Science.gov

Sample records for table rock lakes

  1. Simulation of hydrodynamics, temperature, and dissolved oxygen in Table Rock Lake, Missouri, 1996-1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, W. Reed; Galloway, Joel M.; Richards, Joseph M.; Wesolowski, Edwin A.

    2003-01-01

    Outflow from Table Rock Lake and other White River reservoirs support a cold-water trout fishery of substantial economic yield in south-central Missouri and north-central Arkansas. The Missouri Department of Conservation has requested an increase in existing minimum flows through the Table Rock Lake Dam from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to increase the quality of fishable waters downstream in Lake Taneycomo. Information is needed to assess the effect of increased minimum flows on temperature and dissolved- oxygen concentrations of reservoir water and the outflow. A two-dimensional, laterally averaged, hydrodynamic, temperature, and dissolved-oxygen model, CE-QUAL-W2, was developed and calibrated for Table Rock Lake, located in Missouri, north of the Arkansas-Missouri State line. The model simulates water-surface elevation, heat transport, and dissolved-oxygen dynamics. The model was developed to assess the effects of proposed increases in minimum flow from about 4.4 cubic meters per second (the existing minimum flow) to 11.3 cubic meters per second (the increased minimum flow). Simulations included assessing the effect of (1) increased minimum flows and (2) increased minimum flows with increased water-surface elevations in Table Rock Lake, on outflow temperatures and dissolved-oxygen concentrations. In both minimum flow scenarios, water temperature appeared to stay the same or increase slightly (less than 0.37 ?C) and dissolved oxygen appeared to decrease slightly (less than 0.78 mg/L) in the outflow during the thermal stratification season. However, differences between the minimum flow scenarios for water temperature and dissolved- oxygen concentration and the calibrated model were similar to the differences between measured and simulated water-column profile values.

  2. Cultural Resources Survey at Selected Locations, Table Rock Lake, Missouri and Arkansas,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    terrace along the river banks, and this alluvial material interfingers with fine-grained colluvium (redeposited loess) and cherty residuum washed fran...by block nhstber) Archaic Period Interfluve Meander Core Rice Complex Bluff Shelter James River Complex Mississippian Sprfld Plteu Cultural Resource...Invt Jefferson City Chert Osage Table Rock Lake Dalton Kings River Ozark Highlands White River Geomorphology Long Creek Paleo-Indian Basin 20

  3. Table Rock Lake Water-Clarity Assessment Using Landsat Thematic Mapper Satellite Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krizanich, Gary; Finn, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Water quality of Table Rock Lake in southwestern Missouri is assessed using Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite data. A pilot study uses multidate satellite image scenes in conjunction with physical measurements of secchi disk transparency collected by the Lakes of Missouri Volunteer Program to construct a regression model used to estimate water clarity. The natural log of secchi disk transparency is the dependent variable in the regression and the independent variables are Thematic Mapper band 1 (blue) reflectance and a ratio of the band 1 and band 3 (red) reflectance. The regression model can be used to reliably predict water clarity anywhere within the lake. A pixel-level lake map of predicted water clarity or computed trophic state can be produced from the model output. Information derived from this model can be used by water-resource managers to assess water quality and evaluate effects of changes in the watershed on water quality.

  4. Chemical Analyses of Pre-Holocene Rocks from Medicine Lake Volcano and Vicinity, Northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.

    2008-01-01

    Chemical analyses are presented in an accompanying table (Table 1) for more than 600 pre-Holocene rocks collected at and near Medicine Lake Volcano, northern California. The data include major-element X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyses for all of the rocks plus XRF trace element data for most samples, and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) trace element data for many samples. In addition, a limited number of analyses of Na2O and K2O by flame photometry (FP) are included as well assome wet chemical analyses of FeO, H2O+/-, and CO2. Latitude and longitude location information is provided for all samples. This data set is intended to accompany the geologic map of Medicine Lake Volcano (Donnelly-Nolan, in press); map unit designations are given for each sample collected from the map area.

  5. Large rock-slope failures impacting on lakes - Reconstruction of events and deciphering mobility processes at Lake Oeschinen (CH) and Lake Eibsee (D)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, Sibylle; Anselmetti, Flavio; Gilli, Adrian; Krautblatter, Michael; Hajdas, Irka

    2017-04-01

    Among single event landslide disasters large rock-slope failures account for 75% of disasters with more than 1000 casualties. The precise determination of recurrence rates and failure volumes combined with an improved understanding of mobility processes are essential to better constrain runout models and establish early warning systems. Here we present the data sets from the two alpine regions Lake Oeschinen (CH) and Lake Eibsee (D) to show how lake studies can help to decipher the multistage character of rock-slope failures and to improve the understanding of the processes related to rock avalanche runout dynamics. We focus on such that impacted on a (paleo-) lake for two main reasons. First, the lake background sedimentation acts as a natural chronometer, which enables the stratigraphic positioning of events and helps to reconstruct the event history. This way it becomes possible to (i) decipher the multistage character of the failure of a certain rock slope and maybe detect progressive failure, (ii) determine the recurrence rates of failures at that certain rock slope, and (iii) consider energies based on estimated failure volumes, fall heights and deposition patterns. Hence, the interactions between a rock-slope failure, the water reservoir and the altered rock-slope are better understood. Second, picturing a rock avalanche running through and beyond a lake, we assume the entrainment of water and slurry to be crucial for the subsequent flow dynamics. The entrainment consumes a large share of the total energy, and orchestrates the mobility leading to fluidization, a much higher flow velocity and a longer runout-path length than expected. At Lake Oeschinen (CH) we used lake sediment cores and reflection seismic profiles in order to reconstruct the 2.5 kyrs spanning rock-slope failure history including 10 events, six of which detached from the same mountain flank, and correlated them with (pre-) historical data. The Lake Eibsee records provide insights into the

  6. Contamination of table salts from Turkey with microplastics.

    PubMed

    Gündoğdu, Sedat

    2018-05-01

    Microplastics (MPs) pollution has become a problem that affects all aquatic, atmospheric and terrestial environments in the world. In this study, we looked into whether MPs in seas and lakes reach consumers through table salt. For this purpose, we obtained 16 brands of table salts from the Turkish market and determined their MPs content with microscopic and Raman spectroscopic examination. According to our results, the MP particle content was 16-84 item/kg in sea salt, 8-102 item/kg in lake salt and 9-16 item/kg in rock salt. The most common plastic polymers were polyethylene (22.9%) and polypropylene (19.2%). When the amounts of MPs and the amount of salt consumed by Turkish consumers per year are considered together, if they consume sea salt, lake salt or rock salt, they consume 249-302, 203-247 or 64-78 items per year, respectively. This is the first time this concerning level of MPs content in table salts in the Turkish market has been reported.

  7. Sedimentation of Lake Taneycomo, Missouri, 1913-1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berkas, W.R.

    1989-01-01

    On the basis of the data from a sedimentation survey done by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, during 1935 and data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey during 1987, the volume of sediment accumulated in Lake Taneycomo from 1913 to 1935 and 1913 to 1987 was determined. Table Rock Dam, built directly upstream from Lake Taneycomo during 1958, eliminated about 92% of the 4,644-sq mi basin from contributing sediment directly to the lake. Cesium-137 isotope was used as a tracer in the sediment to determine the quantity of deposition in the lake after Table Rock Dam was completed. The relation between cross-sectional area and distance upstream from the dam (curve method) was used to determine the 1913 (original), the 1935, and the 1987 volumes of Lake Taneycomo. A total of 910,000,000 cu ft of sediment accumulated between 1913 and 1935, 42% of the original volume of the lake. A total of 1 ,066,000,000 cu ft of sediment accumulated between 1913 and 1987 , 49% of the original volume. Lake Taneycomo seems to be functioning as an alluvial river, responding to the new energy gradient established by the spillway at Ozark Beach Dam, and later to changes in the sediment load. The upper two-thirds of the lake seems to have been scoured after Table Rock Dam greatly decreased the sediment load to the lake. The cesium-137 analysis indicated that sediment is still accumulating in the lower reaches of the lake, with measured accumulation generally ranging from 0.2 to 2.6 ft. (USGS)

  8. Experimental acidification of Little Rock Lake (Wisconsin): fish research approach and early responses.

    PubMed

    Swenson, W A; McCormick, J H; Simonson, T D; Jensen, K M; Eaton, J G

    1989-01-01

    One goal of research at Little Rock Lake, Wisconsin, is to enhance understanding of lake acidification effects on warm- and cool-water fishery resources. The Little Rock Lake fish assemblage is characteristic of many acid sensitive waters in North America and is dominated by yellow perch (Percidae) and sunfishes (Centrarchidae). Analyses of reproduction, early survival and growth rates in the field were designed around the differing reproductive modes of these taxa. Complementary laboratory research on early life stages was conducted to assist in isolating direct effect mechanisms and to determine the reliability of laboratory results in predicting field response. Preliminary findings suggest that lake acidification to pH 5.6 has not influenced reproductive activity of the four most abundant fish species. However, the field results suggest that year-class failure of rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris) may be occurring due to reduced survival of early life stages. Reduced growth and food conversion efficiency of Age 0 largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) is also suggested. The laboratory bioassays indicate rock bass is the most acid-sensitive Little Rock Lake species tested. However, rock bass fry survival was not significantly affected until pH was reduced from 5.6 to 5.0.

  9. Martian Rock Evidence of Lake Currents

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-08

    Cross-bedding seen in the layers of this Martian rock is evidence of movement of water recorded by the waves or ripples of loose sediment the water passed over, such as a current in a lake. This image is from NASA Curiosity Mars rover.

  10. Reconstruction of multistage massive rock slope failure: Polymethodical approach in Lake Oeschinen (CH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, Sibylle; Gilli, Adrian; Anselmetti, Flavio S.; Hajdas, Irka

    2016-04-01

    Lateglacial and Holocene rock-slope failures occur often as multistage failures where paraglacial adjustment and stress adaptation are hypothesised to control stages of detachment. However, we have only limited datasets to reconstruct detailed stages of large multistage rock-slope failures, and still aim at improving our models in terms of geohazard assessment. Here we use lake sediments, well-established for paleoclimate and paleoseismological reconstruction, with a focus on the reconstruction of rock-slope failures. We present a unique inventory from Lake Oeschinen (Bernese Alps, Switzerland) covering about 2.4 kyrs of rock-slope failure history. The lake sediments have been analysed using sediment-core analysis, radiocarbon dating and seismic-to-core and core-to-core correlations, and these were linked to historical and meteorological records. The results imply that the lake is significantly younger than the ~9 kyrs old Kandersteg rock avalanche (Tinner et al., 2005) and shows multiple rock-slope failures, two of which could be C14-dated. Several events detached from the same area potentially initiated by prehistoric earthquakes (Monecke et al., 2006) and later from stress relaxation processes. The data imply unexpected short recurrence rates that can be related to certain detachment scarps and also help to understand the generation of a historical lake-outburst flood. Here we show how polymethodical analysis of lake sediments can help to decipher massive multistage rock-slope failure. References Monecke, K., Anselmetti, F.S., Becker, A., Schnellmann, M., Sturm, M., Giardini, D., 2006. Earthquake-induced deformation structures in lake deposits: A Late Pleistocene to Holocene paleoseismic record for Central Switzerland. Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae, 99(3), 343-362. Tinner, W., Kaltenrieder, P., Soom, M., Zwahlen, P., Schmidhalter, M., Boschetti, A., Schlüchter, C., 2005. Der nacheiszeitliche Bergsturz im Kandertal (Schweiz): Alter und Auswirkungen auf die

  11. Late Pleistocene landslide-dammed lakes along the Rio Grande, White Rock Canyon, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Reneau, S.L.; Dethier, D.P.

    1996-11-01

    Massive slump complexes composed of Pliocene basaltic rocks and underlying Miocene and Pliocene sediments flank the Rio Grande along 16 km of northern White Rock Canyon, New Mexico. The toe area of at least one slump complex was active in the late Pleistocene, damming the Rio Grande at least four times during the period from 18 to 12 {sup 14}C ka and impounding lakes that extended 10-20 km upriver. Stratigraphic relationships and radiocarbon age constraints indicate that three separate lakes formed between 13.7 and 12.4 {sup 14}C ka. The age and dimensions of the ca. 12.4 ka lake are bestmore » constrained; it had an estimated maximum depth of {approx}30 m, a length of {approx}13 km, a surface area of {approx}2.7 km{sup 2}, and an initial volume of {approx}2.5 x 10{sup 7} m{sup 3}. The youngest landslide-dammed lakes formed during a period of significantly wetter regional climate, strongly suggesting that climate changes were responsible for reactivation of the slump complexes. We are not certain about the exact triggering mechanisms for these landslides, but they probably involved removal of lateral support due to erosion of the slope base by the Rio Grande during periods of exceptionally high flood discharge or rapid incision; increased pore pressures associated with higher water tables; higher seepage forces at sites of ground-water discharge; or some combination of these processes. Seismic shaking could also have contributed to triggering of some of the landslides, particularly if aided by wet antecedent conditions. 54 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.« less

  12. Bathymetric maps and water-quality profiles of Table Rock and North Saluda Reservoirs, Greenville County, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Jimmy M.; Journey, Celeste A.; Nagle, Doug D.; Lanier, Timothy H.

    2014-01-01

    Lakes and reservoirs are the water-supply source for many communities. As such, water-resource managers that oversee these water supplies require monitoring of the quantity and quality of the resource. Monitoring information can be used to assess the basic conditions within the reservoir and to establish a reliable estimate of storage capacity. In April and May 2013, a global navigation satellite system receiver and fathometer were used to collect bathymetric data, and an autonomous underwater vehicle was used to collect water-quality and bathymetric data at Table Rock Reservoir and North Saluda Reservoir in Greenville County, South Carolina. These bathymetric data were used to create a bathymetric contour map and stage-area and stage-volume relation tables for each reservoir. Additionally, statistical summaries of the water-quality data were used to provide a general description of water-quality conditions in the reservoirs.

  13. Bathymetric map and area/capacity table for Castle Lake, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosbrucker, Adam R.; Spicer, Kurt R.

    2017-11-14

    The May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens produced a 2.5-cubic-kilometer debris avalanche that dammed South Fork Castle Creek, causing Castle Lake to form behind a 20-meter-tall blockage. Risk of a catastrophic breach of the newly impounded lake led to outlet channel stabilization work, aggressive monitoring programs, mapping efforts, and blockage stability studies. Despite relatively large uncertainty, early mapping efforts adequately supported several lake breakout models, but have limited applicability to current lake monitoring and hazard assessment. Here, we present the results of a bathymetric survey conducted in August 2012 with the purpose of (1) verifying previous volume estimates, (2) computing an area/capacity table, and (3) producing a bathymetric map. Our survey found seasonal lake volume ranges between 21.0 and 22.6 million cubic meters with a fundamental vertical accuracy representing 0.88 million cubic meters. Lake surface area ranges between 1.13 and 1.16 square kilometers. Relationships developed by our results allow the computation of lake volume from near real-time lake elevation measurements or from remotely sensed imagery.

  14. Surficial geologic map of the Red Rock Lakes area, southwest Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierce, Kenneth L.; Chesley-Preston, Tara L.; Sojda, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    The Centennial Valley and Centennial Range continue to be formed by ongoing displacement on the Centennial fault. The dominant fault movement is downward, creating space in the valley for lakes and the deposition of sediment. The Centennial Valley originally drained to the northeast through a canyon now represented by a chain of lakes starting with Elk Lake. Subsequently, large landslides blocked and dammed the drainage, which created Lake Centennial, in the Centennial Valley. Sediments deposited in this late Pleistocene lake underlie much of the valley floor and rest on permeable sand and gravel deposited when the valley drained to the northeast. Cold Pleistocene climates enhanced colluvial supply of gravelly sediment to mountain streams and high peak flows carried gravelly sediment into the valley. There, the lower gradient of the streams resulted in deposition of alluvial fans peripheral to Lake Centennial as the lake lowered through time to the level of the two present lakes. Pleistocene glaciers formed in the high Centennial Range, built glacial moraines, and also supplied glacial outwash to the alluvial fans. Winds from the west and south blew sand to the northeast side of the valley building up high dunes. The central part of the map area is flat, sloping to the west by only 0.6 meters in 13 kilometers (2 feet in 8 miles) to form a watery lowland. This lowland contains Upper and Lower Red Rock Lakes, many ponds, and peat lands inside the “water plane,” above which are somewhat steeper slopes. The permeable sands and gravels beneath Lake Centennial sediments provide a path for groundwater recharged from the adjacent uplands. This groundwater leaks upward through Lake Centennial sediments and sustains wetland vegetation into late summer. Upper and Lower Red Rock Lakes are formed by alluvial-fan dams. Alluvial fans converge from both the south and the north to form outlet thresholds that dam the two shallow lakes upstream. The surficial geology aids in

  15. Questa baseline and premining ground-water quality investigation. 8. Lake-sediment geochemical record from 1960 to 2002, Eagle Rock and Fawn Lakes, Taos County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, S.E.; Fey, D.L.; Marot, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    Geochemical studies of lake sediment from Eagle Rock Lake and upper Fawn Lake were conducted to evaluate the effect of mining at the Molycorp Questa porphyry molybdenum deposit located immediately north of the Red River. Two cores were taken, one from each lake near the outlet where the sediment was thinnest, and they were sampled at 1-cm intervals to provide geochemical data at less than 1-year resolution. Samples from the core intervals were digested and analyzed for 34 elements using ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry). The activity of 137Cs has been used to establish the beginning of sedimentation in the two lakes. Correlation of the geochemistry of heavy-mineral suites in the cores from both Fawn and Eagle Rock Lakes has been used to develop a sedimentation model to date the intervals sampled. The core from upper Fawn Lake, located upstream of the deposit, provided an annual sedimentary record of the geochemical baseline for material being transported in the Red River, whereas the core from Eagle Rock Lake, located downstream of the deposit, provided an annual record of the effect of mining at the Questa mine on the sediment in the Red River. Abrupt changes in the concentrations of many lithophile and deposit-related metals occur in the middle of the Eagle Rock Lake core, which we correlate with the major flood-of-record recorded at the Questa gage at Eagle Rock Lake in 1979. Sediment from the Red River collected at low flow in 2002 is a poor match for the geochemical data from the sediment core in Eagle Rock Lake. The change in sediment geochemistry in Eagle Rock Lake in the post-1979 interval is dramatic and requires that a new source of sediment be identified that has substantially different geochemistry from that in the pre-1979 core interval. Loss of mill tailings from pipeline breaks are most likely responsible for some of the spikes in trace-element concentrations in the Eagle Rock Lake core. Enrichment of Al2O3, Cu, and Zn

  16. Assessment of the Old Red Rock Indian Line Sycamore Tree, Lake Red Rock, Marion County, Iowa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    miles, when reduced to a straight line , from the junction of the White Breast and Des Moines (Stiles 1911:4). George W. Harrison was instructed to...AD-A255 372 Assessment of the Old Red Rock Indian Line Sycamore Tree, Lake Red Rock, Marion County, Iowa DACW25-92-M-0414 by Leah D. Rogers Project...portion of tree 22 9. Map showing location of Red Rock line within treaty cession area of 23 1842 10. Portion of 1844 map showing incorrect placement of

  17. Arctic lake sediments as records of climate change using rock magnetic properties and paleomagnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdock, Kathryn J.

    Two lakes were studied in detail for rock magnetic properties: Lake El'gygytgyn, a crater lake formed 3.6Ma in the Far Eastern Russian Arctic, and Heimerdalsvatnet, a Holocene coastal lake located in the Lofotens off the coast of northern Norway. These two lakes have vastly different environmental histories, the former a terrestrial lake formed from a meteor impact and never covered by continental ice sheets whereas the latter went from a coastal marine setting to a completely lacustrine environment due to isostatic rebound and sea level fluctuations. Their differences are considerable, however they provide the opportunity to compare Arctic lake systems to discern similarities and differences in their magnetic properties for application to future climatic investigations. Paleomagnetic measurements and down-core magnetic susceptibility were performed at the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences in Potsdam for Lake El'gygytgyn and at the Laboratoire de paleomagnetisme sedimentaire at ISMER for Heimerdalsvatnet. Rock magnetic properties were measured at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, Institute of Rock Magnetism, and/or Trinity College. These measurements included: magnetic susceptibility, hysteresis parameters, Curie temperatures, and low-temperature magnetic behavior. Imaging of magnetite grains was also performed. Magnetic susceptibility measurements in Lake El'gygytgyn suggested a correlation between glacials (interglacials) and low (high) susceptibility. The large range in susceptibility indicated there could be magnetite dissolution. The first study supported this hypothesis with evidence at low temperatures (10-35K) of minerals such as siderite, rhodochrosite, and/or vivianite which could form from iron released during dissolution. Marine Isotope Stage 31 was investigated for rock magnetic properties that could continue to support or oppose findings from the first study. It was determined the presence of siderite only occurred in interglacial

  18. A composite cordwood volume table for pulpwood species in the Lake States

    Treesearch

    S.R. Gevorkiantz

    1945-01-01

    Because there is very little difference in the stacked unpeeled volumes of most native trees cut for pulpwood in the Lake States, a generalized cordwood table can be used. Tech. Note 202 (Aug. 1943) presented a table for trees from 6 to 14 inches d.b.h. and 1 to -7 bolts in usable height. Because of the demand for similar information for both smaller and larger trees,...

  19. 33 CFR 208.29 - Arbuckle Dam and Lake of the Arbuckles, Rock Creek, Okla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Arbuckles, Rock Creek, Okla. 208.29 Section 208.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Arbuckles, Rock Creek, Okla. The Bureau of Reclamation, or its designated agent, shall operate the Arbuckle... in excess of bankfull on Rock Creek downstream of the lake and on the Washita River, from the...

  20. 33 CFR 208.29 - Arbuckle Dam and Lake of the Arbuckles, Rock Creek, Okla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Arbuckles, Rock Creek, Okla. 208.29 Section 208.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Arbuckles, Rock Creek, Okla. The Bureau of Reclamation, or its designated agent, shall operate the Arbuckle... in excess of bankfull on Rock Creek downstream of the lake and on the Washita River, from the...

  1. 33 CFR 208.29 - Arbuckle Dam and Lake of the Arbuckles, Rock Creek, Okla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Arbuckles, Rock Creek, Okla. 208.29 Section 208.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Arbuckles, Rock Creek, Okla. The Bureau of Reclamation, or its designated agent, shall operate the Arbuckle... in excess of bankfull on Rock Creek downstream of the lake and on the Washita River, from the...

  2. 33 CFR 208.29 - Arbuckle Dam and Lake of the Arbuckles, Rock Creek, Okla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Arbuckles, Rock Creek, Okla. 208.29 Section 208.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Arbuckles, Rock Creek, Okla. The Bureau of Reclamation, or its designated agent, shall operate the Arbuckle... in excess of bankfull on Rock Creek downstream of the lake and on the Washita River, from the...

  3. 33 CFR 208.29 - Arbuckle Dam and Lake of the Arbuckles, Rock Creek, Okla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Arbuckles, Rock Creek, Okla. 208.29 Section 208.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Arbuckles, Rock Creek, Okla. The Bureau of Reclamation, or its designated agent, shall operate the Arbuckle... in excess of bankfull on Rock Creek downstream of the lake and on the Washita River, from the...

  4. Crystalline rocks of the Strawberry Lake area, Front Range, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, Edward J.

    1991-01-01

    This report is a petrographic and geochemical study of the bedrock and a petrologic discussion based on felsic-mafic and silica-saturation ratios of the Strawberry Lake area. This volume is published as chapters A and B. These chapters are not available separatelyThe Strawberry lake area lies between the Continental Divide and Granby, Colorado, just north of Tabernash. It is underlain by Proterozoic rocks composed of biotite gneiss and two plutons-Boulder Creek Granodiorite of the Routt Plutonic Suite and Silver Plume Granite of the Berthoud Plutonic Suite. Relict enclaves of biotite gneiss are not uncommon in the Boulder Creek Granodiorite, in the Silver Plume Granite, and in the granitic enclaves in the biotite gneiss. Granitic and mafic enclaves in the Boulder Creek Granodiorite, granitic enclaves in the Silver Plume Granite and in the biotite gneiss, and a Tertiary andesite porphyry dike complete the rock types.

  5. Rock glacier outflows may adversely affect lakes: lessons from the past and present of two neighboring water bodies in a crystalline-rock watershed.

    PubMed

    Ilyashuk, Boris P; Ilyashuk, Elena A; Psenner, Roland; Tessadri, Richard; Koinig, Karin A

    2014-06-03

    Despite the fact that rock glaciers are one of the most common geomorphological expressions of mountain permafrost, the impacts of their solute fluxes on lakes still remain largely obscure. We examined water and sediment chemistry, and biota of two neighboring water bodies with and without a rock glacier in their catchments in the European Alps. Paleolimnological techniques were applied to track long-term temporal trends in the ecotoxicological state of the water bodies and to establish their baseline conditions. We show that the active rock glacier in the mineralized catchment of Lake Rasass (RAS) represents a potent source of acid rock drainage that results in enormous concentrations of metals in water, sediment, and biota of RAS. The incidence of morphological abnormalities in the RAS population of Pseudodiamesa nivosa, a chironomid midge, is as high as that recorded in chironomid populations inhabiting sites heavily contaminated by trace metals of anthropogenic origin. The incidence of morphological deformities in P. nivosa of ∼70% persisted in RAS during the last 2.5 millennia and was ∼40% in the early Holocene. The formation of RAS at the toe of the rock glacier most probably began at the onset of acidic drainage in the freshly deglaciated area. The present adverse conditions are not unprecedented in the lake's history and cannot be associated exclusively with enhanced thawing of the rock glacier in recent years.

  6. Enhanced oil and gas recovery in Michigan: Cranberry Lake Field, Richfield Oil Pool

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, S.E.; Layton, F.L.; Lorenz, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    The Cranberry Lake Field was a multilevel reservoir in northwestern Clare County. The Richfield Pool interval, unitized in 1969, is being successfully waterflooded. The Cranberry Lake Field was associated with an anticlinal structure and the reservoir rocks are assigned to the basal part of the Lucas Formation, Detroit River Group. 4 figures, 2 tables.

  7. Large Rock-Slope Failures Impacting on Lakes - Event Reconstruction and Interaction Analysis in Two Alpine Regions Using Sedimentology and Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, S.; Anselmetti, F.; Gilli, A.; Krautblatter, M.; Hajdas, I.

    2016-12-01

    Massive rock-slope failures are responsible for more than 60% of all catastrophic landslides disasters. Lateglacial and Holocene rock-slope failures often occur as multistage failures, but we have only limited datasets to reconstruct detailed stages and still aim at improving our knowledge of mobility processes. In this context, studying lakes will become more and more important for two main reasons. On the one hand, the lake background sedimentation acts as a natural chronometer, which enables the stratigraphic positioning of events and helps to reconstruct the event history. This way we will be able to improve our knowledge on multistage massive rock-slope failures. On the other hand, climate warming forces us to face an increase of lakes forming due to glacial melting, leading to new hazardous landscape settings. We will be confronted with complex reaction chains and feedback loops related to rock-slope instability, stress adaptation, multistage rock-slope failures, lake tsunamis, entrainment of water and fines, and finally lubrication. As a result, in future we will have to deal more and more with failed rock material impacting on lakes with much longer runout-paths than expected, and which we have not been able to reconstruct in our models so far. Here we want to present the key findings of two of our studies on lake sediments related to large rock-slope failures: We used reflection seismic profiles and sediment cores for the reconstruction of the rockfall history in the landslide-dammed Lake Oeschinen in the Bernese Oberland, Switzerland, where we detected and dated ten events and correlated them to (pre)historical data. As a second project, we have been working on the mobility processes of the uppermost sediments deposited during the late event stadium of the Eibsee rock avalanche at Mount Zugspitze in the Bavarian Alps, Germany. In the reflection seismic profiles we detected sedimentary structures that show high levels of fluidization and thus would hint at

  8. Water-quality trends using sediment cores from White Rock Lake, Dallas, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Land, Larry F.; Braun, C.L.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this fact sheet is to summarize the principal findings documented in a report on water-quality trends in White Rock Creek Basin using dated sediment cores from White Rock Lake (Van Metre and Callender, in press). The study used dated sediment cores to reconstruct water-quality conditions. More specifically, the changes in water quality associated with the watershed’s change from agricultural to urban land use and with the implementation of environmental regulations were identified.

  9. Bathymetric map, area/capacity table, and sediment volume estimate for Millwood Lake near Ashdown, Arkansas, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richards, Joseph M.; Green, W. Reed

    2013-01-01

    Millwood Lake, in southwestern Arkansas, was constructed and is operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) for flood-risk reduction, water supply, and recreation. The lake was completed in 1966 and it is likely that with time sedimentation has resulted in the reduction of storage capacity of the lake. The loss of storage capacity can cause less water to be available for water supply, and lessens the ability of the lake to mitigate flooding. Excessive sediment accumulation also can cause a reduction in aquatic habitat in some areas of the lake. Although many lakes operated by the USACE have periodic bathymetric and sediment surveys, none have been completed for Millwood Lake. In March 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the USACE, surveyed the bathymetry of Millwood Lake to prepare an updated bathymetric map and area/capacity table. The USGS also collected sediment thickness data in June 2013 to estimate the volume of sediment accumulated in the lake.

  10. A Cultural Resources Reconnaissance at Lake Red Rock, Iowa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    Downstream Saylorvllle Corridor RR. Red Rock Lake -22- )__ 0 0 1900 - EURO - AMERICAN PIONEERS 1850 - 1750- IOWAY SAUKANDFOX 1500- GREAT OASIS ONEOTA 1000...be black oak, white oak, red oak, and bitternut hickory (U.S.D.A. 1965; Curtis and McIntosh 1951). Bur oak would dominate only in pioneer stands and...during that time. It is not possible to date the longevity of the channel flow in the abandoned loop prior to that time, but the alignment of the

  11. 40 CFR Table Z-1 to Subpart Z of... - Default Chemical Composition of Phosphate Rock by Origin

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Default Chemical Composition of Phosphate Rock by Origin Z Table Z-1 to Subpart Z of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Phosphate Rock by Origin Origin Total carbon(percent by weight) Central Florida 1.6 North Florida 1.76 North...

  12. 40 CFR Table Z-1 to Subpart Z of... - Default Chemical Composition of Phosphate Rock by Origin

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Default Chemical Composition of Phosphate Rock by Origin Z Table Z-1 to Subpart Z of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Phosphate Rock by Origin Origin Total carbon(percent by weight) Central Florida 1.6 North Florida 1.76 North...

  13. 40 CFR Table Z-1 to Subpart Z of... - Default Chemical Composition of Phosphate Rock by Origin

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Default Chemical Composition of Phosphate Rock by Origin Z Table Z-1 to Subpart Z of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Phosphate Rock by Origin Origin Total carbon(percent by weight) Central Florida 1.6 North Florida 1.76 North...

  14. 40 CFR Table Z-1 to Subpart Z of... - Default Chemical Composition of Phosphate Rock by Origin

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Default Chemical Composition of Phosphate Rock by Origin Z Table Z-1 to Subpart Z of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Phosphate Rock by Origin Origin Total carbon(percent by weight) Central Florida 1.6 North Florida 1.76 North...

  15. Rock magnetic properties of sediments from Lake Sanabria and its catchment (NW Spain): paleoenvironmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larrasoaña, J. C.; Borruel, V.; Gómez-Paccard, M.; Rico, M.; Valero-Garces, B.; Moreno-Caballud, A.; Soto, R.

    2013-12-01

    Lake Sanabria is located in the NW Spanish mountains at 1000 m a.s.l., and constitutes the largest lake of glacial origin in the Iberian Peninsula. Here we present an environmental magnetic study of a Late Pleistocene-Holocene sediment core from Lake Sanabria and from different lithologies that crop out in its catchment, which includes Paleozoic plutonic, metamorphic and vulcanosedimentary rocks, and Quaternary deposits of glacial origin. This study was designed to complement sedimentologic and geochemical studies aimed at unraveling the climatic evolution of the NW Iberian Peninsula during the last deglaciation. Our results indicate that magnetite and pyrrhotite dominate the magnetic assemblage of both the sediments from the lower half of the studied sequence (25.6 - 13 cal kyr BP) deposited in a proglacial environment, and the Paleozoic rocks that make up most of the catchment of the lake. The occurrence of these minerals both in the catchment rocks and in the lake sediments indicates that sedimentation was then driven by the erosion of a glacial flour, which suffered minimal chemical transformation in response to a rapid and short routing to the lake. Sediments from the upper half of the studied sequence, accumulated after 12.4 cal kyr BP in a fluviolacustrine environment, contain magnetite and greigite. This points to a prominent role of post-depositional reductive dissolution, driven by a sharp increase in the accumulation of organic matter into the lake and the creation of anoxic conditions in the sediments, in shaping the magnetic assemblage of Holocene sediments. Pyrrhotite is stable under reducing conditions as opposed to magnetite, which is unstable. We therefore interpret that previous pedogenic processes occurred in the then deglaciated catchment of the lake were responsible for the oxidation of pyrrhotite and authigenic formation of magnetite, which survived subsequent reductive diagenesis given its initial larger concentrations. This interpretation is

  16. Exploration of Microbial Diversity and Community Structure of Lonar Lake: The Only Hypersaline Meteorite Crater Lake within Basalt Rock

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Dhiraj; Kumbhare, Shreyas V.; Mhatre, Snehit S.; Chowdhury, Somak P.; Shetty, Sudarshan A.; Marathe, Nachiket P.; Bhute, Shrikant; Shouche, Yogesh S.

    2016-01-01

    Lonar Lake is a hypersaline and hyperalkaline soda lake and the only meteorite impact crater in the world situated in basalt rocks. Although culture-dependent studies have been reported, a comprehensive understanding of microbial community composition and structure in Lonar Lake remains elusive. In the present study, microbial community structure associated with Lonar Lake sediment and water samples was investigated using high-throughput sequencing. Microbial diversity analysis revealed the existence of diverse, yet largely consistent communities. Proteobacteria (30%), Actinobacteria (24%), Firmicutes (11%), and Cyanobacteria (5%) predominated in the sequencing survey, whereas Bacteroidetes (1.12%), BD1-5 (0.5%), Nitrospirae (0.41%), and Verrucomicrobia (0.28%) were detected in relatively minor abundances in the Lonar Lake ecosystem. Within the Proteobacteria phylum, the Gammaproteobacteria represented the most abundantly detected class (21–47%) within sediment samples, but only a minor population in the water samples. Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were found at significantly higher abundance (p ≥ 0.05) in sediment samples, whereas members of Actinobacteria, Candidate division TM7 and Cyanobacteria (p ≥ 0.05) were significantly abundant in water samples. Compared to the microbial communities of other hypersaline soda lakes, those of Lonar Lake formed a distinct cluster, suggesting a different microbial community composition and structure. Here we report for the first time, the difference in composition of indigenous microbial communities between the sediment and water samples of Lonar Lake. An improved census of microbial community structure in this Lake ecosystem provides a foundation for exploring microbial biogeochemical cycling and microbial function in hypersaline lake environments. PMID:26834712

  17. Chemical analyses and K-Ar ages of samples from 13 drill holes, Medicine Lake volcano, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.

    2006-01-01

    Chemical analyses and K-Ar ages are presented for rocks sampled from drill holes at Medicine Lake volcano, northern California. A location map and a cross-section are included, as are separate tables for drill hole information, major and trace element data, and for K-Ar dates.

  18. An engineering rock classification to evaluate seismic rock-fall susceptibility and its application to the Wasatch Front

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harp, E.L.; Noble, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Investigations of earthquakes world wide show that rock falls are the most abundant type of landslide that is triggered by earthquakes. An engineering classification originally used in tunnel design, known as the rock mass quality designation (Q), was modified for use in rating the susceptibility of rock slopes to seismically-induced failure. Analysis of rock-fall concentrations and Q-values for the 1980 earthquake sequence near Mammoth Lakes, California, defines a well-constrained upper bound that shows the number of rock falls per site decreases rapidly with increasing Q. Because of the similarities of lithology and slope between the Eastern Sierra Nevada Range near Mammoth Lakes and the Wasatch Front near Salt Lake City, Utah, the probabilities derived from analysis of the Mammoth Lakes region were used to predict rock-fall probabilities for rock slopes near Salt Lake City in response to a magnitude 6.0 earthquake. These predicted probabilities were then used to generalize zones of rock-fall susceptibility. -from Authors

  19. Environmental engineering interventions to control the expansion of salty lakes and marshes in siwa oasis.

    PubMed

    El-Naggar, Hesham M

    2010-01-01

    The main activity in Siwa Oasis society is the agriculture, it depends on the groundwater. The agricultural drainage water and the unused saline water of naturally flowing springs are poured into four main salty lakes. This leads to an increase in the surface area of the saltwater lakes, marshes and rise in water table levels. to investigate some environmental engineering interventions to control the expansion of saltwater surface area in Siwa Oasis. Field visits, observation sheets and questionnaire survey with farmers were carried out to find out the main environmental problems in the Oasis. Environmental survey was carried out to collect different rocks and stones samples as natural construction materials from the desert that surrounds Siwa Oasis. Physical analyses, chemical composition and principal mechanical parameters were conducted on the collected samples. After the analysis, the safa rocks were the best natural construction materials in the Siwa Oasis. So, it could be used to build a construction wall around the salty lakes and marshes. Walls could convert the lakes into basins. The water will be evaporated at high rate during summer season by solar energy. After evaporation, the remaining salty rock named "karshef" can be easily collected from the lakes to be used as a low cost construction material for traditional building houses in Siwa Oasis. Therefore, the water level of lakes will be reduced to dryness and land could be reused as agricultural land. Among different rocks, safa rocks proved to be the best natural construction materials to construct a defense wall around the lakes and marshes. They will save about 80% of the concrete cost. The formed karshef rocks from the lakes will be used in the construction of the traditional building houses which will save about 90% of the concrete buildings. This intervention will save energy as it exchanges fuel consuming man-made material such as cement with naturally made material. This can reduce the green

  20. Mega-features at the Table Rock phreatomagmatic complex in Christmas Valley, Oregon; Law of original horizontality need not apply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, B. D.; Clarke, A.

    2006-12-01

    The Table Rock Complex (TRC; Pliocene-Pleistocene), first documented and described by (Heiken, 1971, J. Geophy Res, 76, 5615-5626) is a large and well exposed phreatomagmatic complex in the Fort Rock- Christmas Lake Valley Basin, south-central Oregon. It is ~7 by 5 km and contains two large phreatomagmatic edifices; a large southern tuff cone with a capping lava lake (TRC1), and a large broad tuff ring in the northeast (TRC2). At least five additional, smaller tuff rings were identified along the flanks of the complex, yielding a complicated network of tuff ring-tuff cone deposits. Based on the low accidental component and evidence for a lake during this time, the cause of the explosive eruptions is interpreted to be due to interaction of magma with shallow standing water. The TRC1 consists of fining-up sequences, large erosive channel scour and fill deposits, massive tuff breccias, and abundant soft sediment deformation, which suggests deposition within a standing body of water. Subaerial TRC1 deposits are found south of the edifice, but are not exposed in the north. A significant repose period occurred between the TRC1 and TRC2 eruptions, evidenced by a wave-cut terrace and 25-50 cm of diatomitic lake sediments. TRC2 produced multiple, extremely erosive pyroclastic surges, which cut and scour the TRC1 deposits. Surge deposits consist of 50-200 m wavelength cross-beds, in some areas form large U-shaped features (10-100 m deep), and can be seen plastering up and around large obstacles from previous vents. The surge-deposits blanket all other sequences and create a hummocky topography around the edifice. This suggests that TRC2 was the last eruption in the sequence. The weight of the TRC2 sediments caused the water-saturated TRC1 sediments to plastically deform into large ball and pillow features and overturned slump blocks on the order of 20-50 m thick. The smaller flank tuff-ring eruptions likely occurred sometime between the TRC1 and TRC2 events. The inner

  1. 40 CFR Appendix - Tables to Part 132

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tables to Part 132 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY GUIDANCE FOR THE GREAT LAKES SYSTEM Application of part 132 requirements in Great Lakes States and Tribes. Pt. 132, Tables Tables to Part 132 Table 1—Acute Water Quality...

  2. Zeolitization of intracaldera sediments and rhyolitic rocks in the 1.25 Ma lake of Valles caldera, New Mexico, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chipera, Steve J.; Goff, Fraser; Goff, Cathy J.; Fittipaldo, Melissa

    2008-12-01

    Quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis of about 80 rhyolite and associated lacustrine rocks has characterized previously unrecognized zeolitic alteration throughout the Valles caldera resurgent dome. The alteration assemblage consists primarily of smectite-clinoptilolite-mordenite-silica, which replaces groundmass and fills voids, especially in the tuffs and lacustrine rocks. Original rock textures are routinely preserved. Mineralization typically extends to depths of only a few tens of meters and resembles shallow "caldera-type zeolitization" as defined by Utada et al. [Utada, M., Shimizu, M., Ito, T., Inoue, A., 1999. Alteration of caldera-forming rocks related to the Sanzugawa volcanotectonic depression, northeast Honshu, Japan — with special reference to "caldera-type zeolitization." Resource Geol. Spec. Issue No. 20, 129-140]. Geology and 40Ar/ 39Ar dates limit the period of extensive zeolite growth to roughly the first 30 kyr after the current caldera formed (ca. 1.25 to 1.22 Ma). Zeolitic alteration was promoted by saturation of shallow rocks with alkaline lake water (a mixture of meteoric waters and degassed hydrothermal fluids) and by high thermal gradients caused by cooling of the underlying magma body and earliest post-caldera rhyolite eruptions. Zeolitic alteration of this type is not found in the later volcanic and lacustrine rocks of the caldera moat (≤ 0.8 Ma) suggesting that later lake waters were cooler and less alkaline. The shallow zeolitic alteration does not have characteristics resembling classic, alkaline lake zeolite deposits (no analcime, erionite, or chabazite) nor does it contain zeolites common in high-temperature hydrothermal systems (laumontite or wairakite). Although aerially extensive, the early zeolitic alteration does not form laterally continuous beds and are consequently, not of economic significance.

  3. Bacteria and Turbidity Survey for Blue Mountain Lake, Arkansas, Spring and Summer, 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lasker, A. Dwight

    1995-01-01

    Introduction Blue Mountain Lake darn is located at river mile 74.4 on the Petit Jean River in Logan and Yell Counties in west-central Arkansas (fig. 1). Drainage area above the darn is 488 square miles. Blue Mountain Lake is located between two national forests-the Ozark National Forest and the Ouachita National Forest. The primary purpose for Blue Mountain Lake is flood control, but the lake is used for a variety of recreational purposes. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.s. Army Corps of Engineers, Little Rock District, conducted a bacterial and turbidity study of the Blue Mountain Lake Basin during the spring and suri1mer 1994. Samples were collected weekly at 11 locations within the lake basin from May through September 1994. Eight sampling sites were located on tributaries to the lake and three sampling sites were located on the lake with one of the sites located at a swim beach (fig. 2; table 1).

  4. Water table in rocks of Cenozoic and Paleozoic age, 1980, Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doty, G.C.; Thordarson, William

    1983-01-01

    The water table at Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, occurs in rocks of Paleozoic age and in tuffs and alluvium of Cenozoic age and ranges in altitude from about 2,425 feet to about 3,500 feet. The configuration of the water table is depicted by contours with intervals of 25 to 500 feet. Control for the map consists of water-level information from 61 drill holes, whose locations and age of geologic units penetrated are shown by symbols on the map. (USGS)

  5. Water Control Plan, Lake Red Rock, Iowa. Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    DACW2218504032 1 850301 900228 158.0 Above 744. Agriculture Wabash Railroad Co. DACW252710013 0 2 710205 Indef 168.6 Above 744. Railroad Warren...include Nevin, Bremer, Spillville, Colo, Wabash , Landes, riverwash, and alluvial lands. 3.3.3.3 The Ladoga-Clinton-Otley association is found on the north...in Lake Red Rock include pesticides (e.g., alacllor, atrazine, dieldrin, cynazine, 2,4-D) and heavy metals (lead, mercury, arsenic, cadmium , chromium

  6. Floods on White Rock Creek above White Rock Lake at Dallas, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilbert, Clarence R.

    1963-01-01

    The White Rock Creek watershed within the city limits of Dallas , Texas, presents problems not unique in the rapid residential and industrial development encountered by many cities throughout the United States. The advantages of full development of the existing area within a city before expanding city boundaries, are related to both economics and civic pride. The expansion of city boundaries usually results in higher per capital costs for the operation of city governments. Certainly no responsible city official would oppose reasonable development of watersheds and flood plains and thus sacrifice an increase in tax revenue. Within the words "reasonable development" lies the problem faced by these officials. They are aware that the natural function of a stream channel, and its associated flood plain is to carry away excess water in time of flood. They are also aware that failure to recognize this has often led to haphazard development on flood plains with a consequent increase in flood damages. In the absence of factual data defining the risk involved in occupying flood plains, stringent corrective and preventative measures must be taken to regulate man's activities on flood plains to a point beyond normal precaution. Flood-flow characteristics in the reach of White Rock Creek that lies between the northern city boundary of Dallas and Northwest Highway (Loop 12) at the upper end of White Rock Lake, are presented in this report. Hydrologic data shown include history and magnitude of floods, flood profiles, outlines of areas inundated by three floods, and estimates of mean velocities of flow at selected points. Approximate areas inundated by floods of April 1942 and July 1962 along White Rock Creek and by the flood of October 1962 along Cottonwood Creek, Floyd Branch, and Jackson Branch, are delineated on maps. Greater floods have undoubtedly occurred in the past but no attempt is made to show their probable overflow limits because basic data on such floods could not

  7. Water-quality, phytoplankton, and trophic-status characteristics of Big Base and Little Base lakes, Little Rock Air Force Base, Arkansas, 2003-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Justus, B.G.

    2005-01-01

    Little Rock Air Force Base is the largest C-130 base in the Air Force and is the only C-130 training base in the Department of Defense. Little Rock Air Force Base is located in central Arkansas near the eastern edge of the Ouachita Mountains, near the Mississippi Alluvial Plain, and within the Arkansas Valley Ecoregion. Habitats include upland pine forests, upland deciduous forest, broad-leaved deciduous swamps, and two small freshwater lakes?Big Base Lake and Little Base Lake. Big Base and Little Base Lakes are used primarily for recreational fishing by base personnel and the civilian public. Under normal (rainfall) conditions, Big Base Lake has a surface area of approximately 39 acres while surface area of Little Base Lake is approximately 1 acre. Little Rock Air Force Base personnel are responsible for managing the fishery in these two lakes and since 1999 have started a nutrient enhancement program that involves sporadically adding fertilizer to Big Base Lake. As a means of determining the relations between water quality and primary production, Little Rock Air Force Base personnel have a need for biological (phytoplankton density), chemical (dissolved-oxygen and nutrient concentrations), and physical (water temperature and light transparency) data. To address these monitoring needs, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Little Rock Air Force Base, conducted a study to collect and analyze biological, chemical, and physical data. The U.S. Geological Survey sampled water quality in Big Base Lake and Little Base Lake on nine occasions from July 2003 through June 2004. Because of the difference in size, two sampling sites were established on Big Base Lake, while only one site was established on Little Base Lake. Lake profile data for Big Base Lake indicate that low dissolved- oxygen concentrations in the hypolimnion probably constrain most fish species to the upper 5-6 feet of depth during the summer stratification period. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations in

  8. New Investigations of the Gow Lake Impact Structure, Saskatchewan, Canada: Impact Melt Rocks, Astronaut Training, and More

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osinski, G. R.; Singleton, A. C.; Ozaruk, A.; Hansen, J. R.

    2012-03-01

    New investigations of the Gow Lake impact structure has revealed an almost complete sequence of impactites from the crater floor upward through a series of melt-free and melt-bearing rocks. This research involved an astronaut training component.

  9. Rock glaciers in crystalline catchments: Hidden permafrost-related threats to alpine headwater lakes.

    PubMed

    Ilyashuk, Boris P; Ilyashuk, Elena A; Psenner, Roland; Tessadri, Richard; Koinig, Karin A

    2018-04-01

    A global warming-induced transition from glacial to periglacial processes has been identified in mountainous regions around the world. Degrading permafrost in pristine periglacial environments can produce acid rock drainage (ARD) and cause severe ecological damage in areas underlain by sulfide-bearing bedrock. Limnological and paleolimnological approaches were used to assess and compare ARDs generated by rock glaciers, a typical landform of the mountain permafrost domain, and their effects on alpine headwater lakes with similar morphometric features and underlying bedrock geology, but characterized by different intensities of frost action in their catchments during the year. We argue that ARD and its effects on lakes are more severe in the alpine periglacial belt with mean annual air temperatures (MAAT) between -2°C and +3°C, where groundwater persists in the liquid phase for most of the year, in contrast to ARD in the periglacial belt where frost action dominates (MAAT < -2°C). The findings clearly suggest that the ambient air temperature is an important factor affecting the ARD production in alpine periglacial environments. Applying the paleoecological analysis of morphological abnormalities in chironomids through the past millennium, we tested and rejected the hypothesis that unfavorable conditions for aquatic life in the ARD-stressed lakes are largely related to the temperature increase over recent decades, responsible for the enhanced release of ARD contaminants. Our results indicate that the ARDs generated in the catchments are of a long-lasting nature and the frequency of chironomid morphological deformities was significantly higher during the Little Ice Age (LIA) than during pre- or post-LIA periods, suggesting that lower water temperatures may increase the adverse impacts of ARD on aquatic invertebrates. This highlights that temperature-mediated modulations of the metabolism and life cycle of aquatic organisms should be considered when reconstructing

  10. The underwater photic environment of Cape Maclear, Lake Malawi: comparison between rock- and sand-bottom habitats and implications for cichlid fish vision.

    PubMed

    Sabbah, Shai; Gray, Suzanne M; Boss, Emmanuel S; Fraser, James M; Zatha, Richard; Hawryshyn, Craig W

    2011-02-01

    Lake Malawi boasts the highest diversity of freshwater fishes in the world. Nearshore sites are categorized according to their bottom substrate, rock or sand, and these habitats host divergent assemblages of cichlid fishes. Sexual selection driven by mate choice in cichlids led to spectacular diversification in male nuptial coloration. This suggests that the spectral radiance contrast of fish, the main determinant of visibility under water, plays a crucial role in cichlid visual communication. This study provides the first detailed description of underwater irradiance, radiance and beam attenuation at selected sites representing two major habitats in Lake Malawi. These quantities are essential for estimating radiance contrast and, thus, the constraints imposed on fish body coloration. Irradiance spectra in the sand habitat were shifted to longer wavelengths compared with those in the rock habitat. Beam attenuation in the sand habitat was higher than in the rock habitat. The effects of water depth, bottom depth and proximity to the lake bottom on radiometric quantities are discussed. The radiance contrast of targets exhibiting diffused and spectrally uniform reflectance depended on habitat type in deep water but not in shallow water. In deep water, radiance contrast of such targets was maximal at long wavelengths in the sand habitat and at short wavelengths in the rock habitat. Thus, to achieve conspicuousness, color patterns of rock- and sand-dwelling cichlids would be restricted to short and long wavelengths, respectively. This study provides a useful platform for the examination of cichlid visual communication.

  11. Lake level variability in Silver Lake, Michigan: a response to fluctuations in lake levels of Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Timothy G.; Loope, Walter L.

    2004-01-01

    Sediment from Silver Lake, Michigan, can be used to constrain the timing and elevation of Lake Michigan during the Nipissing transgression. Silver Lake is separated from Lake Michigan by a barrier/dune complex and the Nipissing, Calumet, and Glenwood shorelines of Lake Michigan are expressed landward of this barrier. Two Vibracores were taken from the lake in February 2000 and contain pebbly sand, sand, buried soils, marl, peat, and sandy muck. It is suggested here that fluctuations in the level of Lake Michigan are reflected in Silver Lake since the Chippewa low phase, and possibly at the end of the Algonquin phase. An age of 12,490 B.P. (10,460±50 14C yrs B.P.) on wood from a buried Entisol may record the falling Algonquin phase as the North Bay outlet opened. A local perched water table is indicated by marl deposited before 7,800 B.P. and peat between 7,760-7,000 B.P. when Lake Michigan was at the low elevation Chippewa phase. Continued deepening of the lake is recorded by the transition from peat to sandy muck at 7,000 B.P. in the deeper core, and with the drowning of an Inceptisol nearly 3 m higher at 6,410 B.P. in the shallower core. A rising groundwater table responding to a rising Lake Michigan base level during the Nipissing transgression, rather than a response to mid-Holocene climate change, explains deepening of Silver Lake. Sandy muck was deposited continually in Silver Lake between Nipissing and modern time. Sand lenses within the muck are presumed to be eolian in origin, derived from sand dunes advancing into the lake on the western side of the basin.

  12. Impacts on water quality and biota from natural acid rock drainage in Colorado's Lake Creek watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bird, D.A.; Sares, Matthew A.; Policky, Greg A.; Schmidt, Travis S.; Church, Stan E.

    2006-01-01

    Colorado's Lake Creek watershed hosts natural acid rock drainage that significantly impacts surface water, streambed sediment, and aquatic life. The source of the ARD is a group of iron-rich springs that emerge from intensely hydrothermally altered, unexploited, low-grade porphyry copper mineralization in the Grizzly Peak Caldera. Source water chemistry includes pH of 2.5 and dissolved metal concentrations of up to 277 mg/L aluminum, 498 mg/L iron, and 10 mg/L copper. From the hydrothermally altered area downstream for 27 kilometers to Twin Lakes Reservoir, metal concentrations in streambed sediment are elevated and the watershed experiences locally severe adverse impacts to aquatic life due to the acidic, metal-laden water. The water and sediment quality of Twin Lakes Reservoir is sufficiently improved that the reservoir supports a trout fishery, and remnants of upstream ARD are negligible.

  13. Database on unstable rock slopes in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppikofer, Thierry; Nordahl, Bo; Bunkholt, Halvor; Nicolaisen, Magnus; Hermanns, Reginald L.; Böhme, Martina; Yugsi Molina, Freddy X.

    2014-05-01

    Several large rockslides have occurred in historic times in Norway causing many casualties. Most of these casualties are due to displacement waves triggered by a rock avalanche and affecting coast lines of entire lakes and fjords. The Geological Survey of Norway performs systematic mapping of unstable rock slopes in Norway and has detected up to now more than 230 unstable slopes with significant postglacial deformation. This systematic mapping aims to detect future rock avalanches before they occur. The registered unstable rock slopes are stored in a database on unstable rock slopes developed and maintained by the Geological Survey of Norway. The main aims of this database are (1) to serve as a national archive for unstable rock slopes in Norway; (2) to serve for data collection and storage during field mapping; (3) to provide decision-makers with hazard zones and other necessary information on unstable rock slopes for land-use planning and mitigation; and (4) to inform the public through an online map service. The database is organized hierarchically with a main point for each unstable rock slope to which several feature classes and tables are linked. This main point feature class includes several general attributes of the unstable rock slopes, such as site name, general and geological descriptions, executed works, recommendations, technical parameters (volume, lithology, mechanism and others), displacement rates, possible consequences, hazard and risk classification and so on. Feature classes and tables linked to the main feature class include the run-out area, the area effected by secondary effects, the hazard and risk classification, subareas and scenarios of an unstable rock slope, field observation points, displacement measurement stations, URL links for further documentation and references. The database on unstable rock slopes in Norway will be publicly consultable through the online map service on www.skrednett.no in 2014. Only publicly relevant parts of

  14. Lake trout spawning habitat in the Six Fathom Bank-Yankee Reef lake trout sanctuary, Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Brown, Charles L.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Poe, Thomas P.

    1992-01-01

    Attempts to reestablish self-sustaining stocks of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the lower four Great Lakes, where the species was extinguished in the 1950s and 1960s, have been largely unsuccessful. To avoid many of the problems believed to be contributing to this failure, the fishery management community recently established several sanctuaries in the offshore waters of the Great Lakes where the development and protection of self-sustaining stocks of lake trout would be a primary management objective. One of these, the Six Fathom Bank-Yankee Reef sanctuary, was created in the south-central portion of Lake Huron. This sanctuary covers 168,000 ha and includes the shallower portions of the Six Fathom and Ipperwash scarps, which are major bathymetric features in the southern half of the lake. Historical accounts describe Six Fathom Bank as the most important lake trout spawning ground in the lake. Here we present the results of lake bed surveys conducted in the sanctuary with side-scan sonar, underwater videocamera systems, and a small research submarine. Our observations of the lake bed are consistent with what is known of the bedrock stratigraphy, glacial history, and karst geomorphology of the Lake Huron basin. Most of the loose rock we found seemed to be derived from local carbonate bedrock formations, although non-carbonate rock probably from Precambrian sources to the north was also present in some areas. Much of the bedrock and loose rock displayed karst solution features described for the Bruce Peninsula on the Ontario shoreline. Our surveys revealed substantial areas of lake bed at water depths of 20–36 m that resembled suitable spawning and fry production habitat for the shallow-water strains of lake trout that are the focus of the rehabilitation effort. Low mid-lake nutrient levels documented recently by others and the extremely high abundance of Mysis relicta (an important item in the diet of young lake trout) that we documented on Yankee Reef

  15. Bathymetric contour map, surface area and capacity table, and bathymetric difference map for Clearwater Lake near Piedmont, Missouri, 2017

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richards, Joseph M.; Huizinga, Richard J.

    2018-06-19

    Clearwater Lake, on the Black River near Piedmont in Reynolds County, Missouri, was constructed in 1948 and is operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers for flood-risk reduction, recreation, and fish and wildlife habitat. The lake area is about 1,800 acres with about 34 miles of shoreline at the conservation pool elevation of 498 feet. Since the completion of the lake in 1948, sedimentation likely has caused the storage capacity of the lake to decrease gradually. The loss of storage capacity can decrease the effectiveness of the lake to mitigate flooding, and excessive sediment accumulation also can reduce aquatic habitat in some areas of the lake. Many lakes operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers have periodic bathymetric and sediment surveys to monitor the status of the lake. The U.S. Geological Survey completed one such survey of Clearwater Lake in 2008 during a period of high lake level using bathymetric surveying equipment consisting of a multibeam echosounder, a singlebeam echosounder, 1/3 arc-second National Elevation Dataset data (used outside the multibeam echosounder survey extent), and the waterline derived from 2008 aerial light detection and ranging (lidar) data. In May 2017, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, surveyed the bathymetry of Clearwater Lake to prepare an updated bathymetric map and a surface area and capacity table. The 2008 survey was contrasted with the 2017 survey to document the changes in the bathymetric surface of the lake.

  16. Tapping rocks for Terror Lake hydro project

    SciTech Connect

    Sieber, O.V.

    The Terror Lake hydro project in Alaska is described. Terror Lake is a small alpine lake surrounded by barren glacier-scoured, rocky mountain tops and plateaus that do not retain moisture. The method for obtaining more water for the hydro project in Kodiak is unique. The basic program was to dam up the outlet of Terror Lake and raise the water level 170 ft. from approximately 1250 ft. above sea level to 1420 ft. Although the megawatt output of the project is small, the concept of the Terror Lake Project has an epic scale to it.

  17. Lake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wien, Carol Anne

    2008-01-01

    The lake is blue black and deep. It is a glaciated finger lake, clawed out of rock when ice retracted across Nova Scotia in a northerly direction during the last ice age. The lake is narrow, a little over a mile long, and deep, 90 to 190 feet in places according to local lore, off the charts in others. The author loves to swim there, with a sense…

  18. Lake Waiau and Púupōhaku - two unusual lakes on Maunakea volcano, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leopold, Matthias; Schorghofer, Norbert

    2017-04-01

    High mountain lakes are often a valuable buffer for water availability throughout the year. This is especially the case in alpine deserts like the high alpine areas of the Hawaiian Volcanoes above 3000 m altitude, since the porous and coarse cinder material and basalt boulders do not favor water storage. Púupōhaku ( 4,000m asl), a cinder cone near the summit of Maunakea volcano, Hawaii, has a sporadic pond of water and also nearby Lake Waiau is perched within a cinder cone known as Púuwaiau ( 3600 m asl) which makes it the highest lake on the Hawaiian Islands. With only 210 mm annual precipitation mostly caused by single storm events, and a potential evaporation of up to 5mm/d, permanent water sources are extremely rare in this environment. Several hypotheses were discussed as a possible cause for perching the water in this environment such as an impermeable permafrost base, a massive block of lava or clay layers. We applied geomorphic mappings and electric resistivity tomography to portray the shallow subsurface in the vicinity of the two water bodies. We also used current and unpublished older temperature loggings to evaluate the thermal regime around the lakes. Based on our results, specific electric resistivity values are too low and ground temperatures are too high to be interpreted either as ice rich permafrost or basaltic massive rock. Much more, fine grained material such as ash and its clay-rich weathering products likely cause the perched water table at both study sites. At Lake Waiau we discovered a layer of high electric conductivity that may constitute a significant water reservoir outside of the lake and further be responsible for perching the water towards the lake. Understanding the nature of the two permanent water bodies will help to manage the sensitive alpine environment which includes several endemic species.

  19. Characterization of Park Visitors, Visitation Levels, and Associated Economic Impacts of Recreation at Bull Shoals, Norfork, and Table Rock Lakes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    ER D C/ EL T R- 10 -1 8 Recreation Management Support Program Characterization of Park Visitors, Visitation Levels, and Associated...distribution is unlimited. Recreation Management Support Program ERDC/EL TR-10-18 November 2010 Characterization of Park Visitors, Visitation ...surrounding the lakes. The report also examines visitor recreation patterns, visitor perceptions of lake and park attributes that affect the

  20. Forming chemical composition of surface waters in the Arctic as "water - rock" interaction. Case study of lake Inari and river Paz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazukhina, Svetlana; Sandimirov, Sergey; Pozhilenko, Vladimir; Ivanov, Stanislav; Maksimova, Viktoriia

    2017-04-01

    Due to the depletion of fresh water supplies and the deterioration of their quality as a result of anthropogenic impact on the Arctic ecosystems, the research questions of forming surface and ground waters, their interactions with the rocks, development of the foundations for their rational use and protection are of great fundamental and practical importance. The aim of the work is to evaluate the influence of the chemical composition of rocks of the northern part of the Fennoscandian (Baltic) shield on forming surface waters chemical composition (Lake Inari, river Paz) using physical-chemical modeling (Chudnenko, 2010, Selector software package). River Paz (Paatsjoki) is the largest river in North Fennoscandia and flows through the territory of three countries - Finland, Russia and Norway. It originates from Lake Inari, which a large number of streams and rivers flow into, coming from the mountain range of the northern Finland (Maanselkä hill). Within the catchment of inflows feeding the lake Inari and river Paz in its upper flow there are mainly diverse early Precambrian metamorphic and intrusive rocks of the Lapland granulite belt and its framing, and to a lesser extent - various gneisses and migmatites with relicts of amphibolites, granitic gneisses, plagioclase and plagio- and plagiomicrocline granites, and quartz diorites of Inari terrane (Meriläinen, 1976, fig 1; Hörmann et al, 1980, fig 1; Geologicalmap, 2001). Basing on the techniques developed earlier (Mazukhina, 2012), and the data of monitoring of the chemical composition of surface waters and investigation of the chemical composition of the rocks, physical-chemical modeling (FCM) (Selector software package) was carried out. FCM includes 34 independent components (Al-B-Br-Ar-He-Ne-C-Ca-Cl-F-Fe-K-Mg-Mn-N-Na-P-S-Si-Sr-Cu-Zn-Ni-Pb-V-Ba-Co-Cr-Hg-As-Cd-H-O-e), 996 dependent components, of them 369 in aqueous solution, 76 in the gas phase, 111 liquid hydrocarbons, and 440 solid phases, organic and mineral

  1. Bacterial diversity of the rock-water interface in an East Antarctic freshwater ecosystem, Lake Tawani(P)†

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Schirmacher Oasis is one of the few ice-free plateaus in East Antarctica that maintains a unique distribution of over 120 microbial-rich, dynamic freshwater lakes, most of which are unexplored. In this study, we describe the bacterial diversity of the rock-water interface in Lake Tawani(P) using culture-independent Bacterial Tag Encoded FLX Amplicon Pyrosequencing (bTEFAP), clone library construction, and culture-based analysis targeting the eubacterial 16S rRNA gene. Lake Tawani(P)was formed in a fossil valley by the accumulation of snow and glacial melt through surface channels into a low-catchment depression. Overall this lake exhibited thirteen bacterial phyla and one-hundred and twelve genera. The Qiime bioinformatics analysis on the bTEFAP alone exhibited higher coverage of the bacterial composition in Lake Tawani(P) than the clone library construction or culture-based methodology. Particularly due to the higher sensitivity of the bTEFAP approach, we detected and differentiated members of the phyla: Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Planctomycetes, Nitrospira, and Candidate Division TM7 that other methods were unable to reveal. Nevertheless we found that the use of multiple approaches identified a more complete bacterial community than by using any single approach. Investigating the bacterial diversity of the Schirmacher Oasis lakes, especially those connected through surface channels and encompassed by valleys, will help unravel the dynamic nature of these unique seasonal, freshwater lakes, which potentially harbors highly adapted bacterial taxa with defined ecological functions. PMID:23369372

  2. Assessing the relationship between forests and water in the High Rock Lake Watershed of North Carolina

    Treesearch

    Tom A. Gerow; David G. Jones; Wenwu Tang

    2016-01-01

    Forests are recognized as a priority source of relatively high quality and reliable water, be it for human use or ecological function. The High Rock Lake watershed straddles the piedmont and foothill regions of North Carolina, and a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) restoration plan is being developed for the reservoir. The findings of the study should add to the body of...

  3. Hydrologic data; North Canadian River from Lake Overholser to Lake Eufaula, central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havens, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    The data contained in this report were gathered during the period 1982 to 1984 for use in constructing a digital model of the North Canadian River from Lake Overholser, in the western part of Oklahoma City, to Lake Eufaula, in eastern Oklahoma. Locations of test holes and sampling sites are show in figure 1. Information on well depths and water levels in table 1 was gathered in the summer of 1982. Some information in the table was reported by well owners. Field water-quality data for water temperatures, specific conductance, and pH were measured at the time the wells were inventoried in 1982 and appear in table 2. Forty-nine test holes were augered to provide more comprehensive lithologic and water-level data along the North Canadian River. Lithologic logs of these test holes appear in table 3. Thirty-eight of the test holes were completed as observations wells by placing perforated plastic casing in the holes. Water levels were measured in these observations wells from the time of completion in mid-1982 through mid-1984. Hydrographs of the observation wells are shown in figures 2 through 15. The data are presented graphically for clarity. Hydrographs of water-level fluctuations in two wells equipped with continuous water-level recorders and hydrographs of stage fluctuations on the North Canadian River at nearby gaging stations are shown in figures 16 and 17. Two sets of low-flow measurements for the North Canadian River showing gains and losses in flow between measuring sites in the reach from Lake Overholser to Lake Eufaula are given in table 4. Measurements of flow on tributary streams are also given in this table. Analyses of water-quality samples collected at the time of the low-flow measurements are given in table 5.

  4. Petrologic considerations for hot dry rock geothermal site selection in the Clear Lake Region, California

    SciTech Connect

    Stimac, J.; Goff, F.; Hearn, B.C. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The Clear Lake area is well known for anomalous heat flow, thermal springs, hydrothermal mineral deposits, and Quaternary volcanism. These factors, along with the apparent lack of a large reservoir of geothermal fluid north of Collayomi fault make the Clear Lake area an attractive target for hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal development. Petrologic considerations provide some constraints on site selection for HDR development. Spatial and temporal trends in volcanism in the Coast Ranges indicate that magmatism has migrated to the north with time, paralleling passage of the Mendocino triple junction and propagation of the San Andreas fault. Volcanism in themore » region may have resulted from upwelling of hot asthenosphere along the southern margin of the subducted segment of the Gorda plate. Spatial and temporal trends of volcanism within the Clear Lake volcanic field are similar to larger-scale trends of Neogene volcanism in the Cost Ranges. Volcanism (especially for silicic compositions) shows a general migration to the north over the {approximately}2 Ma history of the field, with the youngest two silicic centers located at Mt. Konocti and Borax Lake. The Mt. Konocti system (active from {approximately} 0.6 to 0.3 Ma) was large and long-lived, whereas the Borax Lake system is much smaller but younger (0.09 Ma). Remnants of silicic magma bodies under Mt. Konocti may be in the latter stages of cooling, whereas a magma body centered under Borax Lake may be in the early stages of development. The existence of an upper crustal silicic magma body of under Borax Lake has yet to be demonstrated by passive geophysics, however, subsurface temperatures in the area as high (> 200{degrees}C at 2000 m) as those beneath the Mt. Konocti area. Based on petrologic considerations alone, the Mt. Konocti-Borax Lake area appears to be the most logical choice for HDR geothermal development in the region.« less

  5. Diagram of Lake Stratification on Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-01

    This diagram presents some of the processes and clues related to a long-ago lake on Mars that became stratified, with the shallow water richer in oxidants than deeper water was. The sedimentary rocks deposited within a lake in Mars' Gale Crater more than three billion years ago differ from each other in a pattern that matches what is seen in lakes on Earth. As sediment-bearing water flows into a lake, bedding thickness and particle size progressively decrease as sediment is deposited in deeper and deeper water as seen in examples of thick beds (PIA19074) from shallowest water, thin beds (PIA19075) from deeper water and even thinner beds (PIA19828) from deepest water. At sites on lower Mount Sharp, inside the crater, measurements of chemical and mineral composition by NASA's Curiosity Mars rover reveal a clear correspondence between the physical characteristics of sedimentary rock from different parts of the lake and how strongly oxidized the sediments were. Rocks with textures indicating that the sediments were deposited near the edge of a lake have more strongly oxidized composition than rocks with textures indicating sedimentation in deep water. For example, the iron mineral hematite is more oxidized than the iron mineral magnetite. An explanation for why such chemical stratification occurs in a lake is that the water closer to the surface is more exposed to oxidizing effects of oxygen in the atmosphere and ultraviolet light. On Earth, a stratified lake with a distinct boundary between oxidant-rich shallows and oxidant-poor depths provides a diversity of environments suited to different types of microbes. If Mars has ever hosted microbial live, the stratified lake at Gale Crater may have similarly provided a range of different habitats for life. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21500

  6. Bathymetric surveys of selected lakes in Missouri--2000-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richards, Joseph M.

    2013-01-01

    Years of sediment accumulation and abnormally dry conditions in the Midwest in 1999 and 2000 led to the water level decline of many water-supply lakes in Missouri, and caused renewed interest in modernizing outdated area/volume tables for these lakes. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, surveyed the bathymetry of 51 lakes in Missouri from July 2000 to May 2008. The data were used to provide water managers with area/volume tables and bathymetric maps of the lakes at the time of the surveys. In 50 of the lakes, bathymetric surveys were made using a boat-mounted single-beam survey-grade fathometer. In Clearwater Lake, bathymetric data were collected primarily using a boat-mounted survey-grade multibeam fathometer, and some bathymetric data were collected using a single-beam fathometer in areas of the lake that were inaccessible to the multibeam fathometer. Data processing, area/volume table computation, and bathymetric map production were completed for each lake.

  7. Origin of middle rare earth element enrichments in acid waters of a Canadian high Arctic lake.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannesson, Kevin H.; Zhou, Xiaoping

    1999-01-01

    -Middle rare earth element (MREE) enriched rock-normalized rare earth element (REE) patterns of a dilute acidic lake (Colour Lake) in the Canadian High Arctic, were investigated by quantifying whole-rock REE concentrations of rock samples collected from the catchment basin, as well as determining the acid leachable REE fraction of these rocks. An aliquot of each rock sample was leached with 1 N HNO 3 to examine the readily leachable REE fraction of each rock, and an additional aliquot was leached with a 0.04 M NH 2OH · HCl in 25% (v/v) CH 3COOH solution, designed specifically to reduce Fe-Mn oxides/oxyhydroxides. Rare earth elements associated with the leachates that reacted with clastic sedimentary rock samples containing petrographically identifiable Fe-Mn oxide/oxyhydroxide cements and/or minerals/amorphous phases, exhibited whole-rock-normalized REE patterns similar to the lake waters, whereas whole-rock-normalized leachates from mafic igneous rocks and other clastic sedimentary rocks from the catchment basin differed substantially from the lake waters. The whole-rock, leachates, and lake water REE data support acid leaching or dissolution of MREE enriched Fe-Mn oxides/oxyhydroxides contained and identified within some of the catchment basin sedimentary rocks as the likely source of the unique lake water REE patterns. Solution complexation modelling of the REEs in the inflow streams and lake waters indicate that free metal ions (e.g., Ln 3+, where Ln = any REE) and sulfate complexes (LnSO 4+) are the dominant forms of dissolved REEs. Consequently, solution complexation reactions involving the REEs during weathering, transport to the lake, or within the lake, cannot be invoked to explain the MREE enrichments observed in the lake waters.

  8. The Lake Forest Tuff Ring, Lake Tahoe, CA: Age and Geochemistry of a Post-arc Phreatomagmatic Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cousens, B. L.; Henry, C. D.; Pauly, B. D.

    2007-12-01

    The Lake Tahoe region of the northern Sierra Nevada consists of Mesozoic plutonic rocks blanketed by Mio- Pliocene arc volcanic rocks and locally overlain by < 2.5 Ma post-arc lavas. Several volcanic features along the Lake Tahoe shoreline indicate that magmas commonly erupted into shallow regions of the lake during the last 2.5 Ma, including the Eagle Rock vent (Kortemeier and Schweickert 2007), Tahoe City pillow lavas and palagonite layers, and the Lake Forest tuff ring (Sylvester et al., 2007). Here we report on the age and composition of the rocks at Lake Forest, aiming to identify the source of the volcanic rocks compared to arc and post-arc lavas in the area. The low-relief Lake Forest tuff ring, located on the lakeshore west of Dollar Point, consists of radially outward-dipping layers composed primarily of loosely-cemented angular, microvesicular lava fragments with minor basaltic bombs and a scoria pile at the east end of the exposed ring. Most fragments are poorly phyric, and two samples are andesites similar to post-arc lavas sampled at higher elevations. The bombs are vesicular, poorly olivine/plagioclase-phyric basaltic andesites with chilled margins and glassy matrices. Scoria in the scoria pile, which we tentatively interpret as a slump, are similar texturally to the bombs but are more silica-rich. Chemically, the fragments, bombs and scoria are more primitive (higher Mg number) than local post-arc and arc lavas, and have trace element ratios and normalized incompatible element patterns similar to, but not identical to, local post-arc lava flows. Thus the Lake Forest tuff ring was the product of a shoreline eruptive event and did not form from lavas flowing downslope into the water. The fragments, bombs and scoria each have different radiogenic isotopic compositions and incompatible element ratios, indicating that primary magma compositions varied during the eruption(s) that produced the tuff ring. Our ongoing geochronological analyses will help

  9. Ground-water age and atmospheric tracers: Simulation studies and analysis of field data from the Mirror Lake site, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goode, Daniel J.

    1998-01-01

    The use of environmental tracers in characterization of ground-water systems is investigated through mathematical modeling of ground-water age and atmospheric tracer transport, and by a field study at the Mirror Lake site, New Hampshire. Theory is presented for modeling ground-water age using the advective-dispersive transport equation. The transport equation includes a zero-order source of unit strength, corresponding to the rate of aging, and can accommodate matrix diffusion and other exchange processes. The effect of temperature fluctuations and layered soils on transport of atmospheric gases to the water table is investigated using a one-dimensional numerical model of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC-11) transport. The nonlinear relation between temperature and Henry's Law coefficient (reflecting air/water phase partitioning) can cause the apparent recharge temperature to be elevated above the annual mean temperature where the water table is shallow. In addition, fine-grained soils can isolate the air phase in the unsaturated zone from the atmosphere. At the USGS' Mirror Lake, New Hampshire fractured-rock research site CFC concentrations near the water table are depleted where dissolved oxygen is low. CFC-11 and CFC-113 are completely absent under anaerobic conditions, while CFC-12 is as low as one-third of modern concentrations. Anaerobic biodegradation apparently consumes CFC's near the water table at this site. One area of active degradation appears to be associated with streamflow loss to ground water. Soil gas concentrations are generally close to atmospheric levels, although some spatial correlation is observed between depleted concentrations of CFC-11 and CFC-113 in soil gas and water-table samples. Results of unsaturated-zone monitoring indicate that recharge occurs throughout the year in the watershed, even during summer evapotranspiration periods, and that seasonal temperature fluctuations occur as much as 5 meters below land surface. Application of ground

  10. Reaeration capacity of the Rock River between Lake Koshkonong, Wisconsin and Rockton, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grant, R. Stephen

    1978-01-01

    The reaeration capacity of the Rock River from Lake Koshkonong, Wisconsin, to Rockton, Illinois, was determined using the energy-dissipation model. The model was calibrated using data from radioactive-tracer measurements in the study reach. Reaeration coefficients (K2) were computed for the annual minimum 7-day mean discharge that occurs on the average of once in 10 years (Q7,10). A time-of-travel model was developed using river discharge, slope, and velocity data from three dye studies. The model was used to estimate traveltime for the Q7,10 for use in the energy-dissipation model. During one radiotracer study, 17 mile per hour winds apparently increased the reaeration coefficient about 40 times. (Woodard-USGS)

  11. Isotopic Survey of Lake Davis and the Local Groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Ridley, M N; Moran, J E; Singleton, M J

    2007-08-21

    In September 2007, California Fish and Game (CAFG) plans to eradicate the northern pike from Lake Davis. As a result of the eradication treatment, local residents have concerns that the treatment might impact the local groundwater quality. To address the concerns of the residents, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) recommended measuring the naturally occurring stable oxygen isotopes in local groundwater wells, Lake Davis, and the Lake Davis tributaries. The purpose of these measurements is to determine if the source of the local groundwater is either rain/snowmelt, Lake Davis/Big Grizzly Creek water or a mixture of Lake Davis/Big Grizzly Creek andmore » rain/snowmelt. As a result of natural evaporation, Lake Davis and the water flowing into Big Grizzly Creek are naturally enriched in {sup 18}oxygen ({sup 18}O), and if a source of a well's water is Lake Davis or Big Grizzly Creek, the well water will contain a much higher concentration of {sup 18}O. This survey will allow for the identification of groundwater wells whose water source is Lake Davis or Big Grizzly Creek. The results of this survey will be useful in the development of a water-quality monitoring program for the upcoming Lake Davis treatment. LLNL analyzed 167 groundwater wells (Table 1), 12 monthly samples from Lake Davis (Table 2), 3 samples from Lake Davis tributaries (Table 2), and 8 Big Grizzly Creek samples (Table 2). Of the 167 groundwater wells sampled and analyzed, only 2 wells contained a significant component of evaporated water, with an isotope composition similar to Lake Davis water. The other 163 groundwater wells have isotope compositions which indicate that their water source is rain/snowmelt.« less

  12. Soda Lake-Painted Rock(!) Petroleum System in the Cuyama Basin, California, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lillis, Paul G.

    1994-01-01

    The Cuyama basin, located in the central California Coast Ranges, was formed by extension during early Miocene time and was filled with a variety of nonmarine, marginal marine, and neritic to bathyal marine sediments. Low sulfur oil is produced primarily from the lower Miocene Painted Rock Sandstone Member of the Vaqueros Formation along a structural trend parallel to the Russell fault, which was active from 23 to 5 Ma. A major fold and thrust belt beginning about 3 Ma formed the Caliente and Sierra Madre ranges and partially obscures the Miocene extensional basin. Stable carbon isotope and biomarker data indicate that the lower Miocene Soda Lake Shale Member of the Vaqueros Formation is the predominant source rock for the oil in the Cuyama area. Burial and thermal history modeling shows that oil generation began in middle-late Miocene time and that oil migrated into existing traps. Younger traps that formed in the overthrust are barren of oil because migration occurred prior to the development of the fold and thrust belt or because subthrust oil was unable to migrate into the overthrust.

  13. Microplastic Pollution in Table Salts from China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dongqi; Shi, Huahong; Li, Lan; Li, Jiana; Jabeen, Khalida; Kolandhasamy, Prabhu

    2015-11-17

    Microplastics have been found in seas all over the world. We hypothesize that sea salts might contain microplastics, because they are directly supplied by seawater. To test our hypothesis, we collected 15 brands of sea salts, lake salts, and rock/well salts from supermarkets throughout China. The microplastics content was 550-681 particles/kg in sea salts, 43-364 particles/kg in lake salts, and 7-204 particles/kg in rock/well salts. In sea salts, fragments and fibers were the prevalent types of particles compared with pellets and sheets. Microplastics measuring less than 200 μm represented the majority of the particles, accounting for 55% of the total microplastics, and the most common microplastics were polyethylene terephthalate, followed by polyethylene and cellophane in sea salts. The abundance of microplastics in sea salts was significantly higher than that in lake salts and rock/well salts. This result indicates that sea products, such as sea salts, are contaminated by microplastics. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on microplastic pollution in abiotic sea products.

  14. Hydrology of Indiana lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perrey, Joseph Irving; Corbett, Don Melvin

    1956-01-01

    The stabilization of lake levels often requires the construction of outlet control structures. A detailed study of past lake-level elevations and other hydologic date is necessary to establish a level that can be maintained and to determine the means necessary for maintaining the established level. Detailed lake-level records for 28 lakes are included in the report, and records for over 100 other lakes data are available in the U.S. Geological Survey Office, Indianapolis, Ind. Evaporation data from the four Class A evaporation station of the U. S. Weather Bureau have been compiled in this report. A table showing the established legal lake level and related data is included.

  15. A rock-magnetic record from Lake Baikal, Siberia: Evidence for Late Quaternary climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peck, J.A.; King, J.W.; Colman, Steven M.; Kravchinsky, V.A.

    1994-01-01

    Rock-magnetic measurements of sediment cores from the Academician Ridge region of Lake Baikal, Siberia show variations related to Late Quaternary climate change. Based upon the well-dated last glacial-interglacial transition, variations in magnetic concentration and mineralogy are related to glacial-interglacial cycles using a conceptual model. Interglacial intervals are characterized by low magnetic concentrations and a composition that is dominated by low coercivity minerals. Glacial intervals are characterized by high magnetic concentrations and increased amounts of high coercivity minerals. The variation in magnetic concentration is consistent with dilution by diatom opal during the more productive interglacial periods. We also infer an increased contribution of eolian sediment during the colder, windier, and more arid glacial conditions when extensive loess deposits were formed throughout Europe and Asia. Eolian transport is inferred to deliver increased amounts of high coercivity minerals as staining on eolian grains during the glacial intervals. Variations in magnetic concentration and mineralogy of Lake Baikal sediment correlate to the SPECMAP marine oxygen-isotope record. The high degree of correlation between Baikal magnetic concentration/mineralogy and the SPECMAP oxygen-isotope record indicates that Lake Baikal sediment preserves a history of climate change in central Asia for the last 250 ka. This correlation provides a method of estimating the age of sediment beyond the range of the radiocarbon method. Future work must include providing better age control and additional climate proxy data, thereby strengthening the correlation of continental and marine climate records. ?? 1994.

  16. Rock cliffs hazard analysis based on remote geostructural surveys: The Campione del Garda case study (Lake Garda, Northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrero, A. M.; Migliazza, M.; Roncella, R.; Segalini, A.

    2011-02-01

    The town of Campione del Garda (located on the west coast of Lake Garda) and its access road have been historically subject to rockfall phenomena with risk for public security in several areas of the coast. This paper presents a study devoted to the determination of risk for coastal cliffs and the design of mitigation measures. Our study was based on statistical rockfall analysis performed with a commercial code and on stability analysis of rock slopes based on the key block method. Hazard from block kinematics and rock-slope failure are coupled by applying the Rockfall Hazard Assessment Procedure (RHAP). Because of the huge dimensions of the slope, its morphology and the geostructural survey were particularly complicated and demanding. For these reasons, noncontact measurement methods, based on aerial photogrammetry by helicopter, were adopted. A special software program, developed by the authors, was applied for discontinuity identification and for their orientation measurements. The potentially of aerial photogrammetic survey in rock mechanic application and its improvement in the rock mass knowledge is analysed in the article.

  17. A land-use and water-quality history of White Rock Lake Reservoir, Dallas, Texas, based on paleolimnological analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Platt, Bradbury J.; Van Metre, P.C.

    1997-01-01

    White Rock Lake reservoir in Dallas, Texas contains a 150-cm sediment record of silty clay that documents land-use changes since its construction in 1912. Pollen analysis corroborates historical evidence that between 1912 and 1950 the watershed was primarily agricultural. Land disturbance by plowing coupled with strong and variable spring precipitation caused large amounts of sediment to enter the lake during this period. Diatoms were not preserved at this time probably because of low productivity compared to diatom dissolution by warm, alkaline water prior to burial in the sediments. After 1956, the watershed became progressively urbanized. Erosion decreased, land stabilized, and pollen of riparian trees increased as the lake water became somewhat less turbid. By 1986 the sediment record indicates that diatom productivity had increased beyond rates of diatom destruction. Neither increased nutrients nor reduced pesticides can account for increased diatom productivity, but grain size studies imply that before 1986 diatoms were light limited by high levels of turbidity. This study documents how reservoirs may relate to land-use practices and how watershed management could extend reservoir life and improve water quality.

  18. Hydrologic relations between lakes and aquifer in a recharge area near Orlando, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lichtler, William F.; Hughes, G.H.; Pfischner, F.L.

    1976-01-01

    The three lakes investigated in Orange County, Florida, gain water from adjoining water-table aquifer and lose water to Floridan aquifer by downward leakage. Net seepage (net exchange of water between lake and aquifers) can be estimated by equation S = AX + BY, where S is net seepage, X represents hydraulic gradient between lake and water-table aquifer, A is lumped parameter representing effect of hydraulic conductivity and cross-sectional area of materials in flow section of water-table aquifer, Y is head difference between lake level and potentiometric surface of Floridan aquifer, and B is lumped parameter representing effect of hydraulic conductivity, area, and thickness of materials between lake bottom and Floridan aquifer. If values of S, X, and Y are available for two contrasting water-level conditions, coefficients A and B are determinable by solution of two simultaneous equations. If the relation between lake and ground-water level is the same on all sides of the lake--with regard to each aquifer--and if X and Y are truly representative of these relations, then X and Y terms of equation provide valid estimates of inflow to lake from water-table aquifer and outflow from lake to Floridan aquifer. (Woodard-USGS)

  19. Multiple stresses from a single agent: Diverse responses to the experimental acidification of Little Rock Lake, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frost, T.M.; Montz, P.K.; Kratz, T.K.; Badillo, T.; Brezonik, P.L.; Gonzalez, M.J.; Rada, R.G.; Watras, C.J.; Webster, K.E.; Wiener, J.G.; Williamson, C.E.; Morris, D.P.

    1999-01-01

    A single stress, acidification with sulfuric acid, was applied to Little Rack Lake in a whole-ecosystem manipulation. We documented a wide range of responses to the acidification, including increases in the concentrations of various chemicals, shifts in microbial processes and a major increase in water clarity to UV-B radiation. Each of these changes could in itself be considered as a separate ecosystem stress that is distinct from the intended manipulation. Acidification in Little Rock Lake was accompanied by a number of substantial changes in the occurrence of organisms. A series of detailed investigations indicates that the mechanisms underlying these organismal changes are varied but cannot usually be tied to the direct effects of acidification. Overall, our results demonstrate how multiple stresses can arise from a single agent operating on an ecosystem and suggest that singly operating stresses may actually be quite rare.

  20. First Fourteen Years of Lake Mead

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Harold E.

    1954-01-01

    This circular summarizes the results of recent studies of Lake Mead and its environs. Area-capacity tables, prepared on the basis of a hydrographic survey of the lake in 1948-49, show that the capacity of the reservoir was reduced 4.9 percent during the first 14 years after Hoover Dam was completed, but the usable capacity was reduced only 3.2 percent. Practically all of this reduction was caused by accumulation of sediment in the reservoir. Studies of inflow and outflow indicate that the reservoir has a total storage capacity about 12 percent greater than that shown by the area-capacity table, because of 'bank' storage, or ground-water storage in the bottom and sides of the reservoir. Thus the total capacity in 1949 was greater than the quantity shown by the original area-capacity table, even though large quantities of sediment had been deposited in the reservoir during the 14 years. According to computations of the volume and weight of the accumulated sediment, about 2,000 million tons were deposited in the reservoir by the Colorado River in 14 years; this is within 2 percent of the amount calculated from measurements of the suspended sediment carried by the in flowing rivers. It is estimated that the sediment capacity of the reservoir, when filled to the level of the permanent spillway crest, is about 75,000 million tons. The sediment contributed by the Colorado River averages about 45 percent sand and 55 percent silt and clay. If the sediment carried by the river in the years 1926-50 represents the long-term average rate of accumulation in Lake Mead, it will be a century before the sediment at the dam reaches the level of the lowest gates in the intake towers, and more than 4 centuries before the reservoir is filled with sediment to the level of the permanent spillway crest. The rate of sedimentation since the first year of Lake Mead (1935) has been about 20 percent lower, and if that rate continues in the future, the life of the reservoir will be

  1. Classification Scheme for Diverse Sedimentary and Igneous Rocks Encountered by MSL in Gale Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, M. E.; Mangold, N.; Fisk, M.; Forni, O.; McLennan, S.; Ming, D. W.; Sumner, D.; Sautter, V.; Williams, A. J.; Gellert, R.

    2015-01-01

    The Curiosity Rover landed in a lithologically and geochemically diverse region of Mars. We present a recommended rock classification framework based on terrestrial schemes, and adapted for the imaging and analytical capabilities of MSL as well as for rock types distinctive to Mars (e.g., high Fe sediments). After interpreting rock origin from textures, i.e., sedimentary (clastic, bedded), igneous (porphyritic, glassy), or unknown, the overall classification procedure (Fig 1) involves: (1) the characterization of rock type according to grain size and texture; (2) the assignment of geochemical modifiers according to Figs 3 and 4; and if applicable, in depth study of (3) mineralogy and (4) geologic/stratigraphic context. Sedimentary rock types are assigned by measuring grains in the best available resolution image (Table 1) and classifying according to the coarsest resolvable grains as conglomerate/breccia, (coarse, medium, or fine) sandstone, silt-stone, or mudstone. If grains are not resolvable in MAHLI images, grains in the rock are assumed to be silt sized or smaller than surface dust particles. Rocks with low color contrast contrast between grains (e.g., Dismal Lakes, sol 304) are classified according to minimum size of apparent grains from surface roughness or shadows outlining apparent grains. Igneous rocks are described as intrusive or extrusive depending on crystal size and fabric. Igneous textures may be described as granular, porphyritic, phaneritic, aphyric, or glassy depending on crystal size. Further descriptors may include terms such as vesicular or cumulate textures.

  2. Lake-sediment evidence for the date of deglaciation of the Hidden Lake area, Kenai Peninsula, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rymer, Michael J.; Sims, John D.

    1982-06-01

    An abrupt environmental change is reflected in a core from Hidden Lake, Alaska, by differences in sediment type, chlorite crystallinity, and content of organic carbon and water of the sediments. This abrupt change in the sedimentary record occurred about 14,500 14C yr ago and probably marks the time of recession of the glacier from the Hidden Lake drainage basin. Deglaciation of the area was then underway, and rock flour was being deposited in the lake. After recession of the glacier from the Hidden Lake drainage basin, rock flour was no longer introduced, and organic-matter content of the sediment increased. By the dating of these changes in sediment type, we show that retreat of glaciers in this area took place significantly earlier than previously estimated; this agrees with the timing of retreat of alpine glaciers elsewhere in western North America.

  3. Magnetic and gravity studies of Mono Lake, east-central, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Athens, Noah D.; Ponce, David A.; Jayko, Angela S.; Miller, Matt; McEvoy, Bobby; Marcaida, Mae; Mangan, Margaret T.; Wilkinson, Stuart K.; McClain, James S.; Chuchel, Bruce A.; Denton, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    From August 26 to September 5, 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected more than 600 line-kilometers of shipborne magnetic data on Mono Lake, 20 line-kilometers of ground magnetic data on Paoha Island, 50 gravity stations on Paoha and Negit Islands, and 28 rock samples on Paoha and Negit Islands, in east-central California. Magnetic and gravity investigations were undertaken in Mono Lake to study regional crustal structures and to aid in understanding the geologic framework, in particular regarding potential geothermal resources and volcanic hazards throughout Mono Basin. Furthermore, shipborne magnetic data illuminate local structures in the upper crust beneath Mono Lake where geologic exposure is absent. Magnetic and gravity methods, which sense contrasting physical properties of the subsurface, are ideal for studying Mono Lake. Exposed rock units surrounding Mono Lake consist mainly of Quaternary alluvium, lacustrine sediment, aeolian deposits, basalt, and Paleozoic granitic and metasedimentary rocks (Bailey, 1989). At Black Point, on the northwest shore of Mono Lake, there is a mafic cinder cone that was produced by a subaqueous eruption around 13.3 ka. Within Mono Lake there are several small dacite cinder cones and flows, forming Negit Island and part of Paoha Island, which also host deposits of Quaternary lacustrine sediments. The typical density and magnetic properties of young volcanic rocks contrast with those of the lacustrine sediment, enabling us to map their subsurface extent.

  4. Groundwater and surface water interaction in flow-through gravel pit lakes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nella Mollema, Pauline; Antonellini, Marco

    2015-04-01

    Gravel pits are excavated in aquifers to fulfill the need for construction materials. Flow-through lakes form when the gravel pits are below the water table and fill with groundwater. In certain areas there are more than 60 of these lakes close together and their presence changes the drainage patterns and water- and hydrochemical budgets of a watershed. In flow-through gravel pit lakes, groundwater mixes with surface water and interacts with the atmosphere; outflow occurs only via groundwater. The lifespan of gravel pit lakes may be up to thousands of years as their depth to surface ratio is typically large and sedimentation rates are low. We have studied two gravel pit lake systems, a fluvial freshwater system in the Netherlands and a coastal brackish lake system in Italy. One Dutch gravel pit lake studied in detail is in part artificially replenished with Meuse River water for drinking water production that occurs downstream of the lake by water pumps. The Italian gravel pit lakes are fed by brackish groundwater that is a mix of freshwater from precipitation, Apennine Rivers and brackish (Holocene) Adriatic Sea water. Here, the drainage system of the low lying land enhances groundwater flow into the lake. Surface water evaporation is larger in temperate and Mediterranean climates than the actual evapotranspiration of pre-existing grassland and forests. The lakes, therefore, cause a loss of freshwater. The creation of water surfaces allows algae and other flora and fauna to develop. In general, water becomes gradually enriched in certain chemical constituents on its way through the hydrological cycle, especially as groundwater due to water-rock interactions. When groundwater ex-filtrates into gravel pit lakes, the natural flow of solutes towards the sea is interrupted. Hydrochemical analysis of ground- and surface waters, as well as chemical analysis of lake bottom sediments and stable H and O isotope data, show that gravel pit lake water is characterized (among

  5. Hydrology of Crater, East and Davis Lakes, Oregon; with section on Chemistry of the Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, Kenneth N.; Van Denburgh, A.S.

    1968-01-01

    . Approximate physical and hydrologic data for the lakes are summarized in the following table. [Table

  6. Effects of nearshore recharge on groundwater interactions with a lake in mantled karst terrain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Terrie M.

    2000-01-01

    The recharge and discharge of groundwater were investigated for a lake basin in the mantled karst terrain of central Florida to determine the relative importance of transient groundwater inflow to the lake water budget. Variably saturated groundwater flow modeling simulated water table responses observed beneath two hillsides radiating outward from the groundwater flow‐through lake. Modeling results indicated that transient water table mounding and groundwater flow reversals in the nearshore region following large daily rainfall events generated most of the net groundwater inflow to the lake. Simulated daily groundwater inflow was greatest following water table mounding near the lake, not following subsequent peaks in the water level of upper basin wells. Transient mounding generated net groundwater inflow to the lake, that is, groundwater inflow in excess of the outflow occurring through the deeper lake bottom. The timing of the modeled net groundwater inflow agreed with an independent lake water budget; however, the quantity was considerably less than the budget‐derived value.

  7. Plume magmatism and crustal growth at 2.9 to 3.0 Ga in the Steep Rock and Lumby Lake area, Western Superior Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomlinson, K. Y.; Hughes, D. J.; Thurston, P. C.; Hall, R. P.

    1999-01-01

    The greenstone belts of the western Superior Province are predominantly 2.78 to 2.69 Ga and provide evidence of oceanic and arc volcanism during the accretionary phase of development of the Superior Province. There is also scattered evidence of Meso-Archean crust (predominantly 2.9 to 3.0 Ga) within the western Superior Province. The Meso-Archean greenstone belts commonly contain platformal sediments and unconformably overlie granitoid basement. The platformal sediments occur associated with komatiitic and tholeiitic volcanic rocks that suggest a history of magmatism associated with rifting during the Meso-Archean. The central Wabigoon Subprovince is a key area of Meso-Archean crust and in its southern portion comprises the Steep Rock, Finlayson and Lumby Lake greenstone belts. The Steep Rock greenstone belt unconformably overlies 3 Ga continental basement and contains platformal sediments succeeded by komatiitic and tholeiitic volcanic rocks. The Lumby Lake greenstone belt contains thick sequences of mafic volcanics, a number of komatiite horizons, and thin platformal sedimentary units. The two belts are joined by the predominantly mafic volcanic Finlayson greenstone belt. The volcanics throughout these three greenstone belts may be correlated to some extent and a range of basaltic and komatiite types is present. Al-undepleted komatiites present in the Lumby Lake greenstone belt have an Al 2O 3/TiO 2 ratio ranging from 14 to 27 and (Gd/Yb) N from 0.7 to 1.3. These are divided into basaltic komatiites with generally unfractionated mantle-normalised multi-element profiles, and spinifex-textured high-Mg basalts with slightly light REE enriched multi-element profiles and small negative Nb and Ta anomalies. The unfractionated basaltic komatiites represent high degree partial melts of the upper mantle whereas the spinifex-textured high-Mg basalts represent evolutionary products of the komatiite liquids following olivine and chromite fractionation and crustal

  8. Surficial deposits in the Bear Lake Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reheis, Marith C.; Laabs, Benjamin J.C.; Forester, Richard M.; McGeehin, John P.; Kaufman, Darrell S.; Bright, Jordon

    2005-01-01

    Mapping and dating of surficial deposits in the Bear Lake drainage basin were undertaken to provide a geologic context for interpretation of cores taken from deposits beneath Bear Lake, which sometimes receives water and sediment from the glaciated Bear River and sometimes only from the small drainage basin of Bear Lake itself. Analyses of core sediments by others are directed at (1) constructing a high-resolution climate record for the Bear Lake area during the late Pleistocene and Holocene, and (2) investigating the sources and weathering history of sediments in the drainage basin. Surficial deposits in the upper Bear River and Bear Lake drainage basins are different in their overall compositions, although they do overlap. In the upper Bear River drainage, Quaternary deposits derived from glaciation of the Uinta Range contain abundant detritus weathered from Precambrian quartzite, whereas unglaciated tributaries downstream mainly contribute finer sediment weathered from much younger, more friable sedimentary rocks. In contrast, carbonate rocks capped by a carapace of Tertiary sediments dominate the Bear Lake drainage basin.

  9. Trace element and Sm Nd systematics of volcanic and intrusive rocks from the 3 Ga Lumby Lake Greenstone belt, Superior Province: evidence for Archean plume arc interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollings, Pete; Wyman, Derek

    1999-02-01

    The metavolcanic Lumby Lake belt comprises mafic tholeiites intercalated with thin felsic pyroclastic units. Al-undepleted komatiites are present towards the top of the stratigraphy. Identification of Al-depleted pyroclastic komatiites associated with chemical and siliciclastic sedimentary rocks indicates the upper portion of the 3 Ga Lumby Lake stratigraphy is directly comparable to a stratigraphic sequence developed on a paleoregolith in the nearby Steep Rock greenstone belt. The lower portion of the Lumby Lake sequence therefore represents a rarely preserved association of komatiite-tholeiite and calc alkaline volcanism developed prior to rifting episodes identified in ˜3 Ga terranes of the northern Superior Province. Al-undepleted komatiites are characterised by elevated MgO (18-24 wt.%) and Ni (600-1500 ppm) contents, in conjunction with variable LREE depletion (La/Sm n=0.5-0.8). Intercalated spinifex textured komatiitic basalts possess lower MgO (10-11 wt.%) and Ni (150-180 ppm) and flat to weakly enriched LREE (La/Sm n=0.9-1.1). Pyroclastic Al-depleted komatiites (Al 2O 3/TiO 2=4-5) are strongly LREE enriched (La/Yb n=6.7-10.5) with variable HFSE anomalies. Compositionally uniform tholeiites with variably depleted to enriched LREE (La/Sm n=0.8-1.2) and minor HFSE anomalies dominate the stratigraphy of the belt. A distinct subset of tholeiites, occurring towards the centre of the belt, is characterised by low Al 2O 3/TiO 2 ratios, LREE enrichment and the absence of HFSE anomalies. Minor intermediate (SiO 2=53-64 wt.%) volcanic rocks with pronounced REE fractionation (La/Yb n=0.8-1.1), high Al 2O 3/TiO 2 and Zr/Y ratios also occur throughout the belt. Two distinct subtypes of felsic pyroclastic rocks are recognised intercalated sporadically throughout the stratigraphy. Both types display pronounced LREE enrichment (La/Sm n=3.9-6.1) but Type 1 has strongly fractionated HREE patterns (Gd/Yb n=1.5-4.6) whereas, Type 2 HREE patterns are generally flat (Gd/Yb n=1

  10. New lakes in deglaciating high-mountain areas: Regional intercomparison of current and future risks from impact waves due to rock/ice avalanches in the Swiss Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaub, Y.; Huggel, C.; Serraino, M.; Haeberli, W.

    2012-04-01

    The changes in high-mountain environments are increasingly fast and complex. GIS-based models of the Swiss Alps show that numerous topographic overdeepenings are likely to appear on progressively exposed glacier beds, which are considered as potential sites of future lake formation. In many cases these newly forming lakes will be situated in an over-steepened and destabilized high-mountain environment and are, therefore, prone to impact waves from landslides. The risk of glacier lake outburst floods, endangering infrastructure, residential areas and persons further downvalley, is increasing with further lake formation and glacier recession. This risk may persist for many decades if not centuries. Future-oriented hazard assessments have to be integrative and must deal with all possible process chains. Reference studies and methodologies are still scarce, however. We present an approach to compare risks resulting from high-mountain lakes in the Swiss Alps amongst each other. Already existing lakes are thereby as much included in the analysis as future ones. The presented risk assessment approach integrates the envisaged high-mountain hazard process chain with present and future socio-economic conditions. Applying the concept of integral risk management, the hazard and damage potentials have to be analyzed. The areas that feature the topographic potential for rock/iceavalanches to reach a lake were analyzed regarding their susceptibility to slope failure including the factors slope inclination, permafrost occurrence, glacier recession and bedrock lithology. Together with the analysis of the lakes (volume and runout path of potential outburst floods), the hazard analysis of the process chain was completed. As an example, high long-term hazard potentials in the Swiss Alps have, for instance, to be expected in the area of the Great Aletsch glacier. A methodology for the assessment of the damage potential was elaborated and will be presented. In order to estimate the

  11. RAINBOW LAKE WILDERNESS AND FLYNN LAKE WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, WISCONSIN.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, W.F.; Dunn, Maynard L.

    1984-01-01

    The Rainbow Lake Wilderness and Flynn Lake Wilderness study area in Wisconsin are contiguous and were studied as a unit. The rainbow Lake Wilderness contains a demonstrated resource of about 210,000 tons of commercial-quality peat in an area of substantiated peat resource potential. The Flynn Lake Wilderness study area contains a demonstrated resource of about 300,000 tons of commercial-quality peat in an area of substantiated peat resource potential. These deposits, however, are of limited importance because larger deposits of similar material are abundant outside the areas, closer to present markets. Rocks in the subsurface contain a low-grade copper resource identified by mining company exploration drilling. Although this is an area of substantiated copper resource potential, it is a low-grade resource, thin and generally at great depth.

  12. Tables showing analyses of semiquantitative spectrometry and atomic-absorption spectrophotometry of rock samples collected in the Ugashik, Bristol Bay, and western part of the Karluk quadrangles, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; O'Leary, Richard M.

    1987-01-01

    The accompanying tables list chemical analyses of 337 rock samples that were collected in 1979, 1980, and 1981 in conjunction with geologic mapping in the Ugashik, Bristol Bay, and part of Karluk quadrangles. This work was conducted under the auspices of the Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program (AMRAP). This report is to accompany Wilson and O'Leary (1986) which inadvertently is missing most of the data tables listed here. Together the two reports contain the complete data from all samples collected for the Ugashik AMRAP.

  13. U-Th-Pb zircon ages of some Keweenawan Supergroup rocks from the south shore of Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zartman, R.E.; Nicholson, S.W.; Cannon, W.F.; Morey, G.B.

    1997-01-01

    New single-crystal zircon U-Th-Pb ages for plutonic and rhyolitic Keweenawan Supergroup rocks from the south shore of Lake Superior provide geochronological constraints on magmatic evolution associated with the 1.1 Ga Midcontinent rift. Analyses of a granophyric phase of the Mineral Lake intrusion and the Meilen granite, both parts of the Meilen Intrusive Complex, and a laterally extensive rhyolite from the top of the Kallander Creek Volcanics have weighted average 207Pb/206Pb ages of 1102.0 ?? 2.8 Ma (N = 2), 1100.9 ?? 1.4 Ma (N = 5), and 1098.8 ?? 1.9 Ma (N = 4), respectively. Analyses of a pyroclastic rhyolite flow at the top of the Porcupine Volcanics result in variable 207Pb/206Pb ages that range from 1080 to 1137 Ma. This rhyolite exhibits a continuum between morphologically complex and simpler prismatic zircon crystals, the latter yielding concordant analyses having a weighted average 207Pb/206Pb age of 1093.6 ?? 1.8 Ma (N = 2). Four prismatic zircons from an aphyric rhyolite of the Chengwatana Volcanics in the Ashland syncline form a linear array intersecting concordia at 1094.6 ?? 2.1 Ma (MSWD = 1.3). Another presumed Chengwatana rhyolite recovered from drill core intersecting the Hudson-Afton horst in southeast Minnesota yielded only ???20 morphologically indistinguishable zircons. Six analyses give 207Pb/206Pb ages ranging from 1112 to 1136 Ma, including one analysis with a virtually concordant age of 1130 Ma. This age, however, is considerably older than that obtained for the Chengwatana Volcanics in the Ashland syncline or any other precisely dated rock from the Midcontinent rift.

  14. The sedimentary organic matter from a Lake Ichkeul core (far northern Tunisia): Rock-Eval and biomarker approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Affouri, Hassène; Sahraoui, Olfa

    2017-05-01

    The vertical distributions of bulk and molecular biomarker composition in samples from a ca. 156 cm sediment core from Lake Ichkeul were determined. Bulk analysis (Rock-Eval pyrolysis, carbonate, lipid extraction) and molecular analysis of saturated fractions were used to characterize the nature, preservation conditions and input of sedimentary organic matter (OM) to this sub-wet lake environment. The sediments are represented mainly by gray-black silty-clay facies where the carbonate (CaCO3) content varies in a range of 10-30% dry sediment. Rock-Eval pyrolysis revealed a homogeneous total organic carbon (TOC) content of ca. 1% sediment, but with down core fluctuation, indicating different anoxic conditions at different depths and material source variation. The values show three periods of relative enrichment, exceeding ca. 1%, at 146-134 cm, 82 cm and 14-0 cm depth. The low Hydrogen Index (HI) values [<119 mg hydrocarbon (HC)/g TOC)] were characteristic of continental Type III OM. The Tmax values in the range 415-420 °C were characteristic of immature OM at an early diagenetic stage. The distributions of n-alkanes (C17 to C34), isoprenoid (iso) alkanes (pristane and phytane), terpanes and steranes showed that the OM is a mixture of marine algal and bacterial source and emergent and floating higher plant origin. In addition, the distributions, as well as several biomarker ratios (n-alkanes, iso-alkanes/n-alkanes), showed that the OM is a mixture of immature and mature. Significant downcore fluctuation was observed in the molecular composition. This indicates intense microbial activity below ca. 50 cm core depth under an anoxic and brackish environment.

  15. The vernon supersuite: Mesoproterozoic A-type granitoid rocks in the New Jersey highlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Volkert, R.A.; Drake, Avery A.

    1998-01-01

    Abundant Mesoproterozoic A-type granitoid rocks of two intrusive suites underlie approximately 50 percent of the New Jersey Highlands. These rocks, the Byram Intrusive and Lake Hopatcong Intrusive Suites, consist of granite, alaskite, quartz monzonite, monzonite, and minor pegmatite. Byram and Lake Hopatcong rocks, although different mineralogically, are similar geochemically and contain overlapping abundances of most major and trace elements. Petrographic relationships, geochronology, field relationships, and geochemical similarities support a comagmatic origin for both suites. They constitute the here named Vernon Supersuite.

  16. Response of Groundwater table to Eucalyptus Plantations in a Tropical Monsoon Climate, Lake Tana Basin, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enku, Temesgen; Melesse, Assefa; Ayana, Essaya; Tilahun, Seifu; Abate, Mengiste; Steenhuis, Tammo

    2017-04-01

    Given the increasing demand for water resources and the need for better management of regional water resources, it is essential to quantify the groundwater use by phreatophytes in tropical monsoon climates. Phreatophytes, like eucalyptus plantations are reported to be a groundwater sink and it could significantly affect the regional groundwater resources. In our study, the consumptive groundwater use of a closed eucalyptus plantation was calculated based on the diurnal water table fluctuations observed in monitoring wells for two dry monsoon phases in the Fogera plain, northwest of Ethiopia. Automated recorders were installed to monitor the hourly groundwater table fluctuations. The groundwater table fluctuates from maximum at early in the morning to minimum in the evening daily and generally declined linearly during the dry phase averaging 3.1 cm/day during the two year period under the eucalyptus plantations. The hourly eucalypts transpiration rate over the daylight hours follows the daily solar irradiance curve for clear sky days. It is minimal during the night and reaches maximum of 1.65mm/hour at mid-day. The evapotranspiration from the groundwater by eucalyptus plantations during the dry phases was estimated at about 2300mm from October 1 to 31 May, in 2015 compared to about 900mm without eucalyptus trees. The average daily evapotranspiration was 9.6mm. This is almost twice of the reference evapotranspiration in the area and 2.5 times the actual rate under fallow agricultural fields. Thus, water resources planning and management in the region needs to consider the effect of eucalyptus plantations on the availability of groundwater resources in the highlands of Ethiopia. Key words: Eucalyptus, Evapotranspiration, Groundwater, Ethiopia, Lake Tana

  17. Wisconsin Glaciation of the Sierra Nevada (79,000-15,000 yr B.P.) as Recorded by Rock Flour in Sediments of Owens Lake, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischoff, James L.; Cummins, Kathleen

    2001-01-01

    Chemical analyses of the clay-sized fractions of 564 continuous sediment samples (200-yr resolution) from composite core OL90/92 allow quantification of an abundance of glacial rock flour. Rock flour produced during glacier advances is represented by clay-sized plagioclase, K-feldspar, and biotite in homogeneous internal composition. The abundance of rock flour is deemed proportional to the intensity of glacies advances. Age control for the composite section is provided by combining previously published radiocarbon dates on organics, U/Th dates on ostracode shells, and U/Th dates on saline minerals from nearby Searles Lake correlated to OL92 by pollen. The rock flour record displays three levels of variability: (1) a dominant one of about 20,000 yr related to summer insolation and precipitation; (2) an intermediate one of 3000-5000 yr, perhaps related to North Atlantic Heinrich events; and (3) a minor one of 1000-2000 yr, perhaps related to North Atlantic thermohaline-driven air-temperature variation.

  18. Wisconsin Glaciation of the Sierra Nevada (79,000-15,000 yr B.P.) as recorded by rock flour in sediments of Owens Lake, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bischoff, J.L.; Cummins, K.

    2001-01-01

    Chemical analyses of the clay-sized fractions of 564 continuous sediment samples (200-yr resolution) from composite core OL90/92 allow quantification of an abundance of glacial rock flour. Rock flour produced during glacier advances is represented by clay-sized plagioclase, K-feldspar, and biotite in homogeneous internal composition. The abundance of rock flour is deemed proportional to the intensity of glacies advances. Age control for the composite section is provided by combining previously published radiocarbon dates on organics, U/Th dates on ostracode shells, and U/Th dates on saline minerals from nearby Searles Lake correlated to OL92 by pollen. The rock flour record displays three levels of variability: (1) a dominant one of about 20,000 yr related to summer insolation and precipitation; (2) an intermediate one of 3000-5000 yr, perhaps related to North Atlantic Heinrich events; and (3) a minor one of 1000-2000 yr, perhaps related to North Atlantic thermohaline-driven air-temperature variation. ?? 2001 University of Washington.

  19. Rock Magnetic Properties, Paleosecular Variation Record and Relative Paleointensity Stack between 11 and 21 14C kyr B.P. From Sediment Cores, Lake Moreno (Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogorza, C. S.; Irurzun, M. A.; Lirio, J. M.; Nunez, H.; Chaparro, M. A.; Sinito, A. M.

    2008-05-01

    We conducted a detailed study of natural remanence and rock magnetic properties on sediments cores from lake Moreno (South-Western Argentina). Based on these measurements, we constructed a paleosecular variation (PSV) record (Irurzun et al., 2008) and a relative paleointensity stack for the period 11-21 14C. The Declination and Inclination logs of the characteristic remanent magnetization for the cores as function of shortened depth are obtained. The data from all cores were combined to obtain a composite record using the Fisher method. Comparison between stacked inclination and declination records of lake Moreno and results obtained in previous works, lake Escondido (Gogorza et al., 1999; Gogorza et al., 2002) and lake El Trébol (Irurzun et al., 2008), shows good agreement. This agreement made possible to transform the stacked curves into time series that spans the interval 11 and 21 14C kyr B.P. Rock magnetic properties of the sediments cores showed uniform magnetic mineralogy and grain size, suggesting that they were suitable for relative paleointensity studies. The remanent magnetization at 20mT (NRM20mT) was normalized using the anhysteric remanent magnetization at 20mT (ARM20mT), the saturation of the isothermal remanent magnetization at 20mT (SIRM20mT) and the low field magnetic susceptibility {k}. Coherence analysis showed that the normalized records were not affected by local environmental conditions. The recorded pseudo-Thellier paleointensity was compared with records obtained from conventional normalizing methods. Comparing the paleointensity curves with others obtained previously in other lakes in the area has allowed us to reach reliable conclusions about centennial-scale features. References: Gogorza, C.S.G., Sinito, A.M., Di Tommaso, I., Vilas, J.F., Creer, K., Núnez, H. Holocene Geomagnetic Secular Variations Recorded by Sediments from Escondido lake (South Argentina). Earth, Planets and Space, V51(2), 93- 106. 1999. Gogorza, C.S.G., Sinito, A

  20. Paleolimnology of Lake Tubutulik, an iron-meromictic Eocene Lake, eastern Seward Peninsula, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dickinson, K.A.

    1988-01-01

    Sideritic lacustrine mudstone was found in drill core from a uranium deposit in the Death Valley area in the eastern part of the Seward Peninsula, Alaska. The precursor sediments for this rock were deposited in an unusual "iron-meromictic" Eocene lake, herein named Lake Tubutulik, which occupied part of the Boulder Creek basin, a structural graben that is probably a southern extension of the larger Death Valley basin. The Boulder Creek basin is bounded on the west by granite of the Late Cretaceous Darby Pluton, on the east by Precambrian to Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks. The lake basin was formed by basaltic flows that dammed the river valley of the ancestral Tubutulik River in early Eocene time. Lake Tubutulik contained a nearshore facies of fine-grained organic mud and an offshore facies of laminated sideritic mud. The offshore (profundal) laminated mudstone consists of alternating layers of authigenic siderite and detrital layers containing mostly quartz and clay minerals. Both lacustrine facies contain turbidities. The lacustrine sediments graded laterally into an onshore facies of colluvial and fluvial sandstone, paludal mudstone, and coal. The ancient lake apparently occupied a small deep basin in a tectonically active area of high relief. Meromixus was probably stabilized by reduced iron and bicarbonate dissolved in the monimolimnion. The intensity of meromixus decreased as the lake became shallower from sediment filling. The source of the iron, abundant in the monimolimnion of Lake Tubutulik, was probably the Eocene basalt. Based on carbon isotope analysis of the siderite, the dissolved bicarbonate in the profundal facies was largely inorganic. Sideritic carbon in one sample from the onshore paludal facies has an isotopic signature (??13C = +16.9) consistent with residual carbon formed during methanogenic fermentation. ?? 1988.

  1. Geology and environments of subglacial Lake Vostok.

    PubMed

    Leitchenkov, German L; Antonov, Anton V; Luneov, Pavel I; Lipenkov, Vladimir Ya

    2016-01-28

    The reconstruction of the geological (tectonic) structure and environments of subglacial Lake Vostok is based on geophysical surveys and the study of mineral particles found in cores of accreted ice and frozen lake water (sampled after the lake was unsealed). Seismic reflection and refraction investigations conducted in the southern part of Lake Vostok show very thin (200-300 m) sedimentary cover overlying a crystalline basement. Most of this thin veneer is thought to have been deposited during temperate-glacial conditions in Oligocene to Middle Miocene time (ca 34-14 Ma). The composition of the lake-bottom sediments can be deduced from mineral inclusions found in cores of accreted ice. Inclusions are represented by soft aggregates consisting mainly of clay-mica minerals and micrometre-sized quartz grains. Some of these inclusions contain subangular to semi-rounded rock clasts (siltstones and sandstones) ranging from 0.3 to 8 mm in size. In total, 31 zircon grains have been identified in two rock clasts and dated using SHRIMP-II. The ages of the studied zircons range from 0.6 to 2.0 Ga with two distinct clusters between 0.8 and 1.15 Ga and between 1.6 and 1.8 Ga. Rock clasts obviously came from the western lake shore, which is thus composed of terrigenous strata with an age of not older than 600 Ma. The sedimentary nature of the western lake shore is also confirmed by seismic refraction data showing seismic velocities there of 5.4-5.5 km s(-1) at the bedrock surface. After Lake Vostok was unsealed, its water (frozen and sampled next season) was also studied with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microprobe analysis. This study showed the existence of calcium carbonate and silica microparticles (10-20 μm across) in frozen water. © 2015 The Author(s).

  2. Comments on Racetrack playa: Rocks moved by wind alone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz-Montero, M. E.; Cabestrero, Ó.; Rodríguez-Aranda, J. P.

    2016-03-01

    The mechanisms by which rocks move across the beds of playa lakes leaving tracks continue to be debated (Sanz-Montero and Rodríguez-Aranda, 2013; Norris et al., 2014; Sanz-Montero et al., 2015a,b; Baumgardner and Shaffer, 2015; Jones and Hooke, 2015). In this regard, the article by Jones and Hooke (Aeolian Research 19, 2015) is particularly interesting since it provides a description of these mechanisms by R. Jones who, during a storm event in 1972, was probably the first person to witness movement of rocks. The dominant meteorological conditions described by Jones during the period when the tracks were formed are, significantly, rather similar to those previously described by Clements (1952) at Little Bonnie Claire Playa (Nevada, USA). The storm conditions referred to in the article also coincide with the observations, measurements and deductions made by Sanz-Montero and Rodríguez-Aranda (2013) and Sanz-Montero et al. (2015a,b) at Altillo Chica playa lake, Central Spain. Furthermore, we were able to carry out an on-site analysis of the sedimentary structures at Racetrack playa in June 2015, allowing us to verify the similarity of the features present at both sites. Together with the important role played by gusty winds in the formation of the tracks, all the above mentioned studies point to the presence of a thin veneer of water, just a few millimeters deep, in the area of the playa lake where the rock movements occur. However, Jones and Hooke (2015) disregard the force exerted by moving water and analyze the coefficient of friction assuming that the rocks are moved by wind alone. We offer an alternative explanation for the movement of rocks both at Racetrack and Altillo Chica playa lake which considers not only the wind but also the role played by moving water in conjunction with other parameters which modify the erosion thresholds (rocks acting as obstacles) and reduce friction (benthic microorganisms).

  3. Geologic map and structure sections of the Clear Lake Volcanics, Northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hearn, B.C.; Donnelly-Nolan, J. M.; Goff, F.E.

    1995-01-01

    The Clear Lake Volcanics are located in the California Coast Ranges about 150 km north of San Francisco. This Quaternary volcanic field has erupted intermittently since 2.1 million years ago. This volcanic field is considered a high-threat volcanic system (Ewert and others, 2005) The adjacent Geysers geothermal field, largest power-producing geothermal field in the world, is powered by the magmatic heat source for the volcanic field. This report consists of three sheets that include the geologic map, one table, two figures, three cross sections, description of map units, charts of standard and diagrammatic correlation of map units, and references. This map supersedes U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 76-751. Descriptions of map units are grouped by geographic area. Summaries of the evolution, chemistry, structure, and tectonic setting of the Clear Lake Volcanics are given in Hearn and others (1981) and Donnelly-Nolan and others (1981). The geology of parts of the area underlain by the Cache Formation is based on mapping by Rymer (1981); the geology of parts of the areas underlain by the Sonoma Volcanics, Franciscan assemblage, and Great Valley sequence is based on mapping by McLaughlin (1978). Volcanic compositional map units are basalt, basaltic andesite, andesite, dacite, rhyodacite, and rhyolite, based on SiO2 content. Included in this report are maps showing the distribution of volcanic rocks through time and a chart showing erupted volumes of different lava types through time. A table gives petrographic data for each map unit by mineral type, abundance, and size. Most ages are potassium-argon (K/Ar) ages determined for whole-rock samples and mineral separates by Donnelly-Nolan and others (1981), unless otherwise noted. A few ages are carbon-14 ages or were estimated from geologic relationships. Magnetic polarities are from Mankinen and others (1978; 1981) or were determined in the field by B.C. Hearn, Jr., using a portable fluxgate magnetometer

  4. Combined interpretation of radar, hydraulic, and tracer data from a fractured-rock aquifer near Mirror Lake, New Hampshire, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Day-Lewis, F. D.; Lane, J.W.; Gorelick, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    An integrated interpretation of field experimental cross-hole radar, tracer, and hydraulic data demonstrates the value of combining time-lapse geophysical monitoring with conventional hydrologic measurements for improved characterization of a fractured-rock aquifer. Time-lapse difference-attenuation radar tomography was conducted during saline tracer experiments at the US Geological Survey Fractured Rock Hydrology Research Site near Mirror Lake, Grafton County, New Hampshire, USA. The presence of electrically conductive saline tracer effectively illuminates permeable fractures or pathways for geophysical imaging. The geophysical results guide the construction of three-dimensional numerical models of ground-water flow and solute transport. In an effort to explore alternative explanations for the tracer and tomographic data, a suite of conceptual models involving heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity fields and rate-limited mass transfer are considered. Calibration data include tracer concentrations, the arrival time of peak concentration at the outlet, and steady-state hydraulic head. Results from the coupled inversion procedure suggest that much of the tracer mass migrated outside the three tomographic image planes, and that solute is likely transported by two pathways through the system. This work provides basic and site-specific insights into the control of permeability heterogeneity on ground-water flow and solute transport in fractured rock. ?? Springer-Verlag 2004.

  5. Crater lake and post-eruption hydrothermal activity, El Chichón Volcano, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casadevall, Thomas J.; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Rose, William I.; Bagley, Susan; Finnegan, David L.; Zoller, William H.

    1984-01-01

    Explosive eruptions of Volcán El Chichón in Chiapas, Mexico on March 28 and April 3–4, 1982 removed 0.2 km3 of rock to form a 1-km-wide 300-m-deep summit crater. By late April 1982 a lake had begun to form on the crater floor, and by November 1982 it attained a maximum surface area of 1.4 × 105 m2 and a volume of 5 × 106 m3. Accumulation of 4–5 m of rainfall between July and October 1982 largely formed the lake. In January 1983, temperatures of fumaroles on the crater floor and lower crater walls ranged from 98 to 115°C; by October 1983 the maximum temperature of fumarole emissions was 99°C. In January 1983 fumarole gas emissions were greater than 99 vol. % H2O with traces of CO2, SO2, and H2S. The water of the lake was a hot (T = 52–58°C), acidic (pH = 0.5), dilute solution (34,046 mg L−1 dissolved solids; Cl/S = 20.5). Sediment from the lake contains the same silicate minerals as the rocks of the 1982 pyroclastic deposits, together with less than 1% of elemental sulfur. The composition and temperature of the lake water is attributed to: (1) solution of fumarole emissions; (2) reaction of lake water with hot rocks beneath the lake level; (3) sediments washed into the lake from the crater walls; (4) hydrothermal fluids leaching sediments and formational waters in sedimentary rocks of the basement; (5) evaporation; and (6) precipitation.

  6. Geology of the Lake Mary quadrangle, Iron County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bayley, Richard W.

    1959-01-01

    The Lake Mary quadrangle is in eastern Iron County, in the west part of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. The quadrangle is underlain by Lower and Middle Precambrian rocks, formerly designated Archean and Algonkian rocks, and is extensively covered by Pleistocene glacial deposits. A few Upper Precambrian (Keweenawan) diabase dikes and two remnants of sandstone and dolomite of early Paleozoic age are also found in the area. The major structural feature is the Holmes Lake anticline, the axis of which strikes northwest through the northeast part of the quadrangle. Most of the quadrangle, therefore, is underlain by rock of the west limb of the anticline. To the northwest along the fold axis, the Holmes Lake anticline is separated from the Amasa oval by a saddle of transverse folds in the vicinity of Michigamme Mountain in the Kiernan quadrangle. The Lower Precambrian rocks are represented by the Dickinson group and by porphyritic red granite whose relation to the Dickinson group is uncertain, but which may be older. The rocks of the Dickinson group are chiefly green to black metavolcanic schist and red felsite, some of the latter metarhyolite. The dark schist is commonly magnetic. The Dickinson group underlies the core area of the Holmes Lake anticline, which is flanked by steeply dipping Middle Precambrian formations of the Animikie series. A major unconformity separates the Lower Precambrian rocks from the overlying Middle Precambrian rocks. In ascending order the formations of the Middle Precambrian are the Randville dolomite, the Hemlock formation, which includes the Mansfield iron-bearing slate member, and the Michigamme slate. An unconformity occurs between the Hemlock formation and Michigamme slate. The post-Hemlock unconformity is thought to be represented in the Lake Mary quadrangle by the absence of iron-formation of the Amasa formation, which is known to lie between the Hemlock and the Michigamme to the northwest of the Lake Mary quadrangle in the Crystal

  7. Hydrogeologic controls on the groundwater interactions with an acidic lake in karst terrain, Lake Barco, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, T.M.

    1996-01-01

    Transient groundwater interactions and lake stage were simulated for Lake Barco, an acidic seepage lake in the mantled karst of north central Florida. Karst subsidence features affected groundwater flow patterns in the basin and groundwater fluxes to and from the lake. Subsidence features peripheral to the lake intercepted potential groundwater inflow and increased leakage from the shallow perimeter of the lake bed. Simulated groundwater fluxes were checked against net groundwater flow derived from a detailed lake hydrologic budget with short-term lake evaporation computed by the energy budget method. Discrepancies between modeled and budget-derived net groundwater flows indicated that the model underestimated groundwater inflow, possibly contributed to by transient water table mounding near the lake. Recharge from rainfall reduced lake leakage by 10 to 15 times more than it increased groundwater inflow. As a result of the karst setting, the contributing groundwater basin to the lake was 2.4 ha for simulated average rainfall conditions, compared to the topographically derived drainage basin area of 81 ha. Short groundwater inflow path lines and rapid travel times limit the contribution of acid-neutralizing solutes from the basin, making Lake Barco susceptible to increased acidification by acid rain.

  8. Rock Slide Risk Assessment: A Semi-Quantitative Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duzgun, H. S. B.

    2009-04-01

    Rock slides can be better managed by systematic risk assessments. Any risk assessment methodology for rock slides involves identification of rock slide risk components, which are hazard, elements at risk and vulnerability. For a quantitative/semi-quantitative risk assessment for rock slides, a mathematical value the risk has to be computed and evaluated. The quantitative evaluation of risk for rock slides enables comparison of the computed risk with the risk of other natural and/or human-made hazards and providing better decision support and easier communication for the decision makers. A quantitative/semi-quantitative risk assessment procedure involves: Danger Identification, Hazard Assessment, Elements at Risk Identification, Vulnerability Assessment, Risk computation, Risk Evaluation. On the other hand, the steps of this procedure require adaptation of existing or development of new implementation methods depending on the type of landslide, data availability, investigation scale and nature of consequences. In study, a generic semi-quantitative risk assessment (SQRA) procedure for rock slides is proposed. The procedure has five consecutive stages: Data collection and analyses, hazard assessment, analyses of elements at risk and vulnerability and risk assessment. The implementation of the procedure for a single rock slide case is illustrated for a rock slope in Norway. Rock slides from mountain Ramnefjell to lake Loen are considered to be one of the major geohazards in Norway. Lake Loen is located in the inner part of Nordfjord in Western Norway. Ramnefjell Mountain is heavily jointed leading to formation of vertical rock slices with height between 400-450 m and width between 7-10 m. These slices threaten the settlements around Loen Valley and tourists visiting the fjord during summer season, as the released slides have potential of creating tsunami. In the past, several rock slides had been recorded from the Mountain Ramnefjell between 1905 and 1950. Among them

  9. Hydrogeologic Controls on Lake Level at Mountain Lake, Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roningen, J. M.; Burbey, T. J.

    2011-12-01

    Mountain Lake in Giles County, Virginia has a documented history of severe natural lake-level changes involving groundwater seepage that extend over the past 4200 years. Featured in the 1986 movie Dirty Dancing, the natural lake dried up completely in September 2008 and levels have not yet recovered. A hydrogeologic investigation was undertaken in an effort to determine the factors influencing lake level changes. A daily water balance, dipole-dipole electrical resistivity surveying, well logging and chemical sampling have shed light on: 1) the influence of a fault not previously discussed in literature regarding the lake, 2) the seasonal response to precipitation of a forested first-order drainage system in fractured rock, and 3) the possibility of flow pathways related to karst features. Geologic controls on lake level were investigated using several techniques. Geophysical surveys using dipole-dipole resistivity located possible subsurface flowpaths both to and from the lake. Well logs, lineament analysis, and joint sampling were used to assess structural controls on lake hydrology. Major ions were sampled at wells, springs, streams, and the lake to evaluate possible mixing of different sources of water in the lake. Groundwater levels were monitored for correlation to lake levels, rainfall events, and possible seismic effects. The hydrology of the lake was quantified with a water balance on a daily time step. Results from the water balance indicate steady net drainage and significant recharge when vegetation is dormant, particularly during rain-on-snow melt events. The resistivity survey reveals discrete areas that represent flow pathways from the lake, as well as flowpaths to springs upgradient of the lake located in the vicinity of the fault. The survey also suggests that some flowpaths may originate outside of the topographic watershed of the lake. Chemical evidence indicates karst may underlie the lakebed. Historical data suggest that artificial intervention

  10. SETs: stand evaluation tools. III. composite volume and value tables for hardwood pulpwood

    Treesearch

    Paul S. DeBald; Joseph J. Mendel

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents 38 composite volume and value tables for hardwood pulpwood. Values are given for multiples of commonly used bolt lengths - 4, 5, and 8 feet - and may be applied, generally, to standing trees of all hardwood species. The volume tables resemble closely the Lake States Composite Volume Tables, but extend them to other units of measure: cubic feet, tons...

  11. Climatic Oscillations 10,000-155,000 yr B.P. at Owens Lake, California Reflected in Glacial Rock Flour Abundance and Lake Salinity in Core OL-92

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischoff, James L.; Menking, Kirsten M.; Fitts, Jeffrey P.; Fitzpatrick, John A.

    1997-11-01

    Chemical analyses of the acid-soluble and clay-size fractions of sediment samples (1500-yr resolution) reveal oscillations of lake salinity and of glacial advances in core OL-92 back to 155,000 yr B.P. Relatively saline conditions are indicated by the abundance of carbonate and smectite (both pedogenic and authigenic), reflected by Ca, Sr, and Mg in the acid-soluble suite, and by Cs 2O, excess MgO, and LOI (loss on ignition) in the clay-size fraction. Rock flour produced during glacial advances is represented by the abundance of detrital plagioclase and biotite in the clay-size fraction, the ratio of which remains essentially constant over the entire time span. These phases are quantitatively represented by Na 2O, TiO 2, Ba, and Mn in the clay fraction. The rock-flour record indicates two major ice-advances during the penultimate glacial cycle corresponding to marine isotope stage (MIS) 6, no major advances during the last interglaciation (entire MIS 5), and three major advances during the last glacial cycle (MIS 2, 3, and 4). The ages of the latter three correspond rather well to 36Cl dates reported for Sierra Nevada moraines. The onset of the last interglaciation is shown by abrupt increases in authigenic CaCO 3and an abrupt decrease in rock flour, at about 118,000 yr B.P. according to our time scale. In contrast, the boundary appears to be gradual in the δ 18O record in which the change from light to heavy values begins at about 140,000 yrs B.P. The exact position of the termination, therefore, may be proxy-dependent. Conditions of high carbonate and low rock flour prevailed during the entire period from 118,000 yr B.P. until the glacial advance at 53,000 yr B.P. signaled the end of this long interglaciation.

  12. Biological consequences of the coaster brook trout restoration stocking program in Lake Superior tributaries with Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leonard, Jill B.K.; Stott, Wendylee; Loope, Delora M.; Kusnierz, Paul C.; Sreenivasan, Ashwin

    2013-01-01

    The coaster Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis is a Lake Superior ecotype representing intraspecific variation that has been impacted by habitat loss and overfishing. Hatchery strains of Brook Trout derived from populations in Lake Superior were stocked into streams within Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore, Michigan, as part of an effort to rehabilitate adfluvial coaster Brook Trout. Wild and hatchery Brook Trout from three streams (Mosquito River, Hurricane River, and Sevenmile Creek) were examined for movement behavior, size, physiology, and reproductive success. Behavior and size of the stocked fish were similar to those of wild fish, and less than 15% of the stocked, tagged Brook Trout emigrated from the river into which they were stocked. There was little evidence of successful reproduction by stocked Brook Trout. Similar to the results of other studies, our findings suggest that the stocking of nonlocal Brook Trout strains where a local population already exists results in limited natural reproduction and should be avoided, particularly if the mechanisms governing the ecotype of interest are poorly understood.

  13. Stable isotopic constraints on fluid-rock interaction and Cu-PGE-S redistribution in the Sonju Lake intrusion, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Park, Y.-R.; Ripley, E.M.; Miller, J.D.; Li, C.; Mariga, J.; Shafer, P.

    2004-01-01

    The Sonju Lake intrusion, part of the 1.1 Ga Midcontinent rift-related Beaver Bay Complex, is a 1,200-m-thick, strongly differentiated, layered sequence of mafic cumulates located in northeastern Minnesota. Basal melatroctolite and dunite layers are overlain by troctolite, gabbro, Fe-Ti oxide-rich gabbro, apatite diorite, and monzodiorite. Stratigraphic intervals rich in Pt + Pd, Cu, and S occur over ???500 m in the Fe-Ti oxide-rich gabbro and apatite diorite units. Peak concentrations show offsets that are similar to those found in other tholeiitic layered intrusions. Concentrations of Pd in excess of 100 ppb are confined to the lowermost 25 m of the interval. Copper shows a sharp increase to 630 ppm above the Pd-rich interval. Sulfur contents are low (<375 ppm) in the Cu-rich interval, but they increase to values as high as 3,150 ppm above in the apatite diorite. Disseminated sulfides in the intrusion have ??34S values that range from -2.2 to 3 per mil Vienna-Canyon Diablo Troilite (V-CDT) and suggest that contamination by country rock sulfur was not an important process in the formation of the metal-rich interval. ??18O values of plagioclase from the intrusion range from 5.6 to 12.0 per mil (V-SMOW) and indicate that a relatively low-18O fluid (??18O ???3-5 ???) interacted with the rocks of the intrusion at temperatures less than ???275??C. Clinopyroxene and Fe-Ti oxides (ilmenite with minor amounts of titanomagnetite) show much more restricted ranges in ??18O values (4.6-5.7 and 5.5-6.7 per mil, respectively) and attest to the kinetic control of the oxygen isotope exchange process. The externally derived fluid that interacted with rocks now enriched in platinum group elements (PGE) + Cu- and Fe-sulfide minerals locally liberated sulfur and replaced chalcopyrite and pyrite with goethite. In the Cu-rich zone, goethite that replaces chalcopyrite may contain up to 8.5 weight percent Cu. It is evident that hydrothermal alteration resulted in a decoupling of copper

  14. Chemical Evolution of Groundwater Near a Sinkhole Lake, Northern Florida: 1. Flow Patterns, Age of Groundwater, and Influence of Lake Water Leakage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Brian G.; Lee, Terrie M.; Plummer, L. Niel; Busenberg, Eurybiades

    1995-06-01

    Leakage from sinkhole lakes significantly influences recharge to the Upper Floridan aquifer in poorly confined sediments in northern Florida. Environmental isotopes (oxygen 18, deuterium, and tritium), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs: CFC-11, CCl3F; CFC-12, CCl2F2; and CFC-113, C2Cl3F3), and solute tracers were used to investigate groundwater flow patterns near Lake Barco, a seepage lake in a mantled karst setting in northern Florida. Stable isotope data indicated that the groundwater downgradient from the lake contained 11-67% lake water leakage, with a limit of detection of lake water in groundwater of 4.3%. The mixing fractions of lake water leakage, which passed through organic-rich sediments in the lake bottom, were directly proportional to the observed methane concentrations and increased with depth in the groundwater flow system. In aerobic groundwater upgradient from Lake Barco, CFC-modeled recharge dates ranged from 1987 near the water table to the mid 1970s for water collected at a depth of 30 m below the water table. CFC-modeled recharge dates (based on CFC-12) for anaerobic groundwater downgradient from the lake ranged from the late 1950s to the mid 1970s and were consistent with tritium data. CFC-modeled recharge dates based on CFC-11 indicated preferential microbial degradation in anoxic waters. Vertical hydraulic conductivities, calculated using CFC-12 modeled recharge dates and Darcy's law, were 0.17, 0.033, and 0.019 m/d for the surficial aquifer, intermediate confining unit, and lake sediments, respectively. These conductivities agreed closely with those used in the calibration of a three-dimensional groundwater flow model for transient and steady state flow conditions.

  15. Modeling Sr-90 Retardation by Fractured Rocks Based on the Results of In Situ and Laboratory Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsanova, L.; Kotchergina, N. V.; Glinsky, M.; Zinin, A.; Ivanov, I.

    2001-12-01

    Industrial solutions from the surface storage of liquid radioactive wastes in Lake Karachay have been migrating in groundwaters for 50 years. Interaction of industrial solutions with fractured water-bearing rocks results in the formation of a plume body of contaminated rocks due to a partial retardation of the migrating radionuclides. In conducting research of the fractured rocks core samples from the wells located within the contaminated ground water plume, we have obtained empirical estimations of the retardation parameter (Sr-90 interphase distribution factor, Kd). To interpret the experimental data on Sr-90 Kd, a method of modeling of strontium-90 retardation by fractured rocks has been developed. The process of transient filtration for a flow fragment from Lake Karachay was reconstructed. Epignose modeling of the industrial solution's main flow migrating from Lake Karachay in south direction was performed. By solving the inverse tasks Kd of strontium-90 was estimated for the fractured rocks.

  16. Surficial Geology of the Floor of Lake Mead (Arizona and Nevada) as Defined by Sidescan-Sonar Imagery, Lake-Floor Topography, and Post-Impoundment Sediment Thickness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twichell, D.C.; Cross, V.A.

    2009-01-01

    Sidescan-sonar imagery collected in Lake Mead during 1999-2001, a period of high lake level, has been used to map the surficial geology of the floor of this large reservoir that formed upon completion of the Hoover Dam in 1935. Four surficial geologic units were identified and mapped: rock exposures and alluvial deposits that existed prior to the formation of the lake and thin post-impoundment sediments ( 1 m) deposited since the lake formed. Exposures of rock are most extensive in the narrow, steep-sided sections of the lake, while alluvial deposits are most extensive on the gentle flanks of the broader basin sections of the lake. Post-impoundment sediment is restricted to the floors of the original river valleys that now lie below lake level. These sediments are thickest in the deltas that form at the mouths of the Colorado River and its tributaries, but cover the entire length of the valley floors of the lake. This sediment distribution is consistent with deposition from turbidity currents. Lake level has dropped more than 30 m between collection of the sidescan imagery and publication of this report. During this time, thick delta deposits have been eroded and redistributed to deeper parts of the lake by turbidity currents. While present-day post-impoundment sediment distribution should be similar to what it was in 2001, the thickness may be greater in some of the deeper parts of the lake now.

  17. Post-glacial rock avalanches in the Obersee Valley, Glarner Alps, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagelisen, Jan; Moore, Jeffrey R.; Vockenhuber, Christoph; Ivy-Ochs, Susan

    2015-06-01

    The geological record of prehistoric rock avalanches provides invaluable data for assessing the hazard posed by these rare but destructive mass movements. Here we investigate two large rock avalanches in the Obersee valley of the Glarner Alps, Switzerland, providing detailed mapping of landslide and related Quaternary phenomena, revised volume estimates for each event, and surface exposure dating of rock avalanche deposits. The Rautispitz rock avalanche originated from the southern flank of the Obersee valley, releasing approximately 91 million m3 of limestone on steeply-dipping bedding planes. Debris had maximum horizontal travel distance of ~ 5000 m, a fahrboeschung angle (relating fall height to length) of 18°, and was responsible for the creation of Lake Obersee; deposits are more than 130 m thick in places. The Platten rock avalanche encompassed a source volume of 11 million m3 sliding from the northern flank of the Obersee valley on similar steeply-dipping limestone beds (bedrock forms a syncline under the valley). Debris had a maximum horizontal travel distance of 1600 m with a fahrboeschung angle of 21°, and is more than 80 m thick in places. Deposits of the Platten rock avalanche are superposed atop those from the Rautispitz event at the end of the Obersee valley where they dam Lake Haslensee. Runout for both events was simulated using the dynamic analysis code DAN3D; results showed excellent match to mapped deposit extents and thickness and helped confirm the hypothesized single-event failure scenarios. 36Cl cosmogenic nuclide surface exposure dating of 13 deposited boulders revealed a Younger Dryas age of 12.6 ± 1.0 ka for the Rautispitz rock avalanche and a mid-Holocene age of 6.1 ± 0.8 ka for the Platten rock avalanche. A seismological trigger is proposed for the former event due to potentially correlated turbidite deposits in nearby Lake Zurich.

  18. Midcontinent microcosm: Geology of the Atkins lake - Marengo falls area (Field trip 2)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bjørnerud, Marcia; Cannon, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Archean and Proterozoic rocks exposed over about 16km2 between Atkins Lake and Coffee Lake in southeastern Bayfield County (Fig. 1) chronicle almost all of the major Precambrian geologic events in the history of the southern Superior Craton. The oldest rocks are part of a locally gneissic quartz monzonite complex, the Puritan Batholith, with an igneous Rb-Sr age of 2710+140 Ma (Sims et al., 1977). At the regional scale, this complex is part of one of the youngest Archean granite-greenstone belts in the Superior Province, and it intrudes greenstones of the Neoarchean Ramsay Formation. In the Atkins Lake – Marengo River area, the Puritan Batholith is nonconformably overlain by the Paleoproterozoic (ca. 2200 Ma) Bad River Dolomite. The Bad River Dolomite is in turn separated by an unconformity from rocks of the ca. 1875 Ma Menominee Group (Palms Formation and Ironwood Iron-formation), which locally contain mafic volcanic rocks and diabase sills (Cannon et al., 2008). These Paleoproterozoic rocks provide insight into climate and biogeochemical cycles during the transition to an oxidizing atmosphere (Bekker et al., 2006) and have deformational fabrics (folds, strong cleavage, local mylonite zones) that record the ca. 1850 Ma Penokean Orogeny. The youngest rocks in the area are Mesoproterozoic basaltic lava flows (Siemens Creek Volcanics, ca. 1110 Ma) and a layered mafic complex (the Mineral Lake Intrusion, also ca. 1100 Ma), both related to the Mid-continent Rift. All of the stratified units show static contact metamorphic textures near their contacts with the Mineral Lake Intrusion. Thus the area constitutes a microcosm of the regional bedrock geology, and the cross-cutting relationships among the units provide clear constraints on the relative timing of different phases of deformation and magmatism (Cannon etal., 2008, Bjørnerud, 2010a).

  19. Polygon/Cracked Sedimentary Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    4 December 2004 Exposures of sedimentary rock are quite common on the surface of Mars. Less common, but found in many craters in the regions north and northwest of the giant basin, Hellas, are sedimentary rocks with distinct polygonal cracks in them. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an example from the floor of an unnamed crater near 21.0oS, 311.9oW. Such cracks might have formed by desiccation as an ancient lake dried up, or they might be related to ground ice freeze/thaw cycles or some other stresses placed on the original sediment or the rock after it became lithified. The 300 meter scale bar is about 328 yards long. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  20. Geochemical characterization of fluoride in water, table salt, active sediment, rock and soil samples, and its possible relationship with the prevalence of enamel fluorosis in children in four municipalities of the department of Huila (Colombia).

    PubMed

    Martignon, Stefania; Opazo-Gutiérrez, Mario Omar; Velásquez-Riaño, Möritz; Orjuela-Osorio, Iván Rodrigo; Avila, Viviana; Martinez-Mier, Esperanza Angeles; González-Carrera, María Clara; Ruiz-Carrizosa, Jaime Alberto; Silva-Hermida, Blanca Cecilia

    2017-06-01

    Fluoride is an element that affects teeth and bone formation in animals and humans. Though the use of systemic fluoride is an evidence-based caries preventive measure, excessive ingestion can impair tooth development, mainly the mineralization of tooth enamel, leading to a condition known as enamel fluorosis. In this study, we investigated the geochemical characterization of fluoride in water, table salt, active sediment, rock and soil samples in four endemic enamel fluorosis sentinel municipalities of the department of Huila, Colombia (Pitalito, Altamira, El Agrado and Rivera), and its possible relationship with the prevalence of enamel fluorosis in children. The concentration of fluoride in drinking water, table salt, active sediment, rock, and soil was evaluated by means of an ion selective electrode and the geochemical analyses were performed using X-ray fluorescence. Geochemical analysis revealed fluoride concentrations under 15 mg/kg in active sediment, rock and soil samples, not indicative of a significant delivery to the watersheds studied. The concentration of fluoride in table salt was found to be under the inferior limit (less than 180 μg/g) established by the Colombian regulations. Likewise, exposure doses for fluoride water intake did not exceed the recommended total dose for all ages from 6 months. Although the evidence does not point out at rocks, soils, fluoride-bearing minerals, fluoridated salt and water, the hypothesis of these elements as responsible of the current prevalence of enamel fluorosis cannot be discarded since, aqueducts might have undergone significant changes overtime.

  1. Introduction to the Apollo collections. Part 1: Lunar igneous rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, P. E.; Warner, J. L.; Simonds, C. H.

    1977-01-01

    The basic petrographic, chemical, and age data is presented for a representative suite of igneous rocks gathered during the six Apollo missions. Tables are given for 69 samples: 32 igneous rocks and 37 impactites (breccias). A description is given of 26 basalts, four plutonic rocks, and two pyroclastic samples. The textural-mineralogic name assigned each sample is included.

  2. A 28,000 year history of vegetation and climate from Lower Red Rock Lake, Centennial Valley, Southwestern Montana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mumma, Stephanie Ann; Whitlock, Cathy; Pierce, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    A sediment core extending to 28,000 cal yr BP from Lower Red Rock Lake in the Centennial Valley of southwestern Montana provides new information on the nature of full-glacial vegetation as well as a history of late-glacial and Holocene vegetation and climate in a poorly studied region. Prior to 17,000 cal yr BP, the eastern Centennial Valley was occupied by a large lake (Pleistocene Lake Centennial), and valley glaciers were present in adjacent mountain ranges. The lake lowered upon erosion of a newly formed western outlet in late-glacial time. High pollen percentages of Juniperus, Poaceae, Asteraceae, and other herbs as well as low pollen accumulation rates suggest sparse vegetation cover. Inferred cold dry conditions are consistent with a strengthened glacial anticyclone at this time. Between 17,000 and 10,500 cal yr BP, high Picea and Abies pollen percentages suggest a shift to subalpine parkland and warmer conditions than before. This is attributed to the northward shift of the jet stream and increasing summer insolation. From 10,500 to 7100 cal yr BP, pollen evidence of open dry forests suggests warm conditions, which were likely a response to increased summer insolation and a strengthened Pacific subtropical high-pressure system. From 7100 to 2400 cal yr BP, cooler moister conditions promoted closed forest and wetlands. Increases in Picea and Abies pollen percentages after 2400 cal yr BP suggest increasing effective moisture. The postglacial pattern of Pseudotsuga expansion indicates that it arrived later on the Atlantic side of the Continental Divide than on the Pacific side. The Divide may have been a physical barrier for refugial populations or it delimited different climate regions that influenced the timing of Pseudotsuga expansion.

  3. Links between climate change, water-table depth, and water chemistry in a mineralized mountain watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manning, Andrew H.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Caine, Jonathan S.; Todd, Andrew S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that climate change is causing rising solute concentrations in mountain lakes and streams. These changes may be more pronounced in mineralized watersheds due to the sensitivity of sulfide weathering to changes in subsurface oxygen transport. Specific causal mechanisms linking climate change and accelerated weathering rates have been proposed, but in general remain entirely hypothetical. For mineralized watersheds, a favored hypothesis is that falling water tables caused by declining recharge rates allow an increasing volume of sulfide-bearing rock to become exposed to air, thus oxygen. Here, we test the hypothesis that falling water tables are the primary cause of an increase in metals and SO4 (100-400%) observed since 1980 in the Upper Snake River (USR), Colorado. The USR drains an alpine watershed geologically and climatologically representative of many others in mineralized areas of the western U.S. Hydrologic and chemical data collected from 2005 to 2011 in a deep monitoring well (WP1) at the top of the USR watershed are utilized. During this period, both water table depths and groundwater SO4 concentrations have generally increased in the well. A numerical model was constructed using TOUGHREACT that simulates pyrite oxidation near WP1, including groundwater flow and oxygen transport in both saturated and unsaturated zones. The modeling suggests that a falling water table could produce an increase in metals and SO4 of a magnitude similar to that observed in the USR (up to 300%). Future water table declines may produce limited increases in sulfide weathering high in the watershed because of the water table dropping below the depth of oxygen penetration, but may continue to enhance sulfide weathering lower in the watershed where water tables are shallower. Advective air (oxygen) transport in the unsaturated zone caused by seasonally variable recharge and associated water table fluctuations was found to have little influence on pyrite

  4. Rapid increase of lakes in Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, H.; Fan, W.; Yao, Y., Sr.; Tian, D.; MA, B.; LIU, R.; Qin, Q.

    2016-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau, covered with a huge area of snow, glaciers and lakes, feeds several large rivers, incluidng Yangtze River, Yellow River, Yarlung Tsangpo River and Lancang River. Climate change can cause lakes to expand and bring floods and mudflows, and the response of lakes in this plateau to global climate change is very crucial. Using time-series Landsats clear-sky images in summer from the late 1980s to 2015, we established a new finer-resolution (30m) database of lakes in the plateau among five stages (1980s, 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2015), analyzed lake changes in the past three decades, and explored the possible driving forces. Results and discussions(1) Changes in lakes > 1km2 between 1980s and 2015The changes of lake numbers and surface areas were investigated between 1980s and 2015. The lakes were identified by visual interpretation and classified to several different sizes: small (1-10km2), medium (10-50km2), large (50-100km2) and huge (>100km2) lakes. A total of 1375 lakes (>1km2) were detected in 2015, in which the small, medium, large and huge lakes respectively account for 97, 74, 262 and 942 (Fig.1 and Table 1). The numbers of lakes (> 1km2 ) has increased by 384 from 991 in 1980s (Fig.2 a, b). Meanwhile, a rapid increase of lake surface area also occurred: increased by 28.2% from 37711.0km2 in 1980s to 48335.2km2 in 2015 (Fig.2c and Table 1). (2) Temporal changes in lakes > 10km2 between 1980s and 2015Temporal variation in all lakes > 10km2 were investigated at the five stages. Most lakes have expanded (Fig.3). The water surface area of large and huge lakes increased by 13.7% from a total area of 32056.7km2 in 1980s to 36437.0km2 in 2015. For example, Siling Co, which is the largest lake in Tibet region and second largest lake in Tibetan Plateau, has increased by 702.1 km2 (41.0%) to 2416.08 km2 since 1980s with an rate about 28 km2 /a. Some new lakes or water bodies appeared due to melting glaciers or anthropogenic intervention. A few of small

  5. 18. Photocopy of a photographca. 1950showing Lake Hodges Dam in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photocopy of a photograph--ca. 1950--showing Lake Hodges Dam in San Diego County, CA., during a period of low water. Courtesy Mr. Charles Allan Whitney. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. Schiaparelli Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-403, 26 June 2003

    Some of the most important high resolution imaging results of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) experiment center on discoveries about the presence and nature of the sedimentary rock record on Mars. This old meteor impact crater in northwestern Schiaparelli Basin exhibits a spectacular view of layered, sedimentary rock. The 2.3 kilometer (1.4 miles) wide crater may have once been completely filled with sediment; the material was later eroded to its present form. Dozens of layers of similar thickness and physical properties are now expressed in a wedding cake-like stack in the middle of the crater. Sunlight illuminating the scene from the left shows that the circle, or mesa top, at the middle of the crater stands higher than the other stair-stepped layers. The uniform physical properties and bedding of these layers might indicate that they were originally deposited in a lake (it is possible that the crater was at the bottom of a much larger lake, filling Schiaparelli Basin); alternatively, the layers were deposited by settling out of the atmosphere in a dry environment. This picture was acquired on June 3, 2003, and is located near 0.9oS, 346.2oW.

  7. Cycling of mercury across the sediment-water interface in seepage lakes: Chapter 13, Advances in Chemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hurley, James P.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Babiarz, Christopher L.; Andren, Anders

    1994-01-01

    The magnitude and direction of Hg fluxes across the sediment—water interface were estimated by groundwater, dry bulk sediment, sediment pore water, sediment trap, and water-column analyses in two northern Wisconsin seepage lakes. Little Rock Lake (Treatment Basin) received no groundwater discharge during the study period (1988—1990), and Follette Lake received continuous groundwater discharge. In Little Rock Lake, settling of particulate matter accounted for the major Hg delivery mechanism to the sediment—water interface. Upward diffusion of Hg from sediment pore waters below 2—4-cm sediment depth was apparently a minor source during summer stratification. Time-series comparisons suggested that the observed buildup of Hg in the hypolimnion of Little Rock Lake was attributable to dissolution and diffusion of Hg from recently fallen particulate matter close to the sediment—water interface. Groundwater inflow represented an important source of new Hg, and groundwater outflow accounted for significant removal of Hg from Pallette Lake. Equilibrium speciation calculations revealed that association of Hg with organic matter may control solubility in well-oxygenated waters, whereas in anoxic environments sulfur (polysulfide and bisulfide) complexation governs dissolved total Hg levels.

  8. Climatic Oscillations 10,000-155,000 yr B.P. at Owens Lake, California Reflected in Glacial Rock Flour Abundance and Lake Salinity in Core OL-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bischoff, J.L.; Menking, K.M.; Fitts, J.P.; Fitzpatrick, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    Chemical analyses of the acid-soluble and clay-size fractions of sediment samples (1500-yr resolution) reveal oscillations of lake salinity and of glacial advances in core OL-92 back to 155,000 yr B.P. Relatively saline conditions are indicated by the abundance of carbonate and smectite (both pedogenic and authigenic), reflected by Ca, Sr, and Mg in the acid-soluble suite, and by Cs2O, excess MgO, and LOI (loss on ignition) in the clay-size fraction. Rock flour produced during glacial advances is represented by the abundance of detrital plagioclase and biotite in the clay-size fraction, the ratio of which remains essentially constant over the entire time span. These phases are quantitatively represented by Na2O, TiO2, Ba, and Mn in the clay fraction. The rock-flour record indicates two major ice-advances during the penultimate glacial cycle corresponding to marine isotope stage (MIS) 6, no major advances during the last interglaciation (entire MIS 5), and three major advances during the last glacial cycle (MIS 2, 3, and 4). The ages of the latter three correspond rather well to 36Cl dates reported for Sierra Nevada moraines. The onset of the last interglaciation is shown by abrupt increases in authigenic CaCO3 and an abrupt decrease in rock flour, at about 118,000 yr B.P. according to our time scale. In contrast, the boundary appears to be gradual in the ??18O record in which the change from light to heavy values begins at about 140,000 yrs B.P. The exact position of the termination, therefore, may be proxy-dependent. Conditions of high carbonate and low rock flour prevailed during the entire period from 118,000 yr B.P. until the glacial advance at 53,000 yr B.P. signaled the end of this long interglaciation. ?? 1997 University of Washington.

  9. Geology and hydrology between Lake McMillan and Carlsbad Springs, Eddy County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, Edward Riley

    1967-01-01

    The hydrology of the Pecos River valley between Lake McMillan and Carlsbad Springs, Eddy County, N. Mex., is influenced by facies changes in rocks of Permian age. Water stored for irrigation leaks from Lake McMillan into evaporite rocks, principally gypsum, of the Seven Rivers Formation and from Lake Avalon into carbonate rocks of the Tansill Formation. This leakage returns to the Pecos River at Major Johnson Springs and Carlsbad Springs. The river has perennial flow between Major Johnson Springs and Lake Avalon, but it loses water into evaporite rocks of the Yates Formation in this reach. Ground-water movement is generally toward the Pecos River in aquifers in the Pecos River valley except in the Rustler Formation east of the river where it moves southeastward toward playas east of Lake Avalon. The chloride content of ground and surface waters indicates that surface water moves from some reaches of the Pecos River and from surface-storage reservoirs to aquifers and also indicates the degree of mixing of ground and surface waters. About 45,000 acre-feet of ground water is stored in highly permeable rocks in a 3-mile wide part of the Seven Rivers Formation between Lake McMillan and Major Johnson Springs. This water in storage comes from leakage from Lake McMillan and from alluvium north of the springs. The flow of Major Johnson Springs is derived from this aquifer. That part of the flow derived from the alluvium north of the springs averaged 13 cfs (cubic feet per second) from 1953 through 1959 ; about 8 cfs of this flow had not been previously measured at gaging stations on the Pecos River and its tributaries. The most favorable plans for increasing terminal storage of the Carlsbad Irrigation District are to construct a dam at the Brantley site (at the downstream end of Major Johnson Springs), or to use underground storage in the permeable Seven Rivers Formation between Lake McMillan and Major Johnson brings in conjunction with surface storage. To avoid excessive

  10. Thermal and hydrological observations near Twelvemile Lake in discontinuous permafrost, Yukon Flats, interior Alaska, September 2010-August 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jepsen, Steven M.; Koch, Joshua C.; Rose, Joshua R.; Voss, Clifford I.; Walvoord, Michelle Ann

    2012-01-01

    A series of ground-based observations were made between September 2010 and August 2011 near Twelvemile Lake, 19 kilometers southwest of Fort Yukon, Alaska, for use in ongoing hydrological analyses of watersheds in this region of discontinuous permafrost. Measurements include depth to ground ice, depth to water table, soil texture, soil moisture, soil temperature, and water pressure above the permafrost table. In the drained basin of subsiding Twelvemile Lake, we generally find an absence of newly formed permafrost and an undetectable slope of the water table; however, a sloping water table was observed in the low-lying channels extending into and away from the lake watershed. Datasets for these observations are summarized in this report and can be accessed by clicking on the links in each section or from the Downloads folder of the report Web page.

  11. Effect of ultramafic intrusions and associated mineralized rocks on the aqueous geochemistry of the Tangle Lakes Area, Alaska: Chapter C in Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Bronwen; Gough, Larry P.; Wanty, Richard B.; Lee, Gregory K.; Vohden, James; O’Neill, J. Michael; Kerin, L. Jack

    2013-01-01

    Stream water was collected at 30 sites within the Tangle Lakes area of the Delta mineral belt in Alaska. Sampling focused on streams near the ultramafic rocks of the Fish Lake intrusive complex south of Eureka Creek and the Tangle Complex area east of Fourteen Mile Lake, as well as on those within the deformed metasedimentary, metavolcanic, and intrusive rocks of the Specimen Creek drainage and drainages east of Eureka Glacier. Major, minor, and trace elements were analyzed in aqueous samples for this reconnaissance aqueous geochemistry effort. The lithologic differences within the study area are reflected in the major-ion chemistry of the water. The dominant major cation in streams draining mafic and ultramafic rocks is Mg2+; abundant Mg and low Ca in these streams reflect the abundance of Mg-rich minerals in these intrusions. Nickel and Cu are detected in 84 percent and 87 percent of the filtered samples, respectively. Nickel and Cu concentrations ranged from Ni <0.4 to 10.1 micrograms per liter (mg/L), with a median of 4.2 mg/L, and Cu <0.5 to 27 mg/L, with a median of 1.2 mg/L. Trace-element concentrations in water are generally low relative to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency freshwater aquatic-life criteria; however, Cu concentrations exceed the hardness-based criteria for both chronic and acute exposure at some sites. The entire rare earth element (REE) suite is found in samples from the Specimen Creek sites MH5, MH4, and MH6 and, with the exception of Tb and Tm, at site MH14. These samples were all collected within drainages containing or downstream from Tertiary gabbro, diabase, and metagabbro (Trgb) exposures. Chondrite and source rock fractionation profiles for the aqueous samples were light rare earth element depleted, with negative Ce and Eu anomalies, indicating fractionation of the REE during weathering. Fractionation patterns indicate that the REE are primarily in the dissolved, as opposed to colloidal, phase.

  12. The lakes of Titan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stofan, E.R.; Elachi, C.; Lunine, J.I.; Lorenz, R.D.; Stiles, B.; Mitchell, K.L.; Ostro, S.; Soderblom, L.; Wood, C.; Zebker, H.; Wall, S.; Janssen, M.; Kirk, R.; Lopes, R.; Paganelli, F.; Radebaugh, J.; Wye, L.; Anderson, Y.; Allison, M.; Boehmer, R.; Callahan, P.; Encrenaz, P.; Flamini, E.; Francescetti, G.; Gim, Y.; Hamilton, G.; Hensley, S.; Johnson, W.T.K.; Kelleher, K.; Muhleman, D.; Paillou, P.; Picardi, G.; Posa, F.; Roth, L.; Seu, R.; Shaffer, S.; Vetrella, S.; West, R.

    2007-01-01

    The surface of Saturn's haze-shrouded moon Titan has long been proposed to have oceans or lakes, on the basis of the stability of liquid methane at the surface. Initial visible and radar imaging failed to find any evidence of an ocean, although abundant evidence was found that flowing liquids have existed on the surface. Here we provide definitive evidence for the presence of lakes on the surface of Titan, obtained during the Cassini Radar flyby of Titan on 22 July 2006 (T16). The radar imaging polewards of 70?? north shows more than 75 circular to irregular radar-dark patches, in a region where liquid methane and ethane are expected to be abundant and stable on the surface. The radar-dark patches are interpreted as lakes on the basis of their very low radar reflectivity and morphological similarities to lakes, including associated channels and location in topographic depressions. Some of the lakes do not completely fill the depressions in which they lie, and apparently dry depressions are present. We interpret this to indicate that lakes are present in a number of states, including partly dry and liquid-filled. These northern-hemisphere lakes constitute the strongest evidence yet that a condensable-liquid hydrological cycle is active in Titan's surface and atmosphere, in which the lakes are filled through rainfall and/or intersection with the subsurface 'liquid methane' table. ??2007 Nature Publishing Group.

  13. Numerical modeling of crater lake seepage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todesco, M.; Rouwet, D.

    2012-04-01

    The fate of crater lake waters seeping into the volcanic edifice is poorly constrained. Quantification of the seepage flux is important in volcanic surveillance as this water loss counterbalances the inflow of hot magmatic fluids into the lake, and enters the mass balance computation. Uncertainties associated with the estimate of seepage therefore transfer to the estimate of magmatic degassing and hazard assessment. Moreover, when the often acidic lake brines disperse into the volcanic edifice, they may lead to acid attack (stress corrosion) and eventually to mechanical weakening of the volcano flanks, thereby causing an indirect volcanic risk. Understanding of the features that control the underground propagation of lake waters and their interactions with the magmatic-hydrothermal system is therefore highly recommended in volcanic hazard assessment. In this work, we use the TOUGH2 geothermal simulator to investigate crater lake water seepage in different volcanic settings. Modeling is carried out to describe the evolution of a hydrothermal system open on a hot, pressurized reservoir of dry gas and capped by a volcanic lake. Numerical simulations investigate the role of lake morphology, system geometry, rock properties, and of the conditions applied to the lake and to the gas reservoir at depth.

  14. Climate Implications of an Ancient Lake Basin in Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasavada, A. R.; Arvidson, R. E.; Edgett, K. S.; Fairén, A. G.; Fedo, C.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Gupta, S.; House, C. H.; Lewis, K. W.; Rivera-Hernandez, F.; Wiens, R. C.

    2017-12-01

    The sedimentary rock record explored in Aeolis Palus and in the lower slopes of Aeolis Mons using the Curiosity rover is interpreted to be that of streams and lakes that persisted for millions of years. Fluvio-deltaic rocks of the Bradbury group, upon which Curiosity landed, are interpreted to interfinger with the Murray formation rocks of lower Aeolis Mons (Mount Sharp). The more than 200 vertical meters of Murray formation section investigated using Curiosity primarily comprise laminated mudstones, with interstratified cross-stratified facies prevalent higher in the succession. These rocks are interpreted as lacustrine with minor fluvial and aeolian intervals. Comparison with depositional rates in terrestrial lake basins suggests that lakes were present within Gale crater for millions of years. Facies diagnostic of seasonal or perennial ice cover, or of ice within the sediment, have not been found, but ice cannot be ruled out. Calculated chemical index of alteration (CIA) values suggest cold and arid conditions in rocks studied on the plains but warmer and more humid conditions in the rocks of lower Aeolis Mons. Evidence of early and late diagenesis, e.g., concretions, calcium sulfate veins, and fracture-adjacent alteration haloes, implies that multiple generations of groundwater (i.e., liquid) interacted with the sediments post-deposition. Crater counts indicate that Gale crater formed at about 3.8-3.6 Ga near the Noachian-Hesperian boundary and that deposition, burial, lithification, and exhumation of the lower section of central mound occurred by 3.3-3.1 Ga. Together, these observations constrain the climate of early Hesperian equatorial Mars to states that permitted liquid water to be thermodynamically stable at the surface and in the subsurface at Gale crater, and that were sufficiently humid to reduce evaporative losses and to drive fluvial erosion, transport, and re-charging of the lakes with a hydrological cycle. Isotopic measurements of atmospheric gases

  15. MERCURY IN STAMP SAND DISCHARGES: IMPLICATIONS FOR LAKE SUPERIOR MERCURY CYCLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Approximately a half billion tons of waste rock from the extraction of native copper and silver ores was discharged into the Lake Superior basin. Stamping was the method of choice to recover these metals from the surrounding poor rock. This process created large amounts of extre...

  16. Water-quality effects on phytoplankton species and density and trophic state indices at Big Base and Little Base Lakes, Little Rock Air Force Base, Arkansas, June through August, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driver, Lucas; Justus, Billy

    2016-01-01

    Big Base and Little Base Lakes are located on Little Rock Air Force Base, Arkansas, and their close proximity to a dense residential population and an active military/aircraft installation make the lakes vulnerable to water-quality degradation. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a study from June through August 2015 to investigate the effects of water quality on phytoplankton species and density and trophic state in Big Base and Little Base Lakes, with particular regard to nutrient concentrations. Nutrient concentrations, trophic-state indices, and the large part of the phytoplankton biovolume composed of cyanobacteria, indicate eutrophic conditions were prevalent for Big Base and Little Base Lakes, particularly in August 2015. Cyanobacteria densities and biovolumes measured in this study likely pose a low to moderate risk of adverse algal toxicity, and the high proportion of filamentous cyanobacteria in the lakes, in relation to other algal groups, is important from a fisheries standpoint because these algae are a poor food source for many aquatic taxa. In both lakes, total nitrogen to total phosphorus (N:P) ratios declined over the sampling period as total phosphorus concentrations increased relative to nitrogen concentrations. The N:P ratios in the August samples (20:1 and 15:1 in Big Base and Little Base Lakes, respectively) and other indications of eutrophic conditions are of concern and suggest that exposure of the two lakes to additional nutrients could cause unfavorable dissolved-oxygen conditions and increase the risk of cyanobacteria blooms and associated cyanotoxin issues.

  17. The volcanic acidification of glacial Lake Caviahue, Province of Neuquen, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varekamp, Johan C.

    2008-12-01

    Lake Caviahue (northern Patagonia, Argentina) is a large glacial lake acidified by volcanic fluids from Copahue volcano. The lake and the feeding rivers were sampled annually from 1997 till early 2006, including the eruptive period of 2000. Lake Caviahue waters evolved over time, with the most concentrated waters in 2000 during the eruptive period, followed by gradual dilution that was interrupted by renewed acidification in 2003-2004. Inversion of the lake water data and application of a dynamic non-steady state model for the lake provides our best quantitative estimates for the variation in element fluxes over the 9-year period. The model flux results agree well with most of the measured fluxes. The Copahue hydrothermal system had gently declining element fluxes between 1997 and mid-1999, although the lake was still becoming more concentrated. About 2-3 months before the 2000 eruption, element fluxes increased strongly, but the hydrothermal fluxes almost shutoff directly after the main eruptive events. The fluxes of several elements recovered post-2001, with an increase in element fluxes in 2003-2004; the lake became more dilute between 2004 and 2006. The intrusion of new magma into the hydrothermal system just prior to the 2000 eruption led to enhanced water rock interaction, with higher concentrations of the rock forming elements in the fluids, and the hot spring flow rate increased as a result of the higher pressure in the reservoir. The fluids became saturated in alunite and jarosite, and they were already saturated with anhydrite. Precipitation of these minerals possibly led to a decreased permeability of the hydrothermal reservoir, leading to the strongly reduced element fluxes just after the eruption. In addition, K, Al and S were retained in the newly precipitated minerals as well, further diminishing their export. The acidification in 2003-2004 may have resulted from a new small intrusion of magma or resulted from seismic activity that created new

  18. SOURCES OF INFORMATION ON ROCK PHYSICS. CURRENT LITERATURE, FEBRUARY 28, 1962

    SciTech Connect

    Burgin, L.

    1962-02-28

    A literature review on the field of rock physics, rock mechanics, wave propagation and other related subjects is presented. The 206 references, wtth abstracts, are included under the following categories: physical properties, rock deformation, loading, engineering applications, seismology, wave propagation, and instruments and methods. In each section the articles are arranged alphabetically according to author. The titles are from material which was made available at the Colorado School of Mines, Arthur Lakes Library during February 1962. (M.C.G.)

  19. Geology and geochronology of granitoid and metamorphic rocks of late Archean age in northwestern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sims, P.K.; Peterman, Z.E.; Zartman, R.E.; Benedict, F.C.

    1985-01-01

    Granitoid rocks of the Puritan Quartz Monzonite and associated biotite gneiss and amphibolite in northwestern Wisconsin compose the southwestern part of the Puritan batholith of Late Archean age. They differ from rocks in the Michigan segment of the batholith in having been deformed by brittle-ductile deformation and partly recrystallized during shearing accompanying development of the midcontinent rift system of Keweenawan (Middle Proterozoic) age. Granitoid rocks ranging in composition from granite to tonalite are dominant in the Wisconsin part of the batholith. To the north of the Mineral Lake fault zone, they are massive to weakly foliated and dominantly of granite composition, whereas south of the fault zone they are more strongly foliated and mainly of tonalite composition. Massive granite, leucogranite, and granite pegmatite cut the dominant granitoid rocks. Intercalated with the granitoid rocks in small to large conformable bodies are biotite gneiss, amphibolite, and local tonalite gneiss. Metagabbro dikes of probable Early Proterozoic age as much as 15 m thick cut the Archean rocks. Rubidium-strontium whole-rock data indicate a Late Archean age for the granitoids and gneisses, but data points are scattered and do not define a single isochron. Zircon from two samples of tonalitic gneiss for uranium-thorium-Iead dating define a single chord on a concordia diagram, establishing an age of 2,735?16 m.y. The lower intercept age of 1,052?70 m.y. is in close agreement with rubidium-strontium and potassium-argon biotite ages from the gneisses. Two episodes of deformation and metamorphism are recorded in the Archean rocks. Deformation during the Late Archean produced a steep west-northwest-oriented foliation and gently plunging fold axes and was accompanied by low amphibolite-facies metamorphism of the bedded rocks. A younger deformation resulting from largely brittle fracture was accompanied by retrogressive metamorphism; this deformation is most evident adjacent

  20. An Archaeological Reconnaissance of the Over-the-Horizon Radar Project Transmitter Site, Buffalo Flat, Christmas Lake Valley, Lake County, Oregon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    intermediate composition. The Fort Rock formation is comprised of four rock types: tuff, diatomite , basaltic agglomerate, and basaltic lava, in descending...location based on bearings on landmarks some distance from the survey area. The property survey established four blocks (areas A, B, C, and D in Figure... physical evidence of prehistoric lake- shores would be evident in the project area in the form of terrace remnants, strand lines, etc. Based on

  1. Geochemistry and source waters of rock glacier outflow, Colorado Front Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, M.W.; Knauf, M.; Caine, N.; Liu, F.; Verplanck, P.L.

    2006-01-01

    We characterize the seasonal variation in the geochemical and isotopic content of the outflow of the Green Lake 5 rock glacier (RG5), located in the Green Lakes Valley of the Colorado Front Range, USA. Between June and August, the geochemical content of rock glacier outflow does not appear to differ substantially from that of other surface waters in the Green Lakes Valley. Thus, for this alpine ecosystem at this time of year there does not appear to be large differences in water quality among rock glacier outflow, glacier and blockslope discharge, and discharge from small alpine catchments. However, in September concentrations of Mg2+ in the outflow of the rock glacier increased to more than 900 ??eq L-1 compared to values of less than 40 ??eq L-1 at all the other sites, concentrations of Ca2+ were greater than 4,000 ??eq L-1 compared to maximum values of less than 200 ??eq L-1 at all other sites, and concentrations of SO42- reached 7,000 ??eq L-1, compared to maximum concentrations below 120 ??eq L-1 at the other sites. Inverse geochemical modelling suggests that dissolution of pyrite, epidote, chlorite and minor calcite as well as the precipitation of silica and goethite best explain these elevated concentrations of solutes in the outflow of the rock glacier. Three component hydrograph separation using end-member mixing analysis shows that melted snow comprised an average of 30% of RG5 outflow, soil water 32%, and base flow 38%. Snow was the dominant source water in June, soil water was the dominant water source in July, and base flow was the dominant source in September. Enrichment of ?? 18O from - 10??? in the outflow of the rock glacier compared to -20??? in snow and enrichment of deuterium excess from +17.5??? in rock glacier outflow compared to +11??? in snow, suggests that melt of internal ice that had undergone multiple melt/freeze episodes was the dominant source of base flow. Copyright ?? 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Environmental Assessment for the Bear Creek Dam and Lake Project Master Plan, South Platte River, Colorado

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    erosion. Piney Creek alluvium along the low terraces is Holocene in age and rock fragments in this area have igneous or metamorphic lithology with...to the Red Rocks Amphitheatre and Bandimere Speedway, which are a brief drive from the Park. Recreational use of Bear Creek Lake is also... US Army Corps of Engineers ® Omaha District Environmental Assessment for the Bear Creek Dam and Lake Project Master Plan South Platte River

  3. National water-quality assessment of the Lake Erie-Lake St. Clair Basin, Michigan, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York; environmental and hydrologic setting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casey, G.D.; Myers, Donna N.; Finnegan, D.P.; ,

    1998-01-01

    The Lake Erie-Lake St. Clair Basin covers approximately 22,300 mi ?(square miles) in parts of Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. Situated in two major physiographic provinces, the Appalachian Plateaus and the Central Lowland, the basin includes varied topographic and geomorphic features that affect the hydrology. As of 1990, the basin was inhabited by approximately 10.4 million people. Lake effect has a large influence on the temperature and precipitation of the basin, especially along the leeward southeast shore of Lake Erie. Mean annual precipitation generally increases from west to east, ranging from 31.8 inches at Detroit, Mich., to 43.8 inches at Erie, Pa. The rocks that underlie the Lake Erie-Lake St. Clair Basin range in age from Cambrian through Pennsylvanian, but only Silurian through Pennsylvanian rocks are part of the shallow ground-water flow system. The position of the basin on the edge of the Michigan and Appalachian Basins is responsible for the large range in geologic time of the exposed rocks. Rock types range from shales, siltstones, and mudstones to coarse-grained sandstones and conglomerates. Carbonate rocks consisting of limestones, dolomites, and calcareous shales also underlie the basin. All the basin is overlain by Pleistocene deposits- till, fine-grained stratified sediments, and coarse-grained stratified sediments-most of Wisconsinan age. A system of buried river valleys filled with various lacustrine, alluvial, and coarse glacial deposits is present in the basin. The soils of the Lake Erie-Lake St. Clair Basin consist of two dominant soil orders: Alfisols and Inceptisols. Four other soil orders in the basin (Mollisols, Histisols, Entisols, and Spodosols) are of minor significance, making up less than 8 percent of the total area. The estimated water use for the Lake Erie-Lake St. Clair Basin for 1990 was 10,649 Mgal/d (million gallons per day). Power generation accounted for about 77 percent of total water withdrawals for

  4. Geochemistry and stratigraphic relations of middle Proterozoic rocks of the New Jersey Highlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Volkert, Richard A.; Drake, Avery Ala

    1999-01-01

    Middle Proterozoic rocks of the New Jersey Highlands consist of a basement of dacitic, tonalitic, trondhjemitic, and charnockitic rocks that constitute the Losee metamorphic suite. These rocks are unconformably overlain by a layered supracrustal sequence of quartzo-feldspathic and calcareous rocks. Abundant sheets of hornblende- and biotite-bearing rocks of the Byram intrusive suite and clinopyroxene-bearing rocks of the Lake Hopatcong intrusive suite were synkinematically emplaced at about 1,090 Ma. These intrusive suites constitute the Vernon Supersuite. The postorogenic Mount Eve Granite has been dated at 1,020?4 Ma and is confined to the extreme northern Highlands.

  5. 69. September 1913 "No. 110. Placing no. 2 rock on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. September 1913 "No. 110. Placing no. 2 rock on top of foundation course which has been previously rolled. Experimental road section." - Crater Lake National Park Roads, Klamath Falls, Klamath County, OR

  6. Water-Table Levels and Gradients, Nevada, 1947-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopes, Thomas J.; Buto, Susan G.; Smith, J. LaRue; Welborn, Toby L.

    2006-01-01

    information for 49 of 232 basins and for most consolidated-rock hydrogeologic units. Depth to water is commonly less than 50 feet beneath valley floors, 50 to 500 feet beneath alluvial fans, and more than 500 feet in some areas such as north-central and southern Nevada. In areas without water-table information, greasewood and mapped ground-water discharge areas are good indicators of depth to water less than 100 feet. The average difference between measured depth to water and depth to water estimated from surfaces was 90 feet. More recent and detailed information may be needed than that presented in this report to evaluate a specific site. Temporal changes in water-table levels were evaluated for 1,981 wells with 10 or more years between the first depth-to-water measurement and last measurement made since 1990. The greatest increases in depth to water occurred where the first measurement was less than 200 feet, where the time between first and last measurements was 40 years or less, and for wells between 100 and 600 feet deep. These characteristics describe production wells where ground water is fairly shallow in recently developing areas such as the Las Vegas and Reno metropolitan areas. In basins with little pumping, 90 percent of the changes during the past 100 years are within ?20 feet, which is about the natural variation in the water table due to changes in the climate and recharge. Gradients in unconsolidated sediments of the Great Basin are generally steep near mountain fronts, shallow beneath valley floors, and depend on variables such as the horizontal hydraulic conductivity of adjacent consolidated rocks and recharge. Gradients beneath alluvial fans and valley floors at 58 sites were correlated with selected variables to identify those variables that are statistically related. Water-table measurements at three sites were used to characterize the water table between the valley floor and consolidated rock. Water-table gradients beneath alluvial fan

  7. Recent geologic development of Lake Michigan (U.S.A.)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gross, D.L.; Cahill, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    The stresses placed on Lake Michigan since the advent of industrialization require knowledge of the sedimentology of the whole lake in order to make informed decisions for environmental planning. Sediment accumulation rates are low: areas of the lake receiving the most sediment average only 1 mm a-1; deep-water basins average 0.1 to 0.5 mm a-1; and large areas are not receiving any sediment. Sediment was deposited rapidly (typically 5 mm a-1), in the form of rock flour, during the deglaciation of both Lake Michigan and Lake Superior Basins. Then the rate of accumulation decreased by 80-90% and has remained relatively constant since final deglaciation. Because active sedimentation occurs mostly in the deep water areas of the lake, the sediment remains undisturbed and contains a record of the chemical history of the lake. ?? 1983 Dr W. Junk Publishers.

  8. Strontium isotopic signatures of the streams and lakes of Taylor Valley, Southern Victoria Land, Antarctica: Chemical weathering in a polar climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyons, W.B.; Nezat, C.A.; Benson, L.V.; Bullen, T.D.; Graham, E.Y.; Kidd, J.; Welch, K.A.

    2002-01-01

    We have collected and analyzed a series of water samples from three closed-basin lakes (Lakes Bonney, Fryxell, and Hoare) in Taylor Valley, Antarctica, and the streams that flow into them. In all three lakes, the hypolimnetic waters have different 87Sr/86Sr ratios than the surface waters, with the deep water of Lakes Fryxell and Hoare being less radiogenic than the surface waters. The opposite occurs in Lake Bonney. The Lake Fryxell isotopic ratios are lower than modern-day ocean water and most of the whole-rock ratios of the surrounding geologic materials. A conceivable source of Sr to the system could be either the Cenozoic volcanic rocks that make up a small portion of the till deposited in the valley during the Last Glacial Maximum or from marble derived from the local basement rocks. The more radiogenic ratios from Lake Bonney originate from ancient salt deposits that flow into the lake from Taylor Glacier and the weathering of minerals with more radiogenic Sr isotopic ratios within the tills. The Sr isotopic data from the streams and lakes of Taylor Valley strongly support the notion documented by previous investigators that chemical weathering has been, and is currently, a major process in determining the overall aquatic chemistry of these lakes in this polar desert environment.

  9. Pleistocene hydrovolcanism in the Tule Lake Basin, N. E. California

    SciTech Connect

    Lavine, A.

    1993-04-01

    The Prisoners Rock and The Peninsula tuff cones and the North Crater tuff ring, located in the Tule Lake Basin of northeastern California formed along a north-trending fissure approximately 270 ka when basaltic magma interacted with abundant groundwater or shallow lake water, resulting in phreatomagmatic eruptions. Diatomite inclusions in the tuff ring and correlations with the corresponding depth and diatoms in a drill core taken in the center of the basin, 2.5 km to the west of the cones, indicate shallow, marshy or shallow, alkaline-open conditions at Tule Lake around 270 ka. Deposits at Prisoners Rock and The Peninsula indicatemore » subaerial emplacement, which allowed the deposits to lithify with little erosion by the lake. Subsequent wave erosion caused undercutting and breaking off of large blocks along mainly north-trending fractures forming vertical cliff faces on the east and west sides of the cones. The cones are elongated north-south with a greater thickness of deposits on the north and northeast, probably due to prevailing southwesterly winds at the time of eruptions. Deposits of the tuff cones at Prisoners Rock and The Peninsula resulted from deep explosions caused by water-magma ratios of around 3:1. The deposits are mainly inversely graded planar surge beds, ranging in thickness from 5 to 30 cm, and grading from very fine ash to 2 cm-diameter accretionary lapilli. Emplacement by highly steam-saturated, poorly inflated pyroclastic surges is indicated by the abundance of accretionary lapilli, vesiculated tuffs, soft-sediment deformation structures, steep bedding angles (20 to 40 degrees) lack of structures beneath country rock inclusions, massive bedding, and cementation of the deposits by alteration of basaltic glass to calcite, zeolites, clays, and chlorite.« less

  10. Magnetic Signature of Glacial Flour in Sediments From Bear Lake, Utah/Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbaum, J. G.; Dean, W. E.; Colman, S. M.; Reynolds, R. L.

    2002-12-01

    Variations in magnetic properties within an interval of Bear Lake sediments correlative with oxygen isotope stage 2 (OIS 2) and OIS 3 provide a record of glacial flour production for the Uinta Mountains. Like sediments of the same age from Upper Klamath Lake (OR), these Bear Lake sediments have high magnetic susceptibilities (MS) relative to non-glacial-age sediments and contain well-defined millennial-scale variations in magnetic properties. In contrast to glacial flour derived from volcanic rocks surrounding Upper Klamath Lake, glacial flour derived from the Uinta Mountains and deposited in Bear Lake by the Bear River has low magnetite content but high hematite content. The relatively low MS values of younger and older non-glacial-age sediments are due entirely to dilution by non-magnetic endogenic carbonate and to the effects of sulfidic alteration of detrital Fe-oxides. Analysis of samples from streams entering Bear Lake and from along the course of the Bear River demonstrates that, in comparison to other areas of the catchment, sediment derived from the Uinta Mountains is rich in hematite (high HIRM) and aluminum, and poor in magnetite (low MS) and titanium. Within the glacial-age lake sediments, there are strong positive correlations among HIRM, Al/Ti, and fine sediment grain size. MS varies inversely with theses three variables. These relations indicate that the observed millennial-scale variations in magnetic and chemical properties arise from varying proportions of two detrital components: (1) very fine-grained glacial flour derived from Proterozoic metasedimentary rocks in the Uinta Mountains and characterized by high HIRM and low MS, and (2) somewhat coarser material, characterized by higher MS and lower HIRM, derived from widespread sedimentary rocks along the course of the Bear River and around Bear Lake. Measurement of glacial flour incorporated in lake sediments can provide a continuous history of alpine glaciation, because the rate of accumulation

  11. Geological and geochemical investigations of uranium occurrences in the Arrastre Lake area of the Medicine Bow Mountains, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, W. Roger; Houston, R.S.; Karlstrom, K.E.; Hopkins, D.M.; Ficklin, W.H.

    1977-01-01

    Metasedimentary rocks of Precambrian X age in and near the Snowy Range wilderness study area of southeastern Wyoming are lithologically and chronologically similar to those on the north shore of Lake Huron in Canada. The rocks in Canada contain major deposits of uranium in quartz-pebble conglomerates near the base of the metasedimentary sequence. Similar conglomerates in the Deep Lake Formation in the Medicine Bow Mountains of southeastern Wyoming are slightly radioactive and may contain deposits of uranium and other valuable heavy metals. During the summer of 1976, a geological and geochemical pilot study was conducted in the vicinity of Arrastre Lake in the Medicine Bow Mountains to determine the most effective exploration methods for evaluating the uranium potential of the Snowy Range wilderness study area. The area around Arrastre Lake was selected because of the presence of a radioactive lens within a quartz-pebble conglomerate of the Deep Lake Formation. The results of the survey indicate possible uranium mineralization in the subsurface rocks of this formation. The radon content of the dilute waters of the area is much higher than can be accounted for by the uranium content of the surface rocks. Two sources for the high content of the radon are possible. In either case, the high values of radon obtained in this study are a positive indication of uranium mineralization in the subsurface rocks. The determination of the radon content of water samples is the recommended geochemical technique for uranium exploration in the area. The determination of uranium in water and in organic-rich bog material is also recommended.

  12. Promise and Pitfalls of Using Grain Size Analysis to Identify Glacial Sediments in Alpine Lake Cores.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D. H.

    2011-12-01

    Lakes fed by glacier outwash should have a clastic particle-size record distinct from non-glacial lakes in the same area, but do they? The unique turquoise color of alpine glacial lakes reflects the flux of suspended clastic glacial rock flour to those lakes; conversely, lakes not fed by outwash are generally clear with sediments dominated by organics or slope-wash from nearby hillslopes. This contrast in sediment types and sources should produce a distinct and measureable different in grain sizes between the two settings. Results from a variety of lakes suggest the actual situation is often more subtle and complex. I compare grain size results to other proxies to assess the value of grain size analysis for paleoglacier studies. Over the past 10 years, my colleagues and I have collected and analyzed sediment cores from a wide variety of lakes below small alpine glaciers in an attempt to constrain the timing and magnitude of alpine glaciation in those basins. The basic concept is that these lakes act as continuous catchments for any rock flour produced upstream by glacier abrasion; as a glacier grows, the flux of rock flour to the lake will also increase. If the glacier disappears entirely, rock flour deposition will also cease in short order. We have focused our research in basins with simple sedimentologic settings: mostly small, high-altitude, stripped granitic or metamorphic cirques in which the cirque glaciers are the primary source of clastic sediments. In most cases, the lakes are fed by meltwater from a modern glacier, but were ice free during the earlier Holocene. In such cases, the lake cores should record formation of and changes in activity of the glacier upstream. We used a Malvern Mastersizer 2000 laser particle size analyzer for our grain size analyses, as well as recording magnetic susceptibility, color, and organics for the same cores. The results indicate that although lakes often experience increases in silt and clay-size (<0.63 mm) clastic

  13. Visualizing the geology of lake trout spawning sites, northern Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dartnell, Peter; Barnes, Peter; Gardner, James V.; Lee, Kristen

    2004-01-01

    Geologists and biologists are working together to understand the links between lake floor geology (composition and shape) and the distribution of lake trout throughout their life cycle. Lake floor geology is one of the main factors determining where lake trout spawn, feed, and hide. In support of ongoing research to study Lake Michigan trout habitats, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers mapped the morphology of principle lake trout spawning sites. Using the Army Corps of Engineer's SHOALS airborne lidar (Light Detection and Ranging) system we mapped six regions in Northern Lake Michigan in order to identify ideal spawning regions composed of shallow, clean, gravel/cobble substrate, adjacent to deeper water. Lidar mapping systems, which use laser pulses to measure water depths from an airplane, are now available to map the nearshore lake morphology at meter-scale detail. Maps generated from the bathymetric data are used to define regions with smooth homogeneous substrate, regions with higher relief, and mixed regions with both smooth and rough relief. This morphologic information combined with sediment samples and direct bottom observations enable geologists to map areas with rougher relief composed of rock outcrop, boulders, and cobbles, as well as smooth regions covered with sand or mud. This information helps biologists, fishery managers, and ecologists visualize the lake floor in significant detail which promotes better fishery management, species protection, and habitat identification. These maps present the maps and discuss the geology of the six lake trout spawning sites mapped by the lidar system. Where the mapping approached land, aerial photography of the land is combined with the bathymetric data to help visualize the scale of the offshore features. Map and perspective views of Boulder Reef, Hog Island Reef, and Little Traverse Bay are shown on sheet 1, whereas map and perspective views of Trout and High Island

  14. Visualizing the geology of lake trout spawning sites; northern Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dartnell, Peter; Barnes, Peter; Gardner, James V.; Lee, Kristen

    2006-01-01

    Geologists and biologists are working together to understand the links between lake floor geology (composition and shape) and the distribution of lake trout throughout their life cycle. Lake floor geology is one of the main factors determining where lake trout spawn, feed, and hide. In support of ongoing research to study Lake Michigan trout habitats, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers mapped the morphology of principle lake trout spawning sites. Using the Army Corps of Engineer's SHOALS airborne lidar (Light Detection and Ranging) system we mapped six regions in Northern Lake Michigan in order to identify ideal spawning regions composed of shallow, clean, gravel/cobble substrate, adjacent to deeper water. Lidar mapping systems, which use laser pulses to measure water depths from an airplane, are now available to map the nearshore lake morphology at meter-scale detail. Maps generated from the bathymetric data are used to define regions with smooth homogeneous substrate, regions with higher relief, and mixed regions with both smooth and rough relief. This morphologic information combined with sediment samples and direct bottom observations enable geologists to map areas with rougher relief composed of rock outcrop, boulders, and cobbles, as well as smooth regions covered with sand or mud. This information helps biologists, fishery managers, and ecologists visualize the lake floor in significant detail which promotes better fishery management, species protection, and habitat identification. These maps present the maps and discuss the geology of the six lake trout spawning sites mapped by the lidar system. Where the mapping approached land, aerial photography of the land is combined with the bathymetric data to help visualize the scale of the offshore features. Map and perspective views of Boulder Reef, Hog Island Reef, and Little Traverse Bay are shown on sheet 1, whereas map and perspective views of Trout and High Island

  15. Geohydrologic reconnaissance of Lake Mead National Recreation Area; Las Vegas Wash to Opal Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laney, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    The study is a geohydrologic reconnaissance of about 170 square miles in the Lake Mead National Recreation Area from Las Vegas Wash to Opal Mountain, Nevada. The study is one of a series that describes the geohydrology of the recreation area and that indentifies areas where water supplies can be developed. Precipitation in this arid area is about 5 inches per year. Streamflow is seasonal and extremely variable except for that in the Colorado River, which adjoins the area. Pan evaporation is more than 20 times greater than precipitation; therefore, regional ground-water supplies are meager except near the Colorado River, Lake Mead, and Lake Mohave. Large ground-water supplies can be developed near the river and lakes, and much smaller supplies may be obtained in a few favorable locations farther from the river and lakes. Ground water in most of the areas probably contains more than 1,000 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids, but water that contains less than 1,000 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids can be obtained within about 1 mile of the lakes. Crystalline rocks of metamorphic, intrusive and volcanic origin crop out in the area. These rocks are overlain by conglomerate and mudstone of the Muddy Creek Formation, gravel and conglomerate of the older alluvium, and sand and gravel of the Chemehuevi Formation and younger alluvium. The crystalline rocks, where sufficiently fractured, yield water to springs and would yield small amounts of water to favorably located wells. The poorly cemented and more permeable beds of the older alluvium, Chemehuevi Formation, and younger alluvium are the better potential aquifers, particularly along the Colorado River and Lakes Mead and Mohave. Thermal springs in the gorge of the Colorado River south of Hoover Dam discharge at least 2,580 acre-feet per year of water from the volcanic rocks and metamorphic and plutonic rocks. The discharge is much greater than could be infiltrated in the drainage basin above the springs

  16. Evaluation of ground-water flow and hydrologic budget for Lake Five-O, a seepage lake in northwestern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grubbs, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    Temporal and spatial distributions of ground-water inflow to, and leakage from Lake Five-O, a softwater, seepage lake in northwestern Florida, were evaluated using hydrologic data and simulation models of the shallow ground-water system adjacent to the lake. The simulation models indicate that ground-water inflow to the lake and leakage from the lake to the ground-water system are the dominant components in the total inflow (precipitation plus ground-water inflow) and total outflow (evaporation plus leakage) budgets of Lake Five-O. Simlulated ground-water inflow and leakage were approximately 4 and 5 times larger than precipitation inputs and evaporative losses, respectively, during calendar years 1989-90. Exchanges of water between Lake Five-O and the ground-water system were consistently larger than atmospheric-lake exchanges. A consistent pattern of shallow ground-water inflow and deep leakage was also evident throughout the study period. The mean time of travel from ground-water that discharges at Lake Five-O (time from recharge at the water table to discharge at the lake) was estimated to be within a range of 3 to 6 years. Flow-path evaluations indicated that the intermediate confining unit probably has a negligible influence on the geochemistry of ground-water inflow to Lake Five-O. The hydrologic budgets and flow-path evaluations provide critical information for developing geochemical budgets for Lake Five-O and for improving the understanding of the relative importance of various processes that regulate the acid-neutralizing capacity of softwater seepage lakes in Florida.

  17. Basis for paleoenvironmental interpretation of magnetic properties of sediment from Upper Klamath Lake (Oregon): Effects of weathering and mineralogical sorting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenbaum, J.G.; Reynolds, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    Studies of magnetic properties enable reconstruction of environmental conditions that affected magnetic minerals incorporated in sediments from Upper Klamath Lake. Analyses of stream sediment samples from throughout the catchment of Upper Klamath Lake show that alteration of Fe-oxide minerals during subaerial chemical weathering of basic volcanic rocks has significantly changed magnetic properties of surficial deposits. Titanomagnetite, which is abundant both as phenocrysts and as microcrystals in fresh volcanic rocks, is progressively destroyed during weathering. Because fine-grained magnetite is readily altered due to large surface-to-volume ratios, weathering causes an increase in average magnetic grain size as well as reduction in the quantity of titanomagnetite both absolutely and relative to hematite. Hydrodynamic mineralogical sorting also produces differences in magnetic properties among rock and mineral grains of differing sizes. Importantly, removal of coarse silicate and Fe-oxide grains by sorting concentrated extremely fine-grained magnetite in the resulting sediment. The effects of weathering and sorting of minerals cannot be completely separated. These processes combine to produce the magnetic properties of a non-glacial lithic component of Upper Klamath Lake sediments, which is characterized by relatively low magnetite content and coarse magnetic grain size. Hydrodynamic sorting alone causes significant differences between the magnetic properties of glacial flour in lake sediments and of fresh volcanic rocks in the catchment. In comparison to source volcanic rocks, glacial flour in the lake sediment is highly enriched in extremely fine-grained magnetite.

  18. Sensitivity analysis of lake mass balance in discontinuous permafrost: the example of disappearing Twelvemile Lake, Yukon Flats, Alaska (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jepsen, S.M.; Voss, C.I.; Walvoord, Michelle Ann; Rose, J.R.; Minsley, B.J.; Smith, B.D.

    2013-01-01

    Many lakes in northern high latitudes have undergone substantial changes in surface area over the last four decades, possibly as a result of climate warming. In the discontinuous permafrost of Yukon Flats, interior Alaska (USA), these changes have been non-uniform across adjacent watersheds, suggesting local controls on lake water budgets. Mechanisms that could explain the decreasing mass of one lake in Yukon Flats since the early 1980s, Twelvemile Lake, are identified via a scoping analysis that considers plausible changes in snowmelt mass and infiltration, permafrost distribution, and climate warming. Because predicted changes in evaporation (2 cmyr-1) are inadequate to explain the observed 17.5 cmyr-1 reduction in mass balance, other mechanisms are required. The most important potential mechanisms are found to involve: (1) changes in shallow, lateral groundwater flow to the lake possibly facilitated by vertical freeze-thaw migration of the permafrost table in gravel; (2) increased loss of lake water as downward groundwater flow through an open talik to a permeable subpermafrost flowpath; and (3) reduced snow meltwater inputs due to decreased snowpack mass and increased infiltration of snowmelt into, and subsequent evaporation from, fine-grained sediment mantling the permafrost-free lake basin.

  19. Petrogenetic and geodynamic origin of the Neoarchean Doré Lake Complex, Abitibi subprovince, Superior Province, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polat, Ali; Frei, Robert; Longstaffe, Fred J.; Woods, Ryan

    2018-04-01

    The Neoarchean (ca. 2728 Ma) anorthosite-bearing Doré Lake Complex in the northeastern Abitibi subprovince, Quebec, was emplaced into an association of intra-oceanic tholeiitic basalts and gabbros known as the Obatogamau Formation. The Obatogamau Formation constitutes the lower part of the Roy Group, which is composed of two cycles of tholeiitic-to-calc-alkaline volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks, siliciclastic and chemical sedimentary rocks, and layered mafic-to-ultramafic sills. In this study, we report major and trace element results, and Nd, Sr, Pb and O isotope data for anorthosites, leucogabbros, gabbros and mafic dykes from the Doré Lake Complex and spatially associated basalts and gabbros of the Obatogamau Formation to assess their petrogenetic origin and geodynamic setting. Field and petrographic observations indicate that the Doré Lake Complex and associated volcanic rocks underwent extensive metamorphic alteration under greenschist facies conditions, resulting in widespread epidotization (20-40%) and chloritization (10-40%) of many rock types. Plagioclase recrystallized mainly to anorthite and albite endmembers, erasing intermediate compositions. Metamorphic alteration also led to the mobilization of many elements (e.g., LILE and transition metals) and to significant disturbance of the Rb-Sr and U-Pb isotope systems, resulting in 1935 ± 150 and 3326 ± 270 Ma errorchron ages, respectively. The Sm-Nd isotope system was less disturbed, yielding an errorchron age of 2624 ± 160 Ma. On many binary major and trace element diagrams, the least altered anorthosites and leucogabbros, and the gabbros and mafic dykes of the Doré Lake Complex plot in separate fields, signifying the presence of two distinct magma types in the complex. The gabbros and mafic dykes in the Doré Lake Complex share the geochemical characteristics of tholeiitic basalts and gabbros in the Obatogamau Formation, suggesting a possible genetic link between the two rock associations. Initial

  20. The Fossil Fauna of the Islands Region of Western Lake Erie.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowe, Lulu M., Comp.

    The islands of western Lake Erie are rock-bound isles that abound in rocky outcrops and quarries. The rocks of these islands are of two distinct types, Silurian dolomites and Devonian limestones. The dolomites, exposed in the Bass Islands and Sister Islands are virtually devoid of fossils. Conversely, the limestones of Johnson Island, Marblehead,…

  1. Geologic map of the Granite 7.5' quadrangle, Lake and Chaffee Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shroba, Ralph R.; Kellogg, Karl S.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2014-01-01

    The geologic map of the Granite 7.5' quadrangle, Lake and Chaffee Counties, Colorado, portrays the geology in the upper Arkansas valley and along the lower flanks of the Sawatch Range and Mosquito Range near the town of Granite. The oldest rocks, exposed in the southern and eastern parts of the quadrangle, include gneiss and plutonic rocks of Paleoproterozoic age. These rocks are intruded by younger plutonic rocks of Mesoproterozoic age. Felsic hypabyssal dikes, plugs, and plutons, ranging in age from Late Cretaceous or Paleocene to late Oligocene, locally intruded Proterozoic rocks. A small andesite lava flow of upper Oligocene age overlies Paleoproterozoic rock, just south of the Twin Lakes Reservoir. Gravelly fluvial and fan deposits of the Miocene and lower Pliocene(?) Dry Union Formation are preserved in the post-30 Ma upper Arkansas valley graben, a northern extension of the Rio Grande rift. Mostly north-northwest-trending faults displace deposits of the Dry Union Formation and older rock units. Light detection and ranging (lidar) imagery suggests that two short faults, near the Arkansas River, may displace surficial deposits as young as middle Pleistocene. Surficial deposits of middle Pleistocene to Holocene age are widespread in the Granite quadrangle, particularly in the major valleys and on slopes underlain by the Dry Union Formation. The main deposits are glacial outwash and post-glacial alluvium; mass-movement deposits transported by creep, debris flow, landsliding, and rockfall; till deposited during the Pinedale, Bull Lake, and pre-Bull Lake glaciations; rock-glacier deposits; and placer-tailings deposits formed by hydraulic mining and other mining methods used to concentrate native gold. Hydrologic and geologic processes locally affect use of the land and locally may be of concern regarding the stability of buildings and infrastructure, chiefly in low-lying areas along and near stream channels and locally in areas of moderate to steep slopes. Low

  2. Decadal oscillation of lakes and aquifers in the upper Great Lakes region of North America: hydroclimatic implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watras, C.J.; Read, J.S.; Holman, K.D.; Liu, Z.; Song, Y.-Y.; Watras, A.J.; Morgan, S.; Stanley, E.H.

    2014-01-01

    We report a unique hydrologic time-series which indicates that water levels in lakes and aquifers across the upper Great Lakes region of North America have been dominated by a climatically-driven, near-decadal oscillation for at least 70 years. The historical oscillation (~13y) is remarkably consistent among small seepage lakes, groundwater tables and the two largest Laurentian Great Lakes despite substantial differences in hydrology. Hydrologic analyses indicate that the oscillation has been governed primarily by changes in the net atmospheric flux of water (P-E) and stage-dependent outflow. The oscillation is hypothetically connected to large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns originating in the mid-latitude North Pacific that support the flux of moisture into the region from the Gulf of Mexico. Recent data indicate an apparent change in the historical oscillation characterized by a ~12y downward trend beginning in 1998. Record low water levels region-wide may mark the onset of a new hydroclimatic regime.

  3. Crystals May Have Formed in Drying Martian Lake

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-08

    Lozenge-shaped crystals are evident in this magnified view of a Martian rock target called Mojave, taken on Nov. 15, 2014, by NASA Curiosity Mars rover. These features record concentration of dissolved salts, possibly in a drying lake.

  4. Hypolimnetic dissolved-oxygen dynamics within selected White River reservoirs, northern Arkansas-southern Missouri, 1974-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    De Lanois, Jeanne L.; Green, W. Reed

    2011-01-01

    Dissolved oxygen is a critical constituent in reservoirs and lakes because it is essential for metabolism by all aerobic aquatic organisms. In general, hypolimnetic temperature and dissolved-oxygen concentrations vary from summer to summer in reservoirs, more so than in natural lakes, largely in response to the magnitude of flow into and release out of the water body. Because eutrophication is often defined as the acceleration of biological productivity resulting from increased nutrient and organic loading, hypolimnetic oxygen consumption rates or deficits often provide a useful tool in analyzing temporal changes in water quality. This report updates a previous report that evaluated hypolimnetic dissolved-oxygen dynamics for a 21-year record (1974-94) in Beaver, Table Rock, Bull Shoals, and Norfork Lakes, as well as analyzed the record for Greers Ferry Lake. Beginning in 1974, vertical profiles of temperature and dissolved-oxygen concentrations generally were collected monthly from March through December at sites near the dam of each reservoir. The rate of change in the amount of dissolved oxygen present below a given depth at the beginning and end of the thermal stratification period is referred to as the areal hypolimnetic oxygen deficit. Areal hypolimnetic oxygen deficit was normalized for each reservoir based on seasonal flushing rate between April 15 and October 31 to adjust for wet year and dry year variability. Annual cycles in thermal stratification within Beaver, Table Rock, Bull Shoals, Norfork, and Greers Ferry Lakes exhibited typical monomictic (one extended turnover period per year) characteristics. Flow dynamics drive reservoir processes and need to be considered when analyzing areal hypolimnetic oxygen deficit rates. A nonparametric, locally weighted scatter plot smooth line describes the relation between areal hypolimnetic oxygen deficit and seasonal flushing rates, without assuming linearity or normality of the residuals. The results in this report

  5. 13. Photocopied August 1978. ROCK DRILLING MACHINES, NOVEMBER 23, 1898. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopied August 1978. ROCK DRILLING MACHINES, NOVEMBER 23, 1898. THE HOLES DRILLED BY THESE MACHINES WERE PACKED WITH GUNPOWDER FOR BLASTING. (19) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  6. 27 CFR 9.83 - Lake Erie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... on the islands of Lake Erie across the States of New York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio. The beginning... approximately one mile north of Rock Creek, Ohio. (7) The boundary proceeds southwestward, then westward, then... is reached which is due north of the easternmost point of Kelleys Island. (9) The boundary then...

  7. Water quality of selected lakes in Mount Rainier National Park, Washington with respect to lake acidification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turney, G.L.; Dion, N.P.; Sumioka, S.S.

    1986-01-01

    Thirteen lakes in Mount Rainier National Park were evaluated for general chemical characteristics, sensitivity to acidification by acidic precipitation, and degree of existing acidification. The lakes studies were Allen, one of the Chenuis group, Crescent , Crystal, Eleanor, Fan, one of the Golden group, Marsh, Mowich, Mystic, Shriner, and two unnamed lakes. The lakes were sampled in August 1983. Specific conductance values were generally 21 microsiemens/cm at 25 C or less, and dissolved solids concentrations were generally 20 mg/L or less. The major cations were calcium and sodium, and the major anion was bicarbonate. Alkalinity concentrations ranged from 2.1 to 9.0 mg/L in 12 of the lakes. Allen Lake was the exception, having an alkalinity concentration of 27 mg/L. The pH values for all of the lakes ranged from 5.8 to 6.5. In most of the lakes, vertical profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance were relatively uniform. In the deeper lakes, temperature decreased with depth and dissolved-oxygen concentrations increased to about 20 feet, remained constant to 80 ft, then decreased with increasing depth. Exceptions to general water quality patterns were observed in three lakes. Allen Lake had a specific conductance value of 58 Microsiemens/cm. The lake of the Golden group was anaerobic at the bottom and had relatively high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and dissolved metals, and a lower light transmission than the other lakes studied. One of the unnamed lakes had relatively high concentrations of phytoplankton and dissolved organic carbon and relatively low levels of light transmission. Comparisons of lake data to acid-sensitivity thresholds for specific conductance and alkalinity indicated that all of the lakes except Allen would be sensitive to acidic precipitation. The small sizes of the lakes, and their locations in basins of high precipitation and weathering-resistant rock types, enhance their sensitivity. None of the

  8. Allogenic sedimentary components of Bear Lake, Utah and Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenbaum, J.G.; Dean, W.E.; Reynolds, R.L.; Reheis, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    Bear Lake is a long-lived lake filling a tectonic depression between the Bear River Range to the west and the Bear River Plateau to the east, and straddling the border between Utah and Idaho. Mineralogy, elemental geochemistry, and magnetic properties provide information about variations in provenance of allogenic lithic material in last-glacial-age, quartz-rich sediment in Bear Lake. Grain-size data from the siliciclastic fraction of late-glacial to Holocene carbonate-rich sediments provide information about variations in lake level. For the quartz-rich lower unit, which was deposited while the Bear River fl owed into and out of the lake, four source areas are recognized on the basis of modern fluvial samples with contrasting properties that reflect differences in bedrock geology and in magnetite content from dust. One of these areas is underlain by hematite-rich Uinta Mountain Group rocks in the headwaters of the Bear River. Although Uinta Mountain Group rocks make up a small fraction of the catchment, hematite-rich material from this area is an important component of the lower unit. This material is interpreted to be glacial fl our. Variations in the input of glacial flour are interpreted as having caused quasi-cyclical variations in mineralogical and elemental concentrations, and in magnetic properties within the lower unit. The carbonate-rich younger unit was deposited under conditions similar to those of the modern lake, with the Bear River largely bypassing the lake. For two cores taken in more than 30 m of water, median grain sizes in this unit range from ???6 ??m to more than 30 ??m, with the coarsest grain sizes associated with beach or shallow-water deposits. Similar grain-size variations are observed as a function of water depth in the modern lake and provide the basis for interpreting the core grain-size data in terms of lake level. Copyright ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  9. Contamination of Lake Wewoka and fresh-water sands by disposal of oil-well brines near Wewoka, Seminole County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoff, Stuart L.; Dott, Robert H.; Lalicker, Cecil Gordon

    1941-01-01

    This reports deals with ground-water conditions in an area about 5 miles wide from east to west and 8 miles long from north to south, in Tps. 8 and 9 N., Rs. 7 and 8 E., in Seminole County, Oklahoma, including the town of Wewoka and Lake Wewoka. The possible contamination of the lake waters from oil-well brines disposed through a well 3.75 miles north of the lake, and other effects of brine disposal, are considered. The investigation was made at the request of Frank Raab, member of the Oklahoma Planning and Resources Board, and Don McBride, Chief Engineer of the Division of Water Resources who has the responsibility of preventing contamination of water supplies in Oklahoma. Field work was done July 5 and 6, 1941, by Robert H. Dott, Director of the Oklahoma Geological Survey; C.G. Lalicker, Department of Geology, University of Oklahoma; and S.L. Schoff, Assistant Geologist in the Ground Water Division, Water Resources Branch, of the U.S. Geological Survey. Lalicker spent both days studying the rocks exposed in the vicinity and measuring their thickness. A copy of the composite section measured by him is attached. Dott and Schoff spent one day collecting the well information summarized in Table 1, and one day with Lalicker on the stratigraphy. (available as photostat copy only)

  10. Procedural Documentation and Accuracy Assessment of Bathymetric Maps and Area/Capacity Tables for Small Reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Gary L.; Richards, Joseph M.

    2006-01-01

    Because of the increasing use and importance of lakes for water supply to communities, a repeatable and reliable procedure to determine lake bathymetry and capacity is needed. A method to determine the accuracy of the procedure will help ensure proper collection and use of the data and resulting products. It is important to clearly define the intended products and desired accuracy before conducting the bathymetric survey to ensure proper data collection. A survey-grade echo sounder and differential global positioning system receivers were used to collect water-depth and position data in December 2003 at Sugar Creek Lake near Moberly, Missouri. Data were collected along planned transects, with an additional set of quality-assurance data collected for use in accuracy computations. All collected data were imported into a geographic information system database. A bathymetric surface model, contour map, and area/capacity tables were created from the geographic information system database. An accuracy assessment was completed on the collected data, bathymetric surface model, area/capacity table, and contour map products. Using established vertical accuracy standards, the accuracy of the collected data, bathymetric surface model, and contour map product was 0.67 foot, 0.91 foot, and 1.51 feet at the 95 percent confidence level. By comparing results from different transect intervals with the quality-assurance transect data, it was determined that a transect interval of 1 percent of the longitudinal length of Sugar Creek Lake produced nearly as good results as 0.5 percent transect interval for the bathymetric surface model, area/capacity table, and contour map products.

  11. The origin and distribution of subbottom sediments in southern Lake Champlain.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freeman-Lynde, R. P.; Hutchinson, D.R.; Folger, D.W.; Wiley, B.H.; Hewett, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    3 units, correlatable with recent Lake Champlain, late-glacial marine Champlain Sea, and proglacial Lake Vermont sediments, have been identified from seismic reflection profiles and 8 piston cores. Lake Vermont deposits are nonfossiliferous and range from thin to absent nearshore and on bedrock highs to more than 126 m thick near Split Rock Point. Champlain Sea sediments contain marine foraminifers and ostracodes and are fairly uniform in thickness (20-30 m). Recent Lake Champlain sediments range in thickness from 0 to 25 m. Average sedimentation rates for Lake Vermont are considerably higher (4-8 cm/yr) than those for the Champlain Sea (0.8-1.2 cm/yr) and Lake Champlain (0.14-0.15 cm/yr). Bedrock, till, and deltaic and alluvial deposits were also identified.- from Authors

  12. Silicon Isotope Fractionation During Acid Water-Igneous Rock Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Boorn, S. H.; van Bergen, M. J.; Vroon, P. Z.

    2007-12-01

    Silica enrichment by metasomatic/hydrothermal alteration is a widespread phenomenon in crustal environments where acid fluids interact with silicate rocks. High-sulfidation epithermal ore deposits and acid-leached residues at hot-spring settings are among the best known examples. Acid alteration acting on basalts has also been invoked to explain the relatively high silica contents of the surface of Mars. We have analyzed basaltic-andesitic lavas from the Kawah Ijen volcanic complex (East Java, Indonesia) that were altered by interaction with highly acid (pH~1) sulfate-chloride water of its crater lake and seepage stream. Quantitative removal of major elements during this interaction has led to relative increase in SiO2 contents. Our silicon isotope data, obtained by HR-MC-ICPMS and reported relative to the NIST RM8546 (=NBS28) standard, show a systematic increase in &δ&&30Si from -0.2‰ (±0.3, 2sd) for unaltered andesites and basalts to +1.5‰ (±0.3, 2sd) for the most altered/silicified rocks. These results demonstrate that silicification induced by pervasive acid alteration is accompanied by significant Si isotope fractionation, so that alterered products become isotopically heavier than the precursor rocks. Despite the observed enrichment in SiO2, the rocks have experienced an overall net loss of silicon upon alteration, if Nb is considered as perfectly immobile. The observed &δ&&30Si values of the alteration products appeared to correlate well with the inferred amounts of silicon loss. These findings would suggest that &28Si is preferentially leached during water-rock interaction, implying that dissolved silica in the ambient lake and stream water is isotopically light. However, layered opaline lake sediments, that are believed to represent precipitates from the silica-saturated water show a conspicuous &30Si-enrichment (+1.2 ± 0.2‰). Because anorganic precipitation is known to discriminate against the heavy isotope (e.g. Basile- Doelsch et al., 2006

  13. Rocking and rolling: A can that appears to rock might actually roll

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Manoj; Ruina, Andy

    2008-12-01

    A beer bottle or soda can on a table, when slightly tipped and released, falls to an upright position and then rocks up to a somewhat opposite tilt. Superficially this rocking motion involves a collision when the flat circular base of the container slaps the table before rocking up to the opposite tilt. A keen eye notices that the after-slap rising tilt is not generally just diametrically opposite the initial tilt but is veered to one side or the other. Cushman and Duistermaat [Regular Chaotic Dyn. 11, 31 (2006)] recently noticed such veering when a flat disk with rolling boundary conditions is dropped nearly flat. Here, we generalize these rolling disk results to arbitrary axi-symmetric bodies and to frictionless sliding. More specifically, we study motions that almost but do not quite involve a face-down collision of the round container’s bottom with the tabletop. These motions involve a sudden rapid motion of the contact point around the circular base. Surprisingly, similar to the rolling disk, the net angle of motion of this contact point is nearly independent of initial conditions. This angle of turn depends simply on the geometry and mass distribution but not on the moment of inertia about the symmetry axis. We derive simple asymptotic formulas for this “angle of turn” of the contact point and check the result with numerics and with simple experiments. For tall containers (height much bigger than radius) the angle of turn is just over π and the sudden rolling motion superficially appears as a nearly symmetric collision leading to leaning on an almost diametrically opposite point on the bottom rim.

  14. MX Siting Investigation. Geotechnical Evaluation. Aggregate Resources Study, Lake Valley, Nevada.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-27

    KILOMETERS Mx SITING INVESTIGATION IGURE IPARTMENT OF TNt Ag1 FORCE - GMO 2 -_ONiO NATIONAL INC. FlU It FN-TR-37-f 5 2. Aerial and ground reconnaissance...fine, or crushed rock) and potential construction use ( con - crete and/or road base). TOM. FN-TR -37-f 6 2.0 STUDY APPROACH 2.1 EXISTING DATA Collection...2 the southwestern part of Lake Valley. This formation also pro - vides Class I crushed rock aggregate material in the southern White Rock Mountains

  15. The Archaeology of Coralville Lake, Iowa. Volume 4. Recreation Area Survey. (Interim Report 2).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF CORALVILLE LAKE, IOWA VOLUME IV: RECREATION AREA SURVEY (INTERIM REPORT II) p - [ JAN 1 4 1986 WAUWATOSA. WISCONSIN 86 1.13 117...THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF CORALVILLE LAKE, IOWA ; VOLUME IV: RECREATION AREA SURVEY (INTERIM REPORT II) Submitted To: Rock Island District Corps of Engineers...presents the results of intensive archaeological and geomorphic investigations at 14 special use or recreation areas at Coralville Lake, Iowa . The

  16. Measuring historic water levels of Lake Balaton and tributary wetlands using georeferenced maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlinszky, A.

    2009-04-01

    that the topography of the lake floor has not changed measurably in the last hundred years. The bathymetric contours of Lake Balaton depicted on the georeferenced Krieger-map were digitized and overlain on the present-day DEM of the lake floor. The elevation profile of these lines was used to calculate the original elevation of the water level of the lake with the accuracy of one meter. The height of the water table around the lake depends closely on the water level of the lake, but wetlands can retain water and thus sustain a higher water table in the tributary valleys than in the lake itself. In order to measure the elevation of the water table around the lake, the borders of the water-logged areas on the southern shore of the lake were also digitized from the sheets of the First Military Survey and traced on a DEM of the hills on the southern side of the lake. The elevation of the water level in these wetlands was calculated based on these profiles. The water level in some valleys adjoining the lake is significantly higher than the water level of the lake itself, which shows that the water balance of these wetlands was mostly independent of the fluctuation of the lake. Some other large wetlands have borders that are in the same elevation as the shores of the lake itself, which shows that these wetlands are in close connection with the lake. The mapping of these historic wetland properties provides a valuable guide for future habitat restoration efforts.

  17. Isotopic ages of rocks in the northern Front Range, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Anna B.; Bryant, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    These maps, and the tables that accompany them, are a compilation of isotopic age determinations of rocks and minerals in four 1:100,000 quadrangles in the northern and central Front Range, Colorado. Phanerozoic (primarily Tertiary and Cretaceous) age data are shown on one map; Proterozoic data are on the other. A sample location map is included for ease of matching specific localities and data in the tables to the maps. Several records in the tables were not included in the maps because either there were ambiguous dates or lack of location precluded accurate plotting.

  18. Geohydrology of the lowland lakes area, Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zenone, Chester

    1976-01-01

    Unconsolidated deposits, chiefly of glacial origin, make up the surficial geologic materials in the Anchorage lowland lakes area , the western part of the Anchorage glacial outwash plain. Postglacial accumulation of peat, commonly 5 to 10 feet thick, and the presence of ground water at or very near the surface combine to create the swamp-muskeg terrane of much of the area. Deeper, confined ground water is also present beneath thick silt and clay layers that underlie the surficial deposits. Domestic water supply for the lowland lakes area is provided largely by public-supply wells completed in the deep, confined aquifers. No large perennial streams traverse the area, thus streamflow is not a major parameter in the area 's natural water balance. The major uses of surface water are recreational, including fishing and boating at several of the larger lakes, and private and commercial aircraft operations at Hood-Spenard Lakes floatplane base. The hydrology and water balance of these lakes is complex. Water levels in some lakes appear to be closely related to adjacent ground-water levels. Other lakes are evidently perched above the local water table. The relation of lake level to adjacent ground-water level may vary along the shoreline of a single lake. The effect of residential development practices on lake basin water balance is not completely understood. At Sand Lake, the largest lake in this area of rapid urbanization, the water level has declined about 6 feet since the early 1960's. (Woodard-USGS)

  19. Geochemistry of the acid Kawah Putih lake, Patuha Volcano, West Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sriwana, T.; van Bergen, M. J.; Varekamp, J. C.; Sumarti, S.; Takano, B.; van Os, B. J. H.; Leng, M. J.

    2000-04-01

    Kawah Putih is a summit crater of Patuha volcano, West Java, Indonesia, which contains a shallow, ∼300 m-wide lake with strongly mineralized acid-sulfate-chloride water. The lake water has a temperature of 26-34°C, pH=<0.5-1.3, Stot=2500-4600 ppm and Cl=5300-12 600 ppm, and floating sulfur globules with sulfide inclusions are common. Sulfur oxyanion concentrations are unusually high, with S4O62-+S5O62-+S6O62-=2400 - 4200 ppm. Subaerial fumaroles (<93°C) on the lake shore have low molar SO2/H2S ratios (<2), which is a favorable condition to produce the observed distribution of sulfur oxyanion species. Sulfur isotope data of dissolved sulfate and native sulfur show a significant 34S fractionation (ΔSO4-Se of ⩾20‰), probably the result of SO2 disproportionation in or below the lake. The lake waters show strong enrichments in 18O and D relative to local meteoric waters, a result of the combined effects of mixing between isotopically heavy fluids of deep origin and meteoric water, and evaporation-induced fractionation at the lake surface. The stable-isotope systematics combined with energy-balance considerations support very rapid fluid cycling through the lake system. Lake levels and element concentrations show strong seasonal fluctuations, indicative of a short water residence time in the lake as well. Thermodynamic modeling of the lake fluids indicates that the lake water is saturated with silica phases, barite, pyrite and various Pb, Sb, Cu, As, Bi-bearing sulfides when sulfur saturation is assumed. Precipitating phases predicted by the model calculations are consistent with the bulk chemistry of the sulfur-rich bottom sediments and their identified mineral phases. Much of the lake water chemistry can be explained by congruent rock dissolution in combination with preferential enrichments from entering fumarolic gases or brines and element removal by precipitating mineral phases, as indicated by a comparison of the fluids, volcanic rocks and lake bed

  20. Co-precipitation of dissolved organic matter by calcium carbonate in Pyramid Lake, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenheer, Jerry A.; Reddy, Michael M.

    2008-01-01

    Our previous research has demonstrated that dissolved organic matter (DOM) influences calcium carbonate mineral formation in surface and ground water. To better understand DOM mediation of carbonate precipitation and DOM co-precipitation and/or incorporation with carbonate minerals, we characterized the content and speciation of DOM in carbonate minerals and in the lake water of Pyramid Lake, Nevada, USA. A 400-gram block of precipitated calcium carbonate from the Pyramid Lake shore was dissolved in 8 liters of 10% acetic acid. Particulate matter not dissolved by acetic acid was removed by centrifugation. DOM from the carbonate rock was fractionated into nine portions using evaporation, dialysis, resin adsorption, and selective precipitations to remove acetic acid and inorganic constituents. The calcium carbonate rock contained 0.23% DOM by weight. This DOM was enriched in polycarboxylic proteinaceous acids and hydroxy-acids in comparison with the present lake water. DOM in lake water was composed of aliphatic, alicyclic polycarboxylic acids. These compound classes were found in previous studies to inhibit calcium carbonate precipitation. DOM fractions from the carbonate rock were 14C-age dated at about 3,100 to 3,500 years before present. The mechanism of DOM co-precipitation and/or physical incorporation in the calcium carbonate is believed to be due to formation of insoluble calcium complexes with polycarboxylic proteinaceous acids and hydroxy-acids that have moderately large stability constants at the alkaline pH of the lake. DOM co-precipitation with calcium carbonate and incorporation in precipitated carbonate minerals removes proteinaceous DOM, but nearly equivalent concentrations of neutral and acidic forms of organic nitrogen in DOM remain in solution. Calcium carbonate precipitation during lime softening pretreatment of drinking water may have practical applications for removal of proteinaceous disinfection by-product precursors.

  1. Geochemical evolution of a high arsenic, alkaline pit-lake in the Mother Lode Gold District, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, Kaye S.; Ashley, Roger P.; Bird, Dennis K.

    2009-01-01

    The Harvard orebody at the Jamestown gold mine, located along the Melones fault zone in the southern Mother Lode gold district, California, was mined in an open-pit operation from 1987 to 1994. Dewatering during mining produced a hydrologic cone of depression; recovery toward the premining ground-water configuration produced a monomictic pit lake with alkaline Ca-Mg-HCO3-SO4–type pit water, concentrations of As up to 1,200 μg/L, and total dissolved solids (TDS) up to 2,000 mg/L. In this study, pit-wall rocks were mapped and chemically analyzed to provide a context for evaluating observed variability in the composition of the pit-lake waters in relationship to seasonal weather patterns. An integrated hydrogeochemical model of pit-lake evolution based on observations of pit-lake volume, water composition (samples collected between 1998–2000, 2004), and processes occurring on pit walls was developed in three stages using the computer code PHREEQC. Stage 1 takes account of seasonally variable water fluxes from precipitation, evaporation, springs, and ground water, as well as lake stratification and mixing processes. Stage 2 adds CO2fluxes and wall-rock interactions, and stage 3 assesses the predictive capability of the model.Two major geologic units in fault contact comprise the pit walls. The hanging wall is composed of interlayered slate, metavolcanic and metavolcaniclastic rocks, and schists; the footwall rocks are chlorite-actinolite and talc-tremolite schists generated by metasomatism of greenschist-facies mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks. Alteration in the ore zone provides evidence for mineralizing fluids that introduced CO2, S, and K2O, and redistributed SiO2. Arsenian pyrite associated with the alteration weathers to produce goethite and jarosite on pit walls and in joints, as well as copiapite and hexahydrite efflorescences that accumulate on wall-rock faces during dry California summers. All of these pyrite weathering products incorporate arsenic at

  2. Radiocarbon Ages and Environments of Deposition of the Wono and Trego Hot Springs Tephra Layers in the Pyramid Lake Subbasin, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, L.V.; Smoot, J.P.; Kashgarian, Michaele; Sarna-Wojcicki, A.; Burdett, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    Uncalibrated radiocarbon data from core PLC92B taken from Wizards Cove in the Pyramid Lake subbasin indicate that the Trego Hot Springs and Wono tephra layers were deposited 23,200 ?? 300 and 27,300 ??300 14C yr B.P. (uncorrected for reservoir effect). Sedimentological data from sites in the Pyramid Lake and Smoke Creek-Black Rock Desert subbasins indicate that the Trego Hot Springs tephra layer was deposited during a relatively dry period when Pyramid Lake was at or below its spill point (1177 m) to the Winnemucca Lake subbasin. The Wono tephra layer was deposited when lake depth was controlled by spill across Emerson Pass sill (1207 m) to the Smoke Creek-Black Rock Desert subbasin. 18O data from core PLC92B also support the concept that the Trego Hot Springs tephra fell into a relatively shallow Pyramid Lake and that the Wono tephra fell into a deeper spilling lake. ?? 1997 University of Washington.

  3. The Edwardsburg Formation and related rocks, Windermere Supergroup, central Idaho, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lund, Karen; Aleinikoff, John N.; Evans, Karl V.

    2011-01-01

    In central Idaho, Neoproterozoic stratified rocks are engulfed by the Late Cretaceous Idaho batholith and by Eocene volcanic and plutonic rocks of the Challis event. Studied sections in the Gospel Peaks and Big Creek areas of west-central Idaho are in roof pendants of the Idaho batholith. A drill core section studied from near Challis, east-central Idaho, lies beneath the Challis Volcanic Group and is not exposed at the surface. Metamorphic and deformational overprinting, as well as widespread dismembering by the younger igneous rocks, conceals many primary details. Despite this, these rocks provide important links for regional correlations and have produced critical geochronological data for two Neoproterozoic glacial periods in the North American Cordillera. At the base of the section, the more than 700-m-thick Edwardsburg Formation (Fm.) contains interlayered diamictite and volcanic rocks. There are two diamictite-bearing members in the Edwardsburg Fm. that are closely related in time. Each of the diamictites is associated with intermediate composition tuff or flow rocks and the diamictites are separated by mafic volcanic rocks. SHRIMP U–Pb dating indicates that the lower diamictite is about 685±7 Ma, whereas the upper diamictite is 684±4 Ma. The diamictite units are part of a cycle of rocks from coarse clastic, to fine clastic, to carbonate rocks that, by correlation to better preserved sections, are thought to record an older Cryogenian glacial to interglacial period in the northern US Cordillera. The more than 75-m-thick diamictite of Daugherty Gulch is dated at 664±6 Ma. This unit is preserved only in drill core and the palaeoenvironmental interpretation and local stratigraphic relations are non-unique. Thus, the date for this diamictite may provide a date for a newly recognized glaciogenic horizon or may be a minimum age for the diamictite in the Edwardsburg Fm. The c. 1000-m-thick Moores Lake Fm. is an amphibolite facies diamictite in which glacial

  4. 15. Photocopied August 1978. LOCOMOTIVE CRANE IN THE ROCK CUT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photocopied August 1978. LOCOMOTIVE CRANE IN THE ROCK CUT, AUGUST 21, 1900. LOADING DUMP CARS. A STEAM SHOVEL LOADING DUMP CARS IS VISIBLE IN THE LEFT BACKGROUND. (61) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  5. Clustered, rectangular lakes of the Canadian Old Crow Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allenby, Richard J.

    1989-12-01

    This paper investigates the origin and development of the tightly clustered lakes within the Old Crow and Bluefish basins utilizing Landsat imagery, SEASAT Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), and the available scientific literature. The Old Crow Basin and the smaller, neighboring, Bluefish Basin are located in the northwest Yukon Territory of Canada, 150 km south of the Beaufort Sea and just east of the Canadian-Alaskan border. Both basins, situated in Pleistocene lake deposits of sand, gravel, silt, and peat, are characterized by numerous, densely clustered, rectangular or arrowhead-shaped, shallow lakes with linear shore lines. The straight edges of these lakes exhibit strong, nearly orthogonal, preferred alignments directed northwest and northeast. These lakes evidently originated as relatively small thaw or thermokarst lakes that subsequently coalesced into larger lakes with edges and orientations controlled by a fracture pattern in the consolidated, underlying rocks-possibly the Old Crow Granite. The fracture pattern may be the result of horizontal tertiary or later compressional forces along the Kaltag/Porcupine Fault or it may have originated in the relatively undeformed, consolidated, basinal sediments as a result of downwarping and subsequent uplifting. The lake forming process is ongoing with new lakes being formed to replace older lakes in all stages of being obliterated.

  6. Recreation Carrying Capacity Facts and Considerations. Report 2. Benbrook Lake Project Area.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    Lake and the representa- tives from the Fort Worth District Office. Their contributions of practical experi- ence and knowledge , along with their...Acceptability of techniques - Table 8 indicates the acceptability of different techniques for solving problems to the boaters and water- skiers surveyed at...boats near swimming areas. Boater/water- Boaters, especially jet e consider lake zoning, e.g. restrict skier conflicts boaters, are sometimes waterskiing

  7. Hydrochemical determination of source water contributions to Lake Lungo and Lake Ripasottile (central Italy)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Archer, Claire; Noble, Paula; Kreamer, David; Piscopo, Vincenzo; Petitta, Marco; Rosen, Michael R.; Poulson, Simon R.; Piovesan, Gianluca; Mensing, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Lake Lungo and Lake Ripasottile are two shallow (4-5 m) lakes located in the Rieti Basin, central Italy, that have been described previously as surface outcroppings of the groundwater table. In this work, the two lakes as well as springs and rivers that represent their potential source waters are characterized physio-chemically and isotopically, using a combination of environmental tracers. Temperature and pH were measured and water samples were analyzed for alkalinity, major ion concentration, and stable isotope (δ2H, δ18O, δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon, and δ34S and δ18O of sulfate) composition. Chemical data were also investigated in terms of local meteorological data (air temperature, precipitation) to determine the sensitivity of lake parameters to changes in the surrounding environment. Groundwater represented by samples taken from Santa Susanna Spring was shown to be distinct with SO42- and Mg2+ content of 270 and 29 mg/L, respectively, and heavy sulfate isotopic composition(δ34S=15.2 ‰ and δ18O=10‰). Outflow from the Santa Susanna Spring enters Lake Ripasottile via a canal and both spring and lake water exhibits the same chemical distinctions and comparatively low seasonal variability. Major ion concentrations in Lake Lungo are similar to the Vicenna Riara Spring and are interpreted to represent the groundwater locally recharged within the plain. The δ13CDIC exhibit the same groupings as the other chemical parameters, providing supporting evidence of the source relationships. Lake Lungo exhibited exceptional ranges of δ13CDIC (±5 ‰) and δ2H, δ18O (±5 ‰ and ±7 ‰, respectively), attributed to sensitivity to seasonal changes. The hydrochemistry results, particularly major ion data, highlight how the two lakes, though geographically and morphologically similar, represent distinct hydrochemical facies. These data also show a different response in each lake to temperature and precipitation patterns in the basin that may be attributed

  8. Geothermal activity and hydrothermal mineral deposits at southern Lake Bogoria, Kenya Rift Valley: Impact of lake level changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renaut, Robin W.; Owen, R. Bernhart; Ego, John K.

    2017-05-01

    Lake Bogoria, a saline alkaline closed-lake in a drainage basin of Neogene volcanic rocks in the central Kenya Rift, is fed partly by ∼200 hot alkaline springs located in three groups along its margins. Hot springs along the midwest shoreline (Loburu, Chemurkeu) and their travertine deposits have been studied, but little is known about the geothermal activity at southern Lake Bogoria. Observations, field measurements and analyses (geochemical and mineralogical) of the spring waters and deposits, spanning three decades, show that the southern spring waters are more saline, the hydrothermal alteration there is more intense, and that most hot spring deposits are siliceous. Geothermal activity at southern Lake Bogoria (Ng'wasis, Koibobei, Losaramat) includes littoral boiling springs and geysers, with fumaroles at slightly higher elevations. Modern spring deposits are ephemeral sodium carbonates, opal-A crusts and silica gels. Local fossil spring deposits include diatomaceous silica-cemented conglomerates that formed subaqueously when the lake was then dilute and higher than today, and outlying calcite tufa deposits. In contrast, mineral deposits around neighbouring fumarole vents and sites of hydrothermal alteration include clays (kaolinite), sulfate minerals (jarosite, alunite), and Fe-oxyhydroxides linked to rising acidic fluids. When lake level falls, the zone of acidity moves downwards and may overprint older alkaline spring deposits. In contrast, rising lake level leads to lake water dilution and vents in the lower parts of the acidic zone may become dilute alkaline springs. The new evidence at Lake Bogoria shows the potential for using the mineralogy of geothermal sediments to indicate former changes in lake level.

  9. Cretaceous plutonic rocks in the Donner Lake-Cisco Grove area, northern Sierra Nevada, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kulow, Matthew J.; Hanson, Richard E.; Girty, Gary H.; Girty, Melissa S.; Harwood, David S.

    1998-01-01

    The northernmost occurrences of extensive, glaciated exposures of the Sierra Nevada batholith occur in the Donner Lake-Cisco Grove area of the northern Sierra Nevada. The plutonic rocks in this area, which are termed here the Castle Valley plutonic assemblage, crop out over an area of 225 km2 and for the most part are shown as a single undifferentiated mass on previously published geological maps. In the present work, the plutonic assemblage is divided into eight separate intrusive units or lithodemes, two of which each consist of two separate plutons. Compositions are dominantly granodiorite and tonalite, but diorite and granite form small plutons in places. Spectacular examples of comb layering and orbicular texture occur in the diorites. U-Pb zircon ages have been obtained for all but one of the main units and range from ~120 to 114 Ma, indicating that the entire assemblage was emplaced in a narrow time frame in the Early Cretaceous. This is consistent with abundant field evidence that many of the individual phases were intruded penecontemporaneously. The timing of emplacement correlates with onset of major Cretaceous plutonism in the main part of the Sierra Nevada batholith farther south. The emplacement ages also are similar to isotopic ages for gold-quartz mineralization in the Sierran foothills west of the study area, suggesting a direct genetic relationship between the voluminous Early Cretaceous plutonism and hydrothermal gold mineralization.

  10. BUCKS LAKE AND CHIPS CREEK ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorensen, Martin L.; Linne, J. Mitchell

    1984-01-01

    The results of a mineral-resource assessment of the Bucks Lake and Chips Creek Roadless Areas, California indicate several areas with mineral-resource potential. The presence or absence of these potentially auriferous deposits can best be determined by drilling through the relatively thin cover of volcanic rocks.

  11. Evaluation of Eurasian Watermilfoil Control Techniques Using Aquatic Herbicides in Fort Peck Lake, Montana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    19 Table 3. Temperature , dissolved oxygen , pH, and wind...21 Table 4. Temperature , dissolved oxygen , and pH measured in the study plots following treatment, Fort Peck Lake, MT, 2012...quality, particularly temperature , pH, dissolved oxygen , and nutrient cycling (Prentki et al. 1979; Carpenter and Lodge 1986, Frodge et al. 1990; Boylen

  12. Occurrence of the Great Lake's most recent invader, Hemimysis anomala, in the diet of fishes in southeastern Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lantry, B.F.; Walsh, M.G.; Johnson, J. H.; McKenna, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    The Ponto-Caspian mysid, Hemimysis anomala, was first observed in southeastern Lake Ontario in May 2006. During July and August 2007, gill nets were fished in 6 to 8 m of water at two locations of known Hemimysis colonization in southeastern Lake Ontario to determine if fish that consume macroinvertebrates were beginning to include this new invasive mysid in their diets. Of nine fish species captured in August, September, and October 2007, three species had consumed Hemimysis: alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris), and yellow perch (Perca flavescens); and six species had not: round goby Apollonia melanostoma, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, spottail shiner Notropis hudsonius, gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum, white perch Morone americana and log perch Percina caprodes. Diets of alewives from all samples were composed predominantly of Hemimysis (69.6% -100% frequency of occurrence, 46.0%–74.5% dry weight diet composition). Two of 6 rock bass stomachs sampled in August contained ≥ 98.9% Hemimysis (10 and 40 individuals each) and one of 61 yellow perch stomachs sampled in September contained 10.0% Hemimysis (6 individuals) and 90.0% fish. While Hemimysis were observed only sparsely in the diet of most nearshore fish, their predominance in alewife diets and their omnivorous feeding behavior indicated that they have the potential to alter energy flow in Great Lakes' foodwebs.

  13. Geochemical evolution of Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, B.F.; Naftz, D.L.; Spencer, R.J.; Oviatt, Charles G.

    2009-01-01

    The Great Salt Lake (GSL) of Utah, USA, is the largest saline lake in North America, and its brines are some of the most concentrated anywhere in the world. The lake occupies a closed basin system whose chemistry reflects solute inputs from the weathering of a diverse suite of rocks in its drainage basin. GSL is the remnant of a much larger lacustrine body, Lake Bonneville, and it has a long history of carbonate deposition. Inflow to the lake is from three major rivers that drain mountain ranges to the east and empty into the southern arm of the lake, from precipitation directly on the lake, and from minor groundwater inflow. Outflow is by evaporation. The greatest solute inputs are from calcium bicarbonate river waters mixed with sodium chloride-type springs and groundwaters. Prior to 1930 the lake concentration inversely tracked lake volume, which reflected climatic variation in the drainage, but since then salt precipitation and re-solution, primarily halite and mirabilite, have periodically modified lake-brine chemistry through density stratification and compositional differentiation. In addition, construction of a railway causeway has restricted circulation, nearly isolating the northern from the southern part of the lake, leading to halite precipitation in the north. These and other conditions have created brine differentiation, mixing, and fractional precipitation of salts as major factors in solute evolution. Pore fluids and diagenetic reactions have been identified as important sources and especially sinks for CaCO3, Mg, and K in the lake, depending on the concentration gradient and clays. ?? U.S. Geological Survey 2008.

  14. Database and online map service on unstable rock slopes in Norway - From data perpetuation to public information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppikofer, Thierry; Nordahl, Bobo; Bunkholt, Halvor; Nicolaisen, Magnus; Jarna, Alexandra; Iversen, Sverre; Hermanns, Reginald L.; Böhme, Martina; Yugsi Molina, Freddy X.

    2015-11-01

    The unstable rock slope database is developed and maintained by the Geological Survey of Norway as part of the systematic mapping of unstable rock slopes in Norway. This mapping aims to detect catastrophic rock slope failures before they occur. More than 250 unstable slopes with post-glacial deformation are detected up to now. The main aims of the unstable rock slope database are (1) to serve as a national archive for unstable rock slopes in Norway; (2) to serve for data collection and storage during field mapping; (3) to provide decision-makers with hazard zones and other necessary information on unstable rock slopes for land-use planning and mitigation; and (4) to inform the public through an online map service. The database is organized hierarchically with a main point for each unstable rock slope to which several feature classes and tables are linked. This main point feature class includes several general attributes of the unstable rock slopes, such as site name, general and geological descriptions, executed works, recommendations, technical parameters (volume, lithology, mechanism and others), displacement rates, possible consequences, as well as hazard and risk classification. Feature classes and tables linked to the main feature class include different scenarios of an unstable rock slope, field observation points, sampling points for dating, displacement measurement stations, lineaments, unstable areas, run-out areas, areas affected by secondary effects, along with tables for hazard and risk classification and URL links to further documentation and references. The database on unstable rock slopes in Norway will be publicly consultable through an online map service. Factsheets with key information on unstable rock slopes can be automatically generated and downloaded for each site. Areas of possible rock avalanche run-out and their secondary effects displayed in the online map service, along with hazard and risk assessments, will become important tools for

  15. Exploring Nested Reaction Fronts to Understand How Oxygen Cracks Rocks, Carbonic and Sulfuric Acids Dissolve Rocks, and Water Transports Rocks during Weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brantley, S. L.; Gu, X.; Sullivan, P. L.; Kim, H.; Stinchcomb, G. E.; Lebedeva, M.; Balashov, V. N.

    2016-12-01

    To first order, weathering is the reaction of rocks with oxidants (oxygen, nitrate, etc.), acids (carbonic, sulfuric, and organic acids), and water. To explore weathering we have been studying the depth intervals in soils, saprolite, and weathering rock where mineral reactions are localized - "reaction fronts". We limit the study to ridges or catchments in climates where precipitation is greater than potential evapotranspiration. For example, in the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory, we observe reaction fronts that generally define very rough surfaces in 3D that mimic the land surface topography, although with lower relief. Overall, the fronts form nested curved surfaces. In Shale Hills, the deepest reaction fronts are oxidation of pyrite, and dissolution of carbonate. The carbonate is inferred to dissolve at least partly due to the sulfuric acid produced by the pyrite. In addition to pyrite, chlorite also starts to oxidize at the water table. We hypothesize that these dissolution and oxidation reactions open pores and cause microfracturing that open the rock to infiltration of advecting meteoric waters. At much shallower depths, illite is observed to dissolve. In Shale Hills, these reaction fronts - pyrite, carbonate, illite - separate over meters beneath the ridges. Such separated reaction fronts have also been observed in other fractured lithologies where oxidation is the deepest reaction and is associated with weathering-induced fractures. In contrast, in some massive mafic rocks, reaction fronts are almost co-located. By studying the geometry of reaction fronts, it may be possible to elucidate the relative importance of how oxygen cracks rocks; carbonic, organic, and sulfuric acids dissolve rocks; and water mobilizes rock materials during weathering.

  16. Hydrogeology and simulation of groundwater flow in fractured-rock aquifers of the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Physiographic Provinces, Bedford County, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCoy, Kurt J.; White, Bradley A.; Yager, Richard M.; Harlow, George E.

    2015-09-11

    A steady-state groundwater-flow simulation for Bedford County was developed to test the conceptual understanding of flow in the fractured-rock aquifers and to compute a groundwater budget for the four major drainages: James River, Smith Mountain and Leesville Lakes, Goose Creek, and Big Otter River. Model results indicate that groundwater levels mimic topography and that minimal differences in aquifer properties exist between the Proterozoic basement crystalline rocks and Late Proterozoic-Cambrian cover crystalline rocks. The Big Otter River receives 40.8 percent of the total daily groundwater outflow from fractured-rock aquifers in Bedford County; Goose Creek receives 25.8 percent, the James River receives 18.2 percent, and Smith Mountain and Leesville Lakes receive 15.2 percent. The remaining percentage of outflow is attributed to pumping from the aquifer (consumptive use).

  17. Mass Dependent Fractionation of Hg Isotopes in Source Rocks, Mineral Deposits and Spring Waters of the California Coast Ranges, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, C. N.; Kesler, S. E.; Blum, J. D.; Rytuba, J. J.

    2007-12-01

    We present here the first study of the isotopic composition of Hg in rocks, ore deposits, and active hydrothermal systems from the California Coast Ranges, one of Earth's largest Hg-depositing systems. The Franciscan Complex and Great Valley Sequence, which form the bedrock in the California Coast Ranges, are intruded and overlain by Tertiary volcanic rocks including the Clear Lake Volcanic Sequence. These rocks contain two types of Hg deposits, hot-spring deposits that form at shallow depths (<300 m) and silica-carbonate deposits that extend to greater depths (200 to 1000 m), as well as active springs and geothermal systems that release Hg to the present surface. The Franciscan Complex and Great Valley Sequence contain clastic sedimentary rocks with higher concentrations of Hg than volcanic rocks of the Clear Lake Volcanic Field. Mean Hg isotope compositions for all three rock units are similar, although the range of values in Franciscan Complex rocks is greater than in either Great Valley or Clear Lake rocks. Hot spring and silica-carbonate Hg deposits have similar average isotopic compositions that are indistinguishable from averages for the three rock units, although δ202Hg values for the Hg deposits have a greater variance than the country rocks. Precipitates from dilute spring and saline thermal waters in the area have similarly large variance and a mean δ202Hg value that is significantly lower than the ore deposits and rocks. These observations indicate there is little or no isotopic fractionation during release of Hg from its source rocks into hydrothermal solutions. Isotopic fractionation does appear to take place during transport and concentration of Hg in deposits, especially in their uppermost parts. Boiling of hydrothermal fluids is likely the most important process causing of the observed Hg isotope fractionation. This should result in the release of Hg with low δ202Hg values into the atmosphere from the top of these hydrothermal systems and a

  18. Field and laboratory investigation of acid effects on largemouth bass, rock bass, black crappie, and yellow perch

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, J.G.; Swenson, W.A.; McCormick, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    One-half of Little Rock Lake, a small seepage lake in north-central Wisconsin, was gradually acidified by additions of sulfuric acid between August 1983 and November 1990. The ambient pH (6.1) of the lake was reduced at successive 2-year intervals to pH 5.6, 5.1, and 4.7. Responses of largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, rock bass Ambloplites rupestris, black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus, and yellow perch Perca flavescens populations to the pH reductions were recorded and compared to the responses of these species during in situ bioassays and laboratory toxicity tests on embryos and larvae. Laboratory results obtained for largemouth bass and rock bassmore » underestimated, black crappie results overestimated, and yellow perch results were similar to effects observed in field studies. In situ bioassays predicted field responses better than did laboratory toxicity tests. Laboratory results showed that monomeric Al concentrations of approximately 50 microgram/l, which were comparable to Al concentrations in the acidified half of the lake, altered low-pH toxicity. Reduced recruitment was observed in field populations at higher pH than that at which adult mortality was observed. The results indicate that laboratory toxicity tests with early life stages may not accurately predict field population responses and that results from laboratory tests should be field-validated whenever possible.« less

  19. Professor M. M. Protod’yakonov’s Strength Coefficient f of Rocks,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-12

    of rock strengths. Prof. A. F. Sukhanov citpd such arguments as the fact that clay is easy to drill but difficult to blast hbile granite is equally...two rocks. on the basis of theste exauFles A. F. Sukhanov concluded that the coefficients of drillability and blastability are not equal and are nct...his work (6] A. F. Sukhanov gives a consoliditcea table (32) of varicus indicas of mechanical properties of rocks. The coefficient of relative strength

  20. Greigite (Fe3S4) as an indicator of drought - The 1912-1994 sediment magnetic record from White Rock Lake, Dallas, Texas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, R.L.; Rosenbaum, J.G.; Van Metre, P.; Tuttle, M.; Callender, E.; Goldin, A.

    1999-01-01

    Combined magnetic and geochemical studies were conducted on sediments from White Rock Lake, a reservoir in suburban Dallas (USA), to investigate how land use has affected sediment and water quality since the reservoir was filled in 1912. The chronology of a 167-cm-long core is constrained by the recognition of the pre-reservoir surface and by 137Cs results. In the reservoir sediments, magnetic susceptibility (MS) and isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) are largely carried by detrital titanomagnetite that originally formed in igneous rocks. Titanomagnetite and associated hematite are the dominant iron oxides in a sample from the surficial deposit in the watershed but are absent in the underlying Austin Chalk. Therefore, these minerals were transported by wind into the watershed. After about 1960, systematic decreases in Ti, Fe, and Al suggest diminished input of detrital Fe-Ti oxides from the surficial deposits. MS and IRM remain constant over this interval, however, implying compensation by an increase in strongly magnetic material derived from human activity. Anthropogenic magnetite in rust and ferrite spherules (from fly ash?) are more common in sediment deposited after about 1970 than before and may account for the constant magnetization despite the implied decrease in detrital Fe-Ti oxides. An unexpected finding is the presence of authigenic greigite (Fe3S4), the abundance of which is at least partly controlled by climate. Greigite is common in sediments that predate about 1975, with zones of concentration indicated by relatively high IRM/MS. High greigite contents in sediment deposited during the early to mid-1950s and during the mid-1930s correspond to several-year periods of below-average precipitation and drought from historical records. Relatively long water-residence times in the reservoir during these periods may have led to elevated levels of sulfate available for bacterial sulfate reduction. The sulfate was probably derived via the oxidation of

  1. Water alteration of rocks and soils on Mars at the Spirit rover site in Gusev crater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haskin, L.A.; Wang, A.; Jolliff, B.L.; McSween, H.Y.; Clark, B. C.; Des Marais, D.J.; McLennan, S.M.; Tosca, N.J.; Hurowitz, J.A.; Farmer, J.D.; Yen, A.; Squyres, S. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Klingelhofer, G.; Schroder, C.; De Souza, P.A.; Ming, D. W.; Gellert, Ralf; Zipfel, J.; Brückner, J.; Bell, J.F.; Herkenhoff, K.; Christensen, P.R.; Ruff, S.; Blaney, D.; Gorevan, S.; Cabrol, N.A.; Crumpler, L.; Grant, J.; Soderblom, L.

    2005-01-01

    Gusev crater was selected as the landing site for the Spirit rover because of the possibility that it once held a lake. Thus one of the rover's tasks was to search for evidence of lake sediments. However, the plains at the landing site were found to be covered by a regolith composed of olivine-rich basaltic rock and wind-blown 'global' dust. The analyses of three rock interiors exposed by the rock abrasion tool showed that they are similar to one another, consistent with having originated from a common lava flow. Here we report the investigation of soils, rock coatings and rock interiors by the Spirit rover from sol (martian day) 1 to sol 156, from its landing site to the base of the Columbia hills. The physical and chemical characteristics of the materials analysed provide evidence for limited but unequivocal interaction between water and the volcanic rocks of the Gusev plains. This evidence includes the softness of rock interiors that contain anomalously high concentrations of sulphur, chlorine and bromine relative to terrestrial basalts and martian meteorites; sulphur, chlorine and ferric iron enrichments in multilayer coatings on the light-toned rock Mazatzal; high bromine concentration in filled vugs and veins within the plains basalts; positive correlations between magnesium, sulphur and other salt components in trench soils; and decoupling of sulphur, chlorine and bromine concentrations in trench soils compared to Gusev surface soils, indicating chemical mobility and separation.

  2. Levels of Plant Available Phosphorus in Agricultural Soils in the Lake Erie Drainage Basin.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-12-01

    total P tributary load to Lake Erie is in the form of Tsediment-P and most of the sediment -P is of surficial soil origin. Total P load can be related...extremely high ranges can be attributed to 1) and 2) above. Lake Erie counties in Ontario were identified (Figure 3 ) and published reports of the...M-I -28- -tq 𔃾 way.’ .*..... . .. .. ... oi 111 1111; l -29- Table 8 Available-P in Ontario soils in Lake Erie Basin counties Available*-P (ug/g

  3. Rapid radiation, ancient incomplete lineage sorting and ancient hybridization in the endemic Lake Tanganyika cichlid tribe Tropheini.

    PubMed

    Koblmüller, Stephan; Egger, Bernd; Sturmbauer, Christian; Sefc, Kristina M

    2010-04-01

    The evolutionary history of the endemic Lake Tanganyika cichlid tribe Tropheini, the sister group of the species flocks of Lake Malawi and the Lake Victoria region, was reconstructed from 2009 bp DNA sequence of two mitochondrial genes (ND2 and control region) and from 1293 AFLP markers. A period of rapid cladogenesis at the onset of the diversification of the Tropheini produced a multitude of specialized, predominantly rock-dwelling aufwuchs-feeders that now dominate in Lake Tanganyika's shallow habitat. Nested within the stenotopic rock-dwellers is a monophyletic group of species, which also utilize more sediment-rich habitat. Most of the extant species date back to at least 0.7 million years ago. Several instances of disagreement between AFLP and mtDNA tree topology are attributed to ancient incomplete lineage sorting, introgression and hybridization. A large degree of correspondence between AFLP clustering and trophic types indicated fewer cases of parallel evolution of trophic ecomorphology than previously inferred from mitochondrial data. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Exotic scolytids of the Great Lakes region

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Haack

    2001-01-01

    There are at least 44 exotic species of Scolytidae established in North America north of Mexico, of which 16 species can be found in the Great Lakes region (see Table). Scolytids occupy many niches, but the two most common groups are the true bark beetles and the ambrosia beetles (Poland and Haack 1998). Adult bark beetles, as their name implies, construct galleries...

  5. Dendrochronology and lakes: using tree-rings of alder to reconstruct lake levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Maaten, Ernst; Buras, Allan; Scharnweber, Tobias; Simard, Sonia; Kaiser, Knut; Lorenz, Sebastian; van der Maaten-Theunissen, Marieke; Wilmking, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Climate change is considered a major threat for ecosystems around the world. Assessing its effects is challenging, amongst others, as we are unsure how ecosystems may respond to climate conditions they were not exposed to before. However, increased insight may be obtained by analyzing responses of ecosystems to past climate variability. In this respect, lake ecosystems appear as valuable sentinels, because they provide direct and indirect indicators of change through effects of climate. Lake-level fluctuations of closed catchments, for example, reflect a dynamic water balance, provide detailed insight in past moisture variations, and thereby allow for assessments of effects of anticipated climate change. Up to now, lake-level data are mostly obtained from gauging records and reconstructions from sediments and landforms. However, these records are in many cases only available over relatively short time periods, and, since geoscientific work is highly demanding, lake-level reconstructions are lacking for many regions. Here, we present and discuss an alternative method to reconstruct lake levels, which is based on tree-ring data of black alder (Alnus glutinosa L.). This tree species tolerates permanently waterlogged and temporally flooded conditions (i.e. riparian vegetation), and is often found along lakeshores. As the yearly growth of trees varies depending upon the experienced environmental conditions, annual rings of black alder from lakeshore vegetation likely capture information on variations in water table, and may therefore be used to reconstruct lake levels. Although alder is a relatively short-lived tree species, the frequent use of its' decay-resistant wood in foundations of historical buildings offers the possibility of extending living tree-chronologies back in time for several centuries. In this study, the potential to reconstruct lake-level fluctuations from tree-ring chronologies of black alder is explored for three lake ecosystems in the Mecklenburg

  6. Research of Radionuclides Migrating in Porous Media Allowing for the "Solution-Rock" Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozhko, E.; Aleksakhin, A. I.; Samsanova, L.; Kotchergina, N.; Zinin, A.

    2001-12-01

    Industrial solutions from the surface storage of liquid radioactive waste in Lake Karachay, near the Mayak Production Association in Russia, enter groundwaters through the reservoir loamy bed and have formed a contaminated groundwater plume. In order to predict radionuclide migration with the groundwater flow in porous unconsolidated rocks and to assess the protective mechanism of the natural environment, it is necessary to allow for the "solution-rock" physical and chemical interaction described by the distribution factor (Kd). In order to study radionuclide distribution in porous media, a numerical model was developed which models stontium-90 migration in a uniform unit of loams typical for the Karachay Lake bed. For the migration to be calculated, the results of the in situ and laboratory reasearch on strontium-90 sorption and desorption were used in the code, as well as strontium-90 dependance on sodium nitrate concentration in the solution. The code uses various models of the "solution-rock" interaction, taking into account both sorption/desorption and diffusion processes. Numerical research of strontium-90 migration resulted in data on strontium-90 distribution in solid and liquid phases of the porous loam unit over different time periods. Various models of the "solution-rock" interaction affecting strontium-90 migration are demonstrated.

  7. A field and laboratory investigation of acid effects on largemouth bass, rock bass, black crappie, and yellow perch

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, J.G.; McCormick, J.H.; Swenson, W.A.

    1992-09-01

    One-half of Little Rock Lake, a small seepage lake in north-central Wisconsin, was gradually acidified by additions of sulfuric acid between August 1983 and November 1990. The ambient pH (6.1) of the lake was reduced at successive 2-year intervals to pH 5.6, 5.1, and 4.7. Responses of largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, rock bass Ambloplites rupestris, black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus, and yellow perch Perca flavescens populations to the pH reductions were recorded and compared to the responses of these species during in situ bioassays and laboratory toxicity tests on embryos and larvae. Laboratory results obtained for largemouth bass and rock bassmore » underestimated, black crappie results overestimated, and yellow perch results were similar to effects observed in field studies. In situ bioassays predicted field responses better than did laboratory toxicity tests. Laboratory results showed that monomeric Al concentrations of approximately 50 [mu]g/L, which were comparable to Al concentrations in the acidified half of the lake, altered low-pH toxicity. Reduced recruitment was observed in field populations at higher pH than that at which adult mortality was observed. The results indicate that laboratory toxicity tests with early life stages may not accurately predict field population responses and that results from laboratory tests should be field-validated whenever possible. 42 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.« less

  8. Summit Lake landslide and geomorphic history of Summit Lake basin, northwestern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curry, B. Brandon; Melhorn, W.N.

    1990-01-01

    The Summit Lake landslide, northwestern Nevada, composed of Early Miocene pyroclastic debris, Ashdown Tuff, and basalt and rhyolite of the Black Rock Range, blocked the upper Soldier Creek-Snow Creek drainage and impounded Summit Lake sometimes prior to 7840 yr B.P. The slide covers 8.2 km2 and has geomorphic features characteristic of long run-out landslides, such as lobate form, longitudinal and transverse ridges, low surface gradient (7.1 ??), and preservation of original stratigraphic position of transported blocks. However, estimated debris volume is the smallest reported (2.5 ?? 105 m3) for a landslide of this type. The outflow channel of the Summit Lake basin was a northward-flowing stream valley entrenched by Mahogany Creek. Subsequent negative tectonic adjustment of the basin by about 35 m, accompanied by concommitant progradation of a prominent alluvial fan deposited by Mahogany Creek, argues for a probable diversion of drainage from the Alvord basin southward into the Lahontan basin. The landslide occurred while the creek flowed southward, transferring about 147 km2 of watershed from the Lahontan basin back to the Alvord basin. Overflow northward occurred during high stands of Pluvial Lake Parman in the basin; otherwise, under drier climates, the Summit Lake basin has been closed. Within large depressions on the slide surface, the ca. 6800 yr old Mazama Bed and other sediments have buried a weakly developed soil. Disseminated humus in the soil yields an age of 7840 ?? 310 yr B.P. Absence of older tephra (such as St. Helens M) brackets the slide age between 7840 and 19,000 yr B.P. Projectile points found on the highest strandlines of Pluvial Lake Parman suggest a ca 8700 yr B.P. age by correlation with cultural artifacts and radiocarbon ages from nearby Last Supper Cave, Nevada. Organic matter accumulation in landslide soils suggests ages ranging from 9100 to 16,250 yr B.P. Estimation of the age of the slide from morphologic data for the isolated Summit

  9. Intrusive Rock Database for the Digital Geologic Map of Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nutt, C.J.; Ludington, Steve

    2003-01-01

    Digital geologic maps offer the promise of rapid and powerful answers to geologic questions using Geographic Information System software (GIS). Using modern GIS and database methods, a specialized derivative map can be easily prepared. An important limitation can be shortcomings in the information provided in the database associated with the digital map, a database which is often based on the legend of the original map. The purpose of this report is to show how the compilation of additional information can, when prepared as a database that can be used with the digital map, be used to create some types of derivative maps that are not possible with the original digital map and database. This Open-file Report consists of computer files with information about intrusive rocks in Utah that can be linked to the Digital Geologic Map of Utah (Hintze et al., 2000), an explanation of how to link the databases and map, and a list of references for the databases. The digital map, which represents the 1:500,000-scale Geologic Map of Utah (Hintze, 1980), can be obtained from the Utah Geological Survey (Map 179DM). Each polygon in the map has a unique identification number. We selected the polygons identified on the geologic map as intrusive rock, and constructed a database (UT_PLUT.xls) that classifies the polygons into plutonic map units (see tables). These plutonic map units are the key information that is used to relate the compiled information to the polygons on the map. The map includes a few polygons that were coded as intrusive on the state map but are largely volcanic rock; in these cases we note the volcanic rock names (rhyolite and latite) as used in the original sources Some polygons identified on the digital state map as intrusive rock were misidentified; these polygons are noted in a separate table of the database, along with some information about their true character. Fields may be empty because of lack of information from references used or difficulty in finding

  10. Chapter 39 The Edwardsburg Formation and related rocks, Windermere Supergroup, central Idaho, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lund, Karen; Evans, Karl V.; Alienikoff, John N.

    2011-01-01

    In central Idaho, Neoproterozoic stratified rocks are engulfed by the Late Cretaceous Idaho batholith and by Eocene volcanic and plutonic rocks of the Challis event. Studied sections in the Gospel Peaks and Big Creek areas of west-central Idaho are in roof pendants of the Idaho batholith. A drill core section studied from near Challis, east-central Idaho, lies beneath the Challis Volcanic Group and is not exposed at the surface. Metamorphic and deformational overprinting, as well as widespread dismembering by the younger igneous rocks, conceals many primary details. Despite this, these rocks provide important links for regional correlations and have produced critical geochronological data for two Neoproterozoic glacial periods in the North American Cordillera. At the base of the section, the more than 700-m-thick Edwardsburg Formation (Fm.) contains interlayered diamictite and volcanic rocks. There are two diamictite-bearing members in the Edwardsburg Fm. that are closely related in time. Each of the diamictites is associated with intermediate composition tuff or flow rocks and the diamictites are separated by mafic volcanic rocks. SHRIMP U–Pb dating indicates that the lower diamictite is about 685±7 Ma, whereas the upper diamictite is 684±4 Ma. The diamictite units are part of a cycle of rocks from coarse clastic, to fine clastic, to carbonate rocks that, by correlation to better preserved sections, are thought to record an older Cryogenian glacial to interglacial period in the northern US Cordillera. The more than 75-m-thick diamictite of Daugherty Gulch is dated at 664±6 Ma. This unit is preserved only in drill core and the palaeoenvironmental interpretation and local stratigraphic relations are non-unique. Thus, the date for this diamictite may provide a date for a newly recognized glaciogenic horizon or may be a minimum age for the diamictite in the Edwardsburg Fm. The c. 1000-m-thick Moores Lake Fm. is an amphibolite facies diamictite in which glacial

  11. The geometry of folds in granitoid rocks of northeastern Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willem Langenberg, C.; Ramsden, John

    1980-06-01

    Granitoid rocks which predominate in the Precambrian shield of northeastern Alberta show large-scale fold structures. A numerical procedure has been used to obtain modal foliation orientations. This procedure results in the smoothing of folded surfaces that show roughness on a detailed scale. Statistical tests are used to divide the study areas into cylindrical domains. Structural sections can be obtained for each domain, and horizontal and vertical sections are used to construct block diagrams. The projections are performed numerically and plotted by computer. This method permits blocks to be viewed from every possible angle. Both perspective and orthographic projections can be produced. The geometries of a dome in the Tulip Lake area and a synform in the Hooker Lake area have been obtained. The domal structure is compared with polyphase deformational interference patterns and with experimental diapiric structures obtained in a centrifuge system. The synform in the Hooker Lake area may be genetically related to the doming in the Tulip Lake area.

  12. Hydrothermal mobilization of pegmatite-hosted REE and Zr at Strange Lake, Canada: A reaction path model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gysi, Alexander P.; Williams-Jones, Anthony E.

    2013-12-01

    Petrological and geochemical observations of pegmatites in the Strange Lake pluton, Canada, have been combined with numerical simulations to improve our understanding of fluid-rock interaction in peralkaline granitic systems. In particular, they have made it possible to evaluate reaction paths responsible for hydrothermal mobilization and mineralization of rare earth elements (REE) and Zr. The focus of the study was the B-Zone in the northwest of the pluton, which contains a pegmatite swarm and is the target of exploration for an economically exploitable REE deposit. Many of the pegmatites are mineralogically zoned into a border consisting of variably altered primary K-feldspar, arfvedsonite, quartz, and zirconosilicates, and a core rich in quartz, fluorite and exotic REE minerals. Textural relationships indicate that the primary silicate minerals in the pegmatites were leached and/or replaced during acidic alteration by K-, Fe- and Al-phyllosilicates, aegirine, hematite, fluorite and/or quartz, and that primary zirconosilicates (e.g., elpidite) were replaced by gittinsite and/or zircon. Reaction textures recording coupled dissolution of silicate minerals and crystallization of secondary REE-silicates indicate hydrothermal mobilization of the REE. The mobility of the light (L)REE was limited by the stability of REE-F-(CO2)-minerals (basnäsite-(Ce) and fluocerite-(Ce)), whereas zirconosilicates and secondary gadolinite-group minerals controlled the mobility of Zr and the heavy (H)REE. Hydrothermal fluorite and fluorite-fluocerite-(Ce) solid solutions are interpreted to indicate the former presence of F-bearing saline fluids in the pegmatites. Numerical simulations show that the mobilization of REE and Zr in saline HCl-HF-bearing fluids is controlled by pH, ligand activity and temperature. Mobilization of Zr is significant in both saline HF- and HCl-HF-bearing fluids at low temperature (250 °C). In contrast, the REE are mobilized by saline HCl-bearing fluids

  13. Lake sturgeon response to a spawning reef constructed in the Detroit river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roseman, Edward F.; Manny, B.; Boase, J.; Child, M.; Kennedy, G.; Craig, J.; Soper, K.; Drouin, R.

    2011-01-01

    Prior to the First World War, the bi-national Detroit River provided vast areas of functional fish spawning and nursery habitat. However, ongoing conflicting human uses of these waters for activities such as waste disposal, water withdrawals, shoreline development, shipping, recreation, and fishing have altered many of the chemical, physical, and biological processes of the Detroit River. Of particular interest and concern to resource managers and stakeholders is the significant loss and impairment of fish spawning and nursery habitat that led to the decline in abundance of most fish species using this ecosystem. Lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) populations for example, were nearly extirpated by the middle of the 20th century, leaving only a small fraction of their former population. Fisheries managers recognized that the loss of suitable fish spawning habitat is a limiting factor in lake sturgeon population rehabilitation in the Detroit River. In efforts to remediate this beneficial water use impairment, a reef consisting of a mixture of natural rock and limestone was constructed at the upstream end of Fighting Island in 2008. This paper focuses on the response by lake sturgeon to the different replicates of suitable natural materials used to construct the fish spawning habitat at Fighting Island in the Detroit River. Pre-construction fisheries assessment during 2006–2008 showed that along with the presence of adult lake sturgeon, spawning conditions were favorable. However, no eggs were found in assessments conducted prior to reef construction. The 3300 m2 Fighting Island reef was placed at the upstream end of the island in October of 2008. The construction design included 12 spawning beds of three replicates each consisting of either round rock, small or large (shot-rock) diameter limestone or a mixture thereof. An observed response by spawning lake sturgeon occurred the following year when spawning-ready adults (ripe), viable eggs, and larvae were

  14. Seismic activity noted at Medicine Lake Highlands

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, D.

    1988-12-01

    The sudden rumble of earthquakes beneath Medicine Lake Highlands this fall gave geologists an early warning that one of Northern California's volcanoes may be stirring back to life. Researchers stressed that an eruption of the volcano is not expected soon. But the flurry of underground shocks in late September, combined with new evidence of a pool of molten rock beneath the big volcano, has led them to monitor Medicine Lake with new wariness. The volcano has been dormant since 1910, when it ejected a brief flurry of ash - worrying no one. A federal team plans to take measurements ofmore » Medicine Lake, testing for changes in its shape caused by underground pressures. The work is scheduled for spring because snows have made the volcano inaccessible. But the new seismic network is an effective lookout, sensitive to very small increases in activity.« less

  15. Possible Signs of Ancient Drying in Martian Rock

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-17

    A grid of small polygons on the Martian rock surface near the right edge of this view may have originated as cracks in drying mud more than 3 billion years ago. Multiple images from the Mast Camera (Mastcam) on NASA's Curiosity Mars rover were combined for this mosaic of a block called "Squid Cove" and its immediate surroundings. The location is within an exposure of Murray formation mudstone on lower Mount Sharp inside Gale Crater. Mastcam's right-eye camera, which has a telephoto lens, took the component images of this view on Dec. 20, 2016, during the 1,555th Martian day, or sol, of Curiosity's work on Mars. The rover drove farther uphill on Gale Crater before the possible mud cracks were detected in the Mastcam images. This possible evidence about the area's ancient environment prompted the rover mission to backtrack for closer inspection of Squid Cove and nearby target rocks. This scene is presented with a color adjustment that approximates white balancing, to resemble how the rocks and sand would appear under daytime lighting conditions on Earth. The polygons are about half an inch to 1 inch (about 1 to 2 centimeters) across. Figure 1 includes a scale bar of 30 centimeters (12 inches). The polygons are outlined by ridges. This could result from a three-step process after cracks form due to drying: Wind-blown sediments accumulate in the open cracks. Later, these sediments and the dried mud become rock under the pressure of multiple younger layers that accumulate on top of them. Most recently, after the overlying layers were eroded away by wind, the vein-filling material resists erosion better than the once-muddy material, so the pattern that began as cracks appears as ridges. Mud cracks would be evidence of a drying interval between wetter periods that supported lakes in the area. Curiosity has found evidence of ancient lakes in older, lower-lying rock layers and also in younger mudstone that is above Squid Cove. http

  16. GROUND WATER QUALITY SURROUNDING LAKE TEXOMA DURING SHORT-TERM DROUGHT CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality data from 55 monitoring wells during drought conditions surrounding Lake Texoma, located on the border of Oklahoma and Texas, was compared to assess the influence of drought on groundwater quality. During the drought month of October, water table levels were three ...

  17. Geology and ground-water resources of Rock County, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LeRoux, E.F.

    1964-01-01

    Rock County is in south-central Wisconsin adjacent to the Illinois State line. The county has an area of about 723 square miles and had a population of about 113,000 in 1957 ; it is one of the leading agricultural and industrial counties in the State. The total annual precipitation averages about 32 inches, and the mean annual temperature is about 48 ? F. Land-surface altitudes are generally between 800 and 00 feet, but range from 731 feet, where the Rock River flows into Illinois, to above 1,080 feet, at several places in the northwestern part of the county. The northern part of Rock County consists of the hills and kettles of a terminal moraine which slopes southward to a flat, undissected outwash plain. The southeastern part of the county is an area of gentle slopes, whereas the southwestern part consists of steep-sided valleys and ridges. Rock County is within the drainage basin of the Rock River, which flows southward through the center of the county. The western and southwestern parts of ,the county are drained by the Sugar River und Coon Creek, both of which flow into the Pecatonica River in Illinois and thence into the Rock River. The southeastern part of the county is drained by Turtle Creek, which also flows into Illinois before joining the Rock River. Nearly all the lakes and ponds are in the northern one-third of the county, the area of most recent glaciation. The aquifers in Rock County are of sedimentary origin and include deeply buried sandstones, shales, and dolomites of the Upper Cambrian series. This series overlies crystalline rocks of Precambrian age and supplies water to all the cities and villages in the county. The St. Peter sandstone of Ordovician age underlies all Rock County except where the formation has been removed by erosion in the Rock and Sugar River valleys, and perhaps in Coon Creek valley. The St. Peter sandstone is the principal source of water for domestic, stock, and small industrial wells in the western half of the county

  18. Origin and evolution of Sariñena Lake (central Ebro Basin): A piping-based model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castañeda, Carmen; Javier Gracia, F.; Rodríguez-Ochoa, Rafael; Zarroca, Mario; Roqué, Carles; Linares, Rogelio; Desir, Gloria

    2017-08-01

    The origin and nature of the numerous lakes in the central Ebro Basin have been interpreted according to the prevailing arid or semiarid conditions, the easily-eroded materials and the solubility of the gypsum- and/or carbonate-rich Tertiary/Cenozoic substratum, involving important dissolution (karstic) and/or aeolian deflation. However, the origin of Sariñena Lake, the largest in the central Ebro Basin, remains unknown since the typical lake-generating processes in the region are not applicable. This work provides significant clues to the genesis and evolution of Sariñena Lake in a regional context. The combination of geomorphological mapping and high resolution LiDAR data together with sedimentological observations, the characterisation of soils and sediments around the lake, and the application of high-resolution geophysical techniques suggest that piping is the major genetic process driving the evolution of the Sariñena depression and lake. Field evidence demonstrates that piping is, at present, the most important erosive process in the region, generating significant collapse and surface lowering. Sariñena Lake is located within a deep endorheic depression excavated from Na-rich Tertiary materials. This work hypothesises that once an early, fluvially-originated palustrine area had developed, the progressive lowering of the regional water table linked to regional fluvial incision favoured the establishment of a hydrological gradient high enough to trigger piping processes within the claystones and siltstones underlying the original palustrine area. The Quaternary evolution of the Sariñena lacustrine basin was then controlled by successive water table fluctuations, linked to different phases of incision and alluvial deposition in the surrounding fluvial systems. All the evidence supporting a piping-related origin for this lake, together with examples of lakes generated by similar processes in different contexts, is used to propose a new genetic type of

  19. Satellite Monitoring of Pakistan's Rockslide-Dammed Lake Gojal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargel, Jeffrey S.; Leonard, Gregory; Crippen, Robert E.; Delaney, Keith B.; Evans, Stephen G.; Schneider, Jean

    2010-10-01

    On 4 January 2010, a rockslide 1200 meters long, 350 meters wide, and 125 meters high dammed the Hunza River in Attabad, northern Pakistan, and formed Lake Gojal. The initial mass movement of rock killed 20 people and submerged several villages and 22 kilometers of the strategic Karakoram Highway linking Pakistan and China. Tens of thousands of people were displaced or cut off from overland connection with the rest of the country. On 29 May, the lake overflow began to pour through a spillway excavated by Pakistani authorities. On approximately 20 July, the lake attained a maximum depth of 119 meters and a torrent at least 9 meters deep issued over the spillway, according to Pakistan's National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA). To date, the natural dam is holding and eroding slowly. However, the threat of a catastrophic outburst flood remains.

  20. Hazard Map in Huaraz-Peru due to a Glacial Lake Outburst Flood from Palcacocha Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somos-Valenzuela, M. A.; Chisolm, R. E.; McKinney, D. C.; Rivas, D.

    2013-12-01

    Palcacocha lake is located in the Ancash Region in the Cordillera Blanca at an elevation of 4,567 m in the Quilcay sub-basin, province of Huaraz, Peru. The lake drains into the Quebrada Cojup, which subsequently drains into the Quilcay River. The Quilcay River passes through the City of Huaraz emptying its water into the Santa River, which is the primary river of the basin. This location has a special interest since the city of Huaraz, which is located at the bottom of the Quilcay sub-basin, was devastated by a glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) released from Lake Palcacocha on December 13, 1941. In that event, many lost their lives. In recent years Palcacocha has grown to the point where the lake is once again dangerous. Ice/rock avalanches from the steep surrounding slopes can now directly reach the lake. A process chain of debris flow and hyper-concentrated flow from Lake Palcacocha could easily reach the city of Huaraz with the current lake volume. Local authorities and people living in Huaraz are concerned about the threat posed by Lake Palcacocha, and consequently they have requested technical support in order to investigate the impacts that a GLOF could have in the city of Huaraz. To assess the hazard for the city of Huaraz a holistic approach is used that considers a chain of processes that could interact in a GLOF event from Lake Palcacocha. We assume that an avalanche from Palcaraju glacier, located directly above the lake, could be a GLOF trigger, followed by the formation of waves in the lake that can overtop the damming moraine starting an erosive process. The wave and avalanche simulations are described in another work, and here we use those results to simulate the propagation of the inundation downstream using FLO-2D, a model that allows us to include debris flow. GLOF hydrographs are generated using a dam break module in Mike 11. Empirical equations are used to calculate the hydrograph peaks and calibrate the inundation model. In order to quantify

  1. The rocks of Gusev Crater as viewed by the Mini-TES instrument

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruff, S.W.; Christensen, P.R.; Blaney, D.L.; Farrand, W. H.; Johnson, J. R.; Michalski, J.R.; Moersch, J.E.; Wright, S.P.; Squyres, S. W.

    2006-01-01

    The Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) on board the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit is part of a payload designed to investigate whether a lake once existed in Gusev Crater. Mini-TES has observed hundreds of rocks along the rover's traverse into the Columbia Hills, yielding information on their distribution, bulk mineralogy, and the potential role of water at the site. Although dust in various forms produces contributions to the spectra, we have established techniques for dealing with it. All of the rocks encountered on the plains traverse from the lander to the base of the Columbia Hills share common spectral features consistent with an olivine-rich basaltic rock known as Adirondack Class. Beginning at the base of the West Spur of the Columbia Hills and across its length, the rocks are spectrally distinct from the plains but can be grouped into a common type called Clovis Class. These rocks, some of which appear as in-place outcrop, are dominated by a component whose spectral character is consistent with unaltered basaltic glass despite evidence from other rover instruments for significant alteration. The northwest flank of Husband Hill is covered in float rocks known as Wishstone Class with spectral features that can be attributed uniquely to plagioclase feldspar, a phase that represents more than half of the bulk mineralogy. Rare exceptions are three classes of basaltic "exotics" found scattered across Husband Hill that may represent impact ejecta and/or float derived from local intrusions within the hills. The rare outcrops observed on Husband Hill display distinctive spectral characteristics. The outcrop called Peace shows a feature attributable to molecular bound water, and the outcrop that hosts the rock called Watchtower displays a dominant basaltic glass component. Despite evidence from the rover's payload for significant alteration of some of the rocks, no unambiguous detection of crystalline phyllosilicates or other secondary silicates has

  2. Isotope geochemistry of mercury in source rocks, mineral deposits and spring deposits of the California Coast Ranges, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Christopher N.; Kesler, Stephen E.; Blum, Joel D.; Rytuba, James J.

    2008-05-01

    We present here the first study of the isotopic composition of mercury in rocks, ore deposits, and active spring deposits from the California Coast Ranges, a part of Earth's crust with unusually extensive evidence of mercury mobility and enrichment. The Franciscan Complex and Great Valley Sequence, which form the bedrock in the California Coast Ranges, are intruded and overlain by Tertiary volcanic rocks including the Clear Lake Volcanic Sequence. These rocks contain two types of mercury deposits, hot-spring deposits that form at shallow depths (< 300 m) and silica-carbonate deposits that extend to depths of 1000 m. Active springs and geothermal areas continue to precipitate Hg and Au and are modern analogues to the fossil hydrothermal systems preserved in the ore deposits. The Franciscan Complex and Great Valley Sequence contain clastic sedimentary rocks with higher concentrations of mercury than volcanic rocks of the Clear Lake Volcanic Field. Mean mercury isotopic compositions ( δ202Hg) for all three rock units are similar, although the range of values in Franciscan Complex rocks is greater than in either Great Valley or Clear Lake rocks. Hot spring and silica-carbonate mercury deposits have similar average mercury isotopic compositions that are indistinguishable from averages for the three rock units, although δ202Hg values for the mercury deposits have a greater variance than the country rocks. Precipitates from spring and geothermal waters in the area have similarly large variance and a mean δ202Hg value that is significantly lower than the ore deposits and rocks. These observations indicate that there is little or no isotopic fractionation (< ± 0.5‰) during release of mercury from its source rocks into hydrothermal solutions. Isotopic fractionation does appear to take place during transport and concentration of mercury in deposits, however, especially in their uppermost parts. Boiling of hydrothermal fluids, separation of a mercury-bearing CO 2 vapor

  3. Isotope geochemistry of mercury in source rocks, mineral deposits and spring deposits of the California Coast Ranges, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, C.N.; Kesler, S.E.; Blum, J.D.; Rytuba, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    We present here the first study of the isotopic composition of mercury in rocks, ore deposits, and active spring deposits from the California Coast Ranges, a part of Earth's crust with unusually extensive evidence of mercury mobility and enrichment. The Franciscan Complex and Great Valley Sequence, which form the bedrock in the California Coast Ranges, are intruded and overlain by Tertiary volcanic rocks including the Clear Lake Volcanic Sequence. These rocks contain two types of mercury deposits, hot-spring deposits that form at shallow depths (< 300??m) and silica-carbonate deposits that extend to depths of 1000??m. Active springs and geothermal areas continue to precipitate Hg and Au and are modern analogues to the fossil hydrothermal systems preserved in the ore deposits. The Franciscan Complex and Great Valley Sequence contain clastic sedimentary rocks with higher concentrations of mercury than volcanic rocks of the Clear Lake Volcanic Field. Mean mercury isotopic compositions (??202Hg) for all three rock units are similar, although the range of values in Franciscan Complex rocks is greater than in either Great Valley or Clear Lake rocks. Hot spring and silica-carbonate mercury deposits have similar average mercury isotopic compositions that are indistinguishable from averages for the three rock units, although ??202Hg values for the mercury deposits have a greater variance than the country rocks. Precipitates from spring and geothermal waters in the area have similarly large variance and a mean ??202Hg value that is significantly lower than the ore deposits and rocks. These observations indicate that there is little or no isotopic fractionation (< ?? 0.5???) during release of mercury from its source rocks into hydrothermal solutions. Isotopic fractionation does appear to take place during transport and concentration of mercury in deposits, however, especially in their uppermost parts. Boiling of hydrothermal fluids, separation of a mercury-bearing CO2 vapor

  4. Partitioning and bioavailability of mercury in an experimentally acidified Wisconsin lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiener, James G.; Fitzgerald, William F.; Watras, Carl J.; Rada, Ronald G.

    1990-01-01

    We studied the partitioning of mercury (Hg) among air, water, sediments and fish at Little Rock Lake, a clear water seepage lake in north-central Wisconsin. The lake was divided with a sea curtain into two basins, one acidified with sulfuric acid to pH 5.6 for two years and the other an untreated reference site (mean pH 6.1), to document the effects of acidification. Trace-metal-free protocols were used to measure Hg at the picomolar level in air and water. Total gaseous Hg in air samples averaged 2.0 ng/m3. Total Hg in unfiltered water samples collected in 1986 after the fall overturn averaged about 1 ng/L in the acidified and reference basins. Mercury in surficial sediments was strongly correlated with volatile matter content and ranged from 10 to about 170 ng/g (dry weight) in both basins. Total Hg concentrations in whole, calendar age-1 yellow perch (Perca flavescens), sampled after one year of residence in the lake, averaged 114 ng/g (fresh weight) in the reference basin and 135 ng/g in the acidified basin – a highly significant (p < 0.01) difference. The mean whole-body burden (quantity) of Hg in age-1 perch did not differ between basins after the first year, but was significantly greater in the treatment basin than in the reference basin after the second year of acidification. Differences between the two basins in the bioaccumulation of Hg were attributed to internal (within-lake) processes that influence the bioavailability of the metal. An initial Hg budget for the treatment basin of Little Rock Lake showed that atmospheric deposition and sedimentary remobilization of Hg are potentially important processes influencing its biogeochemical cycling and uptake by fish.

  5. Comparison of the hydrogeology and water quality of a ground-water augmented lake with two non-augmented lakes in northwest Hillsborough County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Metz, Patricia A.; Sacks, Laura A.

    2002-01-01

    The hydrologic effects associated with augmenting a lake with ground water from the Upper Floridan aquifer were examined in northwest Hillsborough County, Florida, from June 1996 through May 1999. The hydrogeology, ground-water flow patterns, water budgets, and water-quality characteristics were compared between a lake that has been augmented for more than 30 years (Round Lake) and two nearby nonaugmented lakes (Dosson Lake and Halfmoon Lake). Compared to the other study lakes, Round Lake is in a more leakage-dominated hydrogeologic setting. The intermediate confining unit is thin or highly breached, which increases the potential for vertical ground-water flow. Round Lake has the least amount of soft, organic lake-bottom sediments and the lake bottom has been dredged deeper and more extensively than the other study lakes, which could allow more leakage from the lake bottom. The area around Round Lake has experienced more sinkhole activity than the other study lakes. During this study, three sinkholes developed around the perimeter of the lake, which may have further disrupted the intermediate confining unit.Ground-water flow patterns around Round Lake were considerably different than the nonaugmented lakes. For most of the study, groundwater augmentation artificially raised the level of Round Lake to about 2 to 3 feet higher than the adjacent water table. As a result, lake water recharged the surficial aquifer around the entire lake perimeter, except during very wet periods when ground-water inflow occurred around part of the lake perimeter. The non-augmented lakes typically had areas of ground-water inflow and areas of lake leakage around their perimeter, and during wet periods, ground-water inflow occurred around the entire lake perimeter. Therefore, the area potentially contributing ground water to the non-augmented lakes is much larger than for augmented Round Lake. Vertical head loss within the surficial aquifer was greater at Round Lake than the other study

  6. Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations of the Late Pleistocene Lake Bonneville Flood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abril-Hernández, José M.; Periáñez, Raúl; O'Connor, Jim E.; Garcia-Castellanos, Daniel

    2018-06-01

    At approximately 18.0 ka, pluvial Lake Bonneville reached its maximum level. At its northeastern extent it was impounded by alluvium of the Marsh Creek Fan, which breached at some point north of Red Rock Pass (Idaho), leading to one of the largest floods on Earth. About 5320 km3 of water was discharged into the Snake River drainage and ultimately into the Columbia River. We use a 0D model and a 2D non-linear depth-averaged hydrodynamic model to aid understanding of outflow dynamics, specifically evaluating controls on the amount of water exiting the Lake Bonneville basin exerted by the Red Rock Pass outlet lithology and geometry as well as those imposed by the internal lake geometry of the Bonneville basin. These models are based on field evidence of prominent lake levels, hypsometry and terrain elevations corrected for post-flood isostatic deformation of the lake basin, as well as reconstructions of the topography at the outlet for both the initial and final stages of the flood. Internal flow dynamics in the northern Lake Bonneville basin during the flood were affected by the narrow passages separating the Cache Valley from the main body of Lake Bonneville. This constriction imposed a water-level drop of up to 2.7 m at the time of peak-flow conditions and likely reduced the peak discharge at the lake outlet by about 6%. The modeled peak outlet flow is 0.85·106 m3 s-1. Energy balance calculations give an estimate for the erodibility coefficient for the alluvial Marsh Creek divide of ∼0.005 m y-1 Pa-1.5, at least two orders of magnitude greater than for the underlying bedrock at the outlet. Computing quasi steady-state water flows, water elevations, water currents and shear stresses as a function of the water-level drop in the lake and for the sequential stages of erosion in the outlet gives estimates of the incision rates and an estimate of the outflow hydrograph during the Bonneville Flood: About 18 days would have been required for the outflow to grow from 10

  7. Computational fluid dynamics simulations of the Late Pleistocene Lake Bonneville flood

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abril-Hernández, José M.; Periáñez, Raúl; O'Connor, Jim E.; Garcia-Castellanos, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    At approximately 18.0 ka, pluvial Lake Bonneville reached its maximum level. At its northeastern extent it was impounded by alluvium of the Marsh Creek Fan, which breached at some point north of Red Rock Pass (Idaho), leading to one of the largest floods on Earth. About 5320 km3 of water was discharged into the Snake River drainage and ultimately into the Columbia River. We use a 0D model and a 2D non-linear depth-averaged hydrodynamic model to aid understanding of outflow dynamics, specifically evaluating controls on the amount of water exiting the Lake Bonneville basin exerted by the Red Rock Pass outlet lithology and geometry as well as those imposed by the internal lake geometry of the Bonneville basin. These models are based on field evidence of prominent lake levels, hypsometry and terrain elevations corrected for post-flood isostatic deformation of the lake basin, as well as reconstructions of the topography at the outlet for both the initial and final stages of the flood. Internal flow dynamics in the northern Lake Bonneville basin during the flood were affected by the narrow passages separating the Cache Valley from the main body of Lake Bonneville. This constriction imposed a water-level drop of up to 2.7 m at the time of peak-flow conditions and likely reduced the peak discharge at the lake outlet by about 6%. The modeled peak outlet flow is 0.85·106 m3 s−1. Energy balance calculations give an estimate for the erodibility coefficient for the alluvial Marsh Creek divide of ∼0.005 m y−1 Pa−1.5, at least two orders of magnitude greater than for the underlying bedrock at the outlet. Computing quasi steady-state water flows, water elevations, water currents and shear stresses as a function of the water-level drop in the lake and for the sequential stages of erosion in the outlet gives estimates of the incision rates and an estimate of the outflow hydrograph during the Bonneville Flood: About 18 days would have been required for the

  8. GEOCHEMICAL FEATURES OF WATER-ROCK INTERACTIONS AT THE SULPHUR BANK MERCURY MINE, LAKE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Sulphur Bank Mercury Mine on the eastern shore of Clear Lake is the source of poor quality acid mine drainage seeping into Clear Lake. Lateral and vertical geochemical trends in ground water composition point to a number of redox reactions taking place as a function of subsu...

  9. Biological studies of atmospheric deposition impact on biota in Kola North Mountain Lakes, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Yakovlev, V.; Sharov, A.; Vandysh, O.

    1996-12-31

    In the framework of the AL:PE projects, biological studies of phyto-, zooplankton and zoobenthos communities of a small lakes situated in Chuna tundra and Chibiny mountains in Murmansk region were performed in 1993-1995. The lakes are the typical oligotrophic mountain lakes. In the Chibiny lake phytoplankton were presented mostly by species from rock catchment area. Summer phytoplankton state in the lakes showed no acidification in 1993-1995. However, the great number dead cells of acid tolerance diatoms, such as Tabellaria flocculosa found in the Chuna lake in summer period, may indicate a presence of acid episodes. Zooplankton of the lakes ismore » typical for high oligotrophic mountain lakes. However, lack of the acid sensitive daphniidae cladocerans seems to be a result of acidification effects. There were no significant relationships between benthic invertebrates species composition and present water acidity of the lakes. The typical for mountain lakes taxa (Prodiamesinae chironomids, stone flies and mayflies) were found in lake shore and streams. Despite the only little evidence of damage in biota, the further biological studies would be useful for long-term monitoring of the mountain lakes.« less

  10. Hydrology and simulation of ground-water flow, Lake Point, Tooele County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, Lynette E.

    2006-01-01

    Water for new residential development in Lake Point, Utah may be supplied by public-supply wells completed in consolidated rock on the east side of Lake Point. Ground-water flow models were developed to help understand the effect the proposed withdrawal will have on water levels, flowing-well discharge, spring discharge, and ground-water quality in the study area. This report documents the conceptual and numerical ground-water flow models for the Lake Point area.The ground-water system in the Lake Point area receives recharge from local precipitation and irrigation, and from ground-water inflow from southwest of the area. Ground water discharges mostly to springs. Discharge also occurs to evapotranspiration, wells, and Great Salt Lake. Even though ground water discharges to Great Salt Lake, dense salt water from the lake intrudes under the less-dense ground water and forms a salt-water wedge under the valley. This salt water is responsible for some of the high dissolved-solids concentrations measured in ground water in Lake Point.A steady-state MODFLOW-2000 ground-water model of Tooele Valley adequately simulates water levels, ground-water discharge, and ground-water flow direction observed in Lake Point in 1969 and 2002. Simulating an additional 1,650 acre-feet per year withdrawal from wells causes a maximum projected drawdown of about 550 feet in consolidated rock near the simulated wells and drawdown exceeding 80 feet in an area encompassing most of the Oquirrh Mountains east of Lake Point. Drawdown in most of Lake Point ranges from 2 to 10 ft, but increases to more than 40 feet in the areas proposed for residential development. Discharge to Factory Springs, flowing wells, evapotranspiration, and Great Salt Lake is decreased by about 1,100 acre-feet per year (23 percent).The U.S. Geological Survey SUTRA variable-density ground-water-flow model generates a reasonable approximation of 2002 dissolved-solids concentration when simulating 2002 withdrawals. At most

  11. Influence of geomorphic setting on sedimentation of two adjacent alpine lakes, Triglav Lakes Valley (Julian Alps, NW Slovenia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smuc, Andrej; Skabene, Dragomir; Muri, Gregor; Vreča, Polona; Jaćimović, Radojko; Čermelj, Branko; Turšič, Janja

    2013-04-01

    The Triglav Lakes Valley is elongated, 7km long depression, located high (at places over 2000 m.a.s.l.) in the central part of the Julian Alps (NW Slovenia). It hosts 6 small isolated lakes that formed due to the combination of Neogene tectonic and Pleistocene glaciation. The study is focused on the 5th and 6th Triglav Valley Lakes that characterize lower part of the valley. The lakes are located so close to each other that they are even connected in times of high water. Thus, they share the same bedrock geology, are subjected to the same climatic forcing and share similar vegetation communities. Despite their proximity, the lakes differ in their hydrologic and geomorphic setting. The lakes have no permanent surface tributaries; however 5th is fed periodically, at times of high water level, by the Močivec spring, while additional water flows from the swamp area near its northern shore. An underground spring on the eastern side of 5th represents the lake's only permanent freshwater inflow, while drainage takes place to the west via a small ponor. 6th has only one weak underground spring on the eastern side of the lake. Water levels may fluctuate between 2 and 3 m. Additionally, the lakes have different configuration of lakes shores; the northern shores of the 5th lake are low-angle soil and debris covered plateau, while southern shores of the 5th lake and shores of the 6th lake are represented by heavily karstified carbonate base rock and covered partly by trees. The detailed sedimentary analysis of the lakes record showed some similarities, but also some significant differences. Sediments of both lakes are represented by fine-grained turbidity current deposits that are transported from lake shores during snow melt or storms. The grain-size and sedimentary rates of the lakes are however markedly different. The 5th lake has coarser grained sediments, with mean ranging from 46 to 60 µm and records higher sedimentation rates of ~0,57 cm/year, compared to the 6th lake

  12. Hydrologic and climatologic data, 1965, Salt Lake County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iorns, W.V.; Mower, Reed W.; Horr, C.A.

    1966-01-01

    An investigation of the water resources of Salt Lake County, Utah, was undertaken by the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey in July 1963. This investigation is a cooperative project financed equally by the State of Utah and the Federal Government in accordance with an agreement between the State Engineer and the Geological Survey. The Utah Water and Power Board, Utah Fish and Game Commission, Salt Lake County Water Conservancy District, Metropolitan Water District of Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, Kennecott Copper Corporation, Utah Power and Light Company, Salt Lake City Chamber of Commerce, and the Central Utah Water Conservancy District. contributed funds to the State Engineer's office toward support of the project.The investigation encompasses the collection and interpretation of a large variety of climatologic, hydrologic, and geologic data in and near Salt Lake County. Utah Basic-Data Release No. 11 contains data collected through 1964. This release contains climatologic and surface-water data for the 1965 water year (October 1964 to September 1965) and ground-water data collected during the 1965 calendar year. Similar annual releases will contain data collected during the remainder of the investigation, and interpretive reports will be prepared as the investigation proceeds. Organizations that furnished data are acknowledged in station descriptions and footnotes to tables.

  13. Hydrologic and climatologic data, 1966, Salt Lake County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hely, A.G.; Mower, Reed W.; Horr, C.A.

    1967-01-01

    An investigation of the water resources of Salt Lake County, Utah, was undertaken by the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey in July 1963. This investigation is a cooperative project financed equally by the State of Utah and the Federal Government in accordance with an agreement between the State Engineer and the Geological Survey. The Utah Water and Power Board, Utah Fish and Game Commission, Salt Lake County Water Conservancy District, Metropolitan Water District of Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, Kennecott Copper Corporation, Utah Power and Light Company, Salt Lake City Chamber of Commerce, and the Central Utah Water Conservancy District contributed funds to the State Engineer's office toward support of the project.The investigation encompasses the collection and interpretation of a large variety of climatologic, hydrologic, and geologic data in and near Salt Lake County. Utah Basic-Data Releases 11 and 12 contain data collected through 1965. This release contains climatologic and surface-water data for the 1966 water year (October 1965 to September 1966) and groundwater data collected during the 1966 calendar year. Similar annual releases will contain data collected during the remainder of the investigation, and interpretive reports will be prepared as the investigation proceeds. Organizations that furnished data are acknowledged in station descriptions and footnotes to tables.

  14. Hidden Outgassing Dynamics at Kilauea (Hawaii) Lava Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Bello, E.; Taddeucci, J.; Orr, T. R.; Houghton, B. F.; Scarlato, P.; Patrick, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    Lava lakes offer unique opportunities for understanding how magmatic volatiles physically escape from low-viscosity, vesicular magma in open-vent conditions, a process often referred to as magma outgassing. Large-scale lava convection movements and meter-scale bubble explosions, sometimes triggered by rock falls, are acknowledged outgassing processes but may not be the only ones. In 2013 we used high-frequency (50-500 Hz) thermal and visible imaging to investigate the short-timescale dynamics of the currently active Halema`uma`u lava lake. At that time, besides the dominant release of large bubbles, three types of peculiar outgassing features were observed on the lava lake surface. The first, diffusely observed throughout the observation experiment, consisted of prolonged (up to seconds) gas venting from 'spot vents'. These vents appeared to open and close without the ejection of material or bubble bursting, and were the site of hot gas emission. Spot vents were located both between and inside cooling plates, and followed the general circulation pattern together with the rest of the lava lake surface. The second feature, observed only once, consisted of the transient wobbling of the whole lava lake surface. This wobbling, with a wavelength of meters to tens of meters, was not related to any external trigger, and dampened soon without apparent consequences on the other lake dynamics. Finally, we observed large (meters) doming areas of the lake surface randomly fluctuating over seconds to minutes. These areas were either stationary or moved independently of the general lake surface circulation, and usually were not affected by other lake surface features (e.g., cooling plate boundaries). These three features, though trivial for the overall lake outgassing, testify that the lava lake has a complex shallow subsurface architecture, in which permeable channels and gas pockets act independently of the more common bubble bursts.

  15. Properties of the proterozoic geomagnetic field and geological applications of paleomagnetic data from rocks of the North American Midcontinent rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulakov, Evgeniy V.

    Rocks of the North American Midcontinent rift (MCR) exposed in the Lake Superior area provide an excellent opportunity to use paleomagnetism as a means of studying the characteristics of the Proterozoic geomagnetic field and the history of the rift itself. Detailed paleomagnetic and paleointensity studies of different rock units associated with the MCR, including the 1108 Ma alkaline Coldwell Complex (Ontario, Canada), the basaltic lava flows of the Geordie Lake (Ontario, Canada) and Silver Mountain (Upper Michigan, USA) that are assumed to be 1107-1108 Ma, the ˜1095 Ma lava flows of the Portage Lake Volcanics (PLV) (Keweenaw Peninsula, Michigan), and the ˜1088 Ma flows of the Lake Shore Traps (LST) (Keweenaw Peninsula, Michigan) are presented. Paleomagnetic data from the Coldwell Complex indicate that the apparent asymmetry of geomagnetic reversal, recorded by many Keweenawan rocks is an artifact due to fast equator-ward motion of the North American plate during the MCR evolution. The Coldwell Complex data support the validity of the geocentric axial dipole assumption for the ˜1.1 Ga. Extrusive rocks exposed on the Keweenaw Peninsula reveal similar to that of the present day geomagnetic field paleosecular variation. Samples from the ˜1088 Ma Lake Shore Traps yielded consistent paleofield values with a mean value of 26.3 +/- 4.7 μT, which corresponds to a virtual dipole moment of 5.9 +/- 1.1 x 10 22 Am2. The mean and range of paleofield values are similar to those of the recent Earth's magnetic field and incompatible with a "Proterozoic dipole low". These results are consistent with a modern type compositionally-driven geodynamo operating by the end of Mesoproterozoic. New high-quality paleomagnetic poles calculated for the ˜1108 Ma Coldwell Complex and coeval extrusive rocks, and ˜ 1094 Ma PLV indicate that North America was moving directly equator-ward with an approximately 20-25 cm/year rate between 1108 and 1094 Ma with a significant slowdown in motion

  16. Preliminary Water-Table Map and Water-Quality Data for Part of the Matanuska-Susitna Valley, Alaska, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, Edward H.; Solin, Gary L.

    2006-01-01

    The Matanuska-Susitna Valley is in the northeastern part of the Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska, an area experiencing rapid population growth and development proximal to many lakes. Here water commonly flows between lakes and ground water, indicating interrelation between water quantity and quality. Thus concerns exist that poorer quality ground water may degrade local lake ecosystems. This concern has led to water-quality sampling in cooperation with the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation and the Matanuska-Susitna Borough. A map showing the estimated altitude of the water table illustrates potential ground-water flow directions and areas where ground- and surface-water exchanges and interactions might occur. Water quality measured in selected wells and lakes indicates some differences between ground water and surface water. 'The temporal and spatial scarcity of ground-water-level and water-quality data limits the analysis of flow direction and water quality. Regionally, the water-table map indicates that ground water in the eastern and southern parts of the study area flows southerly. In the northcentral area, ground water flows predominately westerly then southerly. Although ground and surface water in most areas of the Matanuska-Susitna Valley are interconnected, they are chemically different. Analyses of the few water-quality samples collected in the area indicate that dissolved nitrite plus nitrate and orthophosphorus concentrations are higher in ground water than in surface water.'

  17. A Stable Isotope Study of Fluid-Rock Interactions in the Saddlebag Lake Roof Pendant, Sierra Nevada, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lojasiewicz, I.; Hartman, S. M.; Holk, G. J.; Paterson, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    The Saddlebag Lake Pendant (SLP) is a ~ 100 km2 zone of Ordovician-Cretaceous metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks just east of the 95-85 Ma Tuolumne Intrusive Complex (TIC) in the Sierra Nevada of central California. Western SLP and adjacent parts of TIC are affected by the Steelhead Lake Shear Zone (SLSZ), with leucogranitic dikes, abundant qz-tm veins, ductile epidote-chlorite alteration, and massive qz veins. While TIC shows uniform stable isotope values, isotope studies of other Sierra Nevada pendants evidence diversity of fluid sources: Jurassic seawater, Cretaceous magmatic fluids, metamorphic fluids, and meteoric-hydrothermal fluids. We conducted a stable isotope study of 49 samples from units across the SLSZ, focusing on the shear zone. Unlike other pendants, both δ18 O and δD values from SLSZ showed great variability, and most samples were not in isotopic equilibrium. Overall, δ18 O mineral values ranged from -1.5‰(plag) to +15.8‰(bt); mineral δD values ranged from -140‰(tm) to -67‰(bt). TIC δ18 O was +7.8 to +10.0 (plag) and +4.8 to +9.2 (tm), normal magmatic values, and δD were -105 to -75. Paleozoic and Triassic metasedimentary units had most qz δ18 O from +11.3 to +15.8, so within metamorphic range, and δD from -100 to -72 (ep and tm). Jurassic metasedimentary units (Sawmill) and Triassic metavolcanics (Koip) had largest isotopic variability: δ18 O qz from +8.1 to +14.8, plag from -1.1 to +11.8, but ep and tm between +1.3 and +9.3 and δD between -108 and -81. All lower (submagmatic) isotopic values were from a wider, possibly transtensional, part of the SLSZ, transected by Sawmill Canyon. Although TIC and many of the Paleozoic units do not show isotopic evidence for alteration, the Koip and Sawmill units were likely infiltrated by later magmatic waters, and then subjected to very localized meteoric water infiltration in the area surrounding Sawmill Canyon.

  18. Geochemical studies of backfill aggregates, lake sediment cores and the Hueco Bolson Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thapalia, Anita

    This dissertation comprises of three different researches that focuses on the application of geochemistry from aggregates, lake sediment cores and Hueco Bolson Aquifer. Each study is independent and presented in the publication format. The first chapter is already published and the second chapter is in revision phase. Overall, three studies measure the large scale (field) as well as bench scale (lab) water-rock interactions influenced by the climatic and anthropogenic factors spans from the field of environmental geology to civil engineering. The first chapter of this dissertation addresses the chemical evaluation of coarse aggregates from six different quarries in Texas. The goal of this work is to find out the best geochemical methods for assessing the corrosion potential of coarse aggregates prior to their use in mechanically stabilized earth walls. Electrochemical parameters help to define the corrosion potential of aggregates following two different leaching protocols. Testing the coarse and fine aggregates demonstrate the chemical difference due to size-related kinetic leaching effects. Field fines also show different chemistry than the bulk rock indicating the weathering impact on carbonate rocks. The second chapter investigates zinc (Zn) isotopic signatures from eight lake sediment cores collected both from pristine lakes and those impacted by urban anthropogenic contamination. Zinc from the natural weathering of rocks and anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants are transported to these lakes and the signatures are recorded in the sediments. Isotopic analysis of core samples provides the signature of anthropogenic contamination sources. Dated sediment core and isotopic analysis can identify Zn inputs that are correlated to the landuse and population change of the watersheds. Comparison of isotopic data from both pristine and urban lake sediment core also serves as an analog in other lake sediment cores in the world. The third chapter studies on Hueco Bolson

  19. The influence of irrigation water on the hydrology and lake water budgets of two small arid-climate lakes in Khorezm, Uzbekistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, J.; Rosen, Michael R.; Saito, L.; Decker, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known regarding the origins and hydrology of hundreds of small lakes located in the western Uzbekistan province of Khorezm, Central Asia. Situated in the Aral Sea Basin, Khorezm is a productive agricultural region, growing mainly cotton, wheat, and rice. Irrigation is provided by an extensive canal network that conveys water from the Amu Darya River (AD) throughout the province. The region receives on average 10 cm/year of precipitation, yet potential evapotranspiration exceeds this amount by about 15 times. It was hypothesized that the perennial existence of the lakes of interest depends on periodic input of excess irrigation water. This hypothesis was investigated by studying two small lakes in the region, Tuyrek and Khodjababa. In June and July 2008, surface water and shallow groundwater samples were collected at these lake systems and surrounding communities and analyzed for δ2H, δ18O, and major ion hydrochemistry to determine water sources. Water table and lake surface elevations were monitored, and the local aquifer characteristics were determined through aquifer tests. These data and climate data from a Class A evaporation pan and meteorological stations were used to estimate water budgets for both lakes. Lake evaporation was found to be about 0.7 cm/day during the study period. Results confirm that the waters sampled at both lake systems and throughout central Khorezm were evaporated from AD water to varying degrees. Together, the water budgets and stable isotope and major ion hydrochemistry data suggest that without surface water input from some source (i.e. excess irrigation water), these and other Khorezm lakes with similar hydrology may decrease in volume dramatically, potentially to the point of complete desiccation.

  20. 50 CFR Table 2 to Part 226 - Major Steller Sea Lion Haulout Sites in Alaska

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Major Steller Sea Lion Haulout Sites in.... 226, Table 2 Table 2 to Part 226—Major Steller Sea Lion Haulout Sites in Alaska Major Steller sea lion...: Northeast Point 1 57 15.0N 170 06.5W Sea Lion Rock 1 57 06.0N 170 17.5W St. George I: S Rookery 1 56 33.5N...

  1. 50 CFR Table 2 to Part 226 - Major Stellar Sea Lion Haulout Sites in Alaska

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Major Stellar Sea Lion Haulout Sites in.... 226, Table 2 Table 2 to Part 226—Major Stellar Sea Lion Haulout Sites in Alaska Major Steller sea lion...: Northeast Point 1 57 15.0N 170 06.5W Sea Lion Rock 1 57 06.0N 170 17.5W St. George I: S Rookery 1 56 33.5N...

  2. A History of the Rock Island District Corps of Engineers, 1866-1975

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-01

    to St. Paul because the Rock Island location was " unhealthy."fi Rock Island was in the middle of a major flood at the time; cholera and typhoid...that he invested in , and laid out. a town site a long the sh ore near the present cit :--· of Daven- port, Iowa. The basis for this rumor can be found...Lake Pepin by adding a false keel and installing a sail he bought from a fisherman for $2.5049 These were the first examples of Meigs’ tinkering

  3. Effects of recharge, Upper Floridan aquifer heads, and time scale on simulated ground-water exchange with Lake Starr, a seepage lake in central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swancar, Amy; Lee, Terrie Mackin

    2003-01-01

    Lake Starr and other lakes in the mantled karst terrain of Florida's Central Lake District are surrounded by a conductive surficial aquifer system that receives highly variable recharge from rainfall. In addition, downward leakage from these lakes varies as heads in the underlying Upper Floridan aquifer change seasonally and with pumpage. A saturated three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water flow model was used to simulate the effects of recharge, Upper Floridan aquifer heads, and model time scale on ground-water exchange with Lake Starr. The lake was simulated as an active part of the model using high hydraulic conductivity cells. Simulated ground-water flow was compared to net ground-water flow estimated from a rigorously derived water budget for the 2-year period August 1996-July 1998. Calibrating saturated ground-water flow models with monthly stress periods to a monthly lake water budget will result in underpredicting gross inflow to, and leakage from, ridge lakes in Florida. Underprediction of ground-water inflow occurs because recharge stresses and ground-water flow responses during rainy periods are averaged over too long a time period using monthly stress periods. When inflow is underestimated during calibration, leakage also is underestimated because inflow and leakage are correlated if lake stage is maintained over the long term. Underpredicted leakage reduces the implied effect of ground-water withdrawals from the Upper Floridan aquifer on the lake. Calibrating the weekly simulation required accounting for transient responses in the water table near the lake that generated the greater range of net ground-water flow values seen in the weekly water budget. Calibrating to the weekly lake water budget also required increasing the value of annual recharge in the nearshore region well above the initial estimate of 35 percent of the rainfall, and increasing the hydraulic conductivity of the deposits around and beneath the lake. To simulate the total

  4. Odyssey/White Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These Mars Odyssey images show the 'White Rock' feature on Mars in both infrared (left) and visible (right) wavelengths. The images were acquired simultaneously on March 11, 2002. The box shows where the visible image is located in the infrared image. 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform that was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. The variations in brightness in the infrared image are due to differences in surface temperature, where dark is cool and bright is warm. The dramatic differences between the infrared and visible views of White Rock are the result of solar heating. The relatively bright surfaces observed at visible wavelengths reflect more solar energy than the darker surfaces, allowing them to stay cooler and thus they appear dark in the infrared image. The new thermal emission imaging system data will help to address the long standing question of whether the White Rock deposit was produced in an ancient crater lake or by dry processes of volcanic or wind deposition. The infrared image has a resolution of 100 meters (328 feet) per pixel and is 32 kilometers (20 miles) wide. The visible image has a resolution of 18 meters per pixel and is approximately 18 kilometers (11 miles) wide. The images are centered at 8.2 degrees south latitude and 24.9 degrees east longitude.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  5. The identification, examination and exploration of Antarctic subglacial lakes.

    PubMed

    Siegert, M J

    2000-01-01

    At the floor of the Antarctic ice sheet, 4 km below the Russian research base Vostok Station, lies a 2,000 km3 body of water, comparable in size to Lake Ontario. This remote water mass, named Lake Vostok, is the world's largest subglacial lake by an order of magnitude (Figure 1). Despite ice-surface temperatures regularly around -60 degrees C, the ice-sheet base is kept at the melting temperature by geothermal heating from the Earth's interior. The ice sheet above the lake has been in existence for at least several million years and possibly as long as 20 million years. The origins of Lake Vostok may therefore data back across geological time to the Miocene (7-26 Ma). The hydrology of Lake Vostok can be characterised by subglacial melting across its northern side, and refreezing over the southern section. A deep ice core, located over the southern end of the lake has sampled the refrozen ice. Geochemical analysis of this ice has found that it comprises virtually pure water. However, normal glacier ice contains impurities such as debris and gas hydrates. Subglacial melting and freezing over Lake Vostok may, therefore, leave the lake enriched in potential nutrients issued from the melted glacier ice. Many scientists expect microbial life to exist within the lake, adapted to the extreme conditions of low nutrient and energy levels. Indeed microbes have been found in the basal refrozen layers of the ice sheet. If Lake Vostok has been isolated from the atmosphere for several million years by the ice sheet that lays above it, the microbes within the lake must also date back several million years and may have undergone evolution over this time, yielding life that may be unique to Lake Vostok. Plans are currently being arranged to explore Lake Vostok and other Antarctic subglacial lakes, and identify life in these extraordinary places. Before this happens, however, much more needs to be known about the ice-sheet above subglacial lakes, and the rocks and sediment below them.

  6. Drilling into molten rock at Kilauea Iki

    SciTech Connect

    Colp, J.L.; Okamura, R.T.

    1978-01-01

    The scientific feasibility of extracting energy directly from buried circulating magma resources is being assessed. One of the tasks of the project is the study of geophysical measuring systems to locate and define buried molten rock bodies. To verify the results of a molten rock sensing experiment performed at Kilauea Iki lava lake, it is necessary to drill a series of holes through the solid upper crust and through the molten zone at that location. Thirteen holes have been drilled in Kilauea Iki. The results achieved during the drilling of the last two holes indicated that the molten zone inmore » Kilauea Iki is not a simple, relatively homogeneous fluid body as expected. The encountering of an unexpected, unknown rigid obstruction 2.5 ft below the crust/melt interface has led to the conceptual development of a drilling system intended to have the capability to drill through a hot, rigid obstruction while the drill stem is immersed in molten rock. The concept will be field tested at Kilauea Iki in the summer of 1978.« less

  7. Impact of Nasser Lake on gravity reduction and geoidal heights for Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd-Elmotaal, Hussein A.; Makhloof, Atef; Hassan, Ayman; Ashry, Mostafa

    2018-06-01

    In the course of the IAG African Geoid Project, it is needed to study the impact of the lakes on the gravity reduction and geoidal heights. The aim of this paper is to study the impact of the water in Nasser Lake on gravity reduction and geoidal heights for Egypt. The determination of the gravimetric geoid is based on the well-known remove-restore technique. The problem of the lakes occurs because the popular programs widely used in practice (e.g., TC-program (Forsberg, 1984)) assume that all positive elevations are filled with rock topography, and all negative elevations are filled with ocean water. This is, however, not true for the case of Nasser Lake, which lies completely above sea level, at about 180 m elevation, with a water depth of about 20 m. The paper presents an approach on estimating the impact of Nasser Lake on gravity reduction and geoidal heights using TC-program with some tricky cases. The results show that the impact of Nasser Lake on both gravity anomalies and geoid undulation is limited to the area of the lake. The impact of Nasser Lake on the gravity anomalies is in the order of sub mgal, while the impact of Nasser lake on the geoid undulation is significant and reaches few centimeters.

  8. Redox stratification of an ancient lake in Gale crater, Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Hurowitz, Joel A.; Grotzinger, John P.; Fischer, Woodward W.

    In 2012, NASA’s Curiosity rover landed on Mars to assess its potential as a habitat for past life and investigate the paleoclimate record preserved by sedimentary rocks inside the ~150-kilometer-diameter Gale impact crater. Geological reconstructions from Curiosity rover data have revealed an ancient, habitable lake environment fed by rivers draining into the crater. We synthesize geochemical and mineralogical data from lake-bed mudstones collected during the first 1300 martian solar days of rover operations in Gale. We present evidence for lake redox stratification, established by depth-dependent variations in atmospheric oxidant and dissolved-solute concentrations. Paleoclimate proxy data indicate that a transition frommore » colder to warmer climate conditions is preserved in the stratigraphy. Lastly, a late phase of geochemical modification by saline fluids is recognized.« less

  9. Redox stratification of an ancient lake in Gale crater, Mars

    DOE PAGES

    Hurowitz, Joel A.; Grotzinger, John P.; Fischer, Woodward W.; ...

    2017-06-02

    In 2012, NASA’s Curiosity rover landed on Mars to assess its potential as a habitat for past life and investigate the paleoclimate record preserved by sedimentary rocks inside the ~150-kilometer-diameter Gale impact crater. Geological reconstructions from Curiosity rover data have revealed an ancient, habitable lake environment fed by rivers draining into the crater. We synthesize geochemical and mineralogical data from lake-bed mudstones collected during the first 1300 martian solar days of rover operations in Gale. We present evidence for lake redox stratification, established by depth-dependent variations in atmospheric oxidant and dissolved-solute concentrations. Paleoclimate proxy data indicate that a transition frommore » colder to warmer climate conditions is preserved in the stratigraphy. Lastly, a late phase of geochemical modification by saline fluids is recognized.« less

  10. Quaternary geology of the Boston area: Glacial events from Lake Charles to Lake Aberjona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Byron D.; Lane, John W.

    2014-01-01

    The multiple-glacial and glaciomarine Quaternary history of the Boston, Massachusetts area has been known generally since the earliest studies of the then newly recognized glacial deposits described by Prof. Louis Agassiz in the late1840’s and fossil marine shells in the drift in the 1850’s. Attention then turned to possible glacial erosional effects on the preglacial bedrock physiography, as related to rock units and structure, and to the challenges of defining useful physical and lithic characteristics of the drift by Prof. W.O. Crosby and others, 1880-1900. The problems of deducing the relative stratigraphic order among such small, fossil-barren surficial sedimentary deposits, and extending knowledge gained from studies of postulated ancient glacial lakes to a regional understanding of the history of many lakes during the retreat of the ice sheet required field work and use of geologic maps. With the advent of modern topographic maps in the 1880’s, the early period of discovery included field studies of glacial lake deposits in local river basins in the Boston region, basins that drain northward, thereby creating glacial lake basins dammed by the ice margin as it retreated to the north. Guided by M.I.T. and Harvard professors W.O. Crosby, N.S. Shaler, J.B. Woodworth, W.M. Davis, and others in the 1880-1920 period, the first Quaternary glacial stratigraphers were students (e.g. Crosby and Grabau, 1896, Clapp, 1905, Fuller 1905, Goldthwaite 1906, Grabau, 1906, Taylor, Tight).

  11. A combined chemical, isotopic and microstructural study of pyrite from roll-front uranium deposits, Lake Eyre Basin, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingham, Edwina S.; Cook, Nigel J.; Cliff, John; Ciobanu, Cristiana L.; Huddleston, Adam

    2014-01-01

    The common sulfide mineral pyrite is abundant throughout sedimentary uranium systems at Pepegoona, Pepegoona West and Pannikan, Lake Eyre Basin, South Australia. Combined chemical, isotopic and microstructural analysis of pyrite indicates variation in fluid composition, sulfur source and precipitation conditions during a protracted mineralization event. The results show the significant role played by pyrite as a metal scavenger and monitor of fluid changes in low-temperature hydrothermal systems. In-situ micrometer-scale sulfur isotope analyses of pyrite demonstrated broad-scale isotopic heterogeneity (δ34S = -43.9 to +32.4‰VCDT), indicative of complex, multi-faceted pyrite evolution, and sulfur derived from more than a single source. Preserved textures support this assertion and indicate a genetic model involving more than one phase of pyrite formation. Authigenic pyrite underwent prolonged evolution and recrystallization, evidenced by a genetic relationship between archetypal framboidal aggregates and pyrite euhedra. Secondary hydrothermal pyrite commonly displays hyper-enrichment of several trace elements (Mn, Co, Ni, As, Se, Mo, Sb, W and Tl) in ore-bearing horizons. Hydrothermal fluids of magmatic and meteoric origins supplied metals to the system but the geochemical signature of pyrite suggests a dominantly granitic source and also the influence of mafic rock types. Irregular variation in δ34S, coupled with oscillatory trace element zonation in secondary pyrite, is interpreted in terms of continuous variations in fluid composition and cycles of diagenetic recrystallization. A late-stage oxidizing fluid may have mobilized selenium from pre-existing pyrite. Subsequent restoration of reduced conditions within the aquifer caused ongoing pyrite re-crystallization and precipitation of selenium as native selenium. These results provide the first qualitative constraints on the formation mechanisms of the uranium deposits at Beverley North. Insights into

  12. Bathymetry and capacity of Chambers Lake, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gyves, Matthew C.

    2015-10-26

    This report describes the methods used to create a bathymetric map of Chambers Lake for the computation of reservoir storage capacity as of September 2014. The product is a bathymetric map and a table showing the storage capacity of the reservoir at 2-foot increments from minimum usable elevation up to full capacity at the crest of the auxiliary spillway.

  13. Time scales of change in chemical and biological parameters after engineered levee breaches adjacent to Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuwabara, James S.; Topping, Brent R.; Carter, James L.; Wood, Tamara M.; Parcheso, Francis; Cameron, Jason M.; Asbill, Jessica R.; Carlson, Rick A.; Fend, Steven V.

    2012-01-01

    Eight sampling trips were coordinated after engineered levee breaches hydrologically reconnected both Upper Klamath Lake and Agency Lake, Oregon, to adjacent wetlands. The reconnection, by a series of explosive blasts, was coordinated by The Nature Conservancy to reclaim wetlands that had for approximately seven decades been leveed for crop production. Sets of nonmetallic porewater profilers (U.S. Patent 8,051,727 B1; November 8, 2011; http://www.uspto.gov/web/patents/patog/ week45/OG/html/1372-2/US08051727-20111108.html.) were deployed during these trips in November 2007, June 2008, May 2009, July 2009, May 2010, August 2010, June 2011, and July 2011 (table 1). Deployments temporally spanned the annual cyanophyte bloom of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and spatially involved three lake and four wetland sites. Spatial and temporal variation in solute benthic flux was determined by the field team, using the profilers, over an approximately 4-year period beginning 3 days after the levee breaches. The highest flux to the water column of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was detected in the newly flooded wetland, contrasting negative or insignificant DOC fluxes at adjacent lake sites. Over the multiyear study, DOC benthic fluxes dissipated in the reconnected wetlands, converging to values similar to those for established wetlands and to the adjacent lake (table 2). In contrast to DOC, benthic sources of soluble reactive phosphorus, ammonium, dissolved iron and manganese from within the reconnected wetlands were consistently elevated (that is, significant in magnitude relative to riverine and established-wetland sources) indicating a multi-year time scale for certain chemical changes after the levee breaches (table 2). Colonization of the reconnected wetlands by aquatic benthic invertebrates during the study trended toward the assemblages in established wetlands, providing further evidence of a multiyear transition of this area to permanent aquatic habitat (table 3). Both the

  14. Principal facts for gravity stations and physical property measurements in the Lake Mead 30' by 60' quadrangle, Nevada and Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langenheim, V.E.; Davidson, J.G.; Anderson, M.L.; Blank, H.R.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected 811 gravity stations on the Lake Mead 30' by 60' quadrangle from October, 1997 to September, 1999. These data were collected in support of geologic mapping of the Lake Mead quadrangle. In addition to these new data, gravity stations were compiled from a number of sources. These stations were reprocessed according to the reduction method described below and used for the new data. Density and magnetic susceptibility measurements were also performed on more than 250 rock samples. The Lake Mead quadrangle ranges from 360 to 360 30' north latitude and from 114° to 115° west longitude. It spans most of Lake Mead (see index map, below), the largest manmade lake in the United States, and includes most of the Lake Mead National Recreation Area. Its geology is very complex; Mesozoic thrust faults are exposed in the Muddy Mountains, Precambrian crystalline basement rocks are exhumed in tilted fault blocks near Gold Butte, extensive Tertiary volcanism is evident in the Black Mountains, and strike-slip faults of the right-lateral Las Vegas Valley shear zone and the left-lateral Lake Mead fault system meet near the Gale Hills. These gravity data and physical property measurements will aid in the 3-dimensional characterization of structure and stratigraphy in the quadrangle as part of the Las Vegas Urban Corridor mapping project.

  15. Elastic-wave propagation and site amplification in the Salt Lake Valley, Utah, from simulated normal faulting earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benz, H.M.; Smith, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    The two-dimensional seismic response of the Salt Lake valley to near- and far-field earthquakes has been investigated from simulations of vertically incident plane waves and from normal-faulting earthquakes generated on the basin-bounding Wasatch fault. The plane-wave simulations were compared with observed site amplifications in the Salt Lake valley, based on seismic recordings from nuclear explosions in southern Nevada, that show 10 times greater amplification with the basin than measured values on hard-rock sites. Synthetic seismograms suggest that in the frequency band 0.3 to 1.5 Hz at least one-half the site amplitication can be attributed to the impedance contrast between the basin sediments and higher velocity basement rocks. -from Authors

  16. Chemical evolution of groundwater near a sinkhole lake, northern Florida: 1. Flow patterns, age of groundwater, and influence of lakewater leakage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, Brian G.; Lee, Terrie M.; Plummer, Niel; Busenberg, Eurybiades

    1995-01-01

    Leakage from sinkhole lakes significantly influences recharge to the Upper Floridan aquifer in poorly confined sediments in northern Florida. Environmental isotopes (oxygen 18, deuterium, and tritium), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs: CFC-11, CCl3F; CFC-12, CCl2F2; and CFC-113, C2Cl3F3), and solute tracers were used to investigate groundwater flow patterns near Lake Barco, a seepage lake in a mantled karst setting in northern Florida. Stable isotope data indicated that the groundwater downgradient from the lake contained 11–67% lake water leakage, with a limit of detection of lake water in groundwater of 4.3%. The mixing fractions of lake water leakage, which passed through organic-rich sediments in the lake bottom, were directly proportional to the observed methane concentrations and increased with depth in the groundwater flow system. In aerobic groundwater upgradient from Lake Barco, CFC-modeled recharge dates ranged from 1987 near the water table to the mid 1970s for water collected at a depth of 30 m below the water table. CFC-modeled recharge dates (based on CFC-12) for anaerobic groundwater downgradient from the lake ranged from the late 1950s to the mid 1970s and were consistent with tritium data. CFC-modeled recharge dates based on CFC-11 indicated preferential microbial degradation in anoxic waters. Vertical hydraulic conductivities, calculated using CFC-12 modeled recharge dates and Darcy's law, were 0.17, 0.033, and 0.019 m/d for the surficial aquifer, intermediate confining unit, and lake sediments, respectively. These conductivities agreed closely with those used in the calibration of a three-dimensional groundwater flow model for transient and steady state flow conditions.

  17. The interdependence of lake ice and climate in central North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jelacic, A. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. This investigation is to identify any correlations between the freeze/ thaw cycles of lakes and regional weather variations. ERTS-1 imagery of central Canada and north central United States is examined on a seasonal basis. The ice conditions of certain major study lakes are noted and recorded on magnetic tape, from which the movement of a freeze/thaw transition zone may be deduced. Weather maps and tables are used to establish any obvious correlations. The process of selecting major study lakes is discussed, and a complete lake directory is presented. Various routines of the software support library are described, accompanied by output samples. Procedures used for ERTS imagery processing are presented along with the data analysis plan. Application of these procedures to selected ERTS imagery has demonstrated their utility. Preliminary results show that the freeze/thaw transition zone can be monitored from ERTS.

  18. Possible Mud Cracks Preserved in Martian Rock

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-17

    The network of cracks in this Martian rock slab called "Old Soaker" may have formed from the drying of a mud layer more than 3 billion years ago. The view spans about 4 feet (1.2 meters) left-to-right and combines three images taken by the Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) camera on the arm of NASA's Curiosity Mars rover. Mud cracks would be evidence of a time when dry intervals interrupted wetter periods that supported lakes in the area. Curiosity has found evidence of ancient lakes in older, lower-lying rock layers and also in younger mudstone that is above Old Soaker. MAHLI was positioned about 3 feet (90 centimeters) above the surface when it took the component images on Dec. 31, 2016, during the 1,566th Martian day, or sol, of Curiosity's work on Mars. This observation was planned as part of assessing a hypothesis that the target preserves evidence of drying mud. The location is within an exposure of Murray formation mudstone on lower Mount Sharp inside Gale Crater. The slab bears a network of four- and five-sided polygons about half an inch to 1 inch (1 to 2 centimeters) across, which matches the pattern commonly formed when a thin layer of mud dries. Some edges of the polygons are ridges of material the same color as the surrounding rock. This could result from a three-step process after cracks form due to drying: Wind-blown sediments accumulate in the open cracks. Later, these sediments and the dried mud become rock under the pressure of multiple younger layers that accumulate on top of them. Most recently, after the overlying layers were eroded away by wind, the vein-filling material resists erosion better than the once-muddy material, so the pattern that began as cracks appears as ridges. Note that some of the cracks contain material much brighter than the surrounding rock. These are mineral veins. Curiosity has found such bright veins of calcium sulfate in many rock layers the rover has investigated. These veins form from circulation of mineral

  19. Anatomy of the Midcontinent Rift beneath Lake Superior

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, L.D.; Ervin, C.P.

    1994-09-01

    The structure and geometry of the 1.1-b.y.-old Midcontinent Rift system under Lake Superior is interpreted from 20 seismic reflection profiles recorded during the early and mid-1980s. The seismic data reveal that rift basins under Lake Superior are variable in depth and are partially filled with Keweenawan age sediments to depths of 7 km or more and volcanic flows to depths of 36 km. These rift basins form a continuous and sinuous feature that widens in the Allouez Basin and Marquette Basin in the western and central lake and narrows between White Ridge and the Porcupine Mountains. The rift basin bendsmore » southeast around the Keweenaw Peninsula, widens to about 100 km as it extends into the eastern half of Lake Superior, and exists the lake with its axis in the vicinity of Au Sable Point in Pictured Rocks National Lake Shore, about 50 km northeast of Munising, Michigan. The axis of the rift may exit the western end of the lake near Chequamegon Bay in Wisconsin. However, lack of data in that area limits interpretation at this time. Prior to late-stage reverse-faulting, a continuous basin of more uniform thickness was present beneath the lake. Crustal extension during rifting of approximately 50 km was followed by plate convergence and crustal shortening of approximately 30 km, with the major component of thrust from the southeast. Crustal shortening occurred after development of rift grabens and their filling with lava flows, but before deposition of the final sag basin sediments. Integration of information obtained from outcrops with data reported here indicates that the Lake Superior section of the rift is associated with as many as three major boundary faults.« less

  20. Technical Report, Onondaga Lake, New York, Main Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    growth . Section 3 of this report will expand upon the specific water quality problems. EXISTING CONDITIONS Page 23 Table V - Comparison of Current...This technical report on Ononidaga Lake, New York has compi led existing data to determine which water quality and enviromental enhancements are... bacteria is a problem during storm events causing contravention of the State swimming standards. The source of the problem has been identified as the

  1. Tales from Two Cores: Bayesian Re-Analyses of the Summit Lake and Blue Lakes Pollen Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, M.

    2016-12-01

    Pollen cores from Summit Lake and Blue Lakes in Humboldt Co., Nevada provide palaeoclimatic information for the last 2000 yearsin the NW Great Basin. Summit Lake is in the northern Black Rock Range (41.5 N -119.1 W) and is at an elevation of 1780 m. The Blue Lakes sit at an elevation of 2434 m in the southern Pine Forest Range (41.6 N -118.6 W). The distance between the two lakes is 33.5 km. The cores were originally taken to reconstruct the fire history in the NW Great Basin. In this study, stochastic climate histories are created using a Bayesian methodology as implemented in the Bclim program. This Bayesian approach takes: 1) a multivariate approach based on modern pollen analogs, 2) accounts for the non-linear and non-Gaussian relationship between the climate and the pollen proxy, and 3) accounts for the uncertainties in the radiocarbon record and climate histories. For both cores, the following climatic variables are reported for the last 2 kya: Mean Temperature of the Coldest month (MTCO), Growing Degree Days above 5 Centigrade (GDD5), the ratio of Actual to Potential Evapotranspiration (AET/PET). Because it was sequentially sampled,the Artemesia/Chenopodiaceae ratio (A/C), an indicator of wetness, and the Grasses/Shrubs (G/S) ratio, an indicator of thevegetation communities, is calculated for each section of the Summit Lake core. Bayesian changepoint analyses of the Summit Lake core indicates that there is no significant difference in the mean or variance of the A/C ratio for the last 2 kya cal BP, but there is a significant decrease in G/S ratio dating to circa 700 ya cal BP. At Summit Lake, a statistically significant decrease in the GDD5 occurs at 1.4-1.5 kya cal BP, and a significant increase in the GDD5 occurs for the last 200 ya cal BP. The GDD5 and MTCO for Blue Lakes has a significant increase at 600 ya cal BP, and afterwards decreases in the next century. The regional archaeological record will be discussed in light of these changes.

  2. Fishery survey of U. S. waters of Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, LaRue

    1969-01-01

    Gill nets and trawls were fished by the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries R/V Cisco during September 19-23, 1964, at several locations and depths in the offshore United States waters of Lake Ontario. Water temperatures were low (3.7-8.3 A?C) at all fishing stations except one (16.4 A?C). Supplementary data were provided by the Bureau's R/V Kaho in 1966. Alewives and smelt were common. Ciscoes were extremely scarce, but large; most of those caught were bloaters. Slimy sculpins were abundant, but no deepwater sculpins were caught. Yellow perch were scarce. Although the warm water species were inadequately sampled, trout-perch seemed to be abundant. Other species, all caught in small numbers, were lake trout, spottail shiners, burbot, threespine sticklebacks, and johnny darters from cold water and northern pike, lake chubs, white suckers, white bass, white perch, and rock bass from warm water.

  3. Weight and volume equations and tables for red maple in the Lake States.

    Treesearch

    Thomas R. Crow; G.G. Erdmann

    1983-01-01

    Weight and volume information based on regional sampling are provided for red maple in the Lake States. Both green weight and dry weight values are presented for biomass. Volume equations predict total stem volume, volume to 8-inch top, and volume to 4-inch top, inside and outside bark.

  4. Zebra mussels invade Lake Erie muds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berkman, Paul Arthur; Haltuch, Melissa A.; Tichich, Emily; Garton, David W.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Gannon, John E.; Mackey, Scudder D.; Fuller, Jonathan A.; Liebenthal, Dale L.

    1998-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) originated in western Russia but have now become widespread in Europe and North America. They are widely known for their conspicuous invasion of rocks and other hard substrates in North American and European watersheds. We have found beds of zebra mussels directly colonizing sand and mud sediments each year across hundreds of square kilometres of North America's Lake Erie. This transformation of sedimentary habitats into mussel beds represents an unforeseen change in the invasive capacity of this species.

  5. Redox stratification of an ancient lake in Gale crater, Mars.

    PubMed

    Hurowitz, J A; Grotzinger, J P; Fischer, W W; McLennan, S M; Milliken, R E; Stein, N; Vasavada, A R; Blake, D F; Dehouck, E; Eigenbrode, J L; Fairén, A G; Frydenvang, J; Gellert, R; Grant, J A; Gupta, S; Herkenhoff, K E; Ming, D W; Rampe, E B; Schmidt, M E; Siebach, K L; Stack-Morgan, K; Sumner, D Y; Wiens, R C

    2017-06-02

    In 2012, NASA's Curiosity rover landed on Mars to assess its potential as a habitat for past life and investigate the paleoclimate record preserved by sedimentary rocks inside the ~150-kilometer-diameter Gale impact crater. Geological reconstructions from Curiosity rover data have revealed an ancient, habitable lake environment fed by rivers draining into the crater. We synthesize geochemical and mineralogical data from lake-bed mudstones collected during the first 1300 martian solar days of rover operations in Gale. We present evidence for lake redox stratification, established by depth-dependent variations in atmospheric oxidant and dissolved-solute concentrations. Paleoclimate proxy data indicate that a transition from colder to warmer climate conditions is preserved in the stratigraphy. Finally, a late phase of geochemical modification by saline fluids is recognized. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. The potential for catastrophic dam failure at Lake Nyos maar, Cameroon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lockwood, J.P.; Costa, J.E.; Tuttle, M.L.; Nni, J.; Tebor, S.G.

    1988-01-01

    The upper 40 m of Lake Nyos is bounded on the north by a narrow dam of poorly consolidated pyroclastic rocks, emplaced during the eruptive formation of the Lake Nyos maar a few hundred years ago. This 50-m-wide natural dam is structurally weak and is being eroded at an uncertain, but geologically alarming, rate. The eventual failure of the dam could cause a major flood (estimated peak discharge, 17000 m3/s) that would have a tragic impact on downstream areas as far as Nigeria, 108 km away. This serious hazard could be eliminated by lowering the lake level, either by controlled removal of the dam or by construction of a 680-m-long drainage tunnel about 65 m below the present lake surface. Either strategy would also lessen the lethal effects of future massive CO2 gas releases, such as the one that occurred in August 1986. ?? 1988 Springer-Verlag.

  7. Assessing glacial lake outburst flood risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kougkoulos, Ioannis; Cook, Simon; Jomelli, Vincent; Clarke, Leon; Symeonakis, Elias

    2017-04-01

    Glaciers across the world are thinning and receding in response to atmospheric warming. Glaciers tend to erode subglacial basins and deposit eroded materials around their margins as lateral-frontal terminal moraines. Recession into these basins and behind impounding moraines causes meltwater to pond as proglacial and supraglacial lakes. Consequently, there has been a general trend of increasing number and size of these lakes associated with glacier melting in many mountainous regions around the globe, in the last 30 years. Glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) then may occur where the glacial lake dam (ice, rock, moraine, or combination thereof) is breached, or overtopped, and thousands of people have lost their lives to such events in the last few decades, especially in the Andes and in the Himalaya. Given the ongoing and arguably increasing risk posed to downstream communities, and infrastructure, there has been a proliferation of GLOF studies, with many seeking to estimate GLOF hazard or risk in specific regions, or to identify 'potentially dangerous glacial lakes'. Given the increased scientific interest in GLOFs, it is timely to evaluate critically the ways in which GLOF risk has been assessed previously, and whether there are improvements that can be made to the ways in which risk assessment is achieved. We argue that, whilst existing GLOF hazard and risk assessments have been extremely valuable they often suffer from a number of key shortcomings that can be addressed by using different techniques as multi-criteria decision analysis and hydraulic modelling borrowed from disciplines like engineering, remote sensing and operations research.

  8. Calcite-impregnated defluidization structures in littoral sands of Mono Lake, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cloud, P.; Lajoie, K.R.

    1980-01-01

    Associated locally with well-known tufa mounds and towers of Mono Lake, California, are subvertical, concretionary sand structures through which fresh calcium-containing artesian waters moved up to sites of calcium carbonate precipitation beneath and adjacent to the lake. The structures include closely spaced calcite-impregnated columns, tubes, and other configurations with subcylindrical to bizarre cross sections and predominantly vertical orientation in coarse, barely coherent pumice sands along the south shore of the lake. Many structures terminate upward in extensive calcareous layers of caliche and tufa. Locally they enter the bases of tufa mounds and towers. A common form superficially resembles root casts and animal burrows except that branching is mostly up instead of down. Similar defluidization structures in ancient sedimentary rocks have been mistakenly interpreted as fossil burrows.

  9. Deposition, exhumation, and paleoclimate of an ancient lake deposit, Gale crater, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grotzinger, J.P.; Gupta, S.; Malin, M.C.; Rubin, D.M.; Schieber, J.; Siebach, K.; Sumner, D.Y.; Stack, K.M.; Vasavada, A.R.; Arvidson, R.E.; Calef, F.; Edgar, Lauren; Fischer, W.F.; Grant, J.A.; Griffes, J.L.; Kah, L.C.; Lamb, M.P.; Lewis, K.W.; Mangold, N.; Minitti, M.E.; Palucis, M.C.; Rice, M.; Williams, R.M.E.; Yingst, R.A.; Blake, D.; Blaney, D.; Conrad, P.; Crisp, J.A.; Dietrich, W.E.; Dromart, G.; Edgett, K.S.; Ewing, R.C.; Gellert, R.; Hurowitz, J.A.; Kocurek, G.; Mahaffy, P.G.; McBride, M.J.; McLennan, S.M.; Mischna, M.A.; Ming, D.; Milliken, R.E.; Newsom, H.; Oehler, D.; Parker, T.J.; Vaniman, D.; Wiens, R.C.; Wilson, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    The landforms of northern Gale crater on Mars expose thick sequences of sedimentary rocks. Based on images obtained by the Curiosity rover, we interpret these outcrops as evidence for past fluvial, deltaic, and lacustrine environments. Degradation of the crater wall and rim probably supplied these sediments, which advanced inward from the wall, infilling both the crater and an internal lake basin to a thickness of at least 75 meters. This intracrater lake system probably existed intermittently for thousands to millions of years, implying a relatively wet climate that supplied moisture to the crater rim and transported sediment via streams into the lake basin. The deposits in Gale crater were then exhumed, probably by wind-driven erosion, creating Aeolis Mons (Mount Sharp).

  10. Holocene surge-history of the Eyjabakkajökull glacier inferred from varved lake sediments on eastern Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Striberger, J.; Bjorck, S.; Ingolfsson, O.; Kjaer, K.; Snowball, I.; Uvo, C. B.

    2009-12-01

    Properties of varved lake sediments from Lake Lögurinn on eastern Iceland and their link to glacial processes of Eyjabakkajökull, a surging outlet glacier of the Vatnajökull ice cap, is examined. An 18 m long sediment sequence obtained from the lake, covering at least the past ~ 9 200 years, displays a distinct recurring pattern of light-coloured clay dominated laminae sections. The thickness of the light-coloured laminae is mainly controlled by the amount of glacial rock flour transported from Eyjabakkajökull. These light laminae are interlaid by coarser dark-coloured laminae mainly formed by suspended matter transported to the lake by the large non-glacial river Grímsá. During the recent surge of Eyjabakkajökull in 1972, the amount of suspended matter transported to the lake increased significantly. The surge was followed by years of recurring drainages of Lake Háöldulón, an ice-dammed lake that was formed shortly after the surge. As a result, the amount of glacial rock flour transported to Lake Lögurinn was higher than usual as long as Lake Háöldulón continued to drain (i.e. as long as the ice front was in an advanced position enough to dam the lake). This increase in glacially derived rock flour is reflected in the sediments, as the varve that was formed in 1972 constitutes the thickest light-coloured laminae deposited during the 20th century, which is followed by the second thickest light-coloured laminae, deposited in 1973. From there on, the thicknesses of the light-coloured laminae gradually fade out. Based on these modern observations, we suggest that the recurring cyclic pattern of light-coloured clay dominated laminae sections in the sediment sequence is related to past surges of Eyjabakkajökull, followed by drainages of Lake Háöldulón. Recurring cycles of light-coloured clay dominated laminae began to develop close to the Hekla-3 and Hekla-4 tephras (ca. 3000-4000 years BP), which also coincides with the time when the varves became

  11. The quality of our Nation's waters: groundwater quality in the Columbia Plateau and Snake River Plain basin-fill and basaltic-rock aquifers and the Hawaiian volcanic-rock aquifers, Washington, Idaho, and Hawaii, 1993-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rupert, Michael G.; Hunt, Charles D.; Skinner, Kenneth D.; Frans, Lonna M.; Mahler, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    The Columbia Plateau, Snake River Plain, and Hawaii are large volcanic areas in the western United States and mid-Pacific ocean that contain extensive regional aquifers of a hard, gray, volcanic rock called basalt. Residents of the Columbia Plateau, the Snake River Plain, and the island of Oahu depend on groundwater as their primary source of drinking water. Although the depth to the water table can be several hundred feet, the groundwater is highly vulnerable to contamination because the permeable sediments and rocks allow contaminants to move readily down to the water table. Intense agricultural and urban activities occur above the drinking-water supply and are increasing in some areas. Contaminants, such as nitrate, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds, associated with agricultural and urban activities, have adversely affected groundwater quality.

  12. Great Salt Lake Composition and Rare Earth Speciation Analysis

    DOE Data Explorer

    Jiao, Yongqin; Lammers, Laura; Brewer, Aaron

    2017-04-19

    We have conducted aqueous speciation analyses of the Great Salt Lake (GSL) brine sample (Table 1) and a mock geo sample (Table 2) spiked with 1 ppb Tb and 100 ppb Tb. The GSL speciation (Figure 1) aligns with our basic speciation expectations that strong carbonate complexes would form at mid to higher pH's. Although we expected strong aqueous complexes with fluorides at neutral pH and with chlorides, and hydroxides at low pH, we observe that the dominant species in the low to mid pH range to be Tb3+ as a free ion. Still, we do see the presence of fluoride and chloride complexes within the expected low to mid pH range.

  13. Master Plan for Public Use Development and Resource Management, Lake Traverse, Minnesota - South Dakota.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-05-01

    White Rock Dam Recreation Area 25 Reservation Highway Recreation Area 27 Brown’s Valley Dike Recreation Area 28 Potential Recreation Areas 28 Section...Development 35 White Rock Dam 35 Reservation Highway 39 Brown’s Valley Dike 39 Land Use Allocation 42 Project Operations ൲ Operations: Recreation--Intensive...Facilities 4 Proposed Facilities v i i u < *1 I_ • In I . .. PROJECT DAT ~PROJECT DATA LAKE TRAVERSE AND RESERVATION DAM Reservoir Flowage rights to

  14. Simulation of the interaction of karstic lakes Magnolia and Brooklyn with the upper Floridan Aquifer, southwestern Clay County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merritt, M.L.

    2001-01-01

    first of two calibrated models, recharge to the water table, specified as a monthly rate, was set equal to 40 percent of the monthly rainfall rate. The specified rate of inflow to the uppermost stream segment was set equal to outflows from Lake Lowry estimated from lake stage and the 1994-97 rating table. Leakage to the intermediate and Upper Floridan aquifers was assumed to occur from the surficial aquifer system through the confining layers directly beneath deeper parts of the lake bottom. A leakance coefficient value of 0.001 feet per day per foot of thickness was used beneath Lake Magnolia, and a value of 0.005 feet per day per foot of thickness was used beneath most of Lake Brooklyn. With these values, the conductance through the confining layers beneath Lake Brooklyn was about 19 times that beneath Lake Magnolia. The simulated stages of Lake Brooklyn matched the measured stages reasonably well in the early (1957-72) and later (1990-98) parts of the simulation time period, but the match was unsatisfactory in an intermediate time period (1973-89). To resolve this discrepancy, the hypothesis was proposed that undocumented losses of water from Alligator Creek upstream from Lake Brooklyn or from the lake itself occurred between 1973 and 1989 when there was sufficient streamflow. The resulting simulation of lake stages matched the measured lake stages accurately during the entire simulation time period. The model was then revised to incorporate the assumption that only 20 percent of precipitation recharged the water table (the second calibrated model). Recalibration of the model required that leakance values for the confining units under deeper parts of the lakes also be reduced by nearly 50 percent. The stages simulated with the new parameter assumptions, but retaining the assumption of surface-water losses, were an excellent match of the measured values. The stage of Lake Magnolia was also simulated accurately. The results of sensitivity analyses show that simulated s

  15. Response of predatory zooplankton populations to the experimental acidification of Little Rock Lake, Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Sierszen, M.E.; Frost, T.M.

    1993-01-01

    To assess the effects of lake acidification on large predatory zooplankton, the authors monitored population levels of four limnetic taxa for 6 years in a lake with two basins, one of which was experimentally acidified (2 years at each of three levels: pH 5.6, 5.2 and 4.7). Concentrations of phantom midge (Chaoborus spp.), the most abundant large predator, remained similar in the treatment and reference basins until the fourth year (pH 5.2) when they increased in the treatment basin. In contrast, Epischura lacustris and Leptodora kindtii disappeared from limnetic samples, and water mites declined to near zero upon acidification. Treatmentmore » basin populations of E. lacustris declined sharply during the second year of acidification. The nature of the decline suggested sensitivity of an early life stage during the first year at pH 5.6. Leptodora kindtii showed no population response at pH 5.6, but declined to essentially zero at pH 5.2. Treatment basin populations of water mites fluctuated until declining in the fifth and sixth years (pH 4.7). These changes indicate a variety of direct and indirect responses to lake acidification.« less

  16. Seasonal dynamics of groundwater-lake interactions at Doñana National Park, Spain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sacks, Laura A.; Herman, Janet S.; Konikow, Leonard F.; Vela, Antonio L.

    1992-01-01

    The hydrologic and solute budgets of a lake can be strongly influenced by transient groundwater flow. Several shallow interdunal lakes in southwest Spain are in close hydraulic connection with the shallow ground water. Two permanent lakes and one intermittent lake have chloride concentrations that differ by almost an order of magnitude. A two-dimensional solute-transport model, modified to simulate transient groundwater-lake interaction, suggests that the rising water table during the wet season leads to local flow reversals toward the lakes. Response of the individual lakes, however, varies depending on the lake's position in the regional flow system. The most dilute lake is a flow-through lake during the entire year; the through flow is driven by regional groundwater flow. The other permanent lake, which has a higher solute concentration, undergoes seasonal groundwater flow reversals at its downgradient end, resulting in complex seepage patterns and higher solute concentrations in the ground water near the lake. The solute concentration of the intermittent lake is influenced more strongly by the seasonal wetting and drying cycle than by the regional flow system. Although evaporation is the major process affecting the concentration of conservative solutes in the lakes, geochemical and biochemical reactions influence the concentration of nonconservative solutes. Probable reactions in the lakes include biological uptake of solutes and calcite precipitation; probable reactions as lake water seeps into the aquifer are sulfate reduction and calcite dissolution. Seepage reversals can result in water composition that appears inconsistent with predictions based on head measurements because, under transient flow conditions, the flow direction at any instant may not satisfactorily depict the source of the water. Understanding the dynamic nature of groundwater-lake interaction aids in the interpretation of hydrologic and chemical relations between the lakes and the ground

  17. Geologic map of Lake Mead and surrounding regions, southern Nevada, southwestern Utah, and northwestern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Felger, Tracey J.; Beard, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Regional stratigraphic units and structural features of the Lake Mead region are presented as a 1:250,000 scale map, and as a Geographic Information System database. The map, which was compiled from existing geologic maps of various scales, depicts geologic units, bedding and foliation attitudes, faults and folds. Units and structural features were generalized to highlight the regional stratigraphic and tectonic aspects of the geology of the Lake Mead region. This map was prepared in support of the papers presented in this volume, Special Paper 463, as well as to facilitate future investigations in the region. Stratigraphic units exposed within the area record 1800 million years of geologic history and include Proterozoic crystalline rocks, Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic plutonic rocks, Cenozoic volcanic and intrusive rocks, sedimentary rocks and surfi cial deposits. Following passive margin sedimentation in the Paleozoic and Mesozoic, late Mesozoic (Sevier) thrusting and Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary compression produced major folding, reverse faulting, and thrust faulting in the Basin and Range, and resulted in regional uplift and monoclinal folding in the Colorado Plateau. Cenozoic extensional deformation, accompanied by sedimentation and volcanism, resulted in large-magnitude high- and low-angle normal faulting and strike-slip faulting in the Basin and Range; on the Colorado Plateau, extension produced north-trending high-angle normal faults. The latest history includes integration of the Colorado River system, dissection, development of alluvial fans, extensive pediment surfaces, and young faulting.

  18. Whole-rock and sulfide-mineral geochemical data for samples from volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits of the Bonnifield district, east-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Slack, John F.; Koenig, Alan E.; Foley, Nora K.; Oscarson, Robert L.; Gans, Kathleen D.

    2011-01-01

    This Open-File Report presents geochemical data for outcrop and drill-core samples from volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits and associated metaigneous and metasedimentary rocks in the Wood River area of the Bonnifield mining district, northern Alaska Range, east-central Alaska. The data consist of major- and trace-element whole-rock geochemical analyses, and major- and trace-element analyses of sulfide minerals determined by electron microprobe and laser ablation—inductively coupled plasma—mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) techniques. The PDF consists of text, appendix explaining the analytical methods used for the analyses presented in the data tables, a sample location map, and seven data tables. The seven tables are also available as spreadsheets in several file formats. Descriptions and discussions of the Bonnifield deposits are given in Dusel-Bacon and others (2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2010).

  19. Rock Mass Behavior Under Hydropower Embankment Dams: A Two-Dimensional Numerical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarchuk, A.; Ask, M. V. S.; Dahlström, L.-O.; Nordlund, E.

    2012-09-01

    Sweden has more than 190 large hydropower dams, of which about 50 are pure embankment dams and over 100 are concrete/embankment dams. This paper presents results from conceptual analyses of the response of typical Swedish rock mass to the construction of a hydropower embankment dam and its first stages of operation. The aim is to identify locations and magnitudes of displacements that are occurring in the rock foundation and grout curtain after construction of the dam, the first filling of its water reservoir, and after one seasonal variation of the water table. Coupled hydro-mechanical analysis was conducted using the two-dimensional distinct element program UDEC. Series of the simulations have been performed and the results show that the first filling of the reservoir and variation of water table induce largest magnitudes of displacement, with the greatest values obtained from the two models with high differential horizontal stresses and smallest spacing of sub-vertical fractures. These results may help identifying the condition of the dam foundation and contribute to the development of proper maintenance measures, which guarantee the safety and functionality of the dam. Additionally, newly developed dams may use these results for the estimation of the possible response of the rock foundation to the construction.

  20. Blue Mountain and The Gas Rocks: Rear-Arc Dome Clusters on the Alaska Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hildreth, Wes; Fierstein, Judy; Calvert, Andrew T.

    2007-01-01

    Behind the single-file chain of stratovolcanoes on the Alaska Peninsula, independent rear-arc vents for mafic magmas are uncommon, and for silicic magmas rarer still. We report here the characteristics, compositions, and ages of two andesite-dacite dome clusters and of several nearby basaltic units, all near Becharof Lake and 15 to 20 km behind the volcanic front. Blue Mountain consists of 13 domes (58-68 weight percent SiO2) and The Gas Rocks of three domes (62-64.5 weight percent SiO2) and a mafic cone (52 weight percent SiO2). All 16 domes are amphibole-biotite-plagioclase felsite, and nearly all are phenocryst rich and quartz bearing. Although the two dome clusters are lithologically and chemically similar and only 25 km apart, they differ strikingly in age. The main central dome of Blue Mountain yields an 40Ar/39Ar age of 632?7 ka, and two of the Gas Rocks domes ages of 25.7?1.4 and 23.3?1.2 ka. Both clusters were severely eroded by glaciation; surviving volumes of Blue Mountain domes total ~1 km3, and of the Gas Rocks domes 0.035 km3. Three basaltic vents lie close to The Gas Rocks, another lies just south of Blue Mountain, and a fifth is near the north shore of Becharof Lake. A basaltic andesite vent 6 km southeast of The Gas Rocks appears to be a flank vent of the arc-front center Mount Peulik. The basalt of Ukinrek Maars has been called transitionally alkalic, but all the other basaltic rocks are subalkaline. CO2-rich gas emissions near the eponymous Gas Rocks domes are not related to the 25-ka dacite dome cluster but, rather, to intracrustal degassing of intrusive basalt, one batch of which erupted 3 km away in 1977. The felsic and mafic vents all lie along or near the Bruin Bay Fault where it intersects a broad transverse structural zone marked by topographic, volcanologic, and geophysical discontinuities.

  1. The Role of Trans Tensional Structures and Lake Mead Reservoir in Groundwater Flow in Black Canyon, Lake Mead National Recreation Area, NV-AZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Justet, L.; Beard, S.

    2010-12-01

    Hot springs and seeps discharging into Black Canyon (BC) along the Colorado River in north Colorado River Valley (CRV) support endemic riparian ecosystems in the Lake Mead National Recreation Area. Increases in groundwater development in southern NV and northwestern AZ may impact spring discharge. Sources of spring discharge in BC were evaluated using geochemical methods. Kinematic analysis and geologic mapping of structures associated with BC springs were used to evaluate structural controls on groundwater flow in BC. Geochemical analysis indicates groundwater discharge near Hoover Dam (HD) and along the faulted edge of the Boulder City Pluton is derived from Lake Mead, high δ87Sr Proterozoic or Tertiary crystalline rock and, possibly, Tertiary sedimentary rock. Reducing conditions indicated by 234U/238U and δ34S concentrations suggest the groundwater is confined and/or derived from greater depths while carbon isotopes indicate the groundwater is old. Lighter δD and δO-18, modern tritium concentrations, post-Dam U disequilibrium ages, and occurrence of anthropogenic perchlorate support the presence of a young Lake Mead component. South of the pluton, the Lake Mead component is absent. More oxidizing conditions in this part of BC, indicated by the U and S isotope concentrations, suggest the groundwater is less confined and/or derived from shallower depths compared to groundwater discharging near HD. Older apparent groundwater ages and heavier δD and δO-18 values south of the pluton indicate slower flow paths from a lower elevation or latitude source. Clarifying the nature of groundwater flow in eastern NV, the analyses indicate that hydraulic connection between the regional carbonate aquifer and BC is unlikely. Instead, the data indicate sources of BC springs are derived relatively locally in CRV and, possibly, south Lake Mead Valley. Results of the geologic and kinematic analyses indicate faults that formed from the interaction of E-W extension related to

  2. Interactions of artificial lakes with groundwater applying an integrated MODFLOW solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Zehairy, A. A.; Lubczynski, M. W.; Gurwin, J.

    2018-02-01

    Artificial lakes (reservoirs) are regulated water bodies with large stage fluctuations and different interactions with groundwater compared with natural lakes. A novel modelling study characterizing the dynamics of these interactions is presented for artificial Lake Turawa, Poland. The integrated surface-water/groundwater MODFLOW-NWT transient model, applying SFR7, UZF1 and LAK7 packages to account for variably-saturated flow and temporally variable lake area extent and volume, was calibrated throughout 5 years (1-year warm-up, 4-year simulation), applying daily lake stages, heads and discharges as control variables. The water budget results showed that, in contrast to natural lakes, the reservoir interactions with groundwater were primarily dependent on the balance between lake inflow and regulated outflow, while influences of precipitation and evapotranspiration played secondary roles. Also, the spatio-temporal lakebed-seepage pattern was different compared with natural lakes. The large and fast-changing stages had large influence on lakebed-seepage and water table depth and also influenced groundwater evapotranspiration and groundwater exfiltration, as their maxima coincided not with rainfall peaks but with highest stages. The mean lakebed-seepage ranged from 0.6 mm day-1 during lowest stages (lake-water gain) to 1.0 mm day-1 during highest stages (lake-water loss) with largest losses up to 4.6 mm day-1 in the peripheral zone. The lakebed-seepage of this study was generally low because of low lakebed leakance (0.0007-0.0015 day-1) and prevailing upward regional groundwater flow moderating it. This study discloses the complexity of artificial lake interactions with groundwater, while the proposed front-line modelling methodology can be applied to any reservoir, and also to natural lake interactions with groundwater.

  3. Mudflow hazards along the Toutle and Cowlitz Rivers from a hypothetical failure of Spirit Lake blockage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swift, C.H.; Kresch, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    The debris avalanche accompanying the May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens, in southwestern Washington, buried the former outlet of Spirit Lake, located 5 miles north of the volcano, to a depth ranging to 500 feet. Since that time, Spirit Lake has had no natural outlet and its lake level and contents have increased significantly. Erosion at the crest of the debris dam on the surface of the blockage and recent studies of theblockage stratigraphy and soil properties showing that the effective crest elevation is lower than the surface crest have led to concern that the lake may someday breach through or spill over the top of the blockage. A study was made by the U.S. Geological Survey to determine the extent of inundation that might result downstream in the Toutle and Cowlitz Rivers if a hypothetical breach should occur and generate a mudflow flood of catastrophic proportions. A hypothetical breach of Spirit Lake produced a hypothetical mudflow hydrograph with a peak discharge of 2.65 million cu ft/s and a sediment concentration of 65 percent by volume at Camp Baker on the North Fork Toutle River. Elevations determined by the hydraulic routing of the mudflow were used to prepare inundation maps, indicating depths of inundation to be about 60 feet at Castle Rock and Lexington; 30-40 feet at Toutle, Toutle Lake at Silver Lake, Kelson, and Longview; and 15-20 feet at Toledo. Travel times for the peak elevation were estimated to be about 15 hours to Kid Valley on the North Fork Toutle River, 21 hours to Castle Rock, 22 hours to Toledo, and 23 hours to Kelso and Longview on the Cowlitz River. (USGS)

  4. Large-Scale Biaxial Friction Experiments with an Assistance of the NIED Shaking Table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuyama, E.; Mizoguchi, K.; Yamashita, F.; Togo, T.; Kawakata, H.; Yoshimitsu, N.; Shimamoto, T.; Mikoshiba, T.; Sato, M.; Minowa, C.

    2012-12-01

    We constructed a large-scale biaxial friction apparatus using a large shaking table working at NIED (table dimension is 15m x 15m). The actuator of the shaking table becomes the engine of the constant speed loading. We used a 1.5m long rock sample overlaid on a 2m one. Their height and width are both 0.5m. Therefore, the slip area is 1.5m x 0.5m. The 2m long sample moves with the shaking table and the 1.5m sample is fixed to the basement of the shaking table. Thus, the shaking table displacement controls the dislocation between two rock samples. The shaking table can generate 0.4m displacement with a velocity ranging between 0.0125mm/s and 1m/s. We used Indian gabbro for the rock sample of the present experiments. Original flatness of the sliding surface was formed less than 0.024mm undulation using a large-scale plane grinder. Surface roughness evolved as subsequent experiments were done. Wear material was generated during each experiment, whose grain size becomes bigger as the experiments proceed. This might suggest a damage evolution on the sliding surface. In some experiments we did not remove the gouge material before sliding to examine the effect of gouge layer. Normal stress can be applied up to 1.3MPa. The stiffness of this apparatus was measured experimentally and was of the order of 0.1GN/m. We first measured the coefficient of friction at low sliding velocity (0.1~1mm/s) where the steady state was achieved after the slip of ~5mm. The coefficient of friction was about 0.75 under the normal stress between 0.13 and 1.3MPa. This is consistent with those estimated by previous works using smaller rock samples. We observed that the coefficient of friction decreased gradually with increasing slip velocity, but simultaneously the friction curves at the higher velocities are characterized by stick-slip vibration. Our main aim of the experiments is to understand the rupture propagation from slow nucleation to fast unstable rupture during the loading of two contact

  5. U-series dating of Lake Nyos maar basalts, Cameroon (West Africa): Implications for potential hazards on the Lake Nyos dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aka, Festus T.; Yokoyama, Tetsuya; Kusakabe, Minoru; Nakamura, Eizo; Tanyileke, Gregory; Ateba, Bekoa; Ngako, Vincent; Nnange, Joseph; Hell, Joseph

    2008-09-01

    From previously published 14C and K-Ar data, the age of formation of Lake Nyos maar in Cameroon is still in dispute. Lake Nyos exploded in 1986, releasing CO 2 that killed 1750 people and over 3000 cattle. Here we report results of the first measurements of major elements, trace elements and U-series disequilibria in ten basanites/trachy-basalts and two olivine tholeiites from Lake Nyos. It is the first time tholeiites are described in Lake Nyos. But for the tholeiites which are in 238U- 230Th equilibrium, all the other samples possess 238U- 230Th disequilibrium with 15 to 28% enrichment of 230Th over 238U. The ( 226Ra/ 230Th) activity ratios of these samples indicate small (2 to 4%) but significant 226Ra excesses. U-Th systematics and evidence from oxygen isotopes of the basalts and Lake Nyos granitic quartz separates show that the U-series disequilibria in these samples are source-based and not due to crustal contamination or post-eruptive alteration. Enrichment of 230Th is strong prima facie evidence that Lake Nyos is younger than 350 ka. The 230Th- 226Ra age of Nyos samples calculated with the ( 226Ra/ 230Th) ratio for zero-age Mt. Cameroon samples is 3.7 ± 0.5 ka, although this is a lower limit as the actual age is estimated to be older than 5 ka, based on the measured mean 230Th/ 238U activity ratio. The general stability of the Lake Nyos pyroclastic dam is a cause for concern, but judging from its 230Th- 226Ra formation age, we do not think that in the absence of a big rock fall or landslide into the lake, a big earthquake or volcanic eruption close to the lake, collapse of the dam from erosion alone is as imminent and alarming as has been suggested.

  6. Numerical simulation of ground-water flow through glacial deposits and crystalline bedrock in the Mirror Lake area, Grafton County, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiedeman, Claire; Goode, Daniel J.; Hsieh, Paul A.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the development of a computer model to simulate steady-state (long-term average) flow of ground water in the vicinity of Mirror Lake, which lies at the eastern end of the Hubbard Brook valley in central New Hampshire. The 10-km2 study area includes Mirror Lake, the three streams that flow into Mirror Lake, Leeman's Brook, Paradise Brook, and parts of Hubbard Brook and the Pemigewasset River. The topography of the area is characterized by steep hillsides and relatively flat valleys. Major hydrogeologic units include glacial deposits, composed of till containing pockets of sand and gravel, and fractured crystalline bedrock, composed of schist intruded by granite, pegmatite, and lamprophyre. Ground water occurs in both the glacial deposits and bedrock. Precipitation and snowmelt infiltrate to the water table on the hillsides, flow downslope through the saturated glacial deposits and fractured bedrock, and discharge to streams and to Mirror Lake. The model domain includes the glacial deposits, the uppermost 150m of bedrock, Mirror Lake, the layer of organic sediments on the lake bottom, and streams and rivers within the study area. A streamflow routing package was included in the model to simulate baseflow in streams and interaction between streams and ground water. Recharge from precipitation is assumed to be areally uniform, and riparian evapotranspiration along stream banks is assumed negligible. The spatial distribution of hydraulic conductivity is represented by dividing the model domain into several zones, each having uniform hydraulic properties. Local variations in recharge and hydraulic conductivities are ignored; therefore, the simulation results characterize the general ground-water system, not local details of ground-water movement. The model was calibrated using a nonlinear regression method to match hydraulic heads measured in piezometers and wells, and baseflow in three inlet streams to Mirror Lake. Model calibration indicates that

  7. Balancing lake ecological condition and agriculture irrigation needs in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Omer, A.R.; Killgore, K.J.

    2017-01-01

    The Mississippi Alluvial Valley includes hundreds of floodplain lakes that support unique fish assemblages and high biodiversity. Irrigation practices in the valley have lowered the water table, increasing the cost of pumping water, and necessitating the use of floodplain lakes as a source of water for irrigation. This development has prompted the need to regulate water withdrawals to protect aquatic resources, but it is unknown how much water can be withdrawn from lakes before ecological integrity is compromised. To estimate withdrawal limits, we examined descriptors of lake water quality (i.e., total nitrogen, total phosphorus, turbidity, Secchi visibility, chlorophyll-a) and fish assemblages (species richness, diversity, composition) relative to maximum depth in 59 floodplain lakes. Change-point regression analysis was applied to identify critical depths at which the relationships between depth and lake descriptors exhibited a rapid shift in slope, suggesting possible thresholds. All our water quality and fish assemblage descriptors showed rapid changes relative to depth near 1.2–2.0 m maximum depth. This threshold span may help inform regulatory decisions about water withdrawal limits. Alternatives to explain the triggers of the observed threshold span are considered.

  8. Deposition, exhumation, and paleoclimate of an ancient lake deposit, Gale crater, Mars.

    PubMed

    Grotzinger, J P; Gupta, S; Malin, M C; Rubin, D M; Schieber, J; Siebach, K; Sumner, D Y; Stack, K M; Vasavada, A R; Arvidson, R E; Calef, F; Edgar, L; Fischer, W F; Grant, J A; Griffes, J; Kah, L C; Lamb, M P; Lewis, K W; Mangold, N; Minitti, M E; Palucis, M; Rice, M; Williams, R M E; Yingst, R A; Blake, D; Blaney, D; Conrad, P; Crisp, J; Dietrich, W E; Dromart, G; Edgett, K S; Ewing, R C; Gellert, R; Hurowitz, J A; Kocurek, G; Mahaffy, P; McBride, M J; McLennan, S M; Mischna, M; Ming, D; Milliken, R; Newsom, H; Oehler, D; Parker, T J; Vaniman, D; Wiens, R C; Wilson, S A

    2015-10-09

    The landforms of northern Gale crater on Mars expose thick sequences of sedimentary rocks. Based on images obtained by the Curiosity rover, we interpret these outcrops as evidence for past fluvial, deltaic, and lacustrine environments. Degradation of the crater wall and rim probably supplied these sediments, which advanced inward from the wall, infilling both the crater and an internal lake basin to a thickness of at least 75 meters. This intracrater lake system probably existed intermittently for thousands to millions of years, implying a relatively wet climate that supplied moisture to the crater rim and transported sediment via streams into the lake basin. The deposits in Gale crater were then exhumed, probably by wind-driven erosion, creating Aeolis Mons (Mount Sharp). Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Iron isotope fractionation during magmatic differentiation in Kilauea Iki lava lake.

    PubMed

    Teng, Fang-Zhen; Dauphas, Nicolas; Helz, Rosalind T

    2008-06-20

    Magmatic differentiation helps produce the chemical and petrographic diversity of terrestrial rocks. The extent to which magmatic differentiation fractionates nonradiogenic isotopes is uncertain for some elements. We report analyses of iron isotopes in basalts from Kilauea Iki lava lake, Hawaii. The iron isotopic compositions (56Fe/54Fe) of late-stagemeltveins are 0.2 permil (per thousand) greater than values for olivine cumulates. Olivine phenocrysts are up to 1.2 per thousand lighter than those of whole rocks. These results demonstrate that iron isotopes fractionate during magmatic differentiation at both whole-rock and crystal scales. This characteristic of iron relative to the characteristics of magnesium and lithium, for which no fractionation has been found, may be related to its complex redox chemistry in magmatic systems and makes iron a potential tool for studying planetary differentiation.

  10. Iron isotope fractionation during magmatic differentiation in Kilauea Iki lava lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Teng, F.-Z.; Dauphas, N.; Helz, R.T.

    2008-01-01

    Magmatic differentiation helps produce the chemical and petrographic diversity of terrestrial rocks. The extent to which magmatic differentiation fractionates nonradiogenic isotopes is uncertain for some elements. We report analyses of iron isotopes in basalts from Kilauea Iki lava lake, Hawaii. The iron isotopic compositions (56Fe/54Fe) of late-stage melt veins are 0.2 per mil (???) greater than values for olivine cumulates. Olivine phenocrysts are up to 1.2??? lighter than those of whole rocks. These results demonstrate that iron isotopes fractionate during magmatic differentiation at both whole-rock and crystal scales. This characteristic of iron relative to the characteristics of magnesium and lithium, for which no fractionation has been found, may be related to its complex redox chemistry in magmatic systems and makes iron a potential tool for studying planetary differentiation.

  11. The differing biogeochemical and microbial signatures of glaciers and rock glaciers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fegel, Timothy S.; Baron, Jill S.; Fountain, Andrew G.; Johnson, Gunnar F.; Hall, Edward K.

    2016-01-01

    Glaciers and rock glaciers supply water and bioavailable nutrients to headwater mountain lakes and streams across all regions of the American West. Here we present a comparative study of the metal, nutrient, and microbial characteristics of glacial and rock glacial influence on headwater ecosystems in three mountain ranges of the contiguous U.S.: The Cascade Mountains, Rocky Mountains, and Sierra Nevada. Several meltwater characteristics (water temperature, conductivity, pH, heavy metals, nutrients, complexity of dissolved organic matter (DOM), and bacterial richness and diversity) differed significantly between glacier and rock glacier meltwaters, while other characteristics (Ca2+, Fe3+, SiO2 concentrations, reactive nitrogen, and microbial processing of DOM) showed distinct trends between mountain ranges regardless of meltwater source. Some characteristics were affected both by glacier type and mountain range (e.g. temperature, ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3- ) concentrations, bacterial diversity). Due to the ubiquity of rock glaciers and the accelerating loss of the low latitude glaciers our results point to the important and changing influence that these frozen features place on headwater ecosystems.

  12. A database of georeferenced nutrient chemistry data for mountain lakes of the Western United States

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jason; Labou, Stephanie G.

    2017-01-01

    Human activities have increased atmospheric nitrogen and phosphorus deposition rates relative to pre-industrial background. In the Western U.S., anthropogenic nutrient deposition has increased nutrient concentrations and stimulated algal growth in at least some remote mountain lakes. The Georeferenced Lake Nutrient Chemistry (GLNC) Database was constructed to create a spatially-extensive lake chemistry database needed to assess atmospheric nutrient deposition effects on Western U.S. mountain lakes. The database includes nitrogen and phosphorus water chemistry data spanning 1964–2015, with 148,336 chemistry results from 51,048 samples collected across 3,602 lakes in the Western U.S. Data were obtained from public databases, government agencies, scientific literature, and researchers, and were formatted into a consistent table structure. All data are georeferenced to a modified version of the National Hydrography Dataset Plus version 2. The database is transparent and reproducible; R code and input files used to format data are provided in an appendix. The database will likely be useful to those assessing spatial patterns of lake nutrient chemistry associated with atmospheric deposition or other environmental stressors. PMID:28509907

  13. Continuous lake-sediment records of glaciation in the Sierra Nevada between 52,600 and 12,500 14C yr B.P.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, L.V.; May, Howard M.; Antweiler, Ronald C.; Brinton, T.I.; Kashgarian, Michaele; Smoot, J.P.; Lund, S.P.

    1998-01-01

    The chemistry of the carbonate-free clay-size fraction of Owens Lake sediments supports the use of total organic carbon and magnetic susceptibility as indicators of stadial-interstadial oscillations. Owens Lake records of total organic carbon, magnetic susceptibility, and chemical composition of the carbonate-free, clay-size fraction indicate that Tioga glaciation began ~24,500 and ended by ~13,600 14C yr B.P. Many of the components of glacial rock flour (e.g., TiO2, MnO, BaO) found in Owens Lake sediments achieved maximum values during the Tioga glaciation when valley glaciers reached their greatest extent. Total organic carbon and SiO2 (amorphous) concentrations reached minimum values during Tioga glaciation, resulting from decreases in productivity that accompanied the introduction of rock flour into the surface waters of Owens Lake. At least 20 stadial-interstadial oscillations occurred in the Sierra Nevada between 52,600 and 14,000 14C yr B.P. Total organic carbon data from a Pyramid Lake sediment core also indicate oscillations in glacier activity between >39,500 and ~13,600 14C yr B.P. Alpine glacier oscillations occurred on a frequency of ???1900 yr in both basins, suggesting that millennial-scale oscillations occurred in California and Nevada during most of the past 52,600 yr.

  14. Hydrology of some deep mines in Precambrian rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Yardley, D.H.

    1975-10-01

    A number of underground mines were investigated during the summer of 1975. All of them are in Precambrian rocks of the Lake Superior region. They represent a variety of geologic settings. The purpose of the investigations was to make a preliminary study of the dryness, or lack of dryness of these rocks at depth. In other words, to see if water was entering the deeper workings through the unmined rock by some means such as fracture or fault zones, joints or permeable zones. Water entering through old mine workings extending to, or very near to the surface, or from themore » drilling equipment, was of interest only insofar as it might mask any water whose source was through the hanging or footwall rocks. No evidence of running, seeping or moving water was seen or reported at depths exceeding 3,000 feet. At depths of 3,000 feet or less, water seepages do occur in some of the mines, usually in minor quantities but increased amounts occur as depth becomes less. Others are dry at 2,000 feet of depth. Rock movements associated with extensive mining should increase the local secondary permeability of the rocks adjoining the mined out zones. Also most ore bodies are located where there has been a more than average amount of faulting, fracturing, and folding during the geologic past. They tend to cluster along crustal flows. In general, Precambrian rocks of similar geology, to those seen, well away from zones that have been disturbed by extensive deep mining, and well away from the zones of more intense geologic activity ought to be even less permeable than their equivalents in a mining district.« less

  15. Geometry and material choices govern hard-rock drilling performance of PDC drag cutters.

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, Jack LeRoy

    2005-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has partnered with industry on a multifaceted, baseline experimental study that supports the development of improved drag cutters for advanced drill bits. Different nonstandard cutter lots were produced and subjected to laboratory tests that evaluated the influence of selected design and processing parameters on cutter loads, wear, and durability pertinent to the penetration of hard rock with mechanical properties representative of formations encountered in geothermal or deep oil/gas drilling environments. The focus was on cutters incorporating ultrahard PDC (polycrystalline diamond compact) overlays (i.e., diamond tables) on tungsten-carbide substrates. Parameter variations included changes in cutter geometry, material composition,more » and processing conditions. Geometric variables were the diamond-table thickness, the cutting-edge profile, and the PDC/substrate interface configuration. Material and processing variables for the diamond table were, respectively, the diamond particle size and the sintering pressure applied during cutter fabrication. Complementary drop-impact, granite-log abrasion, linear cutting-force, and rotary-drilling tests examined the response of cutters from each lot. Substantial changes in behavior were observed from lot to lot, allowing the identification of features contributing major (factor of 10+) improvements in cutting performance for hard-rock applications. Recent field demonstrations highlight the advantages of employing enhanced cutter technology during challenging drilling operations.« less

  16. Climatic and limnologic setting of Bear Lake, Utah and Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dean, W.E.; Wurtsbaugh, W.A.; Lamarra, V.A.

    2009-01-01

    Bear Lake is a large alkaline lake on a high plateau on the Utah-Idaho border. The Bear River was partly diverted into the lake in the early twentieth century so that Bear Lake could serve as a reservoir to supply water for hydropower and irrigation downstream, which continues today. The northern Rocky Mountain region is within the belt of the strongest of the westerly winds that transport moisture during the winter and spring over coastal mountain ranges and into the Great Basin and Rocky Mountains. As a result of this dominant winter precipitation pattern, most of the water entering the lake is from snowmelt, but with net evaporation. The dominant solutes in the lake water are Ca 2+, Mg2+, and HCO32-, derived from Paleozoic carbonate rocks in the Bear River Range west of the lake. The lake is saturated with calcite, aragonite, and dolomite at all depths, and produces vast amounts of carbonate minerals. The chemistry of the lake has changed considerably over the past 100 years as a result of the diversion of Bear River. The net effect of the diversion was to dilute the lake water, especially the Mg2+ concentration. Bear Lake is oligotrophic and coprecipitation of phosphate with CaCO3 helps to keep productivity low. However, algal growth is colimited by nitrogen availability. Phytoplankton densities are low, with a mean summer chlorophyll a concentration of 0.4 mg L-1. Phytoplankton are dominated by diatoms, but they have not been studied extensively (but see Moser and Kimball, this volume). Zooplankton densities usually are low (<10 L-1) and highly seasonal, dominated by calanoid copepods and cladocera. Benthic invertebrate densities are extremely low; chironomid larvae are dominant at depths <30 m, and are partially replaced with ostracodes and oligochaetes in deeper water. The ostracode species in water depths >10 m are all endemic. Bear Lake has 13 species of fi sh, four of which are endemic. Copyright ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  17. Fate and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons in the subsurface near Cass Lake, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drennan, Dina M.; Bekins, Barbara A.; Warren, Ean; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Baedecker, Mary Jo; Herkelrath, William N.; Delin, Geoffrey N.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Campbell, Pamela L.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) investigated the natural attenuation of subsurface petroleum hydrocarbons leaked over an unknown number of years from an oil pipeline under the Enbridge Energy Limited Partnership South Cass Lake Pumping Station, in Cass Lake, Minnesota. Three weeks of field work conducted between May 2007 and July 2008 delineated a dissolved plume of aromatic hydrocarbons and characterized the biodegradation processes of the petroleum. Field activities included installing monitoring wells, collecting sediment cores, sampling water from wells, and measuring water-table elevations. Geochemical measurements included concentrations of constituents in both spilled and pipeline oil, dissolved alkylbenzenes and redox constituents, sediment bioavailable iron, and aquifer microbial populations. Groundwater in this area flows east-southeast at approximately 26 meters per year. Results from the oil analyses indicate a high degree of biodegradation, characterized by nearly complete absence of n-alkanes. Cass Lake oil samples were more degraded than two oil samples collected in 2008 from the similarly contaminated USGS Bemidji, Minnesota, research site 40 kilometers away. Based on 19 ratios developed for comparing oil sources, the conclusion is that the oils at the two sites appear to be from the same hydrocarbon source. In the Cass Lake groundwater plume, benzene concentrations decrease by three orders of magnitude within 150 meters (m) downgradient from the oil body floating on the water table (between well MW-10 and USGS-4 well nest). The depths of the highest benzene concentrations increase with distance downgradient from the oil, a condition typical of plumes in shallow, unconfined aquifers. Background groundwater, which is nearly saturated with oxygen, becomes almost entirely anaerobic in the plume. As at the Bemidji site, the most important biodegradation processes are anaerobic and dominated by iron reduction. The similarity between the Cass Lake and

  18. Techniques for restoration of disturbed coastal wetlands of the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilcox, Douglas A.; Whillans, Thomas H.

    1999-01-01

    A long history of human-induced degradation of Great Lakes wetlands has made restoration a necessity, but the practice of wetland restoration is relatively new, especially in large lake systems. Therefore, we compiled tested methods and developed additional potential methods based on scientific understanding of Great Lakes wetland ecosytems to providc an overview of approaches for restoration. We addressed this challenge by focusing on four general fields of science: hydrology, sedimentology, chemistry, and biology. Hydrologic remediation methods include restoring hydrologic connections between diked and hydrologically altered wetlands and the lakes, restoring water tables lowered by ditching, and restoring natural variation in lake levels of regulated lakes Superior and Ontario. Sedimentological remediation methods include management of sediment input from uplands, removal or proper management of dams on tributary rivers, and restoration of protective barrier beaches and sand spits. Chemical remediation methods include reducing or eliminating inputs of contaminants from point and non-pont sources, natural sediment remediation by biodegradation and chemical degradation, and active sediment remediation by removal or byin situ treatment Biological remediation methods include control of non-target organisms, enhancing populations of target organisms, and enhancing habitat for target organisms. Some of these method were used in three major restoration projects (Metzger Marsh on Lake Erie and Cootes Paradise and Oshawa Second Marsh on Lake Ontario), which are described as case studies to show practical applications of wetland restoration in the Great Lakes. Successful restoration techniques that do not require continued manipulation must be founded in the basic tenets of ecology and should mimic natural processes. Success is demonstrated by the sustainability, productivity, nutrient-retention ability, invasibility, and biotic interactions within a restored wetland.

  19. Maps and tables showing data and analyses of semiquantitative emmission spectrometry and atomic-absorption spectrophotometry of rock samples, Ugashik, Bristol Bay, and part of Karluk quadrangles, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; O'Leary, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    The accompanying maps and tables show analytical data and data analyses from rock samples collected in conjunction with geologic mapping in the Ugashik, Bristol Bay and western Karluck quadrangles from 1979 through 1981. This work was conducted under the auspices of the Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program (AMRAP). A total of 337 samples were collected for analysis, primarily in areas of surficial alteration. The sample locations are shown on sheet 1: they are concentrated along the Pacific Ocean side of the area because the Bristol Bay lowlands part of the map is predominantly unconsolidated Quaternary deposits. Sample collection was by the following people, with their respective two letter identifying code shown in parentheses: W.H. Allaway (AY), J.E. Case (CE), D.P. Cox (CX), R.L. Detterman, (DT), T.G. Theodore (MK), F.H. Wilson (WS), and M.E. Yount (YB).

  20. Great Lakes rivermouths: a primer for managers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pebbles, Victoria; Larson, James; Seelbach, Paul; Pebbles, Victoria; Larson, James; Seelbach, Paul

    2013-01-01

    by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (Table1). Collectively, this primer synthesizes existing information in a new way that aims to support management of rivermouths as distinct and important ecosystems. The development and management decisions made around rivermouths today will shape the future of these ecosystems, and the human communities within them, well into the future. 1 The information presented in this paper was derived from discussions and draft documents of the Great Lakes Rivermouth Collaboratory. The Great Lakes Rivermouth Collaboratory was established by the U.S. Geological Survey's Great Lakes Science Center (USGS-GLSC) in collaboration with the Great Lakes Commission to engage the Great Lakes scientific community in sharing and documenting knowledge about freshwater rivermouth ecosystems. For more information, see http://www.glc.org/habitat/Rivermouth-Collaboratory.html.

  1. Insight into the geology of the East Antarctic hinterland: a study of sediment inclusions from ice cores of the Lake Vostok borehole

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leitchenkov, G.L.; Belyatsky, B.V.; Rodionov, N.V.; Sergeev, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    refrozen from the lake water. This ice layer contains random sediment inclusions, eight of which have been studied using state-of the-art analytical techniques. Six inclusions comprise soft aggregates consisting mainly of clay-mica minerals and micron-sized quartz grains while two others are solid clasts of fine-grained cemented rocks. The largest rock clast consists of poorly-rounded quartz and minor amounts of accessory minerals and is classified as quartzose siltstone. More than twenty grains of zircon and monazite have been identified in this siltstone and dated by SIMS SHRIMP-II. Two age clusters have been recognized for these detrital grains, in the ranges 0.8−1.2 Ga and 1.6−1.8 Ga. The compositions of the rock clasts suggest that the bedrock situated to the west of Lake Vostok is sedimentary. The age data on the detrital accessory minerals suggest that the provenance of these sedimentary rocks − the Gamburtsev Mountains and Vostok Subglacial Highlands, is mainly represented by Paleoproterozoic and MesoproterozoicNeoproterozoic crustal provinces

  2. Stabilizing eroding streambanks in sand drift areas of the Lake States.

    Treesearch

    Edward A. Hansen

    1968-01-01

    Banks are stabilized to protect adjacent high-value items such as cabins and campgrounds, or to reduce reservoir or lake sedimentation rates. Also, bank stabilization is undertaken as one part of fish habitat improvement programs. Rock rip-rap is the best material for bank stabilization in most cases. It does not deteriorate with time and it blends in well with the...

  3. Bathymetry of Walker Lake, West-Central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopes, Thomas J.; Smith, J. LaRue

    2007-01-01

    the shore and river mouth that could be boulders, tree stumps, logs, or other submerged objects. The echosounder detected what appeared to be mounds in the deepest parts of Walker Lake, miles from the shore and river mouth. However, side-scan sonar and divers did not confirm the presence of mounds. Anomalies occur in two northwest trending groups in northern and southern Walker Lake. It is hypothesized that some anomalies indicate spring discharge along faults based on tufa-like rocks that were observed and the northwest trend parallel to and in proximity of mapped faults. Also, evaporation measured from Walker Lake is about 50 percent more than the previous estimate, indicating more water is flowing into the lake from sources other than the Walker River. Additional studies need to be done to determine what the anomalies are and whether they are related to the hydrology of Walker Lake. Most differences in surface area and storage volume between this study and a study by Rush in 1970 were less than 1 percent. The largest differences occur at lake-surface altitudes less than 3,916 feet. In general, relations between lake-surface altitude, surface area, and storage volume from Rush's study and this study are nearly identical throughout most of the range in lake-surface altitude. The lake-surface altitude in 1882 was estimated to be between 4,080 feet and 4,086 feet with a probable altitude of 4,082 feet. This estimate compares well with two previous estimates of 4,083 feet and 4,086 feet. Researchers believe the historic highstand of Walker Lake occurred in 1868 and estimated the highstand was between 4,089 feet and 4,108 feet. By 1882, Mason Valley was predominantly agricultural. The 7-26 feet decline in lake-surface altitude between 1868 and 1882 could partially be due to irrigation diversions during this time.

  4. Grand Canyon, Lake Powell, and Lake Mead

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A snowfall in the American West provides contrast to the landscape's muted earth tones and indicates changes in topography and elevation across (clockwise from top left) Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, and California. In Utah, the southern ranges of the Wasatch Mountains are covered in snow, and the Colorado River etches a dark ribbon across the red rock of the Colorado Plateau. In the center of the image is the reservoir created by the Glen Canyon Dam. To the east are the gray-colored slopes of Navaho Mountain, and to the southeast, dusted with snow is the region called Black Mesa. Southwest of Glen Canyon, the Colorado enters the Grand Canyon, which cuts westward through Arizona. At a deep bend in the river, the higher elevations of the Keibab Plateau have held onto snow. At the end of the Grand Canyon lies another large reservoir, Lake Mead, which is formed by the Hoover Dam. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  5. The Mattassee Lake Sites: Archeological Investigations Along the Lower Santee River in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    Limestones were is located in this area and appears to reflect penetrated in cores drilled south of Lake extensive, complex use. Some of the abori...lake margin (in the vicinity of the contrast, in all of the cores drilled by the 1979 excavations). The nature of aboriginal U.S. Army Corp of...to serve in (Table 31). While low, the tools occur in the prying or drilling functions it does not show dominant debitage levels. The tool types

  6. Comparison of Geochemical, Grain-Size, and Magnetic Proxies for Rock Flour and Ice- Rafted Debris in the Late Pleistocene Mono Basin, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, S. H.; Hemming, S. R.; Kent, D. V.

    2008-12-01

    Advance and retreat of mountain glaciers are important indicators of climate variability, but the most direct proxy record, mapping and dating of moraines, is by nature discontinous. The Sierra Nevada form the western boundary of the Mono Lake basin, and the proximity of the large Pleistocene lake to the glacial canyons of the Sierra presents a rare opportunity to examine glacial variability in a continuous, well-dated lacustrine sequence. We have applied a geochemical proxy for rock flour to the glacial silts of the late Pleistocene Wilson Creek Formation, but because it is time- and sample-intensive, another method is required for a high-resolution record. Previous microscopic examination, thermomagnetic measurements, XRD analysis, and new isothermal remnant magnetization (IRM) acquisition curves show that the magnetic mineralogy is dominated by fine-grained, unaltered magnetite. Bulk measurements show strong susceptibility (mean ~ 16 x 10- 6 m3/kg) and remanent magnetization (mean IRM ~ 10-2 Am2/kg) compared to diluting components (carbonate, smectite, rhyolitic ash). The Wilson Creek type section sediments also contain a coarse lithic fraction, quantified by counting the >2cm clasts in outcrop and the >425 μm fraction in the bulk sediment. Susceptibility, IRM, and ARM (anhysteretic remnant magnetization) are quite similar throughout the type section, with the abundance of coarse lithic fraction correlative to the ratio k/IRM. Because the magnetic fraction of the rock flour is fine-grained magnetite, IRM should capture the changes in concentration of flour through time, and the major features of the (low-resolution) geochemical flour proxy record are identifiable in the IRM record. Flux-correction of the IRM results in a rock flour proxy record with major peaks between 36 and 48 ka, similar to a rock flour record from neighboring Owens Lake. This regional glacial signal contrasts with peaks in coarse lithics between 58 and 68 ka in the Wilson Creek record

  7. Evolving hydrologic connectivity in discontinuous permafrost lowlands: what it means for lake systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walvoord, M. A.; Jepsen, S. M.; Rover, J.; Voss, C. I.; Briggs, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Permafrost influence on the hydrologic connectivity of surface water bodies in high-latitude lowlands is complicated by subsurface heterogeneity and the propensity of the system to change over time. In general, permafrost limits the subsurface exchange of water, solute, and nutrients between lakes and rivers. It follows that permafrost thaw could enhance subsurface hydrologic connectivity among surface water bodies, but the impact of this process on lake distribution is not well known. Changes in the extent of lakes in interior Alaska have important ecological and societal impacts since lakes provide (1) critical habitat for migratory arctic shorebirds and waterfowl, fish, and wildlife, and (2) provisional, recreational, and cultural resources for local communities. We utilize electromagnetic imaging of the shallow subsurface and remote sensing of lake level dynamics in the Yukon Flats of interior Alaska, USA, together with water balance modeling, to gain insight into the influence of discontinuous permafrost on lowland lake systems. In the study region with relatively low precipitation, observations suggest that lakes that are hydrologically isolated during normal conditions are sustained by periodic river flooding events, including ice-jam floods that occur during river ice break-up. Climatically-influenced alterations in flooding frequency and intensity, as well as depth to permafrost, are quantitatively assessed in the context of lake maintenance. Scenario modeling is used to evaluate lake level evolution under plausible changing conditions. Model results demonstrate how permafrost degradation can reduce the dependence of typical lowland lakes on flooding events. Study results also suggest that river flooding may recharge a more spatially widespread zone of lakes and wetlands under future scenarios of permafrost table deepening and enhanced subsurface hydrologic connectivity.

  8. Hydrologic and climatologic data, 1967, Salt Lake County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hely, A.G.; Mower, Reed W.; Horr, C.A.

    1968-01-01

    An investigation of the water resources of Salt Lake County, Utah, was undertaken by the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey in July 1963. This investigation is a cooperative project financed chiefly by equal contributions of the State of Utah and the Federal Government in accordance with an agreement between the Division of Water Rights, Utah Department of Natural Resources, and the Geological Survey. The investigation was financed during the period covered by this report by the following organizations: Utah Division of Water Rights (formerly State Engineer), Utah Division of Water Resources (formerly Water and Power Board), Salt Lake County, Salt Lake County Water Conservancy District, Central Utah Water Conservancy District, Metropolitan Water District of Salt Lake City, City of Murray, Granger-Hunter Improvement District, Taylorsville-Bennion Improvement District, Holladay Water Company, Magna Water and Sewer District, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Geological Survey.The investigation encompasses the collection and interpretation of a large variety of climatologic, hydrologic, and geologic data in and near Salt Lake County. Utah Basic-Data Releases 11-13 contain data collected through 1966. This release contains climatologic and surfacewater data for the 1967 water year (October 1966 to September 1967) and ground-water data collected during the 1967 calendar year. A similar annual release will contain data collected during the remainder of the investigation, and interpretive reports will be prepared as the investigation proceeds. Organizations that furnished data are acknowledged in station descriptions and footnotes to tables.

  9. Hydrologic and climatologic data, 1968, Salt Lake County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1969-01-01

    An investigation of the water resources of Salt Lake County, Utah, was undertaken by the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey in July 1963. This investigation is a cooperative project financed chiefly by equal contributions of the State of Utah and the Federal Government in accordance with an agreement between the Division of Water Rights, Utah Department of Natural Resources, and the Geological Survey. The investigation was financed during the period covered by this report by the following organizations: Utah Division of Water Rights (formerly State Engineer), Utah Division of Water Resources (formerly Water and Power Board), Salt Lake County, Salt Lake County Water Conservancy District, Central Utah Water Conservancy District, Metropolitan Water District of Salt Lake City, City of Murray, Granger-Hunter Improvement District, Taylorsville-Bennion Improvement District, Holladay Water Company, Magna Water and Sewer District, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Geological SurveyThe investigation encompasses the collection and interpretation of a large variety of climatologic, hydrologic, and geologic data in and near Salt Lake County. Utah Basic-Data Releases 11-13 and 15 contain data collected through 1967. This release contains climatologic and surface-water data for the 1968 water year (October 1967 to September 1968) and ground-water data collected during the 1968 calendar year. This is the final annual release of basic data for this investigation. Interpretive reports summarizing the results are in preparation. Organizations that furnished data are acknowledged in station descriptions and footnotes to tables.

  10. Early and late Holocene glacial fluctuations and tephrostratigraphy, Cabin Lake, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zander, Paul D.; Kaufman, Darrell S.; Kuehn, Stephen C.; Wallace, Kristi L.; Anderson, R. Scott

    2013-01-01

    Marked changes in sediment types deposited in Cabin Lake, near Cordova, Alaska, represent environmental shifts during the early and late Holocene, including fluctuations in the terminal position of Sheridan Glacier. Cabin Lake is situated to receive meltwater during periods when the outwash plain of the advancing Sheridan Glacier had aggraded. A brief early Holocene advance from 11.2 to 11.0 cal ka is represented by glacial rock flour near the base of the sediment core. Non-glacial lake conditions were restored for about 1000 years before the water level in Cabin Lake lowered and the core site became a fen. The fen indicates drier-than-present conditions leading up to the Holocene thermal maximum. An unconformity spanning 5400 years during the mid-Holocene is overlain by peat until 1110 CE when meltwater from Sheridan Glacier returned to the basin. Three intervals of an advanced Sheridan Glacier are recorded in the Cabin Lake sediments during the late Holocene: 1110–1180, 1260–1540 and 1610–1780 CE. The sedimentary sequence also contains the first five reported tephra deposits from the Copper River delta region, and their geochemical signatures suggest that the sources are the Cook Inlet volcanoes Redoubt, Augustine and Crater Peak, and possibly Mt Churchill in the Wrangell Volcanic field.

  11. Variety, State and Origin of Drained Thaw Lake Basins in West-Siberian North

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirpotin, S.; Polishchuk, Y.; Bryksina, N.; Sugaipova, A.; Pokrovsky, O.; Shirokova, L.; Kouraev, A.; Zakharova, E.; Kolmakova, M.; Dupre, B.

    2009-04-01

    Drained thaw lake basins in Western Siberia have a local name "khasyreis" [1]. Khasyreis as well as lakes, ponds and frozen mounds are invariable element of sub-arctic frozen peat bogs - palsas and tundra landscapes. In some areas of West-Siberian sub-arctic khasyreis occupy up to 40-50% of total lake area. Sometimes their concentration is so high that we call such places ‘khasyrei's fields". Khasyreis are part of the natural cycle of palsa complex development [1], but their origin is not continuous and uniform in time and, according to our opinion, there were periods of more intensive lake drainage and khasyrei development accordingly. These times were corresponding with epochs of climatic warming and today we have faced with one of them. So, last years this process was sufficiently activated in the south part of West-Siberian sub-arctic [2]. It was discovered that in the zone of continuous permafrost thermokarst lakes have expanded their areas by about 10-12%, but in the zone of discontinuous permafrost the process of their drainage prevails. These features are connected with the thickness of peat layers which gradually decreases to the North, and thus have reduced the opportunity for lake drainage in northern areas. The most typical way of khasyrei origin is their drainage to the bigger lakes which are always situated on the lower levels and works as a collecting funnels providing drainage of smaller lakes. The lower level of the big lake appeared when the lake takes a critical mass of water enough for subsidence of the lake bottom due to the melting of underlaying rocks [2]. Another one way of lake drainage is the lake intercept by any river. Lake drainage to the subsurface (underlaying rocks) as some authors think [3, 4] is not possible in Western Siberia, because the thickness of permafrost is at list 500 m here being safe confining bed. We mark out few stages of khasyrei development: freshly drained, young, mature and old. This row reflects stages of

  12. A climatic handbook for Glacier National Park-with data for Waterton Lakes National Park

    Treesearch

    Arnold I. Finklin

    1986-01-01

    A climatic description of the Glacier-Waterton Lakes Park area; mainly covers Glacier. Contains numerous tables, graphs, and maps showing the year-round pattern of climatic elements and 10-day details during fire season. Data analysis includes frequency distributions in addition to average values. Examines relationship of averages to topography, weather correlations...

  13. Tectonic evolution of Honey Lake basin, northeastern California

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, D.L.; Saucedo, G.J.; Grose, T.L.T.

    New geologic mapping in northeastern California provides additional data on the age and tectonic evolution of the Honey Lake Basin. Rhylitic ash flow tuffs of latest Oligocene to early Miocene age (30 to 22 Ma) occur in the Fort Sage Mountains and in the Sierra Nevada but are not apparent in wells drilled in the Honey Lake basin. Though other interpretations can be made, the authors take this as evidence that the basin did not exist at that time. Volcanic rocks as old as 12 Ma do occur in the basin indicating initiation in mid-Miocene time probably as a grabenmore » due to block faulting. Syntectonic andesitic and basaltic volcanism occurred along faults bounding the Sierra Nevada block at 9 to 10 Ma. Lava issuing from these fractures flowed westward along Tertiary drainages indicating that the Sierran block had been uplifted and tilted westward. Andesites erupted during this time north and east of the basin are lithologically distinct from Sierran andesites. Strike-slip faulting began to dominate the tectonic setting of the region during late Pliocene and Quaternary time with the development of the Honey Lake Fault Zone. Holocene strike-slip displacement is indicated by offsets of the 12,000 year old Lake Lahontan shoreline and deposits containing a 7,000 year old ash.« less

  14. Preliminary report on the ground-water resources of the Klamath River basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newcomb, Reuben Clair; Hart, D.H.

    1958-01-01

    includes two main grabens, the Klamath and the Langell, which were downthrown approximately 50 and 1,000 feet, respectively. The average annual precipitation varies with the altitude, the higher parts of the Cascade Range getting more than 60 inches, and the semiarid valley plains receive as little as 13 inches in some places. Most precipitation occurs in the winter. The principal tributaries, Williamson and Sprague Rivers, rise near the higher parts of the eastern rim of the basin, flow through narrow valley plains to the western part, and discharge into Upper Klamath Lake. Wood River and associated creeks also empty into Upper Klamath Lake after draining southward along along the eastern foot of the Cascade Range. The Klamath River receives the outflow from Upper Klamath Lake, via Link River and Lake Ewauna, and flows southwestward through Keno Gap and hance through a youthful canyon, to its lower valley in California. The ground water occurs largely in an unconfined, or water-table, condition, though areas of local confinement are present. The regional water table is graded to a base level about equal to that of the major drainage on the valley plains. The slop of the water table, where water is confined, or the piezometric surface is downstream at about the same grade as that of the surface drainage in each of the larger valleys, and ground-water divides occur between the upper parts of adjacent major valleys. The principal water-bearing units are the lower lava rocks and upper lava rocks of the volcanic rocks of high Cascades, the pumice of Quaternary age, and the alluvium. In places layers of coarse fragmental material in the Yonna formation (Newcomb, 1958) also transmit water. The water-bearing units, especially the breccia layers of the lava rocks and the pumice, yield large amounts of water to wells and provide natural discharge outlets for the ground water. The spring outflows to the Williamson and Wood Rivers-Crooked Creek drainage, mea

  15. Speculations on the spatial setting and temporal evolution of a fjord-style lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarnthein, M.; Spötl, C.

    2012-04-01

    The Inn Valley, a classical region of Quaternary research in the Alps, is bordered by terraces that extend over almost 70 km and record an ancient lake with a lake level near 750-830 m above sea level (a.s.l.), about 250-300 m above the modern valley floor. Over large distances, the terrace sediments consist mainly of laminated "Banded Clays", above ~750 m a.s.l. overlain by glaciofluvial gravel and finally, by tills that record the Upper Würmian ice advance of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 2. In the (former) clay pit of Baumkirchen this boundary forms the Alpine type locality for the onset of the Upper Würmian, well supported by 14C-based age control first established by Fliri (1971). On the basis of a recently cored sediment section at Baumkirchen, the >200 m thick "Banded Clays" store a continuous, largely undisturbed, highly resolved, and widely varved climatic archive of MIS 3. Major unknowns concern the location and origin of dams that may have barred the vast and deep Inn Valley lake. We discuss potential linkages to the pattern of moraines and ice advance of MIS 4 glaciers, which was less prominent than during MIS 2, thus leading to a distinct east-west segment¬ation of the run-off systems in Tyrol. East of Imst, for example, the lake was possibly barred by both a rock sill reaching up to 830 m a.s.l. and a lateral moraine deposited by an Ötz Valley glacier. 80 km further east, a lateral moraine of a glacier advancing from the Ziller Valley may have barred the ancient Inn Valley lake to the east. The final rapid coarsening of clastic lake sediments at the end of MIS 3 is widely ascribed to major climatic deter¬ioration. However, the MIS 3-2 boundary was linked to an only modest change of global climates and accordingly, different forcings may be considered. In turn, the rapid coarsening may document a date, when the Central Alpine glaciers had already filled the basin of Imst to the west of the Inn Valley lake. This ice mass may have forced the melt

  16. Modelling cascading and erosional processes for glacial lake outburst floods in the Quillcay catchment, Huaraz, Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, Patrick; Huggel, Christian; Frey, Holger; Chisolm, Rachel; McKinney, Daene; McArdell, Brian; Portocarrero, Cesar; Cochachin, Alejo

    2016-04-01

    Huaraz as the largest city in Cordillera Blanca has faced a major disaster in 1941, when an outburst flood from Lake Palcacocha killed several thousand people and caused widespread destruction. Recent studies on glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) modelling and early warning systems focussed on Lake Palcacocha which has regrown after the 1941 event, from a volume of half a million m3 in 1974 to a total volume of more than 17 million m3 today. However, little research has been conducted so far concerning the situation of other lakes in the Quillcay catchment, namely Lake Tullparaju (12 mill. m3) and Cuchillacocha (2.5 mill. m3), which both also pose a threat to the city of Huaraz. In this study, we modelled the cascading processes at Lake Tullparaju and Lake Cuchillacocha including rock/ice avalanches, flood wave propagation in the lake and the resulting outburst flood and debris flows. We used the 2D model RAMMS to simulate ice avalanches. Model output was used as input for analytical 2D and 3D calculations of impact waves in the lakes that allowed us to estimate dam overtopping wave height. Since the dimension of the hanging glaciers above all three lakes is comparable, the scenarios in this study have been defined similar to the previous study at Lake Palcacocha. The flow propagation model included sediment entrainment in the steeper parts of the catchment, adding up to 50% to the initial flow volume. The results for total travel time as well as for inundated areas and flow depth and velocity in the city of Huaraz are comparable to the previous studies at Lake Palcacocha. This underlines the importance of considering also these lakes within an integral hazard analysis for the city of Huaraz. A main challenge for modelling GLOFs in the Quillcay catchment using RAMMS is the long runout distance of over 22 km combined with the very low slope gradient of the river. Further studies could improve the process understanding and could focus on more detailed investigations

  17. Gusev Rocks Solidified from Lava (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    to identify rocks and features investigated by Spirit during the Chinese New Year celebration period. In ancient Chinese myth, FuYi was the first great emperor and lived in the east. He explained the theory of 'Yin' and 'Yang' to his people, invented the net to catch fish, was the first to use fire to cook food, and invented a musical instrument known as the 'Se' to accompany his peoples' songs and dances. Other rocks and features are being informally named for Chinese gods, warriors, inventors, and scientists, as well as rivers, lakes, and mountains.

    Spirit took this image on the rover's Martian day, or sol, 731 (Jan. 23, 2006). This is a false-color composite combining images taken with the Pancam's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters.

  18. Scattering from Rock and Rock Outcrops

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    Scattering from Rock and Rock Outcrops Derek R. Olson The Pennsylvania State University Applied Research Laboratory, P.O. Box 30 State...In terms of target detection and classification, scattering from exposed rock on the seafloor, (i.e., individual rocks and rock outcrops) presents...levels, and other statistical measures of acoustic scattering from rocks and rock outcrops is therefore critical. Unfortunately (and curiously

  19. The potential of Lake Karakul in the eastern Pamirs as a long-term climate archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mischke, S.; Rajabov, I.; Mustaeva, N.; Zhang, C.; Boomer, I.; Sherlock, S. C.; Myrbo, A.; Noren, A.; Brady, K.; Herzschuh, U.; Schudack, M. E.; Ito, E.

    2008-12-01

    Lake Karakul is a large closed-basin lake in the eastern Pamirs (NE Tajikistan) at an altitude of 3930 m. The lake fills a large basin about 45 km in diameter which may originate from a meteorite impact in the late Neogene. Exposed lake sediments at the northwestern shore 20 m above the lake display a bizarre Yardang relief indicating higher water levels in the past. Eroded remnants of lake, playa and fluvial sediments can be found on the northeastern slopes of the basin 200 m above the lake but their depositional age remains unknown. A field survey of the Lake Karakul region was conducted in July 2008 as a first attempt to evaluate the potential of the lake as a long-term climate archive in Central Asia. Sediment samples from the lake's bottom, water samples from the lake and inflowing streams, aquatic and terrestrial plant samples, and rock samples were collected to enable an interdisciplinary investigation of the lake and its catchment. A 1.04 m sediment core was obtained near the centre of the more shallow and flat eastern sub-basin of the lake at 19 m water depth. Corresponding to the lack of outlet and the resulting high pH (9.1) and electrical conductivity of the lake (10.3 mS/cm), fine aragonite needles constitute most of the sediments. Additionally, ostracod shells, aquatic plant fragments, detrital grains and Radix (Gastropoda) shells were recorded. First results of AMS 14C dating and ostracod analysis will be used to infer the environmental and climatic evolution of Lake Karakul in the Late Holocene.

  20. Intrusive rocks northeast of Steamboat Springs, Park Range, Colorado, with a section on geochronology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, George L.; Hedge, Carl E.

    1978-01-01

    Major Precambrian and minor Tertiary intrusive rocks northeast of Steamboat Springs in the Park Range between 40?30' and 40?45' N. lat. are described and compared with related rocks elsewhere in Colorado and Wyoming. The Precambrian intrusives were emplaced in a sequence of high-grade interlayered felsic gneisses, amphibolites, and pelitic schists of sedimentary and volcanic origin. These rocks are cut by a major northeast-trending Precambrian shear zone where mainly left lateral movement of 1/ 2 to 1 mile is certain. Cumulative movement of many miles is possible. The Precambrian intrusives consist of a batholith, the Mount Ethel pluton, a smaller Buffalo Pass pluton, and small dikes or lenses of fine-grained porphyry, pegmatites, and ultramafics. The Mount Ethel pluton is an oval shaped body 7 miles wide by about 40 miles long (shown by geophysical data to extend beneath younger sediments in North Park). Outer batholithic contacts are sharp and dip steeply outward at about 85?. Five mappable internal variants consist, in order of decreasing age, of granodiorite, quartz monzonite porphyry of Rocky Peak, quartz monzonite of Roxy Ann Lake, granite and quartz monzonite, and. leucogranite. Internal contacts between these plutonic variants are sharp, and evidence of liquid-solid relationships abounds; despite this, all rocks except the granodiorite contribute to an Rb-Sr whole-rock isochron indicating emplacement about 1.4 b.y. (billion years) ago. The most important variants volumetrically are: the quartz monzonite porphyry of Rocky Peak, which forms an irregular 2-mile-thick carapace or mapped band around the west edge of the pluton and is lithologically similar to nearby Sherman Granite, and the quartz monzonite of Roxy Ann Lake, which forms most of the rest of the pluton and is lithologically similar to Silver Plume Granite. An apparent Sherman -Silver Plume dichotomy with similar rock types and similar relative ages is noted throughout Colorado plutons of that age

  1. Evidence of Lake Trout reproduction at Lake Michigan's mid-lake reef complex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Janssen, J.; Jude, D.J.; Edsall, T.A.; Paddock, R.W.; Wattrus, N.; Toneys, M.; McKee, P.

    2006-01-01

    The Mid-Lake Reef Complex (MLRC), a large area of deep (> 40 m) reefs, was a major site where indigenous lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Michigan aggregated during spawning. As part of an effort to restore Lake Michigan's lake trout, which were extirpated in the 1950s, yearling lake trout have been released over the MLRC since the mid-1980s and fall gill net censuses began to show large numbers of lake trout in spawning condition beginning about 1999. We report the first evidence of viable egg deposition and successful lake trout fry production at these deep reefs. Because the area's existing bathymetry and habitat were too poorly known for a priori selection of sampling sites, we used hydroacoustics to locate concentrations of large fish in the fall; fish were congregating around slopes and ridges. Subsequent observations via unmanned submersible confirmed the large fish to be lake trout. Our technological objectives were driven by biological objectives of locating where lake trout spawn, where lake trout fry were produced, and what fishes ate lake trout eggs and fry. The unmanned submersibles were equipped with a suction sampler and electroshocker to sample eggs deposited on the reef, draw out and occasionally catch emergent fry, and collect egg predators (slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus). We observed slimy sculpin to eat unusually high numbers of lake trout eggs. Our qualitative approaches are a first step toward quantitative assessments of the importance of lake trout spawning on the MLRC.

  2. Emerald Lake Watershed study: Introduction and site description

    SciTech Connect

    Tonnessen, K.A.

    1991-07-01

    The Emerald Lake Watershed study was organized to investigate the effects of acidic deposition on high-elevation watersheds and surface waters of the Sierra Nevada, California. Some of the results of this comprehensive study of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems at a small, headwater basin are presented in four papers in this series. The watershed study site is in Sequoia National Park, on the western slope of the Sierra Nevada. This glacial cirque is located in the upper Marble Fork of the Kaweah River. This 120-ha watershed ranges from Alta Peak (3,416 m) down to Emerald Lake (2,400 m). Most of themore » watershed surface area is exposed granite and granodiorite rocks, with limited coverage (about 20%) by thin, acidic soils. The hydrology of the basin is dominated by snowmelt runoff during March-June. Emerald Lake, a glacial tarn, is 2.72 ha in area, with a maximum depth of 10.5 m. Surface waters are poorly buffered and dominated by calcium and bicarbonate. Most of the yearly precipitation falls as dilute snow (pH5.2-5.4), with acidic rain storms sampled during May-October.« less

  3. Continuous Lake-Sediment Records of Glaciation in the Sierra Nevada between 52,600 and 12,500 14C yr B.P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Larry V.; May, Howard M.; Antweiler, Ronald C.; Brinton, Terry I.; Kashgarian, Michaele; Smoot, Joseph P.; Lund, Steve P.

    1998-09-01

    The chemistry of the carbonate-free clay-size fraction of Owens Lake sediments supports the use of total organic carbon and magnetic susceptibility as indicators of stadial-interstadial oscillations. Owens Lake records of total organic carbon, magnetic susceptibility, and chemical composition of the carbonate-free, clay-size fraction indicate that Tioga glaciation began ˜24,500 and ended by ˜13,600 14C yr B.P. Many of the components of glacial rock flour (e.g., TiO 2, MnO, BaO) found in Owens Lake sediments achieved maximum values during the Tioga glaciation when valley glaciers reached their greatest extent. Total organic carbon and SiO 2(amorphous) concentrations reached minimum values during Tioga glaciation, resulting from decreases in productivity that accompanied the introduction of rock flour into the surface waters of Owens Lake. At least 20 stadial-interstadial oscillations occurred in the Sierra Nevada between 52,600 and 14,000 14C yr B.P. Total organic carbon data from a Pyramid Lake sediment core also indicate oscillations in glacier activity between >39,500 and ˜13,600 14C yr B.P. Alpine glacier oscillations occurred on a frequency of ≤1900 yr in both basins, suggesting that millennial-scale oscillations occurred in California and Nevada during most of the past 52,600 yr.

  4. Oxygen and U-Th isotopes and the timescales of hydrothermal exchange and melting in granitoid wall rocks at Mount Mazama, Crater Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ankney, Meagan E.; Bacon, Charles R.; Valley, John W.; Beard, Brian L.; Johnson, Clark M.

    2017-01-01

    We report new whole rock U-Th and in-situ oxygen isotope compositions for partially melted (0–50 vol% melt), low-δ18O Pleistocene granitoid blocks ejected during the ∼7.7 ka caldera-forming eruption of Mt. Mazama (Crater Lake, Oregon). The blocks are interpreted to represent wall rocks of the climactic magma chamber that, prior to eruption, experienced variable amounts of exchange with meteoric hydrothermal fluids and subsequent partial melting. U-Th and oxygen isotope results allow us to examine the timescales of hydrothermal circulation and partial melting, and provide an “outside in” perspective on the buildup to the climactic eruption of Mt. Mazama. Oxygen isotope compositions measured in the cores and rims of individual quartz (n = 126) and plagioclase (n = 91) crystals, and for transects across ten quartz crystals, document zonation in quartz (Δ18OCore-Rim ≤ 0.1–5.5‰), but show homogeneity in plagioclase (Δ18OCore-Rim ≤ ±0.8‰). We propose that oxygen isotope zonation in quartz records hydrothermal exchange followed by high-temperature exchange in response to partial melting caused by injection of basaltic to andesitic recharge magma into the deeper portions of the chamber. Results of modeling of oxygen diffusion in quartz indicates that hydrothermal exchange in quartz occurred over a period of ∼1000–63,000 years. Models also suggest that the onset of melting of the granitoids occurred a minimum of ∼10–200 years prior to the Mazama climactic eruption, an inference which is broadly consistent with results for magnetite homogenization and for Zr diffusion in melt previously reported by others.Uranium-thorium isotope compositions of most granitoid blocks are in 238U excess, and are in agreement with a 238U enriched array previously measured for volcanic rocks at Mt. Mazama. Uranium excess in the granitoids is likely due to enrichment via hydrothermal circulation, given their low δ18O values. The sample with the

  5. Pleistocene lake outburst floods and fan formation along the eastern Sierra Nevada, California: implications for the interpretation of intermontane lacustrine records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benn, Douglas I.; Owen, Lewis A.; Finkel, Robert C.; Clemmens, Samuel

    2006-11-01

    Variations in the rock flour fraction in intermontane lacustrine sediments have the potential to provide more complete records of glacier fluctuations than moraine sequences, which are subject to erosional censoring. Construction of glacial chronologies from such records relies on the assumption that rock flour concentration is a simple function of glacier extent. However, other factors may influence the delivery of glacigenic sediments to intermontane lakes, including paraglacial adjustment of slope and fluvial systems to deglaciation, variations in precipitation and snowmelt, and lake outburst floods. We have investigated the processes and chronology of sediment transport on the Tuttle and Lone Pine alluvial fans in the eastern Sierra Nevada, California, USA, to elucidate the links between former glacier systems located upstream and the long sedimentary record from Owens Lake located downstream. Aggradation of both fans reflects sedimentation by three contrasting process regimes: (1) high magnitude, catastrophic floods, (2) fluvial or glacifluvial river systems, and (3) debris flows and other slope processes. Flood deposits are represented by multiple boulder beds exposed in section, and extensive networks of large palaeochannels and boulder deposits on both fan surfaces. Palaeohydrological analysis implies peak discharges in the order of 10 3-10 4 m 3 s -1, most probably as the result of catastrophic drainage of ice-, moraine-, and landslide-dammed lakes. Cosmogenic radionuclide surface exposure dating shows that at least three flood events are represented on each fan, at 9-13, 16-18 and 32-44 ka (Tuttle Fan); and at ˜23-32, ˜80-86 ka, and a poorly constrained older event (Lone Pine Fan). Gravels and sands exposed in both fans represent fluvial and/or glacifluvial sediment transport from the Sierra Nevada into Owens Valley, and show that river systems incised and reworked older sediment stored in the fans. We argue that millennial-scale peaks in rock flour

  6. 77 FR 41686 - Safety Zone; Sheffield Lake Fireworks, Lake Erie, Sheffield Lake, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Sheffield Lake Fireworks, Lake Erie, Sheffield Lake, OH AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on Lake Erie, Sheffield Lake, OH. This safety zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Lake Erie...

  7. Hydrologic and climatologic data collected through 1964, Salt Lake County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iorns, W.V.; Mower, Reed W.; Horr, C.A.

    1966-01-01

    An investigation of the water resources of Salt Lake County, Utah, was undertaken by the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey in July 1963. This investigation is a cooperative project financed equally by the State of Utah and the Federal Government in accordance with an agreement between the State Engineer and the Geological Survey. The Utah Water and Power Board, Utah Fish and Game Commission, Salt Lake County Water Conservancy District, Metropolitan Water District of Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, Kennecott Copper Corporation, Utah Power and Light Company, and Salt Lake City Chamber of Commerce contributed funds to the State Engineer's office toward support of the project.The investigation encompasses the collection and interpretation of a large variety of climatologic, hydrologic, and geologic data in and near Salt Lake County. This basic-data report sets forth climatologic and surface-water data collected by project personnel and others during the water year beginning October 1, 1963, and ending September 30, 1964, and ground-water data collected by project personnel and others for the period July 1, 1963, through December 31, 1964. Included also are some earlier ground-water data not previously published. Organizations that furnished data are acknowledged in station descriptions and footnotes to tables. Data collected during the period of investigation will be published in annual basic-data releases and an interpretative report will be published at the completion of the investigation.

  8. High bacterial diversity in epilithic biofilms of oligotrophic mountain lakes.

    PubMed

    Bartrons, Mireia; Catalan, Jordi; Casamayor, Emilio O

    2012-11-01

    Benthic microbial biofilms attached to rocks (epilithic) are major sites of carbon cycling and can dominate ecosystem primary production in oligotrophic lakes. We studied the bacterial community composition of littoral epilithic biofilms in five connected oligotrophic high mountain lakes located at different altitudes by genetic fingerprinting and clone libraries of the 16S rRNA gene. Different intra-lake samples were analyzed, and consistent changes in community structure (chlorophyll a and organic matter contents, and bacterial community composition) were observed along the altitudinal gradient, particularly related with the location of the lake above or below the treeline. Epilithic biofilm genetic fingerprints were both more diverse among lakes than within lakes and significantly different between montane (below the tree line) and alpine lakes (above the tree line). The genetic richness in the epilithic biofilm was much higher than in the plankton of the same lacustrine area studied in previous works, with significantly idiosyncratic phylogenetic composition (specifically distinct from lake plankton or mountain soils). Data suggest the coexistence of aerobic, anaerobic, phototrophic, and chemotrophic microorganisms in the biofilm, Bacteroidetes and Cyanobacteria being the most important bacterial taxa, followed by Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma-, and Deltaproteobacteria, Chlorobi, Planctomycetes, and Verrucomicrobia. The degree of novelty was especially high for epilithic Bacteroidetes, and up to 50 % of the sequences formed monophyletic clusters distantly related to any previously reported sequence. More than 35 % of the total sequences matched at <95 % identity to any previously reported 16S rRNA gene, indicating that alpine epilithic biofilms are unexplored habitats that contain a substantial degree of novelty within a short geographical distance. Further research is needed to determine whether these communities are involved in more biogeochemical pathways than

  9. Preliminary Cosmogenic Surface Exposure Ages on Laurentide Ice-sheet Retreat and Opening of the Eastern Lake Agassiz Outlets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leydet, D.; Carlson, A. E.; Sinclair, G.; Teller, J. T.; Breckenridge, A. J.; Caffee, M. W.; Barth, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    The chronology for the eastern outlets of glacial Lake Agassiz holds important consequences for the cause of Younger Dryas cold event during the last deglaciation. Eastward routing of Lake Agassiz runoff was originally hypothesized to have triggered the Younger Dryas. However, currently the chronology of the eastern outlets is only constrained by minimum-limiting radiocarbon ages that could suggest the eastern outlets were still ice covered at the start of the Younger Dryas at ~12.9 ka BP, requiring a different forcing of this abrupt climate event. Nevertheless, the oldest radiocarbon ages are still consistent with an ice-free eastern outlet at the start of the Younger Dryas. Here we will present preliminary 10-Be cosmogenic surface exposure ages from the North Lake, Flat Rock Lake, glacial Lake Kaministiquia, and Lake Nipigon outlets located near Thunder Bay, Ontario. These ages will date the timing of the deglaciation of the Laurentide ice sheet in the eastern outlet region of glacial Lake Agassiz. This will provide an important constraint for the hypothesized freshwater forcing of the cause of Younger Dryas cold event.

  10. Geologic controls on the formation of lakes in north-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kindinger, Jack G.; Davis, Jeffrey B.; Flocks, James G.; Pitman, Janet K.; Carroll, Alan R.

    1998-01-01

    stages of the water table and have one or all phases of sinkhole development and many types of karst and karren features. Most lakes in this study have a small diameter (

  11. Intense magmatic degassing through the lake of Copahue volcano, 2013-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamburello, G.; Agusto, M.; Caselli, A.; Tassi, F.; Vaselli, O.; Calabrese, S.; Rouwet, D.; Capaccioni, B.; Di Napoli, R.; Cardellini, C.; Chiodini, G.; Bitetto, M.; Brusca, L.; Bellomo, S.; Aiuppa, A.

    2015-09-01

    Here we report on the first assessment of volatile fluxes from the hyperacid crater lake hosted within the summit crater of Copahue, a very active volcano on the Argentina-Chile border. Our observations were performed using a variety of in situ and remote sensing techniques during field campaigns in March 2013, when the crater hosted an active fumarole field, and in March 2014, when an acidic volcanic lake covered the fumarole field. In the latter campaign, we found that 566 to 1373 t d-1 of SO2 were being emitted from the lake in a plume that appeared largely invisible. This, combined with our derived bulk plume composition, was converted into flux of other volcanic species (H2O ~ 10989 t d-1, CO2 ~ 638 t d-1, HCl ~ 66 t d-1, H2 ~ 3.3 t d-1, and HBr ~ 0.05 t d-1). These levels of degassing, comparable to those seen at many open-vent degassing arc volcanoes, were surprisingly high for a volcano hosting a crater lake. Copahue's unusual degassing regime was also confirmed by the chemical composition of the plume that, although issuing from a hot (65°C) lake, preserves a close-to-magmatic signature. EQ3/6 models of gas-water-rock interaction in the lake were able to match observed compositions and demonstrated that magmatic gases emitted to the atmosphere were virtually unaffected by scrubbing of soluble (S and Cl) species. Finally, the derived large H2O flux (10,988 t d-1) suggested a mechanism in which magmatic gas stripping drove enhanced lake water evaporation, a process likely common to many degassing volcanic lakes worldwide.

  12. Integrated satellite InSAR and slope stability modeling to support hazard assessment at the Safuna Alta glacial lake, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochachin, Alejo; Frey, Holger; Huggel, Christian; Strozzi, Tazio; Büechi, Emanuel; Cui, Fanpeng; Flores, Andrés; Saito, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    The Safuna glacial lakes (77˚ 37' W, 08˚ 50' S) are located in the headwater of the Tayapampa catchment, in the northernmost part of the Cordillera Blanca, Peru. The upper lake, Laguna Safuna Alta at 4354 m asl has formed in the 1960s behind a terminal moraine of the retreating Pucajirca Glacier, named after the peak south of the lakes. Safuna Alta currently has a volume of 15 x 106 m3. In 2002 a rock fall of several million m3 from the proximal left lateral moraine hit the Safuna Alta lake and triggered an impact wave which overtopped the moraine dam and passed into the lower lake, Laguna Safuna Baja, which absorbed most of the outburst flood from the upper lake, but nevertheless causing loss in cattle, degradation of agricultural land downstream and damages to a hydroelectric power station in Quitaracsa gorge. Event reconstructions showed that the impact wave in the Safuna Alta lake had a runup height of 100 m or more, and weakened the moraine dam of Safuna Alta. This fact, in combination with the large lake volumes and the continued possibility for landslides from the left proximal moraine pose a considerable risk for the downstream settlements as well as the recently completed Quitaracsa hydroelectric power plant. In the framework of a project funded by the European Space Agency (ESA), the hazard situation at the Safuna Alta lake is assessed by a combination of satellite radar data analysis, field investigations, and slope stability modeling. Interferometric analyses of the Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) of ALOS-1 Palsar-1, ALOS-2 Palsar-2 and Sentinel-1 data from 2016 reveal terrain displacements of 2 cm y-1 in the detachment zone of the 2002 rock avalanche. More detailed insights into the characteristics of these terrain deformations are gained by repeat surveys with differential GPS (DGPS) and tachymetric measurements. A drone flight provides the information for the generation of a high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM), which is used for the

  13. Depositional setting and diagenetic evolution of some Tertiary unconventional reservoir rocks, Uinta Basin, Utah.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pitman, Janet K.; Fouch, T.D.; Goldhaber, M.B.

    1982-01-01

    The Douglas Creek Member of the Tertiary Green River Formation underlies much of the Uinta basin, Utah, and contains large volumes of oil and gas trapped in a complex of fractured low-permeability sandstone reservoirs. In the SE part of the basin at Pariette Bench, the Eocene Douglas Creek Member is a thick sequence of fine- grained alluvial sandstone complexly intercalated with lacustrine claystone and carbonate rock. Sediments were deposited in a subsiding intermontane basin along the shallow fluctuating margin of ancient Lake Uinta. Although the Uinta basin has undergone postdepositional uplift and erosion, the deepest cored rocks at Pariette Bench have never been buried more than 3000m.-from Authors

  14. Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elrod, Joseph H.; O'Gorman, Robert; Schneider, Clifford P.; Eckert, Thomas H.; Schaner, Ted; Bowlby, James N.; Schleen, Larry P.

    1995-01-01

    Attempts to maintain the native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) population in Lake Ontario by stocking fry failed and the species was extirpated by the 1950s. Hatchery fish stocked in the 1960s did not live to maturity because of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) predation and incidental commercial harvest. Suppression of sea lampreys began with larvicide treatments of Lake Ontario tributaries in 1971 and was enhanced when the tributaries of Oneida Lake and Lake Erie were treated in the 1980s. Annual stocking of hatchery fish was resumed with the 1972 year class and peaked at about 1.8 million yearlings and 0.3 million fingerlings from the 1985–1990 year classes. Survival of stocked yearlings declined over 50% in the 1980 s and was negatively correlated with the abundance of lake trout > 550 mm long (r = −0.91, P < 0.01, n = 12). A slot length limit imposed by the State of New York for the 1988 fishing season reduced angler harvest. Angler harvest in Canadian waters was 3 times higher in eastern Lake Ontario than in western Lake Ontario. For the 1977–1984 year classes, mean annual survival rate of lake trout age 6 and older was 0.45 (range: 0.35–0.56). In U.S. waters during 1985–1992, the total number of lake trout harvested by anglers was about 2.4 times greater than that killed by sea lampreys. The number of unmarked lake trout < 250 mm long in trawl catches in 1978–1992 was not different from that expected due to loss of marks and failure to apply marks at the hatchery, and suggested that recruitment of naturally-produced fish was nil. However, many of the obstacles which may have impeded lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Ontario during the 1980s are slowly being removed, and there are signs of a general ecosystem recovery. Significant recruitment of naturally produced lake trout by the year 2000, one interim objective of the rehabilitation plan for the Lake, may be achieved.

  15. Magnetic investigation of the mid-Holocene aged coastal lake Heimerdalsvatnet in the Lofoten Islands, northern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdock, K. J.; Brown, L. L.

    2012-12-01

    The coastal lake Heimerdalsvatnet is located on the island of Vestvågøya in the Lofoten Islands off the northern coast of Norway. Recently, Balascio et al. (2011) performed a comprehensive investigation of the lake using bathymetric and sub-bottom profiles, bulk geochemistry, diatom assemblages, molecular biomarkers, high resolution X-ray fluorescence (XRF) scans, and magnetic susceptibility to study its geologic history over the past 7800 years. They determined the lake had undergone a regressive sea level sequence and identified three distinct and separate units exemplifying the transition of a restricted marine environment within the lake to a completely freshwater lacustrine setting. Unit I, located at the bottom of the 5.8m sediment core, spans 7800-6500 years before present and is at a period of time when sea level was higher than the edge of the lake basin. Magnetic susceptibility is extremely low during this period, and it is theorized that this is due to stratification within the lake from a density difference between the marine salt water and the influx of freshwater. Unit II is broken into Unit IIa and IIb, making up the transitional period within the lake history from 6500 to 4900 years before present. This phase is marked by fluxes of higher and lower magnetic susceptibility and shifts between more freshwater to brackish water biological markers. Unit III (4900 years to present) has high magnetic susceptibility compared to the other two units, and represents the final stage of the lake as a completely freshwater environment. Questions remain about the lake, such as what was driving the changes in magnetic susceptibility? Was it dilution of the magnetic grains due to higher productivity of organisms within the lake, or is it related to dissolution of magnetite due to anoxic conditions caused by lake stratification? Rock magnetic investigations using magnetic susceptibility, hysteresis parameters, and Curie temperature analyses have led to a better

  16. Analyses and descriptions of geochemical samples, Mountain Lake Wilderness Study Area, Virginia and West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mei, Leung; Fletcher, J.D.; Rait, Norma; Lesure, F.G.

    1978-01-01

    Semiquantitative emission spectrographic analyses for 64 elements on 95 stream sediment and 122 rock samples from Mountain Lake Wilderness Study Area, Giles and Craig Counties, Virginia and Monroe County, West Virginia, are reported here in detail. Locations for all samples are in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinates. Brief descriptions of rock samples are also included. Rocks analysed are mostly sandstone. Samples of hematitic sandstone of the Rose Hill Formation and limonite-cemented sandstone of the Rocky Gap Sandstone contain high values of iron; these rocks are submarginal iron resources. Some of these iron-rich samples have a little more barium, copper, cobalt, lead, silver, and/or zinc than in average sandstone, but they do not suggest the presence of economic deposits of these metals. A few samples of Tuscarora Quartzite contain moderate amounts of manganese. These are from a submarginal manganese resource. No other obviously anomalous-values related to mineralized rock are present in the data.

  17. Water chemistry of Lake Quilotoa (Ecuador) and assessment of natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera, E.; Chiodini, G.; Cioni, R.; Guidi, M.; Marini, L.; Raco, B.

    2000-04-01

    A geochemical survey carried out in November 1993 revealed that Lake Quilotoa was composed by a thin (˜14 m) oxic epilimnion overlying a ˜200 m-thick anoxic hypolimnion. Dissolved CO2 concentrations reached 1000 mg/kg in the lower stratum. Loss of CO2 from epilimnetic waters, followed by calcite precipitation and a consequent lowering in density, was the apparent cause of the stratification. The Cl, SO4 and HCO3 contents of Lake Quilotoa are intermediate between those of acid-SO4-Cl Crater lakes and those of neutral-HCO3 Crater lakes, indicating that Lake Quilotoa has a 'memory' of the inflow and absorption of HC1- and S-bearing volcanic (magmatic) gases. The Mg/Ca ratios of the lake waters are governed by dissolution of local volcanic rocks or magmas, but K/Na ratios were likely modified by precipitation of alunite, a typical mineral in acid-SO4-Cl Crater lakes. The constant concentrations of several conservative chemical species from lake surface to lake bottom suggest that physical, chemical and biological processes did not have enough time, after the last overturn, to cause significant changes in the contents of these chemical species. This lapse of time might be relatively large, but it cannot be established on the basis of available data. Besides, the lake may not be close to steady state. Mixing of Lake Quilotoa waters could presently be triggered by either cooling epilimnetic waters by ˜4°C or providing heat to hypolimnetic waters or by seismic activity. Although Quilotoa lake contains a huge amount of dissolved CO2(˜3×1011 g), at present the risk of a dangerous limnic eruption seems to be nil even though some gas exsolution might occur if deep lake waters were brought to the surface. Carbon dioxide could build up to higher levels in deep waters than at present without any volcanic re-awakening, due to either a large inflow of relatively cool CO2-rich gases, or possibly a long interval between overturns. Periodical geochemical surveys of Lake Quilotoa

  18. Geochemistry of volcanic rocks from the Wawa greenstone belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulz, K. J.; Sylvester, P. J.; Attoh, K.

    1983-01-01

    The Wawa greenstone belt is located in the District of Algoma and extends east-northeast from Lake Superior to the western part of the Sudbury District in Ontario, Canada. Recent mapping by Attoh has shown that an unconformity at the base of the Dore' Formation and equivalent sedimentary rocks marks a significant stratigraphic break which can be traced throughout the volcanic belt. This break has been used to subdivide the volcanic-sedimentary into pre- and post-Dore' sequences. The pre-Dore' sequence includes at least two cycles of mafic-to-felsic volcanism, each capped by an iron-formation unit. The post-Dore' sequence includes an older mafic-to-felsic unit, which directly overlies sedimentary rocks correlated with the Dore' Formation, and a younger felsic breccia unit interpreted to have formed as debris flows from a felsic volcanic center. In the present study, samples of both the pre-and post-Dore' volcanic sequences were analyzed for major and trace elements, incuding rare earths (REE). This preliminary study is part of an ongoing program to assess the petrogenesis of the volcanic rocks of the Wawa greenstone belt.

  19. An appraisal of potential water salvage in the Lake McMillan Delta area, Eddy County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, Edward Riley; Havens, John S.

    1974-01-01

    The Lake McMillan delta area is located between Artesia and Lake McMillan on the Pecos River in Eddy County, N. Mex. Alluvium, which is more than 200 feet thick in places, is the principal water-bearing formation and is part of the 'shallow aquifer' of the Roswell basin. Recharge to the shallow aquifer is by infiltration from the Pecos River, by irrigation water, by precipitation, and by ground water that moves into the area. Discharge from the shallow aquifer is by wells, by transpiration from phreatophytes, and by evaporation from swampy areas. Saltcedar growth in the area increased during the study period from about 13,700 acres in 1952 to about 17,100 acres in 1960, a 25-percent increase. Most of this increase was in the areal-density range of zero to 30 percent. The estimated average transpiration of phreatophytes in the Artesia to Lake McMillan reach is about 29,000 acre-feet of water per year from ground-water sources. In the reach from Artesia to the Rio Pefiasco, where the regional water table is above the Pecos River, saltcedar eradication might salvage from 10,000 to 20,000 acre-feet of water per year for use downstream. From the Rio Pefiasco to Lake McMillan the river is perched above the water table; therefore, elimination of the saltcedar probably would not increase flow in the river, nor would drains be effective. Clearing in this reach, however, might increase the flow at Major Johnson Springs below Lake McMillan. Floodways through this reach would eliminate some evapotranspiration but might increase the amount of sediment deposited by floodwaters in bake McMillan.

  20. Rainy Lake wrench zone: An example of an Archaean subprovince boundary in northwestern Ontario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulsen, K. H.

    1986-01-01

    The Superior Province of the Canadian Shield comprises an alternation of subprovinces with contrasting lithological, structural and metamorphic styles. Rocks of the Rainly Lake area form a fault bounded wedge between two of these subprovinces, the Wabigoon granite-greenstone terrain to the north and the Quetico metasedimentary terrain to the south. The Quetico and Seine River-Rainy Lake Faults bound this wedge within which interpretation of the stratigraphy has been historically contentious. In the eastern part of the wedge, volcanic rocks and coeval tonalitic sills are unconformably overlain by fluviatile conglomerate and arenite of the Seine Group; in the western part of the wedge, metamorphosed wacke and mudstone of the Coutchiching Group are cut by granodioritic plutons. The Coutchiching Group has previously been correlated with the Seine Group and with the turbiditic Quetico metasediments of the Quetico Subprovince and these correlations are the cornerstone of earlier tectonic models which relate the subprovinces. The structural geology of the Rainy Lake area is characterized by attributes which compare favourably with the known characteristics of dextral wrench or 'transpressive zones based both on experimental data and natural examples. Much of this deformation involved the Seine Group, the youngest stratigraphic unit in the area, and predates the emplacement of late-to-post-tectonic granodioritic plutons for which radiometric data indicate a Late Archean age.

  1. Early Cretaceous bimodal volcanic rocks in the southern Lhasa terrane, south Tibet: Age, petrogenesis and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Ding, Lin; Liu, Zhi-Chao; Zhang, Li-Yun; Yue, Ya-Hui

    2017-01-01

    -Tethyan oceanic lithosphere was flat-lying beneath the Lhasa terrane during the Early Cretaceous. Appendix Table A2. LA-MC-ICPMS zircon Hf isotopes of volcanic rocks from Liqiongda area. Appendix Table A3. Whole-rock major, trace element and Sr-Nd isotope data of the volcanic rocks from the Liqiongda area.

  2. Chemical, Physical, and Biological Factors Shape Littoral Invertebrate Community Structure in Coal-Mining End-Pit Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luek, Andreas; Rasmussen, Joseph B.

    2017-04-01

    Aquatic invertebrates form the base of the consumer food web in lakes. In coal-mining end-pit lakes, invertebrates are exposed to an environment with potentially challenging physical and chemical features. We hypothesized that the physical and chemical features of end-pit lakes reduce critical littoral habitat and thus reduce invertebrate diversity, thereby limiting the potential for these lakes to be naturalized. We used a multivariate approach using principle component analysis and redundancy analysis to study relationships between invertebrate community structure, habitat features, and water quality in five end-pit lakes and five natural lakes in the Rocky Mountain foothills of west-central Alberta, Canada. Results show a significantly different invertebrate community structure was present in end-pit lakes as compared with reference lakes in the same region, which could be accounted for by water hardness, conductivity, slope of the littoral zone, and phosphorus concentrations. Habitat diversity in end-pit lakes was also limited, cover provided by macrophytes was scarce, and basin slopes were significantly steeper in pit lakes. Although water chemistry is currently the strongest influencing factor on the invertebrate community, physical challenges of habitat homogeneity and steep slopes in the littoral zones were identified as major drivers of invertebrate community structure. The addition of floating wetlands to the littoral zone of existing pit lakes can add habitat complexity without the need for large-scale alterations to basing morphology, while impermeable capping of waste-rock and the inclusion of littoral habitat in the planning process of new pit lakes can improve the success of integrating new pit lakes into the landscape.

  3. Chemical, Physical, and Biological Factors Shape Littoral Invertebrate Community Structure in Coal-Mining End-Pit Lakes.

    PubMed

    Luek, Andreas; Rasmussen, Joseph B

    2017-04-01

    Aquatic invertebrates form the base of the consumer food web in lakes. In coal-mining end-pit lakes, invertebrates are exposed to an environment with potentially challenging physical and chemical features. We hypothesized that the physical and chemical features of end-pit lakes reduce critical littoral habitat and thus reduce invertebrate diversity, thereby limiting the potential for these lakes to be naturalized. We used a multivariate approach using principle component analysis and redundancy analysis to study relationships between invertebrate community structure, habitat features, and water quality in five end-pit lakes and five natural lakes in the Rocky Mountain foothills of west-central Alberta, Canada. Results show a significantly different invertebrate community structure was present in end-pit lakes as compared with reference lakes in the same region, which could be accounted for by water hardness, conductivity, slope of the littoral zone, and phosphorus concentrations. Habitat diversity in end-pit lakes was also limited, cover provided by macrophytes was scarce, and basin slopes were significantly steeper in pit lakes. Although water chemistry is currently the strongest influencing factor on the invertebrate community, physical challenges of habitat homogeneity and steep slopes in the littoral zones were identified as major drivers of invertebrate community structure. The addition of floating wetlands to the littoral zone of existing pit lakes can add habitat complexity without the need for large-scale alterations to basing morphology, while impermeable capping of waste-rock and the inclusion of littoral habitat in the planning process of new pit lakes can improve the success of integrating new pit lakes into the landscape.

  4. Microplastic pollution in lakes and lake shoreline sediments - A case study on Lake Bolsena and Lake Chiusi (central Italy).

    PubMed

    Fischer, Elke Kerstin; Paglialonga, Lisa; Czech, Elisa; Tamminga, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Rivers and effluents have been identified as major pathways for microplastics of terrestrial sources. Moreover, lakes of different dimensions and even in remote locations contain microplastics in striking abundances. This study investigates concentrations of microplastic particles at two lakes in central Italy (Lake Bolsena, Lake Chiusi). A total number of six Manta Trawls have been carried out, two of them one day after heavy winds occurred on Lake Bolsena showing effects on particle distribution of fragments and fibers of varying size categories. Additionally, 36 sediment samples from lakeshores were analyzed for microplastic content. In the surface waters 2.68 to 3.36 particles/m(3) (Lake Chiusi) and 0.82 to 4.42 particles/m(3) (Lake Bolsena) were detected, respectively. Main differences between the lakes are attributed to lake characteristics such as surface and catchment area, depth and the presence of local wind patterns and tide range at Lake Bolsena. An event of heavy winds and moderate rainfall prior to one sampling led to an increase of concentrations at Lake Bolsena which is most probable related to lateral land-based and sewage effluent inputs. The abundances of microplastic particles in sediments vary from mean values of 112 (Lake Bolsena) to 234 particles/kg dry weight (Lake Chiusi). Lake Chiusi results reveal elevated fiber concentrations compared to those of Lake Bolsena what might be a result of higher organic content and a shift in grain size distribution towards the silt and clay fraction at the shallow and highly eutrophic Lake Chiusi. The distribution of particles along different beach levels revealed no significant differences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Honey Lake fault zone, northeastern California: Its nature, age, and displacement

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, D.L.; Saucedo, G.J.; Grose, T.L.T.

    The Honey Lake fault zone of northeastern California is composed of en echelon, northwest trending faults that form the boundary between the Sierra Nevada and the Basin Ranges provinces. As such the Honey Lake fault zone can be considered part of the Sierra Nevada frontal fault system. It is also part of the Walker Lane of Nevada. Faults of the Honey Lake zone are vertical with right-lateral oblique displacements. The cumulative vertical component of displacement along the fault zone is on the order of 800 m and right-lateral displacement is at least 10 km (6 miles) but could be considerablymore » more. Oligocene to Miocene (30 to 22 Ma) age rhyolite tuffs can be correlated across the zone, but mid-Miocene andesites do not appear to be correlative indicating the faulting began in early to mid-Miocene time. Volcanic rocks intruded along faults of the zone, dated at 16 to 8 Ma, further suggest that faulting in the Honey Lake zone was initiated during mid-Miocene time. Late Quaternary to Holocene activity is indicated by offset of the 12,000 year old Lake Lahontan high stand shoreline and the surface rupture associated with the 1950 Fort Sage earthquake.« less

  6. Paleozoic Assemblage of the Northern Sierra Terrane: New Geochronology And Geochemical Data From the Stitching Late Devonian - Early Carboniferous Bowman Lake Batholith, and Associated Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powerman, V.; Hanson, R. E.; Girty, G.; Tretiakov, A.

    2016-12-01

    Previous study (Grove et al., 2008) of detrital zircon ages and the timing of magmatism within the Northern Sierra terrane (NST) suggest that it is exotic relative to western Laurentia, and link it to the Paleozoic Arctic Realm, Baltica and Caledonides. NST is a composite terrane in the North America Cordillera, consisting of four distinct allochthons, thrusted upon each other. As a first step towards the understanding of the origin and tectonic development of the NST we have undertaken the SHRIMP-RG U-Pb zircon dating of the rocks from granites, granodiorites, trondhjemites, tonalites and hypabyssal intrusions, composing the Bowman Lake batholith. The batholith stitches the allochthons of the NST and its crystallization age signifies the timing of juxtaposition SHRIMP-RG analyses from 14 samples yielded an age range of ca. 352-369 Ma, which overlaps the Devonian-Mississipian boundary and constrains the minimum age for amalgamation. Additionally, we have acquired multiple XRF data, favoring the island arc provenance of the Bowman Lake batholith Batholith. Previously proposed ties between NST and Robert Mountains allochthon seem unlikely because the latter was accreted onto the western miogeocline of Laurentia during the Late Dev.-Early Miss. while the NST was most probably still situated within the Arctic Realm. This work has been supported by the grant #14.Z50.31.0017 of the Government of the Russian Federation and by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research grant #15-55-10055. We are grateful to Stanford-USGS SHRIMP-RG center, and personally to Marty Grove and Elizabeth Miller.

  7. Crystallization history of Kilauea Iki lava lake as seen in drill core recovered in 1967-1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helz, R.T.

    1980-01-01

    Kilauea Iki lava lake formed during the 1959 summit eruption, one of the most picritic eruptions of Kilauea Volcano in the twentieth century. Since 1959 the 110 to 122 m thick lake has cooled slowly, developing steadily thickening upper and lower crusts, with a lens of more molten lava in between. Recent coring dates, with maximum depths reached in the center of the lake, are: 1967 (26.5 m). 1975 (44.2 m), 1976 (46.0 m) and 1979 (52.7 m). These depths define the base of the upper crust at the time of drilling. The bulk of the core consists of a gray, olivine-phyric basalt matrix, which locally contains coarser-grained diabasic segregation veins. The most important megascopic variation in the matrix rock is its variation in olivine content. The upper 15 m of crust is very olivine-rich. Abundance and average size of olivine decrease irregularly downward to 23 m; between 23 and 40 m the rock contains 5-10% of small olivine phenocrysts. Below 40 m. olivine content and average grainsize rise sharply. Olivine contents remain high (20-45%, by volume) throughout the lower crust, except for a narrow (< 6 m) olivine depleted zone near the basalt contact. Petrographically the olivine phenocrysts in Kilauea Iki can be divided into two types. Type 1 phenocrysts are large (1-12 mm long), with irregular blocky outlines, and often contain kink bands. Type 2 crystals are relatively small (0.5-2 mm in length), euhedral and undeformed. The variations in olivine content of the matrix rock are almost entirely variations in the amount of type 1 olivines. Sharp mineral layering of any sort is rare in Kilauea Iki. However, the depth range 41-52 m is marked by the frequent occurrence of steeply dipping (70??-90??) bands or bodies of slightly vuggy olivine-rich rock locally capped with a small cupola of segregation-vein material. In thin section there is clear evidence for relative movement of melt and crystals within these structures. The segregation veins occur only in the upper crust

  8. Spirit Discovers New Class of Igneous Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    During the past two-and-a-half years of traversing the central part of Gusev Crater, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has analyzed the brushed and ground-into surfaces of multiple rocks using the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer, which measures the abundance of major chemical elements. In the process, Spirit has documented the first example of a particular kind of volcanic region on Mars known as an alkaline igneous province. The word alkaline refers to the abundance of sodium and potassium, two major rock-forming elements from the alkali metals on the left-hand side of the periodic table.

    All of the relatively unaltered rocks -- those least changed by wind, water, freezing, or other weathering agents -- examined by Spirit have been igneous, meaning that they crystallized from molten magmas. One way geologists classify igneous rocks is by looking at the amount of potassium and sodium relative to the amount of silica, the most abundant rock-forming mineral on Earth. In the case of volcanic rocks, the amount of silica present gives scientists clues to the kind of volcanism that occurred, while the amounts of potassium and sodium provide clues about the history of the rock. Rocks with more silica tend to erupt explosively. Higher contents of potassium and sodium, as seen in alkaline rocks like those at Gusev, may indicate partial melting of magma at higher pressure, that is, deeper in the Martian mantle. The abundance of potassium and sodium determines the kinds of minerals that make up igneous rocks. If igneous rocks have enough silica, potassium and sodium always bond with the silica to form certain minerals.

    The Gusev rocks define a new chemical category not previously seen on Mars, as shown in this diagram plotting alkalis versus silica, compiled by University of Tennessee geologist Harry McSween. The abbreviations 'Na2O' and 'K2O' refer to oxides of sodium and potassium. The abbreviation 'SiO2' refers to silica. The abbreviation 'wt

  9. Paleoenvironments, Evolution, and Geomicrobiology in a Tropical Pacific Lake: The Lake Towuti Drilling Project (TOWUTI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Hendrik; Russell, James M.; Bijaksana, Satria; Fowle, David; von Rintelen, Thomas; Stevenson, Janelle; Watkinson, Ian; Marwoto, Ristiyanti; Melles, Martin; Crowe, Sean; Haffner, Doug; King, John

    2013-04-01

    Lake Towuti (2.5°S, 121°E) is a, 560 km2, 200-m deep tectonic lake at the downstream end of the Malili lake system, a set of five, ancient (1-2 MYr) tectonic lakes in central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Lake Towuti's location in central Indonesia provides a unique opportunity to reconstruct long-term paleoclimate change in a crucially important yet understudied region- the tropical Western Pacific warm pool, heart of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. The Malili Lakes have extraordinarily high rates of floral and faunal endemism, and the lakes are surrounded by one of the most diverse tropical forests on Earth. Drilling in Lake Towuti will identify the age and origin of the lake and the environmental and climatic context that shaped the evolution of this unique lacustrine and terrestrial ecosystem. The ultramafic (ophiolitic) rocks and lateritic soils surrounding Lake Towuti provide metal substrates that feed a diverse, exotic microbial community, analogous to the microbial ecosystems that operated in the Archean Oceans. Drill core will provide unique insight into long-term changes in this ecosystem, as well as microbial processes operating at depth in the sediment column. While the Malili Lakes have long been considered high-priority drilling sites, only now do we have the requisite site survey information to propose the development of ICDP's first lake drilling target in the tropical western Pacific. High-resolution seismic reflection data (CHIRP and airgun) combined with numerous long sediment piston cores collected from 2007-2010 demonstrate the enormous promise of Lake Towuti for an ICDP drilling campaign. Well-stratified sequences of up to 150 m thickness, uninterrupted by unconformities or erosional truncation, are present in multiple sub-basins within Towuti, providing ideal sites for long-term environmental, climatic, and limnological reconstructions. Multiproxy analyses of our piston cores document a continuous and detailed record of moisture balance

  10. Bromine species fluxes from Lake Constance’s catchment, and a preliminary lake mass balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilfedder, B. S.; Petri, M.; Wessels, M.; Biester, H.

    2011-06-01

    Bromine was historically termed a cyclic salt in terrestrial freshwater environments due to its perceived conservative cycling between the oceans and the continents. This basic assumption has been challenged recently, with evidence that bromine is involved in dynamic chemical cycles in soils and freshwaters. We present here a study on dissolved bromine species (bromide, organically bound bromine, DOBr) concentrations and fluxes as well as sediment trap bromine levels and fluxes in Lake Constance, a large lake in southern Germany. Water samples were obtained from all major and some minor inflows and outflows over one year, where-after dissolved bromine species were measured by a combination of ICP-MS and ion chromatography coupled to an ICP-MS (IC-ICP-MS). Sediment traps were deployed at two locations for two years with Br, Ti and Zr levels being measured by μ-XRF. 190 t yr -1 of total dissolved bromine (TDBr) was delivered to the lake via 14 rivers and precipitation, with the rivers Alpenrhein (84 t TDBr yr -1) and the Schussen (50 t TDBr yr -1) providing the largest sources. The estimated particulate bromine flux contributed an extra 24-26 t Br yr -1. In comparison, only 40 t TDBr yr -1 was deposited to the lake's catchment by precipitation, and thus ˜80% of the riverine TDBr flux came from soils and rocks. Bromide was the dominant species accounting for, on average, 78% of TDBr concentrations and 93% of TDBr flux to the lake. Despite some high concentrations in the smaller lowland rivers, DOBr was only a minor component of the total riverine bromine flux (˜12 t yr -1, 7%), most of which came from the rivers Schussen, Bregenzer Ach and Argen. In contrast, most of the bromine in the sediment traps was bound to organic matter, and showed a clear seasonal pattern in concentrations, with a maximum in winter and minimum in summer. The summer minimum is thought to be due to dilution of a high Br autochthonous component by low bromine mineral and organic material from

  11. Lake whitefish and lake herring population structure and niche in ten south-central Ontario lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carl, Leon M.; McGuiness, Fiona

    2006-01-01

    This study compares simple fish communities of ten oligotrophic lakes in south-central Ontario. Species densities and population size structure vary significantly among these lake communities depending on fish species present beyond the littoral zone. Lake whitefish are fewer and larger in the presence of lake herring than in their absence. Diet analysis indicates that lake whitefish shift from feeding on both plankton and benthic prey when lake herring are absent to a primarily benthic feeding niche in the presence of lake herring. When benthic round whitefish are present, lake whitefish size and density decline and they move lower in the lake compared to round whitefish. Burbot are also fewer and larger in lakes with lake herring than in lakes without herring. Burbot, in turn, appear to influence the population structure of benthic coregonine species. Lower densities of benthic lake whitefish and round whitefish are found in lakes containing large benthic burbot than in lakes with either small burbot or where burbot are absent. Predation on the pelagic larvae of burbot and lake whitefish by planktivorous lake herring alters the size and age structure of these populations. As life history theory predicts, those species with poor larval survival appear to adopt a bet-hedging life history strategy of long-lived individuals as a reproductive reserve.

  12. Arsenic Movement From Sediment to Water: Microbes and Mobilization in a Contaminated Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keimowitz, A. R.; Mailloux, B. J.; Chillrud, S. N.; Ross, J.; Wovkulich, K.; McNamara, P.; Alexandrova, E.; Thompson, L.

    2008-12-01

    Union Lake (Millville, NJ), a reservoir downstream from the Vineland Chemical Company Superfund site, has bottom sediments that are highly contaminated with arsenic (>1 g/kg). Offsite As transport was investigated. Because the lake is a result of damming, it is perched above the water table and therefore As transport may occur via downward movement of porewaters and/or groundwaters. Preliminary evidence for this was found in the form of iron flocculates enriched in As which were found in surface seeps downgradient of the dam. The possibility of As remobilization and/or off-site transport by seasonal anoxia of lake bottom- waters was also explored. Although historically, appreciable As was found in the water column of the lake (up to approximately 200 micrograms/L), As releases over the summers of 2007 and 2008 were negligible to modest with a maximum [As] of 23 micrograms/L. Arsenic mobilization from the contaminated sediments into surface waters of the reservoir are limited in part due to incomplete eutrophication and frequent overturning (approximately 1x/month in summer 2007) of this shallow lake, therefore conditions which promoted greater As release were explored in the laboratory. Field and laboratory samples were examined for changes in the microbial community using a variety of genetic techniques; these changes in microbial community were both a result of, and influenced, seasonal lake cycles.

  13. Methane bursts as a trigger for intermittent lake-forming climates on post-Noachian Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kite, Edwin S.; Gao, Peter; Goldblatt, Colin; Mischna, Michael A.; Mayer, David P.; Yung, Yuk L.

    2017-10-01

    Lakes existed on Mars later than 3.6 billion years ago, according to sedimentary evidence for deltaic deposition. The observed fluviolacustrine deposits suggest that individual lake-forming climates persisted for at least several thousand years (assuming dilute flow). But the lake watersheds’ little-weathered soils indicate a largely dry climate history, with intermittent runoff events. Here we show that these observational constraints, although inconsistent with many previously proposed triggers for lake-forming climates, are consistent with a methane burst scenario. In this scenario, chaotic transitions in mean obliquity drive latitudinal shifts in temperature and ice loading that destabilize methane clathrate. Using numerical simulations, we find that outgassed methane can build up to atmospheric levels sufficient for lake-forming climates, if methane clathrate initially occupies more than 4% of the total volume in which it is thermodynamically stable. Such occupancy fractions are consistent with methane production by water-rock reactions due to hydrothermal circulation on early Mars. We further estimate that photochemical destruction of atmospheric methane curtails the duration of individual lake-forming climates to less than a million years, consistent with observations. We conclude that methane bursts represent a potential pathway for intermittent excursions to a warm, wet climate state on early Mars.

  14. Geologic, aeromagnetic and mineral resource potential maps of the Whisker Lake Wilderness, Florence County, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schulz, Klaus J.

    1983-01-01

    The mineral resource potential of the Whisker Lake Wilderness in the Nicolet National Forest, Florence County, northeastern Wisconsin, was evaluated in 1982. The bedrock consists of recrystallized and deformed volcanic and sedimentary rocks of Early Proterozoic age. Sand and gravel are the only identified resources in the Whisker Lake Wilderness. However, the area is somewhat isolated from current markets and both commodities are abundant regionally. The wilderness also has low potential for peat in swampy lowlands. The southwestern part of the wilderness has a low to moderate mineral resource potential for stratabound massive-sulfide (copper-zinc-lead) deposits.

  15. Bathymetry and selected perspective views of 6 reef and coastal areas in Northern Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, Peter; Fleisher, Guy; Gardner, James V.; Lee, Kristen

    2003-01-01

    We apply state of the art laser technology and derivative imagery to map the detailed morphology and of principal lake trout spawning sites on reefs in Northern Lake Michigan and to provide a geologic interpretation. We sought to identify the presence of ideal spawning substrate: shallow, "clean" gravel/cobble substrate, adjacent to deeper water. This study is a pilot collaborative effort with the US Army Corps of Engineers SHOALS (Scanning Hydrographic Operational Airborne Lidar Survey) program. The high-definition maps are integrated with known and developing data on fisheries, as well as limited substrate sedimentologic information and underlying Paleozoic carbonate rocks.

  16. 50 CFR Table 1 to Part 226 - Major Stellar Sea Lion Rookery Sites

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Major Stellar Sea Lion Rookery Sites 1... Table 1 to Part 226—Major Stellar Sea Lion Rookery Sites Major Steller sea lion rookery sites are... 168 02.0W Ogchul I.1 53 00.0N 168 24.0W Sea Lion Rocks. (Amak) 1 55 28.0N 163 12.0W Ugamak I.1 54 14...

  17. 50 CFR Table 1 to Part 226 - Major Stellar Sea Lion Rookery Sites

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Major Stellar Sea Lion Rookery Sites 1... Table 1 to Part 226—Major Stellar Sea Lion Rookery Sites Major Steller sea lion rookery sites are... 168 02.0W Ogchul I.1 53 00.0N 168 24.0W Sea Lion Rocks. (Amak) 1 55 28.0N 163 12.0W Ugamak I.1 54 14...

  18. 50 CFR Table 1 to Part 226 - Major Stellar Sea Lion Rookery Sites

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Major Stellar Sea Lion Rookery Sites 1... Table 1 to Part 226—Major Stellar Sea Lion Rookery Sites Major Steller sea lion rookery sites are... 168 02.0W Ogchul I.1 53 00.0N 168 24.0W Sea Lion Rocks. (Amak) 1 55 28.0N 163 12.0W Ugamak I.1 54 14...

  19. 50 CFR Table 1 to Part 226 - Major Steller Sea Lion Rookery Sites

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Major Steller Sea Lion Rookery Sites 1... Table 1 to Part 226—Major Steller Sea Lion Rookery Sites Major Steller sea lion rookery sites are... 168 02.0W Ogchul I.1 53 00.0N 168 24.0W Sea Lion Rocks. (Amak) 1 55 28.0N 163 12.0W Ugamak I.1 54 14...

  20. 50 CFR Table 1 to Part 226 - Major Stellar Sea Lion Rookery Sites

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Major Stellar Sea Lion Rookery Sites 1... Table 1 to Part 226—Major Stellar Sea Lion Rookery Sites Major Steller sea lion rookery sites are... 168 02.0W Ogchul I.1 53 00.0N 168 24.0W Sea Lion Rocks. (Amak) 1 55 28.0N 163 12.0W Ugamak I.1 54 14...

  1. Morphological signatures of microbial activity across sediment and light microenvironments of Lake Vanda, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackey, Tyler J.; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Hawes, Ian; Jungblut, Anne D.

    2017-11-01

    Cyanobacteria-dominated microbial mats in Lake Vanda grow with pinnacles and ridges separated by prostrate mat. Rocks protrude over microbial mats on the lake bottom to create localized, dm-scale gradients in sedimentation and irradiance. The effects of sedimentation on pinnacle and ridge growth were isolated from photosynthetic activity by contrasting growth across microenvironmental gradients. Sedimentation rate was measured as the mass of sand and mud sized sediment in mat that accumulated over 11 years, and the incident light was modeled near and under rocks by reconstructing topography using Structure from Motion techniques. Morphologically diverse pinnacles and ridges were documented in both exposed and sheltered mat microenvironments, in addition to growing downward from the underside of overhanging rocks. Mat that grew with > 40% irradiance under overhangs did not have consistent differences in pinnacle density or ridge abundance as a function of sedimentation rates or irradiance when compared to exposed mat. However, their morphology did change significantly with changes in the direction of incident irradiance. Where irradiance was < 40% ambient or light intersected the mat at very low angles, few pinnacles were present and ridges were preferentially aligned parallel to incident light direction. These observations indicate that pinnacle nucleation and spacing were not strongly influenced by sedimentation but pinnacle and ridge morphology varied in response to directional irradiance.

  2. A Classification Table for Achondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chennaoui-Aoudjehane, H.; Larouci, N.; Jambon, A.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.

    2014-01-01

    Classifying chondrites is relatively easy and the criteria are well documented. It is based on mineral compositions, textural characteristics and more recently, magnetic susceptibility. It can be more difficult to classify achondrites, especially those that are very similar to terrestrial igneous rocks, because mineralogical, textural and compositional properties can be quite variable. Achondrites contain essentially olivine, pyroxenes, plagioclases, oxides, sulphides and accessory minerals. Their origin is attributed to differentiated parents bodies: large asteroids (Vesta); planets (Mars); a satellite (the Moon); and numerous asteroids of unknown size. In most cases, achondrites are not eye witnessed falls and some do not have fusion crust. Because of the mineralogical and magnetic susceptibility similarity with terrestrial igneous rocks for some achondrites, it can be difficult for classifiers to confirm their extra-terrestrial origin. We -as classifiers of meteorites- are confronted with this problem with every suspected achondrite we receive for identification. We are developing a "grid" of classification to provide an easier approach for initial classification. We use simple but reproducible criteria based on mineralogical, petrological and geochemical studies. We presented the classes: acapulcoites, lodranites, winonaites and Martian meteorites (shergottite, chassignites, nakhlites). In this work we are completing the classification table by including the groups: angrites, aubrites, brachinites, ureilites, HED (howardites, eucrites, and diogenites), lunar meteorites, pallasites and mesosiderites. Iron meteorites are not presented in this abstract.

  3. An AEM-TEM study of weathering and diagenesis, Abert Lake, Oregon. (1) Weathering reactions in the volcanics

    SciTech Connect

    Banfield, J.F.; Veblen, D.R.; Jones, B.F.

    1991-10-01

    Abert Lake in south-central Oregon provides a site suitable for the study of sequential weathering and diagenetic events. In this first of two papers, transmission electron microscopy was used to characterize the igneous mineralogy, subsolidus alteration assemblage, and the structural and chemical aspects of silicate weathering reactions that occur in the volcanic rocks that outcrop around the lake. Olivine and pyroxene replacement occurred topotactically, whereas feldspar and glass alteration produced randomly oriented smectite in channels and cavities. The tetrahedral, octahedral, and interlayer compositions of the weathering products, largely dioctahedral smectites, varied with primary mineral composition, rock type, and as themore » result of addition of elements released from adjacent reaction sites. The variability within and between the smectite assemblages highlights the microenvironmental diversity, fluctuating redox conditions, and variable solution chemistry associated with mineral weathering reactions in the surficial environment. Late-stage exhalative and aqueous alteration of the volcanics redistributed many components and formed a variety of alkali and alkali-earth carbonate, chloride, sulfate, and fluoride minerals in vugs and cracks. Overall, substantial Mg, Si, Na, Ca, and K are released by weathering reactions that include the almost complete destruction of the Mg-smectite that initially replaced olivine. The leaching of these elements from the volcanics provides an important source of these constituents in the lake water. The nature of subsequent diagenetic reactions resulting from the interaction between the materials transported to the lake and the solution will be described in part.« less

  4. Characterization of organic matter in lake sediments from Minnesota and Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dean, Walter E.

    2006-01-01

    Samples of sediment from lakes in Minnesota and Yellowstone National Park (YNP) were analyzed for organic carbon (OC), hydrogen richness by Rock-Eval pyrolysis, and stable carbon- and nitrogen-isotope composition of bulk organic matter. Values of delta 13C of lake plankton tend to be around -28 to -32 parts per thousand (0/00). Organic matter with values of delta 13C in the high negative 20s overlap with those of organic matter derived from C3 higher terrestrial plants but are at least 10 0/00 more depleted in 13C than organic matter derived from C4 terrestrial plants. If the organic matter is produced mainly by photosynthetic plankton and is not oxidized in the water column, there may be a negative correlation between H-richness (Rock-Eval pyrolysis H-index) and delta 13C, with more H-rich, algal organic matter having lower values of delta 13C. However, if aquatic organic matter is oxidized in the water column, or if the organic matter is a mixture of terrestrial and aquatic organic matter, then there may be no correlation between H-richness and carbon-isotopic composition. Values of delta 13C lower than about -28 0/00 probably indicate a contribution of bacterial biomass produced in the hypolimnion by chemoautotrophy or methanotrophy. In highly eutrophic lakes in which large amounts of 13C-depleted organic matter is continually removed from the epilimnion by photosynthesis throughout the growing season, the entire carbon reservoir in the epilimnion may become severely 13C-enriched so that 13C-enriched photosynthetic organic matter may overprint 13C-depleted chemosynthetic bacterial organic matter produced in the hypolimnon. Most processes involved with the nitrogen cycle in lakes, such as production of ammonia and nitrate, tend to produce 15N-enriched values of delta 15N. Most Minnesota lake sediments are 15N-enriched. However, some of the more OC-rich sediments have delta 15N values close to zero (delta 15N of air), suggesting that organic matter production is

  5. A multi proxy reconstruction of paleoproductivity of Cleland Lake British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihindukulasooriya, L. N.; Pompeani, D. P.; Ortiz, J. D.; Steinman, B. A.; Abbott, M. B.

    2013-12-01

    In small closed-basin lakes in semi arid regions, variations in precipitation/evaporation (P/E) balance affect the physical, biological, and chemical composition of the lake water and sediment. This study presents color reflectance, XRF derived elemental concentrations and δ18O values of carbonates (δ18Ocarb) in sediment cores from Cleland Lake, British Columbia to provide insight into paleolimnological variations during the past 7500 years. Principal Component (PC) 1 of the reflectance data, i.e, Illite+ sphalerite is used as a clay mineral proxy, and PC 4, diatoms+ cyanobacteria, is used as a paleoproductivity proxy. Lake paleoproductivity history is divided into three temporal periods, 400 to 2500 (denoted as P1), 2500 to 5000 (P2) and 5000 to 7500 (P3) calibrated years before present (Cal yr BP). Fe and Mn concentrations gradually increase during P3, reach high values during P2 and rapidly drop to the lowest values after 2600 Cal yr BP. Diatom abundances have a positive correlation with illite (r= 0.79, n=73 α=0.01) throughout the record. In contrast, negative correlations (table 1) exists between δ18Ocarb and diatom abundances during P2 and P3, indicating higher diatom abundance during wet periods. After 3000 cal yr BP, the correlation reverses (table 1), indicating low diatom abundance during wet periods. Variability in diatom abundances is greater than that of the δ18Ocarb values, indicating that factors other than the P/E balance affects phytoplankton abundance. P 1 is characterized by three periods (centered at 2500, 2100 and 1400 Cal yr BP) of predominantly low diatom abundance that occur simultaneously with low Mn and Cr concentrations. Low Mn and Cr levels may indicate intense reducing conditions, while the observed peaks in Ni and Cu concentration might indicate reducing conditions resulting from high rates of organic matter decomposition (Tribovillard et al., 2006). Contemporaneous with the abrupt δ18Ocarb depletion around 2600 Cal yr BP, trace

  6. The Lake Tahoe Basin Land Use Simulation Model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forney, William M.; Oldham, I. Benson

    2011-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report describes the final modeling product for the Tahoe Decision Support System project for the Lake Tahoe Basin funded by the Southern Nevada Public Land Management Act and the U.S. Geological Survey's Geographic Analysis and Monitoring Program. This research was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey Western Geographic Science Center. The purpose of this report is to describe the basic elements of the novel Lake Tahoe Basin Land Use Simulation Model, publish samples of the data inputs, basic outputs of the model, and the details of the Python code. The results of this report include a basic description of the Land Use Simulation Model, descriptions and summary statistics of model inputs, two figures showing the graphical user interface from the web-based tool, samples of the two input files, seven tables of basic output results from the web-based tool and descriptions of their parameters, and the fully functional Python code.

  7. Gusev Rocks Solidified from Lava (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    to identify rocks and features investigated by Spirit during the Chinese New Year celebration period. In ancient Chinese myth, FuYi was the first great emperor and lived in the east. He explained the theory of 'Yin' and 'Yang' to his people, invented the net to catch fish, was the first to use fire to cook food, and invented a musical instrument known as the 'Se' to accompany his peoples' songs and dances. Other rocks and features are being informally named for Chinese gods, warriors, inventors, and scientists, as well as rivers, lakes, and mountains.

    Spirit took this image on the rover's Martian day, or sol, 731 (Jan. 23, 2006). This stereo view combines images from the two blue (430-nanometer) filters in the Pancam's left and right 'eyes.' The image should be viewed using red/blue stereo glasses, with the red over your left eye.

  8. Postorogenic carbonatites at Eden Lake, Trans-Hudson Orogen (northern Manitoba, Canada): Geological setting, mineralogy and geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakhmouradian, A. R.; Mumin, A. H.; Demény, A.; Elliott, B.

    2008-07-01

    The Eden Lake pluton in the Trans-Hudson Orogen is the first known occurrence of carbonatites in Manitoba. The pluton is largely made up of modally and geochemically diverse syenitic rocks derived from postorogenic magma(s) of shoshonitic affinity. Their diversity can be accounted for by a combination of crystal fractionation and fluid release in the final evolutionary stage (crystallization of quartz alkali-feldspar syenite). At Eden Lake, carbonatites, represented predominantly by coarse-grained massive to foliated sövite, occur as branching veins and lenticular bodies up to 4 m in thickness showing crosscutting relations with respect to all of the syenitic units. The host rocks are intensely fenitized at the contact, and there is also abundant mineralogical and textural evidence for assimilation of silicate material by carbonatitic magma through wallrock reaction and xenolith fragmentation and digestion. The bulk of the carbonatites are composed of (in order of crystallization): Sr-REE-rich fluorapatite, aegirine-augite, and coarse calcite crystals surrounded by fine-grained calcite (on average, ˜ 90 vol.% of the rock). Noteworthy accessory constituents are celestine, bastnäsite-(Ce) (both as primary inclusions in calcite), Nb-Zr-rich titanite, low-Hf zircon, allanite-(Ce) and andradite. The calcite is chemically uniform (Sr-rich, Mg-Mn-Fe-poor and low in 13C), but shows clear evidence of ductile deformation and syndeformational cataclasis. Geochemically, the carbonatites are enriched in Sr, Ba, light rare-earth elements, Th and U, but depleted in high-field-strength elements (particularly, Ti, Nb and Ta). The stable-isotope composition of coarse- and fine-grained calcite from the carbonatites and interstitial calcite from syenites is remarkably uniform: ca. - 8.16 ± 0.27‰ δ13C (PDB) and + 8.04 ± 0.19‰ δ18O (SMOW). The available textural and geochemical evidence indicates that the Eden Lake carbonatites are not consanguineous with the associated

  9. Monitoring mountain lakes in a changing Alpine cryosphere: the Lago Nero project (Ticino, Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scapozza, Cristian; Bruder, Andreas; Domenici, Mattia; Lepori, Fabio; Pera, Sebastian; Pozzoni, Maurizio; Rioggi, Stefano; Colombo, Luca

    2017-04-01

    Mountain lakes and their catchments of the Alpine cryosphere are facing global pressures including climate warming and deposition of atmospheric pollutants. Due to their remoteness, often low buffer capacities and sensitive biotic communities, alpine lake catchments are particularly well suited as sentinels of environmental change. Lago Nero is the object of an intensive survey, aimed at developing predictive models of catchment-wide ecosystem responses to environmental change (Bruder et al. 2016). Lago Nero is located at the head of Val Bavona (Canton Ticino, southern Switzerland), in a southwest-facing catchment, with altitude ranging from 2385 to 2842 m asl. The substrate is dominated by gneissic bedrock with patches of grassy vegetation and shallow soils. The catchment is snow-covered approximately from November to May. For a similar period, the lake is ice-covered. Lago Nero is an oligotrophic, soft-water lake with a surface of approximatively 13 ha and a maximal depth of 73 m. According to the regional model of potential permafrost distribution in the southern Swiss Alps (Scapozza & Mari 2010), the presence of discontinuous permafrost is probable in almost the entire surface of the catchment covered by loose debris. A direct evidence of permafrost occurrence is the presence of a small active/inactive rock glacier in the south-eastern part of the catchment (front altitude: 2560 m asl). Monitoring of the site began in summer 2014, with an initial phase aimed at developing and testing methodologies and at evaluating the suitability of the catchment and the feasibility of the monitoring program. The intensive survey at Lago Nero measures a wide array of ecosystem responses, including runoff quantity and chemistry, catchment soil temperature (also on the rock glacier) and composition of terrestrial vegetation. Sampling frequency depends on the parameter measured, varying from nearly continuous (e.g. runoff and temperature) to five-year intervals (e.g. soil and

  10. Geochemistry of obsidian from Krasnoe Lake on the Chukchi Peninsula (Northeastern Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, V. K.; Grebennikov, A. V.; Kuzmin, Ya. V.; Glascock, M. D.; Nozdrachev, E. A.; Budnitsky, S. Yu.; Vorobey, I. E.

    2017-09-01

    This report considers features of the geochemical composition of obsidian from beach sediments of Krasnoe Lake along the lower course of the Anadyr River, as well as from lava-pyroclastic rocks constituting the lake coastal outcrops and the surrounding branches of Rarytkin Ridge. The two geochemical types of obsidian, for the first time distinguished and researched, correspond in their chemical composition to lavas and ignimbrite-like tuffs of rhyolites from the Rarytkin area. The distinguished types represent the final stage of acidic volcanism in the West Kamchatkan-Koryak volcanic belt. It was assumed that the accumulation of obsidian in coastal pebble beds was caused by the erosion of extrusive domes and pyroclastic flows. The geochemical studies of obsidian artifacts from archeological sites of the regions of the Sea of Okhotsk, the Kolyma River, and the Chukchi Peninsula along with the correlation of geological and archeological samples show that Krasnoe Lake was an important source of "archeological" obsidian in Northeastern Siberia.

  11. Evolution and outburst risk analysis of moraine-dammed lakes in the central Chinese Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shijin, Wang; Shitai, Jiao

    2015-04-01

    The recent evolution and outburst risk of two typical moraine-dammed lakes, Galong and Gangxi, central Chinese Himalaya, are analyzed using topographic maps from 1974 and Landsat satellite imagery acquired in 1988, 2000 and 2014. The datasets show the areas of Galong and Gangxi lakes increasing at rates of 0.45 and 0.34 km2/year during the period 1974-2014, an expansion of 501% and 107%, respectively, in the past 41 years, while the areas of the parent glaciers, Reqiang and Jipucong decreased by 44.22% and 37.76%, respectively. The accelerating retreat of the glaciers not only reflects their generally negative mass balance but is consistent with the rapid expansion of the moraine-dammed lakes. When acted upon by external forces such as earthquakes, heavy rainfall, rapid melting of glaciers and dead ice, and snow/ice/rock avalanches, these lakes can become extremely dangerous, easily forming outburst mudslides, which can potentially spread to the Poiqu river basin and develop into cross-border (China and Nepal) GLOF disasters. Therefore, there is an urgent need to strengthen integrated risk management of glacial lake outburst disasters with multiple objectives and modes.

  12. How wet is wet? Strontium isotopes as paleo-lake level indicators in the Chew Bahir basin (S-Ethiopia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junginger, A.; Vonhof, H.; Foerster, V. E.; Asrat, A.; Cohen, A. S.; Lamb, H. F.; Schaebitz, F.; Trauth, M. H.

    2016-12-01

    A major challenge in paleo-anthropology is to understand the impact of climatic changes on human evolution. The Hominin Sites and Paleo-lakes Drilling Project (HSPDP) is currently meeting that challenge by providing records that cover the last 3.7 Ma of paleoenvironmental change all located in close proximity to key paleo-anthropological findings in East Africa. One of the cored climatic archives comes from the dried up Chew Bahir basin in southern Ethiopia, where duplicate sediment cores, each 280 m long, are expected to provide valuable insights about East African environmental variability during the last >500 ka. The lake basins in the eastern branch of the East African Rift System today contain mainly shallow and alkaline lakes. However, paleo-shorelines in the form of wave cut notches, shell beds, and beach ridges are common morphological evidences for deep freshwater lakes that have filled the basins up to their overflow level during pronounced humid episodes, such as the African Humid Period (AHP, 15-5 ka). Unfortunately, further back in time, many of those morphological features disappear due to erosion and the estimation of paleo-water depths depend merely on qualitative proxies from core analyses. We here present a new method that shows high potential to translate qualitative proxy signals from sediment core analyses to quantitative climate signals in the Ethiopian Rift. The method aims at water level reconstruction of multiple paleo-lake episodes in the Chew Bahir basin using strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr, SIR) in lacustrine fossils and microfossils. SIR preserved in lacustrine fossils reflect the lithology of the drained catchment. The catchment of Chew Bahir consists mainly of Precambrian basement rocks producing high SIR in the lake waters. During humid periods, its catchment enlarged when higher elevated paleo-lakes Abaya, Chamo and Awassa were cascading down into Chew Bahir. These basins drain mainly volcanic rocks producing low SIR. First

  13. Hydrological and chemical estimates of the water balance of a closed-basin lake in north central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaBaugh, James W.; Winter, Thomas C.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Schuster, Paul F.; Reddy, Michael M.; Aiken, George R.

    1997-01-01

    Chemical mass balances for sodium, magnesium, chloride, dissolved organic carbon, and oxygen 18 were used to estimate groundwater seepage to and from Williams Lake, Minnesota, over a 15-month period, from April 1991 through June 1992. Groundwater seepage to the lake and seepage from the lake to groundwater were determined independently using a flow net approach using data from water table wells installed as part of the study. Hydrogeological analysis indicated groundwater seepage to the lake accounted for 74% of annual water input to the lake; the remainder came from atmospheric precipitation, as determined from a gage in the watershed and from nearby National Weather Service gages. Seepage from the lake accounted for 69% of annual water losses from the lake; the remainder was removed by evaporation, as determined by the energy budget method. Calculated annual water loss exceeded calculated annual water gain, and this imbalance was double the value of the independently measured decrease in lake volume. Seepage to the lake determined from oxygen 18 was larger (79% of annual water input) than that determined from the flow net approach and made the difference between calculated annual water gain and loss consistent with the independently measured decrease in lake volume. Although the net difference between volume of seepage to the lake and volume of seepage from the lake was 1% of average lake volume, movement of water into and out of the lake by seepage represented an annual exchange of groundwater with the lake equal to 26–27% of lake volume. Estimates of seepage to the lake from sodium, magnesium, chloride, and dissolved organic carbon did not agree with the values determined from flow net approach or oxygen 18. These results indicated the importance of using a combination of hydrogeological and chemical approaches to define volume of seepage to and from Williams Lake and identify uncertainties in chemical fluxes.

  14. Paleoenvironments, Evolution, and Geomicrobiology in a Tropical Pacific Lake: The Lake Towuti Drilling Project (TOWUTI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Hendrik; Russell, James M.; Bijaksana, Satria; Crowe, Sean; Fowle, David; Haffner, Douglas; King, John; Marwoto, Ristiyanti; Melles, Martin; von Rintelen, Thomas; Stevenson, Janelle; Watkinson, Ian; Wattrus, Nigel

    2014-05-01

    Lake Towuti (2.5°S, 121°E) is a, 560 km2, 200-m deep tectonic lake at the downstream end of the Malili lake system, a set of five, ancient (1-2 MYr) tectonic lakes in central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Lake Towuti's location in central Indonesia provides a unique opportunity to reconstruct long-term paleoclimate change in a crucially important yet understudied region- the Indo-Pacific warm pool (IPWP), heart of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. The Malili Lakes have extraordinarily high rates of floral and faunal endemism, and the lakes are surrounded by one of the most diverse tropical forests on Earth. Drilling in Lake Towuti will identify the age and origin of the lake and the environmental and climatic context that shaped the evolution of this unique lacustrine and terrestrial ecosystem. The ultramafic (ophiolitic) rocks and lateritic soils surrounding Lake Towuti provide metal substrates that feed a diverse, exotic microbial community, analogous to the microbial ecosystems that operated in the Archean Oceans. Drill core will provide unique insight into long-term changes in this ecosystem, as well as microbial processes operating at depth in the sediment column. High-resolution seismic reflection data (CHIRP and airgun) combined with numerous long sediment piston cores collected from 2007-2013 demonstrate the enormous promise of Lake Towuti for an ICDP drilling campaign. Well-stratified sequences of up to 150 m thickness, uninterrupted by unconformities or erosional truncation, are present in multiple sub-basins within Towuti, providing ideal sites for long-term environmental, climatic, and limnological reconstructions. Multiproxy analyses of our piston cores document a continuous and detailed record of moisture balance variations in Lake Towuti during the past 60 kyr BP. In detail our datasets show that wet conditions and rainforest ecosystems in central Indonesia persisted during Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS3) and the Holocene, and were interrupted by severe

  15. Gusev Rocks Solidified from Lava (Approximate True Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    to identify rocks and features investigated by Spirit during the Chinese New Year celebration period. In ancient Chinese myth, FuYi was the first great emperor and lived in the east. He explained the theory of 'Yin' and 'Yang' to his people, invented the net to catch fish, was the first to use fire to cook food, and invented a musical instrument known as the 'Se' to accompany his peoples' songs and dances. Other rocks and features are being informally named for Chinese gods, warriors, inventors, and scientists, as well as rivers, lakes, and mountains.

    Spirit took this image on the rover's Martian day, or sol, 731 (Jan. 23, 2006). This is an approximate true color rendering combining images taken with the Pancam's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters.

  16. Potassium metasomatism of volcanic and sedimentary rocks in rift basins, calderas and detachment terranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapin, C. E.; drographic basins.

    1985-01-01

    The chemical, mineralogical, and oxygen-isotopic changes accompanying K-metasomatism are described. The similarities with diagenetic reactions in both deep marine and alkaline, saline-lake environments are noted. The common occurrence of K-metasomatism in upper-plate rocks of detachment terranes indicates that the early stage of severe regional extension causes crustal downwarping and, in arid to semi-arid regions, development of closed hydrographic basins.

  17. Revisiting the West Clearwater Lake Impact Structure, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osinski, G. R.; Brunner, A.; Collins, G.; Cohen, B. A.; Coulter, A.; Elphic, R.; Grieve, R. A. F.; Hodges, K.; Horne, A.; Kerrigan, M.

    2015-01-01

    The West and East Clearwater Lake impact structures are two of the most distinctive and recognizable impact structures on Earth. Known regionally as the "Clearwater Lake Complex", these structures are located in northern Quebec, Canada (56 deg 10 N, 74 deg 20 W) approximately 125 km east of Hudson Bay. The currently accepted diameters are 36 km and 26 km for the West and East structures, respectively. Long thought to represent a rare example of a double impact, recent age dating has called this into question with ages of approximately 286 Ma and approximately 460-470 Ma being proposed for the West and East structures, respectively. Relatively little is known about the East Clearwater Lake structure. There is no surface exposure and what information there is comes from geophysics and two drill cores obtained in the 1960s. In contrast, the West Clearwater Lake structure is relatively well preserved with large ring of islands in the approximately 30 km diameter lake. Much of the work done on West Clearwater stems from field investigations carried out in 1977 driven by the Apollo program, with a focus on the impact melt rocks and other impactites, which are well exposed on the ring of islands. To our knowledge, the Clearwater Lake impact structures have not been the focus of detailed impact geology field investigations since the 1977 expedition and the only geological map that exists is from the 1960s and is at the reconnaissance level. Our knowledge of impact cratering processes have increased substantially since this time, as have the analytical techniques available for samples. This provided the motivation for a joint Canadian-US-UK expedition to the West Clearwater Lake impact structure in August and September 2015, under the auspices of the FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) project, part of NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI). We focus here on the impactites of the West Clearwater Lake

  18. Upper Mississippi River System Environmental Management Program Definite Project Report (R-7F) with Integrated Environmental Assessment, Lake Chautauqua.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    WE’RE PROUD M TO SIGN US Army Corps OUR WORK *of Engineers RoCk Wand Dd EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Lake Chautauqua is a 3,250-acre floodplain lake and wetland...Since 1978, there has been a documented, long-term decline in both the annual fall peak number of ducks in the refuge and the total fall use days. The...habitat value assessment methodologies. Aquatic models developed by the Waterways Experiment Station (WES) were used to evaluate existing aquatic and

  19. White Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 19 April 2002) The Science 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark. Images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed dark sand dunes surrounding White Rock and on the floor of the troughs within it. Some of these dunes are just apparent in the THEMIS image. Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim. Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. The THEMIS image offers new evidence for the idea that the original deposit covered a larger area. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater. Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away. The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving. These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone. You have to use other kinds of science instruments to measure things that our eyes can

  20. Lake-level variation in the Lahontan basin for the past 50,000 years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, L.V.; Thompson, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    Selected radiocarbon data on surficial materials from the Lahontan basin, Nevada and California, provide a chronology of lake-level variation for the past 50,000 yr. A moderate-sized lake connected three western Lahontan subbasins (the Smoke Creek-Black Rock Desert subbasin, the Pyramid Lake subbasin, and the Winnemucca Dry Lake subbasin) from about 45,000 to 16,500 yr B.P. Between 50,000 and 45,000 yr B.P., Walker Lake rose to its sill level in Adrian Valley and spilled to the Carson Desert subbasin. By 20,000 yr B.P., lake level in the western Lahontan subbasins had risen to about 1265 m above sea level, where it remained for 3500 yr. By 16,000 yr B.P., lake level in the western Lahontan subbasins had fallen to 1240 m. This recession appears synchronous with a desiccation of Walker Lake; however, whether the Walker Lake desiccation resulted from climate change or from diversion of the Walker River is not known. From about 15,000 to 13,500 yr B.P., lake level rapidly rose, so that Lake Lahontan was a single body of water by 14,000 yr B.P. The lake appears to have reached a maximum highstand altitude of 1330 m by 13,500 yr B.P., a condition that persisted until about 12,500 yr B.P., at which time lake level fell ???100 m. No data exist that indicate the level of lakes in the various subbasins between 12,000 and 10,000 yr B.P. During the Holocene, the Lahontan basin was the site of shallow lakes, with many subbasins being the site of one or more periods of desiccation. The shape of the lake-level curve for the three western subbasins indicates that past changes in the hydrologic balance (and hence climate) of the Lahontan basin were large in magnitude and took place in a rapid step-like manner. The rapid changes in lake level are hypothesized to have resulted from changes in the mean position of the jet stream, as it was forced north or south by the changing size and shape of the continental ice sheet. ?? 1987.

  1. The Impact of Rock Videos and Music with Suicidal Content on Thoughts and Attitudes about Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rustad, Robin A.; Small, Jacob E.; Jobes, David A.; Safer, Martin A.; Peterson, Rebecca J.

    2003-01-01

    Two experiments exposed college student volunteers to rock music with or without suicidal content. Music and videos with suicide content appeared to prime implicit cognitions related to suicide but did not affect variables associated with increased suicide risk. (Contains 60 references and 3 tables.) (Author/JBJ)

  2. Disappearing Twelvemile Lake in Alaska's Discontinuous Permafrost: Scoping Analysis of Water Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jepsen, S. M.; Voss, C. I.; Walvoord, M. A.; Minsley, B. J.; Rose, J.; Smith, B. D.

    2011-12-01

    The number and size of lakes in northern high-latitude regions have undergone significant changes over the last 3 decades or longer, possibly in association with climate warming. In the Yukon Flats Basin (YFB) of interior Alaska, a region underlain by discontinuous permafrost, these changes have not been uniform among lake drainage basins, suggesting the importance of local processes that are not well understood. As an example in the YFB, Twelvemile Lake has decreased in area by 60% since 1984, while neighboring Buddy Lake, 2 km to the southeast, has shown no significant change (see Figure). The objective of this study is to evaluate physical mechanisms that could account for the lowering of Twelvemile Lake, using a combination of water flux approximations, historical climate data and the permafrost distribution as interpreted from airborne electromagnetics (AEM). All possible in- and out-flux pathways to the lake are considered and compared with the observed rate of change in the lake's volume, to rank the importance of each pathway as a contributor to the change in lake level. Results from the AEM survey suggest the presence of a ~200 m diameter open-talik beneath the lake, and subsurface, channel-shaped depressions in the permafrost table ("channels") that may direct shallow groundwater (GW) flow into or out of the lake basin. An increase in potential evapotranspiration of only ~2 cm yr-1 from the period of 1950-1980 to 1981-2010 is found to be insignificant relative to the observed 13 cm yr-1 rate of lake level lowering since the early 1980's. Thus, alternative water pathways are needed to explain the lake level change. The following four processes are shown to potentially have a significant contribution to the observed rate of lake level change: (i) Reduced water inputs from decreased snowpacks; (ii) Increased infiltration of snowmelt due to changes in wintertime ice content of subnivean soil; (iii) Changes in GW flow through inlet and outlet channels to the

  3. Surface Hydrological Processes of Rock Glaciated Basins in the San Juan Mountains, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateo, E. I.

    2017-12-01

    Glaciers in the western United States have been examined in terms of their summer meltwater contributions to regional hydrological systems. In the San Juan Mountains of Colorado where glaciers do not and cannot exist due to a rising zero-degree isotherm, rock glaciers take the place of valley glaciers during the summer runoff period. Most of the rock glaciers in Colorado are located on a northerly slope aspect, however, there are multiple in the southwest region of the state that occur on different aspects. This study asked how slope aspect and rising air temperatures influenced the hydrological processes of streams below rock glaciers in the San Juan Mountains during the 2016 summer season. This project focused on three basins, Yankee Boy basin, Blue Lakes basin, and Mill Creek basin, which are adjacent to each other and share a common peak, Gilpin Peak. Findings of this one-season study showed that air temperature significantly influenced stream discharge below each rock glacier. Discharge and air temperature patterns indicate a possible air temperature threshold during late summer when rock glacier melt increased at a greater rate. The results also suggest that slope aspect of rock glacier basins influences stream discharge, but temperature and precipitation are likely larger components of the melt regimes. The continuation of data collection during the 2017 summer season has allowed for more detailed analysis of the relationship between air temperature and rock glacier melt. This continual expansion of the original dataset is crucial for understanding the hydrological processes of surface runoff below rock glaciers.

  4. Terrain analysis of the racetrack basin and the sliding rocks of Death Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Messina, P.; Stoffer, P.

    2000-01-01

    The Racetrack Playa's unusual surface features known as sliding rocks have been the subject of an ongoing debate and several mapping projects for half a century, although the causative mechanism remains unresolved. Clasts ranging in volume from large pebbles to medium boulders have, unwitnessed, maneuvered around the nearly flat dry lake over considerable distances. The controversy has persisted partly because eyewitness accounts of the phenomenon continue to be lacking, and the earlier mapping missions were limited in method and geographic range. In July 1996, we generated the first complete map of all observed sliding rock trails by submeter differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) mapping technology. The resulting map shows 162 sliding rocks and associated trails to an accuracy of approximately 30 cm. Although anemometer data are not available in the Racetrack wilderness, wind is clearly a catalyst for sliding rock activity; an inferred wind rose was constructed from DGPS trail segment data. When the entire trail network is examined in plan, some patterns emerge, although other (perhaps expected relations) remain elusive: terrain analysis of the surrounding topography demonstrates that the length and morphology of trails are more closely related to where rocks rested at the onset of motion than to any physical attribute of the rocks themselves. Follow-up surveys in May 1998, May 1999, August 1999, and November 1999 revealed little modification of the July, 1996 sliding rock configuration. Only four rocks were repositioned during the El Nino winter of 1997-1998, suggesting that activity may not be restricted to winter storms. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A Table! (At the Table).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Robert M.

    A review of French dining habits and table manners outlines: elements of the place setting, courtesies used at the table, serving conventions, restaurant tipping, the size and content of the different meals of the day, subtle differences in common foods, restaurant types, menu types, general wine and cheese choices, waiter-client communication,…

  6. Summit crater lake observations, and the location, chemistry, and pH of water samples near Mount Chiginagak volcano, Alaska: 2004-2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaefer, Janet R.; Scott, William E.; Evans, William C.; Wang, Bronwen; McGimsey, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Mount Chiginagak is a hydrothermally active volcano on the Alaska Peninsula, approximately 170 km south–southwest of King Salmon, Alaska (fig. 1). This small stratovolcano, approximately 8 km in diameter, has erupted through Tertiary to Permian sedimentary and igneous rocks (Detterman and others, 1987). The highest peak is at an elevation of 2,135 m, and the upper ~1,000 m of the volcano are covered with snow and ice. Holocene activity consists of debris avalanches, lahars, and lava flows. Pleistocene pyroclastic flows and block-and-ash flows, interlayered with andesitic lava flows, dominate the edifice rocks on the northern and western flanks. Historical reports of activity are limited and generally describe “steaming” and “smoking” (Coats, 1950; Powers, 1958). Proximal tephra collected during recent fieldwork suggests there may have been limited Holocene explosive activity that resulted in localized ash fall. A cluster of fumaroles on the north flank, at an elevation of ~1,750 m, commonly referred to as the “north flank fumarole” have been emitting gas throughout historical time (location shown in fig. 2). The only other thermal feature at the volcano is the Mother Goose hot springs located at the base of the edifice on the northwestern flank in upper Volcano Creek, at an elevation of ~160 m (fig. 2, near sites H1, H3, and H4). Sometime between November 2004 and May 2005, a ~400-m-wide, 100-m-deep lake developed in the snow- and ice-filled summit crater of the volcano (Schaefer and others, 2008). In early May 2005, an estimated 3 million cubic meters (3×106 m3) of sulfurous, clay-rich debris and acidic water exited the crater through tunnels at the base of a glacier that breaches the south crater rim. More than 27 km downstream, these acidic flood waters reached approximately 1.3 m above normal water levels and inundated a fertile, salmon-spawning drainage, acidifying the entire water column of Mother Goose Lake from its surface waters to its

  7. Quartz-molybdenite veins in the Priestly Lake granodiorite, north-central Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayuso, Robert A.; Shank, Stephen G.

    1983-01-01

    Quartz-molybdenite veins up to 15 cm in width occur in fine to medium-grained porphyritic biotite-hornblende granodiorite at Priestly Lake north-central Maine. An area of about 150 m x 150 m contains quartz-molybdenite veins; a larger area is characterized by barren quartz veins. Quartz-molybdenite veins are concentrated within the most felsic variants of the intrusion as suggested by lower mafic mineral contents. The pluton has a narrow range in SiO2 (67-70 wt.%), major oxides, and in trace-element compositions. Molybdenite occurs as coarse grained clusters in pockets within the quartz veins, and fills fractures in the quartz veins and host rocks. Disseminated molybdenite in the granodiorite is relatively rare and occurs only in the area characterized by a high density of quartz veins (up to 50 veins per square meter). Alteration envelopes along the quartz veins are very thin or absent, although in some areas the granodiorite appears to be selectively and pervasively altered. Sericite, chlorite, epidote, calcite, pyrite, and quartz are concentrated near the quartz-molybdenite veins. Many of the field and geochemical characteristics of the Priestly Lake pluton are unlike those of major molybdenum-producing areas (Climax, Henderson, Urad). For example, the area of alteration seems to be of limited extent, the host rock is not intensely altered hydrothermally at the surface, the density of fractures is rather low in the mineralized area, and the amount of disseminated molybdenite appears to be small. However, the Priestly Lake pluton may be a small fraction of a concealed batholith as suggested by geophysical data. It is conceivable that the type of mineralization at the surface might be the expression of more extensive molybdenite mineralization at depth. The quartz-molybdenite veins in the Priestly Lake pluton are significant because they indicate that potential molybdenum sources for producing mineralized granites were available at depth. Future studies should be

  8. Strength/Brittleness Classification of Igneous Intact Rocks Based on Basic Physical and Dynamic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aligholi, Saeed; Lashkaripour, Gholam Reza; Ghafoori, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    This paper sheds further light on the fundamental relationships between simple methods, rock strength, and brittleness of igneous rocks. In particular, the relationship between mechanical (point load strength index I s(50) and brittleness value S 20), basic physical (dry density and porosity), and dynamic properties (P-wave velocity and Schmidt rebound values) for a wide range of Iranian igneous rocks is investigated. First, 30 statistical models (including simple and multiple linear regression analyses) were built to identify the relationships between mechanical properties and simple methods. The results imply that rocks with different Schmidt hardness (SH) rebound values have different physicomechanical properties or relations. Second, using these results, it was proved that dry density, P-wave velocity, and SH rebound value provide a fine complement to mechanical properties classification of rock materials. Further, a detailed investigation was conducted on the relationships between mechanical and simple tests, which are established with limited ranges of P-wave velocity and dry density. The results show that strength values decrease with the SH rebound value. In addition, there is a systematic trend between dry density, P-wave velocity, rebound hardness, and brittleness value of the studied rocks, and rocks with medium hardness have a higher brittleness value. Finally, a strength classification chart and a brittleness classification table are presented, providing reliable and low-cost methods for the classification of igneous rocks.

  9. Temporal Hyporheic Zone Response to Water Table Fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Malzone, Jonathan M; Anseeuw, Sierra K; Lowry, Christopher S; Allen-King, Richelle

    2016-03-01

    Expansion and contraction of the hyporheic zone due to temporal hydrologic changes between stream and riparian aquifer influence the biogeochemical cycling capacity of streams. Theoretical studies have quantified the control of groundwater discharge on the depth of the hyporheic zone; however, observations of temporal groundwater controls are limited. In this study, we develop the concept of groundwater-dominated differential hyporheic zone expansion to explain the temporal control of groundwater discharge on the hyporheic zone in a third-order stream reach flowing through glacially derived terrain typical of the Great Lakes region. We define groundwater-dominated differential expansion of the hyporheic zone as: differing rates and magnitudes of hyporheic zone expansion in response to seasonal vs. storm-related water table fluctuation. Specific conductance and vertical hydraulic gradient measurements were used to map changes in the hyporheic zone during seasonal water table decline and storm events. Planar and riffle beds were monitored in order to distinguish the cause of increasing hyporheic zone depth. Planar bed seasonal expansion of the hyporheic zone was of a greater magnitude and longer in duration (weeks to months) than storm event expansion (hours to days). In contrast, the hyporheic zone beneath the riffle bed exhibited minimal expansion in response to seasonal groundwater decline compared to storm related expansion. Results indicated that fluctuation in the riparian water table controlled seasonal expansion of the hyporheic zone along the planar bed. This groundwater induced hyporheic zone expansion could increase the potential for biogeochemical cycling and natural attenuation. © 2015, National Ground Water Association.

  10. Simulated Effects of Ground-Water Augmentation on the Hydrology of Round and Halfmoon Lakes in Northwestern Hillsborough County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, Richard M.; Metz, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    Pumpage from the Upper Floridan aquifer in northwest Hillsborough County near Tampa, Florida, has induced downward leakage from the overlying surficial aquifer and lowered the water table in many areas. Leakage is highest where the confining layer separating the aquifers is breached, which is common beneath many of the lakes in the study area. Leakage of water to the Upper Floridan aquifer has lowered the water level in many lakes and drained many wetlands. Ground water from the Upper Floridan aquifer has been added (augmented) to some lakes in an effort to maintain lake levels, but the resulting lake-water chemistry and lake leakage patterns are substantially different from those of natural lakes. Changes in lake-water chemistry can cause changes in lake flora, fauna, and lake sediment composition, and large volumes of lake leakage are suspected to enhance the formation of sinkholes near the shoreline of augmented lakes. The leakage rate of lake water through the surficial aquifer to the Upper Floridan aquifer was estimated in this study using ground-water-flow models developed for an augmented lake (Round Lake) and non-augmented lake (Halfmoon Lake). Flow models developed with MODFLOW were calibrated through nonlinear regression with UCODE to measured water levels and monthly net ground-water-flow rates from the lakes estimated from lake-water budgets. Monthly estimates of ground-water recharge were computed using an unsaturated flow model (LEACHM) that simulated daily changes in storage of water in the soil profile, thus estimating recharge as drainage to the water table. Aquifer properties in the Round Lake model were estimated through transient-state simulations using two sets of monthly recharge rates computed during July 1996 to February 1999, which spanned both average conditions (July 1996 through October 1997), and an El Ni?o event (November 1997 through September 1998) when the recharge rate doubled. Aquifer properties in the Halfmoon Lake model were

  11. 40Ar/39Ar laser probe evidence concerning the age and associated hazards of the Lake Nyos Maar, Cameroon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalrymple, G.B.; Lockwood, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    The waters of Lake Nyos are impounded by a fragile natural dam composed of pyroclastic rocks ejected during the formation of the lake crater (maar). Lateral erosion of this dam has reduced its width from over 500 m to only 45 m. Published whole-rock K-Ar ages of about 100 ka on juvenile basalt from the dam suggests that erosion has been slow and that the dam poses no imminent threat. New apparent 40Ar/39Ar ages of 1.4 to 232 Ma on xenocrystic K-feldspar contained in the basalt show that the xenocrysts, whose source is the 528-Ma crystalline basement, are carriers of inherited radiogenic 40Ar and would cause the whole-rock K-Ar ages to be too old. The best estimate for the age of the maar is provided by a 14C age of 400 ?? 100 yr BP on charcoal from the base of the dam. This young age indicates that the dam is eroding at a relatively rapid rate; its failure, perhaps within a few decades, would result in a major flood and imperil thousands of people living downstream in Cameroon and eastern Nigeria. ?? 1990 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  12. Monitoring the cooling of the 1959 Kīlauea Iki lava lake using surface magnetic measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gailler, Lydie; Kauahikaua, James P.

    2017-01-01

    Lava lakes can be considered as proxies for small magma chambers, offering a unique opportunity to investigate magma evolution and solidification. Repeated magnetic ground surveys over more than 50 years each show a large vertical magnetic intensity anomaly associated with Kīlauea Iki Crater, partly filled with a lava lake during the 1959 eruption of Kīlauea Volcano (Island of Hawai’i). The magnetic field values recorded across the Kīlauea Iki crater floor and the cooling lava lake below result from three simple effects: the static remnant magnetization of the rocks forming the steep crater walls, the solidifying lava lake crust, and the hot, but shrinking, paramagnetic non-magnetic lens (>540 °C). We calculate 2D magnetic models to reconstruct the temporal evolution of the geometry of this non-magnetic body, its depth below the surface, and its thickness. Our results are in good agreement with the theoretical increase in thickness of the solidifying crust with time. Using the 2D magnetic models and the theoretical curve for crustal growth over a lava lake, we estimate that the former lava lake will be totally cooled below the Curie temperature in about 20 years. This study shows the potential of magnetic methods for detecting and monitoring magmatic intrusions at various scales.

  13. Monitoring the cooling of the 1959 Kīlauea Iki lava lake using surface magnetic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gailler, Lydie; Kauahikaua, Jim

    2017-06-01

    Lava lakes can be considered as proxies for small magma chambers, offering a unique opportunity to investigate magma evolution and solidification. Repeated magnetic ground surveys over more than 50 years each show a large vertical magnetic intensity anomaly associated with Kīlauea Iki Crater, partly filled with a lava lake during the 1959 eruption of Kīlauea Volcano (Island of Hawai'i). The magnetic field values recorded across the Kīlauea Iki crater floor and the cooling lava lake below result from three simple effects: the static remnant magnetization of the rocks forming the steep crater walls, the solidifying lava lake crust, and the hot, but shrinking, paramagnetic non-magnetic lens (>540 °C). We calculate 2D magnetic models to reconstruct the temporal evolution of the geometry of this non-magnetic body, its depth below the surface, and its thickness. Our results are in good agreement with the theoretical increase in thickness of the solidifying crust with time. Using the 2D magnetic models and the theoretical curve for crustal growth over a lava lake, we estimate that the former lava lake will be totally cooled below the Curie temperature in about 20 years. This study shows the potential of magnetic methods for detecting and monitoring magmatic intrusions at various scales.

  14. a Map Mash-Up Application: Investigation the Temporal Effects of Climate Change on Salt Lake Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirtiloglu, O. S.; Orhan, O.; Ekercin, S.

    2016-06-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate climate change effects that have been occurred at the beginning of the twenty-first century at the Konya Closed Basin (KCB) located in the semi-arid central Anatolian region of Turkey and particularly in Salt Lake region where many major wetlands located in and situated in KCB and to share the analysis results online in a Web Geographical Information System (GIS) environment. 71 Landsat 5-TM, 7-ETM+ and 8-OLI images and meteorological data obtained from 10 meteorological stations have been used at the scope of this work. 56 of Landsat images have been used for extraction of Salt Lake surface area through multi-temporal Landsat imagery collected from 2000 to 2014 in Salt lake basin. 15 of Landsat images have been used to make thematic maps of Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in KCB, and 10 meteorological stations data has been used to generate the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), which was used in drought studies. For the purpose of visualizing and sharing the results, a Web GIS-like environment has been established by using Google Maps and its useful data storage and manipulating product Fusion Tables which are all Google's free of charge Web service elements. The infrastructure of web application includes HTML5, CSS3, JavaScript, Google Maps API V3 and Google Fusion Tables API technologies. These technologies make it possible to make effective "Map Mash-Ups" involving an embedded Google Map in a Web page, storing the spatial or tabular data in Fusion Tables and add this data as a map layer on embedded map. The analysing process and map mash-up application have been discussed in detail as the main sections of this paper.

  15. 2016 Lake Michigan Lake Trout Working Group Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Breidert, Brian; Boyarski, David; Bronte, Charles R.; Dickinson, Ben; Donner, Kevin; Ebener, Mark P.; Gordon, Roger; Hanson, Dale; Holey, Mark; Janssen, John; Jonas, Jory; Kornis, Matthew; Olsen, Erik; Robillard, Steve; Treska, Ted; Weldon, Barry; Wright, Greg D.

    2017-01-01

    This report provides a review on the progression of lake trout rehabilitation towards meeting the Salmonine Fish Community Objectives (FCOs) for Lake Michigan (Eshenroder et. al. 1995) and the interim goal and evaluation objectives articulated in A Fisheries Management Implementation Strategy for the Rehabilitation of Lake Trout in Lake Michigan (Dexter et al. 2011); we also include data describing lake trout stocking and mortality to portray the present state of progress towards lake trout rehabilitation.

  16. Diverging Histories of the Liberty Creek and Iceberg Lake Blueschist Bodies, south central Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, E. M.; Pavlis, T. L.; Amato, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    New studies of the Liberty Creek and Iceberg Lake blueschist bodies of south central Alaska indicate that despite structural similarities, these blueschist bodies are derived from a different protolith and were metamorphosed to blueschist facies at distinctly different times. Both blueschists are located just south of the Border Ranges Fault (BRF) within outcrop belts of the McHugh Complex, a low-grade mélange assemblage that is now known from detrital zircon studies to consist of two distinct assemblages: a Jurassic to Earliest Cretaceous assemblage and a Late Cretaceous assemblage. The BRF is a megathrust system that represents the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic initiation of southern Alaskan subduction. Large scale (1:24,000) mapping revealed similar fabric overprint histories, epitomized by a previously undescribed youngest vertical N-S trending crenulation cleavage in both blueschist bodies which implies a structural correlation despite their separation of ~100 kilometers along strike. Despite structural similarities detrital zircon studies show that the Liberty Creek and Iceberg Lake blueschists do not have a similar maximum age of deposition. Thirteen samples from the Iceberg Lake blueschist were processed, none of which produced detrital zircons. Samples from the McHugh Complex greenschists that surround the Iceberg Lake blueschist produced numerous zircons indicating a Late Jurassic (~160 Ma) maximum age of deposition. Three out of sixteen samples from the Liberty creek blueschist produced detrital zircons indicating maximum depositional ages ranging from Late Jurassic (~160.1 Ma, n=64 grains; ~152.25 Ma, n=68 grains) to Early Cretaceous (~137.1 Ma, n=95 grains). The Late Jurassic dates are consistent with maximum depositional ages determined by Amato and Pavlis (2010) for McHugh Complex rocks along Turnagain Arm near Anchorage, AK. Sisson and Onstott (1986) reported a metamorphic cooling age of 185 Ma for the Iceberg Lake blueschist, thus, although no

  17. Contaminants in American alligator eggs from Lake Apopka, Lake Griffin, and Lake Okeechobee, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, Gary H.; Percival, H. Franklin; Jennings, Michael L.

    1991-01-01

    Residues of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and 16 elements were measured in American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) eggs collected in 1984 from Lakes Apopka, Griffin, and Okeechobee in central and south Florida. Organochlorine pesticides were highest in eggs from Lake Apopka. None of the elements appeared to be present at harmful concentrations in eggs from any of the lakes. A larger sample of eggs was collected in 1985, but only from Lakes Griffin, a lake where eggs were relatively clean, and Apopka, where eggs were most contaminated. In 1985, hatching success of artificially incubated eggs was lower for Lake Apopka, and several organochlorine pesticides were higher than in eggs from Lake Griffin. However, within Lake Apopka, higher levels of pesticides in chemically analyzed eggs were not associated with reduced hatching success of the remaining eggs in the clutch. Therefore, it did not appear that any of the pesticides we measured were responsible for the reduced hatching success of Lake Apopka eggs.

  18. The geologic, geomorphic, and hydrologic context underlying options for long-term management of the Spirit Lake outlet near Mount St. Helens, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grant, Gordon E.; Major, Jon J.; Lewis, Sarah L.

    2017-01-01

    The 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens produced a massive landslide and consequent pyroclastic currents, deposits of which blocked the outlet to Spirit Lake. Without an outlet, the lake began to rise, threatening a breaching of the blockage and release of a massive volume of water. To mitigate the hazard posed by the rising lake and provide an outlet, in 1984–1985 the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers bored a 2.6-km (8,500-ft) long tunnel through a bedrock ridge on the western edge of the lake. Locally, the tunnel crosses weak rock along faults, and external pressures in these weak zones have caused rock heave and support failures, which have necessitated periodic major repairs. During its more than 30-year lifetime, the tunnel has maintained the level of Spirit Lake at a safe elevation. The lake approaches its maximum safe operating level only when the tunnel closes for repair. The most recent major repair in early 2016 highlights the need for a reliable outlet that does not require repeated and expensive interventions and extended closures. The U.S. Forest Service, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and U.S. Geological Survey developed, reviewed, and analyzed an array of options for a long-term plan to remove the threat of catastrophic failure of the tunnel. In this report, we (1) provide background on natural hazards that can affect existing and alternative infrastructure; (2) evaluate the potential for tunnel failure and consequent breaching of the blockage posed by the current tunnel infrastructure; (3) evaluate potential consequences to downstream communities and infrastructure in the event of a catastrophic breaching of the blockage; (4) evaluate potential risks associated with alternative lake outlets; and (5) identify data and knowledge gaps that need to be addressed to fully evaluate options available to management.

  19. Engineering geology model of the Crater Lake outlet, Mt. Ruapehu, New Zealand, to inform rim breakout hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Stefan C. W.; Kennedy, Ben M.; Villeneuve, Marlène C.

    2018-01-01

    Mt. Ruapehu, in the central North Island of New Zealand, hosts a hot acidic Crater Lake over the active volcanic vent with a surface elevation of c. 2530 m.a.s.l. Volcanic activity and other montane processes have previously resulted in catastrophic releases of some or all of the c. 10 Mm3 of water retained in the lake, creating serious hazards downstream. A major lahar in March 2007 exposed a 10 m high face representative of the rock units impounding the lake, providing an opportunity to conduct both field and laboratory analysis to characterise the rock mass conditions at the outlet to assess the stability of the outlet area. This paper presents an engineering geology model of Crater Lake outlet. Our model shows three andesitic geological units at the outlet, each with different geological histories and physical and mechanical properties, which impact its stability. Geotechnical methods used to characterise the outlet include laboratory testing of the strength, stiffness, porosity and unit weight, and field-based rock mass characterisation using the geological strength index (GSI) and rock mass rating (RMR). Field observations, geomorphology mapping, historic and contemporary photographs, and laboratory results are combined to create cross sections that provide key information for establishing the engineering geology model. The units are recognised in what is informally termed the Crater Lake Formation: i) The upper surface layer is a c. 2 m thick sub-horizontal dark grey lava unit (Armoured Lava Ledge) with sub-horizontal cooling joints spaced at 0.2 m to 2.0 m intervals. The intact rock has a porosity range of 15-27%, density range of 1723-2101 kg/m3, GSI range of 45-75, and unconfined compressive strength (UCS) range of 19-48 MPa. ii) Below this, and outcropping down the majority of the outlet waterfall is a poorly sorted breccia unit composed of block and matrix material (Lava Breccia). The blocks range from 0.1 m to 0.8 m in diameter with an average porosity

  20. Sanctuaries for lake trout in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Jon G.; Eshenroder, Randy L.; Hartman, Wilbur L.

    1987-01-01

    Populations of lake trout, severely depleted in Lake Superior and virtually extirpated from the other Great Lakes because of sea lamprey predation and intense fishing, are now maintained by annual plantings of hatchery-reared fish in Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario and parts of Lake Superior. The extensive coastal areas of the Great Lakes and proximity to large populations resulted in fishing pressure on planted lake trout heavy enough to push annual mortality associated with sport and commercial fisheries well above the critical level needed to reestablish self-sustaining stocks. The interagency, international program for rehabilitating lake trout includes controlling sea lamprey abundance, stocking hatchery-reared lake trout, managing the catch, and establishing sanctuaries where harvest is prohibited. Three lake trout sanctuaries have been established in Lake Michigan: the Fox Island Sanctuary of 121, 500 ha, in the Chippewa-Ottawa Treaty fishing zone in the northern region of the lake; the Milwaukee Reef Sanctuary of 160, 000 ha in midlake, in boundary waters of Michigan and Wisconsin; and Julian's Reef Sanctuary of 6, 500 ha, in Illinois waters. In northern Lake Huron, Drummond Island Sanctuary of 55, 000 ha is two thirds in Indian treaty-ceded waters in Michigan and one third in Ontario waters of Canada. A second sanctuary, Six Fathom Bank-Yankee Reef Sanctuary, in central Lake Huron contains 168, 000 ha. Sanctuary status for the Canadian areas remains to be approved by the Provincial government. In Lake Superior, sanctuaries protect the spawning grounds of Gull Island Shoal (70, 000 ha) and Devils Island Shoal (44, 000 ha) in Wisconsin's Apostle Island area. These seven sanctuaries, established by the several States and agreed upon by the States, Indian tribes, the U.S. Department of the Interior, and the Province of Ontario, contribute toward solving an interjurisdictional fishery problem.

  1. Matuyama/Brunhes Polarity Transition in Owens Lake, CA, Sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddicoat, Joseph; Kravchinsky, Vadim

    2014-05-01

    The complexity of the Matuyama/Brunhes (M/B) polarity transition is becoming better understood from investigations of volcanic rocks (Coe et al., 2004), loess (Jin et al., 2012; Evans et al., 2011; Kravchinsky, 2013), and marine (Clement and Opdyke, 1982; Hartl and Tauxe, 1996; Macri et al., 2010) and lacustrine (Valet et al., 1988; Sagnotti et al., 2013) sediments. The transition appears to include a brief interval of normal polarity prior to the entry into the Brunhes Normal Chron (Coe et al., 2004; Jin et al., 2012; Evans et al., 2011), and the transition has Virtual Geomagnetic Poles rapidly moving from the Southern Hemisphere to the Northern Hemisphere (Coe et al., 2004; Jin et al., 2012; Evans et al., 2011; Sagnotti et al., 2013). The M/B polarity transition is recorded in exposed Pleistocene lake sediments near Bishop, CA, where the brief interval of normal polarity noted above is present and the change from full reverse to full normal polarity occurs rapidly. The brief interval of normal polarity is recorded at two sites separated laterally by about 150 m and is in single hand samples measured at vertical spacing of 2.0-2.5 cm using six samples per measured level and alternating field demagnetization at 20 mT (Liddicoat, 1993, Table 1 and Fig. 8). The siltstone is unweathered glacial flour from the Sierra Nevada that borders the western side of Owens Valley where the sediments were deposited in Owens Lake. In the siltstone, the majority of the samples have a percentage of about 60 percent where the grain diameter is less than 63 micrometres, and in those samples there is about a five percent fraction when the diameter is two micrometres or less. The Total Inorganic Carbon in most samples is about 0.25 percent (Bergeron, 2013), and magnetite is the dominant carrier of the magnetization (Liddicoat, 1993). The palaeomagnetic directions recording the terminus of the full M/B transition, which occurs before the field intensity is completely recovered, spans no

  2. Mortality table construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutawanir

    2015-12-01

    Mortality tables play important role in actuarial studies such as life annuities, premium determination, premium reserve, valuation pension plan, pension funding. Some known mortality tables are CSO mortality table, Indonesian Mortality Table, Bowers mortality table, Japan Mortality table. For actuary applications some tables are constructed with different environment such as single decrement, double decrement, and multiple decrement. There exist two approaches in mortality table construction : mathematics approach and statistical approach. Distribution model and estimation theory are the statistical concepts that are used in mortality table construction. This article aims to discuss the statistical approach in mortality table construction. The distributional assumptions are uniform death distribution (UDD) and constant force (exponential). Moment estimation and maximum likelihood are used to estimate the mortality parameter. Moment estimation methods are easier to manipulate compared to maximum likelihood estimation (mle). However, the complete mortality data are not used in moment estimation method. Maximum likelihood exploited all available information in mortality estimation. Some mle equations are complicated and solved using numerical methods. The article focus on single decrement estimation using moment and maximum likelihood estimation. Some extension to double decrement will introduced. Simple dataset will be used to illustrated the mortality estimation, and mortality table.

  3. Field, petrologic and detrital zircon study of the Kings sequence and Calaveras complex, Southern Lake Kaweah Roof Pendant, Tulare County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchen, Christopher T.

    U-Pb dating of detrital zircon grains separated from elastic sedimentary rocks is combined with field, petrographic and geochemical data to reconstruct the geologic history of Mesozoic rocks exposed at the southern end of the Lake Kaweah metamorphic pendant, western Sierra Nevada. Identification of rocks exposed at Limekiln Hill, Kern County, CA, as belonging to the Calaveras complex and Kings sequence was confirmed. Detrital zircon populations from two Calaveras complex samples provide Permo-Triassic maximum depositional ages (MDA) and reveal a Laurentian provenance indicating that continental accretion of the northwest-trending Kings-Kaweah ophiolite belt was in process prior to the Jurassic Period. Rock types including radiolarian metachert, metachert-argillite, and calc-silicate rocks with marble lenses are interpreted as formed in a hemipelagic environment of siliceous radiolarian deposition, punctuated by extended episodes of lime-mud gravity flows mixing with siliceous ooze forming cafe-silicate protoliths and limestone olistoliths forming marble lenses. Two samples of the overlying Kings sequence turbidites yield detrital zircons with an MDA of 181.4 +/-3.0 Ma and an interpreted provenance similar to other Jurassic metasediments found in the Yokohl Valley, Sequoia and Boyden Cave roof pendants. Age peaks indicative of Jurassic erg heritage are also present. In contrast, detrital zircon samples from the Sequoia and Slate Mountain roof pendants bear age-probability distributions interpreted as characteristic of the Snow Lake block, a tectonic sliver offset from the Paleozoic miogeocline.

  4. Vertical distribution of a deep-water moss and associated epiphytes in Crater Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McIntire, C.D.; Phinney, H.K.; Larson, Gary L.; Buktenica, M.W.

    1994-01-01

    A one-person submersible was used to examine the vertical distribution of the deep-water moss Drepanocladus aduncus (Hedw.) Warnst in Crater Lake (Oregon). Living specimens were found attached to sediment and rocks at depths between 25 m and 140 m. Dense beds of the moss were observed at depths between 30 m and 80 m, a region that corresponded roughly to the zone of maximum primary production by phytoplankton. The moss population supported a diverse assemblage of epiphytic algae, of which the most abundant genera included Cladophora,Oedogonium, Rhizoclonium, Tribonema, Vaucheria, and the diatoms Cocconeis, Cymbella, Epithemia, Fragilaria, Gomphonema, Melosira, Navicula, and Synedra. Chemical and physical data supported the hypothesis that the lower limit of distribution of the moss is determined by light limitation, whereas the upper limit is related to the availability of nutrients, particularly nitrate-nitrogen and trace elements. Deep-water videotapes of the moss population indicated that D. aduncus with its epiphytic algae was abundant enough in regions associated with the metalimnion and upper hypolimnion to have a potential influence on the nutrient dynamics of the Crater Lake ecosystem. Although the maximum depth at which living bryophytes occur in Crater Lake is similar to that found for Lake Tahoe, conditions in Lake Tahoe allow the growth and survival of a much more diverse assemblage of bryophytes and charophytes than is present in Crater Lake.

  5. Water-quality assessment of Lakes Maumelle and Winona, Arkansas, 1991 through 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galloway, Joel M.; Green, W. Reed

    2004-01-01

    Lakes Maumelle and Winona are water-supply reservoirs for the Little Rock and North Little Rock metropolitan areas in central Arkansas. In addition to water supply, the reservoirs are used for recreation and fish and wildlife habitat. The purpose of this report is to describe the hydrology and water quality of Lakes Maumelle and Winona and their inflows from data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Central Arkansas Water for calendar years 1991 through 2003. The main inflows into Lakes Maumelle and Winona, the Maumelle River and Alum Fork Saline River, exhibited typical seasonal variability in streamflow with high flows usually occurring in the late fall, winter, and early spring, and low or no flow in the summer and early fall. The highest annual mean streamflow occurred in 1991 and the lowest annual mean streamflow occurred in 1992 for the Maumelle River and 1995 for the Alum Fork Saline River. Water quality measured in Lakes Maumelle and Winona varied spatially and temporally. Although total phosphorus concentrations were substantially higher at the upper ends of the lakes than at the lower ends of the lakes, nitrogen and orthophosphorus concentrations were not significantly different among the sampling sites on each lake. The highest concentrations of nitrogen generally were measured in 1991 and from 1998 through 2003 at all of the sampling sites. The highest total phosphorus concentrations were measured from 1994 to 1996 and from 1998 to 2001 on Lake Maumelle and from 1993 to 1994 on Lake Winona. Total and dissolved organic carbon concentrations were similar among sites on each lake and the greatest concentrations were measured in 1996 and 1997 at all of the sites. The chlorophyll a concentrations varied seasonally, with the highest concentrations in October and November, but were relatively uniform spatially and annually in Lakes Maumelle and Winona for 1991 through 2003. Water clarity was greater at the lower ends of the lakes than at

  6. Microbial and biogeochernical processes Soda Lake, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oremland, R.S.; Cloern, J.E.; Sofer, Z.; Smith, R.L.; Culbertson, C.W.; Zehr, J.; Miller, L.; Cole, B.; Harvey, R.; Iversen, N.; Klug, M.; Des Marais, D J; Rau, G.

    1988-01-01

    Meromictic, alkaline lakes represent modern-day analogues of lacustrine source rock depositional environments. In order to further our understanding of how these lakes function in terms of limnological and biogeochemical processes, we have conducted an interdisciplinary study of Big Soda Lake. Annual mixolimnion productivity (ca. 500 g m-2) is dominated by a winter diatom bloom (60% of annual) caused by upward transport of ammonia to the epilimnion. The remainder of productivity is attributable to chemoautotrophs (30%) and photosynthetic bacteria (10%) present at the oxic -anoxic interface from May to November. Studies of bacterial heterotrophy and particulate fluxes in the water column indicate that about 90% of annual productivity is remineralized in the mixolimnion, primarily by fermentative bacteria. However, high rates of sulphate reduction (9-29 mmol m-2 yr-1) occur in the monimolimnion waters, which could remineralize most (if not all) of the primary productivity. This discrepancy has not as yet been fully explained. Low rates of methanogenesis also occur in the monimolimnion waters and sediments. Most of the methane is consumed by anaerobic methane oxidation occurring in the monimolimnion water column. Other bacterial processes occurring in the lake are also discussed. Preliminary studies have been made on the organic geochemistry of the monimolimnion sediments. Carbon-14-dating indicates a lower depositional rate prior to meromixis and a downcore enrichment in 13C of organic carbon and chlorophyll derivatives. Hydrous pyrolysis experiments indicate that the sediment organic matter is almost entirely derived from the water column with little or no contribution from terrestrial sources. The significance of the organics released by hydrous pyrolysis is discussed.

  7. Water quality of Lake Austin and Town Lake, Austin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, F.L.; Wells, F.C.; Shelby, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    Lake Austin and Town Lake are impoundments on the Colorado River in Travis County, central Texas, and are a source of water for municipal industrial water supplies, electrical-power generation, and recreation for more than 500,000 people in the Austin metropolitan area. Small vertical temperature variations in both lakes were attributed to shallow depths in the lakes and short retention times of water in the lakes during the summer months. The largest areal variations in dissolved oxygen generally occur in Lake Austin during the summer as a result of releases of water from below the thermocline in Lake Travis. Except formore » iron, manganese, and mercury, dissolved concentrations of trace elements in water collected from Lake Austin and Town Lake did not exceed the primary or secondary drinking water standards set by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Little or no effect of stormwater runoff on temperature, dissolved oxygen, or minor elements could be detected in either Lake Austin or Town Lake. Little seasonal or areal variation was noted in nitrogen concentrations in Lake Austin or Town lake. Total phosphorus concentrations generally were small in both lakes. Increased concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus were detected after storm runoff inflow in Town Lake, but not in Lake Austin; densities of fecal-coliform bacteria increased in Lake Austin and Town Lake, but were substantially greater in Town Lake than in Lake Austin. 18 refs., 38 figs., 59 tabs.« less

  8. Archive of Digital Boomer Seismic Reflection Data Collected During USGS Field Activity 08LCA01 in 10 Central Florida Lakes, March 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, Arnell S.; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Davis, Jeffrey B.; Flocks, James G.; Wiese, Dana S.

    2009-01-01

    if recording was prematurely terminated or rerun for quality or acquisition problems. The boomer plate is an acoustic energy source that consists of capacitors charged to a high voltage and discharged through a transducer in the water. The transducer is towed on a sled floating on the water surface and when discharged emits a short acoustic pulse, or shot, which propagates through the water, sediment column, or rock beneath. The acoustic energy is reflected at density boundaries (such as the lake bottom, sediment, or rock layers beneath the lake bottom), detected by the receiver, and recorded by a PC-based seismic acquisition system. This process is repeated at timed intervals (for example, 0.5 s) and recorded for specific intervals of time (for example, 100 ms). In this way, a two-dimensional (2-D) vertical profile of the shallow geologic structure beneath the ship track is produced. Figure 1 displays the three boomer acquisition geometries used during this survey. The second method was used because windy weather conditions hindered steerage, and driving the boat in reverse actually helped maintain course and prevented the possibility of the streamer cables becoming entangled in the boat propellers. The third method was used to help attenuate propeller and generator noise. Refer to table 1 for a summary of acquisition parameters. Table 2 lists trackline statistics. The unprocessed seismic data are stored in SEG-Y format (Barry and others, 1975). For a detailed description of the data format, refer to the SEG-Y Format page. See the How To Download SEG-Y Data page for download instructions. The printable profiles provided here are GIF images that were filtered and gained using Seismic Unix software. Refer to the Software page for details about the processing and examples of the processing scripts. The processed SEG-Y data were exported to Chesapeake Technology, Inc. (CTI) SonarWeb software to produce a geospatially interactive Web page of the profile,

  9. Model Estimates of Pan-Arctic Lake and Wetland Methane Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Bohn, T. J.; Glagolev, M.; Maksyutov, S.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2012-12-01

    Lakes and wetlands are important sources of the greenhouse gases CO2 and CH4, whose emission rates are sensitive to climate. The northern high latitudes, which are especially susceptible to climate change, contain about 50% of the world's lakes and wetlands. With the predicted changes in the regional climate for this area within the next century, there is concern about a possible positive feedback resulting from greenhouse gas emissions (especially of methane) from the region's wetlands and lakes. To study the climate response to emissions from northern hemisphere lakes and wetlands, we have coupled a large-scale hydrology and carbon cycling model (University of Washington's Variable Infiltration Capacity model; VIC) with the atmospheric chemistry and transport model (CTM) of Japan's National Institute for Environmental Studies and have applied this modelling framework over the Pan-Arctic region. In particular, the VIC model simulates the land surface hydrology and carbon cycling across a dynamic lake-wetland continuum. The model includes a distributed wetland water table that accounts for microtopography and simulates variations in inundated area that are calibrated to match a passive microwave based inundation product. Per-unit-area carbon uptake and methane emissions have been calibrated using extensive in situ observations. In this paper, the atmospheric methane concentrations from a coupled run of VIC and CTM are calibrated and verified for the Pan-Arctic region with satellite observations from Aqua's Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Envisat's Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Cartography (SCIAMACHY) instruments. We examine relative emissions from lakes and wetlands, as well as their net greenhouse warming potential, over the last half-century across the Pan-Arctic domain. We also assess relative uncertainties in emissions from each of the sources.

  10. Spatial distribution and temporal development of high-mountain lakes in western Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkl, Sarah; Emmer, Adam; Mergili, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Glacierized high-mountain environments are characterized by active morphodynamics, favouring the rapid appearance and disappearance of lakes. On the one hand, such lakes indicate high-mountain environmental changes such as the retreat of glaciers. On the other hand, they are sometimes susceptible to sudden drainage, leading to glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) putting the downstream population at risk. Whilst high-mountain lakes have been intensively studied in the Himalayas, the Pamir, the Andes or the Western Alps, this is not the case for the Eastern Alps. A particular research gap, which is attacked with the present work, concerns the western part of Austria. We consider a study area of approx. 6,140 km², covering the central Alps over most of the province of Tyrol and part of the province of Salzburg. All lakes ≥250 m² located higher than 2000 m asl are mapped from high-resolution Google Earth imagery and orthophotos. The lakes are organized into seven classes: (i) ice-dammed; near-glacial (ii) moraine-dammed and (iii) bedrock-dammed; (iv) moraine-dammed and (v) bedrock-dammed distant to the recent glaciers; (vi) landslide-dammed; (vii) anthropogenic. The temporal development of selected lakes is investigated in detail, using aerial photographs dating back to the 1950s. 1045 lakes are identified in the study area. Only eight lakes are ice-dammed (i). One third of all lakes is located in the immediate vicinity of recent glacier tongues, half of them impounded by moraine (ii), half of them by bedrock (iii). Two thirds of all lakes are impounded by features (either moraines or bedrock) shaped by LIA or Pleistocenic glaciers at some distance to the present glacier tongues (iv and v). Only one landslide-dammed lake (vi) is identified in the study area, whilst 21 lakes are of anthropogenic origin (vii). 72% of all lakes are found at 2250-2750 m asl whilst less than 2% are found above 3000 m asl. The ratio of rock-dammed lakes increases with increasing

  11. Evidence of offshore lake trout reproduction in Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeSorcie, Timothy J.; Bowen, Charles A.

    2003-01-01

    Six Fathom Bank-Yankee Reef, an offshore reef complex, was an historically important spawning area believed to represent some of the best habitat for the rehabilitation of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Huron. Since 1986, lake trout have been stocked on these offshore reefs to reestablish self-sustaining populations. We sampled with beam trawls to determine the abundance of naturally reproduced age-0 lake trout on these offshore reefs during May-July in 1994-1998 and 2000-2002. In total, 123 naturally reproduced lake trout fry were caught at Six Fathom Bank, and 2 naturally reproduced lake trout fry were caught at nearby Yankee Reef. Our findings suggest that this region of Lake Huron contains suitable habitat for lake trout spawning and offers hope that lake trout rehabilitation can be achieved in the main basin of Lake Huron.

  12. Periphyton accumulation at remote reefs and shoals in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Stoermer, Eugene F.; Kociolek, John P.

    1991-01-01

    Observations made from a submarine showed that the bed-rock surfaces at water depths of about 5 to 14 m on Stannard Rock and Superior Shoal in Lake Superior were covered with a dense, fleece-like blanket of periphyton. Examination of the periphyton revealed it consisted primarily of structurally complex, diverse, diatom communities, but occasional small thalli of the green algae Cladophora andStigeoclonium were also noted. Extensive windrows of detritus-like material, apparently derived from the local periphyton community, were seen on soft bottoms at depths of about 20 to 60 m near the reefs. Our observations suggested that these periphyton communities may be locally important to the food web at these remote and oligotrophic sites, which are 22 to 77 km from the nearest mainland shore and are surrounded by water at least 140 m deep.

  13. Lake Nasser and Toshka Lakes, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Lake Nasser (center) and the Toshka Lakes (center left) glow emerald green and black in this MODIS true-color image acquired March 8, 2002. Located on and near the border of Egypt and Norther Sudan, these lakes are an oasis of water in between the Nubian (lower right) and Libyan Deserts (upper left). Also visible are the Red Sea (in the upper right) and the Nile River (running north from Lake Nasser). Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  14. A preliminary report on the growth of the rock bass, Ambloplites rupestris (Rafinesque), in two lakes of northern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Stillman

    1929-01-01

    For several years the Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey has been making a limnological study of lakes in the northern part of the State. Because of the fact that so much has been learned of the physical, chemical and biological conditions in these lakes, the region seems particularly favorable for a study of the growth rates of fishes in relation to environmental factors.

  15. Ages and origins of rocks of the Killingworth dome, south-central Connecticut: Implications for the tectonic evolution of southern New England

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aleinikoff, J.N.; Wintsch, R.P.; Tollo, R.P.; Unruh, D.M.; Fanning, C.M.; Schmitz, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    The Killingworth dome of south-central Connecticut occurs at the southern end of the Bronson Hill belt. It is composed of tonalitic and trondhjemitic orthogneisses (Killingworth complex) and bimodal metavolcanic rocks (Middletown complex) that display calc-alkaline affinities. Orthogneisses of the Killingworth complex (Boulder Lake gneiss, 456 ?? 6 Ma; Pond Meadow gneiss, ???460 Ma) were emplaced at about the same time as eruption and deposition of volcanic-sedimentary rocks of the Middletown complex (Middletown Formation, 449 ?? 4 Ma; Higganum gneiss, 459 ?? 4 Ma). Hidden Lake gneiss (339 ?? 3 Ma) occurs as a pluton in the core of the Killingworth dome, and, on the basis of geochemical and isotopic data, is included in the Killingworth complex. Pb and Nd isotopic data suggest that the Pond Meadow, Boulder Lake, and Hidden Lake gneisses (Killingworth complex) resulted from mixing of Neoproterozoic Gander terrane sources (high 207Pb/204Pb and intermediate ??Nd) and less radiogenic (low 207Pb/204Pb and low ??Nd) components, whereas Middletown Formation and Higganum gneiss (Middletown complex) were derived from mixtures of Gander basement and primitive (low 207Pb/204Pb and high ??Nd) sources. The less radiogenic component for the Killingworth complex is similar in isotopic composition to material from Laurentian (Grenville) crust. However, because published paleomagnetic and paleontologic data indicate that the Gander terrane is peri-Gondwanan in origin, the isotopic signature of Killingworth complex rocks probably was derived from Gander basement that contained detritus from non-Laurentian sources such as Amazonia, Baltica, or Oaxaquia. We suggest that the Killingworth complex formed above an east-dipping subduction zone on the west margin of the Gander terrane, whereas the Middletown complex formed to the east in a back-arc rift environment. Subsequent shortening, associated with the assembly of Pangea in the Carboniferous, resulted in Gander cover terranes over the

  16. Isotopic chemical weathering behaviour of Pb derived from a high-Alpine Holocene lake-sediment record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutjahr, Marcus; Süfke, Finn; Gilli, Adrian; Anselmetti, Flavio; Glur, Lukas; Eisenhauer, Anton

    2017-04-01

    Several studies assessing the chemical weathering systematics of Pb isotopes provided evidence for the incongruent release of Pb from source rocks during early stages of chemical weathering, resulting in runoff compositions more radiogenic (higher) than the bulk source-rock composition [e.g. 1]. Deep NW Atlantic seawater Pb isotope records covering the last glacial-interglacial transition further support these findings. Clear excursions towards highly radiogenic Pb isotopic input in the deep NW Atlantic seen during the early Holocene, hence after the large-scale retreat of the Laurentide Ice Sheet in North America, are interpreted to be controlled by preferential release of radiogenic Pb from U- and Th-rich mineral phases during early stages of chemical weathering that are less resistant to chemical dissolution than other rock-forming mineral phases [2-4]. To date, however, no terrestrial Pb isotope record exists that could corroborate the evidence from deep marine sites for efficient late deglacial weathering and washout of radiogenic Pb. We present a high-resolution adsorbed Pb isotope record from a sediment core retrieved from Alpine Lake Grimsel (1908 m.a.s.l.) in Switzerland, consisting of 117 Pb compositions over the past 10 kyr. This high-Alpine study area is ideally located for incipient and prolonged chemical weathering studies. The method used to extract the adsorbed lake Pb isotope signal is identical to previous marine approaches targeting the authigenic Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides fraction within the lake sediments [5, 6]. The Pb isotope compositions are further accompanied by various elemental ratios derived from the same samples that equally trace climatic boundary conditions in the Grimsel Lake area. The Pb isotopic composition recorded in Lake Grimsel is remarkably constant throughout the majority of the Holocene until ˜2.5 ka BP, despite variable sediment composition and -age, and isotopically relatively close to the signature of the granitic source rock

  17. Crystallization history of Kilauea Iki lava lake as seen in drill core recovered in 1967-1979

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helz, R. T.

    1980-12-01

    Kilauea Iki lava lake formed during the 1959 summit eruption, one of the most picritic eruptions of Kilauea Volcano in the twentieth century. Since 1959 the 110 to 122 m thick lake has cooled slowly, developing steadily thickening upper and lower crusts, with a lens of more molten lava in between. Recent coring dates, with maximum depths reached in the center of the lake, are: 1967 (26.5 m). 1975 (44.2 m), 1976 (46.0 m) and 1979 (52.7 m). These depths define the base of the upper crust at the time of drilling. The bulk of the core consists of a gray, olivine-phyric basalt matrix, which locally contains coarser-grained diabasic segregation veins. The most important megascopic variation in the matrix rock is its variation in olivine content. The upper 15 m of crust is very olivine-rich. Abundance and average size of olivine decrease irregularly downward to 23 m; between 23 and 40 m the rock contains 5-10% of small olivine phenocrysts. Below 40 m. olivine content and average grainsize rise sharply. Olivine contents remain high (20-45%, by volume) throughout the lower crust, except for a narrow (< 6 m) olivine depleted zone near the basalt contact. Petrographically the olivine phenocrysts in Kilauea Iki can be divided into two types. Type 1 phenocrysts are large (1-12 mm long), with irregular blocky outlines, and often contain kink bands. Type 2 crystals are relatively small (0.5-2 mm in length), euhedral and undeformed. The variations in olivine content of the matrix rock are almost entirely variations in the amount of type 1 olivines. Sharp mineral layering of any sort is rare in Kilauea Iki. However, the depth range 41-52 m is marked by the frequent occurrence of steeply dipping (70°-90°) bands or bodies of slightly vuggy olivine-rich rock locally capped with a small cupola of segregation-vein material. In thin section there is clear evidence for relative movement of melt and crystals within these structures. The segregation veins occur only in the upper crust

  18. Lake whitefish diet, condition, and energy density in Lake Champlain and the lower four Great Lakes following dreissenid invasions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herbst, Seth J.; Marsden, J. Ellen; Lantry, Brian F.

    2013-01-01

    Lake Whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis support some of the most valuable commercial freshwater fisheries in North America. Recent growth and condition decreases in Lake Whitefish populations in the Great Lakes have been attributed to the invasion of the dreissenid mussels, zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha and quagga mussels D. bugensis, and the subsequent collapse of the amphipod, Diporeia, a once-abundant high energy prey source. Since 1993, Lake Champlain has also experienced the invasion and proliferation of zebra mussels, but in contrast to the Great Lakes, Diporeia were not historically abundant. We compared the diet, condition, and energy density of Lake Whitefish from Lake Champlain after the dreissenid mussel invasion to values for those of Lake Whitefish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario. Lake Whitefish were collected using gill nets and bottom trawls, and their diets were quantified seasonally. Condition was estimated using Fulton's condition factor (K) and by determining energy density. In contrast to Lake Whitefish from some of the Great Lakes, those from Lake Champlain Lake Whitefish did not show a dietary shift towards dreissenid mussels, but instead fed primarily on fish eggs in spring, Mysis diluviana in summer, and gastropods and sphaeriids in fall and winter. Along with these dietary differences, the condition and energy density of Lake Whitefish from Lake Champlain were high compared with those of Lake Whitefish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario after the dreissenid invasion, and were similar to Lake Whitefish from Lake Erie; fish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario consumed dreissenids, whereas fish from Lake Erie did not. Our comparisons of Lake Whitefish populations in Lake Champlain to those in the Great Lakes indicate that diet and condition of Lake Champlain Lake Whitefish were not negatively affected by the dreissenid mussel invasion.

  19. Energetics of Table Tennis and Table Tennis-Specific Exercise Testing.

    PubMed

    Zagatto, Alessandro Moura; Leite, Jorge Vieira de Mello; Papoti, Marcelo; Beneke, Ralph

    2016-11-01

    To test the hypotheses that the metabolic profile of table tennis is dominantly aerobic, anaerobic energy is related to the accumulated duration and intensity of rallies, and activity and metabolic profile are interrelated with the individual fitness profile determined via table tennis-specific tests. Eleven male experienced table tennis players (22 ± 3 y, 77.6 ± 18.9 kg, 177.1 ± 8.1 cm) underwent 2 simulated table tennis matches to analyze aerobic (W OXID ) energy, anaerobic glycolytic (W BLC ) energy, and phosphocreatine breakdown (W PCr ); a table tennis-specific graded exercise test to measure ventilatory threshold and peak oxygen uptake; and an exhaustive supramaximal table tennis effort to determine maximal accumulated deficit of oxygen. W OXID , W BLC , and W PCr corresponded to 96.5% ± 1.7%, 1.0% ± 0.7%, and 2.5% ± 1.4%, respectively. W OXID was interrelated with rally duration (r = .81) and number of shots per rally (r = .77), whereas match intensity was correlated with WPCr (r = .62) and maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (r = .58). The metabolic profile of table tennis is predominantly aerobic and interrelated with the individual fitness profile determined via table tennis-specific tests. Table tennis-specific ventilatory threshold determines the average oxygen uptake and overall W OXID , whereas table tennis-specific maximal accumulated oxygen deficit indicates the ability to use and sustain slightly higher blood lactate concentration and W BLC during the match.

  20. Spatial characterization of acid rain stress in Canadian Shield Lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanis, Fred J.

    1987-01-01

    An analysis was performed to interpret the spatial aspects of lake acidification. Three types of relationships were investigated based upon the August to May seasonal scene pairing. In the first type of analysis ANOVA was used to examine the mean Thematic Mapper band one count by ecophysical strata. The primary difference in the two ecophysical strata is the soil type and depth over the underlying bedrock. Examination of the August to May difference values for TM band one produced similar results. Group A and B strata were the same as above. The third type of analysis examined the relationship between values of the August to May difference from polygons which have similar ecophysical properties with the exception of sulfate deposition. For this case lakes were selected from units with sandy soils over granitic rock types and the sulfate deposition was 1.5 or 2.5 g/sq m/yr.

  1. Spatial patterns in PCB concentrations of Lake Michigan lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; DeSorcie, Timothy J.; Stedman, Ralph M.; Brown, Edward H.; Eck, Gary W.; Schmidt, Larry J.; Hesselberg, Robert J.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Passino-Reader, Dora R.

    1999-01-01

    Most of the PCB body burden in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) of the Great Lakes is from their food. PCB concentrations were determined in lake trout from three different locations in Lake Michigan during 1994–1995, and lake trout diets were analyzed at all three locations. The PCB concentrations were also determined in alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), bloater (Coregonus hoyi), slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus), and deepwater sculpin (Myoxocephalus thompsoni), five species of prey fish eaten by lake trout in Lake Michigan, at three nearshore sites in the lake. Despite the lack of significant differences in the PCB concentrations of alewife, rainbow smelt, bloater, slimy sculpin, and deepwater sculpin from the southeastern nearshore site near Saugatuck (Michigan) compared with the corresponding PCB concentrations from the northwestern nearshore site near Sturgeon Bay (Wisconsin), PCB concentrations in lake trout at Saugatuck were significantly higher than those at Sturgeon Bay. The difference in the lake trout PCB concentrations between Saugatuck and Sturgeon Bay could be explained by diet differences. The diet of lake trout at Saugatuck was more concentrated in PCBs than the diet of Sturgeon Bay lake trout, and therefore lake trout at Saugatuck were more contaminated in PCBs than Sturgeon Bay lake trout. These findings were useful in interpreting the long-term monitoring series for contaminants in lake trout at both Saugatuck and the Wisconsin side of the lake.

  2. Biomarkers and Microfossils in the Murchison, Rainbow, and Tagish Lake meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Jerman, Gregory A.; Rozanov, Alexei Y.; Davies, Paul C.

    2003-02-01

    During the past six years, we have conducted extensive scanning electron and optical microscopy investigations and x-ray analysis to determine the morphology, life cycle processes, and elemental distributions in living and fossil cyanobacteria, bacteria, archaea, fungi, and algae sampled from terrestrial environments relevant to Astrobiology. Biominerals, pseudomorphs and microfossils have been studied for diverse microbial groups in various states of preservation in many types of rocks (e.g., oil shales, graphites, shungites, bauxites, limestones, pyrites, phosphorites, and hydrothermal vent chimneys). Results of these studies have been applied to the search for biosignatures in carbonaceous chondrites, stony, and nickel iron meteorites. We review important biomarkers found in terrestrial rocks and meteorites and present additional evidence for the existence of indigenous bacterial microfossils in-situ in freshly fractured surfaces of the Murchison, Rainbow and Tagish Lake carbonaceous meteorites. We provide secondary and backscatter electron images and spectral data obtained with Field Emission and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopes of biominerals and microfossils. We discuss techniques for discriminating indigenous microfossils from recent terrestrial contaminants. Images are provided of framboidal magnetites in oil shales and meteorites and images and 2D x-ray maps are shown of bacterial microfossils embedded in the mineral matrix of the Murchison, Rainbow and Tagish Lake Carbonaceous Meteorites. These microfossils exhibit characteristics that preclude their interpretation as post-arrival contaminants and we interpret them as indigenous biogenic remains.

  3. Dune-dammed lakes of the Nebraska Sand Hills: Geologic setting and paleoclimatic implications

    SciTech Connect

    Loope, D.B.; Swinehart, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    Within the western half of this grass-stabilized dunefield, about 1,000 interdune lakes are grouped into two clusters here named the Blue and Birdwood lake basins. In the lake basins, those parts of the valley not filled by dune sand are occupied by modern lakes and Holocene lake sediments. The Blue Creek dam is mounded transverse to flow; spill-over of the lake basin takes place over bedrock on the east side of the dam when lake level is 2 m higher than present. The permeability of dune sand prevents massive overflow, and thereby contributes to the integrity and longevity of themore » dam. Preserved lake sediments in the basin indicate that Blue Creek was obstructed prior to 13,000 yr BP, probably during glacial maximum (18,000 yr BP). Extensive peats dated at 1,500-1,000 yr BP lie directly on fluvial sand and gravel along the Calamus River, a stream that presently discharges a nearly constant 350 cfs. These sediments indicate blockage of streams also took place when linear dunes were active in the eastern Sand Hills in Late Holocene time. With the onset of an arid episode, dunes forming an interfluves curtail the severity of runoff events. As the regional water table drops, drainages go dry and dunes move uncontested into blocking positions. Although drainages of the eastern Sand Hills appear to have repeatedly broken through sand-blocked channels, the Blue and Birdwood lake basins are still blocked by Late Pleistocene dune dams. The repeated episodes of stream blockage and interbedded lake sediments and dune sands behind the extant dams record several strong fluctuations in Holocene climate. Recently proposed climatic models indicate that the northward flow of warm, moist air from the Gulf of Mexico is enhanced when the Gulf's surface temperature is low and the Bermuda high is intensified and in a western position. When the Bermuda high moves eastward, the core of the North American continent becomes desiccated.« less

  4. Potential strategies for recovery of lake whitefish and lake herring stocks in eastern Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oldenburg, K.; Stapanian, M.A.; Ryan, P.A.; Holm, E.

    2007-01-01

    Lake Erie sustained large populations of ciscoes (Salmonidae: Coregoninae) 120 years ago. By the end of the 19th century, abundance of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) had declined drastically. By 1925, the lake herring (a cisco) population (Coregonus artedii) had collapsed, although a limited lake herring fishery persisted in the eastern basin until the 1950s. In the latter part of the 20th century, the composition of the fish community changed as oligotrophication proceeded. Since 1984, a limited recovery of lake whitefish has occurred, however no recovery was evident for lake herring. Current ecological conditions in Lake Erie probably will not inhibit recovery of the coregonine species. Recovery of walleye (Sander vitreus) and efforts to rehabilitate the native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Erie will probably assist recovery because these piscivores reduce populations of alewife (Alosa psuedoharengus) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), which inhibit reproductive success of coregonines. Although there are considerable spawning substrates available to coregonine species in eastern Lake Erie, eggs and fry would probably be displaced by storm surge from most shoals. Site selection for stocking or seeding of eggs should consider the reproductive life cycle of the stocked fish and suitable protection from storm events. Two potential sites in the eastern basin have been identified. Recommended management procedures, including commercial fisheries, are suggested to assist in recovery. Stocking in the eastern basin of Lake Erie is recommended for both species, as conditions are adequate and the native spawning population in the eastern basin is low. For lake herring, consideration should be given to match ecophenotypes as much as possible. Egg seeding is recommended. Egg seeding of lake whitefish should be considered initially, with fingerling or yearling stocking suggested if unsuccessful. Spawning stocks of whitefish in the western basin of Lake

  5. The Geysers-Clear Lake geothermal area, California - an updated geophysical perspective of heat sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, W.D.; Blakely, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Geysers-Clear Lake geothermal area encompasses a large dry-steam production area in The Geysers field and a documented high-temperature, high-pressure, water-dominated system in the area largely south of Clear Lake, which has not been developed. An updated view is presented of the geological/geophysical complexities of the crust in this region in order to address key unanswered questions about the heat source and tectonics. Forward modeling, multidimensional inversions, and ideal body analysis of the gravity data, new electromagnetic sounding models, and arguments made from other geophysical data sets suggest that many of the geophysical anomalies have significant contributions from rock property and physical state variations in the upper 7 km and not from "magma' at greater depths. Regional tectonic and magmatic processes are analyzed to develop an updated scenario for pluton emplacement that differs substantially from earlier interpretations. In addition, a rationale is outlined for future exploration for geothermal resources in The Geysers-Clear Lake area. -from Authors

  6. Glacial lake inventory and lake outburst potential in Uzbekistan.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Maxim A; Sabitov, Timur Y; Tomashevskaya, Irina G; Glazirin, Gleb E; Chernomorets, Sergey S; Savernyuk, Elena A; Tutubalina, Olga V; Petrakov, Dmitriy A; Sokolov, Leonid S; Dokukin, Mikhail D; Mountrakis, Giorgos; Ruiz-Villanueva, Virginia; Stoffel, Markus

    2017-08-15

    Climate change has been shown to increase the number of mountain lakes across various mountain ranges in the World. In Central Asia, and in particular on the territory of Uzbekistan, a detailed assessment of glacier lakes and their evolution over time is, however lacking. For this reason we created the first detailed inventory of mountain lakes of Uzbekistan based on recent (2002-2014) satellite observations using WorldView-2, SPOT5, and IKONOS imagery with a spatial resolution from 2 to 10m. This record was complemented with data from field studies of the last 50years. The previous data were mostly in the form of inventories of lakes, available in Soviet archives, and primarily included localized in-situ data. The inventory of mountain lakes presented here, by contrast, includes an overview of all lakes of the territory of Uzbekistan. Lakes were considered if they were located at altitudes above 1500m and if lakes had an area exceeding 100m 2 . As in other mountain regions of the World, the ongoing increase of air temperatures has led to an increase in lake number and area. Moreover, the frequency and overall number of lake outburst events have been on the rise as well. Therefore, we also present the first outburst assessment with an updated version of well-known approaches considering local climate features and event histories. As a result, out of the 242 lakes identified on the territory of Uzbekistan, 15% are considered prone to outburst, 10% of these lakes have been assigned low outburst potential and the remainder of the lakes have an average level of outburst potential. We conclude that the distribution of lakes by elevation shows a significant influence on lake area and hazard potential. No significant differences, by contrast, exist between the distribution of lake area, outburst potential, and lake location with respect to glaciers by regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Uranium enrichment in lacustrine oil source rocks of the Chang 7 member of the Yanchang Formation, Erdos Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hua; Zhang, Wenzheng; Wu, Kai; Li, Shanpeng; Peng, Ping'an; Qin, Yan

    2010-09-01

    The oil source rocks of the Chang 7 member of the Yanchang Formation in the Erdos Basin were deposited during maximum lake extension during the Late Triassic and show a remarkable positive uranium anomaly, with an average uranium content as high as 51.1 μg/g. Uranium is enriched together with organic matter and elements such as Fe, S, Cu, V and Mo in the rocks. The detailed biological markers determined in the Chang 7 member indicate that the lake water column was oxidizing during deposition of the Chang 7 member. However, redox indicators for sediments such as S 2- content, V/Sc and V/(V + Ni) ratios demonstrate that it was a typical anoxic diagenetic setting. The contrasted redox conditions between the water column and the sediment with a very high content of organic matter provided favorable physical and chemical conditions for syngenetic uranium enrichment in the oil source rocks of the Chang 7 member. Possible uranium sources may be the extensive U-rich volcanic ash that resulted from contemporaneous volcanic eruption and uranium material transported by hydrothermal conduits into the basin. The uranium from terrestrial clastics was unlike because uranium concentration was not higher in the margin area of basin where the terrestrial material input was high. As indicated by correlative analysis, the oil source rocks of the Chang 7 member show high gamma-ray values for radioactive well log data that reflect a positive uranium anomaly and are characterized by high resistance, low electric potential and low density. As a result, well log data can be used to identify positive uranium anomalies and spatial distribution of the oil source rocks in the Erdos Basin. The estimation of the total uranium reserves in the Chang 7 member attain 0.8 × 10 8 t.

  8. Hydrologic behaviour of the Lake of Monate (Italy): a parsimonious modelling strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomesani, Giulia; Soligno, Irene; Castellarin, Attilio; Baratti, Emanuele; Cervi, Federico; Montanari, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The Lake of Monate (province of Varese, Northern Italy), is a unique example of ecosystem in equilibrium. The lake water quality is deemed excellent notwithstanding the intensive agricultural cultivation, industrial assets and mining activities characterising the surrounding areas. The lake has a true touristic vocation and is the only swimmable water body of the province of Varese, which counts several natural lakes. Lake of Monate has no tributary and its overall watershed area is equal to c.a. 6.6 km2 including the lake surface (i.e. 2.6 km2), of which 3.3 out of c.a. 4.0 km2 belong to the topographical watershed, while the remaining 0.7 km2 belong to the underground watershed. The latter is larger than the topographical watershed due to the presence of moraine formations on top of the limestone bedrock. The local administration recently promoted an intensive environmental monitoring campaign that aims to reach a better understanding of the hydrology of the lake and the subsurface water fluxes. The monitoring campaign started in October 2013 and, as a result, several meteoclimatic and hydrologic data have been collected up to now at daily and hourly timescales. Our study focuses on a preliminary representation of the hydrological behaviour of the lake through a modified version of HyMOD, a conceptual 5-parameter lumped rainfall-runoff model based on the probability-distributed soil storage capacity. The modified model is a semi-distributed application of HyMOD that uses the same five parameters of the original version and simulates the rainfall-runoff transformation for the whole lake watershed at daily time scale in terms of: direct precipitation on, and evaporation from, the lake surface; overall lake inflow, by separating the runoff component (topographic watershed) from the groundwater component (overall watershed); lake water-level oscillation; streamflow at the lake outlet. We used the first year of hydrometeorological observations as calibration data and

  9. Progress toward lake trout restoration in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holey, Mark E.; Rybicki, Ronald W.; Eck, Gary W.; Brown, Edward H.; Marsden, J. Ellen; Lavis, Dennis S.; Toneys, Michael L.; Trudeau, Tom N.; Horrall, Ross M.

    1995-01-01

    Progress toward lake trout restoration in Lake Michigan is described through 1993. Extinction of the native lake trout fishery by sea lamprey predation, augmented by exploitation and habitat destruction, resulted in an extensive stocking program of hatchery-reared lake trout that began in 1965. Sea lamprey abundance was effectively controlled using selective chemical toxicants. The initial stocking produced a measurable wild year class of lake trout by 1976 in Grand Traverse Bay, but failed to continue probably due to excessive exploitation. The overall lack of successful reproduction lakewide by the late 1970s led to the development and implementation in 1985 of a focused inter-agency lakewide restoration plan by a technical committee created through the Lake Committee structure of the Great Lakes Fishery Commission. Strategies implemented in 1985 by the plan included setting a 40% total mortality goal lakewide, creating two large refuges designed to encompass historically the most productive spawning habitat and protect trout stocked over their home range, evaluating several lake trout strains, and setting stocking priorities throughout the lake. Target levels for stocking in the 1985 Plan have never been reached, and are much less than the estimated lakewide recruitment of yearlings by the native lake trout stocks. Since 1985, over 90% of the available lake trout have been stocked over the best spawning habitat, and colonization of the historically productive offshore reefs has occurred. Concentrations of spawning lake trout large enough for successful reproduction, based on observations of successful hatchery and wild stocks, have developed at specific reefs. Continued lack of recruitment at these specific sites suggests that something other than stotk abundance has limited success. Poor survival of lake trout eggs, assumed to be related to contaminant burden, occurred in the late 1970s and early 1980s, but survival has since increased to equal survival in the

  10. Ancient lakes, Pleistocene climates and river avulsions structure the phylogeography of a large but little-known rock scorpion from the Mojave and Sonoran deserts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, Matthew R.; Wood, Dustin A.; Henault, Jonathan A.; Valois, Zachary J.; Cushing, Paula E.

    2017-01-01

    Recent syntheses of phylogeographical data from terrestrial animals in the Mojave and Sonoran deserts have revealed a complex history of geologic and climatic vicariance events. We studied the phylogeography of Smeringurus vachoni to see how vicariance events may have impacted a large, endemic rock scorpion. Additionally, we used the phylogeographical data to examine the validity of two subspecies of S. vachoni that were described using unconventional morphological characters. Phylogenetic, network and SAMOVA analyses indicate that S. vachoni consists of 11 clades mostly endemic to isolated desert mountain ranges. Molecular clock estimates suggest that clades diversified between the Miocene and early Pleistocene. Species distribution models predict a contraction of suitable habitat during the last glacial maximum. Landscape interpolations and Migrate-n analyses highlight areas of gene flow across the Colorado River. Smeringurus vachoni does not comprise two subspecies. Instead, the species represents at least 11 mitochondrial clades that probably diversified by vicariance associated with Pleistocene climate changes and formation of ancient lakes along the Colorado River corridor. Gene flow appears to have occurred from west to east across the Colorado River during periodic river avulsions.

  11. Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eshenroder, Randy L.; Payne, N. Robert; Johnson, James E.; Bowen, Charles; Ebener, Mark P.

    1995-01-01

    Efforts to restore lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Huron after their collapse in the 1940s were underway in the early 1970s with completion of the first round of lampricide applications in tributary streams and the stocking of several genotypes. We assess results of rehabilitation and establish a historical basis for comparison by quantifying the catch of spawning lake trout from Michigan waters in 1929-1932. Sixty-eight percent of this catch occurred in northern waters (MH-1) and most of the rest (15%) was from remote reefs in the middle of the main basin. Sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) increased in the early 1980s in the main basin and depressed spawning populations of lake trout. This increase was especially severe in northern waters and appeared to be associated with untreated populations in the St. Marys River. Excessive commercial fishing stemming from unresolved treaty rights also contributed to loss of spawning fish in northern Michigan waters. Seneca-strain lake trout did not appear to be attacked by sea lampreys until they reached a size > 532 mm. At sizes > 632 mm, Seneca trout were 40-fold more abundant than the Marquette strain in matched-planting experiments. Natural reproduction past the fry stage has occurred in Thunder Bay and South Bay, but prospects for self-sustaining populations of lake trout in the main basin are poor because sea lampreys are too abundant, only one side of the basin is stocked, and stocking is deferred to allow commercial gillnetting in areas where most of the spawning occurred historically. Backcross lake trout, a lake trout x splake (s. Fontinalis x s. Namaycush) hybrid, did not reproduce in Georgian Bay, but this genotype is being replaced with pure-strain lake trout, whose early performance appears promising.

  12. Hydrogeochemical characteristics and assessment of water quality in the Al-Saad Lake, Abha Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallick, Javed

    2017-10-01

    Hydrogeochemical characteristics and assessment of water quality investigations have been carried out at Abha, located in Saudi Arabia, where Al-Saad Lake represents a rare example of natural endorheic lake. The ecosystem within and around the Al-Saad Lake including catchment area is of great social, cultural, aesthetic, environmental and economic values to Abha. Sampling and experiments of lake water has been carried out with the aim of characterizing the main physico-chemical parameters, such as DO, EC, TDS, Mg2+, Ca2+, Na+, K+, SO4 2-, Cl-, HCO3, NO3 - and F- concentration. The ordinary kriging (OK) method was used to produce the spatial patterns of water quality. The Result of DO (mean 5.38 mg/L) trend in Al-Saad Lake is not very encouraging as majority of the lake area is under DO stress or marginally above it. So, proper management strategies are needed to be formulated to protect flora and fauna of the lake. Furthermore, the chemical analysis results show the abundance of the major cations in the order Mg2+ > Ca2+ > Na+ > K+ whereas the abundance of anions are in the order SO4 2- > Cl- > HCO3 > NO3 - > F-. The result obtained in this investigation inferred that the cations in water i.e. sodium and iron are within the permissible limits but magnesium and potassium have exceeded the permissible limit. Whereas anions such as nitrate and fluoride are within the permissible range but chloride and sulphate have exceeded the permissible limits. The concentration of cation, magnesium (Mg) and potassium (K) in the lake water has exceeded the desirable range (30, 10 mg/L, respectively). This may be due to weathering and transported from rocks and particularly from sulphate deposits such as gypsum and anhydride and subsequently ends up in water. The concentration of anion, Sulphate (SO4) and chloride are above the desirable limit. The major source of bicarbonate are the carbonate rocks containing calcite (CaCO3) and dolomite (CaMg (CO3)2), Calcium (Ca) and Magnesium

  13. Evolution of alkaline lakes - Lake Van case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillman Meyer, Felix; Viehberg, Finn; Bahroun, Sonya; Wolf, Annabel; Immenhauser, Adrian; Kwiecien, Ola

    2017-04-01

    Lake Van in Eastern Anatolia (Turkey) is the largest terminal soda lake on Earth. The lake sedimentary profile covers ca. 600 ka (Stockhecke et al. 2014) Based on lithological changes, the presence of freshwater microfossils and close-to-freshwater pH value in the pore water, members of ICDP PALEOVAN concluded that Lake Van might have started as an open lake. Here we show paleontological and geochemical evidence in favour of this idea and constrain the time, when Lake Van likely transformed into a closed lake. Additionally we provide the first conceptual model of how this closure may have happened. Our archives of choice are inorganic and biogenic carbonates, separated by wet sieving. We identified microfossil assemblages (fraction > 125 µm) and performed high-resolution oxygen isotope (delta18O) and elemental (Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca) analyses of the fraction < 63 µm assuming that it represents only carbonates precipitating in the water column. Microfossil assemblage consists of three different species of ostracods (Candona spp, Loxoconcha sp, Amnicythere spp.), diatoms, gastropods and bivalves. Brakish-water ostracods, Loxoconcha sp and Amnicythere sp occur more often after 530 ka. Additionaly, Loxoconcha sp is a shallow-water species relaying on plants growing in the photic zone as food supply. These two aspects point to an increasing salinity in a shallowing lake. The delta18O values of inorganic carbonates are relatively low during the initial phase of Lake Van and increase abruptly (ca. 7‰) after 530 ka BP. At approximately the same time combination of Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca data suggest first occurrence of aragonite. Again, these findings suggest geochemical changes of the lake water concurrent with transition documented by microfossils. Comparison between Lake Van and Lake Ohrid (Lacey et al. 2016) delta18O data, precludes regional climate change (e.g.: increased evaporation) as the main driver of observed changes. With no evidence for increased volcanic or tectonic

  14. Thermal Inertia of Rocks and Rock Populations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, M. P.; Jakosky, B. M.; Mellon, M. T.

    2001-01-01

    The effective thermal inertia of rock populations on Mars and Earth is derived from a model of effective inertia versus rock diameter. Results allow a parameterization of the effective rock inertia versus rock abundance and bulk and fine component inertia. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  15. Embryotoxicity of an extract from Great Lakes lake trout to rainbow trout and lake trout

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, P.J.; Tillitt, D.E.

    1995-12-31

    Aquatic ecosystems such as the Great Lakes are known to be contaminated with chemicals that are toxic to fish. However, the role of these contaminants in reproductive failures of fishes, such as lake trout recruitment, has remained controvertible. It was the objective to evaluate dioxin-like embryotoxicity of a complex mixture of chemicals and predict their potential to cause the lack of recruitment in Great Lakes lake trout. Graded doses of a complex environmental extract were injected into eggs of both rainbow trout and lake trout. The extract was obtained from whole adult lake trout collected from Lake Michigan in 1988.more » The extract was embryotoxic in rainbow trout, with LD50 values for Arlee strain and Erwin strain of 33 eggEQ and 14 eggEQ respectively. The LOAEL for hemorrhaging, yolk-sac edema, and craniofacial deformities in rainbow trout were 2, 2, and 4 eggEQ, respectively. Subsequent injections of the extract into lake trout eggs were likewise embryotoxic, with an LD50 value of 7 eggEQ. The LOAEL values for the extract in lake trout for hemorrhaging, yolk-sac edema, and craniofacial deformities were 0.1, 1, and 2 eggEQ, respectively. The current levels of contaminants in lake trout eggs are above the threshold for hemorrhaging and yolk-sac edema. The results also support the use of an additive model of toxicity to quantify PCDDs, PCDFs, Non-o-PCBs, and Mono-o-PCBs in relation to early life stage mortality in Lake Michigan lake trout.« less

  16. The roles of organic matter in the formation of uranium deposits in sedimentary rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spirakis, C.S.

    1996-01-01

    Because reduced uranium species have a much smaller solubility than oxidized uranium species and because of the strong association of organic matter (a powerful reductant) with many uranium ores, reduction has long been considered to be the precipitation mechanism for many types of uranium deposits. Organic matter may also be involved in the alterations in and around tabular uranium deposits, including dolomite precipitation, formation of silicified layers, iron-titanium oxide destruction, dissolution of quartz grains, and precipitation of clay minerals. The diagenetic processes that produced these alterations also consumed organic matter. Consequently, those tabular deposits that underwent the more advanced stages of diagenesis, including methanogenesis and organic acid generation, display the greatest range of alterations and contain the smallest amount of organic matter. Because of certain similarities between tabular uranium deposits and Precambrian unconformity-related deposits, some of the same processes might have been involved in the genesis of Precambrian unconformity-related deposits. Hydrologic studies place important constraints on genetic models of various types of uranium deposits. In roll-front deposits, oxidized waters carried uranium to reductants (organic matter and pyrite derived from sulfate reduction by organic matter). After these reductants were oxidized at any point in the host sandstone, uranium minerals were reoxidized and transported further down the flow path to react with additional reductants. In this manner, the uranium ore migrated through the sandstone at a rate slower than the mineralizing ground water. In the case of tabular uranium deposits, the recharge of surface water into the ground water during flooding of lakes carried soluble humic material to the water table or to an interface where humate precipitated in tabular layers. These humate layers then established the chemical conditions for mineralization and related

  17. Retention of mercury in the muscle of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laarman, Percy W.; Willford, Wayne A.; Olson, James R.

    1976-01-01

    Mercury-contaminated yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris) were collected from Lake St. Clair and stocked in two earthen ponds in September 1970. Twenty-six months later, concentrations of total mercury in the fillets had declined 53% in the yellow perch and 59% in the rock bass; however, the mean weight of the fish increased 88 and 183%, respectively, during the same period. All of the reduction in mercury concentrations was attributable to dilution by growth. Slight discrepancies between the theoretical and observed reduction of mercury concentrations suggest an initial redistribution of residues from other tissues to the muscle and a continued incorporation of background amounts of mercury during growth.

  18. The Hardwood Gneiss: Evidence for high P-T Archean metamorphism in the southern province of the Lake Superior region

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.W.; Geiger, C.A.

    1990-03-01

    The Hardwood Gneiss is an areally small unit of Precambrian granulite-grade rocks exposed in the Archean gneiss terrane of the southern Lake Superior region. The rocks are located in the southwestern portion of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan and consist of a structurally conformable package of quartzitic, metapelitic, amphibolitic, and metabasic units. Three texturally distinct garnet types are present in the metabasites and are interpreted to represent two metamorphic events. Geothermobarometry indicates conditions of {approximately}8.2-11.6 kbar and {approximately}770C for M1, and conditions of {approximately}6.0-10.1 kbar and {approximately}610-740C for M2. It is proposed that M1 was Archean and contemporaneous with amore » high-grade metamorphic event recorded in the Minnesota River Valley. The M2 event was probably Early Proterozoic and pre-Penokean, with metamorphic conditions more intense than those generally ascribed to the Penokean Orogeny in Michigan, but similar to the conditions reported for the Kapuskasing zone of Ontario. The high paleopressures and temperatures of the M1 event make the Hardwood Gneiss distinct from any rocks previously described in the southern Lake Superior region, and suggest intense tectonic activity during the Archean.« less

  19. Toppling analysis of the Echo Cliffs precariously balanced rock

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Veeraraghavan, Swetha; Hudnut, Kenneth W.; Krishnan, Swaminathan

    2017-01-01

    Toppling analysis of a precariously balanced rock (PBR) can provide insight into the nature of ground motion that has not occurred at that location in the past and, by extension, can constrain peak ground motions for use in engineering design. Earlier approaches have targeted 2D models of the rock or modeled the rock–pedestal contact using spring‐damper assemblies that require recalibration for each rock. Here, a method to model PBRs in 3D is presented through a case study of the Echo Cliffs PBR. The 3D model is created from a point cloud of the rock, the pedestal, and their interface, obtained using terrestrial laser scanning. The dynamic response of the model under earthquake excitation is simulated using a rigid‐body dynamics algorithm. The veracity of this approach is demonstrated through comparisons against data from shake‐table experiments. Fragility maps for toppling probability of the Echo Cliffs PBR as a function of various ground‐motion parameters, rock–pedestal interface friction coefficient, and excitation direction are presented. These fragility maps indicate that the toppling probability of this rock is low (less than 0.2) for peak ground acceleration (PGA) and peak ground velocity (PGV) lower than 3  m/s2 and 0.75  m/s, respectively, suggesting that the ground‐motion intensities at this location from earthquakes on nearby faults have most probably not exceeded the above‐mentioned PGA and PGV during the age of the PBR. Additionally, the fragility maps generated from this methodology can also be directly coupled with existing probabilistic frameworks to obtain direct constraints on unexceeded ground motion at a PBR’s location.

  20. Lake-level frequency analysis for Devils Lake, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiche, Gregg J.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

    1996-01-01

    Two approaches were used to estimate future lake-level probabilities for Devils Lake. The first approach is based on an annual lake-volume model, and the second approach is based on a statistical water mass-balance model that generates seasonal lake volumes on the basis of seasonal precipitation, evaporation, and inflow. Autoregressive moving average models were