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Sample records for tacrolimus

  1. Tacrolimus Optic Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Rasool, Nailyn; Boudreault, Katherine; Lessell, Simmons; Prasad, Sashank; Cestari, Dean M

    2018-06-01

    Tacrolimus (FK506, Prograf) is a potent immunosuppressant, which inhibits cytokine synthesis and blocks T-cell development. Optic neuropathy from tacrolimus toxicity is very uncommon but, when present, can result in severe vision loss. Case series and review of the literature. We present 3 patients with tacrolimus optic neuropathy after bone marrow transplantation complicated by graft-vs-host disease and demonstrate the differing clinical and radiologic presentation of this presumed toxic optic neuropathy. Tacrolimus optic neuropathy can manifest in a multitude of clinical presentations and can have devastating visual consequences.

  2. A Randomized Pharmacokinetic Study of Generic Tacrolimus Versus Reference Tacrolimus in Kidney Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Alloway, R R; Sadaka, B; Trofe-Clark, J; Wiland, A; Bloom, R D

    2012-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic analyses comparing generic tacrolimus preparations versus the reference drug in kidney transplant patients are lacking. A prospective, multicenter, open-label, randomized, two-period (14 days per period), two-sequence, crossover and steady-state pharmacokinetic study was undertaken to compare twice-daily generic tacrolimus (Sandoz) versus reference tacrolimus (Prograf®) in stable renal transplant patients. AUC0–12h and peak concentration (Cmax) were calculated from 12 h pharmacokinetic profiles at the end of each period (days 14 and 28). Of 71 patients enrolled, 68 provided evaluable pharmacokinetic data. The ratios of geometric means were 1.02 (90% CI 97–108%, p = 0.486) for AUC0–12h and 1.09 (90% CI 101–118%, p = 0.057) for Cmax. Mean (SD) C0 was 7.3(1.8) ng/mL for generic tacrolimus versus 7.0(2.1) ng/mL for reference tacrolimus based on data from days 14 and 28. Correlations between 12 h trough levels and AUC were r = 0.917 for generic tacrolimus and r = 0.887 for reference drug at day 28. These data indicate that generic tacrolimus (Sandoz) has a similar pharmacokinetic profile to the reference drug and is bioequivalent in kidney transplant recipients according to US Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency guidelines. PMID:22759200

  3. A randomized pharmacokinetic study of generic tacrolimus versus reference tacrolimus in kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Alloway, R R; Sadaka, B; Trofe-Clark, J; Wiland, A; Bloom, R D

    2012-10-01

    Pharmacokinetic analyses comparing generic tacrolimus preparations versus the reference drug in kidney transplant patients are lacking. A prospective, multicenter, open-label, randomized, two-period (14 days per period), two-sequence, crossover and steady-state pharmacokinetic study was undertaken to compare twice-daily generic tacrolimus (Sandoz) versus reference tacrolimus (Prograf®) in stable renal transplant patients. AUC(0-12h) and peak concentration (C(max) ) were calculated from 12 h pharmacokinetic profiles at the end of each period (days 14 and 28). Of 71 patients enrolled, 68 provided evaluable pharmacokinetic data. The ratios of geometric means were 1.02 (90% CI 97-108%, p = 0.486) for AUC(0-12h) and 1.09 (90% CI 101-118%, p = 0.057) for C(max) . Mean (SD) C(0) was 7.3(1.8) ng/mL for generic tacrolimus versus 7.0(2.1) ng/mL for reference tacrolimus based on data from days 14 and 28. Correlations between 12 h trough levels and AUC were r = 0.917 for generic tacrolimus and r = 0.887 for reference drug at day 28. These data indicate that generic tacrolimus (Sandoz) has a similar pharmacokinetic profile to the reference drug and is bioequivalent in kidney transplant recipients according to US Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency guidelines. © Copyright 2012 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  4. Generic tacrolimus in solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Taube, D; Jones, G; O'Beirne, J; Wennberg, L; Connor, A; Rasmussen, A; Backman, L

    2014-05-01

    The availability of a wide range of immunosuppressive therapies has revolutionized the management of patients who have undergone solid organ transplantation (SOT). However, the cost of immunosuppressive drugs remains high. This situation has led to the development of generic equivalents, which are similar in quality, safety, and efficacy to their approved innovator drugs. There are data available for three generic brands, tacrolimus (Intas), tacrolimus (PharOS), and tacrolimus (Sandoz). Bioequivalence has been demonstrated for generic tacrolimus (Sandoz) within a narrow therapeutic range to its innovator tacrolimus drug (Prograf) in both healthy volunteers and kidney transplant patients. Clinical experience with this generic tacrolimus formulation has also been established in both de novo and conversion patients who have undergone kidney and liver transplantation, as well as in conversion of other SOT patients, including lung and heart recipients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Conversion from twice-daily tacrolimus to once-daily extended release tacrolimus (LCPT): the phase III randomized MELT trial.

    PubMed

    Bunnapradist, S; Ciechanowski, K; West-Thielke, P; Mulgaonkar, S; Rostaing, L; Vasudev, B; Budde, K

    2013-03-01

    Phase III noninferiority trial examining efficacy and safety of converting stable renal transplant recipients from twice-daily tacrolimus to a novel extended-release once-daily tacrolimus formulation (LCPT) with a controlled agglomeration technology. Controls maintained tacrolimus twice daily. The primary efficacy endpoint was proportion of patients with efficacy failures (death, graft failure, locally read biopsy-proven acute rejection [BPAR], or loss to follow-up) within 12 months. Starting LCPT dose was 30% lower (15% for blacks) than preconversion tacrolimus dose; target trough levels were 4-15 ng/mL. A total of 326 patients were randomized; the mITT population (n = 162 each group) was similar demographically in the two groups. Mean daily dose of LCPT was significantly (p < 0.0001) lower than preconversion tacrolimus dose at each visit; mean trough levels between groups were similar. There were four efficacy failures in each group; safety outcomes were similar between groups. Frequency of premature study drug discontinuation was LCPT: 12% versus tacrolimus twice daily: 5% (p = 0.028). LCPT demonstrated noninferiority to tacrolimus twice daily in efficacy failure rates. LCPT may offer a safe and effective alternative for converting patients to a once-daily formulation. Compared to currently available tacrolimus formulation, LCPT requires lower doses to achieve target trough levels. © Copyright 2012 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  6. Interpreting Tacrolimus Concentrations During Pregnancy and Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Hebert, Mary F.; Zheng, Songmao; Hays, Karen; Shen, Danny D.; Davis, Connie L.; Umans, Jason G.; Miodovnik, Menachem; Thummel, Kenneth E.; Easterling, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Pregnancy following solid organ transplantation, although considered high risk for maternal, fetal and neonatal complications, has been quite successful. Tacrolimus pharmacokinetic changes during pregnancy make interpretation of whole blood trough concentrations particularly challenging. There are multiple factors that can increase the fraction of unbound tacrolimus, including but not limited to low albumin concentration and low RBC count. The clinical titration of dosage to maintain whole blood tacrolimus trough concentrations in the usual therapeutic range can lead to elevated unbound concentrations and possibly toxicity in pregnant women with anemia and hypoalbuminemia. Measurement of plasma or unbound tacrolimus concentrations for pregnant women might better reflect the active form of the drug, though these are technically-challenging and often unavailable in usual clinical practice. Tacrolimus crosses the placenta with in utero exposure being approximately 71% of maternal blood concentrations. The lower fetal blood concentrations are likely due to active efflux transport of tacrolimus from the fetus toward the mother by placental P-glycoprotein. To date, tacrolimus has not been linked to congenital malformations, but can cause reversible nephrotoxicity and hyperkalemia in the newborn. In contrast, very small amounts of tacrolimus are excreted in the breast milk and are unlikely to elicit adverse effects in the nursing infant. PMID:23274970

  7. Topical tacrolimus for atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Cury Martins, Jade; Martins, Ciro; Aoki, Valeria; Gois, Aecio F T; Ishii, Henrique A; da Silva, Edina M K

    2015-07-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) (or atopic eczema) is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that affects children and adults and has an important impact on quality of life. Topical corticosteroids (TCS) are the first-line therapy for this condition; however, they can be associated with significant adverse effects when used chronically. Tacrolimus ointment (in its 2 manufactured strengths of 0.1% and 0.03%) might be an alternative treatment. Tacrolimus, together with pimecrolimus, are drugs called topical calcineurin inhibitors (TCIs). To assess the efficacy and safety of topical tacrolimus for moderate and severe atopic dermatitis compared with other active treatments. We searched the following databases up to 3 June 2015: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL in the Cochrane Library (Issue 5, 2015), MEDLINE (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974), LILACS (from 1982), and the Global Resource of Eczema Trials (GREAT database). We searched six trials registers and checked the bibliographies of included studies for further references to relevant trials. We contacted specialists in the field for unpublished data.A separate search for adverse effects of topical tacrolimus was undertaken in MEDLINE and EMBASE on 30 July 2013. We also scrutinised the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) websites for adverse effects information. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of participants with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis (both children and adults) using topical tacrolimus at any dose, course duration, and follow-up time compared with other active treatments. Two authors independently screened and examined the full text of selected studies for compliance with eligibility criteria, risk of bias, and data extraction. Our three prespecified primary outcomes were physician's assessment, participant's self-assessment of improvement, and adverse effects. Our secondary outcomes included assessment of improvement of the disease by validated or objective measures, such as

  8. Increased bioavailability of tacrolimus after rectal administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Masayuki; Hobara, Norio; Hokama, Nobuo; Kameya, Hiromasa; Ohshiro, Susumu; Sakanashi, Matao; Saitoh, Hiroshi

    2004-09-01

    The oral bioavailability of tacrolimus is low and varies considerably in humans due to first-pass metabolism by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and the active efflux mediated by P-glycoprotein. This study was undertaken to elucidate the usefulness of rectal administration of tacrolimus as an alternative route to improve its bioavailability. Tacrolimus powder was suspended in a suppository base (witepsol H-15) and the tacrolimus suppository was inserted into the anus of the rats. For comparison, tacrolimus was suspended in 0.5% sodium methylcellulose solution and administered orally to rats. The dose of tacrolimus was fixed to 2 mg/kg. Blood samples were collected periodically up to 24 h after dosing, and tacrolimus concentrations were assayed by microparticle enzyme immunoassay. The whole blood concentrations of tacrolimus after rectal administration were much greater than those after oral administration. The C(max) and AUC(0-24 h) values after rectal administration were 3.9- and 6.9-fold greater than those after oral administration, respectively. These results clearly suggest a possibility that rectal administration of tacrolimus is capable of improving its bioavailability and cutting the costs of tacrolimus treatment.

  9. A multicenter experience with generic tacrolimus conversion.

    PubMed

    McDevitt-Potter, Lisa M; Sadaka, Basma; Tichy, Eric M; Rogers, Christin C; Gabardi, Steven

    2011-09-27

    The first generic tacrolimus product gained Food and Drug Administration approval in August 2009. This prospective, observational trial sought to determine the need for dose titrations and measure drug cost savings on conversion to generic tacrolimus. Transplant recipients on stable tacrolimus doses were converted from brand to generic tacrolimus on a mg:mg basis. Data were collected at the time of generic conversion (study arm) and at a time point exactly 6 months before conversion (control arm) for all subjects. Seventy conversions from four centers are reported. Subjects were a mean of 70 months after kidney (n=37), liver (n=28), or multiorgan (n=5) transplant. In the study arm, mean tacrolimus doses were 4.4 and 4.5 mg/d and mean tacrolimus trough concentrations were 5.8 and 5.9 ng/mL before and after conversion, respectively. In the control arm, mean tacrolimus doses were 4.6 and 4.6 mg/d and mean tacrolimus trough concentrations were 6.1 and 5.9 ng/mL before and after the control time point, respectively. Dose titrations occurred in five patients (7%) in the control arm and 15 patients (21%) in the study arm (P=0.028). Mean monthly drug costs were $645 for brand, $593 for generic, and $595 for generic after dose titrations. Mean monthly patient copays were $38 for brand and $15 for generic. These cumulative data show that dose requirements and trough levels are similar between brand and generic tacrolimus and that generic substitution allows for savings. However, postconversion monitoring is prudent as patients may require dose titration.

  10. Overview of extended release tacrolimus in solid organ transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Neha; Cook, Abigail; Greenhalgh, Elizabeth; Rech, Megan A; Rusinak, Joshua; Heinrich, Lynley

    2016-01-01

    Tacrolimus (Prograf©, Astellas Pharma Europe Ltd, Staines, United Kingdom; referred to as tacrolimus-BID) is an immunosuppressive agent to prevent and treat allograft rejection in kidney transplant recipients in combination with mycophenolate mofetil, corticosteroids, with or without basiliximab induction. The drug has also been studied in liver, heart and lung transplant; however, these are currently off-label indications. An extended release tacrolimus formulation (Advagraf©, Astagraf XL©) allows for once-daily dosing, with the potential to improve adherence. Extended release tacrolimus has similar absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion to tacrolimus-BID. Phase I pharmacokinetic trials comparing extended release tacrolimus and tacrolimus-BID have demonstrated a decreased maximum concentration (Cmax) and delayed time to maximum concentration (tmax) with the extended release formulation; however, AUC0-24 was comparable between formulations. Overall extended release tacrolimus has a very similar safety and efficacy profile to tacrolimus-BID. It is not recommended in the use of liver transplant patient’s due to the increased risk of mortality in female recipients. There has been minimal data regarding the use of extended release tacrolimus in heart and lung transplant recipients. With the current data available for all organ groups the extended release tacrolimus should be dosed in a 1:1 fashion, the exception may be the cystic fibrosis population where their initial dose may need to be higher. PMID:27011912

  11. Overview of extended release tacrolimus in solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Patel, Neha; Cook, Abigail; Greenhalgh, Elizabeth; Rech, Megan A; Rusinak, Joshua; Heinrich, Lynley

    2016-03-24

    Tacrolimus (Prograf(©), Astellas Pharma Europe Ltd, Staines, United Kingdom; referred to as tacrolimus-BID) is an immunosuppressive agent to prevent and treat allograft rejection in kidney transplant recipients in combination with mycophenolate mofetil, corticosteroids, with or without basiliximab induction. The drug has also been studied in liver, heart and lung transplant; however, these are currently off-label indications. An extended release tacrolimus formulation (Advagraf(©), Astagraf XL(©)) allows for once-daily dosing, with the potential to improve adherence. Extended release tacrolimus has similar absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion to tacrolimus-BID. Phase I pharmacokinetic trials comparing extended release tacrolimus and tacrolimus-BID have demonstrated a decreased maximum concentration (Cmax) and delayed time to maximum concentration (tmax) with the extended release formulation; however, AUC0-24 was comparable between formulations. Overall extended release tacrolimus has a very similar safety and efficacy profile to tacrolimus-BID. It is not recommended in the use of liver transplant patient's due to the increased risk of mortality in female recipients. There has been minimal data regarding the use of extended release tacrolimus in heart and lung transplant recipients. With the current data available for all organ groups the extended release tacrolimus should be dosed in a 1:1 fashion, the exception may be the cystic fibrosis population where their initial dose may need to be higher.

  12. Tacrolimus Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... ointment is used to treat the symptoms of eczema (atopic dermatitis; a skin disease that causes the ... use other medications for their condition or whose eczema has not responded to another medication. Tacrolimus is ...

  13. Safety and efficacy of conversion from twice-daily tacrolimus to once-daily tacrolimus one month after transplantation: randomized controlled trial in adult renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chang-Kwon; Huh, Kyu Ha; Lee, Jong Soo; Cho, Hong Rae; Kim, Yu Seun

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare once-daily tacrolimus with twice-daily tacrolimus in terms of safety, efficacy, and patient satisfaction. This prospective, randomized, open-label, multicenter study was conducted at three institutes. Patients in the investigational group were converted from tacrolimus twice daily to the same dose of extended-release tacrolimus once daily at 1 month post-transplantation, while patients in the control group were maintained on tacrolimus twice daily. The efficacies, safeties, and patient satisfaction for the two drugs at 6 months post-transplantation were compared. Sixty patients were enrolled and randomized to the investigational group (28 of 29 patients completed the study) or the control group (26 of 31 patients completed the study). At 6 months post-transplantation, composite efficacy failure rates including the incidences of biopsy-confirmed acute rejection in the investigational and control groups were 0% and 10.7%, respectively; patient survival was 100% in each group. No difference in estimated glomerular filtration rate values were observed at 6 months post-transplantation (p=0.97). The safety and satisfaction profile (immunosuppressant therapy barrier scale) of once-daily tacrolimus was comparable with that of twice-daily tacrolimus (p=0.35). Conversion from twice-daily tacrolimus to once-daily tacrolimus one month after transplantation is safe and effective.

  14. Application of Biodegradable Nanoparticles in Liver Targeting of Tacrolimus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Affifi, Nagia N.; Heikal, Ola A.; Hanafi, Rasha S.; Tammam, Salma N.

    2011-06-01

    Tacrolimus is a potent immunosuppressant used in liver transplantation to avoid graft rejection. Tacrolimus has a narrow therapeutic index and variable pharmacokinetics, making dose adjustment and therapeutic drug monitoring a complicated task. Increasing the occurrence of adverse effects, especially nephrotoxicity are another concerns. In graft rejection, antigen presentation occurs in the graft and lymphatics. Therefore, by targeting tacrolimus to the liver and spleen, graft survival could be achieved with a decrease in nephrotoxicity. Poly(lactide) tacrolimus nanoparticles (PLA-TAC-NP) were formulated and characterized with the aim of targeting tacrolimus to the liver and spleen and therefore decreasing its nephrotoxicity. To evaluate the targeting efficiency of PLA-TAC-NP, rats were divided into two groups. They were intravenously injected either PLA-TAC-NP or free tacrolimus. At assigned time intervals, blood, liver, spleen and kidney samples were collected from each rat. Drug extraction and HPLC analysis were used to evaluate tacrolimus tissue distribution and consequently the targeting efficiency of the prepared PLA-TAC-NP. PLA-TAC-NP proved their success in targeting liver and spleen, by showing significantly higher drug amounts compared to the rats injected with free tacrolimus. PLA-TAC-NP increased tacrolimus concentration in the liver 24 fold and in the spleen 1.94 fold whereas tacrolimus concentration in the kidneys decreased by 7.12 fold. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to examine a liver section, obtained from a rat that has received PLA-TAC-NP. TEM images showed PLA-TAC-NP in a Kupffer cell and in the liver sinusoids. Therefore, PLA-TAC-NP are promising drug delivery systems for achieving localized immunosuppression and minimizing nephrotoxicity in liver transplant patients.

  15. Nationwide conversion to generic tacrolimus in pediatric kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Naicker, Derisha; Reed, Peter W; Ronaldson, Jane; Kara, Tonya; Wong, William; Prestidge, Chanel

    2017-11-01

    Bioequivalence between Tacrolimus Prograf® and generic tacrolimus formulations has been demonstrated in adult populations, however clinical experience and safety data regarding generic tacrolimus in pediatric transplant recipients is limited. This study aimed to evaluate conversion from Tacrolimus Prograf® to Sandoz® in pediatric renal transplant recipients nationwide. The primary outcome was a change in mean trough tacrolimus concentration. Additionally, changes in tacrolimus intra-patient coefficient of variation (CoV), allograft function, requirement for dose adjustments, and episodes of biopsy-proven rejection were evaluated. Retrospective cohort study in 37 pediatric renal transplant recipients who switched to Tacrolimus Sandoz®. Each patient had three pre-conversion tacrolimus trough and creatinine concentrations within the 4 months prior and three post-conversion concentrations on day 3, 10, and the next subsequent level. Mean pre- and post-conversion tacrolimus trough concentrations and glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were calculated. Tacrolimus concentration, CoV, and creatinine differences were compared by paired t test. Thirty-seven patients (41% females, age 3-18 years) were included. Average intra-patient difference in trough tacrolimus concentration was 0.05μg/l (95% CI -0.37 to 0.47). Average intra-patient difference in eGFR was -1.20 ml/min/1.73 2 (95% CI -3.53 to 1.13). Three patients had acute rejection during 12 months post-conversion compared to none during 12 months pre-conversion. Pediatric renal transplant recipients can be converted from Tacrolimus Prograf® to Sandoz® with negligible change in trough concentration, dose adjustments, or immediate allograft function. Of concern was the number of acute rejection episodes, however non-adherence contributed to at least one episode and this difference was determined clinically and statistically not significant.

  16. Systematic conversion to generic tacrolimus in stable kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Rosenborg, Staffan; Nordström, Annica; Almquist, Tora; Wennberg, Lars; Bárány, Peter

    2014-04-01

    Tacrolimus (Prograf ® ) is a key drug in the immunosuppressive treatment of renal transplant patients. Since the expiration of the patent for Prograf ® , generic preparations have been approved in Europe as bioequivalence has been shown in healthy volunteers. However, few studies have investigated whether patients can be successfully converted from Prograf ® to generic tacrolimus. Tacrolimus drug costs are by far the largest single item in the total drug expenditure for patients with renal disease in the Stockholm area. Considerable reductions in drug costs could be achieved if generic tacrolimus were to be used. The aim of this quality assurance study was to evaluate whether a switch from Prograf ® to generic tacrolimus (Tacrolimus Sandoz ® ) could be safely performed in renal transplant patients. It further aimed to investigate changes of renal function (measured in estimated glomerular filtration rate, eGFR), need for dose changes and to calculate potential drug cost savings as a result of the conversion. We planned to recruit at least 50 patients. Plasma creatinine levels and trough concentrations of tacrolimus were collected from patients with renal transplants at three occasions during treatment with Prograf ® and three times after conversion to Tacrolimus Sandoz ® . The eGFR was calculated before and after the conversion. Sixty-three of 67 enrolled patients (69% males, age 28-80 years) are included in this analysis. The ratio of mean trough concentrations of tacrolimus after comparison with before conversion was 1.02 (90% confidence interval 0.95-1.09). Fourteen patients experienced a change in tacrolimus levels >20% compared with baseline, no patients changed >20% in eGFR. The drug cost saving per daily dose was 33.40 SEK (∼€3.60, -23%). Stable kidney transplant patients treated with Prograf ® can be converted to Tacrolimus Sandoz ® if trough concentrations of tacrolimus and plasma creatinine levels are closely monitored. The conversion brought

  17. Systematic conversion to generic tacrolimus in stable kidney transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Rosenborg, Staffan; Nordström, Annica; Almquist, Tora; Wennberg, Lars; Bárány, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background Tacrolimus (Prograf®) is a key drug in the immunosuppressive treatment of renal transplant patients. Since the expiration of the patent for Prograf®, generic preparations have been approved in Europe as bioequivalence has been shown in healthy volunteers. However, few studies have investigated whether patients can be successfully converted from Prograf® to generic tacrolimus. Tacrolimus drug costs are by far the largest single item in the total drug expenditure for patients with renal disease in the Stockholm area. Considerable reductions in drug costs could be achieved if generic tacrolimus were to be used. The aim of this quality assurance study was to evaluate whether a switch from Prograf® to generic tacrolimus (Tacrolimus Sandoz®) could be safely performed in renal transplant patients. It further aimed to investigate changes of renal function (measured in estimated glomerular filtration rate, eGFR), need for dose changes and to calculate potential drug cost savings as a result of the conversion. Methods We planned to recruit at least 50 patients. Plasma creatinine levels and trough concentrations of tacrolimus were collected from patients with renal transplants at three occasions during treatment with Prograf® and three times after conversion to Tacrolimus Sandoz®. The eGFR was calculated before and after the conversion. Results Sixty-three of 67 enrolled patients (69% males, age 28–80 years) are included in this analysis. The ratio of mean trough concentrations of tacrolimus after comparison with before conversion was 1.02 (90% confidence interval 0.95–1.09). Fourteen patients experienced a change in tacrolimus levels >20% compared with baseline, no patients changed >20% in eGFR. The drug cost saving per daily dose was 33.40 SEK (∼€3.60, −23%). Conclusions Stable kidney transplant patients treated with Prograf® can be converted to Tacrolimus Sandoz® if trough concentrations of tacrolimus and plasma creatinine levels are closely

  18. Multi-site analytical evaluation of the Abbott ARCHITECT tacrolimus assay.

    PubMed

    Wallemacq, Pierre; Goffinet, Jean-Sebastien; O'Morchoe, Susan; Rosiere, Thomas; Maine, Gregory T; Labalette, Myriam; Aimo, Giuseppe; Dickson, Diana; Schmidt, Ed; Schwinzer, Reinhard; Schmid, Rainer W

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the analytical performance of the Abbott ARCHITECT Tacrolimus immunoassay. Proficiency panels and specimens from a population of organ transplant recipients were analyzed in 6 clinical laboratories in Europe and the United States, and the results were compared with other methods. The ARCHITECT assay requires a whole blood specimen pretreatment step with methanol/zinc sulfate to precipitate protein and extract the drug, followed by a 30-minute immunoassay using anti-tacrolimus antibody-coated paramagnetic microparticles and an acridinium-tacrolimus tracer. The assay was free from hematocrit interference in the range 25%-55% and from interference by extremes of cholesterol, triglycerides, bilirubin, total protein, and uric acid. The total percent of coefficient of variations of the assay were 4.9%-7.6% at 3 ng/mL, 2.9%-4.6% at 8.6 ng/mL, and 3.1%-8.2% at 15.5 ng/mL. Limit of detection was < or =0.5 ng/mL and limit of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.69 to 1.07 ng/mL across the 6 sites (based on the upper 95% confidence interval concentrations). The 2007 European Consensus Conference on Tacrolimus Optimization recommended the use of assay methods with an LOQ around 1 ng/mL, based upon the need to measure trough tacrolimus blood concentrations precisely down to 3 ng/mL during low-dose tacrolimus regimens. Tacrolimus International Proficiency Testing Scheme samples were measured by the ARCHITECT immunoassay at 5 sites and showed an average bias of -0.28 to +0.85 ng/mL versus IMx Tacrolimus II immunoassay historical values and -0.21 to +0.68 ng/mL versus liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MSMS) Tacrolimus historical values. Method comparison studies were performed with the ARCHITECT Tacrolimus immunoassay on patient specimens with the following results: ARCHITECT Tacrolimus assay versus the Abbott IMx Tacrolimus II immunoassay (4 sites) yielded average biases between -0.94 and +0.26 ng/mL; ARCHITECT assay

  19. Tacrolimus Increases the Effectiveness of Itraconazole and Fluconazole against Sporothrix spp.

    PubMed

    Borba-Santos, Luana P; Reis de Sá, Leandro F; Ramos, Juliene A; Rodrigues, Anderson M; de Camargo, Zoilo P; Rozental, Sonia; Ferreira-Pereira, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Calcineurin inhibitors - such as the clinically used drug tacrolimus - are active against important fungal pathogens, particularly when combined with azoles. However, tacrolimus has not been tested against sporotrichosis, an endemic subcutaneous mycosis with worldwide distribution. Here, we evaluated the activity of tacrolimus and cyclosporine A in vitro - as monotherapy and in combination with itraconazole or fluconazole - against yeasts of Sporothrix brasiliensis and S. schenckii , the main sporotrichosis agents in Brazil. We also analyzed the effect of tacrolimus treatment on intracellular neutral lipid levels, which typically increase after azole treatment. Tacrolimus inhibited the growth of yeasts from S. brasiliensis and S. schenckii reference isolates, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values (required for ≥50% growth inhibition) of 1 and 2 mg/L, respectively. Importantly, the combination of tacrolimus and azoles exhibited high synergy toward reference Sporothrix isolates. Tacrolimus combined with itraconazole significantly increased neutral lipid accumulation in S. brasiliensis , but not in S. schenckii . Clinical isolates of S. brasiliensis and S. schenckii were more sensitive to tacrolimus as monotherapy than feline-borne isolates, however, synergy between tacrolimus and azoles was only observed for feline-borne isolates. Cyclosporine A was effective against S. brasiliensis and S. schenckii as monotherapy (MIC = 1 mg/L), but exhibited no synergy with itraconazole and fluconazole. We conclude that tacrolimus has promising antifungal activity against sporotrichosis agents, and also increases the activity of the current anti-sporotrichosis therapy (itraconazole and fluconazole) in combination assays against S. brasiliensis feline-borne isolates.

  20. Limited interaction between tacrolimus and P-glycoprotein in the rat small intestine.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Hiroshi; Saikachi, Yuko; Kobayashi, Mikako; Yamaguchi, Michiko; Oda, Masako; Yuhki, Yoshimitsu; Achiwa, Kazuhito; Tadano, Koji; Takahashi, Yasushi; Aungst, Bruce J

    2006-05-01

    The significance of intestinal P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in determining the oral bioavailability of tacrolimus has been still controversial. In this study, we reevaluated the interaction of tacrolimus with P-gp in the rat small intestine, by evaluating its absorption from the rat small intestine and its modulating effect on the absorption of known P-gp substrates (digoxin, methylprednisolone, and vinblastine). Intestinal absorption of tacrolimus itself was as extensive as other P-gp modulators such as cyclosporine and verapamil. While cyclosporine and verapamil significantly increased the absorption of methylprednisolone and vinblastine through potent inhibition of intestinal P-gp, tacrolimus failed to achieve this. When cyclosporine and tacrolimus were intravenously administered to rats, digoxin absorption was significantly increased by cyclosporine but not by tacrolimus. When tacrolimus was coadministered with clotrimazole, a specific CYP3A inhibitor, into the rat small intestine, the area under the curve of tacrolimus blood concentrations increased more than seven-fold compared with that of tacrolimus alone. Our present results strongly suggest that the interaction between tacrolimus and P-gp is limited in the rat small intestine and that extensive metabolism by CYP3A enzymes is more responsible for the low oral bioavailability of tacrolimus. It was considered that the extensive absorption of cyclosporine and verapamil was closely associated with their potent ability to inhibit intestinal P-gp.

  1. Tacrolimus is a class II low-solubility high-permeability drug: the effect of P-glycoprotein efflux on regional permeability of tacrolimus in rats.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Shigeki; Ohike, Atsuo; Ibuki, Rinta; Amidon, Gordon L; Yamashita, Shinji

    2002-03-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a membrane efflux pump associated with multidrug resistance (MDR) and a known substrate for tacrolimus, in determining the regional intestinal permeability of tacrolimus in rats. Thus, isolated segments of rat jejunum, ileum, or colon were perfused with tacrolimus solutions containing polyethoxylated hydrogenated castor oil 60 surfactant, and with or without verapamil, a P-gp substrate used to reverse the MDR phenotype. The results indicated that the intrinsic permeability of tacrolimus in the jejunum, calculated on the basis of the concentration of non-micellized free tacrolimus, was quite high ( approximately 1.4 x 10(-4) cm/s). The apparent permeability (P(app)) in the jejunum was unaffected by the presence of verapamil; however, the P(app) in the ileum and the colon increased significantly in the presence of verapamil and were similar to the values observed in the jejunum. The results suggest that systemic absorption of tacrolimus from the gastrointestinal tract could be significantly affected by P-gp efflux mechanisms. It is also possible that differences in P-gp function at various intestinal sites in a subject or at a given intestinal site in various subjects could lead to large intra- and interindividual variability in bioavailability of tacrolimus following oral administration. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmaceutical Association .

  2. 21 CFR 862.1678 - Tacrolimus test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tacrolimus test system. 862.1678 Section 862.1678 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... quantitatively determine tacrolimus concentrations as an aid in the management of transplant patients receiving...

  3. Tacrolimus Increases the Effectiveness of Itraconazole and Fluconazole against Sporothrix spp.

    PubMed Central

    Borba-Santos, Luana P.; Reis de Sá, Leandro F.; Ramos, Juliene A.; Rodrigues, Anderson M.; de Camargo, Zoilo P.; Rozental, Sonia; Ferreira-Pereira, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Calcineurin inhibitors – such as the clinically used drug tacrolimus – are active against important fungal pathogens, particularly when combined with azoles. However, tacrolimus has not been tested against sporotrichosis, an endemic subcutaneous mycosis with worldwide distribution. Here, we evaluated the activity of tacrolimus and cyclosporine A in vitro – as monotherapy and in combination with itraconazole or fluconazole – against yeasts of Sporothrix brasiliensis and S. schenckii, the main sporotrichosis agents in Brazil. We also analyzed the effect of tacrolimus treatment on intracellular neutral lipid levels, which typically increase after azole treatment. Tacrolimus inhibited the growth of yeasts from S. brasiliensis and S. schenckii reference isolates, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values (required for ≥50% growth inhibition) of 1 and 2 mg/L, respectively. Importantly, the combination of tacrolimus and azoles exhibited high synergy toward reference Sporothrix isolates. Tacrolimus combined with itraconazole significantly increased neutral lipid accumulation in S. brasiliensis, but not in S. schenckii. Clinical isolates of S. brasiliensis and S. schenckii were more sensitive to tacrolimus as monotherapy than feline-borne isolates, however, synergy between tacrolimus and azoles was only observed for feline-borne isolates. Cyclosporine A was effective against S. brasiliensis and S. schenckii as monotherapy (MIC = 1 mg/L), but exhibited no synergy with itraconazole and fluconazole. We conclude that tacrolimus has promising antifungal activity against sporotrichosis agents, and also increases the activity of the current anti-sporotrichosis therapy (itraconazole and fluconazole) in combination assays against S. brasiliensis feline-borne isolates. PMID:28966608

  4. Stability of tacrolimus solutions in polyolefin containers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun H; Goldspiel, Barry R; Ryu, Sujung; Potti, Gopal K

    2016-02-01

    Results of a study to determine the stability of tacrolimus solutions stored in polyolefin containers under various temperature conditions are reported. Triplicate solutions of tacrolimus (0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 mg/mL) in 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection were prepared in polyolefin containers. Some samples were stored at room temperature (20-25 °C); others were refrigerated (2-8 °C) for 20 hours and then stored at room temperature for up to 28 hours. The solutions were analyzed by stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay at specified time points over 48 hours. Solution pH was measured and containers were visually inspected at each time point. Stability was defined as retention of at least 90% of the initial tacrolimus concentration. All tested solutions retained over 90% of the initial tacrolimus concentration at all time points, with the exception of the 0.001-mg/mL solution prepared in 0.9% sodium chloride injection, which was deemed unstable beyond 24 hours. At all evaluated concentrations, mean solution pH values did not change significantly over 48 hours; no particle formation was detected. During storage in polyolefin bags at room temperature, a 0.001-mg/mL solution of tacrolimus was stable for 24 hours when prepared in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and for at least 48 hours when prepared in 5% dextrose injection. Solutions of 0.01 and 0.1 mg/mL prepared in either diluent were stable for at least 48 hours, and the 0.01-mg/mL tacrolimus solution was also found to be stable throughout a sequential temperature protocol. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Food-drug interaction of tacrolimus with pomelo, ginger, and turmeric juice in rats.

    PubMed

    Egashira, Kanoko; Sasaki, Hitoshi; Higuchi, Shun; Ieiri, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Tacrolimus is a well-known potent immunosuppressant agent, which has various drug-drug or food-drug interactions. Previously, we found a renal transplant recipient who increased tacrolimus blood concentrations after ingestion of pomelo as a rare case. So, we investigated the effect of pomelo after its administration for one day or 3 consecutive days on the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus in rats. We also confirmed the effects of grapefruit, turmeric, and ginger. The tacrolimus blood concentrations of the rats pre-treated with 100% pomelo juice were significantly higher than those pre-treated with water. On the other hand, the tacrolimus blood concentrations of the rats pre-treated with 50% pomelo juice were not significantly different from those pre-treated with water. The pomelo-tacrolimus interaction showed concentration dependency. Even low concentration of pomelo juice could enhance the blood concentrations of tacrolimus by repeated administration. The inhibitory effect of 100% pomelo juice disappeared 3 days after intake. The AUC values of tacrolimus in the rats pre-treated with grapefruit juice, ginger juice, and turmeric juice were significantly larger than those pre-treated with water. We could confirm the pomelo-tacrolimus interaction, which we discovered in a case study, quantitatively. We newly found the influence of turmeric and ginger on tacrolimus pharmacokinetics, comparable to pomelo.

  6. Trends in the biosynthesis and production of the immunosuppressant tacrolimus (FK506).

    PubMed

    Barreiro, Carlos; Martínez-Castro, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    The current off-patent state of tacrolimus (FK506) has opened the hunting season for new generic pharmaceutical formulations of this immunosuppressant. This fact has boosted the scientific and industrial research on tacrolimus for the last 5 years in order to improve its production. The fast discovery of tacrolimus producer strains has generated a huge number of producers, which presents the biosynthetic cluster of FK506 as a high promiscuous genetic region. For the first time, the current state-of-the-art on the tacrolimus biosynthesis, production improvements and drug purification is reviewed. On one hand, all the genes involved in the tacrolimus biosynthesis, in addition to the traditional PKS/NRPS, as well as their regulation are analysed. On the other hand, tacrolimus direct and indirect precursors are reviewed as a straight manner to improve the final yield, which is a current trend in the field. Twenty years of industrial and scientific improvements on tacrolimus production are summarised, whereas future trends are also drafted.

  7. Effects of traditional chinese medicine Wuzhi capsule on pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus in rats.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hua; Tao, Xia; Di, Peng; Yang, Yingbo; Li, Jingxian; Qian, Xiaofeng; Feng, Jin; Chen, Wansheng

    2013-07-01

    Wuzhi capsule (WZC) is a preparation of an ethanol herbal extract of Schisandra sphenanthera (Nan-Wuweizi), with its main active ingredients that include schisandrin, schizandrol B, schisantherin A, schisanhenol, and deoxyschizandrin. WZC and tacrolimus are often coadministered for the treatment of drug-induced hepatitis in organ transplant recipients in China. Recently, it was reported that WZC could significantly increase the blood concentration of tacrolimus. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether and how WZC affects the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus in rats. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was used to determine the plasma concentration of tacrolimus. The results showed that WZC increased the mean plasma concentration of tacrolimus. Compared with administration of tacrolimus alone [maximum plasma concentration (C(max)), 18.87 ± 10.29 ng/ml; area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to last sampling time (AUC(0→t)), 40.98 ± 37.07 ng h/ml], a single intragastric administered dose of WZC increased the pharmacokinetic parameters of tacrolimus (C(max), 59.42 ± 30.32 ng/ml; AUC(0→t), 239.71 ± 28.86 ng h/ml) by 5-fold in rat plasma. After pretreatment with WZC for 12 days, there were still significant increases in AUC(0→t) (from 40.98 ± 37.07 to 89.21 ± 26.39 ng h/ml; P < 0.05) and C(max) (from 18.87 ± 10.29 to 43.16 ± 10.61 ng/ml; P < 0.05) of tacrolimus, compared with oral of tacrolimus alone, suggesting that WZC increased the exposure of tacrolimus by one or more mechanisms. The increase in tacrolimus C(max) by WZC was dose-dependent. The effect of WZC on tacrolimus AUC(0→t) also increased with dose, with a maximal effect observed at 450 mg/kg (825.34 ng h/ml). No further increases in tacrolimus AUC(0→t) were observed at WZC dose above 450 mg/kg. It is suggested that, because of the effect of WZC on the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus, the herb-drug interaction between WZC and tacrolimus

  8. Tacrolimus placental transfer at delivery and neonatal exposure through breast milk.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Songmao; Easterling, Thomas R; Hays, Karen; Umans, Jason G; Miodovnik, Menachem; Clark, Shannon; Calamia, Justina C; Thummel, Kenneth E; Shen, Danny D; Davis, Connie L; Hebert, Mary F

    2013-12-01

    The current investigation aims to provide new insights into fetal exposure to tacrolimus in utero by evaluating maternal and umbilical cord blood (venous and arterial), plasma and unbound concentrations at delivery. This study also presents a case report of tacrolimus excretion via breast milk. Maternal and umbilical cord (venous and arterial) samples were obtained at delivery from eight solid organ allograft recipients to measure tacrolimus and metabolite bound and unbound concentrations in blood and plasma. Tacrolimus pharmacokinetics in breast milk were assessed in one subject. Mean (±SD) tacrolimus concentrations at the time of delivery in umbilical cord venous blood (6.6 ± 1.8 ng ml(-1)) were 71 ± 18% (range 45-99%) of maternal concentrations (9.0 ± 3.4 ng ml(-1)). The mean umbilical cord venous plasma (0.09 ± 0.04 ng ml(-1)) and unbound drug concentrations (0.003 ± 0.001 ng ml(-1)) were approximately one fifth of the respective maternal concentrations. Arterial umbilical cord blood concentrations of tacrolimus were 100 ± 12% of umbilical venous concentrations. In addition, infant exposure to tacrolimus through the breast milk was less than 0.3% of the mother's weight-adjusted dose. Differences between maternal and umbilical cord tacrolimus concentrations may be explained in part by placental P-gp function, greater red blood cell partitioning and higher haematocrit levels in venous cord blood. The neonatal drug exposure to tacrolimus via breast milk is very low and likely does not represent a health risk to the breastfeeding infant. © 2013 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  9. Inappropriate amounts of topical tacrolimus applied on Korean patients with eczema.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hyunju; Kim, Jeong-Min; Kim, Gun-Wook; Kim, Hoon-Soo; Ko, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Moon-Bum; Kim, Byung-Soo

    2017-06-01

    The limited efficacy of topical tacrolimus may result from insufficient frequency of application or amount applied in eczema patients. To investigate the frequency of application and amount of use of topical tacrolimus in patients with various types of eczema. The frequency of application and the applied amount of topical tacrolimus were assessed over two weeks. A total of 200 eczema patients completed this study. The average number of applications per day was 1.75 ± 0.53, despite instructions to apply the topical tacrolimus twice daily. With respect to the frequency of application, 147 (73.5%) and 122 (61.0%) of patients followed the prescription in the first and second weeks, respectively. The average amount applied per 2% of total body surface area (TBSA) was 0.54 ± 0.52 g. Only 53 (26.5%) patients applied between 80 and 120% of expected amount of topical tacrolimus. The frequency of application was self-reported, possibly resulting in limited accuracy. Korean patients with eczema tend to apply topical tacrolimus less frequently and in inappropriate amounts. Clear instructions regarding both the frequency and amount of application are needed to improve the therapeutic outcome with treatment with topical tacrolimus.

  10. Mechanisms of lower maintenance dose of tacrolimus in obese patients.

    PubMed

    Sawamoto, Kazuki; Huong, Tran T; Sugimoto, Natsumi; Mizutani, Yuka; Sai, Yoshimichi; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi

    2014-01-01

    A retrospective analysis suggested that blood tacrolimus concentrations were consistent among patients with a body mass index (BMI) that was lean (<18.5), normal (≥ 18.5 and <25) or overweight/obese (≥ 25). The average maintenance dose of tacrolimus in patients with BMI ≥ 25 was significantly lower compared with that in patients with a BMI of less than 25. Lean and obese Zucker rats fed a normal diet were given tacrolimus intravenously or orally. The blood concentrations of tacrolimus in obese rats were significantly higher than those in lean rats after administration via both routes. The moment analysis has suggested that CLtot and Vdss of tacrolimus were not significantly different between lean and obese rats. The bioavailability was higher in obese rats, compared with that in lean rats. The protein expression of Cyp3a2 in the liver was significantly decreased in obese rats, compared with lean rats, while P-gp in the small intestine was also significantly decreased in obese rats. These results suggested that the steady-state trough concentration of tacrolimus in obese patients was well maintained by a relatively low dose compared with that in normal and lean patients, presumably due to increased bioavailability.

  11. The evaluation of potential pharmacokinetic interaction between sirolimus and tacrolimus in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Tortorici, Michael A; Parks, Virginia; Matschke, Kyle; Korth-Bradley, Joan; Patat, Alain

    2013-04-01

    Sirolimus and tacrolimus are immunosuppressive compounds that have been used concomitantly in renal transplant patients. Both drugs are dosed orally and have common intestinal and hepatic metabolism and intestinal transport mechanisms. As such, there is a potential for pharmacokinetic drug interaction. A single-dose, open-label, four-period, four-treatment, randomized crossover study was conducted in 27 healthy fasting volunteers. Each subject received a 15-mg oral dose of sirolimus alone, a 10-mg oral dose of tacrolimus alone, sirolimus and tacrolimus administered simultaneously, and tacrolimus administered 4 h before sirolimus. Whole blood and plasma samples for sirolimus and tacrolimus testing were analyzed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were assessed using noncompartmental methods and were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The geometric mean ratio and 90 % confidence interval (CI) area under the concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity (AUCinf) for sirolimus administered simultaneously with tacrolimus versus sirolimus alone were 97 and 89-106, respectively, and, when administered in a staggered approach versus sirolimus alone, 107 and 98-117, respectively. The geometric mean ratio (%) and 90 % CI AUCinf for tacrolimus administered simultaneously with sirolimus versus tacrolimus alone were 92 and 82-102, respectively, and, when administered in a staggered approach versus tacrolimus alone, 94 and 84-105, respectively. The results of this study demonstrate a lack of any clinically important drug interaction between sirolimus and tacrolimus in healthy subjects after single-dose administration. However, due to the complexity of anti-rejection immunosuppressive therapy dosing, we suggest that sirolimus and tacrolimus concentration monitoring be performed when changes in dosing are made for either drug regimen.

  12. Gut Microbiota and Tacrolimus Dosing in Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, John R.; Muthukumar, Thangamani; Dadhania, Darshana; Taur, Ying; Jenq, Robert R.; Toussaint, Nora C.; Ling, Lilan; Pamer, Eric; Suthanthiran, Manikkam

    2015-01-01

    Tacrolimus dosing to establish therapeutic levels in recipients of organ transplants is a challenging task because of much interpatient and intrapatient variability in drug absorption, metabolism, and disposition. In view of the reported impact of gut microbial species on drug metabolism, we investigated the relationship between the gut microbiota and tacrolimus dosing requirements in this pilot study of adult kidney transplant recipients. Serial fecal specimens were collected during the first month of transplantation from 19 kidney transplant recipients who either required a 50% increase from initial tacrolimus dosing during the first month of transplantation (Dose Escalation Group, n=5) or did not require such an increase (Dose Stable Group, n=14). We characterized bacterial composition in the fecal specimens by deep sequencing of the PCR amplified 16S rRNA V4-V5 region and we investigated the hypothesis that gut microbial composition is associated with tacrolimus dosing requirements. Initial tacrolimus dosing was similar in the Dose Escalation Group and in the Stable Group (4.2±1.1 mg/day vs. 3.8±0.8 mg/day, respectively, P=0.61, two-way between-group ANOVA using contrasts) but became higher in the Dose Escalation Group than in the Dose Stable Group by the end of the first transplantation month (9.6±2.4 mg/day vs. 3.3±1.5 mg/day, respectively, P<0.001). Our systematic characterization of the gut microbial composition identified that fecal Faecalibacterium prausnitzii abundance in the first week of transplantation was 11.8% in the Dose Escalation Group and 0.8% in the Dose Stable Group (P=0.002, Wilcoxon Rank Sum test, P<0.05 after Benjamini-Hochberg correction for multiple hypotheses). Fecal Faecalibacterium prausnitzii abundance in the first week of transplantation was positively correlated with future tacrolimus dosing at 1 month (R=0.57, P=0.01) and had a coefficient±standard error of 1.0±0.6 (P=0.08) after multivariable linear regression. Our novel

  13. Tacrolimus for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus with pure class V nephritis.

    PubMed

    Szeto, C-C; Kwan, B C-H; Lai, F M-M; Tam, L-S; Li, E K-M; Chow, K-M; Gang, W; Li, P K-T

    2008-11-01

    The treatment of pure membranous (class V) lupus nephropathy remains unsatisfactory. We studied the efficacy and safety of tacrolimus in the treatment of membranous nephritis secondary to SLE. We recruited 18 consecutive SLE patients (tacrolimus group) with recently confirmed biopsy-proven class V lupus nephritis. They were treated with a tailing dose of oral prednisolone and tacrolimus 0.1-0.2 mg/kg/day for 6 months, followed by maintenance prednisolone and AZA. The rate of resolution of proteinuria and SLEDAI were compared with 19 historical controls treated with oral cyclophosphamide or AZA (control group). All patients were followed for 12 months. Baseline clinical characteristics were comparable between the groups. For the tacrolimus group, the complete and partial remission rates were 27.8 and 50.0%, respectively at 12 weeks; for the control group, they were 15.8 and 47.4%, respectively (overall chi-square test, P = 0.5). However, tacrolimus group had faster resolution of proteinuria than the control group by the general linear model with repeated measures (P = 0.032). At 12 weeks, proteinuria was reduced by 76.2 +/- 17.0% for the tacrolimus group and 47.1 +/- 51.1% for the control group (P = 0.028). Serial change in renal function and SLEDAI score did not differ between the groups. During the study period, four patients of the tacrolimus group, and 11 of the control group, developed lupus flare (P = 0.027). There was no serious adverse effect in the tacrolimus group. A 6-month course of tacrolimus is a safe and effective treatment of pure class V (membranous) lupus nephritis. As compared with conventional cytotoxic treatment, tacrolimus possibly results in a faster resolution of proteinuria, and a lower risk of lupus flare within 1 yr. The long-term effect and optimal regimen of tacrolimus require further study.

  14. Development of novel fast-dissolving tacrolimus solid dispersion-loaded prolonged release tablet.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jung Hyun; Kim, Yong-Il; Kim, Dong-Wuk; Yousaf, Abid Mehmood; Kim, Jong Oh; Woo, Jong Soo; Yong, Chul Soon; Choi, Han-Gon

    2014-04-11

    The goal of this research was to develop a novel prolonged release tablet bioequivalent to the commercial sustained release capsule. A number of tacrolimus-loaded fast-dissolving solid dispersions containing various amounts of DOSS were prepared using the spray drying technique. Their solubility, dissolution and pharmacokinetics in rats were studied. DOSS increased drug solubility and dissolution in the solid dispersions. Compared with the drug powder, the solubility, dissolution and bioavailability of tacrolimus with the fast-dissolving solid dispersion containing tacrolimus/HP-β-CD/DOSS in the weight ratio of 5:40:4 were boosted by approximately 700-, 30- and 2-fold, respectively. Several tablet formulations were accomplished with this solid dispersion in combination with various ratios of HPMC/ethylcellulose. The release behaviour and pharmacokinetic studies in beagle dogs were assessed compared with the commercial prolonged release capsule. A decrease in HPMC/ethylcellulose ratios reduced the dissolution of tacrolimus from the tablets. Particularly, the tacrolimus-loaded prolonged release tablet consisting of fast-dissolving tacrolimus solid dispersion, HPMC, ethylcellulose and talc at the weight ratio of 20:66:112:2 exhibited a dissolution profile similar to that produced by the commercial prolonged release capsule. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in the AUC, Cmax, Tmax and MRT values between them in beagle dogs. Consequently, this tacrolimus-loaded prolonged release tablet might be bioequivalent to the tacrolimus-loaded commercial capsule. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Potential differentiation ability of gingiva originated human mesenchymal stem cell in the presence of tacrolimus

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Dong-Ho; Pathak, Shiva; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jong Oh; Jeong, Jee-Heon; Park, Jun-Beom

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the potential differentiation ability of gingiva originated human mesenchymal stem cell in the presence of tacrolimus. Tacrolimus-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres were prepared using electrospraying technique. In vitro release study of tacrolimus-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres was performed in phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.4). Gingiva-derived stem cells were isolated and incubated with tacrolimus or tacrolimus-loaded microspheres. Release study of the microspheres revealed prolonged release profiles of tacrolimus without any significant initial burst release. The microsphere itself did not affect the morphology of the mesenchymal stem cells, and cell morphology was retained after incubation with microspheres loaded with tacrolimus at 1 μg/mL to 10 μg/mL. Cultures grown in the presence of microspheres loaded with tacrolimus at 1 μg/mL showed the highest mineralization. Alkaline phosphatase activity increased with an increase in incubation time. The highest expression of pSmad1/5 was achieved in the group receiving tacrolimus 0.1 μg/mL every third day, and the highest expression of osteocalcin was achieved in the group receiving 1 μg/mL every third day. Biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-based microspheres loaded with tacrolimus promoted mineralization. Microspheres loaded with tacrolimus may be applied for increased osteoblastic differentiation. PMID:27721434

  16. Improved prediction of tacrolimus concentrations early after kidney transplantation using theory-based pharmacokinetic modelling.

    PubMed

    Størset, Elisabet; Holford, Nick; Hennig, Stefanie; Bergmann, Troels K; Bergan, Stein; Bremer, Sara; Åsberg, Anders; Midtvedt, Karsten; Staatz, Christine E

    2014-09-01

    The aim was to develop a theory-based population pharmacokinetic model of tacrolimus in adult kidney transplant recipients and to externally evaluate this model and two previous empirical models. Data were obtained from 242 patients with 3100 tacrolimus whole blood concentrations. External evaluation was performed by examining model predictive performance using Bayesian forecasting. Pharmacokinetic disposition parameters were estimated based on tacrolimus plasma concentrations, predicted from whole blood concentrations, haematocrit and literature values for tacrolimus binding to red blood cells. Disposition parameters were allometrically scaled to fat free mass. Tacrolimus whole blood clearance/bioavailability standardized to haematocrit of 45% and fat free mass of 60 kg was estimated to be 16.1 l h−1 [95% CI 12.6, 18.0 l h−1]. Tacrolimus clearance was 30% higher (95% CI 13, 46%) and bioavailability 18% lower (95% CI 2, 29%) in CYP3A5 expressers compared with non-expressers. An Emax model described decreasing tacrolimus bioavailability with increasing prednisolone dose. The theory-based model was superior to the empirical models during external evaluation displaying a median prediction error of −1.2% (95% CI −3.0, 0.1%). Based on simulation, Bayesian forecasting led to 65% (95% CI 62, 68%) of patients achieving a tacrolimus average steady-state concentration within a suggested acceptable range. A theory-based population pharmacokinetic model was superior to two empirical models for prediction of tacrolimus concentrations and seemed suitable for Bayesian prediction of tacrolimus doses early after kidney transplantation.

  17. Beneficial effects of topical tacrolimus on recalcitrant erosions of pemphigus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Gach, J E; Ilchyshyn, A

    2004-05-01

    We report a case of pemphigus vulgaris in which a recalcitrant area of erosion on the cheek cleared only when topical tacrolimus was used in addition to a regime of systemic therapy consisting of cyclophosphamide and prednisolone. Clinical improvement occurred within 10 days of applying topical tacrolimus with healing of erosions and reduction in pain and burning sensations. Topical tacrolimus may inhibit local activation of T lymphocytes through altered expression of cytokines such as interleukin-1, -4 and -5, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma. Some of these cytokines may also contribute directly to increasing keratinocyte fragility in the aetiology of pemphigus vulgaris erosions. This case illustrates that topical tacrolimus may be a useful adjunct in the management of patients with pemphigus vulgaris.

  18. Evaluation of Flexible Tacrolimus Drug Concentration Monitoring Approach in Patients Receiving Extended-Release Once-Daily Tacrolimus Tablets.

    PubMed

    Philosophe, Benjamin; Leca, Nicolae; West-Thielke, Patricia M; Horwedel, Timothy; Culkin-Gemmell, Christine; Kistler, Kristin; Stevens, Daniel R

    2018-02-20

    The majority of United States kidney transplant patients are treated with tacrolimus, a drug effective in preventing graft rejection, but with a narrow therapeutic range, necessitating close monitoring to avoid increased risks of transplant rejection or toxicity if the tacrolimus concentration is too low or too high, respectively. The trough drug concentration tests are time sensitive; patients treated on a twice-daily basis have blood draws exactly 12 hours after their previous dose. The schedule's rigidity causes problems for both patients and health care providers. Novel once-daily tacrolimus formulations such as LCPT (an extended-release tablet by Veloxis Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Cary, North Carolina) have allowed for blood draws on a once-daily basis; however, even that schedule can be restrictive. Results from tests taken either before or after that 24-hour target time may be discarded, or worse, may lead to inappropriate dose changes. Data from ASTCOFF, a phase 3B pharmacokinetic clinical trial (NCT02339246), demonstrated that the unique pharmacokinetic curve of LCPT may allow for a therapeutic monitoring window that extends for 3 hours before or after the 24-hour monitoring target. Furthermore, important tools to help clinicians interpret these levels, such as formulas to estimate the 24-hour trough level if an alternative monitoring time is used, were constructed from these data. These study results give treating clinicians access to data that allow them to safely use and monitor LCPT in their patients and expand the body of evidence surrounding differentiation and practical application of the novel LCPT tacrolimus formulation. © 2018, The Authors. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  19. Efficacy of tacrolimus/mycophenolate mofetil as acute graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis and the impact of subtherapeutic tacrolimus levels in children after matched sibling donor allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Offer, Katharine; Kolb, Michelle; Jin, Zhezhen; Bhatia, Monica; Kung, Andrew L; George, Diane; Garvin, James H; Robinson, Chalitha; Sosna, Jean; Karamehmet, Esra; Satwani, Prakash

    2015-03-01

    Only a few studies in children have evaluated the efficacy of prophylactic regimens using tacrolimus on acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD). As a result, optimal tacrolimus levels in children after matched sibling donor allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) are not well defined. We measured the association between subtherapeutic levels (<10 ng/mL) during weeks 1 to 4 after alloHCT and the cumulative incidence of grades II to IV aGVHD in children. Additionally, we identified optimal lower cutoff levels for tacrolimus. Sixty patients (median age, 8 years) received tacrolimus/mycophenolate mofetil between March 2003 and September 2012. Twenty-three had a malignant disease and 37 nonmalignant disorders. The stem cell source included peripheral blood stem cells (n = 12) and bone marrow or cord blood (n = 48). Conditioning regimen varied. Specifically, 38.3% received a myeloablative regimen, 36.7% receiving a reduced-toxicity regimen, and 25% receiving a reduced-intensity regimen. Tacrolimus was initiated at .03 mg/kg/day via continuous i.v. infusion or .12 mg/kg/day orally. The dose was adjusted to maintain daily steady state concentrations within a range of 10 to 20 ng/mL. The overall incidence of grades II to IV aGVHD was 33.3%. On multivariate analysis, a mean tacrolimus level < 10 ng/mL during week 3 (P = .042; 95% confidence interval, 1.051 to 14.28) was significantly associated with increased incidence of grades II to IV aGVHD. Using weekly receiver operator curves, the optimal lower cutoff for tacrolimus levels was 10 to 11.2 ng/mL. Further prospective studies are warranted to study the incidence of aGVHD comparing the conventional tacrolimus levels of 5 to 15 versus 10 to 15 ng/mL. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Population pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenetic analysis of tacrolimus in paediatric liver transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    Abdel Jalil, Mariam H; Hawwa, Ahmed F; McKiernan, Patrick J; Shields, Michael D; McElnay, James C

    2014-01-01

    Aims To build a population pharmacokinetic model that describes the apparent clearance of tacrolimus and the potential demographic, clinical and genetically controlled factors that could lead to inter-patient pharmacokinetic variability within children following liver transplantation. Methods The present study retrospectively examined tacrolimus whole blood pre-dose concentrations (n = 628) of 43 children during their first year post-liver transplantation. Population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using the non-linear mixed effects modelling program (nonmem) to determine the population mean parameter estimate of clearance and influential covariates. Results The final model identified time post-transplantation and CYP3A5*1 allele as influential covariates on tacrolimus apparent clearance according to the following equation: where TVCL is the typical value for apparent clearance, TPT is time post-transplantation in days and the CYP3A5 is 1 where *1 allele is present and 0 otherwise. The population estimate and inter-individual variability (%CV) of tacrolimus apparent clearance were found to be 0.977 l h−1 kg−1 (95% CI 0.958, 0.996) and 40.0%, respectively, while the residual variability between the observed and predicted concentrations was 35.4%. Conclusion Tacrolimus apparent clearance was influenced by time post-transplantation and CYP3A5 genotypes. The results of this study, once confirmed by a large scale prospective study, can be used in conjunction with therapeutic drug monitoring to recommend tacrolimus dose adjustments that take into account not only body weight but also genetic and time-related changes in tacrolimus clearance. PMID:23738951

  1. Pharmacokinetics of prolonged-release tacrolimus and implications for use in solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Tanzi, Maria G; Undre, Nasrullah; Keirns, James; Fitzsimmons, William E; Brown, Malcolm; First, M Roy

    2016-08-01

    Prolonged-release tacrolimus was developed as a once-daily formulation with ethylcellulose as the excipient, resulting in slower release and reduction in peak concentration (Cmax ) for a given dose compared with immediate-release tacrolimus, which is administered twice daily. This manuscript reviews pharmacokinetic information on prolonged-release tacrolimus in healthy subjects, in transplant recipients converted from immediate-release tacrolimus, and in de novo kidney and liver transplant recipients. As with the immediate-release formulation, prolonged-release tacrolimus shows a strong correlation between trough concentration (Cmin ) and area under the 24-hour time-concentration curve (AUC24 ), indicating that trough whole blood concentrations provide an accurate measure of drug exposure. We present the pharmacokinetic similarities and differences between the two formulations, so that prescribing physicians will have a better understanding of therapeutic drug monitoring in patients receiving prolonged-release tacrolimus. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Conversion From Twice-Daily Tacrolimus Capsules to Once-Daily Extended-Release Tacrolimus (LCPT): A Phase 2 Trial of Stable Renal Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Gaber, A. Osama; Alloway, Rita R.; Bodziak, Kenneth; Kaplan, Bruce; Bunnapradist, Suphamai

    2013-01-01

    Background LCP-Tacro is an extended-release formulation of tacrolimus designed for once-daily dosing. Phase 1 studies demonstrated greater bioavailability to twice-daily tacrolimus capsules and no new safety concerns. Methods In this phase 2 study, adult stable kidney transplant patients on tacrolimus capsules (Prograf) twice-daily were converted to tacrolimus tablets (LCP-Tacro) once-daily; patients continued on LCP-Tacro once-daily for days 8 to 21; trough levels were to be maintained between 5 and 15 ng/mL; 24-hr pharmacokinetic assessments were done on days 7 (baseline pre-switch), 14, and 21. Results Forty-seven patients completed LCP-Tacro dosing per protocol. The mean conversion ratio was 0.71. Pharmacokinetic data demonstrated consistent exposure (AUC) at the lower conversion dose. Cmax (P=0.0001), Cmax/Cmin ratio (P<0.001), percent fluctuation (P<0.0001), and swing (P=0.0004) were significantly lower and Tmax significantly (P<0.001) longer for LCP-Tacro versus Prograf. AUC24 and Cmin correlation coefficients after 7 and 14 days of therapy were 0.86 or more, demonstrating a robust correlation between LCP-Tacro tacrolimus exposure and trough levels. There were three serious adverse events; none were related to study drug and all were resolved. Conclusions Stable kidney transplant patients can be safely converted from Prograf twice-daily to LCP-Tacro. The greater bioavailability of LCP-Tacro allows for once-daily dosing and similar (AUC) exposure at a dose approximately 30% less than the total daily dose of Prograf. LCP-Tacro displays flatter kinetics characterized by significantly lower peak-trough fluctuations. PMID:23715050

  3. Involvement of CYP 3A5 In the Interaction Between Tacrolimus and Nicardipine: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Sassi, Mouna B; Gaies, Emna; Salouage, Issam; Trabelsi, Sameh; Lakhal, Mohamed; Klouz, Anis

    2015-01-01

    Tacrolimus is a calcineurin inhibitor primarily metabolized by CYP3A4 and secondarily by CYP3A5. Several drugs can modify tacrolimus blood levels as calcium channel blockers (CCBs). Interaction with nicardipine was reported in some cases. A man with a history of malignant arterial hypertension treated with nicardipine, underwent kidney transplantation. After transplantation, he was treated with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and corticoids. Therapeutic drug monitoring of tacrolimus was done regularly showing a mean trough concentration (C0) of 24.39 ng/mL with some concentrations reaching 52 ng/mL. After changing nicardipine by prazosine, the first tacrolimus C0 after stopping nicardipine was 3.2 ng/mL. Increase of tacrolimus trough concentrations is due to the inhibition of CYP3A4. Very high levels of tacrolimus suggest the non expression of CYP3A5. Thus, because of the possible lack of the secondary pathway, therapeutic drug monitoring of tacrolimus is highly recommended at the introduction of CCBs and also at its stopping.

  4. Intravenous tacrolimus and cyclosporine induced anaphylaxis: what is next?

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sung-Yoon; Sohn, Kyoung-Hee; Lee, Jeong-Ok; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2015-01-01

    Tacrolimus and cyclosporine have been used in various formulations, but their hypersensitivity reactions are rare in practice. Castor oil derivatives are nonionic surfactants used in aqueous preparations of hydrophobic active pharmaceutical ingredients. Castor oil derivatives that can be used as additives to tacrolimus and cyclosporine may play a role in the development of hypersensitivity reactions, especially anaphylaxis. Various immunologic and nonimmunologic mechanisms have been implicated in hypersensitivity reactions induced by castor oil derivatives. Physicians should be aware that not only the drug itself, but also its additives or metabolites could induce hypersensitivity reactions. We report a case of anaphylaxis caused by vitamin K (phytonadine), serotonin antagonist (granisetron), intravenous tacrolimus, and cyclosporine. Interestingly, the patient tolerated oral cyclosporine, which did not contain Cremophor EL or polysorbate 80. PMID:26240796

  5. Efficacy and safety of tacrolimus treatment for rheumatoid arthritis patients undergoing hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Misuzu; Natsumeda, Masamitsu; Takasugi, Koji; Ueno, Akiko; Ezawa, Kayo; Ezawa, Kazuhiko

    2008-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by progressive joint destruction that requires aggressive treatment using appropriate disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). RA patients with renal failure, however, are intolerant to most DMARDs due to the potential toxicity. In Japan, tacrolimus was approved for the treatment of RA in 2005. Based on its pharmacokinetics, tacrolimus may be administered to the patients undergoing hemodialysis. We report two cases of RA patients on hemodialysis treated effectively and safely with tacrolimus.

  6. Effects of tacrolimus on action potential configuration and transmembrane ion currents in canine ventricular cells.

    PubMed

    Szabó, László; Szentandrássy, Norbert; Kistamás, Kornél; Hegyi, Bence; Ruzsnavszky, Ferenc; Váczi, Krisztina; Horváth, Balázs; Magyar, János; Bányász, Tamás; Pál, Balázs; Nánási, Péter P

    2013-03-01

    Tacrolimus is a commonly used immunosuppressive agent which causes cardiovascular complications, e.g., hypertension and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. In spite of it, there is little information on the cellular cardiac effects of the immunosuppressive agent tacrolimus in larger mammals. In the present study, therefore, the concentration-dependent effects of tacrolimus on action potential morphology and the underlying ion currents were studied in canine ventricular cardiomyocytes. Standard microelectrode, conventional whole cell patch clamp, and action potential voltage clamp techniques were applied in myocytes enzymatically dispersed from canine ventricular myocardium. Tacrolimus (3-30 μM) caused a concentration-dependent reduction of maximum velocity of depolarization and repolarization, action potential amplitude, phase-1 repolarization, action potential duration, and plateau potential, while no significant change in the resting membrane potential was observed. Conventional voltage clamp experiments revealed that tacrolimus concentrations ≥3 μM blocked a variety of ion currents, including I(Ca), I(to), I(K1), I(Kr), and I(Ks). Similar results were obtained under action potential voltage clamp conditions. These effects of tacrolimus developed rapidly and were fully reversible upon washout. The blockade of inward currents with the concomitant shortening of action potential duration in canine myocytes is the opposite of those observed previously with tacrolimus in small rodents. It is concluded that although tacrolimus blocks several ion channels at higher concentrations, there is no risk of direct interaction with cardiac ion channels when applying tacrolimus in therapeutic concentrations.

  7. Successful treatment with tacrolimus in TAFRO syndrome: two case reports and literature review.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Taiichiro; Onishi, Akira; Waki, Daisuke; Saegusa, Jun; Morinobu, Akio

    2018-06-01

    TAFRO syndrome is a systemic inflammatory disorder characterized by thrombocytopenia, anasarca, fever, reticulin fibrosis, renal dysfunction, and organomegaly. In contrast to that in multicentric Castleman disease, interleukin-6 targeting strategies seem ineffective in some TAFRO syndrome cases; however, the optimal treatment remains unclear. Here, we report 2 cases of TAFRO syndrome, where 1 with cardiomyopathy, successfully treated with tacrolimus. This is the first case report of successful treatment with tacrolimus in TAFRO syndrome. Both patients (cases 1 and 2) developed fever, anasarca, thrombocytopenia, renal dysfunction, and mild hepatosplenomegaly. In both patients, lymph node pathology revealed mixed type Castleman disease-like features, and bone marrow showed reticulin myelofibrosis. TAFRO syndrome was diagnosed based on the patients' laboratory, clinical, and pathologic findings. In case 2, we observed a rare complication of cardiomyopathy with no evidence of takotsubo cardiomyopathy or viral myocarditis. In case 1, tocilizumab combined with glucocorticoids was ineffective and caused septic shock; additionally, cyclosporine A was discontinued because of hepatotoxicity. However, tacrolimus was effective in resolving TAFRO syndrome without any adverse events. In case 2, tacrolimus completely reversed TAFRO syndrome and was also effective in cardiomyopathy. This report suggests that tacrolimus is potentially effective and safe as an initial treatment and a glucocorticoid-sparing agent. Our literature review shows that calcineurin inhibitors, including tacrolimus, may be effective in TAFRO syndrome. Since previous studies indicate a role of Th1 inflammation in TAFRO syndrome pathogenesis, tacrolimus may, therefore, be effective in treating TAFRO syndrome.

  8. Unraveling Nutritional Regulation of Tacrolimus Biosynthesis in Streptomyces tsukubaensis through omic Approaches.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez-Robles, María; Santos-Beneit, Fernando; Martín, Juan F

    2018-05-01

    Streptomyces tsukubaensis stands out among actinomycetes by its ability to produce the immunosuppressant tacrolimus. Discovered about 30 years ago, this macrolide is widely used as immunosuppressant in current clinics. Other potential applications for the treatment of cancer and as neuroprotective agent have been proposed in the last years. In this review we introduce the discovery of S. tsukubaensis and tacrolimus, its biosynthetic pathway and gene cluster ( fkb ) regulation. We have focused this work on the omic studies performed in this species in order to understand tacrolimus production. Transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics have improved our knowledge about the fkb transcriptional regulation and have given important clues about nutritional regulation of tacrolimus production that can be applied to improve production yields. Finally, we address some points of S. tsukubaensis biology that deserve more attention.

  9. Distinct effects of omeprazole and rabeprazole on the tacrolimus blood concentration in a kidney transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kazushige; Yano, Ikuko; Fukuhara, Yuga; Katsura, Toshiya; Takahashi, Takeshi; Ito, Noriyuki; Yamamoto, Shingo; Ogawa, Osamu; Inui, Ken-ichi

    2007-12-01

    Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs, e.g. omeprazole and rabeprazole) are often administered to transplant patients as a treatment or prophylaxis for ulcers after surgery. Since tacrolimus and PPIs share the CYP3A4 system for metabolism, pharmacokinetic interactions are anticipated when they are administered simultaneously. We present a Japanese male patient who underwent a living-donor kidney transplantation having received tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and prednisolone for immunosuppression. The concentration/dose (C/D) ratio for tacrolimus was markedly higher during the period of treatment with omeprazole than ranitidine or rabeprazole. The results of liver functional tests were within the normal range during the use of these three antacid drugs. Since the higher C/D ratio for tacrolimus when omeprazole was being administered did not result from a decrease in the elimination of tacrolimus due to hepatic dysfunction, drug interaction between omeprazole and tacrolimus was strongly suspected. The present case indicates that rabeprazole can be used safely in place of omeprazole in kidney transplant recipients receiving tacrolimus.

  10. A Low Concentration of Tacrolimus/Semifluorinated Alkane (SFA) Eyedrop Suppresses Intraocular Inflammation in Experimental Models of Uveitis.

    PubMed

    De Majumdar, S; Subinya, M; Korward, J; Pettigrew, A; Scherer, D; Xu, H

    2017-01-01

    Corticosteroids remain the mainstay therapy for uveitis, a major cause of blindness in the working age population. However, a substantial number of patients cannot benefit from the therapy due to steroids resistance or intolerance. Tacrolimus has been used to treat refractory uveitis through systemic administration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of 0.03% tacrolimus eyedrop in mouse models of uveitis. 0.03% tacrolimus in perfluorobutylpentane (F4H5) (0.03% Tacrolimus/SFA) was formulated using a previously published protocol. Tacrolimus suspended in PBS (0.03% Tacrolimus/PBS) was used as a control. In addition, 0.1% dexamethasone (0.1% DXM) was used as a standard therapy control. Endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) and experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) were induced in adult C57BL/6 mice using protocols described previously. Mice were treated with eyedrops three times/day immediately after EIU induction for 48 h or from day 14 to day 25 post-immunization (for EAU). Clinical and histological examinations were conducted at the end of the experiment. Pharmacokinetics study was conducted in mice with and without EIU. At different times after eyedrop treatment, ocular tissues were collected for tacrolimus measurement. The 0.03% Tacrolimus/SFA eyedrop treatment reduced the clinical scores and histological scores of intraocular inflammation in both EIU and EAU to the levels similar to 0.1% DXM eyedrop treatment. The 0.03% Tacrolimus/PBS did not show any suppressive effect in EIU and EAU. Pharmacokinetic studies showed that 15 min after topical administration of 0.03% Tacrolimus/SFA, low levels of tacrolimus were detected in the retina (48 ng/g tissue) and vitreous (2.5 ng/ml) in normal mouse eyes, and the levels were significantly higher in EIU eyes (102 ng/g tissue in the retina and 24 ng/ml in the vitreous). Tacrolimus remained detectable in intraocular tissues of EIU eyes 6 h after topical administration (68 ng/g retinal tissue, 10

  11. Different Influences on Tacrolimus Pharmacokinetics by Coadministrations of Zhi Ke and Zhi Shi in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shiuan-Pey; Wu, Ping-Ping; Hou, Yu-Chi; Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Wang, Meng-Ju; Fang, Shih-Hua; Chao, Pei-Dawn Lee

    2011-01-01

    Tacrolimus, an immunosuppressant with narrow therapeutic window, has been used widely in transplant patients. Grapefruit juice and pomelo have been reported to increase the blood levels of tacrolimus. Zhi Ke and Zhi Shi, the ripe peels and unripe fruits of Citrus aurantium which is chemotaxonomically related to grapefruit and pomelo, are in wide use in clinical Chinese medicine. To investigate the possible interaction of these two Citrus herbs with tacrolimus, male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally given tacrolimus (1.5 mg/kg) with and without Zhi Ke and Zhi Shi decoctions in a cross-over design. Blood samples were withdrawn via cardiopuncture at specific time and quantitated by a microparticle enzyme immunoassay. In addition, to explore the mechanism of interaction, LS 180 cell line was used for the transport study of rhodamine 123, a typical substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The results showed that Zhi Shi significantly decreased the C max and AUC0−t of tacrolimus by 72.4% and 72.0%, respectively, whereas Zhi Ke did not affect tacrolimus pharmacokinetics. LS 180 cell line study indicated that Zhi Shi increased the efflux activity of P-gp, enabling us to explain the decreased oral bioavailability of tacrolimus caused by Zhi Shi. Hence, we suggest that Zhi Shi be contraindicated for transplant patients treated with tacrolimus to reduce the risk of allograft rejection. PMID:21318106

  12. Successful treatment with tacrolimus in TAFRO syndrome: two case reports and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Shirai, Taiichiro; Onishi, Akira; Waki, Daisuke; Saegusa, Jun; Morinobu, Akio

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: TAFRO syndrome is a systemic inflammatory disorder characterized by thrombocytopenia, anasarca, fever, reticulin fibrosis, renal dysfunction, and organomegaly. In contrast to that in multicentric Castleman disease, interleukin-6 targeting strategies seem ineffective in some TAFRO syndrome cases; however, the optimal treatment remains unclear. Here, we report 2 cases of TAFRO syndrome, where 1 with cardiomyopathy, successfully treated with tacrolimus. This is the first case report of successful treatment with tacrolimus in TAFRO syndrome. Patient concerns: Both patients (cases 1 and 2) developed fever, anasarca, thrombocytopenia, renal dysfunction, and mild hepatosplenomegaly. Diagnoses: In both patients, lymph node pathology revealed mixed type Castleman disease-like features, and bone marrow showed reticulin myelofibrosis. TAFRO syndrome was diagnosed based on the patients’ laboratory, clinical, and pathologic findings. In case 2, we observed a rare complication of cardiomyopathy with no evidence of takotsubo cardiomyopathy or viral myocarditis. Interventions and outcomes: In case 1, tocilizumab combined with glucocorticoids was ineffective and caused septic shock; additionally, cyclosporine A was discontinued because of hepatotoxicity. However, tacrolimus was effective in resolving TAFRO syndrome without any adverse events. In case 2, tacrolimus completely reversed TAFRO syndrome and was also effective in cardiomyopathy. Lessons: This report suggests that tacrolimus is potentially effective and safe as an initial treatment and a glucocorticoid-sparing agent. Our literature review shows that calcineurin inhibitors, including tacrolimus, may be effective in TAFRO syndrome. Since previous studies indicate a role of Th1 inflammation in TAFRO syndrome pathogenesis, tacrolimus may, therefore, be effective in treating TAFRO syndrome. PMID:29879072

  13. The calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus as a new therapy in severe cherubism.

    PubMed

    Kadlub, Natacha; Vazquez, Marie-Paule; Galmiche, Louise; L'Herminé, Aurore Coulomb; Dainese, Linda; Ulinski, Tim; Fauroux, Brigitte; Pavlov, Ioana; Badoual, Cécile; Marlin, Sandrine; Deckert, Marcel; Leboulanger, Nicolas; Berdal, Ariane; Descroix, Vianney; Picard, Arnaud; Coudert, Amélie E

    2015-05-01

    Cherubism is a rare genetic disorder characterized by extensive growth of a bilateral granuloma of the jaws, resulting in facial disfigurement. Cherubism is caused by gain-of-function mutations in the SH3BP2 gene, leading to overactivation of nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1)-dependent osteoclastogenesis. Recent findings in human and mouse cherubism have suggested that calcineurin inhibitors might be drug candidates in cherubism medical treatment. A 4-year-old boy with aggressive cherubism was treated with the calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus for 1 year, and clinical, radiological, and molecular data were obtained. Immunohistologic analysis was performed to compare preoperative and postoperative NFATc1 staining and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity. Real-time PCR was performed to analyze the relative expression levels of OPG and RANKL. After tacrolimus therapy, the patient showed significant clinical improvement, including stabilization of jaw size and intraosseous osteogenesis. Immunohistologic analyses on granuloma showed that tacrolimus caused a significant reduction in the number of TRAP-positive osteoclasts and NFATc1 nuclear staining in multinucleated giant cells. Molecular analysis showed that tacrolimus treatment also resulted in increased OPG expression. We present the first case of effective medical therapy in cherubism. Tacrolimus enhanced bone formation by stimulating osteogenesis and inhibiting osteoclastogenesis. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  14. Donor CYP3A5 genotype influences tacrolimus disposition on the first day after paediatric liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Pier Luigi; Serpe, Loredana; Brunati, Andrea; Nonnato, Antonello; Bongioanni, Daniela; Olio, Dominic Dell'; Pinon, Michele; Ferretti, Carlo; Tandoi, Francesco; Carbonaro, Giulia; Salizzoni, Mauro; Amoroso, Antonio; Romagnoli, Renato; Canaparo, Roberto

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4/5 genotype in paediatric liver transplant recipients and donors, and the contribution of age and gender to tacrolimus disposition on the first day after transplantation. The contribution of the CYP3A4/5 genotype in paediatric liver transplant recipients and donors to the tacrolimus blood trough concentrations (C 0 ) and the tacrolimus concentration/weight-adjusted dose ratio on day 1 was evaluated in 67 liver-transplanted children: 33 boys and 34 girls, mean age 4.5 years. Donor CYP3A5 genotype appears to be significantly associated with tacrolimus disposition on the first day after liver transplantation (P < 0.0002). Other physiological factors, such as recipient age and donor gender may also play a role and lead to significant differences in tacrolimus C 0 and tacrolimus concentration/weight-adjusted dose ratio on day 1. However, according to the general linear model, only recipient age appears to be independently associated with tacrolimus disposition on the first day after liver transplantation (P < 0.03). Indeed, there was a faster tacrolimus metabolism in children under 6 years of age (P < 0.02). Donor CYP3A5 genotype, recipient age and, to a lesser extent, donor gender appear to be associated with tacrolimus disposition on day 1 after transplant. This suggests that increasing the starting tacrolimus doses in paediatric patients under 6 years of age who receive a graft from a male extensive metabolizer may enhance the possibility of their tacrolimus levels reaching the therapeutic range sooner. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  15. Differences in Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes between Brand-Name and Generic Tacrolimus Used in Stable Liver Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Man; Kwon, Choon Hyuck David; Joh, Jae-Won; Sinn, Dong Hyun; Choi, Gyu-Seong; Park, Jae Berm; Kang, Eun-Suk; Lee, Suk-Koo

    2017-01-01

    In this study, peripheral blood lymphocytes were compared between a brand-name and a generic tacrolimus group in stable liver transplant recipients. Sixteen patients who underwent ABO-compatible living donor liver transplants between 2012 and 2013 and had stable graft function were included in this study. Ten patients received brand-name tacrolimus and 6 patients received generic tacrolimus. CD3, CD4, CD8, γδ, CD4+FoxP3+, and CD3-CD56+ T cells were analyzed in peripheral blood obtained preoperatively and 4, 8, 12, and 24 weeks after liver transplantation. Categorical variables were compared using a χ2 test or Fisher exact test, and continuous variables were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Regarding the baseline and perioperative characteristics, there were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups. Immunosuppression also was not different. Subtype analysis of T-cell populations carried out in parallel showed similar levels of CD3, CD4, CD8, and γδT cells with brand-name tacrolimus and generic tacrolimus in stable liver transplant recipients. However, the levels of CD4+Foxp3+ and CD3-CD56+ T cells were higher in the brand-name tacrolimus group than in the generic tacrolimus group 8 weeks after transplantation (p < 0.05). The level of CD4+Foxp3+ T cells was higher in the brand-name tacrolimus group than in the generic tacrolimus group after transplantation. This finding showed that brand-name tacrolimus could have more potential immunosuppressive activity than generic tacrolimus regarding the contribution of CD4+Foxp3+ T cells to graft tolerance in liver transplant recipients. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. The carcinogenic potential of tacrolimus ointment beyond immune suppression: a hypothesis creating case report.

    PubMed

    Becker, Jürgen C; Houben, Roland; Vetter, Claudia S; Bröcker, Eva B

    2006-01-11

    Since tacrolimus ointment was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a promising treatment for atopic dermatitis, it has been approved in more than 30 additional countries, including numerous European Union member nations. Moreover, in the current clinical routine the use of this drug is no longer restricted to the approved indication, but has been extended to a wide variety of inflammatory skin diseases including some with the potential of malignant transformation. So far, the side-effects reported from the topical use of tacrolimus have been relatively minor (e.g. burning, pruritus, erythema). Recently, however, the FDA reviewed the safety of topical tacrolimus, which resulted in a warning that the use of calcineurin inhibitors may be associated with an increased risk of cancer. Oral lichen planus (OLP) was diagnosed in a 56-year-old women in February 1999. After several ineffective local and systemic therapeutic measures an off-label treatment of this recalcitrant condition using Tacrolimus 0.1% ointment was initiated in May 2002. After a few weeks of treatment most of the lesions ameliorated, with the exception of the plaques on the sides of the tongue. Nevertheless, the patient became free of symptoms which, however, reoccurred once tacrolimus was weaned, as a consequence treatment was maintained. In April 2005, the plaques on the left side of the tongue appeared increasingly compact and a biopsy specimen confirmed the suspected diagnosis of an oral squamous cell carcinoma. The suspected causal relationship between topical use of tacrolimus and the development of a squamous cell carcinoma prompted us to test the notion that the carcinogenicity of tacrolimus may go beyond mere immune suppression. To this end, tacrolimus has been shown to have an impact on cancer signalling pathways such as the MAPK and the p53 pathway. In the given case, we were able to demonstrate that these pathways had also been altered subsequent to tacrolimus therapy.

  17. The Pittsburgh Randomized Trial of Tacrolimus Compared to Cyclosporine for Hepatic Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Fung, John J.; Eliasziw, Michael; Todo, Satoru; Jain, Ashok; Demetris, Anthony J.; McMichael, John P.; Starzl, Thomas E.; Meier, Paul; Donner, Allan

    2009-01-01

    Background Tacrolimus (formerly FK 506) was first used clinically in 1989 to successfully replace cyclosporine in hepatic transplant recipients who were experiencing intractable rejection or as the baseline drug from the time of operation. After extensive pilot experience, an institutional review board-mandated clinical trial comparing cyclosporine with tacrolimus was performed. Study Design From February 16, 1990 to December 26, 1991, 154 patients were recruited. The competing drugs were combined with equal induction doses of prednisone in both arms of the study for the first 81 patients and with subsequently higher doses of prednisone in the remaining 35 patients who received cyclosporine and were entered into the trial. Drug crossover was permitted for lack of efficacy or adverse events. End points were rejection confirmed by biopsy and treatment failure leading to retransplantation or death. Results Seventy-nine patients were randomized to the tacrolimus arm and 75 to the cyclosporine arm during 1990 and 1991. All patients were available for follow-up throughout the trial, which terminated on May 30, 1995. The mean duration of follow-up was four years. Patients randomized to the tacrolimus arm were less likely to experience acute rejection than were those receiving cyclosporine, with 36.2 percent of the patients receiving tacrolimus and 16.8 percent of the patients receiving cyclosporine showing freedom from rejection at one year (p=0.003, likelihood ratio test). Survival of patients over the course of the study was virtually the same in the two groups. Conclusions Tacrolimus was more effective than cyclosporine in preventing acute rejection. PMID:8696542

  18. Cyclosporine versus tacrolimus: cost-effectiveness analysis for renal transplantation in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Augusto Afonso; Silva, Grazielle Dias; Andrade, Eli Iola Gurgel; Cherchiglia, Mariângela Leal; Costa, Juliana de Oliveira; Almeida, Alessandra Maciel; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the cost-effectiveness of treatment regimens with cyclosporine or tacrolimus, five years after renal transplantation. METHODS This cost-effectiveness analysis was based on historical cohort data obtained between 2000 and 2004 and involved 2,022 patients treated with cyclosporine or tacrolimus, matched 1:1 for gender, age, and type and year of transplantation. Graft survival and the direct costs of medical care obtained from the National Health System (SUS) databases were used as outcome results. RESULTS Most of the patients were women, with a mean age of 36.6 years. The most frequent diagnosis of chronic renal failure was glomerulonephritis/nephritis (27.7%). In five years, the tacrolimus group had an average life expectancy gain of 3.96 years at an annual cost of R$78,360.57 compared with the cyclosporine group with a gain of 4.05 years and an annual cost of R$61,350.44. CONCLUSIONS After matching, the study indicated better survival of patients treated with regimens using tacrolimus. However, regimens containing cyclosporine were more cost-effective. PMID:25741648

  19. Cyclosporine versus tacrolimus: cost-effectiveness analysis for renal transplantation in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Guerra Júnior, Augusto Afonso; Silva, Grazielle Dias; Andrade, Eli Iola Gurgel; Cherchiglia, Mariângela Leal; Costa, Juliana de Oliveira; Almeida, Alessandra Maciel; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the cost-effectiveness of treatment regimens with cyclosporine or tacrolimus, five years after renal transplantation. METHODS This cost-effectiveness analysis was based on historical cohort data obtained between 2000 and 2004 and involved 2,022 patients treated with cyclosporine or tacrolimus, matched 1:1 for gender, age, and type and year of transplantation. Graft survival and the direct costs of medical care obtained from the National Health System (SUS) databases were used as outcome results. RESULTS Most of the patients were women, with a mean age of 36.6 years. The most frequent diagnosis of chronic renal failure was glomerulonephritis/nephritis (27.7%). In five years, the tacrolimus group had an average life expectancy gain of 3.96 years at an annual cost of R$78,360.57 compared with the cyclosporine group with a gain of 4.05 years and an annual cost of R$61,350.44. CONCLUSIONS After matching, the study indicated better survival of patients treated with regimens using tacrolimus. Moreover, regimens containing cyclosporine were more cost-effective [corrected].

  20. De novo use of generic tacrolimus in liver transplantation - a single center experience with one-yr follow-up.

    PubMed

    Dannhorn, E; Cheung, M; Rodrigues, S; Cooper, H; Thorburn, D; Patch, D; Burroughs, A K; O'Beirne, J

    2014-12-01

    Use of generic tacrolimus in liver transplantation (LT) could result in cost savings. Generic tacrolimus has been shown to be bioequivalent to innovator tacrolimus in healthy volunteers and renal transplant patients. There are limited data on the de novo use of generic tacrolimus in LT. This study aimed to determine whether the de novo use of generic tacrolimus (Adoport, Sandoz,UK) was associated with differences in outcomes, safety, and cost compared with innovator tacrolimus (Prograf, Astellas, Japan). Patients were studied before and after a programmatic change from de novo IS with Prograf to Adoport. Outcomes, tacrolimus levels, doses, and costs were compared for the first-yr post-LT. Ninety-four patients were studied, 46 Prograf, 48 Adoport. No significant differences in rejection, cytomegalovirus infection, acute kidney injury, sepsis, or graft loss were observed between groups. Tacrolimus costs were significantly reduced with the de novo use of Adoport. Day 14 dose normalized levels in Adoport patients showed significant variation but at the day 30 and one yr, there were no significant differences in the doses or levels of tacrolimus between groups. Adoport is safe and effective compared to Prograf when used de novo in LT patients. Tacrolimus costs were significantly reduced by the use of Adoport. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Use of Topical Tacrolimus and Topical Pimecrolimus in Four European Countries: A Multicentre Database Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Kuiper, Josephina G; van Herk-Sukel, Myrthe P P; Castellsague, Jordi; Pottegård, Anton; Berglind, Ingegärd Anveden; Dedman, Daniel; Gutierrez, Lia; Calingaert, Brian; Hallas, Jesper; Sundström, Anders; Gallagher, Arlene M; Kaye, James A; Pardo, Carolina; Rothman, Kenneth J; Perez-Gutthann, Susana

    2018-05-07

    Despite the concerns about a potential increased risk of skin cancer and lymphoma with the use of topical tacrolimus and pimecrolimus, no population-based studies have given an overview of the use of these drugs in Europe. To assess the use of topical tacrolimus and pimecrolimus in children and adults in Europe. Multicentre database cohort study comprising data from the Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden and the UK. We analysed users of topical tacrolimus and pimecrolimus starting from the date of first availability (between 2002 and 2003) or start establishment of the prescription database in Sweden (2006) through 2011. Use was assessed separately for children (≤ 18 years) and adults. 32,052 children and 104,902 adults were treated with topical tacrolimus, and 32,125 children and 58,280 adults were treated with topical pimecrolimus. The number of users increased rapidly after first availability, especially for topical tacrolimus. Topical tacrolimus was more frequently used in all countries except Denmark. For both drugs, there was a decrease in users after 2004 in the Netherlands and Denmark and after 2005 in the UK, especially among children. This decrease was largest in Denmark. The decrease in the number of users was temporary for topical tacrolimus, while use remained relatively low for topical pimecrolimus. The number of topical tacrolimus and pimecrolimus users increased rapidly after regulatory approval. A transient reduction in topical tacrolimus use and a persistent reduction in topical pimecrolimus use was seen after 2004 in the Netherlands and Denmark and after 2005 in the UK.

  2. Topical tacrolimus in alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Price, Vera H; Willey, Andrea; Chen, Bryan K

    2005-01-01

    Eleven patients with alopecia areata affecting 10% to 75% of the scalp, average duration 6 years, had no terminal hair growth in response to tacrolimus ointment 0.1% applied twice daily for 24 weeks. Treatment failure may reflect insufficient depth of penetration of the ointment formulation and less than optimal patient selection.

  3. Rectal and sublingual administration of tacrolimus: a single-dose pharmacokinetic study in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Stifft, Frank; Vanmolkot, Floris; Scheffers, Ingrid; van Bortel, Luc; Neef, Cees; Christiaans, Maarten

    2014-11-01

    The immunosuppressant tacrolimus is usually administered orally. When this is not feasible, other routes of administration may be useful. Previous research suggested that tacrolimus may be applied sublingually or rectally. Pharmacokinetic data are sparse. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the pharmacokinetics of these alternative formulations with orally administered tacrolimus. Three single, fixed-dose formulations of tacrolimus were administered in a random sequence in 18 healthy subjects, using a cross-over study design. For sublingual administration, 3 mg of powder obtained from oral capsules was applied under the tongue for a period of 15 min without swallowing, with mouth rinsing afterwards. For rectal administration, a suppository containing 15 mg of the oral powder was used. Oral administration consisted of 7 mg of instant-release tacrolimus capsules (Prograf). Main pharmacokinetic outcome parameters were compared by anova. Sublingual administration showed no clinically significant exposure, contrary to rectal administration, where all subjects had clinically relevant exposure, with a lower relative bioavailability (78%), a lower maximal blood concentration and a later time of maximal blood concentration compared with oral administration. Sublingual administration of a single dose of tacrolimus does not result in systemic exposure if care is taken not to swallow saliva and to rinse the oral cavity afterwards. Rectal administration of tacrolimus results in clinically relevant systemic exposure and might represent an alternative formulation in case oral administration is not feasible. When used as a topical agent, systemic side-effects should be considered. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  4. Rectal and sublingual administration of tacrolimus: a single-dose pharmacokinetic study in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Stifft, Frank; Vanmolkot, Floris; Scheffers, Ingrid; van Bortel, Luc; Neef, Cees; Christiaans, Maarten

    2014-01-01

    Aims The immunosuppressant tacrolimus is usually administered orally. When this is not feasible, other routes of administration may be useful. Previous research suggested that tacrolimus may be applied sublingually or rectally. Pharmacokinetic data are sparse. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the pharmacokinetics of these alternative formulations with orally administered tacrolimus. Methods Three single, fixed-dose formulations of tacrolimus were administered in a random sequence in 18 healthy subjects, using a cross-over study design. For sublingual administration, 3 mg of powder obtained from oral capsules was applied under the tongue for a period of 15 min without swallowing, with mouth rinsing afterwards. For rectal administration, a suppository containing 15 mg of the oral powder was used. Oral administration consisted of 7 mg of instant-release tacrolimus capsules (Prograf). Main pharmacokinetic outcome parameters were compared by anova. Results Sublingual administration showed no clinically significant exposure, contrary to rectal administration, where all subjects had clinically relevant exposure, with a lower relative bioavailability (78%), a lower maximal blood concentration and a later time of maximal blood concentration compared with oral administration. Conclusions Sublingual administration of a single dose of tacrolimus does not result in systemic exposure if care is taken not to swallow saliva and to rinse the oral cavity afterwards. Rectal administration of tacrolimus results in clinically relevant systemic exposure and might represent an alternative formulation in case oral administration is not feasible. When used as a topical agent, systemic side-effects should be considered. PMID:24809233

  5. ATG-Fresenius treatment and low-dose tacrolimus: results of a randomized controlled trial in liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Benítez, C E; Puig-Pey, I; López, M; Martínez-Llordella, M; Lozano, J J; Bohne, F; Londoño, M C; García-Valdecasas, J C; Bruguera, M; Navasa, M; Rimola, A; Sánchez-Fueyo, A

    2010-10-01

    We report the results of a prospective randomized controlled trial in liver transplantation assessing the efficacy and safety of antithymocyte globulin (ATG-Fresenius) plus tacrolimus monotherapy at gradually decreasing doses. Patients were randomized to either: (a) standard-dose tacrolimus plus steroids;or (b) peritransplant ATG-Fresenius plus reduced-dose tacrolimus monotherapy followed by weaning of tacrolimus starting 3 months after transplantation. The primary end-point was the achievement of very low-dose tacrolimus (every-other-day or once daily dose with <5 ng/mL trough levels) at 12 months after transplantation. Acute rejection occurring during the first 3 months after transplantation was more frequent in the ATG group (52.4% vs. 25%). Moreover, late acute rejection episodes occurred in all recipients in whom weaning was attempted and no recipients reached the primary end-point. This motivated the premature termination of the trial. Tacrolimus trough levels were lower in the ATG-Fresenius group but no benefits in terms of improved renal function, lower metabolic complications or increased prevalence of tolerance-related biomarkers were observed. In conclusion, the use of ATG-Fresenius and tacrolimus at gradually decreasing doses was associated with a high rate of rejection, did not allow for the administration of very low doses of tacrolimus and failed to provide detectable clinical benefits. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00436722. © 2010 The Authors Journal compilation © 2010 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  6. Lactobacillus Fermentum Improves Tacrolimus-Induced Hypertension by Restoring Vascular Redox State and Improving eNOS Coupling.

    PubMed

    Toral, Marta; Romero, Miguel; Rodríguez-Nogales, Alba; Jiménez, Rosario; Robles-Vera, Iñaki; Algieri, Francesca; Chueca-Porcuna, Natalia; Sánchez, Manuel; de la Visitación, Néstor; Olivares, Mónica; García, Federico; Pérez-Vizcaíno, Francisco; Gálvez, Julio; Duarte, Juan

    2018-05-30

    Our aim was to analyse whether the probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum CECT5716 (LC40) could prevent endothelial dysfunction and hypertension induced by tacrolimus in mice. Tacrolimus increased systolic blood pressure (SBP) and impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine and these effects were partially prevented by LC40. Endothelial dysfunction induced by tacrolimus was related to both increased NADPH oxidase (NOX2) and uncoupled eNOS driven-superoxide production and Rho-kinase mediated eNOS inhibition. LC40 treatment prevented all the aortic changes induced by tacrolimus. LC40 restored the imbalance between T-helper 17 (Th17)/ regulatory T (Treg) cells induced by tacrolimus in mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen. Tacrolimus induced gut dysbiosis, i.e. it decreased microbial diversity, increased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and decreased acetate- and butyrate-producing bacteria and these effects were prevented by LC40. Fecal microbiota transplantation from LC40 treated mice to control mice prevented the increase in SBP and the impaired relaxation to acetylcholine induced by tacrolimus. LC40 treatment prevented hypertension and endothelial dysfunction induced by tacrolimus by inhibiting gut dysbiosis. These effects were associated with a reduction in vascular oxidative stress, mainly through NOX2 down-regulation and prevention of eNOS-uncoupling, and inflammation possibly because of decreased Th17 and increased Treg cells polarization in mesenteric lymph nodes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Cobicistat Significantly Increases Tacrolimus Serum Concentrations in a Renal Transplant Recipient with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhe; Kane, Brenna M; Petty, Lindsay A; Josephson, Michelle A; Sutor, Jozefa; Pursell, Kenneth J

    2016-06-01

    Cobicistat is a pharmacokinetic booster in several fixed-dose combination products for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. As a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A enzymes, significant drug-drug interactions are expected between cobicistat and medications that are metabolized primarily through the CYP3A pathway, including calcineurin inhibitors (e.g., tacrolimus and cyclosporine). We describe a case of tacrolimus toxicity due to supratherapeutic tacrolimus concentrations when Stribild (elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate) was initiated for newly diagnosed HIV infection in a 50-year-old renal transplant recipient who was previously receiving a stable tacrolimus regimen. Drug-drug interaction via CYP3A inhibition was acknowledged, and weekly labs were ordered to allow for close monitoring of renal function and tacrolimus serum concentrations as recommended by Stribild prescribing information. The patient reported headache, insomnia, stomachache, and decreased urine output within 1 week of starting Stribild and was found to have acute kidney injury (serum creatinine [S cr ]concentration increasing from 1.5-2.3 mg/dl) and a serum tacrolimus concentration of 111.2 ng/ml at 1 week follow-up (goal trough level 4-6 ng/ml). Both tacrolimus and Stribild were withheld. In 15 days, the patient's tacrolimus serum concentration returned to goal. In the interim, he required twice/week clinic visits for laboratory assessments and an emergency department visit for management of hyperkalemia (potassium 6.5 mEq/L). Triumeq (abacavir, dolutegravir, and lamivudine) was started about 4 weeks later after S cr returned to baseline, and his tacrolimus serum trough concentrations subsequently remained stable. To our knowledge, this is the first case report describing the extent, significance, and onset of cobicistat and tacrolimus drug-drug interaction in clinical practice. As more fixed-dose combination products

  8. Renal Function in De Novo Liver Transplant Recipients Receiving Different Prolonged-Release Tacrolimus Regimens-The DIAMOND Study.

    PubMed

    TruneČka, P; Klempnauer, J; Bechstein, W O; Pirenne, J; Friman, S; Zhao, A; Isoniemi, H; Rostaing, L; Settmacher, U; Mönch, C; Brown, M; Undre, N; Tisone, G

    2015-07-01

    DIAMOND: multicenter, 24-week, randomized trial investigating the effect of different once-daily, prolonged-release tacrolimus dosing regimens on renal function after de novo liver transplantation. Arm 1: prolonged-release tacrolimus (initial dose 0.2mg/kg/day); Arm 2: prolonged-release tacrolimus (0.15-0.175mg/kg/day) plus basiliximab; Arm 3: prolonged-release tacrolimus (0.2mg/kg/day delayed until Day 5) plus basiliximab. All patients received MMF plus a bolus of corticosteroid (no maintenance steroids). eGFR (MDRD4) at Week 24. Secondary endpoints: composite efficacy failure, BCAR and AEs. Baseline characteristics were comparable. Tacrolimus trough levels were readily achieved posttransplant; initially lower in Arm 2 versus 1 with delayed initiation in Arm 3. eGFR (MDRD4) was higher in Arms 2 and 3 versus 1 (p = 0.001, p = 0.047). Kaplan-Meier estimates of composite efficacy failure-free survival were 72.0%, 77.6%, 73.9% in Arms 1-3. BCAR incidence was significantly lower in Arm 2 versus 1 and 3 (p = 0.016, p = 0.039). AEs were comparable. Prolonged-release tacrolimus (0.15-0.175mg/kg/day) immediately posttransplant plus basiliximab and MMF (without maintenance corticosteroids) was associated with lower tacrolimus exposure, and significantly reduced renal function impairment and BCAR incidence versus prolonged-release tacrolimus (0.2mg/kg/day) administered immediately posttransplant. Delayed higher-dose prolonged-release tacrolimus initiation significantly reduced renal function impairment compared with immediate posttransplant administration, but BCAR incidence was comparable. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Transplantation published by Wiley Periodicals Inc.

  9. Sirolimus Versus Tacrolimus as Primary Immunosuppressant After Renal Transplantation: A Meta-Analysis and Economics Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin-Yu; Song, Ming; Guo, Min; Huang, Feng; Ma, Bing-Jun; Zhu, Lan; Xu, Gang; Li, Juan; You, Ru-Xu

    Sirolimus and tacrolimus are the major immunosuppressants for renal transplantation. Several studies have compared these 2 drugs, but the outcomes were not consistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and pharmacoeconomics of sirolimus and tacrolimus in the treatment of renal transplantation and provide evidence for the selection of essential drugs. Trials were identified through a computerized literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane controlled trials register, Cochrane Renal Group Specialized Register of randomized controlled trials, and Chinese Biomedical database. Two independent reviewers assessed trials for eligibility and quality and then extracted data. Data were extracted for patient and graft mortality, acute rejection (AR), and adverse events. Dichotomous outcomes were reported as relative risk with 95% confidence intervals. A decision tree model was populated with data from a literature review and used to estimate costs and QALYs gained and incremental cost-effectiveness. Altogether, 1189 patients from 8 randomized controlled trials were included. The results of our analysis were that tacrolimus reduced the risks after renal transplantation of AR and patient withdrawn. Nevertheless, tacrolimus increased the risk of infection. Pharmacoeconomic analysis showed that tacrolimus represented a more cost-effective treatment than does cyclosporine for the prevention of adverse events after renal transplant. Tacrolimus is an effective and safe immunosuppressive agent, and it may be more cost-effective than cyclosporine for the primary prevention of AR in renal transplant recipients. However, it should be noted that such superiority was reversal when the cost of sirolimus and tacrolimus changed.

  10. Quantification of the Immunosuppressant Tacrolimus on Dried Blood Spots Using LC-MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Shokati, Touraj; Bodenberger, Nicholas; Gadpaille, Holly; Schniedewind, Björn; Vinks, Alexander A.; Jiang, Wenlei; Alloway, Rita R.; Christians, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    The calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus is the cornerstone of most immunosuppressive treatment protocols after solid organ transplantation in the United States. Tacrolimus is a narrow therapeutic index drug and as such requires therapeutic drug monitoring and dose adjustment based on its whole blood trough concentrations. To facilitate home therapeutic drug and adherence monitoring, the collection of dried blood spots is an attractive concept. After a finger stick, the patient collects a blood drop on filter paper at home. After the blood is dried, it is mailed to the analytical laboratory where tacrolimus is quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) in combination with a simple manual protein precipitation step and online column extraction. For tacrolimus analysis, a 6-mm disc is punched from the saturated center of the blood spot. The blood spot is homogenized using a bullet blender and then proteins are precipitated with methanol/0.2 M ZnSO4 containing the internal standard D2,13C-tacrolimus. After vortexing and centrifugation, 100 µl of supernatant is injected into an online extraction column and washed with 5 ml/min of 0.1 formic acid/acetonitrile (7:3, v:v) for 1 min. Hereafter, the switching valve is activated and the analytes are back-flushed onto the analytical column (and separated using a 0.1% formic acid/acetonitrile gradient). Tacrolimus is quantified in the positive multi reaction mode (MRM) using a tandem mass spectrometer. The assay is linear from 1 to 50 ng/ml. Inter-assay variability (3.6%-6.1%) and accuracy (91.7%-101.6%) as assessed over 20 days meet acceptance criteria. Average extraction recovery is 95.5%. There are no relevant carry-over, matrix interferences and matrix effects. Tacrolimus is stable in dried blood spots at RT and at +4 °C for 1 week. Extracted samples in the autosampler are stable at +4 °C for at least 72 hr. PMID:26575262

  11. Early alteration of kidney function in nonuremic type 1 diabetic islet transplant recipients under tacrolimus-mycophenolate therapy.

    PubMed

    Gillard, Pieter; Rustandi, Maria; Efendi, Achmad; Lee, Da Hae; Ling, Zhidong; Hilbrands, Robert; Kuypers, Dirk; Mathieu, Chantal; Jacobs-Tulleneers-Thevissen, Daniel; Gorus, Frans; Pipeleers, Daniel; Keymeulen, Bart

    2014-08-27

    Transplant patients on tacrolimus therapy exhibit a reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The type of graft and immune treatment protocol may influence the extent and reversibility of this side effect. The present single-center study is conducted in 48 nonuremic type 1 diabetic recipients of an intraportal islet-cell graft under maintenance immunosuppression (IS) with tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil. Estimated GFR (eGFR) and albuminuria were followed up to 5 years posttransplantation. Mean eGFR values decreased by 19 mL/min/1.73 m after 1 to 2 weeks of IS (P<0.0001) and then remained stable throughout the complete treatment period. The decrease was related to predose trough tacrolimus concentrations or doses and disappeared upon its discontinuation; it was also associated with the presence of albuminuria at the time of transplantation. Tacrolimus treatment resulted in a reduction of albuminuria; its discontinuation restored albuminuria to the initial levels. The use of tacrolimus in our islet-cell transplant protocol caused an initial 20% reduction in eGFR, which was reversible following its discontinuation, at least within the 5-year follow-up period. The associated reduction in albuminuria was also reversible, compatible with a tacrolimus-induced preglomerular vasoconstriction. These observations support further use of our tacrolimus regimen in this patient population.

  12. Clinical and genetic factors affecting tacrolimus trough levels and drug-related outcomes in Korean kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Kim, In-Wha; Moon, Yoo Jin; Ji, Eunhee; Kim, Kyung Im; Han, Nayoung; Kim, Sung Ju; Shin, Wan Gyoon; Ha, Jongwon; Yoon, Jeong-Hyun; Lee, Hye Suk; Oh, Jung Mi

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the effects of clinical and genetic variables on the pharmacokinetics and complications of tacrolimus during the first year after kidney transplantation. One hundred and thirty-two Korean kidney recipients who received tacrolimus were genotyped for ABCB1 (exons 12, 21, and 26) and CYP3A5 (intron 3). Tacrolimus trough levels, dose, or dose-adjusted trough levels and complications were compared among patients during the early stage (3, 7, 14, 30, and 90 days) and up to 1 year according to the genotypes. A donor source-adjusted linear mixed model with multilevel analysis adjusting for age, body weight, hematocrit, and serum creatinine showed that CYP3A5 genotype is associated with dose-adjusted level of tacrolimus (p < 0.001). The influence of ABCB1 polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics or complications of tacrolimus was less certain in our study. The incidence of acute rejections was significantly higher in recipients of cadaveric donor kidney (p < 0.05). A generalized estimating equation model analysis showed that alopecia and hyperlipidemia were associated with dose-adjusted level of tacrolimus (p < 0.001). Genotype of CYP3A5 variants along with significant clinical covariates may be useful in individualizing tacrolimus therapy in kidney transplantation patients.

  13. Ranolazine, tacrolimus, and diltiazem might be a hazardous combination in a transplant patient.

    PubMed

    Patni, Hitesh; Gitman, Michael; Hazzan, Azzour; Jhaveri, Kenar D

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of a renal transplant patient who was maintained on tacrolimus and diltiazem therapy and developed tacrolimus toxicity leading to reversible acute kidney injury when started on ranolazine. A 62-year-old Caucasian male status post renal transplant in 2009 (on prednisone and tacrolimus) was evaluated for ischemic heart disease and was initiated on ranolazine 500 mg tablets twice daily, which was later increased to 1000 mg twice daily. After 2 weeks, he developed fatigue, loss of appetite, tremors, and decreased urine output and was admitted to our hospital. His other significant medications included enalapril 2.5 mg and diltiazem 240 mg daily. The patient was awake and alert, but lethargic. He was found to be bradycardic with a heart rate of 42/min. The rest of his physical examination was benign. His electrocardiogram revealed sinus bradycardia. Laboratory studies revealed serum creatinine of 2.4 mg/dL from a baseline of 1.5 mg/dL (stable for the past 2 years). The tacrolimus trough was elevated at 14 ng/mL, which decreased after stopping ranolazine, reaching 7 ng/mL after 3 days, while continuing the same dose of tacrolimus. His creatinine trended downward and reached his baseline of 1.5 mg/dL over the next 2 days. His bradycardia and other symptoms resolved after cessation of ranolazine. He was discharged to follow up, to initiate an alternate agent for ischemic heart disease. Specific pharmacokinetic studies are warranted to study these drug interactions, and tacrolimus levels should be closely monitored in transplant patients who initiate ranolazine treatment.

  14. Tacrolimus treatment of atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thestrup-Pedersen, Kristian

    2003-10-01

    Atopic dermatitis is today the most common chronic disease of children in Europe, the US and Japan. The 'golden standard' of therapy is topical glucocorticosteroids and emollients. The steroids have been on the market for four decades, are efficacious, but only advised for short-term treatment due to their risks of side effects. More than 16,000 persons suffering from atopic dermatitis have been enrolled in clinical studies of tacrolimus. One third of patients with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis experience over 90% improvement in their disease over a 12-week treatment period and up to 70% of patients have over 50% improvement. A 1-year treatment leads to more than 90% improvement in 75% of patients. The most pronounced side effect is a burning sensation occurring in up to 60% of patients. Atopic dermatitis is a chronic skin disease leading to a demand for long-term treatment control. Such treatment options have not previously been available--except for emollients which are not efficacious for controlling skin inflammation. Tacrolimus and pimecrolimus are new treatment options, free from the potential side effects of topical steroids, which are known for their efficacy in short-term treatment. The new treatment modalities prevent the eczema from relapsing and at the same time they control active eczema. The future will see a shift towards the long-term use of tacrolimus which is able to control the skin inflammation and, hopefully, shorten the course of the eczema.

  15. A high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for the quantification of tacrolimus in human bile in liver transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Tron, Camille; Rayar, Michel; Petitcollin, Antoine; Beaurepaire, Jean-Marie; Cusumano, Caterina; Verdier, Marie-Clémence; Houssel-Debry, Pauline; Camus, Christophe; Boudjema, Karim; Bellissant, Eric; Lemaitre, Florian

    2016-12-02

    Tacrolimus whole-blood concentrations imperfectly reflect concentrations at the effect site. Tacrolimus concentrations in the transplanted organ could be more relevant to predict rejection events. Because liver biopsy cannot be repeatedly performed after liver transplantation, we suggested measuring tacrolimus in the bile to have a cost-effective and clinically implementable surrogate marker of intra-hepatic tacrolimus concentration. We developed and fully validated a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of tacrolimus in human bile. Sample purification was achieved using protein precipitation and liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl-acetate. Gradient elution was performed using a C18 analytical column with a 5min run-time. The method was linear from 0.5ng/mL to 20ng/mL. In this concentration range, within-day and between-day precisions as well as overall bias were within ±15%. Matrix effect was fully corrected by the internal standard (ascomycin). The assay was optimized to achieve good selectivity in this complex biological matrix. Tacrolimus was found to be stable in bile stored 6 months at -80°C, after 3 freeze and thaw cycles, 20h at room temperature and 24h in extracts kept at 15°C in the auto-sampler. The method was applied to quantify tacrolimus in bile from liver transplant recipients. It allowed getting preliminary data about tacrolimus excretion profile in bile and showed the lack of correlation between tacrolimus whole blood concentration and tacrolimus liver exposition. This alternative and innovative analytical approach of tacrolimus bio-analysis appears suitable for further studies evaluating relevance of biliary tacrolimus concentration as a new pharmacological marker of immunosuppressive activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The onset risk of carcinoma in patients continuing tacrolimus topical treatment for oral lichen planus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Morita, Mayu; Asoda, Seiji; Tsunoda, Kazuyuki; Soma, Tomoya; Nakagawa, Taneaki; Shirakawa, Masayori; Shoji, Hirofumi; Yagishita, Hisao; Nishikawa, Takeji; Kawana, Hiromasa

    2017-04-01

    Oral lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disease. Topical use of steroids and other immuno-modulating therapies have been tried for this intractable condition. Nowadays, tacrolimus ointment is used more commonly as a choice for treatment. However, a number of discussions have taken place after tacrolimus was reported to be carcinogenic. This report describes a patient who applied tacrolimus ointment to the lower lip after being diagnosed with oral lichen planus in 2008, and whose lesion developed squamous cell carcinoma in 2010. Since the relationship between tacrolimus and cancer development has been reported in only a few cases, including this case report, the clinician must be careful selecting tacrolimus as a second-line treatment for oral lichen planus.

  17. Open-Label, Randomized Study of Transition From Tacrolimus to Sirolimus Immunosuppression in Renal Allograft Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Tedesco-Silva, Helio; Peddi, V. Ram; Sánchez-Fructuoso, Ana; Marder, Brad A.; Russ, Graeme R.; Diekmann, Fritz; Flynn, Alison; Hahn, Carolyn M.; Li, Huihua; Tortorici, Michael A.; Schulman, Seth L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Calcineurin inhibitor–associated nephrotoxicity and other adverse events have prompted efforts to minimize/eliminate calcineurin inhibitor use in kidney transplant recipients. Methods This open-label, randomized, multinational study evaluated the effect of planned transition from tacrolimus to sirolimus on kidney function in renal allograft recipients. Patients received tacrolimus-based immunosuppression and then were randomized 3 to 5 months posttransplantation to transition to sirolimus or continue tacrolimus. The primary end point was percentage of patients with 5 mL/min per 1.73 m2 or greater improvement in estimated glomerular filtration rate from randomization to month 24. Results The on-therapy population included 195 patients (sirolimus, 86; tacrolimus, 109). No between-group difference was noted in percentage of patients with 5 mL/min per 1.73 m2 or greater estimated glomerular filtration rate improvement (sirolimus, 34%; tacrolimus, 42%; P = 0.239) at month 24. Sirolimus patients had higher rates of biopsy-confirmed acute rejection (8% vs 2%; P = 0.02), treatment discontinuation attributed to adverse events (21% vs 3%; P < 0.001), and lower rates of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin (0% vs 5%; P = 0.012). Conclusions Our findings suggest that renal function improvement at 24 months is similar for patients with early conversion to sirolimus after kidney transplantation versus those remaining on tacrolimus. PMID:27500260

  18. Development of a Simple and Rapid Method to Measure the Free Fraction of Tacrolimus in Plasma Using Ultrafiltration and LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Stienstra, Nicolaas A; Sikma, Maaike A; van Dapperen, Anouk L; de Lange, Dylan W; van Maarseveen, Erik M

    2016-12-01

    Tacrolimus is an immunosuppressant mainly used in the prophylaxis of solid organ transplant rejection. Therapeutic drug monitoring of tacrolimus is essential for avoiding toxicity related to overexposure and transplant rejection from underexposure. Previous studies suggest that unbound tacrolimus concentrations in the plasma may serve as a better predictor of tacrolimus-associated nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity compared to tacrolimus concentration in whole blood. Monitoring the plasma concentrations of unbound tacrolimus might be of interest in preventing tacrolimus-related toxicity. Therefore, the aim was to develop a method for the measurement of total and unbound tacrolimus concentrations in plasma. The sample preparation for the determination of the plasma concentrations of unbound tacrolimus consisted of an easy-to-use ultrafiltration method followed by solid-phase extraction. To determine the total concentration of tacrolimus in plasma, a simple method based on protein precipitation was developed. The extracts were injected into a Thermo Scientific HyPurity C18 column using gradient elution. The analytes were detected by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with positive ionization. The method was validated over a linear range of 1.00-200 ng/L for unbound tacrolimus concentrations in plasma and 100-3200 ng/L for total plasma concentrations. The lower limit of quantification was 1.00 ng/L in ultrafiltrate and 100 ng/L in plasma. The inaccuracy and imprecision for the determination of unbound tacrolimus concentrations in ultrafiltrate and plasma showed a maximum coefficients of variation (CV) of 11.7% and a maximum bias of 3.8%. A rapid and easy method based on ultrafiltration and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was established to measure the total and unbound tacrolimus concentrations in plasma. This method can facilitate further investigations on the relationship between plasma concentrations of unbound tacrolimus and clinical

  19. Pharmacogenetic considerations for optimizing tacrolimus dosing in liver and kidney transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    Provenzani, Alessio; Santeusanio, Andrew; Mathis, Erin; Notarbartolo, Monica; Labbozzetta, Manuela; Poma, Paola; Provenzani, Ambra; Polidori, Carlo; Vizzini, Giovanni; Polidori, Piera; D’Alessandro, Natale

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of tacrolimus in clinical practice has improved patient survival after organ transplant. However, despite the long use of tacrolimus in clinical practice, the best way to use this agent is still a matter of intense debate. The start of the genomic era has generated new research areas, such as pharmacogenetics, which studies the variability of drug response in relation to the genetic factors involved in the processes responsible for the pharmacokinetics and/or the action mechanism of a drug in the body. This variability seems to be correlated with the presence of genetic polymorphisms. Genotyping is an attractive option especially for the initiation of the dosing of tacrolimus; also, unlike phenotypic tests, the genotype is a stable characteristic that needs to be determined only once for any given gene. However, prospective clinical studies must show that genotype determination before transplantation allows for better use of a given drug and improves the safety and clinical efficacy of that medication. At present, research has been able to reliably show that the CYP3A5 genotype, but not the CYP3A4 or ABCB1 ones, can modify the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus. However, it has not been possible to incontrovertibly show that the corresponding changes in the pharmacokinetic profile are linked with different patient outcomes regarding tacrolimus efficacy and toxicity. For these reasons, pharmacogenetics and individualized medicine remain a fascinating area for further study and may ultimately become the face of future medical practice and drug dosing. PMID:24409044

  20. A randomized, crossover pharmacokinetic study comparing generic tacrolimus vs. the reference formulation in subpopulations of kidney transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Bloom, R D; Trofe-Clark, J; Wiland, A; Alloway, R R

    2013-01-01

    An exploratory, post hoc analysis was performed using data from a prospective, multicenter, open-label, randomized, two-period (14 d per period), two-sequence, crossover, steady-state pharmacokinetic study comparing generic tacrolimus (Sandoz) vs. reference tacrolimus in stable renal transplant patients receiving their pre-study twice-daily dose. Pharmacokinetic parameters were compared in 68 patients according to gender, African American ethnicity, the presence or absence of diabetes, and use of steroids. The ratios of tacrolimus AUC0-12 h , Cmax , and C12 with generic vs. reference tacrolimus were calculated using the geometric mean (GM) of dose-normalized values at days 14 and 28. Mean (SD) tacrolimus dose at baseline was 5.7 (4.2) mg/d. There were no consistent differences in dose-normalized AUC0-12 h , C12 , Cmax, or tmax between the generic and reference preparations within subpopulations. The 90% confidence intervals (CI) for the ratios of dose-normalized AUC0-12 h and C12 with generic vs. reference tacrolimus were within 80-125% for all subpopulations, as were 90% CIs for Cmax other than for females, African Americans, and non-diabetics, which is not unexpected given the wide variability of tacrolimus Cmax and the small subpopulation sizes. These exploratory results suggest that this generic tacrolimus preparation would be expected to offer comparable bioavailability to the reference drug in these patient subpopulations. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Tacrolimus hydrate ointment inhibits skin plasma extravasation in rats induced by topical m-xylene but not capsaicin.

    PubMed

    Goto, Shiho; Kondo, Fumio; Ikai, Yoshitomo; Miyake, Mio; Futamura, Masaki; Ito, Komei; Sakamoto, Tatsuo

    2009-04-17

    Tacrolimus ointment is used to treat various chronic inflammatory skin diseases. However, the effect of this ointment on acute neurogenic inflammation in the skin remains to be fully elucidated. Topical capsaicin and m-xylene produce tachykinin release from sensory nerves in the skin, resulting in skin plasma leakage. We investigated the effect of tacrolimus ointment (0.1%) on skin microvascular leakage induced by topical capsaicin (10 mM) and m-xylene (neat), and intracutaneous compound 48/80 (c48/80) (10 microg/ml, 50 microl/site) in two groups of rats pretreated with excessive capsaicin or its vehicle. The amount of leaked Evans blue dye reflected skin plasma leakage. Capsaicin, m-xylene or c48/80 was applied to the shaved abdomens of rats 8 h after topical application of tacrolimus ointment or its base. Desensitization with capsaicin reduced the skin response to capsaicin and m-xylene by 100% and 65%, respectively, but not to c48/80. Tacrolimus ointment significantly inhibited the skin response induced by m-xylene and c48/80, regardless of pretreatment with capsaicin. However, topical tacrolimus did not influence the skin response induced by capsaicin. We also evaluated whether topical capsaicin and m-xylene, and intracutaneous c48/80 cause mast cell degranulation in skin treated with tacrolimus. Mast cell degranulation was microscopically assessed. Topical tacrolimus only significantly suppressed degranulation induced by m-xylene and c48/80. Our data shows that tacrolimus ointment partially inhibits plasma leakage and mast cell degranulation in rat skin induced by m-xylene and c48/80 but not capsaicin, suggesting that the inhibitory effect is not associated with a reduction in neurogenic-mediated mechanisms.

  2. Evaluation of the Ocular Tolerance of Three Tacrolimus Topical Pharmaceutical Preparations by Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability Test.

    PubMed

    Pastor-Clerigues, Alfonso; Serrano, Adela; Milara, Javier; Marti-Bonmati, Ezequiel; Lopez-Perez, Francisco J; Garcia-Montanes, Sara; Sanfeliu, Joan; Saval-Victoria, Ana C; Cortijo, Julio

    2016-07-01

    Tacrolimus ocular preparations are commonly employed in autoimmune or inflammatory ocular disorders. However, currently there are not yet approved ocular formulations. Tacrolimus ocular side effects have been reported in clinical use, so the evaluation of different pharmaceutical preparations is mandatory. In this study, the local corneal tolerance and safety profile of three common tacrolimus 0.03% pharmaceutical preparations were evaluated. Corneal irritation and permeability of tacrolimus preparations were evaluated with the bovine corneal opacity and permeability (BCOP) test. Complementary corneal hematoxylin/eosin and immunohistochemistry staining for tight junctions and adherent junctions E-cadherin, VE-cadherin and zonula occludens-1 were examined and scored to evaluate and to confirm corneal disruption and irritation scores obtained with the BCOP method. Commercial brand ointment (Protopic®), topical compounded eye ointment (pharmacy elaboration) and tacrolimus suspension eye drops (elaborated from parenteral prograf®) were tested as potential ocular preparations to be used in clinics. Tacrolimus preparations hereby studied do not alter the opacity and permeability of the bovine cornea by more than three units, measured by the In Vitro Irritancy Score, neither affected the immunohistochemical parameters, composite score or transepithelial electrical resistance. Tacrolimus preparations studied can be safely applied as a topical ocular treatment.

  3. Population pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus in paediatric systemic lupus erythematosus based on real-world study.

    PubMed

    Wang, D-D; Lu, J-M; Li, Q; Li, Z-P

    2018-05-15

    Different population pharmacokinetics (PPK) models of tacrolimus have been established in various populations. However, the tacrolimus PPK model in paediatric systemic lupus erythematosus (PSLE) is still undefined. This study aimed to establish the tacrolimus PPK model in Chinese PSLE. A total of nineteen Chinese patients with PSLE from real-world study were characterized with nonlinear mixed-effects modelling (NONMEM). The impact of demographic features, biological characteristics, and concomitant medications was evaluated. Model validation was assessed by bootstrap and prediction-corrected visual predictive check (VPC). A one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination was determined to be the most suitable model in PSLE. The typical values of apparent oral clearance (CL/F) and the apparent volume of distribution (V/F) in the final model were 2.05 L/h and 309 L, respectively. Methylprednisolone and simvastatin were included as significant. The first validated tacrolimus PPK model in patients with PSLE is presented. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Nano-liposomal dry powder inhaler of tacrolimus: preparation, characterization, and pulmonary pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Chougule, Mahavir; Padhi, Bijay; Misra, Ambikanandan

    2007-01-01

    The studies were undertaken to evaluate feasibility of pulmonary delivery of liposomaly encapsulated tacrolimus dry powder inhaler for prolonged drug retention in lungs as rescue therapy to prevent refractory rejection of lungs after transplantation. Tacrolimus encapsulated liposomes were prepared by thin film evaporation technique and liposomal dispersion was passed through high pressure homogenizer. Tacrolimus nano-liposomes (NLs) were separated by centrifugation and characterized. NLs were dispersed in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) pH 7.4 containing different additives like lactose, sucrose, and trehalose, and L-leucine as antiadherent. The dispersion was spray dried and spray dried powders were characterized. In vitro and in vivo pulmonary deposition was performed using Andersen Cascade Impactor and intratracheal instillation in rats respectively. NLs were found to have average size of 140 nm, 96% +/- 1.5% drug entrapment, and zeta potential of 1.107 mV. Trehalose based formulation was found to have low density, good flowability, particle size of 9.46 +/- 0.8 microm, maximum fine particle fraction (FPF) of 71.1 +/- 2.5%, mean mass aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) 2.2 +/- 0.1 microm, and geometric standard deviation (GSD) 1.7 +/- 0.2. Developed formulations were found to have in vitro prolonged drug release up to 18 hours, following Higuchi's Controlled Release model. In vivo studies revealed maximal residence of tacrolimus within lungs of 24 hours, suggesting slow clearance from the lungs. The investigation provides a practical approach for direct delivery of tacrolimus encapsulated in NLs for controlled and prolonged retention at the site of action. It may play a promising role as rescue therapy in reducing the risk of acute rejection and chronic rejection.

  5. The cost effectiveness of tacrolimus versus microemulsified cyclosporin: a 10-year model of renal transplantation outcomes.

    PubMed

    Orme, Michelle E; Jurewicz, Wieslaw A; Kumar, Nagappan; McKechnie, Tracy L

    2003-01-01

    In 1983, the launch of cyclosporin was a significant clinical advance for organ transplant recipients. Subsequent drug research led to further advances with the introduction of cyclosporin microemulsion (cyclosporin ME) and tacrolimus. This paper presents the results from a long-term model comparing the clinical and economic outcomes associated with cyclosporin ME and tacrolimus immunosuppression for the prevention of graft rejection following renal transplantation. A model was developed to project the costs and outcomes over a 10-year period following transplantation. The model was based on the results of a prospective, randomised study of 179 renal transplantation recipients receiving either cyclosporin ME or tacrolimus, which was conducted by the Welsh Transplantation Research Group (median follow-up: 2.7 years). The short-term costs and outcomes were the averages from the actual head-to-head trial data. From this, the long-term costs and outcomes were extrapolated based on the rate of change in patient and graft survival at 3, 5 and 10 years post transplant, as reported in the 1995 United Kingdom Transplant Support Service Authority Renal Transplant Audit. PERSPECTIVE AND YEAR OF COST DATA: The analysis was conducted from the perspective of a UK transplant unit. Costs were at 1999 prices (pounds sterling 1 = dollars US 1.42 = Euro 1.5) and costs and outcomes were discounted at 6% and 1.5%, respectively. The model estimated that 10 years after transplantation, the proportion of patients surviving was 56% of the cyclosporin ME cohort and 64% of the tacrolimus cohort. The cumulative cost of maintenance therapy at 10 years was pounds sterling 23204 per patient maintained on cyclosporin ME versus pounds sterling 23803 per patient on tacrolimus. The cost per survivor at 10 years was pounds sterling 37000 (tacrolimus) versus pounds sterling 41000 (cyclosporin ME) and the cost per patient with a functioning graft was pounds sterling 39000 versus pounds sterling 45000

  6. Development of extended-release solid dispersion granules of tacrolimus: evaluation of release mechanism and human oral bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Tsunashima, Daisuke; Yamashita, Kazunari; Ogawara, Ken-Ichi; Sako, Kazuhiro; Hakomori, Tadashi; Higaki, Kazutaka

    2017-12-01

    We aimed to prepare a once-daily modified-release oral formulation of tacrolimus by utilizing an extended-release granules (ERG). Extended-release granules were prepared using ethylcellulose (EC), hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and lactose via a solvent evaporation method with ethanol. Physicochemical and biopharmaceutical studies were performed to determine the formulation with optimum release profile of tacrolimus from ERG. Tacrolimus existed in an amorphous state in ERG. Tacrolimus release from ERG was attenuated by EC and facilitated by lactose, suggesting that drug release kinetics could adequately be regulated by these components. Those release profiles were consistent with Higuchi's equation, suggesting a diffusion-type release mechanism. Smooth surface of ERG changed to the structure with pores after the release test, likely derived from the dissolution of HPMC and lactose. But ERG structure formed by EC was still maintained after the release test, leading to the longer maintenance of diffusion-type release. Two ERG formulations selected by blood concentration simulation successfully provided long-term retention of tacrolimus in blood in a human absorption study. We successfully developed the formulation exhibiting a significant reduction in C max , the longer mean residence time and AUC close to that of an immediate-release tacrolimus formulation, being preferred from the viewpoint of safe and effective immunosuppressant pharmacotherapy. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  7. Outcome of tacrolimus and vedolizumab after corticosteroid and anti-TNF failure in paediatric severe colitis.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Blaise; Wu, May; Hamel, Elizabeth O; Bass, Dorsey M; Park, K T

    2018-01-01

    Severe colitis flare from ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD) may be refractory to corticosteroids and antitumour necrosis factor (TNF) agents resulting in high colectomy rates. We aimed to describe the utility of tacrolimus to prevent colectomy during second-line vedolizumab initiation after corticosteroid and anti-TNF treatment failure in paediatric severe colitis. A retrospective cohort analysis was performed between 1 October 2014 and 31 October 2016 at a single tertiary care centre. Inclusion criteria were patients with severe colitis who received tacrolimus before or during vedolizumab induction and previous exposure to anti-TNF therapy with or without corticosteroids. The initiation of tacrolimus was clinician dependent based on an institutional protocol. Twelve patients (10 UC, two CD; median age 16 years; three female) received at least one dose of vedolizumab 10 mg/kg (max of 300 mg) due to anti-TNF therapy failure and persistent flare not responsive to corticosteroids. Of the 12 patients, eight (67%) and four (33%) had failed one or two anti-TNF agents, respectively. Tacrolimus was initiated for acute disease severity during hospitalisation (58%) or ongoing flare during outpatient care (42%). 9 (75%) of 12 patients avoided colectomy or inflammatory bowel disease-related surgery at 24 weeks and eight (68%) continued on vedolizumab maintenance with no adverse events out to 80 weeks. We report real-world data on the outcome of tacrolimus around vedolizumab initiation in paediatric UC or CD after corticosteroid and anti-TNF therapy treatment failure. Our pilot experience indicates a potential benefit of concomitant tacrolimus when initiating vedolizumab therapy.

  8. Tacrolimus Versus Cyclosporine as Primary Immunosuppressant After Renal Transplantation: A Meta-Analysis and Economics Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin-Yu; You, Ru-Xu; Guo, Min; Zeng, Lu; Zhou, Pu; Zhu, Lan; Xu, Gang; Li, Juan; Liu, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Tacrolimus and cyclosporine are the major immunosuppressants for renal transplantation. Several studies have compared these 2 drugs, but the outcomes were not consistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and pharmacoeconomics of cyclosporine and tacrolimus in the treatment of renal transplantation and provide evidence for the selection of essential drugs. Trials were identified through a computerized literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Cochrane Renal Group Specialized Register of randomized controlled trials, and Chinese Biomedical database. Two independent reviewers assessed trials for eligibility and quality and then extracted data. Data were extracted for patient and graft mortality, acute rejection, and adverse events. Dichotomous outcomes were reported as relative risk with 95% confidence intervals. A decision tree model was populated with data from a literature review and used to estimate costs and quality-adjusted life years gained and incremental cost-effectiveness. Altogether, 6137 patients from 27 randomized controlled trials were included. The results of our analysis were that tacrolimus reduced the risks after renal transplantation of patient mortality, graft loss, acute rejection, and hypercholesterolemia. Nevertheless, tacrolimus increased the risk of new-onset diabetes. Pharmacoeconomic analysis showed that tacrolimus represented a more cost-effective treatment than does cyclosporine for the prevention of adverse events following renal transplant. Tacrolimus is an effective and safe immunosuppressive agent and it may be more cost-effective than cyclosporine for the primary prevention of graft rejection in renal transplant recipients. However, new-onset diabetes should be closely monitored during the medication period.

  9. Comparison between the efficacy of microneedling combined with 5-fluorouracil vs microneedling with tacrolimus in the treatment of vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Mina, Mary; Elgarhy, Lamia; Al-Saeid, Hanan; Ibrahim, Zeinab

    2018-03-12

    Several treatment modalities had been used for the treatment of vitiligo, but the optimal treatment has not yet been identified. To study the efficacy of microneedling with 5-flurouracil vs its efficacy with tacrolimus in the treatment of vitiligo. Twenty-five patients with vitiligo were subjected to microneedling of 2 patches of vitiligo with dermapen, then application of 5-fluorouracil to 1 patch and tacrolimus on the other patch. This procedure was repeated every 2 weeks for every patient for maximum 6 months (12 sessions). The patients were followed up for 3 months after the last session. The overall repigmentation was significantly higher in 5-fluorouracil-treated patches compared with tacrolimus. Excellent improvement occurred in 48% of 5- flurouracil-treated patches while only in 16% of tacrolimus-treated patches. In the acral parts, 40% of the patches treated with 5-fluorouracil achieved excellent improvement (repigmentation >75%), while no patch in the acral parts achieved excellent improvement with tacrolimus. However, there was significant difference between the 2 drugs,regarding inflammation, ulceration, and hyperpigmentation which occurred with 5-fluorouracil. Microneedling combined with 5-fluorouracil or tacrolimus is safe and effective treatment of vitiligo. However, 5-fluorouracil achieved a greater percentage of repigmentation than tacrolimus particularly in the acral parts. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Topical tacrolimus for parastomal pyoderma gangrenosum: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Altieri, Maria; Vaziri, Khashayar; Orkin, Bruce A

    2010-09-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is an idiopathic, ulcerative, inflammatory dermatologic condition that occurs in patients with systemic diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This inflammatory skin disorder is presumably caused by an autoimmune mechanism and the diagnosis is one of exclusion. PG is not a common condition but it is thought to account for approximately 50% of chronic parastomal ulcers. Refractory parastomal PG (PPG) occurs in patients with inactive disease or after bowel resection. Multiple medical treatments, ranging from topical agents for mild disease to systemic immunosuppressive therapy for severe disease, have been used with varying rates of success. Using topical tacrolimus, an immunosuppressant that inhibits T-lymphocyte proliferation, and meticulous stoma care can result in successful treatment. Two women (ages 59 and 62 years) with a history of ulcerative colitis and colon resection presented with parastomal ulcers consistent with PPG. The 59-year patient presented with a painful 2 cm x 2 cm parastomal ulcer that improved following daily application of topical tacrolimus 0.1%. The 62-year old woman first was prescribed daily appliance changes and application of topical triamcinolone 0.5% to her 3-cm ulcer. The ulcer increased in size and treatment was changed to daily application of tacrolimus 0.1%. After 2 months and a reduction in ulcer size and severity, the dosage was changed to daily application of tacrolimus 0.03%. Both patients reported resolution of pain and itching, the most common symptoms of PPG, and no adverse effects were observed. The encouraging results observed in these two cases confirm that tacrolimus helps resolve PPG lesions even at concentrations previously thought to be ineffective. Additional studies to help clinicians optimize care of these painful lesions are needed.

  11. Nano-liposomal dry powder inhaler of tacrolimus: Preparation, characterization, and pulmonary pharmacokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Chougule, Mahavir; Padhi, Bijay; Misra, Ambikanandan

    2007-01-01

    The studies were undertaken to evaluate feasibility of pulmonary delivery of liposomaly encapsulated tacrolimus dry powder inhaler for prolonged drug retention in lungs as rescue therapy to prevent refractory rejection of lungs after transplantation. Tacrolimus encapsulated liposomes were prepared by thin film evaporation technique and liposomal dispersion was passed through high pressure homogenizer. Tacrolimus nano-liposomes (NLs) were separated by centrifugation and characterized. NLs were dispersed in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) pH 7.4 containing different additives like lactose, sucrose, and trehalose, and L-leucine as antiadherent. The dispersion was spray dried and spray dried powders were characterized. In vitro and in vivo pulmonary deposition was performed using Andersen Cascade Impactor and intratracheal instillation in rats respectively. NLs were found to have average size of 140 nm, 96% ± 1.5% drug entrapment, and zeta potential of 1.107 mV. Trehalose based formulation was found to have low density, good flowability, particle size of 9.46 ± 0.8 μm, maximum fine particle fraction (FPF) of 71.1 ± 2.5%, mean mass aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) 2.2 ± 0.1 μm, and geometric standard deviation (GSD) 1.7 ± 0.2. Developed formulations were found to have in vitro prolonged drug release up to 18 hours, following Higuchi’s Controlled Release model. In vivo studies revealed maximal residence of tacrolimus within lungs of 24 hours, suggesting slow clearance from the lungs. The investigation provides a practical approach for direct delivery of tacrolimus encapsulated in NLs for controlled and prolonged retention at the site of action. It may play a promising role as rescue therapy in reducing the risk of acute rejection and chronic rejection. PMID:18203434

  12. Erratic tacrolimus exposure, assessed using the standard deviation of trough blood levels, predicts chronic lung allograft dysfunction and survival.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Harry M; Sarwar, Ghulam; Tse, Tracy; Sladden, Timothy M; Hii, Esmond; Yerkovich, Stephanie T; Hopkins, Peter M; Chambers, Daniel C

    2015-11-01

    Erratic tacrolimus blood levels are associated with liver and kidney graft failure. We hypothesized that erratic tacrolimus exposure would similarly compromise lung transplant outcomes. This study assessed the effect of tacrolimus mean and standard deviation (SD) levels on the risk of chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) and death after lung transplantation. We retrospectively reviewed 110 lung transplant recipients who received tacrolimus-based immunosuppression. Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to investigate the effect of tacrolimus mean and SD levels on survival and CLAD. At census, 48 patients (44%) had developed CLAD and 37 (34%) had died. Tacrolimus SD was highest for the first 6 post-transplant months (median, 4.01; interquartile range [IQR], 3.04-4.98 months) before stabilizing at 2.84 μg/liter (IQR, 2.16-4.13 μg/liter) between 6 and 12 months. The SD then remained the same (median, 2.85; IQR, 2.00-3.77 μg/liter) between 12 and 24 months. A high mean tacrolimus level 6 to 12 months post-transplant independently reduced the risk of CLAD (hazard ratio [HR], 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63-0.86; p < 0.001) but not death (HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.83-1.12; p = 0.65). In contrast, a high tacrolimus SD between 6 and 12 months independently increased the risk of CLAD (HR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.23-1.73; p < 0.001) and death (HR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.08-1.51; p = 0.005). Erratic tacrolimus levels are a risk factor for poor lung transplant outcomes. Identifying and modifying factors that contribute to this variability may significantly improve outcomes. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of gingival alterations in rats medicated with cyclosporine A, tacrolimus and sirolimus: a stereological study.

    PubMed

    Pamuk, F; Cetinkaya, B O; Ayas, B; Keles, G C; Gacar, A

    2015-10-01

    It has previously been shown that both cyclosporine A and tacrolimus cause gingival overgrowth in the rat. We proposed that sirolimus may play an important role in decreasing the severity of gingival overgrowth. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the gingival changes induced by immunosuppressants, in the presence and absence of sirolimus, using histopathology and stereological methods. Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were distributed into six treatment groups, each containing six rats, as follows: (i) cyclosporine A for 8 wk; (ii) tacrolimus for 8 wk; (iii) sirolimus for 8 wk; (iv) cyclosporine A + sirolimus for 8 wk; (v) tacrolimus + sirolimus for 8 wk; and (vi) distilled water for 8 wk. Histomorphometric analyses included measurements of epithelial thickness and connective tissue width and height. Stereological analyses included measurements of volumetric densities of fibroblasts (Vf ), collagen fibers (Vcf ) and blood vessels (Vbv ). Connective tissue width and height were significantly increased in cyclosporine A, tacrolimus and cyclosporine A + sirolimus groups compared with the control group (p < 0.05), and epithelial thickness was significantly increased in the cyclosporine A group and tacrolimus group compared with the control group (p < 0.05). Vf was significantly increased in the cyclosporine A group and the tacrolimus group compared with the control group (p < 0.05), whereas Vcf and Vbv were significantly increased in the cyclosporine A, tacrolimus and cyclosporine A + sirolimus groups compared with the control group (p < 0.05). The results of the study suggest that sirolimus seems not to be associated with gingival overgrowth, and combined usage of sirolimus and immunosuppressants decreases the severity of gingival overgrowth. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Sirolimus Associated with Tacrolimus at Low Doses in Elderly Kidney Transplant Patients: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Cristiane Akemi; Nga, Hong Si; Takase, Henrique Mochida; Bravin, Ariane Moyses; Martinez Garcia, Márcia de Fátima Faraldo; Garcia, Paula Dalsoglio; Contti, Mariana Moraes; de Andrade, Luis Gustavo Modelli

    2018-06-01

    There is no consensus on the best immunosuppressive regimen for elderly renal transplant recipients. The objective of this study was to assess cytomegalovirus infection incidence and kidney transplant outcomes in elderly recipients treated with mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors sirolimus/ tacrolimus at low doses compared with those receiving tacrolimus/mycophenolate sodium. In this single-center prospective randomized study (Trial Registration No. NCT02683291), kidney transplant recipients over 60 years of age were randomly allocated into 2 groups: tacrolimus-sirolimus (21 patients) and tacrolimus-mycophenolate (23 patients). Cytomegalovirus infection rate and patient survival, biopsy-proven acute rejection, and renal function at 12 months were assessed. Cytomegalovirus infection rate was higher in the mycophenolate group (60.9%) than in the sirolimus group (16.7%; P = .004). The rates of biopsy-proven acute rejection, patient survival, graft survival, and estimated glomerular filtration rate over 12 months did not significantly differ between groups. The incidence of cytomegalovirus infection was significantly lower in the sirolimus group. The use of tacrolimus combined with sirolimus in elderly kidney transplant recipients is safe.

  15. Using Supercritical Fluid Technology (SFT) in Preparation of Tacrolimus Solid Dispersions.

    PubMed

    Obaidat, Rana M; Tashtoush, Bassam M; Awad, Alaa Abu; Al Bustami, Rana T

    2017-02-01

    Tacrolimus is an immunosuppressant agent that suffers from poor and variable bioavailability. This can be related to limited solubility and dissolution. The main objective of this study is to use SFT to prepare solid dispersions of tacrolimus in order to enhance its dissolution. SFT was selected since it offers several advantages over conventional techniques such as efficiency and stability. Several solid dispersions of tacrolimus were prepared using SFT to enhance its dissolution. The selected polymers included soluplus, PVP, HPMC, and porous chitosan. TPGS was used as a surfactant additive with chitosan, HPMC, and PVP. Soluplus dispersions were used to study the effect of processing parameters (time, temperature, and pressure) on loading efficiency (LE) and dissolution of the preparation. Physicochemical characterization was performed using DSC, X-ray diffraction, FTIR analysis, SEM, and in vitro drug release. Stability testing was evaluated after 3 months for selected dispersions. Significant improvement for the release profile was achieved for the prepared dispersions. Better release achieved in the soluplus dispersions which reached maximum cumulative release equal to 98.76% after 24 h. Drug precipitated in its amorphous form in all prepared dispersions except those prepared from chitosan. All dispersions were physically stable except for PVP preparations that contained TPGS which started to re-crystallize after one month. Prepared dispersions were proved to be affected by supercritical processing parameters. In conclusion, SFT was successfully used to prepare dispersions of tacrolimus that exhibited higher dissolution than raw drug. Dissolution rate and stability are affected by the type of the polymer.

  16. Immunophenotype of infiltrating cells in protocol renal allograft biopsies from tacrolimus-versus cyclosporine-treated patients.

    PubMed

    Serón, Daniel; O'Valle, Francisco; Moreso, Francesc; Gomà, Montse; Hueso, Miguel; Grinyó, Josep M; Garcia del Moral, Raimundo

    2007-03-15

    The prevalence of subclinical rejection is lower in patients receiving tacrolimus than in patients treated with cyclosporine. However, it is not known whether this difference is related to the modulation of a specific cell immunophenotype. We perform a two case-one control study in patients treated with tacrolimus (n=44) or cyclosporine (n=22) with a protocol biopsy performed at 4 to 6 months. Immunophenotype of infiltrating cells was evaluated with monoclonal antibodies directed against CD45 (all leukocytes), CD3 (T lymphocytes), CD68 (monocytes/macrophages), and CD20 (B lymphocytes) and expressed as interstitial positive cells/mm(2). The number of interstitial CD45 (290+/-209 vs. 696+/-560; P<0.01), CD3 (121+/-84 vs. 208+/-104; P<0.01), and CD68 (155+/-232 vs. 242+/-280; P<0.05) but not CD20 (137+/-119 vs. 197+/-154) positive cells was lower in tacrolimus-treated patients. T lymphocytes and macrophages interstitial infiltration was reduced in tacrolimus treated patients evaluated with protocol biopsies in comparison to cyclosporine-treated patients.

  17. Large-Scale Variability of Inpatient Tacrolimus Therapeutic Drug Monitoring at an Academic Transplant Center: a Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Strohbehn, Garth W; Pan, Warren W; Petrilli, Christopher M; Heidemann, Lauren; Larson, Sophia; Aaronson, Keith D; Johnson, Matt; Ellies, Tammy; Heung, Michael

    2018-04-30

    Inpatient tacrolimus therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) lacks standardized guidelines. In this study, the authors analyzed variability in the pre-analytical phase of the inpatient tacrolimus TDM process at their institution. Patients receiving tacrolimus (twice-daily formulation) and tacrolimus laboratory analysis were included in the study. Times of tacrolimus administration and laboratory study collection were extracted and time distribution plots for each step in the inpatient TDM process were generated. Trough levels were drawn appropriately in 25.9% of the cases. Timing between doses was consistent, with 91.9% of the following dose administrations occurring 12 +/- 2 hours after the previous dose. Only 38.1% of the drug administrations occurred within one hour of laboratory study collection. Tacrolimus-related patient safety events were reported at a rate of 1.9 events per month while incorrect timing of TDM sample collection occurred approximately 200 times per month. Root cause analysis identified a TDM process marked by a lack of communication and coordination of drug administration and TDM sample collection. Extrapolating findings nationwide, we estimate $22 million in laboratory costs wasted annually. Based on this large single-center study, the authors concluded that the inpatient TDM process is prone to timing errors, thus is financially wasteful, and at its worst harmful to patients due to clinical decisions being made on the basis of unreliable data. Further work is needed on systems solutions to better align the laboratory study collection and drug administration processes.

  18. Design and physicochemical characterization of advanced spray-dried tacrolimus multifunctional particles for inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiao; Hayes, Don; Zwischenberger, Joseph B; Kuhn, Robert J; Mansour, Heidi M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design, develop, and optimize respirable tacrolimus microparticles and nanoparticles and multifunctional tacrolimus lung surfactant mimic particles for targeted dry powder inhalation delivery as a pulmonary nanomedicine. Particles were rationally designed and produced at different pump rates by advanced spray-drying particle engineering design from organic solution in closed mode. In addition, multifunctional tacrolimus lung surfactant mimic dry powder particles were prepared by co-dissolving tacrolimus and lung surfactant mimic phospholipids in methanol, followed by advanced co-spray-drying particle engineering design technology in closed mode. The lung surfactant mimic phospholipids were 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-[phosphor-rac-1-glycerol]. Laser diffraction particle sizing indicated that the particle size distributions were suitable for pulmonary delivery, whereas scanning electron microscopy imaging indicated that these particles had both optimal particle morphology and surface morphology. Increasing the pump rate percent of tacrolimus solution resulted in a larger particle size. X-ray powder diffraction patterns and differential scanning calorimetry thermograms indicated that spray drying produced particles with higher amounts of amorphous phase. X-ray powder diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry also confirmed the preservation of the phospholipid bilayer structure in the solid state for all engineered respirable particles. Furthermore, it was observed in hot-stage micrographs that raw tacrolimus displayed a liquid crystal transition following the main phase transition, which is consistent with its interfacial properties. Water vapor uptake and lyotropic phase transitions in the solid state at varying levels of relative humidity were determined by gravimetric vapor sorption technique. Water content in the various powders was very low and well within the levels necessary

  19. Switching Stable Kidney Transplant Recipients to a Generic Tacrolimus Is Feasible and Safe, but It Must Be Monitored.

    PubMed

    González, Fernando; López, René; Arriagada, Elizabeth; Carrasco, René; Gallardo, Natalia; Lorca, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Background . Tacrolimus is the primary immunosuppressive drug used in kidney transplant patients. Replacing brand name products with generics is a controversial issue that we studied after a Chilean Ministry of Health mandate to implement such a switch. Methods . Forty-one stable Prograf (Astellas) receiving kidney transplant patients were switched to a generic tacrolimus (Sandoz) in a 1 : 1 dose ratio and were followed up for up to 8 months. All other drugs were maintained as per normal practice. Results . Neither tacrolimus doses nor their trough blood levels changed significantly after the switch, but serum creatinine did: 1.62 ± 0.90 versus 1.75 ± 0.92 mg/dL ( p < 0.001). At the same time, five graft biopsies were performed, and two of them showed cellular acute rejection. There were nine infectious episodes treated satisfactorily with proper therapies. No patient or graft was lost during the follow-up time period. Conclusion . Switching from brand name tacrolimus to a generic tacrolimus (Sandoz) is feasible and appears to be safe, but it must be monitored carefully by treating physicians.

  20. Tacrolimus potently inhibits human osteoclastogenesis induced by IL-17 from human monocytes alone and suppresses human Th17 differentiation.

    PubMed

    Yago, Toru; Nanke, Yuki; Kawamoto, Manabu; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Kotake, Shigeru

    2012-08-01

    Tacrolimus (FK506, Prograf®) is an orally available, T cell specific and anti-inflammatory agent that has been proposed as a therapeutic drug in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. It has been known that T cells have a critical role in the pathogenesis of RA. Recent studies suggest that Th17 cells, which mainly produce IL-17, are involved in many autoimmune inflammatory disease including RA. The present study was undertaken to assess the effect of tacrolimus on IL-17-induced human osteoclastogenesis and human Th17 differentiation. Human CD14(+) monocytes were cultured in the presence of macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and IL-17. From day 4, tacrolimus was added to these cultures. Osteoclasts were immunohistologically stained for vitronectin receptor 10days later. IL-17 production from activated T cells stimulated with IL-23 was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Th17 differentiation from naïve T cells was assayed by flow cytometry. Tacrolimus potently inhibited IL-17-induced osteoclastogenesis from human monocytes and osteoclast activation. Addition of tacrolimus also reduced production of IL-17 in human activated T cells stimulated with IL-23. Interestingly, the population of human IL-17(+)IFN-γ(-) CD4 T cells or IL-17(+)TNF-α(+) CD4 T cells were decreased by adding of tacrolimus. The present study demonstrates that the inhibitory effect of tacrolimus on IL-17-induced osteoclastogenesis from human monocytes. Tacrolimus also inhibited expression of IL-17 or TNF-α by reducing the proportion of Th17, suggesting that therapeutic effect on Th17-associated disease such as RA, inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, or allograft rejection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Stability of tacrolimus injection diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and stored in Excel bags.

    PubMed

    Myers, Alan L; Zhang, Yanping; Kawedia, Jitesh D; Shank, Brandon R; Deaver, Melissa A; Kramer, Mark A

    2016-12-15

    The chemical stability and physical compatibility of tacrolimus i.v. infusion solutions prepared in Excel bags and stored at 23 or 4 °C for up to nine days were studied. Tacrolimus admixtures (2, 4, and 8 μg/mL) were prepared in Excel bags using 0.9% sodium chloride injection and stored at 23 °C without protection from light or at 4 °C in the dark. Test samples were withdrawn from triplicate bag solutions immediately after preparation and at predetermined time intervals (1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 days). Chemical stability was assessed by measuring tacrolimus concentrations using a validated stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography assay. The physical stability of the admixtures was assessed by visual examination and by measuring turbidity, particle size, and drug content. All test solutions stored at 23 or 4 °C had a no greater than 6% loss of the initial tacrolimus concentration throughout the nine-day study period. All test samples of tacrolimus admixtures, under both storage conditions, were without precipitation and remained clear initially and throughout the nine-day observation period. Changes in turbidities were minor; measured particulates remained few in number in all samples throughout the study. Extemporaneously prepared infusion solutions of tacrolimus 2, 4, and 8 μg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection in Excel bags were chemically and physically stable for at least nine days when stored at room temperature (23 °C) without protection from light and when stored in a refrigerator (4 °C) in the dark. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dyslipidaemia among renal transplant recipients: cyclosporine versus tacrolimus.

    PubMed

    Fazal, Muhammad Asim; Idrees, Muhammad Khalid; Akhtar, Syed Fazal

    2014-05-01

    To compare new onset dyslipidaemia in live-related renal transplant recipients taking cyclosporine versus tacrolimus after 3 months of therapy. The randomised controlled trial was conducted at the Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation (SIUT) Karachi, from September 2010 to April 2011, and included 182 End Stage Renal Disease patients on maintenance haemodialysis with pre-transplant normal lipid profile. The patients, who had live-related renal transplant, were randomly allocated to two equal groups using lottery. Group A received cyclosporine (3 mg/kg) and group B was treated with tacrolimus (0.1 mg/kg). All patients had pre-transplant fasting lipid profile checked when they were on maintenance haemodialysis and 3 months after renal transplantation. Serum fasting lipid profile was collected by taking 5 ml blood by venipuncture after an overnight fast of 9-12 hours. SPSS 10 was used for statistical analyses. Of the 182 patients, 144 (79.1%) were males and 38 (20.9%) were females. The overall mean age was 30.18 +/- 9.57 years, and the mean weight was 54.41 +/- 11.144 kg. Significant difference was not observed between the two groups regarding age and weight of the patients. Dyslipidaemia was found in 115(63.2%) subjects; 61(67%) in group A and 54 (59.3%) in group B. There was no statistical difference (p=0.28) when comparison was done after 3 months of therapy. The occurrence of new onset hyperlipidaemia is similar in renal transplant recipients receiving either cyclosporine or tacrolimus in first 3 months post-transplant, but there is room for more research in this field as dyslipidaemia following successful renal transplantation is a frequent and persistent complication.

  3. Betel Nut Chewing Is Associated With Reduced Tacrolimus Concentration in Taiwanese Liver Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Chen, W-Y; Lee, C-Y; Lin, P-Y; Hsieh, C-E; Ko, C-J; Lin, K-H; Lin, C-C; Ming, Y-Z; Chen, Y-L

    2017-03-01

    Studies have shown that arecoline, the major alkaloid component of betel nuts, alters the activity of enzymes in the cytochrome P450 (CYP-450) family. Tacrolimus, an immunosuppressant that protects against organ rejection in transplant recipients, not only is mainly metabolized by CYP3A enzymes but also has a narrow therapeutic range. We aimed to investigate whether dose-adjusted blood trough levels of tacrolimus differed over time between betel nut-chewing and non-betel nut-chewing liver transplant recipients. In this retrospective case-control study, 14 active betel nut-using liver recipients were matched at a 1:2 ratio to 28 non-betel nut-using liver recipients by sex, age, graft source, duration of follow-up after liver transplantation, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Differences in liver function index, renal function index, and dose-adjusted blood trough levels of tacrolimus over an 18-month period were compared between the 2 groups by using the Generalized Estimating Equation approach. Dose-adjusted blood trough levels of tacrolimus tended to be significantly (P = .04) lower in betel nut chewers (mean = 0.81, medium = 0.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.73 to 0.90) than in nonchewers (mean = 1.12, medium = 0.88, 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.22) during the 18-month study period. However, there was no significant difference in renal and liver function index between the 2 groups. Liver transplant recipients receiving tacrolimus tend to have lower blood trough levels of the drug over time if they chew betel nuts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [The therapeutic drug monitoring network server of tacrolimus for Chinese renal transplant patients].

    PubMed

    Deng, Chen-Hui; Zhang, Guan-Min; Bi, Shan-Shan; Zhou, Tian-Yan; Lu, Wei

    2011-07-01

    This study is to develop a therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) network server of tacrolimus for Chinese renal transplant patients, which can facilitate doctor to manage patients' information and provide three levels of predictions. Database management system MySQL was employed to build and manage the database of patients and doctors' information, and hypertext mark-up language (HTML) and Java server pages (JSP) technology were employed to construct network server for database management. Based on the population pharmacokinetic model of tacrolimus for Chinese renal transplant patients, above program languages were used to construct the population prediction and subpopulation prediction modules. Based on Bayesian principle and maximization of the posterior probability function, an objective function was established, and minimized by an optimization algorithm to estimate patient's individual pharmacokinetic parameters. It is proved that the network server has the basic functions for database management and three levels of prediction to aid doctor to optimize the regimen of tacrolimus for Chinese renal transplant patients.

  5. Albuminuria after renal transplantation: maintenance with sirolimus/low-dose tacrolimus vs. mycophenolate mofetil/high-dose tacrolimus.

    PubMed

    Miles, Clifford D; Skorupa, Jill Y; Sandoz, John P; Rigley, Theodore H; Nielsen, Kathleen J; Stevens, R Brian

    2011-01-01

    Maintenance immunosuppression with sirolimus (SRL) in renal transplantation has been associated with proteinuria. We report long-term outcomes of kidney transplant recipients maintained on steroid-free regimens, either SRL with low-dose tacrolimus (SRL/L-Tac) or mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) with high-dose tacrolimus (MMF/H-Tac). We conducted a case-matched study of 50 patients receiving MMF/H-Tac, matched 1:2 with 100 patients maintained on SRL/L-Tac. All patients were induced with rabbit antithymocyte globulin followed by early steroid withdrawal. Comparisons were made of patient and graft survival, graft function, acute rejection, and albuminuria. There were no significant differences between the SRL/L-Tac and MMF/H-Tac groups for patient survival, graft survival, occurrence of acute rejection, or graft function. There was no difference in the proportion of patients with albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) ≥300 μg/mg (19% vs. 20%), but more patients in the SRL group were receiving renin-angiotensin system blocking agents (72% vs. 53%, p = 0.04). Only flushing the donor kidney with histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate solution (vs. UW solution) was predictive of albuminuria. Long-term outcomes are similar at our center for kidney transplant patients receiving either SRL/L-Tac or MMF/H-Tac. Although the occurrence of albuminuria was not different, significantly more SRL-treated patients were receiving antiproteinuric medications. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Switching Stable Kidney Transplant Recipients to a Generic Tacrolimus Is Feasible and Safe, but It Must Be Monitored

    PubMed Central

    López, René; Arriagada, Elizabeth; Carrasco, René; Gallardo, Natalia; Lorca, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Background. Tacrolimus is the primary immunosuppressive drug used in kidney transplant patients. Replacing brand name products with generics is a controversial issue that we studied after a Chilean Ministry of Health mandate to implement such a switch. Methods. Forty-one stable Prograf (Astellas) receiving kidney transplant patients were switched to a generic tacrolimus (Sandoz) in a 1 : 1 dose ratio and were followed up for up to 8 months. All other drugs were maintained as per normal practice. Results. Neither tacrolimus doses nor their trough blood levels changed significantly after the switch, but serum creatinine did: 1.62 ± 0.90 versus 1.75 ± 0.92 mg/dL (p < 0.001). At the same time, five graft biopsies were performed, and two of them showed cellular acute rejection. There were nine infectious episodes treated satisfactorily with proper therapies. No patient or graft was lost during the follow-up time period. Conclusion. Switching from brand name tacrolimus to a generic tacrolimus (Sandoz) is feasible and appears to be safe, but it must be monitored carefully by treating physicians. PMID:28246556

  7. Artificial neural network model for predicting the bioavailability of tacrolimus in patients with renal transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Thishya, Kalluri; Vattam, Kiran Kumar; Naushad, Shaik Mohammad; Raju, Shree Bhushan

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to explore the role of ABCB1 and CYP3A5 genetic polymorphisms in predicting the bioavailability of tacrolimus and the risk for post-transplant diabetes. Artificial neural network (ANN) and logistic regression (LR) models were used to predict the bioavailability of tacrolimus and risk for post-transplant diabetes, respectively. The five-fold cross-validation of ANN model showed good correlation with the experimental data of bioavailability (r2 = 0.93–0.96). Younger age, male gender, optimal body mass index were shown to exhibit lower bioavailability of tacrolimus. ABCB1 1236 C>T and 2677G>T/A showed inverse association while CYP3A5*3 showed a positive association with the bioavailability of tacrolimus. Gender bias was observed in the association with ABCB1 3435 C>T polymorphism. CYP3A5*3 was shown to interact synergistically in increasing the bioavailability in combination with ABCB1 1236 TT or 2677GG genotypes. LR model showed an independent association of ABCB1 2677 G>T/A with post transplant diabetes (OR: 4.83, 95% CI: 1.22–19.03). Multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis (MDR) revealed that synergistic interactions between CYP3A5*3 and ABCB1 2677 G>T/A as the determinants of risk for post-transplant diabetes. To conclude, the ANN and MDR models explore both individual and synergistic effects of variables in modulating the bioavailability of tacrolimus and risk for post-transplant diabetes. PMID:29621269

  8. Tacrolimus Improves Symptoms of Children With Myasthenia Gravis Refractory to Prednisone.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chanchan; Gui, Mengcui; Cao, Yayun; Lin, Jing; Li, Yue; Ji, Suqiong; Bu, Bitao

    2017-12-01

    Myasthenia gravis tends to affect children in China. Oral pyridostigmine and prednisone could effectively improve the symptoms, but multiple side effects become a major concern after long-term oral prednisone. To avoid the long-term complications of prednisone therapy and to obtain more satisfactory improvement, we tested the efficacy and safety of tacrolimus in children with myasthenia gravis. Children with myasthenia gravis who had not achieved satisfactory improvement or who experienced severe side effects after prednisone therapy were recruited between January 2015 and December 2016 at Tongji Hospital. All the children were treated with tacrolimus 1 mg to 2 mg daily and the dose was adjusted on the basis of the clinical response and the serum concentration. The dosage of prednisone, the severity of symptoms, blood samples, the serum concentration of tacrolimus, and titers of antiacetylcholine receptor antibodies were evaluated every four weeks. Fourteen children were enrolled. One child withdrew two weeks after the enrollment. Thirteen children have completed the therapy for one year. At the end point, the dosage of prednisone was significantly decreased (P < 0.05), the symptoms were evaluated by the quantitative myasthenia gravis score, and myasthenia gravis-specific manual muscle testing and myasthenia gravis-activities of daily living scores were significantly improved (P < 0.05, P < 0.05, and P < 0.01, respectively). More importantly, ten (76.9%) patients had completely discontinued prednisone, and the major side effects were nearly reversed. The mean titer of antiacetylcholine receptor antibodies significantly dropped from 1.96±2.62 nmol/L to 0.70±1.04 nmol/L (P < 0.05). No severe adverse events were reported. Our results suggest that tacrolimus is a promising agent for children with refractory myasthenia gravis. Randomized clinical trials are needed to confirm the observation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sirolimus and tacrolimus trough concentrations and dose requirements after kidney transplantation in relation to CYP3A5 and MDR1 polymorphisms and steroids.

    PubMed

    Mourad, Michel; Mourad, Georges; Wallemacq, Pierre; Garrigue, Valérie; Van Bellingen, Christophe; Van Kerckhove, Valérie; De Meyer, Martine; Malaise, Jacques; Eddour, Djamila Chaib; Lison, Dominique; Squifflet, Jean Paul; Haufroid, Vincent

    2005-10-15

    CYP3A5 and MDR1 polymorphisms have been shown to influence tacrolimus blood concentrations and dose requirements. The aim is to determine whether these polymorphisms also affect sirolimus trough concentrations and dose requirements after kidney transplantation. Eighty-five renal transplant recipients receiving sirolimus were included. Twenty-four were treated with a combined sirolimus-tacrolimus regimen. Eighty-one patients received steroids. Sirolimus and tacrolimus were adjusted to a target therapeutic window. CYP3A5 (intron 3) and MDR1 (exons 12, 21, 26) genotypes were correlated to the adjusted trough concentrations and dose requirements for both sirolimus and tacrolimus. There were no significant correlation between adjusted sirolimus trough concentrations or dose requirements and genetic polymorphisms. In a multiple regression model, adjusted-prednisone dose was involved with a positive or negative effect when considering sirolimus dose requirements or adjusted concentrations, respectively. In the subgroup of patients treated by tacrolimus and sirolimus, adjusted tacrolimus doses were higher in patients carrying at least one CYP3A5 *1 allele (median 0.083 vs. 0.035 mg/kg for CYP3A5*3/*3 patients, P<0.05). Adjusted-prednisolone dose and CYP3A5 polymorphism explained up to 61% of the variability in tacrolimus dose requirements. Unlike tacrolimus, sirolimus adjusted trough concentrations and dose requirements seem not affected by CYP3A5 and MDR1 polymorphisms. Adjusted-prednisone dose has a significant impact on tacrolimus and sirolimus dose requirements.

  10. Multi-center Performance Evaluations of Tacrolimus and Cyclosporine Electrochemiluminescence Immunoassays in the Asia-Pacific Region

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xuzhen; Rui, Jianzhong; Xia, Yong; Mu, Hong; Song, Sang Hoon; Raja Aziddin, Raja Elina; Miles, Gabrielle; Sun, Yuli

    2018-01-01

    Background The immunosuppressant drugs (ISDs), tacrolimus and cyclosporine, are vital for solid organ transplant patients to prevent rejection. However, toxicity is a concern, and absorption is highly variable across patients; therefore, ISD levels need to be precisely monitored. In the Asia-Pacific (APAC) region, tacrolimus and cyclosporine concentrations are typically measured using immunoassays. The objective of this study was to assess the analytical performance of Roche Elecsystacrolimus and cyclosporinee electrochemiluminescence immunoassays (ECLIAs). Methods This evaluation was performed in seven centers across China, South Korea, and Malaysia. Imprecision (repeatability and reproducibility), assay accuracy, and lot-to-lot reagent variability were tested. The Elecsys ECLIAs were compared with commercially available immunoassays (Architect, Dimension, and Viva-E systems) using whole blood samples from patients with various transplant types (kidney, liver, heart, and bone marrow). Results Coefficients of variation for repeatability and reproducibility were ≤5.4% and ≤12.4%, respectively, for the tacrolimus ECLIA, and ≤5.1% and ≤7.3%, respectively, for the cyclosporine ECLIA. Method comparisons of the tacrolimus ECLIA with Architect, Dimension, and Viva-E systems yielded slope values of 1.01, 1.14, and 0.897, respectively. The cyclosporine ECLIA showed even closer agreements with the Architect, Dimension, and Viva-E systems (slope values of 1.04, 1.04, and 1.09, respectively). No major differences were observed among the different transplant types. Conclusions The tacrolimus and cyclosporine ECLIAs demonstrated excellent precision and close agreement with other immunoassays tested. These results show that both assays are suitable for ISD monitoring in an APAC population across a range of different transplant types. PMID:29214751

  11. High Intrapatient Variability of Tacrolimus Levels and Outpatient Clinic Nonattendance Are Associated With Inferior Outcomes in Renal Transplant Patients

    PubMed Central

    Goodall, Dawn L.; Willicombe, Michelle; McLean, Adam G.; Taube, David

    2017-01-01

    Background Nonadherence to immunosuppressants is associated with rejection and allograft loss. Intrapatient variability (IPV) of immunosuppression levels is a marker of nonadherence. This study describes the impact of IPV of tacrolimus levels in patients receiving a tacrolimus monotherapy immunosuppression protocol. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the outpatient tacrolimus levels of kidney-only transplant patients taken between 6 and 12 months posttransplant. IPV was determined using the coefficient of variance. Results Six hundred twenty-eight patients with a mean number of 8.98 ± 3.81 tacrolimus levels and a mean follow-up of 4.72 ± 2.19 years were included. Multivariate analysis showed death was associated with increasing age (1.04 [1.01-1.07], P = 0.0055), diabetes at time of transplant (2.79 [1.44-5.41], P = 0.0024), and rejection (2.34 [1.06-5.19], P = 0.036). Variables associated with graft loss included the highest variability group (2.51 [1.01-6.27], P = 0.048), mean tacrolimus level less than 5 ng/mL (4.32 [1.94-9.63], P = 0.0003), a high clinic nonattendance rate (1.10 [1.01-1.20], P = 0.03), and rejection (9.83 [4.62-20.94], P < 0.0001). Independent risk factors for rejection were de novo donor-specific antibody (3.15 [1.84-5.39], P < 0.0001), mean tacrolimus level less than 5 ng/mL (2.57 [1.27-5.19], P = 0.00860, and a high clinic nonattendance rate (1.11 [1.05-1.18], P = 0.0005). Conclusions This study shows that high tacrolimus IPV and clinic nonattendance are associated with inferior allograft survival. Interventions to minimize the causes of high variability, particularly nonadherence are essential to improve long-term allograft outcomes. PMID:28795143

  12. Personalized tacrolimus doses determined by CYP3A5 genotype for induction and maintenance phases of kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Vannaprasaht, Suda; Reungjui, Sirirat; Supanya, Darika; Sirivongs, Dhavee; Pongskul, Cholatip; Avihingsanon, Yingyos; Tassaneeyakul, Wichittra

    2013-11-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and 3A5 are major isoforms involved in the metabolism of tacrolimus, with the CYP3A5 gene being more polymorphic. It is hypothesized that individual variation in the metabolism of tacrolimus drug may result from genetic polymorphism of CYP3A5. It has been reported that the clearance of tacrolimus in patients with the CYP3A5*1 allele was ~2.5-fold greater than that in those with the CYP3A5*3/*3 genotype. Recent data have also shown that polymorphism in exon 26 (C3435T) of the multidrug resistance gene (MDR1) was correlated with the expression level and function of P-glycoprotein in the lower duodenum, making the relationship between polymorphism of MDR1 and the effective dose of tacrolimus a source of controversy. This study investigated the influence of genetic polymorphisms of CYP3A5 and MDR1 on the dose requirements for the induction and maintenance phases of tacrolimus therapy in kidney transplant recipients. Sixty-eight kidney transplant recipients were enrolled, and their clinical and laboratory data were retrospectively reviewed after 6 months of tacrolimus administration. Genotypes of CYP3A5*1 and CYP3A5*3 and exon 26 of MDR1 (C3435T) were determined by the single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping method. The frequencies of CYP3A5*3/*3, CYP3A5*1/*3, and CYP3A5*1/*1 were 44.1%, 35.3%, and 20.6%, respectively. The mean dose of tacrolimus required for the induction phase was significantly greater in the CYP3A5*1/*1 group (0.142 [0.050] mg/kg/d) than that required in the CYP3A5*1/*3 group (0.097 [0.040] mg/kg/d; P = 0.072) and in the CYP3A5*3/*3 group (0.077 [0.020] mg/kg/d; P = 0.005). The maintenance dose of tacrolimus required in the CYP3A5*1/*1 group (0.12 [0.03] mg/kg/d) was 1.3-fold higher than that in the CYP3A5*1/*3 group (0.09 [0.03] mg/kg/d; P = 0.018) and 2.4-fold higher than in the CYP3A5*3/*3 group (0.05 [0.02] mg/kg/d; P < 0.0001). No statistically significant relationship was observed between the doses of tacrolimus

  13. Adult Heart Transplantation Under Tacrolimus (FK506) Immunosuppression: Histopathologic Observations and Comparison to a Cyclosporine-based Regimen with Lympholytic (ATG) Induction

    PubMed Central

    Tsamandas, Athanassios C.; Pham, Si M.; Seaberg, Eric C.; Pappo, Orit; Kormos, Robert L.; Kawai, Akihiko; Griffith, Bartley P.; Zeevi, Adriana; Duquesnoy, Rene; Fung, John J.; Starzl, Thomas E.; Demetris, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Tacrolimus (FK506) is an effective immunosuppressant for human heart transplantation, but information about its effects on cardiac allograft and nonallograft kidney and liver histopathologic study is limited. Methods We therefore reviewed 1145 endomyocardial biopsy specimens and eight autopsy results from 80 heart transplant recipients who received tacrolimus as baseline immunosuppression. These were compared with 619 endomyocardial biopsy specimens and four autopsy results from 51 patients treated with cyclosporine-based immunosuppression with lympholytic induction (CLI) by use of rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin. Twenty-one histologic features including the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation histopathologic grade were retrospectively assessed without knowledge of the treatment regimen. The lymphocyte growth index on biopsy specimens obtained from these patients was also compared. Results In general, there were no qualitative differences in the histopathologic appearance of various allograft syndromes between tacrolimus- and CLI-treated patients. Thus histopathologic criteria used to diagnose various graft syndromes are applicable under tacrolimus immunosuppression. However, early (between 10 and 30 days) after transplantation, biopsy specimens from patients treated with tacrolimus showed a significantly higher percentage of inflamed fragments (p = 0.02), the inflammation tended to be more severe (p = 0.09), and the rejection grade tended to be slightly higher (p = 0.08). In contrast, during the late transplantation period (275 to 548 days), biopsy specimens from patients treated with CLI showed a significantly higher percentage of inflamed fragments (p = 0.03), more severe inflammation (p = 0.03), higher rejection grades (p = 0.01), and a higher frequency of Quilty lesions (p = 0.05). Although overall freedom from any grade 3A or higher rejection was greater in the CLI-treated arm, tacrolimus was successfully used to treat

  14. Successful treatment of eosinophilic pustular folliculitis with topical tacrolimus 0.1 percent ointment.

    PubMed

    Ng, Shanna Shan-Yi; Tay, Yong-Kwang

    2012-02-15

    Classic eosinophilic pustular folliculitis (EPF), otherwise known as Ofugi disease, is a rare condition commonly treated with topical glucocorticosteroids. If this fails, oral indomethacin is frequently the next line. Because the condition is recurrent, the use of long term steroids may cause side effects such as skin atrophy, hypertrichosis, and dyspigmentation. Topical tacrolimus is an immunosuppressant that is generally used as a steroid-sparing agent in atopic dermatitis. We report a case of classic EPF, which was recurrent over 5 years that had failed topical glucocorticosteroids but was successfully treated with topical tacrolimus 0.1 percent ointment.

  15. Effects of topical corticosteroid and tacrolimus on ceramides and irritancy to sodium lauryl sulphate in healthy skin.

    PubMed

    Jungersted, Jakob Mutanu; Høgh, Julie K; Hellegren, Lars I; Jemec, Gregor B E; Agner, Tove

    2011-05-01

    The skin barrier, located in the stratum corneum, is influenced mainly by the lipid and protein composition of this layer. In eczematous diseases impairment of the skin barrier is thought to be of prime importance. Topical anti-inflammatory drugs and emollients are the most widely used eczema treatments. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of topically applied corticosteroid, tacrolimus and emollient on stratum corneum lipids and barrier parameters. Nineteen healthy volunteers participated in the study. Both forearms of the subjects were divided into four areas, which were treated twice daily for one week with betamethasone, tacrolimus, emollient, or left untreated, respectively. After one week each area was challenged with a 24 h sodium lauryl sulphate patch test. The lipids were collected using the cyanoacrylate method and evaluated by high performance thin layer chromatography. For evaluation of the skin barrier, transepidermal water loss, erythema and electrical capacitance were measured. The ceramide/cholesterol ratio was increased in betamethasone- (p = 0.008) and tacrolimus-treated (p = 0.025) skin compared with emollient-treated skin. No differences in ceramide subgroups were found between treatment regimes. Pretreatment with betamethasone (p = 0.01) or with tacrolimus (p = 0.001) causes a decreased inflammatory response to sodium lauryl sulphate compared with emollient. In conclusion, treatment with betamethasone and tacrolimus has a positive effect on the ceramide/cholesterol ratio and susceptibility to irritant reaction compared with an emollient.

  16. Conversion from tacrolimus-mycophenolate mofetil to tacrolimus-mTOR immunosuppression after kidney-pancreas transplantation reduces the incidence of both BK and CMV viremia.

    PubMed

    Knight, Richard J; Graviss, Edward A; Nguyen, Duc T; Kuten, Samantha A; Patel, Samir J; Gaber, Lillian; Gaber, A Osama

    2018-04-19

    We sought to determine whether conversion from tacrolimus/mycophenolate mofetil (TAC-MMF) into tacrolimus/mTOR inhibitor (TAC-mTOR) immunosuppression would reduce the incidences of BK and CMV viremia after kidney/pancreas (KP) transplantation. In this single-center review, the TAC-mTOR cohort (n = 39) was converted at 1 month post-transplant to an mTOR inhibitor and reduced-dose tacrolimus. Outcomes were compared to a cohort of KP recipients (n = 40) maintained on TAC-MMF. At 3 years post-transplant, KP survivals and incidences of kidney/pancreas rejection were equivalent between mTOR and MMF-treated cohorts. (P = ns). BK viremia-free survival was better for the mTOR vs MMF-treated group (P = .004). In multivariate analysis, MMF vs mTOR immunosuppression was an independent risk factor for BK viremia (hazard ratio 12.27, P = .02). Similarly, mTOR-treated recipients displayed better CMV infection-free survival compared to the MMF-treated cohort (P = .01). MMF vs mTOR immunosuppression (hazard ratio 18.77, P = .001) and older recipient age (hazard ratio 1.13 per year, P = .006) were independent risk factors for CMV viremia. Mean estimated GFR and HgbA1c levels were equivalent between groups at 1, 2, and 3 years post-transplantation. Conversion from TAC/MMF into TAC/mTOR immunosuppression after KP transplantation reduced the incidences of BK and CMV viremia with an equivalent risk of acute rejection and similar renal/pancreas function. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Conservation of small-airway function by tacrolimus/cyclosporine conversion in the management of bronchiolitis obliterans following lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Revell, M P; Lewis, M E; Llewellyn-Jones, C G; Wilson, I C; Bonser, R S

    2000-12-01

    We studied serial lung function in 11 patients with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome who were treated with tacrolimus conversion following lung or heart-lung transplantation. Our results show that tacrolimus conversion slows the decline of lung function in bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. The attenuation continues for at least 1 year following conversion.

  18. Solid state compatibility study and characterization of a novel degradation product of tacrolimus in formulation.

    PubMed

    Rozman Peterka, Tanja; Grahek, Rok; Hren, Jure; Bastarda, Andrej; Bergles, Jure; Urleb, Uroš

    2015-06-10

    Tacrolimus is macrolide drug that is widely used as a potent immunosuppressant. In the present work compatibility testing was conducted on physical mixtures of tacrolimus with excipients and on compatibility mixtures prepared by the simulation of manufacturing process used for the final drug product preparation. Increase in one major degradation product was detected in the presence of magnesium stearate based upon UHPLC analysis. The degradation product was isolated by preparative HPLC and its structure was elucidated by NMR and MS studies. Mechanism of the formation of this degradation product is proposed based on complementary degradation studies in a solution and structural elucidation data. The structure was proven to be alpha-hydroxy acid which is formed from the parent tacrolimus molecule through a benzilic acid type rearrangement reaction in the presence of divalent metallic cations. Degradation is facilitated at higher pH values. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Preliminary study on the treatment of vitiligo with carbon dioxide fractional laser together with tacrolimus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Zhou, Yuan; Huang, Fei-Ran; Luo, Dan; Wang, Da-Guang

    2018-04-10

    Tacrolimus is a conventional medication for the treatment of vitiligo, but the effect of a single medication is limited. This paper aims at observing the effects, adverse responses, and repigmentation results of the joint treatment of vitiligo by Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) fractional laser together with tacrolimus. Forty-five patients with vitiligo were randomly divided into two groups: treatment (T) group and control (C) group, and each group was further divided into three subgroups (face, torso and limbs, and hand and foot) according to the location of the skin defect. Both groups used topical 0.1% tacrolimus cream, but the T group was given one CO 2 fractional laser treatment each month. We observed the clinical efficacy, adverse responses, and repigmentation results after 6 months. Compared to the C group, the T group showed better improvement in both objective and subjective assessments. When the treatment time was increased, the efficacy was also improved, and the repigmentation in the T group occured in three ways: perifollicular repigmentation, marginal repigmentation and diffuse repigmentation. There were three cases of isomorphic responses (2 cases in the rapid progression stage, one case in the progression stage), and 1 case formed scarring on the neck in the T group. The treatment of vitiligo by CO 2 fractional laser together with tacrolimus is significantly effective and is most suitable for patients in the progression stage. Patients in the rapid progression stage should use this approach with caution, and its efficacy was limited for patients in the stable stage. An extended course of treatment is helpful for the repigmentation of white patches. All three forms of repigmentation can occur in the joint treatment of vitiligo by CO 2 fractional laser together with tacrolimus. Lasers Surg. Med. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) associated with tacrolimus (FK506) after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fukazawa, Kyota; Nishida, Seigo; Aguina, Luz; Pretto, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) is the most detrimental neurologic complication after liver transplantation. The incidence of CPM after liver transplantation ascends to 17%. Although the precise etiology and pathogenesis of CPM is largely unknown, a growing literature implicates a possible role of immunosuppressive agents, such as Cyclosporine (incidence 30%) on its development. Other immunosuppressive agents also can cause CPM but the frequency of these cases is less compared to Cyclosporine. There is only one case report for Tacrolimus (FK506)-associated speech disorder, which might be an atypical presentation of CPM, and no case reports for Rapamycin. We present a case of Tacrolimus induced CPM. A 62-year-old woman who underwent liver transplantation developed clinical symptoms with radiologic evidence consistent with CPM 7 days after liver transplant. Since the electrolytes in this patient remained normal from her admission, the hypothesis of inmunossupressor neurotoxicity was established and the therapy was switched, resulting in an evident clinical and radiological improvement of her condition in the following days. Five months later, the patient's only neurological deficit was slight dysarthria and a follow-up MRI showed no abnormalities. This case provides evidence of Tacrolimus-associated CPM after transplantation, which presented with a classic "lock-in syndrome" with radiographic confirmation.

  1. Influence of ABCB1 polymorphisms and haplotypes on tacrolimus nephrotoxicity and dosage requirements in children with liver transplant

    PubMed Central

    Hawwa, Ahmed F; McKiernan, Patrick J; Shields, Michael; Millership, Jeff S; Collier, Paul S; McElnay, James C

    2009-01-01

    AIMS The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of genetic polymorphisms in ABCB1 on the incidence of nephrotoxicity and tacrolimus dosage-requirements in paediatric patients following liver transplantation. METHODS Fifty-one paediatric liver transplant recipients receiving tacrolimus were genotyped for ABCB1 C1236>T, G2677>T and C3435>T polymorphisms. Dose-adjusted tacrolimus trough concentrations and estimated glomerular filtration rates (EGFR) indicative of renal toxicity were determined and correlated with the corresponding genotypes. RESULTS The present study revealed a higher incidence of the ABCB1 variant-alleles examined among patients with renal dysfunction (≥30% reduction in EGFR) at 6 months post-transplantation (1236T allele: 63.3% vs 37.5% in controls, P= 0.019; 2677T allele: 63.3% vs. 35.9%, p = 0.012; 3435T allele: 60% vs. 39.1%, P= 0.057). Carriers of the G2677->T variant allele also had a significant reduction (%) in EGFR at 12 months post-transplant (mean difference = 22.6%; P= 0.031). Haplotype analysis showed a significant association between T-T-T haplotypes and an increased incidence of nephrotoxicity at 6 months post-transplantation (haplotype-frequency = 52.9% in nephrotoxic patients vs 29.4% in controls; P= 0.029). Furthermore, G2677->T and C3435->T polymorphisms and T-T-T haplotypes were significantly correlated with higher tacrolimus dose-adjusted pre-dose concentrations at various time points examined long after drug initiation. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that ABCB1 polymorphisms in the native intestine significantly influence tacrolimus dosage-requirement in the stable phase after transplantation. In addition, ABCB1 polymorphisms in paediatric liver transplant recipients may predispose them to nephrotoxicity over the first year post-transplantation. Genotyping future transplant recipients for ABCB1 polymorphisms, therefore, could have the potential to individualize better tacrolimus immunosuppressive therapy and

  2. A rare but important adverse effect of tacrolimus in a heart transplant recipient: diabetic ketoacidosis.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Zeynelabidin; Gönç, E Nazlı; Akcan, Leman; Kesici, Selman; Ertuğrul, İlker; Bayrakçı, Benan

    2015-01-01

    Heart transplantation indications in pediatric population include congenital heart diseases, cardiomyopathies and retransplants. Cardiomyopathy is the primary indication for 11 to 17 years of age. The surveillance after transplantation is a very important issue because of both the rejection risk and the adverse effects due to medications after transplantation. Immunosuppressive agents that are commonly used after heart transplantations have several toxicities. Here we present an adolescent patient diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy, performed heart transplantation, treated with tacrolimus and suffered from diabetic ketoacidosis due to tacrolimus. After the diagnosis was made the appropriate fluid and insulin therapy was started immediately and ketoacidosis resolved in the first 24 hours of the therapy. The diagnosis revised as new onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation and the tacrolimus dosage titrated to therapeutic level. After glycemic control the patient discharged with rapid acting insulin, three times daily, before meals; and long acting insulin once daily at night. In ten month follow up time the insulin dosages were progressively reduced.

  3. Progressive necrotic encephalopathy following tacrolimus therapy for liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Aridon, Paolo; Ragonese, Paolo; Di Benedetto, Norma; Grasso, Giovanni; Conaldi, Pier Giulio; D'Amelio, Marco; Savettieri, Giovanni

    2009-12-01

    Previously described neurologic damage induced by immunosuppressive treatments includes transient or reversible central nervous system involvement. We describe a 57-year-old man who underwent liver transplantation and was started on immunosuppressive therapy with tacrolimus (FK506). Six months later, he started complaining of a progressive motor and sensory impairment of the left side, together with cognitive impairment. Brain MRI showed an enlarging lesion of the white matter with peripheral contrast enhancement. PET study indicated severe hypometabolism in the right hemisphere and spectroscopic MRI showed a peak of choline and relative reduction of other metabolites. Findings of CSF examinations and cultures, serology, and molecular techniques were normal. Tacrolimus treatment was stopped. A cerebral biopsy of the lesion showed a sub acute necrotizing process. In the following months, cognitive status of the patient tended to improve although he remained hemiplegic, while serial MRI confirmed the tendency to the recovery of the lesion that was still present 1 year after. The present observation describes a progressive encephalopathy associated with immune suppression with an unusual feature and permanent brain damage.

  4. Analysis of tacrolimus and creatinine from a single dried blood spot using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Koop, Dennis R; Bleyle, Lisa A; Munar, Myrna; Cherala, Ganesh; Al-Uzri, Amira

    2013-05-01

    Long term therapeutic drug monitoring and assessment of renal function are required in renal transplant recipients on immunosuppressant therapy such as tacrolimus. Dry blood spots (DBS) have been used successfully in the clinic for many years and offers a convenient, simple and non-invasive method for repeated blood tests. We developed and performed a preliminary validation of a method for the analysis of tacrolimus and creatinine from a single DBS using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS). Tacrolimus and creatinine were extracted from a 6mm punch with a mixture of methanol/acetonitrile containing ascomycin and deuterated creatinine as internal standards. A 10 μl aliquot of the extract was analyzed directly after dilution for creatinine with normal phase high performance liquid chromatography and multiple reaction monitoring. The remainder of the extract was processed and analyzed for tacrolimus. The lower limit of quantification for tacrolimus was 1 ng/ml with accuracy of 0.34% bias and precision (CV) of 11.1%. The precision ranged from 1.33% to 7.68% and accuracy from -4.44% to 11.6% bias for the intra- and inter-day analysis. The lower limit of quantification of creatinine was 0.01 mg/dL with precision of 7.94%. Accuracy was based on recovery of additional creatinine spiked into whole blood samples and ranged from -2.45% bias at 5 mg/dL to 3.75% bias at 0.5 mg/dL. Intra- and inter-day precision was from 3.48 to 4.11%. The assay was further validated with DBS prepared from pediatric renal transplant recipients. There was excellent correlation between the levels of tacrolimus and creatinine obtained from the clinical laboratory and the DBS method developed. After additional validation, this assay may have a significant impact on compliance with medication intake as well as potentially lowering the cost associated with intravenous blood draws in clinical laboratories. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Tacrolimus loaded biocompatible lecithin-based microemulsions with improved skin penetration: Structure characterization and in vitro/in vivo performances.

    PubMed

    Savić, Vedrana; Todosijević, Marija; Ilić, Tanja; Lukić, Milica; Mitsou, Evgenia; Papadimitriou, Vassiliki; Avramiotis, Spyridon; Marković, Bojan; Cekić, Nebojša; Savić, Snežana

    2017-08-30

    In order to improve skin penetration of tacrolimus we aimed to develop potentially non-irritant, lecithin-based microemulsions containing ethanol, isopropanol and/or propylene glycol as cosurfactants, varying caprylic/capric triglycerides and propylene glycol monocaprylate as oil phase. The influence of excipients on the size of microemulsion region in pseudo-ternary phase diagrams and their ability to form different types of microemulsions was evaluated. The comprehensive physicochemical characterization of microemulsions and the evaluation of their structure was performed, while the localization of tacrolimus in microemulsions was further investigated using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Moreover, stability studies proved no change in tacrolimus content during one year of storage at room temperature. In addition, in vivo skin performance indicated no skin irritation potential of blank microemulsions, whereas in vitro release testing using Franz diffusion cells showed superior release rate of tacrolimus from microemulsions (0.98±0.10 and 0.92±0.11μg/cm 2 /h for two bicontinuous and 1.00±0.24μg/cm 2 /h for oil-in-water microemulsion) compared to referent Protopic ointment (0.15±0.08μg/cm 2 /h). Furthermore, ex vivo penetration assessed through porcine ear skin using tape stripping, confirmed superiority of two microemulsions related to the reference, implying developed microemulsions as promising carriers for dermal delivery of tacrolimus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of Tacrolimus or Sirolimus on the adhesion of vascular wall cells: Controlled in-vitro comparison study.

    PubMed

    Krüger-Genge, A; Hiebl, B; Franke, R P; Lendlein, A; Jung, F

    2017-01-01

    In drug eluting stents the cytostatic drugs Sirolimus or Tacrolimus are used to inhibit blood vessel restenosis by limiting the proliferation of smooth muscle cells. However, the cytostatic activity of both drugs was shown to be not cell specific and could also affect the stent endothelialisation, respectively. Currently, only limited in vitro data are available about the impact of Sirolimus and Tacrolimus on endothelial cell proliferation over a broad concentration range. To answer this question the following study was performed.Commercially obtained HUVEC were expanded with DMEM cell culture medium (GIBCO, Germany) supplemented with 5 vol% fetal calf serum on non-coated regular polystyrene-based 24-multiwell plates. For drug testings 2×104 cells/cm2 were seeded and grown for 24 h until 30-40% of the multiwell surfaces were covered and then exposed to Sirolimus (1.0×10-11 - 1.0×10-5 mol/l) or Tacrolimus (2.0×10-8 - 6.2×10-5 mol/l), both dissolved in DMSO. 12, 24 and 48 h after adding the drugs cell numbers per area were quantified by counting the cells in six wells with four fields of view per well, representing 0.6 mm2, using a confocal laser microscope.After 48 h of cell growth in the drug-free cell culture medium, the HUVEC number increased from 2.0×104 to 3.55×104 cells/cm2 (mean cell doubling time: 53.6 h, n = 6). At lower concentrations (≤2.0×10-6 mol/l) Tacrolimus reduced the number of adherent HUVEC significantly less than Sirolimus (p < 0.05). However, at higher concentrations (≥2.07×10-5 mol/l) the effect of Tacrolimus on the number of adherent endothelial cells was significantly greater than that of Sirolimus (p < 0.05). At the highest concentration applied (6.22×10-5 mol/l), Tacrolimus induced detachment of all HUVECs within 12 h after drug application. The number of adherent HUVEC decreased only slightly (about 9%) after Sirolimus application at the highest concentration (1.09×10-5 mol/l).These data

  7. MDR1 haplotypes derived from exons 21 and 26 do not affect the steady-state pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus in renal transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Mai, Ingrid; Perloff, Elke S; Bauer, Steffen; Goldammer, Mark; Johne, Andreas; Filler, Guido; Budde, Klemens; Roots, Ivar

    2004-11-01

    This retrospective study investigated the influence of MDR1 haplotypes derived from the polymorphisms 2677G > T (exon 21) and 3435C > T (exon 26) on the pharmacokinetics of the immunosuppressant drug tacrolimus in 73 renal transplant patients. Based on both variants of SNPs 2677 and 3435, four different haplotypes and eight different genotypes were identified in the study sample. Tacrolimus trough concentrations (C(0)) were compared between different SNP variants and genotypes, as well as between carriers and noncarriers of each haplotype. Additionally, CYP3A5 genotype (6956G > A) was determined. No significant differences were observed between groups. Differences in mean tacrolimus C(0) values between carriers and noncarriers of each haplotype ranged from -0.04 microg/litre (95% confidence interval: -0.53 to 0.60) to -23 microg/litre (-1.07 to 1.53). No association was found between CYP3A5*1/*3 genotype and tacrolimus Co concentractions. MDR1 haplotypes derived from the SNPs 2677G > T (exon 21) and 3435C > T (exon 26) do not influence the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus in renal transplant patients.

  8. EFFICACY OF TACROLIMUS FOR INDUCTION OF REMISSION IN PATIENTS WITH MODERATE-TO-SEVERE ULCERATIVE COLITIS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS.

    PubMed

    Lasa, Juan; Olivera, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    There is evidence that shows that calcineurin inhibitors may be useful for the treatment of severe ulcerative colitis. However, evidence regarding the efficacy of tacrolimus for remission induction in this setting is scarce. To develop a systematic review on the existing evidence regarding the clinical efficacy of tacrolimus for the induction of remission in patients with moderate-to-severe ulcerative colitis. A literature search was undertaken from 1966 to August 2016 using MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS and the Cochrane Library. The following MeSH terms were used: "Inflammatory Bowel Diseases" or "Ulcerative Colitis" and "Calcineurin Inhibitors" or "Tacrolimus" or "FK506". Studies performed in adult ulcerative colitis patients that evaluated the clinical efficacy of tacrolimus for the induction of remission were considered for revision. A meta-analysis was performed with those included studies that were also placebo-controlled and randomized. Clinical response as well as clinical remission and mucosal healing were evaluated. Overall, 755 references were identified, from which 22 studies were finally included. Only two of them were randomized, placebo-controlled trials. A total of 172 patients were evaluated. A significantly lower risk of failure in clinical response was found for tacrolimus versus placebo [RR 0.58 (0.45-0.73)]; moreover, a lower risk of failure in the induction of remission was also found versus placebo [RR 0.91 (0.82-1)]. Tacrolimus seems to be a valid therapeutic alternative for the induction of remission in patients with moderate-to-severe ulcerative colitis.

  9. False Elevation of the Blood Tacrolimus Concentration, as Assessed by an Affinity Column-mediated Immunoassay (ACMIA), Led to Acute T Cell-mediated Rejection after Kidney Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kono, Momoko; Hasegawa, Jumpei; Ogawa, Hina; Yoshikawa, Kanae; Ishiwatari, Ayumi; Wakai, Sachiko; Tanabe, Kazunari; Shirakawa, Hiroki

    2018-05-01

    Tacrolimus is the most commonly used immunosuppressant. Because of its narrow therapeutic range, it is necessary to frequently monitor its concentration. We report the case of a 25-year-old man who underwent kidney transplantation whose tacrolimus concentrations, as measured by an affinity column-mediated immunoassay, were falsely elevated. As we reduced the dose of tacrolimus, the recipient developed T cell-mediated rejection. Using the same blood samples, an enzyme-multiplied immunoassay technique showed that the patient's levels of tacrolimus were extremely low. A further examination indicated that the false increase in the tacrolimus concentration was likely due to an unknown interfering substance. We administered methylprednisolone and antithymocyte-globulin. The patient's serum creatinine level decreased and remained stable after these treatments.

  10. Successful treatment of oral lichen planus-like chronic graft-versus-host disease with topical tacrolimus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Andrés R; Sheridan, Phillip J; Rogers, Roy S

    2004-04-01

    Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is a common treatment used for deficiencies of host marrow or in the control of blood malignancies. Post-allogeneic BMT complications include graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). GVHD occurs when immunologically active T lymphocytes are transplanted into an immunosuppressed recipient who is genetically disparate from the donor. In this case report we describe the occurrence of oral lichen planus-like lesions as the first manifestation of chronic GVHD (c-GVHD) and the subsequent management of this disease with topical tacrolimus. Diagnostic aids included routine histology and direct immunofluorescence studies to rule out immunobullous diseases and to confirm the c-GVHD. Treatment consisted of topical application of 0.1% tacrolimus ointment three times a day. Routine histology confirmed the clinical diagnosis of oral lichen planus-like c-GVHD. Treatment with tacrolimus ointment completely resolved the oral lesions after 2 months of therapy. Topical tacrolimus at low concentrations (0.1%) shows promise in the management of oral lichen planus-like c-GVHD. Controlled studies are necessary to assess the efficacy, the duration of therapy required for effective results, and the safety of this treatment over the long-term.

  11. Regulatory effect of calcineurin inhibitor, tacrolimus, on IL-6/sIL-6R-mediated RANKL expression through JAK2-STAT3-SOCS3 signaling pathway in fibroblast-like synoviocytes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This study investigated whether the calcineurin inhibitor, tacrolimus, suppresses receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) expression in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) through regulation of IL-6/Janus activated kinase (JAK2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) and suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS3) signaling. Methods The expression of RANKL, JAK2, STAT3, and SOCS3 proteins was assessed by western blot analysis, real-time PCR and ELISA in IL-6 combined with soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R)-stimulated rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-FLS with or without tacrolimus treatment. The effects of tacrolimus on synovial inflammation and bone erosion were assessed using mice with arthritis induced by K/BxN serum. Immunofluorescent staining was performed to identify the effect of tacrolimus on RANKL and SOCS3. The tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining assay was performed to assess the effect of tacrolimus on osteoclast differentiation. Results We found that RANKL expression in RA FLS is regulated by the IL-6/sIL-6R/JAK2/STAT3/SOCS3 pathway. Inhibitory effects of tacrolimus on RANKL expression in a serum-induced arthritis mice model were identified. Tacrolimus inhibits RANKL expression in IL-6/sIL-6R-stimulated FLS by suppressing STAT3. Among negative regulators of the JAK/STAT pathway, such as CIS1, SOCS1, and SOCS3, only SOCS3 is significantly induced by tacrolimus. As compared to dexamethasone and methotrexate, tacrolimus more potently suppresses RANKL expression in FLS. By up-regulating SOCS3, tacrolimus down-regulates activation of the JAK-STAT pathway by IL-6/sIL-6R trans-signaling, thus decreasing RANKL expression in FLS. Conclusions These data suggest that tacrolimus might affect the RANKL expression in IL-6 stimulated FLS through STAT3 suppression, together with up-regulation of SOCS3. PMID:23406906

  12. Application of Machine-Learning Models to Predict Tacrolimus Stable Dose in Renal Transplant Recipients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jie; Liu, Rong; Zhang, Yue-Li; Liu, Mou-Ze; Hu, Yong-Fang; Shao, Ming-Jie; Zhu, Li-Jun; Xin, Hua-Wen; Feng, Gui-Wen; Shang, Wen-Jun; Meng, Xiang-Guang; Zhang, Li-Rong; Ming, Ying-Zi; Zhang, Wei

    2017-02-01

    Tacrolimus has a narrow therapeutic window and considerable variability in clinical use. Our goal was to compare the performance of multiple linear regression (MLR) and eight machine learning techniques in pharmacogenetic algorithm-based prediction of tacrolimus stable dose (TSD) in a large Chinese cohort. A total of 1,045 renal transplant patients were recruited, 80% of which were randomly selected as the “derivation cohort” to develop dose-prediction algorithm, while the remaining 20% constituted the “validation cohort” to test the final selected algorithm. MLR, artificial neural network (ANN), regression tree (RT), multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), boosted regression tree (BRT), support vector regression (SVR), random forest regression (RFR), lasso regression (LAR) and Bayesian additive regression trees (BART) were applied and their performances were compared in this work. Among all the machine learning models, RT performed best in both derivation [0.71 (0.67-0.76)] and validation cohorts [0.73 (0.63-0.82)]. In addition, the ideal rate of RT was 4% higher than that of MLR. To our knowledge, this is the first study to use machine learning models to predict TSD, which will further facilitate personalized medicine in tacrolimus administration in the future.

  13. Physicochemical characterization of tacrolimus-loaded solid dispersion with sodium carboxylmethyl cellulose and sodium lauryl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Park, Young-Joon; Ryu, Dong-Sung; Li, Dong Xun; Quan, Qi Zhe; Oh, Dong Hoon; Kim, Jong Oh; Seo, Youn Gee; Lee, Young-Im; Yong, Chul Soon; Woo, Jong Soo; Choi, Han-Gon

    2009-06-01

    To develop a novel tacrolimus-loaded solid dispersion with improved solubility, various solid dispersions were prepared with various ratios of water, sodium lauryl sulfate, citric acid and carboxylmethylcellulose-Na using spray drying technique. The physicochemical properties of solid dispersions were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetery and powder X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, their solubility and dissolution were evaluated compared to drug powder. The solid dispersion at the tacrolimus/CMC-Na/sodium lauryl sulfate/citric acid ratio of 3/24/3/0.2 significantly improved the drug solubility and dissolution compared to powder. The scanning electron microscopy result suggested that carriers might be attached to the surface of drug in this solid dispersion. Unlike traditional solid dispersion systems, the crystal form of drug in this solid dispersion could not be converted to amorphous form, which was confirmed by the analysis of DSC and powder X-ray diffraction. Thus, the solid dispersion system with water, sodium lauryl sulfate, citric acid and CMC-Na should be a potential candidate for delivering a poorly water-soluble tacrolimus with enhanced solubility and no convertible crystalline.

  14. The effect of CYP3A5 and ABCB1 single nucleotide polymorphisms on tacrolimus dose requirements in Caucasian liver transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Provenzani, Alessio; Notarbartolo, Monica; Labbozzetta, Manuela; Poma, Paola; Biondi, Filippo; Sanguedolce, Rosario; Vizzini, Giovanni; Palazzo, Ugo; Polidori, Piera; Triolo, Fabio; Gridelli, Bruno; D'Alessandro, Natale

    2009-01-01

    Tacrolimus is a substrate of cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 3A enzyme and of the drug transporter ABCB1. We have investigated the effects of possible relevant CYP3A5 and ABCB1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) present in both donors and recipients on tacrolimus blood levels achieved in a population of 32 Caucasian liver transplant patients. At 1, 3 and 6 months after transplantation, tacrolimus doses (mg/kg/day) and trough blood levels (C(0)) were determined. Polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was used for genotyping CYP3A5*3 [6986A>G] as well as ABCB1 at exons 21 [2677G>T] and 26 [3435C>T]. 87.5% of the population showed a CYP3A5*3/*3 genotype. For the ABCB1 SNPs, in the case of 3435C>T the total frequency observed for the allelic variant was 50%. For the 2677G>T, the total frequency of the allelic variant was 12.5%, lower than in other Caucasian populations and without any significant linkage with 3435C>T. At 3 and 6 months after transplantation, tacrolimus dose requirements were significantly higher in patients receiving a liver with one copy of the *1 allele compared to those homozygous for the *3 allele (0.111+/-0.057 vs. 0.057+/-0.030 [P<0.05] at 3 month and 0.086+/-0.051 vs. 0.044+/-0.025 [P<0.05] at 6 month). For the recipients' genotypes, the presence of at least one *1 copy tended, though not statistically significantly, to increase tacrolimus doses. With regard to the ABCB1 SNPs, they did not show any influence on tacrolimus dosing requirements. Pharmacogenetic analysis of CYP3A5 in the donor could contribute to determine the appropriate initial dosage of tacrolimus in liver transplant patients.

  15. Alemtuzumab induction with tacrolimus monotherapy in de novo renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, M E; Muñoz, A S; Casasola, C C; Africa, J B; Danguilan, R A; Ona, E T

    2008-09-01

    Alemtuzumab is increasingly being used as induction therapy for kidney transplantation, allowing immunosuppression minimization. This study examined the efficacy of alemtuzumab induction followed by low-dose tacrolimus monotherapy in standard risk primary kidney transplant patients. This retrospective cohort of primary standard risk renal transplant recipients were given alemtuzumab induction and low-dose tacrolimus maintenance immunosuppression (target trough 7 to 10 ng/mL for the first 6 months and 5 to 7 ng/mL thereafter). Serum creatinine values, acute rejection episodes, and graft survival were noted at week 1 as well as months 3, 6, 12, and 18. At the time of analysis, 47 patients were at 6 months, 28 at 12 months, and 6 patients at 18 months from transplant. Mean follow-up was 12.53 months (range, 6 to 23). Mean serum creatinine was 1.47 +/- 0.65 mg/dL at 3 months, 1.56 +/- 0.84 at 6 months, 1.45 +/- 0.37 at 12 months, and 1.74 +/- 0.35 at 18 months. The 1-year clinical acute rejection rate was 21% (6/28), occurring at 0 to 3 months in 2 (33%), 4 to 6 months in 1 (17%), and >6 months in 3 patients (50%). Biopsy-proven acute rejection was 14% (4/28). The episodes were classified as borderline in one, Banff 2A in two, and Banff 3 in one patients. One patient had both acute cellular and acute humoral rejection; half responded to steroid pulse therapy. The 1-year patient survival rate was 90%. The 1-year death-censored graft survival rate was 98%. Alemtuzumab induction with tacrolimus monotherapy is an acceptable option in standard risk patients. BPAR was 14%, but renal function remained satisfactory at 18 months posttransplant.

  16. Increased medication compliance of liver transplant patients switched from a twice-daily to a once-daily tacrolimus-based immunosuppressive regimen.

    PubMed

    Eberlin, M; Otto, G; Krämer, I

    2013-01-01

    Compliance with immunosuppressive therapy plays a major role in the long-term success of liver transplantation. Thus, the development of strategies to promote compliance of liver transplant patients and its evaluation over time are of particular interest. The main objective of this study was to compare medication compliance rates among liver transplant patients over time after transplantation where switched from a twice- to once-daily tacrolimus-based regimen. Sixty-five liver transplant patients being administered tacrolimus-based therapy were classified into three subgroups with regard to time posttransplantation. Medication compliance with tacrolimus-based therapy was measured using an electronic medication event monitoring system over a 12-month period: for 6 months tacrolimus was administered twice-daily and for 6 months, once-daily. Dosing, taking, and timing compliance as well as drug holidays were compared intra-individually between twice- and once-daily intake and among the three subgroups. In addition, patient compliance and quality of life were evaluated using questionnaires. A per protocol analysis of electronically obtained data showed 63 patients to be eligible. The resulting dosing, taking, and timing compliance rates of the patients were higher during the once-daily dosing period. No significant differences in compliance rates with tacrolimus therapy were observed among three subgroups independent of the dosing regimen. More patients failed the correct timing of the evening compared to the morning dose. Missing doses occurred particularly during weekends. Compliance variables measured by questionnaires (Morisky score, self-report, Medication Experience Scale for Immunosuppressants (MESI) score) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale score were similar in the two dosing periods. The short-form health survey (SF-36) score was higher with once-daily intake. The high measured compliance rates did not vary significantly dependent upon the time

  17. Physical and microbiological stability of an extemporaneous tacrolimus suspension for paediatric use.

    PubMed

    Han, J; Beeton, A; Long, P F; Wong, I; Tuleu, C

    2006-04-01

    An extemporaneous suspension of tacrolimus for paediatric use has recently been developed but poor bioavailability and erratic plasma concentrations were observed during clinical use. It was not clear whether this was due to changes in the physical properties of the suspension during storage. The aim of this work was to investigate the physical and microbiological stability over the recommended 8-week shelf-life of this extemporaneous tacrolimus suspension. Suspensions (0.5 mg/mL) were custom made by a special manufacturer under Good Manufacturing Practice conditions. The procedure involved mixing tacrolimus capsule contents into Ora Plus and Simple Syrup (1 : 1) using a mortar and pestle followed by an homogenization step. The particle sizes of the suspensions were measured using a MasterSizer. A light microscope equipped with polarizers was used to visualize any particle size changes or crystal growth. Viable bacterial and fungal contamination was assessed using standard colony count techniques on solid media. The suspensions were kept at 22-26 degrees C and evaluated weekly. The volume mean diameter d((4,3)) from laser diffraction did not change significantly. Light microscopy did not reveal any significant change in particle size or crystal growth. Contamination by viable and culturable micro-organisms could not be detected. The suspension was physically (particle size) and microbiologically stable during the 8-week study period suggesting other factors including poor dosing could be responsible for the pharmacokinetic variation observed during clinical use which warrants further investigation.

  18. A novel approach for prediction of tacrolimus blood concentration in liver transplantation patients in the intensive care unit through support vector regression.

    PubMed

    Van Looy, Stijn; Verplancke, Thierry; Benoit, Dominique; Hoste, Eric; Van Maele, Georges; De Turck, Filip; Decruyenaere, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Tacrolimus is an important immunosuppressive drug for organ transplantation patients. It has a narrow therapeutic range, toxic side effects, and a blood concentration with wide intra- and interindividual variability. Hence, it is of the utmost importance to monitor tacrolimus blood concentration, thereby ensuring clinical effect and avoiding toxic side effects. Prediction models for tacrolimus blood concentration can improve clinical care by optimizing monitoring of these concentrations, especially in the initial phase after transplantation during intensive care unit (ICU) stay. This is the first study in the ICU in which support vector machines, as a new data modeling technique, are investigated and tested in their prediction capabilities of tacrolimus blood concentration. Linear support vector regression (SVR) and nonlinear radial basis function (RBF) SVR are compared with multiple linear regression (MLR). Tacrolimus blood concentrations, together with 35 other relevant variables from 50 liver transplantation patients, were extracted from our ICU database. This resulted in a dataset of 457 blood samples, on average between 9 and 10 samples per patient, finally resulting in a database of more than 16,000 data values. Nonlinear RBF SVR, linear SVR, and MLR were performed after selection of clinically relevant input variables and model parameters. Differences between observed and predicted tacrolimus blood concentrations were calculated. Prediction accuracy of the three methods was compared after fivefold cross-validation (Friedman test and Wilcoxon signed rank analysis). Linear SVR and nonlinear RBF SVR had mean absolute differences between observed and predicted tacrolimus blood concentrations of 2.31 ng/ml (standard deviation [SD] 2.47) and 2.38 ng/ml (SD 2.49), respectively. MLR had a mean absolute difference of 2.73 ng/ml (SD 3.79). The difference between linear SVR and MLR was statistically significant (p < 0.001). RBF SVR had the advantage of requiring only 2

  19. Treatment of Sjögren's syndrome dry eye using 0.03% tacrolimus eye drop: Prospective double-blind randomized study.

    PubMed

    Moscovici, Bernardo Kaplan; Holzchuh, Ricardo; Sakassegawa-Naves, Fernando Eiji; Hoshino-Ruiz, Diego Ricardo; Albers, Marcos Bottene Villa; Santo, Ruth Miyuki; Hida, Richard Yudi

    2015-10-01

    To describe the clinical efficacy of the treatment of Sjögren's syndrome dry eye using 0.03% tacrolimus eye drop. Prospective double-blind randomized study. Institutional outpatient clinic. Forty-eight eyes of twenty-four patients with dry eye related to Sjögren syndrome were enrolled in this study. The patients were randomized in 2 groups: tacrolimus (n=14) and vehicle (n=10) group. The tacrolimus group received a vial containing tacrolimus 0.03% (almond oil as vehicle) and the other group received the almond oil vehicle. All patients were instructed to use the eye drops every 12h in the lower conjunctival sac. Schirmer I test, break-up-time (BUT), corneal fluorescein and Rose Bengal staining scores were evaluated in all patients one day before the treatment (baseline), 7, 14, 28 and 90 days after treatment with the eye drops. The average fluorescein and Rose Bengal scores improved statistically after 7 days of treatment and even more after 90 days. The average Schirmer I and BUT values were unchanged after 7, 14 and 21 days but did show an improvement relative to baseline after 28 days of treatment. Schirmer I, BUT, fluorescein and Rose Bengal did not show any statistical significance in the vehicle group. Topical 0.03% tacrolimus eye drop improved tear stability and ocular surface status in cases of inflammatory or SS-related dry eye. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01850979. Copyright © 2015 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The impact of conversion from prograf to generic tacrolimus in liver and kidney transplant recipients with stable graft function.

    PubMed

    Momper, J D; Ridenour, T A; Schonder, K S; Shapiro, R; Humar, A; Venkataramanan, R

    2011-09-01

    Bioequivalence of the recently available generic tacrolimus formulation, manufactured by Sandoz, to the reference product (Prograf; Astellas Pharma, Tokyo, Japan) has been demonstrated in healthy subjects. However, the safety and efficacy of substitution with generic tacrolimus in transplant patients have not been evaluated. Tacrolimus trough concentrations and indices of liver and kidney function were recorded before and after generic substitution in 48 liver and 55 kidney transplant recipients. In liver transplant patients, the mean tacrolimus concentration/dose (C/D) ratio (± SD) was 184.1 (± 123.2) ([ng/mL]/[mg/kg/day]) for the reference product and 154.7 (± 87.8) ([ng/mL]/[mg/kg/day]) for the generic product (p < 0.05). The mean C/D-ratios in kidney transplant patients were 125.3 (± 92.7) and 110.4 (± 79.2) ([ng/mL]/[mg/kg/day]) for the reference and generic products, respectively (p < 0.05). Actual trough concentrations declined by an average of 1.98 ng/mL in liver and 0.87 ng/mL in kidney transplant patients following the switch, after accounting for all significant covariates. No change was observed in biochemical indices of liver or kidney function and no cases of acute rejection occurred following the substitution. These results suggest that transplant patients currently taking the reference tacrolimus formulation may be safely switched to the Sandoz-generic product provided trough concentrations are closely monitored following the substitution. © 2011 The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  1. Influence of CYP3A5 and ABCB1 gene polymorphisms and other factors on tacrolimus dosing in Caucasian liver and kidney transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Provenzani, Alessio; Notarbartolo, Monica; Labbozzetta, Manuela; Poma, Paola; Vizzini, Giovanni; Salis, Paola; Caccamo, Chiara; Bertani, Tullio; Palazzo, Ugo; Polidori, Piera; Gridelli, Bruno; D'Alessandro, Natale

    2011-12-01

    Tacrolimus is a substrate of cytochrome P4503A (CYP3A) enzymes as well as of the drug transporter ABCB1. We have investigated the possible influence of CYP3A5 and ABCB1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and other factors (e.g. albumin, hematocrit and steroids) on tacrolimus blood levels achieved in a population of Caucasian liver (n=51) and kidney (n=50) transplant recipients. At 1, 3 and 6 months after transplantation, tacrolimus doses (mg/kg/day) and trough blood levels (C0) were recorded and the weight-adjusted tacrolimus dosage (mg/kg/day) was calculated. Polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was used for genotyping CYP3A5*1 and *3 [6986A>G] as well as ABCB1 at exons 21 [2677G>T/A] and 26 [3435C>T] in both liver transplant donors and recipients and in kidney transplant recipients. Of the 152 subjects studied, 84.9% showed a CYP3A5*3/*3 genotype. The total frequency of the allelic variant *3 was 93%. For the G2677T/A and C3435T polymorphisms the total frequencies of the allelic variants T/A and T were 44.7 and 46.7%, respectively. At 1, 3 and 6 months after transplantation the dose-adjusted C0 levels were significantly lower in patients with one copy of the *1 allele compared to those homozygous for the *3 allele. In the case of liver transplant patients the tacrolimus dose requirements were dominantly influenced by the polymorphisms of the CYP3A5 gene in the donors. With regard to the ABCB1 SNPs, in general they did not show any appreciable influence on tacrolimus dosing requirements; however, kidney transplant recipients carrying the 2677T/A allele required significantly higher daily tacrolimus doses than subjects homozygous for the wild-type allele. Identification of CYP3A5 single nucleotide polymorphisms prior to transplantation could contribute to evaluate the appropriate initial dosage of tacrolimus in the patients.

  2. Different top-down approaches to estimate measurement uncertainty of whole blood tacrolimus mass concentration values.

    PubMed

    Rigo-Bonnin, Raül; Blanco-Font, Aurora; Canalias, Francesca

    2018-05-08

    Values of mass concentration of tacrolimus in whole blood are commonly used by the clinicians for monitoring the status of a transplant patient and for checking whether the administered dose of tacrolimus is effective. So, clinical laboratories must provide results as accurately as possible. Measurement uncertainty can allow ensuring reliability of these results. The aim of this study was to estimate measurement uncertainty of whole blood mass concentration tacrolimus values obtained by UHPLC-MS/MS using two top-down approaches: the single laboratory validation approach and the proficiency testing approach. For the single laboratory validation approach, we estimated the uncertainties associated to the intermediate imprecision (using long-term internal quality control data) and the bias (utilizing a certified reference material). Next, we combined them together with the uncertainties related to the calibrators-assigned values to obtain a combined uncertainty for, finally, to calculate the expanded uncertainty. For the proficiency testing approach, the uncertainty was estimated in a similar way that the single laboratory validation approach but considering data from internal and external quality control schemes to estimate the uncertainty related to the bias. The estimated expanded uncertainty for single laboratory validation, proficiency testing using internal and external quality control schemes were 11.8%, 13.2%, and 13.0%, respectively. After performing the two top-down approaches, we observed that their uncertainty results were quite similar. This fact would confirm that either two approaches could be used to estimate the measurement uncertainty of whole blood mass concentration tacrolimus values in clinical laboratories. Copyright © 2018 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of tacrolimus and erythropoietin in experimental spinal cord lesion in rats: functional and histological evaluation

    PubMed Central

    de Mesquita Coutinho, P R; Cristante, A F; de Barros Filho, T E P; Ferreira, R; dos Santos, G B

    2016-01-01

    Study design: Experimental study with rats. Objective: To evaluate functional and histological effects of tacrolimus (FK 506) and erythropoietin (EPO) after experimental spinal cord contusion injury (SCI). Setting: Brazil. Methods: Wistar rats (n=60) were submitted to SCI with the NYU Impactor system. The control group received saline; the EPO group received EPO; the group EPO+FK 506 received EPO associated with tacrolimus and the group FK 506 received tacrolimus only. The Sham group underwent SCI, but did not receive any drug. Locomotor function was evaluated after SCI by BBB (Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan) weekly and by the motor-evoked potential test in 42 days. The spinal cord was histologically evaluated. Results: There was a significant difference between treated and the control groups from the seventh day on for BBB scores, with no difference between the groups EPO and EPO+FK 506 by the end of the study. There were significant differences between groups for necrosis and bleeding, but not for hiperemia, degeneration and cellular infiltrate. Axon neuron count was different between all groups (P=0.001), between EPO+FK 506 and FK 506 (P=0.011) and between EPO+FK 506 and Sham (P=0.002). Amplitude was significantly different between all groups except between control and sham. For latency, there was no difference. Conclusions: This study did not reveal significant differences in the recovery of locomotor function, or in the histological and electrophysiological analysis in animals treated with EPO and tacrolimus after thoracic SCI. PMID:26481712

  4. Successful treatment of plasma cell cheilitis with topical tacrolimus: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Hanami, Yuka; Motoki, Yoshikazu; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki

    2011-02-15

    Plasma cell cheilitis is an uncommon chronic inflammatory dermatitis that presents with flat to slightly elevated erosive erythematous plaques. It is histologically characterized by plasma cell infiltrates into the mucosa. Other than the lip, genital areas are often involved, which is called plasma cell balanitis or vulvitis. Plasma cell cheilitis is sometimes resistant to conventional topical corticosteroid therapy. Other choices include oral griseofulvin, topical cyclosporine, and intralesional corticosteroid injection, all of which occasionally fail to produce satisfactory results. Recent reports show that topical calcineurin inhibitors are effective for plasma cell cheilitis, balanitis, and vulvitis. However, there are so far only 2 reports of plasma cell cheilitis successfully treated with topical pimecrolimus and tacrolimus. We present herein two cases of plasma cell cheilitis, in which topical tacrolimus showed beneficial effects, suggesting that this immunomodulatory agent is a promising option for plasma cell cheilitis.

  5. A Markov chain model to evaluate the effect of CYP3A5 and ABCB1 polymorphisms on adverse events associated with tacrolimus in pediatric renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sy, Sherwin K B; Heuberger, Jules; Shilbayeh, Sireen; Conrado, Daniela J; Derendorf, Hartmut

    2013-10-01

    The SNP A6986G of the CYP3A5 gene (*3) results in a non-functional protein due to a splicing defect whereas the C3435T was associated with variable expression of the ABCB1 gene, due to protein instability. Part of the large interindividual variability in tacrolimus efficacy and toxicity can be accounted for by these genetic factors. Seventy-two individuals were examined for A6986G and C3435T polymorphism using a PCR-RFLP-based technique to estimate genotype and allele frequencies in the Jordanian population. The association of age, hematocrit, platelet count, CYP3A5, and ABCB1 polymorphisms with tacrolimus dose- and body-weight-normalized levels in the subset of 38 pediatric renal transplant patients was evaluated. A Markov model was used to evaluate the time-dependent probability of an adverse event occurrence by CYP3A5 phenotypes and ABCB1 genotypes. The time-dependent probability of adverse event was about double in CYP3A5 non-expressors compared to the expressors for the first 12 months of therapy. The CYP3A5 non-expressors had higher corresponding normalized tacrolimus levels compared to the expressors in the first 3 months. The correlation trend between probability of adverse events and normalized tacrolimus concentrations for the two CYP3A5 phenotypes persisted for the first 9 months of therapy. The differences among ABCB1 genotypes in terms of adverse events and normalized tacrolimus levels were only observed in the first 3 months of therapy. The information on CYP3A5 genotypes and tacrolimus dose requirement is important in designing effective programs toward management of tacrolimus side effects particularly for the initial dose when tacrolimus blood levels are not available for therapeutic drug monitoring.

  6. Conversion from cyclosporine to tacrolimus improves renal function and lipid profile after cardiac transplantation.

    PubMed

    Garlicki, Mirosław; Czub, Paweł; Labuś, Krzysztof; Ehrlich, Marek P; Rdzanek, Hanna

    2006-01-01

    Calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) have become the cornerstone of immunosuppressive regimens following heart transplantation, but their use is associated with nephrotoxicity. The impact on renal function after conversion from cyclosporine (CsA) to tacrolimus (TAC) is reported. Fifteen patients (men age 42 +/- 11 years) after cardiac transplantation (HTX) were switched from CsA to TAC (mean time after HTX 21 +/- 6 months). There were 13 male and 2 female patients. Mean cholesterol and LDL level at the time of conversion were 217 +/- 65 ml/dl and and 136 +/- 51 mg/100 ml respectively. Indication for HTX was ischemic cardiomyopathy (CMP) in 8, congenital in 3 and dilatative CMP in the remaining 4 patients. Mean tacrolimus level (microg/dl) at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months were 8.6 +/- 3.3, 8.6 +/- 1.4, 9.2 +/- 2.8 and 9.8 +/- 2.5 respectively. There was a statistically significant improvement in creatinine levels at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after conversion from baseline 1.9 +/- 0.7 mg/dl to 1.4 +/- 0.5 mg/dl, 1.4 +/- 0.4 mg/dl, 1.3 +/- 0.4 mg/dl and 1.2 +/- 0.4 mg/dl, respectively (p < 0.05). Furthermore, TAC decreased cholesterol as well as LDL-levels during this one-year time frame. This study shows that conversion from CsA to tacrolimus after orthotopic heart transplantation improves renal function.

  7. Sex Differences in the Blood Concentration of Tacrolimus in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients with CYP3A5*3/*3.

    PubMed

    Ito, Ayano; Okada, Yuko; Hashita, Tadahiro; Aomori, Tohru; Hiromura, Keiju; Nojima, Yoshihisa; Nakamura, Tomonori; Araki, Takuya; Yamamoto, Koujirou

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the impact of sex and cytochrome P450 3A5 (CYP3A5) variant on the blood concentration of tacrolimus in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus or rheumatoid arthritis. The blood concentration of tacrolimus (ng/mL) divided by the daily dose of tacrolimus (mg/day) and the patient's weight (kg) (C/D) was obtained from 55 patients. The C/D value was analysed according to genetic variation in CYP3A5 or ATP binding cassette subfamily B member 1 (ABCB1), sex, and age. The C/D value in the CYP3A5*3/*3 group was significantly higher than in the CYP3A5*1/*1 and *1/*3 groups (p < 0.05, effect size: d = 1.40). In the CYP3A5*3/*3 group, the concentration of tacrolimus was significantly higher in men than in women (p < 0.05, effect size: d = 1.78). Furthermore, in the CYP3A5*3/*3 group, the concentration of tacrolimus was significantly higher in women aged over 50 years than in women aged under 50 years (p < 0.05, effect size: d = 1.18). In contrast, ABCB1 genetic variations did not show any significant effect on the C/D value. Since the blood concentration of tacrolimus in patients with CYP3A5*3/*3 varies depending on sex and age, these factors should be considered when studying the difference of sex in CYP3A.

  8. Local Tacrolimus (FK506) Delivery for Prevention of Acute Rejection in the Nonhuman Primate Delayed Mixed Chimerism Vascularized Composite Allograft Tolerance Induction Protocol

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    Chimerism Vascularized Composite Allograft Tolerance Induction Protocol PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATORS: Dr. Curtis L. Cetrulo CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...Tacrolimus (FK506) Delivery for Prevention of Acute Rejection in the Nonhuman Primate Delayed Mixed Chimerism Vascularized Composite Allograft Tolerance...tacrolimus, FK506, vascularized composite allografts , immune rejection, preclinical, transplant, nonhuman primate model, degradable polymer, tyrosine

  9. Efficacy and Safety of Tacrolimus Therapy for Active Ulcerative Colitis; A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Komaki, Yuga; Komaki, Fukiko; Ido, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Background: Approximately 25% of patients with ulcerative colitis [UC] experience a severe flare requiring steroid therapy to avoid colectomy. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the efficacy of tacrolimus as a rescue therapy for active UC. Methods: Electronic databases were searched for relevant studies assessing the efficacy of tacrolimus for active UC. Outcomes included short- and long-term clinical response, colectomy free rates, and rate of adverse events in randomised controlled trials [RCTs] and observational studies. Results: Two RCTs comparing high trough concentration [10–15ng/ml] versus placebo [n = 103] and 23 observational studies [n = 831] were identified. Clinical response at 2 weeks was significantly higher with tacrolimus compared with placebo (risk ratio [RR] = 4.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.09–10.17, p = 0.15 x 10-3] among RCTs. Rates of clinical response at 1 and 3 months were 0.73 [95% CI = 0.64–0.81] and 0.76 [95% CI = 0.59–0.87], and colectomy-free rates remained high at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months [0.86, 0.84, 0.78, and 0.69, respectively] among observational studies. Among RCTs, adverse events were more frequent compared with placebo [RR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.20–3.37, p = 0.83 x 10-2], but there was no difference in severe adverse events [RR = 3.15, 95% CI = 0.14–72.9, p = 0.47]. Severe adverse events were rare among observational studies [0.11, 95% CI = 0.06–0.20]. Conclusions: In the present meta-analysis, tacrolimus was associated with high clinical response and colectomy-free rates without increased risk of severe adverse events for active UC. PMID:26645641

  10. Efficacy and Safety of Tacrolimus Therapy for Active Ulcerative Colitis; A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Komaki, Yuga; Komaki, Fukiko; Ido, Akio; Sakuraba, Atsushi

    2016-04-01

    Approximately 25% of patients with ulcerative colitis [UC] experience a severe flare requiring steroid therapy to avoid colectomy. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the efficacy of tacrolimus as a rescue therapy for active UC. Electronic databases were searched for relevant studies assessing the efficacy of tacrolimus for active UC. Outcomes included short- and long-term clinical response, colectomy free rates, and rate of adverse events in randomised controlled trials [RCTs] and observational studies. Two RCTs comparing high trough concentration [10-15ng/ml] versus placebo [n = 103] and 23 observational studies [n = 831] were identified. Clinical response at 2 weeks was significantly higher with tacrolimus compared with placebo (risk ratio [RR] = 4.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.09-10.17, p = 0.15 x 10(-3)] among RCTs. Rates of clinical response at 1 and 3 months were 0.73 [95% CI = 0.64-0.81] and 0.76 [95% CI = 0.59-0.87], and colectomy-free rates remained high at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months [0.86, 0.84, 0.78, and 0.69, respectively] among observational studies. Among RCTs, adverse events were more frequent compared with placebo [RR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.20-3.37, p = 0.83 x 10(-2)], but there was no difference in severe adverse events [RR = 3.15, 95% CI = 0.14-72.9, p = 0.47]. Severe adverse events were rare among observational studies [0.11, 95% CI = 0.06-0.20]. In the present meta-analysis, tacrolimus was associated with high clinical response and colectomy-free rates without increased risk of severe adverse events for active UC. Copyright © 2015 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. A simple and highly sensitive on-line column extraction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of protein-unbound tacrolimus in human plasma samples.

    PubMed

    Bittersohl, Heike; Schniedewind, Björn; Christians, Uwe; Luppa, Peter B

    2018-04-27

    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of the immunosuppressive drug tacrolimus is essential to avoid side effects and rejection of the allograft after transplantation. In the blood circulation, tacrolimus is largely located inside erythrocytes or bound to plasma proteins and less than 0.1% is protein-unbound (free). One basic principle of clinical pharmacology is that only free drug is pharmacologically active and monitoring this portion has the potential to better reflect the drug effect than conventional measurements of total tacrolimus in whole blood. To address this, a highly sensitive and straightforward on-line liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed, validated and applied to patient plasma samples. The sample preparation included ultracentrifugation and addition of the stable isotope labeled drug analogue D2,13C-tacrolimus, followed by on-line sample extraction and measurement using a Sciex QTRAP ® 6500 in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. Due to very low concentrations of protein-unbound tacrolimus, it was important to develop a highly sensitive, precise and accurate assay. Here, we first report the efficient formation of tacrolimus lithium adduct ions, which greatly increased assay sensitivity. A lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 1 pg/mL (10 fg on column) was achieved and the assay was linear between 1 and 200 pg/mL. There was no carry-over detected. The inaccuracy ranged from -9.8 to 7.4% and the greatest imprecision was 7.5%. The matrix factor was found to be smaller than 1.1%. In summary, this method represents a suitable tool to investigate the potential clinical value of free tacrolimus monitoring in organ transplant recipients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A differential impact of mycophenolic acid, prednisolone, and tacrolimus exposure on sCD30 levels in adult kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Barraclough, Katherine A; Staatz, Christine E; Johnson, David W; Gillis, David; Lee, Katie J; McWhinney, Brett C; Ungerer, Jacobus P J; Campbell, Scott B; Isbel, Nicole M

    2013-04-01

    Soluble CD30 (sCD30) has been associated with rejection and graft loss in kidney transplantation, leading to the suggestion that sCD30 might be a useful biomarker to adjust immunosuppressant medication dosing. However, there has been minimal study of the influence of individual immunosuppressive drugs on sCD30 levels. To evaluate the influence of mycophenolic acid (MPA), prednisolone, and tacrolimus exposure on sCD30 levels in adult kidney transplant recipients. The sCD30 levels were measured pretransplant and 30 days posttransplant. Area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) for each drug was estimated on day 30 using validated, multiple regression-derived limited sampling strategies. One hundred twenty-five subjects were included. Median (interquartile range) sCD30 levels were lower on day 30 posttransplant compared with pretransplant [10.7 (3.7-20.1) pg/mL versus 66.5 (46.0-95.1) pg/mL; P < 0.0001]. On univariate analyses, day 30 sCD30 levels were negatively correlated with MPA exposure and positively correlated with tacrolimus exposure. Using multivariate logistic regression, higher tacrolimus exposure was independently associated with higher day 30 sCD30 levels (2.2 change in odds for an SD increase in tacrolimus AUC 0-12, P = 0.01; 5.5 change in odds for an SD increase in tacrolimus predose concentration, P < 0.0001). In contrast, MPA and total and free prednisolone exposures were not independently associated with sCD30 levels. The sCD30 levels are significantly reduced in the presence of combination immunosuppression but are differentially affected by different immunosuppressant agents. More research is required before introduction of sCD30 measurement into clinical practice can be considered.

  13. Tacrolimus concentration to dose ratio in solid organ transplant patients treated with fecal microbiota transplantation for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection.

    PubMed

    Woodworth, Michael H; Kraft, Colleen S; Meredith, Erika J; Mehta, Aneesh K; Wang, Tiffany; Mamo, Yafet T; Dhere, Tanvi; Sitchenko, Kaitlin L; Patzer, Rachel E; Friedman-Moraco, Rachel J

    2018-04-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is increasingly being performed for Clostridium difficile infection in solid organ transplant (SOT) patients; however, little is known about the potential pharmacokinetic or pharmacomicrobial effects this may have on tacrolimus levels. We reviewed the medical records of 10 SOT patients from September 2012-December 2016 who were taking tacrolimus at time of FMT for recurrent C. difficile infection. We compared the differences in tacrolimus concentration/dose ratio (C/D ratio) 3 months prior to FMT vs 3 months after FMT. The mean of the differences in C/D ratio calculated as (ng/mL)/(mg/kg/d) was -17.65 (95% CI -1.25 to 0.58) (ng/mL)/(mg/kg/d), P-value .43 by Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The mean of the differences in C/D ratio calculated as (ng/mL)/(mg/d) was -0.33 (95% CI -1.25 to 0.58) (ng/mL)/(mg/d), P-value .28 by Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Of these patients, 2/10 underwent allograft biopsy for allograft dysfunction in the year after FMT, with no evidence of allograft rejection on pathology. These preliminary data suggest that FMT may not predictably alter tacrolimus levels and support its safety for SOT patients however further study in randomized trials is needed. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Tacrolimus in the treatment of myasthenia gravis in patients with an inadequate response to glucocorticoid therapy: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study conducted in China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lei; Liu, Weibin; Li, Wei; Li, Haifeng; Zhang, Xu; Shang, Huifang; Zhang, Xu; Bu, Bitao; Deng, Hui; Fang, Qi; Li, Jimei; Zhang, Hua; Song, Zhi; Ou, Changyi; Yan, Chuanzhu; Liu, Tao; Zhou, Hongyu; Bao, Jianhong; Lu, Jiahong; Shi, Huawei; Zhao, Chongbo

    2017-09-01

    To determine the efficacy of low-dose, immediate-release tacrolimus in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) with inadequate response to glucocorticoid therapy in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Eligible patients had inadequate response to glucocorticoids (GCs) after ⩾6 weeks of treatment with prednisone ⩾0.75 mg/kg/day or 60-100 mg/day. Patients were randomized to receive 3 mg tacrolimus or placebo daily (orally) for 24 weeks. Concomitant glucocorticoids and pyridostigmine were allowed. Patients continued GC therapy from weeks 1-4; from week 5, the dose was decreased at the discretion of the investigator. The primary efficacy outcome measure was a reduction, relative to baseline, in quantitative myasthenia gravis (QMG) score assessed using a generalized linear model; supportive analyses used alternative models. Of 138 patients screened, 83 [tacrolimus ( n = 45); placebo ( n = 38)] were enrolled and treated. The change in adjusted mean QMG score from baseline to week 24 was -4.9 for tacrolimus and -3.3 for placebo (least squares mean difference: -1.7, 95% confidence interval: -3.5, -0.1; p = 0.067). A post-hoc analysis demonstrated a statistically significant difference for QMG score reduction of ⩾4 points in the tacrolimus group (68.2%) versus the placebo group (44.7%; p = 0.044). Adverse event profiles were similar between treatment groups. Tacrolimus 3 mg treatment for patients with MG and inadequate response to GCs did not demonstrate a statistically significant improvement in the primary endpoint versus placebo over 24 weeks; however, a post-hoc analysis demonstrated a statistically significant difference for QMG score reduction of ⩾4 points in the tacrolimus group versus the placebo group. This study was limited by the low number of patients, the absence of testing for acetylcholine receptor antibody and the absence of stratification by disease duration (which led to a disparity between the two groups). Clinical

  15. A case of vesicular cutaneous lupus erythematosus in a Border collie successfully treated with topical tacrolimus and nicotinamide-tetracycline.

    PubMed

    Lehner, Georg M; Linek, Monika

    2013-12-01

    Canine vesicular cutaneous lupus erythematosus (VCLE) is an autoimmune skin disease of the Shetland sheepdog and rough collie, which manifests as an erosive dermatitis of sparsely haired skin of the ventrum and concave pinnae. Reported treatment consists of immunosuppression with glucocorticoids alone or in combination with azathioprine, but successful treatment is unpredictable. To report on the treatment of VCLE in a Border collie dog with topical 0.1% tacrolimus and nicotinamide in combination with tetracycline. An 8-year-old male neutered Border collie was presented with multiple coalescing erosions on the ventral abdomen, groin and axillae and ulceration on the oral commissures. Clinical presentation, routine diagnostics, histology and immunohistochemistry were consistent with VCLE. Remission was achieved with topical 0.1% tacrolimus and combination therapy of nicotinamide and tetracycline. This dog responded well to treatment with topical 0.1% tacrolimus, nicotinamide-tetracycline and sun avoidance. Complete remission was achieved after 2.5 months, and the dog was lesion free during a 1 year follow-up period. © 2013 ESVD and ACVD.

  16. Dried blood spot measurement: application in tacrolimus monitoring using limited sampling strategy and abbreviated AUC estimation.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Chi Yuen; van der Heijden, Jaques; Hoogtanders, Karin; Christiaans, Maarten; Liu, Yan Lun; Chan, Yiu Han; Choi, Koon Shing; van de Plas, Afke; Shek, Chi Chung; Chau, Ka Foon; Li, Chun Sang; van Hooff, Johannes; Stolk, Leo

    2008-02-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling and high-performance liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry have been developed in monitoring tacrolimus levels. Our center favors the use of limited sampling strategy and abbreviated formula to estimate the area under concentration-time curve (AUC(0-12)). However, it is inconvenient for patients because they have to wait in the center for blood sampling. We investigated the application of DBS method in tacrolimus level monitoring using limited sampling strategy and abbreviated AUC estimation approach. Duplicate venous samples were obtained at each time point (C(0), C(2), and C(4)). To determine the stability of blood samples, one venous sample was sent to our laboratory immediately. The other duplicate venous samples, together with simultaneous fingerprick blood samples, were sent to the University of Maastricht in the Netherlands. Thirty six patients were recruited and 108 sets of blood samples were collected. There was a highly significant relationship between AUC(0-12), estimated from venous blood samples, and fingerprick blood samples (r(2) = 0.96, P < 0.0001). Moreover, there was an excellent correlation between whole blood venous tacrolimus levels in the two centers (r(2) = 0.97; P < 0.0001). The blood samples were stable after long-distance transport. DBS sampling can be used in centers using limited sampling and abbreviated AUC(0-12) strategy as drug monitoring.

  17. Bioequivalence between innovator and generic tacrolimus in liver and kidney transplant recipients: A randomized, crossover clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Vinks, Alexander A.; Fukuda, Tsuyoshi; King, Eileen C.; Zou, Yuanshu; Jiang, Wenlei; Klawitter, Jelena; Christians, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Background Although the generic drug approval process has a long-term successful track record, concerns remain for approval of narrow therapeutic index generic immunosuppressants, such as tacrolimus, in transplant recipients. Several professional transplant societies and publications have generated skepticism of the generic approval process. Three major areas of concern are that the pharmacokinetic properties of generic products and the innovator (that is, “brand”) product in healthy volunteers may not reflect those in transplant recipients, bioequivalence between generic and innovator may not ensure bioequivalence between generics, and high-risk patients may have specific bioequivalence concerns. Such concerns have been fueled by anecdotal observations and retrospective and uncontrolled published studies, while well-designed, controlled prospective studies testing the validity of the regulatory bioequivalence testing approach for narrow therapeutic index immunosuppressants in transplant recipients have been lacking. Thus, the present study prospectively assesses bioequivalence between innovator tacrolimus and 2 generics in individuals with a kidney or liver transplant. Methods and findings From December 2013 through October 2014, a prospective, replicate dosing, partially blinded, randomized, 3-treatment, 6-period crossover bioequivalence study was conducted at the University of Cincinnati in individuals with a kidney (n = 35) or liver transplant (n = 36). Abbreviated New Drug Applications (ANDA) data that included manufacturing and healthy individual pharmacokinetic data for all generics were evaluated to select the 2 most disparate generics from innovator, and these were named Generic Hi and Generic Lo. During the 8-week study period, pharmacokinetic studies assessed the bioequivalence of Generic Hi and Generic Lo with the Innovator tacrolimus and with each other. Bioequivalence of the major tacrolimus metabolite was also assessed. All products fell within

  18. Bioequivalence between innovator and generic tacrolimus in liver and kidney transplant recipients: A randomized, crossover clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Alloway, Rita R; Vinks, Alexander A; Fukuda, Tsuyoshi; Mizuno, Tomoyuki; King, Eileen C; Zou, Yuanshu; Jiang, Wenlei; Woodle, E Steve; Tremblay, Simon; Klawitter, Jelena; Klawitter, Jost; Christians, Uwe

    2017-11-01

    Although the generic drug approval process has a long-term successful track record, concerns remain for approval of narrow therapeutic index generic immunosuppressants, such as tacrolimus, in transplant recipients. Several professional transplant societies and publications have generated skepticism of the generic approval process. Three major areas of concern are that the pharmacokinetic properties of generic products and the innovator (that is, "brand") product in healthy volunteers may not reflect those in transplant recipients, bioequivalence between generic and innovator may not ensure bioequivalence between generics, and high-risk patients may have specific bioequivalence concerns. Such concerns have been fueled by anecdotal observations and retrospective and uncontrolled published studies, while well-designed, controlled prospective studies testing the validity of the regulatory bioequivalence testing approach for narrow therapeutic index immunosuppressants in transplant recipients have been lacking. Thus, the present study prospectively assesses bioequivalence between innovator tacrolimus and 2 generics in individuals with a kidney or liver transplant. From December 2013 through October 2014, a prospective, replicate dosing, partially blinded, randomized, 3-treatment, 6-period crossover bioequivalence study was conducted at the University of Cincinnati in individuals with a kidney (n = 35) or liver transplant (n = 36). Abbreviated New Drug Applications (ANDA) data that included manufacturing and healthy individual pharmacokinetic data for all generics were evaluated to select the 2 most disparate generics from innovator, and these were named Generic Hi and Generic Lo. During the 8-week study period, pharmacokinetic studies assessed the bioequivalence of Generic Hi and Generic Lo with the Innovator tacrolimus and with each other. Bioequivalence of the major tacrolimus metabolite was also assessed. All products fell within the US Food and Drug Administration

  19. Novel Once-Daily Extended-Release Tacrolimus Versus Twice-Daily Tacrolimus in De Novo Kidney Transplant Recipients: Two-Year Results of Phase 3, Double-Blind, Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Rostaing, Lionel; Bunnapradist, Suphamai; Grinyó, Josep M; Ciechanowski, Kazimierz; Denny, Jason E; Silva, Helio Tedesco; Budde, Klemens

    2016-04-01

    1-year data from this trial showed the noninferiority of a novel once-daily extended-release tacrolimus (LCPT; Envarsus XR) to immediate-release tacrolimus (IR-Tac) twice daily after kidney transplantation. Final 24-month analysis of a 2-armed, parallel-group, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, multicenter, phase 3 trial. 543 de novo kidney recipients randomly assigned to LCPT (n=268) or IR-Tac (n=275); 507 (93.4%) completed the 24-month study. LCPT tablets once daily at 0.17 mg/kg/d or IR-Tac twice daily at 0.1 mg/kg/d; subsequent doses were adjusted to maintain target trough ranges (first 30 days, 6-11 ng/mL; thereafter, 4-11 ng/mL). The intervention was 24 months; the study was double blinded for the entirety. Treatment failure (death, transplant failure, biopsy-proven acute rejection, or loss to follow up) within 24 months. Safety end points included adverse events, serious adverse events, new-onset diabetes, kidney function, opportunistic infections, and malignancies. Pharmacokinetic measures included total daily dose (TDD) of study drugs and tacrolimus trough levels. 24-month treatment failure was LCPT, 23.1%; IR-Tac, 27.3% (treatment difference, -4.14% [95% CI, -11.38% to +3.17%], well below the +10% noninferiority criterion defined for the primary 12-month end point). Subgroup analyses showed fewer treatment failures for LCPT versus IR-Tac among black, older, and female recipients. Safety was similar between groups. From month 1, TDD was lower for LCPT; the difference increased over time. At month 24, mean TDD for LCPT was 24% lower than for the IR-Tac group (P<0.001), but troughs were similar (means at 24 months: LCPT, 5.47 ± 0.17 ng/mL; IR-Tac, 5.8 ± 0.30 ng/mL; P=0.4). Trial participant eligibility criteria may limit the generalizability of results to the global population of de novo kidney transplant recipients. Results suggest that once-daily LCPT in de novo kidney transplantation has comparable efficacy and safety profile to that of IR

  20. De novo use of a generic formulation of tacrolimus versus reference tacrolimus in kidney transplantation: evaluation of the clinical results, histology in protocol biopsies, and immunological monitoring.

    PubMed

    Melilli, Edoardo; Crespo, Elena; Sandoval, Diego; Manonelles, Anna; Sala, Neus; Mast, Richard; Padulles, Ariadna; Grinyo, Josep M; Bestard, Oriol; Cruzado, Josep Maria

    2015-11-01

    The use of generic formulations of immunosuppressive drugs in renal transplantation has been and still is a controversial subject. The lack of clinical studies about safety and efficacy in transplant patients is one of the factors restricting the diffusion of generic drugs in the renal transplant field. Since March 2013, our transplant unit has incorporated generic tacrolimus (Adoport(®) ; Sandoz), replacing the one we were currently using (Prograf(®) ; Astellas). When carrying out our retrospective analysis comparing the two different formulations, we evaluated several clinical results: tacrolimus trough concentrations (C0) at 5-7 days; 1, 3, and 6 months post-transplantation; concentration/dose ratio at 6 months; acute rejection incidence; delayed graft function (DGF); renal function (as CKD-EPI); and proteinuria at 6 months in 120 patients (1:1 ratio of Prograf(®) versus Adoport(®) ), noticing no important differences. We also evaluated the results of protocol biopsies at 6 months in a subgroup of patients, thus verifying the safety and efficacy of this particular generic drug versus the reference product on a histological basis as well. No difference in the development of dnDSA (de novo donor-specific antibody) was found between the two groups. © 2015 Steunstichting ESOT.

  1. Successful treatment for ulcerative proctitis with rectal tacrolimus in an 8-year-old girl with intolerance to mesalamine.

    PubMed

    Navas-López, Víctor Manuel; Blasco-Alonso, Javier; Girón Fernández-Crehuet, Francisco; Serrano Nieto, Maria Juliana; Gallego-Gutiérrez, Silvia; Luque Pérez, Silvia; Sierra Salinas, Carlos

    2014-08-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is defined as a chronic inflammatory condition causing continuous mucosal inflammation of the colon without granulomas on biopsy. It affects the rectum, and, to a variable extent, the colon in continuity and is characterized by a relapsing and remitting course. Oral 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) regimens are recommended as first-line induction therapy for mild to moderately active pediatric UC and for maintenance of remission regardless of other initial treatments. In large clinical trials in adults, mesalamine intolerance was found in 2-5 % of the patients. We present a case of an 8-year-old female patient with intolerance to mesalamine and proctitis resistant to conventional therapy who responded to rectal tacrolimus treatment. The patient started with a dose of 2 mg/day at night with an excellent response. She reported feeling better than any of the previously prescribed treatments and without feeling the discomfort of previously administered enemas. After four weeks of treatment, the dose was reduced to 2 mg/week with no relapses. Tacrolimus suppositories were very well tolerated, and no adverse effects have been reported. Although only very little data has been published, rectal tacrolimus seems to be safe and of efficacy in ulcerative proctitis resistant to standard therapy.

  2. Quantitation of tacrolimus in whole blood using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS-MS).

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Keri J; Shaw, Leslie M

    2010-01-01

    We describe a multiple reaction monitoring positive ion HPLC/tandem mass spectrometric method for quantification of tacrolimus in human whole blood with online extraction and cleanup. Included in this procedure: API 2000 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with turbo-ion spray source (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA); 10-port diverter/switching valve (Valco, Houston, TX); HPLC system (Agilent Technologies series 1100, Wilmington, DE); 10 mm (C(18)) guard cartridge (Perkin Elmer, Norwalk, CT) used as an extraction column; a Nova-Pak C18 analytical column (2.1 x 150 mm I.D., 4 microm, Waters Corp, Milford, MA); washing solution, methanol: 30 mM ammonium acetate pH 5.1 (80:20); eluting solution, methanol:30 mM ammonium acetate pH 5.1 (97:3); flow rate 0.8 mL/min; and a run-time of 2.8 min. The first and third quadrupoles were set to detect the ammonium adduct ion and a high mass fragment of tacrolimus (m/z 821.5-->768.3), and of an internal standard (ascomycin) (m/z 901.8-->834.4). The lower limit of quantification of this method is 3.75 mg/L. The concentration of drug is determined by comparing peak-area ratios for tacrolimus and internal standard to a standard curve constructed using non-weighted linear through zero regression.

  3. Relative bioavailability of single doses of prolonged-release tacrolimus administered as a suspension, orally or via a nasogastric tube, compared with intact capsules: a phase 1 study in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Undre, Nasrullah; Dickinson, James

    2017-04-04

    Tacrolimus, an immunosuppressant widely used in solid organ transplantation, is available as a prolonged-release capsule for once-daily oral administration. In the immediate postsurgical period, if patients cannot take intact capsules orally, tacrolimus therapy is often initiated as a suspension of the capsule contents, delivered orally or via a nasogastric tube. This study evaluated the relative bioavailability of prolonged-release tacrolimus suspension versus intact capsules in healthy participants. A phase 1, open-label, single-dose, cross-over study. A single clinical research unit. In total, 20 male participants, 18-55 years old, entered and completed the study. All participants received nasogastric administration of tacrolimus 10 mg suspension in treatment period 1, with randomisation to oral administration of suspension or intact capsules in periods 2 and 3. Blood concentration-time profile over 144 hours was used to estimate pharmacokinetic parameters. Primary end point: relative bioavailability of prolonged-release intact capsule versus oral or nasogastric administration of prolonged-release tacrolimus suspension (area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) from time 0 to infinity post-tacrolimus dose (AUC 0-∞ ); AUC measured until the last quantifiable concentration (AUC 0-tz ); maximum observed concentration (C max ); time to C max (T max )). Tolerability was assessed throughout the study. Relative bioavailability of prolonged-release tacrolimus suspension administered orally was similar to intact capsules, with a ratio of least-square means for AUC 0-tz and AUC 0-∞ of 1.05 (90% CI 0.96 to 1.14). Bioavailability was lower with suspension administered via a nasogastric tube versus intact capsules (17%; ratio 0.83; CI 0.76 to 0.92). C max was higher for oral and nasogastric suspension (30% and 28%, respectively), and median T max was shorter (difference 1.0 and 1.5 hours postdose, respectively) versus intact capsules (2.0 hours). Single 10

  4. Tacrolimus interaction with nafcillin resulting in significant decreases in tacrolimus concentrations: A case report.

    PubMed

    Wungwattana, Minkey; Savic, Marizela

    2017-04-01

    Tacrolimus (TAC) is subject to many drug interactions as a result of its metabolism primarily via CYP450 isoenzyme 3A4. Numerous case reports of TAC and CYP3A4 inducers and inhibitors have been described including antimicrobials, calcium channel antagonists, and antiepileptic drugs. We present the case of a 13-year-old patient with cystic fibrosis and a history of liver transplantation, where subtherapeutic TAC concentrations were suspected to be a result of concomitant TAC and nafcillin (NAF) therapy. The observed drug interaction occurred on two separate hospital admissions, during both of which the patient exhibited therapeutic TAC concentrations prior to exposure to NAF, a CYP3A4 inducer. Upon discontinuation of NAF, TAC concentrations recovered in both instances. This case represents a drug-drug interaction between TAC and NAF that has not previously been reported to our knowledge. Despite the lack of existing reports of interaction between these two agents, this case highlights the importance of therapeutic drug monitoring and assessing for any potential drug-drug or drug-food interactions in patients receiving TAC therapy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Plasma cell cheilitis, successfully treated with topical 0.03% tacrolimus ointment.

    PubMed

    Jin, Seon Pil; Cho, Kwang Hyun; Huh, Chang Hun

    2010-05-01

    Plasma cell cheilitis is a rare, idiopathic mucosal condition. The treatment of plasma cell cheilitis is often disappointing. It is often resistant to various topical treatments. We present a 65-year-old woman who had a painful, eroded area on her lower lip, which responded poorly to various topical treatments. A biopsy revealed a band-like infiltration composed mainly of plasma cells in the dermis. She was diagnosed as having plasma cell cheilitis, and was successfully treated with 0.03% topical tacrolimus ointment.

  6. Prediabetes in patients receiving tacrolimus in the first year after kidney transplantation: a prospective and multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Porrini, Esteban; Moreno, Jose Manuel; Osuna, Antonio; Benitez, Rocio; Lampreabe, Ildefonso; Diaz, Juan Manuel; Silva, Irene; Domínguez, Rosa; Gonzalez-Cotorruelo, Julio; Bayes, Beatriz; Lauzurica, Ricardo; Ibernon, Meritxell; Moreso, Francisco; Delgado, Patricia; Torres, Armando

    2008-04-27

    Tacrolimus-based immunosuppression, the most widely used regimen in kidney transplantation, increases the risk of new onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT). However, the prevalence, evolution and risk factors of different prediabetic alterations: impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, and provisional diabetes, have not been established. In this multicenter and prospective study we evaluated 154 nondiabetic kidney transplant recipients receiving tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and low dose steroids. An oral glucose tolerance test was performed 3 and 12 months after transplantation and prediabetes was defined by American Diabetes Association criteria. Prediabetes was highly prevalent and showed little variation between 3 and 12 months (36% and 33%, respectively). Impaired glucose tolerance was the most frequent abnormality observed (23% and 25%, respectively) observed. In addition, 20% of recipients showed NODAT by 1 year. Multivariate analysis showed that age (odds ratio [OR]: 1.07, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.004-1.14), pretransplant body mass index (OR: 1.3, CI: 1.09-1.6) and triglyceride/high density lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio, a marker of insulin resistance, (OR: 1.4, CI: 1.05-1.9) were independent risk factors for prediabetes. One in two recipients with tacrolimus-based immunosuppresion showed prediabetes or NODAT by 1 year posttransplantation when properly investigated. Older age and high pretransplant body mass index and triglyceride/high density lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio were risk factors for prediabetes. These findings may help applying early interventions to prevent the disorder.

  7. The Tacrolimus Metabolism Rate Influences Renal Function after Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Thölking, Gerold; Fortmann, Christian; Koch, Raphael; Gerth, Hans Ulrich; Pabst, Dirk; Pavenstädt, Hermann; Kabar, Iyad; Hüsing, Anna; Wolters, Heiner

    2014-01-01

    The effective calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) tacrolimus (Tac) is an integral part of the standard immunosuppressive regimen after renal transplantation (RTx). However, as a potent CNI it has nephrotoxic potential leading to impaired renal function in some cases. Therefore, it is of high clinical impact to identify factors which can predict who is endangered to develop CNI toxicity. We hypothesized that the Tac metabolism rate expressed as the blood concentration normalized by the dose (C/D ratio) is such a simple predictor. Therefore, we analyzed the impact of the C/D ratio on kidney function after RTx. Renal function was analyzed 1, 2, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after RTx in 248 patients with an immunosuppressive regimen including basiliximab, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisolone. According to keep the approach simple, patients were split into three C/D groups: fast, intermediate and slow metabolizers. Notably, compared with slow metabolizers fast metabolizers of Tac showed significantly lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) values at all the time points analyzed. Moreover, fast metabolizers underwent more indication renal biopsies (p = 0.006) which revealed a higher incidence of CNI nephrotoxicity (p = 0.015) and BK nephropathy (p = 0.024) in this group. We herein identified the C/D ratio as an easy calculable risk factor for the development of CNI nephrotoxicity and BK nephropathy after RTx. We propose that the simple C/D ratio should be taken into account early in patient’s risk management strategies. PMID:25340655

  8. Pilot Analysis of Late Conversion to Belatacept in Kidney Transplant Recipients for Biopsy-Proven Chronic Tacrolimus Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Rosales, Ivy

    2018-01-01

    Background Calcineurin inhibitors are associated with chronic nephrotoxicity, manifesting as interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy (IF/TA) and arteriolar hyalinosis. Conversion from tacrolimus to belatacept may be one strategy to preserve renal function. Methods We conducted a retrospective review of renal transplant patients followed at our institution who were converted to belatacept and found to have chronic tacrolimus toxicity on biopsy. The primary outcome was eGFR at conversion as compared to eGFR at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after conversion. We also assessed incidence of infection and rates of allograft survival at 1 year. Results The average time between transplant and conversion was 11.9 years. There was no decrease in eGFR at any postconversion time point as compared with preconversion. The mean eGFR at time of preconversion was 32.9 mL/min, as compared with 35.6 mL/min at 3 months (p = 0.09), 34.1 mL/min at 6 months (p = 0.63), 34.9 mL/min at 12 months (p = 0.57), and 39.6 mL/min at 24 months after conversion (p = 0.92). Four of 7 patients had increases in their eGFR after conversion. All grafts were functioning at 1 year after conversion. Conclusion While this study was limited by a small number of patients, belatacept conversion stabilized eGFR at all time points in patients with late allograft function due to chronic tacrolimus toxicity, with a trend towards increased eGFR at 3 months. PMID:29854421

  9. A single-centre comparison of the clinical outcomes at 6 months of renal transplant recipients administered Adoport® or Prograf® preparations of tacrolimus

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Andrew; Prowse, Andrew; Newell, Paul; Rowe, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of generic formulations of immunosuppressive drugs in place of brand name drugs offers considerable cost savings. Brand name tacrolimus (Prograf®) came off patent in April 2008. However, published evidence supporting therapeutic equivalence of generic formulations of tacrolimus in solid organ transplantation is lacking. The South West Transplant Centre switched from administering Prograf® to a generic formulation (Adoport®) for de novo transplant recipients in November 2010. This study sought to compare the clinical outcomes of renal transplant recipients administered Prograf® with those receiving Adoport®. Methods Data regarding patient characteristics and clinical outcomes were collected retrospectively for all patients undergoing renal transplantation at the South West Transplant Centre between 8 November 2009 and 8 November 2011 to whom tacrolimus was prescribed. Results A total of 48 patients received Prograf® and 51 received Adoport®. At 6 months, no statistically significant differences were identified in the rates of patient survival, graft survival, acute allograft rejection, delayed graft function, calcineurin inhibitor toxicity or cytomegalovirus infection occurring within the two groups. Conclusions This is the first study to compare the clinical outcomes of patients receiving Adoport® with those receiving brand name tacrolimus. We report comparable clinical outcomes at 6 months in patients receiving either Prograf® or Adoport® from the time of renal transplantation. These early outcome data therefore support the use of Adoport® in place of Prograf® as a potential cost-saving measure. PMID:27818747

  10. Randomized Comparison of Topical Betamethasone Valerate Foam, Intralesional Triamcinolone Acetonide and Tacrolimus Ointment in Management of Localized Alopecia Areata

    PubMed Central

    Kuldeep, CM; Singhal, Himanshu; Khare, Ashok Kumar; Mittal, Asit; Gupta, Lalit K; Garg, Anubhav

    2011-01-01

    Background: Alopecia areata (AA) is a common, non-scarring, patchy loss of hair at scalp and elsewhere. Its pathogenesis is uncertain; however, auto-immunity has been exemplified in various studies. Familial incidence of AA is 10-42%, but in monozygotic twins is 50%. Local steroids (topical / intra-lesional) are very effective in treatment of localized AA. Aim: To compare hair regrowth and side effects of topical betamethasone valerate foam, intralesional triamcinolone acetonide and tacrolimus ointment in management of localized AA. Materials and Methods: 105 patients of localized AA were initially registered but 27 were drop out. So, 78 patients allocated at random in group A (28), B (25) and C (25) were prescribed topical betamethasone valerate foam (0.1%) twice daily, intralesional triamcinolone acetonide (10mg/ml) every 3 weeks and tacrolimus ointment (0.1%) twice daily, respectively, for 12 weeks. They were followed for next12 weeks. Hair re-growth was calculated using “HRG Scale”; scale I- (0-25%), S II-(26-50%), S III - (51-75%) and S IV- (75-100%). Results: Hair re-growth started by 3 weeks in group B (Scale I: P<0.03), turned satisfactory at 6 weeks in group A and B (Scale I: P<0.005, Scale IV: P<0.001)), good at 9 weeks (Scale I: P<0.0005, Scale IV: P<0.00015), and better by 12 weeks of treatment (Scale I: P<0.000021, Scale IV: P<0.000009) in both A and B groups. At the end of 12 weeks follow-up hair re-growth (>75%, HRG IV) was the best in group B (15 of 25, 60%), followed by A (15 of 28, 53.6%) and lastly group-C (Nil of 25, 0%) patients. Few patients reported mild pain and atrophy at injection sites, pruritus and burning with betamethasone valerate foam and tacrolimus. Conclusion: Intralesional triamcinolone acetonide is the best, betamethasone valerate foam is better than tacrolimus in management of localized AA. PMID:21769231

  11. Evaluating the efficacy, safety and evolution of renal function with early initiation of everolimus-facilitated tacrolimus reduction in de novo liver transplant recipients: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Nashan, Bjorn; Schemmer, Peter; Braun, Felix; Dworak, Markus; Wimmer, Peter; Schlitt, Hans

    2015-03-26

    Introduction of calcineurin inhibitors had led to improved survival rates in liver transplant recipients. However, long-term use of calcineurin inhibitors is associated with a higher risk of chronic renal failure, neurotoxicity, de novo malignancies, recurrence of hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection and hepatocellular carcinoma. Several studies have shown that everolimus has the potential to provide protection against viral replication, malignancy, and progression of fibrosis, as well as preventing nephrotoxicity by facilitating calcineurin inhibitor reduction without compromising efficacy. The Hephaistos study evaluates the beneficial effects of early initiation of everolimus in de novo liver transplant recipients. Hephaistos is an ongoing 12-month, multi-center, open-label, controlled study aiming to enroll 330 de novo liver transplant recipients from 15 centers across Germany. Patients are randomized in a 1:1 ratio (7-21 days post-transplantation) to receive everolimus (trough levels 3-8 ng/mL) with reduced tacrolimus (trough levels <5 ng/mL), or standard tacrolimus (trough levels 6-10 ng/mL) after entering a run-in period (3-5 days post-transplantation). In the run-in period, patients are treated with induction therapy, mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus, and corticosteroids according to local practice. Randomization is stratified by HCV status and model of end-stage liver disease scores at transplantation. The primary objective of the study is to exhibit superior renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate assessed by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD)-4 formula) with everolimus plus reduced tacrolimus compared to standard tacrolimus at Month 12. Other objectives are: to assess the incidence of treated biopsy-proven acute rejection, graft loss, or death; the incidences of components of the composite efficacy endpoint; renal function via estimated glomerular filtration rate using various formulae (MDRD-4, Nankivell, Cockcroft

  12. Safety and efficacy of the switch to generic mycophenolate mofetil and tacrolimus in heart transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Söderlund, Carl; Rådegran, Göran

    2015-07-01

    Generic immunosuppressants may offer economic advantages, but their use is still controversial. At our center, 55 heart transplant patients were switched from CellCept(®) to Myfenax Teva(®) (MT) (n = 51, 18% female, 8.1 ± 6.6 yr post-transplantation) and/or Prograf(®) to Tacrolimus Sandoz(®) (TS) (n = 17, 41% female, 6.6 ± 5.8 yr post-transplantation). We conducted an acute monitoring and a retrospective follow-up with regard to safety and efficacy. Acute cellular rejections (ACRs) on endomyocardial biopsies (EMBs) four wk after the MT switch were specifically compared to a matched retrospective control group. Tacrolimus C0 levels (TS switch) as well as hemoglobin, leukocytes, and thrombocytes (MT switch) did not change (p = NS) during the three wk after each respective switch (8.7 ± 2.9 vs. 8.4 ± 1.9 μg/L, 129.1 ± 12.6 vs. 130.1 ± 12.8 g/L, 6.3 vs. 6.2 × 10(9) /L, and 217.4 ± 56.6 vs. 219.3 ± 61.8 × 10(9) /L, respectively). 0% of the EMBs in the MT switch vs. 3% of the EMBs in the control group showed ACR>grade 1R (p = NS). After six months, survival was 96% (MT switch) and 100% (TS switch), and the frequency of severe ACR was low. Safety parameters measured at the next annual follow-up were also stable following each switch. Switching to MT and/or TS several years after heart transplantation appeared safe in the short-term perspective, showing no detectable changes in tacrolimus C0 levels, safety or efficacy, during an average follow-up of six months. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Novel gastroretentive sustained-release tablet of tacrolimus based on self-microemulsifying mixture: in vitro evaluation and in vivo bioavailability test.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-ping; Gan, Yong; Zhang, Xin-xin

    2011-10-01

    To develop a novel gastroretentive drug delivery system based on a self-microemulsifying (SME) lipid mixture for improving the oral absorption of the immunosuppressant tacrolimus. Liquid SME mixture, composed of Cremophor RH40 and monocaprylin glycerate, was blended with polyethylene oxide, chitosan, polyvinylpyrrolidone and mannitol, and then transformed into tablets via granulation, with ethanol as the wetting agent. The tablets were characterized in respect of swelling, bioadhesive and SME properties. In vitro dissolution was conducted using an HCl buffer at pH 1.2. Oral bioavailability of the tablets was examined in fasted beagle dogs. The tablet could expand to 13.5 mm in diameter and 15 mm in thickness during the initial 20 min of contact with the HCl buffer at pH 1.2. The bioadhesive strength was as high as 0.98±0.06 N/cm(2). The SME gastroretentive sustained-release tablets preserved the SME capability of the liquid SME formations under transmission electron microscope. The drug-release curve was fit to the zero-order release model, which was helpful in reducing fluctuations in blood concentration. Compared with the commercially available capsules of tacrolimus, the relative bioavailability of the SME gastroretentive sustained-release tablets was 553.4%±353.8%. SME gastroretentive sustained-release tablets can enhance the oral bioavailability of tacrolimus with poor solubility and a narrow absorption window.

  14. Tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil after nonmyeloablative matched-sibling donor allogeneic stem-cell transplantations conditioned with fludarabine and low-dose total body irradiation.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Yago; Patton, Nigel; Hawkins, Timothy; Spearing, Ruth; Bearman, Scott I; Jones, Roy B; Shpall, Elizabeth J; Rabinovitch, Rachel; Zeng, Chan; Barón, Anna; McSweeney, Peter A

    2006-02-01

    We evaluated tacrolimus/mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis after a nonmyeloablative stem cell transplantation (NST) from a matched sibling donor (MSD). Thirty-two patients (median age, 57 years) with advanced hematologic malignancies, who were poor candidates for a conventional myeloablative transplantation, received fludarabine (30 mg/m(2), day -4 to day -2), total-body irradiation (TBI) (200 cGy, day 0), infusion of donor peripheral blood progenitor cells (day 0), oral tacrolimus 0.06 mg/kg twice daily (from day 3), and oral MMF at 15 mg/kg twice daily (days 0-+27). Tacrolimus was tapered from day +100 to day +180 in those patients with indolent malignancies (n = 25), and from day +35 to day +56 in those with aggressive tumors (n = 7). Regimen toxicities and myelosuppression were mild, allowing 75% of patients to have entirely outpatient transplantations. One patient (3%) experienced a nonfatal graft rejection. Rates of grades II-IV and III-IV acute GVHD were 15.6% and 3%, respectively. Acute GVHD was diagnosed at median day +78 (range, days +31-+84). Extensive chronic GVHD was observed in 10 of 24 evaluable patients (41.6%) at a median onset of day +198 (range, days +128-+277), either spontaneously (n = 5) or elicited after tumor progression (n = 5). Five patients experienced transplantation-related mortality (TRM) (15.6%) from either acute GVHD-related multiorgan failure (MOF) (n = 3) or infectious complications (n = 2). At median follow-up of 19 months (range, 2-41 months), the overall survival, progression-free survival, and disease-free survival rates are 62.5%, 50%, and 40%, respectively. In conclusion, the use of tacrolimus/MMF after MSD NST is associated with encouraging rates of GVHD control.

  15. Topical Tacrolimus and Periodontal Therapy in the Management of a Case of Oral Chronic GVHD Characterized by Specific Gingival Localization

    PubMed Central

    Conrotto, Davide; Broccoletti, Roberto; Carcieri, Paola; Giaccone, Luisa; Arduino, Paolo G.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Chronic graft versus host disease (cGVHD) is a complication following bone marrow transplantation. The oral lesions are difficult to control with a systemic pharmacological therapy. Case Description. A 63-year-old female patient, who underwent an allogeniec transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia, developed a chronic oral and cutaneous GVHD. The patient was treated with topical tacrolimus 0.1%, twice daily for two months, and underwent a protocol of oral hygiene characterized by 3 appointments of scaling, root planning, and daily oral hygiene instructions. The patient showed marked resolution of gingival lesions and a significant improvement of related pain and gingival inflammatory indexes. Clinical Implications. This case report suggests that treatment with topical tacrolimus and professional oral hygiene may be helpful in the management of chronic oral GVHD with severe gingival involvement. PMID:24639902

  16. Topical tacrolimus and periodontal therapy in the management of a case of oral chronic GVHD characterized by specific gingival localization.

    PubMed

    Conrotto, Davide; Broccoletti, Roberto; Carcieri, Paola; Giaccone, Luisa; Arduino, Paolo G

    2014-01-01

    Background. Chronic graft versus host disease (cGVHD) is a complication following bone marrow transplantation. The oral lesions are difficult to control with a systemic pharmacological therapy. Case Description. A 63-year-old female patient, who underwent an allogeniec transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia, developed a chronic oral and cutaneous GVHD. The patient was treated with topical tacrolimus 0.1%, twice daily for two months, and underwent a protocol of oral hygiene characterized by 3 appointments of scaling, root planning, and daily oral hygiene instructions. The patient showed marked resolution of gingival lesions and a significant improvement of related pain and gingival inflammatory indexes. Clinical Implications. This case report suggests that treatment with topical tacrolimus and professional oral hygiene may be helpful in the management of chronic oral GVHD with severe gingival involvement.

  17. Novel gastroretentive sustained-release tablet of tacrolimus based on self-microemulsifying mixture: in vitro evaluation and in vivo bioavailability test

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan-ping; Gan, Yong; Zhang, Xin-xin

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To develop a novel gastroretentive drug delivery system based on a self-microemulsifying (SME) lipid mixture for improving the oral absorption of the immunosuppressant tacrolimus. Methods: Liquid SME mixture, composed of Cremophor RH40 and monocaprylin glycerate, was blended with polyethylene oxide, chitosan, polyvinylpyrrolidone and mannitol, and then transformed into tablets via granulation, with ethanol as the wetting agent. The tablets were characterized in respect of swelling, bioadhesive and SME properties. In vitro dissolution was conducted using an HCl buffer at pH 1.2. Oral bioavailability of the tablets was examined in fasted beagle dogs. Results: The tablet could expand to 13.5 mm in diameter and 15 mm in thickness during the initial 20 min of contact with the HCl buffer at pH 1.2. The bioadhesive strength was as high as 0.98±0.06 N/cm2. The SME gastroretentive sustained-release tablets preserved the SME capability of the liquid SME formations under transmission electron microscope. The drug-release curve was fit to the zero-order release model, which was helpful in reducing fluctuations in blood concentration. Compared with the commercially available capsules of tacrolimus, the relative bioavailability of the SME gastroretentive sustained-release tablets was 553.4%±353.8%. Conclusion: SME gastroretentive sustained-release tablets can enhance the oral bioavailability of tacrolimus with poor solubility and a narrow absorption window. PMID:21927013

  18. A comparison of the extended-release and standard-release formulations of tacrolimus in de novo kidney transplant recipients: a 12-month outcome study.

    PubMed

    Fanous, Helen; Zheng, Rebecca; Campbell, Carolyn; Huang, Michael; Nash, Michelle M; Rapi, Lindita; Zaltzman, Jeffrey S; Prasad, G V Ramesh

    2013-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited comparative data are available on the outcomes between extended-release and standard-release tacrolimus when used de novo in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). METHODS: We identified KTRs transplanted at our institution during 2009-10 routinely prescribed extended-release tacrolimus and compared them with those transplanted during 2008-09 prescribed standard-release tacrolimus. Graft function (eGFR by MDRD-7 equation) at 12 months post-transplant (primary outcome); new-onset diabetes and other cardiovascular risk factors, BK viremia incidence, acute rejection, and graft survival to 12 months (secondary outcomes) were compared by intent-to-treat analysis. Time-to-steady-state concentration and number of dose adjustments required to attain steady state were recorded. RESULTS: There were no important demographic differences between the extended-release (N = 106) and standard-release (N = 95) cohorts. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at 12 months was similar (58.8 ± 17 versus 59.2 ± 18 mL/min/1.73 m(2), P = 0.307). There was no difference in new-onset diabetes (17 versus 20%, P = 0.581), BK viremia (10 versus 7%, P = 0.450), acute rejection (7 versus 16%, P = 0.067) or graft survival (97 versus 95%, P = 0.301). Time-to-steady state was similar (9.2 ± 1.1 versus 8.1 ± 4.7 days, P = 0.490) although extended-release patients required fewer adjustments to attain steady state (1.2 ± 1.7 [0-8] versus 1.7 ± 1.5 [0-7], P = 0.030) but a similar dose (7.2 ± 2.4 [2-17] versus 7 ± 2.7 [2-16] mg/day, P = 0.697). CONCLUSION: De novo KTRs prescribed extended-release or standard-release tacrolimus demonstrate similar 12-month outcomes.

  19. [Application of Fourier amplitude sensitivity test in Chinese healthy volunteer population pharmacokinetic model of tacrolimus].

    PubMed

    Guan, Zheng; Zhang, Guan-min; Ma, Ping; Liu, Li-hong; Zhou, Tian-yan; Lu, Wei

    2010-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated the influence of different variance from each of the parameters on the output of tacrolimus population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) model in Chinese healthy volunteers, using Fourier amplitude sensitivity test (FAST). Besides, we estimated the index of sensitivity within whole course of blood sampling, designed different sampling times, and evaluated the quality of parameters' and the efficiency of prediction. It was observed that besides CL1/F, the index of sensitivity for all of the other four parameters (V1/F, V2/F, CL2/F and k(a)) in tacrolimus PopPK model showed relatively high level and changed fast with the time passing. With the increase of the variance of k(a), its indices of sensitivity increased obviously, associated with significant decrease in sensitivity index for the other parameters, and obvious change in peak time as well. According to the simulation of NONMEM and the comparison among different fitting results, we found that the sampling time points designed according to FAST surpassed the other time points. It suggests that FAST can access the sensitivities of model parameters effectively, and assist the design of clinical sampling times and the construction of PopPK model.

  20. Granulosis rubra nasi: a rare condition treated successfully with topical tacrolimus.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Piyush; Gosai, Anubhav; Mondal, Ashim Kumar; Lal, Niharika Ranjan; Gharami, Ramesh Chandra

    2012-01-02

    A 20 years-old girl presented with multiple asymptomatic reddish vesicles on face for four years. It used to get worse in summer and was associated with localized hyperhidrosis. The lesions were notable for disappearance on diascopy. Histopathology from the vesicle showed mononuclear cell infiltration in the upper dermis, especially around eccrine sweat apparatus, along with dilatation of superficial capillaries and lymphatics. Based on clinical presentation and histopathology, diagnosis of Granulosis rubra nasi (GRN) was made. GRN usually resolves at puberty; however, rarely it may persist in adulthood. We here report a case of GRN having lesions persisting in adulthood. Moreover, she showed excellent response to topical tacrolimus, a finding not observed in literature.

  1. Traumatic Brain Injury Causes a Tacrolimus-Sensitive Increase in Non-Convulsive Seizures in a Rat Model of Post-Traumatic Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Campbell, John N; Gandhi, Anandh; Singh, Baljinderjit; Churn, Severn B

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is a significant but potentially preventable complication of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Previous research in animal models of acquired epilepsy has implicated the calcium-sensitive phosphatase, calcineurin. In addition, our lab recently found that calcineurin activity in the rat hippocampus increases acutely after lateral TBI. Here we use a calcineurin inhibitor test whether an acute increase in calcineurin activity is necessary for the development of late post-traumatic seizures. Adult rats were administered the calcineurin inhibitor Tacrolimus (5mg/kg; i.p.) 1 hour after lateral fluid percussion TBI and then monitored by video-electrocorticography (video-ECoG) for spontaneous seizure activity 5 weeks or 33 weeks later. At 5 weeks post-TBI, we observed epileptiform activity on the video-ECoG of brain injured rats but no seizures. By 33 weeks post-TBI though, nearly all injured rats exhibited spontaneous seizures, including convulsive seizures which were infrequent but lasted minutes (18% of injured rats), and non-convulsive seizures which were frequent but lasted tens of seconds (94% of injured rats). We also identified non-convulsive seizures in a smaller subset of control and sham TBI rats (56%), reminiscent of idiopathic seizures described in other rats strains. Non-convulsive seizures in the brain injured rats, however, were four-times more frequent and two-times longer lasting than in their uninjured littermates. Interestingly, rats administered Tacrolimus acutely after TBI showed significantly fewer non-convulsive seizures than untreated rats, but a similar degree of cortical atrophy. The data thus indicate that administration of Tacrolimus acutely after TBI suppressed non-convulsive seizures months later.

  2. Advantage of Rapamycin Over Mycophenolate Mofetil When Used With Tacrolimus for Simultaneous Pancreas Kidney Transplants: Randomized, Single-Center Trial at 10 Years

    PubMed Central

    Ciancio, G.; Sageshima, J.; Chen, L.; Gaynor, J. J.; Hanson, L.; Tueros, L.; Montenora-Velarde, E.; Gomez, C.; Kupin, W.; Guerra, G.; Mattiazzi, A.; Fornoni, A.; Pugliese, A.; Roth, D.; Wolf, M.; Burke, G. W.

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous pancreas kidney transplantation (SPKT) is the treatment of choice for patients with type 1 diabetes and end-stage renal disease. Rapamycin and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) have been used for maintenance immunosuppression with tacrolimus in SPKT; however, long-term outcomes are lacking. From September 2000 through December 2009, 170 SPKT recipients were enrolled in a randomized, prospective trial receiving Rapamycin (n = 84) or MMF (n = 86). All patients received dual induction therapy with thymoglobulin and daclizumab, and low-dose maintenance tacrolimus and corticosteroids. Compared to MMF, rates of freedom from first biopsy-proven acute kidney or pancreas rejection were superior for Rapamycin at year 1 (kidney: 100% vs. 88%; P = 0.001; pancreas: 99% vs. 92%; P = 0.04) and at year 10 (kidney: 88% vs. 71%, P = 0.01; pancreas: 99% vs. 89%, P = 0.01). The higher rates of rejection were associated with withholding MMF (vs. Rapamycin, p = 0.009), generally for gastrointestinal or bone marrow toxicity. There was no significant difference in creatinine, proteinuria, c-peptide, viral infections, lymphoproliferative disorders or posttransplant diabetes. HbA1C and lipid levels were normal in both groups, although higher in the Rapamycin arm. There were no significant differences in patient or allograft survival. In this 10-year SPKT study, Rapamycin in combination with tacrolimus was better tolerated and more effective than MMF. Overall, the patient and allograft survival were equivalent. PMID:22946986

  3. Erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp successfully treated with oral prednisone and topical tacrolimus*

    PubMed Central

    Zahdi, Mariana Ribas; Seidel, Gabriela Bestani; Soares, Vanessa Cristina; de Freitas, Camila Fernanda Novak Pinheiro; Mulinari-Brenner, Fabiane Andrade

    2013-01-01

    Erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp is a rare inflammatory disorder of the scalp, affecting elderly patients after local trauma and leading to scarring or cicatricial alopecia. Case Report: An elderly female patient complained of painful pustules on the parietal region bilaterally with progressive enlargement and ulceration. A biopsy suggested erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp and the patient was treated with prednisone 40 mg/day and 0.1% topical tacrolimus. After 10 weeks complete closure of the eroded areas was observed and a stable scarring alopecia developed. PMID:24173187

  4. Traumatic Brain Injury Causes a Tacrolimus-Sensitive Increase in Non-Convulsive Seizures in a Rat Model of Post-Traumatic Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, John N.; Gandhi, Anandh; Singh, Baljinderjit; Churn, Severn B.

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is a significant but potentially preventable complication of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Previous research in animal models of acquired epilepsy has implicated the calcium-sensitive phosphatase, calcineurin. In addition, our lab recently found that calcineurin activity in the rat hippocampus increases acutely after lateral TBI. Here we use a calcineurin inhibitor test whether an acute increase in calcineurin activity is necessary for the development of late post-traumatic seizures. Adult rats were administered the calcineurin inhibitor Tacrolimus (5mg/kg; i.p.) 1 hour after lateral fluid percussion TBI and then monitored by video-electrocorticography (video-ECoG) for spontaneous seizure activity 5 weeks or 33 weeks later. At 5 weeks post-TBI, we observed epileptiform activity on the video-ECoG of brain injured rats but no seizures. By 33 weeks post-TBI though, nearly all injured rats exhibited spontaneous seizures, including convulsive seizures which were infrequent but lasted minutes (18% of injured rats), and non-convulsive seizures which were frequent but lasted tens of seconds (94% of injured rats). We also identified non-convulsive seizures in a smaller subset of control and sham TBI rats (56%), reminiscent of idiopathic seizures described in other rats strains. Non-convulsive seizures in the brain injured rats, however, were four-times more frequent and two-times longer lasting than in their uninjured littermates. Interestingly, rats administered Tacrolimus acutely after TBI showed significantly fewer non-convulsive seizures than untreated rats, but a similar degree of cortical atrophy. The data thus indicate that administration of Tacrolimus acutely after TBI suppressed non-convulsive seizures months later. PMID:25580467

  5. Tacrolimus has immunosuppressive effects on heavy/light chain pairs and free light chains in patients after heart transplantation: A relationship with infection.

    PubMed

    Lavríková, Petra; Sečník, Peter; Kubíček, Zdenek; Jabor, Antonín; Hošková, Lenka; Franeková, Janka

    2018-06-15

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between tacrolimus (TAC) immunosuppressive treatment and serum concentrations of immunoglobulin heavy/light chain pairs (sHLC) and free light chains (sFLC) in patients after heart transplantation (HTX) and to use these biomarkers to predict the risk of infection in these patients. A total of 88 patients with an immunosuppressive regimen involving tacrolimus who underwent HTX were analyzed over 24 months of follow-up. sFLC and sHLC levels were determined before and at three time points after HTX. TAC concentrations were determined at several time points after HTX, and mean TAC concentrations and areas under the curve (AUCs) of TAC concentration were calculated. Relevant clinical data were obtained from patients' medical records. A larger AUC of TAC was associated with decreases in the concentrations of IgG total (p < 0.05); similarly, cumulative AUC of TAC during 18 post-transplant months correlated inversely with sHLC IgG kappa (r = -0.228, p < 0.05) and IgG total (r = -0.352, p < 0.05). Concentrations of sFLC kappa, sFLC lambda, sHLC IgG kappa, and sHLC IgG total were significantly lower in infected patients (in the 9th month after HTX, all p < 0.05). Combined criteria for increased AUC (greater than the median of 12.9 mg·d/l) and decreased sFLC kappa (less than the median of 12.5 mg/l) correlated with the presence of infection (p < 0.03) in the 9th month after HTX. Ratio of concentration of TAC to sFLC kappa or lambda was significantly higher in infected patients (both p < 0.05). Intensive treatment with tacrolimus after HTX is possibly reflected by decreases in sFLC and sHLC (mainly sHLC IgG). Patients with decreased concentrations of these biomarkers are at increased risk for infection, primarily in the 9th month after HTX, when the concentrations of tacrolimus were the highest. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. BK Polyomavirus Replication in Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells Is Inhibited by Sirolimus, but Activated by Tacrolimus Through a Pathway Involving FKBP-12.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, H H; Yakhontova, K; Lu, M; Manzetti, J

    2016-03-01

    BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) replication causes nephropathy and premature kidney transplant failure. Insufficient BKPyV-specific T cell control is regarded as a key mechanism, but direct effects of immunosuppressive drugs on BKPyV replication might play an additional role. We compared the effects of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)- and calcineurin-inhibitors on BKPyV replication in primary human renal tubular epithelial cells. Sirolimus impaired BKPyV replication with a 90% inhibitory concentration of 4 ng/mL by interfering with mTOR-SP6-kinase activation. Sirolimus inhibition was rapid and effective up to 24 h postinfection during viral early gene expression, but not thereafter, during viral late gene expression. The mTORC-1 kinase inhibitor torin-1 showed a similar inhibition profile, supporting the notion that early steps of BKPyV replication depend on mTOR activity. Cyclosporine A also inhibited BKPyV replication, while tacrolimus activated BKPyV replication and reversed sirolimus inhibition. FK binding protein 12kda (FKBP-12) siRNA knockdown abrogated sirolimus inhibition and increased BKPyV replication similar to adding tacrolimus. Thus, sirolimus and tacrolimus exert opposite effects on BKPyV replication in renal tubular epithelial cells by a mechanism involving FKBP-12 as common target. Immunosuppressive drugs may therefore contribute directly to the risk of BKPyV replication and nephropathy besides suppressing T cell functions. The data provide rationales for clinical trials aiming at reducing the risk of BKPyV replication and disease in kidney transplantation. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  7. Investigating the Impact of Drug Crystallinity in Amorphous Tacrolimus Capsules on Pharmacokinetics and Bioequivalence Using Discriminatory In Vitro Dissolution Testing and Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling and Simulation.

    PubMed

    Purohit, Hitesh S; Trasi, Niraj S; Sun, Dajun D; Chow, Edwin C Y; Wen, Hong; Zhang, Xinyuan; Gao, Yi; Taylor, Lynne S

    2018-05-01

    Delivering a drug in amorphous form in a formulated product is a strategy used to enhance the apparent solubility of a drug substance and its oral bioavailability. Drug crystallization in such products may occur during the manufacturing process or on storage, reducing the solubility advantage of the amorphous drug. However, the impact of partial drug crystallization in the drug product on the resulting bioavailability and pharmacokinetics is unknown. In this study, dissolution testing of commercial tacrolimus capsules (which are formulated to contain amorphous drug), both fresh and those containing different amounts of crystalline drug, was conducted using both United States Pharmacopeia and noncompendial dissolution tests with different dissolution media and volumes. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) absorption model was developed to predict the impact of crystallinity extent on the oral absorption of the products and to evaluate the discriminatory ability of the different dissolution methods. Virtual bioequivalence simulations between partially crystallized tacrolimus capsules versus fresh Prograf or generic tacrolimus capsules were performed using the PBPK model and in vitro dissolution data of the various fresh and partially crystallized capsules under United States Pharmacopeia and noncompendial dissolution conditions. The results suggest that compendial dissolution tests may not be sufficiently discriminatory with respect to the presence of crystallinity in an amorphous formulation. Nonsink dissolution tests using lower dissolution volumes generate more discriminatory profiles that predict different pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus capsules containing different extents of drug crystallinity. In conclusion, the PBPK modeling approach can be used to assess the impact of partial drug crystallinity in the formulated product and to guide the development of appropriate dissolution methods. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. All rights

  8. Clinical study of double dose of valsartan combined with tacrolimus in treatment of diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Jin, H; Zhang, H-N; Hou, X-L; Zhang, B; Wu, J; Zhang, H-B

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the clinical effect of double dose of valsartan combined with tacrolimus in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy (DN). HA total of 86 cases diagnosed with DN were selected from October 2013 to October 2014 in Zaozhuang Municipal Hospital, China. The study was approved by our hospital Ethics Committee and written consent was obtained from patients and their family members. Patients were randomly divided into three groups according to the sequence of admission, group A (conventional dose of valsartan group, n = 28 cases), group B (double dose of valsartan group, n = 29 cases) and group C (double dose of valsartan combined with tacrolimus group, n = 29). Clinical effects were compared by analyzing the renal function tests after 8 weeks. 24h urine protein, serum creatinine level of patients in group B and group C were significantly lower than that of group A. Those in group C was much lower. The glomerular filtration rates were significantly higher for group B and C than that of group A, and those in group C were much higher. The difference is statistically significant (p < 0.05). High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs CRP) and adiponectin levels of patients in group B and C of were significantly lower than that of group A and those in group C were much lower. The difference is statistically significant (p < 0.05). The high mobility group protein 1 (HMGB1) and renal tubular and interstitial damage index (TDI) of patients in B and C groups were significantly lower than those in the A group, and those in C group were significantly lower. The difference was statistically significant p < 0.05). The clinical effective rates of patients in group B and C were significantly higher than that in group A, and those of group C were much higher. The difference is statistically significant (p < 0.05). The recurrence rates of patients in group B and group C were significantly lower than those of group A and those in group C were much lower. The difference is

  9. Correlation between viral load of cytomegalovirus and tacrolimus and sirolimus levels in transplanted pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Pérez, Herlinda; Sánchez-Huerta, José Luis; Varela-Fascinetto, Gustavo; Romo-Vázquez, José Carlos; Morales-Sánchez, Abigail; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M; Parra-Ortega, Israel; Ramírez-Ramírez, Graciela; López-Martínez, Briceida

    Survival of transplant patients and grafts depends largely on the use of immunosuppressive drugs. However, a balance remains to be established among immunosuppression, transplant rejection and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, which results in a high rate of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to define a better strategy for monitoring transplanted patients based on the analysis of the blood concentration of sirolimus and tacrolimus and the burden of CMV. Fifty five post-transplant (kidney and liver) pediatric patients, nine treated with sirolimus and 46 treated with tacrolimus, were included. A total of 541 measurements were obtained. In each measurement the concentration of immunosuppressant in whole blood and CMV viral load in plasma and whole blood was quantified by real-time PCR. Pearson correlation coefficient (r) was estimated. Values of r ≤0.0747 were found for the relationship between dose and concentration of immunosuppressant; r = 0.9406 for the relationship between viral load in whole blood and plasma, and r ≤0.4616 for the relationship between concentration of immunosuppressant and viral load. These data support that the doses of immunosuppressive drugs do not correlate with the levels of the same in whole blood. Therefore, systemic levels of immunosuppressant should be constantly monitored together with CMV load. Meanwhile, a high correlation between viral load measured in whole blood and plasma was found. Copyright © 2016 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  10. Medium-Term Renal Function in a Large Cohort of Stable Kidney Transplant Recipients Converted From Twice-Daily to Once-Daily Tacrolimus.

    PubMed

    Guirado, Lluís; Burgos, Dolores; Cantarell, Carme; Fernández, Ana; Franco, Antonio; Gentil, Miguel Ángel; Mazuecos, Auxiliadora; Torregrosa, Josep Vicenç; Huertas, Ernesto Gómez; Ruiz, Juan Carlos; Plumed, Jaime Sánchez; Paul, Javier; Lauzurica, Ricardo; Zárraga, Sofía; Osuna, Antonio; Jiménez, Carlos; Alonso, Ángel; Rodríguez, Alberto; Bardají, Beatriz; Hernández, Domingo

    2015-08-01

    There is some evidence pointing toward better renal function in kidney transplant recipients (KTR) treated with once-daily tacrolimus (QD-TAC) vs. twice-daily tacrolimus (BID-TAC). This is an extension study of a 1-year, single arm prospective study of stable KTR who were converted from BID-TAC to QD-TAC (4.9 ± 4.0 years after transplantation) in Spanish routine clinical practice. Patient and graft survival, renal function, acute rejection episodes, and other analytic parameters were assessed at 24 and 36 months after conversion. A total of 1798 KTR were included in the extension study. Tacrolimus doses at 36 months were significantly lower compared to those at time of conversion (-0.2 mg/day; P = 0.023). Blood levels were lower than baseline during all the study (P < 0.001). Graft and patient survival at 3 years after conversion were 93.9% and 95.1%, respectively. Compared with baseline, the mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) remained very stable at all timepoints (56.7 ± 19.8 vs 58.1 ± 24.6 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) at month 36; P = 0.623). Even when patients reinitiating dialysis were counted as eGFR = 0, the mean eGFR was very stable. In fact, a small but significant increase was observed at 36 months versus baseline (+0.1 mL/min per 1.73 m(2); P = 0.025). An increase in proteinuria was observed at 36 months versus baseline (+0.11 g/24 h; P < 0.001). Acute rejection rates were low during the study. Conversion from BID-TAC to QD-TAC in a large cohort of stable KTR was safe and associated with a very stable renal function after 3 years. Comparative studies are warranted to assess the feasibility of such conversion.

  11. Medium-Term Renal Function in a Large Cohort of Stable Kidney Transplant Recipients Converted From Twice-Daily to Once-Daily Tacrolimus

    PubMed Central

    Guirado, Lluís; Burgos, Dolores; Cantarell, Carme; Fernández, Ana; Franco, Antonio; Gentil, Miguel Ángel; Mazuecos, Auxiliadora; Torregrosa, Josep Vicenç; Huertas, Ernesto Gómez; Ruiz, Juan Carlos; Plumed, Jaime Sánchez; Paul, Javier; Lauzurica, Ricardo; Zárraga, Sofía; Osuna, Antonio; Jiménez, Carlos; Alonso, Ángel; Rodríguez, Alberto; Bardají, Beatriz; Hernández, Domingo

    2015-01-01

    Background There is some evidence pointing toward better renal function in kidney transplant recipients (KTR) treated with once-daily tacrolimus (QD-TAC) vs. twice-daily tacrolimus (BID-TAC). Methods This is an extension study of a 1-year, single arm prospective study of stable KTR who were converted from BID-TAC to QD-TAC (4.9 ± 4.0 years after transplantation) in Spanish routine clinical practice. Patient and graft survival, renal function, acute rejection episodes, and other analytic parameters were assessed at 24 and 36 months after conversion. Results A total of 1798 KTR were included in the extension study. Tacrolimus doses at 36 months were significantly lower compared to those at time of conversion (−0.2 mg/day; P = 0.023). Blood levels were lower than baseline during all the study (P < 0.001). Graft and patient survival at 3 years after conversion were 93.9% and 95.1%, respectively. Compared with baseline, the mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) remained very stable at all timepoints (56.7 ± 19.8 vs 58.1 ± 24.6 mL/min per 1.73 m2 at month 36; P = 0.623). Even when patients reinitiating dialysis were counted as eGFR = 0, the mean eGFR was very stable. In fact, a small but significant increase was observed at 36 months versus baseline (+0.1 mL/min per 1.73 m2; P = 0.025). An increase in proteinuria was observed at 36 months versus baseline (+0.11 g/24 h; P < 0.001). Acute rejection rates were low during the study. Conclusions Conversion from BID-TAC to QD-TAC in a large cohort of stable KTR was safe and associated with a very stable renal function after 3 years. Comparative studies are warranted to assess the feasibility of such conversion. PMID:27500226

  12. Evaluation of the Crystallization Tendency of Commercially Available Amorphous Tacrolimus Formulations Exposed to Different Stress Conditions.

    PubMed

    Trasi, Niraj S; Purohit, Hitesh S; Taylor, Lynne S

    2017-10-01

    Tacrolimus, an immunosuppressant, is a poorly water soluble compound whereby the commercially available capsule formulations contain the drug in amorphous form. The goal of this study was to evaluate the robustness of the innovator product and five generic formulations to crystallization following storage at stress conditions. Products were purchased from a pharmacy and stored at 40°C/75% relative humidity (RH), open dish conditions. Crystallinity was determined using X-ray diffraction. The quantity of the ingredients in the formulations were determined using different approaches and the various factors that might cause instability in the formulations were studied. After 4 weeks of open dish storage at 40°C/75% RH, one of the generic formulations showed evidence of tacrolimus crystallization. Further investigations revealed batch-to-batch variations in crystallization tendency with the extent of crystallinity varying between 50 and 100% for different batches. Crystallization was also observed at lower storage temperatures (30°C) when the RH was maintained at 75%. It was found that crystallization could be induced in a model formulation by wet granulating an ethanolic solution of the drug with lactose and drying at 60-70°C followed by exposure to stress conditions. It seems probable that the generic that was susceptible to crystallization contains amorphous drug physically mixed with polymeric excipients, rather than as an amorphous solid dispersion. This study highlights the importance of considering the manufacturing process on the stability of the resultant amorphous product.

  13. Focal metatarsal fistulae syndrome affecting a greyhound dog successfully treated with topical 0.1% tacrolimus ointment.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Fiona M; Muse, Russell; Burrows, Amanda K

    2015-12-01

    Metatarsal fistulation is an uncommon cutaneous condition reported almost exclusively in German shepherd dogs and their cross-breeds. To the best of the authors' knowledge this is the first reported case of focal metatarsal fistulae syndrome affecting a greyhound. Remission was obtained within 6 weeks of commencing treatment using compounded 0.1% tacrolimus ointment twice daily and the dog remained stable for another 6 months with twice weekly application before treatment was discontinued. The dog remained in remission at the time of writing, which is 1 year after treatment withdrawal. © 2015 ESVD and ACVD.

  14. Efficacy and safety of everolimus with reduced tacrolimus in living-donor liver transplant recipients: 12-month results of a randomized multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Jeng, Long-Bin; Lee, Sung Gyu; Soin, Arvinder Singh; Lee, Wei-Chen; Suh, Kyung-Suk; Joo, Dong Jin; Uemoto, Shinji; Joh, Jaewon; Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Yang, Horng-Ren; Song, Gi-Won; Lopez, Patricia; Kochuparampil, Jossy; Sips, Carole; Kaneko, Shuhei; Levy, Gary

    2018-06-01

    In a multicenter, open-label, study, 284 living-donor liver transplant patients were randomized at 30 ± 5 days posttransplant to start everolimus+reduced tacrolimus (EVR+rTAC) or continue standard tacrolimus (TAC Control). EVR+rTAC was non-inferior to TAC Control for the primary efficacy endpoint of treated BPAR, graft loss or death at 12 months posttransplant: difference -0.7% (90% CI -5.2%, 3.7%); P < .001 for non-inferiority. Treated BPAR occurred in 2.2% and 3.6% of patients, respectively. The key secondary endpoint, change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from randomization to month 12, achieved non-inferiority (P < .001 for non-inferiority), but not superiority and was similar between groups overall (mean -8.0 vs. -12.1 mL/min/1.73 m 2 , P = .108), and in patients continuing randomized treatment (-8.0 vs. -13.3 mL/min/1.73 m 2 , P = .046). In the EVR+rTAC and TAC control groups, study drug was discontinued in 15.5% and 17.6% of patients, adverse events with suspected relation to study drug occurred in 57.0% and 40.4%, and proteinuria ≥1 g/24 h in 9.3% and 0%, respectively. Everolimus did not negatively affect liver regeneration. At 12 months, hepatocellular recurrence was only seen in the standard TAC-treated patients (5/62; 8.1%). In conclusion, early introduction of EVR+rTAC was non-inferior to standard tacrolimus in terms of efficacy and renal function at 12 months, with hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence only in TAC Control patients. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01888432. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  15. A pilot comparative study of topical latanoprost and tacrolimus in combination with narrow-band ultraviolet B phototherapy and microneedling for the treatment of nonsegmental vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Korobko, Igor V; Lomonosov, Konstantin M

    2016-11-01

    Prostaglandins and their analogues are beneficial as topical agents in vitiligo treatment, yet neither of the previous study addressed their comparative efficiency with conventional topical agents used in vitiligo treatment. In this pilot (24 patients) left-right comparative study we addressed efficiency of prostaglandin F2α analogue latanoprost versus tacrolimus when combined with narrow-band ultraviolet B and microneedling in repigmentation of nonsegmental vitiligo lesions. Our results confirm potency of prostaglandins, in particular, that of latanoprost, in inducing repigmentation, with the efficiency being at least comparable to that of tacrolimus, while contribution of microneedling remains unclear. In summary, results of our study provide further evidences for justified use of prostaglandins, in particular, latanoprost, in vitiligo treatment. In turn, this warrants future studies on the topic aiming to conclusively introduce prostaglandin-based formulations as conventional agents for vitiligo management. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Pharmacogenetics of tacrolimus and sirolimus in renal transplant patients: from retrospective analyses to prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Anglicheau, D; Legendre, C; Thervet, E

    2007-09-01

    The promises of pharmacogenetics are to elucidate the inherited basis of differences between individual responses to drugs in order to identify the right drug and dose for each patient. The recent identification of genetic polymorphisms in drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters led to the hypothesis that genetic factors may be implicated in the interindividual variability of the pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic characteristics of immunosuppressive drugs, major side effects, and efficacy. The purpose of this study was to provide a short overview of recent results obtained in the field of pharmacogenetics of tacrolimus and sirolimus, both substrates of the cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) enzymes and of the efflux pump P-glycoprotein, the product of the Multidrug Resistance-1 (MDR1) genes. A number of retrospective studies that demonstrated a link between the polymorphisms governing the CYP3A5 protein expression, with more conflicting results with the MDR1 gene polymorphisms, related to the daily dose necessary to achieve adequate blood tacrolimus levels. The CYP3A5 polymorphisms have also been associated with sirolimus pharmacokinetics. One challenge is to investigate the combined effect of a number of different polymorphisms in various genes to define genetic backgrounds with different pharmacokinetic profiles using high throughput technologies. Another challenge is to move toward prospective randomized studies to explore whether a pharmacogenetic approach, taking into account a limited number of polymorphisms prior to drug treatment, could be used on an individual basis to guide initial dosing of a given drug. The last challenge is based on "target" pharmacogenetics to investigate the role of the polymorphisms of other genes implicated in the efficacy and/or safety of the drug.

  17. Incidence of Posttransplantation Diabetes Mellitus in De Novo Kidney Transplant Recipients Receiving Prolonged-Release Tacrolimus-Based Immunosuppression With 2 Different Corticosteroid Minimization Strategies: ADVANCE, A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Mourad, Georges; Glyda, Maciej; Albano, Laetitia; Viklický, Ondrej; Merville, Pierre; Tydén, Gunnar; Mourad, Michel; Lõhmus, Aleksander; Witzke, Oliver; Christiaans, Maarten H L; Brown, Malcolm W; Undre, Nasrullah; Kazeem, Gbenga; Kuypers, Dirk R J

    2017-08-01

    ADVANCE (NCT01304836) was a phase 4, multicenter, prospectively randomized, open-label, 24-week study comparing the incidence of posttransplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM) with 2 prolonged-release tacrolimus corticosteroid minimization regimens. All patients received prolonged-release tacrolimus, basiliximab, mycophenolate mofetil and 1 bolus of intraoperative corticosteroids (0-1000 mg) as per center policy. Patients in arm 1 received tapered corticosteroids, stopped after day 10, whereas patients in arm 2 received no steroids after the intraoperative bolus. The primary efficacy variable was the diagnosis of PTDM as per American Diabetes Association criteria (2010) at any point up to 24 weeks postkidney transplantation. Secondary efficacy variables included incidence of composite efficacy failure (graft loss, biopsy-proven acute rejection or severe graft dysfunction: estimated glomerular filtration rate (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease-4) <30 mL/min per 1.73 m), acute rejection and graft and patient survival. The full-analysis set included 1081 patients (arm 1: n = 528, arm 2: n = 553). Baseline characteristics and mean tacrolimus trough levels were comparable between arms. Week 24 Kaplan-Meier estimates of PTDM were similar for arm 1 versus arm 2 (17.4% vs 16.6%; P = 0.579). Incidence of composite efficacy failure, graft and patient survival, and mean estimated glomerular filtration rate were also comparable between arms. Biopsy-proven acute rejection and acute rejection were significantly higher in arm 2 versus arm 1 (13.6% vs 8.7%, P = 0.006 and 25.9% vs 18.2%, P = 0.001, respectively). Tolerability profiles were comparable between arms. A prolonged-release tacrolimus, basiliximab, and mycophenolate mofetil immunosuppressive regimen is efficacious, with a low incidence of PTDM and a manageable tolerability profile over 24 weeks of treatment. A lower incidence of biopsy-proven acute rejection was seen in patients receiving corticosteroids tapered over 10

  18. Incidence of Posttransplantation Diabetes Mellitus in De Novo Kidney Transplant Recipients Receiving Prolonged-Release Tacrolimus-Based Immunosuppression With 2 Different Corticosteroid Minimization Strategies: ADVANCE, A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mourad, Georges; Glyda, Maciej; Albano, Laetitia; Viklický, Ondrej; Merville, Pierre; Tydén, Gunnar; Mourad, Michel; Lõhmus, Aleksander; Witzke, Oliver; Christiaans, Maarten H. L.; Brown, Malcolm W.; Undre, Nasrullah; Kazeem, Gbenga; Kuypers, Dirk R. J.

    2017-01-01

    Background ADVANCE (NCT01304836) was a phase 4, multicenter, prospectively randomized, open-label, 24-week study comparing the incidence of posttransplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM) with 2 prolonged-release tacrolimus corticosteroid minimization regimens. Methods All patients received prolonged-release tacrolimus, basiliximab, mycophenolate mofetil and 1 bolus of intraoperative corticosteroids (0-1000 mg) as per center policy. Patients in arm 1 received tapered corticosteroids, stopped after day 10, whereas patients in arm 2 received no steroids after the intraoperative bolus. The primary efficacy variable was the diagnosis of PTDM as per American Diabetes Association criteria (2010) at any point up to 24 weeks postkidney transplantation. Secondary efficacy variables included incidence of composite efficacy failure (graft loss, biopsy-proven acute rejection or severe graft dysfunction: estimated glomerular filtration rate (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease-4) <30 mL/min per 1.73 m2), acute rejection and graft and patient survival. Results The full-analysis set included 1081 patients (arm 1: n = 528, arm 2: n = 553). Baseline characteristics and mean tacrolimus trough levels were comparable between arms. Week 24 Kaplan–Meier estimates of PTDM were similar for arm 1 versus arm 2 (17.4% vs 16.6%; P = 0.579). Incidence of composite efficacy failure, graft and patient survival, and mean estimated glomerular filtration rate were also comparable between arms. Biopsy-proven acute rejection and acute rejection were significantly higher in arm 2 versus arm 1 (13.6% vs 8.7%, P = 0.006 and 25.9% vs 18.2%, P = 0.001, respectively). Tolerability profiles were comparable between arms. Conclusions A prolonged-release tacrolimus, basiliximab, and mycophenolate mofetil immunosuppressive regimen is efficacious, with a low incidence of PTDM and a manageable tolerability profile over 24 weeks of treatment. A lower incidence of biopsy-proven acute rejection was seen in patients

  19. Successful treatment with 308-nm monochromatic excimer light and subsequent tacrolimus 0.03% ointment in refractory plasma cell cheilitis.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Kazuhiro; Nakano, Shunji; Tsuruta, Daisuke; Ohata, Chika; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2013-06-01

    Plasma cell cheilitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that presents with erythema, erosions, ulcers and occasional nodules within the mucosa, including the lips. It is histopathologically characterized by dense plasma cell infiltration in the lamina propria of the mucous membranes. Several treatments for plasma cell cheilitis have been reported, including topical steroids, topical antibiotics or topical tacrolimus. However, 308-nm monochromatic excimer light (MEL) has never been reported as a treatment option, while it was reported to be very effective in treating erosive oral lichen planus. We report a 62-year-old man who had chronic plasma cell cheilitis on the lower lip, which was refractory to topical and systemic corticosteroid. The lesion and severe pain were significantly improved by the treatment with nine sessions of 308-nm MEL twice per week with a total dose of 1120 mJ/cm(2). However, the lesion gradually worsened after treatment frequency was reduced to once per month. Subsequent tacrolimus 0.03% ointment cleared the lesion completely in a month and no recurrence was observed a year later. Refractory plasma cell cheilitis and concomitant severe pain quickly responded to 308-nm MEL when administrated twice per week. Because the long interval between each MEL treatment seemed ineffective to improve the lesion, appropriate frequency and adequate total dose of MEL treatment may be necessary for a successful treatment. © 2013 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  20. Age-dependent metabolic and immunosuppressive effects of Tacrolimus

    PubMed Central

    Krenzien, Felix; Quante, Markus; Heinbokel, Timm; Seyda, Midas; Minami, Koichiro; Uehara, Hirohito; Biefer, Hector Rodriguez Cetina; Schuitenmaker, Jeroen M.; Gabardi, Steven; Splith, Katrin; Schmelzle, Moritz; Petrides, Athena K.; Azuma, Haruhito; Pratschke, Johann; Li, Xian C.; ElKhal, Abdallah; Tullius, Stefan G.

    2016-01-01

    Immunosuppression in elderly recipients has been underappreciated in clinical trials. Here, we assessed age-specific effects of the calcineurin inhibitor Tacrolimus (TAC) in a murine transplant model and assessed its clinical relevance on human T-cells. Old recipient mice exhibited prolonged skin graft survival when compared to young animals following TAC administration. More importantly, half of the TAC dose was sufficient in old mice to achieve comparable systemic trough levels. TAC administration was able to reduce pro-inflammatory IFN-γ cytokine production and promote IL-10 production in old CD4+ T-cells. In addition, TAC administration decreased IL-2 secretion in old CD4+ T-cells more effectively while inhibiting the proliferation of CD4+ T-cells in old mice. Both, TAC treated murine and human CD4+ T-cells demonstrated an age-specific suppression of intracellular calcineurin levels and Ca2+-influx, two critical pathways in T-cell activation. Of note, depletion of CD8+ T-cells did not alter allograft survival outcome in old TAC treated mice, suggesting that TAC age-specific effects were mainly CD4+ T-cell mediated. Collectively, our study demonstrates age-specific immunosuppressive capacities of TAC that are CD4+ T-cell mediated. The suppression of calcineurin levels and Ca2+-influx in both, old murine and human T-cells emphasizes on the clinical relevance of age-specific effects when utilizing TAC. PMID:27754593

  1. High-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry as a reference for analysis of tacrolimus to assess two immunoassays in patients with liver and renal transplants.

    PubMed

    Salm, P; Taylor, P J; Clark, A; Balderson, G A; Grygotis, A; Norris, R L; Lynch, S V; Shaw, L M; Pond, S M

    1997-12-01

    The accuracy and imprecision of three assays used for therapeutic monitoring of tacrolimus were tested using blood-containing weighed-in amounts of the drug, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), a microparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA I), and a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS2) assay. Accuracy was acceptable for the HPLC-MS2 assay at all concentrations tested (< 10% deviation) and for the ELISA at 1.0 and 4.0 microg/l. Accuracy was not acceptable for the ELISA at 15.0 and 50.0 microg/l or for the MEIA I at all concentrations tested. Imprecision was acceptable for the HPLC-MS2 assay at all concentrations tested (coefficient of variation < 10%), for the ELISA at 15.0 and 50.0 microg/l, and for the MEIA I at 15.0 and 50.0 microg/l. Imprecision was not acceptable for the ELISA at 1.0 and 4.0 microg/l or for the MEIA I at 1.0 and 4.0 microg/l. This assessment with weighed-in amounts of tacrolimus verified the HPLC-MS2 assay as a reference method. The performance of the two immunoassays with HPLC-MS2 was then compared in the clinical setting using blood from patients with liver (n = 30) and renal (n = 37) transplants. In the liver transplant group (127 samples), the range of tacrolimus concentrations measured by HPLC-MS2, ELISA, and MEIA I was 1.9 to 31.8, 2.1 to 35.0, and less than 0.1 to 36.5 mg/l, respectively. In the renal transplant group (129 samples), the ranges were 1.7 to 26.1, 1.9 to 24.4, and 0.9 to 28.5 microg/l, respectively. Compared with the HPLC-MS2, the ELISA had minimal bias (0.1 to 0.2 microg/l) but unacceptable variability in values (SD > 13%). The MEIA I had unacceptable bias (1.7-1.8 microg/l) and variability (SD > 23%). These data indicated that neither the ELISA nor MEIA I is interchangeable with HPLC-MS2. Moreover, in view of the current trend to reduce the therapeutic dose of tacrolimus, quantitative results using the MEIA I would not be obtainable during therapeutic drug monitoring in some

  2. Age-Dependent Metabolic and Immunosuppressive Effects of Tacrolimus.

    PubMed

    Krenzien, F; Quante, M; Heinbokel, T; Seyda, M; Minami, K; Uehara, H; Biefer, H R C; Schuitenmaker, J M; Gabardi, S; Splith, K; Schmelzle, M; Petrides, A K; Azuma, H; Pratschke, J; Li, X C; ElKhal, A; Tullius, S G

    2017-05-01

    Immunosuppression in elderly recipients has been underappreciated in clinical trials. Here, we assessed age-specific effects of the calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus (TAC) in a murine transplant model and assessed its clinical relevance on human T cells. Old recipient mice exhibited prolonged skin graft survival compared with young animals after TAC administration. More important, half of the TAC dose was sufficient in old mice to achieve comparable systemic trough levels. TAC administration was able to reduce proinflammatory interferon-γ cytokine production and promote interleukin-10 production in old CD4 + T cells. In addition, TAC administration decreased interleukin-2 secretion in old CD4 + T cells more effectively while inhibiting the proliferation of CD4 + T cells in old mice. Both TAC-treated murine and human CD4 + T cells demonstrated an age-specific suppression of intracellular calcineurin levels and Ca 2+ influx, two critical pathways in T cell activation. Of note, depletion of CD8 + T cells did not alter allograft survival outcome in old TAC-treated mice, suggesting that TAC age-specific effects were mainly CD4 + T cell mediated. Collectively, our study demonstrates age-specific immunosuppressive capacities of TAC that are CD4 + T cell mediated. The suppression of calcineurin levels and Ca 2+ influx in both old murine and human T cells emphasizes the clinical relevance of age-specific effects when using TAC. © 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  3. Successful management of angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia in a split-face trial of topical tacrolimus and timolol solution.

    PubMed

    Chacon, Anna; Mercer, Jessica

    2016-08-01

    Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE) is an uncommon, benign condition characterized by multiple benign angiomatous nodules or plaques. Cutaneous lesions can be painful, pruritic, pulsatile, or potentially disfiguring resulting in significant morbidity. ALHE is a pathologic diagnosis featuring proliferations of capillary-sized vessels with epithelioid endothelial cells surrounded by larger, thick-walled vessels and accompanying eosinophils and lymphocytes. Surgery is generally required, however the skin lesions often recur after excision. ALHE is notoriously difficult to treat and many physicians would prefer a non-invasive treatment of choice. We report a case of ALHE that was successfully treated with the novel use of topical tacrolimus in a split-face trial with topical timolol solution.

  4. Impact of intrapatient variability (IPV) in tacrolimus trough levels on long-term renal transplant function: multicentre collaborative retrospective cohort study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Goldsmith, Petra M; Bottomley, Matthew J; Okechukwu, Okidi; Ross, Victoria C; Ghita, Ryan; Wandless, David; Falconer, Stuart J; Papachristos, Stavros; Nash, Philip; Androshchuk, Vitaliy; Clancy, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Introduction High intrapatient variability (IPV) in tacrolimus trough levels has been shown to be associated with higher rates of renal transplant failure. There is no consensus on what level of IPV constitutes a risk of graft loss. The establishment of such a threshold could help to guide clinicians in identifying at-risk patients to receive targeted interventions to improve IPV and thus outcomes. Methods and analysis A multicentre Transplant Audit Collaborative has been established to conduct a retrospective study examining tacrolimus IPV and renal transplant outcomes. Patients in receipt of a renal transplant at participating centres between 2009 and 2014 and fulfilling the inclusion criteria will be included in the study. The aim is to recruit a minimum of 1600 patients with follow-up spanning at least 2 years in order to determine a threshold IPV above which a renal transplant recipient would be considered at increased risk of graft loss. The study also aims to determine any national or regional trends in IPV and any demographic associations. Ethics and dissemination Consent will not be sought from patients whose data are used in this study as no additional procedures or information will be required from participants beyond that which would normally take place as part of clinical care. The study will be registered locally in each participating centre in line with local research and development protocols. It is anticipated that the results of this audit will be disseminated locally, in participating NHS Trusts, through national and international meetings and publications in peer-reviewed journals. PMID:28756385

  5. Incidence and risk factors for the metabolic syndrome and posttransplant diabetes in renal transplant recipients taking tacrolimus.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Flores, I; Sánchez-Fructuoso, A; Calvo, N; Valga, E F; Barrientos, A

    2010-10-01

    We investigated the incidence and risk factors for the metabolic syndrome (MS) and posttransplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) among renal transplant recipients on tacrolimus-based immunosuppressive regimens during the first year posttransplant. In addition, we studied the relationship between MS and PTDM with transplant renal function at 1 year. We included the 100 patients who received a renal transplant in our unit between January 2007 and June 2008, collecting demographic, clinical and biochemical characteristics at 1, 6, and 12 months posttransplantation. We excluded 15% of patients with pretransplantation diabetes. MS was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria and PTDM according to World Health Organization criteria. Insulin resistance at one year posttransplant was measured using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index. Insulin therapy was required in 46% of patients during the first hospitalization and hyperglycemia was present in 65% of the cases. The incidence of PTDM decreased throughout the first year posttransplant, namely, 44%, 24%, and 13% at 1, 6, and 12 months, respectively. The incidence of MS increased to 33%, 48% and 50% at 1, 6, and 12 months, respectively. Age, body mass index, plasma fasting glucose levels at 1 month posttransplant, and pretransplant fasting triglyceridemia predicted PTDM. Rejection and in-patient hyperglycemia predicted MS. PTDM and MS were closely correlated (P=.004). The HOMA index was higher among patients with MS than other subjects at 1 year posttransplant: 3.2 (1.2) versus 2.3 (0.9; P=.035). Neither PTDM nor MS was associated with impaired plasma creatinine levels at 1 year after kidney transplantation. There was an high incidence of PTDM and MS among kidney transplant recipients treated with tacrolimus as the main immunosuppressive agent. The HOMA index was a good test of insulin resistance in this population. Screening and treatment of risk factors may avoid the development of

  6. Synergistic effects of tacrolimus and azole antifungal compounds in fluconazole-susceptible and fluconazole-resistant Candida glabrata isolates.

    PubMed

    Denardi, Laura Bedin; Mario, Débora Alves Nunes; Loreto, Érico Silva; Santurio, Janio Morais; Alves, Sydney Hartz

    2015-03-01

    In vitro interaction between tacrolimus (FK506) and four azoles (fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole) against thirty clinical isolates of both fluconazole susceptible and -resistant Candida glabrata were evaluated by the checkerboard microdilution method. Synergistic, indifferent or antagonism interactions were found for combinations of the antifungal agents and FK506. A larger synergistic effect was observed for the combinations of FK506 with itraconazole and voriconazole (43%), followed by that of the combination with ketoconazole (37%), against fluconazole-susceptible isolates. For fluconazole-resistant C. glabrata , a higher synergistic effect was obtained from FK506 combined with ketoconazole (77%), itraconazole (73%), voriconazole (63%) and fluconazole (60%). The synergisms that we observed in vitro , notably against fluconazole-resistant C. glabrata isolates, are promising and warrant further analysis of their applications in experimental in vivo studies.

  7. Distinct deleterious effects of cyclosporine and tacrolimus and combined tacrolimus-sirolimus on endothelial cells: protective effect of defibrotide.

    PubMed

    Carmona, Alba; Díaz-Ricart, Maribel; Palomo, Marta; Molina, Patricia; Pino, Marc; Rovira, Montserrat; Escolar, Ginés; Carreras, Enric

    2013-10-01

    Endothelial dysfunction seems to be a key factor in the development of several complications observed early after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The conditioning regimen and many other factors associated with the procedure are responsible for this endothelial damage. The effects of immunosuppressive agents on endothelial function have not been explored in detail. We evaluated the effects of 3 drugs commonly used in HSCT: 2 calcineurin inhibitors, cyclosporine A (CSA) and tacrolimus (TAC), and an inhibitor of mTOR, sirolimus (SIR). We also evaluated the effect of the combination of TAC and SIR (TAC+SIR), which is used increasingly in clinical practice. Microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) were exposed to these drugs to evaluate changes in (1) intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 expression on the cell surface, assessed by immunofluorescence labeling and expressed as the mean gray value (MGV); (2) reactivity of the extracellular matrix (ECM) toward platelets, upon exposure of the ECM to circulating blood; and (3) whole-blood clot formation, assessed by thromboelastometry. Studies were conducted in the absence and presence of defibrotide (DF) to assess its possible protective effect. The exposure of HMEC-1 to CSA and TAC+SIR significantly increased the expression of ICAM-1 (157.5 ± 11.6 and 153.4 ± 9.5 MGV, respectively, versus 105.7 ± 6.5 MGV in controls [both P < .05]). TAC applied alone increased ICAM-1 slightly (120.3 ± 8.2 MGV), and SIR had no effect (108.9 ± 7.4 MGV). ECM reactivity increased significantly only in response to CSA (surface covered by platelets of 41.2% ± 5.4% versus 30.1% ± 2.0%, P < .05). DF attenuated all these changes. No significant changes in the viscoelastic properties of clot formation were observed in any condition with blood samples incubated in vitro. In conclusion, CSA and TAC+SIR had a proinflammatory effect, but only CSA exhibited an additional prothrombotic effect. Interestingly, DF exerted clear

  8. Age and Early Graft Function Relate With Risk-Benefit Ratio of Allogenic Islet Transplantation Under Antithymocyte Globulin-Mycophenolate Mofetil-Tacrolimus Immune Suppression.

    PubMed

    Lee, DaHae; Keymeulen, Bart; Hilbrands, Robert; Ling, Zhidong; Van de Velde, Ursule; Jacobs-Tulleneers-Thevissen, Daniel; Maleux, Geert; Lapauw, Bruno; Crenier, Laurent; De Block, Christophe; Mathieu, Chantal; Pipeleers, Daniel; Gillard, Pieter

    2017-09-01

    Induction therapy with a T cell-depleting agent followed by mycophenolate mofetil and tacrolimus is presently the most frequently used immune suppression (IS) regimen in islet transplantation. This study assesses its safety and tolerability in nonuremic type 1 diabetic recipients. Fifty-one patients (age, between 29 and 63 years) with high glycemic variability and problematic hypoglycemia received intraportal islet grafts under anti-thymocyte globulin-mycophenolate mofetil-tacrolimus protocol. They were followed up for over 48 months for function of the implant and adverse events. Severe hypoglycemia and diabetic ketoacidosis were absent in patients with functioning graft. Immune suppressive therapy was maintained for 48 months in 29 recipients with sustained function (group A), whereas 16 patients stopped earlier due to graft failure (group B) and in 6 for other reasons. Group A was significantly older at the time of implantation and achieved higher graft function at posttransplantation month 6 under similar dose of IS. Prevalence of IS-related side effects was similar in groups A and B, occurring predominantly during the first year posttransplantation. IS-related serious adverse events (SAE) were reported in 47% of patients, with 4 presenting with cytomegalovirus infection and 4 (age, 42-59 years) diagnosed with cancer. Except in 1 patient with cancer, all SAEs resolved after appropriate treatment. These risk/benefit data serve as a basis for clinical decision-making before entering an intraportal islet transplantation protocol. A longer benefit is observed in recipients of higher age (≥40 years), but it is not associated with more side effects and SAE.

  9. TAC-TIC use of tacrolimus-based regimens in lupus nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Bredewold, Obbo W; Trompet, Stella; Huizinga, Tom W J; Rabelink, Ton J; de Craen, Anton J M; Teng, Y K Onno

    2016-01-01

    Current guidelines do not mention tacrolimus (TAC) as a treatment option and no consensus has been reported on the role of TAC in lupus nephritis (LN). The present study aimed to guide clinical judgement on the use of TAC in patients with LN. A meta-analysis was performed for clinical studies investigating TAC regimens in LN on the basis of treatment target (induction or maintenance), concomitant immunosuppression and quality of the data. 23 clinical studies performed in patients with LN were identified: 6 case series, 9 cohort studies, 2 case-control studies and 6 randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Of the 6 RCTs, 5 RCTs investigated TAC regimens as induction treatment and 1 RCT as maintenance treatment. Five RCTs investigated TAC in combination with steroids and 2 TAC with mycophenolate plus steroids. All RCTs were performed in patients of Asian ethnicity. In a meta-analysis, TAC regimens achieved a significantly higher total response (relative risk (RR) 1.23, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.34, p<0.05) and significantly higher complete response (RR 1.48, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.77, p<0.05). The positive outcome was predominantly defined by the largest RCT investigating TAC with mycophenolate plus steroids. Regarding safety, the occurrence of leucopoenia was significantly lower, while the occurrence of increased creatine was higher. Clinical studies on TAC regimens for LN are limited to patients of Asian ethnicity and hampered by significant heterogeneity. The positive results on clinical efficacy of TAC as induction treatment in LN cannot be extrapolated beyond Asian patients with LN. Therefore, further confirmation in multiethnic, randomised trials is mandatory. Until then, TAC can be considered in selected patients with LN. PMID:28123768

  10. Orally Disintegrating Tablets Containing Melt Extruded Amorphous Solid Dispersion of Tacrolimus for Dissolution Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Ponnammal, Poovizhi; Kanaujia, Parijat; Yani, Yin; Ng, Wai Kiong; Tan, Reginald B H

    2018-03-16

    In order to improve the aqueous solubility and dissolution of Tacrolimus (TAC), amorphous solid dispersions of TAC were prepared by hot melt extrusion with three hydrophilic polymers, Polyvinylpyrrolidone vinyl acetate (PVP VA64), Soluplus ® and Hydroxypropyl Cellulose (HPC), at a drug loading of 10% w / w . Molecular modeling was used to determine the miscibility of the drug with the carrier polymers by calculating the Hansen Solubility Parameters. Powder X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies of powdered solid dispersions revealed the conversion of crystalline TAC to amorphous form. Fourier transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy results indicated formation of hydrogen bond between TAC and polymers leading to stabilization of TAC in amorphous form. The extrudates were found to be stable under accelerated storage conditions for 3 months with no re-crystallization, indicating that hot melt extrusion is suitable for producing stable amorphous solid dispersions of TAC in PVP VA64, Soluplus ® and HPC. Stable solid dispersions of amorphous TAC exhibited higher dissolution rate, with the solid dispersions releasing more than 80% drug in 15 min compared to the crystalline drug giving 5% drug release in two hours. These stable solid dispersions were incorporated into orally-disintegrating tablets in which the solid dispersion retained its solubility, dissolution and stability advantage.

  11. Orally Disintegrating Tablets Containing Melt Extruded Amorphous Solid Dispersion of Tacrolimus for Dissolution Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Ponnammal, Poovizhi; Kanaujia, Parijat; Ng, Wai Kiong; Tan, Reginald B. H.

    2018-01-01

    In order to improve the aqueous solubility and dissolution of Tacrolimus (TAC), amorphous solid dispersions of TAC were prepared by hot melt extrusion with three hydrophilic polymers, Polyvinylpyrrolidone vinyl acetate (PVP VA64), Soluplus® and Hydroxypropyl Cellulose (HPC), at a drug loading of 10% w/w. Molecular modeling was used to determine the miscibility of the drug with the carrier polymers by calculating the Hansen Solubility Parameters. Powder X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies of powdered solid dispersions revealed the conversion of crystalline TAC to amorphous form. Fourier transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy results indicated formation of hydrogen bond between TAC and polymers leading to stabilization of TAC in amorphous form. The extrudates were found to be stable under accelerated storage conditions for 3 months with no re-crystallization, indicating that hot melt extrusion is suitable for producing stable amorphous solid dispersions of TAC in PVP VA64, Soluplus® and HPC. Stable solid dispersions of amorphous TAC exhibited higher dissolution rate, with the solid dispersions releasing more than 80% drug in 15 min compared to the crystalline drug giving 5% drug release in two hours. These stable solid dispersions were incorporated into orally-disintegrating tablets in which the solid dispersion retained its solubility, dissolution and stability advantage. PMID:29547585

  12. Characteristic features of tacrolimus-induced lung disease in rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Takanori; Nakamura, Wataru; Inokuma, Shigeko; Matsubara, Erika

    2016-02-01

    This paper aims to study the background and clinical characteristics of tacrolimus (TAC)-induced lung disease. A case of a rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patient who developed TAC-induced interstitial lung disease (TAC-ILD) is reported. The Japanese Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) website was searched for cases of TAC-ILD and its prevalence among all cases of TAC-related adverse events. As for cases of TAC-ILD, its underlying disease, preexisting lung diseases, and fatal outcome were also searched. Literature review of TAC-ILD cases was added. A 65-year-old female RA patient with preexisting bronchiectasis developed near-fatal TAC-ILD. Amelioration of RA, ground-glass opacities in the upper, anterior, and central lung fields, and decrease in peripheral blood lymphocyte count were the major findings in this patient. A search of the PMDA website revealed the following: the prevalence of TAC-ILD was 3 % of all cases of TAC-related adverse events, 56 out of 85 RA cases (66 %), and one out of 15 other cases had a preexisting lung disease; the prevalences of fatal outcome in RA and other cases were 24 and 38 %, respectively. A few cases in the literature had preexisting ILD and developed diffuse alveolar damage. In our case, preexisting bronchiectasis, arthritis remission, newly developed ground-glass opacities (GGOs) in the upper, anterior, and central lung fields, and decrease in peripheral blood lymphocyte count were the major findings. From the search of the PMDA website, about one fourth of the cases with TAC-related lung injury had a fatal outcome, and among RA patients, two thirds had preexisting lung diseases.

  13. Post-Transplant Cyclophosphamide and Tacrolimus-Mycophenolate Mofetil Combination Prevents Graft-versus-Host Disease in Allogeneic Peripheral Blood Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation from HLA-Matched Donors.

    PubMed

    Carnevale-Schianca, Fabrizio; Caravelli, Daniela; Gallo, Susanna; Coha, Valentina; D'Ambrosio, Lorenzo; Vassallo, Elena; Fizzotti, Marco; Nesi, Francesca; Gioeni, Luisa; Berger, Massimo; Polo, Alessandra; Gammaitoni, Loretta; Becco, Paolo; Giraudo, Lidia; Mangioni, Monica; Sangiolo, Dario; Grignani, Giovanni; Rota-Scalabrini, Delia; Sottile, Antonino; Fagioli, Franca; Aglietta, Massimo

    2017-03-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) remains the only curative therapy for many hematologic malignancies but it is limited by high nonrelapse mortality (NRM), primarily from unpredictable control of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Recently, post-transplant cyclophosphamide demonstrated improved GVHD control in allogeneic bone marrow HCT. Here we explore cyclophosphamide in allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (alloPBSCT). Patients with high-risk hematologic malignancies received alloPBSCT from HLA-matched unrelated/related donors. GVHD prophylaxis included combination post-HCT cyclophosphamide 50 mg/kg (days +3 and +4) and tacrolimus/mofetil mycophenolate (T/MMF) (day +5 forward). The primary objective was the cumulative incidence of acute and chronic GVHD. Between March 2011 and May 2015, 35 consecutive patients received the proposed regimen. MMF was stopped in all patients at day +28; the median discontinuation of tacrolimus was day +113. Acute and chronic GVHD cumulative incidences were 17% and 7%, respectively, with no grade IV GVHD events, only 2 patients requiring chronic GVHD immunosuppression control, and no deaths from GVHD. Two-year NRM, overall survival, event-free survival, and chronic GVHD event-free survival rates were 3%, 77%, 54%, and 49%, respectively. The graft-versus-tumor effect was maintained as 5 of 15 patients (33%) who received HCT with evidence of disease experienced further disease response. A post-transplant cyclophosphamide + T/MMF combination strategy effectively prevented acute and chronic GVHD after alloPBSCT from HLA-matched donors and achieved an unprecedented low NRM without losing efficacy in disease control or impaired development of the graft-versus-tumor effect. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02300571. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Late conversion from tacrolimus to a belatacept-based immuno-suppression regime in kidney transplant recipients improves renal function, acid-base derangement and mineral-bone metabolism.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Kevin; Vollmer, Clara; Klasen, Vera; Bräsen, Jan Hinrich; Püchel, Jodok; Borzikowsky, Christoph; Kunzendorf, Ulrich; Feldkamp, Thorsten

    2017-08-01

    Calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-induced nephrotoxicity and chronic graft dysfunction with deteriorating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) are common problems of kidney transplant recipients. The aim of this study was to analyze the role of belatacept as a rescue therapy in these patients. In this retrospective, observational study we investigated 20 patients (10 females, 10 males) who were switched from a CNI (tacrolimus) to a belatacept-based immunosuppression because of CNI intolerance or marginal transplant function. Patient follow-up was 12 months. Patients were converted to belatacept in mean 28.8 months after transplantation. Reasons for conversion were CNI intolerance (14 patients) or marginal transplant function (6 patients). Mean estimated GFR (eGFR) before conversion was 22.2 ± 9.4 ml/min at baseline and improved significantly to 28.3 ± 10.1 ml/min at 4 weeks and to 32.1 ± 12.6 ml/min at 12 months after conversion. Serum bicarbonate significantly increased from 24.4 ± 3.2 mmol/l at baseline to 28.7 ± 2.6 mmol/l after 12 months. Conversion to belatacept decreased parathyroid hormone and phosphate concentrations significantly, whereas albumin levels significantly increased. In 6 cases an acute rejection preceded clinically relevant CNI toxicity; only two patients suffered from an acute rejection after conversion. Belatacept was well tolerated and there was no increase in infectious or malignant side effects. A late conversion from a tacrolimus-based immunosuppression to belatacept is safe, effective and significantly improves renal function in kidney transplant recipients. Additionally, the conversion to belatacept has a beneficial impact on acid-base balance, mineral-bone and protein metabolism, independently of eGFR.

  15. Differences in therapeutic effects of topically applied corticosteroid and tacrolimus on atopic dermatitis-like symptoms in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Atsushi; Tominaga, Mitsutoshi; Takahashi, Nobuaki; Matsuda, Hironori; Kamata, Yayoi; Umehara, Yoshie; Ko, Kyi Chan; Suga, Yasushi; Ogawa, Hideoki; Takamori, Kenji

    2017-04-01

    Topical corticosteroid and calcineurin inhibitor have similar therapeutic benefits in atopic dermatitis (AD), but the differences in therapeutic mechanisms of action of these agents against AD symptoms are not fully understood. This study was performed to examine the different effects of topical betamethasone valerate (BMV), clobetasol propionate (CBP), and tacrolimus (TAC) on itch-related behavior and dermatitis in NC/Nga mice with AD-like symptoms. AD-like dermatitis was induced in the dorsal skin of NC/Nga mice by repeated topical application of Dermatophagoides farinae body (Dfb) ointment twice weekly for three weeks. Mice with dermatitis scores over 5 were divided into five groups with equal dermatitis scores and treated with BMV, CBP, TAC, or Vaseline (Vas) once daily for two consecutive days, or were not treated (NT). Scratching behavior was analyzed using a SCLABA ® -Real system. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) before and after treatment was measured using a Tewameter ® TM210. Skin collected from each group was analyzed histologically. After the second treatment, dermatitis showed significantly greater improvement in the CBP and TAC-treated groups than in the Vas-treated and NT groups. The numbers of scratching bouts were significantly lower in CBP and TAC-treated mice than in Vas-treated mice. TEWL was significantly lower in TAC-, but not in CBP-, treated mice than in Vas-treated mice. Immunohistochemical examination showed that BMV, CBP and TAC did not reduce the increased densities of epidermal protein gene product 9.5- and substance P-immunoreactive fibers. The numbers of dermal CD4-immunoreactive T cells were significantly lower in BMV and CBP-treated mice than in Vas-treated and NT mice. The numbers of dermal eosinophils were significantly lower in BMV, CBP and TAC-treated mice than in Vas-treated and NT mice, with CBP showing the strongest effect. CBP significantly reduced epidermal thickness compared with Vas and NT. There were no significant

  16. Effect of metronidazole use on tacrolimus concentrations in transplant patients treated for Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Early, C R; Park, J M; Dorsch, M P; Pogue, K T; Hanigan, S M

    2016-10-01

    Two case reports suggest that metronidazole treatment for Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) increases tacrolimus (TAC) trough levels. The primary objective of this study was to determine the clinical significance of this potential interaction in transplant patients receiving CDI treatment. Currently, no robust literature exists to estimate a magnitude of pharmacokinetic interaction between metronidazole and TAC. In this retrospective study, the effects of CDI and metronidazole treatment on TAC levels in 52 adult solid organ transplant patients were investigated. The primary outcome was to determine the difference in dose-normalized TAC levels between baseline and symptom resolution in patients treated with metronidazole or vancomycin. The secondary outcome was to determine the difference in dose-normalized TAC levels at baseline and CDI diagnosis. The average change in log-transformed dose-normalized TAC levels from baseline to symptom resolution was 0.99 for metronidazole (n = 35) and 1.04 for vancomycin (n = 17) treatment. The mean difference between the groups was 0.96 (95% confidence interval: 0.74-1.24). No significant difference was found between dose-normalized TAC levels at CDI diagnosis and baseline (P = 0.37). CDI treatment with metronidazole was not associated with a >30% increase in TAC levels compared with vancomycin. Both treatment groups required TAC dose adjustments to maintain goal TAC levels and those treated with metronidazole did not require a significantly greater dose adjustment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Improved oral absorption of tacrolimus by a solid dispersion with hypromellose and sodium lauryl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyuck Jun; Ahn, Hye In; Park, Ji Yeon; Ho, Myoung Jin; Lee, Dae Ro; Cho, Ha Ra; Park, Jun Seo; Choi, Yong Seok; Kang, Myung Joo

    2016-02-01

    A novel surfactant-incorporated hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) solid dispersion (SD) system was constructed in order to facilitate the release rate and oral absorption of tacrolimus (FK506), a poorly water-soluble immunosuppressant. Several emulsifiers including sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), as drug release promotors, were employed with HPMC to fabricate SD using the solvent wetting method. The solid state characteristics using differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffraction, revealed that FK506 was molecularly distributed within all dispersions in amorphous form. The dissolution rates of FK506 in SLS-incorporated SDs were much higher than those in SDs prepared with HPMC alone, and even with stearoyl polyoxyl-32 glycerides or tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate. In particular, the greatest dissolution enhancement was obtained from the SD consisting of the drug, HPMC, and SLS in a weight ratio of 1:1:3, providing a 50-fold higher drug concentration within 15 min, compared with HPMC SD. In vivo absorption study in rats demonstrates that the optimized formula remarkably increased the oral absorption of FK506, providing about 4.0-fold greater bioavailability (p<0.05) compared with the marketed product (Prograf®, Astellas Pharma). These data suggest that a novel SLS/HPMC SD may be an advantageous dosage form of FK506, boosting the dissolution and absorption in gastrointestinal tract. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Differing manifestations of hepatitis C and tacrolimus on hospitalized diabetes mellitus occurring after kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Kevin C; Bernet, Victor J; Agodoa, Lawrence Y; Yuan, Christina M

    2005-09-01

    Previous studies suggest the association of recipient hepatitis C seropositivity (HCV+) and use of tacrolimus (TAC) with post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) may differ by manifestations of type I or type II diabetes, but this has not been assessed in the era of current immunosuppression. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 10,342 Medicare primary renal transplantation recipients without evidence of diabetes at the time of listing in the United States Renal Data System between January 1, 1998 and July 31, 2000, followed until December 31, 2000. Outcomes were hospitalizations for a primary diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) or hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS). Cox regression analysis was used to calculate adjusted hazard ratios (AHR) for time to DKA or HHS, stratified by diabetes status at the time of transplant. In Cox regression analysis, use of TAC at discharge was independently associated with shorter time to DKA (AHR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.05-3.37, p=0.034) but not HHS. In contrast, recipient HCV+ was independently associated with shorter time to HHS (AHR, 3.90; 1.59-9.60, p=.003), but not DKA. There was no interaction between TAC and HCV+ for either outcome. These results confirm earlier findings that TAC and HCV+ may mediate the risk of PTDM through different mechanisms, even in the modern era.

  19. A search for new CYP3A4 variants as determinants of tacrolimus dose requirements in renal-transplanted patients.

    PubMed

    Tavira, Beatriz; Coto, Eliecer; Diaz-Corte, Carmen; Alvarez, Victoria; López-Larrea, Carlos; Ortega, Francisco

    2013-08-01

    The CYP3A5*3 and CYP3A4*1B alleles have been related with tacrolimus (Tac) dose requirements. The rare CYP3A4*22 variant has also been associated with a significantly lower Tac dose. We genotyped the three single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 206 kidney-transplanted patients who received Tac as the primary immunosuppressor. CYP3A5*1 and CYP3A4*1B allele carriers received a significantly higher Tac dose (P<0.01) compared with wild-type homozygotes. We did not find significant differences between the CYP3A4*22 genotypes, either nominally or according to the CYP3A5 genotype (expressers vs. nonexpressers). Sequencing of CYP3A4 coding exons in a total of 15 patients revealed only one nonreported missense change (p.P227>T) in one patient. We concluded that CYP3A5*3 and CYP3A4*1B were the main determinants of the Tac dose-adjusted blood concentration in our cohort of renal-transplanted patients.

  20. Overweight Kidney Transplant Recipients Are at Risk of Being Overdosed Following Standard Bodyweight-Based Tacrolimus Starting Dose.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Louise M; de Winter, Brenda C M; Tang, Jiang-Tao; Shuker, Nauras; Bouamar, Rachida; van Schaik, Ron H N; Koch, Birgit C P; van Gelder, Teun; Hesselink, Dennis A

    2017-02-01

    Bodyweight-based dosing of tacrolimus (Tac) is considered standard care, even though the available evidence is thin. An increasing proportion of transplant recipients is overweight, prompting the question if the starting dose should always be based on bodyweight. For this analysis, data were used from a randomized-controlled trial in which patients received either a standard Tac starting dose or a dose that was based on CYP3A5 genotype. The hypothesis was that overweight patients would have Tac overexposure following standard bodyweight-based dosing. Data were available for 203 kidney transplant recipients, with a median body mass index (BMI) of 25.6 (range, 17.2-42.2). More than 50% of the overweight or obese patients had a Tac predose concentration above the target range. The CYP3A5 nonexpressers tended to be above target when they weighed more than 67.5 kg or had a BMI of 24.5 or higher. Dosing guidelines were proposed with a decrease up to 40% in Tac starting doses for different BMI groups. The dosing guideline for patients with an unknown genotype was validated using the fixed-dose versus concentration controlled data set. This study demonstrates that dosing Tac solely on bodyweight results in overexposure in more than half of overweight or obese patients.

  1. Sirolimus and tacrolimus rather than cyclosporine A cause bone loss in healthy adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Rubert, Mercedes; Montero, Mercedes; Guede, David; Caeiro, Jose-Ramón; Martín-Fernández, Marta; Díaz-Curiel, Manuel; de la Piedra, Concepción

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of cyclosporine (CsA), tacrolimus (FK-506), and rapamycin (RAPA) on bone mass, femoral microstructure, femoral biomechanical properties, and bone remodeling in healthy adult male rats. Forty-eight 5-month-old male Wistar rats were used. CsA (2 mg/kg/day), FK-506 (3 mg/kg/day), RAPA (1.25 mg/kg/day), or water (0.5 ml/rat/day, control group) were administered orally for 3 months. After sacrifice, mean values of immunosuppressants in blood were: CsA (670.4 ng/ml), FK-506 (19.2 ng/ml), and RAPA (4.8 ng/ml). Levels of biochemical parameters were normal in all groups. Femoral BMD was decreased in FK-506 and RAPA groups and lumbar BMD in FK-506 group. Trabecular volume fraction (BV/TV) decreased only in FK-506 group. RAPA and CsA affected femoral cortical structure, but FK-506 did not. FK-506 produced an increase in bone remodeling, and CsA a decrease. FK-506 group showed a decrease in biomechanical parameters relative to all groups. RAPA group showed a decrease in ultimate stress vs control group, and CsA group presented an increase in biomechanical parameters versus control group. We found that administration of both RAPA and FK-506 as monotherapy for healthy rats produced osteopenia. CsA treatment only produces slight damages in the cortical zone of the femur.

  2. CYP3A5 and ABCB1 polymorphisms influence tacrolimus concentrations in peripheral blood mononuclear cells after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Capron, Arnaud; Mourad, Michel; De Meyer, Martine; De Pauw, Luc; Eddour, Djamila Chaib; Latinne, Dominique; Elens, Laure; Haufroid, Vincent; Wallemacq, Pierre

    2010-05-01

    This prospective study investigated the effect of genetic polymorphisms in a biotransformation enzyme (CYP3A5) and a transporter protein (ABCB1) on tacrolimus (Tac) whole blood concentrations in renal transplantation, and more specifically on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) drug concentrations, after renal transplantation. A total of 96 renal transplant recipients were genotyped for the exon 11 (1199G>A), 21 (3435C>T) and 26 (2677G>T/A) polymorphisms in the ABCB1 gene and for the intron 3 polymorphism in the CYP3A5 gene. Tac blood and PBMC concentrations were determined at day 7 after transplantation and at steady state, and then compared with recipient genotypes. The ABCB1 1199G>A, 3435C>T and 2677G>T/A SNPs, appeared to reduce the activity of P-glycoprotein towards Tac, increasing Tac PBMC concentrations. The impact of ABCB1 genetic polymorphisms on Tac blood concentrations was negligible. As increased Tac intracellular concentrations might in turn enhance immunosuppressive status and prevention or rejection, ABCB1 recipient genotyping might be useful to better individualize the Tac immunosuppressive therapy in renal transplantation.

  3. Pretransplant Tacrolimus Dose Requirements Predict Early Posttransplant Dose Requirements in Blood Group AB0-Incompatible Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Shuker, Nauras; de Man, Femke M; de Weerd, Annelies E; van Agteren, Madelon; Weimar, Willem; Betjes, Michiel G H; van Gelder, Teun; Hesselink, Dennis A

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether pretransplant tacrolimus (Tac) dose requirements of patients scheduled to undergo living donor kidney transplantation correlate with posttransplantation dose requirements. The predictive value of Tac dose requirements (defined as the ratio of the Tac predose concentration, C0, divided by the total daily Tac dose, D) pretransplantation on this same parameter posttransplantation was assessed retrospectively in a cohort of 57 AB0-incompatible kidney transplant recipients. These patients started immunosuppressive therapy 14 days before transplant surgery. All patients were using a stable dose of glucocorticoids and were at steady-state Tac exposure before transplantation. Tac dose requirements immediately before transplantation (C0/Dbefore) explained 63% of the Tac dose requirements on day 3 after transplantation: r = 0.633 [F (1, 44) = 75.97, P < 0.01]. No other clinical and demographic variables predicted Tac dose requirements early after transplantation. Steady-state Tac dose requirement before transplantation largely predicted posttransplantation Tac dose requirements in AB0-incompatible kidney transplant recipients. The importance of this finding is that the posttransplantation Tac dose can be individualized based on a patient's pretransplantation Tac concentration/dose ratio. Pretransplant Tac phenotyping therefore has the potential to improve transplantation outcomes.

  4. Post-marketing surveillance of the safety and effectiveness of tacrolimus in 3,267 Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Kawai, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Harigai, Masayoshi; Ishida, Kota; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    A post-marketing surveillance (PMS) program was implemented to assess the safety and effectiveness of tacrolimus (TAC) in Japanese rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and to identify risk factors related to adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Patients were registered centrally and monitored for all adverse events (AEs) for 24 weeks. Effectiveness was evaluated using the Disease Activity Score 28-CRP (DAS28-CRP). Data from 3,172 patients (mean age 62.2 years) were evaluated in the safety analysis. Of the safety population, 78.5 %were female and 25.9 % were in Steinbrocker's functional class 3 or 4. TAC was prescribed as monotherapy in 52.5 % and the most common concomitant disease modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) was methotrexate, used in 28.9 % of the patients. The incidence of AEs, serious AEs (SAEs), ADRs and serious ADRs were 41.2, 6.4, 36.0, and 4.9 %, respectively. The most frequent serious ADR category was infections and infestations. Age ≥ 65 years, concurrent renal dysfunction, and concurrent diabetes mellitus were identified as significant risk factors for ADR. Based on EULAR response criteria, 65.4 % of the patients showed moderate or good response. The results demonstrate that TAC is well tolerated by Japanese patients with active RA, including those receiving concomitant methotrexate, in the real world.

  5. No-load sirolimus with tacrolimus and steroids is safe and effective in renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tellis, V; Schechner, R; Mallis, M; Rosegreen, S; Glicklich, D; Moore, N; Greenstein, S

    2005-03-01

    Basiliximab (BX) induction, tacrolimus (TAC), and steroids have sharply reduced acute cellular rejection at our institution. However, late graft loss has continued, for which sirolimus (SL) was introduced into the protocol. From July 1, 2001 to December 31, 2003, 152 live donor (LD) renal transplant recipients received TAC (level 15 to 20 ng/mL) and steroids, with BX induction. One hundred twenty-two patients (Group 1) received SL (3 mg/d African-americans; 2 mg/d for others) starting on days 2 and 3. The SL level was adjusted to 8 to 10 ng/d, usually by weeks 3 to 4 posttransplant. The TAC doses were then progressively reduced. Records were reviewed for demographics, immunosuppressive drug levels, serum cholesterol and blood pressure, and complications. Graft and patient survival rates were calculated. Comparison was made to 53 LD recipients transplanted from July 1, 1998, to June 30, 2001 (Group 2) receiving BX, steroids and TAC, without SL. Recipients of deceased donor kidneys were excluded because of variability in kidney quality, ischemic time, and patient management. Demographics were similar between groups: African Americans, 25% to 35%; mean age 36 years; mean HLA mismatch 3.7. Wound problems and infection were minimal in both groups. Mean serum creatinine and cholesterol and systolic and diastolic blood pressure measured periodically up to 1 year were similar, as was the incidence of rejection. In 25% of patients, SL was discontinued. Gradual introduction of SL appears to be associated with minimal wound problems. With more aggressive reduction in TAC, better renal function, and better long-term graft survival may be attainable. We currently lower TAC levels to 5 ng/mL by 3 months.

  6. In Vitro Interactions between Tacrolimus and Azoles against Candida albicans Determined by Different Methods▿

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shujuan; Li, Yan; Guo, Qiongjie; Shi, Changwen; Yu, Jinlong; Ma, Lin

    2008-01-01

    Combination therapy could be of use for the treatment of fungal infections, especially those caused by drug-resistant fungi. However, the methods and approaches used for data generation and result interpretation need further optimizing. The fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) is the most commonly used method, but it has several drawbacks in characterizing antifungal drug interaction. Alternatively, some new methods can be used such as the ΔE model (difference between the predicted and measured fungal growth percentages) and the response surface approach, which uses the concentration-effect relationship over the whole concentration range instead of just the MIC. In the present study, in vitro interactions between tacrolimus (FK506) and three azoles—fluconazole (FLC), itraconazole (ITR), and voriconazole (VRC)-against Candida albicans were evaluated by the checkerboard microdilution method and time-killing test. The intensity of the interactions was determined by visual reading and the spectrophotometric method in a checkerboard assay, and the nature of the interactions was assessed by nonparametric models of FICI and ΔE. Colony counting and colorimetric viable detection methods (2,3-bis {2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-[(sulfenylamino) carbonyl]-2H-tetrazolium hydroxide} [XTT] reduction test) were used for evaluating the combination antifungal effects over time. Synergistic and indifferent effects were found for the combination of FK506 and azoles against azole-sensitive strains, while strong synergy was found against azole-resistant strains analyzed by FICI. The ΔE model gave more consistent results with FICI. The positive interactions were also confirmed by the time-killing test. Our findings suggest a potential role for combination therapy with calcineurin pathway inhibitors and azoles to augment activity against resistant C. albicans. PMID:18056277

  7. Calcineurin inhibitors cyclosporin A and tacrolimus protect against podocyte injury induced by puromycin aminonucleoside in rodent models

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiujin; Jiang, Hong; Ying, Meike; Xie, Zhoutao; Li, Xiayu; Wang, Haibing; Zhao, Jie; Lin, Chuan; Wang, Yucheng; Feng, Shi; Shen, Jia; Weng, Chunhua; Lin, Weiqiang; Wang, Huiping; Zhou, Qin; Bi, Yan; Li, Meng; Wang, Lingyan; Zhu, Tongyu; Huang, Xiaoru; Lan, Hui-Yao; Zhou, Jing; Chen, Jianghua

    2016-01-01

    Podocyte injury and the appearance of proteinuria are features of minimal-change disease (MCD). Cyclosporin A (CsA) and tacrolimus (FK506) has been reported to reduce proteinuria in patients with nephrotic syndrome, but mechanisms remain unknown. We, therefore, investigated the protective mechanisms of CsA and FK506 on proteinuria in a rat model of MCD induced by puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) and in vitro cultured mouse podocytes. Our results showed that CsA and FK506 treatment decreased proteinuria via a mechanism associated to a reduction in the foot-process fusion and desmin, and a recovery of synaptopodin and podocin. In PAN-treated mouse podocytes, pre-incubation with CsA and FK506 restored the distribution of the actin cytoskeleton, increased the expression of synaptopodin and podocin, improved podocyte viability, and reduced the migrating activities of podocytes. Treatment with CsA and FK506 also inhibited PAN-induced podocytes apoptosis, which was associated with the induction of Bcl-xL and inhibition of Bax, cleaved caspase 3, and cleaved PARP expression. Further studies revealed that CsA and FK506 inhibited PAN-induced p38 and JNK signaling, thereby protecting podocytes from PAN-induced injury. In conclusion, CsA and FK506 inhibit proteinuria by protecting against PAN-induced podocyte injury, which may be associated with inhibition of the MAPK signaling pathway. PMID:27580845

  8. Overweight Kidney Transplant Recipients Are at Risk of Being Overdosed Following Standard Bodyweight-Based Tacrolimus Starting Dose

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Louise M.; de Winter, Brenda C.M.; Tang, Jiang-Tao; Shuker, Nauras; Bouamar, Rachida; van Schaik, Ron H.N.; Koch, Birgit C.P.; van Gelder, Teun; Hesselink, Dennis A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Bodyweight-based dosing of tacrolimus (Tac) is considered standard care, even though the available evidence is thin. An increasing proportion of transplant recipients is overweight, prompting the question if the starting dose should always be based on bodyweight. Methods For this analysis, data were used from a randomized-controlled trial in which patients received either a standard Tac starting dose or a dose that was based on CYP3A5 genotype. The hypothesis was that overweight patients would have Tac overexposure following standard bodyweight-based dosing. Results Data were available for 203 kidney transplant recipients, with a median body mass index (BMI) of 25.6 (range, 17.2-42.2). More than 50% of the overweight or obese patients had a Tac predose concentration above the target range. The CYP3A5 nonexpressers tended to be above target when they weighed more than 67.5 kg or had a BMI of 24.5 or higher. Dosing guidelines were proposed with a decrease up to 40% in Tac starting doses for different BMI groups. The dosing guideline for patients with an unknown genotype was validated using the fixed-dose versus concentration controlled data set. Conclusions This study demonstrates that dosing Tac solely on bodyweight results in overexposure in more than half of overweight or obese patients. PMID:28361113

  9. Tacrolimus and mycophenolate regimen and subclinical tubulo-interstitial inflammation in low immunological risk renal transplants.

    PubMed

    Torres, Irina B; Reisaeter, Anna V; Moreso, Francesc; Âsberg, Anders; Vidal, Marta; Garcia-Carro, Clara; Midtvedt, Karsten; Reinholt, Finn P; Scott, Helge; Castellà, Eva; Salcedo, Maite; Dörje, Christina; Sellarés, Joana; Azancot, Maria A; Perello, Manel; Holdaas, Hallvard; Serón, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    The aim was to evaluate the relationship between maintenance immunosuppression, subclinical tubulo-interstitial inflammation and interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy (IF/TA) in surveillance biopsies performed in low immunological risk renal transplants at two transplant centers. The Barcelona cohort consisted of 109 early and 66 late biopsies in patients receiving high tacrolimus (TAC-C 0 target at 1-year 6-10 ng/ml) and reduced MMF dose (500 mg bid at 1-year). The Oslo cohort consisted of 262 early and 237 late biopsies performed in patients treated with low TAC-C 0 (target 3-7 ng/ml) and standard MMF dose (750 mg bid). Subclinical inflammation, adjusted for confounders, was associated with low TAC-C 0 in the early (OR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.61-0.92; P = 0.006) and late biopsies (OR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.50-0.95; P = 0.023) from Barcelona. In the Oslo cohort, it was associated with low MMF in early biopsies (OR: 0.90, 95% CI: 0.83-0.98; P = 0.0101) and with low TAC-C 0 in late biopsies (OR: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.61-0.97; P = 0.0286). MMF dose was significantly reduced in Oslo between early and late biopsies. IF/TA was not associated with TAC-C 0 or MMF dose in the multivariate analysis. Our data suggest that in TAC- and MMF-based regimens, TAC-C 0 levels are associated with subclinical inflammation in patients receiving reduced MMF dose. © 2017 Steunstichting ESOT.

  10. CYP3A5*3 and ABCB1 61A>G Significantly Influence Dose-adjusted Trough Blood Tacrolimus Concentrations in the First Three Months Post-Kidney Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Rong; Barratt, Daniel T; Coller, Janet K; Sallustio, Benedetta C; Somogyi, Andrew A

    2018-03-30

    Tacrolimus (TAC) is a first-line immunosuppressant used to prevent organ rejection after kidney transplantation. There is large inter-individual variability in its pharmacokinetics. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding TAC metabolizing enzymes cytochromes P450 3A4/5 (CYP3A4/5), P-glycoprotein efflux transporter (ABCB1), their expression regulator pregnane X receptor (NR1I2) and CYP3A co-factor cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) have been studied for their effects on tacrolimus disposition. However, except for CYP3A5*3, controversies remain about their roles in predicting dose-adjusted trough blood TAC concentrations (C 0 /D). This study aimed to investigate the effects of ABCB1 (61A>G, 1199G>A, 1236C>T, 2677G>T and 3435C>T), CYP3A4*22, CYP3A5*3, NR1I2 (8055C>T, 63396C>T and -25385C>T) and POR*28 SNPs on TAC C 0 /D. In total, 165 kidney transplant recipients were included in this study. SNPs were genotyped by probe-based real-time polymerase chain reaction. Associations between log-transformed whole blood TAC C 0 /D (measured at 1 and 3 months post-transplant) and genotypes/haplotypes were assessed by linear mixed effects analysis, controlling for age, sex and haematocrit. It was observed that CYP3A5 expressors (*1/*1 + *1/*3) (p = 5.5 × 10 -16 ) and ABCB1 61G allele carriers (p = 0.001) had lower log-transformed TAC C 0 /D (56% and 26% lower geometric mean TAC C 0 /D, respectively) and accounted for approximately 30% and 4%, respectively, of log-transformed TAC C 0 /D variability in the first 3 months post-transplant. In conclusion, CYP3A5*3 is a major, and ABCB1 61A>G is a novel, although minor, genetic factor affecting TAC C 0 /D in kidney transplant recipients. © 2018 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  11. Assessing renal function with daclizumab induction and delayed tacrolimus introduction in liver transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Calmus, Yvon; Kamar, Nassim; Gugenheim, Jean; Duvoux, Christophe; Ducerf, Christian; Wolf, Philippe; Samuel, Didier; Vanlemmens, Claire; Neau-Cransac, Martine; Salamé, Ephrem; Chazouillères, Olivier; Declerck, Nicole; Pageaux, Georges-Philippe; Dubel, Laurence; Rostaing, Lionel

    2010-06-27

    Calcineurin inhibitor-induced renal dysfunction is a major problem in liver transplantation. Interleukin-2 receptor antagonist induction followed by delayed tacrolimus (Tac) administration may minimize the renal insult without compromising immunoprotection. This open, randomized, multicenter trial evaluated the benefit of daclizumab induction with delayed Tac on renal function at 6 months; an observational study was continued for 18 months. Liver transplant patients with a 12-hr serum creatinine (SrC) level less than 180 micromol/L received either delayed Tac with daclizumab induction (n=98) or standard Tac (n=101) both combined with mycophenolate mofetil and steroids. The primary endpoint was the incidence of SrC level more than 130 micrommol/L at 6 months. The incidence was 22.4% with delayed Tac and 29.7% with standard Tac (P=ns), which remained unchanged at 12 months (21.6% and 23.9%) but increasing slightly at 24 months (29.0% and 32.9%), respectively. A post hoc analysis of renal function was done based on patients stratification by SrC at 12 hr (100 micromol/L) showing no difference in SrC values at 6 months regardless of the 12-hr values despite a trend toward better estimated glomerular filtration rate for patients with 12-hr value less than 100 micromol/L in the delayed Tac group. Biopsy-proven acute rejection was similar at 6 months (17.5% and 18.75%), 12 months (23.5% and 23.8%), and 24 months (24.5% and 25.7%), respectively. Patient and graft survival in both groups were comparable and good. Similar types and incidences of adverse events were reported in both groups at all time. Delay of Tac does not benefit renal function in liver transplant recipients with a good renal function at baseline.

  12. High Intrapatient Variability of Tacrolimus Exposure in the Early Period After Liver Transplantation Is Associated With Poorer Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rayar, Michel; Tron, Camille; Jézéquel, Caroline; Beaurepaire, Jean Marie; Petitcollin, Antoine; Houssel-Debry, Pauline; Camus, Christophe; Verdier, Marie Clémence; Dehlawi, Ammar; Lakéhal, Mohamed; Desfourneaux, Véronique; Meunier, Bernard; Sulpice, Laurent; Bellissant, Eric; Boudjema, Karim; Lemaitre, Florian

    2018-03-01

    Tacrolimus (TAC) is the cornerstone of immunosuppressive regimen in liver transplantation (LT). Its pharmacokinetics is characterized by a high interpatient and intrapatient variability (IPV) leading to an unpredictable dose-response relationship. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of TAC IPV (IPV) on graft and patient outcomes after LT. We retrospectively analyzed 812 LT recipients treated with TAC. The IPV of TAC concentrations was estimated by calculating the coefficient of variation (CV) of whole blood trough concentrations. Patients were categorized in 2 groups: low IPV (CV < 40%) and high IPV (CV ≥ 40%). There were significantly more neurologic complications (31.2% vs 16.6%, P < 0.001), cardiovascular complications (19.7% vs 9.7%, P < 0.001), and acute renal failure requiring dialysis (8.5% vs 2.2%, P < 0.001) in the high CV group than in the low CV group. Moreover, graft survival was significantly poorer in the high CV group (hazard ratio, 1.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.95; P = 0.03). A pretransplantation elevated Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score (P < 0.001) and Child-Pugh grade (P < 0.001) were identified as risk factors for presenting a high CV. A high CV of TAC concentrations was found to be predictive of TAC-related toxicity and poorer survival.

  13. Effect of aminoalkyl methacrylate copolymer E/HCl on in vivo absorption of poorly water-soluble drug.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Takatsune; Kurimoto, Ippei; Yoshihara, Keiichi; Umejima, Hiroyuki; Ito, Naoki; Watanabe, Shunsuke; Sako, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Akihiko

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate in vivo absorption of tacrolimus formulated as a solid dispersion using Eudragit E®/HCl (E-SD). E-SD is an aminoalkyl methacrylate copolymer that can be dissolved under neutral pH conditions. E-SD was used alone as a solid dispersion carrier and/or was mixed with tacrolimus primarily dispersed with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC). Tacrolimus was formulated with E-SD at several different ratios. Formulations with tacrolimus/E-SD ratio of 1/3 showed higher in vivo absorption, compared to tacrolimus dispersed in the excipients (primarily HPMC) found in commercially available tacrolimus capsules, using a rat in situ closed loop method. Good correlation was observed between in vitro drug solubility and in vivo drug absorption. In vitro solubility tests and rat oral absorption studies of tacrolimus/HPMC solid dispersion formulations were also conducted after mixing the HPMC dispersion with several ratios of E-SD. E-SD/tacrolimus/HPMC formulations yielded high in vitro drug solubility but comparatively low in vivo absorption. Dog oral absorption studies were conducted using capsules containing a formulation of tacrolimus/E-SD at a ratio of 1/5. The E-SD formulation-containing capsule showed higher in vivo drug absorption than tacrolimus dispersed in the standard HPMC capsule. These studies report enhancement of the in vivo absorption of a poorly water-soluble drug following dispersion with E-SD when compared to formulation in HPMC.

  14. Nephro and neurotoxicity of calcineurin inhibitors and mechanisms of rejections: A review on tacrolimus and cyclosporin in organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tolou-Ghamari, Zahra

    2012-04-01

    In the meadow of medical sciences substituting a diseased organ with a healthy one from another individual, dead or alive, to allow a human to stay alive could be consider as the most string event. In this article we review the history of transplantation, mechanisms of rejection, nephro-neurotoxicity of tacrolimus and cyclosporin in organ transplantations. Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, Pubmed (NLM), LISTA (EBSCO) and Web of Science have been searched. The first reference to the concept of organ transplantation and replacement for therapeutic purposes appears to be to Hua-To (136 to 208 A.D), who replaced diseased organs with healthy ones in patients under analgesia induced with a mixture of Indian hemp. In 1936, the first human renal transplant performed by Voronoy in Russia. The first liver transplant in humans was performed on March 1, 1963 by Starzl in Denver, USA. Medawar was the first to assert that rejection was an immunological response, with the inflammatory reaction due to lymphocyte infiltration. Consequently, rational immunosuppressive therapies could inhibit deleterious T-cell responses in an antigen specific manner. Searching related to the history of organ transplantation from mythic to modern times suggests that, to prevent graft rejection, minimize nephro and neuro toxicity monitoring of immunosupressive concentrations could provide an invaluable and essential aid in adjusting dosage to ensure adequate immunosuppression.

  15. Nephro and neurotoxicity of calcineurin inhibitors and mechanisms of rejections: A review on tacrolimus and cyclosporin in organ transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Tolou-Ghamari, Zahra

    2012-01-01

    Context In the meadow of medical sciences substituting a diseased organ with a healthy one from another individual, dead or alive, to allow a human to stay alive could be consider as the most string event. In this article we review the history of transplantation, mechanisms of rejection, nephro-neurotoxicity of tacrolimus and cyclosporin in organ transplantations. Evidence Acquisitions Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, Pubmed (NLM), LISTA (EBSCO) and Web of Science have been searched. Results The first reference to the concept of organ transplantation and replacement for therapeutic purposes appears to be to Hua-To (136 to 208 A.D), who replaced diseased organs with healthy ones in patients under analgesia induced with a mixture of Indian hemp. In 1936, the first human renal transplant performed by Voronoy in Russia. The first liver transplant in humans was performed on March 1, 1963 by Starzl in Denver, USA. Medawar was the first to assert that rejection was an immunological response, with the inflammatory reaction due to lymphocyte infiltration. Consequently, rational immunosuppressive therapies could inhibit deleterious T-cell responses in an antigen specific manner. Conclusions Searching related to the history of organ transplantation from mythic to modern times suggests that, to prevent graft rejection, minimize nephro and neuro toxicity monitoring of immunosupressive concentrations could provide an invaluable and essential aid in adjusting dosage to ensure adequate immunosuppression. PMID:24475383

  16. The Calcineurin Pathway Inhibitor Tacrolimus Enhances the In Vitro Activity of Azoles against Mucorales via Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Shirazi, F.

    2013-01-01

    The calcineurin pathway regulates antifungal drug resistance and the virulence of several major human-pathogenic fungi, including the recalcitrant Mucorales. We hypothesized that the fungistatic triazoles posaconazole (PCZ) and itraconazole (ICZ) become fungicidal in the setting of the calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus (TCR) and that such an effect is mediated through apoptosis. Fungicidal activity and apoptosis were studied using standard microbiological techniques and hyphal metabolic and vital dye reduction assays at 37°C in RPMI 1640. Apoptosis was characterized by detecting intracellular Ca2+, phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization, DNA fragmentation, plasma membrane integrity, chromatin condensation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, caspase-like activity, ATP, and cytochrome c release. MICs for PCZ and ICZ alone were significantly higher (8 to 128 μg/ml) than those of PCZ or ICZ plus TCR (0.25 to 4 μg/ml) for Rhizopus oryzae, Cunninghamella bertholletiae, and Mucor circinelloides. Both PCZ and ICZ in combination with TCR became fungicidal, and their activity was mediated through increased apoptotic cell death of R. oryzae (10 to 50%), C. bertholletiae (5 to 50%), and M. circinelloides (5 to 55%) germlings, with morphological apoptotic changes characterized by externalization of PS, nuclear condensation, and DNA fragmentation. Moreover, activation of the caspase-like activity was correlated with cell death induced by TCR plus PCZ or ICZ. These changes correlated with elevated intracellular Ca2+ and ROS levels and disturbance of mitochondrial potential. We found that PCZ or ICZ in combination with TCR renders Mucorales sensitive to triazoles via apoptotic death. These observations could serve as a new paradigm for the development of new therapeutic strategies. PMID:23851337

  17. The calcineurin pathway inhibitor tacrolimus enhances the in vitro activity of azoles against Mucorales via apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Shirazi, F; Kontoyiannis, D P

    2013-09-01

    The calcineurin pathway regulates antifungal drug resistance and the virulence of several major human-pathogenic fungi, including the recalcitrant Mucorales. We hypothesized that the fungistatic triazoles posaconazole (PCZ) and itraconazole (ICZ) become fungicidal in the setting of the calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus (TCR) and that such an effect is mediated through apoptosis. Fungicidal activity and apoptosis were studied using standard microbiological techniques and hyphal metabolic and vital dye reduction assays at 37°C in RPMI 1640. Apoptosis was characterized by detecting intracellular Ca(2+), phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization, DNA fragmentation, plasma membrane integrity, chromatin condensation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, caspase-like activity, ATP, and cytochrome c release. MICs for PCZ and ICZ alone were significantly higher (8 to 128 μg/ml) than those of PCZ or ICZ plus TCR (0.25 to 4 μg/ml) for Rhizopus oryzae, Cunninghamella bertholletiae, and Mucor circinelloides. Both PCZ and ICZ in combination with TCR became fungicidal, and their activity was mediated through increased apoptotic cell death of R. oryzae (10 to 50%), C. bertholletiae (5 to 50%), and M. circinelloides (5 to 55%) germlings, with morphological apoptotic changes characterized by externalization of PS, nuclear condensation, and DNA fragmentation. Moreover, activation of the caspase-like activity was correlated with cell death induced by TCR plus PCZ or ICZ. These changes correlated with elevated intracellular Ca(2+) and ROS levels and disturbance of mitochondrial potential. We found that PCZ or ICZ in combination with TCR renders Mucorales sensitive to triazoles via apoptotic death. These observations could serve as a new paradigm for the development of new therapeutic strategies.

  18. De novo kidney transplant recipients need higher doses of Advagraf compared with Prograf to get therapeutic levels.

    PubMed

    Crespo, M; Mir, M; Marin, M; Hurtado, S; Estadella, C; Gurí, X; Rap, O; Moral, R; Puig, J M; Lloveras, J

    2009-01-01

    Advagraf is a new modified-release once-daily formulation of tacrolimus with a similar efficacy and safety profile to twice-daily tacrolimus (Prograf) according to clinical trials. Few data are published about its use in clinical practice, outside of sponsored clinical trials. We compared efficacy and basic pharmacokinetics of once-daily and twice-daily tacrolimus in de novo renal transplantation. The Advagraf group included 26 de novo renal cases who had received initial immunosuppression with once-daily tacrolimus (0.2 mg/kg from day 1 posttransplantation) combined with mycophenolic acid, steroids, and anti-CD25 monoclonal antibodies (2 doses). We compared them with a Prograf group of 26 transplants performed immediately before, who received equivalent immunosuppression with twice-daily tacrolimus (0.2 mg/kg from day 1). We did not observe significant differences between groups in demographics, efficacy, and basic pharmacokinetics, namely, tacrolimus trough levels at 7, 15, 30, 60, or 90 days. We found that recipients on Advagraf needed significantly higher tacrolimus doses per kg up to 6 months post-transplantation than those on Prograf: 0.16 vs 0.11; 0.14 vs 0.08; and 0.12 vs 0.08 mg/kg at 1, 3, and 6 months. No patient suffered severe liver dysfunction. There were no differences between groups in the administration of drugs interacting with CYP3A4 or prokinetics, which could alter tacrolimus pharmacokinetics. Among de novo renal cases, the new once-daily formulation of tacrolimus offered a similar short-term efficacy profile as the twice-daily tacrolimus. But it was necessary to use up to a 50% higher dose of Advagraf than Prograf to achieve similar trough levels during the first 6 months.

  19. Randomized trial of tacrolimus + mycophenolate mofetil or azathioprine versus cyclosporine + mycophenolate mofetil after cadaveric kidney transplantation: results at three years.

    PubMed

    Gonwa, Thomas; Johnson, Christopher; Ahsan, Nasimul; Alfrey, Edward J; Halloran, Philip; Stegall, Mark; Hardy, Mark; Metzger, Robert; Shield, Charles; Rocher, Leslie; Scandling, John; Sorensen, John; Mulloy, Laura; Light, Jimmy; Corwin, Claudia; Danovitch, Gabriel; Wachs, Michael; VanVeldhuisen, Paul; Leonhardt, Maryanne; Fitzsimmons, William E

    2003-06-27

    Two hundred twenty-three recipients of first cadaveric kidney allografts were randomized to receive tacrolimus (TAC) + mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), TAC + azathioprine (AZA), or cyclosporine (Neoral; CsA) + MMF. All regimens contained corticosteroids, and antibody induction was used only in patients who experienced delayed graft function (DGF). Patients were followed-up for 3 years. The results at 3 years corroborate and extend the findings of the 2-year results. Patients with DGF treated with TAC+MMF experienced an increase in 3-year allograft survival compared with patients receiving CsA+MMF (84.1% vs. 49.9%, P=0.02). Patients randomized to either treatment arm containing TAC exhibited numerically superior kidney function when compared with CsA. During the 3 years, new-onset insulin dependence occurred in 6, 3, and 11 patients in the TAC+MMF, CsA+MMF, and TAC+AZA treatment arms, respectively. Furthermore, patients randomized to TAC+MMF received significantly lower doses of MMF as compared with those who received CsA+MMF. All three immunosuppressive regimens provided excellent safety and efficacy. However, the best results overall were achieved with TAC+MMF. The combination may provide particular benefit to kidney allograft recipients with DGF. In patients who experienced DGF, graft survival was better at 3 years in those patients receiving TAC in combination with either MMF or AZA as compared with the patients receiving CsA with MMF.

  20. [Effects of ciclosporin and tacrolimus on replication of hepatitis B virus in vitro: a comparative study].

    PubMed

    Xia, Wei-liang; Xie, Hai-yang; Shen, Yan; Wu, Li-ming; Zhang, Feng; Zheng, Shu-sen

    2006-01-10

    To investigate the effects of ciclosporin (CsA) and tacrolimus (FK506) on replication of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in vitro. HBV genome permanently transfected human liver cancer cells of the line HepG2.2.15 were cultured. CsA and FK506 at different concentrations were added into the culture fluid so as to identify the nontoxic concentrations by MTT method. Then the HepG2.2.15 cells were treated by CsA and FK506 at different nontoxic concentrations respectively for 4 days. ELISA was used to detect the HB surface antigen (HBsAg) and HB e antigen (HBeAg) in the supernatant. The relative replication level of HBV DNA was detected by slot blot analysis. MTT method confirmed that the nontoxic concentrations of CsA and FK506 were 0-40.0 microg/ml and 0-400 ng/ml respectively. After the treatment of CsA at the concentration of 1.3, 2.5, and 5.0 microg/ml, in comparison to the control group, the suppression rates of HBsAg expression in the HepG2.2.15 cells were 16.5% +/- 9.4%, 21.5% +/- 8.9%, and 33.1% +/- 5.3% respectively (all P < 0.05); the suppression rates of HBeAg expression in the HepG2.2.15 cells were 7.8% +/- 2.2%, 11.0% +/- 2.3%, and 20.8% +/- 1.5% respectively (all P < 0.05); and the HBV DNA replication levels were 56 +/- 16, 42 +/- 11, and 40 +/- 10 respectively (P > 0.05, P < 0.05, and P > 0.05). However, FK506 at different nontoxic concentrations showed no significant inhibitory effect on the levels of HBsAg, HBeAg, and HBV DNA. CsA dose-dependently inhibits the HBV replication in vitro, and FK506 does not exercise similar effects.

  1. Best single time point correlations with AUC for cyclosporine and tacrolimus in HIV-infected kidney and liver transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Frassetto, Lynda A; Tan-Tam, Clara C; Barin, Burc; Browne, Matt; Wolfe, Alan R; Stock, Peter G; Roland, Michelle; Benet, Leslie Z

    2014-03-27

    Interactions between antiretrovirals (ARVs) and transplant immunosuppressant agents (IS) among HIV-infected transplant recipients may lead to lack of efficacy or toxicity. In transplant recipients not infected with HIV, tacrolimus (TAC) trough levels (C0) or cyclosporine (CsA) drawn at C0 or 2 hours after dosing (C2) correlate with drug exposure (area under the curve [AUC]/dose) and outcomes. Because of ARV-IS interactions in HIV-infected individuals, and the high rate of rejection in these subjects, this study investigated the correlations between IS concentrations and exposure to determine the best method to monitor immunosuppressant levels. This study prospectively studied 50 HIV-infected transplant recipients undergoing kidney or liver transplantation evaluating the pharmacokinetics of the IS in 150 studies over time after transplantation (weeks 2 to 4, 12, 28, 52, and 104). IS levels were measured with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and AUC calculated using WinNonlin 9.0. Correlation analyses were run on SAS 9.2. CsA concentration at C4 correlated better with AUC than C0 or C2, and over time TAC concentration correlated better at C0 or C2. It is suggested that C0 is acceptable for TAC monitoring, but poor predictability will occur at C0 with CsA. The low correlation of C0 with CsA AUC could be responsible for the higher rejection rates on CsA that has been reported in these subjects.

  2. Design and rationale of the ATHENA study--A 12-month, multicentre, prospective study evaluating the outcomes of a de novo everolimus-based regimen in combination with reduced cyclosporine or tacrolimus versus a standard regimen in kidney transplant patients: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sommerer, Claudia; Suwelack, Barbara; Dragun, Duska; Schenker, Peter; Hauser, Ingeborg A; Nashan, Björn; Thaiss, Friedrich

    2016-02-17

    Immunosuppression with calcineurin inhibitors remains the mainstay of treatment after kidney transplantation; however, long-term use of these drugs may be associated with nephrotoxicity. In this regard, the current approach is to optimise available immunosuppressive regimens to reduce the calcineurin inhibitor dose while protecting renal function without affecting the efficacy. The ATHENA study is designed to evaluate renal function in two regimens: an everolimus and reduced calcineurin inhibitor-based regimen versus a standard treatment protocol with mycophenolic acid and tacrolimus in de novo kidney transplant recipients. ATHENA is a 12-month, multicentre, open-label, prospective, randomised, parallel-group study in de novo kidney transplant recipients (aged 18 years or older) receiving renal allografts from deceased or living donors. Eligible patients are randomised (1:1:1) prior to transplantation to one of the following three treatment arms: everolimus (starting dose 1.5 mg/day; C0 3-8 ng/mL) with cyclosporine or everolimus (starting dose 3 mg/day; C0 3-8 ng/mL) with tacrolimus or mycophenolic acid (enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium at 1.44 g/day or mycophenolate mofetil at 2 g/day) with tacrolimus; in combination with corticosteroids. All patients receive induction therapy with basiliximab. The primary objective is to demonstrate non-inferiority of renal function (eGFR by the Nankivell formula) in one of the everolimus arms compared with the standard group at month 12 post transplantation. The key secondary objective is to assess the incidence of treatment failure, defined as biopsy-proven acute rejection, graft loss, or death, among the treatment groups. Other objectives include assessment of the individual components of treatment failure, incidence and severity of viral infections, incidence and duration of delayed graft function, incidence of indication biopsies, slow graft function and wound healing complications, and overall safety and tolerability

  3. FK506 attenuates thymic output in patients with myasthenia gravis

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Yukiko; Ueno, Shu-ichi; Matsui, Naoko; Kaji, Ryuji

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an antibody-mediated, T-cell-dependent autoimmune disease. The symptoms are caused by high-affinity IgG against the muscle acetylcholine receptor (AChR) at the neuromuscular junction. The production of these antibodies in B-cells depends on AChR-specific CD4+ T-cells and the thymus gland seems to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of MG. Altered thymic T-cell export seems to be associated with a pathological mechanism in myasthenia gravis. Tacrolimus (FK506) has recently been used to treat MG. Material and methods We examined the effects of tacrolimus on thymic T-cell export in patients with MG. Sixteen patients with nonthymomatous and/or thymectomized MG were treated with oral administrations of tacrolimus. To assess the effect of tacrolimus on the thymic output, we assayed the levels of T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC), a molecular marker of thymus emigrants. Results T-cell receptor excision circle was not significantly different from those in age-matched controls before tacrolimus therapy, but they were partially decreased 4 months after tacrolimus therapy. T-cell receptor excision circle levels were significantly decreased in the thymomatous group (p < 0.05), but not in the nonthymomatous group. Tacrolimus treatment significantly attenuated TREC levels in cultured CD4–CD8+ cells (p < 0.05), but total cell counts were not significantly changed. Conclusions These results indicate that TREC levels may become a marker of the curative effect of tacrolimus therapy for thymomatous MG, and that tacrolimus suppresses not only activating T-lymphocytes, but also naïve T-cells. PMID:24482655

  4. The Oxidative and Inflammatory State in Patients with Acute Renal Graft Dysfunction Treated with Tacrolimus

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo-Ibarra, Sandra; Cerrillos-Gutiérrez, José Ignacio; Escalante-Núñez, Ariadna; Rojas-Campos, Enrique; Gómez-Navarro, Benjamín; Sifuentes-Franco, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine the oxidative stress/inflammation behavior in patients with/without acute graft dysfunction (AGD) with Tacrolimus. Methods. Cross-sectional study, in renal transplant (RT) recipients (1-yr follow-up). Patients with AGD and without AGD were included. Serum IL-6, TNF-α, 8-isoprostanes (8-IP), and Nitric Oxide (NO) were determined by ELISA; C-reactive protein (CRP) was determined by nephelometry; lipid peroxidation products (LPO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined by colorimetry. Results. The AGD presentation was at 5.09 ± 3.07 versus 8.27 ± 3.78 months (p < 0.001); CRP >3.19 mg/L was found in 21 versus 19 in the N-AGD group (p = 0.83); TNF-α 145.53 ± 18.87 pg/mL versus 125.54 ± 15.92 pg/mL in N-AGD (p = 0.64); IL-6 2110.69 ± 350.97 pg/mL versus 1933.42 ± 235.38 pg/mL in N-AGD (p = 0.13). The LPO were higher in AGD (p = 0.014): 4.10 ± 0.69 µM versus 2.41 ± 0.29 µM; also levels of 8-IP were higher in AGD 27.47 ± 9.28 pg/mL versus 8.64 ± 1.54 pg/mL (p = 0.01). Serum levels of NO in AGD were lower 138.44 ± 19.20 µmol/L versus 190.57 ± 22.04 µmol/L in N-AGD (p = 0.042); antioxidant enzyme SOD activity was significantly diminished in AGD with 9.75 ± 0.52 U/mL versus 11.69 ± 0.55 U/mL in N-AGD (p = 0.012). Discussion. Patients with RT present with a similar state of the proinflammatory cytokines whether or not they have AGD. The patients with AGD showed deregulation of the oxidative state with increased LPO and 8-IP and decreased NO and SOD. PMID:27872679

  5. Effect of stabilizer on the maximum degree and extent of supersaturation and oral absorption of tacrolimus made by ultra-rapid freezing.

    PubMed

    Overhoff, Kirk A; McConville, Jason T; Yang, Wei; Johnston, Keith P; Peters, Jay I; Williams, Robert O

    2008-01-01

    Solid dispersions containing various stabilizers and tacrolimus (TAC) prepared by an Ultra-rapid Freezing (URF) process were investigated to determine the effect on their ability to form supersaturated solutions in aqueous media and on enhancing transport across biological membranes. The stabilizers included poly(vinyl alcohol; PVA), poloxamer 407 (P407), and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). In vivo absorption enhancement in rats was also investigated. Dissolution studies were conducted at supersaturated conditions in both acidic media for 24 h and at delayed release (enteric) conditions to simulate intestinal transit. The rank order of C/Ceq(max) in the dissolution studies at acidic conditions was URF-P407 > URF-SDS > Prograf (PRO) > URF-PVA:P407. For C/Ceq(max) under enteric conditions, the order was URF-SDS > PRO > URF-PVA:P407 > URF-P407, and for the extent of supersaturation (AUC) in acidic and pH shift conditions it was URF-SDS>PRO>URF-PVA:P407>URF-P407. The pharmacokinetic data suggests URF-P407 had the greatest absorption having higher C (max) with a 1.5-fold increase in AUC compared to PRO. All URF compositions had a shorter T (max) compared to PRO. The nanostructured powders containing various stabilizing polymers formed by the URF process offer enhanced supersaturation characteristics leading to increased oral absorption of TAC.

  6. Infection Rates in Tacrolimus versus Cyclosporine Treated Pediatric Kidney Transplant Recipients on a Rapid Discontinuation of Prednisone Protocol: 1-year Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kizilbash, Sarah J; Rheault, Michelle N; Bangdiwala, Ananta; Matas, Arthur; Chinnakotla, Srinath; Chavers, Blanche M

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Acute rejection (AR) is lower in pediatric kidney transplant (pKTx) recipients on tacrolimus (Tac) versus cyclosporine (CsA). Data comparing infection outcomes for children treated with these agents are limited. Methods We retrospectively studied infection outcomes in 96 pKTx recipients on a rapid discontinuation of prednisone protocol (RDP). Patient survival (PS), death-censored graft survival (DCGS), AR and infection free survival were assessed using Kaplan-Meier/log-rank tests and proportional hazards models. Results There were no differences in 1-year PS, DCGS, or AR between Tac and CsA recipients. After adjusting for AR, the hazard of CMV viremia was 4.0 times higher (95%CI: 1.04, 15.5; p=0.044) and that of BK viremia was 3.8 times higher (95%CI: 1.5, 10.2; p=0.007) in Tac recipients. The incidence of EBV viremia was similar between the groups (p=0.56). Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease was only observed in Tac recipients (3%). There was no difference in the incidence of pneumonia, urinary tract or clostridium difficile infections between Tac and CsA recipients. Conclusion Among KTx recipients on RDP, the hazards of CMV and BK viremia within 1-year post-KTx were significantly higher in Tac recipients compared to CsA. Regular assessment for infections and lower Tac trough levels may be warranted in Tac recipients. PMID:28371243

  7. Mechanism of tacrolimus-induced chronic renal fibrosis following transplantation is regulated by ox-LDL and its receptor, LOX-1

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Shi; Jin, Tao; Zhang, Li; Bu, Hong; Zhang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Chronic renal allograft dysfunction (CRAD) is the most common cause of graft failure following renal transplantation. However, the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. Immunosuppressants and hyperlipidemia are associated with renal fibrosis following long-term use. The present study aimed to determine the effects of tacrolimus (FK506) and lipid metabolism disorder on CRAD. In vitro and in vivo models were used for this investigation. Cells of the mouse proximal renal tubular epithelial cell strain, NRK-52E, were cultured either with oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), FK506, ox-LDL combined with FK506, or vehicle, respectively. Changes in cell morphology and changes in the levels of lectin-like ox-LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1), reactive oxygen species (ROS), hydrogen peroxide and fibrosis-associated genes were evaluated at 24, 48 and 72 h. In separate experiment, total of 60 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into four groups, which included a high-fat group, FK506 group, high-fat combined with FK506 group, and control group. After 2, 4 and 8 weeks, the serum lipid levels, the levels of ox-LDL, ROS, and the expression levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and connective tissue growth factor were determined. The in vitro and in vivo models revealed that lipid metabolism disorder and FK506 caused oxidative stress and a fibrogenic response. In addition, decreased levels of LOX-1 markedly reduced the levels of TGF-β1 in the in vitro model. Taken together, FK506 and dyslipidemia were found to be associated with CRAD following transplantation. PMID:27633115

  8. Thymoglobulin induction in liver transplant recipients with a tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroid immunosuppressive regimen: a five-year randomized prospective study.

    PubMed

    Boillot, Olivier; Seket, Belhassen; Dumortier, Jérôme; Pittau, Gabriella; Boucaud, Catherine; Bouffard, Yves; Scoazec, Jean-Yves

    2009-11-01

    This randomized, comparative study assessed the long-term efficacy and tolerability of thymoglobulin (TMG) induction in 93 liver transplant patients with an initial regimen of tacrolimus (Tac), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), and steroids. Forty-four patients were randomly allocated to the TMG+ group, and 49 patients were randomly allocated to the TMG- group. In both groups, Tac was given orally at the initial daily dose of 0.075 mg/kg twice daily, and MMF was given at the initial daily dose of 2 g/day. Steroid withdrawal was planned at 3 months after liver transplantation. The results were evaluated with respect to acute rejection incidence, patient and graft survival, graft function, and medical complications until 5 years or death for all patients. No significant differences were found between groups for the incidence of acute rejection at 5 years (11.4% versus 14.3%), 5-year patient survival (77.3% versus 87.8%), graft function, or postoperative renal function. One patient in the TMG- group underwent retransplantation. There was no difference between groups with respect to the incidence of medical complications, excepted for a higher rate of leukopenia in the TMG+ group, during the 5-year follow-up. In conclusion, the results of this prospective randomized study suggest that the addition of TMG to a triple immunosuppressive regimen (Tac, MMF, and steroids) did not modify the incidence of acute rejection episodes or long-term survival and was responsible for increased leukopenia rates.

  9. Efficacy and safety of a conversion from the original tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil to the generics Tacpan® and Mowel® after liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Vollmar, Johanna; Bellmann, Maren Christina; Darstein, Felix; Hoppe-Lotichius, Maria; Mittler, Jens; Heise, Michael; Rüttger, Bernd; Weyer, Veronika; Zimmermann, Anca; Lang, Hauke; Galle, Peter R; Zimmermann, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Background Expensive pharmaceuticals are a major reason for cost intensive health care systems. Long-term immunosuppressive therapy plays a relevant role after organ transplantation. Patents of original drugs have expired and cheaper products are available. Little data are available regarding efficacy and safety of generic immunosuppressive agents. Methods In this prospective study, 25 patients, who were clinically stable for a minimum of 2 years after liver transplantation, were converted from the original formulations of tacrolimus (TAC) and mycophenolate mofetil to the generics Tacpan® (TAP) and Mowel® (MOW). Patients were followed-up for 6 months. Results were compared retrospectively to 25 age- and sex-matched controls treated with the original brands. Results In the matched-pair analysis of TAC trough level/dose ratio, no significant difference was found between TAP/MOW and TAC/mycophenolate mofetil groups. No acute rejection occurred in either group. In total, 17 patients reported mild side effects in the TAP/MOW group. The most common side effects were gastrointestinal symptoms. Intra-individual analysis of costs revealed a considerable cost reduction in the TAP/MOW group (in median 25.03%; P<0.001). Conclusion In summary, the use of the generics TAP/MOW is effective and seems to be safe and cost-efficient in stable liver-transplantation patients. PMID:26604701

  10. Proniosome-derived niosomes for tacrolimus topical ocular delivery: in vitro cornea permeation, ocular irritation, and in vivo anti-allograft rejection.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Li, Zhanrong; Zeng, Weidong; Ge, Shumin; Lu, Haoyang; Wu, Chuanbin; Ge, Li; Liang, Dan; Xu, Yuehong

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to develop proniosome-derived niosomes for topical ophthalmic delivery of Tacrolimus (FK506). The FK506 loaded proniosomes containing poloxamer 188 and lecithin as surfactants, cholesterol as a stabilizer, and minimal amount of ethanol and trace water reconstituted to niosomes prior to use. The stability of FK506 loaded proniosomes was assessed, and the morphology, size, zeta potential, surface tension, and entrapment efficiency of the derived niosomes were characterized, indicating they were feasible for instillation in the eyes. The in vitro permeation of FK506 through the freshly excised rabbit cornea, the cumulative permeation amount of FK506 from niosomes, and the drug retention in the cornea all exhibited significant increase as compared to 0.1% FK506 commercial ointments. The in vivo ocular irritation test of 0.1% FK506 loaded niosomes instilled 4 times per day in rat eyes for 21 consecutive days showed no irritation and good biocompatibility with cornea. The in vivo anti-allograft rejection assessment was performed in a Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat corneal xenotransplantation model. The results showed treatment with 0.1% FK506 loaded niosomes delayed the occurrence of corneal allograft rejection and significantly prolonged the median survival time of corneal allografts to13.86±0.80days as compared with those treated with 1% Cyclosporine (CsA) eye drops, drug-free niosomes, or untreated. In conclusion, the proniosome-derived niosomes may be a promising vehicle for effective ocular drug delivery of FK506. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Association Between Tacrolimus Pharmacokinetics and Cytochrome P450 3A5 and Multidrug Resistance Protein 1 Exon 21 Polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Soda, M; Fujitani, M; Michiuchi, R; Shibayama, A; Kanamori, K; Yoshikuni, S; Ohno, Y; Tsuchiya, T; Suzuki, A; Horie, K; Deguchi, T; Itoh, Y; Kitaichi, K

    Individual differences in the pharmacokinetics (PK) of tacrolimus (TAC), an immunosuppressive drug, are reportedly associated with single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A5 and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1). We determined the effect of SNPs in CYP3A5 and MDR1 exons 21 and 26 on TAC PK parameters. Thirty-eight Japanese patients who underwent renal transplantation were genotyped for CYP3A5 and exons 21 and 26 of MDR1 with the use of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. TAC concentrations were determined 3 weeks after renal transplantation and PK parameters calculated. The area under the blood concentration-time curve (AUC) in CYP3A5 expressers was significantly higher than that in CYP3A5 nonexpressers (CYP3A5*3/*3). Patients with the MDR1 exon 21 A allele (G2677A) showed higher dose-adjusted AUC (AUC/D) and lower doses of TAC than those who did not possess that allele. Furthermore, patients with both CYP3A5*3/*3 and MDR1 G2677A showed significantly lower TAC doses and higher dose-adjusted trough levels (C/D) and AUC/D than those without those genotypes. There was no significant association between MDR1 exon 26 polymorphism and the PK of TAC. Patients with both CYP3A5*3/*3 and MDR1 G2677A had higher blood TAC concentrations than those without those genotypes. Japanese patients should be carefully monitored for consideration of lower TAC doses, because 24% of Japanese patients have double mutations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Immune monitoring with a lymphocyte adenosine triphosphate assay in kidney transplant recipients treated with a calcineurin inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Kentaro; Tsukaguchi, Mahoto; Toyama, Akira; Satoh, Hiroshi; Saito, Kazuhide; Nakagawa, Yuki; Takahashi, Kota; Tanaka, Sachiko; Onda, Kenji; Hirano, Toshihiko

    2014-06-01

    The adenosine triphosphate assay using peripheral lymphocytes may be useful to evaluate the risks of acute rejection and infection in kidney transplant patients. We used the adenosine triphosphate assay to evaluate differences between recipients who were treated with cyclosporine- or tacrolimus-based immunosuppressive therapy. Adenosine triphosphate levels were measured in peripheral CD4+ cells before and after transplant and were correlated with clinical outcomes in 45 kidney transplant recipients. These recipients received immunosuppressive therapy with either cyclosporine (23 patients) or tacrolimus (22 patients). Adenosine triphosphate levels were significantly lower in the cyclosporine- than tacrolimus-based therapy groups from 2 to 6 weeks after transplant. Adenosine triphosphate levels were similar between these groups before and 1 week after transplant. The frequency of cytomegalovirus infection was greater in the recipients who received cyclosporine (17 patients [74%]) than tacrolimus (6 patients [27%]; P ≦ .003). The frequency of acute rejection episodes was similar between the cyclosporine and tacrolimus groups. These observations suggest that cyclosporine-based immunosuppressive therapy causes excessive immunosuppression compared with tacrolimus-based therapy, evidenced by the lymphocyte adenosine triphosphate levels. The adenosine triphosphate assay using peripheral CD4+ cells may be a useful method for predicting the occurrence of cytomegalovirus infections in kidney transplant recipients.

  13. Tacrolimus

    MedlinePlus

    ... rejection (attack of a transplanted organ by the immune system of a person receiving the organ) in people ... It works by decreasing the activity of the immune system to prevent it from attacking the transplanted organ.

  14. Midterm clinico-radiologic findings of an open label observation study of add-on tacrolimus with biologics or non-biologic DMARDs.

    PubMed

    Takakubo, Yuya; Tamaki, Yasunobu; Hirayama, Tomoyuki; Iwazaki, Kiyoshi; Yang, Suran; Sasaki, Akiko; Nakano, Haruki; Konttinen, Yrjö T; Takagi, Michiaki

    2012-11-01

    Tacrolimus (TAC) suppresses immune-inflammation by an intermediary inhibition of calcineurin activation in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Various combination therapies for RA have been reported to be superior to monotherapies. The aim was therefore to study add-on TAC in a combination with biologics (BIO) and/or non-BIO disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in treatment-resistant patients. In eight RA patients, TAC was added on to BIO (TAC/BIO group) and in forty-one to non-BIO DMARDs (TAC/non-BIO group). The mean C-reactive protein (CRP) decreased from 33 mg/l at the baseline to 16 mg/l at first year in the TAC/BIO group (P < 0.05), from 41 to 14 mg/l in the TAC/non-BIO group (P < 0.05); the mean DAS28-CRP (28 joint count) disease activity score decreased from 5.3 to 4.4 in the TAC/BIO group (P < 0.05) and from 5.0 to 3.9 in the TAC/non-BIO group (P < 0.05). The median of Δ modified total Sharp score decreased from 43 during the year preceding the baseline to 3 during the first year of the follow-up in the TAC/BIO group (P < 0.05) and from 22 to 0 during the second year in the TAC/non-BIO group (P < 0.05). Twenty-six adverse events occurred in this study in 26 patients (53% in all); however, the only severe adverse event was one case of an atypical mycobacterial disease (2%). The combination therapy of TAC with BIO or non-BIO DMARDs represents an effective and relatively safe mode of therapy in treatment-resistant RA.

  15. Clinical Validation of Simultaneous Analysis of Tacrolimus, Cyclosporine A, and Creatinine in Dried Blood Spots in Kidney Transplant Patients.

    PubMed

    Veenhof, Herman; Koster, Remco A; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C; Berger, Stefan P; Bakker, Stephan J L; Touw, Daan J

    2017-07-01

    Monitoring of creatinine and immunosuppressive drug concentrations, such as tacrolimus (TaC) and cyclosporin A (CsA), is important in the outpatient follow-up of kidney transplant recipients. Monitoring by dried blood spot (DBS) provides patients the opportunity to sample a drop of blood from a fingerprick at home, which can be sent to the laboratory by mail. We performed a clinical validation in which we compared measurements from whole-blood samples obtained by venapuncture with measurements from DBS samples simultaneously obtained by fingerprick. After exclusion of 10 DBS for poor quality, and 2 for other reasons, 199, 104, and 58 samples from a total of 172 patients were available for validation of creatinine, TaC and CsA, respectively. Validation was performed by means of Passing & Bablok regression, and bias was assessed by Bland-Altman analysis. For creatinine, we found y = 0.73x - 1.55 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] slope, 0.71-0.76), giving the conversion formula: (creatinine plasma concentration in μmol/L) = (creatinine concentration in DBS in μmol/L)/0.73, with a nonclinically relevant bias of -2.1 μmol/L (95% CI, -3.7 to -0.5 μmol/L). For TaC, we found y = 1.00x - 0.23 (95% CI slope, 0.91-1.08), with a nonclinically relevant bias of -0.28 μg/L (95% CI, -0.45 to -0.12 μg/L). For CsA, we found y = 0.99x - 1.86 (95% CI slope, 0.91-1.08) and no significant bias. Therefore, for neither TaC nor CsA, a conversion formula is required. DBS sampling for the simultaneous analysis of immunosuppressants and creatinine can replace conventional venous sampling in daily routine.

  16. Comparative Effectiveness of Tacrolimus-Based Steroid Sparing versus Steroid Maintenance Regimens in Kidney Transplantation: Results from Discrete Event Simulation.

    PubMed

    Desai, Vibha C A; Ferrand, Yann; Cavanaugh, Teresa M; Kelton, Christina M L; Caro, J Jaime; Goebel, Jens; Heaton, Pamela C

    2017-10-01

    Corticosteroids used as immunosuppressants to prevent acute rejection (AR) and graft loss (GL) following kidney transplantation are associated with serious cardiovascular and other adverse events. Evidence from short-term randomized controlled trials suggests that many patients on a tacrolimus-based immunosuppressant regimen can withdraw from steroids without increased AR or GL risk. To measure the long-term tradeoff between GL and adverse events for a heterogeneous-risk population and determine the optimal timing of steroid withdrawal. A discrete event simulation was developed including, as events, AR, GL, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, cytomegalovirus, and new onset diabetes mellitus (NODM), among others. Data from the United States Renal Data System were used to estimate event-specific parametric regressions, which accounted for steroid-sparing regimen (avoidance, early 7-d withdrawal, 6-mo withdrawal, 12-mo withdrawal, and maintenance) as well as patients' demographics, immunologic risks, and comorbidities. Regression-equation results were used to derive individual time-to-event Weibull distributions, used, in turn, to simulate the course of patients over 20 y. Patients on steroid avoidance or an early-withdrawal regimen were more likely to experience AR (45.9% to 55.0% v. 33.6%, P < 0.05) and GL (51.5% to 68.8% v. 37.8%, P < 0.05) compared to patients on steroid maintenance. Patients in 6-mo and 12-mo steroid withdrawal groups were less likely to experience MI (11.1% v. 13.3%, P < 0.05), NODM (30.7% to 34.4% v. 37.7%, P < 0.05), and cardiac death (29.9% to 30.5% v. 32.4%, P < 0.05), compared to steroid maintenance. Strategies of 6- and 12-mo steroid withdrawal post-kidney transplantation are expected to reduce the rates of adverse cardiovascular events and other outcomes with no worsening of AR or GL rates compared with steroid maintenance.

  17. Minimizing tacrolimus decreases the risk of new-onset diabetes mellitus after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Song, Jiu-Lin; Gao, Wei; Zhong, Yan; Yan, Lu-Nan; Yang, Jia-Yin; Wen, Tian-Fu; Li, Bo; Wang, Wen-Tao; Wu, Hong; Xu, Ming-Qing; Chen, Zhe-Yu; Wei, Yong-Gang; Jiang, Li; Yang, Jian

    2016-02-14

    To investigate the impact of minimum tacrolimus (TAC) on new-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM) after liver transplantation (LT). We retrospectively analyzed the data of 973 liver transplant recipients between March 1999 and September 2014 in West China Hospital Liver Transplantation Center. Following the exclusion of ineligible recipients, 528 recipients with a TAC-dominant regimen were included in our study. We calculated and determined the mean trough concentration of TAC (cTAC) in the year of diabetes diagnosis in NODM recipients or in the last year of the follow-up in non-NODM recipients. A cutoff of mean cTAC value for predicting NODM 6 mo after LT was identified using a receptor operating characteristic curve. TAC-related complications after LT was evaluated by χ(2) test, and the overall and allograft survival was evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Risk factors for NODM after LT were examined by univariate and multivariate Cox regression. Of the 528 transplant recipients, 131 (24.8%) developed NODM after 6 mo after LT, and the cumulative incidence of NODM progressively increased. The mean cTAC of NODM group recipients was significantly higher than that of recipients in the non-NODM group (7.66 ± 3.41 ng/mL vs 4.47 ± 2.22 ng/mL, P < 0.05). Furthermore, NODM group recipients had lower 1-, 5-, 10-year overall survival rates (86.7%, 71.3%, and 61.1% vs 94.7%, 86.1%, and 83.7%, P < 0.05) and allograft survival rates (92.8%, 84.6%, and 75.7% vs 96.1%, 91%, and 86.1%, P < 0.05) than the others. The best cutoff of mean cTAC for predicting NODM was 5.89 ng/mL after 6 mo after LT. Multivariate analysis showed that old age at the time of LT (> 50 years), hypertension pre-LT, and high mean cTAC (≥ 5.89 ng/mL) after 6 mo after LT were independent risk factors for developing NODM. Concurrently, recipients with a low cTAC (< 5.89 ng/mL) were less likely to become obese (21.3% vs 30.2%, P < 0.05) or to develop dyslipidemia (27.5% vs 44.8%, P <0.05), chronic kidney

  18. Minimizing tacrolimus decreases the risk of new-onset diabetes mellitus after liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jiu-Lin; Gao, Wei; Zhong, Yan; Yan, Lu-Nan; Yang, Jia-Yin; Wen, Tian-Fu; Li, Bo; Wang, Wen-Tao; Wu, Hong; Xu, Ming-Qing; Chen, Zhe-Yu; Wei, Yong-Gang; Jiang, Li; Yang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the impact of minimum tacrolimus (TAC) on new-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM) after liver transplantation (LT). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 973 liver transplant recipients between March 1999 and September 2014 in West China Hospital Liver Transplantation Center. Following the exclusion of ineligible recipients, 528 recipients with a TAC-dominant regimen were included in our study. We calculated and determined the mean trough concentration of TAC (cTAC) in the year of diabetes diagnosis in NODM recipients or in the last year of the follow-up in non-NODM recipients. A cutoff of mean cTAC value for predicting NODM 6 mo after LT was identified using a receptor operating characteristic curve. TAC-related complications after LT was evaluated by χ2 test, and the overall and allograft survival was evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Risk factors for NODM after LT were examined by univariate and multivariate Cox regression. RESULTS: Of the 528 transplant recipients, 131 (24.8%) developed NODM after 6 mo after LT, and the cumulative incidence of NODM progressively increased. The mean cTAC of NODM group recipients was significantly higher than that of recipients in the non-NODM group (7.66 ± 3.41 ng/mL vs 4.47 ± 2.22 ng/mL, P < 0.05). Furthermore, NODM group recipients had lower 1-, 5-, 10-year overall survival rates (86.7%, 71.3%, and 61.1% vs 94.7%, 86.1%, and 83.7%, P < 0.05) and allograft survival rates (92.8%, 84.6%, and 75.7% vs 96.1%, 91%, and 86.1%, P < 0.05) than the others. The best cutoff of mean cTAC for predicting NODM was 5.89 ng/mL after 6 mo after LT. Multivariate analysis showed that old age at the time of LT (> 50 years), hypertension pre-LT, and high mean cTAC (≥ 5.89 ng/mL) after 6 mo after LT were independent risk factors for developing NODM. Concurrently, recipients with a low cTAC (< 5.89 ng/mL) were less likely to become obese (21.3% vs 30.2%, P < 0.05) or to develop dyslipidemia (27.5% vs 44.8%, P <0

  19. Serum Magnesium and Related Factors in Long-Term Renal Transplant Recipients: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, N; Santana, A; Guerra, J; Neves, M; Nascimento, C; Gonçalves, J; da Costa, A G

    2017-05-01

    Low serum magnesium (MgS) is a known risk factor for cardiovascular and mineral bone disease. In renal transplant recipients (RTRs), low MgS levels have been related to higher glomerular filtration rates (GFR) and with calcineurin inhibitors, particularly tacrolimus. We aimed to evaluate MgS in renal transplant recipients with over 1 year of follow-up to establish related risk factors and the impact of the use of cyclosporine versus tacrolimus. Cross-sectional study of 94 RTRs with more than 12 months of follow-up. Hypomagnesemia was defined as serum magnesium level <1.5 mg/dL. Hypomagnesemia was found in 5.3% of patients. MgS showed a negative correlation with creatinine clearance. A positive correlation between MgS with urinary magnesium and phosphorus was found. Cyclosporine versus tacrolimus analysis did not show a significant difference regarding MgS when considering all the population and the subgroup of patients with GFR >45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . On the subgroup with GFR <45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 , those on tacrolimus had lower MgS than those on cyclosporine, but those same patients presented with significantly different GFR, higher in the tacrolimus subgroup. Hypomagnesemia has a low prevalence in RTRs with more than 1 year of follow-up. MgS levels evidenced a strong correlation with GFR. A significant difference on MgS levels between patients on tacrolimus and cyclosporine was found only when considering GFR <45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 , in which patients on tacrolimus had significantly higher GFR than patients on cyclosporine, which may explain these results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of Tacrolimus Compared With Cyclosporin on the Incidence of Acute Allograft Rejection in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Gathogo, Esther; Harber, Mark; Bhagani, Sanjay; Levy, Jeremy; Jones, Rachael; Hilton, Rachel; Davies, Graham; Post, Frank A

    2016-04-01

    Kidney transplantation (KT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients has transformed the management of end-stage kidney disease in this population. Although favourable outcomes have been reported, patients experience high rates of acute allograft rejection (AR). We examined factors associated with AR in the first year after KT, with particular emphasis on the choice of calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) immunosuppressive therapy. We conducted a national observational cohort study of HIV/KT in the United Kingdom. Patients were included if HIV positive at KT, transplanted in the United Kingdom between January 2005 and December 2013, and did not experience primary graft failure. Kaplan-Meier methods were used to estimate host/graft survival and cumulative incidence of biopsy proven AR. Logrank tests were used to compare survival, and Cox proportional hazard models to examine factors associated with AR. Our study analyzed the incidence of AR in the first year after KT in 78 HIV-positive patients of whom 31 initiated cyclosporin (CsA) and 47 tacrolimus (Tac) based immunosuppression. AR was observed in 28 patients (36%) after a median of 2.6 (interquartile range, 0.5-5.9) months. The cumulative incidence of AR at 1 year was 58% and 21% among patients on CsA and Tac, respectively (P =0.003). Choice of CNI was the only factor significantly associated with AR (hazard ratio for Tac vs CsA 0.25 [95% confidence interval, 0.11-0.57], P = 0.001). Subtherapeutic CNI concentrations were common in the first 12 weeks after KT. Our data suggest that Tac may be the preferred CNI for use in KT in people living with HIV.

  1. Everolimus Is Associated With Less Weight Gain Than Tacrolimus 2 Years After Liver Transplantation: Results of a Randomized Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Charlton, Michael; Rinella, Mary; Patel, Dharmesh; McCague, Kevin; Heimbach, Julie; Watt, Kymberly

    2017-01-01

    Background Weight gain early after transplant is a risk factor for posttransplant metabolic syndrome (PTMS), cardiovascular events, and renal insufficiency. The impact of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibition on posttransplant weight gain and the development of PTMS components postliver transplantation were examined in a randomized, controlled study. Methods After a run-in period, patients (N = 719) were randomized at 30 ± 5 days posttransplant in a 1:1:1 ratio to 3 treatment groups: (i) everolimus (EVR) + reduced tacrolimus (TAC) (n = 245); (ii) TAC control (n = 243) or (iii) TAC elimination (n = 231). In this post hoc analysis, weight change at 12 and 24 months was compared between groups. Vital signs, lipids, and laboratory parameters at 12 and 24 months and rates of PTMS were assessed. Results Mean increase in weight from baseline was higher at month 12 in the TAC control arm (8.15 ± 9.27 kg) than in the EVR + reduced TAC (5.88 ± 12.60 kg, P = 0.056) and the TAC elimination arms (4.76 ± 9.94 kg, P = 0.007). At month 24, the TAC control arm displayed a significantly greater weight increase (9.54 ± 10.21 kg) than either the EVR + reduced TAC (6.69 ± 8.37 kg, P = 0.011) or the TAC elimination groups (6.01 ± 9.98 kg, P = 0.024). Rates of PTMS were similar for the EVR + reduced TAC (71.8%), TAC elimination (70.3%) and TAC control (67.4%) arms (P = NS). Conclusions EVR with reduced-exposure TAC attenuated weight gain at 1 and 2 years posttransplant compared with a standard TAC immunosuppression regimen. Rates of PTMS were comparable between EVR-containing and TAC control regimens. PMID:28817434

  2. High on Cannabis and Calcineurin Inhibitors: A Word of Warning in an Era of Legalized Marijuana.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Naomi; Sahai, Tanmay; Richards, Rocco; Roberts, Todd

    2016-01-01

    Tacrolimus, a potent immunosuppressant medication, acts by inhibiting calcineurin, which eventually leads to inhibition of T-cell activation. The drug is commonly used to prevent graft rejection in solid organ transplant and graft-versus-host disease in hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. Tacrolimus has a narrow therapeutic index with variable oral bioavailability and metabolism via cytochrome P-450 3A enzyme. Toxicity can occur from overdosing or from drug-drug interactions with the simultaneous administration of cytochrome P-450 3A inhibitors and possibly P-glycoprotein inhibitors. Tacrolimus toxicity can be severe and may include multiorgan damage. We present a case of suspected tacrolimus toxicity in a postallogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant patient who was concurrently using oral marijuana. This case represents an important and growing clinical scenario with the increasing legalization and use of marijuana throughout the United States.

  3. Synergistic effects of Isatis tinctoria L. and tacrolimus in the prevention of acute heart rejection in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongzhi; Qin, Qing; Chen, Jibing; Kuang, Xiaocong; Xia, Junjie; Xie, Baiyi; Wang, Feng; Liang, Hua; Qi, Zhongquan

    2009-12-01

    Although immunosuppressive treatments are available for acute cardiac rejection no viable treatment exists for long-term cardiac graft failure. Moreover, the extended use of calcineurin inhibitor immunosuppressants, the mainstay of current treatment for cardiac transplantation, leads to significant side effects such as nephrotoxicity and an increased risk of cardiac disease. Because some agents used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) have strong immunosuppressive effects coupled with low toxicity, we investigated the effect of Compound K (K), the synthesized analogue of highly unsaturated fatty acids from Isatis tinctoria L., either as a single treatment or combined with tacrolimus (FK-506) on acute cardiac allograft rejection. We compared the ability of K alone, or in combination with FK-506, to inhibit acute heart transplant rejection both in vitro and in vivo. We found that the inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation was positively correlated with K concentration. K significantly reduced IL-2 and IFN-gamma expression levels and significantly inhibited lymphocyte proliferation in both a lymphocyte transformation test and a mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR). We also found that the inhibitory effect of a combination of K and a sub-therapeutic dose of FK-506 (SubFK-506) was stronger than that of full-dose FK-506 alone. Oral administration of K reduced acute cardiac allograft rejection in mice and had no apparent toxicity. In vivo, the immunosuppressive effect of K combined with a half-dose of FK-506 was equivalent to that of a full-dose of FK-506 alone. K combined with a half-dose of FK-506 reduced the expression levels of IL-2 and IFN-gamma (both within the graft and in the recipients' serum) more effectively than a full-dose of FK-506. These results show that K has significant immunosuppressive effects both in vitro and in vivo. When used as a combination therapy with FK-506 we see a powerful inhibition of rejection with no obvious toxic side effects. The

  4. Strangers headed to a strange land? A pilot study of using a transition coordinator to improve transfer from pediatric to adult services.

    PubMed

    Annunziato, Rachel A; Baisley, Margaret C; Arrato, Nicole; Barton, Codette; Henderling, Fiona; Arnon, Ronen; Kerkar, Nanda

    2013-12-01

    To compare the impact of a transition coordinator on outcomes for pediatric liver transplant recipients vs a historical comparison group. To examine the utility of a transition coordinator, medication adherence, as measured by SDs of tacrolimus blood levels (Tacrolimus SD), was compared between the "transition coordinator group" (20 transplant recipients transferred between 2007 and 2012) and comparison group for 1 year before and after transfer. Measures of health care management, quality of life, and acceptability were administered to the transition coordinator group as well. A repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare adherence values between the transition coordinator group and the comparison group. During the year before transfer, for the transition coordinator group, Tacrolimus SD was 1.98 (SD = 1.05) vs 3.25 (SD = 1.19) for comparison patients, F(1,25) = 4.77, P = .04. After transfer, levels remained stable for the transition coordinator group, Tacrolimus SD = 1.88 (SD = 1.57), but increased for comparison patients, Tacrolimus SD = 4.36 (SD = 0.99), F(1,25) = 6.99, P = .01. Psychosocial outcomes remained stable during the transfer period and acceptability was high. Our findings, although limited by a small sample size, suggest that a transition coordinator is a promising method to improve this process. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Safety and effectiveness of tacrolimus add-on therapy for rheumatoid arthritis patients without an adequate response to biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs): Post-marketing surveillance in Japan.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Ishida, Kota; Shiraki, Katsuhisa; Yoshiyasu, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    Post-marketing surveillance (PMS) was conducted to assess the safety and effectiveness of tacrolimus (TAC) add-on therapy for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and an inadequate response to biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Patients with RA from 180 medical sites across Japan were registered centrally with an electronic investigation system. The observational period was 24 weeks from the first day of TAC administration concomitantly with biological DMARDs. Safety and effectiveness populations included 624 and 566 patients, respectively. Patients were predominantly female (81.1%), with a mean age of 61.9 years. Overall, 125 adverse drug reactions (ADRs) occurred in 94 patients (15.1%), and 15 serious ADRs occurred in 11 patients (1.8%). These incidences were lower compared with previously reported incidences after TAC treatment in PMS, and all of the observed ADRs were already known. A statistically significant improvement was observed in the primary effectiveness variable of Simplified Disease Activity Index after TAC treatment; 62.7% of patients achieved remission or low disease activity at week 24. TAC is well tolerated and effective when used as an add-on to biological DMARDs in Japanese patients with RA who do not achieve an adequate response to biological DMARDs in a real-world clinical setting.

  6. Concomitant methotrexate and tacrolimus augment the clinical response to abatacept in patients with rheumatoid arthritis with a prior history of biological DMARD use.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Nobunori; Fujibayashi, Takayoshi; Kida, Daihei; Hirano, Yuji; Kato, Takefumi; Kato, Daizo; Saito, Kiwamu; Kaneko, Atsushi; Yabe, Yuichiro; Takagi, Hideki; Oguchi, Takeshi; Miyake, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Hayashi, Masatoshi; Kanayama, Yasuhide; Funahashi, Koji; Hanabayashi, Masahiro; Hirabara, Shinya; Asai, Shuji; Takemoto, Toki; Terabe, Kenya; Asai, Nobuyuki; Yoshioka, Yutaka; Ishiguro, Naoki; Kojima, Toshihisa

    2015-10-01

    This observational retrospective study examined whether abatacept efficacy could be augmented with concomitant methotrexate (MTX) or tacrolimus (TAC) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who experienced failure with prior biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and in whom favorable therapeutic efficacy is difficult to achieve. All patients with a prior biological DMARD history who were treated with abatacept for 52 weeks and registered in a Japanese multicentre registry were included. Clinical efficacy and safety of abatacept according to the concomitant drug used, i.e., none (ABT-mono), MTX (ABT-MTX), and TAC (ABT-TAC), were compared. A greater mean percent change of DAS28-ESR was observed in the ABT-TAC group compared with the ABT-mono group at weeks 12 (-20.5 vs. -5.4 %, p = 0.035) and 24 (-25.0 vs. -11.0 %, p = 0.036). ABT-MTX and ABT-TAC groups had a significantly higher proportion of patients who achieved low disease activity (LDA) within 52 weeks compared with the respective baselines, while no significant change was observed in the ABT-mono group. A higher proportion of patients in the ABT-TAC group achieved EULAR moderate response compared with the ABT-mono group at week 52 (66.7 vs. 35.0 %, p = 0.025). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that concomitant TAC use was independently associated with the achievement of LDA and EULAR response at 52 weeks, while concomitant MTX use was not. Concomitant TAC use may offer a suitable option for RA patients treated with abatacept after prior biological DMARD failure, likely because both abatacept and TAC affect T cell activation.

  7. Synergic effects of tactolimus and azole antifungal agents against azole-resistant Candida albican strains.

    PubMed

    Maesaki, S; Marichal, P; Hossain, M A; Sanglard, D; Vanden Bossche, H; Kohno, S

    1998-12-01

    We investigated the effects of combining tacrolimus and azole antifungal agents in azole-resistant strains of Candida albicans by comparing the accumulation of [3H]itraconazole. The CDR1-expressing resistant strain C26 accumulated less itraconazole than the CaMDR-expressing resistant strain C40 or the azole-sensitive strain B2630. A CDR1-expressing Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant, DSY415, showed a marked reduction in the accumulation of both fluconazole and itraconazole. A CaMDR-expressing S. cerevisiae mutant, DSY416, also showed lower accumulation of fluconazole, but not of itraconazole. The addition of sodium azide, an electron-transport chain inhibitor, increased the intracellular accumulation of itraconazole only in the C26 strain, and not in the C40 or B2630 strains. Addition of tacrolimus, an inhibitor of multidrug resistance proteins, resulted in the highest increase in itraconazole accumulation in the C26 strain. The combination of itraconazole and tacrolimus was synergic in azole-resistant C. albicans strains. In the C26 strain, the MIC of itraconazole decreased from >8 to 0.5 mg/L when combined with tacrolimus. Our results showed that two multidrug resistance phenotypes (encoded by the CDR1 and CaMDR genes) in C. albicans have different substrate specificity for azole antifungal agents and that a combination of tacrolimus and azole antifungal agents is effective against azole-resistant strains of C. albicans.

  8. Comparison of sirolimus plus tacrolimus versus sirolimus plus cyclosporine in high-risk renal allograft recipients: results from an open-label, randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Gaber, A Osama; Kahan, Barry D; Van Buren, Charles; Schulman, Seth L; Scarola, Joseph; Neylan, John F

    2008-11-15

    The efficacy and safety of sirolimus (SRL) plus tacrolimus (TAC) versus SRL plus cyclosporine (CsA) were compared in high-risk renal allograft recipients. Evaluable patients (448) were randomly assigned (1:1) before transplant to receive SRL+TAC or SRL+CsA with corticosteroids. Eligible patients were black and/or repeat transplant recipients, and/or those with high titer of panel-reactive antibodies. Demographics were similar between groups. Both treatments demonstrated equivalent efficacy of the composite endpoint at 12 months with efficacy failure rates of 21.9% vs. 23.2% (SRL+TAC vs. SRL+CsA, respectively, 95% CI -10.0 to 7.1, P=0.737). Biopsy-confirmed acute rejection rate (13.8% vs. 17.4%) and graft survival rate (89.7% vs. 90.2%) were similar (SRL+TAC vs. SRL+CsA, respectively). In evaluable patients (received at least 1 dose of study drug), renal function (calculated Nankivell glomerular filtration rate) was not superior in SRL+TAC versus SRL+CsA (54.5 vs. 52.6 mL/min, P=0.466); however, in on-therapy patients, glomerular filtration rate was significantly higher in SRL+TAC at most time points. At 12 months, there were no significant differences in rates of death, discontinuation because of adverse events, hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipemia, or proteinuria. Diarrhea and herpes simplex infections occurred significantly more often in SRL+TAC patients. Hypertension, cardiomegaly, increased creatinine, overdose (primarily calcineurin inhibitor toxicity), acne, urinary tract disorders, lymphocele, and ovarian cysts occurred significantly more often in SRL+CsA patients. This study demonstrated that SRL-based therapy was efficacious in high-risk renal allograft recipients in the first year after transplant, providing equivalent efficacy with CsA or TAC, similar graft survival, low biopsy-confirmed acute rejection rates, excellent renal function, and an acceptable safety profile.

  9. Tacrolimus Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the transplanted organ by the transplant recipient's immune system) in people who have received kidney, liver, or ... It works by decreasing the activity of the immune system to prevent it from attacking the transplanted organ.

  10. Efficacy of steroidal vs non-steroidal agents in oral lichen planus: a randomised, open-label study.

    PubMed

    Singh, A R; Rai, A; Aftab, M; Jain, S; Singh, M

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the therapeutic efficacy of steroidal and non-steroidal agents for treating oral lichen planus. Forty patients with clinical and/or histologically proven oral lichen planus were randomly placed into four groups and treated with topical triamcinolone, oral dapsone, topical tacrolimus or topical retinoid for three months. Pre- and post-treatment symptoms and signs were scored for each patient. Patients in all treatment groups showed significant clinical improvement after three months (p 0.05) and for topical retinoid vs topical tacrolimus (p > 0.05). Non-steroidal drugs such as dapsone, tacrolimus and retinoid are as efficacious as steroidal drugs for treating oral lichen planus, and avoid the side effects associated with steroids.

  11. Optical coherence tomography demonstrates differential epidermal thinning of human forearm volar skin after 2 weeks application of a topical corticosteroid vs a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory alternative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zenghai; Boadi, Joseph; Danby, Simon; Cork, Michael; Matcher, Stephen J.

    2013-03-01

    The effects on skin of two commercially available topical creams for the treatment of eczema are quantitatively studied using optical coherence tomography. An archetypal corticosteroid (Betamethasone valerate) is compared with a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (Tacrolimus monohydrate) via left/right comparisons of the epidermal thickness of volar forearm skin on selected volunteers, at baseline and after 14 days of treatment. In 3 of 4 subjects we confirmed previous observations that corticosteroids produce pronounced physical thinning of the epidermis over timescales of a few weeks. In 3 of 4 subjects we further found that Tacrolimus produced no change in epidermal thickness. In one of 4 subjects we found evidence that the epidermis was actually thickened following treatment using Tacrolimus.

  12. CRISPR/Cas9 Genetic Modification of CYP3A5 *3 in HuH-7 Human Hepatocyte Cell Line Leads to Cell Lines with Increased Midazolam and Tacrolimus Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Dorr, Casey R; Remmel, Rory P; Muthusamy, Amutha; Fisher, James; Moriarity, Branden S; Yasuda, Kazuto; Wu, Baolin; Guan, Weihua; Schuetz, Erin G; Oetting, William S; Jacobson, Pamala A; Israni, Ajay K

    2017-08-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 engineering of the CYP3A5 *3 locus (rs776746) in human liver cell line HuH-7 ( CYP3A5 *3/*3 ) has led to three CYP3A5 *1 cell lines by deletion of the exon 3B splice junction or point mutation. Cell lines CYP3A5 *1/*3 sd (single deletion), CYP3A5 *1/*1 dd (double deletion), or CYP3A5 *1/*3 pm (point mutation) expressed the CYP3A5 *1 mRNA and had elevated CYP3A5 mRNA ( P < 0.0005 for all engineered cell lines) and protein expression compared with HuH-7. In metabolism assays, HuH-7 had less tacrolimus (all P < 0.05) or midazolam (MDZ) (all P < 0.005) disappearance than all engineered cell lines. HuH-7 had less 1-OH MDZ (all P < 0.0005) or 4-OH (all P < 0.005) production in metabolism assays than all bioengineered cell lines. We confirmed CYP3A5 metabolic activity with the CYP3A4 selective inhibitor CYP3CIDE. This is the first report of genomic CYP3A5 bioengineering in human cell lines with drug metabolism analysis. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  13. Assessment of global ischemic/reperfusion and Tacrolimus administration on CA1 region of hippocampus: gene expression profiles of BAX and BCL2 genes.

    PubMed

    Badr, R; Hashemi, M; Javadi, G; Movafagh, A; Mahdian, R

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that hippocampus has a pivotal role in learning, formation and consolidation of memory. Global cerebral ischemia causes severe damage to pyramidal neurons of the CA1 region and usually results in residual neurological deficits following a recovery from ischemia. Scientists investigate to find the molecular mechanism of apoptosis and to use this cell death for clinical treatment. In this investigation, we evaluated the molecular mechanism of FK-506 in apoptosis using gene expression quantification of BAX and BCL-2 genes in hippocampus following global ischemic/reperfusion. In the present experimental study, adult male Wistar rats were obtained and housed under standard conditions. Each experimental group consisted of five rats and was equally distributed in the normal control, ischemia/reperfusion, ischemia/reperfusion followed by FK-506. Global ischemia was induced for animals in ischemia and drug groups. In the drug group, moreover, two doses of FK-506 were injected as IV injection and intra-peritoneal (IP) injection after 48 h. Then, hippocampus tissue was removed. Consequently, RNA isolated, cDNA was synthesized and Real-Time PCR was performed. Finally, the obtained data was analyzed statistically (p<0.05). The quantitative results showed the BAX expression ratio increased approximately 3-times in ischemia/reperfusion (3.11 ± 0.28) group compared to the untreated (NR) and the drug group (p<0.001). The statistical analysis showed a significant difference for BCL-2 expression between the experimental groups (p<0.001). The mRNA level of BCL-2 decreased in the ischemia/reperfusion group, while it was without alteration in the other groups. The results showed that global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion induced BAX as pro-apoptotic gene and tacrolimus a neuroprotective drug inhibited BAX gene expression and induced BCL-2 gene expression as anti-apoptotic gene (Tab. 2, Fig. 3, Ref. 21).

  14. Therapeutic effects of combination using glucosamine plus tacrolimus (FK-506) on the development of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, C-H; Cheong, K A; Park, C D; Lee, A-Y

    2012-05-01

    Tacrolimus (FK-506) has been found to exhibit potent inhibitory effects on spontaneously developed dermatitis. We previously showed that glucosamine prevents the development of Atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. The aims of our study were to investigate the synergistic therapeutic efficacy of combination of glucosamine plus FK-506 in dermatophagoides farina (Df)-induced AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice and to determine the underlying therapeutic mechanisms. The Df-induced NC/Nga mice with a clinical score of 8 were used for treatment with glucosamine (500 mg/kg) alone, FK-506 (1.0 mg/kg) or in combination. The synergistic effects of combination therapy were evaluated by dermatitis scores, skin histology and immunological parameters such as IgE, Th2-mediated cytokines and chemokines, CD3(+) T cells and CLA(+) T cells. Combined therapy using glucosamine plus FK-506 improved the development of AD-like skin lesions as exemplified by a significant decrease in total skin symptom severity scores. The suppression of dermatitis by combined therapy was accompanied by a decrease in the plasma level of IgE and in the splenic level of IL-5, IL-13, TARC and eotaxin. Histological finding indicated that the dermal infiltration of inflammatory cells including mast cells and eosinophils was greatly reduced. Particularly, immunohistological evaluation reveals a reduction in CD3(+) T cells and CLA(+) cells in the combined therapy. Our findings suggest that combination therapy of glucosamine plus FK-506 was more synergistic efficacy than single-modality treatment with either alone to improve the development of established dermatitis in NC/Nga mice model. This combined immunosuppressive therapy may provide an effective therapeutic strategy for the treatment of AD. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Impact of maintenance immunosuppressive therapy on the fecal microbiome of renal transplant recipients: Comparison between an everolimus- and a standard tacrolimus-based regimen

    PubMed Central

    Dalla Gassa, Alessandra; Felis, Giovanna; Granata, Simona; Torriani, Sandra; Lupo, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Background The gut microbiome is the full set of microbes living in the gastrointestinal tract and is emerging as an important dynamic/fluid system that, if altered by environmental, dietetic or pharmacological factors, could considerably influence drug response. However, the immunosuppressive drug-induced modifications of this system are still poorly defined. Methods We employed an innovative bioinformatics approach to assess differences in the whole-gut microbial metagenomic profile of 20 renal transplant recipients undergoing maintenance treatment with two different immunosuppressive protocols. Nine patients were treated with everolimus plus mycophenolate mofetil (EVE+MMF group), and 11 patients were treated with a standard therapy with tacrolimus plus mycophenolate mofetil (TAC+MMF group). Results A statistical analysis of comparative high-throughput data demonstrated that although similar according to the degree of Shannon diversity (alpha diversity) at the taxonomic level, three functional genes clearly discriminated EVE+MMF versus TAC+MMF (cutoff: log2 fold change≥1, FDR≤0.05). Flagellar motor switch protein (fliNY) and type IV pilus assembly protein pilM (pilM) were significantly enriched in TAC+MMF-treated patients, while macrolide transport system mrsA (msrA) was more abundant in patients treated with EVE+MMF. Finally, PERMANOVA revealed that among the variables analyzed and included in our model, only the consumption of sugar significantly influenced beta diversity. Conclusions Our study, although performed on a relatively small number of patients, showed, for the first time, specific immunosuppressive-related effects on fecal microbiome of renal transplant recipients and it suggested that the analysis of the gut microbes community could represent a new tool to better understand the effects of drugs currently employed in organ transplantations. However, multicenter studies including healthy controls should be undertaken to better address this

  16. Impact of maintenance immunosuppressive therapy on the fecal microbiome of renal transplant recipients: Comparison between an everolimus- and a standard tacrolimus-based regimen.

    PubMed

    Zaza, Gianluigi; Dalla Gassa, Alessandra; Felis, Giovanna; Granata, Simona; Torriani, Sandra; Lupo, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The gut microbiome is the full set of microbes living in the gastrointestinal tract and is emerging as an important dynamic/fluid system that, if altered by environmental, dietetic or pharmacological factors, could considerably influence drug response. However, the immunosuppressive drug-induced modifications of this system are still poorly defined. We employed an innovative bioinformatics approach to assess differences in the whole-gut microbial metagenomic profile of 20 renal transplant recipients undergoing maintenance treatment with two different immunosuppressive protocols. Nine patients were treated with everolimus plus mycophenolate mofetil (EVE+MMF group), and 11 patients were treated with a standard therapy with tacrolimus plus mycophenolate mofetil (TAC+MMF group). A statistical analysis of comparative high-throughput data demonstrated that although similar according to the degree of Shannon diversity (alpha diversity) at the taxonomic level, three functional genes clearly discriminated EVE+MMF versus TAC+MMF (cutoff: log2 fold change≥1, FDR≤0.05). Flagellar motor switch protein (fliNY) and type IV pilus assembly protein pilM (pilM) were significantly enriched in TAC+MMF-treated patients, while macrolide transport system mrsA (msrA) was more abundant in patients treated with EVE+MMF. Finally, PERMANOVA revealed that among the variables analyzed and included in our model, only the consumption of sugar significantly influenced beta diversity. Our study, although performed on a relatively small number of patients, showed, for the first time, specific immunosuppressive-related effects on fecal microbiome of renal transplant recipients and it suggested that the analysis of the gut microbes community could represent a new tool to better understand the effects of drugs currently employed in organ transplantations. However, multicenter studies including healthy controls should be undertaken to better address this objective.

  17. Validation of an LC-MS/MS method to measure tacrolimus in rat kidney and liver tissue and its application to human kidney biopsies.

    PubMed

    Noll, Benjamin D; Coller, Janet K; Somogyi, Andrew A; Morris, Raymond G; Russ, Graeme R; Hesselink, Dennis A; Van Gelder, Teun; Sallustio, Benedetta C

    2013-10-01

    Tacrolimus (TAC) has a narrow therapeutic index and high interindividual and intraindividual pharmacokinetic variability, necessitating therapeutic drug monitoring to individualize dosage. Recent evidence suggests that intragraft TAC concentrations may better predict transplant outcomes. This study aimed to develop a method for the quantification of TAC in small biopsy-sized samples of rat kidney and liver tissue, which could be applied to clinical biopsy samples from kidney transplant recipients. Kidneys and livers were harvested from Mrp2-deficient TR- Wistar rats administered TAC (4 mg·kg·d for 14 days, n = 8) or vehicle (n = 10). Tissue samples (0.20-1.00 mg of dry weight) were solubilized enzymatically and underwent liquid-liquid extraction before analysis by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. TAC-free tissue was used in the calibrator and quality control samples. Analyte detection was accomplished using positive electrospray ionization (TAC: m/z 821.5 → 768.6; internal standard ascomycin m/z 809.3 → 756.4). Calibration curves (0.04-2.6 μg/L) were linear (R > 0.99, n = 10), with interday and intraday calibrator coefficients of variation and bias <17% at the lower limit of quantification and <15% at all other concentrations (n = 6-10). Extraction efficiencies for TAC and ascomycin were approximately 70%, and matrix effects were minimal. Rat kidney TAC concentrations were higher (range 109-190 pg/mg tissue) than those in the liver (range 22-53 pg/mg of tissue), with median tissue/blood concentrations ratios of 72.0 and 17.6, respectively. In 2 transplant patients, kidney TAC concentrations ranged from 119 to 285 pg/mg of tissue and were approximately 20 times higher than whole blood trough TAC concentrations. The method displayed precision and accuracy suitable for application to TAC measurement in human kidney biopsy tissue.

  18. Cyclosporin A and tacrolimus (FK506) suppress expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in vitro by different mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Dusting, Gregory J; Akita, Kazuhiro; Hickey, Haruyo; Smith, Melanie; Gurevich, Vladimir

    1999-01-01

    The effects of the immunosuppressant drugs cyclosporin A and tacrolimus (FK506) on nitric oxide synthesis were examined in a murine macrophage cell line (J774) and rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) in culture for 24 and 48 h, respectively.Cyclosporin A (0.01–10 μM) inhibited by up to 90% accumulation of nitrite induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in both cell lines, but FK506 (0.01–10 μM) had a weaker effect on nitrite accumulation in these cells. Cyclosporin A and FK506 (at 1 μM) also significantly inhibited nitrite production induced by recombinant murine interferon-γ (rIFNγ) and recombinant murine interleukin-1β (rIL-1β) in J774 and VSMC, respectively.In J774 cells, cyclosporin A (but not FK506) at 1 μM was inhibitory when co-incubated with the inducing agents but not when the cells were treated with the immunosuppressant before or after the inducer. In VSMC, nitrite production was inhibited by co-incubation of cyclosporin A or FK506 with the inducer, or when the immunosuppressants were pre-incubated with cells. In contrast, N-monomethyl L-arginine (NMMA) abolished nitrite production when incubated with either cell type during or after addition of inducing agent, but not if cells were preincubated with NMMA.RNA extracted from treated J774 and VSMC was subjected to reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR). Cyclosporin A, but not FK506, suppressed expression of mRNA for NOS2 in a concentration-dependent manner when co-incubated with LPS.The fact that the potency difference between cyclosporin A and FK506 for NO suppression is the opposite to that for inhibition of interleukin-2 generation suggests that the immunosuppressants act in J774 macrophages and VSMC through intracellular mechanisms that differ from those elucidated in T-cells. Cyclosporin A suppresses NOS2 gene transcription, but FK506 acts post-transcriptionally to suppress NO generation in VSMC.Taken together the present data suggest that therapeutic

  19. A comparison of the effects of C2-cyclosporine and C0-tacrolimus on renal function and cardiovascular risk factors in kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Kim, S Joseph; Prasad, G V Ramesh; Huang, Michael; Nash, Michelle M; Famure, Olusegun; Park, Joseph; Thenganatt, Mary Ann; Chowdhury, Nizamuddin; Cole, Edward H; Fenton, Stanley S A; Cattran, Daniel C; Zaltzman, Jeffrey S; Cardella, Carl J

    2006-10-15

    There are few data directly comparing the effects of two-hour postingestion monitored cyclosporine (C2-CsA) vs. trough-monitored tacrolimus (C0-Tac) on renal function and cardiovascular risk factors. We studied 378 (202 C2-CsA vs. 176 C0-Tac) incident kidney transplant recipients in Toronto, Canada, from August 1, 2000 and December 31, 2003. Outcomes included changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR at 1 and 6 months by modification of diet in renal disease four-variable equation), mean arterial pressure (MAP), total cholesterol (TC), and new-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM) at six months posttransplant. The independent effect of treatment/monitoring strategies on continuous outcomes and time-to-NODM was modeled using linear and Cox regression, respectively. Mean eGFR was 59.5 vs. 62.9 ml/min at one month and 50.6 vs. 61.2 ml/min at six months for C2-CsA vs. C0-Tac, respectively. Multiple linear regression revealed the slope of eGFR to be 0.93 ml/min/month lower in C2-CsA patients. This was equivalent to an adjusted average eGFR difference of 4.64 ml/min between months one and six posttransplant. There was no significant difference in average MAP and TC. In a stepwise multivariable Cox model and a propensity score analysis, there was no significant association between the type of treatment/monitoring strategy and time-to-NODM. There was a greater decline in eGFR for patients on C2-CsA (vs. C0-Tac) between one and six months posttransplant. However, MAP, TC, and the risk of NODM were comparable in both treatment/monitoring groups. The long-term impact of short-term reductions in eGFR as a function of the type of treatment/monitoring strategy requires further study.

  20. Regulatory T-Cell Augmentation or Interleukin-17 Inhibition Prevents Calcineurin Inhibitor-Induced Hypertension in Mice.

    PubMed

    Chiasson, Valorie L; Pakanati, Abhinandan R; Hernandez, Marcos; Young, Kristina J; Bounds, Kelsey R; Mitchell, Brett M

    2017-07-01

    The immunosuppressive calcineurin inhibitors cyclosporine A and tacrolimus alter T-cell subsets and can cause hypertension, vascular dysfunction, and renal toxicity. We and others have reported that cyclosporine A and tacrolimus decrease anti-inflammatory regulatory T cells and increase proinflammatory interleukin-17-producing T cells; therefore, we hypothesized that inhibition of these effects using noncellular therapies would prevent the hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, and renal glomerular injury induced by calcineurin inhibitor therapy. Daily treatment of mice with cyclosporine A or tacrolimus for 1 week significantly decreased CD4 + /FoxP3 + regulatory T cells in the spleen and lymph nodes, as well as induced hypertension, vascular injury and dysfunction, and glomerular mesangial expansion in mice. Daily cotreatment with all-trans retinoic acid reported to increase regulatory T cells and decrease interleukin-17-producing T cells, prevented all of the detrimental effects of cyclosporine A and tacrolimus. All-trans retinoic acid also increased regulatory T cells and prevented the hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, and glomerular injury in genetically modified mice that phenocopy calcineurin inhibitor-treated mice (FKBP12-Tie2 knockout). Treatment with an interleukin-17-neutralizing antibody also increased regulatory T-cell levels and prevented the hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, and glomerular injury in cyclosporine A-treated and tacrolimus-treated mice and FKBP12-Tie2 knockout mice, whereas an isotype control had no effect. Augmenting regulatory T cells and inhibiting interleukin-17 signaling using noncellular therapies prevents the cardiovascular and renal toxicity of calcineurin inhibitors in mice. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) in heart recipients.

    PubMed

    Garlicki, Mirosław

    2005-01-01

    In conclusion, comparative clinical studies with tacrolimus in heart recipients tend to show a similar or increased diabetogenic potential compared with cyclosporine-ME-based therapy. However, these changes are often accompanied by a reduced effect on lipid metabolism and hypertension suggesting a superior cardiovascular risk profile. The superior control of acute rejection also positions tacrolimus as an attractive alternative to cyclosporine for heart recipients.

  2. Application of silver ion in the separation of macrolide antibiotic components by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yaoming; Wang, Jiaoyan; Chen, Xiuming; Le, Zhanxian; Chen, Yuxiang; Zheng, Wei

    2009-05-29

    Three macrolide antibiotic components - ascomycin, tacrolimus and dihydrotacrolimus - were separated and purified by silver ion high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). The solvent system consisted of n-hexane-tert-butyl methyl ether-methanol-water (1:3:6:5, v/v) and silver nitrate (0.10mol/l). The silver ion acted as a pi-complexing agent with tacrolimus because of its extra side double bond compared with ascomycin and dihydrotacrolimus. This complexation modified the partition coefficient values and the separation factors of the three components. As a result, ascomycin, tacrolimus and dihydrotacrolimus were purified from 150mg extracted crude sample with purities of 97.6%, 98.7% and 96.5%, respectively, and yields over 80% (including their tautomers). These results cannot be achieved with the same solvent system but without the addition of silver ion.

  3. Interleukin-2-dependent mechanisms are involved in the development of glomerulosclerosis after partial renal ablation in rats.

    PubMed

    Hamar, P; Peti-Peterdi, J; Szabó, A; Becker, G; Flach, R; Rosivall, L; Heemann, U

    2001-01-01

    Glomerulosclerosis is a common feature of many end-stage renal diseases. The contribution of cellular immune mechanisms has been implicated in the development of glomerulosclerosis. We investigated whether the inhibition of lymphocyte activation influences this process in an established rat model of renal hyperfiltration. After removal of two-thirds of their respective kidney mass, rats were treated with either tacrolimus (0.08 mg/kg/day) or vehicle until the end of the study (n = 10/group). The rats were pair-fed and proteinuria was assessed regularly. Twenty weeks after nephrectomy, creatinine clearance and systemic blood pressure were determined, and kidneys were harvested for morphological, immunohistological and PCR analysis. In control animals, renal function started to decline from week 12, as indicated by an elevated proteinuria. Interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-2 receptor synthesis was upregulated in control animals and inhibited by tacrolimus treatment. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta(1)), platelet-derived growth factor-AA (PDGF-AA) and macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) mRNA levels were upregulated in control animals, but were significantly lower in immunosuppressed hosts. Additionally, tacrolimus treatment resulted in a significant reduction of proteinuria. Morphological analysis supported these functional results; glomerular sclerosis, tubular atrophy and intimal proliferation were more pronounced in controls than in the tacrolimus group. These morphological parameters were accompanied by reduced infiltration of CD5+ (rat T-cell marker) T cells, ED1+ (rat macrophage marker) macrophages, and less intense staining for laminin and fibronectin. A continuous treatment with tacrolimus - an inhibitor of lymphocyte proliferation - reduced the pace of glomerulosclerosis in the remnant kidney. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  4. Histological findings in protocol biopsies following pediatric liver transplant: Low incidence of abnormalities at 5 years.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Amin; Chau, Kai Y; Evans, Helen M

    2018-05-11

    Histological abnormalities, including chronic hepatitis, fibrosis, and steatosis, are increasingly reported in liver biopsies of children after LT. These changes may be progressive and represent a form of rejection. Liver biochemistry is often initially normal. Our LT program began in 2002, utilizing tacrolimus and low-dose steroids for the first year post-LT. Patients undergo a protocol biopsy at 1 year post-LT prior to stopping steroids, then at 5 years and every 5 years thereafter. Target tacrolimus levels are 5-8 μg/L and 3-5 μg/L after 3 and 12 months, respectively. Between 2002 and 2009, 51 LT were performed; 50 (98%) and 49 (96%) patients survived for 1 and 5 years, respectively. A total of 43 patients (median age at LT 2.3 years) underwent a protocol biopsy at 1 year (16 male; median time post-LT 12.5 months), and 44 (20 male; median time post-LT 5.1 years) at 5 years. By 5 years, 3 had transferred to adult services; 1 was re-transplanted for graft failure and 1 moved overseas. Biopsies were reviewed by 2 pathologists. Most patients (31/44) were on tacrolimus monotherapy at 5 years. At 1 and 5 years, 29 of 43 (67.5%) and 31 of 44 (71%) biopsies were normal, respectively. Two of 44 had chronic allograft hepatitis at 5 years. Two of 43 and 1 of 44 had isolated fibrosis, 3 of 43 and 3 of 44 steatosis, and 3 of 43 and 4 of 44 acute rejection at 1 and 5 years, respectively. Other findings included predominantly biliary changes (6/43 & 3/44 at 1 and 5 years, respectively). Tacrolimus levels at 5 years were slightly higher than anticipated (median trough level 5.8 μg/L). With an immunosuppressive regimen of tacrolimus and low-dose steroids for 1 year followed by tacrolimus monotherapy thereafter, the majority of PLB were normal and no progressive changes were observed at 5 years. Compared to other LT programs, we have lower rates of chronic allograft hepatitis, steatosis, and fibrosis at 5 years. However, the tacrolimus levels at 5

  5. A new donors' CYP3A5 and recipients' CYP3A4 cluster predicting tacrolimus disposition, and new-onset hypertension in Chinese liver transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Ye, Ling; Gu, Haitao; Zhong, Lin; Sun, Hongcheng; Song, Chenlong; Peng, Zhihai; Fan, Junwei

    2017-09-19

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate individualized therapy of tacrolimus (Tac), as well as complications after liver transplantation (LT) with the known genetic determinants and clinical factors. In this retrospective study, two cohorts (n=170) from the China Liver Transplant Registry (CLTR) database from July 2007 to March 2015 were included. Both donors' CYP3A5 *3 and recipients' CYP3A4 *1G had a correlation with Tac pharmacokinetics at four weeks (all P <0.05), except recipients' CYP3A4 *1G nearly had an association at week 2 ( P =0.055). The model of donors' CYP3A5 *3, recipients' CYP3A4*1G , and total bilirubin (TBL), for the prediction of Tac disposition, was better than donors' CYP3A5 *3 only at week 1, 2, and 3 ( P =0.010, P =0.007, and P =0.010, respectively), but not apparent at week 4 ( P =0.297). Besides, when the P value was greater than or equal to 0.6685 after considering the false-positive rate R=10%, the patients were considered to have a faster metabolism, according to the mentioned model. Interestingly, we found that if more than or equal to two alleles A were present in the combination of donors' CYP3A5 *3 and recipients' CYP3A4 *1G genotype, there was a lower Tac C/D ration at week 1, 2, and 3 ( P <0.001, P =0.001, and P <0.001), except at week 4 ( P =0.082), and the probability of new-onset hypertension was lesser ( P <0.001). These data provided a potential basis for a comprehensive approach to predicting the Tac dose requirement in individual patients and provided a strategy for the effective prevention, early diagnosis of new-onset hypertension in Chinese LT recipients.

  6. Compatibility of cholecalciferol, haloperidol, imipramine hydrochloride, levodopa/carbidopa, lorazepam, minocycline hydrochloride, tacrolimus monohydrate, terbinafine, tramadol hydrochloride and valsartan in SyrSpend SF PH4 oral suspensions.

    PubMed

    Polonini, H C; Silva, S L; Cunha, C N; Brandão, M A F; Ferreira, A O

    2016-04-01

    A challenge with compounding oral liquid formulations is the limited availability of data to support the physical, chemical and microbiological stability of the formulation. This poses a patient safety concern and a risk for medication errors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the compatibility of the following active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in 10 oral suspensions, using SyrSpend SF PH4 (liquid) as the suspending vehicle: cholecalciferol 50,000 IU/mL, haloperidol 0.5 mg/mL, imipramine hydrochloride 5.0 mg/mL, levodopa/carbidopa 5.0/1.25 mg/mL, lorazepam 1.0 mg/mL, minocycline hydrochloride 10.0 mg/mL, tacrolimus monohydrate 1.0 mg/mL, terbinafine 25.0 mg/mL, tramadol hydrochloride 10.0 mg/mL and valsartan 4.0 mg/mL. The suspensions were stored both refrigerated (2 - 8 degrees C) and at controlled room temperature (20 - 25 degrees C). This is the first stability study for these APIs in SyrSpend SF PH4 (liquid). Further, the stability of haloperidol,ilmipramine hydrochloride, minocycline, and valsartan in oral suspension has not been previously reported in the literature. Compatibility was assessed by measuring percent recovery at varying time points throughout a 90 days period. Quantification of the APIs was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV). Given the percentage of recovery of the APIs within the suspensions, the beyond-use date of the final preparations was found to be at least 90 days for most suspensions both refrigerated and at room temperature. Exceptions were: Minocycline hydrochloride at both storage temperatures (60 days), levodopa/carbidopa at room temperature (30 days), and lorazepam at room temperature (60 days). This suggests that compounded suspensions of APIs from different pharmacological classes in SyrSpend SF PH4 (liquid) are stable.

  7. The Johns Hopkins RTR Consortium: A Collaborative Approach to Advance Translational Science and Standardize Clinical Monitoring of Restorative Transplantation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    non-myeloablative conditioning plus bone marrow infusion (BMI) and intermediate dose tacrolimus (10-15 ng/ml) for 30 days only. Group VIII received the...induction regimen, BMI and CTLA4-Ig and a short-term dose of tacrolimus (30 days ). In all groups, graft rejection was monitored by clinical...long-term graft survival (>230 days ). In the current reporting period (Aim 2 and Aim 3), 3/3 animals in group IV and 4/5 animals in Group V achieved

  8. In vitro analysis of verapamil-induced immunosuppression: potent inhibition of T cell motility and lymphocytic transmigration through allogeneic endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Blaheta, R A; Hailer, N P; Brude, N; Wittig, B; Leckel, K; Oppermann, E; Bachmann, M; Harder, S; Cinatl, J; Scholz, M; Bereiter-Hahn, J; Weber, S; Encke, A; Markus, B H

    2000-02-27

    Cyclosporine A (CsA) and tacrolimus prevent proliferation but not transendothelial migration of alloreactive lymphocytes into donor organs. As a result, serious adverse effects, such as nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity, have been observed under CsA/tacrolimus therapy. The incorporation of new drugs with infiltration blocking properties might enhance the efficacy of the current immunosuppressive protocol, allowing lower CsA/tacrolimus dosage. Because Ca2+ plays a critical role in cell-cell interaction, the Ca2+-channel blocker verapamil might be a good cany. didate for supporting CsA/tacrolimus-based therapy. A T-cell endothelial cell coculture model or immobilized immunoglobulin G globulin chimeras were employed to investigate how S- and R- verapamil interfere with the lymphocytic infiltration process. The expression and arrangement of membranous adhesion receptors and cytoskeletal F-actin filaments were analyzed by fluorometric method in the presence of. verapamil. Both verapamil enantiomers strongly inhibited lymphocyte infiltration. CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells were influenced to a similar extent with regard to horizontal locomotion (CD4+=CD8+), but to a different extent with regard to adhesion and penetration (CD4+ > CD8+). Moreover, penetration was blocked to a higher extent than was adhesion. ID50-values were 31 microM (CD4+-adhesion) and 11 microM (CD4+-penetration). Verapamil reduced P-selectin expression on endothelial cells and effectively down-regulated binding of T-cells to immobilized P-selectin immunoglobulin G globulins (ID50=4.4 microM; CD4+). A verapamil-induced reduction of intracellular F-actin in T-lymphocytes was proven to be mainly responsible for diminished cell locomotion. The prevention of CD4+ T-cell penetration by verapamil might argue for its use as an adjunct to CsA/tacrolimus-based immunosuppressive therapy.

  9. Cynomolgus monkeys are successfully and persistently infected with hepatitis E virus genotype 3 (HEV-3) after long-term immunosuppressive therapy

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Juliana Rodrigues; Melgaço, Juliana Gil; Kevorkian, Yohan Britto; Bottino, Fernanda de Oliveira; Vieira, Yasmine Rangel; da Silva, Aline Campos de Azevedo; Pinto, Douglas Pereira; da Fonseca, Laís Bastos; Vilhena, Leandro Schiavo; Uiechi, Edilson; da Silva, Maria Cristina Carlan; Moran, Julio; Marchevsky, Renato Sérgio; Cruz, Oswaldo Gonçalves; Otonel, Rodrigo Alejandro Arellano; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo; de Oliveira, Jaqueline Mendes; Gaspar, Ana Maria Coimbra; Pinto, Marcelo Alves

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological studies found that hepatitis E virus genotype 3 (HEV-3) infection was associated with chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis in immunocompromised patients. Our study aimed to investigate the relationship between the host immunosuppressive status and the occurrence of HEV-related chronic hepatitis. Here we describe a successful experimental study, using cynomolgus monkeys previously treated with tacrolimus, a potent calcineurin inhibitor immunosuppressant, and infected with a Brazilian HEV-3 strain isolated from naturally infected pigs. HEV infected monkeys were followed up during 160 days post infection (dpi) by clinical signs; virological, biochemical and haematological parameters; and liver histopathology. The tacrolimus blood levels were monitored throughout the experiment. Immunosuppression was confirmed by clinical and laboratorial findings, such as: moderate weight loss, alopecia, and herpes virus opportunistic infection. In this study, chronic HEV infection was characterized by the mild increase of liver enzymes serum levels; persistent RNA viremia and viral faecal shedding; and liver histopathology. Three out of four immunosuppressed monkeys showed recurrent HEV RNA detection in liver samples, evident hepatocellular ballooning degeneration, mild to severe macro and microvesicular steatosis (zone 1), scattered hepatocellular apoptosis, and lobular focal inflammation. At 69 dpi, liver biopsies of all infected monkeys revealed evident ballooning degeneration (zone 3), discrete hepatocellular apoptosis, and at most mild portal and intra-acinar focal inflammation. At 160 dpi, the three chronically HEV infected monkeys showed microscopic features (piecemeal necrosis) corresponding to chronic hepatitis in absence of fibrosis and cirrhosis in liver parenchyma. Within 4-months follow up, the tacrolimus-immunosuppressed cynomolgus monkeys infected with a Brazilian swine HEV-3 strain exhibited more severe hepatic lesions progressing to chronic hepatitis

  10. Genetic polymorphisms in warfarin and tacrolimus-related genes VKORC1, CYP2C9 and CYP3A5 in the Greek-Cypriot population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Two variants in the gene encoding the cytochrome P450 2C9 enzyme (CYP2C9) are considered the most significant genetic risk factors associated with bleeding after warfarin prescription. A variant in the vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKORC1) has been also associated by several studies with warfarin response. Another variant in the P450 3A5 enzyme (CYP3A5) gene is known to affect the metabolism of many drugs, including tacrolimus. Findings We conducted a population genetic study in 148 unrelated healthy Greek-Cypriot volunteers (through PCR-RFLP assays), in order to determine the frequencies of the above pharmacogenetics variants and to compare allele frequencies with those in other major ethnic groups. The allele frequencies of CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3 and CYP3A5*3 were found to be 0.162, 0.112 and 0.943 respectively, whereas VKORC1 - 1639A was 0.534. The latter frequency differs significantly when compared with Caucasians, Asians and Africans (p < 0.001) and is still significant when compared with the geographically and culturally closely related to Greek-Cypriots, Hellenes of Greece (p = 0.01). Interestingly ~18% of our population are carriers of four or three risk alleles regarding warfarin sensitivity, therefore they have a high predisposition for bleeding after taking high or even normal warfarin doses. Conclusions Our data show no significant difference in the frequency of CYP2C9 and CYP3A5 allelic variants when compared to the Caucasian population, but differ significantly when compared with Africans and Asians (p < 0.001). Also, the frequency of variant VKORC1 - 1639A differs between Greek-Cypriots and every other population we compared. Finally, about 1/5 Greek-Cypriots carry three or four risk alleles and ~50% of them carry at least two independent risk alleles regarding warfarin sensitivity, a potentially high risk for over-anticoagulation. PMID:24593903

  11. Immunomodulation and safety of topical calcineurin inhibitors for the treatment of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Hultsch, Thomas; Kapp, Alexander; Spergel, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic or chronically relapsing inflammatory skin condition that primarily affects children. Topical corticosteroids have been the mainstay of treatment since the late 1950s. While providing excellent short-term efficacy, topical corticosteroid usage is limited by potential adverse effects, including impairment of the function and viability of Langerhans cells/dendritic cells. The recently introduced topical calcineurin inhibitors pimecrolimus cream 1% (Elidel) and tacrolimus ointment 0.03 and 0.1% (Protopic) exhibit a more selective mechanism of action and do not affect Langerhans cells/dendritic cells. For the immune system of young children 'learning' to mount a balanced Th1/Th2 response, this selective effect has particular benefits. In clinical experience, topical calcineurin inhibitors have been shown to be a safe and effective alternative to topical corticosteroids in almost 7 million patients (>5 million on pimecrolimus; >1.7 million on tacrolimus). Topical pimecrolimus is primarily used in children with mild and moderate AD, whereas tacrolimus is used preferentially in more severe cases. None of the topical calcineurin inhibitors have been associated with systemic immunosuppression-related malignancies known to occur following long-term sustained systemic immunosuppression with oral immunosuppressants (e.g., tacrolimus, cyclosporine A, and corticosteroids) in transplant patients. Preclinical and clinical data suggest a greater skin selectivity and larger safety margin for topical pimecrolimus. (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

  12. The influence of genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 3A5 and ABCB1 on starting dose- and weight-standardized tacrolimus trough concentrations after kidney transplantation in relation to renal function.

    PubMed

    Mourad, Michel; Wallemacq, Pierre; De Meyer, Martine; Brandt, Dimitri; Van Kerkhove, Valérie; Malaise, Jacques; Chaïb Eddour, Djamila; Lison, Dominique; Haufroid, Vincent

    2006-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A5 (CYP3A5) and ABCB1 polymorphisms have been shown to influence tacrolimus (Tc) blood concentrations in the stable phase after organ transplantation. We hypothesized that Tc pharmacokinetics may be affected by genetic mutations subsequent to starting doses. We retrospectively analyzed data from a cohort of 59 kidney transplant recipients, in whom CYP3A5 (intron 3) and ABCB1 (exons 12, 21 and 26) genotypes were correlated to dose- and weight-standardized Tc trough concentrations obtained after initial Tc doses. Renal function, expressed as glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (MDRD equation), on days 7 and 14 after transplantation was evaluated and its relationship with Tc concentrations was analyzed. Dose- and weight-standardized Tc trough concentrations were lower in patients carrying the CYP3A5 *1 allele (p<0.01). There was no statistically significant association with ABCB1 polymorphisms. In a multivariate analysis, both the presence of at least one CYP3A5 *1 allele (p=0.006) and age at the time of transplantation (p=0.010) were significant independent variables affecting Tc trough blood concentrations standardized to the first dosages (model r2=0.23). GFR was not affected by Tc concentrations. Prospective trials are needed to prove that a genetic approach to Tc pharmacokinetics and its related side effects during the early period after grafting may improve patient outcome.

  13. Calcineurin inhibitors block sodium-chloride cotransporter dephosphorylation in response to high potassium intake.

    PubMed

    Shoda, Wakana; Nomura, Naohiro; Ando, Fumiaki; Mori, Yutaro; Mori, Takayasu; Sohara, Eisei; Rai, Tatemitsu; Uchida, Shinichi

    2017-02-01

    Dietary potassium intake is inversely related to blood pressure and mortality. Moreover, the sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC) plays an important role in blood pressure regulation and urinary potassium excretion in response to potassium intake. Previously, it was shown that NCC is activated by the WNK4-SPAK cascade and dephosphorylated by protein phosphatase. However, the mechanism of NCC regulation with acute potassium intake is still unclear. To identify the molecular mechanism of NCC regulation in response to potassium intake, we used adult C57BL/6 mice fed a 1.7% potassium solution by oral gavage. We confirmed that acute potassium load rapidly dephosphorylated NCC, which was not dependent on the accompanying anions. Mice were treated with tacrolimus (calcineurin inhibitor) and W7 (calmodulin inhibitor) before the oral potassium loads. Dephosphorylation of NCC induced by potassium was significantly inhibited by both tacrolimus and W7 treatment. There was no significant difference in WNK4, OSR1, and SPAK expression after high potassium intake, even after tacrolimus and W7 treatment. Another phosphatase, protein phosphatase 1, and its endogenous inhibitor I-1 did not show a significant change after potassium intake. Hyperkaliuria, induced by high potassium intake, was significantly suppressed by tacrolimus treatment. Thus, calcineurin is activated by an acute potassium load, which rapidly dephosphorylates NCC, leading to increased urinary potassium excretion. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A randomized 2×2 factorial trial, part 1: single-dose rabbit antithymocyte globulin induction may improve renal transplantation outcomes.

    PubMed

    Stevens, R Brian; Foster, Kirk W; Miles, Clifford D; Lane, James T; Kalil, Andre C; Florescu, Diana F; Sandoz, John P; Rigley, Theodore H; Nielsen, Kathleen J; Skorupa, Jill Y; Kellogg, Anna M; Malik, Tamer; Wrenshall, Lucile E

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a randomized and unblinded 2 × 2 sequential-factorial trial, composed of an induction arm (part 1) comparing single-dose (SD) versus divided-dose rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG), and a maintenance arm (part 2) comparing tacrolimus minimization versus withdrawal. We report the long-term safety and efficacy of SD-rATG induction in the context of early steroid withdrawal and tacrolimus minimization or withdrawal. Patients (n=180) received 6 mg/kg rATG, SD or four alternate-day doses (1.5 mg/kg/dose), with early steroid withdrawal and tacrolimus or sirolimus maintenance. After 6 months targeted maintenance levels were tacrolimus, 2 to 4 ng/mL and sirolimus, 4 to 6 ng/mL or, if calcineurin inhibitor-withdrawn, sirolimus 8 to 12 ng/mL with mycophenolate mofetil 2 g two times per day. Primary endpoints were renal function (abbreviated modification of diet in renal disease) and chronic graft histopathology (Banff). Secondary endpoints included patient survival, graft survival, biopsy-proven rejection, and infectious or noninfectious complications. Follow-up averaged longer than 4 years. Tacrolimus or sirolimus and mycophenolate mofetil exposure was identical between groups. The SD-rATG associated with improved renal function (2-36 months; P<0.001) in deceased donor recipients. The SD-rATG associated with quicker lymphocyte, CD4 T cell, and CD4-CD8 recovery and fewer infections. Cox multivariate hazard modeling showed divided-dose-rATG (P=0.019), deceased donor (P=0.003), serious infection (P=0.0.018), and lower lymphocyte count (P=0.001) associated with increased mortality. Patients with all four covariates showed a 27-fold increased likelihood of death (P=0.00002). Chronic graft histopathology, rejection rates, and death-censored graft survival were not significantly different between groups. The SD-rATG induction improves the 3-year renal function in recipients of deceased donor kidneys. This benefit, along with possibly improved patient survival and

  15. A Randomized 2×2 Factorial Trial, Part 1: Single-Dose Rabbit Antithymocyte Globulin Induction May Improve Renal Transplantation Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, R. Brian; Foster, Kirk W.; Miles, Clifford D.; Lane, James T.; Kalil, Andre C.; Florescu, Diana F.; Sandoz, John P.; Rigley, Theodore H.; Nielsen, Kathleen J.; Skorupa, Jill Y.; Kellogg, Anna M.; Malik, Tamer; Wrenshall, Lucile E.

    2015-01-01

    Background We conducted a randomized and unblinded 2×2 sequential-factorial trial, composed of an induction arm (part 1) comparing single-dose (SD) versus divided-dose rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG), and a maintenance arm (part 2) comparing tacrolimus minimization versus withdrawal. We report the long-term safety and efficacy of SD-rATG induction in the context of early steroid withdrawal and tacrolimus minimization or withdrawal. Methods Patients (n=180) received 6 mg/kg rATG, SD or four alternate-day doses (1.5 mg/kg/dose), with early steroid withdrawal and tacrolimus or sirolimus maintenance. After 6 months targeted maintenance levels were tacrolimus, 2 to 4 ng/mL and sirolimus, 4 to 6 ng/mL or, if calcineurin inhibitor–withdrawn, sirolimus 8 to 12 ng/mL with mycophenolate mofetil 2 g two times per day. Primary endpoints were renal function (abbreviated modification of diet in renal disease) and chronic graft histopathology (Banff). Secondary endpoints included patient survival, graft survival, biopsy-proven rejection, and infectious or noninfectious complications. Results Follow-up averaged longer than 4 years. Tacrolimus or sirolimus and mycophenolate mofetil exposure was identical between groups. The SD-rATG associated with improved renal function (2-36 months; P<0.001) in deceased donor recipients. The SD-rATG associated with quicker lymphocyte, CD4 T cell, and CD4-CD8 recovery and fewer infections. Cox multivariate hazard modeling showed divided-dose–rATG (P=0.019), deceased donor (P=0.003), serious infection (P=0.0.018), and lower lymphocyte count (P=0.001) associated with increased mortality. Patients with all four covariates showed a 27-fold increased likelihood of death (P=0.00002). Chronic graft histopathology, rejection rates, and death-censored graft survival were not significantly different between groups. Conclusion The SD-rATG induction improves the 3-year renal function in recipients of deceased donor kidneys. This benefit, along with

  16. Automated processing of whole blood samples for the determination of immunosuppressants by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Vogeser, Michael; Spöhrer, Ute

    2006-01-01

    Liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is an efficient technology for routine determination of immunosuppressants in whole blood; however, time-consuming manual sample preparation remains a significant limitation of this technique. Using a commercially available robotic pipetting system (Tecan Freedom EVO), we developed an automated sample-preparation protocol for quantification of tacrolimus in whole blood by LC-MS/MS. Barcode reading, sample resuspension, transfer of whole blood aliquots into a deep-well plate, addition of internal standard solution, mixing, and protein precipitation by addition of an organic solvent is performed by the robotic system. After centrifugation of the plate, the deproteinized supernatants are submitted to on-line solid phase extraction, using column switching prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. The only manual actions within the entire process are decapping of the tubes, and transfer of the deep-well plate from the robotic system to a centrifuge and finally to the HPLC autosampler. Whole blood pools were used to assess the reproducibility of the entire analytical system for measuring tacrolimus concentrations. A total coefficient of variation of 1.7% was found for the entire automated analytical process (n=40; mean tacrolimus concentration, 5.3 microg/L). Close agreement between tacrolimus results obtained after manual and automated sample preparation was observed. The analytical system described here, comprising automated protein precipitation, on-line solid phase extraction and LC-MS/MS analysis, is convenient and precise, and minimizes hands-on time and the risk of mistakes in the quantification of whole blood immunosuppressant concentrations compared to conventional methods.

  17. Pharmacologic therapies for severe steroid refractory hospitalized ulcerative colitis: A network meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Komaki, Yuga; Komaki, Fukiko; Micic, Dejan; Yamada, Akihiro; Suzuki, Yasuo; Sakuraba, Atsushi

    2017-06-01

    A limited option of therapies is available for hospitalized patients with severe steroid refractory ulcerative colitis (UC). Furthermore, there exists a paucity of direct comparisons between them. To provide a comparative evaluation of the efficacy and safety of pharmacologic therapies, we conducted a network meta-analysis combined with a benefit-risk analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) performed in hospitalized patients with severe steroid refractory UC. Electronic databases were searched through November 2015 for RCTs evaluating the efficacy of therapies for severe steroid refractory hospitalized UC. The outcomes were clinical response, colectomy free rate, and severe adverse events leading to discontinuation of therapy. The primary endpoints were the rank of therapies based on network meta-analysis combined with benefit-risk analysis between clinical response and severe adverse events as well as colectomy free rate and severe adverse events. Eight RCTs of 421 patients were identified. Cyclosporine, infliximab, and tacrolimus as well as placebo were included in our analysis. Network meta-analysis with benefit-risk analysis simultaneously assessing clinical response and severe adverse events demonstrated the rank order of efficacy as infliximab, cyclosporine, tacrolimus, and placebo. Similar analysis for colectomy-free rate and severe adverse events demonstrated the same rank order of efficacy. The differences among infliximab, cyclosporine, and tacrolimus were small in all analyses. The results of the present comprehensive benefit-risk assessment using network meta-analysis provide RCT-based evidence on efficacy and safety of infliximab, cyclosporine, and tacrolimus for hospitalized patients with severe steroid refractory UC. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. 850nm light-emitting-diode phototherapy plus low-dose tacrolimus (FK-506) as combination therapy in the treatment of Dermatophagoides farinae-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang-Hyun; Cheong, Kyung Ah; Lee, Ai-Young

    2013-11-01

    Light emitting diode (LED) phototherapy is an effective alternative for the treatment of inflammatory skin disorders. Tacrolimus (FK-506) is a potent immunomodulating agent, which has been used to treat AD. Combination therapy is often used in the treatment of AD to improve therapeutic efficacy or to reduce the dose of each drug. To investigate the therapeutic efficacy of monotherapy with either 850nm LED phototherapy or low-dose FK-506, and combination therapy in Dermatophagoides farina (Df)-induced AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. The Df-induced NC/Nga mice with a clinical score of 7 were used for treatment with LED (10 and 25J/cm(2)) alone, low-dose FK-506 (1mg/kg) or in combination. The synergistic effects of combined therapy were evaluated by dermatitis scores, skin histology, skin barrier function, and immunological parameters, such as IgE, NO, Th2-mediated cytokines and chemokines. Combination therapy with 850nm (25J/cm(2)) LED and low-dose FK-506 showed a significant reduction in the severity of skin lesions. Combined therapy decreased in the serum level of IgE, NO, and in the splenic level of Th2-mediated cytokines and chemokines. Combination therapy significantly also reduced the inflammatory cellular infiltrate into the skin lesions. Moreover, combination therapy led to recovery of skin barrier function in the skin lesions. The use of combination of LED phototherapy and low-dose immunosuppressant improved Df-induced AD-like skin lesions in an NC/Nga mouse model by dominantly reducing IgE, NO, suppressing Th2-mediated immune responses, and inhibiting inflammatory cells, as well as improving skin barrier function. Copyright © 2013 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Hemolytic anemia caused by graft-versus-host reaction in ABO-nonidentical renal transplants from blood group O donors].

    PubMed

    Peces, R; Díaz Corte, C; Navascués, R A

    2001-01-01

    Acute hemolytic anemia is one of the side effects associated with cyclosporin and tacrolimus therapy, and three mechanisms have been described to account for hemolytic anemia in patients receiving these drugs: drug induced hemolysis, autoimmune hemolysis and alloimmune hemolysis resulting from donor lymphocytes derived from the allograft (passenger lymphocyte syndrome). We report four cases of renal transplant recipients who developed alloimmune hemolytic anemia due to minor ABO incompatibility while under treatment with cyclosporin (two) and tacrolimus (two). The anti-erythrocyte antibodies responsible for hemolysis were of the IgG isotype and showed anti-A or anti-B specificity. These findings suggest that the hemolysis could be related to alloantibodies derived from the clonal development of donor B lymphocytes in the recipients (microchimerism). In summary, hemolytic anemia due to ABO-minor incompatibility occurs infrequently after renal transplantation. Risks are higher for patients A, B or AB blood group receiving an O blood group graft under treatment with cyclosporin or tacrolimus. Follow-up of these patients is warranted for the early detection and optimal management may be achieved by reduction of immunosuppression and change to mycophenolate mofetil.

  20. Occurrence of immunosuppressive drugs and their metabolites in the sewage-impacted Vistula and Utrata Rivers and in tap water from the Warsaw region (Poland).

    PubMed

    Giebułtowicz, Joanna; Nałęcz-Jawecki, Grzegorz

    2016-04-01

    Immunosuppresive therapy following organ transplant frequently includes treatment with tacrolimus and mycophenolic acid derivatives. These pharmaceuticals may enter the environment through wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents and may have a potentially harmful effect on aquatic biota. Tacrolimus, mycophenolic acid and their metabolites were measured at specific points of a large Polish river (Vistula), a smaller river (Utrata) and in tap water samples from the Warsaw region. Analysis was performed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, after solid phase extraction for water samples, or QuEChERS extraction for sediments. Residues of tacrolimus were below quantitation limits in both water and sediment samples. However, in water samples mycophenolic acid concentrations were measured at up to 180 ng L(-1) downstream of WWTP outfalls. No immunosuppressive drugs were detected in tap water. Concentrations of mycophenolic acid exceeded the predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) value in some Polish surface water, and risk calculations predicted at least twice higher concentrations in some other countries of the European Union. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of these immunosuppressive drug concentrations in the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Randomized prospective study of the evolution of renal function depending on the anticalcineurin used.

    PubMed

    Moro, J A; Almenar Bonet, L; Martínez-Dolz, L; Raso, R; Sánchez-Lázaro, I; Agüero, J; Salvador, Antonio

    2008-11-01

    Renal failure is one of the primary medium- to long-term morbidities in heart transplant (HT) recipients. To a great extent, this renal deterioration is associated with calcineurin inhibitors, primarily cyclosporine A (CsA). It has been suggested that tacrolimus provides better renal function in these patients. We assessed the medium-term evolution of renal function depending on the calcineurin inhibitor used after HT. We assessed 40 consecutive HT recipients over one year. Patients were randomized to receive CsA (n = 20) or tacrolimus (n = 20) in combination with mycophenolate mofetil (1 g/12 h) and deflazacort in decreasing dosages. We analyzed demographic variables before HT, creatinine values before and six months after HT and incidence of acute rejection. No demographic, clinical, or analytical differences were observed were between the two groups before HT. Repeated measures analysis of variance of creatinine values showed no significant differences between the two groups (P = .98). Furthermore, no differences were observed in either the incidence of rejection (P = .02) or rejection-free survival (P = .14). There seems to be no difference in efficacy profile and renal tolerability between CsA and tacrolimus therapy during the first months after HT.

  2. The mTOR inhibitor sirolimus suppresses renal, hepatic, and cardiac tissue cellular respiration.

    PubMed

    Albawardi, Alia; Almarzooqi, Saeeda; Saraswathiamma, Dhanya; Abdul-Kader, Hidaya Mohammed; Souid, Abdul-Kader; Alfazari, Ali S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to develop a useful biomarker (e.g., cellular respiration, or mitochondrial O2 consumption) for measuring activities of mTOR inhibitors. It measured the effects of commonly used immunosuppressants (sirolimus-rapamycin, tacrolimus, and cyclosporine) on cellular respiration in target tissues (kidney, liver, and heart) from C57BL/6 mice. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a serine/ threonine kinase that supports nutrient-dependent cell growth and survival, is known to control energy conversion processes within the mitochondria. Consistently, inhibitors of mTOR (e.g., rapamycin, also known as sirolimus or Rapamune®) have been shown to impair mitochondrial function. Inhibitors of the calcium-dependent serine/threonine phosphatase calcineurin (e.g., tacrolimus and cyclosporine), on the other hand, strictly prevent lymphokine production leading to a reduced T-cell function. Sirolimus (10 μM) inhibited renal (22%, P=0.002), hepatic (39%, P<0.001), and cardiac (42%, P=0.005) cellular respiration. Tacrolimus and cyclosporine had no or minimum effects on cellular respiration in these tissues. Thus, these results clearly demonstrate that impaired cellular respiration (bioenergetics) is a sensitive biomarker of the immunosuppressants that target mTOR.

  3. Tacrolimus/Everolimus vs. Tacrolimus/MMF in Pediatric Heart Transplant Recipients Using the MATE Score

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-03-05

    Pediatric Heart Transplantation; Immunosuppression; Chronic Kidney Diseases; Cardiac Allograft Vasculopathy; Heart Transplant Failure and Rejection; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Heart Transplant Infection

  4. Type 4 renal tubular acidosis in a kidney transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Manjunath

    2016-02-01

    We report a case of a 66-year-old diabetic patient who presented with muscle weakness 2 weeks after kidney transplantation. Her immunosuppressive regimen included tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroids. She was found to have hyperkalemia and normal anion gap metabolic acidosis. Tacrolimus levels were in therapeutic range. All other drugs such as beta blockers and trimethoprim - sulfamethoxazole were stopped. She did not respond to routine antikalemic measures. Further evaluation revealed type 4 renal tubular acidosis. Serum potassium levels returned to normal after starting sodium bicarbonate and fludrocortisone therapy. Though hyperkalemia is common in kidney transplant recipients, determining exact cause can guide specific treatment. Copyright © 2016 Chang Gung University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The performance of five different dried blood spot cards for the analysis of six immunosuppressants.

    PubMed

    Koster, Remco A; Botma, Rixt; Greijdanus, Ben; Uges, Donald R A; Kosterink, Jos G W; Touw, Daan J; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C

    2015-01-01

    The relation between hematocrit, substance concentration, extraction recovery and spot formation of tacrolimus, sirolimus, everolimus, ascomycin, temsirolimus and cyclosporin A was investigated for Whatman 31 ET CHR, Whatman FTA DMPK-C, Whatman 903, Perkin Elmer 226 and Agilent Bond Elut DMS DBS cards. We found that all DBS cards showed the same hematocrit and concentration-dependent recovery patterns for sirolimus, everolimus and temsirolimus. At high concentrations, the total hematocrit effects were much more pronounced than at low concentrations for tacrolimus, sirolimus, everolimus, ascomycin and temsirolimus. The tested card types showed differences in performance, especially at extreme concentrations and hematocrit values. It may be useful to investigate the performance of different types of DBS cards prior to analytical method validation.

  6. Prevention of Intraabdominal Adhesions by Local and Systemic Administration of Immunosuppressive Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Peker, Kemal; Inal, Abdullah; Sayar, Ilyas; Sahin, Murat; Gullu, Huriye; Inal, Duriye Gul; Isik, Arda

    2013-01-01

    Background: Intraperitoneal adhesion formation is a serious postsurgical issue. Adhesions develop after damage to the peritoneum by surgery, irradiation, infection or trauma. Objectives: Using a rat model, we compared the effectiveness of systemic and intraperitoneally administered common immunosuppressive drugs for prevention of postoperative intraperitoneal adhesions. Materials and Methods: Peritoneal adhesions were induced in 98 female Wistar-Albino rats by cecal abrasion and peritoneal excision. Rats were randomly separated into seven groups, each containing fourteen rats, and the standard experimental model was applied to all of rats. 14 days later, rats were euthanized, intraperitoneal adhesions were scored and tissues were examined histologically using hematoxylin/eosin and Masson’s trichrome staining. Results: Throughout the investigation, no animal died during or after surgery. In all of experimental groups, decrease in fibrosis was statistically significant. Decrease in fibrosis was most prominently in intraperitoneal tacrolimus group (P = 0.000), and decrease was least in intraperitoneal cyclosporine group (P = 0.022). Vascular proliferation was significantly decreased in all experimental groups (P < 0.05) except for systemic tacrolimus group (P = 0.139). Most prominent reduction in vascular proliferation was in intraperitoneal tacrolimus group (P = 0.000). Conclusions: Administration of immunosuppressive drugs is effective for prevention of intraperitoneal adhesions. PMID:24693396

  7. Post-marketing surveillance study of the long-term use of mizoribine for the treatment of lupus nephritis: 2-Year results.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Okada, Kenya; Yoshida, Hisao; Yagi, Nobuyuki

    2018-01-01

    To understand the status of mizoribine use in patients with lupus nephritis (LN) and to collect safety- and efficacy-related data on 2-year treatment with mizoribine. A continuous survey was conducted between March 2010 and July 2015. The analysis set included 559 patients (mean age 39.5 years, females 82.6%, mean duration of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) 8.4 years, mean duration of LN 5.9 years). Renal function was satisfactory for 6 months, but worsened from 12 months, with significant worsening at 24 months. By the ACR 2006 remission criteria (eGFR >60), at 24 months, 26.5% of patients achieved complete remission, and 63.3% achieved complete or partial remission. The urine protein to creatinine ratio decreased significantly. The SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 score decreased significantly at 12 and 24 months. Overall, 98 (17.5%) patients experienced 124 adverse drug reactions (ADRs); 3.6% experienced serious ADRs. Mizoribine was used with a steroid in 99.3% and an immunosuppressant in 51.2%; tacrolimus was used in 43.8%. The oral steroid dosage decreased from baseline to 24 months. The incidence of ADRs was not significantly different with concomitant tacrolimus use. The results suggest that long-term mizoribine is safe and effective, even when used with tacrolimus.

  8. A possible simplification for the estimation of area under the curve (AUC₀₋₁₂) of enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium in renal transplant patients receiving tacrolimus.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Denise H; Mathew, Binu S; Prasanna, Samuel; Annapandian, Vellaichamy M; John, George T

    2011-04-01

    Enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS) is widely used in renal transplantation. With a delayed absorption profile, it has not been possible to develop limited sampling strategies to estimate area under the curve (mycophenolic acid [MPA] AUC₀₋₁₂), which have limited time points and are completed in 2 hours. We developed and validated simplified strategies to estimate MPA AUC₀₋₁₂ in an Indian renal transplant population prescribed EC-MPS together with prednisolone and tacrolimus. Intensive pharmacokinetic sampling (17 samples each) was performed in 18 patients to measure MPA AUC₀₋₁₂. The profiles at 1 month were used to develop the simplified strategies and those at 5.5 months used for validation. We followed two approaches. In one, the AUC was calculated using the trapezoidal rule with fewer time points followed by an extrapolation. In the second approach, by stepwise multiple regression analysis, models with different time points were identified and linear regression analysis performed. Using the trapezoidal rule, two equations were developed with six time points and sampling to 6 or 8 hours (8hrAUC[₀₋₁₂exp]) after the EC-MPS dose. On validation, the 8hrAUC(₀₋₁₂exp) compared with total measured AUC₀₋₁₂ had a coefficient of correlation (r²) of 0.872 with a bias and precision (95% confidence interval) of 0.54% (-6.07-7.15) and 9.73% (5.37-14.09), respectively. Second, limited sampling strategies were developed with four, five, six, seven, and eight time points and completion within 2 hours, 4 hours, 6 hours, and 8 hours after the EC-MPS dose. On validation, six, seven, and eight time point equations, all with sampling to 8 hours, had an acceptable r with the total measured MPA AUC₀₋₁₂ (0.817-0.927). In the six, seven, and eight time points, the bias (95% confidence interval) was 3.00% (-4.59 to 10.59), 0.29% (-5.4 to 5.97), and -0.72% (-5.34 to 3.89) and the precision (95% confidence interval) was 10

  9. A Case Report of Drug-Induced Thrombocytopenia after Living Donor Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    ARAI, KEISUKE; KURAMITSU, KAORI; FUKUMOTO, TAKUMI; KIDO, MASAHIRO; TAKEBE, ATSUSHI; TANAKA, MOTOFUMI; KINOSHITA, HISOKA; AJIKI, TETSUO; TOYAMA, HIROCHIKA; ASARI, SADAKI; GOTO, TADAHIRO; KU, YONSON

    2016-01-01

    There are few descriptions of severe thrombocytopenia during the early postoperative period after liver transplantation, and these have not been fully documented in the literature. Here, we report a case of drug-induced thrombocytopenia requiring transfusion of blood products after living donor liver transplantation. We determined that this was not caused by the interferon-free anti-viral therapy but by tacrolimus A 61-year-old woman with hepatitis C-related cirrhosis and hepatorenal syndrome underwent living donor liver transplantation using a left lobe graft from her son. After transplantation, immunosuppression consisted of tacrolimus and steroid. Seven weeks after transplantation, interferon-free therapy with daclatasvir and asunaprevir was started. Thirteen days thereafter, hepatitis C virus tested negative. However, the platelet count had begun to gradually decrease just before starting anti-viral therapy. Daclatasvir and asunaprevir were stopped because this was suspected to be a side-effect of these drugs, but the patient nonetheless went on to develop severe thrombocytopenia (platelet count 17,000/μL), which needed transfusions. Now suspecting tacrolimus as the inducer of this side effect, we changed to cyclosporin, after which the platelet count gradually recovered. Viral markers were still not detectable up to 2 months after discontinuation of the antiviral drugs. We conclude that when severe thrombocytopenia occurs, possible drug-induced thrombocytopenia as well as other disorders must be investigated. PMID:27492209

  10. Update of green tea interactions with cardiovascular drugs and putative mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Werba, José Pablo; Misaka, Shingen; Giroli, Monica Gianna; Shimomura, Kenju; Amato, Manuela; Simonelli, Niccolò; Vigo, Lorenzo; Tremoli, Elena

    2018-04-01

    Many patients treated with cardiovascular (CV) drugs drink green tea (GT), either as a cultural tradition or persuaded of its putative beneficial effects for health. Yet, GT may affect the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of CV compounds. Novel GT-CV drug interactions were reported for rosuvastatin, sildenafil and tacrolimus. Putative mechanisms involve inhibitory effects of GT catechins at the intestinal level on influx transporters OATP1A2 or OATP2B1 for rosuvastatin, on CYP3A for sildenafil and on both CYP3A and the efflux transporter p-glycoprotein for tacrolimus. These interactions, which add to those previously described with simvastatin, nadolol and warfarin, might lead, in some cases, to reduced drug efficacy or risk of drug toxicity. Oddly, available data on GT interaction with CV compounds with a narrow therapeutic index, such as warfarin and tacrolimus, derive from single case reports. Conversely, GT interactions with simvastatin, rosuvastatin, nadolol and sildenafil were documented through pharmacokinetic studies. In these, the effect of GT or GT derivatives on drug exposure was mild to moderate, but a high inter-individual variability was observed. Further investigations, including studies on the effect of the dose and the time of GT intake are necessary to understand more in depth the clinical relevance of GT-CV drug interactions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Belatacept-based immunosuppression in de novo liver transplant recipients: 1-year experience from a phase II randomized study.

    PubMed

    Klintmalm, G B; Feng, S; Lake, J R; Vargas, H E; Wekerle, T; Agnes, S; Brown, K A; Nashan, B; Rostaing, L; Meadows-Shropshire, S; Agarwal, M; Harler, M B; Garcia-Valdecasas, J-C

    2014-08-01

    This exploratory phase II study evaluated the safety and efficacy of belatacept in de novo adult liver transplant recipients. Patients were randomized (N = 260) to one of the following immunosuppressive regimens: (i) basiliximab + belatacept high dose [HD] + mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), (ii) belatacept HD + MMF, (iii) belatacept low dose [LD] + MMF, (iv) tacrolimus + MMF, or (v) tacrolimus alone. All received corticosteroids. Demographic characteristics were similar among groups. The proportion of patients who met the primary end point (composite of acute rejection, graft loss, death by month 6) was higher in the belatacept groups (42–48%) versus tacrolimus groups (15–38%), with the highest number of deaths and grafts losses in the belatacept LD group. By month 12, the proportion surviving with a functioning graft was higher with tacrolimus + MMF (93%) and lower with belatacept LD (67%) versus other groups (90%: basiliximab + belatacept HD; 83%: belatacept HD; 88%: tacrolimus). Mean calculated GFR was 15–34 mL/min higher in belatacept-treated patients at 1 year. Two cases of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease and one case of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy occurred in belatacept-treated patients. Follow-up beyond month 12 revealed an increase in death and graft loss in another belatacept group (belatacept HD), after which the study was terminated.

  12. Topical Delivery of Immunosuppression to Prolong Xenogeneic and Allogeneic Split-Thickness Skin Graft Survival.

    PubMed

    Mastroianni, Melissa; Ng, Zhi Yang; Goyal, Ritu; Mallard, Christopher; Farkash, Evan A; Leonard, David A; Albritton, Alexander; Shanmugarajah, Kumaran; Kurtz, Josef M; Sachs, David H; Macri, Lauren K; Kohn, Joachim; Cetrulo, Curtis L

    2017-06-07

    Cadaveric skin allograft is the current standard of treatment for temporary coverage of large burn wounds. Porcine xenografts are viable alternatives but undergo α-1,3-galactose (Gal)-mediated hyperacute rejection and are lost by POD 3 because of naturally occurring antibodies to Gal in primate recipients. Using baboons, we previously demonstrated that xenografts from GalT-KO swine (lacking Gal) provided wound coverage comparable with allografts with systemic immunosuppression. In this study, we investigate topical immunosuppression as an alternative to prolong xenograft survival. Full-thickness wounds in baboons were created and covered with xenogeneic and allogeneic split-thickness skin grafts (STSGs). Animals were treated with slow-release (TyroSphere-encapsulated) topical formulations (cyclosporine-A [CSA] or Tacrolimus) applied 1) directly to the STSGs only, or 2) additionally to the wound bed before STSG and 1). Topical CSA did not improve either xenograft or allograft survival (median: treated grafts = 12.5 days, control = 14 days; P = 0.27) with similar results when topical Tacrolimus was used. Pretreatment of wound beds resulted in a significant reduction of xenograft survival compared with controls (10 vs 14 days; P = 0.0002), with comparable results observed in allografts. This observation was associated with marked reduction of inflammation on histology with Tacrolimus and not CSA. Prolongation of allograft and xenograft survival after application to full-thickness wound beds was not achieved with the current formulation of topical immunosuppressants. Modulation of inflammation within the wound bed was effective with Tacrolimus pretreatment before STSG application and may serve as a treatment strategy in related fields.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited

  13. Formulary review of therapeutic alternatives for atopic dermatitis: focus on pimecrolimus.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Jeffrey M

    2005-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD), often called eczema, is characterized by intense pruritus, erythema, dry skin, and inflammation. The condition is chronic and relapsing, and often occurs in patients with a family history of the atopic triad (asthma, allergic rhinitis, and AD). Use of topical steroids has been the mainstay of medical treatment for AD. Steroid-free treatments for AD, with a more favorable safety profile, have become available within the past 2 years. Tacrolimus ointment, a topical immunomodulator, became available in early 2001 and is indicated for moderate-to-severe AD. A similar but highly skinselective cytokine inhibitor, pimecrolimus cream 1%, became available in March 2002. Pimecrolimus is indicated for mild-to-moderate AD. The objective of this article is to review the key characteristics that differentiate pimecrolimus from steroids and tacrolimus in the treatment of AD. Using secondary resources, the clinical aspects and conventional treatment strategies for AD are reviewed as are the pivotal clinical studies with pimecrolimus and literature on quality of life and economic burden of disease for AD patients and families. Pimecrolimus is an effective, steroid-sparing therapy for mild-tomoderate AD. Early treatment prevents flares, the agent works quickly to reduce signs and symptoms of more advanced AD, and it is safe and appropriate for intermittent long-term therapy. Pimecrolimus has fewer side effects than topical steroids and a better side-effect profile than tacrolimus. It can also be used as a first-line therapy. In studies with patients aged 2 to 17 years, it has been shown to be particularly effective in improving eczema of the face and neck, and its use may improve quality of life for many patients, especially children. A single-strength dose (1%) is safe and medically beneficial for pediatric, adolescent, and adult patients. The direct drug cost of pimecrolimus compares favorably with tacrolimus, but it is significantly more expensive than

  14. Saquinavir

    MedlinePlus

    ... lung disease); simvastatin (Zocor, in Vytorin); tacrolimus (Astagraf XL, Envarsus XR, Protopic); thioridazine; trazodone; triazolam (Halcion); or ... Tenormin, in Tenoretic), labetalol (Trandate), metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol XL, in Dutoprol, in Loressor HCT), nadolol (Corgard, in ...

  15. Effect of ultraviolet irradiation on free radical scavenging activity of immunosuppressants used in lung transplantation and comparative electron paramagnetic resonance study of kinetics of their interactions with model free radicals.

    PubMed

    Stanjek-Cichoracka, A; Żegleń, S; Ramos, P; Pilawa, B; Wojarski, J

    2018-06-01

    The immunosuppressive drugs used in solid organ transplantation or autoimmunological processes were studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to estimate their free radical scavenging activity. The interactions of immunosuppressants with free radicals were examined by an X-band (9.3 GHz) EPR spectroscopy and a model of DPPH free radicals. The EPR spectra of DPPH and DPPH interacting with individual drugs were compared. Kinetic studies were performed, and the effect of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on the free radical scavenging activity of the tested drugs was determined. The free radical scavenging activity of non-irradiated drugs decreased in the order: rapamycin > mycophenolate mofetil > ciclosporin > tacrolimus. UV irradiation increased the free radical scavenging activity of all the tested immunosuppressive drugs, and the effect was highest for tacrolimus. For the non-irradiated samples, the speed of free radical interactions decreased in the order: ciclosporin > tacrolimus > mycophenolate mofetil > rapamycin. UV irradiation only slightly affected the speed of interactions of the immunosuppressive drugs with the model DPPH free radicals. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy is useful for obtaining information on interactions of immunosuppressive drugs with free radicals. We hypothesized that the long-term immunosuppressive effects of these drugs after transplantation or during autoimmune disorders may be mediated by anti-inflammatory action in addition to the known receptor/cell cycle inhibition. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. MDR1 haplotypes conferring an increased expression of intestinal CYP3A4 rather than MDR1 in female living-donor liver transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Hosohata, Keiko; Masuda, Satohiro; Yonezawa, Atsushi; Katsura, Toshiya; Oike, Fumitaka; Ogura, Yasuhiro; Takada, Yasutsugu; Egawa, Hiroto; Uemoto, Shinji; Inui, Ken-Ichi

    2009-07-01

    This study investigated whether haplotypes in the multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) gene had effects on mRNA expression levels of MDR1 and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, and on the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus in living-donor liver transplant (LDLT) patients, considering the gender difference. Haplotype analysis of MDR1 with G2677T/A and C3435T was performed in 63 de novo Japanese LDLT patients (17 to 55 years; 44.4% women). The expression levels of MDR1 and CYP3A4 mRNAs in jejunal biopsy specimens were quantified by real-time PCR. Intestinal CYP3A4 mRNA expression levels (amol/microg total RNA) showed significantly higher values in women carrying the 2677TT-3435TT haplotype (median, 10.7; range, 5.92-15.2) than those with 2677GG-3435CC (3.03; range 1.38-4.68) and 2677GT-3435CT (median, 4.31; range, 0.07-9.42) (P = 0.022), but not in men (P = 0.81). However, MDR1 haplotype did not influence mRNA expression levels of MDR1 nor the concentration/dose ratio [(ng/mL)/(mg/day)] of oral tacrolimus for the postoperative 7 days, irrespective of gender. MDR1 haplotype may have a minor association with the tacrolimus pharmacokinetics after LDLT, but could be a good predictor of the inter-individual variation of intestinal expression of CYP3A4 in women.

  17. Advagraf® with or without an induction therapy for de novo kidney-transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Noble, Johan; Jouve, Thomas; Rostaing, Lionel; Malvezzi, Paolo

    2018-06-01

    Cornerstone immunosuppressive therapy currently relies on immediate-release tacrolimus, a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) that is potentially nephrotoxic and is more diabetogenic than cyclosporine A. Two new formulations of tacrolimus have been launched: an extended-release formulation (Advagraf®/Astagraf XL®, Astellas company) and a long-lasting formulation (Envarsus®, Veloxis company). Area covered: Herein, we assess the efficacy of an extended-release formulation of tacrolimus (Advagraf®/Astagraf XL®) used in conjunction with or without an induction therapy (i.e., basiliximab) in de novo kidney-transplant recipients. To achieve this, we searched for suitable articles through PubMed. Expert commentary: Phases-III and -IV studies comparing Advagraf®/Astagraf XL® to Prograf® in association with mycophenolate mofetil (more than 2,500 patients) have demonstrated overall similar results with regards to patient/graft survival, biopsy-proven acute-rejection rate, and renal function (p > 0.05). A randomized controlled study in maintenance kidney transplant patients has shown (using electronic monitoring) that, as compared to Prograf®, Advagraf® significantly improved adherence to medication. Other studies report that Advagraf®-treated patients receiving a mTOR-inhibitor agent (sirolimus or everolimus) instead of MMF: this was associated with good allograft outcome, and might also prevent late-onset cytomegalovirus infection. Advagraf®-based immunosuppression given to de novo kidney-transplant recipients, with or without an induction therapy, provided excellent results compared to Prograf®; it also increased patients' adherence to treatment.

  18. Good outcome of brain stem progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in an immunosuppressed renal transplant patient: Importance of early detection and rapid immune reconstitution.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Roland; Gölitz, Philipp; Jacobi, Johannes; Schwab, Stefan; Linker, Ralf A; Lee, De-Hyung

    2017-04-15

    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare, opportunistic and often fatal disease of the CNS which may occur under immunosuppression in transplant patients. Brain stem PML is associated with a particularly bad prognosis. Here, we present a case of a renal transplant patient treated with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and tacrolimus who developed brain stem PML with limb ataxia, dysarthria and dysphagia. Diagnosis was established by typical MRI features and detection of JCV-DNA in the CSF. Immune reconstitution after stopping MMF and tacrolimus led to a complete and sustained remission of symptoms with improvement of the brain stem lesion over a follow-up over 20months. In summary, early detection of PML and consequent treatment may improve neurological outcomes even in brain stem disease with a notorious bad prognosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Vorinostat plus tacrolimus and mycophenolate to prevent graft-versus-host disease after related-donor reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation: a phase 1/2 trial.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sung Won; Braun, Thomas; Chang, Lawrence; Ferrara, James L M; Pawarode, Attaphol; Magenau, John M; Hou, Guoqing; Beumer, Jan H; Levine, John E; Goldstein, Steve; Couriel, Daniel R; Stockerl-Goldstein, Keith; Krijanovski, Oleg I; Kitko, Carrie; Yanik, Gregory A; Lehmann, Michael H; Tawara, Isao; Sun, Yaping; Paczesny, Sophie; Mapara, Markus Y; Dinarello, Charles A; DiPersio, John F; Reddy, Pavan

    2014-01-01

    Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a barrier to more widespread application of allogeneic haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation. Vorinostat is an inhibitor of histone deacetylases and was shown to attenuate GVHD in preclinical models. We aimed to study the safety and activity of vorinostat, in combination with standard immunoprophylaxis, for prevention of GVHD in patients undergoing related-donor reduced-intensity conditioning haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation. Between March 31, 2009, and Feb 8, 2013, we did a prospective, single-arm, phase 1/2 study at two centres in the USA. We recruited adults (aged ≥18 years) with high-risk haematological malignant diseases who were candidates for reduced-intensity conditioning haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation and had an available 8/8 or 7/8 HLA-matched related donor. All patients received a conditioning regimen of fludarabine (40 mg/m(2) daily for 4 days) and busulfan (3.2 mg/kg daily for 2 days) and GVHD immunoprophylaxis of mycophenolate mofetil (1 g three times a day, days 0-28) and tacrolimus (0.03 mg/kg a day, titrated to a goal level of 8-12 ng/mL, starting day -3 until day 180). Vorinostat (either 100 mg or 200 mg, twice a day) was initiated 10 days before haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation until day 100. The primary endpoint was the cumulative incidence of grade 2-4 acute GVHD by day 100. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00810602. 50 patients were assessable for both toxic effects and response; eight additional patients were included in the analysis of toxic effects. All patients engrafted neutrophils and platelets at expected times after haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation. The cumulative incidence of grade 2-4 acute GVHD by day 100 was 22% (95% CI 13-36). The most common non-haematological adverse events included electrolyte disturbances (n=15), hyperglycaemia (11), infections (six), mucositis (four), and increased activity of liver enzymes (three). Non

  20. Vitamin D status and the effects of oral vitamin D treatment in children with vitiligo: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Karagüzel, Gülay; Sakarya, Nil P; Bahadır, Sevgi; Yaman, Selçuk; Ökten, Ayşenur

    2016-10-01

    Vitiligo is a pigmentary disorder and autoimmune pathogenesis seems most likely. Decreased vitamin D levels have been related to several autoimmune diseases. Little is known about the association of vitiligo and vitamin D. We aimed to evaluate serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels in children with vitiligo and to determine the efficacy of oral vitamin D therapy on the repigmentation of vitamin D deficient patients. Thirty patients aged 6-17 years with vitiligo and 30 sex- and age-matched apparently healthy controls were included in this prospective study. Size of the vitiligo representative area was estimated using the point counting method and blood samples were obtained at the beginning and month six. By the end of the study, all patients treated with topical tacrolimus for six months and the patients who were vitamin D deficient (n = 14) had been on combination treatment of oral vitamin D and topical tacrolimus. A dose of 1500 IU/day vitamin D was given if the serum 25(OH)D levels <20 ng/ml and 3000 IU/day was given if the levels <10 ng/ml for six months. Serum 25(OH)D levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Serum 25(OH)D levels of patients and controls were not significantly different (p > 0.05). Lesion size decreased from 66.1 ± 58.3 cm 2 to 48.0 ± 52.6 cm 2 after six months of treatment in patients who received combination treatment (p < 0.001) and increased in patients who received only topical therapy from 34.8 ± 48.1 cm 2 to 53.5 ± 64.9 cm 2 (p < 0.01). Although we did not determine decreased serum 25(OH)D levels in children with vitiligo, we showed that combination treatment with oral vitamin D and topical tacrolimus is more effective in reaching repigmentation than topical tacrolimus alone. Oral vitamin D supplementation might be useful for children with vitiligo who are also deficient in vitamin D. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  1. Assessing the metabolic effects of calcineurin inhibitors in renal transplant recipients by urine metabolic profiling.

    PubMed

    Diémé, Binta; Halimi, Jean Michel; Emond, Patrick; Büchler, Matthias; Nadal-Desbarat, Lydie; Blasco, Hélène; Le Guellec, Chantal

    2014-07-27

    Biomarkers that can predict graft function and/or renal side effects of calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) at each stage of treatment in kidney transplantation are still lacking. We report the first untargeted GC-MS-based metabolomic study on urines of renal transplant patients. This approach would bring insight in biomarkers useable for graft function monitoring. All consecutive patients receiving a kidney allograft in our transplantation department over a 6-month period were prospectively included and followed up for 12 months. We collected urine samples on the seventh day (D7) after transplantation, then at month 3 (M3) and month 12 (M12), and obtained mass-spectrometry-based urinary metabolic profiles. Multivariate analyses were conducted to compare metabolic profiles at the 3 different periods and to assess potential differences between cyclosporine and tacrolimus. Differences in metabolic signatures were also assessed according to graft function at D7 and renal function at M3 and M12. The urinary metabolic patterns varied over time in cyclosporine- and tacrolimus-treated patients and were somewhat different at D7, M3, and M12 between the 2 treatment groups. Principal metabolites that differed, regardless of the treatment used, were mainly sugars, inositol, and hippuric acid. Interestingly, among tacrolimus-treated patients, different metabolic signatures were found between patients with immediate or delayed graft function at D7. Urinary metabolomics represents a noninvasive way of monitoring immunosuppressive therapy in renal transplant patients. Although it is too early to consider it as a biomarker of CNI-induced injury or graft function, metabolomics appears a promising evaluation tool in this area.

  2. Therapeutic approach to mite-induced intractable dermatitis using novel immunomodulator FTY720 ointment (fingolimod) in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Takumi; Okuno, Satoshi; Kuroda, Ayano; Hamazaki, Junya; Chikami, Takuma; Sakurai, Sakura; Yoshida, Yuya; Banno, Rie; Fujita, Tetsuro; Kohno, Takeyuki

    2016-04-01

    The increasing incidence and prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) demands new therapeutic approaches for treating the disease. We investigated the therapeutic efficacy of immunomodulator FTY720 ointment (fingolimod) for mite-induced intractable AD using an NC/Nga mouse model. Female NC/Nga mice that developed severe AD were divided into four groups: (1) FTY720 (0.001% FTY720 ointment), (2) tacrolimus (tacrolimus hydrate ointment) (3) betamethasone (betamethasone ointment), and (4) ointment base (hydrophilic petrolatum), all of which received treatment six times per week. Therapeutic efficacy after two weeks was evaluated in terms of AD severity, histochemical observations (epidermal hypertrophy, mast cell accumulation, and CD3(+) T cell infiltration), transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and epidermal barrier function (filaggrin expression). Betamethasone treatment showed little effect, confirming that the AD was intractable. In the FTY720 group, AD improved significantly compared with the ointment base group, as did epidermal hypertrophy, mast cell accumulation, and CD3(+) T cell infiltration. In contrast, AD in the tacrolimus and betamethasone groups did not improve significantly, nor did epidermal hypertrophy or mast cell accumulation. Furthermore, in the FTY720 group, TEWL decreased significantly compared with the ointment base group, and filaggrin expression significantly increased compared with the betamethasone and ointment base groups. FTY720 ointment is a promising candidate for treatment of intractable AD. These findings also provide the first evidence that FTY720 ointment ameliorates epidermal barrier function. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial to Promote Immunosuppressant Adherence in Adult Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Cukor, Daniel; Ver Halen, Nisha; Pencille, Melissa; Tedla, Fasika; Salifu, Moro

    2017-01-01

    Nonadherence to immunosuppressant medication is a prevalent practice among kidney transplant recipients and has been associated with increased risk for graft failure and economic burden. The aim of this pilot study was to test whether a culturally sensitive cognitive-behavioral adherence promotion program could significantly improve medication adherence to tacrolimus prescription as measured by telephone pill counts among kidney transplant recipients. Thirty-three adult transplant recipients were less than 98% adherent to tacrolimus prescription based on 3 telephone pill counts and were randomized either to the 2-session cognitive-behavioral adherence promotion program or to standard care. The curriculum was developed from an iterative process with transplant recipients into a 2-session group program that provided psychoeducation, addressed barriers to adherence, fostered motivation to improve adherence behavior, and discussed cultural messages on adherence behavior. The intervention group displayed significantly higher levels of adherence when compared to the control group (t = 2.2, p = 0.04) and. similarly, when the amount of change was compared between the groups, the intervention group showed more change than the control condition (F (22,1) = 12.005, p = 0.003). Tacrolimus trough concentration levels were used as a secondary measure of adherence and, while there were no significant between-group differences for mean trough concentration levels, the variability in the trough levels did significantly decrease over time indicating more consistent pill-taking behavior in the intervention group. There is preliminary support for the pilot program as a successful intervention in helping patients with their immunosuppressant medication. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. A review on therapeutic drug monitoring of immunosuppressant drugs.

    PubMed

    Mohammadpour, Niloufar; Elyasi, Sepideh; Vahdati, Naser; Mohammadpour, Amir Hooshang; Shamsara, Jamal

    2011-11-01

    : Immunosuppressants require therapeutic drug monitoring because of their narrow therapeutic index and significant inter-individual variability in blood concentrations. This variability can be because of factors like drug-nutrient interactions, drug-disease interactions, renal-insufficiency, inflammation and infection, gender, age, polymorphism and liver mass. Drug monitoring is widely practiced especially for cyclosporine, tacrolimus, sirolimus and mycophenolic acid. CYCLOSPORINE: Therapeutic monitoring of immunosuppressive therapy with cyclosporine is a critical requirement because of intra- and inter-patient variability of drug absorption, narrow therapeutic window and drug induced nephrotoxicity. MYCOPHENOLIC ACID MPA: Some reasons for therapeutic drug monitoring of MPA during post-transplant period include: relationship between MPA pharmacokinetic parameters and clinical outcomes, Inter-patient pharmacokinetic variability for MPA despite fixed MMF doses, alternations of MPA pharmacokinetics during the first months after transplantation, drug- drug interaction and influence of kidney function on MPA pharmacokinetic. SIROLIMUS: A recent review of the pharmacokinetics of sirolimus suggested a therapeutic range of 5 to 10 μg l(-1) in whole blood. However, the only consensus guidelines published on the therapeutic monitoring of sirolimus concluded that there was not enough information available about the clinical use of the drug to make recommendations. TACROLIMUS: Sudies have shown, in kidney and liver transplant patients, significant associations of low tacrolimus concentrations with rejection and of high concentrations with nephrotoxicity. Although the feasibility of a limited sampling scheme to predict AUC has been demonstrated, as yet, trough, or pre-dose, whole blood concentration monitoring is still the method of choice.

  5. Histologic findings in protocol biopsies performed in stable renal allografts under different immunosuppressive schedules.

    PubMed

    Moreso, F; Alperovich, G; Fulladosa, X; Gil-Vernet, S; Ibernon, M; Carrera, M; Castelao, A M; Hueso, M; Grinyo, J M; Serón, D

    2003-08-01

    Protocol biopsies performed in stable renal allografts show different degrees of acute and chronic lesions. Histologic findings in protocol biopsies have been related to graft outcome. We evaluated histologic lesions observed in protocol biopsies performed in patients under different immunosuppression therapies. From June 1988 a protocol biopsy was performed at approximately 4 months in patients who fulfilled the following criteria: serum creatinine <300 micromol/L; stable renal function; and proteinuria <1 g/d. Histologic lesions were graded according to 1997 Banff criteria. For the present study we considered the following groups according to immunosuppressive schedule: (i) induction therapy with polyclonal or monoclonal antilymphocytic antibodies associated with cyclosporine and prednisone (n=201); (ii) cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil, and prednisone (n=127); and (iii) tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and prednisone (n=51). On protocol biopsy patients treated with tacrolimus displayed a lower acute score (0.61+/-1.01 vs 1.24+/-1.23 in group I, 1.28+/-1.41 in group II; P<.0001) and a higher proportion of normal biopsies (57.1% vs 41.9% in group I, 45.1% in group II; P=.016). A similar proportion of chronic lesions (chronic score of group I: 1.30+/-1.56; group II: 1.34+/-1.80; group III: 1.51+/-0.95; P=NS) was observed in the three groups. Protocol biopsies displayed fewer acute lesions in patients treated with tacrolimus. This result suggests that the efficacy of new immunosuppression schedules can be evaluated using the protocol biopsy as a surrogate marker of graft outcome.

  6. Simultaneous LC-MS-MS determination of cyclosporine A, tacrolimus, and sirolimus in whole blood as well as mycophenolic acid in plasma using common pretreatment procedure.

    PubMed

    Bogusz, Maciej J; Enazi, Eid Al; Hassan, Huda; Abdel-Jawaad, Jamil; Ruwaily, Jamal Al; Tufail, Mohammed Al

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop rapid and simple procedure for simultaneous determination of cyclosporine A (CsA), tacrolimus (TCR), and sirolimus (SIR) in whole blood and mycophenolic acid (MPA) in plasma. Ascomycin (ASCO), cyclosporine D (CsD), and desmethoxysirolimus (DMSIR) were used as internal standards (IS) for TCR, CsA and MPA, and SIR, respectively. In the method development, six-level blood calibrators were used for CsA (range 47-1725 ng/ml), TCR (range 2.1-38.8 ng/ml), and SIR (range 2.4-39.6 ng/ml). Four-level calibrators were used for MPA (range 0.15-5.48 microg/ml). Four levels of quality control (QC) standards were used for blood samples, together with two levels of QC standards in plasma. All QC standards and calibrators were obtained from commercial sources. Sample preparation based on precipitation of 50 microl of sample in zinc sulfate-methanol-acetonitrile mixture containing IS, followed by centrifugation. HPLC was performed on ChromSpher pi column, 30 mm x 3 mm, in ballistic gradient of ammonium formate buffer-methanol at 0.8 ml flow rate. Following gradient elution profile was applied: 0-1.2 min at 30% methanol (divert valve to waste), 1.21-3.1 min 97% methanol (divert valve to detector), 3.11-3.7 min 30% methanol (divert valve to waste). ESI-MS-MS (MRM) was done on TSQ Quantum instrument with ESI source in positive ion mode. Ammoniated adducts of protonated molecules were used as precursor ions for all analytes but MPA. For this compound sodium adduct was used. Following transitions were monitored: for CsA m/z 1220-1203; for CsD 1234-1217; for SIR 931.6-864.5 and 882.6; for DMSIR 902-834.5; for TCR 821.5-768.5 and 785.5; for ASCO 809.5-756; for MPA 343-211.6; for MPA-glucuronide 514-306 and 211.6. The limits of quantitation were: 1 ng/ml for TCR and SIR, 20 ng/ml for CsA, and 0.1 microg/ml for MPA. Post-column infusion experiments showed that no positive or negative peaks appeared after injection of matrix in the elution range of

  7. The Johns Hopkins RTR Consortium: A Collaborative Approach to Advance Translational Science and Standardize Clinical Monitoring of Restorative Transplantation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    received non-myeloablative conditioning with 50cGy total body and 350cGy thymic irradiation for induction. Aim1: Group I was treated with high-dose...regimen of non-myeloablative irradiation and peritransplant tacrolimus. The long-term graft survival off of immunosuppression for animals treated

  8. Enhancements in healthcare information technology systems: customizing vendor-supplied clinical decision support for a high-risk patient population.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Ruchi; Tsapepas, Demetra S; Powell, Jaclyn T; Martin, Spencer T

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare organizations continue to adopt information technologies with clinical decision support (CDS) to prevent potential medication-related adverse drug events. End-users who are unfamiliar with certain high-risk patient populations are at an increased risk of unknowingly causing medication errors. The following case describes a heart transplant recipient exposed to supra-therapeutic concentrations of tacrolimus during co-administration of ritonavir as a result of vendor supplied CDS tools that omitted an interaction alert. After review of 4692 potential tacrolimus-based DDIs between 329 different drug pairs supplied by vendor CDS, the severity of 20 DDIs were downgraded and the severity of 62 were upgraded. The need for institution-specific customization of vendor-provided CDS is paramount to ensure avoidance of medication errors. Individualized care will become more important as patient populations and institutions become more specialized. In the future, vendors providing integrated CDS tools must be proactive in developing institution-specific and easily customizable CDS tools.

  9. Enhancements in healthcare information technology systems: customizing vendor-supplied clinical decision support for a high-risk patient population

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Ruchi; Tsapepas, Demetra S; Powell, Jaclyn T

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare organizations continue to adopt information technologies with clinical decision support (CDS) to prevent potential medication-related adverse drug events. End-users who are unfamiliar with certain high-risk patient populations are at an increased risk of unknowingly causing medication errors. The following case describes a heart transplant recipient exposed to supra-therapeutic concentrations of tacrolimus during co-administration of ritonavir as a result of vendor supplied CDS tools that omitted an interaction alert. After review of 4692 potential tacrolimus-based DDIs between 329 different drug pairs supplied by vendor CDS, the severity of 20 DDIs were downgraded and the severity of 62 were upgraded. The need for institution-specific customization of vendor-provided CDS is paramount to ensure avoidance of medication errors. Individualized care will become more important as patient populations and institutions become more specialized. In the future, vendors providing integrated CDS tools must be proactive in developing institution-specific and easily customizable CDS tools. PMID:22813760

  10. ROLE OF TIMING IN ASSESSMENT OF NERVE REGENERATION

    PubMed Central

    BRENNER, MICHAEL J.; MORADZADEH, ARASH; MYCKATYN, TERENCE M.; TUNG, THOMAS H. H.; MENDEZ, ALLEN B.; HUNTER, DANIEL A.; MACKINNON, SUSAN E.

    2014-01-01

    Small animal models are indispensable for research on nerve injury and reconstruction, but their superlative regenerative potential may confound experimental interpretation. This study investigated time-dependent neuroregenerative phenomena in rodents. Forty-six Lewis rats were randomized to three nerve allograft groups treated with 2 mg/(kg day) tacrolimus; 5 mg/(kg day) Cyclosporine A; or placebo injection. Nerves were subjected to histomorphometric and walking track analysis at serial time points. Tacrolimus increased fiber density, percent neural tissue, and nerve fiber count and accelerated functional recovery at 40 days, but these differences were undetectable by 70 days. Serial walking track analysis showed a similar pattern of recovery. A ‘blow-through’ effect is observed in rodents whereby an advancing nerve front overcomes an experimental defect given sufficient time, rendering experimental groups indistinguishable at late time points. Selection of validated time points and corroboration in higher animal models are essential prerequisites for the clinical application of basic research on nerve regeneration. PMID:18381659

  11. Recommendations of everolimus use in liver transplant.

    PubMed

    Rubín Suárez, Angel; Bilbao Aguirre, Itxarone; Fernández-Castroagudin, Javier; Pons Miñano, José Antonio; Salcedo Plaza, Magdalena; Varo Pérez, Evaristo; Prieto Castillo, Martín

    2017-11-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, everolimus (EVL) and sirolimus are immunosuppressive agents with a minor nephrotoxic effect, limited to the development of proteinuria in some cases. The combination of EVL and low-dose tacrolimus has proven to be as safe and effective as standard therapy with tacrolimus for the prevention of acute cellular rejection. Early initiation of EVL-based immunosuppressive regimens with reduced exposure to calcineurin inhibitors has been shown to significantly improve renal function of LT recipients during induction and maintenance phases, with comparable efficacy and safety profiles. In patients with established kidney failure, initiating EVL may enable clinicians to reduce calcineurin inhibitors exposure, thereby contributing to the improved renal function of these patients. Although there is not sufficient evidence to recommend their use to prevent the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma and the progression of de novo tumours, they are used in this context in routine clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U., AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  12. Diagnostic and management dilemma of a pancreas-kidney transplant recipient with aplastic anaemia.

    PubMed

    Viecelli, Andrea; Hessamodini, Hannah; Augustson, Bradley; Lim, Wai Hon

    2014-09-25

    We report a case of a 57-year-old woman with type I diabetes who had received a simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) transplant maintained on tacrolimus, mycophenolic acid (MPA) and prednisolone. Her renal allograft failed 6 years post-transplant but she continued to have a normal functioning pancreatic allograft. Over the course of 5 years, she developed progressive bone marrow failure with repeat bone marrow aspirates demonstrating an evolution from erythroid hypoplasia to hypocellular marrow and eventual aplastic anaemia despite discontinuation of MPA and reduction of tacrolimus. She was transfusion-dependent and had frequent admissions for sepsis. Despite treatment with antithymocyte globulin and cyclosporine for aplastic anaemia, she developed fatal invasive pulmonary aspergillosis within 3 weeks of treatment. Even though the cause of aplastic anaemia is likely multifactorial, this case highlights the difficulty in balancing the need for versus the risk of ongoing immunosuppression in a SPK transplant recipient who continues to have normal pancreatic graft function. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  13. Maintenance pharmacological immunosuppressive strategies in renal transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Vella, J. P.; Sayegh, M. H.

    1997-01-01

    Current maintenance immunosuppressive regimens for transplantation are based on three classes of drugs: corticosteroids, immunophilin-binding agents (eg, cyclosporin and tacrolimus), and antimetabolites (eg, azathioprine and mycophenolate). Drugs from the various classes inhibit the immune system at different points and are thus synergistic when used in combination. PMID:9338020

  14. Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Diltiazem in Chinese Renal Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xiao-Feng; Li, Dai-Yang; Yin, Wen-Jun; Ding, Jun-Jie; Zhou, Ling-Yun; Wang, Jiang-Lin; Ma, Rong-Rong; Zuo, Xiao-Cong

    2018-02-01

    Diltiazem is a benzothiazepine calcium blocker and widely used in renal transplant patients since it improves the level of tacrolimus or cyclosporine A concentration. Several population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) models had been established for cyclosporine A and tacrolimus but no specific PopPK model was established for diltiazem. The aim of the study is to develop a PopPK model for diltiazem in renal transplant recipients and provide relevant pharmacokinetic parameters of diltiazem for further pharmacokinetic interaction study. Patients received tacrolimus as primary immunosuppressant agent after renal transplant and started administration of diltiazem 90 mg twice daily on 5th day. The concentration of diltiazem at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 8, and 12 h was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Genotyping for CYP3A4*1G, CYP3A5*3, and MDR1 3435 was conducted by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). 25 covariates were considered in the stepwise covariate model (SCM) building procedure. One-compartment structural pharmacokinetic model with first-order absorption and elimination was used to describe the pharmacokinetic characteristics of diltiazem. Total bilirubin (TBIL) influenced apparent volume of distribution (V/F) of diltiazem in the forward selection. The absorption rate constant (K a ), V/F, and apparent oral clearance (CL/F) of the final population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) model of diltiazem were 1.96/h, 3550 L, and 92.4 L/h, respectively. A PopPK model of diltiazem is established in Chinese renal transplant recipients and it will provide relevant pharmacokinetic parameters of diltiazem for further pharmacokinetic interaction study.

  15. Environmental Stress and Atopic Dermatitis: Cure with Steroid-Free Treatment and Mutual Trust in a Good Life Style

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimata, H.

    Atopic Dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin diseasewith severe itching. The exact causes for AD still remain to be elucidated. However, there are at least following 3 causes: 1) allergy, 2) bacterial infection, and 3) environmental stress. These 3 causes are mixed in AD, and consequently symptoms of AD are very complex. In addition, patients with AD are reluctant to take steroid ointment treatment. This is due to the fact that steroid is an anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drug. Thus steroid ointment treatment only temporally improved AD by reduction of inflammation, while it failed to cure bacterial infection. Patients had to apply steroid ointment for long-term, which caused many side effects, including enhancement of IgE production, aggravation of skin infection, and rebound phenomenon. Rebound was aggravation of symptoms upon cessation of steroid ointment use. Enhancement of IgE production augmented allergic responses, while aggravation of skin infecti on worsened skin symptoms. Collectively, lone-term use of steroid ointment complicated AD instead of cure. Patients with AD suffered from these side effects, and they did not trust steroid treatment. Recently, tacrolimus ointment was widely used instead of steroid ointment. However, tacrolimus was more potent immunosuppressive drug, and US FDA warned cancer concern. Therefore, steroid- and tacrolimus-free treatment was considered safer and ideal. Patients with AD were susceptible to stress, which worsened symptoms. Recently, new environmental stress emerged, and patients with AD were suffering from them. In this article, I describe the effect of environmental stress on allergic responses, and explain the details of cases of AD with steroid-free treatment and mutual trust, which resulted in cure of AD.

  16. Effect of Immunosuppressive Agents on Hepatocyte Apoptosis Post-Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Eu Jin; Chin, Ruth; Nachbur, Ueli; Silke, John; Jia, Zhiyuan; Angus, Peter W.; Torresi, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Immunosuppressants are used ubiquitously post-liver transplantation to prevent allograft rejection. However their effects on hepatocytes are unknown. Experimental data from non-liver cells indicate that immunosuppressants may promote cell death thereby driving an inflammatory response that promotes fibrosis and raises concerns that a similar effect may occur within the liver. We evaluated apoptosis within the liver tissue of post-liver transplant patients and correlated these findings with in vitro experiments investigating the effects of immunosuppressants on apoptosis in primary hepatocytes. Methods Hepatocyte apoptosis was assessed using immunohistochemistry for M30 CytoDEATH and cleaved PARP in human liver tissue. Primary mouse hepatocytes were treated with various combinations of cyclosporine, tacrolimus, sirolimus, or MMF. Cell viability and apoptosis were evaluated using crystal violet assays and Western immunoblots probed for cleaved PARP and cleaved caspase 3. Results Post-liver transplant patients had a 4.9-fold and 1.7-fold increase in M30 CytoDEATH and cleaved PARP compared to normal subjects. Cyclosporine and tacrolimus at therapeutic concentrations did not affect hepatocyte apoptosis, however when they were combined with MMF, cell death was significantly enhanced. Cell viability was reduced by 46% and 41%, cleaved PARP was increased 2.6-fold and 2.2-fold, and cleaved caspase 3 increased 2.2-fold and 1.8-fold following treatment with Cyclosporine/MMF and Tacrolimus/MMF respectively. By contrast, the sirolimus/MMF combination did not significantly reduce hepatocyte viability or promote apoptosis. Conclusion Commonly used immunosuppressive drug regimens employed after liver transplantation enhance hepatocyte cell death and may thus contribute to the increased liver fibrosis that occurs in a proportion of liver transplant recipients. PMID:26390404

  17. Tailored dialysis start may allow persistence of residual renal function after graft failure: a case report.

    PubMed

    Piccoli, G B; Motta, D; Gai, M; Mezza, E; Maddalena, E; Bravin, M; Tattoli, F; Consiglio, V; Burdese, M; Bilucaglia, D; Ferrari, A; Segoloni, G P

    2004-11-01

    Restarting dialysis after kidney transplantation is a critical step with psychological and clinical implications. Maintenance of residual renal function a known factor affecting survival in chronic kidney disease, has so far not been investigated after a kidney transplantation. A 54-year-old woman who started dialysis in 1974 (first graft, 1975-1999) received a second "marginal" kidney graft in February 2001 (donor age, 65 years). Her chronic therapy was tacrolimus and steroids. She had a clinical history as follows: nadir creatinine level of 1.5 mg/dL, moderate-severe hypertension, progressive graft dysfunction, nonresponsiveness to addition of mycophenolate, tapering FK levels, and a rescue switch from tacrolimus to rapamycin. From October to December 2003, the creatinine level increased from 2-2.8 to 7 mg/dL. Biopsy specimen showed malignant and "benign" nephrosclerosis, posttransplantation glomerulopathy, and tacrolimus toxicity. Chronic dialysis was started (GFR <3 mL/min). Rapamycin was discontinued. Dialysis was tailored to reach an equivalent renal clearance of >15 mL/min (2 sessions/wk). Blood pressure control improved, nephrotoxic drugs were avoided, and fluid loss was minimized (maximum 500 mL/hr). By this policy, renal function progressively increased to GFR >10 mL/min in May 2004, allowing a once or twice weekly dialysis schedule, with good clinical balance, and obvious advantages for the quality of life. This long-term patient, who restarted dialysis with severely reduced renal function, regained sufficient renal function to allow once weekly dialysis. Thus, careful tailoring of dialysis sessions at the restart of dialysis may allow preservation of residual kidney function, at least in individuals for whom a subsequent graft is unlikely.

  18. Granulosis Rubra Nasi Response to Topical Tacrolimus.

    PubMed

    Taj, Farhana Tahseen; Vupperla, Divya; Desai, Prarthana B

    2017-01-01

    Granulosis Rubra Nasi (GRN) is a rare disorder of the eccrine glands. It is clinically characterized by hyperhidrosis of the central part of the face, most commonly on the tip of the nose, followed by appearance of diffuse erythema over the nose, cheeks, chin, and upper lip. It is commonly seen in childhood but it can present in adults. Here we report a case of GRN in an adult patient with very unusual histopathological presentation.

  19. Efficacy of DHMEQ, a NF-κB inhibitor, in islet transplantation: II. Induction DHMEQ treatment ameliorates subsequent alloimmune responses and permits long-term islet allograft acceptance.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masaaki; Yamashita, Kenichiro; Kamachi, Hirofumi; Kuraya, Daisuke; Koshizuka, Yasuyuki; Shibasaki, Susumu; Asahi, Yoh; Ono, Hitoshi; Emoto, Shin; Ogura, Masaomi; Yoshida, Tadashi; Ozaki, Michitaka; Umezawa, Kazuo; Matsushita, Michiaki; Todo, Satoru

    2013-09-15

    Long-term graft deterioration remains a major obstacle in the success of pancreatic islet transplantation (PITx). Antigen-independent inflammatory and innate immune responses strengthen subsequent antigen-dependent immunity; further, activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB plays a key role during these responses. In this study, we tested our hypothesis that, by the inhibition of NF-κB activation, the suppression of these early responses after PITx could facilitate graft acceptance. Full major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-mismatched BALB/c (H-2) mice islets were transplanted into streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57BL/6 (B6: H-2) mice. The NF-κB inhibitor dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin (DHMEQ) was administered for either 3 or 14 days after PITx. To some PITx recipients, tacrolimus was also administered. Islet allograft survival, alloimmune responses, and in vitro effects of DHMEQ on dendritic cells (DCs) were assessed. With a vehicle treatment, 600 islet allografts were promptly rejected after PITx. In contrast, 3-day treatment with DHMEQ, followed by 2-week treatment with tacrolimus, allowed permanent acceptance of islet allografts. The endogenous danger-signaling molecule high mobility group complex 1 (HMGB1) was elevated in sera shortly after PITx, whereas DHMEQ administration abolished this elevation. DHMEQ suppressed HMGB1-driven cellular activation and proinflammatory cytokine secretion in mouse bone marrow-derived DCs and significantly reduced the capacity of DCs to prime allogeneic T-cell proliferation in vitro. Finally, the DHMEQ plus tacrolimus regimen reverted the diabetic state with only 300 islet allografts. Inhibition of NF-κB activation by DHMEQ shortly after PITx suppresses HMGB1, which activates DCs and strengthens the magnitude of alloimmune responses; this permits long-term islet allograft acceptance, even in case of fewer islet allografts.

  20. Prediabetes in Pediatric Recipients of Liver Transplant: Mechanism and Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Perito, Emily R; Lustig, Robert H; Rosenthal, Philip

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the role of calcineurin inhibitor exposure and states of insulin resistance-obesity and adolescence-in prediabetes after pediatric liver transplant via oral glucose tolerance testing, which previously has not been done systematically in these at-risk youths. This was a cross-sectional study of 81 pediatric recipients of liver transplant. Prediabetes was defined as impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; glucose ≥140 mg/dL at 2 hours) or impaired fasting glucose (IFG, ≥100 mg/dL). Corrected insulin response (CIR) was calculated as measure of insulin secretion, corrected for glucose (CIR 30 , CIR 60 , CIR 120 ). Subjects were aged 8.1-30.0 years and 1.1-24.7 years post-transplant; 44% had prediabetes-27% IGT, 14% IFG, and 3% both. IGT was characterized by insulin hyposecretion, with lower CIR 60 and CIR 120 in IGT than subjects with normal glucose tolerance. Subjects with tacrolimus trough >6 µg/mL at study visit had lower CIR 120 than those with trough ≤6 µg/mL and those off calcineurin-inhibitors. Mean of tacrolimus troughs preceding the study visit, years since transplant, and rejection episodes were not associated significantly with lower CIR. CIR suppression by tacrolimus was most pronounced >6 years from transplant. Overweight/obese subjects and adolescents who retained normal glucose tolerance had greater CIR than those who were IGT. IGT after pediatric liver transplant is driven by inadequate insulin secretion. It is quite common but not detectable with fasting laboratory values-the screening recommended by current guidelines. Calcineurin inhibitors suppress insulin secretion in these patients in a dose-dependent manner. Given the recent focus on long-term outcomes and immunosuppression withdrawal in these children, longitudinal studies are warranted to investigate whether IGT is reversible with calcineurin inhibitor minimization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A Randomized 2x2 Factorial Clinical Trial of Renal Transplantation: Steroid-Free Maintenance Immunosuppression with Calcineurin Inhibitor Withdrawal after Six Months Associates with Improved Renal Function and Reduced Chronic Histopathology.

    PubMed

    Stevens, R Brian; Foster, Kirk W; Miles, Clifford D; Kalil, Andre C; Florescu, Diana F; Sandoz, John P; Rigley, Theodore H; Malik, Tamer; Wrenshall, Lucile E

    2015-01-01

    The two most significant impediments to renal allograft survival are rejection and the direct nephrotoxicity of the immunosuppressant drugs required to prevent it. Calcineurin inhibitors (CNI), a mainstay of most immunosuppression regimens, are particularly nephrotoxic. Until less toxic antirejection agents become available, the only option is to optimize our use of those at hand. To determine whether intensive rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin (rATG) induction followed by CNI withdrawal would individually or combined improve graft function and reduce graft chronic histopathology-surrogates for graft and, therefore, patient survival. As previously reported, a single large rATG dose over 24 hours was well-tolerated and associated with better renal function, fewer infections, and improved patient survival. Here we report testing whether complete CNI discontinuation would improve renal function and decrease graft pathology. Between April 20, 2004 and 4-14-2009 we conducted a prospective, randomized, non-blinded renal transplantation trial of two rATG dosing protocols (single dose, 6 mg/kg vs. divided doses, 1.5 mg/kg every other day x 4; target enrollment = 180). Subsequent maintenance immunosuppression consisted of tacrolimus, a CNI, and sirolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor. We report here the outcome of converting patients after six months either to minimized tacrolimus/sirolimus or mycophenolate mofetil/sirolimus. Primary endpoints were graft function and chronic histopathology from protocol kidney biopsies at 12 and 24 months. CNI withdrawal (on-treatment analysis) associated with better graft function (p <0.001) and lower chronic histopathology composite scores in protocol biopsies at 12 (p = 0.003) and 24 (p = 0.013) months, without affecting patient (p = 0.81) or graft (p = 0.93) survival, or rejection rate (p = 0.17). CNI (tacrolimus) withdrawal at six months may provide a strategy for decreased nephrotoxicity and improved long-term function in

  2. Syndrome in question.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yinhua; Qiao, Jianjun; Fang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Vulvovaginal-gingival syndrome is characterized by erosions and desquamation of the vulva, vagina, and gingiva. We reported a case of a 32-year-old woman presenting with an 8-year history of damage to the vulval and perianal anatomy and limitation of mouth opening. The patient's symptoms were relieved after treatment with topical tacrolimus cream.

  3. [Special considerations in generic substitution of immunosuppressive drugs in transplantation].

    PubMed

    Remport, Adám; Dankó, Dávid; Gerlei, Zsuzsa; Czebe, Krisztina; Kiss, István

    2012-08-26

    Long-term success in solid organ transplantation strongly depends on the optimal use of maintenance immunosuppressive treatment. Cyclosporin and tacrolimus are the most frequently administered immunosuppressants and they are designed to narrow therapeutic index drugs. The substitution of the branded formulation by their generic counterparts may lead to economic benefit only if equivalent clinical outcomes can be achieved. There is no published evidence to date on the guarantee of their long-term therapeutic equivalence and cases of therapeutic failures have been reported due to inadvertent drug conversion. The disadvantageous clinical consequences of a non medical, mechanistic forced switch from the original to generic formulation of tacrolimus and the estimated loss of the payer's presumed savings are presented in a kidney transplant recipient population. Special problems related to pediatric patients, drug interactions with concurrent medications and the burden of additional therapeutic drug monitoring and follow up visits are also discussed. The authors are convinced that the implementation of the European Society of Organ Transplantation guidelines on generic substitution may provide a safe way for patients and healthcare payers.

  4. Syndrome in question*

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yinhua; Qiao, Jianjun; Fang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Vulvovaginal-gingival syndrome is characterized by erosions and desquamation of the vulva, vagina, and gingiva. We reported a case of a 32-year-old woman presenting with an 8-year history of damage to the vulval and perianal anatomy and limitation of mouth opening. The patient's symptoms were relieved after treatment with topical tacrolimus cream. PMID:25184936

  5. Current and emerging treatments for the management of myasthenia gravis

    PubMed Central

    Sathasivam, Sivakumar

    2011-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune neuromuscular disorder. There are several treatment options, including symptomatic treatment (acetylcholinesterase inhibitors), short-term immunosuppression (corticosteroids), long-term immunosuppression (azathioprine, cyclosporine, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, mycophenolate mofetil, rituximab, tacrolimus), rapid acting short-term immunomodulation (intravenous immunoglobulin, plasma exchange), and long-term immunomodulation (thymectomy). This review explores in detail these different treatment options. Potential future treatments are also discussed. PMID:21845054

  6. The Johns Hopkins RTR Consortium: A Collaborative Approach to Advance Translational Science and Standardize Clinical Monitoring of Restorative Transplantation - Immunomodulation and Tolerance Induction after VCA using Biologic Agent (cTLA4-Ig) and Donor Bone Marrow Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    group, Pig 22227, was due to a gastrointestinal bleed , related to either infectious gastroenteritis/colitis or stress ulcer formation. The third... upper extremity transplantation. Delays in progress and incomplete groups will be discussed in detail in Section 5 – Changes/Problems. Table 1...Implemented successfully first clinical protocol for upper extremity transplantation using donor bone marrow cell therapies and tacrolimus

  7. Branched Nerve Allografts to Improve Outcomes in Facial Composite Tissue Transplantation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-12-01

    Ethicon, Inc. Somervile, N.J.). Postoperatively, animals were recovered per standard protocol in the animal care facility.  Experimental Design ...official Department of the Army position, policy or decision unless so designated by other documentation. REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No...a human xenograft with or without oral Tacrolimus. Electrophysiologic assessments were performed pre -operatively and at the study endpoint (24 weeks

  8. Immunosuppressive Interactions among Calcium Channel Antagonists and Selected Corticosteroids and Macrolides Using Human whole Blood Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Fung-Sing; Jusko, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The immunosuppressive interactions of calcium channel antagonists [diltiazem (Dil), verapamil (Ver) and nifedipine (Nif)], with corticosteroids [methylprednisolone (Mpl), prednisolone (Prd)], and macrolides [tacrolimus (Tac) and sirolnnus (Sir)] were examined in human whole blood lymphocyte cultures. Gender-related differences in responses in the interactions between these drug classes were studied using blood from 6 males and 6 females. The nature and intensity of interactions were determined using an extended Loewe additivity model. All immunosuppressants exhibited higher potency than the calcium channel antagonists with mean IC50 values of: Dil (mM)Ver (mM)Nif (mM)Mpl (nM)Prd (nM)Tac (nM)Sir (nM)Male13541.921312.118.6150327Female11431.847.44.68.8111106 Gender-related differences in responses to Mpl and Prd were observed while the others were not significant. Additive interactions were found among calcium channel antagonists and corticosteroids. Significant synergistic interactions were observed between calcium channel antagonists and tacrolimus and sirolimus, although these are unlikely to be of clinical importance. These studies demonstrate diverse drug interactions in the examination of an important array of immunosuppressant drug combinations. PMID:15681895

  9. Treatment of Alopecia Areata in the United States: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Farhangian, Michael E; McMichael, Amy J; Huang, Karen E; Feldman, Steven R

    2015-09-01

    Alopecia Areata (AA) is a non-scarring alopecia that affects millions of Americans, however the way it is treated and which patients seek treatment is not well characterized. To better understand how AA was being treated in the United States, what type of patients are seen for AA, and what physicians treated them. We analyzed data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS) from 2001 to 2010. We tabulated patient characteristics, the physicians who treated AA and what treatments were prescribed for AA. There were an estimated 2.6 million outpatient visits for AA. Patients with AA were most commonly treated by a dermatologists (84.8%). Patients were most commonly treated with topical and injected corticosteroids (61.0%) followed by minoxidil (5.9%) and topical tacrolimus (5.7%). Males made fewer visits per 1,000 capita compared to females (P=0.01). The NAMCS and NHAMCS do not record severity of disease data. Topical and injected corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment for AA, however the use of steroid sparing agents such as minoxidil is low. Despite no studies demonstrating efficacy, topical tacrolimus was used almost as frequently as minoxidil.

  10. Advances in intravesical therapy for urinary tract disorders

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Pradeep; Kashyap, Mahendra; Hensley, Harvey; Yoshimura, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Intravesical therapy is a valuable option in the clinical management of urinary tract disorders such as interstitial cystitis/ painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) and refractory overactive bladder. This review will cover the latest advances in this field using polymer and liposomes as delivery platform for drugs, protein and nucleic acids. Areas covered This review summarizes the significance of intravesical therapy for lower urinary tract disorders. The recent advancement of liposomes as a drug delivery platform for botulinum toxin, tacrolimus and small interfering RNA is discussed. The importance of polymers forming indwelling devices and hydrogels are also discussed, where all preparations improved efficacy parameters in rodent models. Clinical experience of treating IC/PBS with indwelling devices and liposomes are summarized and preclinical evidence about the downregulation of target gene expression in rodent bladder with liposomes complexed with siRNA is also reviewed. Expert opinion There have been several advances in the field of intravesical therapy for improving clinical outcomes. One of the most promising research avenues is the repurposing of drugs, given previously by other routes of administration, such as tacrolimus. Intravesical therapy also opens up novel therapeutic targets with improved efficacy and safety for underactive bladder. PMID:26479968

  11. Frontal fibrosing alopecia.

    PubMed

    Clark-Loeser, Lesley; Latkowski, Jo-Ann

    2005-12-30

    A 75-year-old woman presented with a 3-year history of progressive loss of her eyebrow hair and with frontal-parietal hairline recession. Multiple biopsy specimens supported a histopathologic diagnosis of lichen planopilaris. With these histolopathologic findings, and the patient's clinical presentation, a diagnosis of frontal fibrosing alopecia was made. Treatment to date with topical glucocorticoid preparations, intralesional triamcinolone injections, and tacrolimus ointment have been unsuccessful.

  12. A Randomized 2x2 Factorial Clinical Trial of Renal Transplantation: Steroid-Free Maintenance Immunosuppression with Calcineurin Inhibitor Withdrawal after Six Months Associates with Improved Renal Function and Reduced Chronic Histopathology

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, R. Brian; Foster, Kirk W.; Miles, Clifford D.; Kalil, Andre C.; Florescu, Diana F.; Sandoz, John P.; Rigley, Theodore H.; Malik, Tamer; Wrenshall, Lucile E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The two most significant impediments to renal allograft survival are rejection and the direct nephrotoxicity of the immunosuppressant drugs required to prevent it. Calcineurin inhibitors (CNI), a mainstay of most immunosuppression regimens, are particularly nephrotoxic. Until less toxic antirejection agents become available, the only option is to optimize our use of those at hand. Aim To determine whether intensive rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin (rATG) induction followed by CNI withdrawal would individually or combined improve graft function and reduce graft chronic histopathology–surrogates for graft and, therefore, patient survival. As previously reported, a single large rATG dose over 24 hours was well-tolerated and associated with better renal function, fewer infections, and improved patient survival. Here we report testing whether complete CNI discontinuation would improve renal function and decrease graft pathology. Methods Between April 20, 2004 and 4-14-2009 we conducted a prospective, randomized, non-blinded renal transplantation trial of two rATG dosing protocols (single dose, 6 mg/kg vs. divided doses, 1.5 mg/kg every other day x 4; target enrollment = 180). Subsequent maintenance immunosuppression consisted of tacrolimus, a CNI, and sirolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor. We report here the outcome of converting patients after six months either to minimized tacrolimus/sirolimus or mycophenolate mofetil/sirolimus. Primary endpoints were graft function and chronic histopathology from protocol kidney biopsies at 12 and 24 months Results CNI withdrawal (on-treatment analysis) associated with better graft function (p <0.001) and lower chronic histopathology composite scores in protocol biopsies at 12 (p = 0.003) and 24 (p = 0.013) months, without affecting patient (p = 0.81) or graft (p = 0.93) survival, or rejection rate (p = 0.17). Conclusion CNI (tacrolimus) withdrawal at six months may provide a strategy for decreased

  13. Pediatric Heart Transplantation: Transitioning to Adult Care (TRANSIT): Baseline Findings.

    PubMed

    Grady, Kathleen L; Hof, Kathleen Van't; Andrei, Adin-Cristian; Shankel, Tamara; Chinnock, Richard; Miyamoto, Shelley; Ambardekar, Amrut V; Anderson, Allen; Addonizio, Linda; Latif, Farhana; Lefkowitz, Debra; Goldberg, Lee; Hollander, Seth A; Pham, Michael; Weissberg-Benchell, Jill; Cool, Nichole; Yancy, Clyde; Pahl, Elfriede

    2018-02-01

    Young adult solid organ transplant recipients who transfer from pediatric to adult care experience poor outcomes related to decreased adherence to the medical regimen. Our pilot trial for young adults who had heart transplant (HT) who transfer to adult care tests an intervention focused on increasing HT knowledge, self-management and self-advocacy skills, and enhancing support, as compared to usual care. We report baseline findings between groups regarding (1) patient-level outcomes and (2) components of the intervention. From 3/14 to 9/16, 88 subjects enrolled and randomized to intervention (n = 43) or usual care (n = 45) at six pediatric HT centers. Patient self-report questionnaires and medical records data were collected at baseline, and 3 and 6 months after transfer. For this report, baseline findings (at enrollment and prior to transfer to adult care) were analyzed using Chi-square and t-tests. Level of significance was p < 0.05. Baseline demographics were similar in the intervention and usual care arms: age 21.3 ± 3.2 vs 21.5 ± 3.3 years and female 44% vs 49%, respectively. At baseline, there were no differences between intervention and usual care for use of tacrolimus (70 vs 62%); tacrolimus level (mean ± SD = 6.5 ± 2.3 ng/ml vs 5.6 ± 2.3 ng/ml); average of the within patient standard deviation of the baseline mean tacrolimus levels (1.6 vs 1.3); and adherence to the medical regimen [3.6 ± 0.4 vs 3.5 ± 0.5 (1 = hardly ever to 4 = all of the time)], respectively. At baseline, both groups had a modest amount of HT knowledge, were learning self-management and self-advocacy, and perceived they were adequately supported. Baseline findings indicate that transitioning HT recipients lack essential knowledge about HT and have incomplete self-management and self-advocacy skills.

  14. sCD30, interleukin-1beta-converting enzyme and anti-Annexin V autoantibodies concentrations in heart transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Zeglen, Sławomir; Zakliczyński, Michał; Nozyński, Jerzy; Rogala, Barbara; Zembala, Marian

    2006-11-01

    sCD30 and ICE/caspase-1 as apoptosis-regulating factors are suspected to be involved in the survival rate of immunocompetent cells during immunosuppression after allotransplantation. Serum CD30 and ICE/caspase-1 concentrations were estimated and associated with unspecific serum apoptosis marker--anti-Annexin V antibodies and myocardial biopsies results. 28 clinically stabile patients--heart transplant recipients at least 3 months after cardiac transplantation performed due to heart failure caused by ischaemic and/or congestive cardiomyopathy or/and primary valvular heart disease (26 men and 2 women, mean age=36.8 years, S.D.=7.6) with normal heart function assessed by use of ultrasound scan--were involved in the trial. The patients were divided and analyzed in two ways: first according to the results of elective endomyocardial biopsies and second to main immunosuppressive agent used. The enzyme immunoassay (CD30, Dako; interleukin-1beta-converting enzyme (ICE)/Caspase-1 ELISA and anti-Annexin V BENDER MedSystem) for soluble CD30, caspase-1 and anti-Annexin V autoantibodies serum levels was used. sCD30 and caspase-1 concentrations were non-significantly up-regulated in all analysed groups--with or without rejection signs or immunosuppressed with cyclosporine or especially tacrolimus. In contrast anti-Annexin V autoantibodies concentration was non-significantly down-regulated also in all studied groups. Moreover in the group with signs of transplant rejection, strong negative correlation between anti-Annexin antibodies and rejection grade was observed (-0.65, p<0.05). Biopsy results were comparable in groups treated with tacrolimus and cyclosporine A. The increasing tendency of sCD30 and caspase-1 as well as the decrease in anti-Annexin V autoantibodies concentrations in heart recipients could be the result of post-transplant apoptosis disturbances. This tendency seems to be inhibited in a greater degree by tacrolimus than by cyclosporine. Anti-Annexin V

  15. New-onset diabetes mellitus after living-donor liver transplantation: association with graft synthetic function.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Shintaro; Kaido, Toshimi; Iida, Taku; Yoshizawa, Atsushi; Okajima, Hideaki; Uemoto, Shinji

    2017-06-01

    It is now known that post-transplant graft function after deceased-donor liver transplantation and living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) differ; however, there is no report assessing the relationship between graft function and the development of new-onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation (NODAT). We conducted this study to identify the predictive risk factors for NODAT, including graft function after LDLT. The subjects of this study were 175 adult recipients who underwent LDLT at Kyoto University Hospital between 2006 and 2010, and survived for more than 3 months (median observation period, 1046 days). The 1-, 2-, and 3-year incidences of NODAT after LDLT were 26.1, 32.0, and 33.4%, respectively. Pre-transplant diabetes was associated with poor survival (p = 0.0048), whereas NODAT was not associated with patient survival. In the multivariate analysis, recipient age ≥40, a tacrolimus trough level ≥8 ng/mL 3 months after LDLT, and cholinesterase (ChE) <185 IU/L 3 months after LDLT were the independent risk factors for NODAT. Poor graft synthetic function 3 months after LDLT as well as older age of the recipient and a higher tacrolimus concentration were strongly associated with NODAT development after LDLT.

  16. Analysis of the Pho regulon in Streptomyces tsukubaensis.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez-Robles, María; Santos-Beneit, Fernando; Rodríguez-García, Antonio; Martín, Juan F

    2017-12-01

    Phosphate regulation of antibiotic biosynthesis in Streptomyces has been studied due to the importance of this genus as a source of secondary metabolites with biological activity. Streptomyces tsukubaensis is the main producer of tacrolimus (or FK506), an immunosuppressant macrolide that generates important benefits for the pharmaceutical market. However, the production of tacrolimus is under a negative control by phosphate and, therefore, is important to know the molecular mechanism of this regulation. Despite its important role, there are no reports about the Pho regulon in S. tsukubaensis. In this work we combined transcriptional studies on the response to phosphate starvation with the search for PHO boxes in the whole genome sequence of S. tsukubaensis. As a result, we identified a set of genes responding to phosphate starvation and containing PHO boxes that include common Pho regulon members but also new species-specific candidates. In addition, we demonstrate for the first time the functional activity of PhoP from S. tsukubaensis through complementation studies in a Streptomyces coelicolor ΔphoP strain. For this purpose, we developed an anhydrotetracycline inducible system that can be applied to the controlled expression of target genes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Mycophenolate mofetil decreases endothelial prostaglandin E2 in response to allogeneic T cells or cytokines.

    PubMed

    Blaheta, R A; Nelson, K; Oppermann, E; Leckel, K; Harder, S; Cinatl, J; Weber, S; Shipkova, M; Encke, A; Markus, B H

    2000-05-15

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a powerful endogenous immune suppressant and interferes with various T-cell functions. However, it is not known in detail whether immunosuppressive drugs influence the PGE2-driven immune response in transplant patients. Therefore, we investigated the effect of several immunosuppressive compounds, in particular the novel drug mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), on endothelial PGE2 release. Endothelial cells (HUVEC) were activated by either allogeneic CD4+ or CD8+ T cells, or by the cytokines interleukin-1 or gamma-interferon. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we analyzed PGE2 release of the activated HWEC in the presence of MMF, cyclosporine, or tacrolimus. As verapamil and mibefradil also possess immunosuppressive properties, they were included in the study as well. Activation of HUVEC with interleukin-1 or T cells resulted in a drastic accumulation of PGE2 in the supernatant. Cyclosporine or tacrolimus had no effect on PGE2 release. However, Ca2+ channel blockers, when applied at higher dosages, caused a significant increase in PGE2. Interestingly, MMF strongly diminished the PGE2 level in the cell culture supernatant in a concentration-dependent manner. The results demonstrate an inhibitory effect of MMF on PGE2 production, which may lower the benefits of the PGE2-triggered immune response after organ transplantation.

  18. Paraneoplastic myasthenia gravis: immunological and clinical aspects.

    PubMed

    Skeie, G O; Romi, F

    2008-10-01

    Paraneoplastic myasthenia gravis (MG) is accompanied by a neoplasm, usually thymoma. In patients with thymoma and a specific genetic make-up, the paraneoplastic immune response develops further in thymic remnant or peripheral lymphatic tissue. Paraneoplastic MG and late-onset MG (age >or= 50 years) share a similar immunological profile with high titin and ryanodine receptor (RyR) antibody prevalence. This profile is the most important predictor of clinical outcome in paraneoplastic MG. The presence of a thymoma per se does not cause more severe MG. MG severity is linked to the patient's immunological profile. Paraneoplastic MG causes a distinctive non-limb symptom profile at MG onset, characterized by bulbar, ocular, neck, and respiratory symptoms. When the diagnosis of paraneoplastic MG is established, the neoplasm should be removed surgically. Pre-thymectomy plasmapheresis or iv-IgG should be considered in these patients to minimize post-thymectomy MG exacerbation risk. Paraneoplastic MG usually continues after thymectomy. The pharmacological treatment of paraneoplastic MG does not differ from non-paraneoplastic MG, except for tacrolimus that should be considered in difficult cases. Tacrolimus is an immunosuppressant acting specifically in RyR antibody positive patients through enhancing RyR-related sarcoplasmic calcium release that in theory might be blocked by RyR antibodies, causing symptomatic relief in paraneoplastic MG.

  19. Dengue fever in a liver-transplanted patient: a case report.

    PubMed

    Weerakkody, Ranga Migara; Palangasinghe, Dhammika Randula; Dalpatadu, Kaluthanthri Patabandi Chamila; Rankothkumbura, Jeewan Pradeep; Cassim, Mohammed Rezni Nizam; Karunanayake, Panduka

    2014-11-21

    Dengue fever is one of the commonest mosquito-borne diseases in the tropics, and Sri Lanka is no exception. Despite its commonness, dengue fever has rarely been described among patients who have undergone transplantation. We report the case of a patient with dengue fever after liver transplantation, which, to the best of our knowledge, is the first such reported case outside Brazil. Our patient was a 46-year-old Sri Lakan man who presented to our institution two years after undergoing an ABO-compatible cadaveric liver transplant. At presentation, he had typical symptoms of dengue fever. He was taking prednisolone 5mg daily and tacrolimus 3mg twice daily as immunosuppression. Initial investigations showed thrombocytopenia and neutropenia that reached a nadir by day 7 of his illness. He had elevated liver enzymes as well. The diagnosis was confirmed on the basis of NS1 antigen detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. His blood cultures and polymerase chain reaction tests for cytomegalovirus were negative. He made an uneventful recovery and was discharged by day 9 of his illness. However, normalization of liver function took nearly two weeks. In three previously reported Brazilian cases of dengue after liver transplantation, the patients presented with dengue shock syndrome, in contrast to the relatively milder presentation of our patient. Because of the lack of case reports in the literature, it is difficult to ascertain the risk factors for severe dengue infection in transplants, but dengue fever reported in renal transplants sheds some light on them. High-dose steroids increase the risk of thrombocytopenia, whereas tacrolimus has been reported to prolong the duration of symptoms. Otherwise, dengue fever is a relatively mild illness in patients who have undergone renal transplantation, and renal allograft survival has been reported to be 86% following dengue fever. Dengue is a rarely reported infection in patients who have undergone transplantation. A high

  20. Validity and reliability of a novel immunosuppressive adverse effects scoring system in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Meaney, Calvin J; Arabi, Ziad; Venuto, Rocco C; Consiglio, Joseph D; Wilding, Gregory E; Tornatore, Kathleen M

    2014-06-12

    After renal transplantation, many patients experience adverse effects from maintenance immunosuppressive drugs. When these adverse effects occur, patient adherence with immunosuppression may be reduced and impact allograft survival. If these adverse effects could be prospectively monitored in an objective manner and possibly prevented, adherence to immunosuppressive regimens could be optimized and allograft survival improved. Prospective, standardized clinical approaches to assess immunosuppressive adverse effects by health care providers are limited. Therefore, we developed and evaluated the application, reliability and validity of a novel adverse effects scoring system in renal transplant recipients receiving calcineurin inhibitor (cyclosporine or tacrolimus) and mycophenolic acid based immunosuppressive therapy. The scoring system included 18 non-renal adverse effects organized into gastrointestinal, central nervous system and aesthetic domains developed by a multidisciplinary physician group. Nephrologists employed this standardized adverse effect evaluation in stable renal transplant patients using physical exam, review of systems, recent laboratory results, and medication adherence assessment during a clinic visit. Stable renal transplant recipients in two clinical studies were evaluated and received immunosuppressive regimens comprised of either cyclosporine or tacrolimus with mycophenolic acid. Face, content, and construct validity were assessed to document these adverse effect evaluations. Inter-rater reliability was determined using the Kappa statistic and intra-class correlation. A total of 58 renal transplant recipients were assessed using the adverse effects scoring system confirming face validity. Nephrologists (subject matter experts) rated the 18 adverse effects as: 3.1 ± 0.75 out of 4 (maximum) regarding clinical importance to verify content validity. The adverse effects scoring system distinguished 1.75-fold increased gastrointestinal adverse

  1. Successful leukocytapheresis therapy in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis on maintenance hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Maeshima, Keisuke; Torigoe, Masataka; Iwakura, Mikako; Yamanaka, Kunitoshi; Ishii, Koji

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 44-year-old female undergoing maintenance hemodialysis in whom early-phase rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was successfully treated by leukocytapheresis (LCAP). The effects of prednisone, tacrolimus, and etanercept were limited, but LCAP was highly effective and its efficacy continued even after cessation of LCAP. Moreover, remission was maintained for 2 years after discontinuation of medication. LCAP may be an important treatment option for RA patients with end-stage renal failure who are on hemodialysis.

  2. Cyclosporine Induces Endothelial Cell Release of Complement-Activating Microparticles

    PubMed Central

    Renner, Brandon; Klawitter, Jelena; Goldberg, Ryan; McCullough, James W.; Ferreira, Viviana P.; Cooper, James E.; Christians, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    Defective control of the alternative pathway of complement is an important risk factor for several renal diseases, including atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Infections, drugs, pregnancy, and hemodynamic insults can trigger episodes of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome in susceptible patients. Although the mechanisms linking these clinical events with disease flares are unknown, recent work has revealed that each of these clinical conditions causes cells to release microparticles. We hypothesized that microparticles released from injured endothelial cells promote intrarenal complement activation. Calcineurin inhibitors cause vascular and renal injury and can trigger hemolytic uremic syndrome. Here, we show that endothelial cells exposed to cyclosporine in vitro and in vivo release microparticles that activate the alternative pathway of complement. Cyclosporine-induced microparticles caused injury to bystander endothelial cells and are associated with complement-mediated injury of the kidneys and vasculature in cyclosporine-treated mice. Cyclosporine-induced microparticles did not bind factor H, an alternative pathway regulatory protein present in plasma, explaining their complement-activating phenotype. Finally, we found that in renal transplant patients, the number of endothelial microparticles in plasma increases 2 weeks after starting tacrolimus, and treatment with tacrolimus associated with increased C3 deposition on endothelial microparticles in the plasma of some patients. These results suggest that injury-associated release of endothelial microparticles is an important mechanism by which systemic insults trigger intravascular complement activation and complement-dependent renal diseases. PMID:24092930

  3. Cyclosporine use and male gender are independent determinants of avascular necrosis after kidney transplantation: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Schachtner, Thomas; Otto, Natalie M; Reinke, Petra

    2018-06-03

    Kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) are at increased risk of avascular necrosis (AVN) due to bone disorder, steroid use and common comorbidities. However, knowledge on risk factors and outcomes of AVN among KTRs in the modern era of immunosuppression remains scarce. We analysed 765 KTRs between 2001 and 2013 for AVN. Cases of symptomatic AVN were diagnosed by hip X-ray, radioisotope bone scan or magnetic resonance imaging. We evaluated risk factors and clinical characteristics of AVN. KTRs showed a constant incidence rate of AVN of 4.1% at 10 years after transplantation. The use of cyclosporine compared with tacrolimus was identified as an independent risk factor, with a rate of 8.0% compared with 2.7% at 10 years (P < 0.01). In addition, male gender was independently associated with AVN (P = 0.047). Eighty-three per cent of AVN cases were of the femoral head and treated operatively. None of the operated KTRs experienced complications in the long term. Thirty-three per cent of KTRs had bilateral AVN. Ninety-two per cent of KTRs showed AVN at the allograft side. The decreasing incidence of AVN may be attributed to the replacement of cyclosporine by tacrolimus over the last decade. Our data raise the hypothesis of an ischaemic steal syndrome due to the allograft kidney impacting AVN at the allograft side.

  4. Management of Atopic Dermatitis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saeki, Hidehisa

    2017-01-01

    The guidelines for the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD) issued by the Japanese Dermatological Association (JDA), which are basically designed for dermatologists, were first prepared in 2000 and revised in 2016. The guidelines for AD of the Japanese Society of Allergology (JSA), which are basically designed for allergologists, including internists, otorhinolaryngologists, ophthalmologists, and dermatologists, were first prepared in 2009 and revised in 2014. In this article, I review the definition, pathophysiology, etiology, epidemiology, diagnosis, severity classification, examination for diagnosis and severity assessment, and treatments for AD in Japan according to these two guidelines for AD (JDA and JSA). Based on the definition and diagnostic criteria for AD of the JDA, patients meeting three basic criteria, 1) pruritus, 2) typical morphology and distribution of the eczema, and 3) chronic or chronically relapsing course, are regarded as having AD. Treatment measures for AD basically consist of drug therapy, skin care, and elimination of exacerbating factors. Drugs that potently reduce AD-related inflammation in the skin are topical corticosteroids and tacrolimus. It is most important to promptly and accurately reduce inflammation related to AD by using these topical anti-inflammatory drugs. Proactive therapy refers to a treatment method in which, after inducing remission, a topical corticosteroid or tacrolimus ointment is intermittently applied to the skin in addition to skin care with moisturizers in order to maintain remission.

  5. Generic maintenance immunosuppression in solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Ensor, Christopher R; Trofe-Clark, Jennifer; Gabardi, Steven; McDevitt-Potter, Lisa M; Shullo, Michael A

    2011-11-01

    Survival after solid organ transplantation has increased in the era of tacrolimus and mycophenolate. This increased survival could be due in part to the broad clinical use of these potent and specific agents for maintenance immunosuppression. These drugs have enhanced specificity and potency for T and B lymphocytes compared with their predecessors, cyclosporine and azathioprine. Between 2008 and 2010, the United States Food and Drug Administration approved several generic formulations of both tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil. Deciding whether generic products can be safely substituted for the innovator product is a clinical dilemma similar to that which occurred when generic formulations of cyclosporine became available. We describe the concerns regarding generic immunosuppression use, summarize expert opinion and consensus statements in transplantation, analyze the potential impact of generic substitution, and provide estimates of populations affected based on generic drug market penetration. Formulary considerations such as cost, availability, and potential drug ordering and drug selection errors are described, and transplant coordinator and patient perspectives are reviewed. Finally, general recommendations about the use of generic maintenance immunosuppression in solid organ transplant recipients are provided. Although more research is needed to confirm clinical and therapeutic equivalence and pharmacoeconomic benefit, generic immunosuppressants can be safely substituted for innovator products as long as patients consistently receive the same product, patients and clinicians are aware of when substitutions occur, and enhanced therapeutic drug monitoring is provided during the transition.

  6. Single-dose rATG induction at renal transplantation: superior renal function and glucoregulation with less hypomagnesemia.

    PubMed

    Stevens, R Brian; Lane, James T; Boerner, Brian P; Miles, Clifford D; Rigley, Theodore H; Sandoz, John P; Nielsen, Kathleen J; Skorupa, Jill Y; Skorupa, Anna J; Kaplan, Bruce; Wrenshall, Lucile E

    2012-01-01

    Rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin (rATG) induction reduces reperfusion injury and improves renal function in kidney recipients by means of properties unrelated to T-cell lysis. Here, we analyze intensive rATG induction (single dose, rATG(S) , vs. divided dose, rATG(D) ) for improved renal function and protection against hyperglycemia. Patients without diabetes (n = 98 of 180) in a prospective randomized trial of intensive rATG induction were followed for six months for the major secondary composite end point of impaired glucose regulation (hyperglycemia and new-onset diabetes after transplantation, NODAT). Prospectively collected data included fasting blood glucose and HbA(1c). Serum Mg(++) was routinely collected and retrospectively analyzed. Induction with rATG(S) produced less impaired glucose regulation (p = 0.05), delayed NODAT development (p = 0.02), less hyperglycemia (p = 0.02), better renal function (p = 0.04), and less hypomagnesemia (p = 0.02), a factor associated with a lower incidence of NODAT. Generalized linear modeling confirmed that rATG(S) protects against a synergistic interaction between tacrolimus and sirolimus that otherwise increased hypomagnesemia (p = 0.008) and hyperglycemia (p = 0.03). rATG(S) initiated before renal reperfusion improved early renal function and reduced impaired glucose regulation, an injury by diabetogenic maintenance agents (tacrolimus and sirolimus). © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Mycophenolic acid AUC in Thai kidney transplant recipients receiving low dose mycophenolate and its association with UGT2B7 polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Pithukpakorn, Manop; Tiwawanwong, Tiwat; Lalerd, Yupaporn; Assawamakin, Anunchai; Premasathian, Nalinee; Tasanarong, Adis; Thongnoppakhun, Wanna; Vongwiwatana, Attapong

    2014-01-01

    Despite use of a lower mycophenolate dose in Thai kidney transplant patients, acceptable graft and patient outcomes can be achieved. We therefore examined the pharmacokinetics of mycophenolic acid (MPA) by area under the curve (AUC) and investigated genetic contribution in mycophenolate metabolism in this population. Kidney transplant recipients with stable graft function who were receiving mycophenolate mofetil 1,000 mg/d in combination with either cyclosporine or tacrolimus, and prednisolone were studied. The MPA concentration was measured by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA), at predose and 1, 1.5, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 hours after dosing. Genetic polymorphisms in UGT1A8, UGT1A9, and UGT2B7 were examined by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC)-based single-base extension (SBE) analysis. A total 138 patients were included in study. The mean AUC was 39.49 mg-h/L (28.39-89.58 mg-h/L), which was in the therapeutic range. The correlation between the predose MPA concentration and AUC was poor. The mean AUC in the tacrolimus group was higher than that in the cyclosporine group. Polymorphisms in UGT2B7 showed significant association with AUC. Most of our patients with reduced mycophenolate dose had the AUC within the therapeutic range. Genetic polymorphisms in UGT2B7 may play a role in MPA metabolism in Thai kidney transplant patients.

  8. Mycophenolate Mofetil and Pulmonary Fibrosis After Kidney Transplantation: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Go, Pauline; Stone, Chad H; Safwan, Mohamed; Putchakayala, Krishna G; Kane, William J; Malinzak, Lauren E; Kim, Dean Y; Denny, Jason E

    2017-04-14

    BACKGROUND Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) induced lung disease has been described in only a few isolated reports. We report a case of fatal respiratory failure associated with MMF after kidney transplantation. CASE REPORT A 50-year-old Hispanic male with a history of end-stage renal disease secondary to hypertension underwent deceased donor kidney transplantation. His preoperative evaluations were normal except for a chest x-ray which showed bilateral interstitial opacities. Tacrolimus and MMF were started on the day of surgery. His postoperative course was uneventful and he was discharged on postoperative day 5. One month later, he presented with shortness of breath and a cough with blood-tinged sputum. His respiratory condition deteriorated rapidly, requiring intubation. Chest computer tomography (CT) demonstrated patchy ground-glass opacities with interlobular septal thickening. Comprehensive pulmonary, cardiac, infectious, and immunological evaluations were all negative. Open lung biopsy revealed extensive pulmonary fibrosis with no evidence of infection. He temporarily improved after discontinuation of tacrolimus and MMF, however, on resuming MMF his respiratory status deteriorated again and he subsequently died from hypoxic respiratory failure. CONCLUSIONS An awareness of pulmonary lung disease due to MMF is important to prevent adverse outcomes after organ transplantation. MMF must be used with utmost care in recipients with underlying lung disease as their pulmonary condition might make them more susceptible to any harmful effects of MMF.

  9. High-dose calcineurin inhibitor-free everolimus as a maintenance regimen for heart transplantation may be a risk factor for Pneumocystis pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yu-Ning; Lee, Nan-Yao; Roan, Jun-Neng; Hsu, Chi-Hsin; Luo, Chwan-Yau

    2017-08-01

    Everolimus reduces the incidence of cardiac-allograft vasculopathy (CAV) and is less renally toxic than are calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs). We evaluated the safety of CNI-free everolimus for post-heart transplant (HTx) patients. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 36 consecutive patients who had undergone an HTx between January 2006 and December 2013 in National Cheng Kung University Hospital. All patients initially had been treated with the standard tacrolimus regimen. The Study group-12 patients with CAV, renal impairment, or a history of malignancy-were switched from tacrolimus to everolimus. The Control group consisted of 19 patients who remained on the standard regimen. The target everolimus trough concentration was 8-14 ng/mL. The primary outcome was survival, and the secondary outcomes were bacterial, viral, fungal, and other infections; Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP); and rejection (≥2R). During a 53.3±25.6-month follow-up, the survival rate, rejection rate, and number of infections, except for PJP, were not significantly different between the two groups. In the Study group, 6 patients were diagnosed with PJP 33±18.2 months after switching. None of the Control group patients were diagnosed with PJP during follow-up. A high-dose CNI-free everolimus maintenance regimen might yield a higher incidence of post-transplantation PJP. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Overview of new immunosuppressive therapies.

    PubMed

    Nevins, T E

    2000-04-01

    This review covers the new immunosuppressive drugs that have appeared in the past 5 years. It begins with the newest formulation (Neoral, Sandoz Pharmaceuticals, East Hanover, NJ, USA) of the clinically "mature" drug cyclosporin A and then reviews the literature on tacrolimus, sirolimus, and mycophenolate mofetil. In each case, the emphasis is on the evolution of experience with the drug and on the questions that the drug poses for pediatricians considering the risk-benefit ratio of the drug in children.

  11. Sporotrichosis in a liver transplant patient: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Renato Ferreira; Bonfitto, Miguel; da Silva Junior, Francisco Inaldo Mendes; de Ameida, Margarete Teresa Gottardo; da Silva, Rita de Cma

    2017-09-01

    The liver transplant patient was admitted to the hospital with hyperemic, granulomatous, ulcerated lesion in the anterior compartment of the right lower limb with report of local trauma. The agent Sporothrix schenckii was isolated from biopsy of the lesion and lymph nodes of the right lower limb. In this case, the treatment was difficult because the patient has severe pulmonary hypertension and took the following drugs: warfarin, sildenafil, and tacrolimus. These medicines interact with the antifungal, which made it difficult.

  12. High Staphylococcus epidermidis Colonization and Impaired Permeability Barrier in Facial Seborrheic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    An, Qian; Sun, Meng; Qi, Rui-Qun; Zhang, Li; Zhai, Jin-Long; Hong, Yu-Xiao; Song, Bing; Chen, Hong-Duo; Gao, Xing-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Background: Seborrheic dermatitis (SD) is a common inflammatory skin condition. The etiology is unclear, although overgrowth of Malassezia on the skin has been suggested to cause SD. This study investigated whether colonization with Staphylococcus plays a role in facial SD, which was not well addressed previously. Methods: The study was conducted from September 1, 2011 to February 20, 2012 in the First Hospital of China Medical University. In the first phase, the study evaluated the level of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and the number of colony-forming units (CFU) of Staphylococcus in defined skin areas of SD patients who were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive (HIV [+] SD [+] group, n = 13), classical SD (HIV [−] SD [+] group, n = 24) patients, HIV seropositive-non-SD (HIV [+] SD [−] group, n = 16) patients, and healthy volunteers (HIV [−] SD [−] group, n = 16). In the second phase, we enrolled another cohort of HIV (−) SD (+) patients who applied topical fusidic acid (n = 15), tacrolimus (n = 16), or moisturizer (n = 12). Changes in the Seborrheic Dermatitis Area Severity Index (SDASI), TEWL, and Staphylococcus density were evaluated 2 weeks later. Comparisons of each index were performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and least significant difference method. Results: The level of TEWL was greater through lesional sites in the HIV (+) SD (+) group than that in HIV (+) SD (−) and HIV (−) SD (−) groups (95% confidence interval [CI]: 18.873–47.071, P < 0.001 and 95% CI: 28.755–55.936, P < 0.001, respectively). The number of CFU of Staphylococcus was greater in the HIV (+) SD (+) group than that in HIV (+) SD (−) and HIV (−) SD (−) groups (95% CI: 37.487–142.744, P = 0.001 and 95% CI: 54.936–156.400, P < 0.001, respectively). TEWL was significantly more improved in patients treated with tacrolimus and fusidic acid than that in those treated with moisturizers (95% CI: 7.560–38.987, P = 0.004 and 95% CI: 4.659–37

  13. Assessment of nerve regeneration across nerve allografts treated with tacrolimus.

    PubMed

    Haisheng, Han; Songjie, Zuo; Xin, Li

    2008-01-01

    Although regeneration of nerve allotransplant is a major concern in the clinic, there have been few papers quantitatively assessing functional recovery of animals' nerve allografts in the long term. In this study, functional recovery, histopathological study, and immunohistochemistry changes of rat nerve allograft with FK506 were investigated up to 12 weeks without slaughtering. C57 and SD rats were used for transplantation. The donor's nerve was sliced and transplanted into the recipient. The sciatic nerve was epineurally sutured with 10-0 nylon. In total, 30 models of transplantation were performed and divided into 3 groups that were either treated with FK506 or not. Functional recovery of the grafted nerve was serially assessed by the pin click test, walking track analysis and electrophysiological evaluations. A histopathological study and immunohistochemistry study were done in the all of the models. Nerve allografts treated with FK506 have no immune rejection through 12 weeks. Sensibility had similarly improved in both isografts and allografts. There has been no difference in each graft. Walk track analysis demonstrates significant recovery of motor function of the nerve graft. No histological results of difference were found up to 12 weeks in each graft. In the rodent nerve graft model, FK506 prevented nerve allograft rejection across a major histocompatibility barrier. Sensory recovery seems to be superior to motor function. Nerve isograft and allograft treated with FK506 have no significant difference in function recovery, histopathological result, and immunohistochemistry changes.

  14. Development of Aerosol Phospholipid Microparticles for the Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Brousseau, Sarah; Wang, Zimeng; Gupta, Sweta K; Meenach, Samantha A

    2017-11-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is an incurable cardiovascular disease characterized by high blood pressure in the arteries leading from the heart to the lungs. Over two million people in the USA are diagnosed with PAH annually and the typical survival rate is only 3 years after diagnosis. Current treatments are insufficient because of limited bioavailability, toxicity, and costs associated with approved therapeutics. Aerosol delivery of drugs is an attractive approach to treat respiratory diseases because it increases localized drug concentration while reducing systemic side effects. In this study, we developed phospholipid-based aerosol microparticles via spray drying consisting of the drug tacrolimus and the excipients dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol. The phospholipid-based spray-dried aerosol microparticles were shown to be smooth and spherical in size, ranging from 1 to 3 μm in diameter. The microparticles exhibited thermal stability and were amorphous after spray drying. Water content in the microparticles was under 10%, which will allow successful aerosol dispersion and long-term storage stability. In vitro aerosol dispersion showed that the microparticles could successfully deposit in the deep lung, as they exhibited favorable aerodynamic diameters and high fine particle fractions. In vitro dose-response analysis showed that TAC is nontoxic in the low concentrations that would be delivered to the lungs. Overall, this work shows that tacrolimus-loaded phospholipid-based microparticles can be successfully created with optimal physicochemical and toxicological characteristics.

  15. Impact of anti-HCV direct antiviral agents on graft function and immunosuppressive drug levels in kidney transplant recipients: a call to attention in the mid-term follow-up in a single-center cohort study.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ruiz, Mario; Polanco, Natalia; García-Santiago, Ana; Muñoz, Raquel; Hernández, Ana M; González, Esther; Mercado, Verónica R; Fernández, Inmaculada; Aguado, José María; Praga, Manuel; Andrés, Amado

    2018-01-22

    The medium-term impact on graft function and immunosuppressive drug pharmacokinetics of direct antiviral agents (DAAs) among hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected kidney transplant (KT) recipients remain unclear. We compared pre- and post-treatment 12-month trajectories of estimated glomerular filtration rate (ΔeGFR) and 24-h proteinuria (Δ24-h proteinuria) in 49 recipients treated with DAAs (mostly sofosbuvir plus ledipasvir). Among evaluable patients, 66.7% and 100.0% had undetectable viral load by week 4 and end of therapy (EoT). The sustained virologic response rate at 12 weeks was 95.8%. Overall, 80.6% of patients receiving tacrolimus required dose escalation while on DAA-based therapy (median increase of 66.7%) to maintain target levels. Tacrolimus levels resulted to be higher at 12 months compared to EoT (7.8 ± 2.1 vs. 6.7 ± 2.0 ng/ml; P-value = 0.002). No changes in graft function during the course of therapy were observed. However, eGFR significantly decreased (P-value <0.001) throughout the first 12 months after EoT. Median ΔeGFR and Δ24-h over pre- and post-treatment periods were 3.9% and -6.1% (P-value = 0.002) and -5.3% and 26.2% (P-value = 0.057). Caution should be exercised when adjusting immunosuppression in HCV-infected KT recipients upon initiation of DAAs, followed by mid-term monitoring of immunosuppressive drug levels and graft function. © 2018 Steunstichting ESOT.

  16. Reduction of serum TARC levels in atopic dermatitis by topical anti-inflammatory treatments.

    PubMed

    Yasukochi, Yumi; Nakahara, Takeshi; Abe, Takeru; Kido-Nakahara, Makiko; Kohda, Futoshi; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Hagihara, Akihito; Furue, Masutaka

    2014-09-01

    Serum thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) levels are associated with the disease activity of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) and sensitively reflect short-term changes in skin conditions. The main treatment for AD is topical agent application. This study investigated the relationship between serum TARC levels and the dosage of topical agents, including corticosteroids and/or tacrolimus, in patients with AD. The serum TARC levels of 56 AD patients and the amounts of topical agents prescribed to them were investigated retrospectively. The weekly reduction in serum TARC levels and weekly dosage of topical agents among AD patients were compared and their associations were evaluated. The dosage of topical agents was closely related to serum TARC levels. One gram of strong rank steroid or the equivalent amount of steroid/tacrolimus is required to reduce serum TARC levels by 9.94 pg/mL weekly in moderate to severe AD patients. Higher initial TARC levels require more topical agent, which results in a more rapid decrease in TARC levels. The serum TARC levels and eosinophil numbers in peripheral blood are significantly correlated. Serum TARC level improvement and topical agent dosage are strongly correlated. TARC and eosinophil numbers are significantly correlated, but the wider range of TARC levels seems to be clinically more useful for monitoring AD severity. The serum TARC level is a very sensitive biomarker for monitoring the severity and treatment response in AD.

  17. Soluble CD30 correlates with clinical but not subclinical renal allograft rejection.

    PubMed

    Hirt-Minkowski, Patricia; Roth, Michèle; Hönger, Gideon; Amico, Patrizia; Hopfer, Helmut; Schaub, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Soluble CD30 (sCD30) has been proposed as a promising noninvasive biomarker for clinical renal allograft rejection, but its diagnostic characteristics regarding detection of subclinical rejection have not been assessed. We investigated sCD30 in 146 consecutive kidney allograft recipients under tacrolimus-mycophenolate-based immunosuppression having 250 surveillance biopsies at 3 and 6 months as well as 52 indication biopsies within the first year post-transplant. Allograft histology results were classified as (i) acute Banff score zero or interstitial infiltrates only, (ii) tubulitis t1, (iii) tubulitis t2-3 and (iv) isolated vascular compartment inflammation. sCD30 correlated well with the extent of clinical (P < 0.0001), but not subclinical tubulointerstitial rejection (P = 0.06). To determine diagnostic characteristics of sCD30, histological groups were assigned to two categories: no relevant inflammation (i.e. acute Banff score zero and interstitial infiltrates only) versus all other pathologies (tubulitis t1-3 and isolated vascular compartment inflammation). For clinical allograft inflammation, AUC was 0.87 (sensitivity 89%, specificity 79%; P = 0.0006); however, for subclinical inflammation, AUC was only 0.59 (sensitivity 50%, specificity 69%; P = 0.47). In conclusion, sCD30 correlated with clinical, but not subclinical renal allograft rejection limiting its clinical utility as a noninvasive rejection screening biomarker in patients with stable allograft function receiving tacrolimus-mycophenolate-based immunosuppression. © 2012 The Authors Transplant International © 2012 European Society for Organ Transplantation.

  18. Remission of type 1 diabetes mellitus recurrence 6 years after simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kervella, Delphine; Scharbarg, Emeric; Mahot-Moreau, Pascale; Renaudin, Karine; Branchereau, Julien; Karam, Georges; Chaillous, Lucy; Bach, Kalyane; Cantarovich, Diego

    2018-05-09

    Recurrence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is not frequent following pancreas transplantation and is generally considered to cause irreversible allograft failure despite rescue traitement 1 .A 35-year-old woman experienced severe hyperglycaemia (>5 g/L) 6 years following a simultaneous pancreas and kidney (SPK) transplantation. Immunosuppressive treatment included induction with anti-thymocyte globuline (ATG) followed by a steroid-free regimen and a combination of tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Acquired Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis Associated with Human Papilloma Virus Type 14 in a Small Bowel Transplanted Child--A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hirschman, Derek; Tacastacas, Joselin; Rady, Peter L; Tyring, Stephen K; Cooper, Kevin; Honda, Kord

    2016-01-01

    A 3-year-old African American girl taking sirolimus and tacrolimus for a small bowel transplantation presented with hypopigmented macules and papules throughout her trunk. A biopsy diagnosed epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) that was found to be associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) type 14 according to polymerase chain reaction analysis. There are few cases of acquired EV in the setting of organ transplantation. Although there is no standardized treatment for acquired EV, prevention and surveillance for transformation to squamous cell carcinoma are primary concerns. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Immunomodulatory therapy for ocular inflammatory disease: a basic manual and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Okada, Annabelle A

    2005-01-01

    Corticosteroids are used as first-line treatment for many ocular inflammatory conditions. The risk of adverse effects, however, necessitates conversion to steroid-sparing immunomodulatory therapy (IMT) for disease that is recurrent, chronic, or poorly responsive to treatment. Combination drug treatments with multiple agent 'recipes' are also considered. Immunomodulatory agents include the broad categories of antimetabolites (azathioprine, methotrexate, mycophenolate mofetil), alkylating agents (cyclophosphamide, chlorambucil), T-cell inhibitors (cyclosporine, tacrolimus), and cytokines (interferon alfa). This article reviews and summarizes the evidence for IMT agent use in the treatment of various forms of ocular inflammation.

  1. Drug Modulators of B Cell Signaling Pathways and Epstein-Barr Virus Lytic Activation.

    PubMed

    Kosowicz, John G; Lee, Jaeyeun; Peiffer, Brandon; Guo, Zufeng; Chen, Jianmeng; Liao, Gangling; Hayward, S Diane; Liu, Jun O; Ambinder, Richard F

    2017-08-15

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human gammaherpesvirus that establishes a latency reservoir in B cells. In this work, we show that ibrutinib, idelalisib, and dasatinib, drugs that block B cell receptor (BCR) signaling and are used in the treatment of hematologic malignancies, block BCR-mediated lytic induction at clinically relevant doses. We confirm that the immunosuppressive drugs cyclosporine and tacrolimus also inhibit BCR-mediated lytic induction but find that rapamycin does not inhibit BCR-mediated lytic induction. Further investigation shows that mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) contributes to BCR-mediated lytic induction and that FK506-binding protein 12 (FKBP12) binding alone is not adequate to block activation. Finally, we show that BCR signaling can activate EBV lytic induction in freshly isolated B cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and that activation can be inhibited by ibrutinib or idelalisib. IMPORTANCE EBV establishes viral latency in B cells. Activation of the B cell receptor pathway activates lytic viral expression in cell lines. Here we show that drugs that inhibit important kinases in the BCR signaling pathway inhibit activation of lytic viral expression but do not inhibit several other lytic activation pathways. Immunosuppressant drugs such as cyclosporine and tacrolimus but not rapamycin also inhibit BCR-mediated EBV activation. Finally, we show that BCR activation of lytic infection occurs not only in tumor cell lines but also in freshly isolated B cells from patients and that this activation can be blocked by BCR inhibitors. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  2. Immunosuppression With CD40 Costimulatory Blockade Plus Rapamycin for Simultaneous Islet-Kidney Transplantation in Nonhuman Primates.

    PubMed

    Oura, T; Hotta, K; Lei, J; Markmann, J; Rosales, I; Dehnadi, A; Kawai, K; Ndishabandi, D; Smith, R-N; Cosimi, A B; Kawai, T

    2017-03-01

    The lack of a reliable immunosuppressive regimen that effectively suppresses both renal and islet allograft rejection without islet toxicity hampers a wider clinical application of simultaneous islet-kidney transplantation (SIK). Seven MHC-mismatched SIKs were performed in diabetic cynomolgus monkeys. Two recipients received rabbit antithymocyte globulin (ATG) induction followed by daily tacrolimus and rapamycin (ATG/Tac/Rapa), and five recipients were treated with anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody (mAb) and rapamycin (aCD40/Rapa). Anti-inflammatory therapy, including anti-interleukin-6 receptor mAb and anti-tumor necrosis factor-α mAb, was given in both groups. The ATG/Tac/Rapa recipients failed to achieve long-term islet allograft survival (19 and 26 days) due to poor islet engraftment and cytomegalovirus pneumonia. In contrast, the aCD40/Rapa regimen provided long-term islet and kidney allograft survival (90, 94, >120, >120, and >120 days), with only one recipient developing evidence of allograft rejection. The aCD40/Rapa regimen was also tested in four kidney-alone transplant recipients. All four recipients achieved long-term renal allograft survival (100% at day 120), which was superior to renal allograft survival (62.9% at day 120) with triple immunosuppressive regimen (tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroids). The combination of anti-CD40 mAb and rapamycin is an effective and nontoxic immunosuppressive regimen that uses only clinically available agents for kidney and islet recipients. © Copyright 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  3. Induction by anti-thymocyte globulins in kidney transplantation: a review of the literature and current usage.

    PubMed

    Malvezzi, Paolo; Jouve, Thomas; Rostaing, Lionel

    2015-10-01

    Preventing acute rejection (AR) after kidney transplantation is of utmost importance because an AR can have a negative impact on long-term allograft survival. Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, PubMed, EBSCO, and Web of Science have been searched. At the moment this can be done by using rabbit anti-thymocyte globulins (rATGs) as an induction therapy. However, because rATGs are associated with some deleterious side-effects, such as the opportunistic infections cytomegalovirus (CMV) and de novo post-transplant cancer, it is very important they are used optimally, i.e., at minimal doses that avoid many side-effects but still retain optimal treatment efficacy. Recent data show that the risk of CMV infection can be minimized using tacrolimus plus everolimus, and not tacrolimus plus mycophenolic acid, as the maintenance immunosuppression. The use of rATG is particularly valuable in; (a) sensitized patients; (b) in recipients from an expanded-criteria donor, thus enabling the introduction of calcineurin inhibitors at reduced doses; and (c) for patients where steroid avoidance is contemplated. However, we also need to consider that rATG may increase the risk of de novo cancer, even though recent data indicate this is unlikely and that any risk can be reduced by using mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors instead of mycophenolic acid combined with low-dose calcineurin inhibitors. Even though rATGs do not improve long-term kidney-allograft survival, they may help reduce calcineurin-inhibitor dosage during the early post-transplant period and minimize the risk of AR.

  4. Donor Graft MicroRNAs: A Newly Identified Player in the Development of New-onset Diabetes After Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ling, Q; Xie, H; Li, J; Liu, J; Cao, J; Yang, F; Wang, C; Hu, Q; Xu, X; Zheng, S

    2017-01-01

    New-onset diabetes after liver transplantation (NODALT) is a frequent complication with an unfavorable outcome. We previously demonstrated a crucial link between donor graft genetics and the risk of NODALT. We selected 15 matched pairs of NODALT and non-NODALT liver recipients using propensity score matching analysis. The donor liver tissues were tested for the expression of 10 microRNAs (miRNAs) regulating human hepatic glucose homeostasis. The biological functions of potential target genes were predicted using gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis. Both miR-103 and miR-181a were significantly highly expressed in the NODALT group as compared to the non-NODALT group. The predicted target genes (e.g. Irs2, Pik3r1, Akt2, and Gsk3b) were involved in glucose import and the insulin signaling pathway. We also observed dysregulation of miRNAs (e.g. let-7, miR-26b, miR-145, and miR-183) in cultured human hepatocytes treated with tacrolimus or high glucose, the two independent risk factors of NODALT identified in this cohort. The hepatic miRNA profiles altered by tacrolimus or hyperglycemia were associated with insulin resistance and glucose homeostatic imbalance as revealed by enrichment analysis. The disease susceptibility miRNA expressive pattern could be imported directly from the donor and consolidated by the transplant factors. © 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Transplantation published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  5. Using Imiquimod-Induced Psoriasis-Like Skin as a Model to Measure the Skin Penetration of Anti-Psoriatic Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yin-Ku; Yang, Sien-Hung; Chen, Chin-Chuan; Kao, Hsiao-Ching; Fang, Jia-You

    2015-01-01

    Objective Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease and topical therapy remains a key role for treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of psoriasis-like lesions on the cutaneous permeation of anti-psoriatic drugs. Methods We first set up imiquimod-induced dermatitis in mice that closely resembles human psoriasis lesions. The development of the lesions is based on the IL-23/IL17A axis for phenotypical and histological characteristics. Four drugs, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), tacrolimus, calcipotriol, and retinoic acid, were used to evaluate percutaneous absorption. Results The most hydrophilic molecule, ALA, revealed the greatest enhancement on skin absorption after imiquimod treatment. Imiquimod increased the skin deposition and flux of ALA by 5.6 to 14.4-fold, respectively, compared to normal skin. The follicular accumulation of ALA was also increased 3.8-fold. The extremely lipophilic drug retinoic acid showed a 1.7- and 3.8-fold increase in skin deposition and flux, respectively. Tacrolimus flux was enhanced from 2 to 21 μg/cm2/h by imiquimod intervention. However, imiquimod did not promote skin deposition of this macrolide. The lipophilicity, but not the molecular size, dominated drug permeation enhancement by psoriatic lesions. The in vivo percutaneous absorption of ALA and rhodamine B examined by confocal microscopy confirmed the deficient resistance of epidermal barrier for facilitating cutaneous delivery of drugs via psoriasis-like skin. Conclusion We established the topical delivery profiles of anti-psoriatic drugs via imiquimod-treated psoriasis-like skin. PMID:26355594

  6. Risk factors associated with Clostridium difficile infection in kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Spinner, M L; Stephany, B R; Cerrato, P M; Lam, S W; Neuner, E A; Patel, K S

    2018-05-24

    Solid organ transplant recipients are especially vulnerable to Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) due to cumulative risk factors including increased exposure to healthcare settings, persistent immunosuppression, and higher rates of antimicrobial exposure. We aimed to identify risk factors associated with CDI development in kidney transplant recipients including implications of immunosuppressive therapies and acid-suppressing agents. This was a single-center, non-interventional, retrospective case-control study of adult subjects between June 1, 2009 and June 30, 2013. During this time, 728 patients underwent kidney transplantation. Overall, 22 developed CDI (cases) and were matched 1:3 with 66 controls. Cases and controls were also matched for induction agent, kidney allograft type (living or deceased), and time from transplant to CDI result (±60 days). The majority of subjects received a deceased donor kidney (77.3%) and basiliximab induction therapy (86.4%). The overall CDI incidence was 3%. Factors independently associated with CDI were average tacrolimus trough (AOR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.00-1.56, P = .048) and antibiotic exposure for urinary tract infections (UTI) (AOR = 4.17, 95% CI = 1.12-15.54, P = .034). Proton pump inhibitor use was not associated with CDI (OR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.29-2.29, P = .691). Maintaining a clinically appropriate tacrolimus trough and judicious antibiotic use and selection for UTI treatment could potentially reduce CDI in the kidney transplant population. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Feline dry eye syndrome of presumed neurogenic origin: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Sebbag, Lionel; Pesavento, Patricia A; Carrasco, Sebastian E; Reilly, Christopher M; Maggs, David J

    2018-01-01

    Case summary A 14-year-old female spayed Abyssinian cat, which about 1 year previously underwent thoracic limb amputation, radiotherapy and chemotherapy for an incompletely excised vaccine-related fibrosarcoma, was presented for evaluation of corneal opacity in the left eye (OS). The ocular surface of both eyes (OU) had a lackluster appearance and there was a stromal corneal ulcer OS. Results of corneal aesthesiometry, Schirmer tear test-1 (STT-1) and tear film breakup time revealed corneal hypoesthesia, and quantitative and qualitative tear film deficiency OU. Noxious olfactory stimulation caused increased lacrimation relative to standard STT-1 values suggesting an intact nasolacrimal reflex. Various lacrimostimulants were administered in succession; namely, 1% pilocarpine administered topically (15 days) or orally (19 days), and topically applied 0.03% tacrolimus (47 days). Pilocarpine, especially when given orally, was associated with notable increases in STT-1 values, but corneal ulceration remained/recurred regardless of administration route, and oral pilocarpine resulted in gastrointestinal upset. Tacrolimus was not effective. After 93 days, the cat became weak and lame and a low thyroxine concentration was detected in serum. The cat was euthanized and a necropsy performed. Both lacrimal glands were histologically normal, but chronic neutrophilic keratitis and reduced conjunctival goblet cell density were noted OU. Relevance and novel information The final diagnosis was dry eye syndrome (DES) of presumed neurogenic origin, associated with corneal hypoesthesia. This report reinforces the importance of conducting tearfilm testing in cats with ocular surface disease, as clinical signs of DES were different from those described in dogs. PMID:29318025

  8. Effect of Sirolimus on Native Total Kidney Volume After Transplantation in Patients with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Davis, S; Gralla, J; Chan, L; Wiseman, A; Edelstein, C L

    2018-06-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway has been shown to be central to cyst formation and growth in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Drugs that suppress mTOR signaling are frequently used as antiproliferative agents for maintenance immunosuppression in patients who have undergone kidney transplantation. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sirolimus, an mTOR inhibitor, on cyst volume regression in patients with ADPKD who have undergone renal transplantation. In this single-center, prospective, open-label, parallel-group, randomized trial, 23 adult patients with ADPKD who successfully underwent renal transplantation from 2008 to 2012 were subsequently randomized (on a 1:1 basis) to a maintenance immunosuppression regimen with either sirolimus (sirolimus, tacrolimus, prednisone) or mycophenolate (mycophenolate, tacrolimus, prednisone). Total kidney volumes were measured by means of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging within 2 weeks after transplantation and at 1 year. The primary end point was change in total kidney volume at 1 year. Sixteen patients completed the 1-year study (8 patients in each group). There was a decrease in kidney volume in both the sirolimus group (percentage change from baseline, 20.5%; P < .001) and mycophenolate group (percentage change from baseline, 17%; P = .048), but there was no significant difference in percentage change of total kidney volume between the groups (P = .665). In ADPKD patients at 1 year after kidney transplantation, there was a similar decrease in polycystic kidney volume in patients receiving an immunosuppression regimen containing sirolimus compared with patients receiving mycophenolate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Feline dry eye syndrome of presumed neurogenic origin: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sebbag, Lionel; Pesavento, Patricia A; Carrasco, Sebastian E; Reilly, Christopher M; Maggs, David J

    2018-01-01

    A 14-year-old female spayed Abyssinian cat, which about 1 year previously underwent thoracic limb amputation, radiotherapy and chemotherapy for an incompletely excised vaccine-related fibrosarcoma, was presented for evaluation of corneal opacity in the left eye (OS). The ocular surface of both eyes (OU) had a lackluster appearance and there was a stromal corneal ulcer OS. Results of corneal aesthesiometry, Schirmer tear test-1 (STT-1) and tear film breakup time revealed corneal hypoesthesia, and quantitative and qualitative tear film deficiency OU. Noxious olfactory stimulation caused increased lacrimation relative to standard STT-1 values suggesting an intact nasolacrimal reflex. Various lacrimostimulants were administered in succession; namely, 1% pilocarpine administered topically (15 days) or orally (19 days), and topically applied 0.03% tacrolimus (47 days). Pilocarpine, especially when given orally, was associated with notable increases in STT-1 values, but corneal ulceration remained/recurred regardless of administration route, and oral pilocarpine resulted in gastrointestinal upset. Tacrolimus was not effective. After 93 days, the cat became weak and lame and a low thyroxine concentration was detected in serum. The cat was euthanized and a necropsy performed. Both lacrimal glands were histologically normal, but chronic neutrophilic keratitis and reduced conjunctival goblet cell density were noted OU. The final diagnosis was dry eye syndrome (DES) of presumed neurogenic origin, associated with corneal hypoesthesia. This report reinforces the importance of conducting tearfilm testing in cats with ocular surface disease, as clinical signs of DES were different from those described in dogs.

  10. Analysis of the data on pregnancy and lactation provided by patient information leaflets of anti-rheumatic drugs in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Sabando, Miguel Ormaza; Saavedra, Maira Arias; Sequeira, Gabriel; Kerzberg, Eduardo

    2018-04-01

    To analyse the level of consistency and updating of the information on pregnancy and lactation provided by patient information leaflets (PILs) of the antirheumatic drugs approved in Argentina. Inconsistencies between the 2016 EULAR Task Force recommendations on the use of anti-rheumatic drugs during pregnancy and lactation and the information provided by PILs of the same drugs approved in Argentina were analysed along with inconsistencies within the PILs of different registered trademarks of these drugs. Eighty-eight PILs of 32 drugs were analysed. Out of the 88 PILs, 50% presented information inconsistencies as to pregnancy. Medications comprised in this group were: hydroxychloroquine, sulfasalazine, azathioprine, tacrolimus, cyclosporine, NSAIDs (during the first two trimesters), celecoxib, some glucocorticoids, colchicine, and some anti-TNF drugs (etanercept, adalimumab and infliximab) during part of the pregnancy. As for lactation, 56% had information inconsistencies. Medications encompassed in this group were: hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, sulfasalazine, azathioprine, tacrolimus, cyclosporine, NSAIDs, celecoxib, meprednisone, prednisone, colchicine, and anti-TNF drugs. Out of 17 drugs that had more than one registered trademark, information inconsistencies on pregnancy were found in the PILs of sulfasalazine, diclofenac, ibuprofen and methylprednisolone. Concerning lactation, inconsistencies were present in the PILs of hydroxychloroquine, sulfasalazine, diclofenac, ibuprofen, meprednisone, and colchicine. At least half of the PILs of anti-rheumatic drugs analysed in this study had information inconsistencies on pregnancy and lactation. This is a serious state of affairs because the consensual decision-making process between patient and professional may be compromised, which, in turn, may give rise to medical-legal issues.

  11. Leukopenia in kidney transplant patients with the association of valganciclovir and mycophenolate mofetil.

    PubMed

    Brum, S; Nolasco, F; Sousa, J; Ferreira, A; Possante, M; Pinto, J R; Barroso, E; Santos, J R

    2008-04-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common viral infection after transplantation. Valganciclovir (VGC) is established for prophylaxis and treatment of CMV infections, but leukopenia which appears in 10% to 13% (severe in 4.9%) is the principal side effect. We have recently noted an increased incidence of leukopenia and severe neutropenia among our renal transplant patients and thought to identify the associated factors. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all kidney transplantations performed between January 2005 and December 2006. All patients received mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), tacrolimus, and steroids. VGC was used for targeted prophylaxis and preemptive therapy of CMV infection, with doses adjusted to renal function. Of the 64 patients undergoing renal transplantation 13 (20.3%) developed leukopenia within 3 +/- 2 months after transplantation with severe neutropenia in 5 (7.8%). All patients were on MMF and VGC (VGC 605 +/- 296 mg/d). Leukopenia was significantly associated with simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation and with second kidney transplantations (P < .01). The incidence of leukopenia was higher among patients under VGC since day 1 of transplantation (P = .008) with maximal incidence observed among patients prescribed 900 mg/d as opposed to those on lower doses (P < .01). There was no increase in CMV infection among patients with a low dose of VGC. No patient developed clinical CMV disease. In conclusion, VGC prophylaxis was associated with an increased frequency of leukopenia on MMF-tacrolimus treated patients or regimens. Low-dose VGC for CMV prophylaxis appeared to be as effective as high-dose treatment, and associated less frequently with leukopenia and neutropenia.

  12. [Autoimmune hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Färkkilä, Martti

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis is chronic liver disease with two subtypes, type 1 with anti nuclear or smooth muscle antibodies and type 2 with LKM1 or LC1 antibodies, and both with hypergammaglobulinemia and typical histology. Prevalence of AIH is between 10 to 17 per 100000 in Europe. Up to 20-40 % of cases present with acute hepatitis. Budesonide can be used as a first line induction therapy in non-cirrhotic patients, and tiopurines, mercaptopurine or mycophenolic acid as maintenance therapies. Patients not responding to conventional therapy can be treated with ciclosporin, tacrolimus or rituximab or finally with liver transplantation.

  13. From Auto- to Allotransplantation: Immunomodulatory Protocol for Hand and Arm Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lee, W P Andrew; Shores, Jaimie T; Brandacher, Gerald

    2018-05-18

     To achieve a favorable risk-benefit balance for hand transplantation, an immunomodulatory protocol was developed in the laboratory and translated to clinical application.  Following donor bone marrow infusion into transplant recipients, hand and arm allografts have been maintained on low-dose tacrolimus monotherapy.  Good-to-excellent functional recovery has been achieved in patients compliant with medication and therapy, thus restoring autonomous and productive lives.  The risk-benefit balance can be tilted in favor of the hand transplant recipients by using an immunomodulatory protocol with minimum immunosuppression. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. Graft-versus-host disease after radiation therapy in patients who have undergone allogeneic stem cell transplantation: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, Sarah A; Nieto, Yago; Pinnix, Chelsea C; Smith, Grace L; Wogan, Christine F; Rondon, Gabriela; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Kebriaei, Partow; Dabaja, Bouthaina S

    2016-07-28

    Patients who undergo allogeneic stem cell transplantation and subsequent radiation therapy uncommonly develop graft-versus-host disease within the irradiated area. We quantified the incidence of this complication, which is a novel contribution to the field. From 2010 to 2014, 1849 patients underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation, and 41 (2 %) received radiation therapy afterward. Of these, two patients (5 %) developed graft-versus-host disease within the irradiated tissues during or immediately after radiation therapy. The first patient is a 37-year-old white man who had Hodgkin lymphoma; he underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation from a matched unrelated donor and received radiation therapy for an abdominal and pelvic nodal recurrence. After 28.8 Gy, he developed grade 4 gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease, refractory to tacrolimus and steroids, but responsive to pentostatin and photopheresis. The other patient is a 24-year-old white man who had acute leukemia; he underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation from a matched related donor and received craniospinal irradiation for a central nervous system relapse. After 24 cobalt Gy equivalent, he developed severe cutaneous graft-versus-host disease, sharply delineated within the radiation therapy field, which was responsive to tacrolimus and methylprednisolone. We conclude that graft-versus-host disease within irradiated tissues is an uncommon but potentially serious complication that may follow radiation therapy in patients who have undergone allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Clinicians must be aware of this complication and prepared with strategies to mitigate risk. Patients who have undergone allogeneic stem cell transplantation represent a unique population that may offer novel insight into the pathways involved in radiation-related inflammation.

  15. History of psychosis and mania, and outcomes after kidney transplantation - a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Molnar, Miklos Z; Eason, James D; Gaipov, Abduzhappar; Talwar, Manish; Potukuchi, Praveen K; Joglekar, Kiran; Remport, Adam; Mathe, Zoltan; Mucsi, Istvan; Novak, Marta; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Kovesdy, Csaba P

    2018-05-01

    History of psychosis or mania, if uncontrolled, both represent relative contraindications for kidney transplantation. We examined 3680 US veterans who underwent kidney transplantation. The diagnosis of history of psychosis/mania was based on a validated algorithm. Measured confounders were used to create a propensity score-matched cohort (n = 442). Associations between pretransplantation psychosis/mania and death with functioning graft, all-cause death, graft loss, and rejection were examined in survival models and logistic regression models. Post-transplant medication nonadherence was assessed using proportion of days covered (PDC) for tacrolimus and mycophenolic acid in both groups. The mean ± SD age of the cohort at baseline was 61 ± 11 years, 92% were male, and 66% and 27% of patients were white and African-American, respectively. Compared to patients without history of psychosis/mania, patients with a history of psychosis/mania had similar risk of death with functioning graft [subhazard ratio (SHR) (95% confidence interval (CI)): 0.94(0.42-2.09)], all-cause death [hazard ratio (95% CI): 1.04 (0.51-2.14)], graft loss [SHR (95% CI): 1.07 (0.45-2.57)], and rejection [odds ratio(95% CI): 1.23(0.60-2.53)]. Moreover, there was no difference in immunosuppressive drug PDC in patients with and without history of psychosis/mania (PDC: 76 ± 21% vs. 78 ± 19%, P = 0.529 for tacrolimus; PDC: 78 ± 17% vs. 79 ± 18%, P = 0.666 for mycophenolic acid). After careful selection, pretransplantation psychosis/mania is not associated with adverse outcomes in kidney transplant recipients. © 2018 Steunstichting ESOT.

  16. What's new in atopic eczema? An analysis of systematic reviews published in 2010-11.

    PubMed

    Torley, D; Futamura, M; Williams, H C; Thomas, K S

    2013-07-01

    This review provides a summary of key findings from 24 systematic reviews of atopic eczema (AE) published or indexed between 1 August 2010 and 31 December 2011, updating published summaries from previous years. Epidemiological evidence points to the protective effects of early daycare, endotoxin exposure, consumption of unpasteurized milk, and early exposure to dogs, but antibiotic use in early life may increase the risk for AE. With regard to prevention of AE, there is currently no strong evidence of benefit for exclusive breastfeeding, hydrolysed protein formulas, soy formulas, maternal antigen avoidance, omega-3 or omega-6 fatty-acid supplementation, or use of prebiotics or probiotics. With respect to AE treatments, the most compelling new systematic review evidence was for proactive treatment with topical anti-inflammatory agents (topical corticosteroids and topical calcineurin inhibitors) for the prevention of AE flares in patients with moderate to severe AE. A meta-analysis of 4 trials confirmed the superiority of tacrolimus 0.1% over pimecrolimus for the treatment of AE, and a review of 17 trials found that tacrolimus (0.1% or 0.03%) was broadly similar in efficacy to mild/moderate topical corticosteroids. Evidence for the role of education in the management of AE was less conclusive, with evidence from randomized controlled trials showing mixed results. Further work is needed in this area to conduct high-quality trials of educational interventions that are clearly described and reproducible. There is no clear evidence for the efficacy of homeopathy, botanical extracts or Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of AE, as large well-designed trials are lacking in these areas. © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  17. Cathepsin K expression is increased in oral lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Siponen, Maria; Bitu, Carolina Cavalcante; Al-Samadi, Ahmed; Nieminen, Pentti; Salo, Tuula

    2016-11-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is an idiopathic T-cell-mediated mucosal inflammatory disease. Cathepsin K (Cat K) is one of the lysosomal cysteine proteases. It is involved in many pathological conditions, including osteoporosis and cancer. The expression and role of Cat K in OLP are unknown. Twenty-five oral mucosal specimens diagnosed histopathologically as OLP and fourteen healthy controls (HC) were used to study the immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of Cat K. Colocalization of Cat K with CD1a, Melan-A, CD68, CD45, mast cell tryptase (MCT), and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 4 and 9 were studied using double IHC and/or immunofluorescence (IF) staining. Expression of Cat K was also evaluated in OLP tissue samples before and after topical tacrolimus treatment. Cat K was expressed in a higher percentage of cells in the epithelial zone, and the staining intensity was stronger in the stroma in OLP compared to controls (P < 0.001). In OLP, Cat K was present mostly in melanocytes and macrophages and sporadically in basal keratinocytes, endothelial cells, and extracellularly. Cat K was found also in some fibroblasts in HC and OLP samples. Coexpression of Cat K and TLRs 4 and 9 was seen in some dendritic cells (presumably melanocytes) and macrophages. In OLP, tacrolimus treatment reduced the expression of Cat K in the epithelium but increased it in the stroma. These results suggest that Cat K is involved in the pathogenesis of OLP. Cat K possibly takes part in the modulation of matrix molecules and cellular receptors. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Factors leading to dyspepsia in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Nazeer, Aisha; Rai, Ayesha Aslam; Luck, Nasir Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Renal transplantation is the definitive treatment for end stage renal disease. Patients subjected to transplantation require lifelong immunosuppression and are prone to several gastrointestinal disorders. Dyspepsia is a common disorder in these patients. The objective of this study was to determine factors leading to dyspepsia in renal (kidney) transplant recipients. It was a cross sectional study conducted at department of hepatogastroenterology and transplant sciences, SIUT Karachi, from 1-6-15 to 1-12-15 for six months. All renal transplanted patients having dyspeptic symptoms for more than 6 weeks. EGD was performed, biopsy specimens obtained from antrum and duodenum, these were sent for histopathological examination. Frequency and percentages were obtained for categorical variables, mean ± SD was calculated for continuous variables. Chi square test was used for categorical variable and student t-test for continuous variables. Ninety patients were included in the study out of which 64 (71.1%) were males, mean age was 35.82 ± 10.04 years (range: 18-65 years). Gastritis (non H.pylori associated) in 78 (78.6%), duodenitis in 35 (38.9%) and H. pylori infection in 29 (32.2%), renal transplant recipients. Most of the patients belonged to Sindhi ethnicity, 27 (30%), followed by Punjabi. Hypertension was the most common co-morbid condition in our patients found in 29 (32.2%), while most of them don't have any co morbid condition. Duodenitis was found to be associated with tacrolimus use (p = 0.037). Gastritis is the most common factor accountable for this symptoms, followed by duodenitis and H. Pylori . Patients taking tacrolimus as immunosuppressant are more prone to develop duodenitis.

  19. Sequential Targeting of CD52 and TNF Allows Early Minimization Therapy in Kidney Transplantation: From a Biomarker to Targeting in a Proof-Of-Concept Trial

    PubMed Central

    Viklicky, Ondrej; Hruba, Petra; Tomiuk, Stefan; Schmitz, Sabrina; Gerstmayer, Bernhard; Sawitzki, Birgit; Miqueu, Patrick; Mrazova, Petra; Tycova, Irena; Svobodova, Eva; Honsova, Eva; Janssen, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Background There is high medical need for safe long-term immunosuppression monotherapy in kidney transplantation. Selective targeting of post-transplant alloantigen-(re)activated effector-T cells by anti-TNF antibodies after global T cell depletion may allow safe drug minimization, however, it is unsolved what might be the best maintenance monotherapy. Methods In this open, prospective observational single-centre trial, 20 primary deceased donor kidney transplant recipients received 2x20 mg Alemtuzumab (d0/d1) followed by 5 mg/kg Infliximab (d2). For 14 days all patients received only tacrolimus, then they were allocated to either receive tacrolimus (TAC, n = 13) or sirolimus (SIR, n = 7) monotherapy, respectively. Protocol biopsies and extensive immune monitoring were performed and patients were followed-up for 60 months. Results TAC-monotherapy resulted in excellent graft survival (5yr 92%, 95%CI: 56.6–98.9) and function, normal histology, and no proteinuria. Immune monitoring revealed low intragraft inflammation (urinary IP-10) and hints for the development of operational tolerance signature in the TAC- but not SIR-group. Remarkably, the TAC-monotherapy was successful in all five presensitized (ELISPOT+) patients. However, recruitment into SIR-arm was stopped (after n = 7) because of high incidence of proteinuria and acute/chronic rejection in biopsies. No opportunistic infections occurred during follow-up. Conclusions In conclusion, our novel fast-track TAC-monotherapy protocol is likely to be safe and preliminary results indicated an excellent 5-year outcome, however, a full–scale study will be needed to confirm our findings. Trial Registration EudraCT Number: 2006-003110-18 PMID:28085915

  20. Baseline immunosuppression is associated with histological findings in early protocol biopsies.

    PubMed

    Moreso, Francesc; Serón, Daniel; Carrera, Marta; Gil-Vernet, Salvador; Cruzado, Josep M; Hueso, Miguel; Fulladosa, Xavier; Ramos, Rosa; Ibernon, Meritxell; Castelao, Alberto M; Grinyó, Josep M

    2004-10-15

    Protocol biopsies performed in stable renal allografts show different degrees of acute and chronic lesions that have been related with graft outcome. However, the utility of protocol biopsies to manage baseline immunosuppression has not been well characterized. We performed a case-control study to compare histological lesions observed in protocol biopsies in 49 patients treated with tacrolimus (TAC), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), and prednisone to 49 patients treated with cyclosporine Neoral (CsA), MMF, and prednisone. Histological lesions were graded according to 1997 Banff criteria. The analysis was done according to an intention-to-treat basis. Patients treated with TAC displayed in the protocol biopsy a lower acute score (0.61+/-1.01 vs. 1.26+/-1.45; P=0.0115) and a similar chronic score (1.57+/-1.97 vs. 1.51+/-1.59; P=NS). Transplant glomerulopathy was also lower in TAC treated patients (0.02+/-0.14 vs. 0.20+/-0.41; P=0.0037). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the presence of acute inflammation was associated with tacrolimus treatment (relative risk [RR]: 0.30, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.11-0.84; P=0.0211) and the time of biopsy (RR per month: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.32-0.97; P=0.0394). The presence of chronic lesions was only associated with serum creatinine at the time of biopsy (RR: 1.01, 95% CI: 1.00-1.02; P=0.0439). The incidence of inflammatory lesions and transplant glomerulopathy is lower in patients treated with TAC than in patients treated with CsA. These data suggest that baseline immunosuppression could influence the severity of histological lesions in stable grafts.

  1. The effects of topical aqueous sirolimus on tear production in normal dogs and dogs with refractory dry eye.

    PubMed

    Spatola, Ronald; Nadelstein, Brad; Berdoulay, Andrew; English, Robert V

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of twice daily aqueous 0.02% sirolimus drops on tear production in normal dogs and dogs with refractory keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS). Two groups of dogs were studied. Ten normal dogs with no signs of ocular disease were administered topical 0.02% sirolimus ophthalmic solution in right eye, and a vehicle control in the left eye twice daily for 4 weeks. Complete ophthalmic examinations, including Schirmer tear test were performed weekly. Eighteen dogs with refractory KCS were randomly assigned to receive 0.02% sirolumus ophthalmic solution or 0.02% tacrolimus ophthalmic solution twice daily. Complete ophthalmic examinations were was performed at 2 and 6 weeks following treatment. Tear production in the sirolimus-treated eyes of normal dogs was greater when compared to vehicle controls with a mean difference over all time points of 3.46 mm (95% CI 1.17, 5.75; P = 0.006). After 4 weeks of treatment, the mean difference was 5 mm (95% CI 1.95, 8.05; P = 0.002). In dogs with refractory dry eye, 37.5% of eyes treated with sirolimus exhibited increased tear production >4 mm/min after 6 weeks of treatment, compared to 20% of eyes receiving tacrolimus (P = 0.433). One normal dog experienced topical irritation to both sirolimus and vehicle-treatment. Side effects were not reported in any treated eyes with chronic KCS. Topical 0.02% sirolimus might be an alternative treatment for canine patients with keratoconjunctivits sicca. The drug appears safe when applied topically in an aqueous suspension for up to 6 weeks. While initial results are promising, further studies are warranted. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  2. Chimerism and tolerance without GVHD or engraftment syndrome in HLA-mismatched combined kidney and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Leventhal, Joseph; Abecassis, Michael; Miller, Joshua; Gallon, Lorenzo; Ravindra, Kadiyala; Tollerud, David J; King, Bradley; Elliott, Mary Jane; Herzig, Geoffrey; Herzig, Roger; Ildstad, Suzanne T

    2012-03-07

    The toxicity of chronic immunosuppressive agents required for organ transplant maintenance has prompted investigators to pursue approaches to induce immune tolerance. We developed an approach using a bioengineered mobilized cellular product enriched for hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and tolerogenic graft facilitating cells (FCs) combined with nonmyeloablative conditioning; this approach resulted in engraftment, durable chimerism, and tolerance induction in recipients with highly mismatched related and unrelated donors. Eight recipients of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-mismatched kidney and FC/HSC transplants underwent conditioning with fludarabine, 200-centigray total body irradiation, and cyclophosphamide followed by posttransplant immunosuppression with tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil. Subjects ranged in age from 29 to 56 years. HLA match ranged from five of six loci with related donors to one of six loci with unrelated donors. The absolute neutrophil counts reached a nadir about 1 week after transplant, with recovery by 2 weeks. Multilineage chimerism at 1 month ranged from 6 to 100%. The conditioning was well tolerated, with outpatient management after postoperative day 2. Two subjects exhibited transient chimerism and were maintained on low-dose tacrolimus monotherapy. One subject developed viral sepsis 2 months after transplant and experienced renal artery thrombosis. Five subjects experienced durable chimerism, demonstrated immunocompetence and donor-specific tolerance by in vitro proliferative assays, and were successfully weaned off all immunosuppression 1 year after transplant. None of the recipients produced anti-donor antibody or exhibited engraftment syndrome or graft-versus-host disease. These results suggest that manipulation of a mobilized stem cell graft and nonmyeloablative conditioning represents a safe, practical, and reproducible means of inducing durable chimerism and donor-specific tolerance in solid organ transplant recipients.

  3. Resolution of Graves' disease after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yvonne; Butani, Lavjay; Glaser, Nicole; Nguyen, Stephanie

    2016-06-01

    We report a case of an adolescent boy with Down's syndrome and ESRD on hemodialysis who developed mild Graves' disease that was not amenable to radioablation, surgery, or ATDs. After 14 months of observation without resolution of Graves' disease, he successfully received a DDRT with a steroid minimization protocol. Thymoglobulin and a three-day course of steroids were used for induction and he was started on tacrolimus, MMF, and pravastatin for maintenance transplant immunosuppression. One month after transplantation, all biochemical markers and antibody profiling for Graves' disease had resolved and remain normal one yr later. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Disseminate and recurrent infundibulo-folliculitis in an Indian patient: A case report with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Sukumaran Pradeep; Gomathy, Mini; Kumar, Gopinathan Nanda

    2017-01-01

    A 17-year-old male patient presented with multiple discrete and confluent monomorphic skin-colored pinhead-sized follicular papules, with occasional pustules distributed on the neck, upper chest, upper posterior trunk, and proximal extremities of 4 months duration. The lesions were asymptomatic, and there was no prior history of topical application or history of atopic dermatitis. Routine investigations were normal. Histopathology of the papules showed a mononuclear infiltrate at the infundibulum of the hair follicle. We made a final diagnosis of disseminate and recurrent infundibulo-folliculitis. The patient was started on NB-UVB and topical tacrolimus. We are reporting an interesting case in an Indian patient. PMID:28217471

  5. Dry Eye: an Inflammatory Ocular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hessen, Michelle; Akpek, Esen Karamursel

    2014-01-01

    Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, or dry eye, is a common ocular disease prompting millions of individuals to seek ophthalmological care. Regardless of the underlying etiology, dry eye has been shown to be associated with abnormalities in the pre-corneal tear film and subsequent inflammatory changes in the entire ocular surface including the adnexa, conjunctiva and cornea. Since the recognition of the role of inflammation in dry eye, a number of novel treatments have been investigated designed to inhibit various inflammatory pathways. Current medications that are used, including cyclosporine A, corticosteroids, tacrolimus, tetracycline derivatives and autologous serum, have been effective for management of dry eye and lead to measurable clinical improvement. PMID:25279127

  6. Treatment of recalcitrant erosive oral lichen planus and desquamative gingivitis with oral apremilast.

    PubMed

    AbuHilal, Mohn'd; Walsh, Scott; Shear, Neil

    2016-11-30

    Erosive oral lichen planus and desquamative gingivitis are uncommon but severe debilitating variants of oral lichen planus. Treatment of these presentations is difficult and challenging. A 44-year-old woman was referred to the dermatology clinic with chronic painful lichen planus-related gingivitis and buccal erosions. She has failed multiple treatments including topical clobetasol and tacrolimus, intralesional corticosteroids and several systemic and immunosuppressive agents. Following completion of three months of treatment with oral apremilast at a dose of 30 mg twice daily, significant improvement was noted in her disease activity. Oral apremilast may be a safe and effective treatment for erosive oral lichen planus.

  7. Determination of a quantitative relationship between hepatic CYP3A5*1/*3 and CYP3A4 expression for use in the prediction of metabolic clearance in virtual populations.

    PubMed

    Barter, Z E; Perrett, H F; Yeo, K Rowland; Allorge, D; Lennard, M S; Rostami-Hodjegan, A

    2010-11-01

    The creation of virtual populations allows the estimation of pharmacokinetic parameters, such as metabolic clearance in extreme individuals rather than the 'average human'. Prediction of variability in metabolic clearance within genetically diverse populations relies on understanding the covariation in the expression of enzymes. A number of statistically significant positive correlations have been observed in the hepatic expression of cytochrome P450 drug metabolising enzymes. However, these rarely provided a quantitative description of the relationships which is required in creating virtual populations. Collation of data from 40 human liver microsomal samples in the current study indicated a significant positive relationship between hepatic microsomal CYP3A5*1/*3 and CYP3A4 content. Having developed a model describing the relationship between hepatic CYP3A4 and CYP3A5*1/*3, the Simcyp Population-based Simulator(®) was used to investigate the consequences of either incorporating or ignoring the relationship between the two enzymes on estimates of drug clearance. Simulations indicated that for a compound with greater metabolism by CYP3A5 than CYP3A4, such as tacrolimus, incorporation of the correlation between CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 does have an impact on the prediction of oral clearance. Failure to consider the relationship between CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 when creating the virtual population led to a 32% lower estimate of oral clearance in individuals possessing both the CYP3A5*1/*3 genotype and high basal concentrations of CYP3A4. Potential clinical implications may include an inadequate dose estimation during clinical study design, the consequences of which may include organ rejection in transplant recipients using immunosuppressants such as tacrolimus or toxicity due to elevated concentrations of circulating metabolites. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. [Renal transplantation in HIV-infected patients in Spain].

    PubMed

    Mazuecos, A; Pascual, J; Gómez, E; Sola, E; Cofán, F; López, F; Puig-Hooper, C E; Baltar, J M; González-Molina, M; Oppenheimer, F; Marcén, R; Rivero, M

    2006-01-01

    HIV infection has experienced dramatic improvement in morbidity and mortality with the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). This prompted a reevaluation of organ-solid transplantation as a treatment option for HIV-infected patients. Some trials in the United States have shown that one- and 2-year graft and patient survival is comparable to HIV-negative transplant population. In Europe the experience is still scarce. The aim of this study is to analyse the outcome and the clinical characteristics of HIV-infected patients who received kidney transplantation in Spain in the HAART era. Ten patients were transplanted in our country since 2001. Only one patient was black. The main cause of end-stage renal disease reported was glomerulonephritis. Six of the recipients were coinfected by hepatitis C virus. Inclusion criteria included undetectable HIV viral load and CD4 counts greater than 200/pL. Immunosuppression consisted of steroids, tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil, with antibody induction in 4 cases. The median and mean follow-up was 11 and 16.3+/-15.6 (3-46) months, respectively. One recipient lost his graft because of early renal venous thrombosis. The remaining patients are functioning graft with mean serum creatinina level of 1.5 +/- 0.5 mg/dl. Biopsy-proven acute rejection was diagnosed in 4 recipients and was reversed in all cases with antirejection treatment. The plasma HIV RNA levels have remained controlled and CD4 counts have been stable in excess of 200 cell/microL. None of patients have developed AIDS complications. Recipients receiving protease inhibitor-based HAART regimens required significant dosing modification to maintain appropriate tacrolimus levels. Our results show that renal transplantation can be a safe and effective treatment in select HIV-infected patients. Like other series, the acute rejection rate was higher than in non-HIV recipients. The reasons of this rejection incidence remain unknown.

  9. Risk factors and prognosis for recurrent primary sclerosing cholangitis after liver transplantation: a Nordic Multicentre Study.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Lina; Jørgensen, Kristin K; Boberg, Kirsten M; Castedal, Maria; Rasmussen, Allan; Rostved, Andreas Arendtsen; Isoniemi, Helena; Bottai, Matteo; Bergquist, Annika

    2018-03-01

    The risk for recurrent primary sclerosing cholangitis (rPSC) after liver transplantation is associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We assessed the frequency of rPSC and studied risk factors for recurrent disease with special focus on IBD. We also evaluated the importance of rPSC for prognosis. All liver transplanted PSC patients in the Nordic countries between 1984 and 2007 (n = 440), identified by the Nordic Liver Transplant Registry, were studied. Data were retrieved from patients' chart reviews. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to calculate risk factors for rPSC and death. Of the 440 patients with a follow-up time after liver transplantation of 3743 patient years, rPSC was diagnosed in 19% (n = 85). Colectomy before liver transplantation was associated with a reduced risk of rPSC (HR 0.49; 95% CI, 0.26-0.94, p = 0.033). Neither high IBD activity nor presence of IBD flares before or after liver transplantation was associated with rPSC. Treatment with tacrolimus was an independent risk factor associated with increased risk for rPSC (HR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.15-2.86, p = 0.010). The risk of dying or needing a re-transplantation after rPSC was increased in all age groups, but highest in patients transplanted before 40 years of age (HR 7.3; 95% CI, 4.1-12.8, p = 0.0001). This study confirms that colectomy before liver transplantation is associated with a decreased risk of rPSC. Inflammatory activity of IBD was not associated with the risk of rPSC. Tacrolimus was an independent risk factor for PSC recurrence and its use as first line immunosuppression in PSC needs further study.

  10. Diffuse vascular damage in a transplanted kidney: an indication for nuclear magnetic resonance?

    PubMed

    Burdese, M; Consiglio, V; Mezza, E; Savio, D; Guarena, C; Rossetti, M; Messina, M; Soragna, G; Suriani, C; Rabbia, C; Segoloni, G P; Piccoli, G B

    2005-06-01

    Vascular lesions are an increasing challenge after renal transplantation due to the wider indications for recipients and acceptance criteria for donors. Diagnostic approach and prognostic interpretation are still matter of controversy. The case reported herein may summarize some of the issues in this regard. A 54-year-old woman, on renal replacement therapy since 1974, and a kidney graft recipient from 1975 to 1999, received a second graft in 2001. The donor age was 65 years (cold ischemia 22 hours; two mismatches). The early posttransplant follow-up was characterized by delayed graft function, hypertension, and diabetes. During the initial hypertension workup, renal graft ultrasound (US) Doppler demonstrated increased vascular resistances, stable over time (resistance index 0.74 to 0.77); renal scintiscan displayed homogeneously parenchymoa and angio-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), an homogeneous parenchymal vascularization. Initial immunosuppression with tacrolimus and steroids was modulated by adding mycophenolate mofetil to taper tacrolimus (to reduce nephrotoxicity and hypertension). Despite this, kidney function slowly deteriorated; serum creatinine reached 3 to 3.5 mg/dL by the second year. After a severe hypertensive crisis with unchanged scintiscan and US doppler examinations, angio-MRI revealed the almost complete disappearance of parenchymal enhancement beyond the lobar arteries. A renal biopsy confirmed the severe vascular damage. The patient was switched to rapamycine and a low-dose of an angiotension converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. She did relatively well (serum creatinine 2.2 to 3 mg/dL) for 6 months, when rapid functional impairment forced her to restart hemodialysis. This case, almost paradigmatic of the problems occurring when the rigid vasculature of long-term dialysis patients is matched with "marginal kidneys," suggests that MRI may be a sensible good to define vascular damage in the grafted kidney.

  11. Effect of a single intraoperative high-dose ATG-Fresenius on delayed graft function in donation after cardiac-death donor renal allograft recipients: a randomized study.

    PubMed

    van den Hoogen, Martijn W F; Kho, Marcia M L; Abrahams, Alferso C; van Zuilen, Arjan D; Sanders, Jan-Stephan; van Dijk, Marja; Hilbrands, Luuk B; Weimar, Willem; Hoitsma, Andries J

    2013-04-01

    Reducing the incidence of delayed graft function after transplant with donation after cardiac death donor renal allografts would facilitate managing recipients during their first weeks after a transplant. To reduce this incidence, in most studies, induction therapy with depleting anti-T-lymphocyte antibodies is coupled with a reduction of the dosage of the calcineurin inhibitor. The separate effect of anti-T-cell therapy on the incidence and duration of delayed graft function is therefore difficult to assess. We performed a randomized study to evaluate the effect of a single intraoperative high-dose of anti-T-lymphocyte immunoglobulin (ATG)-Fresenius (9 mg/kg body weight) on the incidence of delayed graft function. Eligible adult recipients of a first donation after cardiac death donor renal allograft were randomly assigned to ATG-Fresenius or no induction therapy. Maintenance immunosuppression consisted of tacrolimus, in an unadjusted dose, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroids. The study was prematurely terminated because of a lower-than-anticipated inclusion rate. Baseline characteristics were comparable in the ATG-Fresenius group (n=28) and the control group (n=24). Twenty-two patients in the ATG-Fresenius group (79%) had delayed graft function, compared with 13 in the control group (54%; P = .06). Allograft and patient survival were comparable in both groups. Serious adverse events occurred more frequently in the ATG-Fresenius group than they did in the control group (57% vs 29%; P < .05). Intraoperative administration of a single high-dose of ATG-Fresenius in donation after cardiac death donor renal allograft recipients, followed by triple immunosuppression with an unadjusted tacrolimus dose, seems ineffective to reduce the incidence of delayed graft function. Moreover, this was associated with a higher rate of serious adverse events (EudraCT-number, 2007-000210-36.).

  12. Transplant options for patients undergoing total pancreatectomy for chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Gruessner, Rainer W G; Sutherland, David E R; Dunn, David L; Najarian, John S; Jie, Tun; Hering, Bernhard J; Gruessner, Angelika C

    2004-04-01

    Total pancreatectomy to treat chronic pancreatitis is associated with severe diabetic control problems in 15% to 75% of patients, causing up to 50% of deaths late postoperatively. We report our experience with islet autotransplants at the time of, or with pancreas allotransplants after, total pancreatectomy. Between February 1, 1977, and June 30, 2003, we performed 112 islet autotransplants at the time of total pancreatectomy; we also performed 20 pancreas allotransplants in 13 patients who had already undergone total pancreatectomy months to years earlier. Islet autotransplants at the time of total pancreatectomy in patients who had not had previous operations on the body and tail of the pancreas were associated with a high islet yield (>2,500 islet equivalents/kg body weight), and >70% of the recipients achieved complete insulin independence. In contrast, a previous distal pancreatectomy or a Puestow drainage procedure was associated with a low islet yield in 75% of them and with complete insulin independence in <20%. A pancreas allotransplant after total pancreatectomy was not associated with any transplant-related mortality at 1 and 3 years posttransplant. The pancreas graft survival rate at 1 year posttransplant was 77% with tacrolimus-based immunosuppression (versus 67% with cyclosporine). Enteric (over bladder) drainage was preferred to manage exocrine graft secretions, to cure pancreatectomy-induced endocrine and exocrine insufficiency. Our series shows that pancreas allotransplants can be performed without transplant-related mortality and, when tacrolimus-based immunosuppression is used, with 1-year pancreas graft survival rates >75%. In contrast to a simultaneous islet autotransplant, a pancreas allotransplant has the disadvantage of requiring lifelong immunosuppression, but the advantage of not only curing endocrine but also exocrine insufficiency. Both transplant options, if successful, improve the recipient's quality of life.

  13. Factors Associated With Changes in Body Composition Shortly After Orthotopic Liver Transplantation: The Potential Influence of Immunosuppressive Agents.

    PubMed

    Brito-Costa, Ana; Pereira-da-Silva, Luís; Papoila, Ana Luísa; Alves, Marta; Mateus, Élia; Nolasco, Fernando; Barroso, Eduardo

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to determine factors associated with body composition changes shortly after liver transplantation (LTx), including the influence of immunosuppressive agents. The combined resting energy expenditure (REE) and handgrip strength provided a valuable assessment in data interpretation of body composition. This observational single-center study included a cohort of consecutive end-stage liver disease patients with indications for LTx over 2 years. Cyclosporine was preferred for diabetic, hepatitis C-infected, and human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients per the transplant center protocol. Subjective Global Assessment, handgrip strength, multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis, and REE measurements were collected. The assessments were performed before LTx (T0) and at medians of 9 (T1) and 36 (T2) days after LTx. The fat mass index (FMI) and lean mass index (LMI) were surrogates of adiposity and skeletal muscle, respectively. Multiple linear regression analysis was used. Fifty-six patients with a mean age of 53.7 (8.5) years were included; 87.5% were men. Preoperative Subjective Global Assessment undernourishment (β-estimate = 17.9; P = 0.004) and of drug addiction absence (β estimate = 14.6; P = 0.049) were associated with FMI increase. Higher REE at T1 (per 100 kcal) was associated with LMI increase (β estimate = 1.70; P = 0.012) and body cell mass increase (β estimate = 1.60; P = 0.049). The cyclosporine-based regimen was associated with FMI decrease (β estimate = -25.64; P < 0.001) and LMI increase (β estimate = 23.76; P < 0.001) when compared with a tacrolimus-based regimen. Steroids did not affect body composition. The cyclosporine-based regimen was independently associated with decreased adiposity and increased skeletal muscle compared with the tacrolimus-based regimen. Future randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm these findings.

  14. Outcomes of matched sibling donor bone marrow transplantation in children using single-agent calcineurin inhibitors as prophylaxis for graft versus host disease.

    PubMed

    Elgarten, Caitlin W; Arnold, Danielle E; Bunin, Nancy J; Seif, Alix E

    2018-01-01

    Optimal graft versus host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis prevents severe manifestations without excess immunosuppression. Standard prophylaxis includes a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) with low-dose methotrexate. However, single-agent CNI may be sufficient prophylaxis for a defined group of patients. Single-agent CNI has been used for GVHD prophylaxis for human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched sibling donor (MSD) bone marrow transplants (BMTs) in young patients at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia for over 20 years. Here, we describe outcomes using this prophylactic strategy in a recent cohort. We performed a single-institution chart review and retrospective analysis of consecutive children undergoing MSD BMT who received single-agent CNI for GVHD prophylaxis between January 2002 and December 2014. Fifty-two children with a median age of 6.1 years (interquartile range [IQR] 2.5-8.3) and donor age of 6 years (IQR 3-10), with malignant and nonmalignant diseases (n = 35 and 17, respectively) were evaluated. Forty-three (82.6%) received oral prophylaxis with single-agent tacrolimus after initial intravenous therapy. Rates of GVHD were consistent with reported rates on dual prophylaxis: the overall incidence of grades 2-4 acute GVHD was 25.5%, grades 3-4 GVHD 9.8%, and chronic GVHD 10.4%. The cumulative incidence of relapse among children with malignancy was 20% at a median of 237 days (IQR 194-318) post-transplant. Two-year overall survival was 82.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 69.4-90.6%) and event-free survival was 78.9% (95% CI: 65.1-87.7%). No patient experienced graft failure. Single-agent CNI is a safe, effective approach to GVHD prophylaxis in young patients undergoing HLA-identical sibling BMT. Additionally, single-agent oral tacrolimus is a reasonable alternative to cyclosporine in this population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Safety and Efficacy of Combination Treatment With Calcineurin Inhibitors and Vedolizumab in Patients With Refractory Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Britt; Gibson, Peter; Micic, Dejan; Colman, Ruben J; Goeppinger, Sarah R; Kassim, Olufemmi; Yarur, Andres; Weber, Christopher R; Cohen, Russell D; Rubin, David T

    2018-05-08

    Little is known about the efficacy and safety of induction therapy with calcineurin inhibitors in combination with vedolizumab for patients with Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC). We analyzed the outcomes of patients receiving vedolizumab along with calcineurin inhibitors METHODS: We collected data on patients with CD (n=9) or UC (n=11) who began treatment with vedolizumab from May 20, 2014 through March 30, 2015 and received calcineurin inhibitors (tacrolimus or cyclosporin) during the first 12 months of vedolizumab therapy. Clinical activity scores and inflammatory markers were measured at baseline and at weeks 14, 30, and 52 of vedolizumab treatment. Clinical remission was defined as a Harvey Bradshaw index score ≤4 or short clinical colitis activity index score ≤2; steroid-free clinical remission was defined as clinical remission without corticosteroids. By week 14 of treatment, 44% of the patients with CD and 55% of the patients with UC achieved steroid-free clinical remission; after 52 weeks of treatment, 33% of the patients with CD and 45% of the patients with UC were in steroid-free clinical remission. Seven patients received salvage therapy with a calcineurin inhibitor after primary non-response to vedolizumab-1 of the 2 patients with UC and 2 of 5 patients with CD stopped taking the calcineurin inhibitors and achieved steroid-free remission at week 52. In total, 16 patients (59%) received 52 weeks of treatment with vedolizumab. Three serious adverse events were associated with calcineurin inhibitors. Combination therapy of vedolizumab with either cyclosporin or tacrolimus is effective and safe at inducing and maintaining clinical remission in patients with CD and UC with up to 52 weeks of follow-up. Larger studies of the ability of calcineurin inhibitors to induce remission in patients on vedolizumab are warranted. Copyright © 2018 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Acute rejection characteristics from a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial of early corticosteroid withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Gaber, A Osama; Moore, Linda W; Alloway, Rita R; Woodle, E Steve; Pirsch, John; Shihab, Fuad; Henning, Alice; Fitzsimmons, William; Holman, John; Reisfield, Robin; First, M Roy

    2013-02-27

    This report characterizes acute rejection and rejection outcomes in subjects randomized to continuous corticosteroid therapy (CCS) or early corticosteroid withdrawal (CSWD; 7 days after transplantation) in the Astellas Blinded CSWD Trial. The Astellas Blinded CSWD Trial was a 5-year, prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial of early CCS withdrawal in 386 kidney transplant recipients (195 CCS and 191 CSWD). Tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil were required as well as either rabbit antithymocyte globulin or interleukin-2 receptor antibody induction. Biopsy-confirmed acute rejection (BCAR) was grade 1A or higher by Banff criteria. This report also provides borderline changes (BL) that did not meet Banff grade 1A included with BCAR (BCAR+BL). BCAR+BL was 25 (12.8%) in CCS group and 42 (22.0%) in CSWD group (P=0.022). Early BCAR+BL (first 90 days after transplantation) was less frequent in CCS (n=5 [2.6%]) than in CSWD (n=22 [11.5%]; P<0.001). Among non-African-American subjects, early BCAR+BL occurred more often in CSWD (n=20 [12.7%]) versus CCS (n=2 [1.3%]; P<0.001). Late acute rejection (>2 years) occurred more often in African-American subjects in CCS (n=5 [13.9%]) than in CSWD (n=0; P=0.056). Risk factors were CSWD (hazard ratio [HR], 4.72; P<0.002) and human leukocyte antigen mismatch (HR, 1.48; P<0.005) for early BCAR+BL and CSWD (HR, 1.9; P<0.02), human leukocyte antigen mismatch (HR, 1.2; P<0.01), and age (HR, 0.97; P<0.002) for 5-year rejection. The HR for graft loss associated with BCAR+BL was 8.8. BCAR+BL may occur more frequently during the early period after transplantation under an early CSWD regimen with tacrolimus plus induction compared with CCS, particularly among non-African-Americans.

  17. Calcineurin inhibitors recruit protein kinases JAK2 and JNK, TLR signaling and the UPR to activate NF-κB-mediated inflammatory responses in kidney tubular cells

    SciTech Connect

    González-Guerrero, Cristian, E-mail: cristian.gonzalez@fjd.es; Ocaña-Salceda, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.ocana@fjd.es; Berzal, Sergio, E-mail: sberzal@fjd.es

    The calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) cyclosporine (CsA) and tacrolimus are key drugs in current immunosuppressive regimes for solid organ transplantation. However, they are nephrotoxic and promote death and profibrotic responses in tubular cells. Moreover, renal inflammation is observed in CNI nephrotoxicity but the mechanisms are poorly understood. We have now studied molecular pathways leading to inflammation elicited by the CNIs in cultured and kidney tubular cells. Both CsA and tacrolimus elicited a proinflammatory response in tubular cells as evidenced by a transcriptomics approach. Transcriptomics also suggested several potential pathways leading to expression of proinflammatory genes. Validation and functional studies disclosed thatmore » in tubular cells, CNIs activated protein kinases such as the JAK2/STAT3 and TAK1/JNK/AP-1 pathways, TLR4/Myd88/IRAK signaling and the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) to promote NF-κB activation and proinflammatory gene expression. CNIs also activated an Nrf2/HO-1-dependent compensatory response and the Nrf2 activator sulforaphane inhibited JAK2 and JNK activation and inflammation. A murine model of CsA nephrotoxicity corroborated activation of the proinflammatory pathways identified in cell cultures. Human CNIs nephrotoxicity was also associated with NF-κB, STAT3 and IRE1α activation. In conclusion, CNIs recruit several intracellular pathways leading to previously non-described proinflammatory actions in renal tubular cells. Identification of these pathways provides novel clues for therapeutic intervention to limit CNIs nephrotoxicity. - Highlights: • Molecular mechanisms modulating CNI renal inflammation were investigated. • Kinases, immune receptors and ER stress mediate the inflammatory response to CNIs. • Several intracellular pathways activate NF-κB in CNIs-treated tubular cells. • A NF-κB-dependent cytokine profile characterizes CNIs-induced inflammation. • CNI nephrotoxicity was associated to

  18. Risk factors for development of new-onset diabetes mellitus and progressive impairment of glucose metabolism after living-donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Abe, T; Onoe, T; Tahara, H; Tashiro, H; Ishiyama, K; Ide, K; Ohira, M; Ohdan, H

    2014-04-01

    New-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM) has a negative impact on graft and patient survivals. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, high body mass index, increased donor and recipient ages, and calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) type have been identified as risk factors for the development of NODM. We aimed to elucidate the risk factors for the development of NODM and those for progressive glucose intolerance in adult living-donor liver transplant (LDLT) recipients. We collected data from 188 primary liver transplant recipients (age > 16 years) who underwent LDLT from June 1991 to December 2011 at Hiroshima University Hospital. Risk factors for NODM and progressive impairment of glucose metabolism in pre-transplantation diabetes mellitus (DM) recipients were examined. Pre-transplantation DM was diagnosed in 32 recipients (19.3%). The overall incidence of NODM was 6.0% (8/134 recipients). Multivariate analysis revealed that old recipient age (≥55 years) is a unique predictive risk factor for developing NODM. The incident of pre-transplantation DM was significantly higher in recipients with HCV infection than in those without HCV. A high pre-transplantation triglyceride level was an independent risk factor for progressive impairment of glucose tolerance among 32 LDLT recipients with pre-transplantation DM. All of the NODM patients were being treated with tacrolimus at the time of diagnosis. Switching the CNI from tacrolimus to cyclosporine allowed one-half of the patients (4/8) to withdraw from insulin-dependent therapy. NODM and post-transplantation glucose intolerance had no negative impact on patient and graft outcomes. Older age of the recipient (≥55 years) was a significant risk factor for NODM. Hypertriglyceridemia in the recipients with DM is an independent risk factor for post-transplantation progressive impairment of glucose metabolism. NODM had no negative impact on outcomes in the LDLT recipients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Questionnaire-based study on the key to the guidance to the patients with atopic dermatitis by pharmacist].

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Sakae; Kakamu, Takeyasu; Matsuo, Hiroaki; Naora, Koji; Morita, Eishin

    2014-11-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a condition with a chronic or recurrent course that requires continued treatment, meaning that patients must be provided with instructions that fit their lifestyle. Surveys of doctors and patients have revealed the importance of instructions on how to apply topical medication. Here we conducted a survey of the instructions provided by pharmacists, who play an important role in educating patients on how to apply topical medication. Questionnaires were distributed to clinics and dispensing pharmacies in Shimane and Hiroshima prefectures. The questionnaire format comprised selecting each matter on which instructions are provided. A total of 548 questionnaires (response rate, 13.8%) were collected and analyzed. Concerning topical steroids, the most frequently instructed item was "Explanation of application site"(86%), followed by "Explanation of number and timing of applications"(68%). Only 45% chose "Instruction to apply a small amount to avoid side effects." For tacrolimus ointment, "Explanation of tingling sensation"(as a side effect) was the most frequently selected item (52%), and "Instruction by using a brochure"(27.3%) was more commonly selected for tacrolimus ointment than for steroids and emollients. "Demonstrate the application method by means of actual application" was selected by few respondents for any topical medication. Regarding what they wanted from doctors, many respondents wrote in the section for their own comments that they would like a clear description of the method of use and dose and indications of the amount to be applied. Failure included times when patients failed to apply medication correctly due to inadequate instructions and an insufficient explanation of side effects. Instructions vary among patients and professions, but good instructions lead to good results. Cross-tabulation showed that pharmacists who are aware of the guidelines of atopic dermatitis offer significantly more instructions in a range of areas

  20. Successful Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation for an Adult Case of Chronic Active Epstein-Barr Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Saburi, Masuho; Ogata, Masao; Satou, Takako; Yoshida, Natsumi; Nagamatsu, Kentaro; Nashimoto, Yuko; Moroga, Yui; Takano, Kuniko; Kohno, Kazuhiro; Shirao, Kuniaki

    2016-01-01

    A 41-year-old man was referred to our hospital for treatment of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus (CAEBV) was diagnosed based on the findings of elevated EBV antibody titers and positive EBV-DNA in the peripheral blood, and cord blood stem cell transplantation (CBT) was performed. The EBV-DNA levels in the blood fell below the limit of detection. His lymphoma relapsed on Day 165 with the appearance of eruptions, which disappeared after the withdrawal of tacrolimus. One year after transplantation, there were no signs of recurrence. This encouraging result suggests that CBT should be considered for adult cases of CAEBV with aggressive clinical manifestations. PMID:27904117

  1. Successful Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation for an Adult Case of Chronic Active Epstein-Barr Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Saburi, Masuho; Ogata, Masao; Satou, Takako; Yoshida, Natsumi; Nagamatsu, Kentaro; Nashimoto, Yuko; Moroga, Yui; Takano, Kuniko; Kohno, Kazuhiro; Shirao, Kuniaki

    A 41-year-old man was referred to our hospital for treatment of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus (CAEBV) was diagnosed based on the findings of elevated EBV antibody titers and positive EBV-DNA in the peripheral blood, and cord blood stem cell transplantation (CBT) was performed. The EBV-DNA levels in the blood fell below the limit of detection. His lymphoma relapsed on Day 165 with the appearance of eruptions, which disappeared after the withdrawal of tacrolimus. One year after transplantation, there were no signs of recurrence. This encouraging result suggests that CBT should be considered for adult cases of CAEBV with aggressive clinical manifestations.

  2. Pulmonary nocardiosis in patients with connective tissue disease: A report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Hagiwara, Shinya; Tsuboi, Hiroto; Hagiya, Chihiro; Yokosawa, Masahiro; Hirota, Tomoya; Ebe, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Ogishima, Hiroshi; Asashima, Hiromitsu; Kondo, Yuya; Umeda, Naoto; Suzuki, Takeshi; Hitomi, Shigemi; Matsumoto, Isao; Sumida, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    Summary Reported here are 2 patients with connective tissue disease who developed pulmonary nocardiosis. Case 1 involved a 73-year-old man with malignant rheumatoid arthritis treated with prednisolone 25 mg/day. Chest X-rays revealed a pulmonary cavity and bronchoscopy detected Nocardia species. The patient was successfully treated with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Case 2 involved a 41-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus. The patient received remission induction therapy with 50 mg/day of prednisolone and tacrolimus. Six weeks later, a chest CT scan revealed a pulmonary cavity; bronchoscopy resulted in a diagnosis of pulmonary nocardiosis. The patient had difficulty tolerating trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, so she was switched to and successfully treated with imipenem/cilastatin and amikacin. PMID:25343123

  3. Hemophagocytic Syndrome Complicated with Dermatomyositis Controlled Successfully with Infliximab and Conventional Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Komiya, Yoji; Saito, Tetsuya; Mizoguchi, Fumitaka; Kohsaka, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    A 57-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of a high fever, anemia, and hyperferritinemia. Since a bone marrow examination revealed hemophagocytosis, she was diagnosed with hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS). During treatment of HPS, a heliotrope rash and Gottron's sign appeared with elevated levels of serum aldolase. She also developed heart failure. She was diagnosed with dermatomyositis (DM) and associated myocarditis. Although the administration of glucocorticoids, calcineurin inhibitors, intravenous immunoglobulins, and etoposide ameliorated the clinical findings of DM and cytopenia, the fever and hyperferritinemia remained. The addition of infliximab to glucocorticoids and tacrolimus improved the fever and hyperferritinemia and enabled a reduction in the dose of prednisolone without relapse of the diseases. PMID:29199203

  4. Invasive Mucormycosis Induced Pneumopericardium: A Rare Cause of Pneumopericardium in an Immunocompromised Patient

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Sana; Waqar Elahi, Muhammad; Ullah, Waqas; Ahmad, Ejaz; Al Mohajer, Mayar; Majeed, Aneela

    2017-01-01

    Mucor and Rhizopus cause life-threatening infections primarily involving the lungs and sinuses, which disseminate very rapidly by necrosis and infarction of the contiguous tissues. We present a case of a 64-year-old African American posttransplant patient who presented with a productive cough and weight loss. He had a past surgical history of renal transplant for renal cell carcinoma and was on dual immunosuppressive therapy, that is, mycophenolate and tacrolimus. During his hospital stay, he developed a pneumopericardium due to the direct extension of a lung lesion. The diagnosis was made by radiological imaging and PCR result which was consistent with Mucor species. He was treated with antifungal therapy. The purpose of this report is to highlight the unusual association of mucormycosis with pneumopericardium. PMID:28596926

  5. Risk factors for new onset diabetes mellitus after liver transplantation: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Da-Wei; Lu, Tian-Fei; Hua, Xiang-Wei; Dai, Hui-Juan; Cui, Xiao-Lan; Zhang, Jian-Jian; Xia, Qiang

    2015-05-28

    To determine the risk factors for new-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM) after liver transplantation by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. We electronically searched the databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library from January 1980 to December 2013 to identify relevant studies reporting risk factors for NODM after liver transplantation. Two authors independently assessed the trials for inclusion and extracted the data. Discrepancies were resolved in consultation with a third reviewer. All statistical analyses were performed with the RevMan5.0 software (The Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, United Kingdom). Pooled odds ratios (OR) or weighted mean differences (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using either a fixed effects or a random effects model, based on the presence (I (2) < 50%) or absence (I (2) > 50%) of significant heterogeneity. Twenty studies with 4580 patients were included in the meta-analysis, all of which were retrospective. The meta-analysis identified the following significant risk factors: hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (OR = 2.68; 95%CI: 1.92-3.72); a family history of diabetes (OR = 1.69, 95%CI: 1.09-2.63, P < 0.00001); male gender (OR = 1.53; 95%CI: 1.24-1.90; P < 0.0001); impaired fasting glucose (IFG; OR = 3.27; 95%CI: 1.84-5.81; P < 0.0001); a family history of diabetes (OR = 1.69; 95%CI: 1.09-2.63; P = 0.02); use of tacrolimus (OR = 1.34; 95%CI: 1.03-1.76; P = 0.03) and body mass index (BMI)(WMD = 1.19, 95%CI: 0.69-1.68, P < 0.00001). Other factors, such as hepatitis B virus infection and alcoholism, were not found to be associated with the incidence of NODM. The study showed that HCV infection, IFG, a family history of diabetes, male gender, tacrolimus and BMI are risk factors for NODM after liver transplantation.

  6. Efficacy of risk stratification in tailoring immunosuppression regimens in kidney transplant patients at the national kidney and transplant institute.

    PubMed

    Ledesma-Gumba, M A; Danguilan, R A; Casasola, C C; Ona, E T

    2008-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of tailored immunosuppressive regimens prescribed according to a risk stratification scoring system based on the number of HLA mismatches, donor source, panel-reactive antibodies (PRA), and repeat transplant. Patients in a retrospective cohort of 329 kidney transplantations performed from October 2004 to December 2005 were assigned scores of 0, 2, 4, or 6 with higher scores for > or =1 HLA mismatches, PRA > 10%, repeat transplant, and unrelated or deceased donor. Added scores of < or =4 comprised the low-risk group who received a Calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-based regimen without induction, whereas a score > or = 6 denoted high risk including a CNI-based regimen with an interleukin-2 receptor antibody. The efficacy analysis compared the incidences of biopsy-proven acute rejection episodes (BPAR) at 1 year. Only 227 (69%) of 329 patients had a complete data set and 84 were excluded because they did not follow the prescribed protocol, yielding 113 low- and 30 high-risk patients in the final population. Low-risk patients had a mean PRA of 5.4%, living related donors in 68%, and primary transplants. High-risk patients had a mean PRA of 18.8% (range = 10%-97%), living nonrelated donors in 84%, four deceased donors, and four repeat transplants. The overall 1-year incidence of BPAR was 5.7%. No significant difference (P = .081) was observed in 1-year BPAR between the low- (4.5%) and high-risk (9.8%) groups. Likewise, no significant difference in the 1-year mean serum creatinine was observed according to the CNI. The mean creatinine was 1.12 for cyclosporine and 1.38 for tacrolimus treatment (P = .06) in the low-risk group and 1.08 for cyclosporine and 1.2 for tacrolimus (P = .61) in the high-risk cohort. There was no significant difference in acute rejection rates between the immunologically low- or high-risk patients using tailored immunosuppression, which was effective to minimize its occurrence with good renal function at 1 year.

  7. Influence of Donor and Recipient CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and ABCB1 Genotypes on Clinical Outcomes and Nephrotoxicity in Liver Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Debette-Gratien, Marilyne; Woillard, Jean-Baptiste; Picard, Nicolas; Sebagh, Mylène; Loustaud-Ratti, Véronique; Sautereau, Denis; Samuel, Didier; Marquet, Pierre

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the influence of the CYP3A4*22, CYP3A5*3, and ABCB1 exons 12, 21, and 26 polymorphisms in donors and recipients on clinical outcomes and renal function in 170 liver transplant patients on cyclosporin A (CsA) or tacrolimus (Tac). Allelic discrimination assays were used for genotyping. Multivariate time-dependent Cox proportional hazard models, multiple linear regression using the generalized estimating equation and linear mixed-effect models were used for statistical analysis. Expression of CYP3A5 by either or both the donor and the recipient was significantly associated with lower Tac, but not CsA, dose-normalized trough levels. In the whole population, graft loss was only significantly associated with longer exposure to high calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) concentrations (hazard ratio, 6.93; 95% confidence interval, 2.13-22.55), P = 0.00129), whereas in the Tac subgroup, the risk of graft loss was significantly higher in recipient CYP3A5*1 expressers (hazard ratio, 3.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.52-7.58; P = 0.0028). Renal function was significantly associated with: (1) baseline modification of diet in renal disease (β = 0.51 ± 0.05; P < 0.0001); (2) duration of patient follow-up (per visit, β = -0.98 ± 0.22; P < 0.0001); and (3) CNI exposure (per quantile increase, β = -2.42 ± 0.59; P < 0.0001). No genetic factor was associated with patient survival, acute rejection, liver function test results, recurrence of viral or other initial liver disease, or renal function. This study confirms the effect of CYP3A5*3 on tacrolimus dose requirement in liver transplantation and shows unexpected associations between the type of, and exposure to, CNI and either chronic rejection or graft loss. None of the genetic polymorphisms studied had a noticeable impact on renal function degradation at 10 years.

  8. Exploration of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in the Treatment of Refractory Diarrhea After Renal Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gu, B; Bo, G Z; Ke, C

    2018-06-01

    Exploration of fecal microbiota transplantation in the treatment of refractory diarrhea after renal transplantation. Summarize the etiology of 120 cases with diarrhea after renal transplantation from 2014 to 2017 in our hospital. There were 4 recipients of refractory diarrhea who accepted fecal microbiota transplantation with informed consent, and we collected clinical data of stool and bacterial culture, gut microbiota analysis, graft function, electrolytes, immunosuppressant concentrations of prognostic evaluation of patients with fecal transplantation. The absorption of electrolyte is slightly higher and concentration of tacrolimus and creatinine were not significantly changed compared with before. Fecal microbiota transplantation provides a new choice to refractory diarrhea after renal transplantation as an innovative treatment, but the effectiveness of fecal microbiota transplantation needs long-term observation and further evaluation through large sample data. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Intralymphatic Histiocytosis: A Report of 2 Cases.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Sánchez, M E; Azaña-Defez, J M; Martínez-Martínez, M L; López-Villaescusa, M T

    Intralymphatic histiocyt