING OVENS IN FOREGROUND, LARRY CAR TIPPLE TO THE RIGHT, AND COAL TIPPLE IN CENTERGROUND - Lucernemines Coke Works, 0.2 mile East of Lucerne, Lucerne Mines, Indiana County, PA

  7. 30. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #318, showing radar control. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #318, showing radar control. Console and line printers - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  8. 20. Third approach span, comparing pier types and showing guardrail ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Third approach span, comparing pier types and showing guardrail and connection to arch spring point, looking east - U.S. Route 1 Nottoway River Bridge, U.S. Route 1 spanning Nottoway River, McKenney, Dinwiddie County, VA

  9. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey February, 1953 LOOKING EAST, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey February, 1953 LOOKING EAST, SHOWING A GROUP OF HAGERSTOWN HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS IN THE PROCESS OF UNCOVERING THE ADDITIONAL FOUNDATION - Jonathan Hager House (Foundation), Hagerstown, Washington County, MD

  10. 20. VIEW, LOOKING NORTH FROM BOSTON, SHOWING RAILING, PEDESTRIAN STAIR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. VIEW, LOOKING NORTH FROM BOSTON, SHOWING RAILING, PEDESTRIAN STAIR, AND '10 SMOOT' MARKER (see data pages) - Harvard Bridge, Spanning Charles River at Massachusetts Avenue, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  11. 4. VIEW SHOWING EXCAVATION IN ARIZONA CANAL, 8 MILES NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW SHOWING EXCAVATION IN ARIZONA CANAL, 8 MILES NORTHEAST OF PHOENIX. NOTE MEN DRILLING AND EXCAVATING IN OPERATION; CAMELBACK MOUNTAIN IN THE DISTANCE Photographer: Walter J. Lubken. No date - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  12. EXTERIOR ELEVATION, LOOKING SOUTH, ALSO SHOWING THE NORFOLK SOUTHERN STEAM ...

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    EXTERIOR ELEVATION, LOOKING SOUTH, ALSO SHOWING THE NORFOLK SOUTHERN STEAM RESTORATION FLOOR INTERIOR WITH A DRILL PRESS (LEFT) AND BORING MILL (RIGHT). - Norfolk & Southern Steam Locomotive No. 1218, Norris Yards, East of Ruffner Road, Irondale, Jefferson County, AL

  13. Detail view of Fanno Creek trestle, showing trestle substructure, view ...

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    Detail view of Fanno Creek trestle, showing trestle substructure, view looking north - Oregon Electric Railroad, Fanno Creek Trestle, Garden Home to Wilsonville Segment, Milepost 34.7, Garden Home, Washington County, OR

  14. 5. VIEW NORTHWEST SHOWING AQUEDUCT PRISM. NOTE INTERIOR STONE WORK ...

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    5. VIEW NORTHWEST SHOWING AQUEDUCT PRISM. NOTE INTERIOR STONE WORK OF THE PARAPET WALL AND REMAINS OF 1920 TIMBER AND CONCRETE FLOORING SYSTEM. - Chesapeake & Ohio Canal, Conococheague Creek Aqueduct, Milepost 99.80, Williamsport, Washington County, MD

  15. 17. SOUTH SIDE, EAST HALF, PART 3, SHOWING THE EASTERN ...

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    17. SOUTH SIDE, EAST HALF, PART 3, SHOWING THE EASTERN PART OF THE OFFICES AND BUILDING NO. 12 IN THE DISTANCE BEYOND THE EAST END. - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Inspection & Repair Shops, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  16. Interior view of living and dining areas, showing their separation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of living and dining areas, showing their separation by medio punto, view towards the north, northeast - Pou Coffee Processing Structure, Casa No. 2, Highway 139, Kilometer 12, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

  17. 3. August, 1971. VIEW ALONG CANAL SHOWING BORDER PATH AND ...

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    3. August, 1971. VIEW ALONG CANAL SHOWING BORDER PATH AND BRIDGE FOR INSPECTION - ABOUT ONE MILE FROM CANAL HEAD. - Hurricane Irrigation Canal, State Route 15 Vicinity, Hurricane, Washington County, UT

  18. VIEW FROM PLATFORM FACING ROOMS AND SHOWING TRENCH PLATES. ...

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    VIEW FROM PLATFORM FACING ROOMS AND SHOWING TRENCH PLATES. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Drum & Can Loading Facility, South of Arizona Street near Kamehameha Highway, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. 4. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING EARTHEN BERM AROUND STRUCTURE. NOTE INSTRUMENTATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING EARTHEN BERM AROUND STRUCTURE. NOTE INSTRUMENTATION TRENCH IN FOREGROUND RIGHT; VIEW TO WEST. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28401, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  20. 6. VIEW LOOKING WEST FROM BRIDGE DECK, SHOWING TOP LATERAL ...

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    6. VIEW LOOKING WEST FROM BRIDGE DECK, SHOWING TOP LATERAL BRACING, MAIN TIE AND COUNTERS, SWAY STRUTS AND BRACING, AND INTERMEDIATE POSTS - Hart County Bridge, State Route 181, spanning Savannah River, Hartwell, Hart County, GA

  1. 4. DETAIL VIEW OF EAST (FRONT) ELEVATION, WITH SCALE, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL VIEW OF EAST (FRONT) ELEVATION, WITH SCALE, SHOWING ENTRY, WALL FINISH, VARIOUS WINDOWS AND CORNICE - Sacred Heart Church at Whitemarsh, 16101 Annapolis Road, Bowie, Prince George's County, MD

  2. 7. Contextual view to eastnortheast showing downstream (west) side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Contextual view to east-northeast showing downstream (west) side of bridge in setting, depicting dense riparian nature of area. - Stanislaus River Bridge, Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway at Stanislaus River, Riverbank, Stanislaus County, CA

  3. 6. HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY, INTERIOR SHOWING ORIGINAL GRANITE COLUMNS ...

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    6. HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY, INTERIOR SHOWING ORIGINAL GRANITE COLUMNS AND COLUMN BRICKFACED AFTER THE GREAT FIRE 1904 - Old U.S. Appraisers Stores, Gay & Lombard Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  4. 1. VIEW INTO SHAFT ON FIRST FLOOR, SHOWING OPERATING ROPE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW INTO SHAFT ON FIRST FLOOR, SHOWING OPERATING ROPE TO RIGHT OF DOOR JAMB, OPENING AT LEFT TO FRONT PARLOR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - 72 Marlborough Street, Residential Hydraulic Elevator, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  5. Detail, east truss of south span, showing railing, vertical UL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, east truss of south span, showing railing, vertical U-L, diagonal eyebar U-L with turnbuckle - Castle Garden Bridge, Township Route 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek, Driftwood, Cameron County, PA

  6. 1. General view of stockyards from livestock exchange building showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view of stockyards from livestock exchange building showing (l-r) cattle pens and Buckingham Road, which terminates at "L" Street. View to north. - South Omaha Union Stock Yards, 2900 "O" Plaza, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

  7. 2. FIRST FLOOR, FIRE ENGINE GARAGE, VIEW SHOWING STAIRWAY AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. FIRST FLOOR, FIRE ENGINE GARAGE, VIEW SHOWING STAIRWAY AND FIRE POLE (NOTE THE STAMPWORK ON WALL AND CEILING) - Hoboken Fire Engine Company Number Two, 1313 Washington Street, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  8. 1. SHOWING RELATION OF FIRE CONTROL BUILDING, WATER TANK, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SHOWING RELATION OF FIRE CONTROL BUILDING, WATER TANK, AND TOWER, LOOKING SOUTH - Boswell Bay White Alice Site, Fire Control Building, Chugach National Forest, Cordova, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  9. 3. Oblique view of 215 Division Street, looking southeast, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Oblique view of 215 Division Street, looking southeast, showing rear (west) facade and north side, Fairbanks Company appears at left and 215 Division Street is visible at right - 215 Division Street (House), Rome, Floyd County, GA

  10. 1. Oblique view of 215 Division Street, looking southwest, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Oblique view of 215 Division Street, looking southwest, showing front (east) facade and north side, 213 Division Street is visible at left and 217 Division Street appears at right - 215 Division Street (House), Rome, Floyd County, GA

  11. 2. Oblique view of 215 Division Street, looking northeast, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Oblique view of 215 Division Street, looking northeast, showing rear (west) facade and south side, 217 Division Street is visible at left and Fairbanks Company appears at right - 215 Division Street (House), Rome, Floyd County, GA

  12. 3. Oblique view of 213 Division Street, looking northeast, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Oblique view of 213 Division Street, looking northeast, showing rear (west) facade and south side, 215 Division Street is visible at left and Fairbanks Company appears at right - 213 Division Street (House), Rome, Floyd County, GA

  13. 13. VIEW OF CENTER OF NORTH SECTION, SECOND FLOOR, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF CENTER OF NORTH SECTION, SECOND FLOOR, SHOWING TYPICAL SPACE AND STRUCTURAL CONFIGURATION, LOOKING EAST - Massachusetts Mills, Cloth Room-Section 15, 95 Bridge Street, Lowell, Middlesex County, MA

  14. 18. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING SAWTOOTH MONITOR ROOF AND TYPICAL STRUCTURAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING SAWTOOTH MONITOR ROOF AND TYPICAL STRUCTURAL CONFIGURATION OF TOP STORY, NORTH SECTION, THIRD FLOOR, LOOKING WEST INTO SOUTH SECTION - Massachusetts Mills, Cloth Room-Section 15, 95 Bridge Street, Lowell, Middlesex County, MA

  15. 12. VIEW ALONG SOUTHWEST SIDE OF SECOND FLOOR, SHOWING TYPICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW ALONG SOUTHWEST SIDE OF SECOND FLOOR, SHOWING TYPICAL STRUCTURAL CONFIGURATION AND CONTEMPORARY PARTITIONING FOR OFFICES, LOOKING SOUTH - Massachusetts Mills, Cloth Room-Section 15, 95 Bridge Street, Lowell, Middlesex County, MA

  16. 1. VIEW OF SOUTHWEST ELEVATION SHOWING LOADING DOCK AND CANTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF SOUTHWEST ELEVATION SHOWING LOADING DOCK AND CANTED CORNER WITH OFFICE ENTRANCE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. EASTERN CANAL IS IN FOREGROUND - Massachusetts Mills, Cloth Room-Section 15, 95 Bridge Street, Lowell, Middlesex County, MA

  17. 9. VIEW OF BASEMENT, NORTH SECTION, SHOWING TYPICAL PIER, FOOTINGS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF BASEMENT, NORTH SECTION, SHOWING TYPICAL PIER, FOOTINGS, AND STRUCTURAL MEMBERS FOR FIRST FLOOR ABOVE, LOOKING WEST - Massachusetts Mills, Cloth Room-Section 15, 95 Bridge Street, Lowell, Middlesex County, MA

  18. 22. SOUTHWEST CORNER OF BANKING ROOM, FROM EAST, SHOWING CLOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. SOUTHWEST CORNER OF BANKING ROOM, FROM EAST, SHOWING CLOCK ON SOUTH WALL AND TWO MEZZANINES BEYOND COLUMNS - Philadelphia Saving Fund Society, Twelfth & Market Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. 4. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST SHOWING WEST SIDE OF PIER AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST SHOWING WEST SIDE OF PIER AND PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE CONNECTING MARINE MAMMAL PAVILION WITH BALTIMORE AQUARIUM - Baltimore Inner Harbor, Pier 4, South side of Pratt Street between Frederick Street & Market Place, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  20. 10. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM BEACH; SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM BEACH; SHOWING (LEFT-RIGHT) CAPTAIN'S GALLEY'S GALLEY TO END OF PIER - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA