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Sample records for tabebuia aurea silva

  1. Chemical constituents of Bauhinia aurea.

    PubMed

    Shang, Xiao-Ya; Li, Shuai; Wang, Su-Juan; Yang, Yong-Chun; Shi, Jian-Gong

    2012-01-01

    A new dihydroflavonol glycoside dimer 6,6-bisastilbin (1) and a new nitrile-containing metabolite (Z)-5α,6β-dihydroxy-4β-methoxy-2-cyclohexene-Δ(1,α)-acetonitrile (2), together with three known analogs, bauhinin, bauhinilide, and dehydrodicatechin A, have been isolated from an ethanol extract of Bauhinia aurea. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods.

  2. Red Lapacho (Tabebuia impetiginosa)--a global ethnopharmacological commodity?

    PubMed

    Gómez Castellanos, J Rubén; Prieto, José M; Heinrich, Michael

    2009-01-12

    Red Lapacho (Tabebuia impetiginosa, syn. Tabebuia avellanedae), a canopy tree indigenous to the Amazonian rainforest and other parts of South America, has been acclaimed to be one of the "miraculous" cures for cancer and tumours. For the first time, during the 1960s, it attracted considerable attention in Brazil and Argentina as a 'wonder drug'. Traditionally, the botanical drug is widely used in local and traditional phytomedicine, usually ingested as a decoction prepared from the inner bark of the tree to treat numerous conditions like bacterial and fungal infections, fever, syphilis, malaria, trypanosomiasis, as well as stomach and bladder disorders. As early as 1873, biomedical uses of Red Lapacho ("Pau D'Arco") were reported. In 1967 after reports in the Brazilian press it came back to the light of clinicians (and the public in general). The news magazine O'Cruzeiro started reporting "miraculous" cures in cancer patients in a hospital. Natural sciences interest in the plant also began in the 1960s when the United States National Cancer Institute (NCI) systematically began researching plant extracts all over the world looking for active compounds against cancer and looked at Tabebuia impetiginosa in considerable detail. Two main bioactive components have been isolated from Tabebuia impetiginosa: lapachol and beta-lapachone. beta-Lapachone is considered to be the main anti-tumour compound, and pro-apoptotic effects were observed in vitro. Some mechanistic studies on this compound's molecular effects have been conducted. The other main constituents isolated from Red Lapacho are also reviewed briefly. The drug appears to be generally safe and one of the most important interactions of Tabebuia impetiginosa has been associated with interference in the biological cycle of Vitamin K in the body. The botanical (drug) material available on the international markets seems to be of varying quality and composition, making a specific assessment of the products' therapeutic

  3. Sports Drove Silva to Teach Wellness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deschenie, Tina

    2008-01-01

    This article profiles teacher Leroy Silva (Laguna), 27, a.k.a. "Buster". Silva describes himself as an active guy who stays busy working out, playing basketball, softball, and more recently golf, soccer, and lacrosse. He teaches personal wellness and sports (not physical education), a job he began in 2006. Before that he was a trainer at…

  4. Antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial activity of Calpurnia aurea leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Umer, Shemsu; Tekewe, Alemu; Kebede, Nigatu

    2013-01-28

    In Ethiopia, Calpurnia aurea is used for the treatment of syphilis, malaria, rabies, diabetes, hypertension, diarrhoea, leishmaniasis, trachoma, elephantiasis, fungal diseases and different swellings. However, despite its traditional usage as an antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial agent, there is limited or no information regarding its effectiveness and mode of action in diarrhoea which may be caused by Shigella flexneri, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi. Hence, we evaluated the 80% methanol (MeOH) extract of dried and powdered leaves of C. aurea for its antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial activities. Swiss albino mice of either sex were divided into five groups (five/group): Group I served as control and received vehicle (1% Tween 80) at a dose of 10 ml/kg orally; Group II served as standard and received loperamide at the dose of 3 mg/kg orally; Groups III, IV and V served as test groups and received the 80% MeOH leaf extract of C. aurea at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg orally, respectively. Diarrhoea was induced by oral administration of 0.5 ml castor oil to each mouse, 1 h after the above treatments. During an observation period of 4 h, time of onset of diarrhea, total number of faecal output (frequency of defecation) and weight of faeces excreted by the animals were recorded. Data were analyzed using one way analysis of variance followed by Tukey post test. Antimicrobial activity test was conducted using agar well diffusion assay. Clinical isolates tested were Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. In castor oil induced diarrhea model, the 80% methanol leaf extract of C. aurea at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg and the standard drug loperamide (3 mg/kg) significantly reduced the time of onset of diarrhea, the frequency of defecation (total number of faecal output) and weight of faeces. C. aurea leaf extract also showed good antimicrobial

  5. Antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial activity of Calpurnia aurea leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Ethiopia, Calpurnia aurea is used for the treatment of syphilis, malaria, rabies, diabetes, hypertension, diarrhoea, leishmaniasis, trachoma, elephantiasis, fungal diseases and different swellings. However, despite its traditional usage as an antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial agent, there is limited or no information regarding its effectiveness and mode of action in diarrhoea which may be caused by Shigella flexneri, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi. Hence, we evaluated the 80% methanol (MeOH) extract of dried and powdered leaves of C. aurea for its antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial activities. Methods Swiss albino mice of either sex were divided into five groups (five/group): Group I served as control and received vehicle (1% Tween 80) at a dose of 10 ml/kg orally; Group II served as standard and received loperamide at the dose of 3 mg/kg orally; Groups III, IV and V served as test groups and received the 80% MeOH leaf extract of C. aurea at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg orally, respectively. Diarrhoea was induced by oral administration of 0.5 ml castor oil to each mouse, 1 h after the above treatments. During an observation period of 4 h, time of onset of diarrhea, total number of faecal output (frequency of defecation) and weight of faeces excreted by the animals were recorded. Data were analyzed using one way analysis of variance followed by Tukey post test. Antimicrobial activity test was conducted using agar well diffusion assay. Clinical isolates tested were Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Results In castor oil induced diarrhea model, the 80% methanol leaf extract of C. aurea at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg and the standard drug loperamide (3 mg/kg) significantly reduced the time of onset of diarrhea, the frequency of defecation (total number of faecal output) and weight of faeces. C. aurea leaf extract

  6. Evaluating ipe (Tabebuia, Bignoniaceae) logging in Amazonia: sustainable management or catalyst for forest degradation?

    Treesearch

    Mark Schulze; James Grogan; Chris Uhl; Marco Lentini; Edson Vidal

    2008-01-01

    Prized for their dense, rot-resistant wood, Tabebuia impetiginosa and T. serratifolia (vernacular name = ipeˆ ) are among the most valuable Amazonian timbers. We analyzed the geographical extent, spread and trajectory of ipeˆ logging in Brazilian Amazonia, and evaluated harvest pressure on this forest resource. We also examine Tabebuia population response to reduced-...

  7. Highly oxygenated bisabolenes and an acetylene from Matricaria aurea.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, A A; Abou Elela, M

    1999-06-01

    Reinvestigation of the aerial parts of Matricaria aurea led to the isolation of three new bisabolenes and a new acetylene. The structures of the four compounds, namely (1R*,2R*,3R*,6R*,7R*)1,2,3,6,7- pentahydroxy-bisabol-10(11)-ene, (1R*,2R*,3R*,6R*,7R*)1,2,3,6,7-pentahydroxy-1-acetoxy-bisabol-10(1 1)-ene, (1R*,2R*,3R*,6R*,7R*)1,2,3,6,7-pentahydroxy-2-acetoxy-bisabol-10(1 1)-ene and (3S*,4S*,5R*)-(E)-3,4-dihydroxy-2-(hexa-2,4-diynyliden)-1,6- dioxaspiro-(4,5)decane, were deduced from the high field NMR studies.

  8. SILVA tree viewer: interactive web browsing of the SILVA phylogenetic guide trees.

    PubMed

    Beccati, Alan; Gerken, Jan; Quast, Christian; Yilmaz, Pelin; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2017-09-30

    Phylogenetic trees are an important tool to study the evolutionary relationships among organisms. The huge amount of available taxa poses difficulties in their interactive visualization. This hampers the interaction with the users to provide feedback for the further improvement of the taxonomic framework. The SILVA Tree Viewer is a web application designed for visualizing large phylogenetic trees without requiring the download of any software tool or data files. The SILVA Tree Viewer is based on Web Geographic Information Systems (Web-GIS) technology with a PostgreSQL backend. It enables zoom and pan functionalities similar to Google Maps. The SILVA Tree Viewer enables access to two phylogenetic (guide) trees provided by the SILVA database: the SSU Ref NR99 inferred from high-quality, full-length small subunit sequences, clustered at 99% sequence identity and the LSU Ref inferred from high-quality, full-length large subunit sequences. The Tree Viewer provides tree navigation, search and browse tools as well as an interactive feedback system to collect any kinds of requests ranging from taxonomy to data curation and improving the tool itself.

  9. [In vitro studies on antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of polysaccharide from Lycoris aurea].

    PubMed

    Ru, Qiao-Mei; Pei, Zhen-Ming; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2008-10-01

    To study the preliminary antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of polysaccharide extracted from Lycoris aurea. The scavenging activities of the polysaccharide in vitro on superoxide radical (O2-*), hydroxyl radical (*OH), alkyl radical (R*) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were investigated by modified chemical systems. Meanwhile, the antimicrobial activities were tested using paper-discagar diffusion method. In general, the antioxidant activities of the polysaccharide were lower compared with Vc. However, the scavenging effects to *OH and H2O2 were parallel to Vc. Meanwhile, polysaccharide from Lycoris aurea had strong antimicrobial activities against Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus pumilus and Staphylococcus aureus. The polysaccharide extracted from L. aurea can scavenge *OH and H2O2 effectively and inhibit Gram-positive bacterias.

  10. Antibacterial and antioxidant properties of the methanol extracts of the leaves and stems of Calpurnia aurea

    PubMed Central

    Adedapo, Adeolu A; Jimoh, Florence O; Koduru, Srinivas; Afolayan, Anthony J; Masika, Patrick J

    2008-01-01

    Background In South Africa, Calpurnia aurea (Ait.) Benth is used to destroy lice and to relieve itches, to destroy maggots and to treat allergic rashes, particularly those caused by caterpillars. Antioxidants play an important role protecting against damage by reactive oxygen species. Plants containing flavonoids have been reported to possess strong antioxidant properties. Methods The antibacterial, antioxidant activities and phenolic contents of the methanol extracts of the leaves and stems of Calpurnia aurea were evaluated using in vitro standard methods. Spectrophotometry was the basis for the determinations of total phenol, total flavonoids, flavonols, and proanthocyanidins. Tannins, quercetin and catechin equivalents were used for these parameters. The antioxidant activities of the stem extract of Calpurnia aurea were determined by ABTS, DPPH, and ferrous reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) methods. Laboratory isolates of 10 bacteria species which included five Gram-positive and five Gram-negative strains were used to assay for antibacterial activity of this plant. Results The results from this study showed that the antioxidant activities of the stem extract of Calpurnia aurea as determined by the total phenol, flavonoids, and FRAP methods were higher than that of the leaves. On the other hand, the leaf extract of the plant has higher level of total flavonols and proanthocyanidins. The leaf extract also has higher radical scavenging activity as shown in 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and 2,2¿-azinobis-3- ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) assay. The leaf extract showed activity against seven of the bacterial organisms. Conclusion The results from this study indicate that the leaves and stem extracts of Calpurnia aurea possess antioxidant properties and could serve as free radical inhibitors or scavenger or, acting possibly as primary antioxidants. Although, the antibacterial properties of Calpurnia aurea are not as effective as the standard

  11. Effects of the Aqueous Extract from Tabebuia roseoalba and Phenolic Acids on Hyperuricemia and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Ferraz-Filha, Zilma Schimith; Ferrari, Fernanda Cristina; Araújo, Marcela Carolina de Paula Michel; Bernardes, Ana Catharina Fernandes P. F.

    2017-01-01

    Tabebuia species (Bignoniaceae) have long been used in folk medicine as anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic, antimicrobial, and antitumor. The aim of this study was to investigate if aqueous extract from the leaves (AEL) of Tabebuia roseoalba (Ridl.) Sandwith, Bignoniaceae, and its constituents could be useful to decrease serum uric acid levels and restrain the gout inflammatory process. HPLC analysis identified caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid in AEL. Antihyperuricemic effects and inhibition of liver XOD (xanthine oxidoreductase) by AEL and identified compounds were evaluated in hyperuricemic mice. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated on MSU (monosodium urate) crystal-induced paw edema. In addition, AEL antioxidant activity in vitro was evaluated. AEL, caffeic, and chlorogenic acids were able to reduce serum uric acid levels in hyperuricemic mice probably through inhibition of liver xanthine oxidase activity and significantly decreased the paw edema induced by MSU crystals. AEL showed significant antioxidant activity in all evaluated assays. The results show that the AEL of Tabebuia roseoalba can be a promising agent for treatment for gout and inflammatory diseases. We suggest that caffeic and chlorogenic acids may be responsible for the activities demonstrated by the species. PMID:29375639

  12. Mariner 9 View of Arsia Silva

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Mariner 9 took this picture of Mars during the closing hours of its approach to the planet on November 13, 1971. The picture has been computer-enhanced with electronic high-pass filtering. The crater-like object at the lower left is about 124 miles (200 kilometers) across and is the same dark spot seen earlier in more distant views. It can be identified on a Mars map as Arsia Silva. The streaks pointing north--more than 1000 kilometers long--are either atmospheric turbulence patterns or dunes formed downwind of the crater. If they are dunes, they are as extensive as the largest in the Sahara in North Africa and those in Peru, South America. The picture was taken from a distance of 65,000 miles about eight hours before Mariner 9 went into orbit around Mars. It was transmitted back to Earth at 10:00 p.m. during the first orbit.

    Mariner 9 was the first spacecraft to orbit another planet. The spacecraft was designed to continue the atmospheric studies begun by Mariners 6 and 7, and to map over 70% of the Martian surface from the lowest altitude (1500 kilometers [900 miles])and at the highest resolutions (1 kilometer per pixel to 100 meters per pixel) of any previous Mars mission.

    Mariner 9 was launched on May 30, 1971 and arrived on November 14, 1971.

  13. Antihypertensive activity of 80% methanol seed extract of Calpurnia aurea (Ait.) Benth. subsp. aurea (Fabaceae) is mediated through calcium antagonism induced vasodilation.

    PubMed

    Getiye, Yohannes; Tolessa, Tesfaye; Engidawork, Ephrem

    2016-08-02

    Calpurnia aurea (Ait.) Benth. subsp. aurea (CASA) (Fabaceae) seeds are used to treat hypertension in Ethiopian folklore medicine, particularly by Shinasha, Agew-awi and Amhara people in northwest Ethiopia. However, the claim has so far not been substantiated scientifically. The study was conducted to evaluate the antihypertensive activity of 80% methanol extract of CASA in animal model of hypertension as well as its vasorelaxant effect and possible underlying mechanisms in isolated guinea pig aorta. Hypotensive and antihypertensive effect of CASA extract was determined in vivo through the intravenous (iv) route in normotensive and hypertensive anesthetized rats using 2-kidney-1-clip (2K1C) rat model. Ex vivo, guinea pig thoracic aortic rings were isolated and suspended in organ bath, and the vasodepressor effects as well as the mechanism of action of the extract were studied by means of isometric tension recording experiments. The blood pressure fell dose-dependently and significantly in renal hypertensive and normotensive rats following i.v. administration, suggesting that the hydroalcoholic extract possesses hypotensive and antihypertensive effects. The extract also caused a dose-dependent relaxation of aorta pre-contracted with KCl at a concentration of 5-250mg/L, with a maximum relaxation of 92.1% achieved at 250mg/L. The relaxation mechanism was found to be independent of the muscarinic receptors, histamine receptors, ATP dependent K(+) channels, cyclooxygenase enzymes, cGMP/NO pathway and the endothelium system. The extract caused rightward shift of the Ca(++) dose-response curves, similar to that caused by verapamil, indicating that it produced vasorelaxation by inhibiting extracellular Ca(2+) influx. The findings demonstrate that the plant is endowed with antihypertensive effect, providing evidence for its traditional use. The effect may be, at least in part, due to dilation of blood vessels through blockage of Ca(2+) channels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  14. Whole Mitochondrial Genomic and Y-Chromosomal Phylogenies of Burmese Long-Tailed Macaque (Macaca fascicularis aurea) Suggest Ancient Hybridization between fascicularis and sinica Species Groups.

    PubMed

    Matsudaira, Kazunari; Hamada, Yuzuru; Bunlungsup, Srichan; Ishida, Takafumi; San, Aye Mi; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2018-05-11

    Macaca fascicularis aurea (Burmese long-tailed macaque) is 1 of the 10 subspecies of Macaca fascicularis. Despite having few morphological differences from other subspecies, a recent phylogeographic study showed that M. f. aurea is clearly distinct genetically from Macaca fascicularis fascicularis (common long-tailed macaque) and suggests that M. f. aurea experienced a disparate evolutionary pathway versus other subspecies. To construct a detailed evolutionary history of M. f. aurea and its relationships with other macaque species, we performed phylogenetic analyses and divergence time estimation of whole mitochondrial genomes (2 M. f. aurea, 8 M. f. fascicularis, and 16 animals of 12 macaque species) and 2871 bp of the Y chromosome (1 M. f. aurea, 2 M. f. fascicularis, and 5 animals of 5 macaque species) and haplotype network analysis of 758 bp of the Y chromosome (1 M. f. aurea, 2 M. f. fascicularis, and 21 animals of 19 macaque species). Whereas the Y chromosome of M. f. aurea clustered with those of the fascicularis species group in the phylogenetic and haplotype network analyses, its mtDNA clustered within the clade of the sinica species group. Based on this phylogenetic incongruence and the estimated divergence times, we propose that proto-M. f. aurea underwent hybridization with a population of the sinica species group between 2.5 and 0.95 MYA after divergence from the common ancestor of M. fascicularis. Hybridization and introgression might have been central in the evolution of M. f. aurea, similar to what occurred in the evolution of other macaque species and subspecies.

  15. Estimation of the distribution of Tabebuia guayacan (Bignoniaceae) using high-resolution remote sensing imagery.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Rivard, Benoit; Wright, Joseph; Feng, Ji-Lu; Li, Peijun; Chong, Mei Mei; Bohlman, Stephanie A

    2011-01-01

    Species identification and characterization in tropical environments is an emerging field in tropical remote sensing. Significant efforts are currently aimed at the detection of tree species, of levels of forest successional stages, and the extent of liana occurrence at the top of canopies. In this paper we describe our use of high resolution imagery from the Quickbird Satellite to estimate the flowering population of Tabebuia guayacan trees at Barro Colorado Island (BCI), in Panama. The imagery was acquired on 29 April 2002 and 21 March 2004. Spectral Angle Mapping via a One-Class Support Vector machine was used to detect the presence of 422 and 557 flowering tress in the April 2002 and March 2004 imagery. Of these, 273 flowering trees are common to both dates. This study presents a new perspective on the effectiveness of high resolution remote sensing for monitoring a phenological response and its use as a tool for potential conservation and management of natural resources in tropical environments.

  16. THE BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF MOLTKIA AUREA BOISS., AN ENDEMIC SPECIES TO TURKEY.

    PubMed

    Balpinar, Neslihan; Okmen, Gulten

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the direct reason of mastitis. Mastitis is a disease characterized by pathological changes in mammary glands as well as physical, chemical, bacteriological changes in milk. This disease causes loses in milk yield and quality. In recent years, it is reported that mastitis pathogens have developed a resistance to antibiotics as a natural consequence of widespread use of it. Today's researches are focused on discovering and using new antibiotics against bacteria. The aim of this paper is to examine the antibacterial properties of Moltkia aurea Boiss.][o] (an endemic species to Turkey), and its other biological activities. All of the extracts were tested by disc diffusion assay in order to screen antibacterial activity. MIC values were evaluated as antibacterial activities of plant extracts. The non-enzymatic antioxidative activities including DPPH radical scavenging effects were studied in vitro . Results shown that the extracts had strong antibacterial effects on three bacteria (S. aureus- 17, S. aureus-18 and CNS-37) and the range of inhibition zone was 4-6mm. This three bacteria screened the lowest sensitivity to 65000 μg /mL concentration. Besides, the extracts were tested for non-enzymatic antioxidant activities. As a result, the methanol extract of the flower displayed a strong antioxidant activity. The various extracts of Moltkia aurea have different antibacterial and antioxidant properties.

  17. THE BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF MOLTKIA AUREA BOISS., AN ENDEMIC SPECIES TO TURKEY

    PubMed Central

    Balpinar, Neslihan; Okmen, Gulten

    2017-01-01

    Background: Staphylococcus aureus is the direct reason of mastitis. Mastitis is a disease characterized by pathological changes in mammary glands as well as physical, chemical, bacteriological changes in milk. This disease causes loses in milk yield and quality. In recent years, it is reported that mastitis pathogens have developed a resistance to antibiotics as a natural consequence of widespread use of it. Today’s researches are focused on discovering and using new antibiotics against bacteria. The aim of this paper is to examine the antibacterial properties of Moltkia aurea Boiss.][o] (an endemic species to Turkey), and its other biological activities. Materials and Methods: All of the extracts were tested by disc diffusion assay in order to screen antibacterial activity. MIC values were evaluated as antibacterial activities of plant extracts. The non-enzymatic antioxidative activities including DPPH radical scavenging effects were studied in vitro. Results and Conclusions: Results shown that the extracts had strong antibacterial effects on three bacteria (S. aureus- 17, S. aureus-18 and CNS-37) and the range of inhibition zone was 4-6mm. This three bacteria screened the lowest sensitivity to 65000 μg /mL concentration. Besides, the extracts were tested for non-enzymatic antioxidant activities. As a result, the methanol extract of the flower displayed a strong antioxidant activity. The various extracts of Moltkia aurea have different antibacterial and antioxidant properties. PMID:28573222

  18. The influences of four types of soil on the growth, physiological and biochemical characteristics of Lycoris aurea (L’ Her.) Herb

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Miaohua; Liang, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of Lycoris aurea (L. aurea) natural distribution and local soil types, we selected four representative types of soil, including humus soil, sandy soil, garden soil and yellow-brown soil, for conducting the cultivation experiments to investigate key soil factors influencing its growth and development and to select the soil types suitable for cultivating it. We found that there existed significant differences in the contents of mineral elements and the activities of soil enzymes (urease, phosphatase, sucrase and catalase) etc. Among which, the contents of organic matters, alkali-hydrolysable nitrogen, Ca and Mg as well as the activities of soil enzymes in humus soil were the highest ones. In yellow-brown soil, except for Fe, the values of all the other items were the lowest ones. Net photosynthetic rate (Pn), biomass and lycorine content in humus soil were all the highest ones, which were increased by 31.02, 69.39 and 55.79%, respectively, as compared to those of yellow-brown soil. Stepwise multiple regression analysis and path analysis indicated that alkali-hydrolysable nitrogen, and Ca etc. were key soil factors influencing Pn, biomass and lycorine content of L. aurea. Thus, humus soil can be used as medium suitable for artificial cultivation of L. aurea. PMID:28240308

  19. The influences of four types of soil on the growth, physiological and biochemical characteristics of Lycoris aurea (L' Her.) Herb.

    PubMed

    Quan, Miaohua; Liang, Juan

    2017-02-27

    Based on the characteristics of Lycoris aurea (L. aurea) natural distribution and local soil types, we selected four representative types of soil, including humus soil, sandy soil, garden soil and yellow-brown soil, for conducting the cultivation experiments to investigate key soil factors influencing its growth and development and to select the soil types suitable for cultivating it. We found that there existed significant differences in the contents of mineral elements and the activities of soil enzymes (urease, phosphatase, sucrase and catalase) etc. Among which, the contents of organic matters, alkali-hydrolysable nitrogen, Ca and Mg as well as the activities of soil enzymes in humus soil were the highest ones. In yellow-brown soil, except for Fe, the values of all the other items were the lowest ones. Net photosynthetic rate (P n ), biomass and lycorine content in humus soil were all the highest ones, which were increased by 31.02, 69.39 and 55.79%, respectively, as compared to those of yellow-brown soil. Stepwise multiple regression analysis and path analysis indicated that alkali-hydrolysable nitrogen, and Ca etc. were key soil factors influencing P n , biomass and lycorine content of L. aurea. Thus, humus soil can be used as medium suitable for artificial cultivation of L. aurea.

  20. Organic contamination in clams, Venerupis aurea laeta and Cerastoderma edule glaucum, from Sicily (Italy).

    PubMed

    Di Bella, Giuseppa; Potortì, Angela Giorgia; Licata, Patrizia; Pellizzeri, Vito; Ben Mansour, Hedi; Dugo, Giacomo; Lo Turco, Vincenzo

    2018-06-01

    Two species of edible clams Venerupis aurea laeta and Cerastoderma edule glaucum from Ganzirri Lake (Sicily, Italy) were investigated to determine OCP and PCB residues by GC-MS. Thirty-five samples were examined for two years in order to perform: a) their actual contamination; b) the daily dietary exposure of seafood consumers to the pollutants in question. In all the clams analysed in this study, PCB and OCP (4,4'-DDE) residues are always below the limits fixed by law. It seems that there is some seasonality of concentrations observed. In fact the more high concentrations of residues are detected in the hot months, for both species and years. Given the consumption of clams and the values obtained in this study for the two species analysed, it is possible estimate that the average daily dietary intake of NDL-PCB and of 4,4'-DDE for adults is really low.

  1. Antioxidant activity and characterization of volatile constituents of Taheebo (Tabebuia impetiginosa Martius ex DC).

    PubMed

    Park, Byeoung-Soo; Lee, Kwang-Geun; Shibamoto, Takayuki; Lee, Sung-Eun; Takeoka, Gary R

    2003-01-01

    Volatiles were isolated from the dried inner bark of Tabebuia impetiginosa using steam distillation under reduced pressure followed by continuous liquid-liquid extraction. The extract was analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major volatile constituents of T. impetiginosa were 4-methoxybenzaldehyde (52.84 microg/g), 4-methoxyphenol (38.91 microg/g), 5-allyl-1,2,3-trimethoxybenzene (elemicin; 34.15 microg/g), 1-methoxy-4-(1E)-1-propenylbenzene (trans-anethole; 33.75 microg/g), and 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol (30.29 microg/g). The antioxidant activity of the volatiles was evaluated using two different assays. The extract exhibited a potent inhibitory effect on the formation of conjugated diene hydroperoxides (from methyl linoleate) at a concentration of 1000 microg/mL. The extract also inhibited the oxidation of hexanal for 40 days at a level of 5 microg/mL. The antioxidative activity of T. impetiginosa volatiles was comparable with that of the well-known antioxidants, alpha-tocopherol, and butylated hydroxytoluene.

  2. Estimation of the Distribution of Tabebuia guayacan (Bignoniaceae) Using High-Resolution Remote Sensing Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Rivard, Benoit; Wright, Joseph; Feng, Ji-Lu; Li, Peijun; Chong, Mei Mei; Bohlman, Stephanie A.

    2011-01-01

    Species identification and characterization in tropical environments is an emerging field in tropical remote sensing. Significant efforts are currently aimed at the detection of tree species, of levels of forest successional stages, and the extent of liana occurrence at the top of canopies. In this paper we describe our use of high resolution imagery from the Quickbird Satellite to estimate the flowering population of Tabebuia guayacan trees at Barro Colorado Island (BCI), in Panama. The imagery was acquired on 29 April 2002 and 21 March 2004. Spectral Angle Mapping via a One-Class Support Vector machine was used to detect the presence of 422 and 557 flowering tress in the April 2002 and March 2004 imagery. Of these, 273 flowering trees are common to both dates. This study presents a new perspective on the effectiveness of high resolution remote sensing for monitoring a phenological response and its use as a tool for potential conservation and management of natural resources in tropical environments. PMID:22163825

  3. SilvaCarbon: Volunteered Geographical Information and Effective Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, M.

    2011-12-01

    Significant amounts of efforts have been taken into monitoring forest and terrestrial carbon by many countries in recent years. As the rapid increase of methodologies and resources, international collaboration is critical now for enhancing capacity of managing and sharing the ongoing research efficiently worldwide. Moreover, much broader citizen participants with or without expert training have been involved in. Fortunately, the emergence of Web2.0, social networking, and geopositioning technology make such wide-range collaboration and participation on geospatial science research possible. The concept of Volunteer Geographical Information (VGI) coined by Michael F. Goodchild enables the ability to contribute georeferenced and disseminated scientific resource and to exchange information over the web. With this in mind, SilvaCarbon, applying the above technologies, is a project conducted by U.S. federal agencies as a U.S. contribution to the Forest Carbon Tracking task of the intergovernmental Group on Earth Observation. Clearly, all research activities must rely on geographic data. And because of the observational objectives of Forest Carbon Tracking task, data sharing is a main objective of the project needed to be addressed. Data can be captured directly, contributed by secondary sources, or obtained from historical archive for the past period. Each VGI participant becomes a sensor with the ability to collect and share data. A given phenomenon can be always described more sufficient by data from multiple sources than captured individually. And data sharing can also satisfy the desire to avoid data duplication. Another purpose of Silvacarbon is to describe the activity states of involved countries, communities and individual participants and to help communicating. With the assistant of the other social networking like Facebook and Twitter, VGI participants are given an access to broadcast states of their research or activities. They also can plan travels and trades

  4. Internal papillomatosis with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma in a peach-fronted conure (Aratinga aurea).

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Paul M; Busch, Martin D; Tell, Lisa A; Graham, Jennifer E; Lowenstine, Linda J

    2002-01-01

    A 17-yr-old pet female peach-fronted conure (Aratinga aurea) was presented with the chief complaints of mild lethargy and weight loss with increased appetite. Antemortem diagnostics included complete blood count, plasma biochemistry, and radiography. Abnormal findings included elevated inflammatory parameters (hyperfibrinogenemia) and a space-occupying mass in the region of the liver. Histologic examination of a liver biopsy sample indicated bile duct hyperplasia leading to a presumptive diagnosis of hepatoxicosis. The bird initially showed moderate improvement with supportive care, but its condition declined 9 days after the liver biopsy. Supportive care was attempted a second time, but the bird did not improve and euthanasia was elected. Abnormal gross necropsy findings were confined to the liver, which contained multiple tan nodules that exuded yellowish fluid on cut section. Histopathologic examination revealed multicentric bile duct hyperplasia and cholangiocarcinoma as well as segmental papillary hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma in the proventriculus, ventriculus, and throughout the intestinal tract. This is the first report of concurrent internal papillomatosis, gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma, and cholangiocarcinoma in a peach-fronted conure.

  5. Non-invasive and micro-destructive investigation of the Domus Aurea wall painting decorations.

    PubMed

    Clementi, Catia; Ciocan, Valeria; Vagnini, Manuela; Doherty, Brenda; Tabasso, Marisa Laurenzi; Conti, Cinzia; Brunetti, Brunetto Giovanni; Miliani, Costanza

    2011-10-01

    The paper reports on the exploitation of an educated multi-technique analytical approach based on a wide non invasive step followed by a focused micro-destructive step, aimed at the minimally invasive identification of the pigments decorating the ceiling of the Gilded Vault of the Domus Aurea in Rome. The combination of elemental analysis with molecular characterization provided by X-ray fluorescence and UV-vis spectroscopies, respectively, allowed for the in situ non-invasive identification of a remarkable number of pigments, namely Egyptian blue, green earth, cinnabar, red ochre and an anthraquinonic lake. The study was completed with the Raman analysis of two bulk samples, in particular, SERS measurements allowed for the speciation of the anthraquinonic pigment. Elemental mapping by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectrometer combined with micro-fluorimetry on cross-section gave an insight into both the distribution of different blend of pigments and on the nature of the inorganic support of the red dye.

  6. Glucuronoarabinoxylans as major cell walls polymers from young shoots of the woody bamboo Phyllostachys aurea.

    PubMed

    Zelaya, Víctor Martín; Fernández, Paula Virginia; Vega, Andrea Susana; Mantese, Anita Ida; Federico, Ana Ailén; Ciancia, Marina

    2017-07-01

    Young shoots of Phyllostachys aurea showed glucuronoarabinoxylans (GAX) as the major hemicellulosic components, being extracted in major amounts with 1M KOH (ratio Xyl:Ara:GlcA, 100:67:8), but also with water, showing a broad structural variability. Mixed linkage glucans were also present, but in minor amounts, mostly concentrated in the 4M KOH extracts, while pectin polymers were very scarce. Arabinogalactan proteins were an important part of water extracts, determined by the presence of the typical arabinogalactan structures (3- and 6-linked Gal p; terminal and 5-linked Ara f), in addition to small amounts of hydroxyproline (2-3% of total protein) and positive reaction to Yariv's reagent. Morphological and anatomical characteristics of young shoots are described, as well as localization of some cell wall components, and related with chemical analysis. A method for determination of uronic acids as their N-propylaldonamide acetates and separation and quantification by GC/MS was adapted for its use with grass cell wall fractions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Flawed foundations of associationism? Comments on Machado and Silva (2007).

    PubMed

    Gallistel, C R

    2007-10-01

    A. Machado and F. J. Silva have spotted an important conceptual problem in scalar expectancy theory's account of the 2-standard-interval time-left experiment. C. R. Gallistel and J. Gibbon (2000) were aware of it but did not discuss it for historical and sociological reasons, owned up to in this article. A problem of broader significance for psychology, cognitive science, neuroscience, and the philosophy of mind concerns the closely related concepts of a trial and of temporal pairing, which are foundational in associative theories of learning and memory. Association formation is assumed to depend on the temporal pairing of the to-be-associated events. In modeling it, theorists have assumed continuous time to be decomposable into trials. But life is not composed of trials, and attempts to specify the conditions under which two events may be regarded as temporally paired have never succeeded. Thus, associative theories of learning and memory are built on conceptual sand. Undeterred, neuroscientists have defined the neurobiology-of-memory problem as the problem of determining the cellular and molecular mechanism of association formation, and connectionist modelers have made it a cornerstone of their efforts. More conceptual analysis is indeed needed. Copyright 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Report on novel environmental niches for Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii in Colombia: Tabebuia guayacan and Roystonea regia.

    PubMed

    Vélez, Norida; Escandón, Patricia

    2017-10-01

    Knowledge of the environmental distribution of C. neoformans/C. gattii is important in the epidemiology and ecology of the etiological agent, which causes cryptococcosis, a deadly disease worldwide. The aim of this report is to describe the presence of C. neoformans/C. gattii in new environmental niches in Colombia. A total of 837 environmental samples were collected from six different species of trees across four cities; molecular type was determined by PCR fingerprinting and RFLP. Molecular type VNI and VGIII were isolated from different species of trees, resulting in two novel niches for this pathogen: Tabebuia guayacan and Roystonea regia. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Morphological characteristics and genetic diversity of Burmese long-tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis aurea).

    PubMed

    Bunlungsup, Srichan; Imai, Hiroo; Hamada, Yuzuru; Gumert, Michael D; San, Aye Mi; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2015-12-15

    Macaca fascicularis aurea (Mfa) is the only macaque which has been recorded to use stone tools to access encased foods. They live in close contact with M. fascicularis fascicularis (Mff) in southwestern Thailand and the hybrids were reported [Fooden, 1995]. Although Mff and Mfa can be seen in the same habitat types, tool-use behavior has never been reported in Mff. Thus, comparing the morphological characteristics and genetics between Mfa and Mff should help elucidate not only the morphological differences and genetic divergence between these subspecies but also potentially the relationship between genetics and their tool use behavior. We surveyed Mfa and Mff in Myanmar and Thailand, ranging from 16° 58' to 7° 12' N. Fecal or blood samples were collected from eight, five, and four populations of Mfa, Mff, and Mff × Mfa morphological hybrids along with three individuals of captive Chinese M. mulatta (Mm), respectively, for mtDNA and Y-chromosome (TSPY and SRY genes) DNA sequence analyses. In addition, eight populations were captured and measured for 38 somatometric dimensions. Comparison of the somatic measurements revealed that Mfa had a statistically significantly shorter tail than Mff (P < 0.05). Based on the mtDNA sequences, Mfa was separated from the Mm/Mff clade. Within the Mfa clade, the mainland Myanmar population was separate from the Mergui Archipelago and Thailand Andaman seacoast populations. All the morphological hybrids had the Mff mtDNA haplotype. Based on the Y-chromosome sequences, the three major clades of Mm/Indochinese Mff, Sundaic Mff, and Mfa were constructed. The hybrid populations grouped either with the Mm/Indochinese Mff or with the Mfa. Regarding the genetic analysis, one subspecies hybrid population in Thailand (KRI) elicited tool use behavior, thus the potential role of genetics in tool use behavior is raised in addition to the environmental force, morphological suitability, and cognitive capability. Am. J. Primatol. © 2015

  10. Selection and Validation of Appropriate Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis of Gene Expression in Lycoris aurea

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Rui; Xu, Sheng; Zhao, Yucheng; Xia, Bing; Wang, Ren

    2016-01-01

    Lycoris aurea (L' Hér.) Herb, a perennial grass species, produces a unique variety of pharmacologically active Amaryllidaceae alkaloids. However, the key enzymes and their expression pattern involved in the biosynthesis of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids (especially for galanthamine) are far from being fully understood. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), a commonly used method for quantifying gene expression, requires stable reference genes to normalize its data. In this study, to choose the appropriate reference genes under different experimental conditions, 14 genes including YLS8 (mitosis protein YLS8), CYP2 (Cyclophilin 2), CYP 1 (Cyclophilin 1), TIP41 (TIP41-like protein), EXP2 (Expressed protein 2), PTBP1 (Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1), EXP1 (Expressed protein 1), PP2A (Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A), β-TUB (β-tubulin), α-TUB (α-tubulin), EF1-α (Elongation factor 1-α), UBC (Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme), ACT (Actin) and GAPDH (Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase) were selected from the transcriptome datasets of L. aurea. And then, expressions of these genes were assessed by qRT-PCR in various tissues and the roots under different treatments. The expression stability of the 14 candidates was analyzed by three commonly used software programs (geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper), and their results were further integrated into a comprehensive ranking based on the geometric mean. The results show the relatively stable genes for each subset as follows: (1) EXP1 and TIP41 for all samples; (2) UBC and EXP1 for NaCl stress; (3) PTBP1 and EXP1 for heat stress, polyethylene glycol (PEG) stress and ABA treatment; (4) UBC and CYP2 for cold stress; (5) PTBP1 and PP2A for sodium nitroprusside (SNP) treatment; (6) CYP1 and TIP41 for methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment; and (7) EXP1 and TIP41 for various tissues. The reliability of these results was further enhanced through comparison between part qRT-PCR result and RNA

  11. A replacement name for Thomasella Santos-Silva, Bezark Martins (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae).

    PubMed

    Santos-Silva, Antonio; Bezark, Larry G

    2018-03-14

            Santos-Silva et al. (2012) described Thomasella as a new genus of Rhinotragini to include a single species from Panama: Ommata (Eclipta) igniventris Giesbert, 1991. However, Thomasella is a junior homonym of Thomasella Fredericks, 1928 (Brachiopoda). To resolve this homonym, in accordance with the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, we are proposing Neothomasella as a new replacement name (nomen novum) for Thomasella Santos-Silva et al. (2012). The new name is a compound of the prefix "neo-" (from Greek νεο-, meaning "new") + Thomasella; feminine gender.

  12. Application of modified Martinez-Silva algorithm in determination of net cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanowicz, Łukasz; Grobelna, Iwona

    2016-12-01

    In the article we present the idea of modifications of Martinez-Silva algorithm, which allows for determination of place invariants (p-invariants) of Petri net. Their generation time is important in the parallel decomposition of discrete systems described by Petri nets. Decomposition process is essential from the point of view of discrete system design, as it allows for separation of smaller sequential parts. The proposed modifications of Martinez-Silva method concern the net cover by p-invariants and are focused on two important issues: cyclic reduction of invariant matrix and cyclic checking of net cover.

  13. Why Assign Themes and Topics To Teach Writing? A Reply to Tony Silva.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Nathan B.

    Responds to Tony Silva's 1997 article, which asserted that English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) writing teachers should prevent themes and topics from dominating or controlling the curriculum. This paper argues that it is sometimes helpful for writing teachers to control why and what students write, focusing on university-level English writing in…

  14. Morphology, Ontogenesis and Molecular Phylogeny of Neokeronopsis (Afrokeronopsis) aurea nov. subgen., nov. spec. (Ciliophora: Hypotricha), a New African Flagship Ciliate Confirms the CEUU Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    FOISSNER, Wilhelm; STOECK, Thorsten

    2010-01-01

    Summary Neokeronopsis (Afrokeronopsis) aurea nov. subgen., nov. spec. was discovered in soil from the floodplain of a small river in the Krueger National Park, Republic of South Africa. Its morphology, ontogenesis, and 18S rDNA were studied with standard methods. Furthermore, we supplemented the data on N. (N.) spectabilis by reinvestigating the preparations deposited in the British Museum of Natural History. Neokeronopsis (Afrokeronopsis) aurea is a very conspicuous ciliate because it has an average size of 330 × 120 μm and is golden yellow due to the orange-coloured cytoplasm and citrine cortical granules. Further main characteristics include the semirigid body; the urostylid cirral pattern with a distinct corona of frontal and pseudobuccal cirri both originating from the midventral rows; multiple anterior fragmentation of dorsal kineties 1–3; multiple posterior fragmentation of kinety 3, commencing with an unique whirl of kinetofragments; three caudal cirri; an oxytrichid/cyrtohymenid oral apparatus with polystichad paroral membrane and buccal depression; a single oral primordium developing along the transverse cirral row; and an oxytrichid 18S rDNA. These peculiarities are used to establish the new oxytrichid family Neokeronopsidae, the new subgenus Afrokeronopsis, and the new species N. (A.) aurea. Further, these features confirm the CEUU hypothesis, i.e., convergent evolution of a midventral cirral pattern in urostylid and oxytrichid hypotrichs; additionally, N. (A.) aurea is the first (semi)rigid hypotrich with cortical granules and the second one with midventral rows, breaking the granule and flexibility dogmas. These and other observations show that the phylogeny of the hypotrichs is full of convergences. Thus, only a combined effort of classical and molecular phylogeneticists will provide the data needed for a natural classification. Based on the CEUU hypothesis, the molecular data, and literature evidence, we suggest that midventral oxytrichids

  15. Coalescent Simulation and Paleodistribution Modeling for Tabebuia rosealba Do Not Support South American Dry Forest Refugia Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    de Melo, Warita Alves; Lima-Ribeiro, Matheus S.; Terribile, Levi Carina

    2016-01-01

    Studies based on contemporary plant occurrences and pollen fossil records have proposed that the current disjunct distribution of seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs) across South America is the result of fragmentation of a formerly widespread and continuously distributed dry forest during the arid climatic conditions associated with the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), which is known as the modern-day dry forest refugia hypothesis. We studied the demographic history of Tabebuia rosealba (Bignoniaceae) to understand the disjunct geographic distribution of South American SDTFs based on statistical phylogeography and ecological niche modeling (ENM). We specifically tested the dry forest refugia hypothesis; i.e., if the multiple and isolated patches of SDTFs are current climatic relicts of a widespread and continuously distributed dry forest during the LGM. We sampled 235 individuals across 18 populations in Central Brazil and analyzed the polymorphisms at chloroplast (trnS-trnG, psbA-trnH and ycf6-trnC intergenic spacers) and nuclear (ITS nrDNA) genomes. We performed coalescence simulations of alternative hypotheses under demographic expectations from two a priori biogeographic hypotheses (1. the Pleistocene Arc hypothesis and, 2. a range shift to Amazon Basin) and other two demographic expectances predicted by ENMs (3. expansion throughout the Neotropical South America, including Amazon Basin, and 4. retraction during the LGM). Phylogenetic analyses based on median-joining network showed haplotype sharing among populations with evidence of incomplete lineage sorting. Coalescent analyses showed smaller effective population sizes for T. roseoalba during the LGM compared to the present-day. Simulations and ENM also showed that its current spatial pattern of genetic diversity is most likely due to a scenario of range retraction during the LGM instead of the fragmentation from a once extensive and largely contiguous SDTF across South America, not supporting the South

  16. Coalescent Simulation and Paleodistribution Modeling for Tabebuia rosealba Do Not Support South American Dry Forest Refugia Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Warita Alves; Lima-Ribeiro, Matheus S; Terribile, Levi Carina; Collevatti, Rosane G

    2016-01-01

    Studies based on contemporary plant occurrences and pollen fossil records have proposed that the current disjunct distribution of seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs) across South America is the result of fragmentation of a formerly widespread and continuously distributed dry forest during the arid climatic conditions associated with the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), which is known as the modern-day dry forest refugia hypothesis. We studied the demographic history of Tabebuia rosealba (Bignoniaceae) to understand the disjunct geographic distribution of South American SDTFs based on statistical phylogeography and ecological niche modeling (ENM). We specifically tested the dry forest refugia hypothesis; i.e., if the multiple and isolated patches of SDTFs are current climatic relicts of a widespread and continuously distributed dry forest during the LGM. We sampled 235 individuals across 18 populations in Central Brazil and analyzed the polymorphisms at chloroplast (trnS-trnG, psbA-trnH and ycf6-trnC intergenic spacers) and nuclear (ITS nrDNA) genomes. We performed coalescence simulations of alternative hypotheses under demographic expectations from two a priori biogeographic hypotheses (1. the Pleistocene Arc hypothesis and, 2. a range shift to Amazon Basin) and other two demographic expectances predicted by ENMs (3. expansion throughout the Neotropical South America, including Amazon Basin, and 4. retraction during the LGM). Phylogenetic analyses based on median-joining network showed haplotype sharing among populations with evidence of incomplete lineage sorting. Coalescent analyses showed smaller effective population sizes for T. roseoalba during the LGM compared to the present-day. Simulations and ENM also showed that its current spatial pattern of genetic diversity is most likely due to a scenario of range retraction during the LGM instead of the fragmentation from a once extensive and largely contiguous SDTF across South America, not supporting the South

  17. Redescription of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) renei Martins, Falcão & Silva, 1957 (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae).

    PubMed

    Sábio, Priscila B; Andrade, Andrey J De; Galati, Eunice A B

    2015-08-12

    The male genitalia of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) renei (Martins, Falcão & Silva, 1957) have four bristles, three fine and one semi-foliaceous, inserted basomesally on the gonocoxite. Nonetheless, in the original description and in other taxonomic studies, these bristles have been illustrated and described in varying formats. In order to clarify the morphology of this species, both sexes are here redescribed based on three males and one female from the type series. A lectotype and two paralectotypes are here designated.

  18. In vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of different parts of Tabebuia pallida growing in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Mahbubur; Islam, Md Badrul; Biswas, Mohitosh; Khurshid Alam, A H M

    2015-10-30

    In humans, many diseases are associated with the accumulation of free radicals. Antioxidants can scavenge free radicals and minimize their impact. Therefore, the search for naturally occurring antioxidants of plant origin is imperative. Here, we aimed to investigate the antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties of methanolic extracts from Tabebuia pallida (T. pallida) stem bark (TPSB), root bark (TPRB), leaves (TPL), and flowers (TPF). The antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity were determined by several standard methods using spectrophotomer. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and aluminum chloride colorimetric assay methods, respectively. Among the extracts, TPL showed the highest total antioxidant capacity followed by TPRB, TPF, and TPSB. Based on DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, TPL showed strong scavenging activity (91.05 ± 1.10 and 62.00 ± 0.57) with IC50 of 9.20 ± 0.28 and 46.00 ± 2.84 μg/mL, respectively when compared with standard BHT (IC50 of 7.00 ± 0.25 μg/mL) and CA (75.00 ± 0.14 μg/mL). These results suggest that TPL had the highest radical scavenging activity among the extractives that closely resembled the standard's. In lipid peroxidation inhibition assay, TPL exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity (83.18 ± 2.12 %) with IC50 of 12.00 ± 2.12 μg/mL, which closely resembled standard CA (IC50 of 10.50 ± 0.28 μg/mL). Also, the reducing capacity on ferrous ion was in the following order: TPL > TPRB > TF > TPSB. The phenolic and flavonoid contents of TPL were higher than other extractives. A positive correlation (p value <0.001) was observed between phenolic content and free radical (DPPH(·) and (·)OH) scavenging efficiencies and lipid peroxidation inhibition activity. Methanolic extract of T. pallida leaf is a potential source of natural antioxidants and serves as an effective free radical scavenger and/or inhibitor. Hence, T. pallida might be a good

  19. Advertisement call of Dendropsophus studerae (Carvalho-e-Silva, Carvalho-e-Silva and Izecksohn, 2003) (Anura: Hylidae), with new record and geographic distribution extension.

    PubMed

    Napoli, Marcelo Felgueiras; De Abreu, Rafael Oliveira; Cruz, Deise; Herrera, Jocilene Brandão; Petersen, Emanuela; Klein, Wilfried

    2014-10-30

    The treefrog genus Dendropsophus Fitzinger comprises 95 species, with geographic distribution from northern Argentina and Uruguay north through tropical South and Central America to tropical southern Mexico (Frost 2014). Dendropsophus studerae was included in the D. microcephalus clade by Faivovich et al. (2005), which currently consists of 39 species (Frost 2014). The species that most resembles D. studerae is D. bipunctatus (Spix), as already stated in the original description of the former (Carvalho-e-Silva et al. 2003). Thus far, Dendropsophus studerae was only known from its type locality, in the municipality of Quebrangulo (09º19'08"S, 36º28'16"W), State of Alagoas, northeastern Brazil. The original description of the species also included data on its eggs, tadpole (oral disc and external morphology) and some natural history information of adults and larvae, but its advertisement call remains undescribed. 

  20. [Science and nation: romanticism and natural history in the works of E. J. da Silva Maia].

    PubMed

    Kury, L

    1998-01-01

    The works of physician and naturalist Emílio Joaquim da Silva Maia (1808-59) can be viewed as a scientific project that discovers Brazil and its inhabitants. Maia's nationalism and his romantic view of nature formed the underpinnings of his scientific theories, especially his studies on zoological geography. He subordinated the issue of the biological specificity of different regions of the world to his era's debates on the construction of Brazil as an independent nation. In his interpretations of European natural history, Maia endeavored to understand Brazilian nature as a specific achievement of the Cosmos, in keeping with Alexander von Humboldt's approach.

  1. Pethia aurea (Teleostei: Cyprinidae), a new species of barb from West Bengal, India, with redescription of P. gelius and P. canius.

    PubMed

    Knight, J D Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Fishes currently assigned to Pethia gelius Hamilton from West Bengal are shown to belong to a closely-related group of three species: P gelius, its erstwhile synonym P canius Hamilton and a new species, P aurea. The three species are distinguished from all other species of Pethia by having the lateral line incomplete, with 3-4 pored scales; 20-26 scales in lateral series on body; ½4-5/l/2-3½ scales in transverse line on body; 8-9 predorsal scales; barbels absent and by a unique colour pattern consisting of two or three black blotches on the body (which, however, fade on preservation), the first behind the opercle, the second beneath the origin of the dorsal fin, extending to the mid-lateral region, and the third above the origin of the anal fin. A black spot is also present at the base of the dorsal and anal fins. Additionally, P gelius is distinguished by having the last unbranched dorsal-fin ray thick, straight, serrated, with 20-25 serrae on its posterior margin; a snout length of 6.1-8.4% standard length (SL); a body depth of 32.6-37.7% SL; and a dorsal-fin height of 19.4-22.8% SL. Pethia canius is additionally distinguished by having a snout length of 8.9-11.8% SL; a body depth of 28.1-32.2% SL; and dorsal-fin height of 26.9-32.8% SL. Pethia aurea, new species, is additionally distinguished from all its congeners by having ½5/1/3-3½ scales in transverse line on body; 9 pre-dorsal scales; and last unbranched dorsal-fin ray slender, serrated, with 19-22 serrae on posterior margin.

  2. At the Margin of Academic Freedom and Sexual Harassment: An Analysis of "Silva v. University of New Hampshire".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMitchell, Todd A.; Fossey, Richard

    1996-01-01

    Two hearing boards' finding that a tenured professor's instructional remarks and actions constituted sexual harassment resulted in the filing of a federal lawsuit against the university. Discusses sexual harassment, reviews the most pertinent facts of "Silva," and analyzes the judge's preliminary injunction and summary judgment ruling on…

  3. [Dr Guillermo Contreras Da Silva, a relevant figure in the development of Chilean microbiology].

    PubMed

    Cabello, Felipe C

    2008-02-01

    The influence of the work of Dr. Guillermo Contreras Da Silva and his colaborators on the evolution of microbiology in Chile is briefly analyzed. Dr. Contreras was trained in modern virology at Yale University with Dr. J. Melnick under the sponsorhip of the Rockefeller Foundation. During this training, he used serological methods to classify Cocksakie viruses. After his return to Chile, he studied the epidemiology of enteroviruses, including poliovirus. His laboratory, the country's first in modern virology, took an active role in Chile's first Sabin polio vaccination in 1961. Dr. Contreras and his group transformed the teaching and the character of microbiology in Chile from a descriptive medically oriented discipline into an autonomous, quantitative and experimental science. They modernized microbiology with the introduction of molecular biology and microbial genetics and fostered collaborations with allied biological sciences. Dr. Contreras was a Guggenheim Fellow, and until his retirement, was the Chief of the Viral Products Division, Bureau of Biologies, Ottawa, Canada.

  4. Smenamides A and B, Chlorinated Peptide/Polyketide Hybrids Containing a Dolapyrrolidinone Unit from the Caribbean Sponge Smenospongia aurea. Evaluation of Their Role as Leads in Antitumor Drug Research

    PubMed Central

    Teta, Roberta; Irollo, Elena; Della Sala, Gerardo; Pirozzi, Giuseppe; Mangoni, Alfonso; Costantino, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    An in-depth study of the secondary metabolites contained in the Caribbean sponge Smenospongia aurea led to the isolation of smenamide A (1) and B (2), hybrid peptide/polyketide compounds containing a dolapyrrolidinone unit. Their structures were elucidated using high-resolution ESI-MS/MS and homo- and heteronuclear 2D NMR experiments. Structures of smenamides suggested that they are products of the cyanobacterial metabolism, and 16S rRNA metagenomic analysis detected Synechococcus spongiarum as the only cyanobacterium present in S. aurea. Smenamides showed potent cytotoxic activity at nanomolar levels on lung cancer Calu-1 cells, which for compound 1 is exerted through a clear pro-apoptotic mechanism. This makes smenamides promising leads for antitumor drug design. PMID:24217287

  5. Isolation and Assessment of the in Vitro Anti-Tumor Activity of Smenothiazole A and B, Chlorinated Thiazole-Containing Peptide/Polyketides from the Caribbean Sponge, Smenospongia aurea

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Germana; Teta, Roberta; Miceli, Roberta; Ceccarelli, Luca S.; Della Sala, Gerardo; Camerlingo, Rosa; Irollo, Elena; Mangoni, Alfonso; Pirozzi, Giuseppe; Costantino, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    The study of the secondary metabolites contained in the organic extract of Caribbean sponge Smenospongia aurea led to the isolation of smenothiazole A (3) and B (4), hybrid peptide/polyketide compounds. Assays performed using four solid tumor cell lines showed that smenothiazoles exert a potent cytotoxic activity at nanomolar levels, with selectivity over ovarian cancer cells and a pro-apoptotic mechanism. PMID:25603342

  6. [Silva Coutinho: his career and his contributions to the geological collections of the Museu Nacional in Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    Silva, Marina Jardim E; Fernandes, Antonio Carlos Sequeira; Fonseca, Vera Maria Medina da

    2013-06-01

    The career of João Martins da Silva Coutinho is linked to the history of the Museu Nacional in Rio de Janeiro to whose collections (especially geological) he contributed scientific information and material. On the Brazilian scientific stage, Silva Coutinho took part in major exploratory commissions in the latter half of the nineteenth century, mainly in the Amazon and in the Northeast. He collected and sent samples to the Museu Nacional for analysis, establishing deep ties with the institution and its staff. The article presents his contributions through an analysis of these documents and an examination of the geological collections that he sent to the institution and that remain part of its holdings.

  7. Revalidation of Nyssomyia fraihai (Martins, Falcão & Silva 1979) (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    PubMed

    Godoy, R E; Galati, E A B

    2016-11-01

    Lutzomyia fraihai (Martins, Falcão & Silva 1979), described from Três Braços municipality (Bahia state, Brazil), is closely related to Nyssomyia yuilli yuilli (Young & Porter, 1972), described from Rio Anori, Antioquia, Colombia. The former species, despite the morphological differences reported by its authors, was included as a junior synonym of Ny. yuilli yuilli, and this status has been accepted by sand fly-taxonomists. However, we had an opportunity to examine both taxa, and a clear difference was noted in their male genitalia. In this study, the morphometric/morphologic characters of specimens that had been identified as Ny. yuilli yuilli from different localities (Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Bolivia) and type material of both Ny. yuilli yuilli and Lu. fraihai were analyzed. The results revealed that males from Brazil (Bahia, Acre, Pará, and Rondônia states) and Peru present statistically significant differences in the ratio between paramere rectangular and digitiform areas as well as for the cercus length and width of the aedeagal ducts tips, when compared with the type specimens of Ny. yuilli yuilli, but are statistically similar to those characters of Lu. fraihai However, females of the two species are indistinguishable. Thus, based on the male morphology, Ny. fraihai STAT REV N COM: was resurrected from the synonymy of Ny. yuilli yuilli. The specimens from the Atlantic forest biome and the Amazon biome in Brazil, Peru, and Bolivia in fact belong to Ny. fraihai This species presents a cis-Andean distribution, while Ny. yuilli yuilli has been found in both Andean and Trans-Andean areas. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Composition of the epicuticular waxes coating the adaxial side of Phyllostachys aurea leaves: Identification of very-long-chain primary amides.

    PubMed

    Racovita, Radu C; Jetter, Reinhard

    2016-10-01

    The present study presents comprehensive chemical analyses of cuticular wax mixtures of the bamboo Phyllostachys aurea. The epicuticular and intracuticular waxes were sampled selectively from the adaxial side of leaves on young and old plants and investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and flame ionization detection. The epi- and intracuticular layers on young and old leaves had wax loads ranging from 1.7 μg/cm(2) to 1.9 μg/cm(2). Typical very-long-chain aliphatic wax constituents were found with characteristic chain length patterns, including alkyl esters (primarily C48), alkanes (primarily C29), fatty acids (primarily C28 and C16), primary alcohols (primarily C28) and aldehydes (primarily C30). Alicyclic wax components were identified as tocopherols and triterpenoids, including substantial amounts of triterpenoid esters. Alkyl esters, alkanes, fatty acids and aldehydes were found in greater amounts in the epicuticular layer, while primary alcohols and most terpenoids accumulated more in the intracuticular wax. Alkyl esters occurred as mixtures of metamers, combining C20 alcohol with various acids into shorter ester homologs (C36C40), and a wide range of alcohols with C22 and C24 acids into longer esters (C42C52). Primary amides were identified, with a characteristic chain length profile peaking at C30. The amides were present exclusively in the epicuticular layer and thus at or near the surface, where they may affect plant-herbivore or plant-pathogen interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sex differences in the stone tool-use behavior of a wild population of burmese long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis aurea).

    PubMed

    Gumert, Michael D; Hoong, Low Kuan; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2011-12-01

    We investigated sex differences in how Burmese long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis aurea) used stone tools to open shelled food items along the shores of two islands in Laemson National Park, Thailand. Over a 2-week period in December 2009, we collected scan and focal samples on macaques when they were visible along the shores and mangroves. We found females used stones more often while feeding and used smaller tools than males. Females also processed sessile oysters more than males, whereas males processed unattached foods more than females. It was unclear which sex was overall more proficient at stone tool use, but males did perform significantly better at opening unattached food items with large pounding stones. Females also struck food items more times during tool-use bouts and at a faster rate, but no significant difference was found in average tool-use bout duration. Males processed foods slightly faster within a tool-use bout, but we were unable to detect a significant difference in the rate of food processing while foraging with tools. In summary females chipped open sessile oysters with an axing technique more than males, while males used larger stones to pound open unattached shelled food more often than females. Despite using pounding more than females, males also regularly utilized the axing technique on sessile oysters. Our results are the first assessment of sex differences in macaque stone tool use, providing a basis for comparison with tool use in other primates, and to nonfunctional forms of stone use in other macaques. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. There Is More than One Way to Crack an Oyster: Identifying Variation in Burmese Long-Tailed Macaque (Macaca fascicularis aurea) Stone-Tool Use

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Amanda; Tan, Say Hoon; Vyas, Dhaval; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Gumert, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    We explored variation in patterns of percussive stone-tool use on coastal foods by Burmese long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis aurea) from two islands in Laem Son National Park, Ranong, Thailand. We catalogued variation into three hammering classes and 17 action patterns, after examining 638 tool-use bouts across 90 individuals. Hammering class was based on the stone surface used for striking food, being face, point, and edge hammering. Action patterns were discriminated by tool material, hand use, posture, and striking motion. Hammering class was analyzed for associations with material and behavioural elements of tool use. Action patterns were not, owing to insufficient instances of most patterns. We collected 3077 scan samples from 109 macaques on Piak Nam Yai Island’s coasts, to determine the proportion of individuals using each hammering class and action pattern. Point hammering was significantly more associated with sessile foods, smaller tools, faster striking rates, smoother recoil, unimanual use, and more varied striking direction, than were face and edge hammering, while both point and edge hammering were significantly more associated with precision gripping than face hammering. Edge hammering also showed distinct differences depending on whether such hammering was applied to sessile or unattached foods, resembling point hammering for sessile foods and face hammering for unattached foods. Point hammering and sessile edge hammering compared to prior descriptions of axe hammering, while face and unattached edge hammering compared to pound hammering. Analysis of scans showed that 80% of individuals used tools, each employing one to four different action patterns. The most common patterns were unimanual point hammering (58%), symmetrical-bimanual face hammering (47%) and unimanual face hammering (37%). Unimanual edge hammering was relatively frequent (13%), compared to the other thirteen rare action patterns (<5%). We compare our study to other stone

  11. The State's obligation to regulate and monitor private health care facilities: the Alyne da Silva Pimentel and the Dzebniauri cases.

    PubMed

    Ibañez, Ximena Andión; Dekanosidze, Tamar

    2017-01-01

    The Human Rights in Patient Care framework embraces general human rights principles applicable to both patients and health care providers in the delivery of health care. Under this framework, states have a duty to ensure patient and provider rights in both public and private health care settings. The paper examines the recent decisions in Alyne Da Silva Pimentel v. Brazil of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women and Dzebniauri v. Georgia of the European Court of Human Rights and places these decisions within the wider debate on the extent to which states have human rights obligations in private settings. Drawing on these decisions, the paper demonstrates that this duty can be complied with by establishing appropriate laws and regulations for private entities, monitoring and enforcement of the standards, and performance of these bodies and professionals through investigation and accountability procedures.

  12. Reflections around 'the cautionary use' of the h-index: response to Teixeira da Silva and Dobránszki.

    PubMed

    Costas, Rodrigo; Franssen, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    In a recent Letter to the Editor Teixeira da Silva and Dobránszki (2018) present a discussion of the issues regarding the h-index as an indicator for the evaluation of individual scholars, particularly in the current landscape of the proliferation of online sources that provide individual level bibliometric indicators. From our point of view, the issues surrounding the h-index go far beyond the problems mentioned by TSD. In this letter we provide some overview of this, mostly by expanding TSD's original argument and discussing more conceptual and global issues related to the indicator, particularly in the outlook of a strong proliferation of online sources providing individual researcher indicators. Our discussion focuses on the h-index and the profusion of sources providing it, but we emphasize that many of our points are of a more general nature, and would be equally relevant for other indicators that reach the same level of popularity as the h-index.

  13. ["Anything goes"?: the implicit dialogue between Paul Feyerabend and two Brazilian researchers, Maurício da Rocha e Silva and Newton Freire-Maia].

    PubMed

    Bastos, Francisco Inácio

    2010-03-01

    The philosopher Paul Feyerabend and Brazilian scientists Maurício da Rocha e Silva and Newton Freire-Maia were contemporaries and lived surrounded by the fundamental dilemnas of science. The anarchist proposal of Feyerabend, then embryonic, was formulated in parallel by Rocha e Silva in his criticism of the scientific method. Two decades later, Feyerabend's ideas seemed implicitly to stimulate Newton Freire-Maia in his reflections on science. The web of interrelationships in the ideas of these three men - who never interacted - touches on central issues for Brazilian science from 1960 to 1980, a period in which the latter is consolidated in a dialogue with the nascent reflection on science and the scientific method in Brazil.

  14. On the modeling and nonlinear dynamics of autonomous Silva-Young type chaotic oscillators with flat power spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Kengne, Jacques; Kenmogne, Fabien

    2014-12-15

    The nonlinear dynamics of fourth-order Silva-Young type chaotic oscillators with flat power spectrum recently introduced by Tamaseviciute and collaborators is considered. In this type of oscillators, a pair of semiconductor diodes in an anti-parallel connection acts as the nonlinear component necessary for generating chaotic oscillations. Based on the Shockley diode equation and an appropriate selection of the state variables, a smooth mathematical model (involving hyperbolic sine and cosine functions) is derived for a better description of both the regular and chaotic dynamics of the system. The complex behavior of the oscillator is characterized in terms of its parameters by usingmore » time series, bifurcation diagrams, Lyapunov exponents' plots, Poincaré sections, and frequency spectra. It is shown that the onset of chaos is achieved via the classical period-doubling and symmetry restoring crisis scenarios. Some PSPICE simulations of the nonlinear dynamics of the oscillator are presented in order to confirm the ability of the proposed mathematical model to accurately describe/predict both the regular and chaotic behaviors of the oscillator.« less

  15. Improved group-specific primers based on the full SILVA 16S rRNA gene reference database.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Stefan; Pastar, Milica; Mitter, Birgit; Lippert, Kathrin; Hackl, Evelyn; Lojan, Paul; Oswald, Andreas; Sessitsch, Angela

    2014-08-01

    Quantitative PCR (qPCR) and community fingerprinting methods, such as the Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis,are well-suited techniques for the examination of microbial community structures. The use of phylum and class-specific primers can provide enhanced sensitivity and phylogenetic resolution as compared with domain-specific primers. To date, several phylum- and class-specific primers targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA gene have been published. However, many of these primers exhibit low discriminatory power against non-target bacteria in PCR. In this study, we evaluated the precision of certain published primers in silico and via specific PCR. We designed new qPCR and T-RFLP primer pairs (for the classes Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria, and the phyla Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria) by combining the sequence information from a public dataset (SILVA SSU Ref 102 NR) with manual primer design. We evaluated the primer pairs via PCR using isolates of the above-mentioned groups and via screening of clone libraries from environmental soil samples and human faecal samples. As observed through theoretical and practical evaluation, the primers developed in this study showed a higher level of precision than previously published primers, thus allowing a deeper insight into microbial community dynamics.

  16. The advertisement call of Proceratophrys branti Brandão, Caramaschi, Vaz-Silva Campos, 2013 (Amphibia, Anura, Odontophrynidae).

    PubMed

    De Andrade, Sheila Pereira; Rocha, Cezar Filho; Vaz-Silva, Wilian

    2018-02-15

    Proceratophrys Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920 currently comprises 40 species (Frost 2017) of which 15 are allocated into the Proceratophrys cristiceps species group (sensu Brandão et al. 2013). The species in this group are characterized by the absence of postocular swellings and, except for P. concavitympanum, are found in seasonally open habitats in Brazilian Cerrado and Caatinga morphoclimatic domains (Giaretta et al. 2000; Ávila et al. 2012; Teixeira Jr. et al. 2012; Brandão et al. 2013). Information on advertisement calls is available for 11 species of the group (Eterovick Sazima 1998; Nunes Juncá 2006; Brasileiro et al. 2008; Santana et al. 2010; Ávila et al. 2012; Martins Giaretta 2011; 2012; 2013; Ferreira et al. 2016). Proceratophrys branti Brandão, Carmaschi, Vaz-Silva Campos, 2013 has been recently described and allocated in the P. cristiceps species group. The species occurs in open areas in the north-central portion of the Brazilian Cerrado, in the states of Goiás, Minas Gerais and Tocantins (Brandão et al. 2013). Herein we describe for the first time its advertisement call, based on recordings made in an area of Cerrado biome in the state of Tocantins.

  17. [The Fernando Henrique Cardoso (FHC) and Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (Lula) governments and the policy for the civil servant workforce of the Brazilian government].

    PubMed

    Costa, Nilson do Rosario; Lamarca, Isabel

    2013-06-01

    This article analyzes the configuration of the active civil servant workforce of the Brazilian government during Fernando Henrique Cardoso - FHC - (1995-2002) and Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva - Lula - (2003-2010) mandates. The article associates the condition of the workforce of the Brazilian government with the changes in the government coalition. The residual participation of the Ministry of Health (MOH) in the direct provision of public services influenced the downward trend of the federal workforce.The implementation of the Unified Health System (SUS) was strongly affected by the structural adjustment of the workforce at the federal level during the decades of 1990 and 2000.

  18. Genus Gambierdiscus in the Canary Islands (NE Atlantic Ocean) with description of Gambierdiscus silvae sp. nov., a new potentially toxic epiphytic benthic dinoflagellate.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Santiago; Rodríguez, Francisco

    2014-12-01

    Species of the dinoflagellate genus Gambierdiscus are the cause of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning, common in tropical areas. Nevertheless, until recently this syndrome was not reported in the NE Atlantic Ocean. A new photosynthetic dinoflagellate species, Gambierdiscus silvae sp. nov. is described based on samples taken from tide pools on rocky shores of the Canary Islands (NE Atlantic Ocean). Its morphology was studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. The new species is anterioposteriorly compressed, lenticular in shape with an epitheca slightly higher than the hypotheca. It is round in apical view and has a thick smooth theca with many scattered pores. Plate formula is Po, 4', 0a, 6″, 6c, 6s?, 5'″, 0p, 2″″. Plate 2' is hatchet-shaped and Plate 2″″ is very wide and the largest of the hypotheca. Phylogenies inferred from the large subunit nuclear rRNA showed that three G. silvae strains clustered in a well supported sister clade to G. polynesiensis, distinct from the other species. G. australes was observed for the first time in the Atlantic, together with G. excentricus already reported from these islands. This work increases the number of Gambierdiscus species described and shows their unexpected diversity in the Canary Islands. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  19. The advertisement call and geographic distribution of Proceratophrys dibernardoi Brandão, Caramaschi, Vaz-Silva & Campos 2013 (Anura, Odontophrynidae).

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Cláudia Márcia Marily; Sugai, José Luiz Massao Moreira; DE Souza, Franco Leandro; DE Andrade, Sheila Pereira; Vaz-Silva, Wilian; Bastos, Rogério Pereira; DE Morais, Alessandro Ribeiro

    2016-12-09

    Proceratophrys dibernardoi Brandão, Caramaschi, Vaz-Silva & Campos 2013 has recently been described and allocated into the P. cristiceps species group, but no information about its advertisement calls has been provided (Brandão et al. 2013). Here, we describe for the first time the advertisement calls of P. dibernardoi based on specimens from Central Brazil. We also expand P. dibernardoi´s geographic distribution by reporting a new population in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, constituting the westernmost record for this species, and extending its known range approximately 330 km westward of the municipality of Aporé, State of Goiás (P. dibernardoi´s former westernmost record).

  20. Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavicaudus Fernandez-Silva & Randall (Perciformes, Mullidae), a new subspecies of goatfish from the Red Sea and Arabian Sea

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Silva, Iria; Randall, John E.; Golani, Daniel; Bogorodsky, Sergey V.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The number of goatfish species has increased recently, thanks in part to the application of molecular approaches to the taxonomy of a family with conservative morphology and widespread intraspecific color variation. A new subspecies Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavicaudus Fernandez-Silva & Randall is described from the Red Sea and Arabian Sea, including Socotra and Gulf of Oman. It is characterized by a yellow caudal fin, 25–28 gill rakers, and 37–38 lateral-line scales and it is differentiated from nominal subspecies Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavolineatus by 1.7% sequence divergence at the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. The morphometric examination of specimens of Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavolineatus revealed variation in head length, eye diameter, and barbel length, in western direction from the Hawaiian Islands, South Pacific, Micronesia, and the East Indies to the Indian Ocean. The population of Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavicaudus subsp. n. in the Gulf of Aqaba differs from that of the remaining Red Sea by shorter barbels, smaller eyes, shorter head, and shorter pelvic fins. We present a list of 26 endemic fishes from the Gulf of Aqaba and discuss the probable basis for the endemism in the light of the geological history of this region. PMID:27551217

  1. The Natural Selection of the Chemical Elements (by R. J. P. Williams and J. J. R. Fraústo da Silva)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffman, George B.

    1998-12-01

    Clarendon: New York, 1996. xxvi + 646 pp. Figs., tables. 20.5 x 25.6 cm. ISBN 0-19-855843-0. $80.00. R. J. P. Williams, Royal Society Research Professor Emeritus at Wadham College, Oxford University, and J. J. R. Fraústo da Silva, Professor of Analytical Chemistry at the Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, have collaborated on two previous volumes: New Trends in Bio-inorganic Chemistry (1978) and The Biological Chemistry of the Elements (3rd printing, 1994). Their latest collaborative effort is a book whose ambitious objective is "to show the relationship of every kind of material around us, living and nonliving, to the properties of the chemical elements of the periodic table." The "natural selection" of the chemical elements results from a number of factors, all of which are described in detail. Among these are chemical affinity related to the electronic configuration of their atoms, thermodynamic and kinetic stability, and "functional value to an organisation such as a living system". The physicist's approach to material through phase structure and the phase rule is stressed rather than the chemist's approach through bonding theories. The entire book possesses a strong environmental and interdisciplinary emphasis.

  2. Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavicaudus Fernandez-Silva & Randall (Perciformes, Mullidae), a new subspecies of goatfish from the Red Sea and Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Silva, Iria; Randall, John E; Golani, Daniel; Bogorodsky, Sergey V

    2016-01-01

    The number of goatfish species has increased recently, thanks in part to the application of molecular approaches to the taxonomy of a family with conservative morphology and widespread intraspecific color variation. A new subspecies Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavicaudus Fernandez-Silva & Randall is described from the Red Sea and Arabian Sea, including Socotra and Gulf of Oman. It is characterized by a yellow caudal fin, 25-28 gill rakers, and 37-38 lateral-line scales and it is differentiated from nominal subspecies Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavolineatus by 1.7% sequence divergence at the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. The morphometric examination of specimens of Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavolineatus revealed variation in head length, eye diameter, and barbel length, in western direction from the Hawaiian Islands, South Pacific, Micronesia, and the East Indies to the Indian Ocean. The population of Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavicaudus subsp. n. in the Gulf of Aqaba differs from that of the remaining Red Sea by shorter barbels, smaller eyes, shorter head, and shorter pelvic fins. We present a list of 26 endemic fishes from the Gulf of Aqaba and discuss the probable basis for the endemism in the light of the geological history of this region.

  3. Evaporation/SST Sensitivity Over the Tropical Oceans During ENSO Events as Estimated from the da Silva, Young, Levitus Surface Marine Data Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, F. R.; Fitzjarrald, D. E.; Sohn, B.-J.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The da Silva, Young and Levitus Surface Marine Atlas, based on observations from the Comprehensive Ocean Atmosphere Data Set (COADS) Release 1, has been used to investigate the relationship between evaporation and sea-surface temperature (SST) over the global oceans. For the period 1950 to 1987 SST, surface latent heat flux, and other related variables have been filtered to minimize data uncertainties and to focus upon interannual variations associated with warm (El Nino) and cold (La Nina) ENSO events. Compositing procedures have enabled identification of systematic variations in latent heat fluxes accompanying these events and the relationship to spatial anomalies in ocean surface wind speed and humidity. The evaporation response associated with ENSO sea surface temperature (SST) variability is systematic in nature and composed of offsetting contributions from the surface wind and humidity variations. During warm events exceeding 1.0 S.D. delta SST, increases in the surface humidity deficit, delta(qs-qa), between the surface and 2m height dominate regions of positive SST anomalies and lead to increases in evaporation of almost 2 Wm (exp -2) at deltaSST = 0.23 K. Despite the increases in specific humidity, relative humidity decreases slightly in regions of elevated SSTs. For the most part, variations in wind speed are consistent with previous investigations. Weakening of the equatorial easterlies (and generation of westerlies) between 160 degrees E and 140 degrees W dominates during the early phases of warm events. Elevated wind speeds in adjacent subtropical regions and in the eastern equatorial Pacific subsequently develop too. The net contribution of these winds, which reflect adjustments in Hadley and Walker circulation components is toward reduced evaporation. Results for cold periods are approximately similar, but opposite in sign to warm events, though evidence of different temporal evolution is noted.

  4. Walsh, Da Silva, and Wei Reply

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, A.; Da Silva, J. L. F.; Wei, S. H.

    2009-04-17

    This is a reply to Stefano Sanvito and Chaitanya Das Pemmaraju's, Comment on Theoretical Description of Carrier Mediated Magnetism in Cobalt Doped ZnO, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 159701 (2009); and the original article is Theoretical Description of Carrier Mediated Magnetism in Cobalt Doped ZnO, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 256401 (2008).

  5. Bondability of ipê (Tabebuia spp.) wood using ambient-curing exterior wood adhesives

    Treesearch

    Daniel J. Yelle

    2016-01-01

    Ipê is an extremely difficult species to bond because of its high density, interlocking grain, and high volumetric swelling–shrinkage under prolonged wet conditions. Despite its difficulties, the wood is known to be extremely durable in exterior conditions because of its resistance to microbial and insect degradation. Therefore, investigating its bondability with...

  6. RAPHIDOPHYCEAE [CHADEFAUD EX SILVA] SYSTEMATICS AND RAPID IDENTIFICATION: SEQUENCE ANALYSES AND REAL-TIME PCR ASSAYS

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, Holly A.; Tomas, Carmelo; Tengs, Torstein; Kempton, Jason W.; Lewitus, Alan J.; Oldach, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Species within the class Raphidophyceae were associated with fish kill events in Japanese, European, Canadian, and U.S. coastal waters. Fish mortality was attributable to gill damage with exposure to reactive oxygen species (peroxide, superoxide, and hydroxide radicals), neurotoxins, physical clogging, and hemolytic substances. Morphological identification of these organisms in environmental water samples is difficult, particularly when fixatives are used. Because of this difficulty and the continued global emergence of these species in coastal estuarine waters, we initiated the development and validation of a suite of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Sequencing was used to generate complete data sets for nuclear encoded small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA; 18S); internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, 5.8S; and plastid encoded SSU rRNA (16S) for confirmed raphidophyte cultures from various geographic locations. Sequences for several Chattonella species (C. antiqua, C. marina, C. ovata, C. subsalsa, and C. verruculosa), Heterosigma akashiwo, and Fibrocapsa japonica were generated and used to design rapid and specific PCR assays for several species including C. verruculosa Hara et Chihara, C. subsalsa Biecheler, the complex comprised of C. marina Hara et Chihara, C. antiqua Ono and C. ovata, H. akashiwo Ono, and F. japonica Toriumi et Takano using appropriate loci. With this comprehensive data set, we were also able to perform phylogenetic analyses to determine the relationship between these species. PMID:20411032

  7. A new species of Metapelopia Silva, Oliveira & Trivinho-Strixino (Diptera: Chironomidae) from Peru.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Galileu P S; Hamada, Neusa; Araujo, Ana A Huamantinco

    2016-07-08

    A new species of the monotypic genus Metapelopia is described and illustrated based on all life stages. Adults of the Metapelopia peruensis sp. n. can be easily distinguished from those of M. corbii by the color pattern of the legs and abdomen. Larvae and pupae were collected associated with algae accumulated on rocks.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: VLT/SINFONI observations of MIPSGAL "bubbles" (Silva+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, K. M.; Flagey, N.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Carey, S.; Ingallinera, A.

    2018-04-01

    Data were acquired in service mode during UT 2014 May 23-June 7 using VLT/SINFONI observations. We used two of SINFONI's four gratings providing spectral resolutions R=3000 and 4000 in the H and K bands, respectively, with the field of view of 8" by 8" (without adaptive optics). The targets are 55 MIPSGAL "bubbles" (MBs) that have not been previously classified as PNe, whose central sources were unidentified at the time of the Period 93 Call for Proposals (UT 2013 October 01), and appeared to contain at least one potential central source detected in the near-IR images of the Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS, Skrutskie et al. 2006, Cat. VII/233) or the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS, Warren et al. 2007MNRAS.381.1400W). (5 data files).

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Abundances in dwarfs, subgiants, and giants (da Silva+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, R.; Milone, A. C.; Rocha-Pinto, H. J.

    2015-05-01

    Photospheric parameters mass, age, and the abundances of C, N, O, Na, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Ba for a sample of FGK dwarfs, subgiants, and giants are derived. We used spectra of high-resolution (R~42,000) and high S/N (>150 on average) available in the ELODIE online database (Moultaka et al., 2004PASP..116..693M). These are spectra collected with the ELODIE high-resolution spectrograph (Baranne et al. 1996) of the Haute Provence Observatory (France). Only spectra with individual S/N>20 and with an image type classified as "object fibre only" (OBJO) were used. (7 data files).

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Fundamental parameters of Kepler stars (Silva Aguirre+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva Aguirre, V.; Davies, G. R.; Basu, S.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Creevey, O.; Metcalfe, T. S.; Bedding, T. R.; Casagrande, L.; Handberg, R.; Lund, M. N.; Nissen, P. E.; Chaplin, W. J.; Huber, D.; Serenelli, A. M.; Stello, D.; van Eylen, V.; Campante, T. L.; Elsworth, Y.; Gilliland, R. L.; Hekker, S.; Karoff, C.; Kawaler, S. D.; Kjeldsen, H.; Lundkvist, M. S.

    2016-02-01

    Our sample has been extracted from the 77 exoplanet host stars presented in Huber et al. (2013, Cat. J/ApJ/767/127). We have made use of the full time-base of observations from the Kepler satellite to uniformly determine precise fundamental stellar parameters, including ages, for a sample of exoplanet host stars where high-quality asteroseismic data were available. We devised a Bayesian procedure flexible in its input and applied it to different grids of models to study systematics from input physics and extract statistically robust properties for all stars. (4 data files).

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Neutron-capture elements abundances in Cepheids (da Silva+ 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, R.; Lemasle, B.; Bono, G.; Genovali, K.; McWilliam, A.; Cristallo, S.; Bergemann, M.; Buonanno, R.; Fabrizio, M.; Ferraro, I.; Francois, P.; Iannicola, G.; Inno, L.; Laney, C. D.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Matsunaga, N.; Nonino, M.; Primas, F.; Przybilla, N.; Romaniello, M.; Thevenin, F.; Urbaneja, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    The abundances of Fe, Y, La, Ce, Nd, and Eu for our sample of 73 Cepheids plus data available in the literature for other 362 Cepheids are shown. We first show the abundances derived based on individual spectra for the 73 stars, then the averaged values, and finally the data from the literature. The original abundances available in the literature were rescaled according to the zero-point differences listed in Table 5. The priority was given in the following order: we first adopt the abundances provided by our group, this study (TS) and Lemasle et al. (2013A&A...558A..31L, LEM), and then those provided by the other studies, Luck & Lambert (2011AJ....142..136L, LIII), and Luck et al. (2011AJ....142...51L, LII). (4 data files).

  12. A parabolic analogue of the higher-order comparison theorem of De Silva and Savin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Agnid; Garofalo, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    We show that the quotient of two caloric functions which vanish on a portion of the lateral boundary of a H k + α domain is H k + α up to the boundary for k ≥ 2. In the case k = 1, we show that the quotient is in H 1 + α if the domain is assumed to be space-time C 1 , α regular. This can be thought of as a parabolic analogue of a recent important result in [8], and we closely follow the ideas in that paper. We also give counterexamples to the fact that analogous results are not true at points on the parabolic boundary which are not on the lateral boundary, i.e., points which are at the corner and base of the parabolic boundary.

  13. X-ray fluorescence and imaging analyses of paintings by the Brazilian artist Oscar Pereira Da Silva

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, P. H. O. V.; Kajiya, E. A. M.; Rizzutto, M. A.; Neiva, A. C.; Pinto, H. P. F.; Almeida, P. A. D.

    2014-02-01

    Non-destructive analyses, such as EDXRF (Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence) spectroscopy, and imaging were used to characterize easel paintings. The analyzed objects are from the collection of the Pinacoteca do Estado de São Paulo. EDXRF results allowed us to identify the chemical elements present in the pigments, showing the use of many Fe-based pigments, modern pigments, such as cobalt blue and cadmium yellow, as well as white pigments containing lead and zinc used by the artist in different layers. Imaging analysis was useful to identify the state of conservation, the localization of old and new restorations and also to detect and unveil the underlying drawings revealing the artist's creative processes.

  14. Description of the female of Evandromyia rupicola (Martins, Godoy & Silva) with a review of the rupicola series (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae).

    PubMed

    Galati, E A B; Condino, M L F; Casanova, C

    2011-01-01

    The rupicola series was proposed initially for Evandromyia rupicola (Martins et al) and Evandromyia correalimai (Martins et al), and recently extended with the inclusion of Evandromyia gaucha Andrade-Filho et al and Evandromyia grimaldii Andrade-Filho et al. The female of E. rupicola is here described and illustrated for the first time and its male is redescribed and drawn on the basis of specimens captured in forest on the coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The head and genitalia of both sexes of E. correalimai are also illustrated. The distinctive traits among females of the four species and of males of E. rupicola, E. correalimai and E. grimaldii, and the distribution range of these species are commented.

  15. Two new species of Brasineura Silva-Neto García Aldrete (Psocodea, 'Psocoptera', Ptiloneuridae), from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Da Silva Neto, Alberto Moreira; Aldrete, Alfonso N garcÍa; Rafael, JosÉ Albertino

    2018-03-06

    Two new Brazilian species of Brasineura are described and illustrated, one based on male and female specimens and one based on male specimens only: Brasineura jiboia n.sp. (Bahia: Brazil) and Brasineura spinosa n.sp. (Espírito Santo: Brazil). They differ from the other species in the genus, in which the males are known, by hypandrium and phallosome structures. The first known female Brasineura is described here. The first identification key to males of Brasineura species is presented, as well as a proposal of homology for the structures of the phallosome.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ExoMol line lists for phosphine (PH3) (Sousa-Silva+,

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa-Silva, C.; Al-Refaie, A. F.; Tennyson, J.; Yurchenko, S. N.

    2014-11-01

    The data are in two parts. The first, ph3_0-46.dat contains a list of 9,787,832 rovibrational states. Each state is labelled with: 6 normal mode vibrational quantum numbers, 1 multiplexed L quantum number and the vibrational symmetry; three rotational quantum numbers including the total angular momentum J, the projection of J in the z-axis K,rotational symmetry and the total symmetry quantum number Gamma In addition there are nine local mode vibrational numbers and the largest coefficient used to assign the state in question. Each rovibrational state has a unique number, which is the number of the row in which it appears in the file. This number is the means by which the state is related to the second part of the data system, the transitions files. The total degeneracy is also given to facilitate the intensity calculations. Because of their size, the transitions are listed in 100 separate files, each containing all the transitions in a 100cm-1 frequency range. These and their contents are ordered by increasing frequency. The name of the file includes the lowest frequency in the range; thus the a-00500.dat file contains all the transitions in the frequency range 500-600cm-1. The transition files contain three columns: the reference number in the energy file of the upper state; that of the lower state; and the Einstein A coefficient of the transition. The energy file and the transitions files are zipped, and need to be extracted before use. There is a Fortran 90 programme, s_SAlTY.f90 which may be used to generate synthetic spectra (see s_SAlTY.txt for details). Using this, it is possible to generate absorption or emission spectra in either 'stick' form or else cross-sections convoluted with a gaussian with the half-width at half maximum being specified by the user, or with a the temperature-dependent doppler half-width. Sample input files s*.inp for use with sSAlTY.f90 are supplied. (10 data files).

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: NGC5617 and Trumpler 22 stars BV mag and RV (De Silva+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Silva, G. M.; Carraro, G.; D'Orazi, V.; Efremova, V.; MacPherson, H.; Martell, S.; Rizzo, L.

    2016-08-01

    The photometry used in this paper comes from two sources. In the case of NGC 5617, modern CCD photometry in the UBVI passbands is available from Carraro (2011, Cat. J/A+A/536/A101). For Trumpler 22, only old photographic data exist (Haug, 1978A&AS...34..417H), and for this reason we exploit here a new data set. Photometry in UBVI was acquired at Las Campanas Observatory on the nights from 2011 June 03 and are published here for the first time. We stress that this setup (telescope/instrument) is the same that Carraro (2011, Cat. J/A+A/536/A101) used for NGC 5617. Spectra were collected on the 3.9 m Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) using the UCLES spectrograph (2012 March 5-6) and using the HERMES multi-object spectrograph (2014 August 22) under service observation time. (1 data file).

  18. A Review of Species Suitable for Containment Site Culture (Fresh Water),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), blue tilapia ( Tilapia aurea), and red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). The first two are excellent freshwater candidates...Invertebrates which deserve primary consideration. They are the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), blue tilapia ( Tilapia aurea), and red drum

  19. Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Lábrea, state of Amazonas, Brazil, with a description of Evandromyia (Aldamyia) apurinan Shimabukuro, Figueira & Silva, sp. nov.

    PubMed Central

    Figueira, Elder Augusto Guimarães; Silva, Glacicleide; Chagas, Érica Cristina da Silva; Shimabukuro, Paloma Helena Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    An entomological survey was conducted from July-December 2009 and September-December 2010, as part of the epidemiological monitoring of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in the municipality of Lábrea, state of Amazonas (AM), Brazil. Sandflies were collected using CDC light traps installed in intra and peridomiciliary locations, as well as the border of forested areas around houses where autochthonous cases of ACL were recorded. A total of 510 sandflies belonging to 26 species were collected. The most abundant species was Nyssomyia antunesi (44.5%) followed by Evandromyia walkeri (10.6%) and Micropygomyia rorotaensis (9.8%). Here we also describe Evandromyia (Aldamyia) apurinan sp. nov. and report new records for Trichophoromyia flochi and Evandromyia sipani in AM and Brazil, respectively. Our results describe the composition of the sandfly fauna in the south of AM and suggest Ny. antunesi as the putative vector in the transmission of Leishmania in this area of the Amazon Region. PMID:23778658

  20. New species of Cerambycinae from the Neotropical Region, and nomen novum for Anelaphus maculatus Galileo, Martins, and Santos-Silva, 2014 (Elaphidiini).

    PubMed

    Galileo, Maria Helena M; Martins, Ubirajara R; Santos-Silva, Antonio

    2015-07-17

    Six new species and one new genus are described: Criodion spinosum sp. nov. (Cerambycini), from Bolivia; Eburodacrys wappesi sp. nov. and Eburodacrys skillmani sp. nov. (Eburiini), from Bolivia; Eupempelus rileyorum sp. nov. (Heteropsini) from Panama; Sphalloeme mexicana sp. nov. (Oemini), from Mexico; Wappesoeme camiri sp. nov., new genus (Oemini), from Bolivia. Wappesoeme, Eburodacrys wappesi, E. skillmani, Eupempelus rileyorum, and Criodion spinosum are included in previously published keys. Anelaphus erakyra nomen novum for A. maculatus Galileo et al., 2014 is established.

  1. Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Lábrea, state of Amazonas, Brazil, with a description of Evandromyia (Aldamyia) apurinan Shimabukuro, Figueira & Silva, sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Figueira, Elder Augusto Guimarães; Silva, Glacicleide; Chagas, Erica Cristina da Silva; Shimabukuro, Paloma Helena Fernandes

    2013-05-01

    An entomological survey was conducted from July-December 2009 and September-December 2010, as part of the epidemiological monitoring of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in the municipality of Lábrea, state of Amazonas (AM), Brazil. Sandflies were collected using CDC light traps installed in intra and peridomiciliary locations, as well as the border of forested areas around houses where autochthonous cases of ACL were recorded. A total of 510 sandflies belonging to 26 species were collected. The most abundant species was Nyssomyia antunesi (44.5%) followed by Evandromyia walkeri (10.6%) and Micropygomyia rorotaensis (9.8%). Here we also describe Evandromyia (Aldamyia) apurinan sp. nov. and report new records for Trichophoromyia flochi and Evandromyia sipani in AM and Brazil, respectively. Our results describe the composition of the sandfly fauna in the south of AM and suggest Ny. antunesi as the putative vector in the transmission of Leishmania in this area of the Amazon Region.

  2. 50 CFR Appendix A to Part 622 - Species Tables

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... michelinii, Blushing star Family Caryophylliidae Eusmilia fastigiata, Flower coral Tubastrea aurea, Cup coral... cactus Mussa angulosa, Large flower coral Mycetophyllia aliciae, Thin fungus coral M. danae, Fat fungus...

  3. 50 CFR Appendix A to Part 622 - Species Tables

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... michelinii, Blushing star Family Caryophylliidae Eusmilia fastigiata, Flower coral Tubastrea aurea, Cup coral... cactus Mussa angulosa, Large flower coral Mycetophyllia aliciae, Thin fungus coral M. danae, Fat fungus...

  4. Phylogenetic relationships of the genera of Ptiloneuridae (Psocodea, 'Psocoptera', Epipsocetae) and a test on the monophyly of Brasineura Silva-Neto & García Aldrete and Loneuroides García Aldrete.

    PubMed

    Silva-Neto, Alberto Moreira Da; Aldrete, Alfonso N García; Rafael, José Albertino

    2016-08-10

    The phylogenetic relationships of the genera of Ptiloneuridae were inferred on the basis of morphological characters of adult specimens. Two distinct clades are recognized: one, including Belicania, Euplocania, Omilneura, Perucania, Timnewia and Triplocania, and the other, including Brasineura, Loneura, Loneuroides, Ptiloneura, Ptiloneuropsis and Willreevesia. Brasineura and Loneuroides are recognized as monophyletic. A correction of nomenclature for the parts of the phallosome in Brasineura was made; we also modified the identification key to the genera of Ptiloneuridae, in the couplets that separate Loneura from Brasineura.

  5. A new species of Brasineura Silva-Neto & García Aldrete (Psocodea, 'Psocoptera', Ptiloneuridae), with comments on morphological variation in B. troglophilica and a revised generic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Neto, Alberto Moreira Da Silva; Aldrete, Alfonso N García; Rafael, José Albertino

    2016-03-03

    Brasineura serranortensis sp. n. is here described and illustrated. This is the third known species of Brasineura and differs from the other species in the genus in phallosome, hypandrium and paraproct structure. Comments on variation in fore wing venation, and new records for B. troglophilica are included. A revised generic diagnosis is also presented.

  6. 76 FR 52670 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ...) Contact Person: Frank S. De Silva, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Scientific Review Program, Division of.... De Silva, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Scientific Review Program, Division of Extramural...

  7. 76 FR 9401 - Union Pacific Railroad Company; Notice of Public Hearing and Extension of Public Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... assistance at the hearing, contact FRA's Docket Clerk, Michelle Silva, by telephone, e-mail, or in writing, at least five business days before the date of the hearing. Ms. Silva's contact information is as...; telephone 202-493-6030; e-mail michelle.silva@dot.gov . The informal hearing will be conducted by a...

  8. 75 FR 11992 - Notice of Scheduling of Public Hearing; Association of American Railroads

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... Silva, by telephone, e-mail, or in writing, at least 5 business days before the date of the hearing. Ms. Silva's contact information is as follows: FRA, Office of Chief Counsel, Mail Stop 10, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590; telephone 202-493-6030; e-mail michelle.silva@dot.gov . For...

  9. 75 FR 179 - Notice of Petition for Waiver of Compliance and Scheduling of Public Hearing Association of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... Silva, by telephone, e-mail, or in writing, at least 5 business days before the date of the hearing. Ms. Silva's contact information is as follows: FRA, Office of Chief Counsel, Mail Stop 10, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590; telephone 202-493-6030; e-mail michelle.silva@dot.gov . For...

  10. 75 FR 180 - Notice of Public Hearing; Western New York & Pennsylvania Railroad

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... request special assistance at the hearing, contact FRA's Docket Clerk, Michelle Silva, by telephone, e-mail, or in writing, at least 5 business days before the date of the hearing. Ms. Silva's contact..., DC 20590; telephone: 202-493-6030; e-mail: michelle.silva@dot.gov . The hearing will be informal and...

  11. Assessing tree species assemblages in highly disturbed Puerto Rican karst landscapes using forest inventory data.

    Treesearch

    Thomas James Brandeis

    2006-01-01

    Tree species assemblages described by landscape-scale forest inventory data both agreed and differed from those described by intensive, site specific studies in Puerto Rico’s highly disturbed northern karst belt. Species assemblages found on hill tops (typified by Tabebuia heterophylla or Bursera simaruba with Coccoloba diversifolia, Licaria parvifolia, and Drypetes...

  12. Assessing tree species assemblages in highly disturbed Puerto Rican karst landscapes using forest inventory data

    Treesearch

    Thomas James Brandeis

    2006-01-01

    Tree species assemblages described by landscape-scale forest inventory data both agreed and differed from those described by intensive, site specific studies in Puerto Rico's highly disturbed northern karst belt. Species assemblages found on hill tops (typified by Tabebuia heterophylla or Bursera simaruba with ...

  13. Resource Utilization by Native and Invasive Earthworms and Their Effects on Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Puerto Rican Soils

    Treesearch

    Ching-Yu Huang; Grizelle Gonzalez; Paul F. Hendrix

    2016-01-01

    Resource utilization by earthworms affects soil C and N dynamics and further colonization of invasive earthworms. By applying 13C-labeled Tabebuia heterophylla leaves and 15N-labeled Andropogon glomeratus grass, we investigated resource utilization by three earthworm species (...

  14. A new species of Jahnulales from Las Ilusiones Lagoon, Tabasco, Mexico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During a study on biodiversity of freshwater ascomycetes from an urban tropical lagoon, an ascomycete with similar morphology to species of Jahnulales was obtained. Smooth surface test blocks of Pinus sp., Bucida sp., Cedrela sp. and Tabebuia sp. were submerged in pairs close to a private house whar...

  15. Quinones from plants of northeastern Brazil: structural diversity, chemical transformations, NMR data and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Telma L G; Monte, Francisco J Q; Santos, Allana Kellen L; Fonseca, Aluisio M; Santos, Hélcio S; Oliveira, Mailcar F; Costa, Sonia M O; Pessoa, Otilia D L; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2007-05-20

    The present review focus in quinones found in species of Brazilian northeastern Capraria biflora, Lippia sidoides, Lippia microphylla and Tabebuia serratifolia. The review cover ethnopharmacological aspects including photography of species, chemical structure feature, NMR datea and biological properties. Chemical transformations of lapachol to form enamine derivatives and biological activities are discussed.

  16. WILD EDIBLE MUSHROOMS OF MEGHALAYA

    PubMed Central

    Barua, Paran; Adhikary, R.K; Kalita, Pabitra; Bordoloi, Dalimi; Gogoi, P.; Singh, R.S.; Ghosh, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    Different flesh mushrooms grow widely in Meghalaya. Altogether fie edible species were collected and identified which were found abundantly in forest and are known to be consumed by local people for time immemorial, The species identified are lentinus edodes (Berk) Sing., Boletus edulis Bull ex Fr., Clavaria cinerea (Fr.) Schroet, Clavaria aurea (F) Quet and cantharellus floccosus Juss. PMID:22556840

  17. Use of a Novel, Stable Gene Silencing Technology to Determine the Contribution of the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase to the Breast Cancer Phenotype

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-01

    Manuscripts: Paddison*, PJ, Silva*, JM, Conklin*, DS, Schlabach, M., Li, M., Aruleba, S., Balija, V., O’Shaughnessy, A., Gnoj, L., Scobie , K., Chang,K...Silva*, JM, Conklin*, DS, Schlabach, M., Li, M., Aruleba, S., Balija, V., O’Shaughnessy, A., Gnoj, L., Scobie , K., Chang,K., Westbrook,T

  18. Is obesity an emerging problem in Brazilian children and adolescents?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this issue of the Jornal de Pediatria, Silva et al. compared the growth patterns of Brazilian children and adolescents with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) growth charts. The Silva et al. study has significant public health implications...

  19. Proceedings of the Meeting of the Coastal Engineering Research Board (43rd) Held at Vicksburg, Mississippi on 22-24 May 1985.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-01

    extensive renovation , as shown in Fig- ure 3. Total rehabilitation usually costs one-tenth to one-fourth as much as replacement with a new structure. 29...presented by Dr. Manuel da Silva, Ministerior Da Industria E Energia , Portugal. Dr. da Silva discussed the Sines breakwater failures of 1978 and 1979

  20. Publications - RI 2015-6 | Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical

    Science.gov Websites

    ., Schwab, C.E., Silva, S.R., Smith, T.E., and Zehner, R.E. Publication Date: Sep 2015 Publisher: Alaska , C.E., Silva, S.R., Smith, T.E., and Zehner, R.E., 2015, Geologic maps of the eastern Alaska Range

  1. Subject and Object Expression in Spanish Heritage Speakers: A Case of Morphosyntactic Convergence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrul, Silvina

    2004-01-01

    Many simultaneous bilinguals exhibit loss or incomplete acquisition of their heritage language under conditions of exposure and use of the majority language (Silva-Corvalan, 1994, 2003; Polinsky, 1997; Toribio, 2001; Montrul, 2002). Recent work within discourse-functional (Silva-Corvalan 1994) and generative perspectives (Sorace, 2000; Montrul;…

  2. Moisture Absorption in Certain Tropical American Woods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1949-08-01

    surface area was in unobstructed contact with the salt water. Similar wire mesh racks were weighted and placed on top of the specimens to keep them...Oak (Quercus alba)" Br. Guiana Honduras United States (control) II II Total absorption by 2 x 2 x 6-inch uncoated specimens. Probably sapwood ...only. /2 ~~ Probably sapwood Table 3 (Continued) Species Source Increase over 40 percent Fiddlewood (Vit ex Gaumeri) Roble Blanco (Tabebuia

  3. Pulmonary Gene Expression Profiling of Inhaled Ricin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-02-01

    luis.dasilva@amedd.army.mil ( L . DaSilva). Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of...profiling of inhaled ricin, Toxicon 41:813-822 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) DaSilva, L Cote, D Roy, C...USA, Inc., Torrance, CA). To detect pulmonary alveolar macrophages, replicate sections of formalin-fixed, L . DaSilva et al. / Toxicon 41 (2003) 813

  4. Brazil-U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-06

    unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Brazil-U.S. Relations Summary On January 1, 2007, Luis Inácio “Lula” da Silva...Under President Luis Inácio “Lula” da Silva, Brazil has aimed, with varying degrees of success, to raise its global profile. Brazil has become a...sociologist of the center-left Brazilian Social Democratic Party (PSDB), was elected by a wide margin over Luis Inácio “Lula” da Silva of the Worker’s

  5. Brazil-U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-18

    unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Brazil-U.S. Relations Summary On January 1, 2007, Luis Inácio “Lula” da Silva...Inácio “Lula” da Silva, Brazil has aimed, with varying degrees of success, to raise its global profile. Brazil has become a leader of developing...prominent sociologist of the center-left Brazilian Social Democratic Party (PSDB), was elected by a wide margin over Luis Inácio “Lula” da Silva of the

  6. Microsatellite primers in the white proteas (Protea section Exsertae, Proteaceae), a rapidly radiating lineage.

    PubMed

    Prunier, Rachel; Latimer, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Microsatellite primers were developed in the South African sclerophyllous shrub Protea punctata to investigate the degree of population differentiation within and between P. punctata and closely related species. • 10 primer pairs were identified from three individuals of Protea punctata. The primers amplified di- and tri-nucleotide repeats. Across all P. punctata samples, the loci have 8-49 alleles. All primers also amplified in Protea section Exsertae (P. aurea, P. aurea subsp. potbergensis, P. mundii, P. venusta, P. lacticolor, and P. subvestita). The loci had 14-69 alleles across the subgenus. • These results show the broad utility of microsatellite loci for future studies of population genetics in the white proteas and their potential utility across the entire genus.

  7. Oxygen Consumption of Tilapia and Preliminary Mass Flows through a Prototype Closed Aquaculture System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, Matthew S.; Bauer, Clarence F.

    1994-01-01

    Performance of NASA's prototype CELSS Breadboard Project Closed Aquaculture System was evaluated by estimating gas exchange quantification and preliminary carbon and nitrogen balances. The total system oxygen consumption rate was 535 mg/hr kg/fish (cv = 30%) when stocked with Tilapia aurea populations (fresh weights of 97 +/- 19 to 147 +/- 36 g/fish for various trials). Oxygen consumption by T. aurea (260 mg/hr kg/fish) contributed to approximately one-half of total system demand. Continuous carbon dioxide quantification methods were analyzed using the,relation of carbon dioxide to oxygen consumption. Overall food conversion rates averaged 18.2 +/- 3.2%. Major pathways for nitrogen and carbon in the system were described with preliminary mass closure of 60-80% and 60% for nitrogen and carbon.

  8. Impact of Phlebotomine Sand Flies on U.S. Military Operations at Tallil Air Base, Iraq: 1. Background, Military Situation, and Development of a ’Leishmaniasis Control Program’

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    placed the dogs that were exterminated. In addition to the feral dogs, six golden jackals , Canis aureas L., were collected in live traps. Leishmania...Sukkar et al. 1985). Reservoirs of L. infantum are believed to be domestic dogs, jackals , foxes, and potentially rats, whereas humans are the reservoirs...and Maroli 2003). Potential animal reser- voirs at TAB included feral dogs, jackals and foxes, and avariety of small rodents. InApril 2003

  9. We Made Your Bed, Why Won’t You Lie in It? Food Availability and Disease May Affect Reproductive Output of Reintroduced Frogs

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Jose; Stockwell, Michelle; Fardell, Loren; Clulow, Simon; Clulow, John; Mahony, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Mitigation to offset the impacts of land development is becoming increasingly common, with reintroductions and created habitat programs used as key actions. However, numerous reviews cite high rates of poor success from these programs, and a need for improved monitoring and scientific testing to evaluate outcomes and improve management actions. We conducted extensive monitoring of a released population of endangered green and golden bell frogs, Litoria aurea, within a created habitat, as well as complementary surveys of a surrounding wild population. We then compared differences between the created habitat and natural ponds where extant frogs either bred or didn’t breed in order to determine factors that contributed to the breeding failure within the created habitat. We evaluated differences of L. aurea abundance, abundance of other fauna, vegetation, water quality, habitat structure, invasive fish, and disease between the three pond types (created habitat, breeding ponds, non-breeding ponds). We discovered that vegetation and invertebrate diversity were low within the created habitat, potentially reducing energy and nutritional resources required for breeding. Also, a greater proportion of frogs in the created habitat were carrying the chytrid fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, compared to the wild populations. In addition to causing the potentially fatal disease, chytridiomycosis, this pathogen has been shown to reduce reproductive functioning in male L. aurea, and subsequently may have reduced reproductive activities in the created habitat. Conspecific attraction, pond hydrology, and aquatic vegetation may also have had some influence on breeding behaviours, whilst the presence of the invasive mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki, and heterospecific tadpoles were unlikely to have deterred L. aurea from breeding within the created habitat. Through the use of scientific testing and monitoring, this study is able to make recommendations for future

  10. In-vitro antimicrobial activity screening of some ethnoveterinary medicinal plants traditionally used against mastitis, wound and gastrointestinal tract complication in Tigray Region, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Kalayou, Shewit; Haileselassie, Mekonnen; Gebre-egziabher, Gebremedhin; Tiku'e, Tsegay; Sahle, Samson; Taddele, Habtamu; Ghezu, Mussie

    2012-01-01

    Objective To screen the antibacterial activity of nine ethnoveterinary plants traditionally used for the treatment of mastitis, wound and gastrointestinal complications. Methods Hydroalcoholic exctracts of medicinal plants namely, Achyranthes aspera (A. aspera) L. (Family Asparagaceae), Ficus caria (F. caria) (Family Moraceae), Malvi parviflora (M. parviflora) (Family Malvaceae), Vernonia species (V. species) (local name Alakit, Family Asteraceae), Solanum hastifolium (S. hastifolium) (Family Solanaceae), Calpurinia aurea (C. aurea) (Ait) Benth (Family Fabaceae), Nicotiana tabacum (N. tabacum) L. (Family Solanaceae), Ziziphus spina-christi (Z. spina-christi) (Family Rhamnaceae), Croton macrostachys (C. macrostachys) (Family Euphorbiaceae), were screened against clinical bacterial isolates of veterinary importance from October 2007 to April 2009. The antibacterial activity was tested using disc diffusion at two concentrations (200 mg/mL and 100 mg/mL) and broth dilution methods using 70% methanol macerated leaf extracts. Results With the exception of S. hastifolium all plant extracts exhibited antibacterial activity. Among the medicinal plants tested C. aurea, C. macrostachyus, A. aspera, N. tabacum and vernonia species (Alakit) showed the most promising antimicrobial properties. Conclusions It can be concluded that many of the tested plants have antibacterial activity and supports the traditional usage of the plants for mastitis, wound and gastrointestinal complications treatment. Further studies into their toxicity and phytochemistry is advocated. PMID:23569962

  11. Fragmentation, Fusion, and Genetic Homogeneity in a Calcareous Sponge (Porifera, Calcarea).

    PubMed

    Padua, André; Leocorny, Pedro; Custódio, Márcio Reis; Klautau, Michelle

    2016-06-01

    Sessile marine invertebrates living on hard substrata usually present strategies such as size variations, longer life spans, fragmentation and fusion to occupy and compete for space. Calcareous sponges are usually small and short-lived, and some species are known to undergo frequent fragmentation and fusion events. However, whether fusion occurs only between genetically identical individuals remains unclear. We investigated the occurrence of chimaeras in the calcareous sponge Clathrina aurea by following the dynamics of fragmentation and fusion of 66 individuals in the field for up to 18 months and determined size variations and the life span of each individual. Microsatellites were used to determine whether fusion events occur among genetically different individuals. Growth and shrinkage of individuals were frequently observed, showing that size cannot be associated with age in C. aurea. The life span of the species ranged from 1 to 16 months (mean: 4.7 months). Short life spans and variable growth rates have been observed in other species of the class Calcarea. Fragmentation and fusion events were observed, but fusion events always occurred between genetically identical individuals, as has been suggested by graft experiments in adult Demospongiae and other Calcarea. These results suggest that at least C. aurea adults may have some mechanism to avoid chimaerism. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Antibacterial Activities of Five Medicinal Plants in Ethiopia against Some Human and Animal Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Admasu, Birhanu; Hiwot Gebrekidan, Tsegaye; Gebru, Gebreyohans

    2018-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of five plant extracts which have been used as traditional medicines by local healers against three multidrug resistant bacteria, namely, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results The highest mean zone of inhibition (4.66 mm) was recorded from methanol extract of Calpurnia aurea (Ait.) Benth. at a concentration of 200 mg/ml against S. aureus, followed by Croton macrostachyus Del. (4.43 mm) at the same dose and solvent for the same bacterial species, while methanol and chloroform extracts of E. brucei Schwein. did not inhibit growth of any bacterial species. The lowest value (100 μg/ml) of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was observed from both methanol and chloroform extracts of C. aurea (Ait.) Benth. against all the three bacteria. The results of the positive control had no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) when compared with crude extracts of C. aurea (Ait.) Benth. at concentration of 200 mg/ml against S. aureus. Conclusion The results of the present study support the traditional uses of these medicinal plants by the local healers. Except Erythrina brucei Schwein., all the plants investigated in this study exhibited antibacterial activities against the test bacterial species. Further researches are needed to be conducted to evaluate efficacy of these medicinal plant species on other microbes in different agroecological settings and their safety levels as well as their phytochemical compositions. PMID:29552081

  13. Antibacterial Activities of Five Medicinal Plants in Ethiopia against Some Human and Animal Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Romha, Gebremedhin; Admasu, Birhanu; Hiwot Gebrekidan, Tsegaye; Aleme, Hailelule; Gebru, Gebreyohans

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of five plant extracts which have been used as traditional medicines by local healers against three multidrug resistant bacteria, namely, Staphylococcus aureus , Escherichia coli , and Pseudomonas aeruginosa . The highest mean zone of inhibition (4.66 mm) was recorded from methanol extract of Calpurnia aurea (Ait.) Benth. at a concentration of 200 mg/ml against S. aureus , followed by Croton macrostachyus Del. (4.43 mm) at the same dose and solvent for the same bacterial species, while methanol and chloroform extracts of E. brucei Schwein. did not inhibit growth of any bacterial species. The lowest value (100  μ g/ml) of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was observed from both methanol and chloroform extracts of C. aurea (Ait.) Benth. against all the three bacteria. The results of the positive control had no statistically significant difference ( P > 0.05) when compared with crude extracts of C. aurea (Ait.) Benth. at concentration of 200 mg/ml against S. aureus . The results of the present study support the traditional uses of these medicinal plants by the local healers. Except Erythrina brucei Schwein., all the plants investigated in this study exhibited antibacterial activities against the test bacterial species. Further researches are needed to be conducted to evaluate efficacy of these medicinal plant species on other microbes in different agroecological settings and their safety levels as well as their phytochemical compositions.

  14. Completely preserved cockroaches of the family Mesoblattinidae from the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation (Liaoning Province, NE China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Dandan; Ren, Dong

    2013-08-01

    Although cockroaches were the dominant insects in various Paleozoic and Mesozoic insect assemblages, their general morphology was extremely conservative. One of the most common of them, the Jurassic-Cretaceous family Mesoblattinidae, is described here for the first time on the basis of completely preserved specimens. Ninety-two specimens of Perlucipecta aurea gen. et sp. n. reveal details of head, mandible, male tergal glands and terminal hook; cercal, leg and antennal sensilla. Its congener, P. vrsanskyi is described from the same sediments of the Yixian Formation (Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous). The forewing venation variability of P. aurea, analysed for the first time in this family is nearly identical (CV = 6.23 %) with variability of two species of family Blattulidae that occur at the same locality (CV = 6.22 %; 5.72 %). The transitional nature of morphological characters represented by asymmetry between left and right wings (simple/branched forewing SC and hind wing M) in P. aurea documents the phylogenetic relation between the families Mesoblattinidae and Ectobiidae

  15. Assessing the extent of "conflict of use" in multipurpose tropical forest trees: a regional view.

    PubMed

    Herrero-Jáuregui, Cristina; Guariguata, Manuel R; Cárdenas, Dairon; Vilanova, Emilio; Robles, Marco; Licona, Juan Carlos; Nalvarte, Walter

    2013-11-30

    In the context of multiple forest management, multipurpose tree species which provide both timber and non-timber forest products (NTFP), present particular challenges as the potential of conflicting use for either product may be high. One key aspect is that the magnitude of conflict of use can be location specific, thus adding complexity to policy development. This paper focuses on the extent to which the potential for conflict of use in multipurpose tree species varies across the Amazonian lowland forests shared by Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela, emphasizing the economic dimension of conflict. Based on a review of the current normative and regulatory aspects of timber and NTFP extraction in the five countries, the paper also briefly discusses the opportunities and constraints for harmonization of timber and NTFP management of multipurpose species across the region. It was found that about half of the 336 timber species reviewed across the five countries also have non-timber uses. Eleven timber species are multipurpose in all five countries: Calophyllum brasiliense, Cedrela odorata, Ceiba pentandra, Clarisia racemosa, Ficus insipida, Jacaranda copaia, Schefflera morototoni, Simarouba amara and Terminalia amazonia. Seven other multipurpose species occurred only in either Venezuela (Tabebuia impetiginosa, Spondias mombin, Pentaclethra macroloba, Copaifera officinalis, Chlorophora tinctoria, Carapa guianensis) or Ecuador (Tabebuia chrysantha). Four multipurpose tree species presented the highest potential of conflict of use across the region: Dipteryx odorata, Tabebuia serratifolia, Hymenaea courbaril and Myroxylon balsamum yet these were not evenly distributed across all five countries. None of the five studied countries have specific legislation to promote sustainable use of any of the multipurpose species reported here and thus mitigate potential conflict of use; nor documented management options for integration or else segregation of both their

  16. Three new species of mealybug (Hemiptera, Coccomorpha, Pseudococcidae) on persimmon fruit trees (Diospyros kaki) in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco da Silva, Vitor C.; Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Germain, Jean-François; Malausa, Thibaut; Botton, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Brazil has the greatest insect diversity in the world; however, little is known about its scale insect species (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha). Mealybugs (Pseudococcidae) have been found in at least 50% of persimmon orchards Diospyros kaki L. in the southern part of the country. In this study three new mealybug species on persimmon trees located in the Serra Gaúcha Region, RS, Brazil, namely, Anisococcus granarae Pacheco da Silva & Kaydan, sp. n., Ferrisia kaki Kaydan & Pacheco da Silva, sp. n. and Pseudococcus rosangelae Pacheco da Silva & Kaydan, sp. n. are described. In addition, an identification key for the genera occurring on fruit orchards and vineyards in Brazil is provided, together with illustrations and molecular data for the new species. PMID:27199595

  17. New species of Edessa Fabricius, 1803 (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Jose Antonio Marin; Silva, Valeria Juliete Da; Correia, Andre Oliveira; Nunes, Benedito Mendes

    2015-08-12

    The edessines from Costa Rica are little known; only 18 species have been registered or described from this country so far. Mainly based in a large sample from Instituto Nacional de Biodiverdidad (INBio), Costa Rica, we decided to update the information concerning Edessinae from Costa Rica. We present a list of species from Costa Rica raising the number of known species from Costa Rica to 65. We are also describing nine new species: Edessa bella Fernandes & Silva, E. bruneolineata Fernandes & Correia, E. curvata Fernandes & Nunes, E. lewisi Fernandes & Silva, E. nigroangulata Fernandes & Silva, E. osae Fernandes & Nunes, E. oxcarti Fernandes & Correia, E. pallidoangulata Fernandes & Nunes and E. puravida Fernandes & Correia. Species were described, illustrated and photographed. Distribution maps for the species are also provided.

  18. Three new species of mealybug (Hemiptera, Coccomorpha, Pseudococcidae) on persimmon fruit trees (Diospyros kaki) in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pacheco da Silva, Vitor C; Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Germain, Jean-François; Malausa, Thibaut; Botton, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Brazil has the greatest insect diversity in the world; however, little is known about its scale insect species (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha). Mealybugs (Pseudococcidae) have been found in at least 50% of persimmon orchards Diospyros kaki L. in the southern part of the country. In this study three new mealybug species on persimmon trees located in the Serra Gaúcha Region, RS, Brazil, namely, Anisococcus granarae Pacheco da Silva & Kaydan, sp. n., Ferrisia kaki Kaydan & Pacheco da Silva, sp. n. and Pseudococcus rosangelae Pacheco da Silva & Kaydan, sp. n. are described. In addition, an identification key for the genera occurring on fruit orchards and vineyards in Brazil is provided, together with illustrations and molecular data for the new species.

  19. In vitro propagation and assessment of genetic stability of acclimated plantlets of Cornus alba L. using RAPD and ISSR markers.

    PubMed

    Ilczuk, Agnieszka; Jacygrad, Ewelina

    2016-01-01

    Cornus alba L. (white dogwood) is an important ornamental shrub having a wide range of applications such as reforestation programs and soil retention systems. The vegetative propagation of dogwood by cuttings may be slow, difficult, and cultivar dependent; therefore, an improved micropropagation method was developed. Nodal stem segments of C. alba cultivars 'Aurea' and 'Elegantissima' were cultured on media enriched with six different sources of macronutrients. Media were supplemented with either N 6 -benzyladenine (BA) or thidiazuron (TDZ) in combination with 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Regardless of the cultivar, the best shoot proliferation was observed on Lloyd and McCown medium (woody plant medium (WPM)) at pH 6.2, containing 1.0 mg L -1 BA, 0.1 mg L -1 NAA, and 20-30 g L -1 sucrose. Rooting of regenerated shoots was achieved by an in vitro method when different concentrations of NAA or indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) were tested. Microcuttings were rooted for 8 wk on medium enriched with 0.25 mg L -1 NAA and potted into P9 containers in the greenhouse. The final survival rate of the plants after 20 wk was 80% for 'Aurea' and 90% for 'Elegantissima'. Genetic stability of the micropropagated plants was confirmed by using two DNA-based molecular marker techniques. A total of 30 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and 20 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) primers resulted in 197-199 and 184-187 distinct and reproducible band classes, respectively, in 'Aurea' and 'Elegantissima' plantlets. All of the RAPD and ISSR profiles were monomorphic and comparable with the mother plant.

  20. Native trees of the Northeast Argentine: natural hosts of the Cryptococcus neoformans-Cryptococcus gattii species complex.

    PubMed

    Cattana, Maria Emilia; Sosa, María de Los Ángeles; Fernández, Mariana; Rojas, Florencia; Mangiaterra, Magdalena; Giusiano, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    In Argentina, information about epidemiology and environmental distribution of Cryptococcus is scarce. The city of Resistencia borders with Brazil and Paraguay where this fungus is endemic. All these supported the need to investigate the ecology of the genus and the epidemiology of cryptococcosis in this area. The aim was to investigate the presence of species of Cryptococcus neoformans-Cryptococcus gattii complex and their genotypes in trees of the city of Resistencia. One hundred and five trees were sampled by swabbing technique. The isolates were identified using conventional and commercial methods and genotyped by PCR-RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism). Cryptococcus was found in 7 out of the total trees. 6 out of 7 Cryptococcus isolates were identified as C. neoformans and one as C. gattii. C. gattii was isolated from Grevillea robusta. C. neoformans strains were isolated from Tabebuia avellanedae and Peltophorum dubium. Genotyping showed that all C. neoformans belonged to the VNI type and C. gattii belonged to the VGI type. This represents the first study on the ecology of Cryptococcus spp. associated to trees from northeastern Argentina, and the first report describing Grevillea robusta as a host of members of this fungal genus. Another finding is the isolation of C. neoformans from Tabebuia avellanedae and Peltophorum dubium, both tree species native to northeastern Argentina. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Scale Effects in a cw HF Chemical Laser

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    propot ltuna IL to Fressur-_ squared, so as pressure incti ases, the rot .t lonal[ rotaLattion tatle it( re.ises , thus producitng a nmore_ rot Attoiol.i...CL I laser body centered between them. All the data were taken at the xc (location of the optical axis) that gave maximum power, since the data will be...to the laser body . These Brewster wint ows were new and hence their loss had to -c etr,.c4 U. By . 4 .r usin th sam prý-aAureas *a tlined in RnaDv2

  2. A new species of the genus Ammonicera (Prosobranchia, Omalogyridae) in a coralline algae community from Jeju Island, off the south coast of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waki, Tsukasa; Rolán, Emilio; Noseworthy, Ronald G.; Kang, Hyun-Sil; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2017-12-01

    A species of the genus Ammonicera Vayssière, 1893 collected from coralline algae communities in Jeju Island, South Korea, is described as a new species, A. aurea, for science. Its morphological characters are described and illustrated by SEM micrographs. This new species can be clearly distinguished from other Ammonicera species from the Pacific Ocean by the presence of a spiral cord and about 25 slightly-elevated axial ribs, resulting in about 25 nodules at intersecting points of the cord and ribs on the last whorl of the teleoconch.

  3. The Amaryllidaceae alkaloids: biosynthesis and methods for enzyme discovery

    PubMed Central

    Kilgore, Matthew B.; Kutchan, Toni M.

    2015-01-01

    Amaryllidaceae alkaloids are an example of the vast diversity of secondary metabolites with great therapeutic promise. The identification of novel compounds in this group with over 300 known structures continues to be an area of active study. The recent identification of norbelladine 4′-O-methyltransferase (N4OMT), an Amaryllidaceae alkaloid biosynthetic enzyme, and the assembly of transcriptomes for Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus and Lycoris aurea highlight the potential for discovery of Amaryllidaceae alkaloid biosynthetic genes with new technologies. Recent technical advances of interest include those in enzymology, next generation sequencing, genetic modification, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), and mass spectrometry (MS). PMID:27340382

  4. Microcomputer Geotechnical Quality Assurance of Compacted Earth Fill Data Package: User’s Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    US 530.0 6 AREA I : "CL 4.,0 100 98 26 36 14:100.8 19.5: 6 10.3 16.2: 100.2 17.6: 1.9 !00.5: I AC .G :iP00 04113 SY 4*70 10 DS 531.5 6 AUREA I :CL 4.00...the general X-Y plot program. The user is referred to the above section or Appendix B for details of this process. One additional feature that is

  5. Surgery in World War II. Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1957-01-01

    Suirgeonts b~e aissignted to htospitIals to he erected ill advanceed aureas. 5. That optical uinit s be orga Itize inl Ihe vat riotS il oes, wi%% ace tm o1...pmettl v otcludedIt’ glasses wvere niot to be w~ ornl . Usioni of less t han 20/40 if) either e’ve, reqtuiretd the addtitionial exaunihnat ionis just...Maliv wvourld mlerely hrave b~een inI(orVcnI~ieni(,e(l l)Ny I)einir wit liolt grilase tm oaily, buit mally ot her-s would have luecni pail tiallv Or

  6. Update of information on perkinsosis in NW Mediterranean coast: Identification of Perkinsus spp. (Protista) in new locations and hosts.

    PubMed

    Ramilo, Andrea; Carrasco, Noelia; Reece, Kimberly S; Valencia, José M; Grau, Amalia; Aceituno, Patricia; Rojas, Mauricio; Gairin, Ignasi; Furones, M Dolores; Abollo, Elvira; Villalba, Antonio

    2015-02-01

    This study addressed perkinsosis in commercially important mollusc species in the western Mediterranean area. Perkinsus olseni was found in Santa Gilla Lagoon (Sardinia) infecting Ruditapes decussatus, Cerastoderma glaucum and Venerupis aurea, in Balearic Islands infecting Venus verrucosa and in Delta de l'Ebre (NE Spain) parasitising Ruditapes philippinarum and R. decussatus. Perkinsus mediterraneus was detected infecting Ostrea edulis from the Gulf of Manfredonia (SE Italy) and Alacant (E Spain), V. verrucosa and Arca noae from Balearic Islands and Chlamys varia from Balearic Islands, Alacant and Delta de l'Ebre. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Antioxidant activity of nine Fabaceae species growing in Serbia and Montenegro.

    PubMed

    Godevac, Dejan; Zdunić, Gordana; Savikin, Katarina; Vajs, Vlatka; Menković, Nebojsa

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate antioxidant capacity of nine Fabaceae species collected on the mountains of Serbia and Montenegro. Antioxidant assays with various reaction mechanisms were used, including total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteu, DPPH radical scavenging capacity, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values by ABTS radical cation and inhibition of liposome peroxidation. The investigated plants exhibited strong antioxidant capacity in all the tested methods, and among them, Lathyrus binatus, Trifolium pannonicum, and Anthyllis aurea were found to be the most active.

  8. Molecular Mechanism for Prostate Cancer Resistance to the Anti-Tumor Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-01

    Furukawa, T., Kanai, N., Sunamura, M., and Horii, A. (2005) J Hum Genet 50(4), 159-167 31. Armes, J. E., Hammet , F., de Silva, M., Ciciulla, J., Ramus...Relative mRNA levels were calculated 13 from the point where each curve crossed the threshold line (Ct) using the equation : Rel. Value = 2 -[Ct...JE, Hammet F, de Silva M, et al. Candidate tumor-suppressor genes on chromosome arm 8p in early-onset and high-grade breast cancers. Oncogene 2004 Jul

  9. Phytoseiid mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) from Araucaria Forest of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, with new records and descriptions of four new species.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Dinarte; Cunha, Uemerson Silva Da; Bampi, Paula Maria; Moraes, Gilberto José De; Ferla, Noeli Juarez

    2015-10-20

    This paper reports on the Phytoseiidae from an Araucaria forest in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, describing four new species, namely Transeius kroeffis n. sp., Typhlodromalus araucariae n. sp., Typhlodromips pompeui n. sp. and Typhlodromips salvadorii n. sp.. Iphiseiodes moraesi Ferla & Silva, Neoseiulus tunus (DeLeon), Typhlodromips japi Lofego, Demite & Feres, Typhlodromips pallinii Gonçalves, Silva & Ferla, Typhloseiopsis dorsoreticulatus Lofego, Demite & Feres are reported for the first time from this type of habitat in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil.

  10. Brazil-U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-28

    Relations Summary On January 1, 2007, Luis Inácio “Lula” da Silva, of the leftist Workers’ Party (PT), was inaugurated for a second four-year term as...United Nations (U.N.) and the Organization of American States ( OAS ), and act at times as a countervailing force to U.S. political and economic influence...in Latin America. In addition to its active engagement in regional and multilateral trade talks, Brazil under President Luis Inácio “Lula” da Silva

  11. Morphological Examination and Phylogenetic Analyses of Phycopeltis spp. (Trentepohliales, Ulvophyceae) from Tropical China

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Huan; Zhao, Zhijuan; Xia, Shuang; Hu, Zhengyu; Liu, Guoxiang

    2015-01-01

    During an investigation of Trentepohliales (Ulvophyceae) from tropical areas in China, four species of the genus Phycopeltis were identified: Phycopeltis aurea, P. epiphyton, P. flabellata and P. prostrata. The morphological characteristics of both young and adult thalli were observed and compared. Three species (P. flabellata, P. aurea and P. epiphyton) shared a symmetrical development with dichotomously branching vegetative cells during early stages; conversely, P. prostrata had dishevelled filaments with no dichotomously branching filaments and no symmetrical development. The adult thalli of the former three species shared common morphological characteristics, such as equally dichotomous filaments, absence of erect hair and gametangia formed in prostate vegetative filaments. Phylogenetic analyses based on SSU and ITS rDNA sequences showed that the three morphologically similar species were in a clade that was sister to a clade containing T. umbrina and T. abietina, thus confirming morphological monophyly. Conversely, Phycopeltis prostrata, a species with erect filaments, sessile gametangia on the basal erect hair, larger length/width ratio of vegetative cells and very loosely coalescent prostrate filaments, branched separately from the core Phycopeltis group and the T. umbrina and T. abietina clade. Based on morphological and molecular evidence, the genus Phycopeltis was paraphyletic. Furthermore, the traditional taxonomic criteria for Phycopeltis must be reassessed based on phylogeny using more species. A new circumscription of the Phycopeltis and the erection of new genera are recommended. PMID:25643363

  12. Secondary Metabolites from Three Florida Sponges with Antidepressant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kochanowska, Anna J.; Rao, Karumanchi V.; Childress, Suzanne; El-Alfy, Abir; Matsumoto, Rae R.; Kelly, Michelle; Stewart, Gina S.; Sufka, Kenneth J.; Hamann, Mark T.

    2016-01-01

    Brominated indole alkaloids are a common class of metabolites reported from sponges of the order Verongida. Herein we report the isolation, structure determination, and activity of metabolites from three Florida sponges, namely, Verongula rigida (order Verongida, family Aplysinidae), Smenospongia aurea, and S. cerebriformis (order Dictyoceratida, family Thorectidae). All three species were investigated chemically, revealing similarities in secondary metabolites. Brominated compounds, as well as sesquiterpene quinones and hydroquinones, were identified from both V. rigida and S. aurea despite their apparent taxonomic differences at the ordinal level. Similar metabolites found in these distinct sponge species of two different genera provide evidence for a microbial origin of the metabolites. Isolated compounds were evaluated in the Porsolt forced swim test (FST) and the chick anxiety–depression continuum model. Among the isolated compounds, 5,6-dibromo-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (1) exhibited significant antidepressant-like action in the rodent FST model, while 5-bromo-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (2) caused significant reduction of locomotor activity indicative of a potential sedative action. The current study provides ample evidence that marine natural products with the diversity of brominated marine alkaloids will provide potential leads for antidepressant and anxiolytic drugs. PMID:18217716

  13. The relative absorption cross-sections of photosystem I and photosystem II in chloroplasts from three types of Nicotiana tabacum.

    PubMed

    Melis, A; Thielen, A P

    1980-02-08

    In the present study we used three types of Nicotiana tabacum, cv John William's Broad Leaf (the wild type and two mutants, the yellow-green Su/su and the yellow Su/su var. Aurea) in order to correlat functional properties of Photosystem II and Photosystem I with the structural organization of their chloroplasts. The effective absorption cross-section of Photosystem II and Photosystem I centers was measured by means of the rate constant of their photoconversion under light-limiting conditions. In agreement with earlier results (Okabe, K., Schmid, G.H. and Straub, J. (1977) Plant Physiol. 60, 150--156) the photosynthetic unit size for both System II and System I in the two mutants was considerably smaller as compared to the wild type. We observed biphasic kinetics in the photoconversion of System II in all three types of N. tabacum. However, the photoconversion of System I occurred with monophasic and exponential kinetics. Under our experimental conditions, the effective cross-section of Photosystem I was comparable to that of the fast System II component (alpha centers). The relative amplitude of the slow System II component (beta centers) varied between 30% in the wild type to 70% in the Su/su var. Aurea mutant. The increased fraction of beta centers is correlated with the decreased fraction of appressed photosynthetic membranes in the chloroplasts of the two mutants. As a working hypothesis, it is suggested that beta centers are located on photosynthetic membranes directly exposed to the stroma medium.

  14. Photosynthetic Units

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Georg H.; Gaffron, Hans

    1968-01-01

    Leaf tissues of aurea mutants of tobacco and Lespedeza have been shown to have higher photosynthetic capacity per molecule of chlorophyll, a higher saturation intensity, a simpler lamellar structure, and the same quantum yield as their dark green parents. Here we report on the values of photosynthetic units for both types of plants and some algae. The unit has been assumed to be about as uniform and steady in the plant world as the quantum efficiency. The number on which all theoretical discussions have been based so far is 2400 per O2 evolved or CO2 reduced. With dark green plants and algae our determinations of units by means of 40 µsec flashes superimposed on a steady rate of background photosynthesis at 900 ergs cm-2 sec-1 of red light yielded mostly numbers between 2000 and 2700. However, the photosynthetic unit turned out to be very variable, even in these objects. In aurea mutants the unit was distinctly smaller, averaging 600 chl/CO2. By choosing the right combination of colors for flash and background light, units as low as 300 chl/CO2 or 40 chl/e- could be measured consistently. We found five well-defined groups of units composed of multiples of its smallest member. These new findings are discussed in terms of structural entities that double or divide under the influence of far-red light. PMID:5672002

  15. Comparative Analysis of Growth Rings in Perennial Forbs Grown in an Alpine Restoration Experiment

    PubMed Central

    DIETZ, H.; FATTORINI, M.

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that growth rings are widespread in the roots of forbs, and there is evidence that the rings are formed annually. However, the annual nature and development of the growth rings has not yet been examined in comparative experimental studies. In this study growth rings were analysed in the main roots of four alpine forbs (Lotus alpinus, Trifolium thalii, Silene willdenowii and Potentilla aurea) that were grown in an alpine restoration experiment for 6 years. All individuals of L. alpinus and T. thalii, and some individuals of S. willdenowii showed six clearly demarcated growth rings, demonstrating that the rings were formed annually. P. aurea did not show distinguishable growth rings. In L. alpinus and T. thalii there were fluctuations in growth ring width that were consistent between individuals and also between species, and matched variations in climatic growth conditions. Results of the present study indicate that conclusions drawn from previous studies suggesting that growth rings in the roots of forb species are most likely formed annually are also valid for alpine plants. In terms of annual ring width patterns, this study also provides the first strong evidence for consistent responses of different forb species and individuals to commonly experienced variations in habitat conditions. PMID:12466107

  16. Secondary metabolites from three Florida sponges with antidepressant activity.

    PubMed

    Kochanowska, Anna J; Rao, Karumanchi V; Childress, Suzanne; El-Alfy, Abir; Matsumoto, Rae R; Kelly, Michelle; Stewart, Gina S; Sufka, Kenneth J; Hamann, Mark T

    2008-02-01

    Brominated indole alkaloids are a common class of metabolites reported from sponges of the order Verongida. Herein we report the isolation, structure determination, and activity of metabolites from three Florida sponges, namely, Verongula rigida (order Verongida, family Aplysinidae), Smenospongia aurea, and S. cerebriformis (order Dictyoceratida, family Thorectidae). All three species were investigated chemically, revealing similarities in secondary metabolites. Brominated compounds, as well as sesquiterpene quinones and hydroquinones, were identified from both V. rigida and S. aurea despite their apparent taxonomic differences at the ordinal level. Similar metabolites found in these distinct sponge species of two different genera provide evidence for a microbial origin of the metabolites. Isolated compounds were evaluated in the Porsolt forced swim test (FST) and the chick anxiety-depression continuum model. Among the isolated compounds, 5,6-dibromo- N,N-dimethyltryptamine ( 1) exhibited significant antidepressant-like action in the rodent FST model, while 5-bromo- N,N-dimethyltryptamine ( 2) caused significant reduction of locomotor activity indicative of a potential sedative action. The current study provides ample evidence that marine natural products with the diversity of brominated marine alkaloids will provide potential leads for antidepressant and anxiolytic drugs.

  17. Susceptibility to disease varies with ontogeny and immunocompetence in a threatened amphibian.

    PubMed

    Abu Bakar, Amalina; Bower, Deborah S; Stockwell, Michelle P; Clulow, Simon; Clulow, John; Mahony, Michael J

    2016-08-01

    Ontogenetic changes in disease susceptibility have been demonstrated in many vertebrate taxa, as immature immune systems and limited prior exposure to pathogens can place less developed juveniles at a greater disease risk. By causing the disease chytridiomycosis, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) infection has led to the decline of many amphibian species. Despite increasing knowledge on how Bd varies in its effects among species, little is known on the interaction between susceptibility and development within host species. We compared the ontogenetic susceptibility of post-metamorphic green and golden bell frogs Litoria aurea to chytridiomycosis by simultaneously measuring three host-pathogen responses as indicators of the development of the fungus-infection load, survival rate, and host immunocompetence-following Bd exposure in three life stages (recently metamorphosed juveniles, subadults, adults) over 95 days. Frogs exposed to Bd as recently metamorphosed juveniles acquired higher infection loads and experienced lower immune function and lower survivorship than subadults and adults, indicating an ontogenetic decline in chytridiomycosis susceptibility. By corresponding with an intrinsic developmental maturation in immunocompetence seen in uninfected frogs, we suggest these developmental changes in host susceptibility in L. aurea may be immune mediated. Consequently, the physiological relationship between ontogeny and immunity may affect host population structure and demography through variation in life stage survival, and understanding this can shape management targets for effective amphibian conservation.

  18. Seasonal composition, abundance and biomass of the subestuarine fish assemblage in Solís Chico (Río de la Plata estuary, Uruguay).

    PubMed

    Plavan, A Acuña; Gurdek, R; Muñoz, N; Gutierrez, J M; Spósito, M; Correa, P; Caride, A

    2017-01-01

    The large estuaries can present long narrow branches called subestuaries or tidal creeks. These types of subsystems are distributed along the Uruguayan coast of the Río de la Plata estuary and are very important as nursery and refuge areas for fish. For the first time, the seasonal composition and abundance of the fish community of the Solís Chico subestuary was studied by using beach and gill nets. Fourteen species, mainly euryhaline (86%) presented a significant representation of juvenile stages. The fish community was dominated by Odontesthes argentinensis, Platanichthys platana, Mugil liza, Brevoortia aurea, Micropogonias furnieri and Paralichthys orbignyanus, similar to adjacent subestuaries. While Micropogonias furnieri and B. aurea were the most abundant species, some other species were rarely caught. A seasonal variation of the fish assemblage abundance was detected, with higher values in autumn showing a positive correlation with temperature. Species that complete their life cycle in the Río de la Plata estuary, some of which are relevant to fisheries (64% of the analyzed species) were captured in the Solís Chico subestuary. The importance of this environment as a transitional system for some estuarine fish species is advised.

  19. Antiviral activity of Basidiomycete mycelia against influenza type A (serotype H1N1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Krupodorova, Tetiana; Rybalko, Svetlana; Barshteyn, Victor

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the in vitro antiviral activity of the mycelia of higher mushrooms against influenza virus type A (serotype H1N1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), strain BH. All 10 investigated mushroom species inhibited the reproduction of influenza virus strain A/FM/1/47 (H1N1) in MDCK cells reducing the infectious titer by 2.0-6.0 lg ID50. Four species, Pleurotus ostreatus, Fomes fomentarius, Auriporia aurea, and Trametes versicolor, were also determined to be effective against HSV-2 strain BH in RK-13 cells, with similar levels of inhibition as for influenza. For some of the investigated mushroom species-Pleurotus eryngii, Lyophyllum shimeji, and Flammulina velutipes-this is the first report of an anti-influenza effect. This study also reports the first data on the medicinal properties of A. aurea, including anti-influenza and antiherpetic activities. T. versicolor 353 mycelium was found to have a high therapeutic index (324.67), and may be a promising material for the pharmaceutical industry as an anti-influenza and antiherpetic agent with low toxicity. Mycelia with antiviral activity were obtained in our investigation by bioconversion of agricultural wastes (amaranth flour after CO2 extraction), which would reduce the cost of the final product and solve some ecological problems.

  20. Application of Sensitivity Analysis to Aerodynamic Parameters of a Bank to Turn Missile.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    the parameter-induced chanqe of the trajectcry can be taken as r X ( tOC ) (, 0%(2.10) Where o( + Z , which is the ICTUIL parameter vector of the system...Espacimis Divisao de Sistemas Belicos Rnia Paraibuna S/N12200 Sao Jose dos Campos - SPSao Paulo, BRAZIL 10. MAJ Tiaq* da Silva Ribeiro 3Cento ec ico. cial

  1. ES Review: Selections from 2008 & 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smiles, Robin, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This third edition of the "ES Review" brings together, in one setting, some of the best work from 2008-09. It features: (1) K-12 Accountability (Measuring Skills for the 21st Century (Elena Silva); Beyond the Bubble: Technology and the Future of Student Assessment (Bill Tucker); Testing the Limits (Bill Tucker); Changing the Game: The…

  2. Publisher Correction: Discordant congenital Zika syndrome twins show differential in vitro viral susceptibility of neural progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Caires-Júnior, Luiz Carlos; Goulart, Ernesto; Melo, Uirá Souto; Araujo, Bruno Henrique Silva; Alvizi, Lucas; Soares-Schanoski, Alessandra; de Oliveira, Danyllo Felipe; Kobayashi, Gerson Shigeru; Griesi-Oliveira, Karina; Musso, Camila Manso; Amaral, Murilo Sena; daSilva, Lucas Ferreira; Astray, Renato Mancini; Suárez-Patiño, Sandra Fernanda; Ventini, Daniella Cristina; da Silva, Sérgio Gomes; Yamamoto, Guilherme Lopes; Ezquina, Suzana; Naslavsky, Michel Satya; Telles-Silva, Kayque Alves; Weinmann, Karina; van der Linden, Vanessa; van der Linden, Helio; de Oliveira, João Ricardo Mendes; Arrais, Nivia Maria Rodrigues; Melo, Adriana; Figueiredo, Thalita; Santos, Silvana; Meira, Joanna Goes Castro; Passos, Saulo Duarte; de Almeida, Roque Pacheco; Bispo, Ana Jovina Barreto; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão; Kalil, Jorge; Cunha-Neto, Edécio; Nakaya, Helder; Andreata-Santos, Robert; de Souza Ferreira, Luis Carlos; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio; Ho, Paulo Lee; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita; Zatz, Mayana

    2018-03-13

    The original PDF version of this Article contained errors in the spelling of Luiz Carlos Caires-Júnior, Uirá Souto Melo, Bruno Henrique Silva Araujo, Alessandra Soares-Schanoski, Murilo Sena Amaral, Kayque Alves Telles-Silva, Vanessa van der Linden, Helio van der Linden, João Ricardo Mendes de Oliveira, Nivia Maria Rodrigues Arrais, Joanna Goes Castro Meira, Ana Jovina Barreto Bispo, Esper Abrão Cavalheiro, and Robert Andreata-Santos, which were incorrectly given as Luiz Carlos de Caires Jr., UiráSouto Melo, Bruno Silva Henrique Araujo, Alessandra Soares Schanoski, MuriloSena Amaral, Kayque Telles Alves Silva, Vanessa Van der Linden, Helio Van der Linden, João Mendes Ricardo de Oliveira, Nivia Rodrigues Maria Arrais, Joanna Castro Goes Meira, Ana JovinaBarreto Bispo, EsperAbrão Cavalheiro, and Robert Andreata Santos. Furthermore, in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article, the top panel of Fig. 3e was incorrectly labeled '10608-1' and should have been '10608-4', and financial support from CAPES and DECIT-MS was inadvertently omitted from the Acknowledgements section. These errors have now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.

  3. New species of Zygoclistron Rehn, 1905 (Insecta: Orthoptera: Acrididae: Copiocerinae) in the central corridor of the Atlantic Forest biome.

    PubMed

    Silva, Daniela Santos Martins; Pereira, Marcelo Ribeiro; Domenico, Fernando Campos De; Sperber, Carlos Frankl

    2016-06-17

    Herein we describe a new species of Copiocerinae, Zygoclistron ruschii Silva n. sp., from Atlantic Forest remnants in southeastern Brazil, collected from the Reserva Biológica Augusto Ruschi in the Santa Teresa municipality, Espírito Santo state, Brazil. The diagnosis of this new species is based on phallic complex and terminalia characters.

  4. Passport to Mystery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Wilda

    2010-01-01

    Mystery and suspense fiction remain as popular as ever for as many reasons as there are readers. "Those who wish for escape or respite read cozies, historicals, or romance crossovers," says Poisoned Pen editor Barbara Peters. "Those who want to stay on the cutting edge of society read thrillers [from authors] like Daniel Silva, Alex Berenson, or…

  5. Dietary Influences on Alpha-Methylacyl-CoA Racemase (AMACR) Expression in the Prostate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    calculated from the point where each curve crossed the threshold line (Ct) using the following equation : Rel. value = 2[Ct(control) Ct(test)]test...pancreatic cancer. J Hum Genet 2005;50:159–67. 41. Armes JE, Hammet F, de Silva M, et al. Candidate tumor-suppressor genes on chromosome arm 8p in early

  6. Dietary Influences on Alpha-Methylacyl-CoA Racemase (AMACR) Expression in the Prostate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    mRNA levels were calculated from the point where each curve crossed the threshold line (Ct) using the following equation : Rel. value = 2[Ct(control...Sunamura M, Horii A. Abrogation of DUSP6 by hypermethylation in human pancreatic cancer. J Hum Genet 2005;50:159–67. 41. Armes JE, Hammet F, de Silva M, et

  7. Spanish in Four Continents: Studies in Language Contact and Bilingualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva-Corvalan, Carmen, Ed.

    Papers on Spanish bilingualism and Spanish in contact with other languages include: "The Study of Language Contact: An Overview of the Issues" (Carmen Silva-Corvalan); "Language Mixture: Ordinary Processes, Extraordinary Results" (Sarah G. Thomason); "The Impact of Quichua on Verb Forms Used in Spanish Requests in Otavalo,…

  8. Language and Culture Restrictions and Discrimination in K-12 Private Schools: An Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, Joy; Mawdsley, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    In a companion article, we considered legal issues in language and culture in private schooling in two U.S. contexts: "Silva v. St. Anne Catholic School" and "Doe v. Kamehameha Schools". In this article, we consider the facts and findings of these two cases under the human rights and antidiscrimination legal frameworks of…

  9. JPRS Report, West Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-15

    quadrant ) have expressed their perplex- ity to SEMANARIO on the following points: 1. "Minister Silva Peneda’s incompetence." 2. A government which...know or had no response in a recent survey conducted by the Center for Sociological Research (CIS). Europa Press has obtained the results of that

  10. Human Spotted Fever Rickettsial Infections

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    Ecological study of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Costa Rica. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1986;35:192–6. 6. Calero MC, Munez JM, Silva R. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in...J Jr, McKechnie DB, Treadwell TA, et al. Hidden mortality attributable to Rocky Mountain spotted fever : immunohistochemical detection of fatal

  11. Interrogating the Grammars of Institutions and Injustice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    This editorial introduction to "Action, Criticism, and Theory for Music Education" "ACT" 16 (3) explores institutions as sites of paradox whose mission statements (or constitutions in the case of government) suggest concerns for diversity and inclusion but whose "grammars" (Bonilla-Silva 2011) frame thought and action…

  12. Brazil: The Lula Government and Financial Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianchi, Alvaro; Braga, Ruy

    2005-01-01

    The electoral victory of Lu?s In?cio "Lula" da Silva in the presidential elections of 2002 epitomized two decades of social and political transformations in Brazil. Nevertheless, instead of launching an alternative mode of doing politics, the program of the Workers' Party affirmed a state logic with a view to gradually updating the…

  13. Genetics Home Reference: Adams-Oliver syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Baveja R, Silva ES, Dixon J, Leon EL, Solomon BD, Glusman G, Niederhuber JE, Roach JC, Patel MS. Mutations in NOTCH1 cause Adams-Oliver syndrome. Am J Hum Genet. 2014 Sep 4;95(3):275-84. doi: 10.1016/j. ...

  14. Disaster Rescue and Response Workers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reissman, D., Juzek, J. I., Shalev, A. Y., Solomon, Z., Steinberg, A M., & Ursano, R. J. (2007). Five essential elements of immediate and mid-term mass trauma intervention: Empirical evidence. Psychiatry, 70, 283-315. doi:10.1521/psyc.2007.70.4.283 Nash, W. P., Silva, C., & Litz, B. ( ...

  15. Comment on ''Equivalence between the Thirring model and a derivative-coupling model''

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, R.

    1988-06-15

    An operator equivalence between the Thirring model and the fermionic sector of a Dirac field interacting via derivative coupling with two scalar fields is established in the path-integral framework. Relations between the coupling parameters of the two models, as found by Gomes and da Silva, can be reproduced.

  16. Critical Race Parenting: Understanding Scholarship/Activism in Parenting Our Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePouw, Christin; Matias, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    Parenting is often discussed in the field of education, but frequently in terms of family or community deficiency, rather than strengths (Bonilla Silva, 2006; Few, 2007), particularly when communities of color are being examined. In this conceptual article, we advocate for the use of critical race theory (CRT) in discussions of parenting and…

  17. The Ever Changing Immigration World of the Mexican Immigrant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notkin, Nathan T.

    1978-01-01

    The 1976 Immigration and Nationality Act Amendments' change in the issuance of immigrant visas to natives of independent countries of the Western Hemisphere will affect Mexico the most. In a pending class action suit, Silva vs Levi, the plaintiffs are suing the Government to restore all of the Western Hemisphere immigrant visas which were charged…

  18. The Three-Fingers Technique: Does It Reduce Test Anxiety?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maycock, George

    The utility of brief exposure to a mental focusing aid, the Three-Fingers Technique (TFT), in reducing test anxiety was studied for 15 college students. One week before their final examination, the students were given a 15-minute classroom introduction to the TFT, part of the Silva Mental Training Method (1983). After the introduction to this…

  19. Role of SIRT6 in Metabolic Reprogramming During Colorectal Carcinoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    Merlos-Suarez, A., Barriga, F. M., Jung , P., Iglesias, M., Cespedes, M. V., Rossell, D., Sevillano, M., Hernando-Momblona, X., da Silva-Diz, V...2011;39:1–13. [129] Sanders MJ, Grondin PO, Hegarty BD, Snowden MA, Carling D. Investigating the mechanism for AMP activation of the AMP-activated

  20. Behavioral Analysis and Rescue of a Novel Cerebellar Mouse Model of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    and Silva; Lee et al.; Marui et al., 2004). Therefore, dysregulation of mTORC1 appears to be an important pathway leading to the autistic-phenotype...for understanding the role of cerebellar pathology in autism. Eur J Neurosci. 31, 544-55. Marui , T., et al., 2004. Association between the

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Limnobacter sp. Strain CACIAM 66H1, a Heterotrophic Bacterium Associated with Cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Fábio Daniel Florêncio; Lima, Alex Ranieri Jerônimo; Moraes, Pablo Henrique Gonçalves; Siqueira, Andrei Santos; Dall'Agnol, Leonardo Teixeira; Baraúna, Anna Rafaella Ferreira; Martins, Luisa Carício; Oliveira, Karol Guimarães; de Lima, Clayton Pereira Silva; Nunes, Márcio Roberto Teixeira; Vianez-Júnior, João Lídio Silva Gonçalves; Gonçalves, Evonnildo Costa

    2016-05-19

    Ecological interactions between cyanobacteria and heterotrophic prokaryotes are poorly known. To improve the genomic studies of heterotrophic bacterium-cyanobacterium associations, the draft genome sequence (3.2 Mbp) of Limnobacter sp. strain CACIAM 66H1, found in a nonaxenic culture of Synechococcus sp. (cyanobacteria), is presented here. Copyright © 2016 da Silva et al.

  2. Dewey in Hawai'i--1899

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Aulii

    2015-01-01

    As a Native Hawaiian educator whose kuleana (responsibility, obligation, privilege) is to facilitate increased college enrollment, persistence, graduation, and transfer/career entry for Native Hawaiian students at Leeward Community College, Aulii Silva has honored his personal and professional vocations by investigating how Hawaiian students'…

  3. JPRS Report, West Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-26

    disaster happened, one from which the captain, aviator pilot Henrique Manuel Henriques da Silva, emerged unharmed, having ejected before the aircraft hit...Colonel Graca Melo , whose planecrashed along Vieira de Leiria. Although this occurred nearly 3 years ago, the fact is that (as we have learned) the

  4. Colorblind Mentoring? Exploring White Faculty Mentoring of Students of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Dorian L.; Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle; Luedke, Courtney L.

    2015-01-01

    In this critical multisite case study we examined the concept of colorblind mentoring. Using Bonilla-Silva's Colorblind Racism Frames, we sought to understand White faculty members' perspectives on their mentoring of Students of Color. The findings revealed that White faculty members often engage with students from a "colorblind…

  5. 2009 Joint Service Power Expo volume 2 video

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-07

    8483 - “A Field-Portable Lithium Ion Battery Charger with UPS Back-up Capability”, Mr. Neil Steven Graves, Acumentrics · 8394 - “Kestrel...Control”, Mr. Rick Silva, Sr. System Engineer, Custom Manufacturing & Engineering, Inc · 8371 - “New Application of Lithium - Ion Battery in Hybrid Power Supply System”, Mr. Takefumi Inoue, GS Yuasa Corporation

  6. One Street, Twenty Children and the Experience of a Changing Town: Year 7 Explore the Story of a London Street

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Amy; De Silva, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Michael Wood and others have recently drawn attention to the ways in which big stories can be told through local histories. Hughes and De Silva report a teaching unit through which they aimed to help Year 7 pupils make history come alive by exploring the history of a local street and the people who lived in it using census materials, the physical…

  7. ES Review: Selections from 2009 and 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smiles, Robin, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This fourth edition of the "ES Review" brings together, in one setting, some of the best work from 2009-10. It features: (1) Teacher Quality (Teachers at Work: Improving Teacher Quality Through School Design (Elena Silva); Understanding Teachers Contracts (Andrew J. Rotherham); How Teachers Unions Lost the Media (Richard Whitmire and…

  8. SINA: accurate high-throughput multiple sequence alignment of ribosomal RNA genes.

    PubMed

    Pruesse, Elmar; Peplies, Jörg; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2012-07-15

    In the analysis of homologous sequences, computation of multiple sequence alignments (MSAs) has become a bottleneck. This is especially troublesome for marker genes like the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) where already millions of sequences are publicly available and individual studies can easily produce hundreds of thousands of new sequences. Methods have been developed to cope with such numbers, but further improvements are needed to meet accuracy requirements. In this study, we present the SILVA Incremental Aligner (SINA) used to align the rRNA gene databases provided by the SILVA ribosomal RNA project. SINA uses a combination of k-mer searching and partial order alignment (POA) to maintain very high alignment accuracy while satisfying high throughput performance demands. SINA was evaluated in comparison with the commonly used high throughput MSA programs PyNAST and mothur. The three BRAliBase III benchmark MSAs could be reproduced with 99.3, 97.6 and 96.1 accuracy. A larger benchmark MSA comprising 38 772 sequences could be reproduced with 98.9 and 99.3% accuracy using reference MSAs comprising 1000 and 5000 sequences. SINA was able to achieve higher accuracy than PyNAST and mothur in all performed benchmarks. Alignment of up to 500 sequences using the latest SILVA SSU/LSU Ref datasets as reference MSA is offered at http://www.arb-silva.de/aligner. This page also links to Linux binaries, user manual and tutorial. SINA is made available under a personal use license.

  9. The Brazilian Integrated Environmental Policy and the Treaty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Melo Diniz, Nilo Sergio

    2006-01-01

    The Brazilian Ministry of the Environment, directed by the Minister Marina Silva, recently awarded by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) with the "World Champion" prize. The four courses of the agency's direction are: (1) To enhance the National System of the Environment (SISNAMA); (2) To "mainstream" the…

  10. A Mixed Methods Study of Student College Experiences That Construct Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cash, Sheri F.

    2017-01-01

    Hardie and Tyson (2013) claim that the education institution has become a foundational source of social and political racism. Colleges and universities are microcosms of society with the potential to institute behavioral reform. Bonilla-Silva (2015) claims that Blacks and Whites continue a condition of separation while the inequality between the…

  11. A Feminist Approach to Teaching Community Psychology: The Senior Seminar Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Janelle M.

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1960s, women's centers on college campuses have provided a wide variety of resources. Unfortunately, not all colleges and universities house women's centers, despite the need for such spaces for their students. In this article, Janelle M. Silva describes a senior seminar grounded in feminist pedagogy and community psychology principles…

  12. A Rationale for Teaching Technical Animation Fundamentals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Michael G.; Thornton, Timothy R.; Ernst, Jeremy V.; Clark, Aaron C.

    2014-01-01

    Technological advances continue to reshape the skill sets necessary for students to succeed both in the classroom and in the workforce. The ability to communicate information verbally and graphically can be viewed as a necessary skill that should be developed in a secondary technology education curriculum (Silva, 2008). This article outlines a…

  13. U.S. Federal Discrimination Law and Language and Culture Restrictions in K-12 Private Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawdsley, Ralph; Cumming, Joy

    2013-01-01

    Section 1981 prohibits discrimination concerning the right to contract, and Title VI prohibits discrimination on the basis of the basis of race and national origin. The two cases that form the basis for the discussion in this article--"Silva v. St. Anne Catholic School" and "Doe v. Kamehameha Schools"--address whether culture…

  14. 76 FR 14919 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Partial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ...-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty.... DATES: Effective Date: March 18, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Raquel Silva or Frances Veith... antidumping duty order on certain new pneumatic off-the-road tires (``OTR tires'') from the People's Republic...

  15. 75 FR 46917 - New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Partial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration (A-570-912) New Pneumatic Off-the-Road.... EFFECTIVE DATE: August 4, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Andrea Staebler Berton or Raquel Silva, AD... review of the antidumping duty order on new pneumatic off-the-road tires (``OTR tires'') from the People...

  16. Toward Integration: An Instructional Model of Science and Academic Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Cecilia; Weinburgh, Molly; Malloy, Robert; Smith, Kathy Horak; Marshall, Jenesta Nettles

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors outline an instructional model that can be used to optimize science and language learning in the classroom. The authors have developed the 5R instructional model (Weinburgh & Silva, 2010) to support teachers as they integrate academic language into content instruction. The model combines five strategies already…

  17. The Role of Language Contact in Semantic Change: "Ser" and "Estar"--A Response to Geeslin and Guijarro-Fuentes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klee, Carol A.

    2008-01-01

    The role of language contact in linguistic change remains a polemic issue in the field of contact linguistics. Many researchers (Weinreich, 1953; Lefebvre, 1985; Prince, 1988; Silva-Corvalan, 1994; King, 2000; Sankoff, 2002; Labov, 2007) believe that there are limits on the types of linguistic patterns that can be transmitted across languages,…

  18. Bi- and Multilingualism as a Metaphor for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlenko, Aneta

    2008-01-01

    I would like to begin by thanking the editors of the journal, and in particular Carmen Silva-Corvalan, for inviting such a wonderful group of commentators, united in their commitment to spirited yet courteous academic debate and diverse in their academic allegiances, theories, and methodologies. I also thank the commentators for the kindness and…

  19. Variation in Contemporary Spanish: Linguistic Predictors of "Estar" in Four Cases of Language Contact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geeslin, Kimberly L.; Guijarro-Fuentes, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    In some contact situations between Spanish and English there is an acceleration of the process of the extension of "estar" that may be due to lack of access to the formal written standard, features of English in particular or general processes of simplification that result from the cognitive demands of bilingualism (Silva-Corvalan,…

  20. Syntactic Reflexes of Emerging Optionality in Spanish as a Heritage Language: The Case of Dative-Experiencer Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascual y Cabo, Diego

    2016-01-01

    This study contributes to current trends of heritage speaker bilingualism research by examining the syntax of so-called Spanish dative-experiencer predicates ("gustar"-like verbs). Building on previous findings (e.g., Silva-Corvalán 1994; Toribio and Nye 2006), it is hypothesized that Spanish heritage speakers can project an optional…

  1. New Findings on the Retention of Novice Teachers from Teaching Residency Programs. NCEE Evaluation Brief. NCEE 2015-4015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Tim; McKie, Allison; Gleason, Philip

    2015-01-01

    This brief updates earlier study findings (Silva et al., 2014) regarding the extent to which teachers trained through teaching residency programs (TRPs) funded through the U.S. Department of Education's Teacher Quality Partnership grants program are retained in their districts and schools. TRPs prepare new teachers primarily through a year-long…

  2. On the Clarification of Concepts: A Reply to Gallistel (2007) and Lau (2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machado, Armando; Silva, Francisco J.

    2007-01-01

    The authors argue that some of C. R. Gallistel's and H. C. Lau's solutions to the problems raised in the article by A. Machado and F. J. Silva are unlikely, logically inconsistent, or at odds with empirical evidence. In particular, Lau seems not to appreciate the necessity of clear and consistent psychological constructs before trying to map these…

  3. A Qualitative Dissertation an Autoethnographic Inquiry into an African American, Class-Based Perspective in Educational Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Stassi Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Research has given us the understanding of the demographic disparity between white, largely middle class teachers and diverse lower socioeconomic school children (Grious & Silva, 2010), as teachers from the middle class society wrestle with meeting the needs of their culturally diverse students. In efforts to bridge the social and academic…

  4. TRANSGENERATIONAL EFFECTS OF DEHP IN THE MALE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    TITLE: Transgenerational Effects of Di(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate in the Male Rat. AUTHORS (ALL): Gray, Leon Earl1; Barlow, Norman J2; Furr, Johnathan R1; Brock, John 3; Silva, Manori J3; Barr, Dana B3; Ostby, Joseph S1

    SPONSOR NAME:

    INSTITUTIONS (AL...

  5. Anatomy of Process-Based Writing Center Tutorials with NNES Writers: What Writers Take Away

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickers, Jason C.

    2012-01-01

    Non-native English speaking (NNES) students in higher educational settings face difficulties writing academic papers and, in response to these difficulties, often seek assistance in understanding cultural, rhetorical, linguistic aspect of writing in English (Harris & Silva, 1993; Powers & Nelson, 1995). One resource available to them is…

  6. A chemical-biological study reveals C9-type iridoids as novel heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Dal Piaz, Fabrizio; Vassallo, Antonio; Temraz, Abeer; Cotugno, Roberta; Belisario, Maria A; Bifulco, Giuseppe; Chini, Maria G; Pisano, Claudio; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Braca, Alessandra

    2013-02-28

    The potential of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) as a therapeutic target for numerous diseases has made the identification and optimization of novel Hsp90 inhibitors an emerging therapeutic strategy. A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) approach was adopted to screen some iridoids for their Hsp90 α binding capability. Twenty-four iridoid derivatives, including 13 new natural compounds, were isolated from the leaves of Tabebuia argentea and petioles of Catalpa bignonioides. Their structures were elucidated by NMR, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and chemical methods. By means of a panel of chemical and biological approaches, four iridoids were demonstrated to bind Hsp90 α. In particular, the dimeric iridoid argenteoside A was shown to efficiently inhibit the chaperone in biochemical and cellular assays. Our results disclose C9-type iridoids as a novel class of Hsp90 inhibitors.

  7. Quantum Requirement for Photosynthesis in Chlorophyll-Deficient Plants with Unusual Lamellar Structures

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Georg H.; Gaffron, Hans

    1967-01-01

    Neither an over-all deficiency of chlorophyll, nor an increased enzymatic capacity for maximal rates, nor an unusual lamellar structure was found to change the number of quanta required for the evolution of one molecule of oxygen in healthy aurea mutants of tobacco. The average minimal quantum number remains 10 (efficiency 0.1) as in many algae and typical higher plants. Most of the time the optimal efficiency depends on the availability of some far-red radiation, particularly in the blue region of the spectrum where blue light alone is rather inefficient. These results fit an explanation offered earlier in connection with the hydrogen or acetate photometabolism of algae in far-red light. PMID:19873573

  8. Plants used during pregnancy, childbirth, postpartum and infant healthcare in Palestine.

    PubMed

    Ali-Shtayeh, Mohammed S; Jamous, Rana M; Jamous, Rania M

    2015-05-01

    This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and the factors related to the use of herbs by women during pregnancy, childbirth, postpartum and for infant healthcare. The study also aims to identify the herbs therapeutic uses and preparation. To date, no previous studies have investigated this prevalence in Palestine. A cross-sectional survey of women of different child-bearing age group inhabiting different locations in Palestine was carried out by means of a semi-structured questionnaire. A total of 372 women were interviewed. Of the participants 72.3% reported using herbs at different pregnancy stages and for infant healthcare. The most common herbal products used in this study at different stages of pregnancy were Pimpinella anisum, Salvia fruticosa, Matricaria aurea, and Mentha spicata. This study revealed that there is an appreciable prevalence of herbal use among pregnant women at different pregnancy stages and for infant healthcare in Palestine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Specificities of the enzymes of N-alkyltropane biosynthesis in Brugmansia and Datura.

    PubMed

    Boswell, H D; Dräger, B; McLauchlan, W R; Portsteffen, A; Robins, D J; Robins, R J; Walton, N J

    1999-11-01

    The enzymes N-methylputrescine oxidase (MPO), the tropine-forming tropinone reductase (TRI), the pseudotropine-forming tropinone reductase (TRII), the tropine:acyl-CoA transferase (TAT) and the pseudotropine:acyl-CoA transferase (PAT) extracted from transformed root cultures of Datura stramonium and a Brugmansia candida x aurea hybrid were tested for their ability to accept a range of alternative substrates. MPO activity was tested with N-alkylputrescines and N-alkylcadaverines as substrates. TRI and TRII reduction was tested against a series of N-alkylnortropinones, N-alkylnorpelletierines and structurally related ketones as substrates. TAT and PAT esterification tests used a series of N-substituted tropines, pseudotropines, pelletierinols and pseudopelletierinols as substrates to assess the formation of their respective acetyl and tigloyl esters. The results generally show that these enzymes will accept alien substrates to varying degrees. Such studies may shed some light on the overall topology of the active sites of the enzymes concerned.

  10. Kinetic-energy release distributions of fragment anions from collisions of potassium atoms with D-Ribose and tetrahydrofuran*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebelo, André; Cunha, Tiago; Mendes, Mónica; da Silva, Filipe Ferreira; García, Gustavo; Limão-Vieira, Paulo

    2016-06-01

    Kinetic-energy release distributions have been obtained from the width and shapes of the time-of-flight (TOF) negative ion mass peaks formed in collisions of fast potassium atoms with D-Ribose (DR) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) molecules. Recent dissociative ion-pair formation experiments yielding anion formation have shown that the dominant fragment from D-Ribose is OH- [D. Almeida, F. Ferreira da Silva, G. García, P. Limão-Vieira, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 114304 (2013)] whereas in the case of THF is O- [D. Almeida, F. Ferreira da Silva, S. Eden, G. García, P. Limão-Vieira, J. Phys. Chem. A 118, 690 (2014)]. The results for DR and THF show an energy distribution profile reminiscent of statistical degradation via vibrational excitation and partly due to direct transformation of the excess energy in translational energy.

  11. Danish Passage Graves, "Spring/Summer/Fall full Moons" and Lunar Standstills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausen, Claus Jørgen

    2015-05-01

    The author proposes and discusses a model for azimuth distribution which involves the criterion of a 'spring full moon' (or a 'fall full moon') proposed by Marciano Da Silva (Da Silva 2004). The model is based on elements of the rising pattern of the summer full moon combined with directions pointing towards full moonrises which occur immediately prior to lunar standstill eclipses and directions aimed at the points at which these eclipses begin. An observed sample of 153 directions has been compared with the proposed model, which has been named the lunar 'season pointer'. Statistical tests show that the model fits well with the observed sample within the azimuth interval of 54.5° to 156.5°. The conclusion made is that at least the 'season pointer' section of the model used could very well explain the observed distribution.

  12. Methylocapsa palsarum sp. nov., a methanotroph isolated from a subArctic discontinuous permafrost ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Dedysh, Svetlana N; Didriksen, Alena; Danilova, Olga V; Belova, Svetlana E; Liebner, Susanne; Svenning, Mette M

    2015-10-01

    An aerobic methanotrophic bacterium was isolated from a collapsed palsa soil in northern Norway and designated strain NE2T. Cells of this strain were Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, non-pigmented, slightly curved thick rods that multiplied by normal cell division. The cells possessed a particulate methane monooxygenase enzyme (pMMO) and utilized methane and methanol. Strain NE2T grew in a wide pH range of 4.1–8.0 (optimum pH 5.2–6.5) at temperatures between 6 and 32 °C (optimum 18–25 °C), and was capable of atmospheric nitrogen fixation under reduced oxygen tension. The major cellular fatty acids were C18 : 1ω7c, C16 : 0 and C16 : 1ω7c, and the DNA G+C content was 61.7 mol%. The isolate belonged to the family Beijerinckiaceae of the class Alphaproteobacteria and was most closely related to the facultative methanotroph Methylocapsa aurea KYGT (98.3 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and 84 % PmoA sequence identity). However, strain NE2T differed from Methylocapsa aurea KYGT by cell morphology, the absence of pigmentation, inability to grow on acetate, broader pH growth range, and higher tolerance to NaCl. Therefore, strain NE2T represents a novel species of the genus Methylocapsa, for which we propose the name Methylocapsa palsarum sp. nov. The type strain is NE2T ( = LMG 28715T = VKM B-2945T).

  13. Two Lefts: The Competition for Leadership of Latin America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-09

    powerful political tool for dealing with domestic and international conflict. Francisco Panizza explains that, “After starting his government as a...Francisco Panizza notes, Chavez’s Bolivarian Revolution has polarized not just the Venezuelan people, but also scholarly opinion about the nature of...leader, Lula da Silva has shown a steadfast commitment to the democratic “rules of the game.” Francisco Panizza noted that, “In contrast to the

  14. Automatic Representation Changes in Problem Solving

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-06-01

    Michael Cox, Rujith DeSilva, Rob Driskill, Karen Haigh, Vera Kettnaker, Craig Knoblock, Erica Melis, Steven Minton, Alicia Perez, Paola Rizzo, Yury...for a student of mathematics. Gestalt psychologists also paid particular attention to reformulation of problems [Duncker, 1945; Ohlsson , 1984...Carbonell et al., 1992] Jaime G. Carbonell, Jim Blythe, Oren Etzioni, Yolanda Gil, Robert Joseph, Dan Kahn, Craig A. Knoblock, Steven Minton, Alicia Perez

  15. Effects of Pharmacologic and Genetic Inhibition of Alk on Cognitive Impairments in NF1 Mutant Mice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    approximately 90% of patients with neurofibromatosis , are associated with cognitive impairment. Impaired academic performance is common and often requires...associated with neurofibromatosis is hard to study in humans. The phenotypes observed in mice indicate a specific function for Neurofibromin in the...year of the project. References 1 Acosta, M. T., Gioia, G. A. & Silva, A. J. Neurofibromatosis type 1: new insights into neurocognitive issues

  16. A Composite Algorithm for Mixed Integer Constrained Nonlinear Optimization.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    de Silva [141, and Weisman and Wood [76). A particular direct search algorithm, the simplex method, has been cited for having the potential for...spaced discrete points on a line which makes the direction suitable for an efficient integer search technique based on Fibonacci numbers. Two...defined by a subset of variables. The complex algorithm is particularly well suited for this subspace search for two reasons. First, the complex method

  17. Towards a Game-Based Periscope Simulator for Submarine Officers Tactical Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    release; distribution is unlimited TOWARDS A GAME -BASED PERISCOPE SIMULATOR FOR SUBMARINE OFFICERS TACTICAL TRAINING by Rodrigo da Silva Vieira...ONLY 2. REPORT DATE June 2016 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TOWARDS A GAME -BASED PERISCOPE SIMULATOR...career to learn and practice these skills. Following an instructional system design process, this thesis developed a 3D, game -based periscope tactical

  18. The Characterization and Measurement of Cyber Warfare, Spring 2008 - Project 08-01

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    Global Innovation and Strategy Center The Characterization and Measurement of Cyber Warfare Spring 2008 – Project 08-01 May 2008...and Measurement of Cyber Warfare N/A N/A N/A 08-01Dobitz, Kyle Haas, Brad Holtje, Michael Jokerst, Amanda Ochsner, Geoff Silva, Stephanie...research team as critical for purposes of cyber act characterization: Motivation, Intent, Target, Effects, and Actors. cyberspace, cyber warfare , targets

  19. Malaria Genome Sequencing Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    BEHNAM JOANA JENKINS, CHELTON CARTY, HEATHER JENKINS, JENNIFER CHAUDHARY, ABHILASHA JIANG, LINGXIA CHEN, DAN JONES, KRISTINE CHEN, MINGHUA KALB, ERICA... JENNIFER SILVA, JOANA MOAZZEZ, AZITA SITZ, JEFF MOFFAT, KELLY SKOVORODNEV, NELSON, KEITH ALEXANDER NENE, VISHVANATH SMIRNOVA, TATYANA NORCUTT, KARA...Shallom*, Susan E. van Aken*, Steven B. Riedmuller*, Tamara V. Feldblyum*, Jennifer L Cho*t, John Quackenbush*, Martha Sedegah§, Azadeh Shoalbl*, Leda M

  20. Statistical Inferences from the Topology of Complex Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-04

    stable, does not lose any information, has continuous and discrete versions, and obeys a strong law of large numbers and a central limit theorem. The...paper (with J.A. Scott) “Categorification of persistent homology” [7] in the journal Discrete and Computational Geome- try and the paper “Metrics for...Generalized Persistence Modules” (with J.A. Scott and V. de Silva) in the journal Foundations of Computational Math - ematics [5]. These papers develop

  1. The DISAM Journal of International Security Assistance Management. Volume 32, Number 1, July 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    Brasilia for the signing ceremony. However, the venue was rescheduled because Jobim is accompanying Brazilian President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to...heath care providers, midwives, pharmacists, and nurses . They worked closely with MBLT-3 to make today happen, said a U.S. Army Special Forces Medic...More medical professionals are arriving, and all are highly motivated. We had critical care nurses show up; and after they signed in, they put

  2. West Europe Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    title of "adviser" to or "strategist" for Cavaco Silva. He listens to Fernando Nogueira, hears what Eurico de Melo has to say, calls Dias Loureiro...and Manuel Alegre, who coordinate the whole thing in the national secretariat. Contrary to the situation in the PSD, for example, it is a disadvantage...therefore, of Torres Couto and Joao Proenca (the latter being considered a very important leader in the PS and the UGT). Manuel Alegre and Nuno

  3. Novel Targeted Therapies for Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0461 TITLE: Novel Targeted Therapies for Inflammatory Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jose Silva CONTRACTING...CONTRACT NUMBER Novel Targeted Therapies for Inflammatory Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0461 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) l 5d...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC, ~5% of all breast cancers ) is the most lethal form of breast cancer , presenting a 5- year

  4. Design Review Improvements Product Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-07

    Boeing Anne Ramsey, Harris Corporation Ronald H. Mandel, Lockheed Martin Mark King, Micropac Industries Melanie Berg, NASA Cindy Kohlmiller...Northrop Grumman craig.wesser@ngc.com Richard Fink NRO finkrich@nro.mil Marvin LeBlanc NOAA Marvin.LeBlanc@noaa.gov Robert Adkisson Boeing...Dennis.Boiter@intelsatgeneral.com Silva Bouchard Northrop Grumman Silvia.Bouchard@ngc.com Mark Braun Raytheon mark.j.braun@raytheon.com Marvin Candee

  5. West Europe Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    socialists, charm its deputies and reduce its unemployed electorate. In the next 3 months, it is only by relying on a motion of censure by the PRD...the Left, however, the phenomenon is even more complex. Or Cavaco Silva is not the classic leader of the haute bourgeoisie , residing in Cascäis or in...Austere, discreet in dress, with moderate habits, he does not reflect the good life of the exploiter. Simple and direct, he appeals to the

  6. Conception of discrete systems decomposition algorithm using p-invariants and hypergraphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanowicz, Ł.

    2016-09-01

    In the article author presents an idea of decomposition algorithm of discrete systems described by Petri Nets using pinvariants. Decomposition process is significant from the point of view of discrete systems design, because it allows separation of the smaller sequential parts. Proposed algorithm uses modified Martinez-Silva method as well as author's selection algorithm. The developed method is a good complement of classical decomposition algorithms using graphs and hypergraphs.

  7. Subversion: Uruguayan Armed Forces Summary of Subversive Movement in Latin America. Part 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-08-12

    Pedagogue," Montevideo, El Siglo Ilustrado. 73 Vivian Trias, "Imperialism and Oil in Uruguay," Montevideo. 74 21 September 1963 statement by the Soviet...Rama, " Religion in Uruguay," Montevideo, Nuestra Tiempo. 111 German W. Rama, "Social Groups and Secondary Education," Montevideo, Area. 112...Juan Silva Vila, "Concepts of Artigas," Montevideo, El Siglo Ilustrado. 114 Joint Soviet-Algerian Communique, Moscow, 17 May 1964. Joint

  8. Beyond al-Qaeda. Part 2. The Outer Rings of the Terrorist Universe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Islam, it is possible for all followers of different religions to live in peace and with security over their person, property, and rights. In the...the third-largest religion in South Africa (after Protestant and Catholic). Thus, Muslims are a significant part of South African society—a central...Trying Times for Islamists,” Al-Ahram Weekly Online, January 10–16, 2002. De Silva, K. M., Religion , Nationalism and the State in Modern Sri Lanka, Tampa

  9. The intersection of medical debt and predatory lending among hispanics.

    PubMed

    Gray, Karen A; Villegas, Susy

    2012-01-01

    This pilot study explored the link between predatory lending and health care debt among Hispanics. Research shows that links exist between health care costs, debt, poverty, and race ( Draught & Silva, 2003 ; Zeldin & Rukavina, 2007 ). Prior to this study there was no research on the intersection between medical debt and predatory lending although there was reason to believe this link exists ( Seifert, 2004 ). Our results confirm this link and we propose means to break it.

  10. Laser-sodium interaction for the polychromatic laser guide star project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellanger, Veronique; Petit, Alain D.

    2002-02-01

    We developed a code aimed at determining the laser parameters leading to the maximum return flux of photons at 0.33 micrometers for a polychromatic sodium Laser Guide Star. This software relies upon a full 48-level collisionless and magnetic-field-free density-matrix description of the hyperfine structure of Na and includes Doppler broadening and Zeeman degeneracy. Experimental validation of BEACON was conducted on the SILVA facilities and will also be discussed in this paper.

  11. West Europe Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-24

    distinction has to be made between Cavaco Silva and the other party leaders. After Alberto Joao Jardim condemned the PSD’s Rules Committee for the...After Porto (PSD) and Braga (PS), S. Joao da Madeira (CDS), a center of indus- trial development celebrating its new status as a city, will be next. On...Joaquim Aguiar and Joao Carlos Espada, ponder the options: all options. Teresa de Sousa, Sa Carneiro’s former secretary recently arrived from

  12. The Role of the Armed Forces in the Mexican Economy in the 1980’s.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    integrating role, especially in 17 " . - _ .. .. .~- ... . .. . . . . . .. . ....._ • ,,.- .. . 1 .. .. •, , ," remote geographic regions, and have...integration of the Armed Forces insures their integration with the population in every town. This is especially important in the small villages. The...Jefe Edo Mayor de la Armada Revillagigedo No. 11 Primer Piso Mexico 1, D.F. 99 141. Vicealmirante Doroteo Silva Lopez Director de Educacion Naval Dr

  13. Translations on Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs No. 298

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-05-06

    Cabecao was arrested, and detectives Dagomar Ruas Silva and Vitor Alves da Mota, both of whom were working at the time at the now-closed Vigilancia-Norte...Carvajal. It is believed that Mario Gil Ramirez , husband of Bercey Espinosa de Gil, and Miguel Alberto Lopez, who was recently arrested by F-2, are...clandestine laboratory in that city. Arrested were Segundo Gonzaga Granda, Ocamidoro Gonzaga Diaz and Epaminondas Ramirez Acosta. The traffickers were

  14. Local Blockade of CCL21 and CXCL13 Signaling as a New Strategy to Prevent and Treat Osteoarthritis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    2011 Characterization of CCL19 and CCL21 in rheumatoid arthritis . Arthritis Rheum. 63:914–22. - Zheng B1, Ozen Z, Zhang X, De Silva S, Marinova E...Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Osteoarthritis is the most prevalent type of arthritis . It is characterized by progressive...development of osteoarthritis in mice. Arthritis Rheum. 64(3):705-17. - Pickens SR, Chamberlain ND, Volin MV, Pope RM, Mandelin AM 2nd, Shahrara S

  15. Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-01-01

    A Coordination Geometry Table by Francisco J. Arnáiz Re: article by D. Venkataraman, Y. Du, S. R. Wilson, K. A. Hirsch, P. Zhang, and J. S. Moore The authors reply Cut-Out Molecular Models by A. L. Silva, C. Fernandes, O. Wasterlain, S. Costa, and A. M. Mendes Re: article by R. J. Kashmar Kinetics Lesson for College Deans by Fred Hadley

  16. Lineage Divergence Detected in the Malaria Vector Anopheles marajoara (Diptera: Culicidae) in Amazonian Brazil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-07

    USA. 4Department of Epidemiology, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 715 - Cerqueira Cesar 01246-904 Sao Paulo, Brazil. 5Laboratório de Fisiologia e Controle de ...ML, Cleef A, Fournier M, Servant M, Siffedine A, Silva MFF, Suguio K, Turcq B, Van der Hammen T: Mise en évidence de quatre phases d’ouverture de la ...resolution for lineage 1 only, defined two groups that correspond to northeastern and western Amazonia , with 61.36% regional variation (Figure 3

  17. Efficacy of Nano Germicidal Light Therapy on Wound Related Infections

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-12

    International journal of environmental research and public health. 2016;13(10). 51. Rodrigues-Silva C, Miranda SM, Lopes FV, et al. Bacteria and fungi...settlement in the Philippines. International journal of environmental health research . 2016;26(5-6):536- 553. 55. Weber DJ, Rutala WA, Anderson DJ, Chen LF... clinical investigation. Burns : journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries. 1996;22(5):353-358. Principal Investigator: Johnson, Arthur

  18. Agent Based Modeling and Simulation Framework for Supply Chain Risk Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    Christopher and Peck 2004) macroeconomic , policy, competition, and resource (Ghoshal 1987) value chain, operational, event, and recurring (Shi 2004...clustering algorithms in agent logic to protect company privacy ( da Silva et al. 2006), aggregation of domain context in agent data analysis logic (Xiang...Operational Availability ( OA ) for FMC and PMC. 75 Mission Capable (MICAP) Hours is the measure of total time (in a month) consumable or reparable

  19. Brazil’s Difficult Road to Greatness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-20

    perceived to be non-sensical.11 Roberto da Matta summed up contradictory Brazilian values when he wrote that Brazilians “know that destiny exists...Jose Maria da Silva Paranhos, commonly known by his aristocratic title Baron Rio Branco, brilliantly delineated Brazil’s boundaries with its...inefficient state-run enterprises. For three consecutive administrations over a 14-year period, Brazil has followed sound macroeconomic policies that

  20. Tailored Behavioral Intervention for Insomnia in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 24, 1-6. 15 9. Quietly Reading a Book Reading is a common...Journal of Occupational Therapy . 63(4):423-432. Silva, L., Schalock, M., Gabrielsen, K. (20 II). Early intervention for autism with a parent- delivered...Qigong massage program: A randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Occupational Therapy , 65(5):550-559. doi: 10.5014/ajoty.2011.000661. 9 4

  1. Influence of Media Size and Flow Rate on the Transport of Silver Nanoparticles in Saturated Porous Media: Laboratory Experiments and Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    LEEANN RACZ, Maj, USAF, BSC, PhD, PE (Chairman) Date _________________________ _______ MARK GOLTZ , PhD (Member) Date...Racz, Chelsea Marcum, Mark N. Goltz Abstract Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely produced and used. Because of their potential toxicity and...Racz, L., Impellitteri, C., Silva, R., & Goltz , M. (2013). “Influence of pH on the transport of silver nanoparticles in saturated porous media

  2. New Solution of Diffusion-Advection Equation for Cosmic-Ray Transport Using Ultradistributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocca, M. C.; Plastino, A. R.; Plastino, A.; Ferri, G. L.; de Paoli, A.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we exactly solve the diffusion-advection equation (DAE) for cosmic-ray transport. For such a purpose we use the Theory of Ultradistributions of J. Sebastiao e Silva, to give a general solution for the DAE. From the ensuing solution, we obtain several approximations as limiting cases of various situations of physical and astrophysical interest. One of them involves Solar cosmic-rays' diffusion.

  3. Intelligence Reforms in Brazil: Contemporary Challenges and the Legacy of the Past

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    the Executive, there is both a Secretariat for Internal Control in the Presidency (Secretaria de Controle Interno da Presidencia da Republica) which...penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE MAY 2007...for control and repression. As Stepan states: “General Golbery do Couto e Silva, the chief author of the decree and the first direction of the SNI

  4. Regression models for estimating leaf area of seedlings and adult individuals of Neotropical rainforest tree species.

    PubMed

    Brito-Rocha, E; Schilling, A C; Dos Anjos, L; Piotto, D; Dalmolin, A C; Mielke, M S

    2016-01-01

    Individual leaf area (LA) is a key variable in studies of tree ecophysiology because it directly influences light interception, photosynthesis and evapotranspiration of adult trees and seedlings. We analyzed the leaf dimensions (length - L and width - W) of seedlings and adults of seven Neotropical rainforest tree species (Brosimum rubescens, Manilkara maxima, Pouteria caimito, Pouteria torta, Psidium cattleyanum, Symphonia globulifera and Tabebuia stenocalyx) with the objective to test the feasibility of single regression models to estimate LA of both adults and seedlings. In southern Bahia, Brazil, a first set of data was collected between March and October 2012. From the seven species analyzed, only two (P. cattleyanum and T. stenocalyx) had very similar relationships between LW and LA in both ontogenetic stages. For these two species, a second set of data was collected in August 2014, in order to validate the single models encompassing adult and seedlings. Our results show the possibility of development of models for predicting individual leaf area encompassing different ontogenetic stages for tropical tree species. The development of these models was more dependent on the species than the differences in leaf size between seedlings and adults.

  5. Phylogenetically diverse AM fungi from Ecuador strongly improve seedling growth of native potential crop trees.

    PubMed

    Schüßler, Arthur; Krüger, Claudia; Urgiles, Narcisa

    2016-04-01

    In many deforested regions of the tropics, afforestation with native tree species could valorize a growing reservoir of degraded, previously overused and abandoned land. The inoculation of tropical tree seedlings with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM fungi) can improve tree growth and viability, but efficiency may depend on plant and AM fungal genotype. To study such effects, seven phylogenetically diverse AM fungi, native to Ecuador, from seven genera and a non-native AM fungus (Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM197198) were used to inoculate the tropical potential crop tree (PCT) species Handroanthus chrysanthus (synonym Tabebuia chrysantha), Cedrela montana, and Heliocarpus americanus. Twenty-four plant-fungus combinations were studied in five different fertilization and AMF inoculation treatments. Numerous plant growth parameters and mycorrhizal root colonization were assessed. The inoculation with any of the tested AM fungi improved seedling growth significantly and in most cases reduced plant mortality. Plants produced up to threefold higher biomass, when compared to the standard nursery practice. AM fungal inoculation alone or in combination with low fertilization both outperformed full fertilization in terms of plant growth promotion. Interestingly, root colonization levels for individual fungi strongly depended on the host tree species, but surprisingly the colonization strength did not correlate with plant growth promotion. The combination of AM fungal inoculation with a low dosage of slow release fertilizer improved PCT seedling performance strongest, but also AM fungal treatments without any fertilization were highly efficient. The AM fungi tested are promising candidates to improve management practices in tropical tree seedling production.

  6. Medicinal Plants Used as Antitumor Agents in Brazil: An Ethnobotanical Approach

    PubMed Central

    de Melo, Joabe Gomes; Santos, Ariane Gaspar; de Amorim, Elba Lúcia Cavalcanti; do Nascimento, Silene Carneiro; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2011-01-01

    We describe the medicinal plants that have been reported to be antitumor agents and that have been used in ethnobotanic research in Brazil to answer the following questions: what is the abundance of plants reported to be antitumor in Brazil? Have the plant species used for tumor treatment in traditional Brazilian medicine been sufficiently examined scientifically? Our analysis included papers published between 1980 and 2008. A total of 84 medicinal plant species were reported to be used for cancer and tumor prevention or treatment; 69.05% of these were cited as being used for the treatment of tumors and cancer in general and 30.95% for specific tumors or cancers. The plants that were cited at a higher frequency were Aloe vera, Euphorbia tirucalli, and Tabebuia impetiginosa. At least, one pharmacological study was found for 35.71% of the species. Majority of the studies selected were conducted in rural communities and urban areas and in areas with traditional healers in Brazil. We found the following molecules to be the most studied in vitro and in vivo: silibinin, β-lapachone, plumbagin and capsaicin. The species addressed here constitute interesting objects for future studies to various professionals in the field of natural products. PMID:21528006

  7. Applications of Photogrammetry for Analysis of Forest Plantations. Preliminary study: Analysis of individual trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, R.; Barahona, A.; Aguilar, H.

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a method for using high detail volumetric information, captured with a land based photogrammetric survey, to obtain information from individual trees. Applying LIDAR analysis techniques it is possible to measure diameter at breast height, height at first branch (commercial height), basal area and volume of an individual tree. Given this information it is possible to calculate how much of that tree can be exploited as wood. The main objective is to develop a methodology for successfully surveying one individual tree, capturing every side of the stem a using high resolution digital camera and reference marks with GPS coordinates. The process is executed for several individuals of two species present in the metropolitan area in San Jose, Costa Rica, Delonix regia (Bojer) Raf. and Tabebuia rosea (Bertol.) DC., each one with different height, stem shape and crown area. Using a photogrammetry suite all the pictures are aligned, geo-referenced and a dense point cloud is generated with enough detail to perform the required measurements, as well as a solid tridimensional model for volume measurement. This research will open the way to develop a capture methodology with an airborne camera using close range UAVs. An airborne platform will make possible to capture every individual in a forest plantation, furthermore if the analysis techniques applied in this research are automated it will be possible to calculate with high precision the exploit potential of a forest plantation and improve its management.

  8. The efficacy and safety of nine South African medicinal plants in controlling Bacillus anthracis Sterne vaccine strain.

    PubMed

    Elisha, Ishaku Leo; Dzoyem, Jean-Paul; Botha, Francien S; Eloff, Jacobus Nicolaas

    2016-01-08

    Anthrax is a zoonotic disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, a Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium. The presence of the bacteria and the toxins in the blood of infected hosts trigger a cascade of pathological events leading to death. Nine medicinal plants with good activities against other bacteria were selected to determine their in vitro antibacterial activity against Bacillus anthracis Sterne strain. The cytotoxicity of the extracts on Vero kidney cells was also determined. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the extracts against Bacillus anthracis Sterne strain ranged from 0.02 to 0.31 mg/ml. Excellent MIC values were observed for the following plant species: Maesa lanceolata (0.02 mg/ml), Bolusanthus speciosus, Hypericum roeperianum, Morus mesozygia (0.04 mg/ml) and Pittosporum viridiflorum (0.08 mg/ml). The total antibacterial activity of the extracts ranged from 92 to 5562 ml/g. Total activity presents the volume to which the extract from 1 g of plant material can be diluted and still inhibit microbial growth. Maesa lanceolata and Hypericum roeperianum had the highest total activity with values of 5562 and 2999 ml/g respectively. The extracts of Calpurnia aurea had the lowest total activity (92 ml/g). The cytotoxicity determined on Vero cells indicated that most of the extracts were relatively non-toxic compared to doxorubicin (LC50 8.3 ± 1.76 μg/ml), except for the extracts of Maesa lanceolata, Elaeodendron croceum and Calpurnia aurea with LC50 values at 2.38 ± 0.25, 5.20 ± 0.24 and 13 ± 2.26 μg/ml respectively. The selectivity index (SI) ranged from 0.02 to 1.66. Hypericum roeperianum had the best selectivity index, (SI = 1.66) and Elaeodendron croceum had lowest value (SI = 0.02). The crude acetone extracts of the selected plant species had promising antibacterial activity against Bacillus anthracis. Maesa lanceolata extracts could be useful as a disinfectant and Hypericum roeperianum could be

  9. Precision Quantum Control and Error-Suppressing Quantum Firmware for Robust Quantum Computing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-24

    Biercuk, Lorenza Viola. Long-time Low - latency Quantum Memory by Dynamical Decoupling, arXiv:1206.6087v1 (06 2012) L. Viola, G. A. Paz-Silva . A...International Patent Application (PCT/AU2013/000649) D. Hayes, K. Khodjasteh L. Viola, M.J. Biercuk, “Long-time low - latency quantum memory by dynamical...Khodjasteh L. Viola, M.J. Biercuk, University of Sydney A28 Physics Road Sydney NS 2006 Long-time low - latency quantum membory by dynamical decoupling

  10. Paraconsistent Annotated Logic in Viability Analysis: an Approach to Product Launching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeu de Carvalho, Fábio; Brunstein, Israel; Abe, Jair Minoro

    2004-08-01

    In this paper we present an application of the Para-analyzer, a logical analyzer based on the Paraconsistent Annotated Logic Pτ, introduced by Da Silva Filho and Abe in the decision-making systems. An example is analyzed in detail showing how uncertainty, inconsistency and paracompleteness can be elegantly handled with this logical system. As application for the Para-analyzer in decision-making, we developed the BAM — Baricenter Analysis Method. In order to make the presentation easier, we present the BAM applied in the viability analysis of product launching. Some of the techniques of Paraconsistent Annotated Logic have been applied in Artificial Intelligence, Robotics, Information Technolgy (Computer Sciences), etc..

  11. Superior Valley Polarization and Coherence of 2s Excitons in Monolayer WSe_{2}.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shao-Yu; Goldstein, Thomas; Tong, Jiayue; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Yan, Jun

    2018-01-26

    We report the experimental observation of 2s exciton radiative emission from monolayer tungsten diselenide, enabled by hexagonal boron nitride protected high-quality samples. The 2s luminescence is highly robust and persists up to 150 K, offering a new quantum entity for manipulating the valley degree of freedom. Remarkably, the 2s exciton displays superior valley polarization and coherence than 1s under similar experimental conditions. This observation provides evidence that the Coulomb-exchange-interaction-driven valley-depolarization process, the Maialle-Silva-Sham mechanism, plays an important role in valley excitons of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides.

  12. Molecular Mechanism for Prostate Cancer Resistance to the Anti-tumor Activity of Vitamin D

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    point where each curve crossed the threshold line (Ct) using the following equation : Rel. value = 2[Ct(control) Ct(test)]test gene / 2[Ct(control...by hypermethylation in human pancreatic cancer. J Hum Genet 2005;50:159–67. 41. Armes JE, Hammet F, de Silva M, et al. Candidate tumor-suppressor...line (Ct) using the equation : Rel. Value = 2 - [Ct(control) – Ct(test)]test gene/ 2 -[Ct(control) – Ct(test)]housekeeping gene [22]. Reactions were

  13. Defining the Molecular Actions of Dietary Fatty Acids in Breast Cancer: Selective Modulation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    hypothesis testing (ANOVA) using icrosoft Excel v10.0 atα= 0.05 significance threshold. Fol- owing ANOVA, Fisher’s least significant difference, LSD , air...critical value (α= 0.05) ound in the t distribution. If the average absolute difference etween any two groups was greater than the LSD critical alue...cIntyre, T.M., Pontsler, A.V., Silva, A.R., St Hilaire, A., Xu, Y., Hin- shaw , J.C., Zimmerman, G.A., Hama, K., Aoki, J., Arai, H., Prestwich, G.D

  14. Proximity Displays for Access Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Jennifer Lucas, and Karen Lindenfelser who greatly helped me with any and all day-to-day administration challenges I brought to them. My family has...factors in computing systems, 2005. 2.2.2, 8.1, 8.5.1 [24] Fergus I.M. Craik and Robert S. Lockhart. Levels of processing: A framework for 136 memory...David Red- miles, Jie Ren, Jennifer Rode, and Roberto Silva Filho. Two experiences designing for effective security. In Proceedings of the Symposium on

  15. People’s Republic of China Scientific Abstracts No. 178

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-10-27

    AUTHOR: YANG Jung [2799 2837] ORG: None TITLE: "Two Small Examples Of Innovation" SOURCE: Peking HANG-K’UNG CHIH- SHIH [AERONAUTICAL KNOWLEDGE] No...for original source materials or information as to the availability of full translations of these articles. CONTENTS PAGE HANG-K’UNG CRTH- SHIH ...SHENG-WU-HSUEH CHI-K’AN [ACTA HYDROBIOLOGICA SINICA] No 1, December 1976 35 CHUNG- KUO LIN-YEH K𔃺-HSUEH [SCIENTIA SILVAE SINICA] No 2, July 1977

  16. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) of Alagoas state, northeast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Andrade Filho, José D; Brazil, Reginaldo P

    2009-01-01

    The phlebotomine sandflies of the state of Alagoas are poorly known, with more than 40 years since the last report on sandflies in the state. In here, Psathyromyia brasiliensis (Costa Lima), Micropygomyia quinquefer (Dyar,) and Evandromyia termitophila (Martins, Falcão & Silva) are registered for the first time in Alagoas. This report increases to nine the number of species collected in the state, including Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva), Migonemyia migonei (França), Nyssomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho) and Nyssomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva), all vectors of Leishmania in Brazil.

  17. Physical Sciences in Lisbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simões, Ana; Diogo, Maria Paula; Carneiro, Ana

    2012-09-01

    We provide a two-day tour of Lisbon, Portugal, focusing on sites of scientific and technological importance, setting them within their historical contexts. On the first day we visit the Academy of Sciences of Lisbon, the building that successively housed the College of Nobles, the Polytechnic School, and the University of Lisbon Faculty of Sciences, and then go on to the Arpad Szenes-Vieira da Silva Museum and the Astronomical Observatory of Lisbon. On the second day we visit the Industrial Institute and Museum, the Geographical Society of Lisbon, the Jesuit College of Santo Antão, and the Technical Institute.

  18. ARC-1984-AC85-0023-1-Edit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1984-12-10

    Medium Altitude Missions Branch: C-141 KAO Personnel, Mike Robinson, Mike Landis, Ed Hall, Tom Jones, John Graybeal, Louis Haughney, Brian Wright, Allan Meyer, Dick Gallant, Al Silva, Louis Russo, Hap Arnold, Randy Hobbs, Bill Laurie, Louis Foss, Sue Laurie, Tony Tieas, Tom Connors, Dave Brown, Alan Dunn, Don Oishi, Don Olson, Jim McClenahan, Wally Stahl, Sandy Mayville, Hank Hermosillo, Doug Ziebell, Ben Horita, Bill Hightower, Ron Sanchez, Terry Stoeffler, Lee Montz, Gene Moniz, John Brown, Bob America, Mike Craig, Kent Shiffer, Sandy Kogan, George Gull, Judy Pipher, Larry Helpher, Don MacKinnon, Jesse Bregmann, Jim Eilers, Nabil Hanania, Jim Cockrell, Keith Ackerman, Dave Walton, Lloyd Domeier, Pat Atchison

  19. Verification using Satisfiability Checking, Predicate Abstraction, and Craig Interpolation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    297, 2007. 4.10.1 196 [48] Roberto Bruttomesso, Alessandro Cimatti, Anders Franzen, Alberto Grig- gio, Ziyad Hanna, Alexander Nadel, Amit Palti, and...using SAT based conflict analysis. In Formal Methods in Computer Aided Design, pages 33–51, 2002. 1.1, 7 [54] Alessandro Cimatti, Alberto Griggio, and...and D. Vroon. Automatic memory reductions for RTL-level verification. In ICCAD, 2006. 1.2.4, 6.2, 7 [108] Joao P. Marques-Silva and Karem A. Sakallah

  20. 1H NMR spectra dataset and solid-state NMR data of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    PubMed

    Alves Filho, Elenilson G; Silva, Lorena M A; Teofilo, Elizita M; Larsen, Flemming H; de Brito, Edy S

    2017-04-01

    In this article the NMR data from chemical shifts, coupling constants, and structures of all the characterized compounds were provided, beyond a complementary PCA evaluation for the corresponding manuscript (E.G. Alves Filho, L.M.A. Silva, E.M. Teofilo, F.H. Larsen, E.S. de Brito, 2017) [3]. In addition, a complementary assessment from solid-state NMR data was provided. For further chemometric analysis, numerical matrices from the raw 1 H NMR data were made available in Microsoft Excel workbook format (.xls).

  1. Prediction of Aggressive Human Prostate Cancer by Cathepsin B

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    Cancer Res 2004;10(12 Pt 1):4118-4124. 28. Munoz E, Gomez F, Paz JI, Casado I, Silva JM, Corcuera MT, Alonso MJ. Ki-67 immunolabeling in pre...detected prostate cancer. J Pathol 2002;197(2):148-154. 34. Claudio PP, Zamparelli A, Garcia FU, Claudio L, Ammirati G, Farina A, Bovicelli A, Russo G...JA. Distinct roles for cysteine cathepsin genes in multistage tumorigenesis. Genes Dev 2006;20(5):543-556. 47. Fernandez PL, Farre X, Nadal A

  2. Satellite and Missile Data Generation for AIS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    8217..lI SATELLITE AND MISSILE DATA SGENERATION FOR AIS Operating Systems, Inc. S Dr. Georgette M4. T. Silva Dr. Christine A. Montgomery APPROVED FOR PUBLIC...Same " UNCLASSIFIEDSame S .. DECLASSIFI CATION DOWNGRADING N/ASCH E D ULE 16. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of this Report) Approved for public release...provislon.of adequate system control. 1-6 1.2.2 Current Capabilities of 031’ s Message Text Processing System. The OSI message text analysis system has the

  3. Data Assimilation in the Presence of Forecast Bias: The GEOS Moisture Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dee, Dick P.; Todling, Ricardo

    1999-01-01

    We describe the application of the unbiased sequential analysis algorithm developed by Dee and da Silva (1998) to the GEOS DAS moisture analysis. The algorithm estimates the persistent component of model error using rawinsonde observations and adjusts the first-guess moisture field accordingly. Results of two seasonal data assimilation cycles show that moisture analysis bias is almost completely eliminated in all observed regions. The improved analyses cause a sizable reduction in the 6h-forecast bias and a marginal improvement in the error standard deviations.

  4. Measuring the Effects of an Ever-Changing Environment on Malaria Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-01

    immunity on improved protection has been described in relationship to vaccine trials against Lyme disease (5). Herd immunity has been shown to play a...rural northern Ghana. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 59:80–85. 5. de Silva, A. M., S. R. Telford III, L. R. Brunet, S. W. Barthold, and E. Fikrig. 1996. Borrelia ...burgdorferi OspA is an arthropod-specific transmission-block- ing Lyme disease vaccine. Exp. Med. 183:271–275. 6. Diallo, D. A., A. Habluetzel, N

  5. Gender-Blind Sexism and Rape Myth Acceptance.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Laurie Cooper; Lilley, Terry Glenn; Pinter, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore whether gender-blind sexism, as an extension of Bonilla-Silva's racialized social system theory, is an appropriate theoretical framework for understanding the creation and continued prevalence of rape myth acceptance. Specifically, we hypothesize that individuals who hold attitudes consistent with the frames of gender-blind sexism are more likely to accept common rape myths. Data for this article come from an online survey administered to the entire undergraduate student body at a large Midwestern institution (N = 1,401). Regression analysis showed strong support for the effects of gender-blind sexism on rape myth acceptance. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Electrical and Structural Properties Study of Layered Dielectric and Magnetic Composites and Blends Structures for RF and Microwave Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-12

    Graduação em Engenharia de Teleinformática (2012) 3- STUDY of THERMAL STABILITY of microwave Resonant frequency of (τf) of DIELETRICS and...SYNTHESIS of CERAMIC MATERIALS with NEAR-ZERO τf Marcelo Antonio Santos da Silva, Programa de Pós Graduação em Quimica (2012) 4- STUDY OF DIELECTRIC...PROPERTIES OF CERAMIC MATRIX SrBi2Nb2O9 (SBN) FOR USE IN RF AND MICROWAVE DEVICES, EMMANUELLE DE OLIVEIRA SANCHO PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM ENGENHARIA

  7. A study of personal income distributions in Australia and Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Anand; Yakovenko, Victor

    2006-03-01

    The study of income distribution has a long history. A century ago, the Italian physicist and economist Pareto proposed that income distribution obeys a universal power law, valid for all time and countries. Subsequent studies proved that only the top 1-3% of the population follow a power law. For USA, the rest 97-99% of the population follow the exponential distribution [1]. We present the results of a similar study for Australia and Italy. [1] A. C. Silva and V. M. Yakovenko, Europhys. Lett.69, 304 (2005).

  8. War Without Borders: The Colombia-Ecuador Crisis of 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    Quito: Programa de la Naciones Unidas Para el Desarrollo, 2004. 33. Catherine M. Conaghan, “Ecuador: Correa’s Plebiscitary President,” Journal of...jungle area of Ecuador known as Angostura.2 The target of the attack was long time FARC leader Raúl Reyes (nom de guerre for Luis Edgar Devia Silva...million to FARC. March 4 Uribe announces that Colombia will de - nounce Chávez for support to terrorism before the International Criminal Court. 4

  9. Solving constant-coefficient differential equations with dielectric metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weixuan; Qu, Che; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2016-07-01

    Recently, the concept of metamaterial analog computing has been proposed (Silva et al 2014 Science 343 160-3). Some mathematical operations such as spatial differentiation, integration, and convolution, have been performed by using designed metamaterial blocks. Motivated by this work, we propose a practical approach based on dielectric metamaterial to solve differential equations. The ordinary differential equation can be solved accurately by the correctly designed metamaterial system. The numerical simulations using well-established numerical routines have been performed to successfully verify all theoretical analyses.

  10. Superior Valley Polarization and Coherence of 2 s Excitons in Monolayer WSe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shao-Yu; Goldstein, Thomas; Tong, Jiayue; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Yan, Jun

    2018-01-01

    We report the experimental observation of 2 s exciton radiative emission from monolayer tungsten diselenide, enabled by hexagonal boron nitride protected high-quality samples. The 2 s luminescence is highly robust and persists up to 150 K, offering a new quantum entity for manipulating the valley degree of freedom. Remarkably, the 2 s exciton displays superior valley polarization and coherence than 1 s under similar experimental conditions. This observation provides evidence that the Coulomb-exchange-interaction-driven valley-depolarization process, the Maialle-Silva-Sham mechanism, plays an important role in valley excitons of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides.

  11. AGARD: The History, 1952-1997

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    ONERA laboratories. On 14 September the meeting was opened in the NATO Headquarters building by the Chairman of the Standing Group, Gen. Jean Houssay...aerospace medicine by Dr R.Lowry, Chief of the Defence and Civil Institute of Aviation Medicine, and by Dr Jacques Gilbert of the Defence Research...J.I. BOTNAN 1991-1997 Portuga. A.J. da SILVA PEDROSO 1979-1981 C. MENDES JORGE 1981-1982 1990-1992 J.G.C. BORGES 1983-1986 A.A. NOGEUIRA PINTO 1986

  12. Naive, captive long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis fascicularis) fail to individually and socially learn pound-hammering, a tool-use behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Tennie, Claudio

    2018-01-01

    A subspecies of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis aurea; Mfa) has been reported to use stone tools and a specific technique to process nuts in Southeast Asia, a behaviour known as ‘pound-hammering’. The aim of this study was to examine the development of pound-hammering in long-tailed macaques: whether this behavioural form can be individually learnt or whether it has to rely on some forms of social learning. Given the absence of Mfa from captivity, long-tailed macaques of a highly related subspecies (Macaca fascicularis fascicularis; Mff) were experimentally tested by providing them with the ecological materials necessary to show pound-hammering. A baseline was first carried out to observe whether pound-hammering would emerge spontaneously without social information. As this was not the case, different degrees of social information, culminating in a full demonstration of the behaviour, were provided. None of the subjects (n = 31) showed pound-hammering in any of the individual or social learning conditions. Although these data do not support the hypothesis that individual learning underlies this behaviour, no evidence was found that (at least) Mff learn pound-hammering socially either. We propose that other—potentially interacting—factors may determine whether this behaviour emerges in the various subspecies of long-tailed macaques, and provide a novel methodology to test the role of social and individual learning in the development of animal tool-use. PMID:29892375

  13. Fungal Planet description sheets: 69-91.

    PubMed

    Crous, P W; Groenewald, J Z; Shivas, R G; Edwards, J; Seifert, K A; Alfenas, A C; Alfenas, R F; Burgess, T I; Carnegie, A J; Hardy, G E St J; Hiscock, N; Hüberli, D; Jung, T; Louis-Seize, G; Okada, G; Pereira, O L; Stukely, M J C; Wang, W; White, G P; Young, A J; McTaggart, A R; Pascoe, I G; Porter, I J; Quaedvlieg, W

    2011-06-01

    Novel species of microfungi described in the present study include the following from Australia: Bagadiella victoriae and Bagadiella koalae on Eucalyptus spp., Catenulostroma eucalyptorum on Eucalyptus laevopinea, Cercospora eremochloae on Eremochloa bimaculata, Devriesia queenslandica on Scaevola taccada, Diaporthe musigena on Musa sp., Diaporthe acaciigena on Acacia retinodes, Leptoxyphium kurandae on Eucalyptus sp., Neofusicoccum grevilleae on Grevillea aurea, Phytophthora fluvialis from water in native bushland, Pseudocercospora cyathicola on Cyathea australis, and Teratosphaeria mareebensis on Eucalyptus sp. Other species include Passalora leptophlebiae on Eucalyptus leptophlebia (Brazil), Exophiala tremulae on Populus tremuloides and Dictyosporium stellatum from submerged wood (Canada), Mycosphaerella valgourgensis on Yucca sp. (France), Sclerostagonospora cycadis on Cycas revoluta (Japan), Rachicladosporium pini on Pinus monophylla (Netherlands), Mycosphaerella wachendorfiae on Wachendorfia thyrsifolia and Diaporthe rhusicola on Rhus pendulina (South Africa). Novel genera of hyphomycetes include Noosia banksiae on Banksia aemula (Australia), Utrechtiana cibiessia on Phragmites australis (Netherlands), and Funbolia dimorpha on blackened stem bark of an unidentified tree (USA). Morphological and culture characteristics along with ITS DNA barcodes are provided for all taxa.

  14. Ichthyoplankton spatial pattern in the inner shelf off Bahía Blanca Estuary, SW Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmeyer, Mónica Susana; Clara, Menéndez María; Florencia, Biancalana; Mabel, Nizovoy Alicia; Ramón, Torres Eduardo

    2009-09-01

    This study focuses on the composition, abundance and distribution of ichthyoplankton in the inner shelf area off Bahía Blanca Estuary on the SW Atlantic Ocean during late spring. Eggs and larvae of Brevoortia aurea, Engraulis anchoita, Parona signata, Sciaenidae spp. - such as Cynoscion guatucupa and Micropogonias furnieri -, and Odontesthes argentinensis were found. Species richness was low probably as a result of season and shallow depths. Ichthyoplankton abundance reached values close to 10 000 per 10 m -3 (eggs) and 4000 per 10 m -3 (larvae) and displayed a spatial distribution pattern with maximum abundance values restricted to a band parallel to the coast. Differences between egg and larval patterns, probably derived from a different displacement and hydrodynamic behavior, were observed. Egg and larvae distribution patterns were found related with spawning areas and to directly depend on salinity and mesozooplankton. The larvae distribution pattern, in particular, was found to inversely depend on particulate organic carbon. In addition, the geographic location of egg and larvae maxima strongly coincided with a saline front reported for this area in springtime, thus suggesting a direct relationship with it.

  15. Morphology and molecular phylogeny of Apoterritricha lutea n. g., n. sp. (Ciliophora, Spirotrichea, Hypotrichia): a putative missing link connecting Cyrtohymena and Afrokeronopsis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Hye; Vďačný, Peter; Shazib, Shahed Uddin Ahmed; Shin, Mann Kyoon

    2014-01-01

    A new hypotrichous ciliate, Apoterritricha lutea n. g., n. sp., was discovered in a sample of a terrestrial liverwort from Korea. Its morphology was studied using detailed in vivo observation and protargol impregnation. Its phylogenetic relationships were revealed by analyses of the 18S rRNA gene. This new taxon is characterized by a combination of the following traits: (i) ellipsoidal to narrowly ellipsoidal body with an average size of 230 × 85 μm; (ii) two macronuclear nodules and two to five micronuclei; (iii) golden yellow cortical granules, forming small groups along the microtubular appendages of cirri, adoral membranelles, and dorsal kineties; (iv) typically three frontal cirri, one buccal cirrus, four frontoventral cirri, seven midventral cirri, two pretransverse cirri, seven transverse cirri, ca. 38 left, and ca. 36 right marginal cirri; and (v) on average six dorsal kineties, three dorsomarginal kineties, and three caudal cirri. In molecular phylogenies, A. lutea clusters with strong support within a clade containing Afrokeronopsis aurea and several "typical" oxytrichids having golden yellow to brown cortical granules. In this light we propose a hypothesis that is not unambiguously rejected by the present phylogenetic analyses, which shows how the Afrokeronopsis-like pattern could have evolved from a Rubrioxytricha-like ancestor via an Apoterritricha-like stage by cirri-multiplication. © 2014 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2014 International Society of Protistologists.

  16. Phylogenetic relationships and species circumscription in Trentepohlia and Printzina (Trentepohliales, Chlorophyta).

    PubMed

    Rindi, Fabio; Lam, Daryl W; López-Bautista, Juan M

    2009-08-01

    Subaerial green microalgae represent a polyphyletic complex of organisms, whose genetic diversity is much higher than their simple morphologies suggest. The order Trentepohliales is the only species-rich group of subaerial algae belonging to the class Ulvophyceae and represents an ideal model taxon to investigate evolutionary patterns of these organisms. We studied phylogenetic relationships in two common genera of Trentepohliales (Trentepohlia and Printzina) by separate and combined analyses of the rbcL and 18S rRNA genes. Trentepohlia and Printzina were not resolved as monophyletic groups. Three main clades were recovered in all analyses, but none corresponded to any trentepohlialean genus as defined based on morphological grounds. The rbcL and 18S rRNA datasets provided congruent phylogenetic signals and similar topologies were recovered in single-gene analyses. Analyses performed on the combined 2-gene dataset inferred generally higher nodal support. The results clarified several taxonomic problems and showed that the evolution of these algae has been characterized by considerable morphological convergence. Trentepohlia abietina and T. flava were shown to be separate species from T. aurea; Printzina lagenifera, T. arborum and T. umbrina were resolved as polyphyletic taxa, whose vegetative morphology appears to have evolved independently in separate lineages. Incongruence between phylogenetic relationships and traditional morphological classification was demonstrated, showing that the morphological characters commonly used in the taxonomy of the Trentepohliales are phylogenetically irrelevant.

  17. Interaction of the Antimicrobial Peptide Aurein 1.2 and Charged Lipid Bilayer

    DOE PAGES

    Rai, Durgesh K.; Qian, Shuo

    2017-06-16

    Aurein 1.2 is a potent antimicrobial peptide secreted by frog Litoria aurea. As a short membrane-active peptide with only 13 amino acids in sequence, it has been found to be residing on the surface of lipid bilayer and permeabilizing bacterial membranes at high concentration. However, the detail at the molecular level is largely unknown. Here in this study, we investigated the action of Aurein 1.2 in charged lipid bilayers composed of DMPC/DMPG. Oriented Circular Dichroism results showed that the peptide was on the surface of lipid bilayer regardless of the charged lipid ratio. Only at a very high peptide-to-lipid ratiomore » (~1/10), the peptide became perpendicular to the bilayer, however no pore was detected by neutron in-plane scattering. To further understand how it interacted with charged lipid bilayers, we employed Small Angle Neutron Scattering to probe lipid distribution across bilayer leaflets in lipid vesicles. The results showed that Aurein 1.2 interacted strongly with negatively charged DMPG, causing strong asymmetry in lipid bilayer. At high concentration, while the vesicles were intact, we found additional structure feature on the bilayer. Finally, our study provides a glimpse into how Aurein 1.2 disturbs anionic lipid-containing membranes without pore formation.« less

  18. Interaction of the Antimicrobial Peptide Aurein 1.2 and Charged Lipid Bilayer

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, Durgesh K.; Qian, Shuo

    Aurein 1.2 is a potent antimicrobial peptide secreted by frog Litoria aurea. As a short membrane-active peptide with only 13 amino acids in sequence, it has been found to be residing on the surface of lipid bilayer and permeabilizing bacterial membranes at high concentration. However, the detail at the molecular level is largely unknown. Here in this study, we investigated the action of Aurein 1.2 in charged lipid bilayers composed of DMPC/DMPG. Oriented Circular Dichroism results showed that the peptide was on the surface of lipid bilayer regardless of the charged lipid ratio. Only at a very high peptide-to-lipid ratiomore » (~1/10), the peptide became perpendicular to the bilayer, however no pore was detected by neutron in-plane scattering. To further understand how it interacted with charged lipid bilayers, we employed Small Angle Neutron Scattering to probe lipid distribution across bilayer leaflets in lipid vesicles. The results showed that Aurein 1.2 interacted strongly with negatively charged DMPG, causing strong asymmetry in lipid bilayer. At high concentration, while the vesicles were intact, we found additional structure feature on the bilayer. Finally, our study provides a glimpse into how Aurein 1.2 disturbs anionic lipid-containing membranes without pore formation.« less

  19. Novel metabolic pathways of organochlorine pesticides dieldrin and aldrin by the white rot fungi of the genus Phlebia.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Pengfei; Mori, Toshio; Kamei, Ichiro; Kiyota, Hiromasa; Takagi, Kazuhiro; Kondo, Ryuichiro

    2011-09-01

    White rot fungi can degrade a wide spectrum of recalcitrant organic pollutants, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In this experiment, 20 white rot fungi, belonging to genus Phlebia, were investigated for their ability to degrade dieldrin. Based on the screening results, we further investigated Phlebia acanthocystis, Phlebia brevispora, and Phlebia aurea to determine their degradation capacity and metabolic products towards dieldrin and aldrin. The three fungi were able to remove over 50% of dieldrin in a low nitrogen medium, after 42 d of incubation. Three hydroxylated products were detected as metabolites of dieldrin, suggesting that in Phlebia strains, hydroxylation reactions might play an important role in the metabolism of dieldrin. In contrast to dieldrin, aldrin exhibited higher levels of degradation activity. Over 90% of aldrin was removed after 28 d of incubation, and several new metabolites of aldrin in microorganisms, including 9-hydroxyaldrin and two carboxylic acid products, were detected in fungal cultures. These results indicate that the methylene moiety of aldrin and dieldrin molecules might be prone to enzymatic attack by white rot fungi. In this study, we describe for the first time a new metabolic pathway of both compounds by fungi of genus Phlebia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Antimicrobial activities of some selected traditional Ethiopian medicinal plants used in the treatment of skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Tadeg, Hailu; Mohammed, Endris; Asres, Kaleab; Gebre-Mariam, Tsige

    2005-08-22

    Hydroalcoholic extracts of eight species of medicinal plants, namely, Acokanthera schimperi (Apocynaceae), Calpurnia aurea (Leguminosae), Kalanchoe petitiana (Crassulaceae), Lippia adoensis (Verbenaceae), Malva parviflora (Malvaceae), Olinia rochetiana (Oliniaceae), Phytolacca dodecandra (Phytolaccaceae) and Verbascum sinaiticum (Scrophulariaceae), traditionally used in the treatment of various skin disorders were screened for antimicrobial activity against different strains of bacteria and fungi which are known to cause different types of skin infections. The tests were carried out using agar well diffusion method at three concentration levels (100, 50 and 25mg/ml) of the crude extracts. The MICs of the crude extracts of Lippia adoensis and Olinia rochetiana were determined by agar dilution method. Furthermore, the powdered leaves of Lippia adoensis and Olinia rochetiana were fractionated into different solvents of wide ranging polarity and the resulting fractions were screened for antimicrobial activity against the same organisms. Of all the plants tested, Lippia adoensis and Olinia rochetiana were found to be the most active species against bacterial and fungal strains, respectively. In addition, almost all species of plants were found to have activity on at least one microbial strain. The antimicrobial activity profile also showed that Staphylococcus aureus and Trichophyton mentagrophytes were the most susceptible bacterial and fungal strains, respectively. The results indicate the potential of these herbal drugs in treating microbial infections of the skin, thus, justifying their claimed uses in the treatment of various skin disorders, the majority of which are of infectious origin.

  1. Solid waste from leather industry as adsorbent of organic dyes in aqueous-medium.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Luiz C A; Gonçalves, Maraísa; Oliveira, Diana Q L; Guerreiro, Mário C; Guilherme, Luiz R G; Dallago, Rogério M

    2007-03-06

    The industrial tanning of leather usually produces considerable amounts of chromium-containing solid waste and liquid effluents and raises many concerns on its environmental effect as well as on escalating landfill costs. Actually, these shortcomings are becoming increasingly a limiting factor to this industrial activity that claims for alternative methods of residue disposals. In this work, it is proposed a novel alternative destination of the solid waste, based on the removal of organic contaminants from the out coming aqueous-residue. The adsorption isotherm pattern for the wet blue leather from the Aurea tanning industry in Erechim-RS (Brazil) showed that these materials present high activity on adsorbing the reactive red textile dye as well as other compounds. The adsorbent materials were characterized by IR spectroscopy and SEM and tested for the dye adsorption (reactive textile and methylene blue dyes). The concentrations of dyes were measured by UV-vis spectrophotometry and the chromium extraction from leather waste was realized by basic hydrolysis and determined by atomic absorption. As a low cost abundant adsorbent material with high adsorption ability on removing dye methylene blue (80mgg(-1)) and textile dye reactive red (163mgg(-1)), the leather waste is revealed to be a interesting alternative relatively to more costly adsorbent materials.

  2. Histological Comparisons of Parasitism by Schistonchus spp. (Nemata: Aphelenchoididae) in Neotropical Ficus spp.

    PubMed Central

    Center, Barbara J.; Giblin-Davis, Robin M.; Herre, E. Allen; Chung-Schickler, Genevieve C.

    1999-01-01

    Syconia (enclosed infructescences) infested with host-specific species of Schistonchus (Aphelenchoididae) were collected from six species of Ficus (Moraceae) native to Florida or Panama. They were sectioned and histologically examined to assess the effects of parasitism. Parasitism by Schistonchus spp. was associated with hypertrophied cells, tissue necrosis, and the presence of an exudate in all species. Occasional hypertrophy of the outer epidermal cells occurred on seed florets, wasp florets, and on the endothecial cells of male florets in F. aurea (subgenus Urostigma) from Florida. Aberrations of the inner mesocarp occurred under the hypertrophied cells on seed florets. In F. laevigata (subgenus Urostigma) from Florida, Schistonchus sp. infested immature male florets and was associated with hypertrophy of endothecial cells, epidermal cells of the anther filaments, and anthers. Schistonchus sp. also caused aberrations of the anther filament, anthers, and pollen. Ficus poponoei (subgenus Urostigma) and F. glabrata (subgenus Pharmacosycea), both from Panama, had hypertrophied outer epidermal cells on seed florets. Ficus poponoei also had Schistonchus sp. within the pedicel of an aborted floret, with hypertrophy of the cortical parenchyma. Ficus trigonata (subgenus Urostigma) from Panama had hypertrophy of the outer epidermis of seed florets. When the outer epidermis on these florets was missing, the inner mesocarp was hypertrophied. Ficus maxima (subgenus Pharmacosycea) from Panama had hypertrophy on the outer epidermis of seed and aborted florets. Schistonchus spp. were not found in wasp larvae or pupae in any of the Ficus spp. examined. Hypertrophy was never observed in the absence of Schistonchus spp. PMID:19270912

  3. Involvement of Bax and Bcl-2 in Induction of Apoptosis by Essential Oils of Three Lebanese Salvia Species in Human Prostate Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Russo, Alessandra; Cardile, Venera; Graziano, Adriana C E; Avola, Rosanna; Bruno, Maurizio; Rigano, Daniela

    2018-01-19

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer in men, and research to find more effective and less toxic drugs has become necessary. In the frame of our ongoing program on traditionally used Salvia species from the Mediterranean Area, here we report the biological activities of Salvia aurea , S. judaica and S. viscosa essential oils against human prostate cancer cells (DU-145). The cell viability was measured by 3(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) test and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release was used to quantify necrosis cell death. Genomic DNA, caspase-3 activity, expression of cleaved caspase-9, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2 associated X (Bax) proteins were analyzed in order to study the apoptotic process. The role of reactive oxygen species in cell death was also investigated. We found that the three essential oils, containing caryophyllene oxide as a main constituent, are capable of reducing the growth of human prostate cancer cells, activating an apoptotic process and increasing reactive oxygen species generation. These results suggest it could be profitable to further investigate the effects of these essential oils for their possible use as anticancer agents in prostate cancer, alone or in combination with chemotherapy agents.

  4. Isolation of Individual Egg Cells and Zygotes in Alstroemeria Followed by Manual Selection with a Microcapillary-connected Micropump

    PubMed Central

    HOSHINO, YOICHIRO; MURATA, NAHO; SHINODA, KOICHI

    2006-01-01

    • Aims To develop a procedure for isolating living egg cells and zygotes from Alstroemeria ovules. • Scope An attempt was made to isolate egg cells and zygotes from the ovules of Alstroemeria aurea. The ovules were histologically observed using a clearing procedure which revealed the localization and sizes of the embryo sacs and egg apparatus within the ovules. For the isolation of egg cells, ovules were cut into sections with a surgical blade and treated with an enzyme solution. Subsequently, these ovule sections were dissected using a glass needle under an inverted microscope. Egg cells successfully isolated by this procedure were collected using microcapillaries connected to a micropump. For zygote isolation, ovules were excised from ovaries 24 h after self-pollination. By treating excised ovules with an enzyme solution and subsequently dissecting them using a glass needle, zygotes were successfully isolated from the ovules and collected with a microcapillary. The isolated zygotes were associated with pollen tubes and one of the synergids. Egg cells and zygotes were viable for up to 2 h following isolation, as determined by fluorescein diacetate staining. • Conclusions The procedures for isolating egg cells and zygotes in Alstroemeria were established, and each egg cell and zygote was captured with a microcapillary. PMID:16621859

  5. Involvement of Bax and Bcl-2 in Induction of Apoptosis by Essential Oils of Three Lebanese Salvia Species in Human Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Alessandra; Cardile, Venera; Graziano, Adriana C. E.; Avola, Rosanna; Bruno, Maurizio

    2018-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer in men, and research to find more effective and less toxic drugs has become necessary. In the frame of our ongoing program on traditionally used Salvia species from the Mediterranean Area, here we report the biological activities of Salvia aurea, S. judaica and S. viscosa essential oils against human prostate cancer cells (DU-145). The cell viability was measured by 3(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) test and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release was used to quantify necrosis cell death. Genomic DNA, caspase-3 activity, expression of cleaved caspase-9, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2 associated X (Bax) proteins were analyzed in order to study the apoptotic process. The role of reactive oxygen species in cell death was also investigated. We found that the three essential oils, containing caryophyllene oxide as a main constituent, are capable of reducing the growth of human prostate cancer cells, activating an apoptotic process and increasing reactive oxygen species generation. These results suggest it could be profitable to further investigate the effects of these essential oils for their possible use as anticancer agents in prostate cancer, alone or in combination with chemotherapy agents. PMID:29351194

  6. Medicinal and Environmental Indicator Species of Utricularia from Montane Forest of Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Haron, Noorma Wati; Chew, Ming Yee

    2012-01-01

    The carnivorous Utricularia (Lentibulariaceae) is a small herb of multifarious wet habitats worldwide. Eleven of the 14 Peninsular Malaysian species range into the mountains. Distribution, disturbance adaptability and collection frequency were used to formulate their commonness category. Common (U. aurea, U. bifida, and U. minutissima) and fairly common (U. gibba and U. uliginosa) species are mostly lowland plants that ascend to open montane microhabitats, while the fairly common (U. striatula), narrow-range (U. caerulea pink form and U. involvens), rare (U. furcellata and U. scandens), and endemic (U. vitellina) species are restricted to mountainous sites. Common species that colonise dystrophic to oligotrophic man-made sites in late succession could serve as predictors for general health and recovery of wet habitats. Rarer species are often locally abundant, their niches situated around pristine forest edges. When in decline, they indicate the beginning of problems affecting the forest. Utricularia is reportedly nutritious, mildly astringent, and diuretic. Preadapted to nutrient-poor, waterlogged soils, U. bifida is suitable as an alternative for small-scale herb cultivation on low pH, wet poor soils usually deemed not suitable for any crops. PMID:22619629

  7. Airing Out Anthrax

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The AiroCide TiO2 is an air-purifier that kills 93.3 percent of airborne pathogens that pass through it, including Bacillus anthraci, more commonly known as anthrax. It is essentially a spinoff of KES Science & Technology, Inc.'s Bio-KES system, a highly effective device used by the produce industry for ethylene gas removal to aid in preserving the freshness of fruits, vegetables, and flowers. The TiO2-based ethylene removal technology that is incorporated into the company's AiroCide TiO2 and Bio-KES products was first integrated into a pair of plant-growth chambers known as ASTROCULTURE(TM) and ADVANCED ASTROCULTURE(TM). Both chambers have housed commercial plant growth experiments in space on either the Space Shuttle or the International Space Station. The AiroCide TiO2 also has a proven record of destroying 98 percent of other airborne pathogens, such as microscopic dust mites, molds, and fungi. Moreover, the device is a verified killer of Influenza A (flu), E. coli, Staphylococcus aureas, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae, among many other harmful viruses.

  8. Nutrient and energy content, in vitro ruminal fermentation characteristics and methanogenic potential of alpine forage plant species during early summer.

    PubMed

    Jayanegara, Anuraga; Marquardt, Svenja; Kreuzer, Michael; Leiber, Florian

    2011-08-15

    Plants growing on alpine meadows are reported to be rich in phenols. Such compounds may affect ruminal fermentation and reduce the plants' methanogenic potential, making alpine grazing advantageous in this respect. The objective of this study was to quantify nutrients and phenols in Alpine forage grasses, herbs and trees collected over 2 years and, in a 24 h in vitro incubation, their effects on ruminal fermentation parameters. The highest in vitro gas production, resulting in metabolisable energy values around 10 MJ kg⁻¹, were found with Alchemilla xanthochlora and Crepis aurea (herbaceous species) and with Sambucus nigra leaves and flowers (tree species). Related to the amount of total gas production, methane formation was highest with Nardus stricta, and lowest with S. nigra and A. xanthochlora. In addition, Castanea sativa leaves led to an exceptional low methane production, but this was accompanied by severely impaired ruminal fermentation. When the data were analysed by principal component analysis, phenol concentrations were negatively related with methane proportion in total gas. Variation in methane production potential across the investigated forages was small. The two goals of limited methane production potential and high nutritive value for ruminants were met best by A. xanthochlora and S. nigra. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Relativistic H-theorem and nonextensive kinetic theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, R.; Lima, J. A. S.

    2003-08-01

    In 1988 Tsallis proposed a striking generalization of the Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy functional form given by [1] (1) where kB is Boltzmann's constant, pi is the probability of the i-th microstate, and the parameter q is any real number. Nowadays, the q-thermostatistics associated with Sq is being hailed as the possible basis of a theoretical framework appropriate to deal with nonextensive settings. There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that Sq provides a convenient frame for the thermostatistical analysis of many physical systems and processes ranging from the laboratory scale to the astrophysical domain [2]. However, all the basic results, including the proof of the H-theorem has been worked in the classical non-relativistic domain [3]. In this context we discuss the relativistic kinetic foundations of the Tsallis' nonextensive approach through the full Boltzmann's transport equation. Our analysis follows from a nonextensive generalization of the "molecular chaos hypothesis". For q > 0, the q-transport equation satisfies a relativistic H-theorem based on Tsallis entropy. It is also proved that the collisional equilibrium is given by the relativistic Tsallis' q-nonextensive velocity distribution. References [1] C. Tsallis, J. Stat. Phys. 52, 479 (1988). [2] J. A. S. Lima, R. Silva, and J. Santos, Astron. and Astrophys. 396, 309 (2002). [3] J. A. S. Lima, R. Silva, and A. R. Plastino, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2938 (2001).

  10. Benefits of Manometer in Non-Invasive Ventilatory Support.

    PubMed

    Lacerda, Rodrigo Silva; de Lima, Fernando Cesar Anastácio; Bastos, Leonardo Pereira; Fardin Vinco, Anderson; Schneider, Felipe Britto Azevedo; Luduvico Coelho, Yves; Fernandes, Heitor Gomes Costa; Bacalhau, João Marcus Ramos; Bermudes, Igor Matheus Simonelli; da Silva, Claudinei Ferreira; da Silva, Luiza Paterlini; Pezato, Rogério

    2017-12-01

    Introduction Effective ventilation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is essential to reduce morbidity and mortality rates in cardiac arrest. Hyperventilation during CPR reduces the efficiency of compressions and coronary perfusion. Problem How could ventilation in CPR be optimized? The objective of this study was to evaluate non-invasive ventilator support using different devices. The study compares the regularity and intensity of non-invasive ventilation during simulated, conventional CPR and ventilatory support using three distinct ventilation devices: a standard manual resuscitator, with and without airway pressure manometer, and an automatic transport ventilator. Student's t-test was used to evaluate statistical differences between groups. P values <.05 were regarded as significant. Peak inspiratory pressure during ventilatory support and CPR was significantly increased in the group with manual resuscitator without manometer when compared with the manual resuscitator with manometer support (MS) group or automatic ventilator (AV) group. The study recommends for ventilatory support the use of a manual resuscitator equipped with MS or AVs, due to the risk of reduction in coronary perfusion pressure and iatrogenic thoracic injury during hyperventilation found using manual resuscitator without manometer. Lacerda RS , de Lima FCA , Bastos LP , Vinco AF , Schneider FBA , Coelho YL , Fernandes HGC , Bacalhau JMR , Bermudes IMS , da Silva CF , da Silva LP , Pezato R . Benefits of manometer in non-invasive ventilatory support. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(6):615-620.

  11. Predicting of biomass in Brazilian tropical dry forest: a statistical evaluation of generic equations.

    PubMed

    Lima, Robson B DE; Alves, Francisco T; Oliveira, Cinthia P DE; Silva, José A A DA; Ferreira, Rinaldo L C

    2017-01-01

    Dry tropical forests are a key component in the global carbon cycle and their biomass estimates depend almost exclusively of fitted equations for multi-species or individual species data. Therefore, a systematic evaluation of statistical models through validation of estimates of aboveground biomass stocks is justifiable. In this study was analyzed the capacity of generic and specific equations obtained from different locations in Mexico and Brazil, to estimate aboveground biomass at multi-species levels and for four different species. Generic equations developed in Mexico and Brazil performed better in estimating tree biomass for multi-species data. For Poincianella bracteosa and Mimosa ophthalmocentra, only the Sampaio and Silva (2005) generic equation was the most recommended. These equations indicate lower tendency and lower bias, and biomass estimates for these equations are similar. For the species Mimosa tenuiflora, Aspidosperma pyrifolium and for the genus Croton the specific regional equations are more recommended, although the generic equation of Sampaio and Silva (2005) is not discarded for biomass estimates. Models considering gender, families, successional groups, climatic variables and wood specific gravity should be adjusted, tested and the resulting equations should be validated at both local and regional levels as well as on the scales of tropics with dry forest dominance.

  12. The tadpole of Scinax melanodactylus (Lourenço, Luna & Pombal Jr, 2014) (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Abreu, Rafael Oliveira De; Napoli, Marcelo Felgueiras; Trevisan, Camila Costa; Camardelli, Milena; Dória, Thais Andrade Ferreira; Silva, Lucas Menezes

    2015-07-06

    Scinax melanodactylus is a small treefrog distributed within the Tropical Atlantic morphoclimatic domain (see Ab'Sáber 1977 for South American morphoclimatic domains), from northern Espírito Santo state to Sergipe state in Brazil (Lourenço et al. 2014). The species is usually found inhabiting herbaceous and shrubby xerophytic vegetation (e.g. terrestrial tank-bromeliads) from sandy plains of beach ridges known in Brazil as Restingas (see Rocha et al. 2007 for a Restinga definition), and also the edge of forest areas with temporary ponds and/or permanent lakes and streams near these environments (Bastazini et al. 2007, as Scinax agilis; Lourenço et al. 2014). Scinax melanodactylus is currently placed in the S. catharinae species group (Lourenço et al. 2014), which in turn is included in the S. catharinae clade (sensu Faivovich et al. 2005). The S. catharinae clade is currently comprised of 46 species, 33 placed in the catharinae group and 13 in the perpusillus group (Faivovich et al. 2010, Silva & Alves-da-Silva 2011, Lourenço et al. 2014, Frost 2015). From these, 32 species have tadpoles with external morphology and oral disc formerly described. Here, we describe the external morphology, oral disc and color patterns of the previously unknown tadpole of S. melanodactylus.

  13. A global comparison of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Arp, Alex; Munyaneza, Joseph E; Crosslin, James M; Trumble, John; Bextine, Blake

    2014-04-01

    The potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli Sulc) is an economically important insect pest of solanaceous crops such as potato, tomato, pepper, and tobacco. Historically, the potato psyllid's range included central United States, Mexico, and California; more recently, populations of this insect have been reported in Central America, the Pacific Northwest, and New Zealand. Like most phytophagous insects, potato psyllids require symbiotic bacteria to compensate for nutritional deficiencies in their diet. Potato psyllids harbor the primary symbiont, Candidatus Carsonella ruddii, and may also harbor many secondary symbionts such as Wolbachia sp., Sodalis sp., Pseudomonas sp., and others. These secondary symbionts can have an effect on reproduction, nutrition, immune response, and resistances to heat or pesticides. To identify regional differences in potato psyllid bacterial symbionts, 454 pyrosequencing was performed using generic 16S rRNA gene primers. Analysis was performed using the Qiime 1.6.0 software suite, ARB Silva, and R. Operational taxonomic units were then grouped at 97% identity. Representative sequences were classified to genus using the ARB SILVA database. Potato psyllids collected in California contained a less diverse microbial community than those collected in the central United States and Central America. The crop variety, collection year, and haplotype did not seem to affect the microbial community in potato psyllids. The primary difference between psyllids in different regions was the presence and overall bacterial community composition of Candidatus Carsonella ruddii and Wolbachia.

  14. soilphysics: An R package to determine soil preconsolidation pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Anderson Rodrigo; de Lima, Renato Paiva

    2015-11-01

    Preconsolidation pressure is a parameter obtained from the soil compression curve and has been used as an indicator of load-bearing capacity of soil, as well as to characterize the impacts suffered by the use of machines. Despite its importance in soil physics, there is a few software or computational routines to support its determination. In this paper we present a computational package in R language, the package soilphysics, which contains implementations of the main methods for determining preconsolidation pressure, such as the method of Casagrande, Pacheco Silva, regression methods and the method of the virgin compression line intercept. There is still a consensus that Casagrande is the standard method, although the method of Pacheco Silva has shown similar values. The method of the virgin compression line intercept can be used when trying to be more conservative on the value (smaller) of preconsolidation pressure. Furthermore, Casagrande could be replaced by a regression method when the compression curve is obtained from saturated soils. The theory behind each method is presented and the algorithms are thoroughly described. We also give some support on how to use the R functions. Examples are used to illustrate the capabilities of the package, and the results are briefly discussed. The latter were validated using a recently published VBA. With soilphysics, the user has all the graphical and statistical power of R to determine preconsolidation pressure using different methods. The package is distribution free (under the GPL-2|3) and is currently available from the Comprehensive R Archive Network.

  15. Phyllosphere Metaproteomes of Trees from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest Show High Levels of Functional Redundancy.

    PubMed

    Lambais, M R; Barrera, S E; Santos, E C; Crowley, D E; Jumpponen, A

    2017-01-01

    The phyllosphere of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest has been estimated to contain several million bacterial species that are associated with approximately 20000 plant species. Despite the high bacterial diversity in the phyllosphere, the function of these microorganisms and the mechanisms driving their community assembly are largely unknown. In this study, we characterized the bacterial communities in the phyllospheres of four tree species of the Atlantic Forest (Mollinedia schottiana, Ocotea dispersa, Ocotea teleiandra, and Tabebuia serratifolia) and their metaproteomes to examine the basic protein functional groups expressed in the phyllosphere. Bacterial community analyses using 16S rRNA gene sequencing confirmed prior observations that plant species harbor distinct bacterial communities and that plants of the same taxon have more similar communities than more distantly related taxa. Using LC-ESI-Q-TOF, we identified 216 nonredundant proteins, based on 3503 peptide mass spectra. Most protein families were shared among the phyllosphere communities, suggesting functional redundancy despite differences in the species compositions of the bacterial communities. Proteins involved in glycolysis and anaerobic carbohydrate metabolism, solute transport, protein metabolism, cell motility, stress and antioxidant responses, nitrogen metabolism, and iron homeostasis were among the most frequently detected. In contrast to prior studies on crop plants and Arabidopsis, a low abundance of OTUs related to Methylobacterium and no proteins associated with the metabolism of one-carbon molecules were detected in the phyllospheres of the tree species studied here. Our data suggest that even though the phyllosphere bacterial communities of different tree species are phylogenetically diverse, their metaproteomes are functionally convergent with respect to traits required for survival on leaf surfaces.

  16. [Vegetation diversity, composition and structure in a cattle agro-landscape of Matiguás, Nicaragua].

    PubMed

    Merlos, Dalia Sánchez; Harvey, Celia A; Grijalva, Alfredo; Medina, Arnulfo; Vílchez, Sergio; Hernández, Blas

    2005-01-01

    The diversity, composition and structure of vegetation in a cattle landscape in Matiguás, Nicaragua was characterized, and the floristic and structural differences of six types of habitats (secondary forests, riparian forests, charrales, live fences and pastures with high and low tree cover) were compared. A total of 3 949 trees of 180 species and 52 families were recorded. Forty six percent of the total trees reported for the landscape were represented by Guazuma ulmifolia (18.5%), Bursera simaruha (13.2%), Tabebuia rosea (6.3%), Enterolobium cyclocarpum (4.2%) and Albizia saman (3.4%). Many of the dominant species in the landscape were typical of open and disturbed areas. There were significant differences between the different habitats in the patterns of tree species richness, abundance, diversity, structure and floristic composition. The riparian forests had greater tree richness (p=0.0001) and diversity (p=0.0009) than other habitats. The floristic composition varied across habitats. with pairs of habitats sharing between 18.4 and 51.6% of the same tree species, and with clear differences in composition between the forested (riparian and secondary forests) and agricultural habitats. Of the habitats studied, the riparian forests and secondary forests seem to have greatest value for the conservation of the flora in the agropaisaje because they have the greatest species richness, and maintain small populations of endangered species. On the basis of the study, we recommend including agricultural landscapes in strategies to conserve tree diversity and suggest measures to ensure the maintenance of tree diversity in the Matiguas landscape.

  17. Growth of four tropical tree species in petroleum-contaminated soil and effects of crude oil contamination.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Hernández, I; Ochoa-Gaona, S; Adams, R H; Rivera-Cruz, M C; Pérez-Hernández, V; Jarquín-Sánchez, A; Geissen, V; Martínez-Zurimendi, P

    2017-01-01

    Under greenhouse conditions, we evaluated establishment of four tree species and their capacity to degrade crude oil recently incorporated into the soil; the species were as follows: Cedrela odorata (tropical cedar), Haematoxylum campechianum (tinto bush), Swietenia macrophylla (mahogany), and Tabebuia rosea (macuilis). Three-month-old plants were planted in soil with three treatments of heavy petroleum and a control (C0 0 mg kg -1 ; C1 18,000 mg kg -1 ; C2 31,700 mg kg -1 ; C3 47,100 mg kg -1 ) with four repetitions per treatment and species; the experiment was carried out for 245 days. Height and biomass of all species significantly diminished as petroleum concentration increased, although plant survival was not affected. The quantity of colony-forming units (CFU) of rhizospheric bacteria varied among tree species and treatments; petroleum stimulated bacterial CFU for S. macrophylla. The number of fungi CFU for S. macrophylla and T. rosea was significantly greater in C0 than in soil with petroleum, but among species and among different concentrations, no significant differences were found. The greatest percentage of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) degradation was found in C1 for soil without plants (45 %). Differences from the remaining treatments (petroleum concentrations in soil and plant species) were not significant (P < 0.05). Among all trees, H. campechianum had the greatest TPH degradation (32.5 % in C2). T. rosea (C1) and H. campechianum (C2) resulted in petroleum degradation at levels ranging from 20.5 to 32.5 %. On the basis of this experiment, the tree species used did not improve TPH degradation. However, all of them showed high rates of survival and vigor. So, as tree species provide goods and services, experiments with inoculation of hydrocarbonclastic microorganisms, addition of fertilizers, and mixture of tree and grasses are recommended.

  18. Two tropical conifers show strong growth and water-use efficiency responses to altered CO2 concentration

    PubMed Central

    Dalling, James W.; Cernusak, Lucas A.; Winter, Klaus; Aranda, Jorge; Garcia, Milton; Virgo, Aurelio; Cheesman, Alexander W.; Baresch, Andres; Jaramillo, Carlos; Turner, Benjamin L.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Conifers dominated wet lowland tropical forests 100 million years ago (MYA). With a few exceptions in the Podocarpaceae and Araucariaceae, conifers are now absent from this biome. This shift to angiosperm dominance also coincided with a large decline in atmospheric CO2 concentration (ca). We compared growth and physiological performance of two lowland tropical angiosperms and conifers at ca levels representing pre-industrial (280 ppm), ambient (400 ppm) and Eocene (800 ppm) conditions to explore how differences in ca affect the growth and water-use efficiency (WUE) of seedlings from these groups. Methods Two conifers (Araucaria heterophylla and Podocarpus guatemalensis) and two angiosperm trees (Tabebuia rosea and Chrysophyllum cainito) were grown in climate-controlled glasshouses in Panama. Growth, photosynthetic rates, nutrient uptake, and nutrient use and water-use efficiencies were measured. Key Results Podocarpus seedlings showed a stronger (66 %) increase in relative growth rate with increasing ca relative to Araucaria (19 %) and the angiosperms (no growth enhancement). The response of Podocarpus is consistent with expectations for species with conservative growth traits and low mesophyll diffusion conductance. While previous work has shown limited stomatal response of conifers to ca, we found that the two conifers had significantly greater increases in leaf and whole-plant WUE than the angiosperms, reflecting increased photosynthetic rate and reduced stomatal conductance. Foliar nitrogen isotope ratios (δ15N) and soil nitrate concentrations indicated a preference in Podocarpus for ammonium over nitrate, which may impact nitrogen uptake relative to nitrate assimilators under high ca. Significance Podocarps colonized tropical forests after angiosperms achieved dominance and are now restricted to infertile soils. Although limited to a single species, our data suggest that higher ca may have been favourable for podocarp colonization

  19. Snakebites and ethnobotany in the northwest region of Colombia. Part III: neutralization of the haemorrhagic effect of Bothrops atrox venom.

    PubMed

    Otero, R; Núñez, V; Barona, J; Fonnegra, R; Jiménez, S L; Osorio, R G; Saldarriaga, M; Díaz, A

    2000-11-01

    Thirty-one of 75 extracts of plants used by traditional healers for snakebites, had moderate or high neutralizing ability against the haemorrhagic effect of Bothrops atrox venom from Antioquia and Chocó, north-western Colombia. After preincubation of several doses of every extract (7.8-4000 microg/mouse) with six minimum haemorrhagic doses (10 microg) of venom, 12 of them demonstrated 100% neutralizing capacity when the mixture was i.d. injected into mice (18-20 g). These were the stem barks of Brownea rosademonte (Caesalpiniaceae) and Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae); the whole plants of Pleopeltis percussa (Polypodiaceae), Trichomanes elegans (Hymenophyllaceae) and Senna dariensis (Caesalpiniaceae); rhizomes of Heliconia curtispatha (Heliconiaceae); leaves and branches of Bixa orellana (Bixaceae), Philodendron tripartitum (Araceae), Struthanthus orbicularis (Loranthaceae) and Gonzalagunia panamensis (Rubiaceae); the ripe fruits of Citrus limon (Rutaceae); leaves, branches and stem of Ficus nymphaeifolia (Moraceae). Extracts of another 19 species showed moderate neutralization (21-72%) at doses up to 4 mg/mouse, e.g. the whole plants of Aristolochia grandiflora (Aristolochiaceae), Columnea kalbreyeriana (Gesneriaceae), Sida acuta (Malvaceae), Selaginella articulata (Selaginellaceae) and Pseudoelephantopus spicatus (Asteraceae); rhizomes of Renealmia alpinia (Zingiberaceae); the stem of Strychnos xinguensis (Loganiaceae); leaves, branches and stems of Hyptis capitata (Lamiaceae), Ipomoea cairica (Convolvulaceae), Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae), Ocimum micranthum (Lamiaceae), Piper pulchrum (Piperaceae), Siparuna thecaphora (Monimiaceae), Castilla elastica (Moraceae) and Allamanda cathartica (Apocynaceae); the macerated ripe fruits of Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae); the unripe fruits of Crescentia cujete (Bignoniaceae); leaves and branches of Piper arboreum (Piperaceae) and Passiflora quadrangularis (Passifloraceae). When the extracts were independently administered

  20. Demographical history and palaeodistribution modelling show range shift towards Amazon Basin for a Neotropical tree species in the LGM.

    PubMed

    Vitorino, Luciana Cristina; Lima-Ribeiro, Matheus S; Terribile, Levi Carina; Collevatti, Rosane G

    2016-10-13

    We studied the phylogeography and demographical history of Tabebuia serratifolia (Bignoniaceae) to understand the disjunct geographical distribution of South American seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs). We specifically tested if the multiple and isolated patches of SDTFs are current climatic relicts of a widespread and continuously distributed dry forest during the last glacial maximum (LGM), the so called South American dry forest refugia hypothesis, using ecological niche modelling (ENM) and statistical phylogeography. We sampled 235 individuals of T. serratifolia in 17 populations in Brazil and analysed the polymorphisms at three intergenic chloroplast regions and ITS nuclear ribosomal DNA. Coalescent analyses showed a demographical expansion at the last c. 130 ka (thousand years before present). Simulations and ENM also showed that the current spatial pattern of genetic diversity is most likely due to a scenario of range expansion and range shift towards the Amazon Basin during the colder and arid climatic conditions associated with the LGM, matching the expected for the South American dry forest refugia hypothesis, although contrasting to the Pleistocene Arc hypothesis. Populations in more stable areas or with higher suitability through time showed higher genetic diversity. Postglacial range shift towards the Southeast and Atlantic coast may have led to spatial genome assortment due to leading edge colonization as the species tracks suitable environments, leading to lower genetic diversity in populations at higher distance from the distribution centroid at 21 ka. Haplotype sharing or common ancestry among populations from Caatinga in Northeast Brazil, Atlantic Forest in Southeast and Cerrado biome and ENM evince the past connection among these biomes.

  1. Low Herbivory among Targeted Reforestation Sites in the Andean Highlands of Southern Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Marc-Oliver; Fiedler, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Insect herbivory constitutes an important constraint in the viability and management of targeted reforestation sites. Focusing on young experimental stands at about 2000 m elevation in southern Ecuador, we examined foliar damage over one season as a function of tree species and habitat. Native tree species (Successional hardwood: Cedrela montana and Tabebuia chrysantha; fast-growing pioneer: Heliocarpus americanus) have been planted among prevailing local landcover types (abandoned pasture, secondary shrub vegetation, and a Pinus patula plantation) in 2003/4. Plantation trees were compared to conspecifics in the spontaneous undergrowth of adjacent undisturbed rainforest matched for height and foliar volume. Specifically, we tested the hypotheses that H. americanus as a pioneer species suffers more herbivory compared to the two successional tree species, and that damage is inversely related to habitat complexity. Overall leaf damage caused by folivorous insects (excluding leafcutter ants) was low. Average leaf loss was highest among T. chrysantha (7.50% ± 0.19 SE of leaf area), followed by H. americanus (4.67% ± 0.18 SE) and C. montana (3.18% ± 0.15 SE). Contrary to expectations, leaf area loss was highest among trees in closed-canopy natural rainforest, followed by pine plantation, pasture, and secondary shrub sites. Harvesting activity of leafcutter ants (Acromyrmex sp.) was strongly biased towards T. chrysantha growing in open habitat (mean pasture: 2.5%; shrub: 10.5%) where it could result in considerable damage (> 90.0%). Insect folivory is unlikely to pose a barrier for reforestation in the tropical Andean mountain forest zone at present, but leafcutter ants may become problematic if local temperatures increase in the wake of global warming. PMID:26963395

  2. Entomofauna Associated with Agroforestry Systems of Timber Species and Cacao in the Southern Region of the Maracaibo Lake Basin (Mérida, Venezuela).

    PubMed

    Mazón, Marina; Sánchez-Angarita, Daniel; Díaz, Francisco A; Gutiérrez, Néstor; Jaimez, Ramón

    2018-04-20

    Agroforestry systems are environment-friendly production systems which help to preserve biodiversity while providing people with a way of earning a living. Cacao is a historically important crop in Venezuela that traditionally has been produced in agroforestry systems. However, few studies have evaluated how different trees used in those systems affect the dynamics and abundance of insects. The present study evaluated the entomofauna assemblages associated with different combinations of four timber-yielding trees and four Criollo cacao cultivars established in a lowland tropical ecosystem in Venezuela. A randomized block design with two replicates was used, each block having 16 plots which included all 16 possible combinations of four native timber trees ( Cordia thaisiana , Cedrela odorata , Swietenia macrophylla , and Tabebuia rosea ) and four Criollo cacao cultivars (Porcelana, Guasare, Lobatera and Criollo Merideño). Insects were collected with yellow pan traps and sorted to order. Coleoptera and parasitoid Hymenoptera were determined to the family level. In total, 49,538 individuals of seven orders were collected, with Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Hemiptera being the most abundant, although only Lepidoptera and Coleoptera abundances were significantly influenced by the timber tree species. Twenty-three families of parasitoid Hymenoptera and 26 of Coleoptera were found. Significant differences in insects’ assemblages were found both in parasitoid Hymenoptera and Coleoptera families associated to every shade tree, with the families Eulophidae and Lycidae being indicators for Cordia , and Chalcididae for Swietenia . The entomofauna relationship with the cacao cultivar was barely significant, although Scydmaenidae and Scarabaeidae were indicators for Lobatera and Merideño, respectively. No significant effects were found for interaction with cacao cultivars and native trees. We concluded that the particular insect assemblages found in Cedrela

  3. Low Herbivory among Targeted Reforestation Sites in the Andean Highlands of Southern Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Adams, Marc-Oliver; Fiedler, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Insect herbivory constitutes an important constraint in the viability and management of targeted reforestation sites. Focusing on young experimental stands at about 2000 m elevation in southern Ecuador, we examined foliar damage over one season as a function of tree species and habitat. Native tree species (Successional hardwood: Cedrela montana and Tabebuia chrysantha; fast-growing pioneer: Heliocarpus americanus) have been planted among prevailing local landcover types (abandoned pasture, secondary shrub vegetation, and a Pinus patula plantation) in 2003/4. Plantation trees were compared to conspecifics in the spontaneous undergrowth of adjacent undisturbed rainforest matched for height and foliar volume. Specifically, we tested the hypotheses that H. americanus as a pioneer species suffers more herbivory compared to the two successional tree species, and that damage is inversely related to habitat complexity. Overall leaf damage caused by folivorous insects (excluding leafcutter ants) was low. Average leaf loss was highest among T. chrysantha (7.50% ± 0.19 SE of leaf area), followed by H. americanus (4.67% ± 0.18 SE) and C. montana (3.18% ± 0.15 SE). Contrary to expectations, leaf area loss was highest among trees in closed-canopy natural rainforest, followed by pine plantation, pasture, and secondary shrub sites. Harvesting activity of leafcutter ants (Acromyrmex sp.) was strongly biased towards T. chrysantha growing in open habitat (mean pasture: 2.5%; shrub: 10.5%) where it could result in considerable damage (> 90.0%). Insect folivory is unlikely to pose a barrier for reforestation in the tropical Andean mountain forest zone at present, but leafcutter ants may become problematic if local temperatures increase in the wake of global warming.

  4. Potential gastroprotective effect of novel cyperenoic acid/quinone derivatives in human cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Theoduloz, Cristina; Carrión, Ivanna Bravo; Pertino, Mariano Walter; Valenzuela, Daniela; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2012-11-01

    The stem bark of Tabebuia species and the rhizomes of Jatropha isabelii are used in Paraguayan traditional medicine to treat gastric lesions and as anti-inflammatory agents. The sesquiterpene cyperenoic acid obtained from J. isabelii has been shown to display a gastroprotective effect in animal models of induced gastric ulcers while the quinone lapachol shows several biological effects associated with the use of the crude drug. The aim of this work was to prepare hybrid molecules presenting a terpene and a quinone moiety and to obtain an assessment of the gastroprotective activity of the new compounds using human cell cultures (MRC-5 fibroblasts and AGS epithelial gastric cells). Eight compounds, including the natural products and semisynthetic derivatives were assessed for proliferation of MRC-5 fibroblasts, protection against sodium taurocholate-induced damage, prostaglandin E2 content, and stimulation of cellular-reduced glutathione synthesis in AGS cells. The following antioxidant assays were performed: DPPH discoloration, scavenging of the superoxide anion, and inhibition of induced lipoperoxidation in erythrocyte membranes. 3-Hydroxy-β-lapachone (3) and cyperenoic acid (4) stimulated fibroblast proliferation. Lapachol (1), dihydroprenyl lapachol (2), 3-hydroxy-β-lapachone (3), and lapachoyl cyperenate (6) protected against sodium taurocholate-induced damage in AGS cells. Lapachol (1) and dihydroprenyl lapachoyl cyperenate (7) significantly stimulated prostaglandin E2 synthesis in AGS cells. Compounds 3, 4, and 7 raised reduced glutathione levels in AGS cells. The hybrid compounds presented activities different than those of the starting sesquiterpene or quinones. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Pragmatic criteria of the definition of neonatal near miss: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Kale, Pauline Lorena; Jorge, Maria Helena Prado de Mello; Laurenti, Ruy; Fonseca, Sandra Costa; Silva, Kátia Silveira da

    2017-12-04

    The objective of this study was to test the validity of the pragmatic criteria of the definitions of neonatal near miss, extending them throughout the infant period, and to estimate the indicators of perinatal care in public maternity hospitals. A cohort of live births from six maternity hospitals in the municipalities of São Paulo, Niterói, and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was carried out in 2011. We carried out interviews and checked prenatal cards and medical records. We compared the pragmatic criteria (birth weight, gestational age, and 5' Apgar score) of the definitions of near miss of Pileggi et al., Pileggi-Castro et al., Souza et al., and Silva et al. We calculated sensitivity, specificity (gold standard: infant mortality), percentage of deaths among newborns with life-threatening conditions, and rates of near miss, mortality, and severe outcomes per 1,000 live births. A total 7,315 newborns were analyzed (completeness of information > 99%). The sensitivity of the definition of Pileggi-Castro et al. was higher, resulting in a higher number of cases of near miss, Souza et al. presented lower value, and Pileggi et al. and de Silva et al. presented intermediate values. There is an increase in sensitivity when the period goes from 0-6 to 0-27 days, and there is a decrease when it goes to 0-364 days. Specificities were high (≥ 97%) and above sensitivities (54% to 77%). One maternity hospital in São Paulo and one in Niterói presented, respectively, the lowest and highest rates of infant mortality, near miss, and frequency of births with life-threatening conditions, regardless of the definition. The definitions of near miss based exclusively on pragmatic criteria are valid and can be used for monitoring purposes. Based on the perinatal literature, the cutoff points adopted by Silva et al. were more appropriate. Periodic studies could apply a more complete definition, incorporating clinical, laboratory, and management criteria, including congenital anomalies

  6. Pragmatic criteria of the definition of neonatal near miss: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Kale, Pauline Lorena; Jorge, Maria Helena Prado de Mello; Laurenti, Ruy; Fonseca, Sandra Costa; da Silva, Kátia Silveira

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to test the validity of the pragmatic criteria of the definitions of neonatal near miss, extending them throughout the infant period, and to estimate the indicators of perinatal care in public maternity hospitals. METHODS A cohort of live births from six maternity hospitals in the municipalities of São Paulo, Niterói, and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was carried out in 2011. We carried out interviews and checked prenatal cards and medical records. We compared the pragmatic criteria (birth weight, gestational age, and 5’ Apgar score) of the definitions of near miss of Pileggi et al., Pileggi-Castro et al., Souza et al., and Silva et al. We calculated sensitivity, specificity (gold standard: infant mortality), percentage of deaths among newborns with life-threatening conditions, and rates of near miss, mortality, and severe outcomes per 1,000 live births. RESULTS A total 7,315 newborns were analyzed (completeness of information > 99%). The sensitivity of the definition of Pileggi-Castro et al. was higher, resulting in a higher number of cases of near miss, Souza et al. presented lower value, and Pileggi et al. and de Silva et al. presented intermediate values. There is an increase in sensitivity when the period goes from 0–6 to 0–27 days, and there is a decrease when it goes to 0–364 days. Specificities were high (≥ 97%) and above sensitivities (54% to 77%). One maternity hospital in São Paulo and one in Niterói presented, respectively, the lowest and highest rates of infant mortality, near miss, and frequency of births with life-threatening conditions, regardless of the definition. CONCLUSIONS The definitions of near miss based exclusively on pragmatic criteria are valid and can be used for monitoring purposes. Based on the perinatal literature, the cutoff points adopted by Silva et al. were more appropriate. Periodic studies could apply a more complete definition, incorporating clinical, laboratory, and

  7. Coastal Hazard due to Tropical Cyclones in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva-Casarin, R.; Mendoza-Baldwin, E.; Marino-Tapia, I.; Enriquez, C.; Ruiz, G.; Escalante-MAncera, E.; Ruíz-Rentería, F.

    2013-05-01

    The Mexican coast is hit every year by at least 3 cyclones and it is affected for nearly 59 hours a year on average; this induces undesirable consequences, such as coastal erosion and flooding. To evaluate the hazard to which the coastal zone is exposes, a historical characterization of atmospheric conditions (surface winds and pressure conditions of the storms), waves (wave heights and their associated wave periods) and flooding levels due to tropical storms for more than 60 years is presented. The atmospheric and wave conditions were evaluated using a modification of the original parametric Hydromet-Rankin Vortex Model by Bretschneider (1990) and Holland (1980) as presented by Silva, et al. (2002). The flooding levels caused by hurricanes were estimated using a two-dimensional, vertically averaged finite volume model to evaluate the storm surge, Posada et al. (2008). The cyclone model was compared to the data series of 29 cyclones recorded by buoys of the National Data Buoy Center-NOAA and some data recorded in shallow waters near Cancun, Mexico and the flooding model was compared with observed data from Cancun, Mexico; both models gave good results. For the extreme analyses of wind, wave heights and maximum flooding levels on the Mexican coasts, maps of the scale and location parameters used in the Weibull cumulative distribution function and numerical results for different return periods are provided. The historical occurrence of tropical storms is also revised as some studies indicate that the average intensity of tropical cyclones is increasing; no definite trends pointing to an increase in storm frequency or intensity were found. What was in fact found is that although there are more cyclones in the Pacific Ocean and these persist longer, the intensity of the cyclones in the Atlantic Ocean is greater affecting. In any case, the strong necessity of avoiding storm induced coastal damage (erosion and flooding) is reflected in numerous works, such as this one

  8. A Comparison of Latent Heat Fluxes over Global Oceans for Four Flux Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Shu-Hsien; Nelkin, Eric; Ardizzone, Joe; Atlas, Robert M.

    2003-01-01

    To improve our understanding of global energy and water cycle variability, and to improve model simulations of climate variations, it is vital to have accurate latent heat fluxes (LHF) over global oceans. Monthly LHF, 10-m wind speed (U10m), 10-m specific humidity (Q10h), and sea-air humidity difference (Qs-Q10m) of GSSTF2 (version 2 Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes) over global Oceans during 1992-93 are compared with those of HOAPS (Hamburg Ocean Atmosphere Parameters and Fluxes from Satellite Data), NCEP (NCEP/NCAR reanalysis). The mean differences, standard deviations of differences, and temporal correlation of these monthly variables over global Oceans during 1992-93 between GSSTF2 and each of the three datasets are analyzed. The large-scale patterns of the 2yr-mean fields for these variables are similar among these four datasets, but significant quantitative differences are found. The temporal correlation is higher in the northern extratropics than in the south for all variables, with the contrast being especially large for da Silva as a result of more missing ship data in the south. The da Silva has extremely low temporal correlation and large differences with GSSTF2 for all variables in the southern extratropics, indicating that da Silva hardly produces a realistic variability in these variables. The NCEP has extremely low temporal correlation (0.27) and large spatial variations of differences with GSSTF2 for Qs-Q10m in the tropics, which causes the low correlation for LHF. Over the tropics, the HOAPS LHF is significantly smaller than GSSTF2 by approx. 31% (37 W/sq m), whereas the other two datasets are comparable to GSSTF2. This is because the HOAPS has systematically smaller LHF than GSSTF2 in space, while the other two datasets have very large spatial variations of large positive and negative LHF differences with GSSTF2 to cancel and to produce smaller regional-mean differences. Our analyses suggest that the GSSTF2 latent heat flux

  9. The quasi-biennial variation in the geomagnetic field: a global characteristics analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Jiaming; Du, Aimin

    2016-04-01

    The periodicity of 1.5-3 years, namely the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), has been identified in the solar, geophysical, and atmospheric variability. Sugiura (1976) investigated the observatory annual means over 1900-1970 and confirmed the QBO in the geomagnetic field. At present, studying the quasi-biennial oscillation becomes substantial for separating the internal/external parts in the geomagnetic observations. For the internal field, two typical periodicities, namely the 6-year oscillation in the geomagnetic secular acceleration (SA) and the geomagnetic jerk (occurs in 1-2 years), have close period to the QBO. Recently, a global quasi-biennial fluctuation was identified in the geomagnetic core field model (Silva et al., 2012). Silva et al. speculated this 2.5 years signal to either external source remaining in the core field model or consequence of the methods used to construct the model. As more high-quality data from global observatories are available, it is a good opportunity to characterize the geomagnetic QBO in the global range. In this paper, we investigate the QBO in the observatory monthly geomagnetic field X, Y, and Z components spanning 1985-2010. We employ the observatory hourly means database from the World Data Center for Geomagnetism (WDC) for the investigation. Wavelet analysis is used to detect and identify the QBO, while Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis to obtain the statistics of the QBO. We apply the spherical harmonic analysis on QBO's amplitude, in order to quantify and separate internal and external sources. Three salient periods respectively at 2.9, 2.2, and 1.7 years, are identified in the amplitude spectrum over 1988-2008. The oscillation with the period of ~2.2 years is most prominent in all field components and further studied. In the X component the QBO is attenuated towards the polar regions, while in the Z component the amplitude of QBO increases with increasing of the geomagnetic latitude. At the high latitudes, the QBO

  10. Medicinal Plants Used by Traditional Healers in Jordan, the Tafila Region

    PubMed Central

    Abdelhalim, Abeer; Aburjai, Talal; Hanrahan, Jane; Abdel-Halim, Heba

    2017-01-01

    Background: The reporting of the medicinal plants and their traditional uses is important in order to prevent this knowledge from being lost. The aims of this study were to collect information concerning the traditional use of medicinal plants in the region of Tafila; identify the most important medicinal plants; determine the relative importance of the species surveyed; and calculate the informant consensus factor (Fic) in relation to medicinal plant use. Materials and Methods: Data on the traditional medicinal uses of local plants were collected using qualitative tools. The informant consensus factor (Fic) for the category of aliments and the use value (UV) of the plant species were calculated. Results and Conclusions: The survey revealed that 41 plant species are still in use in Tafila for the treatments of various diseases. Problems of the digestive system had the highest Fic values, while Allium cepa L. and Matricaria aurea (Loefl.) Sch. Bip. scored the highest UV. SUMMARY The medicinal plants used by local people of the Tafila area of Jordan their traditional uses were investigated. forty one plant species are still in use in Tafila for the traditional treatment of various diseases. The preservation of this knowledge is important not only for maintaining cultural and traditional resources but also as a resource for the future identification of leads for drug development. The use of Fic and the UV to identify plant species that are consistently used in the treatment of specific ailments assists in narrowing down the search for new effective plant-derived medicines and in validating the use of traditional medicines. Data on the traditional medicinal uses of local plants was collected using qualitative tools. The informant consensus factor (Fic) for category of aliments and the use value (UV) of the plant species were calculated. in the Tafila region, the Fic values are relatively low, indicating a low level of shared knowledge and that a number of different

  11. Medicinal Plants Used by Traditional Healers in Jordan, the Tafila Region.

    PubMed

    Abdelhalim, Abeer; Aburjai, Talal; Hanrahan, Jane; Abdel-Halim, Heba

    2017-01-01

    The reporting of the medicinal plants and their traditional uses is important in order to prevent this knowledge from being lost. The aims of this study were to collect information concerning the traditional use of medicinal plants in the region of Tafila; identify the most important medicinal plants; determine the relative importance of the species surveyed; and calculate the informant consensus factor ( F ic ) in relation to medicinal plant use. Data on the traditional medicinal uses of local plants were collected using qualitative tools. The informant consensus factor ( F ic ) for the category of aliments and the use value (UV) of the plant species were calculated. The survey revealed that 41 plant species are still in use in Tafila for the treatments of various diseases. Problems of the digestive system had the highest F ic values, while Allium cepa L. and Matricaria aurea (Loefl.) Sch. Bip. scored the highest UV. The medicinal plants used by local people of the Tafila area of Jordan their traditional uses were investigated. forty one plant species are still in use in Tafila for the traditional treatment of various diseases. The preservation of this knowledge is important not only for maintaining cultural and traditional resources but also as a resource for the future identification of leads for drug development. The use of Fic and the UV to identify plant species that are consistently used in the treatment of specific ailments assists in narrowing down the search for new effective plant-derived medicines and in validating the use of traditional medicines. Data on the traditional medicinal uses of local plants was collected using qualitative tools. The informant consensus factor (Fic) for category of aliments and the use value (UV) of the plant species were calculated. in the Tafila region, the Fic values are relatively low, indicating a low level of shared knowledge and that a number of different species are used to treat similar disorders. This may be a

  12. The diversity of eukaryotic microbiota in the traditional Slovak sheep cheese--bryndza.

    PubMed

    Laurencík, M; Sulo, P; Sláviková, E; Piecková, E; Seman, M; Ebringer, L

    2008-09-30

    We investigated the occurrence and diversity of yeasts and filamentous fungi in bryndza an artisanal Slovak soft spreadable cheese prepared from raw sheep milk or from a mixture of sheep and cow milk. Samples collected during four months of the summer production period from two locations (northern and southern parts of central Slovakia) contained 10(5)-10(7) (cfu) yeasts and about 10(2) (cfu) of mold per gram of wet weight. Further characterization by conventional taxonomy and sequence comparison of D1/D2 region from 26S rRNA gene revealed Mucor circinelloides v. Tieghem as the predominant filamentous fungus. A novel Geotrichum sp. together with Kluyveromyces (K. lactis/K. marxianus) was identified as the most abundant yeast species. Occasionally other yeasts, such as Candida inconspicua, Candida silvae, Pichia fermentans and Trichosporon domesticum were found. Conventional taxonomy readily identified isolates to the genus level, but DNA sequence comparison was capable of discriminating them at the species level.

  13. Using Domain Requirements to Achieve Science-Oriented Provenance

    SciTech Connect

    Stephan, Eric G; Halter, Todd D; Critchlow, Terence J

    2010-06-18

    Using Domain Requirements to Achieve Science-Oriented Provenance Eric Stephan1 Todd Halter1 Terence Critchlow1 Paulo Pinheiro da Silva2 Leonardo Salayandia2 1 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA, USA 2 University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso TX, USA Abstract. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radi- ation Measurement Program (ARM) is adopting the use of formalized provenance to support observational data products produced by ARM operations and relied upon by researchers. Because of the diversity of needs in the climate community provenance will need to be conveyed in a domain-oriented context. This paper explores a use case where semanticmore » abstract workflows (SAW) are employed as a means to filter, aggregate, and contextually describe the historical events responsible for the ARM data product the scientist is relying upon.« less

  14. Directivity in NGA earthquake ground motions: Analysis using isochrone theory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spudich, P.; Chiou, B.S.J.

    2008-01-01

    We present correction factors that may be applied to the ground motion prediction relations of Abrahamson and Silva, Boore and Atkinson, Campbell and Bozorgnia, and Chiou and Youngs (all in this volume) to model the azimuthally varying distribution of the GMRotI50 component of ground motion (commonly called 'directivity') around earthquakes. Our correction factors may be used for planar or nonplanar faults having any dip or slip rake (faulting mechanism). Our correction factors predict directivity-induced variations of spectral acceleration that are roughly half of the strike-slip variations predicted by Somerville et al. (1997), and use of our factors reduces record-to-record sigma by about 2-20% at 5 sec or greater period. ?? 2008, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  15. How to Address a Global Problem with Earth Observations? Developing Best Practices to Monitor Forests Around the World

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flores Cordova, Africa I.; Cherrington, Emil A.; Vadrevu, Krishna; Thapa, Rajesh Bahadur; Odour, Phoebe; Mehmood, Hamid; Quyen, Nguyen Hanh; Saah, David; Yero, Kadidia; Mamane, Bako; hide

    2017-01-01

    Forests represent a key natural resource, for which degradation or disturbance is directly associated to economic implications, particularly in the context of the United Nations program REDD+ in supporting national policies to fight illegal deforestation. SERVIR, a joint NASA-USAID initiative that brings Earth observations (EO) for improved environmental decision making in developing countries, works with established institutions, called SERVIR hubs, in four regions around the world. SERVIR is partnering with global programs with great experience in providing best practices in forest monitoring systems, such as SilvaCarbon and the Global Forest Observation Initiative (GFOI), to develop a capacity building plan that prioritizes user needs. Representatives from the SERVIR global network met in February 2017 with experts in the field of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) for forest applications to envisage this capacity building plan that aims to leverage the state-of-the-art knowledge on remote sensing to enhance forest monitoring for user agencies in SERVIR regions.

  16. ['Negative' eugenics, psychiatry, and Catholicism: clashes over eugenic sterilization in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Wegner, Robert; Souza, Vanderlei Sebastião de

    2013-03-01

    The article analyzes the dialogue between eugenicist Renato Kehl and a group of Brazilian psychiatrists who turned their interest to so-called negative eugenics in the early 1930s. Enthused about research into eugenics and the application of eugenic methods in countries such as the United States and Germany, authors like Ernani Lopes, Ignácio da Cunha Lopes, Alberto Farani, and Antonio Carlos Pacheco e Silva blamed Catholicism for impeding Brazil from moving in a similar direction, especially the church's resistance to the sterilization of 'degenerates', which entered into effect in Germany in 1934. The article charts the various strategies these authors proposed for engaging in dialogue with the Catholic Church.

  17. Equation of State Measurements of Hydrogen and Deuterium up to 2 Mbar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, G. W.

    1997-07-01

    The high density and temperature equation of state of hydrogen is integral to many astrophysical and planetary models. We (This work was done in collaboration with L. B. DaSilva, P. Celliers, K. S. Budil, R. Cauble, D. Gold, N. C. Holmes, T. W. Barbee Jr, B. A. Hammel, J. D. Kilkenny, R. J. Wallace, R. Stewart, M. Ross, A. Ng and G. Chiu.) have used the Nova laser to produce uniform and steady shocks in H2 and D2 to probe this strongly-coupled region where molecular dissociation and electronic excitation occur. We present the pressure (from 0.25 to 2.1 Mbar) and density on the first Hugoniot, derived from shock speed, particle speed, and compression measurements of liquid H2 and D2. The data show a significant increase in compressibility near 1 Mbar compared to existing widely-used equation of state models.

  18. Sound velocities in shocked liquid D2 to 28 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, N. C.; Ross, M.; Nellis, W. J.

    1999-06-01

    Recent measurements of shock temperatures(N. C. Holmes, W. J. Nellis, and M. Ross, Phys. Rev.) B52, 15835 (1995). and laser-driven Hugoniot measurements(L. B. Da Silva, et al.), Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 483 (1997). of shocked liquid deuterium strongly indicate that molecular dissociation is important above 20 GPa. Since the amount of expected dissociation is small on the Hugoniot at the 30 GPa limit of conventional impact experiments, other methods must be used to test our understanding of the physics of highly compressed deuterium in this regime. We have recently performed experiments to measure the sound velocity of deuterium which test the isentropic compressibility, c^2 = (partial P/partial ρ)_S. We used the shock overtake method to measure sound velocities at several shock pressures between 10--28 GPa. These data provide support for recently developed molecular dissociation models.

  19. Animal bite injuries to the face : A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Simao, Niverso Rodrigues; Borba, Alexandre Meireles; da Silva, Andre Luis Fernandes; Vieira, Evanice Menezes Marcal; Carvalhosa, Artur Aburad; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho; Borges, Alvaro Henrique

    2013-08-01

    Traumatic lacerations to the skin are problems frequently seen and treated by emergency centers around the world. Among all wounds, dog and cat bites are commonly seen. As in many mammals, different species of microorganisms are found in dog and cat mouths with a potential pathological effect to humans, as represented by rabies. The injuries have disfiguration effect with possible psychological repercussion to the patient. This article aimed presenting up to date considerations regarding the management of animal bite injuries to the face, exemplified by a case report that should be the interest of all professions that deal with facial tissues, as dentists do. How to cite this article: Simao NR, Borba AM, da Silva ALF, Vieira EMM, Carvalhosa AA, Bandeca MC, Borges AH. Animal bite injuries to the face: A Case Report. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(4):68-72.

  20. Survivorship and growth of Fucus gardneri after transplant to an acid mine drainage-polluted area.

    PubMed

    Marsden, A Dale; DeWreede, Robert E; Levings, Colin D

    2003-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) from an abandoned copper mine at Britannia Beach, British Columbia, Canada, enters the marine environment through Britannia Creek. The surrounding intertidal zone is devoid of rockweed, Fucus gardneri Silva, a seaweed that dominates nearby shores. Rockweed plants were transplanted to the intertidal zone near Britannia Creek and monitored for changes in percent cover, survivorship, growth rate and Cu content. Autumn and winter transplants to within 100 m of Britannia Creek resulted in negative growth rates and high mortality within 57 days of exposure to AMD, with Cu levels in rockweed surpassing 2,300 ppm in dry tissue. Summer transplants to sites 300-700 m from Britannia Creek showed no consistent differences between AMD-exposed rockweed and control plants, possibly because the plants were stressed by desiccation. The results are consistent with ecological effects observed in other studies, and provide strong evidence for the role of AMD in excluding rockweed from the shores near Britannia Creek.

  1. Molecular logic gates: the past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Erbas-Cakmak, Sundus; Kolemen, Safacan; Sedgwick, Adam C; Gunnlaugsson, Thorfinnur; James, Tony D; Yoon, Juyoung; Akkaya, Engin U

    2018-04-03

    The field of molecular logic gates originated 25 years ago, when A. P. de Silva published a seminal article in Nature. Stimulated by this ground breaking research, scientists were inspired to join the race to simulate the workings of the fundamental components of integrated circuits using molecules. The rules of this game of mimicry were flexible, and have evolved and morphed over the years. This tutorial review takes a look back on and provides an overview of the birth and growth of the field of molecular logics. Spinning-off from chemosensor research, molecular logic gates quickly proved themselves to be more than intellectual exercises and are now poised for many potential practical applications. The ultimate goal of this vein of research became clearer only recently - to "boldly go where no silicon-based logic gate has gone before" and seek out a new deeper understanding of life inside tissues and cells.

  2. Data on kinetic, energy and emission performance of biodiesel from waste frying oil.

    PubMed

    Silva Filho, Silverio Catureba da; Miranda, Amanda Carvalho; Silva, Thadeu Alfredo Farias; Calarge, Felipe Araújo; Souza, Roberto Rodrigo de; Santana, José Carlos Curvelo; Tambourgi, Elias Basile

    2018-06-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article "Environmental and techno-economic considerations on biodiesel production from waste frying oil in São Paulo city" (Silva Filho et al., 2018) [1]. This article presents the variation of the concentration of waste frying oil (WFO) with the reaction time and temperature during the transesterification of WTOs collected in the residences and restaurants of the city of São Paulo. Then, the biodiesel samples were mixed with the S-10 diesel oil in order to obtain the B10, B20, B30, B40, B50, B75 and B100 blends, which were tested in a diesel engine and their power, fuel consumption and gas emissions (CO, CO 2 and SO 2 ) have been measured to verify their greenhouse effect and energy efficiency.

  3. Domain-domain interactions determine the gating, permeation, pharmacology, and subunit modulation of the IKs ion channel.

    PubMed

    Zaydman, Mark A; Kasimova, Marina A; McFarland, Kelli; Beller, Zachary; Hou, Panpan; Kinser, Holly E; Liang, Hongwu; Zhang, Guohui; Shi, Jingyi; Tarek, Mounir; Cui, Jianmin

    2014-12-23

    Voltage-gated ion channels generate electrical currents that control muscle contraction, encode neuronal information, and trigger hormonal release. Tissue-specific expression of accessory (β) subunits causes these channels to generate currents with distinct properties. In the heart, KCNQ1 voltage-gated potassium channels coassemble with KCNE1 β-subunits to generate the IKs current (Barhanin et al., 1996; Sanguinetti et al., 1996), an important current for maintenance of stable heart rhythms. KCNE1 significantly modulates the gating, permeation, and pharmacology of KCNQ1 (Wrobel et al., 2012; Sun et al., 2012; Abbott, 2014). These changes are essential for the physiological role of IKs (Silva and Rudy, 2005); however, after 18 years of study, no coherent mechanism explaining how KCNE1 affects KCNQ1 has emerged. Here we provide evidence of such a mechanism, whereby, KCNE1 alters the state-dependent interactions that functionally couple the voltage-sensing domains (VSDs) to the pore.

  4. Anomalous diffusion in the evolution of soccer championship scores: Real data, mean-field analysis, and an agent-based model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Roberto; Vainstein, Mendeli H.; Gonçalves, Sebastián; Paula, Felipe S. F.

    2013-08-01

    Statistics of soccer tournament scores based on the double round robin system of several countries are studied. Exploring the dynamics of team scoring during tournament seasons from recent years we find evidences of superdiffusion. A mean-field analysis results in a drift velocity equal to that of real data but in a different diffusion coefficient. Along with the analysis of real data we present the results of simulations of soccer tournaments obtained by an agent-based model which successfully describes the final scoring distribution [da Silva , Comput. Phys. Commun.CPHCBZ0010-465510.1016/j.cpc.2012.10.030 184, 661 (2013)]. Such model yields random walks of scores over time with the same anomalous diffusion as observed in real data.

  5. Records of Coendou ichillus (Rodentia, Erethizontidae) from the Lower Urubamba Region of Peru

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Tremaine; Lunde, Darrin; Zamora-Meza, Hugo Tomás; Carrasco-Rueda, Farah

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Coendou ichillus was first described in 2001 by Voss and da Silva, with a range from Amazonian Ecuador to Iquitos, Peru. Here, we describe an adult female Coendou ichillus specimen collected in a Tomahawk trap in the forest canopy of the Lower Urubamba Region of Peru in October 2013. We also describe pathologies and behaviors observed through 379 camera trapping photo events (2,196 photos) gathered in natural canopy bridges over the course of a year (7,198 trap nights), including information on activity period over the course of the day and over the course of the lunar cycle. We conservatively estimate that 17 individuals were photographed, including one juvenile. Being 900 km away from Iquitos, Peru (the site of the closest record), discovery of this species in the Lower Urubamba constitutes a significant range extension. PMID:26175605

  6. Description of Trichophoromyia uniniensis, a new phlebotomine species (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) of Amazonas State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ladeia-Andrade, Simone; Fé, Nelson Ferreira; Sanguinette, Cristiani de Castilho; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando

    2014-08-29

    A new species of phlebotomine sand flies belonging to Trichophoromyia Barretto, 1962 genus is described, based on males collected in Jaú National Park, Amazonas state, Brazil. The Sand flies were mounted in Canada balsam. They were measured with a binocular Olympus CH-2 microscope with the aid of a micrometer objective and the drawings were done with the help of a camera lucida. This new species named Trichophoromyia uniniensis sp. nov. is closely related to Trichophoromyia omagua (Martins, Llanos & Silva, 1976). The former can be distinguished from the latter by the shape of its paramere that has the lower apical region turned up in the new species. With the new species here described a total of 39 species belonging to the Trichophoromyia genus are now known, most of them present in the Amazon rainforest.

  7. Isolation of a New Natural Product and Cytotoxic and Antimicrobial Activities of Extracts from Fungi of Indonesian Marine Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Tarman, Kustiariyah; Lindequist, Ulrike; Wende, Kristian; Porzel, Andrea; Arnold, Norbert; Wessjohann, Ludger A.

    2011-01-01

    In the search for bioactive compounds, 11 fungal strains were isolated from Indonesian marine habitats. Ethyl acetate extracts of their culture broth were tested for cytotoxic activity against a urinary bladder carcinoma cell line and for antifungal and antibacterial activities against fish and human pathogenic bacteria as well as against plant and human pathogenic fungi. The crude extract of a sterile algicolous fungus (KT31), isolated from the red seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty ex P.C. Silva exhibited potent cytotoxic activity with an IC50 value of 1.5 μg/mL. Another fungal strain (KT29) displayed fungicidal properties against the plant pathogenic fungus Cladosporium cucumerinum Ell. et Arth. at 50 μg/spot. 2-Carboxy-8-methoxy-naphthalene-1-ol (1) could be isolated as a new natural product. PMID:21556160

  8. Gauge Field Localization on Deformed Branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tofighi, A.; Moazzen, M.; Farokhtabar, A.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we utilise the Chumbes-Holf da Silva-Hott (CHH) mechanism to investigate the issue of gauge field localization on a deformed brane constructed with one scalar field, which can be coupled to gravity minimally or non-minimally. The study of deformed defects is important because they contain internal structures which may have implications in braneworld models. With the CHH mechanism, we find that the massless zero mode of gauge field, in the case of minimal or non-minimal coupling is localized on the brane. Moreover, in the case of non-minimal coupling, it is shown that, when the non-minimal coupling constant is larger than its critical value, then the zero mode is localized on each sub brane.

  9. Biophotonics for Biofuel Upgradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Gopinath; Mandal, Tanusri

    2017-12-01

    Experimental studies have been made to find out Cyanobacterias' biophotonical response in gaseous-fuelation and carbon dioxide fixation during photo-anaerobic digestion. A new horizontal type photo-bioreactor has been designed by using environment hazard plastic bottles and it works ideally for anoxygenic cyanobacterial growth. Through `V3-metagenomics' of 16S rRNA gene sequencing by paired-end Illumina MiSeq and downstream analysis by QIIME program, we have identified anaerobic cyanobacteria, represent the orders YS2 and Streptophyta. OTUs have been identified by aligning against Greengenes and Silva databases, separately. The flame temperature of the fuel gas is 860°C and the percent-content of carbon dioxide (CO2) is 17.6%.

  10. (Surface engineering by high energy beams)

    SciTech Connect

    McHargue, C.J.

    1989-10-23

    A paper entitled Structure-Mechanical Property relationships in Ion-Implanted Ceramics'' was presented at the 2nd International Seminar on Surface Engineering by High Energy Beams in Lisbon, Portugal. This seminar was sponsored by the International Federation of Heat Treatment and Surface Engineering and included discussions on surface modifications using laser, electron, and ion beams. The visit to the University of Lisbon and LNETI-Sacavem included discussions regarding collaborative research in which Professor J.C. Soares and Dr. M.F. da Silva would conduct perturbed angular correlation (PAC) studies on ion-implanted samples supplied by the traveler. The collaboration between researchers at ORNL and the University Claudemore » Bernard-Lyon 1 (France) continues. Data were analyzed during this visit, plans for further experiments were developed, and a paper was drafted for publication.« less

  11. Saturnispora bothae sp. nov., isolated from rotting wood.

    PubMed

    Morais, Camila G; Lara, Carla A; Borelli, Beatriz M; Cadete, Raquel M; Moreira, Juliana D; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2016-10-01

    Two strains representing a novel species of the genus Saturnispora were isolated from rotting wood samples collected in an Atlantic Rainforest site in Brazil. Analyses of the sequences of the D1/D2 domains of the rRNA gene showed that this novel species belongs to a subclade in the Saturnispora clade formed by Saturnispora sanitii, Saturnispora sekii, Saturnispora silvae and Saturnisporasuwanaritii. The novel species differed in D1/D2 sequences by 60 or more nucleotide substitutions from these species. The strains produced asci with one to four hemispherical ascospores. A novel species named Saturnispora bothae sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate these isolates. The type strain is UFMG-CM-Y292T (=CBS 13484T). The MycoBank number is MB 817127.

  12. PREFACE: DISCRETE 2012 - Third Symposium on Prospects in the Physics of Discrete Symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branco, G. C.; Emmanuel-Costa, D.; González Felipe, R.; Joaquim, F. R.; Lavoura, L.; Palomares-Ruiz, S.; Rebelo, M. N.; Romão, J. C.; Silva, J. P.

    2013-07-01

    Romão, J P Silva and J I Silva-Marcos International Advisory CommitteeLocal Organising Committee Francisco del Águila (Granada)From CFTP Jose Bernabéu (Valencia) Francisco Botella (Valencia)G C Branco Andrzej Buras (Munich)D Emmanuel-Costa Marcos Cerrada (Madrid)R González Felipe Pierluigi Campana (CERN)F R Joaquim Antonio Di Domenico (Rome)L Lavoura John Ellis (CERN)S Palomares-Ruiz Fernando Ferroni (Rome)M N Rebelo Luis Garrido (Barcelona)J C Romão Marcello Giorgi (Pisa)J P Silva Neville Harnew (Oxford)J I Silva-Marcos Maria José Herrero (Madrid) David Hitlin (Caltech)From LIP Gino Isidori (Frascati) Guido Martinelli (Rome)G Barreira Antonio Masiero (Padua)J Varela Nickolaos Mavromatos (London) Vasiliki Mitsou (Valencia) Hitoshi Murayama (Berkeley) Tatsuya Nakada (Lausanne) Antonio Pich (Valencia) Apostolos Pilaftsis (Manchester) Stefan Pokorski (Warsaw) Fabio Zwirner (Padua) Secretariat Dulce Conceição Sandra Oliveira Cláudia Romão discrete2012@cftp.ist.utl.pt http://indico.cern.ch/event/discrete2012 Sponsors CFTP - Centro de Física Teórica de Partículas LIP - Laboratório de Instrumentação e Física Experimental de Partículas IST - Instituto Superior Técnico FCT - Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia Group picture The PDF also contains the conference poster and a list of participants.

  13. A new species of Hepatozoon Miller, 1908 (Apicomplexa: Adelerina) from the snake Philodryas nattereri Steindachner (Squamata: Dipsadidae) in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Borges-Nojosa, Diva M; Borges-Leite, M Juliana; Maia, João P; Zanchi-Silva, Djan; da Rocha Braga, Roberta; Harris, D James

    2017-01-01

    Based on both unique morphological characteristics of the gamont, distinct changes caused to the host erythrocyte and analysis of partial 18S rRNA gene sequences, a new parasite of the genus Hepatozoon Miller, 1908 is described from the snake Philodryas nattereri Steindachner (Squamata: Dipsadidae) in northeastern Brazil. The new species, Hepatozoon musa n. sp., is characterized by large and curved mature gamonts (18.9 ± 0.9 μm in length and 3.8 ± 0.3 μm in width) that considerably engorge infected host erythrocytes and displace the nucleus laterally, which become longer and thinner. Phylogenetic estimates indicate the new species is more closely related to the recently described Hepatozoon cuestensis O'Dwyer, Moço, Paduan, Spenassatto, Silva & Ribolla, 2013, from Brazilian rattlesnakes. These recent findings highlight the need for further studies of Hepatozoon to better determine the biodiversity of this common but poorly-studied parasite group.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Slug analysis of star clusters in NGC 628 & 7793 (Krumholz+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumholz, M. R.; Adamo, A.; Fumagalli, M.; Wofford, A.; Calzetti, D.; Lee, J. C.; Whitmore, B. C.; Bright, S. N.; Grasha, K.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Kim, H.; Nair, P.; Ryon, J. E.; Smith, L. J.; Thilker, D.; Ubeda, L.; Zackrisson, E.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we use slug, the Stochastically Lighting Up Galaxies code (da Silva et al. 2012ApJ...745..145D, 2014MNRAS.444.3275D; Krumholz et al. 2015MNRAS.452.1447K), and its post-processing tool for analysis of star cluster properties, cluster_slug, to analyze an initial sample of clusters from the LEGUS (Calzetti et al. 2015AJ....149...51C). A description of the steps required to produce final cluster catalogs of the Legacy Extragalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) targets can be found in Calzetti et al. (2015AJ....149...51C), and in A. Adamo et al. (2015, in preparation). LEGUS is an HST Cycle 21 Treasury program that is imaging 50 nearby galaxies in five broadbands with the WFC3/UVIS, from the NUV to the I band. (1 data file).

  15. [Categorization of uterine cervix tumors : What's new in the 2014 WHO classification].

    PubMed

    Lax, S F; Horn, L-C; Löning, T

    2016-11-01

    In the 2014 WHO classification, squamous cell precursor lesions are classified as low-grade and high-grade intraepithelial lesions. LSIL corresponds to CIN1, HSIL includes CIN2 and CIN3. Only adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) is accepted as precursor of adenocarcinoma and includes the stratified mucin-producing intraepithelial lesion (SMILE). Although relatively rare, adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma can be mixed with a poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma. Most cervical adenocarcinomas are low grade and of endocervical type. Mucinous carcinomas show marked intra- and extracellular mucin production. Almost all squamous cell carcinomas, the vast majority of adenocarcinomas, and many rare carcinoma types are HPV related. For low grade endocervical adenocarcinomas, the pattern-based classification according to Silva should be reported. Neuroendocrine tumors are rare and are classified into low-grade and high-grade, whereby the term carcinoid is still used.

  16. Produccion Gaseosa del Cometa Halley: Erupciones Y Fotodisociacion del Radical OH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, A. M.; Mirabel, I. F.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN:En este trabajo informamos la detecci6n de 20 erupciones en la li'nea de =18cm (1667MHz) del radical OH en el Cometa Halley.Las observaciones incluyen todos los monitoreos existentes y se extienden desde 120 dias antes del perihelio hasta 90 dias despues.Se detectan bruscos crecimientos en el flujo medido,hasta un factor 1O,seguidos por decaimientos lentos asociados con la fotodisociaci6n del OH. Se obtuvieron valores para el tiempo de vida fotoquimico del OH y del H2O basandose en el modelo desarrollado previamente por Silva(1988). Esos tiempos de vida estan de acuerdo con predicciones teoricas y con las observaciones en el Ultravioleta, y los resultados, los que son fuertemente dependientes de la velocidad heliocentrica del Coineta (variando hasta un factor 6), han sido calculados para varios rangos de velocidad entre +28 y -28 km/seg. Key wo'L :

  17. [Variations on the "scientific culture" in four Brazilian authors].

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Marina Assis; Oliveira, Bernardo Jefferson de

    2015-01-01

    The concept of "scientific culture" varies historically, and the examination of its continuities and transformations can help us understand the relationship between the scientific community and society. The views on the role of science in society go far beyond the advancement of a particular form of knowledge and its possible or promising fruit. They involve values, postures and practices to be disseminated and reveal expectations of social and cultural advancement. This article discusses four expressive visions of different moments in Brazilian history. The formulations of four influential authors in scientific and educational policies of the country at different times are presented and analyzed: Miguel Ozorio de Almeida, Anísio Teixeira, Maurício Rocha e Silva and Carlos Vogt.

  18. Outage management and health physics issue, 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2009-05-15

    The focus of the May-June issue is on outage management and health physics. Major articles include the following: Planning and scheduling to minimize refueling outage, by Pat McKenna, AmerenUE; Prioritizing safety, quality and schedule, by Tom Sharkey, Dominion; Benchmarking to high standards, by Margie Jepson, Energy Nuclear; Benchmarking against U.S. standards, by Magnox North, United Kingdom; Enabling suppliers for new build activity, by Marcus Harrington, GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy; Identifying, cultivating and qualifying suppliers, by Thomas E. Silva, AREVA NP; Creating new U.S. jobs, by Francois Martineau, Areva NP. Industry innovation articles include: MSL Acoustic source load reduction, by Amirmore » Shahkarami, Exelon Nuclear; Dual Methodology NDE of CRDM nozzles, by Michael Stark, Dominion Nuclear; and Electronic circuit board testing, by James Amundsen, FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company. The plant profile article is titled The future is now, by Julia Milstead, Progress Energy Service Company, LLC.« less

  19. Morphological and anatomical evidence support a new wild cassava: Manihot fallax (Crotonoideae, Euphorbiaceae), from Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Marcos José; Inocencio, Laís de Souza; Sodré, Rodolfo Carneiro; Alonso, Alexandre Antonio

    2017-01-01

    During the preparation of the taxonomic treatment of Manihot in the Midwest Region of Brazil, a new species was found. Manihot fallax M.J. Silva & L.S. Inocencio is described, illustrated and morphologically compared with similar simple-leaved species. The conservation status, geographic distribution (including map), ecology, phenology and notes about leaf anatomy of the new species are given. The synonymisation of M. robusta M. Mend. & T. B. Cavalc. under M. attenuata Müll. Arg. and lectotypes for M. attenuata and M. brachystachys Pax & K. Hoffm are also proposed. An emended description of M. attenuata is proposed as the original description is incomplete as it lacks information on the pistillate flowers, fruits and seeds.

  20. [In times of racialization: the case of the 'health of the black population' in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Maio, Marcos Chor; Monteiro, Simone

    2005-01-01

    The article analyzes initiatives aimed at creating a field of reflection and political intervention called the 'health of the black population,' which occurred between 1996 and 2004, that is, under the administration of Fernando Henrique Cardoso and part of Luis Inácio Lula da Silva's administration. During this period, the process of discussing and enacting affirmative action policies in Brazil gained greater visibility, especially following the UN-sponsored Third World Conference on Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia, and Related Intolerance (Durban, South Africa, September, 2001). The article describes the emergence of a proposal of compensatory policy within the Brazilian public health system. It then addresses the contemporary debate on race and health, especially the U.S. biomedical literature, and explores how this discussion has been appropriated by agencies and agents concerned with drawing up a 'racial policy' for the public health sector in Brazil.

  1. Optimal Control of Malaria Transmission using Insecticide Treated Nets and Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athina, D.; Bakhtiar, T.; Jaharuddin

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we consider a model of the transmission of malaria which was developed by Silva and Torres equipped with two control variables, namely the use of insecticide treated nets (ITN) to reduce the number of human beings infected and spraying to reduce the number of mosquitoes. Pontryagin maximum principle was applied to derive the differential equation system as optimality conditions which must be satisfied by optimal control variables. The Mangasarian sufficiency theorem shows that Pontryagin maximum principle is necessary as well as sufficient conditions for optimization problem. The 4th-order Runge Kutta method was then performed to solve the differential equations system. The numerical results show that both controls given at once can reduce the number of infected individuals as well as the number of mosquitoes which reduce the impact of malaria transmission.

  2. Bruit généré par un écoulement turbulent affleurant une cavité à faible nombre de Mach : application aux césures de portes automobiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Silva, Arthur; Kribèche, Ali; Loredo, Alexandre

    2009-02-01

    Noise produced by turbulent grazing flow over a generic cavity representing car door cavities was measured in a semi-anechoic wind tunnel. Two cavities were studied: one 50 mm large (dimension perpendicular to the airflow), functioning as a Helmholtz resonator, reaching sound pressure levels of 136 dB at 1776 Hz, for a downstream velocity of 54 m/s. The other, of scale 250 mm could not be regarded as a Helmholtz resonator although resonance occurred at 1902 Hz, at a level of 125 dB, for the same velocity. In both cases, noise was caused by Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities in the mixing layer. To cite this article: A. Da Silva et al., C. R. Mecanique 337 (2009).

  3. Records of Coendouichillus (Rodentia, Erethizontidae) from the Lower Urubamba Region of Peru.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Tremaine; Lunde, Darrin; Zamora-Meza, Hugo Tomás; Carrasco-Rueda, Farah

    2015-01-01

    Coendouichillus was first described in 2001 by Voss and da Silva, with a range from Amazonian Ecuador to Iquitos, Peru. Here, we describe an adult female Coendouichillus specimen collected in a Tomahawk trap in the forest canopy of the Lower Urubamba Region of Peru in October 2013. We also describe pathologies and behaviors observed through 379 camera trapping photo events (2,196 photos) gathered in natural canopy bridges over the course of a year (7,198 trap nights), including information on activity period over the course of the day and over the course of the lunar cycle. We conservatively estimate that 17 individuals were photographed, including one juvenile. Being 900 km away from Iquitos, Peru (the site of the closest record), discovery of this species in the Lower Urubamba constitutes a significant range extension.

  4. Madness and crime: Zefinha, the longest confined woman in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Debora; Brito, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    Living in a forensic hospital for the last 38 years, Josefa da Silva is the longest female inhabitant surviving the penal and psychiatric regime in Brazil. This paper analyses dossier, judicial proceedings, interviews and photographs about her. The psychiatric report is the key component of the medical and penal doubling of criminal insanity. Twelve psychiatric reports illustrate three time frames of the court files: abnormality, danger, and abandonment. The psychiatric authority over confinement has moved from discipline to security, and from disciplinary security to social assistance. In the arrangement between the penal and psychiatric powers, the judge recognizes the medical authority over the truth of insanity. It is the medicine of the reasons for Zefinha's internment that altered over the decades.

  5. Animal bite injuries to the face : A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Simao, Niverso Rodrigues; Borba, Alexandre Meireles; da Silva, Andre Luis Fernandes; Vieira, Evanice Menezes Marcal; Carvalhosa, Artur Aburad; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho; Borges, Alvaro Henrique

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic lacerations to the skin are problems frequently seen and treated by emergency centers around the world. Among all wounds, dog and cat bites are commonly seen. As in many mammals, different species of microorganisms are found in dog and cat mouths with a potential pathological effect to humans, as represented by rabies. The injuries have disfiguration effect with possible psychological repercussion to the patient. This article aimed presenting up to date considerations regarding the management of animal bite injuries to the face, exemplified by a case report that should be the interest of all professions that deal with facial tissues, as dentists do. How to cite this article: Simao NR, Borba AM, da Silva ALF, Vieira EMM, Carvalhosa AA, Bandeca MC, Borges AH. Animal bite injuries to the face: A Case Report. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(4):68-72. PMID:24155623

  6. Response to L. Land comment on Bricker, Rice, Bricker (2014) From Headwaters to Coast: Influence of human activities on water quality of the Potomac River Estuary. Aquatic Geochemistry 20: 291-324

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bricker, Suzanne B.; Rice, Karen C.; Bricker, III

    2014-01-01

    Overabundance of nutrients is considered one of the top challenges to most populated coastal water bodies, including Chesapeake Bay (Executive Order 13508). As scientists, one of our responsibilities is to contribute to the discussion and evaluation of management actions that have the potential to decrease pollution with concomitant improvement of water quality. Results of our science should inform the legislative process for public policy. Bricker et al. (2014) consider the use of shellfish (i.e., oysters) to remediate nutrient pollution in the Potomac River Estuary (PRE), a tributary to Chesapeake Bay. This concept, termed bioextraction, has generated interest around the globe and has shown promise as a nutrient-removal method in other estuaries and with other shellfish species (Lindahl et al. 2005; Ferreira et al. 2009; Shumway 2011; Silva et al. 2011; Carmichael et al. 2012; Pollack et al. 2013; Rose et al. 2014).

  7. Polynomial solution of quantum Grassmann matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tierz, Miguel

    2017-05-01

    We study a model of quantum mechanical fermions with matrix-like index structure (with indices N and L) and quartic interactions, recently introduced by Anninos and Silva. We compute the partition function exactly with q-deformed orthogonal polynomials (Stieltjes-Wigert polynomials), for different values of L and arbitrary N. From the explicit evaluation of the thermal partition function, the energy levels and degeneracies are determined. For a given L, the number of states of different energy is quadratic in N, which implies an exponential degeneracy of the energy levels. We also show that at high-temperature we have a Gaussian matrix model, which implies a symmetry that swaps N and L, together with a Wick rotation of the spectral parameter. In this limit, we also write the partition function, for generic L and N, in terms of a single generalized Hermite polynomial.

  8. Communication: A new class of non-empirical explicit density functionals on the third rung of Jacob's ladder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Silva, Piotr; Corminboeuf, Clémence

    2015-09-01

    We construct an orbital-free non-empirical meta-generalized gradient approximation (GGA) functional, which depends explicitly on density through the density overlap regions indicator [P. de Silva and C. Corminboeuf, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 10, 3745 (2014)]. The functional does not depend on either the kinetic energy density or the density Laplacian; therefore, it opens a new class of meta-GGA functionals. By construction, our meta-GGA yields exact exchange and correlation energy for the hydrogen atom and recovers the second order gradient expansion for exchange in the slowly varying limit. We show that for molecular systems, overall performance is better than non-empirical GGAs. For atomization energies, performance is on par with revTPSS, without any dependence on Kohn-Sham orbitals.

  9. Non-extensive quantum statistics with particle-hole symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biró, T. S.; Shen, K. M.; Zhang, B. W.

    2015-06-01

    Based on Tsallis entropy (1988) and the corresponding deformed exponential function, generalized distribution functions for bosons and fermions have been used since a while Teweldeberhan et al. (2003) and Silva et al. (2010). However, aiming at a non-extensive quantum statistics further requirements arise from the symmetric handling of particles and holes (excitations above and below the Fermi level). Naive replacements of the exponential function or "cut and paste" solutions fail to satisfy this symmetry and to be smooth at the Fermi level at the same time. We solve this problem by a general ansatz dividing the deformed exponential to odd and even terms and demonstrate that how earlier suggestions, like the κ- and q-exponential behave in this respect.

  10. Morphological and anatomical evidence support a new wild cassava: Manihot fallax (Crotonoideae, Euphorbiaceae), from Mato Grosso, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Marcos José; Inocencio, Laís de Souza; Sodré, Rodolfo Carneiro; Alonso, Alexandre Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Abstract During the preparation of the taxonomic treatment of Manihot in the Midwest Region of Brazil, a new species was found. Manihot fallax M.J. Silva & L.S. Inocencio is described, illustrated and morphologically compared with similar simple-leaved species. The conservation status, geographic distribution (including map), ecology, phenology and notes about leaf anatomy of the new species are given. The synonymisation of M. robusta M. Mend. & T. B. Cavalc. under M. attenuata Müll. Arg. and lectotypes for M. attenuata and M. brachystachys Pax & K. Hoffm are also proposed. An emended description of M. attenuata is proposed as the original description is incomplete as it lacks information on the pistillate flowers, fruits and seeds. PMID:29362549

  11. Nonextensivity at the Circum-Pacific subduction zones-Preliminary studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherrer, T. M.; França, G. S.; Silva, R.; de Freitas, D. B.; Vilar, C. S.

    2015-05-01

    Following the fragment-asperity interaction model introduced by Sotolongo-Costa and Posadas (2004) and revised by Silva et al. (2006), we try to explain the nonextensive effect in the context of the asperity model designed by Lay and Kanamori (1981). To address this issue, we used data from the NEIC catalog in the decade between 2001 and 2010, in order to investigate the so-called Circum-Pacific subduction zones. We propose a geophysical explanation to nonextensive parameter q. The results need further investigation however evidence of correlation between the nonextensive parameter and the asperity model is shown, i.e., we show that q-value is higher for areas with larger asperities and stronger coupling.

  12. Skyscape Archaeology: an emerging interdiscipline for archaeoastronomers and archaeologists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henty, Liz

    2016-02-01

    For historical reasons archaeoastronomy and archaeology differ in their approach to prehistoric monuments and this has created a divide between the disciplines which adopt seemingly incompatible methodologies. The reasons behind the impasse will be explored to show how these different approaches gave rise to their respective methods. Archaeology investigations tend to concentrate on single site analysis whereas archaeoastronomical surveys tend to be data driven from the examination of a large number of similar sets. A comparison will be made between traditional archaeoastronomical data gathering and an emerging methodology which looks at sites on a small scale and combines archaeology and astronomy. Silva's recent research in Portugal and this author's survey in Scotland have explored this methodology and termed it skyscape archaeology. This paper argues that this type of phenomenological skyscape archaeology offers an alternative to large scale statistical studies which analyse astronomical data obtained from a large number of superficially similar archaeological sites.

  13. Nosographic analysis of osmophobia and field testing of diagnostic criteria including osmophobia.

    PubMed

    Chalmer, Mona Ameri; Hansen, Thomas Folkmann; Olesen, Jes

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Osmophobia has been suggested as an additional symptom of migraine without aura, and a high prevalence of osmophobia of up to 50% has been reported in the literature. We conducted a nosographic study of osmophobia in all migraineurs and tension-type headache patients and a field testing of suggested diagnostic criteria of osmophobia, presented in the appendix of the second edition of The International Classification of Headache Disorders and suggested by Silva-Néto et al. and Wang et al ., in migraine without aura and tension-type headache patients (n = 1934). Materials and methods Each patient received a validated semi-structured interview. All subjects fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of the second edition of The International Classification of Headache Disorders for migraine or tension-type headache. Statistical analyses were performed using statistical software R. The statistical R package "Caret" was used to construct a confusion matrix and retrieve sensitivity, which is defined as the suggested criteria's ability to correctly diagnose migraine without aura patients, and specificity, defined as the suggested criteria's ability to not wrongly diagnose tension-type headache patients. Results Osmophobia was present in 33.5% of patients with migraine with aura, in 36.0% of patients with migraine without aura, and in 1.2% of patients with tension-type headache. All migraineurs with osmophobia also fulfilled the current criteria for migraine by having nausea or photophobia and phonophobia. The appendix criteria had a sensitivity of 0.96 and a specificity of 0.99 for migraine without aura, and a sensitivity of 0.65 and a specificity of 0.99 for probable migraine without aura. Both the criteria by Silva-Néto et al. and Wang et al. had a sensitivity of 0.98 and a specificity of 0.99 for migraine without aura, and a sensitivity of 0.66 and a specificity of 0.99 for probable migraine without aura. Discussion This study demonstrates the remarkable

  14. Near infrared leaf reflectance modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    Near infrared leaf reflectance modeling using Fresnel's equation (Kumar and Silva, 1973) and Snell's Law successfully approximated the spectral curve for a 0.25-mm turgid oak leaf lying on a Halon background. Calculations were made for ten interfaces, air-wax, wax-cellulose, cellulose-water, cellulose-air, air-water, and their inverses. A water path of 0.5 mm yielded acceptable results, and it was found that assignment of more weight to those interfaces involving air versus water or cellulose, and less to those involving wax, decreased the standard deviation of the error for all wavelengths. Data suggest that the air-cell interface is not the only important contributor to the overall reflectance of a leaf. Results also argue against the assertion that the near infrared plateau is a function of cell structure within the leaf.

  15. Nutrient and mineral composition during shoot growth in seven species of Phyllostachys and Pseudosasa bamboo consumed by giant panda.

    PubMed

    Christian, A L; Knott, K K; Vance, C K; Falcone, J F; Bauer, L L; Fahey, G C; Willard, S; Kouba, A J

    2015-12-01

    During the annual period of bamboo shoot growth in spring, free-ranging giant pandas feed almost exclusively on the shoots while ignoring the leaves and full- height culm. Little is known about the nutritional changes that occur during bamboo shoot growth, if nutritional changes differ among species, or how these changes might influence forage selection. Our objective was to examine the nutrient and mineral composition during three phases of shoot growth (<60, 90-150 and >180 cm) for seven species of bamboo (Phyllostachys (P.) aurea, P. aureosulcata, P. bissetii, P. glauca, P. nuda, P. rubromarginata, Pseudosasa japonica) fed to captive giant pandas at the Memphis Zoo. Total dietary fiber content of bamboo shoots increased (p < 0.0001) from an overall species average of 61% dry matter (DM) at < 60 cm to 75% DM at shoot heights > 180 cm, while crude protein, fat and ash exhibited significant declines (p < 0.05). Phyllostachys nuda had the overall greatest (p = 0.007) crude protein (21% DM) and fat (4% DM) content, and lowest overall total fibre (61% DM) content compared to the other species examined. In contrast, Pseudosasa japonica had the overall lowest crude protein and fat, and relatively higher fibre content (9%, 3% and 74% respectively). Concentrations of Zn and Fe were highest in shoots <60 cm (10-50 μg/g DM) and decreased (p < 0.05) during growth in all species examined. Concentrations of Ca, Cu, Mn, Na and K varied among species and were largely unaffected by growth stage. Due to their higher concentrations of nutrients and lower fibre content in comparison to culm and leaf, bamboo shoots should be a major component of captive giant panda diets when available. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Study of cytotoxic activity, podophyllotoxin, and deoxypodophyllotoxin content in selected Juniperus species cultivated in Poland.

    PubMed

    Och, Marek; Och, Anna; Cieśla, Łukasz; Kubrak, Tomasz; Pecio, Łukasz; Stochmal, Anna; Kocki, Janusz; Bogucka-Kocka, Anna

    2015-06-01

    The demand for podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin is still increasing and commercially exploitable sources are few and one of them, Podophyllum hexandrum Royle (Berberidaceae), is a "critically endangered" species. The first aim was to quantify the amount of podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin in 61 Juniperus (Cupressaceae) samples. Cytotoxic activity of podophyllotoxin and ethanolic leaf extracts of Juniperus scopulorum Sarg. "Blue Pacific" and Juniperus communis L. "Depressa Aurea" was examined against different leukemia cell lines. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) analysis was performed with the use of a Waters ACQUITY UPLC(TM) system (Waters Corp., Milford, MA). The peaks of podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin were assigned on the basis of their retention data and mass-to-charge ratio (m/z). Trypan blue assay was performed to obtain IC50 cytotoxicity values against selected leukemia cell lines. Juniperus scopulorum was characterized with the highest level of podophyllotoxin (486.7 mg/100 g DW) while Juniperus davurica Pall. contained the highest amount of deoxypodophyllotoxin (726.8 mg/100 g DW). Podophyllotoxin IC50 cytotoxicity values against J45.01 and CEM/C1 leukemia cell lines were 0.0040 and 0.0286 µg/mL, respectively. Juniperus scopulorum extract examined against J45.01 and HL-60/MX2 leukemia cell lines gave the respective IC50 values: 0.369-9.225 µg/mL. Juniperus communis extract was characterized with the following IC50 cytotoxity values against J45.01 and U-266B1 cell lines: 3.310-24.825 µg/mL. Juniperus sp. can be considered as an alternative source of podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin. Cytotoxic activity of podophyllotoxin and selected leaf extracts of Juniperus sp. against a set of leukemia cell lines was demonstrated.

  17. Knocking on Heaven's Door: Are Novel Invaders Necessarily Facing Naïve Native Species on Islands?

    PubMed

    Gérard, Agathe; Jourdan, Hervé; Millon, Alexandre; Vidal, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The impact of alien predator species on insular native biota has often been attributed to island prey naïveté (i.e. lack of, or inefficient, anti-predator behavior). Only rarely, however, has the concept of island prey naïveté been tested, and then only a posteriori (i.e. hundreds or thousands of years after alien species introduction). The presence of native or anciently introduced predators or competitors may be crucial for the recognition and development of adaptive behavior toward unknown predators or competitors of the same archetype (i.e. a set of species that occupy a similar ecological niche and show similar morphological and behavioral traits when interacting with other species). Here, we tested whether two squamates endemic to New Caledonia, a skink, Caledoniscincus austrocaledonicus, and a gecko, Bavayia septuiclavis, recognized and responded to the odor of two major invaders introduced into the Pacific islands, but not yet into New Caledonia. We chose one predator, the small Indian mongoose Herpestes javanicus and one competitor, the cane toad Rhinella marina, which belong respectively to the same archetype as the following two species already introduced into New Caledonia in the nineteenth century: the feral cat Felis catus and the golden bell frog Litoria aurea. Our experiment reveals that geckos are naïve with respect to the odors of both an unknown predator and an unknown competitor, as well as to the odors of a predator and a competitor they have lived with for centuries. In contrast, skinks seem to have lost some naïveté regarding the odor of a predator they have lived with for centuries and seem "predisposed" to avoid the odor of an unknown potential competitor. These results indicate that insular species living in contact with invasive alien species for centuries may be, although not systematically, predisposed toward developing adaptive behavior with respect to species belonging to the same archetype and introduced into their native

  18. Phenological changes in bamboo carbohydrates explain the preference for culm over leaves by giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) during spring.

    PubMed

    Knott, Katrina K; Christian, Amelia L; Falcone, Josephine F; Vance, Carrie K; Bauer, Laura L; Fahey, George C; Kouba, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    Seasonal changes in the foodscape force herbivores to select different plant species or plant parts to meet nutritional requirements. We examined whether the search for calorie-rich carbohydrates explained giant panda's selection for bamboo culm over leaves during spring. Leaves and culms were collected from four Phyllostachys bamboos (P. aurea, P. aureosulcata, P. glauca, and P. nuda) once per month over 18-27 months. Monthly changes in annual plant part nutrients were examined, and compared to seasonal foraging behaviors of captive giant pandas. Although total fiber was greater (p<0.0001) in culm (85.6 ± 0.5%) than leaves (55.3 ± 0.4%) throughout the year, culm fiber was at its lowest in spring (79-85%) when culm selection by giant pandas exceeded 70% of their overall diet. Culm starch also was greatest (p = 0.044) during spring (5.5 ± 1.1%) and 2.5-fold the percentage of starch in leaves (2.2 ± 0.6%). The free sugars in spring culm consisted of a high proportion of glucose (35%) and fructose (47%), whereas sucrose made up 42% of the total free sugar content of spring leaves. Bound sugars in culm consisted of 60% glucose and 38% xylose likely representative of hemicellulose. The concentrations of bound sugars (hemicelluloses) in spring culms (543.7 ± 13.0 mg/g) was greater (p<0.001) than in leaves (373.0 ± 14.8 mg/g). These data help explain a long-standing question in giant panda foraging ecology: why consume the plant part with the lowest protein and fat during the energetically intensive spring breeding season? Giant pandas likely prefer spring culm that contains abundant mono- and polysaccharides made more bioavailable as a result of reduced fiber content. These data suggest that phenological changes in bamboo plant part nutrition drive foraging decisions by giant pandas.

  19. Using publicly available data to quantify plant–pollinator interactions and evaluate conservation seeding mixes in the Northern Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otto, Clint R.; O'Dell, Samuel; Bryant, R. B.; Euliss, Ned H. Jr.; Bush, Rachel; Smart, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Concern over declining pollinators has led to multiple conservation initiatives for improving forage for bees in agroecosystems. Using data available through the Pollinator Library (npwrc.usgs.gov/pollinator/), we summarize plant–pollinator interaction data collected from 2012–2015 on lands managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and private lands enrolled in U.S. Department of Agriculture conservation programs in eastern North Dakota (ND). Furthermore, we demonstrate how plant–pollinator interaction data from the Pollinator Library and seed cost information can be used to evaluate hypothetical seeding mixes for pollinator habitat enhancements. We summarize records of 314 wild bee and 849 honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) interactions detected on 63 different plant species. The wild bee observations consisted of 46 species, 15 genera, and 5 families. Over 54% of all wild bee observations were represented by three genera―Bombus, Lassioglossum, and Melissodes. The most commonly visited forbs by wild bees were Monarda fistulosa, Sonchus arvensis, and Zizia aurea. The most commonly visited forbs by A. mellifera were Cirsium arvense, Melilotus officinalis, and Medicago sativa. Among all interactions, 13% of A. mellifera and 77% of wild bee observations were made on plants native to ND. Our seed mix evaluation shows that mixes may often need to be tailored to meet the unique needs of wild bees and managed honey bees in agricultural landscapes. Our evaluation also demonstrates the importance of incorporating both biologic and economic information when attempting to design cost-effective seeding mixes for supporting pollinators in a critically important part of the United States.

  20. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by people in Zegie Peninsula, Northwestern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Teklehaymanot, Tilahun; Giday, Mirutse

    2007-01-01

    An ethnobotanical study was conducted from October 2005 to June 2006 to investigate the uses of medicinal plants by people in Zegie Peninsula, northwestern Ethiopia. Information was gathered from 200 people: 70 female and 130 males, using semistructured questionnaire. Of which, six were male local healers. The informants, except the healers, were selected randomly and no appointment was made prior to the visits. Informant consensus factor (ICF) for category of aliments and the fidelity level (FL) of the medicinal plants were determined. Sixty-seven medicinal plants used as a cure for 52 aliments were documented. They are distributed across 42 families and 64 genera. The most frequently utilized plant part was the underground part (root/rhizome/bulb) (42%). The largest number of remedies was used to treat gastrointestinal disorder and parasites infections (22.8%) followed by external injuries and parasites infections (22.1%). The administration routes are oral (51.4%), external (38.6%), nasal (7.9%), and ear (2.1%). The medicinal plants that were presumed to be effective in treating a certain category of disease, such as 'mich' and febrile diseases (0.80) had higher ICF values. This probably indicates a high incidence of these types of diseases in the region, possibly due to the poor socio-economic and sanitary conditions of this people. The medicinal plants that are widely used by the local people or used as a remedy for a specific aliment have higher FL values (Carissa spinarum, Clausena anisata, Acokanthera schimperi, Calpurnia aurea, Ficus thonningii, and Cyphostemma junceum) than those that are less popular or used to treat more than one type of aliments (Plumbago zeylanicum, Dorstenia barnimiana). PMID:17355645

  1. Phenological changes in bamboo carbohydrates explain the preference for culm over leaves by giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) during spring

    PubMed Central

    Knott, Katrina K.; Christian, Amelia L.; Falcone, Josephine F.; Vance, Carrie K.; Bauer, Laura L.; Fahey, George C.; Kouba, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    Seasonal changes in the foodscape force herbivores to select different plant species or plant parts to meet nutritional requirements. We examined whether the search for calorie-rich carbohydrates explained giant panda’s selection for bamboo culm over leaves during spring. Leaves and culms were collected from four Phyllostachys bamboos (P. aurea, P. aureosulcata, P. glauca, and P. nuda) once per month over 18–27 months. Monthly changes in annual plant part nutrients were examined, and compared to seasonal foraging behaviors of captive giant pandas. Although total fiber was greater (p<0.0001) in culm (85.6 ± 0.5%) than leaves (55.3 ± 0.4%) throughout the year, culm fiber was at its lowest in spring (79–85%) when culm selection by giant pandas exceeded 70% of their overall diet. Culm starch also was greatest (p = 0.044) during spring (5.5 ± 1.1%) and 2.5-fold the percentage of starch in leaves (2.2 ± 0.6%). The free sugars in spring culm consisted of a high proportion of glucose (35%) and fructose (47%), whereas sucrose made up 42% of the total free sugar content of spring leaves. Bound sugars in culm consisted of 60% glucose and 38% xylose likely representative of hemicellulose. The concentrations of bound sugars (hemicelluloses) in spring culms (543.7 ± 13.0 mg/g) was greater (p<0.001) than in leaves (373.0 ± 14.8 mg/g). These data help explain a long-standing question in giant panda foraging ecology: why consume the plant part with the lowest protein and fat during the energetically intensive spring breeding season? Giant pandas likely prefer spring culm that contains abundant mono- and polysaccharides made more bioavailable as a result of reduced fiber content. These data suggest that phenological changes in bamboo plant part nutrition drive foraging decisions by giant pandas. PMID:28614359

  2. Food composition and feeding habits of some fresh water fishes in various water systems at Abbassa, Egypt, with special reference to snails transmitting diseases.

    PubMed

    El Gamal, Abd El-Rahman A; Ismail, Nahed M M

    2005-08-01

    Study of feeding habits of freshwater fishes collected from ponds at World Fish Center (ICLARM) showed that the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus and Forskal catfish, Bagras bayad had the highest proportion of full stomachs (31-58% & 44-45% respectively). In cichlid fishes, the rate of full stomachs was much lower, being 0.0-12.5% and showed higher incidence of empty stomachs that varied from 37.5% for Oreochromis niloticus to 78.3% for Sarotherodon galilaeus. Food items were analyzed by the percentage of point assessment (P%), abundance (N%) and frequency of occurrence (F%). Results of the three methods of analyses (Index of relative importance, I.R.I) emphasized the importance of plants (1214.7) as a major food resource in the stomach of Nile tilapia, O. niloticus followed by shell fragments (628.5), whereas, snail soft bodies were the main food category in the diet of hybrid tilapia O. niloticus x O. aureus (2539.3). Shell fragments (652) and snail soft bodies (296.9) were the 1st in relative importance as foods of O. aurea. In case of S. galillae, shell fragments (338) came 2nd in I.R.I. after plants (559). Present investigation shows that shell fragments were represented by 11.1% and 15.1% in the diet of African catfish, C. gariepinus by (N%) and (P%) methods, however, they came as the second food item in its diet by I.R.I (1237.3). According to F% method, both shell fragments and Crustacea were present in the diet of C. gariepinus considerable proportions each of 47.4%. Shell fragments were represented by low proportions in the diet of B. bayad 3.9, 2.1 and 22.2 by N%, P% and F% respectively.

  3. Thermal tolerance affects mutualist attendance in an ant-plant protection mutualism

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Ginny; Lanan, Michele C.; Bronstein, Judith L.

    2014-01-01

    Mutualism is an often-complex interaction among multiple species, each of which may respond differently to abiotic conditions. The effects of temperature on the formation, dissolution, and success of these and other species interactions remain poorly understood. We studied the thermal ecology of the mutualism between the cactus Ferocactus wislizeni and its ant defenders (Forelius pruinosus, Crematogaster opuntiae, Solenopsis aurea, and Solenopsis xyloni) in the Sonoran Desert, USA. The ants are attracted to extrafloral nectar produced by the plants and in exchange protect the plants from herbivores; there is a hierarchy of mutualist effectiveness based on aggression toward herbivores. We determined the relationship between temperature and ant activity on plants, the thermal tolerance of each ant species, and ant activity in relation to the thermal environment of plants. Temperature played a role in determining which species interact as mutualists. Three of the four ant species abandoned the plants during the hottest part of the day (up to 40°C), returning when surface temperature began to decrease in the afternoon. The least effective ant mutualist, F. pruinosus, had a significantly higher critical thermal maximum than the other three species, was active across the entire range of plant surface temperatures observed (13.8-57.0°C), and visited plants that reached the highest temperatures. F. pruinosus occupied some plants full-time and invaded plants occupied by more dominant species when those species were thermally excluded. Combining data on thermal tolerance and mutualist effectiveness provides a potentially powerful tool for predicting the effects of temperature on mutualisms and mutualistic species. PMID:25012597

  4. Seedling growth strategies in Bauhinia species: comparing lianas and trees.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhi-Quan; Poorter, Lourens; Cao, Kun-Fang; Bongers, Frans

    2007-10-01

    Lianas are expected to differ from trees in their growth strategies. As a result these two groups of woody species will have different spatial distributions: lianas are more common in high light environments. This study determines the differences in growth patterns, biomass allocation and leaf traits in five closely related liana and tree species of the genus Bauhinia. Seedlings of two light-demanding lianas (Bauhinia tenuiflora and B. claviflora), one shade-tolerant liana (B. aurea), and two light-demanding trees (B. purpurea and B. monandra) were grown in a shadehouse at 25% of full sunlight. A range of physiological, morphological and biomass parameters at the leaf and whole plant level were compared among these five species. The two light-demanding liana species had higher relative growth rate (RGR), allocated more biomass to leaf production [higher leaf mass fraction (LMF) and higher leaf area ratio (LAR)] and stem mass fraction (SMF), and less biomass to the roots [root mass fraction (RMF)] than the two tree species. The shade-tolerant liana had the lowest RGR of all five species, and had a higher RMF, lower SMF and similar LMF than the two light-demanding liana species. The two light-demanding lianas had lower photosynthetic rates per unit area (A(area)) and similar photosynthetic rates per unit mass (A(mass)) than the trees. Across species, RGR was positively related to SLA, but not to LAR and A(area). It is concluded that the faster growth of light-demanding lianas compared with light-demanding trees is based on morphological parameters (SLA, LMF and LAR), and cannot be attributed to higher photosynthetic rates at the leaf level. The shade-tolerant liana exhibited a slow-growth strategy, compared with the light-demanding species.

  5. Effects of pond salinization on survival rate of amphibian hosts infected with the chytrid fungus.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, Michelle Pirrie; Storrie, Lachlan James; Pollard, Carla Jean; Clulow, John; Mahony, Michael Joseph

    2015-04-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has been implicated in the decline and extinction of amphibian populations worldwide, but management options are limited. Recent studies show that sodium chloride (NaCl) has fungicidal properties that reduce the mortality rates of infected hosts in captivity. We investigated whether similar results can be obtained by adding salt to water bodies in the field. We increased the salinity of 8 water bodies to 2 or 4 ppt and left an additional 4 water bodies with close to 0 ppt and monitored salinity for 18 months. Captively bred tadpoles of green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea) were released into each water body and their development, levels of B. dendrobatidis infection, and survival were monitored at 1, 4, and 12 months. The effect of salt on the abundance of nontarget organisms was also investigated in before and after style analyses. Salinities remained constant over time with little intervention. Hosts in water bodies with 4 ppt salt had a significantly lower prevalence of chytrid infection and higher survival, following metamorphosis, than hosts in 0 ppt salt. Tadpoles in the 4 ppt group were smaller in length after 1 month in the release site than those in the 0 and 2 ppt groups, but after metamorphosis body size in all water bodies was similar . In water bodies with 4 ppt salt, the abundance of dwarf tree frogs (Litoria fallax), dragonfly larvae, and damselfly larvae was lower than in water bodies with 0 and 2 ppt salt, which could have knock-on effects for community structure. Based on our results, salt may be an effective field-based B. dendrobatidis mitigation tool for lentic amphibians that could contribute to the conservation of numerous susceptible species. However, as in all conservation efforts, these benefits need to be weighed against negative effects on both target and nontarget organisms. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Using Publicly Available Data to Quantify Plant-Pollinator Interactions and Evaluate Conservation Seeding Mixes in the Northern Great Plains.

    PubMed

    Otto, C R V; O'Dell, S; Bryant, R B; Euliss, N H; Bush, R M; Smart, M D

    2017-06-01

    Concern over declining pollinators has led to multiple conservation initiatives for improving forage for bees in agroecosystems. Using data available through the Pollinator Library (npwrc.usgs.gov/pollinator/), we summarize plant-pollinator interaction data collected from 2012-2015 on lands managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and private lands enrolled in U.S. Department of Agriculture conservation programs in eastern North Dakota (ND). Furthermore, we demonstrate how plant-pollinator interaction data from the Pollinator Library and seed cost information can be used to evaluate hypothetical seeding mixes for pollinator habitat enhancements. We summarize records of 314 wild bee and 849 honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) interactions detected on 63 different plant species. The wild bee observations consisted of 46 species, 15 genera, and 5 families. Over 54% of all wild bee observations were represented by three genera-Bombus, Lassioglossum, and Melissodes. The most commonly visited forbs by wild bees were Monarda fistulosa, Sonchus arvensis, and Zizia aurea. The most commonly visited forbs by A. mellifera were Cirsium arvense, Melilotus officinalis, and Medicago sativa. Among all interactions, 13% of A. mellifera and 77% of wild bee observations were made on plants native to ND. Our seed mix evaluation shows that mixes may often need to be tailored to meet the unique needs of wild bees and managed honey bees in agricultural landscapes. Our evaluation also demonstrates the importance of incorporating both biologic and economic information when attempting to design cost-effective seeding mixes for supporting pollinators in a critically important part of the United States. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  7. Comparative genomic analysis of Genlisea (corkscrew plants—Lentibulariaceae) chloroplast genomes reveals an increasing loss of the ndh genes

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Saura R.; Michael, Todd P.; Meer, Elliott J.; Pinheiro, Daniel G.; Miranda, Vitor F. O.

    2018-01-01

    In the carnivorous plant family Lentibulariaceae, all three genome compartments (nuclear, chloroplast, and mitochondria) have some of the highest rates of nucleotide substitutions across angiosperms. While the genera Genlisea and Utricularia have the smallest known flowering plant nuclear genomes, the chloroplast genomes (cpDNA) are mostly structurally conserved except for deletion and/or pseudogenization of the NAD(P)H-dehydrogenase complex (ndh) genes known to be involved in stress conditions of low light or CO2 concentrations. In order to determine how the cpDNA are changing, and to better understand the evolutionary history within the Genlisea genus, we sequenced, assembled and analyzed complete cpDNA from six species (G. aurea, G. filiformis, G. pygmaea, G. repens, G. tuberosa and G. violacea) together with the publicly available G. margaretae cpDNA. In general, the cpDNA structure among the analyzed Genlisea species is highly similar. However, we found that the plastidial ndh genes underwent a progressive process of degradation similar to the other terrestrial Lentibulariaceae cpDNA analyzed to date, but in contrast to the aquatic species. Contrary to current thinking that the terrestrial environment is a more stressful environment and thus requiring the ndh genes, we provide evidence that in the Lentibulariaceae the terrestrial forms have progressive loss while the aquatic forms have the eleven plastidial ndh genes intact. Therefore, the Lentibulariaceae system provides an important opportunity to understand the evolutionary forces that govern the transition to an aquatic environment and may provide insight into how plants manage water stress at a genome scale. PMID:29293597

  8. HYGIENE PRACTICES IN URBAN RESTAURANTS AND CHALLENGES TO IMPLEMENTING FOOD SAFETY AND HAZARD ANALYSIS CRITICAL CONTROL POINTS (HACCP) PROGRAMMES IN THIKA TOWN, KENYA.

    PubMed

    Muinde, R K; Kiinyukia, C; Rombo, G O; Muoki, M A

    2012-12-01

    To determine the microbial load in food, examination of safety measures and possibility of implementing an Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) system. The target population for this study consisted of restaurants owners in Thika. Municipality (n = 30). Simple randomsamples of restaurantswere selected on a systematic sampling method of microbial analysis in cooked, non-cooked, raw food and water sanitation in the selected restaurants. Two hundred and ninety eight restaurants within Thika Municipality were selected. Of these, 30 were sampled for microbiological testing. From the study, 221 (74%) of the restaurants were ready to eat establishments where food was prepared early enough to hold and only 77(26%) of the total restaurants, customers made an order of food they wanted. 118(63%) of the restaurant operators/staff had knowledge on quality control on food safety measures, 24 (8%) of the restaurants applied these knowledge while 256 (86%) of the restaurants staff showed that food contains ingredients that were hazard if poorly handled. 238 (80%) of the resultants used weighing and sorting of food materials, 45 (15%) used preservation methods and the rest used dry foods as critical control points on food safety measures. The study showed that there was need for implementation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) system to enhance food safety. Knowledge of HACCP was very low with 89 (30%) of the restaurants applying some of quality measures to the food production process systems. There was contamination with Coliforms, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus microbial though at very low level. The means of Coliforms, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureas microbial in sampled food were 9.7 x 103CFU/gm, 8.2 x 103 CFU/gm and 5.4 x 103 CFU/gm respectively with Coliforms taking the highest mean.

  9. A Suspected Parasite Spill-Back of Two Novel Myxidium spp. (Myxosporea) Causing Disease in Australian Endemic Frogs Found in the Invasive Cane Toad

    PubMed Central

    Hartigan, Ashlie; Fiala, Ivan; Dyková, Iva; Jirků, Miloslav; Okimoto, Ben; Rose, Karrie; Phalen, David N.; Šlapeta, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Infectious diseases are contributing to the decline of endangered amphibians. We identified myxosporean parasites, Myxidium spp. (Myxosporea: Myxozoa), in the brain and liver of declining native frogs, the Green and Golden Bell frog (Litoria aurea) and the Southern Bell frog (Litoria raniformis). We unequivocally identified two Myxidium spp. (both generalist) affecting Australian native frogs and the invasive Cane toad (Bufo marinus, syn. Rhinella marina) and demonstrated their association with disease. Our study tested the identity of Myxidium spp. within native frogs and the invasive Cane toad (brought to Australia in 1935, via Hawaii) to resolve the question whether the Cane toad introduced them to Australia. We showed that the Australian brain and liver Myxidium spp. differed 9%, 7%, 34% and 37% at the small subunit rDNA, large subunit rDNA, internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, but were distinct from Myxidium cf. immersum from Cane toads in Brazil. Plotting minimum within-group distance against maximum intra-group distance confirmed their independent evolutionary trajectory. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the brain stages localize inside axons. Myxospores were morphologically indistinguishable, therefore genetic characterisation was necessary to recognise these cryptic species. It is unlikely that the Cane toad brought the myxosporean parasites to Australia, because the parasites were not found in 261 Hawaiian Cane toads. Instead, these data support the enemy-release hypothesis predicting that not all parasites are translocated with their hosts and suggest that the Cane toad may have played an important spill-back role in their emergence and facilitated their dissemination. This work emphasizes the importance of accurate species identification of pathogens relevant to wildlife management and disease control. In our case it is paving the road for the spill-back role of the Cane toad and the parasite emergence. PMID:21541340

  10. DNA and Flavonoids Leach out from Active Nuclei of Taxus and Tsuga after Extreme Climate Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Feucht, Walter; Schmid, Markus; Treutter, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Severe over-stresses of climate caused dramatic changes in the intracellular distribution of the flavonoids. This was studied in needles from the current year’s growth of the following species and varieties: Tsuga canadensis, Taxus baccata, T. aurea, T. repens, T. nana, and T. compacta. The mode of steady changes in flavonoids was evaluated by microscopic techniques. Most of the flavonoids stain visibly yellow by themselves. The colorless flavanol subgroup can be stained blue by the DMACA reagent. In mid-summer 2013, outstanding high temperatures and intense photo-oxidative irradiation caused in a free-standing tree of Taxus baccata dramatic heat damage in a limited number of cells of the palisade layers. In these cells, the cytoplasm was burned brown. However, the nucleus maintained its healthy “blue” colored appearance which apparently was a result of antioxidant barrier effects by these flavanols. In late May 2014, excessive rainfall greatly affected all study trees. Collectively, in all study trees, a limited number of the mesophyll nuclei from the needless grown in 2013 and 2014 became overly turgid, enlarged in size and the flavanols leached outward through the damaged nuclear membranes. This diffusive stress event was followed one to three days later by a similar efflux of DNA. Such a complete dissolution of the nuclei in young tissues was the most spectacular phenomenon of the present study. As a common feature, leaching of both flavanols and DNA was markedly enhanced with increasing size and age of the cells. There is evidence that signalling flavonoids are sensitized to provide in nuclei and cytoplasm multiple mutual protective mechanisms. However, this well-orchestrated flavonoid system is broken down by extreme climate events. PMID:27135348

  11. Nematodes Associated with Fig Wasps, Pegoscapus spp. (Agaonidae), and Syconia of Native Floridian Figs (Ficus spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Giblin-Davis, Robin M.; Center, Barbara J.; Nadel, Hannah; Frank, J. Howard; Ramírez B., William

    1995-01-01

    Syconia in successive developmental phases from Ficus laevigata Vahl (F. citrifolia Miller sensu DeWolf 1960) (Moraceae) and successive life stages of its fig wasp pollinator, Pegoscapus sp. (P. assuetus (Grandi) sensu Wiebes 1983) (Agaonidae) were dissected to elucidate their association with two undescribed species of nematodes. Parasitodiplogazter sp. (Diplogasteridae) are transported by female Pegoscapus sp. into the cavity of a phase B syconium as third-stage juveniles (J3), where they molt to the J4 stage and greatly increase in size in the hemocoel of the fig wasp after it begins to pollinate and oviposit in female florets. The J4 exit the wasp cadaver in a phase B or early phase C syconium, and molt to adults that mate and lay eggs. New J3 infect the next generation of female or male wasps as they emerge from their galls in phase D figs. Mated entomogenous females of Schistonchus sp. (Aphelenchoididae) are transported in the hemocoel of female wasps to the fig cavity of a phase B syconium. Female Schistonchus sp. exit the wasp and parasitize immature male florets causing an exudate, the development of hypertrophied epidermal cells of the anther filaments and anthers, and aberrations of the anther filament, anthers, and pollen. At least one generation of Schistonchus sp. occurs in the male florets. Entomogenous females appear at about the time that fig wasps molt to adults in their galls in late phase C syconia. Another Schistonchus sp. was recovered from females of P. mexicanus (Ashmead) (P. jimenezi (Grandi) sensu Wiebes 1983) and from the syconia of F. aurea Nuttall and appears to have a life cycle similar to that described for the Schistonchus sp. from F. laevigata. PMID:19277255

  12. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by people in Zegie Peninsula, Northwestern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Teklehaymanot, Tilahun; Giday, Mirutse

    2007-03-14

    An ethnobotanical study was conducted from October 2005 to June 2006 to investigate the uses of medicinal plants by people in Zegie Peninsula, northwestern Ethiopia. Information was gathered from 200 people: 70 female and 130 males, using semistructured questionnaire. Of which, six were male local healers. The informants, except the healers, were selected randomly and no appointment was made prior to the visits. Informant consensus factor (ICF) for category of ailments and the fidelity level (FL) of the medicinal plants were determined. Sixty-seven medicinal plants used as a cure for 52 ailments were documented. They are distributed across 42 families and 64 genera. The most frequently utilized plant part was the underground part (root/rhizome/bulb) (42%). The largest number of remedies was used to treat gastrointestinal disorder and parasites infections (22.8%) followed by external injuries and parasites infections (22.1%). The administration routes are oral (51.4%), external (38.6%), nasal (7.9%), and ear (2.1%). The medicinal plants that were presumed to be effective in treating a certain category of disease, such as 'mich' and febrile diseases (0.80) had higher ICF values. This probably indicates a high incidence of these types of diseases in the region, possibly due to the poor socio-economic and sanitary conditions of this people. The medicinal plants that are widely used by the local people or used as a remedy for a specific ailment have higher FL values (Carissa spinarum, Clausena anisata, Acokanthera schimperi, Calpurnia aurea, Ficus thonningii, and Cyphostemma junceum) than those that are less popular or used to treat more than one type of ailments (Plumbago zeylanicum, Dorstenia barnimiana).

  13. Threatened fishes of the world: Moapa coriacea Hubbs and Miller, 1948 (cyprinidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scoppettone, G.G.; Goodchild, S.

    2009-01-01

    Moapa dace. Conservation status: Endangered (U.S. Department of the Interior 1967), Critically Endangered, IUCN (Gimenez 1996). Identification: Small embedded scales, narrow caudal peduncle and a bright black spot at the base of deeply forked tail. Pharyngeal teeth (0,5–4,0) hooked but with a grinding surface. Adults 50 to 120 mm total length. Drawing adapted from La Rivers (1962). Distribution: Endemic to the upper Muddy River system, Clark County, Nevada where the river originates from over 20 thermal springs. Prior to 1995 Moapa dace occupied 9.5 stream km including the upper Muddy River and spring-fed tributaries (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1995). Distribution has contracted to 2 km (unpublished data) since the 1995 invasion of blue tilapia, Oreochromis aurea. Abundance: In 1994 the population was about 3,800, but after tilapia invasion dropped below 1,600 (Scoppettone et al. 1998) where it has remained (unpublished data). Habitat and ecology: Omnivorous but tends toward carnivory. Feed primarily on drift in areas adjacent to fast water 26–32°C. Reproduction: Occurs year round in spring-fed tributaries to the Muddy River in water temperature of 30–32°C (Scoppettone et al. 1992). Threats: Nonnative species (Scoppettone 1993; Scoppettone et al. 1998) and ground-water pumping (Mayer and Congdon 2008). Conservation actions: Moapa Valley National Wildlife Refuge was established in the upper Muddy River for the protection and perpetuation of Moapa dace. Barrier installation and chemical removal of blue tilapia downstream of refuge habitat provides 2 km of stream without tilapia. Conservation recommendations: Eliminate tilapia from the Muddy River system and control or eliminate other nonnative species. Protect spring discharge from excessive water withdrawal. Remarks: Given a high priority for recovery by the U.S. Government.

  14. Comparative genomic analysis of Genlisea (corkscrew plants-Lentibulariaceae) chloroplast genomes reveals an increasing loss of the ndh genes.

    PubMed

    Silva, Saura R; Michael, Todd P; Meer, Elliott J; Pinheiro, Daniel G; Varani, Alessandro M; Miranda, Vitor F O

    2018-01-01

    In the carnivorous plant family Lentibulariaceae, all three genome compartments (nuclear, chloroplast, and mitochondria) have some of the highest rates of nucleotide substitutions across angiosperms. While the genera Genlisea and Utricularia have the smallest known flowering plant nuclear genomes, the chloroplast genomes (cpDNA) are mostly structurally conserved except for deletion and/or pseudogenization of the NAD(P)H-dehydrogenase complex (ndh) genes known to be involved in stress conditions of low light or CO2 concentrations. In order to determine how the cpDNA are changing, and to better understand the evolutionary history within the Genlisea genus, we sequenced, assembled and analyzed complete cpDNA from six species (G. aurea, G. filiformis, G. pygmaea, G. repens, G. tuberosa and G. violacea) together with the publicly available G. margaretae cpDNA. In general, the cpDNA structure among the analyzed Genlisea species is highly similar. However, we found that the plastidial ndh genes underwent a progressive process of degradation similar to the other terrestrial Lentibulariaceae cpDNA analyzed to date, but in contrast to the aquatic species. Contrary to current thinking that the terrestrial environment is a more stressful environment and thus requiring the ndh genes, we provide evidence that in the Lentibulariaceae the terrestrial forms have progressive loss while the aquatic forms have the eleven plastidial ndh genes intact. Therefore, the Lentibulariaceae system provides an important opportunity to understand the evolutionary forces that govern the transition to an aquatic environment and may provide insight into how plants manage water stress at a genome scale.

  15. Betaines and dimethylsulfoniopropionate as major osmolytes in cnidaria with endosymbiotic dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Yancey, Paul H; Heppenstall, Marina; Ly, Steven; Andrell, Raymond M; Gates, Ruth D; Carter, Virginia L; Hagedorn, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Most marine invertebrates and algae are osmoconformers whose cells accumulate organic osmolytes that provide half or more of cellular osmotic pressure. These solutes are primarily free amino acids and glycine betaine in most invertebrates and small carbohydrates and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) in many algae. Corals with endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp.) have been reported to obtain from the symbionts potential organic osmolytes such as glycerol, amino acids, and DMSP. However, corals and their endosymbionts have not been fully analyzed for osmolytes. We quantified small carbohydrates, free amino acids, methylamines, and DMSP in tissues of the corals Fungia scutaria, Pocillopora damicornis, Pocillopora meandrina, Montipora capitata, Porites compressa, and Porites lobata (all with symbionts) plus Tubastrea aurea (asymbiotic) from Kaneohe Bay, Oahu (Hawaii). Glycine betaine, at 33-69 mmol/kg wet mass, was found to constitute 90% or more of the measured organic solutes in all except the Porites species. Those were dominated by proline betaine and dimethyltaurine. DMSP was found at 0.5-3 mmol/kg in all species with endosymbionts. Freshly isolated Symbiodinium from Fungia, P. damicornis, and P. compressa were also analyzed. DMSP and glycine betaine dominated in the first two; Porites endosymbionts had DMSP, proline betaine, and dimethyltaurine. In all specimens, glycerol and glucose were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography only at 0-1 mmol/kg wet mass. An enzymatic assay for glycerol plus glycerol 3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate yielded 1-10 mmol/kg. Cassiopeia andromeda (upside-down jelly; Scyphozoan) and Aiptasia puchella (solitary anemone; Anthozoan) were also analyzed; both have endosymbiotic dinoflagellates. In both, glycine betaine, taurine, and DMSP were the dominant osmolytes. In summary, methylated osmolytes dominate in many Cnidaria; in those with algal symbionts, host and symbiont have similar methylated amino

  16. Longitudinal evaluation of bronchopulmonary disease in children with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Philip M; Li, Zhanhai; Kosorok, Michael R; Laxova, Anita; Green, Christopher G; Collins, Jannette; Lai, Hui-Chuan; Makholm, Linda M; Rock, Michael J; Splaingard, Mark L

    2003-09-01

    Children with cystic fibrosis (CF) develop bronchopulmonary disease at variable ages. Determining the epidemiology of chronic lung disease and quantifying its severity, however, have been difficult in infants and young children. As part of the Wisconsin CF Neonatal Screening Project, we were presented with an ideal opportunity to assess longitudinally the evolution of symptoms, signs, and quantitative measures of CF respiratory disease. After newborn screening test results led to early recognition, 64 patients diagnosed at a median age of 6.71 weeks were enrolled and studied systematically at a median age of 11.3 years to obtain clinical information, chest radiographs, and pulmonary function tests. Our observations revealed that a frequent cough by history is evident by 10.5 months of age in half the patients. Quantitative chest radiology (CXR scoring) demonstrated that potentially irreversible abnormalities are present in half the children by 2 years. The severity of Wisconsin and Brasfield CXR scores increased in association with respiratory infections. Longitudinal progression of Wisconsin CXR scores was related to age (P < 0.001), pancreatic insufficiency (P = 0.005), and respiratory secretion cultures positive for Staphylococus aureas (P = 0.039). In contrast, serial spirometry showed limited sensitivity, as did lung volume determinations; neither was satisfactory as repeated measures with acceptable quality control until after 7 years of age. Time to event analyses revealed that half the patients had % predicted FEF(25-75) and FEV(1)/FVC values greater than 80% until 10.7 and 9.9 years, respectively. We conclude that of the methods evaluated, quantitative chest radiology is currently the best procedure for frequent assessment of bronchopulmonary disease in CF, and that radiographic progression is evident in approximately 85% of patients by 5 years of age. Our results also suggest that bronchiectasis and other radiographic evidence of chronic infection are

  17. Seedling Growth Strategies in Bauhinia Species: Comparing Lianas and Trees

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Zhi-Quan; Poorter, Lourens; Cao, Kun-Fang; Bongers, Frans

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Lianas are expected to differ from trees in their growth strategies. As a result these two groups of woody species will have different spatial distributions: lianas are more common in high light environments. This study determines the differences in growth patterns, biomass allocation and leaf traits in five closely related liana and tree species of the genus Bauhinia. Methods Seedlings of two light-demanding lianas (Bauhinia tenuiflora and B. claviflora), one shade-tolerant liana (B. aurea), and two light-demanding trees (B. purpurea and B. monandra) were grown in a shadehouse at 25 % of full sunlight. A range of physiological, morphological and biomass parameters at the leaf and whole plant level were compared among these five species. Key Results The two light-demanding liana species had higher relative growth rate (RGR), allocated more biomass to leaf production [higher leaf mass fraction (LMF) and higher leaf area ratio (LAR)] and stem mass fraction (SMF), and less biomass to the roots [root mass fraction (RMF)] than the two tree species. The shade-tolerant liana had the lowest RGR of all five species, and had a higher RMF, lower SMF and similar LMF than the two light-demanding liana species. The two light-demanding lianas had lower photosynthetic rates per unit area (Aarea) and similar photosynthetic rates per unit mass (Amass) than the trees. Across species, RGR was positively related to SLA, but not to LAR and Aarea. Conclusions It is concluded that the faster growth of light-demanding lianas compared with light-demanding trees is based on morphological parameters (SLA, LMF and LAR), and cannot be attributed to higher photosynthetic rates at the leaf level. The shade-tolerant liana exhibited a slow-growth strategy, compared with the light-demanding species. PMID:17720978

  18. Origin of resources and trophic pathways in a large SW Atlantic estuary: An evaluation using stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botto, Florencia; Gaitán, Esteban; Mianzan, Hermes; Acha, Marcelo; Giberto, Diego; Schiariti, Agustín; Iribarne, Oscar

    2011-03-01

    The Río de la Plata (34° 36' S, 55° 58' W; Argentina and Uruguay) estuary, one of the most important South American estuarine environments, is characterized by weak seasonal freshwater discharge, low tidal amplitude (<1 m), a wide and permanent connection to the sea, and a salt-wedge regime. Using stable isotope analysis, we explored the relative importance of the different sources of primary production in the food web. Our results show that phytoplankton and macrodetritus from terrestrial salt and freshwater marshes both contribute to the food web of the Río de la Plata estuary. On the basis of the sampled species, we identified four trophic levels. The clam Mactra isabelleana, the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa, and the opossum shrimp Neomysis americana are the primary consumers. The rays Atlantoraja castelnaui and Squatina guggenheim and the shark Galeorhinus galeus are the top predators. The Río de la Plata food web shows an important input of nutrients derived from phytoplankton. Rays, sharks, and predatory gastropods reveal an important contribution of C4 plants (likely Spartina spp.). However, production derived from C3 plants is also important for some species. The fishes Brazilian menhaden, Brevoortia aurea; the stripped weakfish Cynoscion guatucupa; and the whitemouth croaker, Micropogonias furnieri, showed differences in their isotopic signatures as juveniles and adults, indicating different food sources, and they were therefore treated as different components of the food web. Our data suggest that detritus from salt and freshwater marshes is reaching the Río de la Plata estuary and can be an important allocthonous source of energy to this environment.

  19. Environmental distribution, abundance and activity of the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, K. G.; Biddle, J.; Teske, A.

    2011-12-01

    Many marine sedimentary microbes have only been identified by 16S rRNA sequences. Consequently, little is known about the types of metabolism, activity levels, or relative abundance of these groups in marine sediments. We found that one of these uncultured groups, called the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group (MCG), dominated clone libraries made from reverse transcribed 16S rRNA, and 454 pyrosequenced 16S rRNA genes, in the White Oak River estuary. Primers suitable for quantitative PCR were developed for MCG and used to show that 16S rRNA DNA copy numbers from MCG account for nearly all the archaeal 16S rRNA genes present. RT-qPCR shows much less MCG rRNA than total archaeal rRNA, but comparisons of different primers for each group suggest bias in the RNA-based work relative to the DNA-based work. There is no evidence of a population shift with depth below the sulfate-methane transition zone, suggesting that the metabolism of MCG may not be tied to sulfur or methane cycles. We classified 2,771 new sequences within the SSU Silva 106 database that, along with the classified sequences in the Silva database was used to make an MCG database of 4,646 sequences that allowed us to increase the named subgroups of MCG from 7 to 19. Percent terrestrial sequences in each subgroup is positively correlated with percent of the marine sequences that are nearshore, suggesting that membership in the different subgroups is not random, but dictated by environmental selective pressures. Given their high phylogenetic diversity, ubiquitous distribution in anoxic environments, and high DNA copy number relative to total archaea, members of MCG are most likely anaerobic heterotrophs who are integral to the post-depositional marine carbon cycle.

  20. Classifying the bacterial gut microbiota of termites and cockroaches: A curated phylogenetic reference database (DictDb).

    PubMed

    Mikaelyan, Aram; Köhler, Tim; Lampert, Niclas; Rohland, Jeffrey; Boga, Hamadi; Meuser, Katja; Brune, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Recent developments in sequencing technology have given rise to a large number of studies that assess bacterial diversity and community structure in termite and cockroach guts based on large amplicon libraries of 16S rRNA genes. Although these studies have revealed important ecological and evolutionary patterns in the gut microbiota, classification of the short sequence reads is limited by the taxonomic depth and resolution of the reference databases used in the respective studies. Here, we present a curated reference database for accurate taxonomic analysis of the bacterial gut microbiota of dictyopteran insects. The Dictyopteran gut microbiota reference Database (DictDb) is based on the Silva database but was significantly expanded by the addition of clones from 11 mostly unexplored termite and cockroach groups, which increased the inventory of bacterial sequences from dictyopteran guts by 26%. The taxonomic depth and resolution of DictDb was significantly improved by a general revision of the taxonomic guide tree for all important lineages, including a detailed phylogenetic analysis of the Treponema and Alistipes complexes, the Fibrobacteres, and the TG3 phylum. The performance of this first documented version of DictDb (v. 3.0) using the revised taxonomic guide tree in the classification of short-read libraries obtained from termites and cockroaches was highly superior to that of the current Silva and RDP databases. DictDb uses an informative nomenclature that is consistent with the literature also for clades of uncultured bacteria and provides an invaluable tool for anyone exploring the gut community structure of termites and cockroaches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Observations and modelling of inflation in the Lazufre volcanic region, South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearse, J.; Lundgren, P.

    2010-12-01

    The Central Volcanic Zone (CVZ) is an active volcanic arc in the central Andes, extending through Peru, southwestern Bolivia, Chile, and northwestern Argentina [De Silva, 1989; De Silva and Francis, 1991]. The CVZ includes a number of collapsed calderas, remnants of catastrophic eruptions, which are now thought to be inactive. However, recent Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) observations [Pritchard and Simons, 2004] show surface deformation occurring at some of these large ancient volcanic regions, indicating that magma chambers are slowly inflating beneath the surface. The mechanisms responsible for the initiation and growth of large midcrustal magma chambers remains poorly understood, and InSAR provides an opportunity for us to observe volcanic systems in remote regions that are otherwise difficult to monitor and observe. The Lastarria-Cordon del Azufre ("Lazufre" [Pritchard and Simons, 2002]) volcanic area is one such complex showing recent deformation, with average surface uplift rates of approximately 2.5 cm/year [Froger et al., 2007; Ruch et al, 2008]. We have processed InSAR data from ERS-1/2 and Envisat in the Lazufre volcanic area, including both ascending and descending satellite tracks. Time series analysis of the data shows steady uplift beginning in about 2000, continuing into 2010. We use boundary-element elastic models to invert for the depth and shape of the magmatic source responsible for the surface deformation. Given data from both ascending and descending tracks, we are able to resolve the ambiguity between the source depth and size, and constrain the geometry of the inflating magma source. Finite element modelling allows us to understand the effect of viscoelasticity on the development of the magma chamber.

  2. Dawn song in natural and artificial continuous day: Light pollution affects songbirds at high latitudes.

    PubMed

    Derryberry, Elizabeth P

    2017-10-01

    In Focus: Da Silva, A., & Kempenaers, B. (2017). Singing from North to South: Latitudinal variation in timing of dawn singing under natural and artificial light conditions. Journal of Animal Ecology, 86, 1286-1297. doi: 10.1111/1365-2656.12739 Satellite images of the world at night show bright dots connected by glowing lines crisscrossing the globe. As these connect-the-dots become brighter and expand into more and more remote regions, much of the flora and fauna of the world are experiencing evolutionarily unprecedented levels of light at night. Light cues are essential to most physiological and behavioural processes, and so the need to measure the effects of light pollution on these processes is critical. In this issue, Da Silva and Kempenaers take on this task using an important reproductive behaviour in songbirds-dawn song. The geographic, temporal and taxonomic breadth of sampling in this study allows for a close examination of a potentially complex interaction between light pollution and natural variation in the behaviour of dawn singing across latitude, season and species. Their extensive dataset highlights complexity in how songbirds respond to light pollution. Although light pollution has a strong effect on the timing of dawn song, not all songbirds respond the same way to light pollution, and the effects of light pollution vary with changes in natural light levels. Early dawn singers show more flexibility in the timing of dawn song across the season and across latitudes than late dawn singers, and also appear less affected by light pollution at high latitudes than are late dawn singers. These findings suggest that not all songbirds are responding to artificial continuous daylight as they do to natural continuous daylight, highlighting the general need to measure the fitness effects of light pollution. © 2017 The Author. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  3. Effects of Simple Leaching of Crushed and Powdered Materials on High-precision Pb Isotope Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, E.; Stracke, A.

    2013-12-01

    We present new results of simple leaching experiments on the Pb isotope composition of USGS standard reference material powders and on ocean island basalt whole rock splits and powders. Rock samples were leached with 6N HCl in two steps, first hot and then in an ultrasonic bath, and washed with ultrapure H2O before conventional sample digestion and chromatographic purification of Pb. Pb isotope analyses were determined with Tl-doped MC-ICP-MS. Intra- and inter-session analytical reproducibility of repeated analyses of both synthetic Pb solutions and Pb from single digests of chemically processed natural samples were generally < 100 ppm (2 S.D.). The comparison of leached and unleached samples shows that leaching reliably removes variable amounts of different contaminants for different starting materials. For repeated digests of a single sample, the leached samples reproduce better than the unleached ones, showing that leaching effectively removes heterogeneously distributed extraneous Pb. However, the reproducibility of repeated digests of variably contaminated natural samples is up to an order of magnitude worse than the analytical reproducibility of ca. 100 ppm. More complex leaching methods (e.g., Nobre Silva et al., 2009) yield Pb isotope ratios within error of and with similar reproducibility to our method, showing that the simple leaching method is reliable. The remaining Pb isotope heterogeneity of natural samples, which typically exceeds 100 ppm, is thus attributed to inherent isotopic sample heterogeneity. Tl-doped MC-ICP-MS Pb ratio determination is therefore a sufficiently precise method for Pb isotope analyses in natural rocks. More precise Pb double- or triple-spike methods (e.g., Galer, 1999; Thirlwall, 2000), may exploit their full potential only in cases where natural isotopic sample heterogeneity is demonstrably negligible. References: Galer, S., 1999, Chem. Geol. 157, 255-274. Nobre Silva, et al. 2009, Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems 10, Q08012

  4. Nursing workload for cancer patients under palliative care.

    PubMed

    Fuly, Patrícia Dos Santos Claro; Pires, Livia Márcia Vidal; Souza, Claudia Quinto Santos de; Oliveira, Beatriz Guitton Renaud Baptista de; Padilha, Katia Grillo

    2016-01-01

    To verify the nursing workload required by cancer patients undergoing palliative care and possible associations between the demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients and the nursing workload. This is a quantitative, cross-sectional, prospective study developed in the Connective Bone Tissue (TOC) clinics of Unit II of the Brazilian National Cancer Institute José Alencar Gomes da Silva with patients undergoing palliative care. Analysis of 197 measures of the Nursing Activities Score (NAS) revealed a mean score of 43.09% and an association between the performance status of patients undergoing palliative care and the mean NAS scores. The results of the study point to the need to resize the team of the unit. The NAS has proven to be a useful tool in oncologic clinical units for patients undergoing palliative care. Verificar a carga de trabalho de enfermagem requerida por pacientes com câncer sob cuidados paliativos e possíveis associações entre as características demográficas e clínicas dos pacientes e a carga de trabalho de enfermagem. Trata-se de um estudo de abordagem quantitativa, transversal, prospectivo, desenvolvido na clínica de Tecido Ósseo Conectivo (TOC) da Unidade II do Instituto Nacional de Câncer José Alencar Gomes da Silva, com pacientes em cuidados paliativos. A análise de 197 medidas do Nursing Activities Score (NAS) revelou um escore médio de 43,09% e uma associação entre a performance status de pacientes em cuidados paliativos com os valores médios do NAS. Os resultados do estudo apontam para a necessidade de redimensionamento da equipe da Unidade. O NAS mostrou-se um instrumento passível de utilização em unidades clínicas oncológicas, com pacientes em cuidados paliativos.

  5. Prefazione al quarto volume di GERBERTVS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    The fourth volume of GERBERTVS contains the acts of the symposia held in Rome, at the Odeion hall of Lettere faculty in Sapienza University on December 7, 2012 Gerbert Homo Novus and on March 13, 2013 on the pre and post humanistic figures. Laura C. Paladino presents the didactical activity of Gerbert as from Richer of Reims who completed his Historia Francorum in 998, before the election of Gerbert to the pontifical soil. Among these activities there is the teaching of astronomy and mathematics and the abacus, to which a special article of Jorge Nuno Silva is dedicated. The abacus increased dramatically the rapidity of the computations and some algoritms thaught by Gerbert and reported by his former student Bernelinus is very reliably invented by Gerbert himself, as Silva demostrates in his paper. Giancarlo Pani presents the relation between Galileo and Kepler, at the end of the humanistic period, showing interesting insights on the rather asymmetrical exchange of information between the two greater astronomer of 1600. Veronica Regoli presents the Cosmos of Dante, the ideal structure of the Divine Comedy. Patrick Demouy presents the new biography of Flavio G. Nuvolone where the great novelty is the noble origin of Gerbert from Carlat family, but before the marriage of his (presumed) father. His birth is shifted back to 938 with technical demostrations. Paolo Zanna compares the magisterium of Gerbert-Sylvester II and that one of John Paul II and pope Francesco. Finally C. Sigismondi presents the work and the activities of Pawel Max Maksym (1983-2013) who founded the Observatory &"Pope Sylvester II" in the town of Bukowiec, near Lodz, Poland.

  6. On the generation and evolution of internal solitary waves in the southern Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Daquan; Zhan, Peng; Kartadikaria, Aditya; Akylas, Triantaphyllos; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    Satellite observations recently revealed the existence of trains of internal solitary waves in the southern Red Sea between 16.0°N and 16.5°N, propagating from the centre of the domain toward the continental shelf [Da silva et al., 2012]. Given the relatively weak tidal velocity in this area and their generation in the central of the domain, Da Silva suggested three possible mechanisms behind the generation of the waves, namely Resonance and disintegration of interfacial tides, Generation of interfacial tides by impinging, remotely generated internal tidal beams and for geometrically focused and amplified internal tidal beams. Tide analysis based on tide stations data and barotropic tide model in the Red Sea shows that tide is indeed very weak in the centre part of the Red Sea, but it is relatively strong in the northern and southern parts (reaching up to 66 cm/s). Together with extreme steep slopes along the deep trench, it provides favourable conditions for the generation of internal solitary in the southern Red Sea. To investigate the generation mechanisms and study the evolution of the internal waves in the off-shelf region of the southern Red Sea we have implemented a 2-D, high-resolution and non-hydrostatic configuration of the MIT general circulation model (MITgcm). Our simulations reproduce well that the generation process of the internal solitary waves. Analysis of the model's output suggests that the interaction between the topography and tidal flow with the nonlinear effect is the main mechanism behind the generation of the internal solitary waves. Sensitivity experiments suggest that neither tidal beam nor the resonance effect of the topography is important factor in this process.

  7. Model of the Streamer Zone of a Leader

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milikh, G. M.; Raina, A.; Shneider, M.; Likhanskii, A.; George, A.

    2015-12-01

    Developed leaders represent highly conductive plasma channels, continuously emitting a fan of streamers, termed the streamer zone. The tip moves at a speed much slower than that of individual streamers. A huge number of short-lived streamers in the corona generate the space charge field required to maintain the streamer propagation. A critical issue is the conversion from the streamer to leader phase [Da Silva and Pasko, 2013]. The objective of this paper is to present simulations of the formation and propagation of the streamer zone of a leader. In these simulations we generated a group of streamers that propagate in a discharge gap while they interact with each other. We use the modified numerical model [Likhanskii et al., 2007] developed to simulate discharge plasma actuators driven by nanosecond pulses. The model uses 2D rectangular computational box, and the discharge gap is filled with the air at normal conditions. Furthermore the model considers electrons, positive and negative ions. The plasma kinetics and interaction with neutral molecules is modeled in a drift-diffusion approximation [Likhanskii et al., 2007]. The electric field and potential are related to the density of charged species according to the Poisson equation. The latter was solved by the successive over-relaxation method. It is shown that interaction between the streamers significantly reduces their propagation velocity. Furthermore the streamer velocity depends on the distance between the streamers. The smaller is that distance the stronger is the suppression of the streamer velocity. This explains why the leader, which consists of many streamers, is much slower than a single streamer formed in the same discharge gap. C.L. Da Silva and V.P. Pasko, J. Geophys. Res.: Atmospheres, 118, 1-30, 2013 A.V. Likhanskii et al., Phys. Plasmas, 14, 073501, 2007.

  8. First Report of Korean Cyst Nematode, Heterodera koreana, Parasitic on Bamboo, Phyllostachys nigra, from Iran.

    PubMed

    Maafi, Zahra Tanha; Taheri, Zahra Majd

    2015-09-01

    Bamboo is grown sporadically in the north of Iran and is confined to very limited areas. The history of growing bamboo was to some extent simultaneous with the entrance, commencement, and growth of the tea industry in the north about a century ago. The bamboo was used for making baskets to transfer the harvested tea foliage from farm to the factory and other linked functions. A main area allocated for bamboo growing is located in Lahidjan Agricultural Research Station (LARS) in the north of Iran, where several species of bamboo were cultivated in an area of 5 ha. The species include five species of Phyllostachys (viz., P. aurea, P. bambusoides, P. decora, P. nigra, P. vivax) and one species of Arundinaria gigantean, Pleioblastus fortune, and Semiarundinaria fastuosa; however, only P. aurea and P. nigra have been precisely identified. A survey on plant parasitic nematodes associated with bamboo mainly on P. nigra in LARS revealed second-stage juveniles of cyst forming nematode in soil samples. Further analysis of root and soil samples led to recovery of a cyst nematode belonging to the genus Heterodera and the Afenestrata group. Cysts, vulval cone, and second-stage juveniles were studied for morphological and morphometric features. The classical identification was followed by amplification of the ribosomal RNA-ITS region and the D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S large-subunit rRNA gene; the amplified fragments were sequenced, edited, and compared with those of the corresponding published gene sequences. New D2-D3 and rRNA-ITS gene sequences were deposited in the GenBank database under the accession numbers KR818910 and KR818911, respectively. Based on the morphological and molecular data, the species of the cyst-forming nematode was identified as H. koreana (Vovlas et al., 1992; Mundo-Ocampo et al., 2008). The body contour of cysts was mainly subspherical, vey often with irregular shape (Fig. 1A), yellowish to light brown, thin cuticle with fine zigzag pattern

  9. Fingerprinting the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-03-01

    Using ESO's Very Large Telescope, an international team of astronomers has shown how to use the chemical composition of stars in clusters to shed light on the formation of our Milky Way. This discovery is a fundamental test for the development of a new chemical tagging technique uncovering the birth and growth of our Galactic cradle. The formation and evolution of galaxies, and in particular of the Milky Way - the 'island universe' in which we live, is one of the major puzzles of astrophysics: indeed, a detailed physical scenario is still missing and its understanding requires the joint effort of observations, theories and complex numerical simulations. ESO astronomer Gayandhi De Silva and her colleagues used the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) on ESO's VLT to find new ways to address this fundamental riddle. ESO PR Photo 15/07 ESO PR Photo 15/07 The Cluster Collinder 261 "We have analysed in great detail the chemical composition of stars in three star-clusters and shown that each cluster presents a high level of homogeneity and a very distinctive chemical signature," says De Silva, who started this research while working at the Mount Stromlo Observatory, Australia. "This paves the way to chemically tagging stars in our Galaxy to common formation sites and thus unravelling the history of the Milky Way," she adds. "Galactic star clusters are witnesses of the formation history of the Galactic disc," says Kenneth Freeman, also from Mount Stromlo and another member of the team. "The analysis of their composition is like studying ancient fossils. We are chasing pieces of galactic DNA!" Open star clusters are among the most important tools for the study of stellar and galactic evolution. They are composed of a few tens up to a few thousands of stars that are gravitationally bound, and they span a wide range of ages. The youngest date from a few million years ago, while the oldest (and more rare) can have ages up to ten billion years. The well

  10. Soil bioengineering measures for disaster mitigation and environmental restoration in Central America: authochtonal cuttings suitability and economic efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrone, A.; Preti, F.

    2009-04-01

    The use of Soil Bio-Engineering techniques in Developing countries is a relevant issue for Disaster mitigation, environmental restoration and poverty reduction. Research on authochtonal plants suitable for this kind of works and on economic efficiency is essential for the divulgation of this Discipline. The present paper is focused on this two issues related to the realization of various typologies of Soil Bio-engineering works in the Humid tropic of Nicaragua. In the area of Río Blanco, located in the Department of Matagalpa, Soil bio-engineering installations were built in several sites. The particular structures built were: drainages with live fascine mattress, a live palisade, a vegetated live crib wall for riverbank protection, a vegetative covering made of a metallic net and biotextile coupled with a live palisade made of bamboo. In order to evaluate the suitability of the various plants used in the works, monitorings were performed, one in the live palisade alongside an unpaved road and the other on the live crib wall along a riverbank, collecting survival rate and morphological parameters data. Concerning the economic efficiency we proceed to a financial analysis of the works and once the unit price was obtained, we converted the amount in EPP Dollars (Equal Purchasing Power) in order to compare the Nicaraguan context with the Italian one. Among the used species we found that Madero negro (Gliricidia sepium) and Roble macuelizo (Tabebuia rosea) are adequate for Soil-bioengineering measure on slopes while Helequeme (Erythrina fusca) reported a successful behaviour only in the crib wall for riverbank protection. In the comparison of the costs in Nicaragua and in Italy, the unit price reduction for the central American country ranges between 1.5 times (for the vegetative covering) and almost 4 times (for the fascine mattress) if it's used the EPP dollar exchange rate. Thus, a conclusion can be reached with regard to hydrological-risk mitigating actions

  11. Soil bio-engineering for risk mitigation and environmental restoration in a humid tropical area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrone, A.; Preti, F.

    2009-07-01

    The use of soil bio-engineering techniques in developing countries is a relevant issue for disaster mitigation, environmental restoration and poverty reduction. Research on authochtonal plants suitable for this kind of works and on economic efficiency is essential for the divulgation of such techniques. The present paper is focused on this two issues related to the realization of various typologies of soil bio-engineering works in the humid tropic of Nicaragua. In the area of Río Blanco, located in the Department of Matagalpa, soil bio-engineering installations were built in several sites. The particular structures built were: drainages with live fascine mattress, a live palisade, a vegetated live crib wall for riverbank protection, a vegetative covering made of a metallic net and biotextile coupled with a live palisade made of bamboo. In order to evaluate the suitability of the various plants used in the works, monitorings were performed, one in the live palisade alongside an unpaved road and the other on the live crib wall along a riverbank, collecting survival rate and morphological parameters data. Concerning the economic efficiency we proceed to a financial analysis of the works and once the unit price was obtained, we converted the amount in EPP Dollars (Equal Purchasing Power) in order to compare the Nicaraguan context with the Italian one. Among the used species we found that Madero negro (Gliricidia sepium) and Roble macuelizo (Tabebuia rosea) are adequate for soil-bioengineering measure on slopes while Helequeme (Erythrina fusca) reported a successful behaviour only in the crib wall for riverbank protection. In the comparison of the costs in Nicaragua and in Italy, the unit price reduction for the Central American country ranges between 1.5 times (for the vegetative covering) and almost 4 times (for the fascine mattress) if it's used the EPP dollar exchange rate. Conclusions are reached with regard to hydrological-risk mitigating actions performed on a

  12. Soil bioengineering for risk mitigation and environmental restoration in a humid tropical area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrone, A.; Preti, F.

    2010-02-01

    The use of soil bio-engineering techniques in developing countries is a relevant issue for disaster mitigation, environmental restoration and poverty reduction. Research on the autochthonal plants suitable for these kinds of interventions and on the economic efficiency of the interventions is essential for the dissemination of such techniques. The present paper is focused on these two issues as related to the realization of various typologies of soil bioengineering works in the humid tropics of Nicaragua. In the area of Río Blanco, located in the Department of Matagalpa, soil bioengineering installations were built in several sites. The particular structures built were: drainages with live fascine mattress, a live palisade, a vegetated live crib wall for riverbank protection, a vegetative covering made of a metallic net and biotextile coupled with a live palisade made of bamboo. In order to evaluate the suitability of the various plants used in these works, monitoring was performed, one on the live palisade alongside an unpaved road and the other on the live crib wall along a riverbank, by collecting data on survival rate and morphological parameters. Concerning economic efficiency, we proceeded to a financial analysis of the works. Once the unit price was obtained, we converted the amount into EPP Dollars (Equal Purchasing Power) in order to compare the Nicaraguan context with the European one. Among the species used we found that Gliricidia sepium (local common name: Madero negro) and Tabebuia rosea (local common name: Roble macuelizo) are adequate for soil bioengineering measures on slopes, while Erythrina fusca (local common name: Helequeme) resulted in successful behaviour only in the crib wall for riverbank protection. In comparing costs in Nicaragua and in Italy, the unit price reduction for Nicaragua ranges from 1.5 times (for the vegetative covering) to almost 4 times (for the fascine mattress), using the EPP dollar exchange rate. Our conclusions with

  13. Two tropical conifers show strong growth and water-use efficiency responses to altered CO2 concentration.

    PubMed

    Dalling, James W; Cernusak, Lucas A; Winter, Klaus; Aranda, Jorge; Garcia, Milton; Virgo, Aurelio; Cheesman, Alexander W; Baresch, Andres; Jaramillo, Carlos; Turner, Benjamin L

    2016-11-01

    Conifers dominated wet lowland tropical forests 100 million years ago (MYA). With a few exceptions in the Podocarpaceae and Araucariaceae, conifers are now absent from this biome. This shift to angiosperm dominance also coincided with a large decline in atmospheric CO 2 concentration (c a ). We compared growth and physiological performance of two lowland tropical angiosperms and conifers at c a levels representing pre-industrial (280 ppm), ambient (400 ppm) and Eocene (800 ppm) conditions to explore how differences in c a affect the growth and water-use efficiency (WUE) of seedlings from these groups. Two conifers (Araucaria heterophylla and Podocarpus guatemalensis) and two angiosperm trees (Tabebuia rosea and Chrysophyllum cainito) were grown in climate-controlled glasshouses in Panama. Growth, photosynthetic rates, nutrient uptake, and nutrient use and water-use efficiencies were measured. Podocarpus seedlings showed a stronger (66 %) increase in relative growth rate with increasing c a relative to Araucaria (19 %) and the angiosperms (no growth enhancement). The response of Podocarpus is consistent with expectations for species with conservative growth traits and low mesophyll diffusion conductance. While previous work has shown limited stomatal response of conifers to c a , we found that the two conifers had significantly greater increases in leaf and whole-plant WUE than the angiosperms, reflecting increased photosynthetic rate and reduced stomatal conductance. Foliar nitrogen isotope ratios (δ 15 N) and soil nitrate concentrations indicated a preference in Podocarpus for ammonium over nitrate, which may impact nitrogen uptake relative to nitrate assimilators under high c a SIGNIFICANCE: Podocarps colonized tropical forests after angiosperms achieved dominance and are now restricted to infertile soils. Although limited to a single species, our data suggest that higher c a may have been favourable for podocarp colonization of tropical South America 60

  14. Basic ecology of the Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana (Squamata: Iguanidae), in Oaxaca, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rioja, Tamara; Carrillo-Reyes, Arturo; Espinoza-Medinilla, Eduardo; López-Mendoza, Sergio

    2012-12-01

    The Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana is a restricted species to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in Southern Oaxaca, Mexico. This reptile is one of the less known iguanid species. We census-tracked a population in the South ofNiltepec, Oaxaca, Mexico from May 2010 to April 2011. Throughout one year, a total of 10 line transects were situated and recorded in the study area to determine relative abundance and density, and habitat type use (dry forest, Nanchal, grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangrove) by the species. This study reports a new C. oaxacana population on the Southeastern limit of species range. Although this species has a very restricted distribution and is in danger of extinction, C. oaxacana has a high population density when compared to other Ctenosaura species. A total of 108 individuals were recorded throughout the study. Dry forest (33.75ind/ha) and Nanchal (18.75ind/ha) were the habitats with higher densities. Comparisons between habitat types showed no significant differences between dry forest and Nanchal (W=15, p=0.0808). Results between seasons were similar. The Oaxacan Spiny tailed Iguana preferred first the dry forest, and then Nanchal, while avoided grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangroves. There was no difference in habitat use between males and females. Mean perch heights were 1.23 +/- 0.32 (n=30) in Nanchal, 2.11 +/- 0.30 (n=9) in grassland, 1.90 +/- 0.56 (n=54) in dry forest, 1.91 +/- 0.28 (n=9) in mangrove and 2.30 +/- 0.37 (n=6) in riparian vegetation. Species observed as refuge and perch were B. crassifolia (Nanchal); C. alata (grassland); Tabebuia sp., Genipa americana, G. sepium, Acacia sp., Ficus sp. and Haematoxylon sp. (dry forest); G. sepium, Acacia sp. and Guazuma ulmifolia (riparian vegetation); and C. erecta (mangrove). Live trees hollows and branches were used by species. Main threats to the species are excessive hunting and habitat loss. Furthermore, grassland fires are still common in the study area

  15. Assessment of capacity-building activities for forest measurement, reporting, and verification, 2011–15

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peneva-Reed, Elitsa I.; Romijn, J. Erika

    2018-05-31

    This report was written as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey, SilvaCarbon, and Wageningen University with funding provided by the U.S. Agency for International Development and the European Space Agency, respectively, to address a pressing need for enhanced result-based monitoring and evaluation of delivered capacity-building activities. For this report, the capacity-building activities delivered by capacity-building providers (referred to as “providers” hereafter) during 2011–15 (the study period) to support countries in building measurement, reporting, and verification (MRV) systems for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) were assessed and evaluated.Summarizing capacity-building activities and outcomes across multiple providers was challenging. Many of the providers did not have information readily available, which precluded them from participating in this study despite the usefulness of their information. This issue led to a key proposed future action: Capacity-building providers could establish a central repository within the Global Forestry Observation Initiative (GFOI; http://www.gfoi.org/) where data from past, current, and future activities of all capacity-building providers could be stored. The repository could be maintained in a manner to continually learn from previous lessons.Although various providers monitored and evaluated the success of their capacity-building activities, such evaluations only assessed the success of immediate outcomes and not the overarching outcomes and impacts of activities implemented by multiple providers. Good monitoring and evaluation should continuously monitor and periodically evaluate all factors affecting the outcomes of a provided capacity-building activity.The absence of a methodology to produce quantitative evidence of a causal link between multiple capacity-building activities delivered and successful outcomes left only a plausible association. A previous

  16. Tropical Ocean Evaporation/SST Sensitivity and It's Link to Water and Energy Budget Variations During ENSO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Franklin R.; Marshall, Susan; Oglesby, Robert; Roads, John; Sohn, Byung-Ju; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The continuing debate over feedback mechanisms governing tropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and tropical climate in general has highlighted the diversity of potential checks and balances within the climate system. Competing feedbacks due to changes in surface evaporation, water vapor, and cloud long- and shortwave radiative properties each may serve critical roles in stabilizing or destabilizing the climate system. It is also intriguing that even those climate variations having origins internal to the climate system - changes in ocean heat transport for example, apparently require complementary equilibrating effects by changes in atmospheric energy fluxes. Perhaps the best observational evidence of this is the relatively invariant nature of tropically averaged net radiation exiting the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) as measured by broadband satellite sensors over the past two decades. Thus, analyzing how these feedback mechanisms are operating within the context of current interannual variability may offer considerable insight for anticipating future climate change. In this paper we focus primarily on interannual variations of ocean evaporative fluxes and their significance for coupled water and energy cycles within the tropical climate system. In particular, we use both the da Silva estimates of surface fluxes (based on the Comprehensive Ocean Atmosphere Data Set, COADS) and numerical simulations from several global climate models to examine evaporation sensitivity to perturbations in SST associated with warm and cold ENSO events. The specific questions we address are as follows: (1) What recurring patterns of surface wind and humidity anomalies are present during ENSO and how do they combine to yield systematic evaporation anomalies?, (2) What is the resulting tropical ocean mean evaporation-SST sensitivity associated with this climate perturbation?, and (3) What role does this evaporation play in tropical heat and water balance over tropical oceanic regions? We

  17. The detectability of archaeological structures beneath the soil using the ground penetrating radar technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrara, C.; Barone, P. M.; Pajewski, L.; Pettinelli, E.; Rossi, G.

    2012-04-01

    particular, in the Domus Aurea, in the Domitian Stadium, and in the San Cesario in Palatio church, the processing of the GPR data highlights not only the presence of Roman circular bases/insoles of pillars not yet brought to the light, but also their structural disposition and geometry. These three examples show that GPR technique is a valid support which, in exhaustive way, can underline the unexpected presence of ancient structures beneath the soil, also in well-known archaeological sites.

  18. Cholinesterase-inhibitory effect and in silico analysis of alkaloids from bulbs of Hieronymiella species.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Javier E; Garro, Adriana; Pigni, Natalia B; Agüero, María Belén; Roitman, German; Slanis, Alberto; Enriz, Ricardo D; Feresin, Gabriela E; Bastida, Jaume; Tapia, Alejandro

    2018-01-15

    In Argentina, the Amaryllidaceae family (59 species) comprises a wide variety of genera, only a few species have been investigated as a potential source of cholinesterases inhibitors to treat Alzheimer disease (AD). To study the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities of the basic dichloromethane extracts (E) from Hieronymiella aurea, H. caletensis, H. clidanthoides, H. marginata, and H. speciosa species, as well as the isolated compounds from these plant extracts. AChE and BChE inhibitory activities were evaluated with the Ellman's spectrophotometric method. The alkaloids composition from the E was obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The E were successively chromatographed on a silica gel column and permeated on Sephadex LH-20 column to afford the main alkaloids identified by means of spectroscopic data. Additionally, an in silico study was carried out. Nine known alkaloids were isolated from the E of five Hieronymiella species. Galanthamine was identified in all the species by GC-MS standing out H. caletensis with a relative abundance of 9.79% of the total ion current. Strong AChE (IC 50  = 1.84 - 15.40 µg/ml) and moderate BChE (IC50 = 23.74 - 136.40 µg/ml) inhibitory activities were displayed by the extracts. Among the isolated alkaloids, only sanguinine and chlidanthine (galanthamine-type alkaloids) demonstrated inhibitory activity toward both enzymes. The QTAIM study suggests that sanguinine has the strongest affinity towards AChE, attributed to an additional interaction with Ser200 as well as stronger molecular interactions Glu199 and His440.These results allowed us to differentiate the molecular behavior in the active site among alkaloids possessing different in vitro inhibitory activities. Hieronymiella species growing in Argentina represent a rich and widespread source of galanthamine and others AChE and BChE inhibitors alkaloids. Additionally, the new trend towards the use of

  19. Revision of the family Chalcididae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea) from Vietnam, with the description of 13 new species

    PubMed Central

    Narendran, T. C.; van Achterberg, Cornelis

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A total of 16 genera and 68 species of Chalcididae of Vietnam are taxonomically treated. Thirteen new species are described; the remaining 55 species are keyed, redescribed or provided with a diagnosis. Among these 37 species and eleven genera are recorded for the first time from Vietnam. The thirteen new species are: Antrocephalus neogalleriae Narendran & van Achterberg, sp. n.; Brachymeria neowiebesina Narendran & van Achterberg, sp. n., Brachymeria semirusula Narendran & van Achterberg, sp. n., Dirhinus neoclaviger Narendran & van Achterberg, sp. n., Epitranus narendrani van Achterberg, sp. n., Epitranus neonigriceps Narendran & van Achterberg, sp. n., Heydoniella vietnamensis Narendran & van Achterberg, sp. n., Megachalcis vietnamicus Narendran & van Achterberg, sp. n., Notaspidium vietnamicum Narendran & van Achterberg, sp. n., Oxycoryphe neotenax Narendran & van Achterberg, sp. n., Sthulapada neopadata Narendran & van Achterberg, sp. n., Sthulapada vietnamensis Narendran & van Achterberg, sp. n., and Tanycoryphus masii Narendran & van Achterberg, sp. n. The newly recorded genera are: Antrocephalus Kirby, 1883; Haltichella Spinola, 1811; Heydoniella Narendran, 2003; Hockeria Walker, 1834; Kriechbaumerella Dalla Torre, 1894; Notaspidium Dalla Torre, 1897; Oxycoryphe Kriechbaumer, 1894; Psilochalcis Kieffer, 1904; Sthulapada Narendran, 1989; Tanycorphus Cameron, 1905, and Trigonura Sichel, 1865. The following known species are recorded for the first time from Vietnam: Antrocephalus decipiens (Masi, 1929); Antrocephalus lugubris (Masi, 1932); Antrocephalus maculipennis (Cameron, 1905); Antrocephalus nasutus (Holmgren, 1869); Antrocephalus sepyra (Walker, 1846); Antrocephalus validicornis (Holmgren, 1868); Brachymeria alternipes (Walker, 1871); Brachymeria aurea (Girault, 1915); Brachymeria coxodentata Joseph, Narendran & Joy, 1972; Brachymeria euploeae (Westwood, 1837); Brachymeria hime Habu, 1960; Brachymeria jambolana Gahan, 1942; Brachymeria kamijoi

  20. Urbanized landscapes favored by fig-eating birds increase invasive but not native juvenile strangler fig abundance.

    PubMed

    Caughlin, Trevor; Wheeler, Jessica H; Jankowski, Jill; Lichstein, Jeremy W

    2012-07-01

    Propagule pressure can determine the success or failure of invasive plant range expansion. Range expansion takes place at large spatial scales, often encompassing many types of land cover, yet the effect of landscape context on propagule pressure remains largely unknown. Many studies have reported a positive correlation between invasive plant abundance and human land use; increased propagule pressure in these landscapes may be responsible for this correlation. We tested the hypothesis that increased rates of seed dispersal by fig-eating birds, which are more common in urban habitats, result in an increase in invasive strangler fig abundance in landscapes dominated by human land use. We quantified abundance of an invasive species (Ficus microcarpa) and a native species (F. aurea) of strangler fig in plots spanning the entire range of human land use in South Florida, USA, from urban parking lots to native forest. We then compared models that predicted juvenile fig abundance based on distance to adult fig seed sources and fig-eating bird habitat quality with models that lacked one or both of these terms. The best model for juvenile invasive fig abundance included both distance to adult and fig-eating bird habitat terms, suggesting that landscape effects on invasive fig abundance are mediated by seed-dispersing birds. In contrast, the best model for juvenile native fig abundance included only presence/absence of adults, suggesting that distance from individual adult trees may have less effect on seed limitation for a native species compared to an invasive species undergoing range expansion. However, models for both species included significant effects of adult seed sources, implying that juvenile abundance is limited by seed arrival. This result was corroborated by a seed addition experiment that indicated that both native and invasive strangler figs were strongly seed limited. Understanding how landscape context affects the mechanisms of plant invasion may lead to

  1. Traditional knowledge of wild edible plants used in Palestine (Northern West Bank): A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Ali-Shtayeh, Mohammed S; Jamous, Rana M; Al-Shafie', Jehan H; Elgharabah, Wafa' A; Kherfan, Fatemah A; Qarariah, Kifayeh H; Khdair, Isra' S; Soos, Israa M; Musleh, Aseel A; Isa, Buthainah A; Herzallah, Hanan M; Khlaif, Rasha B; Aiash, Samiah M; Swaiti, Ghadah M; Abuzahra, Muna A; Haj-Ali, Maha M; Saifi, Nehaya A; Azem, Hebah K; Nasrallah, Hanadi A

    2008-01-01

    Background A comparative food ethnobotanical study was carried out in fifteen local communities distributed in five districts in the Palestinian Authority, PA (northern West Bank), six of which were located in Nablus, two in Jenin, two in Salfit, three in Qalqilia, and two in Tulkarm. These are among the areas in the PA whose rural inhabitants primarily subsisted on agriculture and therefore still preserve the traditional knowledge on wild edible plants. Methods Data on the use of wild edible plants were collected for one-year period, through informed consent semi-structured interviews with 190 local informants. A semi-quantitative approach was used to document use diversity, and relative importance of each species. Results and discussion The study recorded 100 wild edible plant species, seventy six of which were mentioned by three informants and above and were distributed across 70 genera and 26 families. The most significant species include Majorana syriaca, Foeniculum vulgare, Malvasylvestris, Salvia fruticosa, Cyclamen persicum, Micromeria fruticosa, Arum palaestinum, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Gundelia tournefortii, and Matricaria aurea. All the ten species with the highest mean cultural importance values (mCI), were cited in all five areas. Moreover, most were important in every region. A common cultural background may explain these similarities. One taxon (Majoranasyriaca) in particular was found to be among the most quoted species in almost all areas surveyed. CI values, as a measure of traditional botanical knowledge, for edible species in relatively remote and isolated areas (Qalqilia, and Salfit) were generally higher than for the same species in other areas. This can be attributed to the fact that local knowledge of wild edible plants and plant gathering are more spread in remote or isolated areas. Conclusion Gathering, processing and consuming wild edible plants are still practiced in all the studied Palestinian areas. About 26 % (26/100) of the

  2. Traditional knowledge of wild edible plants used in Palestine (Northern West Bank): a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Ali-Shtayeh, Mohammed S; Jamous, Rana M; Al-Shafie', Jehan H; Elgharabah, Wafa' A; Kherfan, Fatemah A; Qarariah, Kifayeh H; Khdair, Isra' S; Soos, Israa M; Musleh, Aseel A; Isa, Buthainah A; Herzallah, Hanan M; Khlaif, Rasha B; Aiash, Samiah M; Swaiti, Ghadah M; Abuzahra, Muna A; Haj-Ali, Maha M; Saifi, Nehaya A; Azem, Hebah K; Nasrallah, Hanadi A

    2008-05-12

    A comparative food ethnobotanical study was carried out in fifteen local communities distributed in five districts in the Palestinian Authority, PA (northern West Bank), six of which were located in Nablus, two in Jenin, two in Salfit, three in Qalqilia, and two in Tulkarm. These are among the areas in the PA whose rural inhabitants primarily subsisted on agriculture and therefore still preserve the traditional knowledge on wild edible plants. Data on the use of wild edible plants were collected for one-year period, through informed consent semi-structured interviews with 190 local informants. A semi-quantitative approach was used to document use diversity, and relative importance of each species. The study recorded 100 wild edible plant species, seventy six of which were mentioned by three informants and above and were distributed across 70 genera and 26 families. The most significant species include Majorana syriaca, Foeniculum vulgare, Malvasylvestris, Salvia fruticosa, Cyclamen persicum, Micromeria fruticosa, Arum palaestinum, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Gundelia tournefortii, and Matricaria aurea. All the ten species with the highest mean cultural importance values (mCI), were cited in all five areas. Moreover, most were important in every region. A common cultural background may explain these similarities. One taxon (Majoranasyriaca) in particular was found to be among the most quoted species in almost all areas surveyed. CI values, as a measure of traditional botanical knowledge, for edible species in relatively remote and isolated areas (Qalqilia, and Salfit) were generally higher than for the same species in other areas. This can be attributed to the fact that local knowledge of wild edible plants and plant gathering are more spread in remote or isolated areas. Gathering, processing and consuming wild edible plants are still practiced in all the studied Palestinian areas. About 26 % (26/100) of the recorded wild botanicals including the most quoted and with

  3. Mixed-species allometric equations and estimation of aboveground biomass and carbon stocks in restoring degraded landscape in northern Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokria, Mulugeta; Mekuria, Wolde; Gebrekirstos, Aster; Aynekulu, Ermias; Belay, Beyene; Gashaw, Tadesse; Bräuning, Achim

    2018-02-01

    Accurate biomass estimation is critical to quantify the changes in biomass and carbon stocks following the restoration of degraded landscapes. However, there is lack of site-specific allometric equations for the estimation of aboveground biomass (AGB), which consequently limits our understanding of the contributions of restoration efforts in mitigating climate change. This study was conducted in northwestern Ethiopia to develop a multi-species allometric equation and investigate the spatial and temporal variation of C-stocks following the restoration of degraded landscapes. We harvested and weighed 84 trees from eleven dominant species from six grazing exclosures and adjacent communal grazing land. We observed that AGB correlates significantly with diameter at stump height D 30 (R 2 = 0.78 P < 0.01), and tree height H (R 2 = 0.41, P < 0.05). Our best model, which includes D 30 and H as predictors explained 82% of the variations in AGB. This model produced the lowest bias with narrow ranges of errors across different diameter classes. Estimated C-stock showed a significant positive correlation with stem density (R 2 = 0.80, P < 0.01) and basal area (R 2 = 0.84, P < 0.01). At the watershed level, the mean C-stock was 3.8 (±0.5) Mg C ha-1. Plot-level C-stocks varied between 0.1 and 13.7 Mg C ha-1. Estimated C-stocks in three- and seven-year-old exclosures exceeded estimated C-stock in the communal grazing land by 50%. The species that contribute most to C-stocks were Leucaena sp. (28%), Calpurnia aurea (21%), Euclea racemosa (20.9%), and Dodonaea angustifolia (15.8%). The equations developed in this study allow monitoring changes in C-stocks and C-sequestration following the implementation of restoration practices in northern Ethiopia over space and time. The estimated C-stocks can be used as a reference against which future changes in C-stocks can be compared.

  4. Characterization of the Structure and Membrane Interaction of the Antimicrobial Peptides Aurein 2.2 and 2.3 from Australian Southern Bell Frogs

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yeang-Ling; Cheng, John T.-J.; Hale, John; Pan, Jinhe; Hancock, Robert E. W.; Straus, Suzana K.

    2007-01-01

    The structure and membrane interaction of the antimicrobial peptide aurein 2.2 (GLFDIVKKVVGALGSL-CONH2), aurein 2.3 (GLFDIVKKVVGAIGSL-CONH2), both from Litoria aurea, and a carboxy C-terminal analog of aurein 2.3 (GLFDIVKKVVGAIGSL-COOH) were studied to determine which features of this class of peptides are key to activity. Circular dichroism and solution-state NMR data indicate that all three peptides adopt an α-helical structure in the presence of trifluoroethanol or lipids such as 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) and a 1:1 mixture of DMPC and 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-[phospho-rac-(1-glycerol)] (DMPG). Oriented circular dichroism was used to determine the orientation of the peptides in lipid bilayers over a range of concentrations (peptide/lipid molar ratios (P/L) = 1:15–1:120) in DMPC and 1:1 DMPC/DMPG, in the liquid crystalline state. The results demonstrate that in DMPC all three peptides are surface adsorbed over a range of low peptide concentrations but insert into the bilayers at high peptide concentrations. This finding is corroborated by 31P-solid-state NMR data of the three peptides in DMPC, which shows that at high peptide concentrations the peptides perturb the membrane. Oriented circular dichroism data of the aurein peptides in 1:1 DMPC/DMPG, on the other hand, show that the peptides with amidated C-termini readily insert into the membrane bilayers over the concentration range studied (P/L = 1:15–1:120), whereas the aurein 2.3 peptide with a carboxy C-terminus inserts at a threshold concentration of P/L* between 1:80 and 1:120. Overall, the data presented here suggest that all three peptides studied interact with phosphatidylcholine membranes in a manner which is similar to aurein 1.2 and citropin 1.1, as reported in the literature, with no correlation to the reported activity. On the other hand, both aurein 2.2 and aurein 2.3 behave similarly in phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylglycerol (PC/PG) membranes, whereas aurein 2

  5. Characterization of the structure and membrane interaction of the antimicrobial peptides aurein 2.2 and 2.3 from Australian southern bell frogs.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yeang-Ling; Cheng, John T-J; Hale, John; Pan, Jinhe; Hancock, Robert E W; Straus, Suzana K

    2007-04-15

    The structure and membrane interaction of the antimicrobial peptide aurein 2.2 (GLFDIVKKVVGALGSL-CONH(2)), aurein 2.3 (GLFDIVKKVVGAIGSL-CONH(2)), both from Litoria aurea, and a carboxy C-terminal analog of aurein 2.3 (GLFDIVKKVVGAIGSL-COOH) were studied to determine which features of this class of peptides are key to activity. Circular dichroism and solution-state NMR data indicate that all three peptides adopt an alpha-helical structure in the presence of trifluoroethanol or lipids such as 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) and a 1:1 mixture of DMPC and 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-[phospho-rac-(1-glycerol)] (DMPG). Oriented circular dichroism was used to determine the orientation of the peptides in lipid bilayers over a range of concentrations (peptide/lipid molar ratios (P/L) = 1:15-1:120) in DMPC and 1:1 DMPC/DMPG, in the liquid crystalline state. The results demonstrate that in DMPC all three peptides are surface adsorbed over a range of low peptide concentrations but insert into the bilayers at high peptide concentrations. This finding is corroborated by (31)P-solid-state NMR data of the three peptides in DMPC, which shows that at high peptide concentrations the peptides perturb the membrane. Oriented circular dichroism data of the aurein peptides in 1:1 DMPC/DMPG, on the other hand, show that the peptides with amidated C-termini readily insert into the membrane bilayers over the concentration range studied (P/L = 1:15-1:120), whereas the aurein 2.3 peptide with a carboxy C-terminus inserts at a threshold concentration of P/L* between 1:80 and 1:120. Overall, the data presented here suggest that all three peptides studied interact with phosphatidylcholine membranes in a manner which is similar to aurein 1.2 and citropin 1.1, as reported in the literature, with no correlation to the reported activity. On the other hand, both aurein 2.2 and aurein 2.3 behave similarly in phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylglycerol (PC/PG) membranes, whereas aurein

  6. A novel application of RNase H2-dependent quantitative PCR for detection and quantification of Grosmannia clavigera, a mountain pine beetle fungal symbiont, in environmental samples

    PubMed Central

    McAllister, Chandra H; Fortier, Colleen E; St Onge, Kate R; Sacchi, Bianca M; Nawrot, Meaghan J; Locke, Troy

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins; MPB) is an economically and ecologically important pest of pine species in western North America. Mountain pine beetles form complex multipartite relationships with microbial partners, including the ophiostomoid fungi Grosmannia clavigera (Robinson-Jeffrey and Davidson) Zipfel, de Beer and Wingfield, Ophiostoma montium (Rumbold) von Arx, Grosmannia aurea (Robinson-Jeffrey and Davidson) Zipfel, de Beer and Wingfield, Leptographium longiclavatum (Lee, Kim, and Breuil) and Leptographium terebrantis (Barras and Perry). These fungi are vectored by MPB to new pine hosts, where the fungi overcome host defenses to grow into the sapwood. A tree’s relative susceptibility to these fungi is conventionally assessed by measuring lesions that develop in response to fungal inoculation. However, these lesions represent a symptom of infection, representing both fungal growth and tree defense capacity. In order to more objectively assess fungal virulence and host tree susceptibility in studies of host–pathogen interactions, a reliable, consistent, sensitive method is required to accurately identify and quantify MPB-associated fungal symbionts in planta. We have adapted RNase H2-dependent PCR, a technique originally designed for rare allele discrimination, to develop a novel RNase H2-dependent quantitative PCR (rh-qPCR) assay that shows greater specificity and sensitivity than previously published PCR-based methods to quantify MPB fungal symbionts in pine xylem and MPB whole beetles. Two sets of assay probes were designed: one that amplifies a broad range of ophiostomoid species, and a second that amplifies G. clavigera but not other MPB-associated ophiostomoid species. Using these primers to quantify G. clavigera in pine stems, we provide evidence that lesion length does not accurately reflect the extent of fungal colonization along the stem nor the quantity of fungal growth within this colonized portion of stem. The

  7. Evolution of genome size and chromosome number in the carnivorous plant genus Genlisea (Lentibulariaceae), with a new estimate of the minimum genome size in angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Fleischmann, Andreas; Michael, Todd P.; Rivadavia, Fernando; Sousa, Aretuza; Wang, Wenqin; Temsch, Eva M.; Greilhuber, Johann; Müller, Kai F.; Heubl, Günther

    2014-01-01

    G. margaretae, as previously reported, but in G. tuberosa (1C ≈ 61 Mbp) and some strains of G. aurea (1C ≈ 64 Mbp). Conclusions Genlisea is an ideal candidate model organism for the understanding of genome reduction as the genus includes species with both relatively large (∼1700 Mbp) and ultrasmall (∼61 Mbp) genomes. This comparative, phylogeny-based analysis of genome sizes and karyotypes in Genlisea provides essential data for selection of suitable species for comparative whole-genome analyses, as well as for further studies on both the molecular and cytogenetic basis of genome reduction in plants. PMID:25274549

  8. Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase and Polyphenol Oxidase in the Tobacco Mutant Su/su and Three Green Revertant Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Koivuniemi, Paul J.; Tolbert, N. E.; Carlson, Peter S.

    1980-01-01

    Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (EC 4.1.1.39) was crystallized from a heterozygous tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) aurea mutant (Su/su), its wild-type sibling (su/su), and green revertant plants regenerated from green spots found on leaves of haploid Su plants. No differences were found in the specific activity or kinetic parameters of this enzyme, when comparing Su/su and su/su plants of the same age, which had been grown under identical conditions. The enzyme crystallized from revertant plants was also identical to the enzyme from wild-type plants with the exception of one clone, designated R2. R2 has a chromosome number approximately double that of the wild-type (87.0 ± 11.1 versus 48). The enzyme from R2 had a lower Vmax for CO2, although the Km values were identical to those for the enzyme from the wild-type plant. The enzyme from all mutant plants had identical isoelectric points, identical molecular weight as demonstrated by migration on native and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gels, and the same ratio of large to small subunits as the enzyme from the wild-type. The large subunit of the enzyme from tobacco leaves exhibited a different electrophoretic pattern than did the large subunit from spinach; there were two to three bands on SDS-polyacrylamide gels for the tobacco enzyme whereas the enzyme from spinach had only one species of large subunit. Total polyphenol oxidase activity was the same in leaves from the heterozygous mutant (Su/su) and wild-type (su/su) plants when correlated with developmental age as represented by morphology rather than by the chronological age of the plants. There was a marked increase in the soluble activity of this enzyme with increasing age of both plant types and also as a result of varying environmental conditions. Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase activity correlated inversely with increases in the soluble activity of polyphenol oxidase in crude homogenates from which the

  9. Museum material reveals a frog parasite emergence after the invasion of the cane toad in Australia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A parasite morphologically indistinguishable from Myxidium immersum (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) found in gallbladders of the invasive cane toad (Bufo marinus) was identified in Australian frogs. Because no written record exists for such a parasite in Australian endemic frogs in 19th and early 20th century, it was assumed that the cane toad introduced this parasite. While we cannot go back in time ourselves, we investigated whether material at the museum of natural history could be used to retrieve parasites, and whether they were infected at the time of their collection (specifically prior to and after the cane toad translocation to Australia in 1935). Results Using the herpetological collection at the Australian Museum we showed that no myxospores were found in any animals (n = 115) prior to the cane toad invasion (1879-1935). The green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea), the Peron's tree frog (Litoria peronii), the green tree frog (Litoria caerulea) and the striped marsh frog (Limnodynastes peronii) were all negative for the presence of the parasite using microscopy of the gallbladder content and its histology. These results were sufficient to conclude that the population was free from this disease (at the expected minimum prevalence of 5%) at 99.7% confidence level using the 115 voucher specimens in the Australian Museum. Similarly, museum specimens (n = 29) of the green and golden bell frog from New Caledonia, where it was introduced in 19th century, did not show the presence of myxospores. The earliest specimen positive for myxospores in a gallbladder was a green tree frog from 1966. Myxospores were found in eight (7.1%, n = 112) frogs in the post cane toad introduction period. Conclusion Australian wildlife is increasingly under threat, and amphibian decline is one of the most dramatic examples. The museum material proved essential to directly support the evidence of parasite emergence in Australian native frogs. This parasite can be considered one of

  10. The anti-arthritic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant activity and relationships with total phenolics and total flavonoids of nine South African plants used traditionally to treat arthritis.

    PubMed

    Elisha, Ishaku Leo; Dzoyem, Jean-Paul; McGaw, Lyndy Joy; Botha, Francien S; Eloff, Jacobus Nicolaas

    2016-08-23

    Oxidative stress predisposes the human and animal body to diseases like cancer, diabetes, arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis and chronic inflammatory disorders. Hence, this study seeks to determine the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities of acetone leaf extracts of nine South African medicinal plants that have been used traditionally to treat arthritis and inflammation. The anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts was determined by investigating inhibition of nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide activated RAW 264.7 macrophages as well as 15-lipoxygenase enzyme inhibition. An anti-protein denaturation assay was used to determine the anti-arthritic properties of the extracts. The antioxidant activity was determined using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethyl-benzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assays and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The total phenolic and total flavonoid concentration of extracts were determined by using standard methods. All extracts inhibited nitric oxide production in a dose-dependent manner in the LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Extracts of Maesa lanceolata and Heteromorpha arborescens inhibited NO production by 99.16 % and 89.48 % at a concentration of 30 μg/ml respectively. Elaeodendron croceum and Calpurnia aurea extracts had strong activity against 15-lipoxygenase activity with IC50 values of 26.23 and 34.70 μg/ml respectively. Morus mesozygia and Heteromorpha arborescens extracts had good in vitro anti-arthritic activity with IC50 values of 11.89 and 53.78 μg/ml, the positive control diclofenac sodium had IC50 value of 32.37 μg/ml. The free radical scavenging activity of the extracts in DPPH assays ranged between 7.72 and 154.77 μg/ml. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and FRAP values ranged from 0.06 to 1.32 and 0.06 to 0.99 respectively. Results from this study support the traditional use of the

  11. The Diplommatinidae of Fiji – a hotspot of Pacific land snail biodiversity (Caenogastropoda, Cyclophoroidea)

    PubMed Central

    Neubert, Eike; Bouchet, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The minute (adult size 1.3–4.8 mm) land snail species of the family Diplommatinidae in the Fiji archipelago are revised based on historical material and modern (1998–99) collections targeting limestone outcrops on the largest island, Viti Levu, and several smaller islands in the Lau group. The forty-two species (including 30 new species) belong to the genera Moussonia Semper, 1865, Palaina Semper, 1865 and Diancta Martens, 1867, which are briefly characterized and keyed. The diagnostic structure of the inner lamellar system of each species is illustrated. All species except one are endemic to Fiji. In Viti Levu, the 12 localities surveyed each had 1–13 (average 5) species of Diplommatinidae; ten species were each found at a single site only. In the Lau islands, five islands were visited, with 1–4 species per island; four species are known from single islands. The number of historically known species not recollected in 1998–99 (7 species), the number of single-site occurrences (14 species), and the numerous islands — including limestone islands — that have not been surveyed at all, indicate that the 42 species of Diplommatinidae currently known from Fiji represent perhaps only half of the Fiji diplommatinid fauna. Such numbers approach the diplommatinid diversity of Palau (39 described and more than 60 undescribed species), and surpasses by far the diversity of other South Pacific archipelagos of comparable land area (New Caledonia, Vanuatu, Samoa). Nomenclatural acts: Lectotypes designated: Diplommatina fuscula, Diplommatina fuscula var. vitiana, Diplommatina godeffroyana, Diplommatina godeffroyana var. latecostata, Diplommatina tuberosa, Diplommatina martensi var. macrostoma, all Mousson, 1870. Neotypes designated: Diplommatina subregularis, Diplommatina ascendens, Diplommatina quadrata, all Mousson, 1870. New species: Diancta aurea sp. n., Diancta aurita sp. n., Diancta basiplana sp. n., Diancta controversa sp. n., Diancta densecostulata sp

  12. Synthesis and spectral studies of organotin(IV) 4-amino-3-alkyl-1,2,4-triazole-5-thionates: in vitro antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Nath, Mala; Sulaxna; Song, Xueqing; Eng, George; Kumar, Ashok

    2008-09-01

    Some di- and triorganotin(IV) triazolates of general formula, R(4-n)SnLn (where n=2; R=Me, n-Bu and Ph; n=1; R=Me, n-Pr, n-Bu and Ph and HL=4-amino-3-methyl-1,2,4-triazole-5-thiol (HL-1); and 4-amino-3-ethyl-1,2,4-triazole-5-thiol (HL-2)) were synthesized by the reaction of R(4-n)SnCln with sodium salt of HL-1 and HL-2. The bonding and coordination behavior in these derivatives have been discussed on the basis of IR and 119Sn Mössbauer spectroscopic studies in the solid state. Their coordination behavior in solution is discussed by multinuclear (1H, 13C and 119Sn) NMR spectral studies. The IR and 119Sn Mössbauer spectroscopic studies indicate that the ligands, HL-1 and HL-2 act as a monoanionic bidentate ligand, coordinating through Sexo- and Nring. The distorted skew trapezoidal-bipyramidal and distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometries have been proposed for R2SnL2 and R3SnL, respectively, in the solid state. In vitro antimicrobial screening of some of the newly synthesized derivatives and of some di- and triorganotin(IV) derivatives of 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole-5-thiol (HL-3) and 5-amino-3H-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiol (HL-4) along with two standard drugs such as fluconazole and ciprofloxacin have been carried out against the bacteria, viz. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and against some fungi, viz. Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Candida albicans (ATCC 10231), Candida krusei (GO3) and Candida glabrata (HO5) by the filter paper disc method. The studied organotin(IV) compounds show mild antifungal activity as compared to that of fluconazole, however, they show almost insignificant activity against the studied Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureas) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria as compared to that of standard drug, ciprofloxacin.

  13. Analyzing factors that influence the folk use and phytonomy of 18 medicinal plants in Navarra

    PubMed Central

    Akerreta, Silvia; Cavero, Rita Yolanda; López, Víctor; Calvo, María Isabel

    2007-01-01

    Background This article analyzes whether the distribution or area of use of 18 medicinal plants is influenced by ecological and cultural factors which might account for their traditional use and/or phytonymy in Navarra. This discussion may be helpful for comparative studies, touching as it does on other ethnopharmacological issues: a) which cultural and ecological factors affect the selection of medicinal plants; b) substitutions of medicinal plants in popular medicine; c) the relation between local nomenclature and uses. To analyze these questions, this paper presents an example of a species used for digestive disorders (tea and camomile: Jasonia glutinosa, J. tuberosa, Sideritis hyssopifolia, Bidens aurea, Chamaemelum nobile, Santolina chamaecyparissus...), high blood pressure (Rhamnus alaternus, Olea europaea...) or skin diseases (Hylotelephium maximum, H. telephium, Anagallis arvensis, A. foemina). Methods Fieldwork began on January 2004 and continued until December 2006. During that time we interviewed 505 informants in 218 locations in Navarra. Information was collected using semi-structured ethnobotanical interviews, and we subsequently made maps using Arc-View 8.0 program to determine the area of use of each taxon. Each map was then compared with the bioclimatic and linguistic map of Navarra, using the soil and ethnographic data for the region, and with other ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological studies carried out in Europe. Results The results clearly show that ecological and cultural factors influence the selection of medicinal plants in this region. Climate and substrate are the most important ecological factors that influence the distribution and abundance of plants, which are the biological factors that affect medicinal plant selection. Conclusion The study of edaphological and climatological factors, on the one hand, and culture, on the other, can help us to understand why a plant is replaced by another one for the same purposes, either in the

  14. Knocking on Heaven's Door: Are Novel Invaders Necessarily Facing Naïve Native Species on Islands?

    PubMed Central

    Gérard, Agathe; Jourdan, Hervé; Millon, Alexandre; Vidal, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The impact of alien predator species on insular native biota has often been attributed to island prey naïveté (i.e. lack of, or inefficient, anti-predator behavior). Only rarely, however, has the concept of island prey naïveté been tested, and then only a posteriori (i.e. hundreds or thousands of years after alien species introduction). The presence of native or anciently introduced predators or competitors may be crucial for the recognition and development of adaptive behavior toward unknown predators or competitors of the same archetype (i.e. a set of species that occupy a similar ecological niche and show similar morphological and behavioral traits when interacting with other species). Here, we tested whether two squamates endemic to New Caledonia, a skink, Caledoniscincus austrocaledonicus, and a gecko, Bavayia septuiclavis, recognized and responded to the odor of two major invaders introduced into the Pacific islands, but not yet into New Caledonia. We chose one predator, the small Indian mongoose Herpestes javanicus and one competitor, the cane toad Rhinella marina, which belong respectively to the same archetype as the following two species already introduced into New Caledonia in the nineteenth century: the feral cat Felis catus and the golden bell frog Litoria aurea. Our experiment reveals that geckos are naïve with respect to the odors of both an unknown predator and an unknown competitor, as well as to the odors of a predator and a competitor they have lived with for centuries. In contrast, skinks seem to have lost some naïveté regarding the odor of a predator they have lived with for centuries and seem “predisposed” to avoid the odor of an unknown potential competitor. These results indicate that insular species living in contact with invasive alien species for centuries may be, although not systematically, predisposed toward developing adaptive behavior with respect to species belonging to the same archetype and introduced into their native

  15. Relativistically induced transparency acceleration of light ions by an ultrashort laser pulse interacting with a heavy-ion-plasma density gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahai, Aakash A.; Tsung, Frank S.; Tableman, Adam R.; Mori, Warren B.; Katsouleas, Thomas C.

    2013-10-01

    The relativistically induced transparency acceleration (RITA) scheme of proton and ion acceleration using laser-plasma interactions is introduced, modeled, and compared to the existing schemes. Protons are accelerated with femtosecond relativistic pulses to produce quasimonoenergetic bunches with controllable peak energy. The RITA scheme works by a relativistic laser inducing transparency [Akhiezer and Polovin, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz 30, 915 (1956); Kaw and Dawson, Phys. FluidsPFLDAS0031-917110.1063/1.1692942 13, 472 (1970); Max and Perkins, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.27.1342 27, 1342 (1971)] to densities higher than the cold-electron critical density, while the background heavy ions are stationary. The rising laser pulse creates a traveling acceleration structure at the relativistic critical density by ponderomotively [Lindl and Kaw, Phys. FluidsPFLDAS0031-917110.1063/1.1693437 14, 371 (1971); Silva , Phys. Rev. E1063-651X10.1103/PhysRevE.59.2273 59, 2273 (1999)] driving a local electron density inflation, creating an electron snowplow and a co-propagating electrostatic potential. The snowplow advances with a velocity determined by the rate of the rise of the laser's intensity envelope and the heavy-ion-plasma density gradient scale length. The rising laser is incrementally rendered transparent to higher densities such that the relativistic-electron plasma frequency is resonant with the laser frequency. In the snowplow frame, trace density protons reflect off the electrostatic potential and get snowplowed, while the heavier background ions are relatively unperturbed. Quasimonoenergetic bunches of velocity equal to twice the snowplow velocity can be obtained and tuned by controlling the snowplow velocity using laser-plasma parameters. An analytical model for the proton energy as a function of laser intensity, rise time, and plasma density gradient is developed and compared to 1D and 2D PIC OSIRIS [Fonseca , Lect. Note Comput. Sci.9783

  16. Chemical evolution on planetary surfaces: from simple gases to organic macrocycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Stefan; Strasdeit, Henry

    ., Dworkin, J. P., Glavin, D. P., Lazcano, A., Bada, J. L. (2008), Science, 322, 404. [3] Cronin, J. R., Pizzarello, S. (1983), Adv. Space Res., 3, 5. [4] Shapiro, R. (1984), Orig. Life, 14, 565. [5] Sobral, A. J. F. N., Rebanda, N. G. C. L., da Silva, M., Lampreia, S. H., Ramos Silva, M., Matos Beja, A., Paixão, J. A., and d'A. Rocha Gonsalves, A. M. (2003), Tetrahedron Lett., 44, 3971. a

  17. Atmospheric Electric Field Measurements at 100 Hz and High Frequency Electric Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conceição, Ricardo; Gonçalves da Silva, Hugo; Matthews, James; Bennett, Alec; Chubb, John

    2016-04-01

    Spectral response of Atmospheric Electric Potential Gradient (PG), symmetric to the Atmospheric Electric Field, gives important information about phenomena affecting these measurements with characteristic time-scales that appear in the spectra as specific periodicities. This is the case of urban pollution that has a clear weekly dependence and reveals itself on PG measurements by a ~7 day periodicity (Silva et al., 2014). While long-term time-scales (low frequencies) have been exhaustively explored in literature, short-term time-scales (high frequencies), above 1 Hz, have comparatively received much less attention (Anisimov et al., 1999). This is mainly because of the technical difficulties related with the storage of such a huge amount of data (for 100 Hz sampling two days of data uses a ~1 Gb file) and the response degradation of the field-meters at such frequencies. Nevertheless, important Electric Phenomena occurs for frequencies above 1 Hz that are worth pursuing, e.g. the Schumann Resonances have a signature of worldwide thunderstorm activity at frequencies that go from ~8 up to ~40 Hz. To that end the present work shows preliminary results on PG measurements at 100 Hz that took place on two clear-sky days (17th and 18th June 2015) on the South of Portugal, Évora (38.50° N, 7.91° W). The field-mill used is a JCI 131F installed in the University of Évora campus (at 2 m height) with a few trees and two buildings in its surroundings (~50 m away). This device was developed by John Chubb (Chubb, 2014) and manufactured by Chilworth (UK). It was calibrated in December 2013 and recent work by the author (who is honored in this study for his overwhelming contribution to atmospheric electricity) reveals basically a flat spectral response of the device up to frequencies of 100 Hz (Chubb, 2015). This makes this device suitable for the study of High Frequency Electric Phenomena. Anisimov, S.V., et al. (1999). On the generation and evolution of aeroelectric structures

  18. Relativistically induced transparency acceleration of light ions by an ultrashort laser pulse interacting with a heavy-ion-plasma density gradient.

    PubMed

    Sahai, Aakash A; Tsung, Frank S; Tableman, Adam R; Mori, Warren B; Katsouleas, Thomas C

    2013-10-01

    The relativistically induced transparency acceleration (RITA) scheme of proton and ion acceleration using laser-plasma interactions is introduced, modeled, and compared to the existing schemes. Protons are accelerated with femtosecond relativistic pulses to produce quasimonoenergetic bunches with controllable peak energy. The RITA scheme works by a relativistic laser inducing transparency [Akhiezer and Polovin, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz 30, 915 (1956); Kaw and Dawson, Phys. Fluids 13, 472 (1970); Max and Perkins, Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 1342 (1971)] to densities higher than the cold-electron critical density, while the background heavy ions are stationary. The rising laser pulse creates a traveling acceleration structure at the relativistic critical density by ponderomotively [Lindl and Kaw, Phys. Fluids 14, 371 (1971); Silva et al., Phys. Rev. E 59, 2273 (1999)] driving a local electron density inflation, creating an electron snowplow and a co-propagating electrostatic potential. The snowplow advances with a velocity determined by the rate of the rise of the laser's intensity envelope and the heavy-ion-plasma density gradient scale length. The rising laser is incrementally rendered transparent to higher densities such that the relativistic-electron plasma frequency is resonant with the laser frequency. In the snowplow frame, trace density protons reflect off the electrostatic potential and get snowplowed, while the heavier background ions are relatively unperturbed. Quasimonoenergetic bunches of velocity equal to twice the snowplow velocity can be obtained and tuned by controlling the snowplow velocity using laser-plasma parameters. An analytical model for the proton energy as a function of laser intensity, rise time, and plasma density gradient is developed and compared to 1D and 2D PIC OSIRIS [Fonseca et al., Lect. Note Comput. Sci. 2331, 342 (2002)] simulations. We model the acceleration of protons to GeV energies with tens-of-femtoseconds laser pulses of a few

  19. To b or not to b ?? A nonextensive view of b-value in the Gutenberg-Richter law.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallianatos, Filippos

    2014-05-01

    The Gutenberg-Richter (GR) (Gutenberg and Richter, 1944) law one of the cornerstones of modern seismology has been considered as a paradigm of manifestation of self-organized criticality since the dependence of the cumulative number of earthquakes with energy, i.e., the number of earthquakes with energy greater than E, behaves as a power law with the b value related to the critical exponent. A great number of seismic hazard studies have been originated as a result of this law. The Gutenberg-Richter (GR) law is an empirical relationship, which recent efforts relate it with general physical principles (Kagan and Knopoff, 1981; Wesnousky, 1999; Sarlis et al., 2010; Telesca, 2012; Vallianatos and Sammonds, 2013). Nonextensive statistical mechanics pioneered by Tsallis (Tsallis, 2009) provides a consistent theoretical framework for the studies of complex systems in their nonequilibrium stationary states, systems with multi fractal and self-similar structures, long-range interacting systems, etc. Earth is such system. In the present work we analyze the different pathways (originated in Sotolongo-Costa, A. Posadas , 2004; Silva et al., 2006) to extract the generalization of the G-R law as obtained in the frame of non extensive statistical physics. We estimate the b-value and we discuss its underline physics. This research has been funded by the European Union (European Social Fund) and Greek national resources under the framework of the "THALES Program: SEISMO FEAR HELLARC" project of the "Education & Lifelong Learning" Operational Programme. References Gutenberg, B. and C. F. Richter (1944). Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 34, 185-188. Kagan, Y. Y. and L. Knopoff (1981). J. Geophys. Res. 86, 2853-2862. Sarlis, N., E. Skordas and P. Varotsos (2010). Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics 82 (2) , 021110. Silva, R., G. Franca, C. Vilar and J. Alcaniz (2006). Phys. Rev. E, 73, 026102 Sotolongo-Costa, O. and A. Posadas (2004). Phys. Rev. Lett., 92

  20. Influence of Environmental Variables on Gambierdiscus spp. (Dinophyceae) Growth and Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yixiao; Richlen, Mindy L.; Liefer, Justin D.; Robertson, Alison; Kulis, David; Smith, Tyler B.; Parsons, Michael L.; Anderson, Donald M.

    2016-01-01

    Benthic dinoflagellates in the genus Gambierdiscus produce the ciguatoxin precursors responsible for the occurrence of ciguatera toxicity. The prevalence of ciguatera toxins in fish has been linked to the presence and distribution of toxin-producing species in coral reef ecosystems, which is largely determined by the presence of suitable benthic habitat and environmental conditions favorable for growth. Here using single factor experiments, we examined the effects of salinity, irradiance, and temperature on growth of 17 strains of Gambierdiscus representing eight species/phylotypes (G. belizeanus, G. caribaeus, G. carolinianus, G. carpenteri, G. pacificus, G. silvae, Gambierdiscus sp. type 4–5), most of which were established from either Marakei Island, Republic of Kiribati, or St. Thomas, United States Virgin Island (USVI). Comparable to prior studies, growth rates fell within the range of 0–0.48 divisions day-1. In the salinity and temperature studies, Gambierdiscus responded in a near Gaussian, non-linear manner typical for such studies, with optimal and suboptimal growth occurring in the range of salinities of 25 and 45 and 21.0 and 32.5°C. In the irradiance experiment, no mortality was observed; however, growth rates at 55μmol photons · m-2 · s-1 were lower than those at 110–400μmol photons · m-2 · s-1. At the extremes of the environmental conditions tested, growth rates were highly variable, evidenced by large coefficients of variability. However, significant differences in intraspecific growth rates were typically found only at optimal or near-optimal growth conditions. Polynomial regression analyses showed that maximum growth occurred at salinity and temperature levels of 30.1–38.5 and 23.8–29.2°C, respectively. Gambierdiscus growth patterns varied among species, and within individual species: G. belizeanus, G. caribaeus, G. carpenteri, and G. pacificus generally exhibited a wider range of tolerance to environmental conditions, which may

  1. Paleomagnetic Study of Azores Archipelago: Volcano-Tectonic Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, P. F.; Henry, B.; Marques, F. O.; Madureira, P.; Miranda, J. M. A.; Lourenco, N. V.; Madeira, J.; Hildenbrand, A.; Nunes, J. C.; Roxerová, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Oceanic islands are by nature unstable volcanic buildings generally marked by rapid growth that alternates with destruction due to a variety of mass-wasting processes, including giant sector collapses, vertical caldera subsidence, fault generation/propagation, shallow landslides and coastal erosion. Due to its diverse volcanic and tectonic frameworks, the Azores archipelago represents an excellent case study for geophysical and geological proposes. Main results of a paleomagnetic study, conducted on oriented samples from approximately 60 accessible lava piles of three islands of Azores archipelago central group (Faial, Pico and Terceira islands) and covering as much as possible spatially and temporally these islands are: i) The paleomagnetic polarity is in close agreement with the radiometric results known for these islands; ii) Onshore volcanic activity began during the Matuyama geochron for Faial and during Brunhes for Terceira and Pico; iii) The mean ChRMs from Terceira and Pico islands result in a paleomagnetic pole similar to the ones retrieved from the studies of Johnson et al (1998) and Silva et al (2012), from S. Miguel and S. Jorge islands (other islands of Azores archipelago), respectively; iv) ChRMs from Faial show an elliptical distribution perpendicular to the WNW-ESE grabben that is the major structure of the island, suggesting tilting towards SSW of the southern wall and towards NNE of the northern one. The presence of listric faults plunging towards the middle of the grabben and aligned along the N110º azimuth could explain the elliptical distribution of paleomagnetic directions. This study is a contribution for the research project REGENA (PTDC/GEO-FIQ/3648/2012). References Johnson, C.L., Wijbrans, J.R., Constable, C.G., Gee, J., Staudigel, H., Tauxe, L., Forjaz, V.-H., Salgueiro, M., 1998. 40Ar/39Ar ages and paleomagnetism of S. Miguel lavas,Azores, Earth planet. Sci. Lett., 160, 637-649. Silva, PF; Henry, B; Marques, FO; Hildenbrand, A

  2. On the q-type distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadarajah, Saralees; Kotz, Samuel

    2007-04-01

    Various q-type distributions have appeared in the physics literature in the recent years, see e.g. L.C. Malacarne, R.S. Mendes, E. K. Lenzi, q-exponential distribution in urban agglomeration, Phys. Rev. E 65, (2002) 017106. S.M.D. Queiros, On a possible dynamical scenario leading to a generalised Gamma distribution, in xxx.lanl.gov-physics/0411111. U.M.S. Costa, V.N. Freire, L.C. Malacarne, R.S. Mendes, S. Picoli Jr., E.A. de Vasconcelos, E.F. da Silva Jr., An improved description of the dielectric breakdown in oxides based on a generalized Weibull distribution, Physica A 361, (2006) 215. S. Picoli, Jr., R.S. Mendes, L.C. Malacarne, q-exponential, Weibull, and q-Weibull distributions: an empirical analysis, Physica A 324 (2003) 678-688. A.M.C. de Souza, C. Tsallis, Student's t- and r- distributions: unified derivation from an entropic variational principle, Physica A 236 (1997) 52-57. It is pointed out in the paper that many of these are the same as or particular cases of what has been known in the statistics literature. Several of these statistical distributions are discussed and references provided. We feel that this paper could be of assistance for modeling problems of the type considered by L.C. Malacarne, R.S. Mendes, E. K. Lenzi, q-exponential distribution in urban agglomeration, Phys. Rev. E 65, (2002) 017106. S.M.D. Queiros, On a possible dynamical scenario leading to a generalised Gamma distribution, in xxx.lanl.gov-physics/0411111. U.M.S. Costa, V.N. Freire, L.C. Malacarne, R.S. Mendes, S. Picoli Jr., E.A. de Vasconcelos, E.F. da Silva Jr., An improved description of the dielectric breakdown in oxides based on a generalized Weibull distribution, Physica A 361, (2006) 215. S. Picoli, Jr., R.S. Mendes, L.C. Malacarne, q-exponential, Weibull, and q-Weibull distributions: an empirical analysis, Physica A 324 (2003) 678-688. A.M.C. de Souza, C. Tsallis, Student's t- and r- distributions: unified derivation from an entropic variational principle, Physica A 236

  3. Test-retest reliability of Brazilian version of Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale for assessing symptoms in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Josiane Roberta de; Luvisaro, Bianca Maria Oliveira; Rodrigues, Claudia Fernandes; Muzi, Camila Drumond; Guimarães, Raphael Mendonça

    2017-01-01

    To assess the test-retest reliability of the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale translated and culturally adapted into Brazilian Portuguese. The scale was applied in an interview format for 190 patients with various cancers type hospitalized in clinical and surgical sectors of the Instituto Nacional de Câncer José de Alencar Gomes da Silva and reapplied in 58 patients. Data from the test-retest were double typed into a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and analyzed by the weighted Kappa. The reliability of the scale was satisfactory in test-retest. The weighted Kappa values obtained for each scale item had to be adequate, the largest item was 0.96 and the lowest was 0.69. The Kappa subscale was also evaluated and values were 0.84 for high frequency physic symptoms, 0.81 for low frequency physical symptoms, 0.81 for psychological symptoms, and 0.78 for Global Distress Index. High level of reliability estimated suggests that the process of measurement of Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale aspects was adequate. Avaliar a confiabilidade teste-reteste da versão traduzida e adaptada culturalmente para o português do Brasil do Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale. A escala foi aplicada em forma de entrevista em 190 pacientes com diversos tipos de câncer internados nos setores clínicos e cirúrgicos do Instituto Nacional de Câncer José de Alencar Gomes da Silva e reaplicada em 58 pacientes. Os dados dos testes-retestes foram inseridos num banco de dados por dupla digitação independente em Excel e analisados pelo Kappa ponderado. A confiabilidade da escala mostrou-se satisfatória nos testes-retestes. Os valores do Kappa ponderado obtidos para cada item da escala apresentaram-se adequados, sendo o maior item de 0,96 e o menor de 0,69. Também se avaliou o Kappa das subescalas, sendo de 0,84 para sintomas físicos de alta frequência, de 0,81 para sintomas físicos de baixa frequência, de 0,81 também para sintomas psicológicos, e de 0,78 para Índice Geral de Sofrimento

  4. Exercise, Occupational Activity, and Risk of Sleep Apnea: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Roberto P.; Martinez, Denis; Pedroso, Martina M.; Righi, Camila G.; Martins, Emerson F.; Silva, Leticia M.T.; Lenz, Maria do Carmo S.; Fiori, Cintia Z.

    2017-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate whether structured exercise and occupational activity are associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity. Methods: The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was answered by 5,453 individuals who underwent full-night polysomnography. Participants were classified as exercisers or non-exercisers and also as occupationally active or non-active. The apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), minimum oxygen saturation (SaO2min), and time with saturation below 90% (TB90%) during polysomnography were used as indicators of OSA severity. Results: The sample included mostly men (59%), non-exercisers (56%), and occupationally non-active individuals (75%). Mean age (± standard deviation) was 44 ± 14 years, and mean body mass index was 29.9 ± 7.3 kg/m2. Non-exercisers had higher AHI (median 14, 25–75% interquartile range 4–34) than exercisers (8 [2–24]), lower SaO2min (83 ± 9 vs. 86 ± 8%), and longer TB90% (2 [0–18] vs. 0 [0–7] minutes), with p < 0.001 for all comparisons. AHI was higher in active (16 [6–34]) vs. non-active occupations (10 [3–27]; p < 0.001). Multinomial logistic regression with control for age, sex, overweight, obesity, and occupational activity showed that structured exercise was significantly associated with a 23% lower odds ratio for moderate OSA and 34% lower odds ratio for severe OSA. Active occupation was not associated with OSA. Conclusions: Structured physical exercise is associated with lower odds for OSA, independently of confounders. Occupational activity does not seem to replace the effects of regular exercise. Compensatory behaviors may be involved in these diverging outcomes. Our results warrant further research about the effect of occupational activity on OSA severity. Citation: da Silva RP, Martinez D, Pedroso MM, Righi CG, Martins EF, Silva LM, Lenz MD, Fiori CZ. Exercise, occupational activity, and risk of sleep apnea: a cross-sectional study. J Clin Sleep Med. 2017;13(2):197–204. PMID

  5. Minerals and clay minerals assemblages in organic-rich facies: the case study of the Sinemurian-Pliensbachian carbonate deposits of the western Lusitanian Basin (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caniço, Ana; Duarte, Luís V.; Silva, Ricardo L.; Rocha, Fernando; Graciano Mendonça Filho, João

    2015-04-01

    phase, and marks the disappearance of the organic-rich facies and increase of carbonate sedimentation. This enrichment was likely favored by the development of more humid conditions at the Sinemurian-Pliensbachian transition. References Duarte, L.V., Silva, R.L., Oliveira, L.C.V., Comas-Rengifo, M.J., Silva, F. 2010. Organic-rich facies in the Sinemurian and Pliensbachian of the Lusitanian Basin, Portugal: Total Organic Carbon distribution and relation to transgressive-regressive facies cycles. Geologica Acta 8, 325-340.

  6. Statistics of the Work done in a Quantum Quench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Alessandro

    2009-03-01

    The quantum quench, i.e. a rapid change in time of a control parameter of a quantum system, is the simplest paradigm of non-equilibrium process, completely analogous to a standard thermodynamic transformation. The dynamics following a quantum quench is particularly interesting in strongly correlated quantum systems, most prominently when the quench in performed across a quantum critical point. In this talk I will present a way to characterize the physics of quantum quenches by looking at the statistics of a basic thermodynamic variable: the work done on the system by changing its parameters [1]. I will first elucidate the relation between the probability distribution of the work, quantum Jarzynski equalities, and the Loschmidt echo, a quantity that emerges usually in the context of dephasing. Using this connection, I will then characterize the statistics of the work done on a Quantum Ising chain by quenching locally or globally the transverse field. I will then show that for global quenches the presence of a quantum critical point results in singularities of the moments of the distribution, while, for local quenches starting at criticality, the probability distribution itself displays an interesting edge singularity. The results of a similar analysis for other systems will be discussed. [4pt] [1] A. Silva, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 120603 (2008).

  7. HIV Immune Recovery Inflammatory Syndrome and Central Nervous System Paracoccidioidomycosis.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Sérgio Monteiro; Roza, Thiago Henrique

    2017-04-01

    The immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a deregulated inflammatory response to invading microorganisms. It is manifested when there is an abrupt change in host immunity from an anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive state to a pro-inflammatory state as a result of rapid depletion or removal of factors that promote immune suppression or inhibition of inflammation. The aim of this paper is to discuss and re-interpret the possibility of association of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) with IRIS in the central nervous system (CNS) in a case from Brazil published by Silva-Vergara ML. et al. (Mycopathologia 177:137-141, 6). An AIDS patient who was not receiving medical care developed pulmonary PCM successfully treated with itraconazole. The patient developed central nervous system PCM (NPCM) after starting the ARV therapy with recovery of immunity and control of HIV viral load, although it was not interpreted as IRIS by the authors, it fulfills the criteria for CNS IRIS. This could be the first case of NPCM associated with IRIS described. Although not frequent, IRIS must be considered in PCM patients and HIV, from endemic areas or patients that traveled to endemic areas, receiving ARV treatment and with worsening symptoms.

  8. Equation of State Measurements of Deuterium up to 2 Mbar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, G. W.

    1997-04-01

    While the hydrogen Equation of State at high density and temperature is integral to many astrophysical and planetary models, few experimental techniques can access the strongly-coupled region where molecular dissociation or electronic excitation occur. High power lasers can access much of this unexplored phase space. We(This work was done in collaboration with L. B. Da Silva, P. Celliers, K. S. Budil, R. Cauble, N. C. Holmes, T. W. Barbee Jr, B. A. Hammel, J. D. Kilkenny, R. J. Wallace, M. Ross, A. Ng and G. Chiu.) present the pressure (from 0.25 to 2.1 Mbar) and density on the first Hugoniot, derived from shock speed, particle speed, and compression measurements of liquid deuterium. Shock waves were produced with the Nova laser. The data show a significant increase in compressibility near 1 Mbar compared to existing widely-used equation of state models. The data are consistent with a thermal molecular dissociation of the diatomic fluid into a monatomic phase.

  9. Classical and ab-initio simulations of hydrogen in the dissociating regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clerouin, Jean; Blottiau, Patrick; Bernard, Stephane; Dufreche, Jean-Francois

    1999-11-01

    Recent experiments on shock compressed hydrogen ( L. B. Da Silva, P. Cellires, G. W. Collins., et al., Physical Review Letters 78, 483-486 (1997).) have motivated a large number of theoretical studies to try to reproduce the experimental Hugoniot data. In spite of the simplicity of the hydrogen molecule, a precise description of its dissociation under pressure and temperature is still missing. Here, we compare three different approaches: the empirical Ross model (M. Ross, Physical Review B 58, 669-677 (1998).) which reproduces the experimental data, a classical molecular dynamics model, which allows for the computation of transport coefficients such as the viscosity footnote J. F. Dufreche and J. Clerouin, Physical Review E , submitted (1999). and ab initio simulations for a detailed description of the dissociation process. This comparison reveals that in the region [0.1 g/cm^3< ρ< 1g/cm^3, 2000K

  10. Radio structure effects on the optical and radio representations of the ICRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrei, A. H.; da Silva Neto, D. N.; Assafin, M.; Vieira Martins, R.

    Silva Neto et al. (2002) show that comparing the ICRF Ext.1 sources standard radio position (Ma et al. 1998) against their optical counterpart position (Zacharias et al. 1999, Monet et al., 1998), a systematic pattern appears, which depends on the radio structure index (Fey and Charlot, 2000). The optical to radio offsets produce a distribution suggestive of a coincidence of the optical and radio centroids worse for the radio extended than for the radio compact sources. On average, the coincidence between the optical and radio centroids is found 7.9±1.1 mas smaller for the compact than for the extended sources. Such an effect is reasonably large, and certainly much too large to be due to errors on the VLBI radio position. On the other hand, it is too small to be accounted to the errors on the optical position, which moreover should be independent from the radio stucture. Thus, other than a true pattern of centroids non-coincidence, the remaining explanation is of a hazard result. This paper summarizes the several statistical tests used to discard the hazard explanation.

  11. Evidence of Non-Coincidence between Radio and Optical Positions of ICRF Sources.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrei, A. H.; da Silva, D. N.; Assafin, M.; Vieira Martins, R.

    2003-11-01

    Silva Neto et al. (SNAAVM: 2002) show that comparing the ICRF Ext1 sources standard radio position (Ma et al., 1998) against their optical counterpart position(ZZHJVW: Zacharias et al., 1999; USNO A2.0: Monet et al., 1998), a systematic pattern appears, which depends on the radio structure index (Fey and Charlot, 2000). The optical to radio offsets produce a distribution suggestive of a coincidence of the optical and radio centroids worse for the radio extended than for the radio compact sources. On average, the coincidence between the optical and radio centroids is found 7.9 +/- 1.1 mas smaller for the compact than for the extended sources. Such an effect is reasonably large, and certainly much too large to be due to errors on the VLBI radio position. On the other hand, it is too small to be accounted to the errors on the optical position, which moreover should be independent from the radio structure. Thus, other than a true pattern of centroids non-coincidence, the remaining explanation is of a hazard result. This paper summarizes the several statistical tests used to discard the hazard explanation.

  12. Evaluation of Calretinin expression in Ameloblastoma and Non-Neoplastic Odontogenic Cysts - An immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    D'Silva, Shaloom; Sumathi, M K; Balaji, N; Shetty, Nisha K N; Pramod, K M; Cheeramelil, Jacob

    2013-12-01

    Calretinin a 29-kDa calcium binding protein is expressed widely in normal human tissue and tumours including amelobastoma. The objective of this study was to determine calretinin expression in heamatoxylin and eosin diagnosed cases of ameloblastoma and non-neoplastic odontogenic cysts. The lining epithelium in 3 cases of radicular cysts, 5 cases of odontogenic keratocysts, 5 cases of dentigerous cysts and 11 cases of ameloblastomas were examined for expression of calretinin. No positive epithelial staining was observed in radicular and dentigerous cysts. In comparison, however 100% of cases of ameloblastomas and 40% of cases of odontogenic karatocysts showed positive calretinin expression. Calretinin may be a specific immunohistochemical marker for ameloblastoma. If there is any possible relation between calretinin expression and neural origin of the odontogenic epithelium and its neoplastic transformation and if calretinin could be used as an early marker to predict the tendency of neoplastic change of odontogenic epithelium could be answered through further researches. How to cite this article: D'Silva S, Sumathi MK, Balaji N, Shetty NK, Pramod KM, Cheeramelil J. Evaluation of Calretinin expression in Ameloblastoma and Non-Neoplastic Odontogenic Cysts - An immunohistochemical study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):42-8 .

  13. Individuals and Leadership in an Australian Secondary Science Department: A Qualitative Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melville, Wayne; Wallace, John; Bartley, Anthony

    2007-12-01

    In this article, we consider the complex and dynamic inter-relationships between individual science teachers, the social space of their work and their dispositions towards teacher leadership. Research into the representation of school science departments through individual science teachers is scarce. We explore the representations of four individual teachers to the assertions of teacher leadership proposed by Silva et al. (Teach Coll Rec, 102(4):779-804, 2000). These representations, expressed during regular science department meetings, occur in the social space of Bourdieu's "field" and are a reflection of the "game" of science education being played within the department. This departmentally centred space suggests an important implication when considering the relationship between subject departments and their schools. The development of an individual's representation of teacher leadership and the wider "field" of science education appears to shape the individual towards promoting their own sense of identity as a teacher of science, rather than as a teacher within a school. Our work suggests that for these individuals, the important "game" is science education, not school improvement. Consequently, the subject department may be a missing link between efforts to improve schools and current organizational practices.

  14. Integrative taxonomy methods reveal high mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) diversity in southern Brazilian fruit crops.

    PubMed

    Pacheco da Silva, Vitor C; Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Malausa, Thibaut; Germain, Jean-François; Palero, Ferran; Botton, Marcos

    2017-11-16

    The Serra Gaúcha region is the most important temperate fruit-producing area in southern Brazil. Despite mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) infesting several host plants in the region, there is a lack of information about the composition of species damaging different crops. A survey of mealybug species associated with commercial fruit crops (apple, persimmon, strawberry and grapes) was performed in Serra Gaúcha between 2013 and 2015, using both morphology and DNA analyses for species identification. The most abundant species were Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret), found on all four host plant species, and Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell), infesting persimmon, vines and weeds. The highest diversity of mealybug species was found on persimmon trees, hosting 20 different taxa, of which Anisococcus granarae Pacheco da Silva & Kaydan, D. brevipes, Pseudococcus sociabilis Hambleton and Ps. viburni were the most abundant. A total of nine species were recorded in vineyards. Planococcus ficus (Signoret) and Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti) were observed causing damage to grapes for the first time. A single species, Ps. viburni, was found associated with apples, while both Ps. viburni and Ferrisia meridionalis Williams were found on strawberry. Four of the mealybug species found represent new records for Brazil.

  15. A new species of Voria Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Area de Conservación Guanacaste in northwestern Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Fleming, A J; Wood, D Monty; Smith, M Alex; Dapkey, Tanya; Hallwachs, Winnie; Janzen, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    We describe a new species in the genus Voria Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (Diptera: Tachinidae: Voriini) from Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG) in northwestern Costa Rica. It was reared as part of an ongoing inventory of wild-caught caterpillars spanning a variety of moth and butterfly families (Lepidoptera). Our study provides a concise description of the new species using morphology, life history, molecular data, and photographic documentation. In addition to the new species, we provide a diagnosis of the genus as well as new data relating to host use. The following new species of Voria is described: Voria erasmocoronadoi Fleming & Wood sp. n. The following are proposed by Fleming & Wood as new synonyms of Voria : Xenoplagia Townsend, 1914 syn. n. , Hystricovoria Townsend, 1928 syn. n. , Afrovoria Curran, 1938 syn. n. , and Anavoria Mesnil, 1953 syn. n. , and Itavoria Townsend, 1931 syn. n. The following new combinations are proposed as a result of the new synonymies: Voria bakeri (Townsend, 1928), comb. n. and Voria setosa (Townsend, 1914), comb. n. The authors also propose Voria pollyclari (Rocha-e-Silva, Lopes & Della Lucia, 1999), comb. n. based on the morphology of the holotype.

  16. Commitment to Broadening Participation at NOAO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garmany, Catharine D.; Norman, D.

    2011-01-01

    AURA and NOAO take seriously the importance of Broadening Participation in Astronomy. At the request of the AURA President, each of the AURA centers (NOAO, NSO, STSCI, Gemini) appointed a Diversity Advocates (DA). At NOAO this job is shared by Dara Norman and Katy Garmany, who were appointed by Dave Silva in Jan 2009. The DA's are members of the AURA Committee on Workforce and Diversity (WDC), a designated subcommittee of the AURA Board of Directors. The role of this committee includes reviewing activities and plans on an AURA wide basis aimed at broadening the participation within AURA, and reviewing AURA wide policies on the workforce. At NOAO, the role of the DAs spans a number of departments and activities. They serve on observatory search committees, and offer suggestions on how NOAO job searches can reach the most diverse audience. The DA's job is to insure that NOAO actively pursues every opportunity to increase diversity: to this end they are involved in outreach and educational activities that focus on workplace development and encourage inclusion of woman, minorities and persons with disabilities.

  17. Comments on the recent changes in taxonomy of pygmy unicorns, with description of a new species of Metopomystrum from Brazil (Insecta, Tetrigidae, Cleostratini, Miriatrini)

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Daniela Santos Martins; Skejo, Josip; Pereira, Marcelo Ribeiro; Domenico, Fernando Campos De; Sperber, Carlos Frankl

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The tribe Cleostratini Bolívar, 1887 sensu Storozhenko, 2016 does not represent a monophyletic taxon because it gathers various Tetrigidae genera with various types of horn and prolongation of frons or vertex. Prolongation of these structures is present in morphologically and biogeographically distant groups. We do not regard Miriatrini Cadena-Castañeda & Cardona, 2015 synonymous with Cleostratini because the genus Miriatra Bolívar, 1906 belongs to a group of genera distant from Cleostratus Stål, 1877. There is no adequate diagnosis for proposed groups of genera forming tribes Cleostratini or Miriatrini. Miriatrini stat. resurr. are monotypic and include only Miriatra, Cleostratini are monotypic as well. Apteromystrum Storozhenko, 2016 syn. n. is regarded synonymous with Metopomystrum, M. apterum comb. resurr., M. amazoniensis comb. resurr. and Miriatra brevifastigiata (Cadena-Castañeda & Cardona, 2015), comb. n. are not Metopomystrum member. Herein a new species of pygmy unicorn, Metopomystrum muriciense Silva & Skejo, sp. n., is described from Atlantic Forest remnants in northeast of Brazil, collected on the Estação Serra do Ouro (municipality of Murici, Alagoas state). Distribution data, morphological characterization, and an identification key to Metopomystrum species are also presented. PMID:29118597

  18. Limiting Rights and Freedoms in the Context of Ebola and Other Public Health Emergencies: How the Principle of Reciprocity Can Enrich the Application of the Siracusa Principles.

    PubMed

    Silva, Diego S; Smith, Maxwell J

    2015-06-11

    One of the key components of CESCR General Comment No. 14: The Right to the Highest Attainable Standard of Health (GC 14) is the recognition that human rights are necessarily interdependent and that the social determinants of health are important to the promotion of health itself; as stated in paragraph 3 "…other [human] rights and freedoms [e.g., food, housing] address integral components of the right to health." GC 14, paragraph 16 maintains that a right to health also includes the right to control the spread of infectious diseases via a variety of control measures, some of which are restrictive. The use of restrictive measures during infectious disease outbreaks, including measures like quarantine, isolation, and travel prohibitions, restrict or limit basic human rights prescribed by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, such as freedom of movement (Article 13) and the right to peaceful assembly (Article 20), for the sake of protecting and promoting the health of individuals and communities. Copyright 2015 Silva and Smith. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  19. Domain–domain interactions determine the gating, permeation, pharmacology, and subunit modulation of the IKs ion channel

    PubMed Central

    Zaydman, Mark A; Kasimova, Marina A; McFarland, Kelli; Beller, Zachary; Hou, Panpan; Kinser, Holly E; Liang, Hongwu; Zhang, Guohui; Shi, Jingyi; Tarek, Mounir; Cui, Jianmin

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-gated ion channels generate electrical currents that control muscle contraction, encode neuronal information, and trigger hormonal release. Tissue-specific expression of accessory (β) subunits causes these channels to generate currents with distinct properties. In the heart, KCNQ1 voltage-gated potassium channels coassemble with KCNE1 β-subunits to generate the IKs current (Barhanin et al., 1996; Sanguinetti et al., 1996), an important current for maintenance of stable heart rhythms. KCNE1 significantly modulates the gating, permeation, and pharmacology of KCNQ1 (Wrobel et al., 2012; Sun et al., 2012; Abbott, 2014). These changes are essential for the physiological role of IKs (Silva and Rudy, 2005); however, after 18 years of study, no coherent mechanism explaining how KCNE1 affects KCNQ1 has emerged. Here we provide evidence of such a mechanism, whereby, KCNE1 alters the state-dependent interactions that functionally couple the voltage-sensing domains (VSDs) to the pore. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03606.001 PMID:25535795

  20. Differences in soil micro-eukaryotic communities over soil pH gradients are strongly driven by parasites and saprotrophs.

    PubMed

    Dupont, A Ö C; Griffiths, R I; Bell, T; Bass, D

    2016-06-01

    A recent large-scale assessment of bacterial communities across a range of UK soil types showed that bacterial community structure was strongly determined by soil pH. We analysed a data set of eukaryotic 454 sequencing 18S rDNA from the surveyed samples and showed significant differences in eukaryotic assemblages according to pH class, mostly between low pH and higher pH soils. Soil eukaryote communities (per sample) differed most at the taxonomic rank approximating to order level. Taxonomies assigned with the Protist Ribosomal Reference and the Silva 119 databases were taxonomically inconsistent, mostly due to differing 18S annotations, although general structure and composition according to pH were coherent. A relatively small number of lineages, mostly putative parasitic protists and fungi, drive most differences between pH classes, with weaker contributions from bacterivores and autotrophs. Overall, soil parasites included a large diversity of alveolates, in particular apicomplexans. Phylogenetic analysis of alveolate lineages demonstrates a large diversity of unknown gregarines, novel perkinsids, coccidians, colpodellids and uncharacterized alveolates. Other novel and/or divergent lineages were revealed across the eukaryote tree of life. Our study provides an in-depth taxonomic evaluation of micro-eukaryotic diversity, and reveals novel lineages and insights into their relationships with environmental variables across soil gradients. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Applying a Systems Approach to Monitoring and Assessing Climate Change Mitigation Potential in Mexico's Forest Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olguin-Alvarez, M. I.; Wayson, C.; Fellows, M.; Birdsey, R.; Smyth, C.; Magnan, M.; Dugan, A.; Mascorro, V.; Alanís, A.; Serrano, E.; Kurz, W. A.

    2017-12-01

    Since 2012, the Mexican government through its National Forestry Commission, with support from the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, the Forest Services of Canada and USA, the SilvaCarbon Program and research institutes in Mexico, has made important progress towards the use of carbon dynamics models ("gain-loss" approach) for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions monitoring and projections into the future. Here we assess the biophysical mitigation potential of policy alternatives identified by the Mexican Government (e.g. net zero deforestation rate, sustainable forest management) based on a systems approach that models carbon dynamics in forest ecosystems, harvested wood products and substitution benefits in two contrasting states of Mexico. We provide key messages and results derived from the use of the Carbon Budget Model of the Canadian Forest Sector and a harvested wood products model, parameterized with input data from Mexicós National Forest Monitoring System (e.g. forest inventories, remote sensing, disturbance data). The ultimate goal of this tri-national effort is to develop data and tools for carbon assessment in strategic landscapes in North America, emphasizing the need to include multiple sectors and types of collaborators (scientific and policy-maker communities) to design more comprehensive portfolios for climate change mitigation in accordance with the Paris Agreement of the United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change (e.g. Mid-Century Strategy, NDC goals).

  2. Performance of soil particle-size distribution models for describing deposited soils adjacent to constructed dams in the China Loess Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Pei; Shao, Ming-an; Horton, Robert

    2011-02-01

    Soil particle-size distributions (PSD) have been used to estimate soil hydraulic properties. Various parametric PSD models have been proposed to describe the soil PSD from sparse experimental data. It is important to determine which PSD model best represents specific soils. Fourteen PSD models were examined in order to determine the best model for representing the deposited soils adjacent to dams in the China Loess Plateau; these were: Skaggs (S-1, S-2, and S-3), fractal (FR), Jaky (J), Lima and Silva (LS), Morgan (M), Gompertz (G), logarithm (L), exponential (E), log-exponential (LE), Weibull (W), van Genuchten type (VG) as well as Fredlund (F) models. Four-hundred and eighty samples were obtained from soils deposited in the Liudaogou catchment. The coefficient of determination (R 2), the Akaike's information criterion (AIC), and the modified AIC (mAIC) were used. Based upon R 2 and AIC, the three- and four-parameter models were both good at describing the PSDs of deposited soils, and the LE, FR, and E models were the poorest. However, the mAIC in conjunction with R 2 and AIC results indicated that the W model was optimum for describing PSD of the deposited soils for emphasizing the effect of parameter number. This analysis was also helpful for finding out which model is the best one. Our results are applicable to the China Loess Plateau.

  3. Acute mercurial pneumonitis

    PubMed Central

    Milne, James; Christophers, Allen; Silva, Pamela De

    1970-01-01

    Milne, J., Christophers, A., and de Silva, Pamela (1970).Brit. J. industr. Med.,27, 334-338. Acute mercurial pneumonitis. Mercury vapour has been shown to cause acute effects on the lung when inhaled in high concentrations. Four men, exposed to mercury inside a tank, developed, hours later, signs and symptoms of an acute febrile illness with severe pulmonary irritation, characterized by fever, rigors, cough, dyspnoea, and tightness in the chest. A review of the literature revealed that this syndrome had been described and investigated previously in fewer than 20 cases during the past 40 years, and is apparently little known. Fatalities have been described, particularly in children, and necropsy evidence has consistently revealed the pattern of an acute diffuse interstitial pneumonitis, accompanied by profuse fibrinous exudation and erosion of the bronchial and bronchiolar lining. The two common features in all reports are the heating of mercury or the entering into a confined space, or both. Adequate respiratory protection by an efficient air-supplied respirator is mandatory in industrial circumstances of the kind described in this report. PMID:5488692

  4. Universality in the distance between two teams in a football tournament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Roberto; Dahmen, Silvio R.

    2014-03-01

    Is football (soccer) a universal sport? Beyond the question of geographical distribution, where the answer is most certainly yes, when looked at from a mathematical viewpoint the scoring process during a match can be thought of, in a first approximation, as being modeled by a Poisson distribution. Recently, it was shown that the scoring of real tournaments can be reproduced by means of an agent-based model (da Silva et al. (2013) [24]) based on two simple hypotheses: (i) the ability of a team to win a match is given by the rate of a Poisson distribution that governs its scoring during a match; and (ii) such ability evolves over time according to results of previous matches. In this article we are interested in the question of whether the time series represented by the scores of teams have universal properties. For this purpose we define a distance between two teams as the square root of the sum of squares of the score differences between teams over all rounds in a double-round-robin-system and study how this distance evolves over time. Our results suggest a universal distance distribution of tournaments of different major leagues which is better characterized by an exponentially modified Gaussian (EMG). This result is corroborated by our agent-based model.

  5. MiDAS: the field guide to the microbes of activated sludge.

    PubMed

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Saunders, Aaron Marc; Albertsen, Mads; Nierychlo, Marta; McIlroy, Bianca; Hansen, Aviaja Anna; Karst, Søren Michael; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2015-01-01

    The Microbial Database for Activated Sludge (MiDAS) field guide is a freely available online resource linking the identity of abundant and process critical microorganisms in activated sludge wastewater treatment systems to available data related to their functional importance. Phenotypic properties of some of these genera are described, but most are known only from sequence data. The MiDAS taxonomy is a manual curation of the SILVA taxonomy that proposes a name for all genus-level taxa observed to be abundant by large-scale 16 S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of full-scale activated sludge communities. The taxonomy can be used to classify unknown sequences, and the online MiDAS field guide links the identity to the available information about their morphology, diversity, physiology and distribution. The use of a common taxonomy across the field will provide a solid foundation for the study of microbial ecology of the activated sludge process and related treatment processes. The online MiDAS field guide is a collaborative workspace intended to facilitate a better understanding of the ecology of activated sludge and related treatment processes--knowledge that will be an invaluable resource for the optimal design and operation of these systems. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  6. Secondary particle tracks generated by ion beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Gustavo

    2015-05-01

    The Low Energy Particle Track Simulation (LEPTS) procedure is a powerful complementary tool to include the effect of low energy electrons and positrons in medical applications of radiation. In particular, for ion-beam cancer treatments provides a detailed description of the role of the secondary electrons abundantly generated around the Bragg peak as well as the possibility of using transmuted positron emitters (C11, O15) as a complement for ion-beam dosimetry. In this study we present interaction probability data derived from IAM-SCAR corrective factors for liquid environments. Using these data, single electron and positron tracks in liquid water and pyrimidine have been simulated providing information about energy deposition as well as the number and type of interactions taking place in any selected ``nanovolume'' of the irradiated area. In collaboration with Francisco Blanco, Universidad Complutense de Madrid; Antonio Mu noz, Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas Medioambientales y Tecnológicas and Diogo Almeida, Filipe Ferreira da Silva, Paulo Lim ao-Vieira, Universidade Nova de Lisboa. Supported by the Spanish and Portuguese governments.

  7. Mapping Loci That Control Tuber and Foliar Symptoms Caused by PVY in Autotetraploid Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    da Silva, Washington L; Ingram, Jason; Hackett, Christine A; Coombs, Joseph J; Douches, David; Bryan, Glenn J; De Jong, Walter; Gray, Stewart

    2017-11-06

    Potato tuber necrotic ringspot disease (PTNRD) is a tuber deformity associated with infection by the tuber necrotic strain of Potato virus Y (PVY NTN ). PTNRD negatively impacts tuber quality and marketability, and poses a serious threat to seed and commercial potato production worldwide. PVY NTN symptoms differ in the cultivars Waneta and Pike: Waneta expresses severe PTNRD and foliar mosaic with vein and leaf necrosis, whereas Pike does not express PTNRD and mosaic is the only foliar symptom. To map loci that influence tuber and foliar symptoms, 236 F 1 progeny of a cross between Waneta and Pike were inoculated with PVY NTN isolate NY090029 and genotyped using 12,808 potato SNPs. Foliar symptom type and severity were monitored for 10 wk, while tubers were evaluated for PTNRD expression at harvest and again after 60 d in storage. Pairwise correlation analyses indicate a strong association between PTNRD and vein necrosis (τ = 0.4195). QTL analyses revealed major-effect QTL on chromosomes 4 and 5 for mosaic, 4 for PTNRD, and 5 for foliar necrosis symptoms. Locating QTL associated with PVY-related symptoms provides a foundation for breeders to develop markers that can be used to eliminate potato clones with undesirable phenotypes, e.g. , those likely to develop PTNRD or to be symptomless carriers of PVY. Copyright © 2017 Silva et al.

  8. An harmonic smile resulted from the use of ceramic prosthesis with zirconia structure: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tavarez, Rudys Rodolfo de Jesus; Goncalves, Leticia Machado; Dias, Ana Paula; Dias, Anna Claudia Pereira; Malheiros, Adriana Santos; Silva, Alice Carvalho; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho

    2014-06-01

    The rehabilitation of patients requiring an esthetic smile demands a multidisciplinary approach. This clinical report describes a treatment plan for recovery aesthetics' smile of anterior teeth using ceramic prosthesis with zirconia structure. Initially, a review of aesthetic parameters, diagnostic waxing, mock-up and provisional restorations was performed. A contextual assessment of aesthetic, proportion and shape of teeth was done to recreate a natural looking for teeth in consonance with the smile line. Subsequently, based on these parameters, fixed prostheses of the upper anterior teeth using ceramic restorations with zirconia infrastructures were performed. The use of ceramic restorations with zirconia structures associated with a careful treatment plan allows the professional to integrate esthetic and function for satisfactory clinical results. How to cite the article: Tavarez RR, Gonçalves LM, Dias AP, Dias AC, Malheiros AS, Silva AC, Bandeca MC. An harmonic smile resulted from the use of ceramic prosthesis with zirconia structure: A case report. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):90-2.

  9. The Battle Over Abortion Rights in Brazil’s State Arenas, 1995-2006

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This article proposes a relational approach to the study of abortion law reform in Brazil. It focuses on the interaction of pro-choice and anti-abortion movements in different state arenas and political contexts. It details the emergence of a strategic action field on abortion during the Brazilian re-democratization process and the National Constituent Assembly. We offer analysis on pro-choice and anti-abortion mobilization in state arenas—mainly in the executive and legislative powers—during the two terms of President Fernando Henrique Cardoso (FHC), 1995–1998 and 1999–2002, and the first term of President Luís Inácio Lula da Silva (Lula), 2003–2006. We then map political resources for mobilization, such as legislative bills, public policy norms, and judicial decisions, and track legal continuities and changes. Finally, we analyze anti-abortion reaction, which was consolidated through an increased conservative presence in congress after 2006, and discuss how the abortion debate has migrated from congress to the Supreme Court and the public sphere. PMID:28630546

  10. Astrophysical applications of the post-Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glampedakis, Kostas; Pappas, George; Silva, Hector O.; Berti, Emanuele

    2016-08-01

    The bulk properties of spherically symmetric stars in general relativity can be obtained by integrating the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff (TOV) equations. In previous work [K. Glampedakis, G. Pappas, H. O. Silva, and E. Berti, Phys. Rev. D 92, 024056 (2015)], we developed a "post-TOV" formalism—inspired by parametrized post-Newtonian theory—which allows us to classify in a parametrized, phenomenological form all possible perturbative deviations from the structure of compact stars in general relativity that may be induced by modified gravity at second post-Newtonian order. In this paper we extend the formalism to deal with the stellar exterior, and we compute several potential astrophysical observables within the post-TOV formalism: the surface redshift zs, the apparent radius Rapp, the Eddington luminosity at infinity LE∞ and the orbital frequencies. We show that, at leading order, all of these quantities depend on just two post-TOV parameters μ1 and χ , and we discuss the possibility to measure (or set upper bounds on) these parameters.

  11. Monitoring Strategies for REDD+: Integrating Field, Airborne, and Satellite Observations of Amazon Forests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, Douglas; Souza, Carlos, Jr.; Souza, Carlos, Jr.; Keller, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale tropical forest monitoring efforts in support of REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation plus enhancing forest carbon stocks) confront a range of challenges. REDD+ activities typically have short reporting time scales, diverse data needs, and low tolerance for uncertainties. Meeting these challenges will require innovative use of remote sensing data, including integrating data at different spatial and temporal resolutions. The global scientific community is engaged in developing, evaluating, and applying new methods for regional to global scale forest monitoring. Pilot REDD+ activities are underway across the tropics with support from a range of national and international groups, including SilvaCarbon, an interagency effort to coordinate US expertise on forest monitoring and resource management. Early actions on REDD+ have exposed some of the inherent tradeoffs that arise from the use of incomplete or inaccurate data to quantify forest area changes and related carbon emissions. Here, we summarize recent advances in forest monitoring to identify and target the main sources of uncertainty in estimates of forest area changes, aboveground carbon stocks, and Amazon forest carbon emissions.

  12. Data shopping in an open marketplace: Introducing the Ontogrator web application for marking up data using ontologies and browsing using facets.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Norman; Hancock, David; Hirschman, Lynette; Dawyndt, Peter; Verslyppe, Bert; Kyrpides, Nikos; Kottmann, Renzo; Yilmaz, Pelin; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Grethe, Jeff; Booth, Tim; Sterk, Peter; Nenadic, Goran; Field, Dawn

    2011-04-29

    In the future, we hope to see an open and thriving data market in which users can find and select data from a wide range of data providers. In such an open access market, data are products that must be packaged accordingly. Increasingly, eCommerce sellers present heterogeneous product lines to buyers using faceted browsing. Using this approach we have developed the Ontogrator platform, which allows for rapid retrieval of data in a way that would be familiar to any online shopper. Using Knowledge Organization Systems (KOS), especially ontologies, Ontogrator uses text mining to mark up data and faceted browsing to help users navigate, query and retrieve data. Ontogrator offers the potential to impact scientific research in two major ways: 1) by significantly improving the retrieval of relevant information; and 2) by significantly reducing the time required to compose standard database queries and assemble information for further research. Here we present a pilot implementation developed in collaboration with the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) that includes content from the StrainInfo, GOLD, CAMERA, Silva and Pubmed databases. This implementation demonstrates the power of ontogration and highlights that the usefulness of this approach is fully dependent on both the quality of data and the KOS (ontologies) used. Ideally, the use and further expansion of this collaborative system will help to surface issues associated with the underlying quality of annotation and could lead to a systematic means for accessing integrated data resources.

  13. Using Therapeutic Toys to Facilitate Venipuncture Procedure in Preschool Children.

    PubMed

    da Silva, José Ronaldo Soares; Pizzoli, Lourdes Margareth Leite; Amorim, Amanda Regina do Prado; Pinheiros, Fernanda Tais; Romanini, Giovanna Chippari; da Silva, Jack Gomes; Joanete, Shirley; Alves, Silvana S M

    2016-01-01

    Intravenous access procedures in children are considered to be one of the most stressful because it is invasive, and the use of needles generates anxiety, insecurity, and fear. Playful strategies using dolls and even the materials used for venipuncture can assist children in understanding, accepting, and coping with the procedure. Field research was developed on the applicability of the therapeutic toy in the preparation of preschool children for venipuncture procedure based on the protocol developed by Martins, Ribeiro, Borba, and Silva (2001) and Kiche and Almeida (2009). The study was done in a private hospital in Greater São Paulo, Brazil, with 10 children ages 3 to 6 years. Data were gathered through observation and questionnaires completed by the children's adult guardians. Before the activity, the children showed fearful facial expressions, used monosyllabic responses, and avoided looking at the health care professional. After the strategy of using therapeutic toy dolls and puppets, 40% of the children calmly accepted the venipuncture procedure, and 100% showed a change to their initial negative reaction, became more communicative and cooperative, and participated and interacted with researchers, even after the end of the activity and procedure. The strategy of therapeutic toys helps make an unfamiliar environment, strangers, and a procedure characterized as painful and difficult less stressful. Pediatric nurses are in a good position to use this resource to offer more humanized care to children.

  14. Tropical dendrochemistry: A novel approach to estimate age and growth from ringless trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poussart, P. M.; Myneni, S. C. B.; Lanzirotti, A.

    2006-09-01

    Although tropical forests play an active role in the global carbon cycle and climate, their growth history remains poorly characterized compared to other ecosystems on the planet. Trees are prime candidates for the extraction of paleoclimate archives as they can be probed sub-annually, are widely distributed and can live for over 1400 years [Chambers et al., 1998]. However, dendrochronological techniques have found limited applications in the tropics because trees often lack visible growth rings (Whitmore, 1990). Alternative methods exist (dendrometry (DaSilva et al., 2002), radio- and stable isotopes (Evans and Schrag, 2004; Poussart et al., 2004; Poussart and Schrag, 2005), but the derived records are either of short-duration, lack seasonal resolution or are prohibitively labor intensive to produce. Here, we show the first X-ray microprobe synchrotron record of calcium (Ca) from a ringless Miliusa velutina tree from Thailand and use it to estimate the tree's age and growth history. The Ca age model agrees within <=2 years of bomb-radiocarbon age estimates and confirms that the cycles are seasonal. The amplitude of the Ca annual cycle is correlated significantly with growth and annual Ca maxima correlate with the amount of dry season rainfall. Synchrotron measurements are fast and producing sufficient numbers of replicated multi-century tropical dendrochemical climate records now seems analytically feasible.

  15. Protein malnutrition blunts the increment of taurine transporter expression by a high-fat diet and impairs taurine reestablishment of insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Branco, Renato Chaves Souto; Camargo, Rafael Ludemann; Batista, Thiago Martins; Vettorazzi, Jean Franciesco; Borck, Patrícia Cristine; Dos Santos-Silva, Junia Carolina Rebelo; Boschero, Antonio Carlos; Zoppi, Cláudio Cesar; Carneiro, Everardo Magalhães

    2017-09-01

    Taurine (Tau) restores β-cell function in obesity; however, its action is lost in malnourished obese rodents. Here, we investigated the mechanisms involved in the lack of effects of Tau in this model. C57BL/6 mice were fed a control diet (CD) (14% protein) or a protein-restricted diet (RD) (6% protein) for 6 wk. Afterward, mice received a high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 wk [CD + HFD (CH) and RD + HFD (RH)] with or without 5% Tau supplementation after weaning on their drinking water [CH + Tau (CHT) and RH + Tau (RHT)]. The HFD increased insulin secretion through mitochondrial metabolism in CH and RH. Tau prevented all those alterations in CHT only. The expression of the taurine transporter (Tau-T), as well as Tau content in pancreatic islets, was increased in CH but had no effect on RH. Protein malnutrition programs β cells and impairs Tau-induced restoration of mitochondrial metabolism and biogenesis. This may be associated with modulation of the expression of Tau-T in pancreatic islets, which may be responsible for the absence of effect of Tau in protein-malnourished obese mice.-Branco, R. C. S., Camargo, R. L., Batista, T. M., Vettorazzi, J. F., Borck, P. C., dos Santos-Silva, J. C. R., Boschero, A. C., Zoppi, C. C., Carneiro, E. M. Protein malnutrition blunts the increment of taurine transporter expression by a high-fat diet and impairs taurine reestablishment of insulin secretion. © FASEB.

  16. Data shopping in an open marketplace: Introducing the Ontogrator web application for marking up data using ontologies and browsing using facets

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Norman; Hancock, David; Hirschman, Lynette; Dawyndt, Peter; Verslyppe, Bert; Kyrpides, Nikos; Kottmann, Renzo; Yilmaz, Pelin; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Grethe, Jeff; Booth, Tim; Sterk, Peter; Nenadic, Goran; Field, Dawn

    2011-01-01

    In the future, we hope to see an open and thriving data market in which users can find and select data from a wide range of data providers. In such an open access market, data are products that must be packaged accordingly. Increasingly, eCommerce sellers present heterogeneous product lines to buyers using faceted browsing. Using this approach we have developed the Ontogrator platform, which allows for rapid retrieval of data in a way that would be familiar to any online shopper. Using Knowledge Organization Systems (KOS), especially ontologies, Ontogrator uses text mining to mark up data and faceted browsing to help users navigate, query and retrieve data. Ontogrator offers the potential to impact scientific research in two major ways: 1) by significantly improving the retrieval of relevant information; and 2) by significantly reducing the time required to compose standard database queries and assemble information for further research. Here we present a pilot implementation developed in collaboration with the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) that includes content from the StrainInfo, GOLD, CAMERA, Silva and Pubmed databases. This implementation demonstrates the power of ontogration and highlights that the usefulness of this approach is fully dependent on both the quality of data and the KOS (ontologies) used. Ideally, the use and further expansion of this collaborative system will help to surface issues associated with the underlying quality of annotation and could lead to a systematic means for accessing integrated data resources. PMID:21677865

  17. Comments on the recent changes in taxonomy of pygmy unicorns, with description of a new species of Metopomystrum from Brazil (Insecta, Tetrigidae, Cleostratini, Miriatrini).

    PubMed

    Silva, Daniela Santos Martins; Skejo, Josip; Pereira, Marcelo Ribeiro; Domenico, Fernando Campos De; Sperber, Carlos Frankl

    2017-01-01

    The tribe Cleostratini Bolívar, 1887 sensu Storozhenko, 2016 does not represent a monophyletic taxon because it gathers various Tetrigidae genera with various types of horn and prolongation of frons or vertex. Prolongation of these structures is present in morphologically and biogeographically distant groups. We do not regard Miriatrini Cadena-Castañeda & Cardona, 2015 synonymous with Cleostratini because the genus Miriatra Bolívar, 1906 belongs to a group of genera distant from Cleostratus Stål, 1877. There is no adequate diagnosis for proposed groups of genera forming tribes Cleostratini or Miriatrini. Miriatrini stat. resurr. are monotypic and include only Miriatra , Cleostratini are monotypic as well. Apteromystrum Storozhenko, 2016 syn. n. is regarded synonymous with Metopomystrum , M. apterum comb. resurr. , M. amazoniensis comb. resurr. and Miriatra brevifastigiata (Cadena-Castañeda & Cardona, 2015), comb. n. are not Metopomystrum member. Herein a new species of pygmy unicorn, Metopomystrum muriciense Silva & Skejo, sp. n. , is described from Atlantic Forest remnants in northeast of Brazil, collected on the Estação Serra do Ouro (municipality of Murici, Alagoas state). Distribution data, morphological characterization, and an identification key to Metopomystrum species are also presented.

  18. p38α MAPK Is Required for Tooth Morphogenesis and Enamel Secretion*

    PubMed Central

    Greenblatt, Matthew B.; Kim, Jung-Min; Oh, Hwanhee; Park, Kwang Hwan; Choo, Min-Kyung; Sano, Yasuyo; Tye, Coralee E.; Skobe, Ziedonis; Davis, Roger J.; Park, Jin Mo; Bei, Marianna; Glimcher, Laurie H.; Shim, Jae-Hyuck

    2015-01-01

    An improved understanding of the molecular pathways that drive tooth morphogenesis and enamel secretion is needed to generate teeth from organ cultures for therapeutic implantation or to determine the pathogenesis of primary disorders of dentition (Abdollah, S., Macias-Silva, M., Tsukazaki, T., Hayashi, H., Attisano, L., and Wrana, J. L. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 27678–27685). Here we present a novel ectodermal dysplasia phenotype associated with conditional deletion of p38α MAPK in ectodermal appendages using K14-cre mice (p38αK14 mice). These mice display impaired patterning of dental cusps and a profound defect in the production and biomechanical strength of dental enamel because of defects in ameloblast differentiation and activity. In the absence of p38α, expression of amelogenin and β4-integrin in ameloblasts and p21 in the enamel knot was significantly reduced. Mice lacking the MAP2K MKK6, but not mice lacking MAP2K MKK3, also show the enamel defects, implying that MKK6 functions as an upstream kinase of p38α in ectodermal appendages. Lastly, stimulation with BMP2/7 in both explant culture and an ameloblast cell line confirm that p38α functions downstream of BMPs in this context. Thus, BMP-induced activation of the p38α MAPK pathway is critical for the morphogenesis of tooth cusps and the secretion of dental enamel. PMID:25406311

  19. Differential cross sections for electron-impact excitation of the electronic states of pyrimidine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunger, Michael; Jones, Darryl; Bellm, Susan

    2012-06-01

    Pyrimidine (C4N2H4) is an important molecule, as it forms the basis of larger biomolecules, such as the DNA bases thymine, cytosine and uracil. There is a pressing demand for low-energy electron scattering data from such biological analogs in order to model radiation induced damage [1]. We therefore present the first measurements for absolute differential cross section data for low-energy electron-impact excitation of the electronic states of pyrimidine. The present measurements were performed using a crossed-beam apparatus [2] for incident electron energies ranging between 15 to 50eV while covering a 10 to 90^o angular range. Here the absolute scale has been determined through a normalisation to the recently measured elastic scattering differential cross section data for pyrimidine [3]. [1] F. Ferreira da Silva, D. Almeida, G. Martins, A. R. Milosavljevic, B. P. Marinkovic, S. V. Hoffmann, N. J. Mason, Y. Nunes, G. Garcia and P. Limao-Vieira, Phys Chem Chem Phys 12, 6717 (2010). [2] M. J. Brunger and P. J. O. Teubner, Phys Rev A 41, 1413 (1990). [3] P. Palihawadana, J. Sullivan, M. Brunger, C. Winstead, V. McKoy, G. Garcia, F. Blanco and S. Buckman, Phys Rev A 84, 062702 (2011).

  20. Increased nitric oxide production in platelets from severe chronic renal failure patients.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Mariana Alves de Sá; Brunini, Tatiana M C; Pereira, Natália Rodrigues; Martins, Marcela Anjos; Moss, Monique Bandeira; Santos, Sérgio F; Lugon, Jocemir R; Mendes-Ribeiro, Antônio C

    2011-02-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) production occurs through oxidation of the amino acid L-arginine by NO synthase (NOS). NO inhibits platelet activation by increasing the levels of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), thus maintaining vascular homeostasis. Our group previously demonstrated (da Silva et al. 2005) an enhancement of the L-arginine-NO-cGMP pathway in platelets taken from chronic renal failure (CRF) patients on haemodialysis associated with reduced platelet aggregation. We investigate the platelet L-arginine-NO-cGMP pathway, platelet function, and inflammation from patients in CRF on conservative treatment. A total of 42 CRF patients and 42 controls (creatinine clearance = 27 ± 3 vs. 93 ± 1 mL per min per 1.73 m2, respectively) participated in this study. NOS activity and expression and cGMP concentration were measured in platelets. Platelet aggregation induced by collagen or ADP was evaluated and plasma levels of fibrinogen were determined by the Clauss method. A marked increase in basal NOS activity was seen in undialysed CRF patients compared with controls, accompanied by an elevation of fibrinogen plasma levels. There were no differences in expression of NOS and in cGMP levels. In this context, platelet aggregation was not affected. We provide the first evidence of increased intraplatelet NO biosynthesis in undialysed CRF patients, which can be an early marker of future haemostatic abnormalities during dialysis treatment.

  1. Following the Yellow Brick Road: Next Steps in the Synthesis of Pediatric Bioethics and Child Rights.

    PubMed

    Goldhagen, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    The Symposium on "The Interface of Child Rights and Pediatric Bioethics in the Clinical Setting" brought together a diverse group of pediatric bioethicists and child rights advocates to explore how the junction of these disciplines could inform their respective work. In retrospect, it is clear how the diversity of personal histories, professional disciplines, knowledge, experience, language, culture, and politics of the participants influenced the outcomes of the Symposium and provided both challenges and opportunities for further collaboration. Several themes emerged from the meeting, including the relevance of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), the role of the family, and consideration of the best interests of the child to complex medical decision-making; research ethics; and the applicability of the principles of bioethics and child rights to the social determinants of health. This essay poses questions related to each of these themes that can serve as a framework for further collaboration. It concludes with a statement by Da Silva and his coauthors that the CRC and the principles of child rights can provide "increased conceptual clarity and a widely endorsed language that can assist pediatric bioethicists in clinical, organizational, and international consultations, as well as in education and policy development."

  2. Prevalence of communication, swallowing and orofacial myofunctional disorders in children and adolescents at the time of admission at a cancer hospital.

    PubMed

    Coça, Kaliani Lima; Bergmann, Anke; Ferman, Sima; Angelis, Elisabete Carrara de; Ribeiro, Márcia Gonçalves

    2018-03-01

    Describe the prevalence of communication, swallowing and orofacial myofunctional disorders in a group of children and adolescents at the time of registration at a cancer hospital. A cross-sectional study conducted with children aged ≥2 and adolescents, of both genders, admitted to the Pediatric Oncology Section of the Instituto Nacional de Câncer José de Alencar Gomes da Silva (INCA) from March 2014 to April 2015 for investigation and/or treatment of solid tumors. A protocol was used to record the sociodemographic and clinical information and findings of the speech-language pathology clinical evaluation, which included aspects of the oral sensorimotor system, swallowing, speech, language, voice, and hearing. Eighty-eight children/adolescents (41.3%) presented some type of speech-language disorder. The most frequent speech-language disorders were orofacial myofunctional disorder, dysphonia, and language impairments, whereas the less frequent ones were dysacusis, tongue paralysis, and trismus. Site of the lesion was the clinical variable that presented statistically significant correlation with presence of speech-language disorders. High prevalence of speech-language disorders was observed in children and adolescents at the time of admission at a cancer hospital. Occurrence of speech-language disorders was higher in participants with lesions in the central nervous system and in the head and neck region.

  3. Empirical evidence for acceleration-dependent amplification factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borcherdt, R.D.

    2002-01-01

    Site-specific amplification factors, Fa and Fv, used in current U.S. building codes decrease with increasing base acceleration level as implied by the Loma Prieta earthquake at 0.1g and extrapolated using numerical models and laboratory results. The Northridge earthquake recordings of 17 January 1994 and subsequent geotechnical data permit empirical estimates of amplification at base acceleration levels up to 0.5g. Distance measures and normalization procedures used to infer amplification ratios from soil-rock pairs in predetermined azimuth-distance bins significantly influence the dependence of amplification estimates on base acceleration. Factors inferred using a hypocentral distance norm do not show a statistically significant dependence on base acceleration. Factors inferred using norms implied by the attenuation functions of Abrahamson and Silva show a statistically significant decrease with increasing base acceleration. The decrease is statistically more significant for stiff clay and sandy soil (site class D) sites than for stiffer sites underlain by gravely soils and soft rock (site class C). The decrease in amplification with increasing base acceleration is more pronounced for the short-period amplification factor, Fa, than for the midperiod factor, Fv.

  4. Electronic properties of moire superlattice bands in layered two dimensional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jeil

    2014-03-01

    When atomically thin two-dimensional materials are layered they often form incommensurate non-crystalline structures that exhibit long period moiré patterns when examined by scanning probes. In this talk, I will present a theoretical method which can be used to derive an effective Hamiltonian for these twisted van der Waals heterostructures using input from ab initio calculations performed on short-period crystalline structures. I will argue that the effective Hamiltonian can quantitatively describe the electronic properties of these layered systems for arbitrary twist angle and lattice constants. Applying this method to the important cases of graphene on graphene and graphene on hexagonal-boron nitride, I will present a series of experimentally observable quantities that can be extracted from their electronic structure, including their density of states and local density of states as a function of twist angle, and compare with available experiments. Work done in collaboration with Allan MacDonald, Shaffique Adam, Arnaud Raoux, Zhenhua Qiao, and Ashley DaSilva; and supported by the Singapore National Research Foundation Fellowship NRF-NRFF2012-01.

  5. Interplay between discharge physics, gas phase chemistry and surface processes in hydrocarbon plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassouni, Khaled

    2013-09-01

    In this paper we present two examples that illustrate two different contexts of the interplay between plasma-surface interaction process and discharge physics and gas phase chemistry in hydrocarbon discharges. In the first example we address the case of diamond deposition processes and illustrate how a detailed investigation of the discharge physics, collisional processes and transport phenomena in the plasma phase make possible to accurately predict the key local-parameters, i.e., species density at the growing substrate, as function of the macroscopic process parameters, thus allowing for a precise control of diamond deposition process. In the second example, we illustrate how the interaction between a rare gas pristine discharge and carbon (graphite) electrode induce a dramatic change on the discharge nature, i.e., composition, ionization kinetics, charge equilibrium, etc., through molecular growth and clustering processes, solid particle formation and dusty plasma generation. Work done in collaboration with Alix Gicquel, Francois Silva, Armelle Michau, Guillaume Lombardi, Xavier Bonnin, Xavier Duten, CNRS, Universite Paris 13.

  6. Radial density distribution of a warm dense plasma formed by underwater electrical explosion of a copper wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitishinskiy, M.; Yanuka, D.; Virozub, A.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2017-12-01

    Time- and space-resolved evolution of the density (down to 0.07 of solid state density) of a copper wire during its microsecond timescale electrical explosion in water was obtained by X-ray backlighting. In the present research, a flash X-ray source of 20 ns pulse-width and >60 keV photon energy was used. The conductivity of copper was evaluated for a temperature of 10 kK and found to be in good agreement with the data obtained in earlier experiments [DeSilva and Katsouros, Phys. Rev. E 57, 5945 (1998) and Sheftman and Krasik, Phys. Plasmas 18, 092704 (2011)] where only electrical and optical diagnostics were applied. Magneto-hydrodynamic simulation shows a good agreement between the simulated and experimental waveforms of the current and voltage and measured the radial expansion of the exploding wire. Also, the radial density distribution obtained by an inverse Abel transform analysis agrees with the results of these simulations. Thus, the validity of the equations of state for copper and the conductivity model used in the simulations was confirmed for the parameters of the exploding wire realized in the present research.

  7. Reply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhenming; Shi, Baoping; Kiefer, John D.; Woolery, Edward W.

    2004-06-01

    Musson's comments on our article, ``Communicating with uncertainty: A critical issue with probabilistic seismic hazard analysis'' are an example of myths and misunderstandings. We did not say that probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) is a bad method, but we did say that it has some limitations that have significant implications. Our response to these comments follows. There is no consensus on exactly how to select seismological parameters and to assign weights in PSHA. This was one of the conclusions reached by a senior seismic hazard analysis committee [SSHAC, 1997] that included C. A. Cornell, founder of the PSHA methodology. The SSHAC report was reviewed by a panel of the National Research Council and was well accepted by seismologists and engineers. As an example of the lack of consensus, Toro and Silva [2001] produced seismic hazard maps for the central United States region that are quite different from those produced by Frankel et al. [2002] because they used different input seismological parameters and weights (see Table 1). We disagree with Musson's conclusion that ``because a method may be applied badly on one occasion does not mean the method itself is bad.'' We do not say that the method is poor, but rather that those who use PSHA need to document their inputs and communicate them fully to the users. It seems that Musson is trying to create myth by suggesting his own methods should be used.

  8. Coastal Prairie Restoration Information System: Version 1 (Louisiana)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allain, Larry

    2007-01-01

    The Coastal Prairie Restoration Information System (CPR) is a Microsoft Access database that allows users to query and view data about Louisiana coastal prairie species. Less than 0.1% of Louisiana's coastal prairie vegetation remains in a relatively undisturbed condition. Encompassing as much as 1 million hectares of land, coastal prairie is a hybrid of coastal wetlands and tall grass prairie. Over 550 plant species have been identified in Louisiana's coastal prairies to date. Efforts to conserve and restore this endangered ecosystem are limited by the ability of workers to identify and access knowledge about this diverse group of plants. In this database, a variety of data are provided for each of 650 coastal prairie species in Louisiana. The database was developed at the U.S. Geological Survey National Wetlands Research Center by Larry Allain, with software development by Myra Silva. Additional funding was provided by the biology department of the University of Louisiana at Lafayette (ULL), the ULL Center for Environmental and Ecological Technology, and the National Science Foundation.

  9. Evidence that platelet-derived growth factor may be a novel endogenous pyrogen in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Pelá, I R; Ferreira, M E; Melo, M C; Silva, C A; Coelho, M M; Valenzuela, C F

    2000-05-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) exerts neurotrophic and neuromodulatory actions in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Like the cytokines, PDGF primarily signals through tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent pathways that activate multiple intracellular molecules including Janus family kinases. We previously showed that microinjection of PDGF-BB into the lateral ventricle induced a febrile response in rats that was reduced by pretreatment with Win 41662, a potent inhibitor of PDGF receptors (Pelá IR, Ferreira MES, Melo MCC, Silva CAA, and Valenzuela CF. Ann NY Acad Sci 856: 289-293, 1998). In this study, we further characterized the role of PDGF-BB in the febrile response in rats. Microinjection of PDGF-BB into the third ventricle produced a dose-dependent increase in colonic temperature that peaked 3-4 h postinjection. Win 41662 attenuated fever induced by intraperitoneal injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide, suggesting that endogenous PDGF participates in the febrile response to this exogenous pyrogen. Importantly, febrile responses induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta, and interleukin-6 were unchanged by Win 41662. Both indomethacin and dexamethasone blocked the PDGF-BB-induced increase in colonic temperature, and, therefore, we postulate that PDGF-BB may act via prostaglandin- and/or inducible enzyme-dependent pathways. Thus our findings suggest that PDGF-BB is an endogenous CNS mediator of the febrile response in rats.

  10. Probability distribution of financial returns in a model of multiplicative Brownian motion with stochastic diffusion coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Antonio

    2005-03-01

    It is well-known that the mathematical theory of Brownian motion was first developed in the Ph. D. thesis of Louis Bachelier for the French stock market before Einstein [1]. In Ref. [2] we studied the so-called Heston model, where the stock-price dynamics is governed by multiplicative Brownian motion with stochastic diffusion coefficient. We solved the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation exactly and found an analytic formula for the time-dependent probability distribution of stock price changes (returns). The formula interpolates between the exponential (tent-shaped) distribution for short time lags and the Gaussian (parabolic) distribution for long time lags. The theoretical formula agrees very well with the actual stock-market data ranging from the Dow-Jones index [2] to individual companies [3], such as Microsoft, Intel, etc. [] [1] Louis Bachelier, ``Th'eorie de la sp'eculation,'' Annales Scientifiques de l''Ecole Normale Sup'erieure, III-17:21-86 (1900).[] [2] A. A. Dragulescu and V. M. Yakovenko, ``Probability distribution of returns in the Heston model with stochastic volatility,'' Quantitative Finance 2, 443--453 (2002); Erratum 3, C15 (2003). [cond-mat/0203046] [] [3] A. C. Silva, R. E. Prange, and V. M. Yakovenko, ``Exponential distribution of financial returns at mesoscopic time lags: a new stylized fact,'' Physica A 344, 227--235 (2004). [cond-mat/0401225

  11. Characterization of ciliate diversity in bromeliad tank waters from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Simão, Taiz L L; Borges, Adriana Giongo; Gano, Kelsey A; Davis-Richardson, Austin G; Brown, Christopher T; Fagen, Jennie R; Triplett, Eric W; Dias, Raquel; Mondin, Claudio A; da Silva, Renata M; Eizirik, Eduardo; Utz, Laura R P

    2017-10-01

    Bromeliads are a diverse group of plants that includes many species whose individuals are capable of retaining water, forming habitats called phytotelmata. These habitats harbor a diversity of organisms including prokaryotes, unicellular eukaryotes, metazoans, and fungi. Among single-celled eukaryotic organisms, ciliates are generally the most abundant. In the present study, we used Illumina DNA sequencing to survey the eukaryotic communities, especially ciliates, inhabiting the tanks of the bromeliads Aechmea gamosepala and Vriesea platynema in the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil. Filtered sequences were clustered into distinct OTUs using a 99% identity threshold, and then assigned to phylum and genus using a BLAST-based approach (implemented in QIIME) and the SILVA reference database. Both bromeliad species harbored very diverse eukaryotic communities, with Arthropoda and Ciliophora showing the highest abundance (as estimated by the number of sequence reads). The ciliate genus Tetrahymena was the most abundant among single-celled organisms, followed by apicomplexan gregarines and the ciliate genus Glaucoma. Another interesting finding was the presence and high abundance of Trypanosoma in these bromeliad tanks, demonstrating their occurrence in this type of environment. The results presented here demonstrate a hidden diversity of eukaryotes in bromeliad tank waters, opening up new avenues for their in-depth characterization. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantifying the uncertainty in site amplification modeling and its effects on site-specific seismic-hazard estimation in the upper Mississippi embayment and adjacent areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cramer, C.H.

    2006-01-01

    The Mississippi embayment, located in the central United States, and its thick deposits of sediments (over 1 km in places) have a large effect on earthquake ground motions. Several previous studies have addressed how these thick sediments might modify probabilistic seismic-hazard maps. The high seismic hazard associated with the New Madrid seismic zone makes it particularly important to quantify the uncertainty in modeling site amplification to better represent earthquake hazard in seismic-hazard maps. The methodology of the Memphis urban seismic-hazard-mapping project (Cramer et al., 2004) is combined with the reference profile approach of Toro and Silva (2001) to better estimate seismic hazard in the Mississippi embayment. Improvements over previous approaches include using the 2002 national seismic-hazard model, fully probabilistic hazard calculations, calibration of site amplification with improved nonlinear soil-response estimates, and estimates of uncertainty. Comparisons are made with the results of several previous studies, and estimates of uncertainty inherent in site-amplification modeling for the upper Mississippi embayment are developed. I present new seismic-hazard maps for the upper Mississippi embayment with the effects of site geology incorporating these uncertainties.

  13. Disbiome database: linking the microbiome to disease.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Yorick; Nielandt, Joachim; Bronselaer, Antoon; Debunne, Nathan; Verbeke, Frederick; Wynendaele, Evelien; Van Immerseel, Filip; Vandewynckel, Yves-Paul; De Tré, Guy; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2018-06-04

    Recent research has provided fascinating indications and evidence that the host health is linked to its microbial inhabitants. Due to the development of high-throughput sequencing technologies, more and more data covering microbial composition changes in different disease types are emerging. However, this information is dispersed over a wide variety of medical and biomedical disciplines. Disbiome is a database which collects and presents published microbiota-disease information in a standardized way. The diseases are classified using the MedDRA classification system and the micro-organisms are linked to their NCBI and SILVA taxonomy. Finally, each study included in the Disbiome database is assessed for its reporting quality using a standardized questionnaire. Disbiome is the first database giving a clear, concise and up-to-date overview of microbial composition differences in diseases, together with the relevant information of the studies published. The strength of this database lies within the combination of the presence of references to other databases, which enables both specific and diverse search strategies within the Disbiome database, and the human annotation which ensures a simple and structured presentation of the available data.

  14. [Pedagogical training in stricto sensu graduate programs in public health].

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Guilherme Torres; Ribeiro, Victoria Maria Brant

    2013-06-01

    The scope of this research is to discuss the relevance and need for pedagogical training of university lecturers in the Public Health field. The contention is that college teaching is a practice that requires specific training, since it is characterized by complex elements that transcend the mastery of given content. Considering stricto sensu graduate studies as an important stage in the training of future university lecturers, an attempt was made to identify and analyze the subjects and practices of pedagogical training in academic masters and doctorate programs in Public Health. To achieve the research aim, this work was based on Pierre Bourdieu's field theory and on Tomaz Tadeu da Silva's curriculum theory. Results indicate that the programs do not consider the aspect of teacher training as a major issue. With regard to the Public Health field approximately 61% of masters and 38% of doctorate programs have pedagogical training subjects/practices. Furthermore, there is a tendency for technical-instrumental training, which is in line with the history of the Public Health field. The conclusion is that there is a need to develop a culture that values college and graduate Public Health teaching, considering the complexity of pedagogical practice in all its dimensions.

  15. "Canary Islands (NE Atlantic) as a biodiversity 'hotspot' of Gambierdiscus: Implications for future trends of ciguatera in the area".

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Francisco; Fraga, Santiago; Ramilo, Isabel; Rial, Pilar; Figueroa, Rosa Isabel; Riobó, Pilar; Bravo, Isabel

    2017-07-01

    In the present study the geographical distribution, abundance and composition of Gambierdiscus was described over a 600km longitudinal scale in the Canary Islands. Samples for cell counts, isolation and identification of Gambierdiscus were obtained from five islands (El Hierro, Tenerife, Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura and Lanzarote). Average densities of Gambierdiscus spp. between 0 and 2200cellsg -1 blot dry weight of macrophyte were recorded. Morphological (light microscopy and SEM techniques) and molecular analyses (LSU and SSU rDNA sequencing of cultures and single cells from the field) of Gambierdiscus was performed. Five Gambierdiscus species (G. australes, G. caribaeus, G. carolinianus, G. excentricus and G. silvae), together with a new putative species (Gambierdiscus ribotype 3) were identified. These results suggest that some cases of CFP in the region could be associated with the accumulation of ciguatoxins in the marine food web acquired from local populations of Gambierdiscus. This unexpected high diversity of Gambierdiscus species in an area which a priori is not under risk of ciguatera, hints at an ancient settlement of Gambierdiscus populations, likely favored by warmer climate conditions in the Miocene Epoch (when oldest current Canary Islands were created), in contrast with cooler present ones. Currently, warming trends associated with climate change could contribute to extend favorable environmental conditions in the area for Gambierdiscus growth especially during winter months. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Breaking generalized covariance, classical renormalization, and boundary conditions from superpotentials

    SciTech Connect

    Livshits, Gideon I., E-mail: livshits.gideon@mail.huji.ac.il

    2014-02-15

    Superpotentials offer a direct means of calculating conserved charges associated with the asymptotic symmetries of space-time. Yet superpotentials have been plagued with inconsistencies, resulting in nonphysical or incongruent values for the mass, angular momentum, and energy loss due to radiation. The approach of Regge and Teitelboim, aimed at a clear Hamiltonian formulation with a boundary, and its extension to the Lagrangian formulation by Julia and Silva have resolved these issues, and have resulted in a consistent, well-defined and unique variational equation for the superpotential, thereby placing it on a firm footing. A hallmark solution of this equation is the KBLmore » superpotential obtained from the first-order Lovelock Lagrangian. Nevertheless, here we show that these formulations are still insufficient for Lovelock Lagrangians of higher orders. We present a paradox, whereby the choice of fields affects the superpotential for equivalent on-shell dynamics. We offer two solutions to this paradox: either the original Lagrangian must be effectively renormalized, or that boundary conditions must be imposed, so that space-time be asymptotically maximally symmetric. Non-metricity is central to this paradox, and we show how quadratic non-metricity in the bulk of space-time contributes to the conserved charges on the boundary, where it vanishes identically. This is a realization of the gravitational Higgs mechanism, proposed by Percacci, where the non-metricity is the analogue of the Goldstone boson.« less

  17. Microbial Diversity of Type I Sourdoughs Prepared and Back-Slopped with Wholemeal and Refined Soft (Triticum aestivum) Wheat Flours.

    PubMed

    Taccari, Manuela; Aquilanti, Lucia; Polverigiani, Serena; Osimani, Andrea; Garofalo, Cristiana; Milanović, Vesna; Clementi, Francesca

    2016-08-01

    The fermentation of type I sourdough was studied for 20 d with daily back-slopping under laboratory and artisan bakery conditions using 1 wholemeal and 2 refined soft wheat (Triticum aestivum) flours. The sourdough bacterial and yeast diversity and dynamics were investigated by plate counting and a combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent PCR-DGGE approach. The pH, total titrable acidity, and concentration of key organic acids (phytic, lactic, and acetic) were measured. Three flours differed for both chemical and rheological properties. A microbial succession was observed, with the atypical sourdough species detected at day 0 (i.e. Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc holzapfelii/citreum group for bacteria and Candida silvae and Wickerhamomyces anomalus for yeasts) being progressively replaced by taxa more adapted to the sourdough ecosystem (Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus alimentarius/paralimentarius, Saccharomyces cerevisiae). In mature sourdoughs, a notably different species composition was observed. As sourdoughs propagated with the same flour at laboratory and artisan bakery level were compared, the influence of both the substrate and the propagation environment on microbial diversity was assumed. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. The birth of the most important 18th century dental text: Pierre Fauchard's Le Chirurgien Dentiste.

    PubMed

    Spielman, Andrew I

    2007-10-01

    Pierre Fauchard (1678-1761) is considered the father of modern dentistry. His seminal book, Le Chirurgien Dentiste, ou Traité des Dents (1728), is the discipline's first complete work. During the five years preceding its publication (1723-1728), Pierre Fauchard sought the opinions, contributions, and "approbation" (approval) of 19 of his colleagues: six physicians, 12 surgeons, and one dentist. The first and most important contributor to the manuscript was Jean Devaux, surgeon and mentor to Fauchard. The next six reviewers were illustrious physicians and scientists of the time: Philippe Hecquet, Jean-Claude Adrien Helvetius, Jean Baptiste Silva, Antoine DeJussieu, Raymond Jacob Finot, and Antoine Benignus Winslow. The subsequent 12 reviewers were all sworn-surgeons (certified by St. Côme), including a lone dentist, Laudumiey, surgeon-dentist to His Majesty, Philip V, King of Spain. Fauchard knew that for dentistry to be regarded as a learned profession, and perhaps for Fauchard to be recognized as its leader, he needed the support and approval of the establishment before publishing his book. This is an account of how he attained this endorsement.

  19. Comparison of two bioinformatics tools used to characterize the microbial diversity and predictive functional attributes of microbial mats from Lake Obersee, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Koo, Hyunmin; Hakim, Joseph A; Morrow, Casey D; Eipers, Peter G; Davila, Alfonso; Andersen, Dale T; Bej, Asim K

    2017-09-01

    In this study, using NextGen sequencing of the collective 16S rRNA genes obtained from two sets of samples collected from Lake Obersee, Antarctica, we compared and contrasted two bioinformatics tools, PICRUSt and Tax4Fun. We then developed an R script to assess the taxonomic and predictive functional profiles of the microbial communities within the samples. Taxa such as Pseudoxanthomonas, Planctomycetaceae, Cyanobacteria Subsection III, Nitrosomonadaceae, Leptothrix, and Rhodobacter were exclusively identified by Tax4Fun that uses SILVA database; whereas PICRUSt that uses Greengenes database uniquely identified Pirellulaceae, Gemmatimonadetes A1-B1, Pseudanabaena, Salinibacterium and Sinobacteraceae. Predictive functional profiling of the microbial communities using Tax4Fun and PICRUSt separately revealed common metabolic capabilities, while also showing specific functional IDs not shared between the two approaches. Combining these functional predictions using a customized R script revealed a more inclusive metabolic profile, such as hydrolases, oxidoreductases, transferases; enzymes involved in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolisms; and membrane transport proteins known for nutrient uptake from the surrounding environment. Our results present the first molecular-phylogenetic characterization and predictive functional profiles of the microbial mat communities in Lake Obersee, while demonstrating the efficacy of combining both the taxonomic assignment information and functional IDs using the R script created in this study for a more streamlined evaluation of predictive functional profiles of microbial communities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Sleep-wake patterns and their influence on school performance in Portuguese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Duarte, João; Nelas, Paula; Chaves, Cláudia; Ferreira, Manuela; Coutinho, Emília; Cunha, Madalena

    2014-11-01

    To characterise sleep-wake patterns and their influence on academic performance for a sample of Portuguese adolescents. Cross-sectional, analytical-explanatory, correlational epidemiological research. The protocol includes the composite morningness questionnaire (Barton et al, 1985 adapted by Silva et al, 1985), the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (Murray, 1991), chronic fatigue scale (Smith et al, 1995), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (Buysse, 1988), Educational Achievement (Fermin, 2005), personal and academic data. 2094 students (55.3% girls; 16-23 years old; M=16.82±1.25) attending secondary school in central Portugal. Living in urban areas, living with their parents and about 57.1% are in a family with reasonable economic resources. Adolescents' sleep patterns reveal that they sleep on average between 8-9 hours a night, do not use medication to sleep, with sleep latency within the normal range, with good sleep efficiency, without daytime dysfunction and with undisturbed sleep, predominantly intermediate chronotype. Minor drowsiness, increased sleep efficiency, improved subjective sleep satisfaction, less sleep disturbance, less daytime dysfunction, not consuming hypnotic medications, associated with better academic performance. Morningness/eveningness, sleep efficiency, daytime dysfunction and sleep latency emerge as predictors of academic performance. The chronotype interacts to predict the quality of sleep enhancing it as a mediator of school performance. Sleep and associated individual characteristics should be considered in the diagnosis and intervention process in secondary education. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparing Freshman and doctoral engineering students in design: mapping with a descriptive framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona Marques, P.

    2017-11-01

    This paper reports the results of a study of engineering students' approaches to an open-ended design problem. To carry out this, sketches and interviews were collected from 9 freshmen (first year) and 10 doctoral engineering students, when they designed solutions for orange squeezers. Sketches and interviews were analysed and mapped with a descriptive 'ideation framework' (IF) of the design process, to document and compare their design creativity (Carmona Marques, P., A. Silva, E. Henriques, and C. Magee. 2014. "A Descriptive Framework of the Design Process from a Dual Cognitive Engineering Perspective." International Journal of Design Creativity and Innovation 2 (3): 142-164). The results show that the designers worked in a manner largely consistent with the IF for generalisation and specialisation loops. Also, doctoral students produced more alternative solutions during the ideation process. In addition, compared to freshman, doctoral used the generalisation loop of the IF, working at higher levels of abstraction. The iterative nature of design is highlighted during this study - a potential contribution to decrease the gap between both groups in engineering education.

  2. Observation of the Double Beta Decay of ^48Ca^*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piepke, Andreas

    1996-10-01

    Neutrino-less double beta decay is at present the most sensitive kinematic test for finite neutrino mass. The unfolding of a neutrino mass (or a mass limit) from measured decay rates, however, relies on complicated nuclear structure calculations. In the absence of any rigorous test for these calculations the investigation of the very rare two-neutrino double beta decay (β β 2ν) decay serves to verify the validity of the nuclear models. Among all candidate nuclei the double beta decay ^48Caarrow ^48Ti is unique, since it is the only one which can be treated ``exactly'' in the nuclear shell model. Taking advantage of this special situation, isotopically enriched ^48Ca (enrichment 73% ), in form of finely powdered CaCO_3, was exposed in the Irvine time projection chamber located at the Hoover dam, 72 m below ground. The ongoing data analysis shows strong evidence for the presence of a β β 2ν signal i.e. a two electron spectrum with the expected endpoint of 4.3 MeV. The experimental half life appears to agree with most shell model calculations. A detailed discussion of the results will be presented.(Work in collaboration with A. Balysh, V.I. Lebedev, A. Pronsky, KIAE Moscow, A. De Silva, M.K. Moe, M.A. Nelson, M.A. Vient, UC Irvine and K. Lou, P. Vogel, Caltech.) ^* Supported by U.S. Department of Energy. A.P. acknowledges support of the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.

  3. Monticellia ophisterni n. sp. (Cestoda: Monticelliidae) from the swamp-eel Ophisternon aenigmaticum (Synbranchiformes) from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Scholz, T; de Chambrier, A; Salgado-Maldonado, G

    2001-12-01

    Monticellia ophisterni n. sp. is described from the swamp-eel Ophisternon aenigmaticum Rosen and Greenwood (Synbranchiformes: Synbranchidae) from Lake Catemaco, Veracruz, Mexico. The new species is placed into Monticellia because of the cortical position of the testes, ovary, and uterus. It differs from other Monticellia species (with the exception of Monticellia magna (Rego, Santos and Silva, 1974)) in the position of longitudinal musculature that crosses the vitelline follicles, making them paramuscular. The new species can be distinguished from M. magna--which possesses a similar number of testes (107-139), paramuscular vitelline follicles, and numerous gland cells distributed between the apex of the scolex and suckers--in the position of the genital pore (8-21% vs. 19-27%), in the presence of a weak internal longitudinal musculature, in the arrangement of the testes in the median field, and in the absence of a vaginal sphincter. This is the first proteocephalidean tapeworm reported from a synbranchid fish and the first species of Monticellia found in North America.

  4. Genus-specific PCR Primers Targeting Intracellular Parasite Euduboscquella (Dinoflagellata: Syndinea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jae-Ho; Choi, Jung Min; Kim, Young-Ok

    2018-03-01

    We designed a genus-specific primer pair targeting the intracellular parasite Euduboscquella. To increase target specificity and inhibit untargeted PCR, two nucleotides were added at the 3' end of the reverse primer, one being a complementary nucleotide to the Euduboscquella-specific SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) and the other a deliberately mismatched nucleotide. Target specificity of the primer set was verified experimentally using PCR of two Euduboscquella species (positive controls) and 15 related species (negative controls composed of ciliates, diatoms and dinoflagellates), and analytical comparison with SILVA SSU rRNA gene database (release 119) in silico. In addition, we applied the Euduboscquella-specific primer set to four environmental samples previously determined by cytological staining to be either positive or negative for Euduboscquella. As expected, only positive controls and environmental samples known to contain Euduboscquella were successfully amplified by the primer set. An inferred SSU rRNA gene phylogeny placed environmental samples containing aloricate ciliates infected by Euduboscquella in a cluster discrete from Euduboscquella groups a-d previously reported from loricate, tintinnid ciliates.

  5. A new species of Voria Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Area de Conservación Guanacaste in northwestern Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Wood, D. Monty; Smith, M. Alex; Dapkey, Tanya; Hallwachs, Winnie; Janzen, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background We describe a new species in the genus Voria Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (Diptera: Tachinidae: Voriini) from Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG) in northwestern Costa Rica. It was reared as part of an ongoing inventory of wild-caught caterpillars spanning a variety of moth and butterfly families (Lepidoptera). Our study provides a concise description of the new species using morphology, life history, molecular data, and photographic documentation. In addition to the new species, we provide a diagnosis of the genus as well as new data relating to host use. New information The following new species of Voria is described: Voria erasmocoronadoi Fleming & Wood sp. n. The following are proposed by Fleming & Wood as new synonyms of Voria: Xenoplagia Townsend, 1914 syn. n., Hystricovoria Townsend, 1928 syn. n., Afrovoria Curran, 1938 syn. n., and Anavoria Mesnil, 1953 syn. n., and Itavoria Townsend, 1931 syn. n. The following new combinations are proposed as a result of the new synonymies: Voria bakeri (Townsend, 1928), comb. n. and Voria setosa (Townsend, 1914), comb. n.The authors also propose Voria pollyclari (Rocha-e-Silva, Lopes & Della Lucia, 1999), comb. n. based on the morphology of the holotype. PMID:29391853

  6. Comparative chemical analyses of soils formed on carbonate rocks in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Németh, Eszter; Sajó, István; Bidló, András

    2014-05-01

    The present study focuses on the physical and chemical investigation of soils formed primarily on carbonate rocks. One part of the investigated soil profiles originated from the top of the Bükk Hills, the Bükk-Highlands' limestone plateau, which is located in the North-Eastern part of Hungary. The rest of the samples were taken from the Szárhalom Forest (located in West Hungary). The different location and climate of the sites forms a basis of the comparison of the soils with similar base rock. These soils are formed mainly on limestones, however they differ significantly in terms of certain characteristic properties. The following physical parameters were evaluated from the samples: transition, structure, compactness, roots, skeletal percent, colour, physical assortment, concretion and soil defect. Laboratory analysis involved the measurement of acidity, particle distribution, carbonated lime content, humus content, ammonium lactate-acetic acid soluble phosphorus- and potassium content, potassium chloride soluble calcium- and magnesium content, ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic-acid (EDTA) and diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic-acid (DTPA) soluble copper-, iron-, manganese- and zinc content. X-ray diffraction, thermoanalytical measurements and ICP-OES were also carried out to determine the mineral composition of the soils and the content of heavy metals. Evaluation focused on the comprehensive analysis of the data with a special regard to possible relationships and correlations. Research was supported financially by the "Silva naturalis (TÁMOP-4.2.2.A-11/1/KONV-2012-0004)" project.

  7. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of southern part of Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahulu, Sylvanus T.; Danuor, Sylvester Kojo; Asiedu, Daniel K.

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a seismic hazard map for the southern part of Ghana prepared using the probabilistic approach, and seismic hazard assessment results for six cities. The seismic hazard map was prepared for 10% probability of exceedance for peak ground acceleration in 50 years. The input parameters used for the computations of hazard were obtained using data from a catalogue that was compiled and homogenised to moment magnitude (Mw). The catalogue covered a period of over a century (1615-2009). The hazard assessment is based on the Poisson model for earthquake occurrence, and hence, dependent events were identified and removed from the catalogue. The following attenuation relations were adopted and used in this study—Allen (for south and eastern Australia), Silva et al. (for Central and eastern North America), Campbell and Bozorgnia (for worldwide active-shallow-crust regions) and Chiou and Youngs (for worldwide active-shallow-crust regions). Logic-tree formalism was used to account for possible uncertainties associated with the attenuation relationships. OpenQuake software package was used for the hazard calculation. The highest level of seismic hazard is found in the Accra and Tema seismic zones, with estimated peak ground acceleration close to 0.2 g. The level of the seismic hazard in the southern part of Ghana diminishes with distance away from the Accra/Tema region to a value of 0.05 g at a distance of about 140 km.

  8. SLUG - stochastically lighting up galaxies - III. A suite of tools for simulated photometry, spectroscopy, and Bayesian inference with stochastic stellar populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumholz, Mark R.; Fumagalli, Michele; da Silva, Robert L.; Rendahl, Theodore; Parra, Jonathan

    2015-09-01

    Stellar population synthesis techniques for predicting the observable light emitted by a stellar population have extensive applications in numerous areas of astronomy. However, accurate predictions for small populations of young stars, such as those found in individual star clusters, star-forming dwarf galaxies, and small segments of spiral galaxies, require that the population be treated stochastically. Conversely, accurate deductions of the properties of such objects also require consideration of stochasticity. Here we describe a comprehensive suite of modular, open-source software tools for tackling these related problems. These include the following: a greatly-enhanced version of the SLUG code introduced by da Silva et al., which computes spectra and photometry for stochastically or deterministically sampled stellar populations with nearly arbitrary star formation histories, clustering properties, and initial mass functions; CLOUDY_SLUG, a tool that automatically couples SLUG-computed spectra with the CLOUDY radiative transfer code in order to predict stochastic nebular emission; BAYESPHOT, a general-purpose tool for performing Bayesian inference on the physical properties of stellar systems based on unresolved photometry; and CLUSTER_SLUG and SFR_SLUG, a pair of tools that use BAYESPHOT on a library of SLUG models to compute the mass, age, and extinction of mono-age star clusters, and the star formation rate of galaxies, respectively. The latter two tools make use of an extensive library of pre-computed stellar population models, which are included in the software. The complete package is available at http://www.slugsps.com.

  9. Timing the warm absorber in NGC4051

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, C.; Uttley, P.; Costantini, E.

    2015-07-01

    In this work we have combined spectral and timing analysis in the characterization of highly ionized outflows in Seyfert galaxies, the so-called warm absorbers. Here, we present our results on the extensive ˜600ks of XMM-Newton archival observations of the bright and highly variable Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC4051, whose spectrum has revealed a complex multi-component wind. Working simultaneously with RGS and PN data, we have performed a detailed analysis using a time-dependent photoionization code in combination with spectral and Fourier timing techniques. This method allows us to study in detail the response of the gas due to variations in the ionizing flux of the central source. As a result, we will show the contribution of the recombining gas to the time delays of the most highly absorbed energy bands relative to the continuum (Silva, Uttley & Costantini in prep.), which is also vital information for interpreting the continuum lags associated with propagation and reverberation effects in the inner emitting regions. Furthermore, we will illustrate how this powerful method can be applied to other sources and warm-absorber configurations, allowing for a wide range of studies.

  10. Moving Groups in the Milky Way Halo and Disk Induced by the Bar and Spiral Arms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, William John

    2015-08-01

    In a previous study (Moreno et al. 2015), the use of a detailed Milky Way potential (observationally and dynamically constrained) has shown that the Galactic bar is able to efficiently concentrate stars of the stellar halo and disk into several main resonances. With the tools introduced here, the Galactic bar is shown to produce significant phase-space structure attracting stars to several main resonances. This new study is dedicated to the study of known groups of the Galactic halo and disk, and their relation to these resonances. Stars belonging to some known halo and disk moving groups have settled down along these bar resonant families, showing, in some cases, a likely Galactic secular origin. In general, the 2D resonant orbits of the disk produced by the bar, seem to dominate at large scale-heights (several kiloparsecs) into the Galactic halo. In particular, provisionally six of the members of the Kapteyn halo moving group seem to be associated with one of these resonances, and also the Groombridge 1830 (Eggen 1996a; Eggen & Sandage 1959) and especially the newer halo moving groups G21-22 and G18-39 (Silva et al. 2012) show some correlation with these resonances suggesting possible secular origins, while the halo moving group Ross 451 (Eggen 1996b) does not show any such correlation, indicating a more probable cosmological (non-secular) ancestry. All Galactic disk moving groups (such as Arcturus, Hercules, Castor, IC 2391, Hyades, Pleiades, and Ursa Major) show considerable association with these resonances.

  11. Differential rotation of stars with multiple transiting planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netto, Yuri; Valio, Adriana

    2017-10-01

    If a star hosts a planet in an orbit such that it eclipses the star periodically, can be estimated the rotation profile of this star. If planets in multiplanetary system occult different stellar areas, spots in more than one latitude of the stellar disc can be detected. The monitored study of theses starspots in different latitudes allow us to infer the rotation profile of the star. We use the model described in Silva (2003) to characterize the starspots of Kepler-210, an active star with two planets. Kepler-210 is a late K star with an estimated age of 350 +/- 50 Myrs, average rotation period of 12.33 days, mass of 0.63 M⊙ and radius of 0.69 R⊙. The planets that eclipses this star have radii of 0.0498 R s and 0.0635 R s with orbital periods of 2.4532 +/- 0.0007 days and 7.9725 +/- 0.0014 days, respectively, where R s is the star radius.

  12. Forming a Two-Ring Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon without a Benzene Intermediate: the Reaction of Propargyl with Acetylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborn, David; Savee, John; Selby, Talitha; Welz, Oliver; Taatjes, Craig

    The reaction of acetylene (HCCH) with a resonance-stabilized free radical is a commonly invoked mechanism for the generation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), which are likely precursors of soot particles in combustion. In this work, we examine the sequential addition of acetylene to the propargyl radical (H2CCCH) at temperatures of 800 and 1000 K. Using time-resolved multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry with tunable ionizing radiation, we identified the isomeric forms of the C5H5 and C7H7 intermediates in this reaction sequence, and confirmed that the final C9H8 product is the two-ring aromatic compound indene. We identified two different resonance-stabilized C5H5 intermediates, with different temperature dependencies. Furthermore, the C7H7 intermediate is the tropyl radical (c-C7H7) , not the benzyl radical (C6H5CH2) , as is usually assumed in combustion environments. These experimental results are in general agreement with the latest electronic structure / master equation results of da Silva et al. This work shows a pathway for PAH formation that bypasses benzene / benzyl intermediates.

  13. A multi-objective optimization approach accurately resolves protein domain architectures

    PubMed Central

    Bernardes, J.S.; Vieira, F.R.J.; Zaverucha, G.; Carbone, A.

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Given a protein sequence and a number of potential domains matching it, what are the domain content and the most likely domain architecture for the sequence? This problem is of fundamental importance in protein annotation, constituting one of the main steps of all predictive annotation strategies. On the other hand, when potential domains are several and in conflict because of overlapping domain boundaries, finding a solution for the problem might become difficult. An accurate prediction of the domain architecture of a multi-domain protein provides important information for function prediction, comparative genomics and molecular evolution. Results: We developed DAMA (Domain Annotation by a Multi-objective Approach), a novel approach that identifies architectures through a multi-objective optimization algorithm combining scores of domain matches, previously observed multi-domain co-occurrence and domain overlapping. DAMA has been validated on a known benchmark dataset based on CATH structural domain assignments and on the set of Plasmodium falciparum proteins. When compared with existing tools on both datasets, it outperforms all of them. Availability and implementation: DAMA software is implemented in C++ and the source code can be found at http://www.lcqb.upmc.fr/DAMA. Contact: juliana.silva_bernardes@upmc.fr or alessandra.carbone@lip6.fr Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26458889

  14. Plants used traditionally to treat malaria in Brazil: the archives of Flora Medicinal

    PubMed Central

    Botsaris, Alexandros S

    2007-01-01

    The archives of Flora Medicinal, an ancient pharmaceutical laboratory that supported ethnomedical research in Brazil for more than 30 years, were searched for plants with antimalarial use. Forty plant species indicated to treat malaria were described by Dr. J. Monteiro da Silva (Flora Medicinal leader) and his co-workers. Eight species, Bathysa cuspidata, Cosmos sulphureus, Cecropia hololeuca, Erisma calcaratum, Gomphrena arborescens, Musa paradisiaca, Ocotea odorifera, and Pradosia lactescens, are related as antimalarial for the first time in ethnobotanical studies. Some species, including Mikania glomerata, Melampodium divaricatum, Galipea multiflora, Aspidosperma polyneuron, and Coutarea hexandra, were reported to have activity in malaria patients under clinical observation. In the information obtained, also, there were many details about the appropriate indication of each plant. For example, some plants are indicated to increase others' potency. There are also plants that are traditionally employed for specific symptoms or conditions that often accompany malaria, such as weakness, renal failure or cerebral malaria. Many plants that have been considered to lack activity against malaria due to absence of in vitro activity against Plasmodium can have other mechanisms of action. Thus researchers should observe ethnomedical information before deciding which kind of screening should be used in the search of antimalarial drugs. PMID:17472740

  15. MiDAS: the field guide to the microbes of activated sludge

    PubMed Central

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Saunders, Aaron Marc; Albertsen, Mads; Nierychlo, Marta; McIlroy, Bianca; Hansen, Aviaja Anna; Karst, Søren Michael; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2015-01-01

    The Microbial Database for Activated Sludge (MiDAS) field guide is a freely available online resource linking the identity of abundant and process critical microorganisms in activated sludge wastewater treatment systems to available data related to their functional importance. Phenotypic properties of some of these genera are described, but most are known only from sequence data. The MiDAS taxonomy is a manual curation of the SILVA taxonomy that proposes a name for all genus-level taxa observed to be abundant by large-scale 16 S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of full-scale activated sludge communities. The taxonomy can be used to classify unknown sequences, and the online MiDAS field guide links the identity to the available information about their morphology, diversity, physiology and distribution. The use of a common taxonomy across the field will provide a solid foundation for the study of microbial ecology of the activated sludge process and related treatment processes. The online MiDAS field guide is a collaborative workspace intended to facilitate a better understanding of the ecology of activated sludge and related treatment processes—knowledge that will be an invaluable resource for the optimal design and operation of these systems. Database URL: http://www.midasfieldguide.org PMID:26120139

  16. Discovery of a protein phosphatase activity encoded in the genome of bacteriophage lambda. Probable identity with open reading frame 221.

    PubMed

    Cohen, P T; Cohen, P

    1989-06-15

    Infection of Escherichia coli with phage lambda gt10 resulted in the appearance of a protein phosphatase with activity towards 32P-labelled casein. Activity reached a maximum near the point of cell lysis and declined thereafter. The phosphatase was stimulated 30-fold by Mn2+, while Mg2+ and Ca2+ were much less effective. Activity was unaffected by inhibitors 1 and 2, okadaic acid, calmodulin and trifluoperazine, distinguishing it from the major serine/threonine-specific protein phosphatases of eukaryotic cells. The lambda phosphatase was also capable of dephosphorylating other substrates in the presence of Mn2+, although activity towards 32P-labelled phosphorylase was 10-fold lower, and activity towards phosphorylase kinase and glycogen synthase 25 50-fold lower than with casein. No casein phosphatase activity was present in either uninfected cells, or in E. coli infected with phage lambda gt11. Since lambda gt11 lacks part of the open reading frame (orf) 221, previously shown to encode a protein with sequence similarity to protein phosphatase-1 and protein phosphatase-2A of mammalian cells [Cohen, Collins, Coulson, Berndt & da Cruz e Silva (1988) Gene 69, 131-134], the results indicate that ORF221 is the protein phosphatase detected in cells infected with lambda gt10. Comparison of the sequence of ORF221 with other mammalian protein phosphatases defines three highly conserved regions which are likely to be essential for function. The first of these is deleted in lambda gt11.

  17. Revisiting the spider genus Eutichurus Simon, 1897 (Araneae, Eutichuridae): new species and complementary descriptions.

    PubMed

    Bonaldo, Alexandre B; Lise, Arno A; RamÍrez, MartÍn J; Saturnino, Regiane

    2018-02-21

    Six new species of the genus Eutichurus Simon, 1897 are described: E. murgai new species (based on male and female) and E. paredesi new species (male) from Peru; E. cumbia new species (female) and E. tequendama new species (male) from Colombia; E. yungas new species (male and female) from Bolivia, and E. nancyae new species (male and female) from Brazil. The males of E. marquesae Bonaldo, 1994, E. madre Bonaldo, 1994 and E. zarate Bonaldo, 1994 are described for the first time. Eutichurus brescoviti Bonaldo, 1994, described on males, is synonymized with E. tropicus (L. Koch, 1866), previously known only from females. New records for E. ibiuna Bonaldo, 1994, E. ravidus Simon, 1897, E. putus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1898, E. silvae Bonaldo, 1994, E. lizeri Mello-Leitão, 1938, E. saylapampa Bonaldo, 1994, E. tropicus and E. manu Bonaldo, 1994 are presented. A key to all species of Eutichurus is provided, variation in the epigynal morphology of E. ibiuna is recorded and the fine morphology of E. marquesae is documented.

  18. Microbial Community Structure in Relation to Water Quality in ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Weeks Bay is a shallow, microtidal, eutrophic sub-estuary of Mobile Bay, AL. High watershed nutrient inputs to the estuary contribute to a eutrophic condition characterized by frequent summertime diel-cycling hypoxia and dissolved oxygen (DO) oversaturation. Spatial and seasonal variability of microbial communities that contribute to estuarine ecosystem metabolism were characterized using high-throughput DNA sequencing. Surface water samples were collected from spring to fall at three sites along a transect of Weeks Bay from the Fish River to Mobile Bay. Water samples were analyzed for physiochemical properties and were also filtered onto Sterivex filters for DNA extraction. Genes for 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA were amplified and sequenced according to Earth Microbiome Project protocols. Sequences were assembled into contigs and clustered into OTUs with mothur using the Silva database. The prokaryotes were dominated by Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Spartobacteria, whereas the eukaryotes were dominated by Bacillariophyta (diatoms). Multivariate statistical analysis of microbial community composition and environmental data showed that Bacteria, Archaea and Eukaryota were clustered by season. BEST analysis by station showed that prokaryotic community structure was associated with salinity and CDOM (Rho=0.924), whereas eukaryotic community structure was most associated with salinity (Rho=0.846). Prokaryotic community structure within seasons was associated with six

  19. Frequency-specific electrophysiologic correlates of resting state fMRI networks

    PubMed Central

    Hacker, Carl D.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Pahwa, Mrinal; Corbetta, Maurizio; Leuthardt, Eric C.

    2017-01-01

    Resting state functional MRI (R-fMRI) studies have shown that slow (< 0.1 Hz), intrinsic fluctuations of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal are temporally correlated within hierarchically organized functional systems known as resting state networks (RSNs) (Doucet et al., 2011). Most broadly, this hierarchy exhibits a dichotomy between two opposed systems (Fox et al., 2005). One system engages with the environment and includes the visual, auditory, and sensorimotor (SMN) networks as well as the dorsal attention network (DAN), which controls spatial attention. The other system includes the default mode network (DMN) and the fronto-parietal control system (FPC), RSNs that instantiate episodic memory and executive control, respectively. Here, we test the hypothesis, based on the spectral specificity of electrophysiologic responses to perceptual vs. memory tasks (Klimesch, 1999; Pfurtscheller and Lopes da Silva, 1999), that these two large-scale neural systems also manifest frequency specificity in the resting state. We measured the spatial correspondence between electrocorticographic (ECoG) band-limited power (BLP) and R-fMRI correlation patterns in awake, resting, human subjects. Our results show that, while gamma BLP correspondence was common throughout the brain, theta (4–8 Hz) BLP correspondence was stronger in the DMN and FPC, whereas alpha (8–12 Hz) correspondence was stronger in the SMN and DAN. Thus, the human brain, at rest, exhibits frequency specific electrophysiology, respecting both the spectral structure of task responses and the hierarchical organization of RSNs. PMID:28159686

  20. Non-specific immunological effects of selected routine childhood immunisations: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Rama; Voysey, Merryn; McQuaid, Fiona; de Nie, Karlijn; Ryan, Rebecca; Orr, Olivia; Uhlig, Ulrike; Sande, Charles; O'Connor, Daniel; Pollard, Andrew J

    2016-10-13

     To identify and characterise non-specific immunological effects after routine childhood vaccines against BCG, measles, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus.  Systematic review of randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, and case-control studies.  Embase, PubMed, Cochrane library, and Trip searched between 1947 and January 2014. Publications submitted by a panel of experts in the specialty were also included.  All human studies reporting non-specific immunological effects after vaccination with standard childhood immunisations. Studies using recombinant vaccines, no vaccine at all, or reporting only vaccine specific outcomes were excluded. The primary aim was to systematically identify, assemble, and review all available studies and data on the possible non-specific or heterologous immunological effects of BCG; measles; mumps, measles, and rubella (MMR); diphtheria; tetanus; and pertussis vaccines.  The initial search yielded 11 168 references; 77 manuscripts met the inclusion criteria for data analysis. In most included studies (48%) BCG was the vaccine intervention. The final time point of outcome measurement was primarily performed (70%) between one and 12 months after vaccination. There was a high risk of bias in the included studies, with no single study rated low risk across all assessment criteria. A total of 143 different immunological variables were reported, which, in conjunction with differences in measurement units and summary statistics, created a high number of combinations thus precluding any meta-analysis. Studies that compared BCG vaccinated with unvaccinated groups showed a trend towards increased IFN-γ production in vitro in the vaccinated groups. Increases were also observed for IFN-γ measured after BCG vaccination in response to in vitro stimulation with microbial antigens from Candida albicans, tetanus toxoid, Staphylococcus aureas, lipopolysaccharide, and hepatitis B. Cohort studies of measles vaccination showed an increase in

  1. The Effect of Different Type of Herbivores, Grazing Types and Grazing Intensities on Alpine Basiphillous Vegetation of the Romanian Carpathians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballová, Zuzana; Pekárik, Ladislav; Šibík, Jozef

    2017-04-01

    increased the most in restricted areas compared to irregularly and regularly grazed sites. When analyzing soil properties, Generalized mixed models revealed reliable results in the differences among categories of grazing types and intensity. These differences were only noticeable in calcium concentration being calcium the most decreased by medium grazing intensity and the most increased by irregular grazing. Grazing had significant effects on individual plant species occurrences and covers. Horses decreased presence of Anthoxanthum odoratum and regular grazing sites as well as fences had significantly higher occurrence of trampling tolerant species Nardus stricta compared to sites with irregular grazing. The type of grazing herbivores influenced covers of Agrostis capillaris, A. rupestris, Campanula rotundifolia, Festuca supina, Luzula multiflora, and Ranunculus pseudomontanus. The grazing types significantly altered covers of Agrostis capillaris, Alchemilla sp. div., Campanula rotundifolia, Festuca supina, Luzula multiflora, Nardus stricta, and Potentilla ternata (Potentilla aurea subsp. chrysocraspeda). The intensity of grazing had important impact on covers of Agrostis rupestris, Alchemilla sp. div., Campanula rotundifolia, Festuca supina, Luzula multiflora, Poa alpina, Potentilla ternata, and Ranunculus pseudomontanus. Key words: alpine meadows; pastures; GLMM; NMDS; (nested) PERMANOVA

  2. Food-borne diseases - the challenges of 20 years ago still persist while new ones continue to emerge.

    PubMed

    Newell, Diane G; Koopmans, Marion; Verhoef, Linda; Duizer, Erwin; Aidara-Kane, Awa; Sprong, Hein; Opsteegh, Marieke; Langelaar, Merel; Threfall, John; Scheutz, Flemming; van der Giessen, Joke; Kruse, Hilde

    2010-05-30

    -recognized by policy makers; i.e. Salmonella, Campylobacter, E. coli and Listeria monocytogenes. Antimicrobial resistance in several bacterial food-borne pathogens (Salmonella, Campylobacter, Shigella and Vibrio spp., methicillin resistant Staphylcoccus aureas, E. coli and Enterococci) has been discussed as a separate topic because of its relative importance to policy issues. Awareness and surveillance of viral food-borne pathogens is generally poor but emphasis is placed on Norovirus, Hepatitis A, rotaviruses and newly emerging viruses such as SARS. Many food-borne parasitic pathogens are known (for example Ascaris, Cryptosporidia and Trichinella) but few of these are effectively monitored in foods, livestock and wildlife and their epidemiology through the food-chain is poorly understood. The lessons learned and future challenges in each topic are debated. It is clear that one overall challenge is the generation and maintenance of constructive dialogue and collaboration between public health, veterinary and food safety experts, bringing together multidisciplinary skills and multi-pathogen expertise. Such collaboration is essential to monitor changing trends in the well-recognised diseases and detect emerging pathogens. It will also be necessary understand the multiple interactions these pathogens have with their environments during transmission along the food chain in order to develop effective prevention and control strategies. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The antibacterial activity of extracts of nine plant species with good activity against Escherichia coli against five other bacteria and cytotoxicity of extracts.

    PubMed

    Elisha, Ishaku Leo; Botha, Francien S; McGaw, Lyndy Joy; Eloff, Jacobus Nicolaas

    2017-02-28

    The development of antibiotic resistant bacteria stems from a number of factors, including inappropriate use of antibiotics in human and animal health and their prolonged use as growth promoters at sub-clinical doses in poultry and livestock production. We were interested in investigating plants that could be useful in protecting humans or animals against diarrhoea. We decided to work on extracts of nine plant species with good activity against Escherichia coli based on earlier work in the Phytomedicine Programme. Leaves of nine medicinal plant species with high antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli were extracted with acetone and their minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values determined using a microplate serial dilution technique against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Bacillus cereus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria. Bioautography was used to determine the number of bioactive compounds in each extract. In vitro safety of the extracts was determined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide reduction assay on Vero cells. The extracts were active against all the pathogens with average MICs ranging from 0.02 to 0.52 mg/ml. As expected E. coli was relatively sensitive, while E. faecalis and S. Typhimurium were more resistant to the extracts (average MICs of 0.28 mg/ml and 0.22 mg/ml respectively). Cremaspora triflora and Maesa lanceolata leaf extracts had higher activity than the other extracts against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens with mean MICs of 0.07 mg/ml and 0.09 mg/ml respectively. Extracts of Maesa lanceolata and Hypericum roeperianum had the highest total antibacterial activity (TAA) at 1417 and 963 ml/g respectively. All extracts with the exception of that of Maesa lanceolata, Elaeodendron croceum and Calpurnia aurea had relatively low cytotoxicity with LC 50  > 20 μg/ml. Cremaspora triflora had

  4. Factors associated with disease-specific survival of patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Souza, Mirian Carvalho de; Cruz, Oswaldo Gonçalves; Vasconcelos, Ana Glória Godoi

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is a global public health problem and is associated with high mortality. Lung cancer could be largely avoided by reducing the prevalence of smoking. The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of social, behavioral, and clinical factors on the survival time of patients with non-small cell lung cancer treated at Cancer Hospital I of the José Alencar Gomes da Silva National Cancer Institute, located in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 2000 and 2003. This was a retrospective hospital cohort study involving 1,194 patients. The 60-month disease-specific survival probabilities were calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method for three stage groups. The importance of the studied factors was assessed with a hierarchical theoretical model after adjustment by Cox multiple regression. The estimated 60-month specific-disease lethality rate was 86.0%. The 60-month disease-specific survival probability ranged from 25.0% (stages I/II) to 2.5% (stage IV). The performance status, the intention to treat, and the initial treatment modality were the major prognostic factors identified in the study population. In this cohort of patients, the disease-specific survival probabilities were extremely low. We identified no factors that could be modified after the diagnosis in order to improve survival. Primary prevention, such as reducing the prevalence of smoking, is still the best method to reduce the number of people who will suffer the consequences of lung cancer. O câncer de pulmão é um problema de saúde pública global e é associado a elevada mortalidade. Ele poderia ser evitado em grande parte com a redução da prevalência do tabagismo. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os efeitos de fatores sociais, comportamentais e clínicos sobre o tempo de sobrevida de pacientes com câncer de pulmão de células não pequenas atendidos, entre 2000 e 2003, no Hospital do Câncer I do Instituto Nacional de Câncer José Alencar Gomes da Silva, localizado na

  5. Chronology of the 2014 volcanic eruption on the island of Fogo, Cape Verde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Sónia; Cardoso, Nadir; Alfama, Vera; Cabral, Jeremias; Semedo, Helio; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Dionis, Samara; Hernández, Pedro A.; Barrancos, José; Melián, Gladys V.; Pereira, José Manuel; Rodríguez, Fátima

    2015-04-01

    . Day, S. J., Heleno da Silva, S. I. N., and Fonseca, J. F. B. D.: A past giant lateral collapse and present-day flank instability of Fogo, Cape Verde Islands, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 94, 191-218, 1999. Foeken, J., Day, S., and Stuart, F.: Cosmogenic 3He exposure dating of the Quaternary basalts from Fogo, Cape Verdes: Implications for rift zone and magmatic reorganisation, Quaternary Geochron., 4, 37-49, doi:10.1016/j.quageo.2008.07.002, 2009. Ribeiro, O.: A ilha do Fogo e as suas erupções, 12a edição, Memórias, Série Geográfica, J. Inv. Ultramar, 1960. Torres, P.C., Madeira, J., Silva, L.C., Silveira, A.B., Serralheiro, A. & Mota Gomes, A. (1997) - Carta geológica das erupções históricas da ilha do Fogo: revisão e actualização, in "A erupção vulcânica de 1995 na ilha do Fogo, Cabo Verde", Lisboa, 119-132.

  6. A strategy for aromatic hydrocarbon bioremediation under anaerobic conditions and the impacts of ethanol: A microcosm study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu Dao; Barker, James F.; Gui, Lai

    2008-02-01

    -reducing conditions. This study suggests that addition of excess ferric iron combined with limited nitrate has promise for in situ bioremediation of BTEX and TMB in the Borden aquifer and possibly for other sites contaminated by hydrocarbons. This study is the first to report 1,2,3-TMB biodegradation under strictly anaerobic condition. With the addition of 500 mg/L ethanol but without EA addition, ethanol and its main intermediate, acetate, were quickly biodegraded within 41 d with methane as a major product. Ethanol initially present at 5000 mg/L without EA addition declined slowly with the persistence of unidentified volatile fatty acids, likely propionate and butyrate, but less methane. In contrast, all ethanol disappeared with repeated additions of either nitrate or ferric iron, but acetate and unidentified intermediates persisted under iron-enhanced conditions. With the addition of 500 mg/L ethanol and nitrate, only minor toluene biodegradation was observed under denitrifying conditions and only after ethanol and acetate were utilized. The higher ethanol concentration (5000 mg/L) essentially shut down BTEX biodegradation likely due to high EA demand provided by ethanol and its intermediates. The negative findings for anaerobic BTEX biodegradation in the presence of ethanol and/or its biodegradation products are in contrast to recent research reported by Da Silva et al. [Da Silva, M.L.B., Ruiz-Aguilar, G.M.L., Alvarez, P.J.J., 2005. Enhanced anaerobic biodegradation of BTEX-ethanol mixtures in aquifer columns amended with sulfate, chelated ferric iron or nitrate. Biodegradation. 16, 105-114]. Our results suggest that the apparent conservation of high residual labile carbon as biodegradation products such as acetate makes natural attenuation of aromatics less effective, and makes subsequent addition of EAs to promote in situ BTEX biodegradation problematic.

  7. Impact of herbaceous understory vegetation to ecosystem water cycle, productivity and infiltration in a semi arid oak woodland assessed by stable oxygen isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubbert, Maren; Piayda, Arndt; Silva, Filipe Costa e.; Correia, Alexandra C.; Pereira, Joao S.; Cuntz, Matthias; Werner, Christiane

    2015-04-01

    vegetation strongly increased rain infiltration, specifically during strong rain events. In conclusion, beneficial understory vegetation effects were dominant. However, the observed vulnerability of the understory vegetation to drought and competition for water with trees suggests, that increased drought and altered precipitation pattern as predicted in future climate change scenarios for the Mediterranean basin not only threaten understory development. They also very likely decrease rain infiltration and ground water recharge by decreasing understory vegetation cover and increasing amount of heavy precipitation events with high run-off from sealed bare soils. This in turn can severely diminish cork-oak productivity and hence the resilience of the ecosystem toward drought (Costa e Silva et al., in rev.). Dubbert, M; Cuntz, M; Piayda, A; Maguas, C; Werner, C: Partitioning evapotranspiration - Testing the Craig and Gordon model with field measurements of oxygen isotope ratios of evaporative fluxes. J Hydrol (2013) Dubbert, M; Piayda, A; Cuntz, M; Correia, AC; Costa e Silva, F; Pereira, JS; Werner, C: Stable oxygen isotope and flux partitioning demonstrates understory of an oak savanna contributes up to half of ecosystem carbon and water exchange, Frontiers in Plant Science (2014a) Dubbert, M; Mosena, A; Piayda, A; Cuntz, M; Correia, AC; Pereira, JS; Werner, C: Influence of tree cover on herbaceous layer development and carbon and water fluxes in a Portuguese cork oak woodland., Acta Oecologica

  8. How metallic is the binding state of indium hosted by excess-metal chalcogenides in ore deposits?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ondina Figueiredo, Maria; Pena Silva, Teresa; Oliveira, Daniel; Rosa, Diogo

    2010-05-01

    Radiation Facility, in Grenoble/France). Polymetallic chalcogenide minerals and various model compounds displaying distinct bonding situations of indium to other ligands (oxygen and halides) were studied. Encouraging results from a first experiment [5] showed the presence of a "white line" in the XANES spectra collected from InF3 and from In-hosting bornite; however, the impossibility of clearly identifying the nanoscale phase hosting indium in sulphide ore samples has hindered a full interpretation of X-ray absorption data. The crystal chemistry of indium in natural chalcogenides is now reanalysed and XANES results obtained so far for polymetallic sulphides are accordingly re-evaluated, disclosing a challenging clue for indium binding state in these host minerals within sulphide ores. [1] M.O. Figueiredo et al. (2007) Procd. 9th Biennial SGA Mtg., Dublin/Ireland, edt. C. Andrew et al., 1355-1357. [2] O.C. Gaspar (2002) Canad. Miner. 40, 611-636. [3] M.O. Figueiredo & T.P. Silva (2009) ICANS 23, 23rd Int. Conf. Amorphous & Nano-crystalline Semiconductors, Netherlands, August 23-28. Poster ID 229 (abstract). [4] T. Seifert & D. Sandmann (2002) Ore Geol. Reviews 28, 1-31. [5] M.O. Figueiredo & T.P. Silva (2009) XVIII Int. Mater. Res. Congr., Mexico, August 16-20. Symp. 20, Poster nr. 1 (abstract). * Work developed within the research project PTDC/CTE-GIN/67027/2006 financed by the Portuguese Foundation for Science & Technology (FCT/MCTES). The financial support from EU to perform the experiments at the ESRF is also acknowledged.

  9. Disease emergence in birds: Challenges for the twenty-first century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friend, Milton; McLean, R.G.; Dein, F.J.

    2001-01-01

    The paper by Hartup et al. (2001) on House Finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) conjunctivitis is an example of the rapid geographic spread that can result from disease emergence in naïve populations. That event was neither novel nor transient relative to its occurrence or effects. Disease emergence and reemergence are hallmarks of the latter part of the twentieth century (Center for Disease Control 1994, Levins et al. 1994, DaSilva and Laccarino 1999, Gratz 1999). Current examples involving domestic animals include the problems in Europe with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, or “mad cow disease”) (Brown 2001) and foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) (Kitching 1999). Human health has been affected by diseases caused by an array of viruses (Morse 1993, Nichol et al. 1993, Murphy and Nathanson 1994), bacteria (Dennis 1998, DaSilva and Laccarino 1999), rickettsia (Walker and Dumier 1996, Azad et al. 1997), protozoans (Tuerrant 1997, Saini et al. 2000), and metazoan parasites (Hildreth et al. 1991, Gubler 1998), as well as other causes. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) has received the most notoriety of those diseases (Hahn et al. 2000, Schwartlander et al. 2000). A similar pattern exists on a global scale for free-ranging wildlife populations (Table 1) (Friend 1994, 1995; Epstein et al. 1998, Daszak et al. 2000). However, in comparison to disease emergence affecting humans and domestic animals, response to emerging diseases of wildlife is generally superficial. We present concepts and data to support our contention that failure to adequately address disease emergence in free-ranging wildlife is resulting in a diminished capability to achieve and sustain desired geographic distributions and population abundance for species of wild birds, including some threatened and endangered avifauna.For clarity, we define disease and disease emergence in the context of our use of those terms because they are the focus of our comments. Disease is any departure from health

  10. Validation of the Earthquake Archaeological Effects methodology by studying the San Clemente cemetery damages generated during the Lorca earthquake of 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-González, Fidel; Martín-Velazquez, Silvia; Rodrigez-Pascua, Miguel Angel; Pérez-López, Raul; Silva, Pablo

    2014-05-01

    and we have been able to constrain the ranges of orientation for each EAE's. The orientation of the damage is not usually recorded after an earthquake; however, it can provide information on seismic source in historical earthquakes. References Giner-Robles, J. L., Perez-Lopez, R., Silva Barroso, P., Rodriguez-Pascua, M. A., Martin-Gonzalez, F. and Cabanas, L. 2012. Analisis estructural de danos orientados en el terremoto de Lorca del 11 de mayo de 2011. Aplicaciones en arqueosismologia. Boletín Geológico y Minero, 123 (4): 503-513 Rodriguez-Pascua, M.A., Perez-Lopez, R., Silva, P.G., Giner- Robles, J.L., Garduno-Monroy, V.H. and Reicherter, K. 2011. A Comprehensive Classification of Earthquake Archaeological Effects (EAE) for Archaeoseismology. Quaternary International, 242, 20-30.

  11. The rocks and fossils of my school… as educational and cientific divulgation resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canas, Ana; Lopes, Francisco; Guerreiro, Catarina; Reis, Raquel; Carneiro, Amanda

    2017-04-01

    design of the digital guide and informative boards (students of the graphic design course); practical classes, guided tours and other promotion and divulgation initiatives. In the end, with this project, students, teachers and the rest of the educational community, will regard rocks and fossils differently. In the next school year (2017/2018), we intend to carry the work forward, extending it to other schools in Silves county. Some of the papers that inspired our project: -Cachada, M., Santos, A., Alfaro, E., Silva, C. S. (2012). Experiencias de aprovechamiento educativo y turístico de recursos geológicos en las ciudades de Huelva, Sevilla y Córdoba. Comunicaciones XVII Simposio sobre Enseñanza de la Geología. Universidad de Huelva, 64-70 -Fuertes, I., Calzada, E., Llamas, T., Tejerina, A., Crespo, M., Pereiras, L., Crespo, T., Domínguez, L., Cabezas, L. (2016). Lugares de interés geoeducativo en el medio urbano. Potencialidad de las ciudades para la enseñanza de Geología. Enseñanza de las Ciencias de la Tierra, Vol. 24 (2), 195-201 -Rodrigues, L., Agostinho, M., Manteigas, R. (2014). Geologia e Paleontologia Urbanas - potencialidades e aplicações em três cidades do Algarve. Comunicações Geológicas, 101, Especial III: 1359-1363 -Silva, C. M., Cachão, M. (1998). "Paleontologia Urbana": percursos citadinos de interpretação e educação (paleo)ambiental. Actas V Congresso Nacional de Geologia, Comunicações Instituto Geológico e Mineiro, Lisboa, 84 (2), H33-H37

  12. From Greenhouse to Icehouse: Evidence of Climatic Changes Across the Marine Eocene-Oligocene Transition From the Massignano GSSP Section (Central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coccioni, R.; Marsili, A.; Montanari, A.

    2004-12-01

    The transition from global "greenhouse" conditions of the early and middle Eocene to global "icehouse" conditions of the early Oligocene marks a turning point in Cenozoic Earth history which was marked by reorganization of global ocean circulation patterns and significant turnovers in the marine and terrestrial biota (Prothero et al., 2003) and led to the development of the first East Antarctic ice-sheet, close to the Eocene/Oligocene boundary (33.7 Ma). The Massignano GSSP for the Eocene/Oligocene boundary (Premoli Silva & Jenkins, 1993), exposed in an abandoned quarry in the Monte Conero area, on the Adriatic coast of central Italy, was investigated at high-resolution in order to provide evidence for climatic changes across the marine Eocene-Oligocene transition. The Massignano section is 23-m thick and consists of alternating reddish/greenish-grey marls and calcareous marls with several biotite-rich levels of volcanic origin which were deposited in a lower bathyal depositional setting, at a paleodepth of 1000-2000 m (Coccioni & Galeotti, 2003). A complete geological record of 3 myr (from 36.2 to 33.2 Ma according to the time scale of Berggren et al., 1995) is preserved which spans the interval from the latest Eocene to the early Oligocene, from Chron C16n to C13n (Bice & Montanari, 1988; Lowrie & Lanci, 1994), and is provided by an accurate calibration of bio- and geochemical events. Cosmic signatures are also recorded in the Massignano section (Montanari et al., 1993) where three impactoclastic, iridium-rich layers occurs in the middle-lower part of the succession (Montanari et al., 1988, 1993; Bodeselitsch et al., 2004). They are possibly linked to the Popigai and Chesapeake Bay impacts and related to a comet shower over a duration of 2.2 myr (Farley et al., 1998). Calcareous nannofossil and foraminiferal assemblages (Coccioni et al., 2000; Spezzaferri et al., 2002), dinoflagellate cyst palynology (Brinkhuis & Biffi, 1993), ostracod faunas (Dall'Antonia et al

  13. Terroir effects on the reflectance spectra of the canopy of four grape varieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducati, Jorge; Bombassaro, Magno; Arruda, Diniz; Bortolotto, Virindiana

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge of the reflectance spectrum of grape leaves is important to the identification of grape varieties in images of vineyards where several cultivars co-exist. As a non-destructive technique, spectroradiometry delivers reflectance spectra with high signal-to-noise ratios. This work reports results from field measurements of reflectance of four grape varieties in the spectral range 450nm to 2500nm, performed in south Brazil. Three viticultural regions were visited and in vivo measurements of Merlot, Pinot Noir, Chardonnay and Italian Riesling were performed. All spectra were normalized to have unit area and were compared. Due to the small noise level, spectral features from each variety were revealed, with intensities of the order of 10-4 to 10-5 with respect to the normalized reflectance range from 0 to 1.These features were present in several, repeated measurements, and so were considered as real. In a preliminary analysis they were attributed to be due to the presence or absence of pigments as anthocyanins in the measured grape leaves, since the experiments used red and white grapes. It is known that such pigments are present not only in berry skins, but also in vacuoles within cells in leaves. This has an impact in leaf texture and so in infrared reflectance [1]. Spectral differences were present in many wavelengths, including around 552, 577, 662, 884, 1059, 1263, 1981, and 2051 nanometers. A statistical discriminant analysis was made to search for terroir effects which introduce differences between regions. Detailed knowledge of the spectral signatures of grape varieties can be relevant to the development of identification algorithms used to classify remote sensing images of viticultural regions where several cultivars are present, and to in-field inspections using radiometers. [1] Da Silva, P.R.; Ducati, J.R. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 30 (2009), pp. 6085-6098.

  14. The nature of X-ray sources associated to young clusters around Sh2-296

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregorio-Hetem, J.; Fernandes, B.; Montmerle, T.

    2014-10-01

    Aiming to unravel the star formation activity in the Canis Major R1 (CMaR1), we have studied the young (< 5 Myr) clusters associated to the arc-shaped ionized nebula Sh2-296. Based on our X-ray data complemented by optical and near-IR data, we discovered, near to GU CMa, a stellar cluster that is older by at least a few Myr than the previously known cluster, around Z CMa, where star formation is still very active. Multi-object optical spectroscopy of our X-ray sources nearby Z CMa was performed with Gemini telescopes to confirm the existence of a mixed population from both older and younger clusters around the edge of Sh2-296. In the present work we show the results for optical counterparts candidates of 45 X-ray sources. Spectral type determination was based on comparison with standard spectra library and fitting the continuum and TiO bands. Typical features of young stars were inspected to confirm the nature of the sample that is mainly classified as T Tauri stars (TTs), since their spectra show the Li I line, one of the indicators of youth. The equivalent width of Hα measured at 10% of the total flux was used to separate Classical TTs (CTTs) from weak-line TTs (WTTs). Among 51 optical counterparts candidates, 38 are young stars: 24% of them are classified as CTTs and 76% are WTTs. However the present results correspond to a small fraction (˜ 15%) of the entire sample of X-ray sources we have detected. Aiming a more representative set of spectra, additional GMOS observations have been performed, as well as another ongoing project (see Santos-Silva et al.) dedicated to studying of the X-ray properties.

  15. A polymorphic form of 4,4-dimethyl-8-methylene-3-azabicyclo[3.3.1]non-2-en-2-yl 3-indolyl ketone, an indole alkaloid extracted from Aristotelia chilensis (maqui).

    PubMed

    Paz, Cristian; Becerra, José; Silva, Mario; Freire, Eleonora; Baggio, Ricardo

    2013-12-15

    The title compound [systematic name: (4,4-dimethyl-8-methylene-3-azabicyclo[3.3.1]non-2-en-2-yl)(1H-indol-3-yl)methanone], C20H22N2O, (II), was obtained from mother liquors extracted from Aristotelia chilensis (commonly known as maqui), a native Chilean tree. The compound is a polymorphic form of that obtained from the same source and reported by Watson, Nagl, Silva, Cespedes & Jakupovic [Acta Cryst. (1989), C45, 1322-1324], (Ia). The molecule consists of an indolyl ketone fragment and a nested three-ring system, with both groups linked by a C-C bridge. Comparison of both forms shows that they do not differ in their gross features but in the relative orientation of the two ring systems, due to different rotations around the bridge, as measured by the O=C-C=N torsion angle [130.0 (7)° in (Ia) and 161.6 (2)° in (II)]. The resulting slight conformational differences are reflected in a number of intramolecular contacts being observed in (II) but not in (Ia). Regarding intermolecular interactions, both forms share a similar N-H···O synthon but with differing hydrogen-bonding strength, leading in both cases to C(6) catemers with different chain motifs. There are marked differences between the two forms regarding colour and the (de)localization of a double bond, which allows speculation about the possible existence of different variants of this type of molecule.

  16. A new role for HERPUD1 and ERAD activation in osteoblast differentiation and mineralization.

    PubMed

    Américo-Da-Silva, Luan; Diaz, Jheimmy; Bustamante, Mario; Mancilla, Georthan; Oyarzún, Ingrid; Verdejo, Hugo E; Quiroga, Clara

    2018-03-23

    Bone integrity depends on a finely tuned balance between bone synthesis by osteoblasts and resorption by osteoclasts. The secretion capacity of mature osteoblasts requires strict control of proteostasis. Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) prevents the accumulation of unfolded ER proteins via dislocation to the cytosol and degradation by the proteasome. The ER membrane protein, homocysteine-inducible endoplasmic reticulum protein with ubiquitin-like domain 1 (HERPUD1), is a key component of the ERAD multiprotein complex which helps to stabilize the complex and facilitate the efficient degradation of unfolded proteins. HERPUD1 expression is strongly up-regulated by the unfolded protein response and cellular stress. The aim of the current study was to establish whether HERPUD1 and ERAD play roles in osteoblast differentiation and maturation. We evaluated preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell and primary rat osteoblast differentiation by measuring calcium deposit levels, alkaline phosphatase activity, and runt-related transcription factor 2 and osterix expression. We found that ERAD and proteasomal degradation were activated and that HERPUD1 expression was increased as osteoblast differentiation progressed. The absence of HERPUD1 blocked osteoblast mineralization in vitro and significantly reduced alkaline phosphatase activity. In contrast, HERPUD1 overexpression activated the osteoblast differentiation program. Our results demonstrate that HERPUD1 and ERAD are important for the activation of the osteoblast maturation program and may be useful new targets for elucidating bone physiology.-Américo-Da-Silva, L., Diaz, J., Bustamante, M., Mancilla, G., Oyarzún, I., Verdejo, H. E., Quiroga, C. A new role for HERPUD1 and ERAD activation in osteoblast differentiation and mineralization.

  17. The Last 2000 Days: Thou shouldst not have been old till thou hadst been wise. Shakespeare (King Lear).

    PubMed

    Cohen, Elias S

    2017-02-01

    This essay is an exploration of an extended period of the last 2000 days of anticipated mortality from the perspective of an aging gerontologist. The last 2000 days come at the end of what has come to be referred to as the Third Age (Silva, L. R. (2008). [From old age to third age: The historical course of the identities linked to the process of ageing]. História, ciências, saúde-Manguinhos, 15: , 155-168. doi:10.1590/S0104-59702008000100009). Life in the last 2000 days is a period in which the appreciation of finitude comes into new prominence, affecting a variety of elements that command attention-from individuals and from scholars. The significance of the last 2000 days is explored from two perspectives: First, the meaning, if any, of a more than half century career spent in gerontology on the personal experience of being old- how I think about my own old age, and second, an exploration of a variety of considerations that other older persons might be prompted to consider. The last 2000 days will be experienced in relatively good stages of "ability," activity, and potential engagement. This rumination explores the personal meaning of this penultimate life stage, pre-dying. It suggests some systematic consideration of what recognition of these days may mean-perception of time, identity and role, status, risks and vulnerabilities, dealing with disability, winding up/winding down/giving up, legacies, and, of course, death and dying. These issues are personal. There is no set value scale that suggests "successful aging" or "failed aging." © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. The Extracellular Matrix of the Lateral Pharyngeal Wall in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Dantas, Danielle Andrade da Silva; Mauad, Thais; Silva, Luiz F. F.; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Formigoni, Gilberto G. S.; Cahali, Michel B.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: To compare the components of the extracellular matrix in the lateral pharyngeal muscular wall in patients with and without obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This may help to explain the origin of the increased collapsibility of the pharynx in patients with OSA. Design: Specimens from the superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle, obtained during pharyngeal surgeries, were evaluated using histochemical and immunohistochemical analyses to determine the fractional area of collagen types I and III, elastic fibers, versican, fibronectin, and matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 2 in the endomysium. Setting: Academic tertiary center. Patiens: A total of 51 nonobese adult patients, divided into 38 patients with OSA and 13 nonsnoring control subjects without OSA. Interventions: Postintervention study performed on tissues from patients after elective surgery. Measurements and Results: Pharyngeal muscles of patients with OSA had significantly more collagen type I than pharyngeal muscles in control subjects. Collagen type I was correlated positively and independently with age. The other tested components of the extracellular matrix did not differ significantly between groups. In a logistic regression, an additive effect of both the increase of collagen type I and the increase in age with the presence of OSA was observed (odds ratio (OR), 2.06; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.17-3.63), when compared with the effect of increased age alone (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.03-1.20). Conclusion: Collagen type I in the superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle was more prevalent in patients with OSA and also increased with age. It was hypothesized that this increase could delay contractile-relaxant responses in the superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle at the expiratory-inspiratory phase transition, thus increasing pharyngeal collapsibility. Citation: Dantas DAS; Mauad T; Silva LFF; Lorenzi-Filho G; Formigoni GGS; Cahali MB. The extracellular matrix of the lateral pharyngeal wall in

  19. Free Recall of Word Lists under Total Sleep Deprivation and after Recovery Sleep

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida Valverde Zanini, Gislaine; Tufik, Sérgio; Andersen, Monica Levy; da Silva, Raquel Cristina Martins; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo; Rodrigues, Camila Cruz; Pompéia, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: One task that has been used to assess memory effects of prior total sleep deprivation (TSD) is the immediate free recall of word lists; however, results have been mixed. A possible explanation for this is task impurity, since recall of words from different serial positions reflects use of distinct types of memory (last words: short-term memory; first and intermediate words: episodic memory). Here we studied the effects of 2 nights of TSD on immediate free recall of semantically unrelated word lists considering the serial position curve. Design: Random allocation to a 2-night TSD protocol followed by one night of recovery sleep or to a control group. Setting: Study conducted under continuous behavioral monitoring. Participants: 24 young, healthy male volunteers. Intervention: 2 nights of total sleep deprivation (TSD) and one night of recovery sleep. Measurements and Results: Participants were shown five 15 unrelated word-lists at baseline, after one and 2 nights of TSD, and after one night of recovery sleep. We also investigated the development of recall strategies (learning) and susceptibility to interference from previous lists. No free recall impairment occurred during TSD, irrespective of serial position. Interference was unchanged. Both groups developed recall strategies, but task learning occurred earlier in controls and was evident in the TSD group only after sleep recovery. Conclusion: Prior TSD spared episodic memory, short-term phonological memory, and interference, allowed the development of recall strategies, but may have decreased the advantage of using these strategies, which returned to normal after recovery sleep. Citation: Zanini GAV; Tufik S; Andersen ML; da Silva RCM; Bueno OFA; Rodrigues CC; Pompéia S. Free recall of word lists under total sleep deprivation and after recovery sleep. SLEEP 2012;35(2):223-230. PMID:22294812

  20. Changes in ambient temperature elicit divergent control of metabolic and cardiovascular actions by leptin

    PubMed Central

    do Carmo, Jussara M.; da Silva, Alexandre A.; Romero, Damian G.; Hall, John E.

    2017-01-01

    Interactions of hypothalamic signaling pathways that control body temperature (BT), blood pressure (BP), and energy balance are poorly understood. We investigated whether the chronic BP and metabolic actions of leptin are differentially modulated by changes in ambient temperature (TA). Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), BT, motor activity (MA), and oxygen consumption (Vo2) were measured 24 h/d at normal laboratory TA (23°C), at thermoneutral zone (TNZ, 30°C) for mice or during cold exposure (15°C) in male wild-type mice. After control measurements, leptin (4 μg/kg/min) or saline vehicle was infused for 7 d. At TNZ, leptin reduced food intake (−11.0 ± 0.5 g cumulative deficit) and body weight by 6% but caused no changes in MAP or HR. At 15°C, leptin infusion did not alter food intake but increased MAP and HR (8 ± 1 mmHg and 33 ± 7 bpm), while Vo2 increased by ∼10%. Leptin reduced plasma glucose and insulin levels at 15°C but not at 30°C. These results demonstrate that the chronic anorexic effects of leptin are enhanced at TNZ, while its effects on insulin and glucose levels are attenuated and its effects on BP and HR are abolished. Conversely, cold TA caused resistance to leptin’s anorexic effects but amplified its effects to raise BP and reduce insulin and glucose levels. Thus, the brain circuits by which leptin regulates food intake and cardiovascular function are differentially influenced by changes in TA.—Do Carmo, J. M., da Silva, A. A., Romero, D. G., Hall, J. E. Changes in ambient temperature elicit divergent control of metabolic and cardiovascular actions by leptin. PMID:28228474