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Sample records for tacrolimus eye drop

  1. Treatment of Sjögren's syndrome dry eye using 0.03% tacrolimus eye drop: Prospective double-blind randomized study.

    PubMed

    Moscovici, Bernardo Kaplan; Holzchuh, Ricardo; Sakassegawa-Naves, Fernando Eiji; Hoshino-Ruiz, Diego Ricardo; Albers, Marcos Bottene Villa; Santo, Ruth Miyuki; Hida, Richard Yudi

    2015-10-01

    To describe the clinical efficacy of the treatment of Sjögren's syndrome dry eye using 0.03% tacrolimus eye drop. Prospective double-blind randomized study. Institutional outpatient clinic. Forty-eight eyes of twenty-four patients with dry eye related to Sjögren syndrome were enrolled in this study. The patients were randomized in 2 groups: tacrolimus (n=14) and vehicle (n=10) group. The tacrolimus group received a vial containing tacrolimus 0.03% (almond oil as vehicle) and the other group received the almond oil vehicle. All patients were instructed to use the eye drops every 12h in the lower conjunctival sac. Schirmer I test, break-up-time (BUT), corneal fluorescein and Rose Bengal staining scores were evaluated in all patients one day before the treatment (baseline), 7, 14, 28 and 90 days after treatment with the eye drops. The average fluorescein and Rose Bengal scores improved statistically after 7 days of treatment and even more after 90 days. The average Schirmer I and BUT values were unchanged after 7, 14 and 21 days but did show an improvement relative to baseline after 28 days of treatment. Schirmer I, BUT, fluorescein and Rose Bengal did not show any statistical significance in the vehicle group. Topical 0.03% tacrolimus eye drop improved tear stability and ocular surface status in cases of inflammatory or SS-related dry eye. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01850979. Copyright © 2015 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of the Ocular Tolerance of Three Tacrolimus Topical Pharmaceutical Preparations by Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability Test.

    PubMed

    Pastor-Clerigues, Alfonso; Serrano, Adela; Milara, Javier; Marti-Bonmati, Ezequiel; Lopez-Perez, Francisco J; Garcia-Montanes, Sara; Sanfeliu, Joan; Saval-Victoria, Ana C; Cortijo, Julio

    2016-07-01

    Tacrolimus ocular preparations are commonly employed in autoimmune or inflammatory ocular disorders. However, currently there are not yet approved ocular formulations. Tacrolimus ocular side effects have been reported in clinical use, so the evaluation of different pharmaceutical preparations is mandatory. In this study, the local corneal tolerance and safety profile of three common tacrolimus 0.03% pharmaceutical preparations were evaluated. Corneal irritation and permeability of tacrolimus preparations were evaluated with the bovine corneal opacity and permeability (BCOP) test. Complementary corneal hematoxylin/eosin and immunohistochemistry staining for tight junctions and adherent junctions E-cadherin, VE-cadherin and zonula occludens-1 were examined and scored to evaluate and to confirm corneal disruption and irritation scores obtained with the BCOP method. Commercial brand ointment (Protopic®), topical compounded eye ointment (pharmacy elaboration) and tacrolimus suspension eye drops (elaborated from parenteral prograf®) were tested as potential ocular preparations to be used in clinics. Tacrolimus preparations hereby studied do not alter the opacity and permeability of the bovine cornea by more than three units, measured by the In Vitro Irritancy Score, neither affected the immunohistochemical parameters, composite score or transepithelial electrical resistance. Tacrolimus preparations studied can be safely applied as a topical ocular treatment.

  3. Prospective, randomized, controlled comparison of SYSTANE UD eye drops versus VISINE INTENSIV 1% EDO eye drops for the treatment of moderate dry eye.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, Christina; Kruse, Friedrich E; Cursiefen, Claus

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this prospective, randomized, clinical, single-center study was to compare the safety and efficacy of 2 ocular surface lubricant eye drops: preservative-free hydroxypropyl (HP)-Guar (SYSTANE UD(®)) eye drops versus preservative-free Tamarindus indica seed polysaccharide (TSP) 1% (VISINE INTENSIV 1% EDO(®)) eye drops. Fifty-six eyes of 28 patients with moderate keratoconjunctivitis sicca (DEWS severity level 2) were enrolled in the trial. Patients were randomized for 2 treatment groups (SYSTANE UD eye drops vs. VISINE INTENSIV 1% EDO eye drops). The eye drops in both groups were applied 5 times per day for 3 months. Statistical analyses were performed using Statistica™ software (Mann-Whitney U-test and Wilcoxon test). P-Values<0.05 were considered significant. After 3 months of treatment the patients of both groups had subjective benefit in the relief of symptoms of dry eye disease evaluated by the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire score. Patients treated with HP-Guar and TSP showed improvements in tear film stability measured by tear break-up time (TBUT), which are statistically significant in the HP-Guar group (P=0.02). The results of this clinical trial show improvements of symptoms and signs in patients with moderate dry eye after the consistent use of preservative-free HP-Guar and TSP lubricant eye drops. Both artificial tear formulations produce amelioration in tear film stability improving eye conditions and patient quality of life. HP-Guar seems to be slightly more effective in improving ocular surface protection by decreasing tear film evaporation.

  4. Cyclodextrins in eye drop formulations: enhanced topical delivery of corticosteroids to the eye.

    PubMed

    Loftsson, Thorsteinn; Stefánsson, Einar

    2002-04-01

    Cyclodextrins are cylindrical oligosaccharides with a lipophilic central cavity and hydrophilic outer surface. They can form water-soluble complexes with lipophilic drugs, which 'hide' in the cavity. Cyclodextrins can be used to form aqueous eye drop solutions with lipophilic drugs, such as steroids and some carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. The cyclodextrins increase the water solubility of the drug, enhance drug absorption into the eye, improve aqueous stability and reduce local irritation. Cyclodextrins are useful excipients in eye drop formulations of various drugs, including steroids of any kind, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, pilocarpine, cyclosporins, etc. Their use in ophthalmology has already begun and is likely to expand the selection of drugs available as eye drops. In this paper we review the properties of cyclodextrins and their application in eye drop formulations, of which their use in the formulation of dexamethasone eye drops is an example. Cyclodextrins have been used to formulate eye drops containing corticosteroids, such as dexamethasone, with levels of concentration and ocular absorption which, according to human and animal studies, are many times those seen with presently available formulations. Cyclodextrin-based dexamethasone eye drops are well tolerated in the eye and seem to provide a higher degree of bioavailability and clinical efficiency than the steroid eye drop formulations presently available. Such formulations offer the possibility of once per day application of corticosteroid eye drops after eye surgery, and more intensive topical steroid treatment in severe inflammation. While cyclodextrins have been known for more than a century, their use in ophthalmology is just starting. Cyclodextrins are useful excipients in eye drop formulations for a variety of lipophilic drugs. They will facilitate eye drop formulations for drugs that otherwise might not be available for topical use, while improving absorption and stability and decreasing

  5. [A correct understanding of preservatives in eye drops].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zuguo; Huang, Caihong

    2015-09-01

    Eye drops are the most commonly used preparations in ophthalmology. Preservatives are usually added in order to protect eye drops against pathogenic organisms and increase the solubility of the drugs in multi-dose containers. Ophthalmologists have paid a lot of attention to the preservatives in eye drops because they remain one of the main reasons for ocular surface damage, and even may lead to serious visual impairment in patients with inappropriate use of eye drops. However, it should be noted that the dangers of preservatives become overstated nowadays. It is necessary to completely evaluate the effects of preservatives in ophthalmic preparations, so that ophthalmologists can guide patients to correctly select eye drops containing preservatives and avoid dangerous side effects, according to their eye disease situation, state of tear function and ocular surface changes, cultural background and financial income, cost and benefit and convenience of the use of drugs, and other factors. The direction of the future development in this field is to establish the clinical guideline for use of eye drops containing preservatives, carry out continuing education courses on preservatives and develop ideal preservatives.

  6. Creation of nano eye-drops and effective drug delivery to the interior of the eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikuta, Yoshikazu; Aoyagi, Shigenobu; Tanaka, Yuji; Sato, Kota; Inada, Satoshi; Koseki, Yoshitaka; Onodera, Tsunenobu; Oikawa, Hidetoshi; Kasai, Hitoshi

    2017-03-01

    Nano eye-drops are a new type of ophthalmic treatment with increased potency and reduced side effects. Compounds in conventional eye-drops barely penetrate into the eye because the cornea, located at the surface of eye, has a strong barrier function for preventing invasion of hydrophilic or large-sized materials from the outside. In this work, we describe the utility of nano eye-drops utilising brinzolamide, a commercially available glaucoma treatment drug, as a target compound. Fabrication of the nanoparticles of brinzolamide prodrug increases the eye penetration rate and results in high drug efficacy, compared with that of commercially available brinzolamide eye-drops formulated as micro-sized structures. In addition, the resulting nano eye-drops were not toxic to the corneal epithelium after repeated administration for 1 week. The nano eye-drops may have applications as a next-generation ophthalmic treatment.

  7. A Low Concentration of Tacrolimus/Semifluorinated Alkane (SFA) Eyedrop Suppresses Intraocular Inflammation in Experimental Models of Uveitis.

    PubMed

    De Majumdar, S; Subinya, M; Korward, J; Pettigrew, A; Scherer, D; Xu, H

    2017-01-01

    Corticosteroids remain the mainstay therapy for uveitis, a major cause of blindness in the working age population. However, a substantial number of patients cannot benefit from the therapy due to steroids resistance or intolerance. Tacrolimus has been used to treat refractory uveitis through systemic administration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of 0.03% tacrolimus eyedrop in mouse models of uveitis. 0.03% tacrolimus in perfluorobutylpentane (F4H5) (0.03% Tacrolimus/SFA) was formulated using a previously published protocol. Tacrolimus suspended in PBS (0.03% Tacrolimus/PBS) was used as a control. In addition, 0.1% dexamethasone (0.1% DXM) was used as a standard therapy control. Endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) and experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) were induced in adult C57BL/6 mice using protocols described previously. Mice were treated with eyedrops three times/day immediately after EIU induction for 48 h or from day 14 to day 25 post-immunization (for EAU). Clinical and histological examinations were conducted at the end of the experiment. Pharmacokinetics study was conducted in mice with and without EIU. At different times after eyedrop treatment, ocular tissues were collected for tacrolimus measurement. The 0.03% Tacrolimus/SFA eyedrop treatment reduced the clinical scores and histological scores of intraocular inflammation in both EIU and EAU to the levels similar to 0.1% DXM eyedrop treatment. The 0.03% Tacrolimus/PBS did not show any suppressive effect in EIU and EAU. Pharmacokinetic studies showed that 15 min after topical administration of 0.03% Tacrolimus/SFA, low levels of tacrolimus were detected in the retina (48 ng/g tissue) and vitreous (2.5 ng/ml) in normal mouse eyes, and the levels were significantly higher in EIU eyes (102 ng/g tissue in the retina and 24 ng/ml in the vitreous). Tacrolimus remained detectable in intraocular tissues of EIU eyes 6 h after topical administration (68 ng/g retinal tissue, 10

  8. [Trial of eye drops recognizer for visually disabled persons].

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Norio; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Mimura, Osamu

    2009-01-01

    The development of a device to enable the visually disabled to differentiate eye drops and their dose. The new instrument is composed of a voice generator and a two-dimensional bar-code reader (LS9208). We designed voice outputs for the visually disabled to state when (number of times) and where (right, left, or both) to administer eye drops. We then determined the minimum bar-code size that can be recognized. After attaching bar-codes of the appropriate size to the lateral or bottom surface of the eye drops container, the readability of the bar-codes was compared. The minimum discrimination bar-code size was 6 mm high x 8.5 mm long. Bar-codes on the bottom surface could be more easily recognized than bar-codes on the side. Our newly-developed device using bar-codes enables visually disabled persons to differentiate eye drops and their doses.

  9. Corneal thickness values before and after oxybuprocaine 0.4% eye drops.

    PubMed

    Asensio, Isabel; Rahhal, Saleh M; Alonso, Luis; Palanca-Sanfrancisco, José M; Sanchis-Gimeno, Juan A

    2003-08-01

    To determine changes in corneal thickness after topical anesthesia. Corneal thickness was measured before and 3 minutes after administration of two drops of oxybuprocaine 0.4% to 26 patients (26 eyes). We analyzed the corneal thickness of a control group, which was made up of 26 patients (26 eyes) before and 3 minutes after administration of two drops of saline solution. Corneal thickness was measured with the Orbscan Topography System II (Bausch Lomb Surg., Barcelona). Variations higher than +/- 10 microm were found following the instillation of 2 oxybuprocaine eye drops in eight eyes (30.76%) at the inferonasal cornea, in six eyes (23.08%) at the superotemporal, temporal and inferotemporal cornea, in five eyes (19.23%) at the nasal cornea, in three eyes (11.53%) at the central cornea, and in two eyes (7.69%) at the superonasal cornea. Nevertheless, no significant differences in the mean corneal thickness at each corneal location between the first and the second corneal thickness measurements were found in anesthetized eyes. Some individuals can present important increases and decreases in corneal thickness values after anesthetic eye drops. This effect of anesthetic eye drops must be considered by refractive surgeons when carrying out preoperative laser in situ keratomileusis corneal thickness measurements.

  10. Effectiveness of eye drops protective against ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Daxer, A; Blumthaler, M; Schreder, J; Ettl, A

    1998-01-01

    To test the effectiveness of commercially available ultraviolet (UV)-protective eye drops (8-hydroxy-1-methylchinolinium methylsulphate) which are recommended for protection against both solar and artificial UV radiation. The spectral transmission in the wavelength range from 250 to 500 nm was investigated in 1-nm steps using a high-resolution double monochromator with holographic gratings of 2,400 lines/mm and a 1,000-watt halogen lamp as light source. The transmission spectrum was measured for different values of the layer thickness. The transmission of a liquid layer of about 10 microns, which corresponds to the thickness of the human tear film, shows a cut-off at 290 nm with a transmission of about 25-50% at shorter wavelengths. For wavelengths longer than 290 nm the transmission is higher than 90%. The threshold time ratio for keratitis formation with and without eye drops is above 0.93 considering solar radiation on the earth's surface and above 0.65 considering radiation from arc-welding, respectively. The transmission spectrum of the eye drops under realistic conditions does not show a protective effect against solar UV radiation. However, there exists reduction of UVC radiation in the spectral range typical of artificial UV sources such as arc-welding. We cannot recommend the application of these eye drops as an UV-protective aid against eye damage by solar UV radiation.

  11. Anti-inflammatory and Antihistaminic Study of a Unani Eye Drop Formulation.

    PubMed

    Abdul, Latif; Abdul, Razique; Sukul, R R; Nazish, Siddiqui

    2010-01-01

    The Unani eye drop is an ophthalmic formulation prepared for its beneficial effects in the inflammatory and allergic conditions of the eyes. In the present study, the Unani eye drop formulation was prepared and investigated for its anti-inflammatory and antihistaminic activity, using in vivo and in vitro experimental models respectively. The Unani eye drop formulation exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in turpentine liniment-induced ocular inflammation in rabbits. The preparation also showed antihistaminic activity in isolated guinea-pig ileum. The anti-inflammatory and antihistaminic activity of eye drop may be due to presence of active ingredients in the formulation. Although there are many drugs in Unani repository which are mentioned in classical books or used in Unani clinical practice effectively in treatment of eye diseases by various Unani physicians. Inspite of the availability of vast literature, there is a dearth of commercial Unani ocular preparations. So, keeping this in mind, the eye drop formulation was prepared and its anti-inflammatory and antihistaminic activity was carried out in animal models. Thus, in view of the importance of alternative anti-inflammatory and antiallergic drugs, it becomes imperative to bring these indigenous drugs to the front foot and evaluate their activities.

  12. PRESERVATIVES FROM THE EYE DROPS AND THE OCULAR SURFACE

    PubMed Central

    Coroi, Mihaela Cristina; Bungau, Simona; Tit, Mirela

    2015-01-01

    The use of preservatives in eye drops (eyewashes) has known glory at the beginning, but the side effects that they have on the ocular surface have led to a decrease of their popularity. Lachrymal film dysfunction, ocular hyperemia, dotted keratitis or toxic keratopathy were reported and analyzed in terms of pathophysiological mechanism of the role played by preservatives in ophthalmic drops (eyewashes). This article reviews the most common preservatives and the existing alternatives for the maintenance of the eye sterile drops. PMID:27373107

  13. Anisocoria Secondary to Anticholinergic Mydriasis from Homeopathic Pink Eye Relief Drops.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Yeung, Joseph C; Anderson, Dennis R

    2017-12-01

    A woman, aged 70 years, developed anisocoria after applying homeopathic eye drops (Similasan Pink Eye Relief) to her left eye. Her pupil was dilated for two weeks and did not respond to light or near stimuli for one week. Both 0.1% and 1% pilocarpine failed to constrict her left pupil, and magnetic resonance imaging of her brain did not reveal any abnormality. The eye drops she had used contain belladonna extracts which have a natural atropine component. This case demonstrates the importance, when evaluating a patient presenting with anisocoria, of knowing the chemical ingredients of the homeopathic eye drops, which often are not listed. © 2017 Marshfield Clinic.

  14. Antioxidant and inflammatory cytokine in tears of patients with dry eye syndrome treated with preservative-free versus preserved eye drops.

    PubMed

    Jee, Donghyun; Park, Sang Hee; Kim, Man Soo; Kim, Eun Chul

    2014-07-03

    To compare the antioxidant and inflammatory cytokine activities in tears of patients with dry eye syndrome treated with preservative-free versus preserved eye drops. A total of 100 patients with moderate to severe dry eye syndrome were randomly divided into two groups. Fifty patients (group 1) were treated four times with preservative-free 0.1% sodium hyaluronate and 0.1% fluorometholone eye drops in the first month and with preservative-free 0.1% sodium hyaluronate and 0.05% cyclosporine eye drops in the second and third months. Another 50 patients (group 2) were treated with preserved eye drops on the same schedule. Ocular Surface Disease Index, corneal fluorescein staining, Schirmer I test, tear film breakup time, impression cytology, and antioxidant and inflammatory cytokine activities in tears were evaluated. Treatment with preservative-free eye drops led to significant improvements in symptoms, tear film breakup time, Schirmer I score, and impression cytologic findings compared to treatment with preserved eye drops (P < 0.05) in patients with dry eye syndrome. There was a statistically significant decrease in the IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, and TNF-α concentrations and a statistically significant increase in the catalase, peroxiredoxin 2, superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD 2), and thioredoxin mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of tears in the preservative-free group at 1, 2, and 3 months compared to initial values, respectively (P < 0.05). Treatment with preservative-free eye drops is effective against the dry eye syndrome. Preservative-free eye drops seem to be more effective than preserved eye drops in decreasing ocular inflammation and in increasing antioxidant contents in tears of patients with dry eye syndrome. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  15. Promoting effect of borneol on the permeability of puerarin eye drops and timolol maleate eye drops through the cornea in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chun-jie; Huang, Qin-wan; Qi, Hong-yi; Guo, Ping; Hou, Shi-xiang

    2006-09-01

    Studies on the influence of borneol on the penetration of puerarin eye drops and timolol maleate eye drops through the cornea, and evaluation of the ocular irritability were conducted to provide a theoretical basis for the application of borneol in enhancing corneal permeability. The cornea penetrative experiment in vitro was conducted to observe the quantitative change of puerarin and timolol maleate penetrated through the cornea after administering different dosages of borneol. The corneal hydration level and blinking frequency were recorded as irritability indexes in vitro and in vivo. The steady-flow J of high, middle and low dosage groups of puerarin eye drops with borneol were increased by 49%, 32%, 5% respectively, and permeability parameter Kp increased by 49%, 32%, 5% respectively, as compared to that of the control group. The steady-flow J of high dosage group of timolol maleate eye drops with borneol was increased by 5%; middle and low dosage groups with borneol were decreased by 6%, 3% respectively. The permeability parameter Kp of high dosage group increased by 5%, while middle and low dosage groups with borneol were decreased by 6%, 3% respectively, as compared to that of the control group. Evaluation showed no ocular irritability caused by borneol. The results of this study suggest that the promoting effect of borneol on the permeability of drugs through the cornea in vitro is selective, which indicates that borneol has the potential to be used as an ophthalmic penetration enhancer.

  16. How glaucoma patient characteristics, self-efficacy, and patient-provider communication are associated with eye drop technique

    PubMed Central

    Sayner, Robyn; Carpenter, Delesha M; Robin, Alan L; Blalock, Susan J; Muir, Kelly W; Vitko, Michelle; Hartnett, Mary Elizabeth; Lawrence, Scott D; Giangiacomo, Annette L; Tudor, Gail; Goldsmith, Jason A; Sleath, Betsy

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to examine the extent to which patient characteristics, eye drop technique self-efficacy, and ophthalmologist–patient communication about eye drop administration are associated with glaucoma patients’ ability to instil a single drop, have the drop land in the eye, and avoid touching the applicator tip of the medication bottle to the eye or face while self-administering eye drops. Methods Glaucoma patients (n = 279) were recruited from six ophthalmology clinics. Medical visits were videotape-recorded. Afterwards, patients were interviewed and demonstrated administering an eye drop on a videotaped-recording. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyse the data. Key findings Ophthalmologists provided eye drop administration instruction to 40 patients. Patients with more years of education were significantly more likely to both instil a single drop (P = 0.017) and have the drop land in their eye (P = 0.017). Women were significantly more likely to touch the applicator tip to their eyes or face (P = 0.014). Patients with severe glaucoma (P = 0.016), women (P = 0.026), and patients who asked at least one eye drop administration question (P = 0.001) were significantly less likely to instil a single drop. Patients with arthritis were significantly less likely to have the drop land in their eye (P = 0.008). African American patients were significantly less likely to touch the applicator tip to their eyes or face (P = 0.008). Conclusions Some glaucoma patients have a difficult time self-administering eye drops. As so few patients received eye drop administration instruction from their providers, there is an opportunity for pharmacists to complement care. PMID:26303667

  17. How glaucoma patient characteristics, self-efficacy and patient-provider communication are associated with eye drop technique.

    PubMed

    Sayner, Robyn; Carpenter, Delesha M; Robin, Alan L; Blalock, Susan J; Muir, Kelly W; Vitko, Michelle; Hartnett, Mary Elizabeth; Lawrence, Scott D; Giangiacomo, Annette L; Tudor, Gail; Goldsmith, Jason A; Sleath, Betsy

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the extent to which patient characteristics, eye drop technique self-efficacy, and ophthalmologist-patient communication about eye drop administration are associated with glaucoma patients' ability to instil a single drop, have the drop land in the eye, and avoid touching the applicator tip of the medication bottle to the eye or face while self-administering eye drops. Glaucoma patients (n = 279) were recruited from six ophthalmology clinics. Medical visits were videotape-recorded. Afterwards, patients were interviewed and demonstrated administering an eye drop on a videotaped-recording. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyse the data. Ophthalmologists provided eye drop administration instruction to 40 patients. Patients with more years of education were significantly more likely to both instil a single drop (P = 0.017) and have the drop land in their eye (P = 0.017). Women were significantly more likely to touch the applicator tip to their eyes or face (P = 0.014). Patients with severe glaucoma (P = 0.016), women (P = 0.026), and patients who asked at least one eye drop administration question (P = 0.001) were significantly less likely to instil a single drop. Patients with arthritis were significantly less likely to have the drop land in their eye (P = 0.008). African American patients were significantly less likely to touch the applicator tip to their eyes or face (P = 0.008). Some glaucoma patients have a difficult time self-administering eye drops. As so few patients received eye drop administration instruction from their providers, there is an opportunity for pharmacists to complement care. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  18. Osmolarity of prevalent eye drops, side effects, and therapeutic approaches.

    PubMed

    Dutescu, Ralf M; Panfil, Claudia; Schrage, Norbert

    2015-05-01

    Little is known about how the osmolarity of ophthalmic formulations affects the ocular surface. Because hyperosmolar eye drops could be therapeutic for treating corneal edema, this article presents an ex vivo model of corneal edema for testing ophthalmic drugs based on their osmolarity. The respective osmolarity of common eye drops found in the German market is also analyzed here. For modeling corneal edema, an Ex Vivo Eye Irritation Test was used to simulate an ocular anterior chamber with a physiological corneal barrier. To induce corneal edema, the anterior chamber was supplied with a hypoosmolar medium (148 mOsm/L) for 24 hours. Preserved and preservative-free 5% sodium chloride (hyperosmolar Omnisorb and Ocusalin 5% UD) were used for 1 hour, on 5 corneas each, to test their efficiency to reduce corneal edema in this model. Corneal thickness was determined by optical coherence tomography. Osmolarity of 87 common eye drops was measured by freezing point osmometry. Ex vivo, the tested hypoosmolar condition induced corneal edema from 450 μm (±50 μm) at baseline to 851 μm (±94 μm, P < 0.0001). Omnisorb and Ocusalin 5% UD significantly reduced the corneal thickness by 279 μm (±28 μm, P < 0.001) for Omnisorb and 258 μm (±29 μm, P < 0.001) for Ocusalin 5% UD. Forty-three (49%) of the tested products had an osmolarity below and 44 (51%) above the physiological tear osmolarity of 289 mOsm/L. Osmolarity values of less than 200 mOsm/L were found in lubricant drops. The highest osmolarity was detected in Omnisorb (1955 mOsm/L). The Ex Vivo Eye Irritation Test has proven to be a reliable novel model of corneal edema for evaluating osmotic eye drops. Osmolarity measurements revealed a wide range from hypotonic to hypertonic formulations for commonly marketed ophthalmic drugs.

  19. Different cellular effects of four anti-inflammatory eye drops on human corneal epithelial cells: independent in active components.

    PubMed

    Qu, Mingli; Wang, Yao; Yang, Lingling; Zhou, Qingjun

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the cellular effects of four commercially available anti-inflammatory eye drops and their active components on human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) in vitro. The cellular effects of four eye drops (Bromfenac Sodium Hydrate Eye Drops, Pranoprofen Eye Drops, Diclofenac Sodium Eye Drops, and Tobramycin & Dex Eye Drops) and their corresponding active components were evaluated in an HCEC line with five in vitro assays. Cell proliferation and migration were measured using 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo (-z-y1)-3 5-di-phenytetrazoliumromide (MTT) assay and transwell migration assay. Cell damage was determined with the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. Cell viability and median lethal time (LT₅₀) were measured by 7-amino-actinomycin D (7-AAD) staining and flow cytometry analysis. Cellular effects after exposure of HCECs to the four anti-inflammatory eye drops were concentration dependent. The differences of cellular toxicity on cell proliferation became significant at lower concentrations (<0.002%). Diclofenac Sodium Eye Drops showed significant increasing effects on cell damage and viability when compared with the other three solutions. Tobramycin & Dex Eye Drops inhibited the migration of HCECs significantly. Tobramycin & Dex Eye Drops showed the quickest effect on cell viability: the LT₅₀ was 3.28, 9.23, 10.38, and 23.80 min for Tobramycin & Dex Eye Drops, Diclofenac Sodium Eye Drops, Pranoprofen Eye Drops, and Bromfenac Sodium Hydrate Eye Drops, respectively. However, the comparisons of cellular toxicity revealed significant differences between the eye drops and their active components under the same concentration. The corneal epithelial toxicity differences among the active components of the four eye drops became significant as higher concentration (>0.020%). The four anti-inflammatory eye drops showed different cellular effects on HCECs, and the toxicity was not related with their active components, which provides new reference for the

  20. An Ilomastat-CD Eye Drop Formulation to Treat Ocular Scarring.

    PubMed

    Mohamed-Ahmed, Abeer H A; Lockwood, Alastair; Li, He; Bailly, Maryse; Khaw, Peng T; Brocchini, Steve

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a topical matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor preparation for antiscarring therapy. The broad spectrum matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor ilomastat was formulated using 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin in aqueous solution. In vitro activity of ilomastat-cyclodextrin (ilomastat-CD) was examined using fibroblasts seeded in collagen. Permeation of ilomastat-CD eye drop through pig eye conjunctiva was confirmed using Franz diffusion cells. Ilomastat-CD eye drop was applied to rabbit eyes in vivo, and the distribution of ilomastat in ocular tissues and fluids was determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. The aqueous solubility of ilomastat-CD was ∼1000 μg/mL in water and 1400 μg/mL in PBS (pH 7.4), which is greater than ilomastat alone (140 and 160 μg/mL in water and PBS, respectively). The in vitro activity of ilomastat-CD to inhibit collagen contraction in the presence of human Tenon fibroblast cells was unchanged compared to uncomplexed ilomastat. Topically administered ilomastat-CD in vivo to rabbit eyes resulted in a therapeutic concentration of ilomastat being present in the sclera and conjunctiva and within the aqueous humor. Ilomastat-CD has the potential to be formulated as an eye drop for use as an antifibrotic, which may have implications for the prevention of scarring in many settings, for example glaucoma filtration surgery.

  1. Corneal thickness differences between sexes after oxybuprocaine eye drops.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Garcia, Pablo; Cerviño, Alejandro; Quiles-Guiñau, Laura; Albarran-Diego, Cesar; Garcia-Lazaro, Santiago; Sanchis-Gimeno, Juan A

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to analyze the corneal thickness (CT) values of female and male subjects before and after instillation of oxybuprocaine 0.4% anesthetic eye drops. The CT of 30 female subjects and 28 male subjects was measured using scanning-slit corneal topography (Orbscan Topography System II, Orbscan, Inc, Salt Lake City, UT). Measurements were carried out before and 3 minutes after the instillation of oxybuprocaine 0.4% eye drops. The difference between the baseline values and those obtained after anesthesia ranged as follows: male subjects: central, -26 to +24 μm; superior, -24 to +23 μm; inferior, -19 to +20 μm; nasal, -25 to +30 μm; and temporal, -21 to +20 μm; female subjects: central, -16 to +24 μm; superior, -19 to +32 μm; inferior, -14 to +34 μm; nasal, -19 to +33 μm; and temporal, -36 to +16 μm. No significant differences were found in any corneal location in male subjects. The differences were significant at inferior (p = 0.001) and nasal (p = 0.011) corneal sites in female subjects. Oxybuprocaine anesthetic eye drops induce significant CT increases in female subjects but not in male subjects.

  2. Effect of oxybuprocaine eye drops on corneal volume and thickness measurements.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Nicola; De Bernardo, Maddalena; Borrelli, Maria; Filosa, Maria Luisa; Lanza, Michele

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the effect of oxybuprocaine eye drops on corneal volume (CV) and corneal thickness measurements. Central corneal thickness (CCT), corneal thinnest point (CTP), and CV of 78 eyes of 78 healthy volunteers were measured with Pentacam, before and 5 min after the administration of oxybuprocaine eye drops. The fellow non-anesthetized eyes were used as control. Before topical anesthesia, the mean CCT was 546.76 ± 35.3 μm, after anesthesia, it was 547.76 ± 36.56 μm (p = 0.86). In the fellow eyes, the first mean CCT was 548.82 ± 35.2 μm and the second was 547.55 ± 35.9 μm (p = 0.82). The mean CTP before anesthesia was 543.99 ± 35.23 μm, after it was 544.89 ± 36.3 μm (p = 0.88). In the fellow eyes, the first mean CTP was 544.15 ± 35.35 μm and the second was 542.81 ± 36 μm (p = 0.81). Before topical anesthesia, the mean CV was 60.55 ± 3.84 mm, after it was 60.66 ± 3.97 mm (p = 0.86). In the fellow eyes, the first mean CV was 60.93 ± 3.87 mm and the second was 60.73 ± 4 mm (p = 0.75). Oxybuprocaine eye drops do not appear to induce a significant corneal swelling and do not affect the measurements when comparing CCT measured with optical or ultrasound devices.

  3. Ptosis induced by topical steroid eye drops: Two cases reports.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yanan; Sun, Chaohui; Zhang, Xin; Shentu, Xingchao

    2017-12-01

    Ptosis is a rare complication of periocular steroid use. Studies report that local injections of steroids produce ptosis. We describe the first 2 cases of ptosis because of long-term treatment with topical steroid eye drops. Two cases admitted to our hospital because of ptosis of their right eye after long-term treatment with topical steroid eye drops. Both of them had uncontrolled Posner-Schlossman syndrome. Two cases were diagnosed as steroid-related ptosis. Regulatory anti-inflammation therapy was prescribed for case 1, and after inflammation control, phacoemulsification was done for her. Six months after steroid withdrawal, the levator resection of the right eye was performed. Case 2 refused our advice of steroid reduction and ptosis surgery. After surgery, case 1 retained a symmetrical appearance during a 1-year follow-up. In the surgery, we found thin levator muscles and slack levator palpebrae superioris aponeurosis (LPSA) in the affected eye. Postoperative transmission electron microscopy revealed typical signs of apoptosis in levator muscle cells. We suggest topical application of steroids induces levator muscle apoptosis and LPSA weakness, and results in ptosis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Tacrolimus Optic Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Rasool, Nailyn; Boudreault, Katherine; Lessell, Simmons; Prasad, Sashank; Cestari, Dean M

    2018-06-01

    Tacrolimus (FK506, Prograf) is a potent immunosuppressant, which inhibits cytokine synthesis and blocks T-cell development. Optic neuropathy from tacrolimus toxicity is very uncommon but, when present, can result in severe vision loss. Case series and review of the literature. We present 3 patients with tacrolimus optic neuropathy after bone marrow transplantation complicated by graft-vs-host disease and demonstrate the differing clinical and radiologic presentation of this presumed toxic optic neuropathy. Tacrolimus optic neuropathy can manifest in a multitude of clinical presentations and can have devastating visual consequences.

  5. Stability and in vitro toxicity of an infliximab eye drop formulation.

    PubMed

    Robert, Marie-Claude; Spurr-Michaud, Sandra; Frenette, Mathieu; Young, David; Gipson, Ilene K; Dohlman, Claes H

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a novel 10-mg/mL infliximab eye drop, to characterize its physical and biological stability under recommended storage conditions, and to assess the formulation's toxicity to ocular surface epithelium in vitro. Infliximab (10 mg/mL) was reconstituted using equal volumes of sterile water and 1% carboxymethylcellulose artificial tears. Aliquots were stored in either a 4 degrees C refrigerator or -20 degrees C freezer for up to 45 days. Physical stability was assessed through monitoring the solution's appearance, pH, ultraviolet-visible-near infrared absorbance and scattering, as well as protein gel electrophoresis. Biological stability was assayed through binding to tumor necrosis factor-alpha using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In vitro cytotoxicity to human corneal-limbal epithelial cells was examined following a 4-hour exposure to the study drug. Refrigerated and frozen infliximab eye drops remained clear and colorless for the duration of study. The formulation's pH (7.0) was comparable to that of the artificial tear vehicle alone. Low levels of ultraviolet-visible-near infrared light absorbance and scattering established the lack of protein precipitate after refrigeration or freezing. Protein gel electrophoresis performed under reducing conditions revealed the presence of two main protein bands of approximately 50 kDa and 25 kDa, representing immunoglobulin G heavy and light chains. The migration pattern of the proteins did not change under the different storage conditions and between day 10 and 45 after formulation. Infliximab binding to tumor necrosis factor-alpha remained stable for up to 45 days, with conservation of 101% and 102% of its initial binding activity when refrigerated or frozen, respectively. In vitro human corneal-limbal epithelial cultures showed no increase in cytotoxicity with infliximab treatment when compared to vehicle and culture media controls (P > 0.05). Infliximab can be formulated as an

  6. Reduction of enhanced rabbit intraocular pressure by instillation of pyroglutamic acid eye drops.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yoshimasa; Nagai, Noriaki; Okamoto, Norio; Shimomura, Yoshikazu; Nakanishi, Kunio; Tanaka, Ryuichiro

    2013-01-01

    L-Pyroglutamic acid (PGA) is an endogenous molecule derived from l-glutamate. We demonstrate the effects of PGA on intraocular pressure (IOP) in experimentally induced ocular hypertension in rabbits. In the in vitro and in vivo transcorneal penetration studies, the PGA solution (PGA in saline) did not penetrate the rabbit cornea. On the other hand, the penetration of PGA was improved by the addition of zinc chloride and 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD), and PGA penetration was enhanced with increasing HPCD concentration. Therefore, PGA solutions containing 0.5% zinc chloride and 5% or 10% HPCD (PGA/HPCD(5% or 10%) eye drops) were used to investigate the effects for IOP in this study. An elevation in IOP was induced by the rapid infusion of 5% glucose solution (15 mL/kg of body weight) through the marginal ear vein or maintaining under dark phase for 5 h. In the both models, the induced elevation in IOP was prevented by the instillation of PGA/HPCD eye drops, and the IOP-reducing effect enhanced with increasing HPCD concentration in the drops. Nitric oxide (NO) levels elevated in the aqueous humor following the infusion of 5% glucose solution, and this increase was also suppressed by the instillation of PGA/HPCD eye drops. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that the instillation of PGA/HPCD eye drops has an IOP-reducing effect in rabbits with experimentally induced ocular hypertension, probably as a result of the suppression of NO production.

  7. [Manufacture of autologous serum eye drops for out-patient therapy : cooperation between ophthalmic clinic and transfusion medicine department].

    PubMed

    Dietrich, T; Weisbach, V; Seitz, B; Jacobi, C; Kruse, F E; Eckstein, R; Cursiefen, C

    2008-11-01

    Autologous serum eye drops are an important therapy option in severe ocular surface disorders and the therapeutic effectiveness has been demonstrated in many clinical studies. The production and use of autologous serum eye drops is strictly controlled by legal regulations in Germany: Both the German Medicines Act (AMG) and the Blood Transfusion Act regulate production, distribution and application, unless it is carried out by one person under controlled conditions in a hospital setting. In cooperation with the ophthalmic clinic and the department of transfusion medicine, a standard operating procedure (SOP) was developed and a license for production and delivery of autologous serum eye drops was obtained from the appropriate local authorities. The experiences of the first two years of practice were analyzed. By an interfaculty cooperation, the possibility of legal and feasible out-patient treatment with autologous eye drops has been established at the University Hospital Erlangen. From 07/2005 to 07/2007, there ware 240 prescriptions for autologous serum eye drops. Unexpectedly, a relatively high rate (3.3%) of patients with primarily unknown viral or bacterial infectious diseases were found, which were diagnosed during the screening. These patients had to be excluded from autologous serum eye drop therapy. The treatment with autologous serum eye drops in an out-patient setting is possible, when the infrastructure for manufacture and delivery is provided in accordance with existing regulations.

  8. Stability of serum eye drops after storage of 6 months.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Kai R; Opitz, Andreas; Böeck, Markus; Geerling, Gerd

    2012-11-01

    Serum eye drops are used for the treatment of ocular surface disease (eg, Sicca syndrome). The objective of this experimental study was to investigate whether they maintain their wound-healing potency after a prolonged storage of 6 months at -20 °C and to find a parameter that can serve as a quality and stability indicator. After obtaining whole blood from 10 volunteers and preparing 100% (AS100), 50% (AS50), and 20% (AS20) serum eye drops, epitheliotrophic factors including EGF, fibronectin, vitamins A and E, albumin, and immunoglobulin A were quantified before and after storage for 7 days at 6 °C or 3 and 6 months at -20 °C. Human corneal epithelial (HCE) cell lines were used to investigate proliferation, migration, and overall wound healing potency of the cells in response to different serum preparations. The proliferation, migration, and wound healing of HCE cells were measured after incubation with different serum eye drop concentrations and after different storage conditions. The concentration of epidermal growth factor, fibronectin, vitamins A and E, immunoglobulin A, and albumin showed no significant reduction over the test period. Proliferation, migration, and wound healing of HCE cells was significantly better after incubation with undiluted serum in comparison with diluted serum. No significant loss of cytokine concentration, wound healing, and proliferation effect in HCE culture of AS100, AS50, and AS20 could be detected over the 6 months of storage. The concentration of a spectrum of cytokines involved in corneal epithelial wound healing and the epitheliothrophic effect of serum are not significantly changed after a prolonged storage of 6 months at -20 °C. Hence, it seems justifiable to provide patients with appropriate freezer capacity with a 6-month supply of autologous serum eye drops. Albumin--which is known to be relevant for ocular surface health--could serve as a cost-effective parameter for stability controls.

  9. Decrease in corneal damage due to benzalkonium chloride by the addition of sericin into timolol maleate eye drops.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Noriaki; Ito, Yoshimasa; Okamoto, Norio; Shimomura, Yoshikazu

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the protective effects of sericin on corneal damage due to benzalkonium chloride (BAC) used as a preservative in commercially available timolol maleate eye drops using rat debrided corneal epithelium and a human cornea epithelial cell line (HCE-T). Corneal wounds were monitored using a fundus camera TRC-50X equipped with a digital camera; eye drops were instilled into the rat eyes five times a day after corneal epithelial abrasion. The viability of HCE-T cells was calculated by TetraColor One; and Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739) were used to measure antimicrobial activity. The reducing effects on transcorneal penetration and intraocular pressure (IOP) of the eye drops were determined using rabbits. The corneal wound healing rate and rate constants (kH) as well as cell viability were higher following treatment with 0.005% BAC solution containing 0.1% sericin than in the case of treatment with BAC solution alone; the antimicrobial activity was approximately the same for BAC solutions with and without sericin. In addition, the kH for rat eyes instilled with commercially available timolol maleate eye drops containing 0.1% sericin was significantly higher than that of eyes instilled with timolol maleate eye drops without sericin, and the addition of sericin did not affect the corneal penetration or IOP reducing effect of commercially available timolol maleate eye drops. A preservative system comprising BAC and sericin may provide effective therapy for glaucoma patients requiring long-term anti-glaucoma agents.

  10. Effects of heat-treatment on plasma rich in growth factors-derived autologous eye drop.

    PubMed

    Anitua, E; Muruzabal, F; De la Fuente, M; Merayo-Lloves, J; Orive, G

    2014-02-01

    We have developed and characterized a new type of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) derived eye-drop therapy for patients suffering from autoimmune diseases. To determine the concentration of several growth factors, proteins, immunoglobulins and complement activity of the heat-inactivated eye-drop and to study its biological effects on cell proliferation and migration of different ocular surface cells, blood from healthy donors was collected, centrifuged and PRGF was prepared avoiding the buffy coat. The half volume of the obtained plasma supernatant from each donor was heat-inactivated at 56 °C for 1 h (heat-inactivated PRGF). The concentration of several proteins involved on corneal wound healing, immunoglubolins G, M and E and functional integrity of the complement system assayed by CH50 test were determined. The proliferative and migratory potential of inactivated and non-inactivated PRGF eye drops were assayed on corneal epithelial cells (HCE), keratocytes (HK) and conjunctival fibroblasts (HConF). Heat-inactivated PRGF preserves the content of most of the proteins and morphogens involved in its wound healing effects while reduces drastically the content of IgE and complement activity. Heat-inactivated PRGF eye drops increased proliferation and migration potential of ocular surface cells with regard to PRGF showing significant differences on proliferation and migration rate of HCE and HConF respectively. In summary, heat-inactivation of PRGF eye drops completely reduced complement activity and deceased significantly the presence of IgE, maintaining the biological activity of PRGF on ocular surface cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of 0.3% Hypotonic and Isotonic Sodium Hyaluronate Eye Drops in the Treatment of Experimental Dry Eye.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Cui, Lian; Lee, Hyo Seok; Kang, Yeon Soo; Choi, Won; Yoon, Kyung Chul

    2017-08-01

    To compare the efficacy of 0.3% hypotonic and isotonic sodium hyaluronate (SH) eye drops in the treatment of experimental dry eye. Experimental dry eye was established in female C57BL/6 mice by subcutaneous scopolamine injection and an air draft. The mice were divided into three groups (n = 15): control, preservative-free 0.3% isotonic SH, and preservative-free 0.3% hypotonic SH. The tear volume, tear film break-up time, and corneal fluorescein staining scores were measured 5 and 10 days after treatment. After conjunctival tissues were excised at 10 days, the levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-17, interferon (IFN)-γ, and IFN-γ inducible protein-10 were determined using the multiplex immunobead assay. In addition, PAS staining and flow cytometry were performed to evaluate the counts of conjunctival goblet cells and CD4+ IFN-γ+ T cells. Mice treated with 0.3% hypotonic SH showed a significant decrease in corneal staining scores (P = 0.04) and the levels of IL-6 (16.7 ± 1.4 pg/mL, P = 0.02) and IFN-γ (46.5 ± 11.5 pg/mL, P = 0.02) compared to mice treated with 0.3% isotonic SH (IL-6; 32.5 ± 8.8 pg/mL, IFN-γ; 92.0 ± 16.0 pg/mL) at day 10. Although no significant difference in CD4+ IFN-γ+ T cell numbers was observed, goblet cell counts were higher in the hyopotonic SH group than in the isotonic SH group (P = 0.02). When compared to 0.3% isotonic SH eye drops, 0.3% hypotonic SH eye drops can be more effective by improving corneal staining scores, decreasing inflammatory molecules, and increasing goblet cell counts for experimental dry eye. These data suggest that hypotonic artificial tears may be useful as an adjunctive treatment for inflammatory dry eye.

  12. Effectiveness of Autologous Serum Eye Drops Combined With Punctal Plugs for the Treatment of Sjögren Syndrome-Related Dry Eye.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Hirayama, Masatoshi; Cui, Xin; Connell, Samuel; Kawakita, Tetsuya; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of autologous serum (AS) eye drops combined with punctal plugs (PPs) in patients with Sjögren syndrome (SS)-related dry eye. A retrospective clinical study was performed in patients with dry eye caused by SS. We evaluated the Schirmer test value, tear breakup time (tBUT), and fluorescein and Rose Bengal (RB) staining scores at baseline, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, and >1 year after treatment. The dry eye indexes were also evaluated in 2 subgroups, which determined by the using of PPs, including the AS + PP group and AS only group. A total of 56 eyes of 28 patients were investigated with a mean follow-up of 42.3 ± 26.1 months. After the application of AS eye drops, the Schirmer test showed no significant changes. The tBUT (2.7 ± 1.9 seconds) was significantly improved at each time point (3.9 ± 3.1, 4.5 ± 3.1, 3.7 ± 2.5, and 5.1 ± 4.0; P < 0.01), fluorescein staining (4.3 ± 2.8) was significantly improved at each time point (2.2 ± 2.2, 1.9 ± 1.9, 1.8 ± 1.6, and 1.8 ± 1.8; P < 0.01), and RB (2.6 ± 3.0) staining was significantly improved from 6-month treatment (1.5 ± 1.9, 1.9 ± 1.9, and 1.4 ± 1.8; P < 0.05, 0.01, and 0.01, respectively). When combined with PPs, the tBUT and RB staining scores were found to be significantly improved in the AS + PP group compared with those of the AS only group. Long-term application of AS eye drops was found to be an effective and apparently safe treatment for SS dry eye. Furthermore, PPs in combination with AS eye drops were considered to have an additive effect on SS dry eye.

  13. [The clinical efficacy and safety study of Esculin and Digitalis glycosides Eye Drops in treating ametropic asthenopia].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhen-ying; Qu, Xiao-mei; Li, Xiao-xin; Liu, Yu-ling; Shen, Nian-ci; Zhang, Lin; Ke, Bi-lian; Zhao, Pei-quan; Jiang, Jun; Yao, Ke; Zeng, Jin; Yang, Xiao; Chu, Ren-yuan

    2010-12-01

    To study the clinical efficacy and safety of the Esculin and Digitalis glycosides Eye Drops used in the patients of ametropic asthenopia. Multicenter clinical trial. Asthenopia patients were chosen from eleven hospitals cross China from July, 2008 to January, 2009. The experiment was conducted asthenopia patients who used the Esculin and Digitalis glycosides Eye Drops for 4 weeks continuously. Symptoms of asthenopia, UCVA (uncorrected vision acuity), refraction, amplitude of accommodation, accommodative lag, accommodative sensitivity and positive/negative relative accommodation were measured at different time points, such as treated before, 1 week and 4 week in treated after. After the 4-week's use of Esculin and Digitalis glycosides Eye Drops, each subjective symptom of the patients was decreased significantly (F=353.30, P<0.05). In addition, most of the objective exams of accommodation ability were significantly improved, such as UCVA (left eye: F=23.39, P<0.05; right eye: F=15.62, P<0.05), refraction (left eye: F=10.34, P<0.05; right eye: F=17.13, P<0.05), amplitude of accommodation (left eye: F=14.46, P<0.05; right eye: F=8.29, P<0.05; eyes: F=13.86, P<0.05), accommodative lag (F=14.89, P<0.05) and accommodative sensitivity (left eye: F=62.67, P<0.05; right eye: F=68.77, P<0.05; eyes: F=82.74, P<0.05). And no patient appeared any adverse reaction in whole experiment. Esculin and Digitalis glycosides Eye Drops is effective and safety for use in the patients of ametropia asthenopia.

  14. Treatment with galectin-1 eye drops regulates mast cell degranulation and attenuates the severity of conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Mello-Bosnic, Claudia; Gimenes, Alexandre Dantas; Oliani, Sonia Maria; Gil, Cristiane Damas

    2018-05-31

    Galectin-1 (Gal-1) is a β-galactoside-binding protein with diverse biological activities in the pathogenesis of inflammation, however the mechanisms by which Gal-1 modulates cellular responses in allergic inflammatory processes have not been fully determined. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of Gal-1 eye drops in an experimental model of conjunctivitis. Wistar rats received a topical application of compound (C)48/80 (100 mg/ml) into right eyes and a drop of vehicle into the contralateral eye. Another group of rats received Gal-1 (0.3 or 3 μg/eye) or sodium cromoglycate (SCG; 40 mg/ml) in both eyes and, after 15 min, right eye was challenged with C48/80. Conjunctivitis-induced by C48/80 was characterized by severe eyelid oedema and tearing, but clinical signs were ameliorated by eye drop doses of both Gal-1 (0.3/3 μg) and SCG. As expected, an increased proportion of degranulated mast cells (62%, P < 0.01) and lower histamine levels were observed after 6 h of C48/80 challenge, compared to control (32%). This effect was abrogated by Gal-1 and SCG, which reduced mast cell degranulation (31-36%), eosinophil migration and eosinophil peroxidase levels in the eyes. Gal-1 (3 μg) and SCG treatments also decreased IL-4 levels, as well as activation of mitogen activated protein kinases compared to untreated C48/80 eyes. Our findings suggest that Gal-1 eye drops represent a new therapeutic strategy for ocular allergic inflammation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The application of autologous serum eye drops in severe dry eye patients; subjective and objective parameters before and after treatment.

    PubMed

    Jirsova, Katerina; Brejchova, Kristyna; Krabcova, Ivana; Filipec, Martin; Al Fakih, Aref; Palos, Michalis; Vesela, Viera

    2014-01-01

    To assess the impact of autologous serum (AS) eye drops on the ocular surface of patients with bilateral severe dry eye and to draw a comparison between the clinical and laboratory examinations and the degree of subjective symptoms before and after serum treatment. A three-month prospective study was conducted on 17 patients with severe dry eye. AS eye drops were applied a maximum of 12 times a day together with regular therapy. Dry eye status was evaluated by clinical examination (visual acuity, Schirmer test, tear film breakup time, vital staining, tear film debris and meniscus), conjunctival impression cytology (epithelial and goblet cell density, snake-like chromatin, HLA-DR-positive and apoptotic cells) and subjectively by the patients. The application of AS eye drops led to a significant improvement in the Schirmer test (p < 0.01) and tear film debris (p < 0.05). The densities of goblet (p < 0.0001) and epithelial cells (p < 0.05) were significantly increased, indicating a decrease of squamous metaplasia after AS treatment. A significant decrease (p < 0.05) was found in the number of apoptotic, HLA-DR-positive and snake-like chromatin cells on the ocular surface. A significant improvement was found in all evaluated subjective symptoms. Altogether, the clinical results were improved in 77%, the laboratory results in 75% and the subjective feelings in 63% of the eyes. We found that three-month AS treatment led especially to the improvement of ocular surface dryness and damage of the epithelium. The improvement of dry eye after AS treatment correlated well with the clinical, laboratory and subjective findings. From the patients' subjective point of view, the positive effect of AS decreased with time, but still persisted up to three months after the end of therapy.

  16. Efficacy of retinol palmitate eye drops for dry eye in rabbits with lacrimal gland resection

    PubMed Central

    Odaka, Akito; Toshida, Hiroshi; Ohta, Toshihiko; Tabuchi, Nobuhito; Koike, Daisuke; Suto, Chikako; Murakami, Akira

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We examined the efficacy of retinol palmitate (VApal) for dry eyes using dry eye model rabbits whose lacrimal glands were resected. Materials and methods After alkaline injury on keratoconjunctival epithelium, VApal eye drops were administered 6 times a day for 7 days. The efficacy of VApal was also compared with that of 0.1% hyaluronic acid eye drops. Results The fluorescein staining and rose bengal scores showed a significant decrease compared with the score in the vehicle group at 7 days (P < 0.05) in the 1000 IU/mL VApal group and at both 3 days (P < 0.05) and 7 days (P < 0.01) in the 1500 IU/mL VApal group. Histological examination revealed recovery of the corneal epithelium, and PAS staining disclosed the recovery of mucin-producing lower palpebral conjunctival goblet cells after 7 days in the 1500 IU/mL VApal group compared with the vehicle group. Results from impression cytology showed a significant increase in density of conjunctival goblet cells compared with that in the vehicle group after 7 days in the 1000 IU/mL VApal group and after 3 and 7 days in the 1500 IU/mL VApal group. There were no significant changes in tear flow in either group. Topical application of VApal at 1500 IU/mL showed greater improvement than 0.1% hyaluronic acid in both fluorescein and rose bengal score and in the density of conjunctival goblet cells. Conclusion It is suggested that VApal is effective for the improvement of keratoconjunctival epithelial damage associated with tear abnormalities, such as dry eyes. PMID:23055683

  17. Autologous serum eye drops for dry eye

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Qing; Angelina, Adla; Zambrano, Andrea; Marrone, Michael; Stark, Walter J; Heflin, Thomas; Tang, Li; Akpek, Esen K

    2014-01-01

    Background Theoretically, autologous serum eye drops (AS) have a potential advantage over traditional therapies based on the assumption that AS serve not only as a lacrimal substitute to provide lubrication, but also contain other biochemical components mimicking natural tears more closely. The application of AS in dry eye treatment has gained popularity as a second-line therapy in the treatment of dry eye. Published studies on the subject indicate that autologous serum could be an effective treatment for dry eye. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy and safety of AS compared to artificial tears for treating dry eye. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 3), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLD MEDLINE, (January 1950 to April 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to April 2013), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to April 2013), the meta Register of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We also searched the Science Citation Index Expanded database (September 2013) and reference lists of included studies. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 15 April 2013. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which AS was compared to artificial tears in the treatment of dry eye in adults. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently screened all titles and abstracts and assessed full-text articles of potentially eligible trials. Two review authors extracted data and assessed the methodological quality and characteristics of the included trials.We contacted investigators for missing data

  18. Combined application of autologous serum eye drops and silicone hydrogel lenses for the treatment of persistent epithelial defects.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin A; Chung, So-Hyang

    2011-11-01

    We investigated the utility of a combination of autologous serum eye drops and a silicone-hydrogel (SH) lens in the treatment of persistent epithelial defects (PEDs). Eight patients who had distinct PED conditions were treated with 50% (v/v) autologous serum eye drops in combination with silicone hydrogel contact lenses and prospectively observed. The pathogenesis of PEDs included Sjogren-type dry eye syndrome, graft-versus-host disease, toxic keratitis, limbal cell deficiency, superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis, and neurotrophic keratitis. The patients had PEDs for 90±81.76 days (range: 30-240 days). Before the initiation of the combined treatment, three patients had already been unsuccessfully treated with SH lenses, and five patients had received serum eye drops alone. The PEDs of the eight eyes healed after a treatment period of 11.8±4.9 days. No visible deposits were noted on the surface of any contact lens. These findings demonstrate that the combination of an SH lens and serum eye drops may be effective in the treatment of intractable PEDs.

  19. Fatal necrotising enterocolitis due to mydriatic eye drops.

    PubMed

    Ozgun, Uygur; Demet, Terek; Ozge, Koroglu A; Zafer, Dokumcu; Murat, Sezak; Mehmet, Yalaz; Nilgun, Kultursay

    2014-05-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a serious problem of preterm infants which may lead to impairment of vision and even to blindness if untreated. Routine eye examination is necessary for early diagnosis and treatment of ROP in preterm infants. Mydriatic eye drops (cyclopentolate, tropicamide and phenylephrine) are applied before the ophthalmic examination. These agents are rarely absorbed to systemic circulation and in some cases result with serious side effects like skin rash, tachycardia, feeding intolerance, discomfort, apnea, gastric dilatation and ileus, despite different treatment models and dosage reducing strategies. We report here a preterm patient who died because of severe diffuse necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) after topical application of 0.5% cyclopentolate and 1.25% phenylephrine during ROP screening to emphasise the serious side effects of these agents.

  20. Microprocessor controlled compliance monitor for eye drop medication.

    PubMed

    Hermann, M M; Diestelhorst, M

    2006-07-01

    The effectiveness of a self administered eye drop medication can only be assessed if the compliance is known. The authors studied the specificity and sensitivity of a new microprocessor controlled monitoring device. The monitoring system was conducted by an 8 bit microcontroller for data acquisition and storage with sensors measuring applied pressure to the bottle, temperature, and vertical position. 10 devices were mounted under commercial 10 ml eye drops. Test subjects had to note down each application manually. A total of 15 applications each within 3 days was intended. Manual reports confirmed 15 applications for each of the 10 bottles. The monitoring devices detected a total of 149 events; one was missed; comprising a sensitivity of 99%. Two devices registered three applications, which did not appear in the manual protocols, indicating a specificity of about 98%. Refrigerated bottles were correctly identified. The battery lifetime exceeded 60 days. The new monitoring device demonstrated a high reliability of the collected compliance data. The important, yet often unknown, influence of compliance in patient care and clinical trials shall be illuminated by the new device. This may lead to a better adapted patient care. Studies will profit from a higher credibility and results will be less influenced by non-compliance.

  1. A Randomized Pharmacokinetic Study of Generic Tacrolimus Versus Reference Tacrolimus in Kidney Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Alloway, R R; Sadaka, B; Trofe-Clark, J; Wiland, A; Bloom, R D

    2012-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic analyses comparing generic tacrolimus preparations versus the reference drug in kidney transplant patients are lacking. A prospective, multicenter, open-label, randomized, two-period (14 days per period), two-sequence, crossover and steady-state pharmacokinetic study was undertaken to compare twice-daily generic tacrolimus (Sandoz) versus reference tacrolimus (Prograf®) in stable renal transplant patients. AUC0–12h and peak concentration (Cmax) were calculated from 12 h pharmacokinetic profiles at the end of each period (days 14 and 28). Of 71 patients enrolled, 68 provided evaluable pharmacokinetic data. The ratios of geometric means were 1.02 (90% CI 97–108%, p = 0.486) for AUC0–12h and 1.09 (90% CI 101–118%, p = 0.057) for Cmax. Mean (SD) C0 was 7.3(1.8) ng/mL for generic tacrolimus versus 7.0(2.1) ng/mL for reference tacrolimus based on data from days 14 and 28. Correlations between 12 h trough levels and AUC were r = 0.917 for generic tacrolimus and r = 0.887 for reference drug at day 28. These data indicate that generic tacrolimus (Sandoz) has a similar pharmacokinetic profile to the reference drug and is bioequivalent in kidney transplant recipients according to US Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency guidelines. PMID:22759200

  2. Plasma rich in growth factors eye drops to treat secondary ocular surface disorders in patients with glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Avila, Ronald M; Merayo-Lloves, Jesus; Fernández, Maria Laura; Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, Luis Alberto; Rodríguez-Calvo, Pedro Pablo; Fernández-Vega Cueto, Andres; Muruzabal, Francisco; Orive, Gorka; Anitua, Eduardo

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy and safety of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) eye drops in patients with glaucoma with secondary ocular surface disorders (OSDs) due to surgeries and topical hypotensive drugs use. Materials and methods A retrospective case-series study design was used including six patients (eight eyes) diagnosed with glaucoma who received surgical (nonpenetrating deep sclerectomy and/or trabeculectomy) and medical treatments (hypotensive eye drops) to control intraocular pressure (IOP) and who developed secondary OSDs, unresponsive to conventional treatments. Patients were treated with PRGF eye drops (four times a day). Outcome measures were ocular surface disease index (OSDI), best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, in logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution), visual analog scale (VAS), frequency and severity of symptoms, and IOP. The safety of the treatment was also evaluated. Results Six patients (seven eyes with open-angle glaucoma and one eye with uveitic glaucoma) treated with PRGF eye drops were evaluated. Mean age was 71 years (SD=7.2, range 58–79 years). Five were female and one was male. The mean treatment time was 21.8 weeks (SD=9.0, range 12–36 weeks). The mean time to reach closure of the corneal ulcer was 14.5 (SD=5.5) weeks. A statistical significant reduction in OSDI scale (50.6%), VAS frequency (53.1%), VAS severity (42.0%), and a 41.8% improvement in BCVA were observed (p<0.05). IOP also decreased by 16.6% (p=0.010). Only one of the six patients reported itching in both eyes as an adverse event (AE); however, the patient continued with the PRGF eye drops until the end of therapy; the remaining patients did not report any AEs during the follow-up period. Conclusions In patients with glaucoma and secondary OSDs refractive to conventional treatments, the treatment with PRGF eye drops could be considered a possible therapeutic option, because it demonstrates an improvement in the signs and symptoms of the ocular surface, as

  3. Plasma rich in growth factors eye drops to treat secondary ocular surface disorders in patients with glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Avila, Ronald M; Merayo-Lloves, Jesus; Fernández, Maria Laura; Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, Luis Alberto; Rodríguez-Calvo, Pedro Pablo; Fernández-Vega Cueto, Andres; Muruzabal, Francisco; Orive, Gorka; Anitua, Eduardo

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) eye drops in patients with glaucoma with secondary ocular surface disorders (OSDs) due to surgeries and topical hypotensive drugs use. A retrospective case-series study design was used including six patients (eight eyes) diagnosed with glaucoma who received surgical (nonpenetrating deep sclerectomy and/or trabeculectomy) and medical treatments (hypotensive eye drops) to control intraocular pressure (IOP) and who developed secondary OSDs, unresponsive to conventional treatments. Patients were treated with PRGF eye drops (four times a day). Outcome measures were ocular surface disease index (OSDI), best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, in logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution), visual analog scale (VAS), frequency and severity of symptoms, and IOP. The safety of the treatment was also evaluated. Six patients (seven eyes with open-angle glaucoma and one eye with uveitic glaucoma) treated with PRGF eye drops were evaluated. Mean age was 71 years (SD=7.2, range 58-79 years). Five were female and one was male. The mean treatment time was 21.8 weeks (SD=9.0, range 12-36 weeks). The mean time to reach closure of the corneal ulcer was 14.5 (SD=5.5) weeks. A statistical significant reduction in OSDI scale (50.6%), VAS frequency (53.1%), VAS severity (42.0%), and a 41.8% improvement in BCVA were observed ( p <0.05). IOP also decreased by 16.6% ( p =0.010). Only one of the six patients reported itching in both eyes as an adverse event (AE); however, the patient continued with the PRGF eye drops until the end of therapy; the remaining patients did not report any AEs during the follow-up period. In patients with glaucoma and secondary OSDs refractive to conventional treatments, the treatment with PRGF eye drops could be considered a possible therapeutic option, because it demonstrates an improvement in the signs and symptoms of the ocular surface, as well as a better control of the IOP. This is an

  4. A clinical study on "Computer vision syndrome" and its management with Triphala eye drops and Saptamrita Lauha.

    PubMed

    Gangamma, M P; Poonam; Rajagopala, Manjusha

    2010-04-01

    American Optometric Association (AOA) defines computer vision syndrome (CVS) as "Complex of eye and vision problems related to near work, which are experienced during or related to computer use". Most studies indicate that Video Display Terminal (VDT) operators report more eye related problems than non-VDT office workers. The causes for the inefficiencies and the visual symptoms are a combination of individual visual problems and poor office ergonomics. In this clinical study on "CVS", 151 patients were registered, out of whom 141 completed the treatment. In Group A, 45 patients had been prescribed Triphala eye drops; in Group B, 53 patients had been prescribed the Triphala eye drops and SaptamritaLauha tablets internally, and in Group C, 43 patients had been prescribed the placebo eye drops and placebo tablets. In total, marked improvement was observed in 48.89, 54.71 and 06.98% patients in groups A, B and C, respectively.

  5. Corneal Thickness Response after Anesthetic Eye Drops: Our Own Results and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Calvo-Maroto, Ana M.; Moscardo, Monica; Murillo-Llorente, Mayte

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to test if there are different patterns in the central corneal thickness (CCT) response after instilling oxybuprocaine anesthetic eye drops and also to determine whether there is a significant change in the CCT. CCT was measured in 60 eyes of 60 healthy subjects before and during the hour after oxybuprocaine 0.4% eye drops were instilled. In addition, a systematic review and meta-analysis were carried out in order to answer the following PICO (patient, intervention, comparison, and outcome) question: What effect do anesthetic eye drops have on CCT values? We found no significant changes in the mean CCT values during the hour's observation (ANOVA, p = 0.209), and the meta-analysis revealed no statistically significant changes in the CCT after anesthesia (Q-Value = 1.111; p value = 1.000; I2 = 0.000; Tau2 = 0.000; Stderr = 0.020). However, we found three CCT response patterns 5 minutes after anesthesia: Pattern 1, subjects with no significant changes in their CCT values (n = 14, 46.7%); Pattern 2, subjects with significant CCT increases (n = 11, 36.7%); and Pattern 3, subjects with significant CCT decreases (n = 5, 16.7%). In sum, there are no significant changes in the CCT after anesthesia, but there are three different CCT response patterns 5 minutes after anesthesia. PMID:29693008

  6. Corneal Thickness Response after Anesthetic Eye Drops: Our Own Results and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Perez-Bermejo, Marcelino; Cervino, Alejandro; Calvo-Maroto, Ana M; Moscardo, Monica; Murillo-Llorente, Mayte; Sanchis-Gimeno, Juan A

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to test if there are different patterns in the central corneal thickness (CCT) response after instilling oxybuprocaine anesthetic eye drops and also to determine whether there is a significant change in the CCT. CCT was measured in 60 eyes of 60 healthy subjects before and during the hour after oxybuprocaine 0.4% eye drops were instilled. In addition, a systematic review and meta-analysis were carried out in order to answer the following PICO (patient, intervention, comparison, and outcome) question: What effect do anesthetic eye drops have on CCT values? We found no significant changes in the mean CCT values during the hour's observation (ANOVA, p = 0.209), and the meta-analysis revealed no statistically significant changes in the CCT after anesthesia ( Q -Value = 1.111; p value = 1.000; I 2 = 0.000; Tau2 = 0.000; Stderr = 0.020). However, we found three CCT response patterns 5 minutes after anesthesia: Pattern 1, subjects with no significant changes in their CCT values ( n = 14, 46.7%); Pattern 2, subjects with significant CCT increases ( n = 11, 36.7%); and Pattern 3, subjects with significant CCT decreases ( n = 5, 16.7%). In sum, there are no significant changes in the CCT after anesthesia, but there are three different CCT response patterns 5 minutes after anesthesia.

  7. [Keratomycosis due to Fusarium oxysporum treated with the combination povidone iodine eye drops and oral fluconazole].

    PubMed

    Diongue, K; Sow, A S; Nguer, M; Seck, M C; Ndiaye, M; Badiane, A S; Ndiaye, J M; Ndoye, N W; Diallo, M A; Diop, A; Ndiaye, Y D; Dieye, B; Déme, A; Ndiaye, I M; Ndir, O; Ndiaye, D

    2015-12-01

    In developing countries where systemic antifungal are often unavailable, treatment of filamentous fungi infection as Fusarium is sometimes very difficult to treat. We report the case of a keratomycosis due to Fusarium oxysporum treated by povidone iodine eye drops and oral fluconazole. The diagnosis of abscess in the cornea was retained after ophthalmological examination for a 28-year-old man with no previous ophthalmological disease, addressed to the Ophthalmological clinic at the University Hospital Le Dantec in Dakar for a left painful red eye with decreased visual acuity lasting for 15 days. The patient did not receive any foreign body into the eye. Samples by corneal scraping were made for microbiological analysis and the patient was hospitalized and treated with a reinforced eye drops based treatment (ceftriaxone+gentamicin). The mycological diagnosis revealed the presence of a mold: F. oxysporum, which motivated the replacement of the initial treatment by eye drops containing iodized povidone solution at 1% because of the amphotericin B unavailability. Due to the threat of visual loss, oral fluconazole was added to the local treatment with eye drops povidone iodine. The outcome was favorable with a healing abscess and visual acuity amounted to 1/200th. Furthermore, we noted sequels such as pannus and pillowcase. The vulgarization of efficient topical antifungal in developing countries would be necessary to optimize fungal infection treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. New therapeutic modality for corneal endothelial disease using Rho-associated kinase inhibitor eye drops.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Noriko; Okumura, Naoki; Ueno, Morio; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2014-11-01

    Corneal endothelial dysfunction accompanied by visual disturbance is a primary indication for corneal endothelial transplantation. However, despite the value and potential of endothelial graft surgery, a strictly pharmacological approach for treating corneal endothelial dysfunction remains an attractive proposition. Previously, we reported that the selective Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) inhibitor Y-27632 promotes cell adhesion and proliferation, and inhibits the apoptosis of primate corneal endothelial cells in culture. These findings have led us to develop a novel medical treatment for the early phase of corneal endothelial disease using ROCK inhibitor eye drops. In rabbit and monkey models of partial endothelial dysfunction, we showed that corneal endothelial wound healing was accelerated via the topical application of ROCK inhibitor to the ocular surface, resulting in the regeneration of a corneal endothelial monolayer with a high endothelial cell density. Based on these animal studies, we are now attempting to advance the clinical application of ROCK inhibitor eye drops for patients with corneal endothelial dysfunction. A pilot clinical study was performed at the Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, and the effects of Y-27632 eye drops after transcorneal freezing were evaluated in 8 patients with corneal endothelial dysfunction. We observed a positive effect of ROCK inhibitor eye drops in treating patients with central edema caused by Fuchs corneal endothelial dystrophy. We believe that our new findings will contribute to the establishment of a new approach for the treatment of corneal endothelial dysfunction.

  9. A randomized pharmacokinetic study of generic tacrolimus versus reference tacrolimus in kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Alloway, R R; Sadaka, B; Trofe-Clark, J; Wiland, A; Bloom, R D

    2012-10-01

    Pharmacokinetic analyses comparing generic tacrolimus preparations versus the reference drug in kidney transplant patients are lacking. A prospective, multicenter, open-label, randomized, two-period (14 days per period), two-sequence, crossover and steady-state pharmacokinetic study was undertaken to compare twice-daily generic tacrolimus (Sandoz) versus reference tacrolimus (Prograf®) in stable renal transplant patients. AUC(0-12h) and peak concentration (C(max) ) were calculated from 12 h pharmacokinetic profiles at the end of each period (days 14 and 28). Of 71 patients enrolled, 68 provided evaluable pharmacokinetic data. The ratios of geometric means were 1.02 (90% CI 97-108%, p = 0.486) for AUC(0-12h) and 1.09 (90% CI 101-118%, p = 0.057) for C(max) . Mean (SD) C(0) was 7.3(1.8) ng/mL for generic tacrolimus versus 7.0(2.1) ng/mL for reference tacrolimus based on data from days 14 and 28. Correlations between 12 h trough levels and AUC were r = 0.917 for generic tacrolimus and r = 0.887 for reference drug at day 28. These data indicate that generic tacrolimus (Sandoz) has a similar pharmacokinetic profile to the reference drug and is bioequivalent in kidney transplant recipients according to US Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency guidelines. © Copyright 2012 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  10. Topical dobesilate eye drops for ophthalmic primary pterygium

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas, Pedro; Outeiriño, Luis A; Angulo, Javier; Giménez-Gallego, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Selective inhibition of fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor signalling pathways is effective in causing regression of pterygia. Prompt regression of fibrovascular mass and conjunctival angiogenesis was documented 2 weeks after topical administration of dobesilate eye drops twice daily. At 3-month follow-up, no recurrence was seen and no ocular irritation and burning were noted. The authors believe that this is the first known successful use of topical dobesilate in primary pterygium. PMID:22605609

  11. Comparison of Fucithalmic viscous eye drops and Chloramphenicol eye ointment as a single treatment in corneal abrasion.

    PubMed

    Boberg-Ans, G; Nissen, K R

    1998-02-01

    To compare the healing of the cornea and the incidence of infection after traumatic corneal epithelial defect after single treatment with double bandage combined with either Fucithalmic single unit dose eye drops or chloramphenicol eye ointment. This is a single-centre, randomised, single-blind, parallel-group study of 144 patients with accidental corneal abrasion or corpus alieni cornea who were referred to the Eye Department at Gentofte Hospital. The injured eye was examined with a photo slit-lamp before and 24 hours after treatment. The size of the abrasion was recorded and calculated on a PCX computerized video system and by slit-lamp photography. The Fucithalmic and chloramphenicol ointment treated groups showed no significant difference in corneal healing, local side effects, or signs of local infection.

  12. Additive Effect of preservative-free sodium hyaluronate 0.1% in treatment of dry eye syndrome with diquafosol 3% eye drops.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ho Sik; Sung, Yoon-Mi; Lee, Weon Sun; Kim, Eun Chul

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment effect of diquafosol 3% with preservative-free sodium hyaluronate 0.1% eye drops in dry eye syndrome. In total, 150 patients with dry eye syndrome were divided randomly into 3 groups. Group 1 (50 patients) was treated 4 times daily with preserved sodium hyaluronate 0.1%, group 2 (50 patients) was treated 4 times daily with diquafosol 3%, and group 3 (50 patients) was treated 4 times daily with diquafosol 3% and preservative-free sodium hyaluronate 0.1% eye drops for 3 months. Ocular surface disease index (OSDI) score, tear film break-up time, Schirmer I test, corneal fluorescein staining, and impression cytology were evaluated. There were significant improvements in the OSDI score, tear film break-up time, Schirmer I score, fluorescein and Rose Bengal staining, goblet cell density, and impression cytological findings in groups 2 and 3 compared with those for group 1 in patients with dry eye syndrome at 1, 2, and 3 months (P < 0.05). There were statistically significant improvements in the OSDI score (-8.48 ± 0.97, -5.69 ± 0.78; P = 0.02), fluorescein (-1.43 ± 0.21, -1.02 ± 0.18; P = 0.03), and Rose Bengal staining (-1.12 ± 0.26, -0.75 ± 0.12; P = 0.03), goblet cell density (89.65 ± 14.39, 70.36 ± 16.75; P = 0.03), and impression cytological findings (-0.53 ± 0.12, -0.34 ± 0.90; P = 0.01) in group 3 compared with those in group 2 at 3 months. Treatment with diquafosol 3% with preservative-free sodium hyaluronate 0.1% was more effective than diquafosol 3% monotherapy or treatment with preserved sodium hyaluronate 0.1% in dry eye syndrome. Preservative-free sodium hyaluronate 0.1% eye drops can increase the effect of diquafosol 3% in dry eye syndrome.

  13. Microprocessor controlled compliance monitor for eye drop medication

    PubMed Central

    Hermann, M M; Diestelhorst, M

    2006-01-01

    Background/aims The effectiveness of a self administered eye drop medication can only be assessed if the compliance is known. The authors studied the specificity and sensitivity of a new microprocessor controlled monitoring device. Methods The monitoring system was conducted by an 8 bit microcontroller for data acquisition and storage with sensors measuring applied pressure to the bottle, temperature, and vertical position. 10 devices were mounted under commercial 10 ml eye drops. Test subjects had to note down each application manually. A total of 15 applications each within 3 days was intended. Results Manual reports confirmed 15 applications for each of the 10 bottles. The monitoring devices detected a total of 149 events; one was missed; comprising a sensitivity of 99%. Two devices registered three applications, which did not appear in the manual protocols, indicating a specificity of about 98%. Refrigerated bottles were correctly identified. The battery lifetime exceeded 60 days. Conclusion The new monitoring device demonstrated a high reliability of the collected compliance data. The important, yet often unknown, influence of compliance in patient care and clinical trials shall be illuminated by the new device. This may lead to a better adapted patient care. Studies will profit from a higher credibility and results will be less influenced by non‐compliance. PMID:16540488

  14. Apoptosis of conjunctival epithelial cells before and after the application of autologous serum eye drops in severe dry eye disease.

    PubMed

    Rybickova, Ivana; Vesela, Viera; Fales, Ivan; Skalicka, Pavlina; Jirsova, Katerina

    2016-06-01

    To assess the impact of autologous serum eye drops on the level of ocular surface apoptosis in patients with bilateral severe dry eye disease. This prospective study was conducted on 10 patients with severe dry eye due to graft versus host disease (group 1) and 6 patients with severe dry eye due to primary Sjögren's syndrome (group 2). Impression cytology specimens from the bulbar conjunctiva were obtained before and after a three-month treatment with 20% autologous serum eye drops applied a maximum of 12 times a day together with regular therapy with artificial tears. The percentage of apoptotic epithelial cells was evaluated immunochemically using anti-active caspase 3 antibody. In group 1, the mean percentage of apoptotic cells was 3.6% before the treatment. The three-month treatment led to a significant decrease to a mean percentage of 1.8% (P = 0.028). The mean percentage of apoptotic conjunctival cells decreased from 5.4% before the treatment to 3.8% in group 2; however, these results did not reach the level of significance. Three-month autologous serum treatment led to the improvement of ocular surface apoptosis, especially in the group of patients with severe dry eye due to graft versus host disease. This result supports the very positive effect of autologous serum on the ocular surface in patients suffering from severe dry eye.

  15. Temperature-mediated absorption of phenylmercuric nitrate on polyethylene and polypropylene containers in chloramphenicol eye drops.

    PubMed

    Charoo, Naseem; Chiew, Magdalene; Tay, Amelia; Lian, Lai

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this work was to find the effect of temperature and manufacturing source of phenylmercuric nitrate (PMN) on PMN absorption on low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and polypropylene containers in chloramphenicol eye drops. Two factorial experiments were designed to study the effect of temperature on PMN assay in chloramphenicol eye drops stored in LDPE and prepared from two different PMN sources. PMN source had no effect on PMN assay at 2-8 °C, however at stress conditions (30 °C/75%RH) for 3 weeks, the effect of PMN source on PMN assay was found significant (p < 0.05) in formulations stored in LDPE bottles. Temperature was the major contributor to decreased PMN assay. In formulations stored in polypropylene containers, PMN source had significant effect on PMN assay at 2-8 °C and 30 °C/75%RH. Overall, new PMN and polypropylene bottles performed better. The eye drops complied with preservative efficacy test both initially and at the end of shelf life. The concentration exponent of PMN is very low and in spite of its high absorption by container/closure, PMN was still able to protect the eye drops at the end of shelf life. It can be inferred that preservative efficacy test is the better indicator of preservative activity.

  16. Preservation of Biological Activity of Plasma and Platelet-Derived Eye Drops After Their Different Time and Temperature Conditions of Storage.

    PubMed

    Anitua, Eduardo; de la Fuente, María; Riestra, Ana; Merayo-Lloves, Jesús; Muruzábal, Francisco; Orive, Gorka

    2015-09-01

    To analyze whether plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) eye drops preserve their biological characteristics and activity after storage for 3 and 6 months at -20°C, at 4°C, and at room temperature for 72 hours, compared with fresh samples (t0). Blood from 6 healthy donors was harvested and centrifuged to obtain PRGF free of leukocytes. Resulting PRGF eye drops were stored for 3 and 6 months at -20°C. At each time, 2 aliquots were maintained at room temperature or at 4°C for 72 hours. Platelet-derived growth factor-AB, transforming growth factor-β1, vascular endothelial growth factor, epidermal growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, angiopoietin-1, and thrombospondin-1 were quantified at each time and temperature of storage. Also, the effect of PRGF eye drops on proliferation of primary human keratocytes was evaluated. All the analyzed growth factor levels remained constant at each time and storage condition. No differences were observed in the proliferative activity of keratocytes after treatment with PRGF eye drops at any studied time or temperature. Finally, there was no microbial contamination in any of the PRGF eye drops. The preservation of the PRGF eye drops at -20°C for up to 3 and 6 months does not mean reduction of the main growth factors and proteins implicated in ocular surface wound healing. Eye drop characteristics and in vitro biological activity were not affected by their usage and conservation for 72 hours at 4°C or at room temperature.

  17. Effect of diquafosol tetrasodium eye drop for persistent dry eye after laser in situ keratomileusis.

    PubMed

    Mori, Yosai; Nejima, Ryohei; Masuda, Ayami; Maruyama, Yoko; Minami, Keiichiro; Miyata, Kazunori; Amano, Shiro

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of diquafosol tetrasodium (DQS) for the treatment of persistent dry eye after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). Miyata Eye Hospital, Miyazaki, Japan. Noncomparative case series. This prospective study included 30 eyes of 15 patients in whom dry eye had persisted for over 12 months after LASIK, and the symptoms had not improved with artificial tears and sodium hyaluronate treatment. In addition, treatment with DQS 3% eye drops, 6 times a day, was performed for 12 weeks. Best-corrected visual acuity, tear secretion with the Schirmer test, tear break-up time, and fluorescein and lissamine green staining scores on the cornea and conjunctiva were examined before and at 1, 4, and 12 weeks after the addition. A subjective questionnaire of 14 symptoms was also assessed before and 12 weeks after treatment. The fluorescein and lissamine green staining scores significantly improved over 12 weeks; however, the best-corrected visual acuity and tear secretion did not change. The symptoms of fatigue, dryness, grittiness, discomfort, difficulty in reading, and discomfort within the area of dryness improved after the additional DQS treatment. The DQS treatment improved the subjective and objective symptoms of persistent dry eye after LASIK. Increased mucin production because of the addition of DQS probably improved the tear film stability and reduced the symptoms of dry eye in patients who had persistent dry eye after LASIK.

  18. Generic tacrolimus in solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Taube, D; Jones, G; O'Beirne, J; Wennberg, L; Connor, A; Rasmussen, A; Backman, L

    2014-05-01

    The availability of a wide range of immunosuppressive therapies has revolutionized the management of patients who have undergone solid organ transplantation (SOT). However, the cost of immunosuppressive drugs remains high. This situation has led to the development of generic equivalents, which are similar in quality, safety, and efficacy to their approved innovator drugs. There are data available for three generic brands, tacrolimus (Intas), tacrolimus (PharOS), and tacrolimus (Sandoz). Bioequivalence has been demonstrated for generic tacrolimus (Sandoz) within a narrow therapeutic range to its innovator tacrolimus drug (Prograf) in both healthy volunteers and kidney transplant patients. Clinical experience with this generic tacrolimus formulation has also been established in both de novo and conversion patients who have undergone kidney and liver transplantation, as well as in conversion of other SOT patients, including lung and heart recipients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Topical administration of regorafenib eye drops: phase I dose‐escalation study in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Höchel, Joachim; Becka, Michael; Boettger, Michael K.; Rohde, Beate; Schug, Barbara; Kunert, Kathleen S.; Donath, Frank

    2018-01-01

    Aim Regorafenib is a multikinase inhibitor under investigation for use in neovascular age‐related macular degeneration. In this phase I study, regorafenib eye drops were administered to healthy volunteers to provide information on safety, tolerability and systemic exposure. Methods This was a single‐centre, randomized, double‐masked, parallel‐group, dose‐escalation, placebo‐controlled study. Subjects received regorafenib eye drops (30 mg ml−1, 25 μl) as a 0.75 mg single dose (Cohort 1), 0.75 mg twice daily (bid) or thrice daily (tid) over 14 days (Cohorts 2 and 3, respectively), 1.5 mg tid unilaterally for 3 days, then bilaterally for up to 14 days (Cohort 4), or placebo. Plasma samples were taken to estimate systemic exposure. Safety and functional assessments were performed throughout the study. Results Thirty‐six subjects received regorafenib and 12 received placebo. Regorafenib was safe and well tolerated over the dose range. No pathological changes occurred in the anterior, vitreous or posterior eye compartments. Mild eyelid redness, oedema and conjunctival hyperaemia were observed across all regorafenib cohorts; these were comparable with the effects seen with placebo. Predominant symptoms were blurred vision in the active and placebo groups. Systemic safety evaluations showed no clinically relevant findings. Absolute systemic exposure after multiple administrations of regorafenib eye drops at a dose of 0.75 mg was 600–700‐fold lower than after multiple oral administration of 160 mg day−1, the dose approved in cancer indications. Conclusion These results indicate a favourable safety and tolerability profile of regorafenib eye drops up to 30 mg ml−1 tid for use in clinical studies. PMID:29315699

  20. Quantification of the Immunosuppressant Tacrolimus on Dried Blood Spots Using LC-MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Shokati, Touraj; Bodenberger, Nicholas; Gadpaille, Holly; Schniedewind, Björn; Vinks, Alexander A.; Jiang, Wenlei; Alloway, Rita R.; Christians, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    The calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus is the cornerstone of most immunosuppressive treatment protocols after solid organ transplantation in the United States. Tacrolimus is a narrow therapeutic index drug and as such requires therapeutic drug monitoring and dose adjustment based on its whole blood trough concentrations. To facilitate home therapeutic drug and adherence monitoring, the collection of dried blood spots is an attractive concept. After a finger stick, the patient collects a blood drop on filter paper at home. After the blood is dried, it is mailed to the analytical laboratory where tacrolimus is quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) in combination with a simple manual protein precipitation step and online column extraction. For tacrolimus analysis, a 6-mm disc is punched from the saturated center of the blood spot. The blood spot is homogenized using a bullet blender and then proteins are precipitated with methanol/0.2 M ZnSO4 containing the internal standard D2,13C-tacrolimus. After vortexing and centrifugation, 100 µl of supernatant is injected into an online extraction column and washed with 5 ml/min of 0.1 formic acid/acetonitrile (7:3, v:v) for 1 min. Hereafter, the switching valve is activated and the analytes are back-flushed onto the analytical column (and separated using a 0.1% formic acid/acetonitrile gradient). Tacrolimus is quantified in the positive multi reaction mode (MRM) using a tandem mass spectrometer. The assay is linear from 1 to 50 ng/ml. Inter-assay variability (3.6%-6.1%) and accuracy (91.7%-101.6%) as assessed over 20 days meet acceptance criteria. Average extraction recovery is 95.5%. There are no relevant carry-over, matrix interferences and matrix effects. Tacrolimus is stable in dried blood spots at RT and at +4 °C for 1 week. Extracted samples in the autosampler are stable at +4 °C for at least 72 hr. PMID:26575262

  1. Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) eye drops stimulates scarless regeneration compared to autologous serum in the ocular surface stromal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Anitua, E; de la Fuente, M; Muruzabal, F; Riestra, A; Merayo-Lloves, J; Orive, G

    2015-06-01

    Autologous serum (AS) eye drops was the first blood-derived product used for the treatment of corneal pathologies but nowadays PRGF arises as a novel interesting alternative to this type of diseases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the biological outcomes of autologous serum eye drops or Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) eye drops on corneal stromal keratocytes (HK) and conjunctival fibroblasts (HConF). To address this, blood from healthy donors was collected and processed to obtain autologous serum (AS) eye drops and plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) eye drops. Blood-derivates were aliquoted and stored at -80°C until use. PDGF-AB, VEGF, EGF, FGFb and TGF-β1 were quantified. The potential of PRGF and AS in promoting wound healing was evaluated by means of proliferation and migration assays in HK and HConF. Fibroblast cells were induced to myofibroblast differentiation after treatment with 2.5ng/mL of TGF-β1. The capability of PRGF and AS to prevent and inhibit TGF-β1-induced differentiation was evaluated. Results showed significant higher levels of all growth factors analyzed in PRGF eye drops compared to AS. Moreover, PRGF eye drops enhanced significantly the biological outcomes of both HK and HConF, and reduced TGF-β1-induced myofibroblast differentiation in contrast to autologous serum eye drops (AS). In summary, these results suggest that PRGF exerts enhanced biological outcomes than AS. PRGF may improve the treatment of ocular surface wound healing minimizing the scar formation compared to AS. Results obtained herein suggest that PRGF protects and reverses the myofibroblast phenotype while promotes cell proliferation and migration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of Autologous Serum Eye Drops in Patients with Sjögren Syndrome-related Dry Eye: Clinical and In Vivo Confocal Microscopy Evaluation of the Ocular Surface.

    PubMed

    Semeraro, Francesco; Forbice, Eliana; Nascimbeni, Giuseppe; Taglietti, Marco; Romano, Vito; Guerra, Germano; Costagliola, Ciro

    To evaluate in vivo changes after therapy using autologous serum (AS) eye drops in Sjögren's syndrome (SS)-related dry eyes by confocal microscopy. In this study, 24 patients with SS-related dry eyes [12 in AS eye drop therapy and 12 in artificial tear (AT) therapy] and 24 healthy volunteers were recruited. Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), central corneal thickness, tear film, break-up time, corneal and conjunctival staining, Schirmer's test and corneal confocal microscopy were investigated. Tear production, tear stability, corneal staining, inflammation, and central corneal thickness, Langherans cells, activated keratocytes, intermediate epithelial cell density, nerve tortuosity, number of sub-basal nerve branches, and number of bead-like formations differed between patients and controls (p<0.0001). The AT and AS groups differed in the OSDI, number of branches, and number of beadings (p<0.0001). AS eye drops improve symptoms and confocal microscopy findings in SS-related dry eyes. Copyright © 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  3. Conversion from twice-daily tacrolimus to once-daily extended release tacrolimus (LCPT): the phase III randomized MELT trial.

    PubMed

    Bunnapradist, S; Ciechanowski, K; West-Thielke, P; Mulgaonkar, S; Rostaing, L; Vasudev, B; Budde, K

    2013-03-01

    Phase III noninferiority trial examining efficacy and safety of converting stable renal transplant recipients from twice-daily tacrolimus to a novel extended-release once-daily tacrolimus formulation (LCPT) with a controlled agglomeration technology. Controls maintained tacrolimus twice daily. The primary efficacy endpoint was proportion of patients with efficacy failures (death, graft failure, locally read biopsy-proven acute rejection [BPAR], or loss to follow-up) within 12 months. Starting LCPT dose was 30% lower (15% for blacks) than preconversion tacrolimus dose; target trough levels were 4-15 ng/mL. A total of 326 patients were randomized; the mITT population (n = 162 each group) was similar demographically in the two groups. Mean daily dose of LCPT was significantly (p < 0.0001) lower than preconversion tacrolimus dose at each visit; mean trough levels between groups were similar. There were four efficacy failures in each group; safety outcomes were similar between groups. Frequency of premature study drug discontinuation was LCPT: 12% versus tacrolimus twice daily: 5% (p = 0.028). LCPT demonstrated noninferiority to tacrolimus twice daily in efficacy failure rates. LCPT may offer a safe and effective alternative for converting patients to a once-daily formulation. Compared to currently available tacrolimus formulation, LCPT requires lower doses to achieve target trough levels. © Copyright 2012 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  4. The effects of topical aqueous sirolimus on tear production in normal dogs and dogs with refractory dry eye.

    PubMed

    Spatola, Ronald; Nadelstein, Brad; Berdoulay, Andrew; English, Robert V

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of twice daily aqueous 0.02% sirolimus drops on tear production in normal dogs and dogs with refractory keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS). Two groups of dogs were studied. Ten normal dogs with no signs of ocular disease were administered topical 0.02% sirolimus ophthalmic solution in right eye, and a vehicle control in the left eye twice daily for 4 weeks. Complete ophthalmic examinations, including Schirmer tear test were performed weekly. Eighteen dogs with refractory KCS were randomly assigned to receive 0.02% sirolumus ophthalmic solution or 0.02% tacrolimus ophthalmic solution twice daily. Complete ophthalmic examinations were was performed at 2 and 6 weeks following treatment. Tear production in the sirolimus-treated eyes of normal dogs was greater when compared to vehicle controls with a mean difference over all time points of 3.46 mm (95% CI 1.17, 5.75; P = 0.006). After 4 weeks of treatment, the mean difference was 5 mm (95% CI 1.95, 8.05; P = 0.002). In dogs with refractory dry eye, 37.5% of eyes treated with sirolimus exhibited increased tear production >4 mm/min after 6 weeks of treatment, compared to 20% of eyes receiving tacrolimus (P = 0.433). One normal dog experienced topical irritation to both sirolimus and vehicle-treatment. Side effects were not reported in any treated eyes with chronic KCS. Topical 0.02% sirolimus might be an alternative treatment for canine patients with keratoconjunctivits sicca. The drug appears safe when applied topically in an aqueous suspension for up to 6 weeks. While initial results are promising, further studies are warranted. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  5. Interpreting Tacrolimus Concentrations During Pregnancy and Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Hebert, Mary F.; Zheng, Songmao; Hays, Karen; Shen, Danny D.; Davis, Connie L.; Umans, Jason G.; Miodovnik, Menachem; Thummel, Kenneth E.; Easterling, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Pregnancy following solid organ transplantation, although considered high risk for maternal, fetal and neonatal complications, has been quite successful. Tacrolimus pharmacokinetic changes during pregnancy make interpretation of whole blood trough concentrations particularly challenging. There are multiple factors that can increase the fraction of unbound tacrolimus, including but not limited to low albumin concentration and low RBC count. The clinical titration of dosage to maintain whole blood tacrolimus trough concentrations in the usual therapeutic range can lead to elevated unbound concentrations and possibly toxicity in pregnant women with anemia and hypoalbuminemia. Measurement of plasma or unbound tacrolimus concentrations for pregnant women might better reflect the active form of the drug, though these are technically-challenging and often unavailable in usual clinical practice. Tacrolimus crosses the placenta with in utero exposure being approximately 71% of maternal blood concentrations. The lower fetal blood concentrations are likely due to active efflux transport of tacrolimus from the fetus toward the mother by placental P-glycoprotein. To date, tacrolimus has not been linked to congenital malformations, but can cause reversible nephrotoxicity and hyperkalemia in the newborn. In contrast, very small amounts of tacrolimus are excreted in the breast milk and are unlikely to elicit adverse effects in the nursing infant. PMID:23274970

  6. Characterization of new eye drops with choline salicylate and assessment of their irritancy by in vitro short time exposure tests.

    PubMed

    Wroblewska, Katarzyna; Kucinska, Małgorzata; Murias, Marek; Lulek, Janina

    2015-09-01

    The aim of our study was to examine the irritation potential of new eye drops containing 2% choline salicylate (CS) as an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and various polymers increasing eye drop viscosity (hydroxyethylcellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, methylcellulose, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinylpyrrolidone). The standard method for assessing the potential of irritating substances has been the Draize rabbit eye test. However the European Centre for Validation of Alternative Methods and the Coordinating Committee for Validation of Alternative Methods recommend, short time exposure (STE) in vitro tests as an alternative method for assessing eye irritation. The eye irritation potential was determined using cytotoxicity test methods for rabbit corneal cell line (SIRC) after 5 min exposure. The viability of cells was determined using two cytotoxicity assays: MTT and Neutral Red Uptake. According to the irritation rankings for the short time exposure test, all tested eye drops are classified as non-irritating (cell viability >70%).

  7. Steroid eye drop treatment (difluprednate ophthalmic emulsion) is effective in reducing refractory diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Sakiko; Yamamoto, Teiko; Kirii, Eriko; Abe, Sachi; Yamashita, Hidetoshi

    2010-06-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of treatment of refractory diabetic macular edema (DME) after vitrectomy with difluprednate ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% (Durezol(TM)), and to compare this treatment with sub-Tenon's injection of triamcinolone (STTA). This study enrolled patients with refractory diabetic macular edema that persisted despite pars plana vitrectomy in our clinic. In all subjects, more than 3 months had passed since prior treatment. Eleven eyes in ten subjects were treated with STTA (STTA group), and 11 eyes in seven subjects were treated with difluprednate ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% (Durezol(TM), Sirion Therapeutics Inc., USA) 4 times daily for the first month and then twice daily for 2 months (eye drop group). In the eye drop group, mean VA (+/- SD) was 0.67 +/- 0.35 logMAR and mean retinal thickness was 500.6 +/- 207.7 mum at baseline. After 3 months of treatment, mean VA was 0.67 +/- 0.29 and mean retinal thickness had decreased to 341.2 +/- 194.8 mum. The mean minimum value of RT during the treatment period was 300.6 +/- 123.2 mum, and significantly lower than that at baseline (Mann-Whitney U test: P = 0.003). In the STTA group, mean VA (+/- SD) was 0.67 +/- 0.35 logMAR, and mean retinal thickness was 543.3 +/- 132.6 mum at baseline. After 3 months of treatment, mean VA was 0.49 +/- 0.67, and mean retinal thickness had decreased to 378.6 +/- 135 mum. The mean minimum value of RT during the treatment period was 349.9 +/- 113.8 mum, and significantly lower than at baseline (Mann-Whitney U test: P = 0.003). The rate of effective improvement in RT did not differ between the eye drop group (73%) and STTA group (84%) (Fisher's exact test: P = 1). Comparable improvements of retinal thickness were observed in the STTA and eye drop groups. Instillation of difluprednate ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% is a safe and effective treatment that does not require surgical intervention and does not produce severe side-effects.

  8. Non-preserved 1% lidocaine solution has less antibacterial properties than currently available anaesthetic eye-drops.

    PubMed

    Labetoulle, Marc; Frau, Eric; Offret, Hervé; Nordmann, Patrice; Naas, Thierry

    2002-08-01

    Some anaesthetics inhibit bacterial growth, and thus may lead to low rates of positive cultures from bacterial keratitis. Antibacterial properties of lidocaine were compared with those of oxybuprocaine or tetracaine, either in current commercial eye lotions or in extemporaneous solutions. Forty-eight bacterial strains were used to determine the minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations of four commercial eye lotions containing oxybuprocaine or tetracaine, of a non-ophthalmic 1% lidocaine commercial solution and of extemporaneously prepared solutions of oxybuprocaine, tetracaine, lidocaine and benzalkonium. Most strains had their growth inhibited by 0.2% oxybuprocaine or 0.4% tetracaine, which corresponds to a 1/2 dilution of the commercial eye-drops. Bacterial growth was still observed with a 1% lidocaine solution. Currently available anaesthetic eye-drops that are used before corneal specimen collection may lead to false-negative bacterial cultures. Conversely, a non-preserved 1% lidocaine solution might be more appropriate in corneal specimen collection.

  9. Early signal of diverted use of tropicamide eye drops in France.

    PubMed

    Ponté, Camille; Pi, Christian; Palmaro, Aurore; Jouanjus, Emilie; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse

    2017-08-01

    Tropicamide is a mydriatic drug used as eye-drops for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. From 2013, a diverted use by intravenous route has been suspected in Eastern Europe in opioids users. To date, no signal of misuse has been identified in France. The aims of this study were to investigate any early signals of a diverted use of tropicamide eye drops and to collect information regarding motives for the misuse and tropicamide-induced effects. Information was obtained at three levels: (1) at regional level (Midi-Pyrénées area), from reimbursement data and pharmacists' reports on suspicious requests; (2) at national level: from reimbursement data and prescriptions suggesting possible abuse from the OSIAP (Ordonnances Suspectes, Indicateur d'Abus Possible) survey; and (3) at international level: from VigiBase ® reports and Web sources. Beta-blocker eye-drops were used as comparators. In France, in 2014-2015, 17 (0.91%, 95% CI [0.53-1.46%]) falsified prescriptions involving tropicamide were identified in the OSIAP survey (compared with 0%, 95% CI [0-0.19%] for beta-blockers). Moreover, 37 other suspicious prescriptions were presented in 2015 (notified in 2016). In Midi-Pyrénées, seven patients aged 35-49 were reimbursed for 19-45 vials of 10 ml, in a year. Since September 2014, the regional Addictovigilance Centre has received 91 notifications of suspicious requests to obtain tropicamide. In VigiBase ® , two cases were identified but none in France. An increased interest in tropicamide-related Internet searches was observed from Russia and Ukraine. These results represent the first early warnings of a tropicamide diverted use in France. Tropicamide abusers would seek euphoria or hallucinations. The high doses involved in intravenous administration could lead to serious complications. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  10. Characterization of new eye drops with choline salicylate and assessment of their irritancy by in vitro short time exposure tests

    PubMed Central

    Wroblewska, Katarzyna; Kucinska, Małgorzata; Murias, Marek; Lulek, Janina

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to examine the irritation potential of new eye drops containing 2% choline salicylate (CS) as an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and various polymers increasing eye drop viscosity (hydroxyethylcellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, methylcellulose, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinylpyrrolidone). The standard method for assessing the potential of irritating substances has been the Draize rabbit eye test. However the European Centre for Validation of Alternative Methods and the Coordinating Committee for Validation of Alternative Methods recommend, short time exposure (STE) in vitro tests as an alternative method for assessing eye irritation. The eye irritation potential was determined using cytotoxicity test methods for rabbit corneal cell line (SIRC) after 5 min exposure. The viability of cells was determined using two cytotoxicity assays: MTT and Neutral Red Uptake. According to the irritation rankings for the short time exposure test, all tested eye drops are classified as non-irritating (cell viability >70%). PMID:27134543

  11. Autologous serum eye drops for dry eye.

    PubMed

    Pan, Qing; Angelina, Adla; Marrone, Michael; Stark, Walter J; Akpek, Esen K

    2017-02-28

    Theoretically, autologous serum eye drops (AS) offer a potential advantage over traditional therapies on the assumption that AS not only serve as a lacrimal substitute to provide lubrication but contain other biochemical components that allow them to mimic natural tears more closely. Application of AS has gained popularity as second-line therapy for patients with dry eye. Published studies on this subject indicate that autologous serum could be an effective treatment for dry eye. We conducted this review to evaluate the efficacy and safety of AS given alone or in combination with artificial tears as compared with artificial tears alone, saline, placebo, or no treatment for adults with dry eye. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2016, Issue 5), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to July 2016), Embase (January 1980 to July 2016), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to July 2016), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We also searched the Science Citation Index Expanded database (December 2016) and reference lists of included studies. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 5 July 2016. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared AS versus artificial tears for treatment of adults with dry eye. Two review authors independently screened all titles and abstracts and assessed full-text reports of potentially eligible trials. Two review authors extracted data and assessed risk of bias and characteristics of included trials. We contacted investigators to ask for missing data. For both primary and

  12. Topical tacrolimus for atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Cury Martins, Jade; Martins, Ciro; Aoki, Valeria; Gois, Aecio F T; Ishii, Henrique A; da Silva, Edina M K

    2015-07-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) (or atopic eczema) is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that affects children and adults and has an important impact on quality of life. Topical corticosteroids (TCS) are the first-line therapy for this condition; however, they can be associated with significant adverse effects when used chronically. Tacrolimus ointment (in its 2 manufactured strengths of 0.1% and 0.03%) might be an alternative treatment. Tacrolimus, together with pimecrolimus, are drugs called topical calcineurin inhibitors (TCIs). To assess the efficacy and safety of topical tacrolimus for moderate and severe atopic dermatitis compared with other active treatments. We searched the following databases up to 3 June 2015: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL in the Cochrane Library (Issue 5, 2015), MEDLINE (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974), LILACS (from 1982), and the Global Resource of Eczema Trials (GREAT database). We searched six trials registers and checked the bibliographies of included studies for further references to relevant trials. We contacted specialists in the field for unpublished data.A separate search for adverse effects of topical tacrolimus was undertaken in MEDLINE and EMBASE on 30 July 2013. We also scrutinised the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) websites for adverse effects information. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of participants with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis (both children and adults) using topical tacrolimus at any dose, course duration, and follow-up time compared with other active treatments. Two authors independently screened and examined the full text of selected studies for compliance with eligibility criteria, risk of bias, and data extraction. Our three prespecified primary outcomes were physician's assessment, participant's self-assessment of improvement, and adverse effects. Our secondary outcomes included assessment of improvement of the disease by validated or objective measures, such as

  13. Comparative randomised controlled clinical trial of a herbal eye drop with artificial tear and placebo in computer vision syndrome.

    PubMed

    Biswas, N R; Nainiwal, S K; Das, G K; Langan, U; Dadeya, S C; Mongre, P K; Ravi, A K; Baidya, P

    2003-03-01

    A comparative randomised double masked multicentric clinical trial has been conducted to find out the efficacy and safety of a herbal eye drop preparation, itone eye drops with artificial tear and placebo in 120 patients with computer vision syndrome. Patients using computer for at least 2 hours continuosly per day having symptoms of irritation, foreign body sensation, watering, redness, headache, eyeache and signs of conjunctival congestion, mucous/debris, corneal filaments, corneal staining or lacrimal lake were included in this study. Every patient was instructed to put two drops of either herbal drugs or placebo or artificial tear in the eyes regularly four times for 6 weeks. Objective and subjective findings were recorded at bi-weekly intervals up to six weeks. Side-effects, if any, were also noted. In computer vision syndrome the herbal eye drop preparation was found significantly better than artificial tear (p < 0.01). No side-effects were noted by any of the drugs. Both subjective and objective improvements were observed in itone treated cases. So, itone can be considered as a useful drug in computer vision syndrome.

  14. Increased bioavailability of tacrolimus after rectal administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Masayuki; Hobara, Norio; Hokama, Nobuo; Kameya, Hiromasa; Ohshiro, Susumu; Sakanashi, Matao; Saitoh, Hiroshi

    2004-09-01

    The oral bioavailability of tacrolimus is low and varies considerably in humans due to first-pass metabolism by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and the active efflux mediated by P-glycoprotein. This study was undertaken to elucidate the usefulness of rectal administration of tacrolimus as an alternative route to improve its bioavailability. Tacrolimus powder was suspended in a suppository base (witepsol H-15) and the tacrolimus suppository was inserted into the anus of the rats. For comparison, tacrolimus was suspended in 0.5% sodium methylcellulose solution and administered orally to rats. The dose of tacrolimus was fixed to 2 mg/kg. Blood samples were collected periodically up to 24 h after dosing, and tacrolimus concentrations were assayed by microparticle enzyme immunoassay. The whole blood concentrations of tacrolimus after rectal administration were much greater than those after oral administration. The C(max) and AUC(0-24 h) values after rectal administration were 3.9- and 6.9-fold greater than those after oral administration, respectively. These results clearly suggest a possibility that rectal administration of tacrolimus is capable of improving its bioavailability and cutting the costs of tacrolimus treatment.

  15. A multicenter experience with generic tacrolimus conversion.

    PubMed

    McDevitt-Potter, Lisa M; Sadaka, Basma; Tichy, Eric M; Rogers, Christin C; Gabardi, Steven

    2011-09-27

    The first generic tacrolimus product gained Food and Drug Administration approval in August 2009. This prospective, observational trial sought to determine the need for dose titrations and measure drug cost savings on conversion to generic tacrolimus. Transplant recipients on stable tacrolimus doses were converted from brand to generic tacrolimus on a mg:mg basis. Data were collected at the time of generic conversion (study arm) and at a time point exactly 6 months before conversion (control arm) for all subjects. Seventy conversions from four centers are reported. Subjects were a mean of 70 months after kidney (n=37), liver (n=28), or multiorgan (n=5) transplant. In the study arm, mean tacrolimus doses were 4.4 and 4.5 mg/d and mean tacrolimus trough concentrations were 5.8 and 5.9 ng/mL before and after conversion, respectively. In the control arm, mean tacrolimus doses were 4.6 and 4.6 mg/d and mean tacrolimus trough concentrations were 6.1 and 5.9 ng/mL before and after the control time point, respectively. Dose titrations occurred in five patients (7%) in the control arm and 15 patients (21%) in the study arm (P=0.028). Mean monthly drug costs were $645 for brand, $593 for generic, and $595 for generic after dose titrations. Mean monthly patient copays were $38 for brand and $15 for generic. These cumulative data show that dose requirements and trough levels are similar between brand and generic tacrolimus and that generic substitution allows for savings. However, postconversion monitoring is prudent as patients may require dose titration.

  16. Overview of extended release tacrolimus in solid organ transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Neha; Cook, Abigail; Greenhalgh, Elizabeth; Rech, Megan A; Rusinak, Joshua; Heinrich, Lynley

    2016-01-01

    Tacrolimus (Prograf©, Astellas Pharma Europe Ltd, Staines, United Kingdom; referred to as tacrolimus-BID) is an immunosuppressive agent to prevent and treat allograft rejection in kidney transplant recipients in combination with mycophenolate mofetil, corticosteroids, with or without basiliximab induction. The drug has also been studied in liver, heart and lung transplant; however, these are currently off-label indications. An extended release tacrolimus formulation (Advagraf©, Astagraf XL©) allows for once-daily dosing, with the potential to improve adherence. Extended release tacrolimus has similar absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion to tacrolimus-BID. Phase I pharmacokinetic trials comparing extended release tacrolimus and tacrolimus-BID have demonstrated a decreased maximum concentration (Cmax) and delayed time to maximum concentration (tmax) with the extended release formulation; however, AUC0-24 was comparable between formulations. Overall extended release tacrolimus has a very similar safety and efficacy profile to tacrolimus-BID. It is not recommended in the use of liver transplant patient’s due to the increased risk of mortality in female recipients. There has been minimal data regarding the use of extended release tacrolimus in heart and lung transplant recipients. With the current data available for all organ groups the extended release tacrolimus should be dosed in a 1:1 fashion, the exception may be the cystic fibrosis population where their initial dose may need to be higher. PMID:27011912

  17. Overview of extended release tacrolimus in solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Patel, Neha; Cook, Abigail; Greenhalgh, Elizabeth; Rech, Megan A; Rusinak, Joshua; Heinrich, Lynley

    2016-03-24

    Tacrolimus (Prograf(©), Astellas Pharma Europe Ltd, Staines, United Kingdom; referred to as tacrolimus-BID) is an immunosuppressive agent to prevent and treat allograft rejection in kidney transplant recipients in combination with mycophenolate mofetil, corticosteroids, with or without basiliximab induction. The drug has also been studied in liver, heart and lung transplant; however, these are currently off-label indications. An extended release tacrolimus formulation (Advagraf(©), Astagraf XL(©)) allows for once-daily dosing, with the potential to improve adherence. Extended release tacrolimus has similar absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion to tacrolimus-BID. Phase I pharmacokinetic trials comparing extended release tacrolimus and tacrolimus-BID have demonstrated a decreased maximum concentration (Cmax) and delayed time to maximum concentration (tmax) with the extended release formulation; however, AUC0-24 was comparable between formulations. Overall extended release tacrolimus has a very similar safety and efficacy profile to tacrolimus-BID. It is not recommended in the use of liver transplant patient's due to the increased risk of mortality in female recipients. There has been minimal data regarding the use of extended release tacrolimus in heart and lung transplant recipients. With the current data available for all organ groups the extended release tacrolimus should be dosed in a 1:1 fashion, the exception may be the cystic fibrosis population where their initial dose may need to be higher.

  18. Autologous serum eye drops for dry eye

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Qing; Angelina, Adla; Marrone, Michael; Stark, Walter J; Akpek, Esen K

    2017-01-01

    Background Theoretically, autologous serum eye drops (AS) offer a potential advantage over traditional therapies on the assumption that AS not only serve as a lacrimal substitute to provide lubrication but contain other biochemical components that allow them to mimic natural tears more closely. Application of AS has gained popularity as second-line therapy for patients with dry eye. Published studies on this subject indicate that autologous serum could be an effective treatment for dry eye. Objectives We conducted this review to evaluate the efficacy and safety of AS given alone or in combination with artificial tears as compared with artificial tears alone, saline, placebo, or no treatment for adults with dry eye. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2016, Issue 5), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to July 2016), Embase (January 1980 to July 2016), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to July 2016), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We also searched the Science Citation Index Expanded database (December 2016) and reference lists of included studies. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 5 July 2016. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared AS versus artificial tears for treatment of adults with dry eye. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently screened all titles and abstracts and assessed full-text reports of potentially eligible trials. Two review authors extracted data and assessed risk of bias and characteristics of included

  19. Clinical evaluation of pazopanib eye drops versus ranibizumab intravitreal injections in subjects with neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Csaky, Karl G; Dugel, Pravin U; Pierce, Amy J; Fries, Michael A; Kelly, Deborah S; Danis, Ronald P; Wurzelmann, John I; Xu, Chun-Fang; Hossain, Mohammad; Trivedi, Trupti

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate pazopanib eye drops in subjects with active subfoveal choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Multicountry, randomized, parallel-group, double-masked, active and placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study of eye drops. A total of 510 subjects (93% white; 58% female; mean age, 75.3 years) whose AMD was previously managed by anti-vascular endothelial growth factor intravitreal injections. Treatments administered for 52 weeks included placebo eye drops instilled 4 times daily (n=73); pazopanib 5 mg/ml instilled 3 (n=72) or 4 times daily (n=74); pazopanib 10 mg/ml instilled 2 (n=73), 3 (n=73), or 4 times daily (n=72); or ranibizumab injection administered once every 4 weeks (n=73). In addition, for all eye drop treatment groups, open-label ranibizumab was administered as needed. The main outcome measures were best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and injection frequency assessed at week 52. Safety was assessed every 4 weeks and pazopanib plasma concentrations were determined at weeks 4 and 24. At week 52, pazopanib, with allowance for as-needed ranibizumab injections, was noninferior to monthly ranibizumab as well as to as-needed ranibizumab administered with placebo eye drops in maintaining BCVA (estimated BCVA gains of 0.3-1.8 vs. 1.4 vs. 0.2 letters, respectively). Pazopanib treatment did not reduce as-needed ranibizumab injections by ≥50% (prespecified efficacy criterion). At week 52, there were no clinically meaningful changes from baseline in retinal thickness or morphology, CNV size, or lesion characteristics on optical coherence tomography or fluorescein angiography. Complement factor H genotype had no effect on the responses to pazopanib and/or ranibizumab (BCVA, injection rate, or optical coherence tomography/fluorescein angiography changes). Steady-state concentrations of pazopanib in plasma seemed to be reached by week 4. The most common ocular adverse events related to pazopanib and ranibizumab were

  20. Pharmacodynamic effects of pilocarpine eye drop enhanced by decreasing its volume of instillation.

    PubMed

    Lal, A; Kataria, V; Rajpal, A; Khanna, N

    1995-07-01

    Previous studies have proved that as the volume of the drug solution instilled into the eye is decreased, the fraction of the dose absorbed into the ocular tissue is increased and the adverse drug reactions lowered. The present study investigated the acute effects of different drop volumes (10 microliters, 20 microliters, 40 microliters, and 80 microliters) of pilocarpine nitrate (2%) on pupil diameter, heart rate, and adverse reaction profile, in 12 healthy human volunteers. The drop volumes of 10 microliters and 20 microliters produced more miosis and less side effects than 40 microliters and 80 microliters drop volumes. This may be due to more penetration of the drug into the ocular tissue and less drainage into the nasolacrimal system.

  1. Respiratory effect of beta‐blocker eye drops in asthma: population‐based study and meta‐analysis of clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Dreischulte, Tobias; Lipworth, Brian J.; Donnan, Peter T.; Jackson, Cathy; Guthrie, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Aims To measure the prevalence of beta‐blocker eye drop prescribing and respiratory effect of ocular beta‐blocker administration in people with asthma. Methods We measured the prevalence of ocular beta‐blocker prescribing in people with asthma and ocular hypertension, and performed a nested case–control study (NCCS) measuring risk of moderate exacerbations (rescue steroids in primary care) and severe exacerbations (asthma hospitalization) using linked data from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink. We then performed a systematic review and meta‐analysis of clinical trials evaluating changes in lung function following ocular beta‐blocker administration in people with asthma. Results From 2000 to 2012, the prevalence of non‐selective and selective beta‐blocker eye drop prescribing in people with asthma and ocular hypertension fell from 23.0% to 13.4% and from 10.5% to 0.9% respectively. In the NCCS, the relative incidence (IRR) of moderate exacerbations increased significantly with acute non‐selective beta‐blocker eye drop exposure (IRR 4.83, 95% CI 1.56–14.94) but not with chronic exposure. In the meta‐analysis, acute non‐selective beta‐blocker eye drop exposure caused significant mean falls in FEV1 of −10.9% (95% CI −14.9 to −6.9), and falls in FEV1 of ≥20% affecting one in three. Corresponding values for selective beta‐blockers in people sensitive to ocular non‐selective beta‐blockers was −6.3% (95% CI −11.7 to −0.8), and a non‐significant increase in falls in FEV1 of ≥20%. Conclusion Non‐selective beta‐blocker eye drops significantly affect lung function and increase asthma morbidity but are still frequently prescribed to people with asthma and ocular hypertension despite safer agents being available. PMID:27161880

  2. Respiratory effect of beta-blocker eye drops in asthma: population-based study and meta-analysis of clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Morales, Daniel R; Dreischulte, Tobias; Lipworth, Brian J; Donnan, Peter T; Jackson, Cathy; Guthrie, Bruce

    2016-09-01

    To measure the prevalence of beta-blocker eye drop prescribing and respiratory effect of ocular beta-blocker administration in people with asthma. We measured the prevalence of ocular beta-blocker prescribing in people with asthma and ocular hypertension, and performed a nested case-control study (NCCS) measuring risk of moderate exacerbations (rescue steroids in primary care) and severe exacerbations (asthma hospitalization) using linked data from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink. We then performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials evaluating changes in lung function following ocular beta-blocker administration in people with asthma. From 2000 to 2012, the prevalence of non-selective and selective beta-blocker eye drop prescribing in people with asthma and ocular hypertension fell from 23.0% to 13.4% and from 10.5% to 0.9% respectively. In the NCCS, the relative incidence (IRR) of moderate exacerbations increased significantly with acute non-selective beta-blocker eye drop exposure (IRR 4.83, 95% CI 1.56-14.94) but not with chronic exposure. In the meta-analysis, acute non-selective beta-blocker eye drop exposure caused significant mean falls in FEV1 of -10.9% (95% CI -14.9 to -6.9), and falls in FEV1 of ≥20% affecting one in three. Corresponding values for selective beta-blockers in people sensitive to ocular non-selective beta-blockers was -6.3% (95% CI -11.7 to -0.8), and a non-significant increase in falls in FEV1 of ≥20%. Non-selective beta-blocker eye drops significantly affect lung function and increase asthma morbidity but are still frequently prescribed to people with asthma and ocular hypertension despite safer agents being available. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  3. Tacrolimus Improves Symptoms of Children With Myasthenia Gravis Refractory to Prednisone.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chanchan; Gui, Mengcui; Cao, Yayun; Lin, Jing; Li, Yue; Ji, Suqiong; Bu, Bitao

    2017-12-01

    Myasthenia gravis tends to affect children in China. Oral pyridostigmine and prednisone could effectively improve the symptoms, but multiple side effects become a major concern after long-term oral prednisone. To avoid the long-term complications of prednisone therapy and to obtain more satisfactory improvement, we tested the efficacy and safety of tacrolimus in children with myasthenia gravis. Children with myasthenia gravis who had not achieved satisfactory improvement or who experienced severe side effects after prednisone therapy were recruited between January 2015 and December 2016 at Tongji Hospital. All the children were treated with tacrolimus 1 mg to 2 mg daily and the dose was adjusted on the basis of the clinical response and the serum concentration. The dosage of prednisone, the severity of symptoms, blood samples, the serum concentration of tacrolimus, and titers of antiacetylcholine receptor antibodies were evaluated every four weeks. Fourteen children were enrolled. One child withdrew two weeks after the enrollment. Thirteen children have completed the therapy for one year. At the end point, the dosage of prednisone was significantly decreased (P < 0.05), the symptoms were evaluated by the quantitative myasthenia gravis score, and myasthenia gravis-specific manual muscle testing and myasthenia gravis-activities of daily living scores were significantly improved (P < 0.05, P < 0.05, and P < 0.01, respectively). More importantly, ten (76.9%) patients had completely discontinued prednisone, and the major side effects were nearly reversed. The mean titer of antiacetylcholine receptor antibodies significantly dropped from 1.96±2.62 nmol/L to 0.70±1.04 nmol/L (P < 0.05). No severe adverse events were reported. Our results suggest that tacrolimus is a promising agent for children with refractory myasthenia gravis. Randomized clinical trials are needed to confirm the observation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Eye drops preservative as the cause of corneal band keratopathy in long-term pilocarpine hydrochloride treatment.

    PubMed

    Pavicić-Astalos, Jasna; Lacmanović-Loncar, Valentina; Petric-Vicković, Ivanka; Sarić, Dean; Mandić, Zdravko; Csik, Tigrena; Susić, Nikola

    2012-03-01

    The aim is to present a patient with severe bilateral corneal complications after long-term antiglaucoma treatment with 1% pilocarpine hydrochloride (Pilokarpin, Pliva, Zagreb, Croatia) and its management. A patient with narrow-angle glaucoma treated with 1% topical pilocarpine hydrochloride eye drops for the last twenty years complained of impaired vision, intermittent visual haloes and eye redness. Ophthalmologic examination showed bilateral band keratopathy, peripheral laser iridotomy, medicamentous myosis, brown nuclear cataract, and synchysis scintillans of his right eye. Band keratopathy was thought to have resulted from the presence of the preservative phenylmercuric nitrate in the pilocarpine hydrochloride eye drops. Treatment of the patient consisted of two separate procedures for both eyes, i.e. phaco trabeculectomy and six months later corneal procedure including abrasion of corneal epithelium followed by removal of the superficial stromal calcium deposits by means of a 3.75% ethylenediaminetetraacetic (EDTA) solution. After phaco trabeculectomy, visual acuity was 0.8 on both eyes. Bilateral visual improvement with visual acuity 1.0 was recorded after corneal treatment with EDTA. In conclusion, one must be aware of preservative complications in long-term topical use, such as band keratopathy that can be visually incapacitating. Surgical treatment using EDTA is safe and effective treatment for band keratopathy.

  5. Pharmacological activities of an eye drop containing Matricaria chamomilla and Euphrasia officinalis extracts in UVB-induced oxidative stress and inflammation of human corneal cells.

    PubMed

    Bigagli, Elisabetta; Cinci, Lorenzo; D'Ambrosio, Mario; Luceri, Cristina

    2017-08-01

    Ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure is a risk factor for corneal damage resulting in oxidative stress, inflammation and cell death. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential protective effects of a commercial eye drop (Dacriovis™) containing Matricaria chamomilla and Euphrasia officinalis extracts on human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC-12) against UVB radiation-induced oxidative stress and inflammation as well as the underlying mechanisms. The antioxidant potential of the eye drops was evaluated by measuring the ferric reducing antioxidant power and the total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. HCEC-12 cells were exposed to UVB radiation and treated with the eye drops at various concentrations. Cell viability, wound healing assay, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, protein and lipid oxidative damage and COX-2, IL-1β, iNOS, SOD-2, HO-1 and GSS gene expression, were assessed. Eye drops were able to protect corneal epithelial cells from UVB-induced cell death and ameliorated the wound healing; the eye drops exhibited a strong antioxidant activity, decreasing ROS levels and protein and lipid oxidative damage. Eye drops also exerted anti-inflammatory activities by decreasing COX-2, IL-1β, iNOS expression, counteracted UVB-induced GSS and SOD-2 expression and restored HO-1 expression to control levels. These findings suggest that an eye drop containing Matricaria chamomilla and Euphrasia officinalis extracts exerts positive effects against UVB induced oxidative stress and inflammation and may be useful in protecting corneal epithelial cells from UVB exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of the replication and transmissibility of an infectious laryngotracheitis virus vaccine delivered via eye-drop or drinking-water.

    PubMed

    Coppo, Mauricio J C; Devlin, Joanne M; Noormohammadi, Amir H

    2012-01-01

    Live attenuated vaccines have been extensively used to control infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT). Most vaccines are registered/recommended for use via eye-drop although vaccination via drinking-water is commonly used in the field. Drinking-water vaccination has been associated with non-uniform protection. Bird-to-bird passage of chick-embryo-origin (CEO) ILT vaccines has been shown to result in reversion to virulence. The purpose of the present study was to examine the replication and transmission of a commercial CEO infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) vaccine strain following drinking-water or eye-drop inoculation. Two groups of 10 specific-pathogen-free chickens were each vaccinated with Serva ILTV vaccine strain either via eye-drop or drinking-water. Groups of four or five unvaccinated birds were placed in contact with vaccinated birds at regular intervals. Tracheal swabs were collected every 4 days from vaccinated and in-contact birds to assess viral replication and transmission using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Compared with eye-drop-vaccinated birds, drinking-water-vaccinated birds showed delayed viral replication but had detectable viral DNA for a longer period of time. Transmission to chickens exposed by contact on day 0 of the experiments was similar in both groups. Birds exposed to ILTV by contact with eye-drop vaccinated birds on days 4, 8, 12 and 16 of the experiment had detectable ILTV for up to 8 days post exposure. ILTV was not detected in chickens that were exposed by contact with drinking-water vaccinated birds on day 12 of the experiment or later. Results from this study provide valuable practical information for the use of ILT vaccine.

  7. Tacrolimus Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... ointment is used to treat the symptoms of eczema (atopic dermatitis; a skin disease that causes the ... use other medications for their condition or whose eczema has not responded to another medication. Tacrolimus is ...

  8. Efficacy and safety of an extemporaneous preparation of 2% ganciclovir eye drops in CMV anterior uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Keorochana, Narumon; Choontanom, Raveewan

    2017-01-01

    Background To evaluate the efficacy and safety of an extemporaneous preparation of 2% ganciclovir topical eye drops in cytomegalovirus (CMV) anterior uveitis because many studies have confirmed the benefits of topical ganciclovir in varying concentrations. Design The study employed a retrospective cohort design. Methods This study enrolled 11 eyes (11 patients) with CMV anterior uveitis. All cases were proved by positive PCR for CMV DNA from aqueous tapping and received topical 2% ganciclovir, applied every 2 hours daily as induction therapy then tapered off and stopped based on clinical response. Outcome measures were best-corrected visual acuity, anterior chamber cell, coin-shaped and other keratic precipitates, intraocular pressure (IOP), the number of antiglaucoma drugs used, the frequency of steroid eye drops used daily and side effects over a 12-month follow-up period. Side effects after applying topical 2% ganciclovir were recorded using questionnaires and eye examination. Results Mean age was 49.0±17.8 years. IOP, number of antiglaucoma drugs used and keratic precipitates decreased significantly at first week (p<0.013, p<0.024 and p<0.031, respectively) followed by decreased anterior chamber cells and significantly reduced frequency of applying steroid eye drops at 4 weeks (p<0.034 and p<0.017, respectively). Visual acuity significantly improved at 5 months continuously. All clinical improvement was maintained to 12 months, and keratic precipitates were eliminated in 90% of all cases. However, in 27% of discontinued medicine cases, inflammation was recurrent. No significance was observed in all factors between recurrent and non-recurrent groups. The most common side effect was eye irritation (27.27%). No severe complications from the medicine was detected. Conclusion Extemporaneous preparation topical 2% ganciclovir was effective and safely controlled CMV anterior uveitis. The medication is non-invasive, economical and convenient for hospitals where

  9. Efficacy and safety of an extemporaneous preparation of 2% ganciclovir eye drops in CMV anterior uveitis.

    PubMed

    Keorochana, Narumon; Choontanom, Raveewan

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of an extemporaneous preparation of 2% ganciclovir topical eye drops in cytomegalovirus (CMV) anterior uveitis because many studies have confirmed the benefits of topical ganciclovir in varying concentrations. The study employed a retrospective cohort design. This study enrolled 11 eyes (11 patients) with CMV anterior uveitis. All cases were proved by positive PCR for CMV DNA from aqueous tapping and received topical 2% ganciclovir, applied every 2 hours daily as induction therapy then tapered off and stopped based on clinical response. Outcome measures were best-corrected visual acuity, anterior chamber cell, coin-shaped and other keratic precipitates, intraocular pressure (IOP), the number of antiglaucoma drugs used, the frequency of steroid eye drops used daily and side effects over a 12-month follow-up period. Side effects after applying topical 2% ganciclovir were recorded using questionnaires and eye examination. Mean age was 49.0±17.8 years. IOP, number of antiglaucoma drugs used and keratic precipitates decreased significantly at first week (p<0.013, p<0.024 and p<0.031, respectively) followed by decreased anterior chamber cells and significantly reduced frequency of applying steroid eye drops at 4 weeks (p<0.034 and p<0.017, respectively). Visual acuity significantly improved at 5 months continuously. All clinical improvement was maintained to 12 months, and keratic precipitates were eliminated in 90% of all cases. However, in 27% of discontinued medicine cases, inflammation was recurrent. No significance was observed in all factors between recurrent and non-recurrent groups. The most common side effect was eye irritation (27.27%). No severe complications from the medicine was detected. Extemporaneous preparation topical 2% ganciclovir was effective and safely controlled CMV anterior uveitis. The medication is non-invasive, economical and convenient for hospitals where commercial topical ganciclovir is unavailable.

  10. Effects of diquafosol sodium eye drops on tear film stability in short BUT type of dry eye.

    PubMed

    Shimazaki-Den, Seika; Iseda, Hiroyuki; Dogru, Murat; Shimazaki, Jun

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the effects of diquafosol sodium (DQS) eye drops, a purinergic P2Y2 receptor agonist, on tear film stability in patients with unstable tear film (UTF). Two prospective studies were conducted. One was an exploratory nonrandomized trial on 39 eyes with dry eye symptoms and short tear film break-up time (BUT), but without epithelial damage. Changes in symptoms, BUT, Schirmer value, and ocular surface fluorescein staining (FS) scores were studied for 3 months. The other was a randomized clinical trial of DQS and artificial tears (AT) in 17 eyes with short BUT. Eyes with decreased Schirmer values (≤ 5 mm) were excluded. Changes in symptoms, BUT, FS scores, and tear film stability using continuous corneal topographic analysis were studied for 4 weeks. In the exploratory study, while Schirmer values were not significantly increased, significant improvements in symptoms and BUT were noted at both 1 and 3 months. In the randomized clinical trial, significant improvements in symptoms were noted in the DQS group, but not in the AT group, at 2 weeks. BUT was significantly prolonged in the DQS group at 4 weeks but not in the AT group. No significant changes were noted in FS scores or tear film stability. DQS improved subjective symptoms and prolonged BUT in eyes with UTF not associated with low tear secretion and ocular surface epithelial damage. Because many patients who have UTF are refractory to conventional treatments, DQS may offer benefits in the treatment of dry eyes.

  11. Efficacy and tolerability of preservative-free eye drops containing a fixed combination of dorzolamide and timolol in glaucoma patients.

    PubMed

    Renieri, Giulia; Führer, Katrin; Scheithe, Karl; Lorenz, Katrin; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Thieme, Hagen

    2010-12-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of preservative-free eye drops (dorzolamide/timolol) in routine management of preservative-sensitive glaucoma patients. Data from 2,298 glaucoma patients requiring intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction and suffering from intolerance to benzalkonium chloride or active agents of previously used eye drops were valid for baseline and safety analysis in this prospective, open, noncomparative, multicenter, noninterventional study. Patients were treated with preservative-free dorzolamide/timolol eye drops for 12 weeks. Main efficacy endpoint was IOP reduction after 12 weeks of treatment. Two thousand forty-nine patients were considered for efficacy analysis. Tolerability was assessed by evaluating adverse drug reactions. Mean baseline IOP was 20.8 mmHg. Baseline IOP was reduced to 16.7 mmHg after 12 weeks of treatment corresponding to a mean absolute (percent) change of -4.1 mmHg (-17.3%). The proportion of patients with IOP ≤21 mmHg increased from 59.9% at baseline to 94.6% after 12 weeks. The most frequently reported ocular adverse drug reactions were burning eyes (2.4%) and hyperemia (0.9%). Local tolerability improved in 79.3% of patients compared to their previous glaucoma therapy. This observational study confirms the IOP lowering effect of preservative-free eye drops containing the fixed combination of dorzolamide/timolol in a large patient's population. The drug was well tolerated and improved the local tolerability in the vast majority of patients.

  12. Safety and efficacy of conversion from twice-daily tacrolimus to once-daily tacrolimus one month after transplantation: randomized controlled trial in adult renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chang-Kwon; Huh, Kyu Ha; Lee, Jong Soo; Cho, Hong Rae; Kim, Yu Seun

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare once-daily tacrolimus with twice-daily tacrolimus in terms of safety, efficacy, and patient satisfaction. This prospective, randomized, open-label, multicenter study was conducted at three institutes. Patients in the investigational group were converted from tacrolimus twice daily to the same dose of extended-release tacrolimus once daily at 1 month post-transplantation, while patients in the control group were maintained on tacrolimus twice daily. The efficacies, safeties, and patient satisfaction for the two drugs at 6 months post-transplantation were compared. Sixty patients were enrolled and randomized to the investigational group (28 of 29 patients completed the study) or the control group (26 of 31 patients completed the study). At 6 months post-transplantation, composite efficacy failure rates including the incidences of biopsy-confirmed acute rejection in the investigational and control groups were 0% and 10.7%, respectively; patient survival was 100% in each group. No difference in estimated glomerular filtration rate values were observed at 6 months post-transplantation (p=0.97). The safety and satisfaction profile (immunosuppressant therapy barrier scale) of once-daily tacrolimus was comparable with that of twice-daily tacrolimus (p=0.35). Conversion from twice-daily tacrolimus to once-daily tacrolimus one month after transplantation is safe and effective.

  13. Application of Biodegradable Nanoparticles in Liver Targeting of Tacrolimus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Affifi, Nagia N.; Heikal, Ola A.; Hanafi, Rasha S.; Tammam, Salma N.

    2011-06-01

    Tacrolimus is a potent immunosuppressant used in liver transplantation to avoid graft rejection. Tacrolimus has a narrow therapeutic index and variable pharmacokinetics, making dose adjustment and therapeutic drug monitoring a complicated task. Increasing the occurrence of adverse effects, especially nephrotoxicity are another concerns. In graft rejection, antigen presentation occurs in the graft and lymphatics. Therefore, by targeting tacrolimus to the liver and spleen, graft survival could be achieved with a decrease in nephrotoxicity. Poly(lactide) tacrolimus nanoparticles (PLA-TAC-NP) were formulated and characterized with the aim of targeting tacrolimus to the liver and spleen and therefore decreasing its nephrotoxicity. To evaluate the targeting efficiency of PLA-TAC-NP, rats were divided into two groups. They were intravenously injected either PLA-TAC-NP or free tacrolimus. At assigned time intervals, blood, liver, spleen and kidney samples were collected from each rat. Drug extraction and HPLC analysis were used to evaluate tacrolimus tissue distribution and consequently the targeting efficiency of the prepared PLA-TAC-NP. PLA-TAC-NP proved their success in targeting liver and spleen, by showing significantly higher drug amounts compared to the rats injected with free tacrolimus. PLA-TAC-NP increased tacrolimus concentration in the liver 24 fold and in the spleen 1.94 fold whereas tacrolimus concentration in the kidneys decreased by 7.12 fold. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to examine a liver section, obtained from a rat that has received PLA-TAC-NP. TEM images showed PLA-TAC-NP in a Kupffer cell and in the liver sinusoids. Therefore, PLA-TAC-NP are promising drug delivery systems for achieving localized immunosuppression and minimizing nephrotoxicity in liver transplant patients.

  14. Effect of preserved and preservative-free timolol eye drops on tear film stability in healthy Africans

    PubMed Central

    Ilechie, Alex; Abokyi, Samuel; Boateng, Gifty; Koffuor, George Asumeng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preserved versus nonpreserved formulations for ophthalmic use have been well described in the literature although not specifically in the African population where beta blockers are frequently used as the first-line therapy due to economic and availability issues. This study sought to determine the effect of preserved and preservative-free Timolol eye drops on tear film stability in healthy black Africans. Materials and Methods: Sixty healthy nondry eye subjects aged 19–25 years were randomly assigned into four groups (n = 15) and differently treated with eye drops of phosphate buffered saline (PBS), preservative-free timolol (PFT), benzalkonium chloride (BAK) only, and BAK-preserved timolol (BPT). Noninvasive tear break-up time (NITBUT) was measured using the keratometer at baseline and 30, 60, and 90 min after drop application. Results: No significant decline in NITBUT was observed following treatment with PFT and PBS. However, BAK treatment showed a positive time-dependent significant decline in NITBUT (P < 0.001) while a significant decline in the BPT-treated group was only found at 90 min (−3.52 s; P < 0.001). In comparison to the PFT-treated group, treatment with BAK and BPT showed significantly lower NITBUT (P < 0.001). Conclusion: BPT is associated with a significant decline in tear film stability in black Africans. This finding has implications in the management of glaucoma in patients with high-risk of dry eyes in this population. PMID:27226684

  15. Nationwide conversion to generic tacrolimus in pediatric kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Naicker, Derisha; Reed, Peter W; Ronaldson, Jane; Kara, Tonya; Wong, William; Prestidge, Chanel

    2017-11-01

    Bioequivalence between Tacrolimus Prograf® and generic tacrolimus formulations has been demonstrated in adult populations, however clinical experience and safety data regarding generic tacrolimus in pediatric transplant recipients is limited. This study aimed to evaluate conversion from Tacrolimus Prograf® to Sandoz® in pediatric renal transplant recipients nationwide. The primary outcome was a change in mean trough tacrolimus concentration. Additionally, changes in tacrolimus intra-patient coefficient of variation (CoV), allograft function, requirement for dose adjustments, and episodes of biopsy-proven rejection were evaluated. Retrospective cohort study in 37 pediatric renal transplant recipients who switched to Tacrolimus Sandoz®. Each patient had three pre-conversion tacrolimus trough and creatinine concentrations within the 4 months prior and three post-conversion concentrations on day 3, 10, and the next subsequent level. Mean pre- and post-conversion tacrolimus trough concentrations and glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were calculated. Tacrolimus concentration, CoV, and creatinine differences were compared by paired t test. Thirty-seven patients (41% females, age 3-18 years) were included. Average intra-patient difference in trough tacrolimus concentration was 0.05μg/l (95% CI -0.37 to 0.47). Average intra-patient difference in eGFR was -1.20 ml/min/1.73 2 (95% CI -3.53 to 1.13). Three patients had acute rejection during 12 months post-conversion compared to none during 12 months pre-conversion. Pediatric renal transplant recipients can be converted from Tacrolimus Prograf® to Sandoz® with negligible change in trough concentration, dose adjustments, or immediate allograft function. Of concern was the number of acute rejection episodes, however non-adherence contributed to at least one episode and this difference was determined clinically and statistically not significant.

  16. Safety and efficacy of a hydroxypropyl guar/polyethylene glycol/propylene glycol-based lubricant eye-drop in patients with dry eye.

    PubMed

    Labetoulle, Marc; Messmer, Elisabeth M; Pisella, Pierre-Jean; Ogundele, Abayomi; Baudouin, Christophe

    2017-04-01

    To demonstrate non-inferiority of a hydroxypropyl guar/polyethylene glycol/propylene glycol lubricating eye-drop (HPG/PEG/PG) compared with an osmoprotective carboxymethylcellulose/glycerine eye-drop (O/CMC) for ocular surface staining. This was a multicentre, randomised, observer-masked, parallel-group study. Adults with dry eye instilled HPG/PEG/PG/ or O/CMC 4 times daily for 35 days and then as needed through day 90. Total ocular surface staining (TOSS) score changes from baseline and Impact of Dry Eye on Everyday Life (IDEEL) treatment satisfaction module scores were assessed. Non-inferiority, based on TOSS score change from baseline, was concluded if the upper limit of the 2-sided CI was <2 units. Mean±SD patient age was 64.4±13.7 years; 94 patients were randomised to treatment (HPG/PEG/PG, n=46; O/CMC, n=48). Mean±SE TOSS score change from baseline to day 35 was -2.2±0.33 with HPG/PEG/PG and -1.7±0.47 with O/CMC (treatment difference, -0.47±0.47; p=0.38), and the non-inferiority criterion was met. IDEEL treatment satisfaction scores were similar between groups at day 35 and day 90. The most frequently reported adverse event was eye irritation (HPG/PEG/PG, n=2; O/CMC, n=3). HPG/PEG/PG and O/CMC reduced ocular surface damage, and HPG/PEG/PG was non-inferior to O/CMC. Both treatments were effective, convenient and well tolerated. NCT01863368, Results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Systematic conversion to generic tacrolimus in stable kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Rosenborg, Staffan; Nordström, Annica; Almquist, Tora; Wennberg, Lars; Bárány, Peter

    2014-04-01

    Tacrolimus (Prograf ® ) is a key drug in the immunosuppressive treatment of renal transplant patients. Since the expiration of the patent for Prograf ® , generic preparations have been approved in Europe as bioequivalence has been shown in healthy volunteers. However, few studies have investigated whether patients can be successfully converted from Prograf ® to generic tacrolimus. Tacrolimus drug costs are by far the largest single item in the total drug expenditure for patients with renal disease in the Stockholm area. Considerable reductions in drug costs could be achieved if generic tacrolimus were to be used. The aim of this quality assurance study was to evaluate whether a switch from Prograf ® to generic tacrolimus (Tacrolimus Sandoz ® ) could be safely performed in renal transplant patients. It further aimed to investigate changes of renal function (measured in estimated glomerular filtration rate, eGFR), need for dose changes and to calculate potential drug cost savings as a result of the conversion. We planned to recruit at least 50 patients. Plasma creatinine levels and trough concentrations of tacrolimus were collected from patients with renal transplants at three occasions during treatment with Prograf ® and three times after conversion to Tacrolimus Sandoz ® . The eGFR was calculated before and after the conversion. Sixty-three of 67 enrolled patients (69% males, age 28-80 years) are included in this analysis. The ratio of mean trough concentrations of tacrolimus after comparison with before conversion was 1.02 (90% confidence interval 0.95-1.09). Fourteen patients experienced a change in tacrolimus levels >20% compared with baseline, no patients changed >20% in eGFR. The drug cost saving per daily dose was 33.40 SEK (∼€3.60, -23%). Stable kidney transplant patients treated with Prograf ® can be converted to Tacrolimus Sandoz ® if trough concentrations of tacrolimus and plasma creatinine levels are closely monitored. The conversion brought

  18. Systematic conversion to generic tacrolimus in stable kidney transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Rosenborg, Staffan; Nordström, Annica; Almquist, Tora; Wennberg, Lars; Bárány, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background Tacrolimus (Prograf®) is a key drug in the immunosuppressive treatment of renal transplant patients. Since the expiration of the patent for Prograf®, generic preparations have been approved in Europe as bioequivalence has been shown in healthy volunteers. However, few studies have investigated whether patients can be successfully converted from Prograf® to generic tacrolimus. Tacrolimus drug costs are by far the largest single item in the total drug expenditure for patients with renal disease in the Stockholm area. Considerable reductions in drug costs could be achieved if generic tacrolimus were to be used. The aim of this quality assurance study was to evaluate whether a switch from Prograf® to generic tacrolimus (Tacrolimus Sandoz®) could be safely performed in renal transplant patients. It further aimed to investigate changes of renal function (measured in estimated glomerular filtration rate, eGFR), need for dose changes and to calculate potential drug cost savings as a result of the conversion. Methods We planned to recruit at least 50 patients. Plasma creatinine levels and trough concentrations of tacrolimus were collected from patients with renal transplants at three occasions during treatment with Prograf® and three times after conversion to Tacrolimus Sandoz®. The eGFR was calculated before and after the conversion. Results Sixty-three of 67 enrolled patients (69% males, age 28–80 years) are included in this analysis. The ratio of mean trough concentrations of tacrolimus after comparison with before conversion was 1.02 (90% confidence interval 0.95–1.09). Fourteen patients experienced a change in tacrolimus levels >20% compared with baseline, no patients changed >20% in eGFR. The drug cost saving per daily dose was 33.40 SEK (∼€3.60, −23%). Conclusions Stable kidney transplant patients treated with Prograf® can be converted to Tacrolimus Sandoz® if trough concentrations of tacrolimus and plasma creatinine levels are closely

  19. Multi-site analytical evaluation of the Abbott ARCHITECT tacrolimus assay.

    PubMed

    Wallemacq, Pierre; Goffinet, Jean-Sebastien; O'Morchoe, Susan; Rosiere, Thomas; Maine, Gregory T; Labalette, Myriam; Aimo, Giuseppe; Dickson, Diana; Schmidt, Ed; Schwinzer, Reinhard; Schmid, Rainer W

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the analytical performance of the Abbott ARCHITECT Tacrolimus immunoassay. Proficiency panels and specimens from a population of organ transplant recipients were analyzed in 6 clinical laboratories in Europe and the United States, and the results were compared with other methods. The ARCHITECT assay requires a whole blood specimen pretreatment step with methanol/zinc sulfate to precipitate protein and extract the drug, followed by a 30-minute immunoassay using anti-tacrolimus antibody-coated paramagnetic microparticles and an acridinium-tacrolimus tracer. The assay was free from hematocrit interference in the range 25%-55% and from interference by extremes of cholesterol, triglycerides, bilirubin, total protein, and uric acid. The total percent of coefficient of variations of the assay were 4.9%-7.6% at 3 ng/mL, 2.9%-4.6% at 8.6 ng/mL, and 3.1%-8.2% at 15.5 ng/mL. Limit of detection was < or =0.5 ng/mL and limit of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.69 to 1.07 ng/mL across the 6 sites (based on the upper 95% confidence interval concentrations). The 2007 European Consensus Conference on Tacrolimus Optimization recommended the use of assay methods with an LOQ around 1 ng/mL, based upon the need to measure trough tacrolimus blood concentrations precisely down to 3 ng/mL during low-dose tacrolimus regimens. Tacrolimus International Proficiency Testing Scheme samples were measured by the ARCHITECT immunoassay at 5 sites and showed an average bias of -0.28 to +0.85 ng/mL versus IMx Tacrolimus II immunoassay historical values and -0.21 to +0.68 ng/mL versus liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MSMS) Tacrolimus historical values. Method comparison studies were performed with the ARCHITECT Tacrolimus immunoassay on patient specimens with the following results: ARCHITECT Tacrolimus assay versus the Abbott IMx Tacrolimus II immunoassay (4 sites) yielded average biases between -0.94 and +0.26 ng/mL; ARCHITECT assay

  20. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial on the efficacy of 0.5% indomethacin eye drops in uveitic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Allegri, Pia; Murialdo, Ugo; Peri, Simona; Carniglia, Rosanna; Crivelli, Maria Grazia; Compiano, Silvia; Autuori, Silvia; Mastromarino, Antonio; Zurria, Monia; Marrazzo, Giuseppina

    2014-03-10

    The aim of the present randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of 0.5% indomethacin (INDOM) eye drops in adult patients suffering from macular edema (ME) related to different etiology uveitis. Forty-six eyes of 31 adult patients (20 females and 11 males) mean age 39 years, affected by inflammatory ME, were randomized to receive a dose of commercial 0.5% INDOM eye-drops four times per day (16 subjects = 23 eyes) or placebo (the vehicle of INDOM, 15 subjects = 23 eyes) during a 6-month active therapy follow-up. Study assessment at each visit included visual acuity testing (VA), slit-lamp examination, IOP evaluation, and Heidelberg Spectralis optical coherence tomography (OCT) central foveal thickness (CFT) measurement. Any variation in subjective symptoms and tolerability was also detected. Statistical analysis showed, from baseline to the 6-month visit, a significant reduction in CFT (P < 0.0001) and a significant improvement in VA only in the 0.5% INDOM-treated group; a global reduction of discomfort symptoms was present in both groups (P < 0.001). The four times per day administration of 0.5% INDOM eye drops in eyes affected with uveitic ME from different etiologies, compared with placebo, is associated with a significant reduction in ME at the 6-month follow-up visit, as measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). However, not all eyes showed a complete resolution of ME because of vitreoretinal traction. (https://eudract.ema.europa.eu/index.html number, EUDRACT 2011-001522-20.).

  1. Eye drop delivery of nano-polymeric micelle formulated genes with cornea-specific promoters.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yaw-Chong; Chang, Shwu-Fen; Liu, Chia-Yang; Kao, Winston W-Y; Huang, Chong Heng; Liaw, Jiahorng

    2007-11-01

    This study evaluates the eye drop delivery of genes with cornea-specific promoters, i.e., keratin 12 (K12) and keratocan (Kera3.2) promoters, by non-ionic poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) polymeric micelles (PM) to mouse and rabbit eyes, and investigates the underlying mechanisms. Three PM-formulated plasmids (pCMV-Lac Z, pK12-Lac Z and pKera3.2-Lac Z) containing the Lac Z gene for beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal) whose expression was driven by the promoter of either the cytomegalovirus early gene, the keratin 12 gene or the keratocan gene, were characterized by critical micelle concentration (CMC), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Transgene expression in ocular tissue after gene delivery was analyzed by 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-D-galactoside (X-Gal) color staining, 1,2-dioxetane beta-Gal enzymatic activity measurement, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. The delivery mechanisms of plasmid-PM on mouse and rabbit corneas were evaluated by EDTA and RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid) peptide. The sizes of the three plasmid-PM complexes were around 150-200 nm with unimodal distribution. Enhanced stability was found for three plasmid-PM formulations after DNase I treatment. After six doses of eye drop delivery of pK12-Lac Z-PM three times a day, beta-Gal activity was significantly increased in both mouse and rabbit corneas. Stroma-specific Lac Z expression was only found in pKera3.2-Lac Z-PM-treated animals with pretreatment by 5 mM EDTA, an opener of junctions. Lac Z gene expression in both pK12-Lac Z-PM and pKera3.2-Lac Z-PM delivery groups was decreased by RGD peptide pretreatment. Cornea epithelium- and stroma-specific gene expression could be achieved using cornea-specific promoters of keratin 12 and keratocan genes, and the gene was delivered with PM formulation through non-invasive, eye drop in mice and rabbits. The transfection mechanism of plasmid-PM may

  2. Caffeine Eye Drops Protect Against UV-B Cataract

    PubMed Central

    Kronschläger, Martin; Löfgren, Stefan; Yu, Zhaohua; Talebizadeh, Nooshin; Varma, Shambhu D.; Söderberg, Per

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if topically applied caffeine protects against in vivo ultraviolet radiation cataract and if so, to estimate the protection factor. Three experiments were carried out. First, two groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were pre-treated with a single application of either placebo or caffeine eye drops in both eyes. All animals were then unilaterally exposed in vivo to 8 kJ/m2 UV-B radiation for 15 min. One week later, the lens GSH levels were measured and the degree of cataract was quantified by measurement of in vitro lens light scattering. In the second experiment, placebo and caffeine pre-treated rats were divided in five UV-B radiation dose groups, receiving 0.0, 2.6, 3.7, 4.5 or 5.2 kJ/m2 UV-B radiation in one eye. Lens light scattering was determined after one week. In the third experiment, placebo and caffeine pre-treated rats were UV-B-exposed and the presence of activated caspase-3 was visualized by immunohistochemistry. There was significantly less UV-B radiation cataract in the caffeine group than in the placebo group (95% confidence interval for mean difference in lens light scattering between the groups = 0.10 ± 0.05 tEDC), and the protection factor for caffeine was 1.23. There was no difference in GSH levels between the placebo- and the caffeine group. There was more caspase-3 staining in UV-B-exposed lenses from the placebo group than in UV-B-exposed lenses from the caffeine group. Topically applied caffeine protects against ultraviolet radiation cataract, reducing lens sensitivity 1.23 times. PMID:23644096

  3. Phenylephrine eye drops in pediatric patients undergoing ophthalmic surgery: incidence, presentation, and management of complications during general anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Sbaraglia, Fabio; Mores, Nadia; Garra, Rossella; Giuratrabocchetta, Giuseppe; Lepore, Domenico; Molle, Fernando; Savino, Gustavo; Piastra, Marco; Pulitano', Silvia; Sammartino, Maria

    2014-04-01

    Phenylephrine eye drops are widely used as mydriatic agent to reach the posterior segment of the eye. In literature, many reports suggest a systemic absorption of this agent as a source of severe adverse drug reactions. Hence, we reviewed our experience with topical phenylephrine in ophthalmic surgery. In May 2006, following US guidelines publication, a standard operating procedure was issued in our operating rooms to standardize the use of phenylephrine eye drops in our practice. Two years later, after the occurrence of a cluster of serious adverse drug reactions in infants undergoing surgery, a review of phenylephrine safety and systemic complications incidence was performed. We observed 451 pediatric patients, and 187 met the inclusions criteria: Among them, 4 experienced hemodynamic complications due to phenylephrine eye drops. The incidence of major complications was 2.1%. Two different patterns of side effects occurred. The first one was a cardiovascular derangement with severe hypertension and heart rate alterations; the other one involved exclusively pulmonary circuit causing early edema. These clinical manifestations, their duration, and treatment responses are all explainable by alfa1-adrenergic action of phenylephrine. This hypothetic pathogenesis has been confirmed also by the usefulness of direct vasodilators (anesthetic agents) and by the negative outcome occurred in the past with the use of beta-blockers. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The Effect of Immunologically Safe Plasma Rich in Growth Factor Eye Drops in Patients with Sjögren Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Avila, Ronald Mauricio; Merayo-Lloves, Jesus; Riestra, Ana Cristina; Anitua, Eduardo; Muruzabal, Francisco; Orive, Gorka; Fernández-Vega, Luis

    2017-06-01

    The objective was to provide preliminary information about the efficacy and safety of immunologically safe plasma rich in growth factor (immunosafe PRGF) eye drops in the treatment of moderate to severe dry eye in patients with primary and secondary Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and to analyze the influence of several variables on treatment outcomes. This retrospective study included patients with SS. All patients were treated with previously immunosafe PRGF eye drops to reduce the immunologic component contents. Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) scale, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), visual analog scale (VAS) frequency, and VAS severity outcome measures were evaluated before and after treatment with immunosafe PRGF. The potential influence of some patient clinical variables on results was also assessed. Safety assessment was also performed reporting all adverse events. Twenty-six patients (12 patients with primary SS, and 14 patients suffering secondary SS) with a total of 52 affected eyes were included and evaluated. Immunosafe PRGF treatment showed a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in OSDI scale (41.86%), in BCVA (62.97%), in VAS frequency (34.75%), and in VAS severity (41.50%). BCVA and VAS frequency scores improved significantly (P < 0.05) after concomitant treatment of PRGF with corticosteroids. Only 2 adverse events were reported in 2 patients (7.7% of patients). Signs and symptoms of dry eye syndrome in patients with SS were reduced after treatment with PRGF-Endoret eye drops. Immunosafe PRGF-Endoret is safe and effective for treating patients with primary and secondary SS.

  5. Safety and efficacy of autologous serum eye drop for treatment of dry eyes in graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Azari, Amir A; Karadag, Remzi; Kanavi, Mozhgan Rezaei; Nehls, Sarah; Barney, Neal; Kim, Kyungmann; Longo, Walter; Hematti, Peiman; Juckett, Mark

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the treatment of autologous serum eye drops (ASED) on dry eyes in patients with graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). A retrospective chart review of 35 patients with a history of ocular GVHD following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation that used ASED to alleviate dry eye symptoms was performed. Patients were categorized into three different groups. If patients had available ophthalmic data before and after starting treatment was group 1 (n = 14), had available ophthalmic data after starting treatment in group 2 (n = 10) and had available ophthalmic data before treatment or did not have any data after starting treatment in group 3 (n = 11). Data were collected on patient's age, gender, primary diagnosis, visual acuity and fluorescein corneal staining were collected on individual eyes in order to evaluate the efficacy of the ASED on alleviating dry eye-related signs and symptoms. No adverse ocular effect from the ASED was found in our series (except one fungal keratitis). All patients reported either improvement (55%) or stability (45%) in their ocular symptoms upon the use of ASED. In patients with available data before and after starting treatment, the corneal staining score improved by a median of 1 (p = 0.003) and the LogMAR visual acuity had a non-significant improvement. In our study, ASED used by patients with ocular GVHD were both safe and effective. ASED should be considered in patients with GVHD who suffer from dry eyes.

  6. Tacrolimus Increases the Effectiveness of Itraconazole and Fluconazole against Sporothrix spp.

    PubMed

    Borba-Santos, Luana P; Reis de Sá, Leandro F; Ramos, Juliene A; Rodrigues, Anderson M; de Camargo, Zoilo P; Rozental, Sonia; Ferreira-Pereira, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Calcineurin inhibitors - such as the clinically used drug tacrolimus - are active against important fungal pathogens, particularly when combined with azoles. However, tacrolimus has not been tested against sporotrichosis, an endemic subcutaneous mycosis with worldwide distribution. Here, we evaluated the activity of tacrolimus and cyclosporine A in vitro - as monotherapy and in combination with itraconazole or fluconazole - against yeasts of Sporothrix brasiliensis and S. schenckii , the main sporotrichosis agents in Brazil. We also analyzed the effect of tacrolimus treatment on intracellular neutral lipid levels, which typically increase after azole treatment. Tacrolimus inhibited the growth of yeasts from S. brasiliensis and S. schenckii reference isolates, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values (required for ≥50% growth inhibition) of 1 and 2 mg/L, respectively. Importantly, the combination of tacrolimus and azoles exhibited high synergy toward reference Sporothrix isolates. Tacrolimus combined with itraconazole significantly increased neutral lipid accumulation in S. brasiliensis , but not in S. schenckii . Clinical isolates of S. brasiliensis and S. schenckii were more sensitive to tacrolimus as monotherapy than feline-borne isolates, however, synergy between tacrolimus and azoles was only observed for feline-borne isolates. Cyclosporine A was effective against S. brasiliensis and S. schenckii as monotherapy (MIC = 1 mg/L), but exhibited no synergy with itraconazole and fluconazole. We conclude that tacrolimus has promising antifungal activity against sporotrichosis agents, and also increases the activity of the current anti-sporotrichosis therapy (itraconazole and fluconazole) in combination assays against S. brasiliensis feline-borne isolates.

  7. Limited interaction between tacrolimus and P-glycoprotein in the rat small intestine.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Hiroshi; Saikachi, Yuko; Kobayashi, Mikako; Yamaguchi, Michiko; Oda, Masako; Yuhki, Yoshimitsu; Achiwa, Kazuhito; Tadano, Koji; Takahashi, Yasushi; Aungst, Bruce J

    2006-05-01

    The significance of intestinal P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in determining the oral bioavailability of tacrolimus has been still controversial. In this study, we reevaluated the interaction of tacrolimus with P-gp in the rat small intestine, by evaluating its absorption from the rat small intestine and its modulating effect on the absorption of known P-gp substrates (digoxin, methylprednisolone, and vinblastine). Intestinal absorption of tacrolimus itself was as extensive as other P-gp modulators such as cyclosporine and verapamil. While cyclosporine and verapamil significantly increased the absorption of methylprednisolone and vinblastine through potent inhibition of intestinal P-gp, tacrolimus failed to achieve this. When cyclosporine and tacrolimus were intravenously administered to rats, digoxin absorption was significantly increased by cyclosporine but not by tacrolimus. When tacrolimus was coadministered with clotrimazole, a specific CYP3A inhibitor, into the rat small intestine, the area under the curve of tacrolimus blood concentrations increased more than seven-fold compared with that of tacrolimus alone. Our present results strongly suggest that the interaction between tacrolimus and P-gp is limited in the rat small intestine and that extensive metabolism by CYP3A enzymes is more responsible for the low oral bioavailability of tacrolimus. It was considered that the extensive absorption of cyclosporine and verapamil was closely associated with their potent ability to inhibit intestinal P-gp.

  8. Tacrolimus is a class II low-solubility high-permeability drug: the effect of P-glycoprotein efflux on regional permeability of tacrolimus in rats.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Shigeki; Ohike, Atsuo; Ibuki, Rinta; Amidon, Gordon L; Yamashita, Shinji

    2002-03-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a membrane efflux pump associated with multidrug resistance (MDR) and a known substrate for tacrolimus, in determining the regional intestinal permeability of tacrolimus in rats. Thus, isolated segments of rat jejunum, ileum, or colon were perfused with tacrolimus solutions containing polyethoxylated hydrogenated castor oil 60 surfactant, and with or without verapamil, a P-gp substrate used to reverse the MDR phenotype. The results indicated that the intrinsic permeability of tacrolimus in the jejunum, calculated on the basis of the concentration of non-micellized free tacrolimus, was quite high ( approximately 1.4 x 10(-4) cm/s). The apparent permeability (P(app)) in the jejunum was unaffected by the presence of verapamil; however, the P(app) in the ileum and the colon increased significantly in the presence of verapamil and were similar to the values observed in the jejunum. The results suggest that systemic absorption of tacrolimus from the gastrointestinal tract could be significantly affected by P-gp efflux mechanisms. It is also possible that differences in P-gp function at various intestinal sites in a subject or at a given intestinal site in various subjects could lead to large intra- and interindividual variability in bioavailability of tacrolimus following oral administration. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmaceutical Association .

  9. 21 CFR 862.1678 - Tacrolimus test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tacrolimus test system. 862.1678 Section 862.1678 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... quantitatively determine tacrolimus concentrations as an aid in the management of transplant patients receiving...

  10. Dry Eye: an Inflammatory Ocular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hessen, Michelle; Akpek, Esen Karamursel

    2014-01-01

    Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, or dry eye, is a common ocular disease prompting millions of individuals to seek ophthalmological care. Regardless of the underlying etiology, dry eye has been shown to be associated with abnormalities in the pre-corneal tear film and subsequent inflammatory changes in the entire ocular surface including the adnexa, conjunctiva and cornea. Since the recognition of the role of inflammation in dry eye, a number of novel treatments have been investigated designed to inhibit various inflammatory pathways. Current medications that are used, including cyclosporine A, corticosteroids, tacrolimus, tetracycline derivatives and autologous serum, have been effective for management of dry eye and lead to measurable clinical improvement. PMID:25279127

  11. Tacrolimus Increases the Effectiveness of Itraconazole and Fluconazole against Sporothrix spp.

    PubMed Central

    Borba-Santos, Luana P.; Reis de Sá, Leandro F.; Ramos, Juliene A.; Rodrigues, Anderson M.; de Camargo, Zoilo P.; Rozental, Sonia; Ferreira-Pereira, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Calcineurin inhibitors – such as the clinically used drug tacrolimus – are active against important fungal pathogens, particularly when combined with azoles. However, tacrolimus has not been tested against sporotrichosis, an endemic subcutaneous mycosis with worldwide distribution. Here, we evaluated the activity of tacrolimus and cyclosporine A in vitro – as monotherapy and in combination with itraconazole or fluconazole – against yeasts of Sporothrix brasiliensis and S. schenckii, the main sporotrichosis agents in Brazil. We also analyzed the effect of tacrolimus treatment on intracellular neutral lipid levels, which typically increase after azole treatment. Tacrolimus inhibited the growth of yeasts from S. brasiliensis and S. schenckii reference isolates, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values (required for ≥50% growth inhibition) of 1 and 2 mg/L, respectively. Importantly, the combination of tacrolimus and azoles exhibited high synergy toward reference Sporothrix isolates. Tacrolimus combined with itraconazole significantly increased neutral lipid accumulation in S. brasiliensis, but not in S. schenckii. Clinical isolates of S. brasiliensis and S. schenckii were more sensitive to tacrolimus as monotherapy than feline-borne isolates, however, synergy between tacrolimus and azoles was only observed for feline-borne isolates. Cyclosporine A was effective against S. brasiliensis and S. schenckii as monotherapy (MIC = 1 mg/L), but exhibited no synergy with itraconazole and fluconazole. We conclude that tacrolimus has promising antifungal activity against sporotrichosis agents, and also increases the activity of the current anti-sporotrichosis therapy (itraconazole and fluconazole) in combination assays against S. brasiliensis feline-borne isolates. PMID:28966608

  12. A New Method to Predict the Epidemiology of Fungal Keratitis by Monitoring the Sales Distribution of Antifungal Eye Drops in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Marlon Moraes; de Angelis, Rafael; Lima, Acacio Souza; Viana de Carvalho, Glauco Dreyer; Ibrahim, Fuad Moraes; Malki, Leonardo Tannus; de Paula Bichuete, Marina; de Paula Martins, Wellington; Rocha, Eduardo Melani

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Fungi are a major cause of keratitis, although few medications are licensed for their treatment. The aim of this study is to observe the variation in commercialisation of antifungal eye drops, and to predict the seasonal distribution of fungal keratitis in Brazil. Methods Data from a retrospective study of antifungal eye drops sales from the only pharmaceutical ophthalmologic laboratory, authorized to dispense them in Brazil (Opthalmos) were gathered. These data were correlated with geographic and seasonal distribution of fungal keratitis in Brazil between July 2002 and June 2008. Results A total of 26,087 antifungal eye drop units were sold, with a mean of 2.3 per patient. There was significant variation in antifungal sales during the year (p<0.01). A linear regression model displayed a significant association between reduced relative humidity and antifungal drug sales (R2 = 0.17,p<0.01). Conclusions Antifungal eye drops sales suggest that there is a seasonal distribution of fungal keratitis. A possible interpretation is that the third quarter of the year (a period when the climate is drier), when agricultural activity is more intense in Brazil, suggests a correlation with a higher incidence of fungal keratitis. A similar model could be applied to other diseases, that are managed with unique, or few, and monitorable medications to predict epidemiological aspects. PMID:22457787

  13. A comparison of preservative-free diclofenac and preserved diclofenac eye drops after cataract surgery in patients with diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Kanako; Miyazawa, Akiko; Shimura, Masahiko

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the anti-inflammatory efficacy of preservative-free and preserved 0.1% diclofenac eye drops for the management of postoperative inflammation after cataract surgery in patients with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy and in normal controls. Forty-two diabetic patients and 50 normal control patients who underwent small-incision phacoemulsification cataract surgery bilaterally received topical preservative-free diclofenac in 1 eye and preserved diclofenac in the other eye. The corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) as determined by a logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) chart, intraocular pressure (IOP), foveal thickness (FT) using optical coherence tomography (OCT), and the anterior chamber flare (ACF) score measured with a laser flare cell meter were monitored for 12 weeks after surgery. In the eyes with diabetic retinopathy, there were no significant differences in CDVA, IOP, FT, and ACF score between the right and left eyes at the initial exam. After cataract surgery, changes in CDVA, IOP, and FT were not influenced by the preservative in the diclofenac eye drops. In contrast, the ACF score in the eyes treated with preserved diclofenac showed slower recovery from postoperative inflammation than the eyes treated with preservative-free diclofenac. In the normal control eyes, similar but milder changes were observed in each of the clinical parameters. Because preservative suppressed the anti-inflammatory efficacy of topical diclofenac after cataract surgery, preservative-free diclofenac may have an improved safety profile during postoperative treatment, especially in patients with diabetic retinopathy.

  14. The Eye Drop Preservative Benzalkonium Chloride Potently Induces Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Preferentially Affects LHON Mutant Cells.

    PubMed

    Datta, Sandipan; Baudouin, Christophe; Brignole-Baudouin, Francoise; Denoyer, Alexandre; Cortopassi, Gino A

    2017-04-01

    Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is the most commonly used eye drop preservative. Benzalkonium chloride has been associated with toxic effects such as "dry eye" and trabecular meshwork degeneration, but the underlying biochemical mechanism of ocular toxicity by BAK is unclear. In this study, we propose a mechanistic basis for BAK's adverse effects. Mitochondrial O2 consumption rates of human corneal epithelial primary cells (HCEP), osteosarcoma cybrid cells carrying healthy (control) or Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) mutant mtDNA [11778(G>A)], were measured before and after acute treatment with BAK. Mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis and cell viability were also measured in the BAK-treated control: LHON mutant and human-derived trabecular meshwork cells (HTM3). Benzalkonium chloride inhibited mitochondrial ATP (IC50, 5.3 μM) and O2 consumption (IC50, 10.9 μM) in a concentration-dependent manner, by directly targeting mitochondrial complex I. At its pharmaceutical concentrations (107-667 μM), BAK inhibited mitochondrial function >90%. In addition, BAK elicited concentration-dependent cytotoxicity to cybrid cells (IC50, 22.8 μM) and induced apoptosis in HTM3 cells at similar concentrations. Furthermore, we show that BAK directly inhibits mitochondrial O2 consumption in HCEP cells (IC50, 3.8 μM) at 50-fold lower concentrations than used in eye drops, and that cells bearing mitochondrial blindness (LHON) mutations are further sensitized to BAK's mitotoxic effect. Benzalkonium chloride inhibits mitochondria of human corneal epithelial cells and cells bearing LHON mutations at pharmacologically relevant concentrations, and we suggest this is the basis of BAK's ocular toxicity. Prescribing BAK-containing eye drops should be avoided in patients with mitochondrial deficiency, including LHON patients, LHON carriers, and possibly primary open-angle glaucoma patients.

  15. Multi-pumping flow system for the determination of boron in eye drops, drinking water and ocean water.

    PubMed

    González, Pablo; Sixto, Alexandra; Knochen, Moisés

    2017-05-01

    A novel automated method for the determination of boron based on the use of pulsed flows was developed and applied to the determination of this element in samples of tap water, ocean water and eye drops. The method was implemented by means of a multi-pumping system consisting of three solenoid micropumps and a photometric detector and exploits the reaction of azomethine-H in the presence of boron. The system runs under control of an open-source microcontroller. The main operational parameters were optimized. Given the particular kinetics of the reaction, a stopped-flow period (1 or 5min) was included to allow for color development. The method presents linearity in the range 0.35-3.0mgL -1 , good precision (s r <3%), and detection and quantification limits of 0.10 and 0.35mgL -1 respectively. Samples of tap water or eye drops could be successfully analyzed employing a 1-minute stop time, providing a maximum sampling frequency of 32 samples h -1 . In order to overcome matrix effect caused by the high saline concentration, ocean water samples required stop times of 5min, providing a sampling frequency of 10 samples h -1 . Recoveries of 102% (eye drops), 94% (drinking water) and 93% (ocean water) were obtained. The method was considered accurate and fit for the purpose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Stability of tacrolimus solutions in polyolefin containers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun H; Goldspiel, Barry R; Ryu, Sujung; Potti, Gopal K

    2016-02-01

    Results of a study to determine the stability of tacrolimus solutions stored in polyolefin containers under various temperature conditions are reported. Triplicate solutions of tacrolimus (0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 mg/mL) in 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection were prepared in polyolefin containers. Some samples were stored at room temperature (20-25 °C); others were refrigerated (2-8 °C) for 20 hours and then stored at room temperature for up to 28 hours. The solutions were analyzed by stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay at specified time points over 48 hours. Solution pH was measured and containers were visually inspected at each time point. Stability was defined as retention of at least 90% of the initial tacrolimus concentration. All tested solutions retained over 90% of the initial tacrolimus concentration at all time points, with the exception of the 0.001-mg/mL solution prepared in 0.9% sodium chloride injection, which was deemed unstable beyond 24 hours. At all evaluated concentrations, mean solution pH values did not change significantly over 48 hours; no particle formation was detected. During storage in polyolefin bags at room temperature, a 0.001-mg/mL solution of tacrolimus was stable for 24 hours when prepared in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and for at least 48 hours when prepared in 5% dextrose injection. Solutions of 0.01 and 0.1 mg/mL prepared in either diluent were stable for at least 48 hours, and the 0.01-mg/mL tacrolimus solution was also found to be stable throughout a sequential temperature protocol. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of actinoquinol with hyaluronic acid in eye drops on the optical properties and oxidative damage of the rabbit cornea irradiated with UVB rays.

    PubMed

    Čejka, Čestmír; Luyckx, Jacques; Ardan, Taras; Pláteník, Jan; Širc, Jakub; Michálek, Jiří; Čejková, Jitka

    2010-01-01

    Irradiation of the cornea with UVB rays leads to its oxidative damage, swelling and increased light absorption. We investigated changes in the corneal optics (evaluated by changes of corneal hydration and light absorption) and microscopical disturbances of corneas irradiated with UVB rays as influenced by eye drops containing actinoquinol with hyaluronic acid. Rabbit corneas were irradiated with a daily dose of 0.5 or 1.01 J cm(-2) of UVB rays (312 nm) for 4 days. During irradiation, the eye drops were applied on the right eye and buffered saline (or hyaluronic acid) on the left eye. On day 5 the rabbits were sacrificed and the corneas examined spectrophotometrically for light absorption. The corneal thickness (hydration) was measured using a pachymeter. Corneas of some other rabbits were examined immunohistochemically. After buffered saline treatment UVB rays evoked changes in the corneal optics and induced oxidative damage of the corneas. After actinoquinol-hyaluronic acid application, these changes were diminished. Hyaluronic acid alone was less effective. In conclusion, actinoquinol-hyaluronic acid eye drops decreased changes in corneal optics and suppressed oxidative damage in the UVB-irradiated cornea. However, the effective corneal protection by these eye drops was limited to the lower UVB dose. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation. The American Society of Photobiology.

  18. [Corneal reepithelialization time with instillation of eye drops containing sodium hyaluronate and carboxymethylcellulose].

    PubMed

    Moreira, Luciane Bugman; Scalco, Rochelli; Hara, Silvia

    2013-10-01

    Evaluate the time of post-abrasion corneal re-epithelialization using commercially available eye drops, one of which containing 0.4% sodium hialuronate, and the other containing 1% carboxymethylcellulose, and compare them to the re-epithelialization without the drops. 24 rabbits were used, which had the mechanical abrasion of the central 8 mm of their corneas done. These animals were divided in 3 groups. The first one received the drops containing 0.4% of sodium hialuronate, the second one received the drops containing 1% of carboxymethylcellulose and the third group did not receive any drugs. The evaluations took place every 24 hours through the analysis of digital pictures under cobalt blue light and coloring of the corneas with 2% fluorescein. The pictures were analyzed with the software Autocad 2009®. The data was analyzed through the comparison of the total re-epithelialization time among the three groups The time of total re-epithelialization of the group using sodium hialuronate was on average 90 hours and the group using carboxymethylcellulose 105 hours, while the group using no drugs was 108 hours. There was a better performance of those groups using the drops and this difference can be proved statistically. The drops containing 0.4% of sodium hialuronate showed a higher efficiency rate compared to the drops containing 1% of carboxymethylcellulose, which was higher than the control group. The results of the present study show that the use of lubricants in the process of re-epithelialization are extremely valid and must be used frequently in ophthalmologic clinic.

  19. A comparative study of Bilvadi Yoga Ashchyotana and eye drops in Vataja Abhishyanda (Simple Allergic Conjunctivitis).

    PubMed

    Udani, Jayshree; Vaghela, D B; Rajagopala, Manjusha; Matalia, P D

    2012-01-01

    Simple allergic conjunctivitis is the most common form of ocular allergy (prevalence 5 - 22 %). It is a hypersensitivity reaction to specific airborne antigens. The disease Vataja Abhishyanda, which is due to vitiation of Vata Pradhana Tridosha is comparable with this condition. The management of simple allergic conjunctivitis in modern ophthalmology is very expensive and it should be followed lifelong and Ayurveda can provide better relief in such manifestation. This is the first research study on Vataja Abhishyanda. Patients were selected from the Outpatient Department (OPD), Inpatient Department (IPD), of the Shalakya Tantra Department and were randomly divided into two groups. In Group-A Bilvadi Ashchyotana and in Group-B Bilvadi eye drops were instilled for three months. Total 32 patients were registered and 27 patients completed the course of treatment. Bilvadi Ashchyotana gave better results in Toda, Sangharsha, Parushya, Kandu and Ragata as compared with Bilvadi Eye Drops in Vataja Abhishyanda.

  20. Food-drug interaction of tacrolimus with pomelo, ginger, and turmeric juice in rats.

    PubMed

    Egashira, Kanoko; Sasaki, Hitoshi; Higuchi, Shun; Ieiri, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Tacrolimus is a well-known potent immunosuppressant agent, which has various drug-drug or food-drug interactions. Previously, we found a renal transplant recipient who increased tacrolimus blood concentrations after ingestion of pomelo as a rare case. So, we investigated the effect of pomelo after its administration for one day or 3 consecutive days on the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus in rats. We also confirmed the effects of grapefruit, turmeric, and ginger. The tacrolimus blood concentrations of the rats pre-treated with 100% pomelo juice were significantly higher than those pre-treated with water. On the other hand, the tacrolimus blood concentrations of the rats pre-treated with 50% pomelo juice were not significantly different from those pre-treated with water. The pomelo-tacrolimus interaction showed concentration dependency. Even low concentration of pomelo juice could enhance the blood concentrations of tacrolimus by repeated administration. The inhibitory effect of 100% pomelo juice disappeared 3 days after intake. The AUC values of tacrolimus in the rats pre-treated with grapefruit juice, ginger juice, and turmeric juice were significantly larger than those pre-treated with water. We could confirm the pomelo-tacrolimus interaction, which we discovered in a case study, quantitatively. We newly found the influence of turmeric and ginger on tacrolimus pharmacokinetics, comparable to pomelo.

  1. Trends in the biosynthesis and production of the immunosuppressant tacrolimus (FK506).

    PubMed

    Barreiro, Carlos; Martínez-Castro, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    The current off-patent state of tacrolimus (FK506) has opened the hunting season for new generic pharmaceutical formulations of this immunosuppressant. This fact has boosted the scientific and industrial research on tacrolimus for the last 5 years in order to improve its production. The fast discovery of tacrolimus producer strains has generated a huge number of producers, which presents the biosynthetic cluster of FK506 as a high promiscuous genetic region. For the first time, the current state-of-the-art on the tacrolimus biosynthesis, production improvements and drug purification is reviewed. On one hand, all the genes involved in the tacrolimus biosynthesis, in addition to the traditional PKS/NRPS, as well as their regulation are analysed. On the other hand, tacrolimus direct and indirect precursors are reviewed as a straight manner to improve the final yield, which is a current trend in the field. Twenty years of industrial and scientific improvements on tacrolimus production are summarised, whereas future trends are also drafted.

  2. Intraoperative bradycardia and hypotension associated with timolol and pilocarpine eye drops.

    PubMed

    Mishra, P; Calvey, T N; Williams, N E; Murray, G R

    1983-09-01

    A 69-yr-old man, who was concurrently being treated with pilocarpine nitrate and timolol maleate eye drops, developed a bradycardia and became hypotensive during halothane anaesthesia. Both timolol and pilocarpine were subsequently identified in a 24-h collection of urine. Timolol (but not pilocarpine) was detected in a sample of plasma removed during surgery; the plasma concentration of timolol (2.6 ng ml-1) was consistent with partial beta-adrenoceptor blockade. It is postulated that this action may have been enhanced during halothane anaesthesia with resultant bradycardia and hypotension. Pilocarpine may have had a contributory effect.

  3. Effects of traditional chinese medicine Wuzhi capsule on pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus in rats.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hua; Tao, Xia; Di, Peng; Yang, Yingbo; Li, Jingxian; Qian, Xiaofeng; Feng, Jin; Chen, Wansheng

    2013-07-01

    Wuzhi capsule (WZC) is a preparation of an ethanol herbal extract of Schisandra sphenanthera (Nan-Wuweizi), with its main active ingredients that include schisandrin, schizandrol B, schisantherin A, schisanhenol, and deoxyschizandrin. WZC and tacrolimus are often coadministered for the treatment of drug-induced hepatitis in organ transplant recipients in China. Recently, it was reported that WZC could significantly increase the blood concentration of tacrolimus. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether and how WZC affects the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus in rats. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was used to determine the plasma concentration of tacrolimus. The results showed that WZC increased the mean plasma concentration of tacrolimus. Compared with administration of tacrolimus alone [maximum plasma concentration (C(max)), 18.87 ± 10.29 ng/ml; area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to last sampling time (AUC(0→t)), 40.98 ± 37.07 ng h/ml], a single intragastric administered dose of WZC increased the pharmacokinetic parameters of tacrolimus (C(max), 59.42 ± 30.32 ng/ml; AUC(0→t), 239.71 ± 28.86 ng h/ml) by 5-fold in rat plasma. After pretreatment with WZC for 12 days, there were still significant increases in AUC(0→t) (from 40.98 ± 37.07 to 89.21 ± 26.39 ng h/ml; P < 0.05) and C(max) (from 18.87 ± 10.29 to 43.16 ± 10.61 ng/ml; P < 0.05) of tacrolimus, compared with oral of tacrolimus alone, suggesting that WZC increased the exposure of tacrolimus by one or more mechanisms. The increase in tacrolimus C(max) by WZC was dose-dependent. The effect of WZC on tacrolimus AUC(0→t) also increased with dose, with a maximal effect observed at 450 mg/kg (825.34 ng h/ml). No further increases in tacrolimus AUC(0→t) were observed at WZC dose above 450 mg/kg. It is suggested that, because of the effect of WZC on the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus, the herb-drug interaction between WZC and tacrolimus

  4. In vivo challenging of polymyxins and levofloxacin eye drop against multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Kazuki; Miyake, Taku; Koike, Naohito; Hattori, Takaaki; Kumakura, Shigeto; Yamaguchi, Tetsuo; Matsumoto, Tetsuya; Fujita, Koji; Kuroda, Masahiko; Ito, Norihiko; Goto, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    The purposes of this study were to establish a rabbit multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRP) keratitis model, and test the efficacy of levofloxacin, colistin methanesulfate (CL-M), colistin sulfate (CL-S) and polymyxin B (PL-B) against MDRP infection. In a rabbit eye, making a 2-mm circular corneal excision, and MDRP strain #601 or representative P. aeruginosa strain IID1210 were instilled into the corneal concavity. IID1210 was used to confirm this model developed P. aeruginosa keratitis. After MDRP keratitis developed, we treated the eyes with levofloxacin, CL-M, CL-S or PL-B eye drops. The infected eyes were evaluated by clinical score, histopathological examination and viable bacterial count (CFU). Rabbits developed MDRP keratitis reproducibly after instilled the bacteria into the corneal lesion. MDRP produced severe keratitis similarly with IID1210, as shown by slit lamp examination and clinical score. In MDRP keratitis models, clinical scores and viable bacterial counts were significantly lower in levofloxacin- and CL-M-treated groups compared with PBS-treated group, but the magnitudes of reduction were not remarkable. However, clinical scores were dramatically lowered in CL-S- and PL-B-treated groups compared with PBS-treated group. CL-S- and PL-B-treated group were kept corneal translucency and little influx of polymorphonuclear neutrophils in histopathological examination. In addition, both CL-S- and PL-B-treated groups were not detected viable bacteria in infected cornea. Using our MDRP keratitis model, we showed that topical levofloxacin and CL-M are not adequately effective, while CL-S and PL-B are efficacious in controlling MDRP keratitis. Especially, PL-B, which is commercially available eye drop, might be most effective against MDRP. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Proniosome-derived niosomes for tacrolimus topical ocular delivery: in vitro cornea permeation, ocular irritation, and in vivo anti-allograft rejection.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Li, Zhanrong; Zeng, Weidong; Ge, Shumin; Lu, Haoyang; Wu, Chuanbin; Ge, Li; Liang, Dan; Xu, Yuehong

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to develop proniosome-derived niosomes for topical ophthalmic delivery of Tacrolimus (FK506). The FK506 loaded proniosomes containing poloxamer 188 and lecithin as surfactants, cholesterol as a stabilizer, and minimal amount of ethanol and trace water reconstituted to niosomes prior to use. The stability of FK506 loaded proniosomes was assessed, and the morphology, size, zeta potential, surface tension, and entrapment efficiency of the derived niosomes were characterized, indicating they were feasible for instillation in the eyes. The in vitro permeation of FK506 through the freshly excised rabbit cornea, the cumulative permeation amount of FK506 from niosomes, and the drug retention in the cornea all exhibited significant increase as compared to 0.1% FK506 commercial ointments. The in vivo ocular irritation test of 0.1% FK506 loaded niosomes instilled 4 times per day in rat eyes for 21 consecutive days showed no irritation and good biocompatibility with cornea. The in vivo anti-allograft rejection assessment was performed in a Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat corneal xenotransplantation model. The results showed treatment with 0.1% FK506 loaded niosomes delayed the occurrence of corneal allograft rejection and significantly prolonged the median survival time of corneal allografts to13.86±0.80days as compared with those treated with 1% Cyclosporine (CsA) eye drops, drug-free niosomes, or untreated. In conclusion, the proniosome-derived niosomes may be a promising vehicle for effective ocular drug delivery of FK506. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Tacrolimus placental transfer at delivery and neonatal exposure through breast milk.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Songmao; Easterling, Thomas R; Hays, Karen; Umans, Jason G; Miodovnik, Menachem; Clark, Shannon; Calamia, Justina C; Thummel, Kenneth E; Shen, Danny D; Davis, Connie L; Hebert, Mary F

    2013-12-01

    The current investigation aims to provide new insights into fetal exposure to tacrolimus in utero by evaluating maternal and umbilical cord blood (venous and arterial), plasma and unbound concentrations at delivery. This study also presents a case report of tacrolimus excretion via breast milk. Maternal and umbilical cord (venous and arterial) samples were obtained at delivery from eight solid organ allograft recipients to measure tacrolimus and metabolite bound and unbound concentrations in blood and plasma. Tacrolimus pharmacokinetics in breast milk were assessed in one subject. Mean (±SD) tacrolimus concentrations at the time of delivery in umbilical cord venous blood (6.6 ± 1.8 ng ml(-1)) were 71 ± 18% (range 45-99%) of maternal concentrations (9.0 ± 3.4 ng ml(-1)). The mean umbilical cord venous plasma (0.09 ± 0.04 ng ml(-1)) and unbound drug concentrations (0.003 ± 0.001 ng ml(-1)) were approximately one fifth of the respective maternal concentrations. Arterial umbilical cord blood concentrations of tacrolimus were 100 ± 12% of umbilical venous concentrations. In addition, infant exposure to tacrolimus through the breast milk was less than 0.3% of the mother's weight-adjusted dose. Differences between maternal and umbilical cord tacrolimus concentrations may be explained in part by placental P-gp function, greater red blood cell partitioning and higher haematocrit levels in venous cord blood. The neonatal drug exposure to tacrolimus via breast milk is very low and likely does not represent a health risk to the breastfeeding infant. © 2013 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  7. Inappropriate amounts of topical tacrolimus applied on Korean patients with eczema.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hyunju; Kim, Jeong-Min; Kim, Gun-Wook; Kim, Hoon-Soo; Ko, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Moon-Bum; Kim, Byung-Soo

    2017-06-01

    The limited efficacy of topical tacrolimus may result from insufficient frequency of application or amount applied in eczema patients. To investigate the frequency of application and amount of use of topical tacrolimus in patients with various types of eczema. The frequency of application and the applied amount of topical tacrolimus were assessed over two weeks. A total of 200 eczema patients completed this study. The average number of applications per day was 1.75 ± 0.53, despite instructions to apply the topical tacrolimus twice daily. With respect to the frequency of application, 147 (73.5%) and 122 (61.0%) of patients followed the prescription in the first and second weeks, respectively. The average amount applied per 2% of total body surface area (TBSA) was 0.54 ± 0.52 g. Only 53 (26.5%) patients applied between 80 and 120% of expected amount of topical tacrolimus. The frequency of application was self-reported, possibly resulting in limited accuracy. Korean patients with eczema tend to apply topical tacrolimus less frequently and in inappropriate amounts. Clear instructions regarding both the frequency and amount of application are needed to improve the therapeutic outcome with treatment with topical tacrolimus.

  8. A comparative study of Bilvadi Yoga Ashchyotana and eye drops in Vataja Abhishyanda (Simple Allergic Conjunctivitis)

    PubMed Central

    Udani, Jayshree; Vaghela, D. B.; Rajagopala, Manjusha; Matalia, P. D.

    2012-01-01

    Simple allergic conjunctivitis is the most common form of ocular allergy (prevalence 5 – 22 %). It is a hypersensitivity reaction to specific airborne antigens. The disease Vataja Abhishyanda, which is due to vitiation of Vata Pradhana Tridosha is comparable with this condition. The management of simple allergic conjunctivitis in modern ophthalmology is very expensive and it should be followed lifelong and Ayurveda can provide better relief in such manifestation. This is the first research study on Vataja Abhishyanda. Patients were selected from the Outpatient Department (OPD), Inpatient Department (IPD), of the Shalakya Tantra Department and were randomly divided into two groups. In Group-A Bilvadi Ashchyotana and in Group-B Bilvadi eye drops were instilled for three months. Total 32 patients were registered and 27 patients completed the course of treatment. Bilvadi Ashchyotana gave better results in Toda, Sangharsha, Parushya, Kandu and Ragata as compared with Bilvadi Eye Drops in Vataja Abhishyanda. PMID:23049192

  9. Semifluorinated Alkane Eye Drops for Treatment of Dry Eye Disease Due to Meibomian Gland Disease.

    PubMed

    Steven, Philipp; Augustin, Albert J; Geerling, Gerd; Kaercher, Thomas; Kretz, Florian; Kunert, Kathleen; Menzel-Severing, Johannes; Schrage, Norbert; Schrems, Wolfgang; Krösser, Sonja; Beckert, Michael; Messmer, Elisabeth M

    2017-11-01

    Meibomian gland disease is generally accepted as the leading cause for evaporative dry eye disease (DED). In a previous study, perfluorohexyloctane, a semifluorinated alkane, has been demonstrated to significantly increase tear film breakup time and to reduce corneal fluorescein staining in patients with evaporative DED, thereby vastly reducing dry eye-related symptoms. This study was set up to evaluate perfluorohexyloctane in a larger population of patients with Meibomian gland dysfunction. Seventy-two patients with Meibomian gland disease and associated dry eye received 1 drop of perfluorohexyloctane 4 times daily during an observational, prospective, multicenter, 6-8-week study. Clinical assessment included best-corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, Schirmer test I, tear film breakup time, anterior and posterior blepharitis assessment, number of expressible Meibomian glands, meibum quality and quantity, ocular surface fluorescein staining, lid margin and symptom assessment, and Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI © ). From the 72 patients recruited, 61 completed the trial per protocol. Nine patients did not apply the medication as recommended and 2 patients were lost to follow-up. Tear film breakup time, corneal and conjunctival fluorescein staining, number of expressible Meibomian glands, and severity of anterior and posterior blepharitis significantly improved after 6-8 weeks of perfluorohexyloctane application. In addition, symptoms improved as demonstrated by a significant decrease of OSDI-values from 37 (±13) to 26 (±16). In concordance with previous findings, 6-8 weeks of topical application of perfluorohexyloctane significantly improves clinical signs of Meibomian gland disease and associated mild to moderate DED.

  10. Results of a Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Masked, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Study of the Efficacy and Safety of Visomitin Eye Drops in Patients with Dry Eye Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Brzheskiy, Vladimir V; Efimova, Elena L; Vorontsova, Tatiana N; Alekseev, Vladimir N; Gusarevich, Olga G; Shaidurova, Ksenia N; Ryabtseva, Alla A; Andryukhina, Olga M; Kamenskikh, Tatiana G; Sumarokova, Elena S; Miljudin, Eugeny S; Egorov, Eugeny A; Lebedev, Oleg I; Surov, Alexander V; Korol, Andrii R; Nasinnyk, Illia O; Bezditko, Pavel A; Muzhychuk, Olena P; Vygodin, Vladimir A; Yani, Elena V; Savchenko, Alla Y; Karger, Elena M; Fedorkin, Oleg N; Mironov, Alexander N; Ostapenko, Victoria; Popeko, Natalia A; Skulachev, Vladimir P; Skulachev, Maxim V

    2015-12-01

    This article presents the results of an international, multicenter, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled clinical study of Visomitin (Mitotech LLC, Moscow, Russian Federation) eye drops in patients with dry eye syndrome (DES). Visomitin is the first registered (in Russia) drug with a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant (SkQ1) as the active ingredient. In this multicenter (10 sites) study of 240 subjects with DES, study drug (Visomitin or placebo) was self-administered three times daily (TID) for 6 weeks, followed by a 6-week follow-up period. Seven in-office study visits occurred every 2 weeks during both the treatment and follow-up periods. Efficacy measures included Schirmer's test, tear break-up time, fluorescein staining, meniscus height, and visual acuity. Safety measures included adverse events, slit lamp biomicroscopy, tonometry, blood pressure, and heart rate. Tolerability was also evaluated. This clinical study showed the effectiveness of Visomitin eye drops in the treatment of signs and symptoms of DES compared with placebo. The study showed that a 6-week course of TID topical instillation of Visomitin significantly improved the functional state of the cornea; Visomitin increased tear film stability and reduced corneal damage. Significant reduction of dry eye symptoms (such as dryness, burning, grittiness, and blurred vision) was also observed. Based on the results of this study, Visomitin is effective and safe for use in eye patients with DES for protection from corneal damage. Mitotech LLC.

  11. Mechanisms of lower maintenance dose of tacrolimus in obese patients.

    PubMed

    Sawamoto, Kazuki; Huong, Tran T; Sugimoto, Natsumi; Mizutani, Yuka; Sai, Yoshimichi; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi

    2014-01-01

    A retrospective analysis suggested that blood tacrolimus concentrations were consistent among patients with a body mass index (BMI) that was lean (<18.5), normal (≥ 18.5 and <25) or overweight/obese (≥ 25). The average maintenance dose of tacrolimus in patients with BMI ≥ 25 was significantly lower compared with that in patients with a BMI of less than 25. Lean and obese Zucker rats fed a normal diet were given tacrolimus intravenously or orally. The blood concentrations of tacrolimus in obese rats were significantly higher than those in lean rats after administration via both routes. The moment analysis has suggested that CLtot and Vdss of tacrolimus were not significantly different between lean and obese rats. The bioavailability was higher in obese rats, compared with that in lean rats. The protein expression of Cyp3a2 in the liver was significantly decreased in obese rats, compared with lean rats, while P-gp in the small intestine was also significantly decreased in obese rats. These results suggested that the steady-state trough concentration of tacrolimus in obese patients was well maintained by a relatively low dose compared with that in normal and lean patients, presumably due to increased bioavailability.

  12. Study protocol: safety and efficacy of propranolol 0.2% eye drops in newborns with a precocious stage of retinopathy of prematurity (DROP-ROP-0.2%): a multicenter, open-label, single arm, phase II trial.

    PubMed

    Filippi, Luca; Cavallaro, Giacomo; Berti, Elettra; Padrini, Letizia; Araimo, Gabriella; Regiroli, Giulia; Bozzetti, Valentina; De Angelis, Chiara; Tagliabue, Paolo; Tomasini, Barbara; Buonocore, Giuseppe; Agosti, Massimo; Bossi, Angela; Chirico, Gaetano; Aversa, Salvatore; Pasqualetti, Roberta; Fortunato, Pina; Osnaghi, Silvia; Cavallotti, Barbara; Vanni, Maurizio; Borsari, Giulia; Donati, Simone; Nascimbeni, Giuseppe; la Marca, Giancarlo; Forni, Giulia; Milani, Silvano; Cortinovis, Ivan; Bagnoli, Paola; Dal Monte, Massimo; Calvani, Anna Maria; Pugi, Alessandra; Villamor, Eduardo; Donzelli, Gianpaolo; Mosca, Fabio

    2017-07-14

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) still represents one of the leading causes of visual impairment in childhood. Systemic propranolol has proven to be effective in reducing ROP progression in preterm newborns, although safety was not sufficiently guaranteed. On the contrary, topical treatment with propranolol eye micro-drops at a concentration of 0.1% had an optimal safety profile in preterm newborns with ROP, but was not sufficiently effective in reducing the disease progression if administered at an advanced stage (during stage 2). The aim of the present protocol is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of propranolol 0.2% eye micro-drops in preterm newborns at a more precocious stage of ROP (stage 1). A multicenter, open-label, phase II, clinical trial, planned according to the Simon optimal two-stage design, will be performed to analyze the safety and efficacy of propranolol 0.2% eye micro-drops in preterm newborns with stage 1 ROP. Preterm newborns with a gestational age of 23-32 weeks, with a stage 1 ROP will receive propranolol 0.2% eye micro-drops treatment until retinal vascularization has been completed, but for no longer than 90 days. Hemodynamic and respiratory parameters will be continuously monitored. Blood samplings checking metabolic, renal and liver functions, as well as electrocardiogram and echocardiogram, will be periodically performed to investigate treatment safety. Additionally, propranolol plasma levels will be measured at the steady state, on the 10th day of treatment. To assess the efficacy of topical treatment, the ROP progression from stage 1 ROP to stage 2 or 3 with plus will be evaluated by serial ophthalmologic examinations. Propranolol eye micro-drops could represent an ideal strategy in counteracting ROP, because it is definitely safer than oral administration, inexpensive and an easily affordable treatment. Establishing the optimal dosage and treatment schedule is to date a crucial issue. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT02504944

  13. The evaluation of potential pharmacokinetic interaction between sirolimus and tacrolimus in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Tortorici, Michael A; Parks, Virginia; Matschke, Kyle; Korth-Bradley, Joan; Patat, Alain

    2013-04-01

    Sirolimus and tacrolimus are immunosuppressive compounds that have been used concomitantly in renal transplant patients. Both drugs are dosed orally and have common intestinal and hepatic metabolism and intestinal transport mechanisms. As such, there is a potential for pharmacokinetic drug interaction. A single-dose, open-label, four-period, four-treatment, randomized crossover study was conducted in 27 healthy fasting volunteers. Each subject received a 15-mg oral dose of sirolimus alone, a 10-mg oral dose of tacrolimus alone, sirolimus and tacrolimus administered simultaneously, and tacrolimus administered 4 h before sirolimus. Whole blood and plasma samples for sirolimus and tacrolimus testing were analyzed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were assessed using noncompartmental methods and were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The geometric mean ratio and 90 % confidence interval (CI) area under the concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity (AUCinf) for sirolimus administered simultaneously with tacrolimus versus sirolimus alone were 97 and 89-106, respectively, and, when administered in a staggered approach versus sirolimus alone, 107 and 98-117, respectively. The geometric mean ratio (%) and 90 % CI AUCinf for tacrolimus administered simultaneously with sirolimus versus tacrolimus alone were 92 and 82-102, respectively, and, when administered in a staggered approach versus tacrolimus alone, 94 and 84-105, respectively. The results of this study demonstrate a lack of any clinically important drug interaction between sirolimus and tacrolimus in healthy subjects after single-dose administration. However, due to the complexity of anti-rejection immunosuppressive therapy dosing, we suggest that sirolimus and tacrolimus concentration monitoring be performed when changes in dosing are made for either drug regimen.

  14. Gut Microbiota and Tacrolimus Dosing in Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, John R.; Muthukumar, Thangamani; Dadhania, Darshana; Taur, Ying; Jenq, Robert R.; Toussaint, Nora C.; Ling, Lilan; Pamer, Eric; Suthanthiran, Manikkam

    2015-01-01

    Tacrolimus dosing to establish therapeutic levels in recipients of organ transplants is a challenging task because of much interpatient and intrapatient variability in drug absorption, metabolism, and disposition. In view of the reported impact of gut microbial species on drug metabolism, we investigated the relationship between the gut microbiota and tacrolimus dosing requirements in this pilot study of adult kidney transplant recipients. Serial fecal specimens were collected during the first month of transplantation from 19 kidney transplant recipients who either required a 50% increase from initial tacrolimus dosing during the first month of transplantation (Dose Escalation Group, n=5) or did not require such an increase (Dose Stable Group, n=14). We characterized bacterial composition in the fecal specimens by deep sequencing of the PCR amplified 16S rRNA V4-V5 region and we investigated the hypothesis that gut microbial composition is associated with tacrolimus dosing requirements. Initial tacrolimus dosing was similar in the Dose Escalation Group and in the Stable Group (4.2±1.1 mg/day vs. 3.8±0.8 mg/day, respectively, P=0.61, two-way between-group ANOVA using contrasts) but became higher in the Dose Escalation Group than in the Dose Stable Group by the end of the first transplantation month (9.6±2.4 mg/day vs. 3.3±1.5 mg/day, respectively, P<0.001). Our systematic characterization of the gut microbial composition identified that fecal Faecalibacterium prausnitzii abundance in the first week of transplantation was 11.8% in the Dose Escalation Group and 0.8% in the Dose Stable Group (P=0.002, Wilcoxon Rank Sum test, P<0.05 after Benjamini-Hochberg correction for multiple hypotheses). Fecal Faecalibacterium prausnitzii abundance in the first week of transplantation was positively correlated with future tacrolimus dosing at 1 month (R=0.57, P=0.01) and had a coefficient±standard error of 1.0±0.6 (P=0.08) after multivariable linear regression. Our novel

  15. Tacrolimus for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus with pure class V nephritis.

    PubMed

    Szeto, C-C; Kwan, B C-H; Lai, F M-M; Tam, L-S; Li, E K-M; Chow, K-M; Gang, W; Li, P K-T

    2008-11-01

    The treatment of pure membranous (class V) lupus nephropathy remains unsatisfactory. We studied the efficacy and safety of tacrolimus in the treatment of membranous nephritis secondary to SLE. We recruited 18 consecutive SLE patients (tacrolimus group) with recently confirmed biopsy-proven class V lupus nephritis. They were treated with a tailing dose of oral prednisolone and tacrolimus 0.1-0.2 mg/kg/day for 6 months, followed by maintenance prednisolone and AZA. The rate of resolution of proteinuria and SLEDAI were compared with 19 historical controls treated with oral cyclophosphamide or AZA (control group). All patients were followed for 12 months. Baseline clinical characteristics were comparable between the groups. For the tacrolimus group, the complete and partial remission rates were 27.8 and 50.0%, respectively at 12 weeks; for the control group, they were 15.8 and 47.4%, respectively (overall chi-square test, P = 0.5). However, tacrolimus group had faster resolution of proteinuria than the control group by the general linear model with repeated measures (P = 0.032). At 12 weeks, proteinuria was reduced by 76.2 +/- 17.0% for the tacrolimus group and 47.1 +/- 51.1% for the control group (P = 0.028). Serial change in renal function and SLEDAI score did not differ between the groups. During the study period, four patients of the tacrolimus group, and 11 of the control group, developed lupus flare (P = 0.027). There was no serious adverse effect in the tacrolimus group. A 6-month course of tacrolimus is a safe and effective treatment of pure class V (membranous) lupus nephritis. As compared with conventional cytotoxic treatment, tacrolimus possibly results in a faster resolution of proteinuria, and a lower risk of lupus flare within 1 yr. The long-term effect and optimal regimen of tacrolimus require further study.

  16. Comparative randomised active drug controlled clinical trial of a herbal eye drop in computer vision syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Pranab Kr; Bairagi, Debasis; Roy, Sudipta; Majumder, Nilay Kr; Paul, Ratish Ch; Bagchi, Sunil Ch

    2005-07-01

    A comparative double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial of a herbal eye drop (itone) was conducted to find out its efficacy and safety in 120 patients with computer vision syndrome. Patients using computers for more than 3 hours continuously per day having symptoms of watering, redness, asthenia, irritation, foreign body sensation and signs of conjunctival hyperaemia, corneal filaments and mucus were studied. One hundred and twenty patients were randomly given either placebo, tears substitute (tears plus) or itone in identical vials with specific code number and were instructed to put one drop four times daily for 6 weeks. Subjective and objective assessments were done at bi-weekly intervals. In computer vision syndrome both subjective and objective improvements were noticed with itone drops. Itone drop was found significantly better than placebo (p<0.01) and almost identical results were observed with tears plus (difference was not statistically significant). Itone is considered to be a useful drug in computer vision syndrome.

  17. Development of novel fast-dissolving tacrolimus solid dispersion-loaded prolonged release tablet.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jung Hyun; Kim, Yong-Il; Kim, Dong-Wuk; Yousaf, Abid Mehmood; Kim, Jong Oh; Woo, Jong Soo; Yong, Chul Soon; Choi, Han-Gon

    2014-04-11

    The goal of this research was to develop a novel prolonged release tablet bioequivalent to the commercial sustained release capsule. A number of tacrolimus-loaded fast-dissolving solid dispersions containing various amounts of DOSS were prepared using the spray drying technique. Their solubility, dissolution and pharmacokinetics in rats were studied. DOSS increased drug solubility and dissolution in the solid dispersions. Compared with the drug powder, the solubility, dissolution and bioavailability of tacrolimus with the fast-dissolving solid dispersion containing tacrolimus/HP-β-CD/DOSS in the weight ratio of 5:40:4 were boosted by approximately 700-, 30- and 2-fold, respectively. Several tablet formulations were accomplished with this solid dispersion in combination with various ratios of HPMC/ethylcellulose. The release behaviour and pharmacokinetic studies in beagle dogs were assessed compared with the commercial prolonged release capsule. A decrease in HPMC/ethylcellulose ratios reduced the dissolution of tacrolimus from the tablets. Particularly, the tacrolimus-loaded prolonged release tablet consisting of fast-dissolving tacrolimus solid dispersion, HPMC, ethylcellulose and talc at the weight ratio of 20:66:112:2 exhibited a dissolution profile similar to that produced by the commercial prolonged release capsule. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in the AUC, Cmax, Tmax and MRT values between them in beagle dogs. Consequently, this tacrolimus-loaded prolonged release tablet might be bioequivalent to the tacrolimus-loaded commercial capsule. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Treatment with sodium hyaluronate eye drops in a patient who had early-onset bleb leakage after trabeculectomy with mitomycin C

    PubMed Central

    Sagara, Hideto; Sekiryu, Tetsuju; Noji, Hiroki; Ogasawara, Masashi; Imaizumi, Kimihiro; Yago, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a 47-year-old man who had bilateral proliferative diabetic retinopathy and neovascular glaucoma. Schirmer I test revealed tear secretions of 5 mm and 3 mm in the right and left eyes, respectively. Tear breakup times in the right and left eyes were 7 and 8 seconds, respectively. The ocular surface staining in both eyes was scored as Grade 1 as per the Oxford scheme. Retinal photocoagulation was performed for correction of the proliferative diabetic retinopathy and rubeosis iridis, which resolved with treatment. However, the intraocular pressure in the left eye could not be adequately controlled. Therefore, trabeculectomy with mitomycin C using limbal-based conjunctival flap was performed. Three hours after the surgery, the patient developed a large and diffuse filtering bleb, but no leakage occurred from the conjunctival scar. However, on the first postoperative day, leakage was noted and the conjunctiva was at the leakage point. The leakage resolved transiently, but recurred the next day. Severe keratoconjunctival epithelial failure was detected, and the patient was administrated 0.1% sodium hyaluronate eye drops six times daily. The epithelial failure improved, and many microcysts were detected on the bleb surface where the epithelial failure improved. The leakage resolved 2 days after initiation of the sodium hyaluronate eye drops. The microcysts disappeared and the bleb surface became smooth 1 month later. PMID:26664245

  19. Treatment with sodium hyaluronate eye drops in a patient who had early-onset bleb leakage after trabeculectomy with mitomycin C.

    PubMed

    Sagara, Hideto; Sekiryu, Tetsuju; Noji, Hiroki; Ogasawara, Masashi; Imaizumi, Kimihiro; Yago, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a 47-year-old man who had bilateral proliferative diabetic retinopathy and neovascular glaucoma. Schirmer I test revealed tear secretions of 5 mm and 3 mm in the right and left eyes, respectively. Tear breakup times in the right and left eyes were 7 and 8 seconds, respectively. The ocular surface staining in both eyes was scored as Grade 1 as per the Oxford scheme. Retinal photocoagulation was performed for correction of the proliferative diabetic retinopathy and rubeosis iridis, which resolved with treatment. However, the intraocular pressure in the left eye could not be adequately controlled. Therefore, trabeculectomy with mitomycin C using limbal-based conjunctival flap was performed. Three hours after the surgery, the patient developed a large and diffuse filtering bleb, but no leakage occurred from the conjunctival scar. However, on the first postoperative day, leakage was noted and the conjunctiva was at the leakage point. The leakage resolved transiently, but recurred the next day. Severe keratoconjunctival epithelial failure was detected, and the patient was administrated 0.1% sodium hyaluronate eye drops six times daily. The epithelial failure improved, and many microcysts were detected on the bleb surface where the epithelial failure improved. The leakage resolved 2 days after initiation of the sodium hyaluronate eye drops. The microcysts disappeared and the bleb surface became smooth 1 month later.

  20. Amelioration of ultraviolet-induced photokeratitis in mice treated with astaxanthin eye drops.

    PubMed

    Lennikov, Anton; Kitaichi, Nobuyoshi; Fukase, Risa; Murata, Miyuki; Noda, Kousuke; Ando, Ryo; Ohguchi, Takeshi; Kawakita, Tetsuya; Ohno, Shigeaki; Ishida, Susumu

    2012-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) acts as low-dose ionizing radiation. Acute UVB exposure causes photokeratitis and induces apoptosis in corneal cells. Astaxanthin (AST) is a carotenoid, present in seafood, that has potential clinical applications due to its high antioxidant activity. In the present study, we examined whether topical administration of AST has preventive and therapeutic effects on UV-photokeratitis in mice. C57BL/6 mice were administered with AST diluted in polyethylene glycol (PEG) in instillation form (15 μl) to the right eye. Left eyes were given vehicle alone as controls. Immediately after the instillation, the mice, under anesthesia, were irradiated with UVB at a dose of 400 mJ/cm². Eyeballs were collected 24 h after irradiation and stained with H&E and TUNEL. In an in vitro study, mouse corneal epithelial (TKE2) cells were cultured with AST before UV exposure to quantify the UV-derived cytotoxicity. UVB exposure induced cell death and thinning of the corneal epithelium. However, the epithelium was morphologically well preserved after irradiation in AST-treated corneas. Irradiated corneal epithelium was significantly thicker in eyes treated with AST eye drops, compared to those treated with vehicles (p<0.01), in a doses dependent manner. Significantly fewer apoptotic cells were observed in AST-treated eyes than controls after irradiation (p<0.01). AST also reduced oxidative stress in irradiated corneas. The in vitro study showed less cytotoxicity of TKE2 cells in AST-treated cultures after UVB-irradiation (p<0.01). The cytoprotective effect increased with the dose of AST. Topical AST administration may be a candidate treatment to limit the damages by UV irradiation with wide clinical applications.

  1. The Eye Drop Preservative Benzalkonium Chloride Potently Induces Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Preferentially Affects LHON Mutant Cells

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Sandipan; Baudouin, Christophe; Brignole-Baudouin, Francoise; Denoyer, Alexandre; Cortopassi, Gino A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is the most commonly used eye drop preservative. Benzalkonium chloride has been associated with toxic effects such as “dry eye” and trabecular meshwork degeneration, but the underlying biochemical mechanism of ocular toxicity by BAK is unclear. In this study, we propose a mechanistic basis for BAK's adverse effects. Method Mitochondrial O2 consumption rates of human corneal epithelial primary cells (HCEP), osteosarcoma cybrid cells carrying healthy (control) or Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) mutant mtDNA [11778(G>A)], were measured before and after acute treatment with BAK. Mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis and cell viability were also measured in the BAK-treated control: LHON mutant and human-derived trabecular meshwork cells (HTM3). Results Benzalkonium chloride inhibited mitochondrial ATP (IC50, 5.3 μM) and O2 consumption (IC50, 10.9 μM) in a concentration-dependent manner, by directly targeting mitochondrial complex I. At its pharmaceutical concentrations (107–667 μM), BAK inhibited mitochondrial function >90%. In addition, BAK elicited concentration-dependent cytotoxicity to cybrid cells (IC50, 22.8 μM) and induced apoptosis in HTM3 cells at similar concentrations. Furthermore, we show that BAK directly inhibits mitochondrial O2 consumption in HCEP cells (IC50, 3.8 μM) at 50-fold lower concentrations than used in eye drops, and that cells bearing mitochondrial blindness (LHON) mutations are further sensitized to BAK's mitotoxic effect. Conclusions Benzalkonium chloride inhibits mitochondria of human corneal epithelial cells and cells bearing LHON mutations at pharmacologically relevant concentrations, and we suggest this is the basis of BAK's ocular toxicity. Prescribing BAK-containing eye drops should be avoided in patients with mitochondrial deficiency, including LHON patients, LHON carriers, and possibly primary open-angle glaucoma patients. PMID:28444329

  2. Effect of using a combination of lid wipes, eye drops, and omega-3 supplements on meibomian gland functionality in patients with lipid deficient/evaporative dry eye.

    PubMed

    Korb, Donald R; Blackie, Caroline A; Finnemore, Victor M; Douglass, Teresa

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of using a combination treatment approach consisting of lipid emulsion eye drops, eyelid cleansing wipes, and omega-3 vitamin supplements compared with warm compresses in improving meibomian gland functionality in patients with lipid-deficient/evaporative dry eye disease (LDDE). This single-center, open-label, investigator-masked, randomized study enrolled patients aged ≥18 years, clinically diagnosed with LDDE defined as having ≤6 functional meibomian glands [meibomian gland yielding liquid secretion (MGYLS)] and positive for dry eye symptoms at screening. Patients were randomized to receive either the combination treatment (lipid emulsion eye drops, omega-3 supplements, and lid hygiene with eyelid wipes) or to apply warm, wet compresses once daily, 8 minutes per day, for 3 months. Meibomian gland functionality (number of MGYLS; primary outcome) and patient-reported subjective assessments (SPEED and OSDI questionnaires; secondary outcomes) were evaluated. Adverse events (AEs) and visual acuity were assessed as safety endpoints. Mean patient age was 41.7 years (n = 26; n = 13 per group). Mean ± SD number of MGYLS was not statistically significantly different between groups at baseline (combination treatment, 3.5 ± 1.5; warm compresses, 4.2 ± 1.4, P > 0.5), and was significantly greater with combination treatment versus warm compresses after 3 months of treatment (9.3 ± 2.7 vs. 4.7 ± 2.3; P = 0.006). Dry eye symptoms were significantly improved in both groups at all follow-up visits. Two AEs unrelated to treatment were reported; the BCVA was unchanged from baseline in both groups. The combination treatment regimen resulted in significant improvement in meibomian gland functionality and dry eye symptoms. No safety issues were observed.

  3. Topical drug delivery to the eye: dorzolamide.

    PubMed

    Loftsson, Thorsteinn; Jansook, Phatsawee; Stefánsson, Einar

    2012-11-01

    Topically applied carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs) in eye drop solutions are commonly used to treat glaucoma. However, local eye irritation and multiple daily administrations may hamper their clinical usefulness. Aqueous eye drop formulations that improve their topical bioavailability and reduce their eye irritation can improve their clinical efficacy. Earlier studies showed that dorzolamide and closely related CAIs are more effectively delivered into the eye from acidic eye drop solutions than from comparable neutral solutions. Consequently, dorzolamide was marketed as an aqueous pH 5.6 eye drop solution (Trusopt(®) , Merck). Later, it was shown that increasing the pH of the eye drops from pH 5.6 to physiologic pH significantly reduced their local irritation. Earlier attempts to use cyclodextrins (CDs) as ocular penetration enhancers in dorzolamide eye drop solutions failed since; although the CDs were able to enhance the aqueous solubility of dorzolamide, increasing the pH from 5.6 to physiologic pH reduced the ability of the drug to permeate into the eye. Later, it was discovered that formulating the drug as aqueous dorzolamide/γCD eye drop microparticle suspension resulted in significant bioavailability enhancement. The solid dorzolamide/γCD microparticles are mucoadhesive and release dorzolamide into the aqueous tear fluid for extended time period. Consequently, sustained high dorzolamide concentrations in aqueous humour and various eye tissues were observed after single administration of the aqueous dorzolamide/γCD eye drop microsuspension. The microsuspension has a potential of being developed into a once-a-day eye drop product. This article reviews the physicochemical properties of dorzolamide, its permeation characteristics and topical bioavailability. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  4. Potential differentiation ability of gingiva originated human mesenchymal stem cell in the presence of tacrolimus

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Dong-Ho; Pathak, Shiva; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jong Oh; Jeong, Jee-Heon; Park, Jun-Beom

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the potential differentiation ability of gingiva originated human mesenchymal stem cell in the presence of tacrolimus. Tacrolimus-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres were prepared using electrospraying technique. In vitro release study of tacrolimus-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres was performed in phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.4). Gingiva-derived stem cells were isolated and incubated with tacrolimus or tacrolimus-loaded microspheres. Release study of the microspheres revealed prolonged release profiles of tacrolimus without any significant initial burst release. The microsphere itself did not affect the morphology of the mesenchymal stem cells, and cell morphology was retained after incubation with microspheres loaded with tacrolimus at 1 μg/mL to 10 μg/mL. Cultures grown in the presence of microspheres loaded with tacrolimus at 1 μg/mL showed the highest mineralization. Alkaline phosphatase activity increased with an increase in incubation time. The highest expression of pSmad1/5 was achieved in the group receiving tacrolimus 0.1 μg/mL every third day, and the highest expression of osteocalcin was achieved in the group receiving 1 μg/mL every third day. Biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-based microspheres loaded with tacrolimus promoted mineralization. Microspheres loaded with tacrolimus may be applied for increased osteoblastic differentiation. PMID:27721434

  5. Improved prediction of tacrolimus concentrations early after kidney transplantation using theory-based pharmacokinetic modelling.

    PubMed

    Størset, Elisabet; Holford, Nick; Hennig, Stefanie; Bergmann, Troels K; Bergan, Stein; Bremer, Sara; Åsberg, Anders; Midtvedt, Karsten; Staatz, Christine E

    2014-09-01

    The aim was to develop a theory-based population pharmacokinetic model of tacrolimus in adult kidney transplant recipients and to externally evaluate this model and two previous empirical models. Data were obtained from 242 patients with 3100 tacrolimus whole blood concentrations. External evaluation was performed by examining model predictive performance using Bayesian forecasting. Pharmacokinetic disposition parameters were estimated based on tacrolimus plasma concentrations, predicted from whole blood concentrations, haematocrit and literature values for tacrolimus binding to red blood cells. Disposition parameters were allometrically scaled to fat free mass. Tacrolimus whole blood clearance/bioavailability standardized to haematocrit of 45% and fat free mass of 60 kg was estimated to be 16.1 l h−1 [95% CI 12.6, 18.0 l h−1]. Tacrolimus clearance was 30% higher (95% CI 13, 46%) and bioavailability 18% lower (95% CI 2, 29%) in CYP3A5 expressers compared with non-expressers. An Emax model described decreasing tacrolimus bioavailability with increasing prednisolone dose. The theory-based model was superior to the empirical models during external evaluation displaying a median prediction error of −1.2% (95% CI −3.0, 0.1%). Based on simulation, Bayesian forecasting led to 65% (95% CI 62, 68%) of patients achieving a tacrolimus average steady-state concentration within a suggested acceptable range. A theory-based population pharmacokinetic model was superior to two empirical models for prediction of tacrolimus concentrations and seemed suitable for Bayesian prediction of tacrolimus doses early after kidney transplantation.

  6. ASSESSMENT OF FUNCTIONAL CHANGES TEAR PRODUCTION UNDER THE ACTION OF THE EYE DROPS ON THE BASE OF NATURAL MOLECULE OF ECTOINE AND ARTIFICIAL TEARS IN PATIENTS WITH DRY EYE SYNDROME ON THE BACKGROUND OF ENDOCRINE OPHTHALMOPATHY.

    PubMed

    Veselovskaya, N N; Zherebko, I B

    Conducted a comparative analysis of functional changes in tear production in patients with dry eye syndrome and endocrine ophthalmopathy in the conditions of the long-term acting of preservative free medications based on natural substances. A total of 30 people, aged 35 to 53 years old with clinical manifestations of DES on the background of EO were divided on two groups. In I group eye drops of ectoine and in II - artificial tears were administered. The examination included general and specific methods. The term of follow up - 30 days. It was found that long-term use of preservative free eye drops based on ectoine leads to more expressive positive changes in the condition of the anterior surface of the eye and the secretion and quality of the tear.

  7. Beneficial effects of topical tacrolimus on recalcitrant erosions of pemphigus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Gach, J E; Ilchyshyn, A

    2004-05-01

    We report a case of pemphigus vulgaris in which a recalcitrant area of erosion on the cheek cleared only when topical tacrolimus was used in addition to a regime of systemic therapy consisting of cyclophosphamide and prednisolone. Clinical improvement occurred within 10 days of applying topical tacrolimus with healing of erosions and reduction in pain and burning sensations. Topical tacrolimus may inhibit local activation of T lymphocytes through altered expression of cytokines such as interleukin-1, -4 and -5, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma. Some of these cytokines may also contribute directly to increasing keratinocyte fragility in the aetiology of pemphigus vulgaris erosions. This case illustrates that topical tacrolimus may be a useful adjunct in the management of patients with pemphigus vulgaris.

  8. [Usage and efficacy of timolol maleate eye drops in treatment of superficial infantile hemangioma].

    PubMed

    Wu, Qizhen; Shi, Qingmei; Long, Jianhong; Li, Jiaguang; Guo, Yu; Lei, Shaorong

    2017-06-28

    To determine drug dose and usage of timolol maleate eye drops in the treatment of superficial infantile hemangioma.
 Methods: A total of 250 superficial hemangioma infants were recruited and assigned into 5 groups (n=50 for each group): an external application group and 4 exterior coating groups (2, 4, 6, 8 times per day). We evaluated the therapeutic effect of different methods for drug application (external application or exterior coating) and the frequency for drug administration on superficial infantile hemangioma.
 Results: The external application group (twice a day and 0.5 hour per time) showed better effect than that in the exterior coating group with twice a day (P<0.001). The difference in therapeutic effect between the exterior coating group with 6 times a day and exterior coating group with twice a day or with 3 times a day was significant (P<0.001). The differences in drug efficacy were not found among the exterior coating group with 6 times a day, the exterior coating group with 8 times a day, or the external application group with twice a day (All P>0.05).
 Conclusion: Drug dose may affect the therapeutic effect of timolol maleate eye drops in superficial hemangioma infants, and exterior coating with 6 times a day may achieve the best curative effect.

  9. The Effect of Autologous Platelet Lysate Eye Drops: An In Vivo Confocal Microscopy Study

    PubMed Central

    Fea, Antonio M.; Testa, Valeria; Machetta, Federica; Parisi, Simone; D'Antico, Sergio; Spinetta, Roberta; Fusaro, Enrico; Grignolo, Federico M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the effectiveness of autologous platelet lysate (APL) eye drops in patients with primary Sjögren syndrome (SS) dry eye, refractory to standard therapy, in comparison with patients treated with artificial tears. We focused on the effect of APL on cornea morphology with the in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). Methods. Patients were assigned to two groups: group A used autologous platelet lysate QID, and group B used preservative-free artificial tears QID, for 90 days. Ophthalmological assessments included ocular surface disease index (OSDI), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), Schirmer test, fluorescein score, and breakup time (BUT). A subgroup of patients in group A underwent IVCM: corneal basal epithelium, subbasal nerves, Langerhans cells, anterior stroma activated keratocytes, and reflectivity were evaluated. Results. 60 eyes of 30 patients were enrolled; in group A (n = 20 patients) mean OSDI, fluorescein score, and BUT showed significant improvement compared with group B (n = 10 patients). The IVCM showed a significant increase in basal epithelium cells density and subbasal nerve plexus density and number and a decrease in Langerhans cells density (p < 0.05). Conclusion. APL was found effective in the treatment of SS dry eye. IVCM seems to be a useful tool to visualize cornea morphologic modifications. PMID:27200376

  10. The Effect of Autologous Platelet Lysate Eye Drops: An In Vivo Confocal Microscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Fea, Antonio M; Aragno, Vittoria; Testa, Valeria; Machetta, Federica; Parisi, Simone; D'Antico, Sergio; Spinetta, Roberta; Fusaro, Enrico; Grignolo, Federico M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the effectiveness of autologous platelet lysate (APL) eye drops in patients with primary Sjögren syndrome (SS) dry eye, refractory to standard therapy, in comparison with patients treated with artificial tears. We focused on the effect of APL on cornea morphology with the in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). Methods. Patients were assigned to two groups: group A used autologous platelet lysate QID, and group B used preservative-free artificial tears QID, for 90 days. Ophthalmological assessments included ocular surface disease index (OSDI), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), Schirmer test, fluorescein score, and breakup time (BUT). A subgroup of patients in group A underwent IVCM: corneal basal epithelium, subbasal nerves, Langerhans cells, anterior stroma activated keratocytes, and reflectivity were evaluated. Results. 60 eyes of 30 patients were enrolled; in group A (n = 20 patients) mean OSDI, fluorescein score, and BUT showed significant improvement compared with group B (n = 10 patients). The IVCM showed a significant increase in basal epithelium cells density and subbasal nerve plexus density and number and a decrease in Langerhans cells density (p < 0.05). Conclusion. APL was found effective in the treatment of SS dry eye. IVCM seems to be a useful tool to visualize cornea morphologic modifications.

  11. Evaluation of Flexible Tacrolimus Drug Concentration Monitoring Approach in Patients Receiving Extended-Release Once-Daily Tacrolimus Tablets.

    PubMed

    Philosophe, Benjamin; Leca, Nicolae; West-Thielke, Patricia M; Horwedel, Timothy; Culkin-Gemmell, Christine; Kistler, Kristin; Stevens, Daniel R

    2018-02-20

    The majority of United States kidney transplant patients are treated with tacrolimus, a drug effective in preventing graft rejection, but with a narrow therapeutic range, necessitating close monitoring to avoid increased risks of transplant rejection or toxicity if the tacrolimus concentration is too low or too high, respectively. The trough drug concentration tests are time sensitive; patients treated on a twice-daily basis have blood draws exactly 12 hours after their previous dose. The schedule's rigidity causes problems for both patients and health care providers. Novel once-daily tacrolimus formulations such as LCPT (an extended-release tablet by Veloxis Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Cary, North Carolina) have allowed for blood draws on a once-daily basis; however, even that schedule can be restrictive. Results from tests taken either before or after that 24-hour target time may be discarded, or worse, may lead to inappropriate dose changes. Data from ASTCOFF, a phase 3B pharmacokinetic clinical trial (NCT02339246), demonstrated that the unique pharmacokinetic curve of LCPT may allow for a therapeutic monitoring window that extends for 3 hours before or after the 24-hour monitoring target. Furthermore, important tools to help clinicians interpret these levels, such as formulas to estimate the 24-hour trough level if an alternative monitoring time is used, were constructed from these data. These study results give treating clinicians access to data that allow them to safely use and monitor LCPT in their patients and expand the body of evidence surrounding differentiation and practical application of the novel LCPT tacrolimus formulation. © 2018, The Authors. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  12. Stability of epitheliotrophic factors in autologous serum eye drops from chronic Stevens-Johnson syndrome dry eye compared to non-autoimmune dry eye.

    PubMed

    Phasukkijwatana, Nopasak; Lertrit, Patcharee; Liammongkolkul, Sompong; Prabhasawat, Pinnita

    2011-09-01

    To compare the concentrations of epitheliotrophic factors in autologous serum eye drops (ASE) prepared from sera of chronic Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) patients with dry eyes to those prepared from non-autoimmune dry eye controls and to study the stability of the epitheliotrophic factors in different storage conditions. Twenty-percent ASE were prepared from 10 chronic SJS patients with dry eyes and 10 age-matched non-autoimmune dry eye controls. The concentrations of major epitheliotrophic factors comprising epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1), transforming growth factor-beta2 (TGF-β2), and fibronectin in those ASE preparations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at baseline and after different storage conditions: at 4 °C for 1 week and 1 month; and at -20 °C for 1, 3 and 6 months. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of EGF, TGF-β1, TGF-β2 and fibronectin in 20% ASE between the SJS and control groups (EGF: 176.9 ± 40.9 vs. 185.5 ± 36.9 pg/mL, TGF-β1: 9.5 ± 2.1 vs. 9.5 ± 1.9 ng/mL, TGF-β2: 55.3 ± 30.0 vs. 63.91 ± 45.6 pg/mL and fibronectin: 70.5 ± 20.2 vs. 62.2 ± 21.3 µg/mL, respectively). These factors were stable at 4 °C for up to 1 month. Storage at -20 °C for up to 6 months resulted in a slight decrease in TGF-β1 (SJS: from 9.5-8.4 ng/mL, p < 0.01 and control: from 9.5-8.1 ng/mL, p < 0.01). The results suggested that the epitheliotrophic capacity of ASE from chronic SJS should be comparable to those from non-autoimmune dry eye patients, and that ASE should be sufficiently stable for up to 6 months, if stored properly at -20 °C.

  13. Mechanistic modeling of ophthalmic drug delivery to the anterior chamber by eye drops and contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Gause, Samuel; Hsu, Kuan-Hui; Shafor, Chancellor; Dixon, Phillip; Powell, Kristin Conrad; Chauhan, Anuj

    2016-07-01

    Ophthalmic drug for the anterior chamber diseases are delivered into tears by either eye drops or by extended release devices placed in the eyes. The instilled drug exits the eye through various routes including tear drainage into the nose through the canaliculi and transport across various ocular membranes. Understanding the mechanisms relevant to each route can be useful in predicting the dependency of ocular bioavailability on various formulation parameters, such as drug concentration, salinity, viscosity, etc. Mathematical modeling has been developed for each of the routes and validated by comparison with experiments. The individual models can be combined into a system model to predict the fraction of the instilled drug that reaches the target. This review summarizes the individual models for the transport of drugs across the cornea and conjunctiva and the canaliculi tear drainage. It also summarizes the combined tear dynamics model that can predict the ocular bioavailability of drugs instilled as eye drops. The predictions from the individual models and the combined model are in good agreement with experimental data. Both experiments and models predict that the corneal bioavailability for drugs delivered through eye drops is less than 5% due to the small area of the cornea in comparison to the conjunctiva, and the rapid clearance of the instilled solution by tear drainage. A contact lens is a natural choice for delivering drugs to the cornea due to the placement of the contact in the immediate vicinity of the cornea. The drug released by the contact towards the cornea surface is trapped in the post lens tear film for extended duration of at least 30min allowing transport of a large portion into the cornea. The model predictions backed by in vivo animal and clinical data show that the bioavailability increases to about 50% with contact lenses. This realization has encouraged considerable research towards delivering ocular drugs by contact lenses. Commercial

  14. Treatment of patients with neurotrophic keratitis stages 2 and 3 with plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF-Endoret) eye-drops.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Avila, Ronald Mauricio; Merayo-Lloves, Jesus; Riestra, Ana Cristina; Fernandez-Vega Cueto, Luis; Anitua, Eduardo; Begoña, Leire; Muruzabal, Francisco; Orive, Gorka

    2018-06-01

    To provide preliminary data about efficacy and safety of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) eye-drops in neurotrophic keratitis (NK) and to analyze the possible influence of certain variables on treatment outcomes. This retrospective study included patients with stages 2-3 of NK treated with PRGF eye-drops. Primary endpoint was the resolution time of corneal ulcer defect. Outcome measures including percentage of ulcer closure at 4 weeks, Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), Best-Corrected Visual Acuity (BCVA) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) were also evaluated before and after treatment with PRGF. The influence of some patients' clinical variables on results was assessed. Safety assessment was also performed reporting all adverse events. Thirty-eight treated eyes in a total of thirty-one patients were evaluated, of which five cases had no prior response to autologous serum treatment. Most cases (97.4%) achieved the complete resolution of corneal defect/ulcer. Mean resolution time was 11.4 weeks (SD = 13.7). A statistical significant (p < 0.05) reduction in OSDI (60.9%), VAS frequency (59.9%), VAS severity (57.0%) and improvement in BCVA (52.8%) was observed. The results were stratified according to the pathology stage and to the identified potential effect modifiers variables. Only one adverse event was reported in one patient (2.6%). PRGF eye-drops could be a safe and effective therapeutic option for patients with stages 2-3 of NK, showing high rates of corneal defect/ulcer resolution in short times, either in reducing signs and symptoms of NK, and therefore preventing the progression of NK to greater ocular complications.

  15. Efficacy of tacrolimus/mycophenolate mofetil as acute graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis and the impact of subtherapeutic tacrolimus levels in children after matched sibling donor allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Offer, Katharine; Kolb, Michelle; Jin, Zhezhen; Bhatia, Monica; Kung, Andrew L; George, Diane; Garvin, James H; Robinson, Chalitha; Sosna, Jean; Karamehmet, Esra; Satwani, Prakash

    2015-03-01

    Only a few studies in children have evaluated the efficacy of prophylactic regimens using tacrolimus on acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD). As a result, optimal tacrolimus levels in children after matched sibling donor allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) are not well defined. We measured the association between subtherapeutic levels (<10 ng/mL) during weeks 1 to 4 after alloHCT and the cumulative incidence of grades II to IV aGVHD in children. Additionally, we identified optimal lower cutoff levels for tacrolimus. Sixty patients (median age, 8 years) received tacrolimus/mycophenolate mofetil between March 2003 and September 2012. Twenty-three had a malignant disease and 37 nonmalignant disorders. The stem cell source included peripheral blood stem cells (n = 12) and bone marrow or cord blood (n = 48). Conditioning regimen varied. Specifically, 38.3% received a myeloablative regimen, 36.7% receiving a reduced-toxicity regimen, and 25% receiving a reduced-intensity regimen. Tacrolimus was initiated at .03 mg/kg/day via continuous i.v. infusion or .12 mg/kg/day orally. The dose was adjusted to maintain daily steady state concentrations within a range of 10 to 20 ng/mL. The overall incidence of grades II to IV aGVHD was 33.3%. On multivariate analysis, a mean tacrolimus level < 10 ng/mL during week 3 (P = .042; 95% confidence interval, 1.051 to 14.28) was significantly associated with increased incidence of grades II to IV aGVHD. Using weekly receiver operator curves, the optimal lower cutoff for tacrolimus levels was 10 to 11.2 ng/mL. Further prospective studies are warranted to study the incidence of aGVHD comparing the conventional tacrolimus levels of 5 to 15 versus 10 to 15 ng/mL. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Ocular tissue distribution and pharmacokinetic study of a small 13kDa domain antibody after intravitreal, subconjuctival and eye drop administration in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Gough, Gerald; Szapacs, Matthew; Shah, Tejash; Clements, Peter; Struble, Craig; Wilson, Robert

    2018-02-01

    Domain antibodies (dAb's) comprise the smallest functional unit of human IgG and can be targeted to a range of different soluble cytokine and receptor targets in the eye. In particular their small size may offer advantage for ocular tissue penetration and distribution. To investigate this we used a 13kDa tool molecule to undertake a preliminary short term ocular tissue distribution and pharmacokinetic study in the rabbit eye. The dAb was administered by the intravitreal or subconjunctival route or, as topical eye drops for up to five days and dAb concentrations measured in vitreous, aqueous, conjunctiva, choroid-RPE, retina, iris, sclera, and ciliary body. The observed elimination half-live of the dAb (~3 days) in vitreous showed a similar elimination rate to that of a much larger (∼50kDa) Fab fragment whilst the half-life following subconjunctival administration was ∼24 h and, after eye drop dosing the dAb was detectable in aqueous and conjunctiva. These preliminary data show that the intravitreal half-life of dAb's are similar to much larger antibody fragments, offering the potential to deliver significantly more drug to target on a molar basis with a single intravitreal injection potentially enabling dosing frequencies of once a month or less. Subconjunctival injection may provide short duration therapeutic levels of dAb to the anterior and posterior chamber whilst topical eye drop delivery of dAbs may be useful in front-of-eye disease. These data indicate that small domain antibodies may have utility in ophthalmology. Further studies are warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ocular Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) and NGF Eye Drop Application as Paradigms to Investigate NGF Neuroprotective and Reparative Actions.

    PubMed

    Tirassa, Paola; Rosso, Pamela; Iannitelli, Angela

    2018-01-01

    The eye is a central nervous system structure that is uniquely accessible to local treatment. Through the ocular surface, it is possible to access the retina, optic nerve, and brain. Animal models of retina degeneration or optic nerve crush could thus serve as tools to investigate whether and how factors, which are anterogradely or retrogradely transported through the optic nerve, might contribute to activate neuroprotection and eventually regeneration. Among these factors, nerve growth factor (NGF) plays a crucial role during development of the visual system, as well as during the entire life span, and in pathological conditions. The ability of NGF to exert survival and trophic actions on the retina and brain cells when applied intraocularly and topically as eye drops is critically reviewed here, together with the effects of ocular neurotrophins on neuronal pathways influencing body rhythm, cognitions, and behavioral functions. The latest data from animal models and humans are presented, and the mechanism of action of ocularly administered NGF is discussed. NGF eye drops are proposed as an experimental strategy to investigate the role and cellular targets of neurotrophins in the mechanism(s) underlying neurodegeneration/regeneration and their involvement in the regulation of neurological and behavioral dysfunctions.

  18. Population pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenetic analysis of tacrolimus in paediatric liver transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    Abdel Jalil, Mariam H; Hawwa, Ahmed F; McKiernan, Patrick J; Shields, Michael D; McElnay, James C

    2014-01-01

    Aims To build a population pharmacokinetic model that describes the apparent clearance of tacrolimus and the potential demographic, clinical and genetically controlled factors that could lead to inter-patient pharmacokinetic variability within children following liver transplantation. Methods The present study retrospectively examined tacrolimus whole blood pre-dose concentrations (n = 628) of 43 children during their first year post-liver transplantation. Population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using the non-linear mixed effects modelling program (nonmem) to determine the population mean parameter estimate of clearance and influential covariates. Results The final model identified time post-transplantation and CYP3A5*1 allele as influential covariates on tacrolimus apparent clearance according to the following equation: where TVCL is the typical value for apparent clearance, TPT is time post-transplantation in days and the CYP3A5 is 1 where *1 allele is present and 0 otherwise. The population estimate and inter-individual variability (%CV) of tacrolimus apparent clearance were found to be 0.977 l h−1 kg−1 (95% CI 0.958, 0.996) and 40.0%, respectively, while the residual variability between the observed and predicted concentrations was 35.4%. Conclusion Tacrolimus apparent clearance was influenced by time post-transplantation and CYP3A5 genotypes. The results of this study, once confirmed by a large scale prospective study, can be used in conjunction with therapeutic drug monitoring to recommend tacrolimus dose adjustments that take into account not only body weight but also genetic and time-related changes in tacrolimus clearance. PMID:23738951

  19. Pharmacokinetics of prolonged-release tacrolimus and implications for use in solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Tanzi, Maria G; Undre, Nasrullah; Keirns, James; Fitzsimmons, William E; Brown, Malcolm; First, M Roy

    2016-08-01

    Prolonged-release tacrolimus was developed as a once-daily formulation with ethylcellulose as the excipient, resulting in slower release and reduction in peak concentration (Cmax ) for a given dose compared with immediate-release tacrolimus, which is administered twice daily. This manuscript reviews pharmacokinetic information on prolonged-release tacrolimus in healthy subjects, in transplant recipients converted from immediate-release tacrolimus, and in de novo kidney and liver transplant recipients. As with the immediate-release formulation, prolonged-release tacrolimus shows a strong correlation between trough concentration (Cmin ) and area under the 24-hour time-concentration curve (AUC24 ), indicating that trough whole blood concentrations provide an accurate measure of drug exposure. We present the pharmacokinetic similarities and differences between the two formulations, so that prescribing physicians will have a better understanding of therapeutic drug monitoring in patients receiving prolonged-release tacrolimus. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Conversion From Twice-Daily Tacrolimus Capsules to Once-Daily Extended-Release Tacrolimus (LCPT): A Phase 2 Trial of Stable Renal Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Gaber, A. Osama; Alloway, Rita R.; Bodziak, Kenneth; Kaplan, Bruce; Bunnapradist, Suphamai

    2013-01-01

    Background LCP-Tacro is an extended-release formulation of tacrolimus designed for once-daily dosing. Phase 1 studies demonstrated greater bioavailability to twice-daily tacrolimus capsules and no new safety concerns. Methods In this phase 2 study, adult stable kidney transplant patients on tacrolimus capsules (Prograf) twice-daily were converted to tacrolimus tablets (LCP-Tacro) once-daily; patients continued on LCP-Tacro once-daily for days 8 to 21; trough levels were to be maintained between 5 and 15 ng/mL; 24-hr pharmacokinetic assessments were done on days 7 (baseline pre-switch), 14, and 21. Results Forty-seven patients completed LCP-Tacro dosing per protocol. The mean conversion ratio was 0.71. Pharmacokinetic data demonstrated consistent exposure (AUC) at the lower conversion dose. Cmax (P=0.0001), Cmax/Cmin ratio (P<0.001), percent fluctuation (P<0.0001), and swing (P=0.0004) were significantly lower and Tmax significantly (P<0.001) longer for LCP-Tacro versus Prograf. AUC24 and Cmin correlation coefficients after 7 and 14 days of therapy were 0.86 or more, demonstrating a robust correlation between LCP-Tacro tacrolimus exposure and trough levels. There were three serious adverse events; none were related to study drug and all were resolved. Conclusions Stable kidney transplant patients can be safely converted from Prograf twice-daily to LCP-Tacro. The greater bioavailability of LCP-Tacro allows for once-daily dosing and similar (AUC) exposure at a dose approximately 30% less than the total daily dose of Prograf. LCP-Tacro displays flatter kinetics characterized by significantly lower peak-trough fluctuations. PMID:23715050

  1. Coenzyme Q10 instilled as eye drops on the cornea reaches the retina and protects retinal layers from apoptosis in a mouse model of kainate-induced retinal damage.

    PubMed

    Lulli, Matteo; Witort, Ewa; Papucci, Laura; Torre, Eugenio; Schipani, Christian; Bergamini, Christian; Dal Monte, Massimo; Capaccioli, Sergio

    2012-12-17

    To evaluate if coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) can protect retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) from apoptosis and, when instilled as eye drops on the cornea, if it can reach the retina and exert its antiapoptotic activity in this area in a mouse model of kainate (KA)-induced retinal damage. Rat primary or cultured RGCs were subjected to glutamate (50 μM) or chemical hypoxia (Antimycin A, 200 μM) or serum withdrawal (FBS, 0.5%) in the presence or absence of CoQ10 (10 μM). Cell viability was evaluated by light microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorting analyses. Apoptosis was evaluated by caspase 3/7 activity and mitochondrion depolarization tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester analysis. CoQ10 transfer to the retina following its instillation as eye drops on the cornea was quantified by HPLC. Retinal protection by CoQ10 (10 μM) eye drops instilled on the cornea was then evaluated in a mouse model of KA-induced excitotoxic retinal cell apoptosis by cleaved caspase 3 immunohistofluorescence, caspase 3/7 activity assays, and quantification of inhibition of RGC loss. CoQ10 significantly increased viable cells by preventing RGC apoptosis. Furthermore, when topically applied as eye drops to the cornea, it reached the retina, thus substantially increasing local CoQ10 concentration and protecting retinal layers from apoptosis. The ability of CoQ10 eye drops to protect retinal cells from apoptosis in the mouse model of KA-induced retinal damage suggests that topical CoQ10 may be evaluated in designing therapies for treating apoptosis-driven retinopathies.

  2. Involvement of CYP 3A5 In the Interaction Between Tacrolimus and Nicardipine: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Sassi, Mouna B; Gaies, Emna; Salouage, Issam; Trabelsi, Sameh; Lakhal, Mohamed; Klouz, Anis

    2015-01-01

    Tacrolimus is a calcineurin inhibitor primarily metabolized by CYP3A4 and secondarily by CYP3A5. Several drugs can modify tacrolimus blood levels as calcium channel blockers (CCBs). Interaction with nicardipine was reported in some cases. A man with a history of malignant arterial hypertension treated with nicardipine, underwent kidney transplantation. After transplantation, he was treated with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and corticoids. Therapeutic drug monitoring of tacrolimus was done regularly showing a mean trough concentration (C0) of 24.39 ng/mL with some concentrations reaching 52 ng/mL. After changing nicardipine by prazosine, the first tacrolimus C0 after stopping nicardipine was 3.2 ng/mL. Increase of tacrolimus trough concentrations is due to the inhibition of CYP3A4. Very high levels of tacrolimus suggest the non expression of CYP3A5. Thus, because of the possible lack of the secondary pathway, therapeutic drug monitoring of tacrolimus is highly recommended at the introduction of CCBs and also at its stopping.

  3. Intravenous tacrolimus and cyclosporine induced anaphylaxis: what is next?

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sung-Yoon; Sohn, Kyoung-Hee; Lee, Jeong-Ok; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2015-01-01

    Tacrolimus and cyclosporine have been used in various formulations, but their hypersensitivity reactions are rare in practice. Castor oil derivatives are nonionic surfactants used in aqueous preparations of hydrophobic active pharmaceutical ingredients. Castor oil derivatives that can be used as additives to tacrolimus and cyclosporine may play a role in the development of hypersensitivity reactions, especially anaphylaxis. Various immunologic and nonimmunologic mechanisms have been implicated in hypersensitivity reactions induced by castor oil derivatives. Physicians should be aware that not only the drug itself, but also its additives or metabolites could induce hypersensitivity reactions. We report a case of anaphylaxis caused by vitamin K (phytonadine), serotonin antagonist (granisetron), intravenous tacrolimus, and cyclosporine. Interestingly, the patient tolerated oral cyclosporine, which did not contain Cremophor EL or polysorbate 80. PMID:26240796

  4. The effects of 3% diquafosol sodium eye drop application on meibomian gland and ocular surface alterations in the Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase-1 (Sod1) knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Keisuke; Simsek, Cem; Kojima, Takashi; Higa, Kazunari; Kawashima, Motoko; Dogru, Murat; Shimizu, Takahiko; Tsubota, Kazuo; Shimazaki, Jun

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of 3% diquafosol sodium eye drops on meibomian gland and ocular surface alterations in the superoxide dismutase-1 (Sod1 -/- ) mice in comparison to the wild-type mouse. Three percent diquafosol sodium eye drop was instilled to 20 eyes of 10 50-week-old male Sod1 -/- mice and 22 eyes of 11 C57BL/6 strain 50-week-old wild-type (WT) male mice six times a day for 2 weeks. Aqueous tear secretion quantity was measured with phenol red-impregnated cotton threads without anesthesia. Tear film stability and corneal epithelial damage were assessed by fluorescein and lissamine green staining. We also performed oil red O (ORO) lipid staining to evaluate the lipid changes in the meibomian glands. Meibomian gland specimens underwent hematoxylin and eosin staining to examine histopathological changes and meibomian gland acinar unit density after sacrifice. Immunohistochemistry staining was performed using cytokeratin 4, cytokeratin 13, and transglutaminase-1 antibodies. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for cytokeratin 4, cytokeratin 13, and transglutaminase-1 mRNA expression was also performed. The aqueous tear quantity, the mean tear film breakup time, and the number of lipid droplets significantly improved in the Sod1 -/- mice with treatment. The mean meibomian acinar unit density did not change in the Sod1 -/- mice and WT mice after treatment. Application of 3% diquafosol sodium eye drop significantly decreased the corneal fluorescein and lissamine green staining scores in the Sod1 -/- mice after 2 weeks. We showed a notable increase in cytokeratin 4, cytokeratin 13 immunohistochemistry staining, and cytokeratin 4, cytokeratin 13 mRNA expressions with a marked decrease in immunohistochemistry staining and significant decline in mRNA expression of transglutaminase-1 after 3% diquafosol sodium treatment. Topical application of 3% diquafosol sodium eye drop improved the number of lipid droplets, tear stability

  5. Efficacy and safety of tacrolimus treatment for rheumatoid arthritis patients undergoing hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Misuzu; Natsumeda, Masamitsu; Takasugi, Koji; Ueno, Akiko; Ezawa, Kayo; Ezawa, Kazuhiko

    2008-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by progressive joint destruction that requires aggressive treatment using appropriate disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). RA patients with renal failure, however, are intolerant to most DMARDs due to the potential toxicity. In Japan, tacrolimus was approved for the treatment of RA in 2005. Based on its pharmacokinetics, tacrolimus may be administered to the patients undergoing hemodialysis. We report two cases of RA patients on hemodialysis treated effectively and safely with tacrolimus.

  6. Effects of tacrolimus on action potential configuration and transmembrane ion currents in canine ventricular cells.

    PubMed

    Szabó, László; Szentandrássy, Norbert; Kistamás, Kornél; Hegyi, Bence; Ruzsnavszky, Ferenc; Váczi, Krisztina; Horváth, Balázs; Magyar, János; Bányász, Tamás; Pál, Balázs; Nánási, Péter P

    2013-03-01

    Tacrolimus is a commonly used immunosuppressive agent which causes cardiovascular complications, e.g., hypertension and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. In spite of it, there is little information on the cellular cardiac effects of the immunosuppressive agent tacrolimus in larger mammals. In the present study, therefore, the concentration-dependent effects of tacrolimus on action potential morphology and the underlying ion currents were studied in canine ventricular cardiomyocytes. Standard microelectrode, conventional whole cell patch clamp, and action potential voltage clamp techniques were applied in myocytes enzymatically dispersed from canine ventricular myocardium. Tacrolimus (3-30 μM) caused a concentration-dependent reduction of maximum velocity of depolarization and repolarization, action potential amplitude, phase-1 repolarization, action potential duration, and plateau potential, while no significant change in the resting membrane potential was observed. Conventional voltage clamp experiments revealed that tacrolimus concentrations ≥3 μM blocked a variety of ion currents, including I(Ca), I(to), I(K1), I(Kr), and I(Ks). Similar results were obtained under action potential voltage clamp conditions. These effects of tacrolimus developed rapidly and were fully reversible upon washout. The blockade of inward currents with the concomitant shortening of action potential duration in canine myocytes is the opposite of those observed previously with tacrolimus in small rodents. It is concluded that although tacrolimus blocks several ion channels at higher concentrations, there is no risk of direct interaction with cardiac ion channels when applying tacrolimus in therapeutic concentrations.

  7. Successful treatment with tacrolimus in TAFRO syndrome: two case reports and literature review.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Taiichiro; Onishi, Akira; Waki, Daisuke; Saegusa, Jun; Morinobu, Akio

    2018-06-01

    TAFRO syndrome is a systemic inflammatory disorder characterized by thrombocytopenia, anasarca, fever, reticulin fibrosis, renal dysfunction, and organomegaly. In contrast to that in multicentric Castleman disease, interleukin-6 targeting strategies seem ineffective in some TAFRO syndrome cases; however, the optimal treatment remains unclear. Here, we report 2 cases of TAFRO syndrome, where 1 with cardiomyopathy, successfully treated with tacrolimus. This is the first case report of successful treatment with tacrolimus in TAFRO syndrome. Both patients (cases 1 and 2) developed fever, anasarca, thrombocytopenia, renal dysfunction, and mild hepatosplenomegaly. In both patients, lymph node pathology revealed mixed type Castleman disease-like features, and bone marrow showed reticulin myelofibrosis. TAFRO syndrome was diagnosed based on the patients' laboratory, clinical, and pathologic findings. In case 2, we observed a rare complication of cardiomyopathy with no evidence of takotsubo cardiomyopathy or viral myocarditis. In case 1, tocilizumab combined with glucocorticoids was ineffective and caused septic shock; additionally, cyclosporine A was discontinued because of hepatotoxicity. However, tacrolimus was effective in resolving TAFRO syndrome without any adverse events. In case 2, tacrolimus completely reversed TAFRO syndrome and was also effective in cardiomyopathy. This report suggests that tacrolimus is potentially effective and safe as an initial treatment and a glucocorticoid-sparing agent. Our literature review shows that calcineurin inhibitors, including tacrolimus, may be effective in TAFRO syndrome. Since previous studies indicate a role of Th1 inflammation in TAFRO syndrome pathogenesis, tacrolimus may, therefore, be effective in treating TAFRO syndrome.

  8. Unraveling Nutritional Regulation of Tacrolimus Biosynthesis in Streptomyces tsukubaensis through omic Approaches.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez-Robles, María; Santos-Beneit, Fernando; Martín, Juan F

    2018-05-01

    Streptomyces tsukubaensis stands out among actinomycetes by its ability to produce the immunosuppressant tacrolimus. Discovered about 30 years ago, this macrolide is widely used as immunosuppressant in current clinics. Other potential applications for the treatment of cancer and as neuroprotective agent have been proposed in the last years. In this review we introduce the discovery of S. tsukubaensis and tacrolimus, its biosynthetic pathway and gene cluster ( fkb ) regulation. We have focused this work on the omic studies performed in this species in order to understand tacrolimus production. Transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics have improved our knowledge about the fkb transcriptional regulation and have given important clues about nutritional regulation of tacrolimus production that can be applied to improve production yields. Finally, we address some points of S. tsukubaensis biology that deserve more attention.

  9. Distinct effects of omeprazole and rabeprazole on the tacrolimus blood concentration in a kidney transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kazushige; Yano, Ikuko; Fukuhara, Yuga; Katsura, Toshiya; Takahashi, Takeshi; Ito, Noriyuki; Yamamoto, Shingo; Ogawa, Osamu; Inui, Ken-ichi

    2007-12-01

    Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs, e.g. omeprazole and rabeprazole) are often administered to transplant patients as a treatment or prophylaxis for ulcers after surgery. Since tacrolimus and PPIs share the CYP3A4 system for metabolism, pharmacokinetic interactions are anticipated when they are administered simultaneously. We present a Japanese male patient who underwent a living-donor kidney transplantation having received tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and prednisolone for immunosuppression. The concentration/dose (C/D) ratio for tacrolimus was markedly higher during the period of treatment with omeprazole than ranitidine or rabeprazole. The results of liver functional tests were within the normal range during the use of these three antacid drugs. Since the higher C/D ratio for tacrolimus when omeprazole was being administered did not result from a decrease in the elimination of tacrolimus due to hepatic dysfunction, drug interaction between omeprazole and tacrolimus was strongly suspected. The present case indicates that rabeprazole can be used safely in place of omeprazole in kidney transplant recipients receiving tacrolimus.

  10. Development of the conceptual framework for the Eye-Drop Satisfaction Questionnaire (EDSQ) in glaucoma using a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Nordmann, Jean-Philippe; Denis, Philippe; Vigneux, Marc; Trudeau, Elyse; Guillemin, Isabelle; Berdeaux, Gilles

    2007-08-06

    Compliance is a major issue in glaucoma care. It is usually poor in glaucomatous patients, and may ultimately result in an acceleration of the disease progression and a risk of blindness. Reasons for this poor compliance are complex and multifactorial, amongst which patient satisfaction can be counted. The objective of this study was to develop a questionnaire to assess patient satisfaction and compliance with eye-drop treatment. A qualitative study was carried out to develop the questionnaire. An interview guide was developed based on a literature review. Structured interviews of fifteen French and English patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or intraocular hypertension were conducted by trained interviewers of the native language of the interviewees. General concepts and subconcepts were identified from the transcripts. The questionnaire was developed using the patient verbatim, and submitted to six patients (French and English) for cognitive debriefing. Following patients' comments, items were modified and restructured, and a pilot questionnaire was designed. Analysis of data from the interviews with patients and clinicians resulted in the elicitation of concepts related to patient satisfaction and compliance with glaucomatous treatment. These were further refined and used to generate a test questionnaire, which consisted of 46 items grouped into 6 domains: patient characteristics, treatment characteristics, patient-clinician relationship, patient experience with the disease and the treatment, interaction between the patient and the treatment, and patient knowledge of the disease and the treatment. The Eye-Drop Satisfaction Questionnaire (EDSQ) conceptual framework and items were developed simultaneously in French and in English. This questionnaire could be used to evaluate patient satisfaction and compliance with eye-drop treatment and would facilitate the identification of patients at risk of being non-compliant prior to clinical trials or innovative

  11. Different Influences on Tacrolimus Pharmacokinetics by Coadministrations of Zhi Ke and Zhi Shi in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shiuan-Pey; Wu, Ping-Ping; Hou, Yu-Chi; Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Wang, Meng-Ju; Fang, Shih-Hua; Chao, Pei-Dawn Lee

    2011-01-01

    Tacrolimus, an immunosuppressant with narrow therapeutic window, has been used widely in transplant patients. Grapefruit juice and pomelo have been reported to increase the blood levels of tacrolimus. Zhi Ke and Zhi Shi, the ripe peels and unripe fruits of Citrus aurantium which is chemotaxonomically related to grapefruit and pomelo, are in wide use in clinical Chinese medicine. To investigate the possible interaction of these two Citrus herbs with tacrolimus, male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally given tacrolimus (1.5 mg/kg) with and without Zhi Ke and Zhi Shi decoctions in a cross-over design. Blood samples were withdrawn via cardiopuncture at specific time and quantitated by a microparticle enzyme immunoassay. In addition, to explore the mechanism of interaction, LS 180 cell line was used for the transport study of rhodamine 123, a typical substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The results showed that Zhi Shi significantly decreased the C max and AUC0−t of tacrolimus by 72.4% and 72.0%, respectively, whereas Zhi Ke did not affect tacrolimus pharmacokinetics. LS 180 cell line study indicated that Zhi Shi increased the efflux activity of P-gp, enabling us to explain the decreased oral bioavailability of tacrolimus caused by Zhi Shi. Hence, we suggest that Zhi Shi be contraindicated for transplant patients treated with tacrolimus to reduce the risk of allograft rejection. PMID:21318106

  12. A preliminary study of the neuroprotective role of citicoline eye drops in glaucomatous optic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Roberti, Gloria; Tanga, Lucia; Parisi, Vincenzo; Sampalmieri, Massimo; Centofanti, Marco; Manni, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To study the neuroprotective effect of topical citicoline. Materials and Methods: Experimental phase to evaluate the ability of citicoline eye drops to reach the vitreous and the retina: The right eyes of 5 mice CD1 were treated with two drops per day for three days of citicoline 1% and 2% (OMK1, Omikron Italia s.r.l.), and then the vitreous was analyzed with the liquid chromatography and spectrometry mass (LC-MS/MS). Clinical phase to determine if topical citicoline is able to delay glaucoma progression, considering perimetric parameters and electro functional tests. Patients were randomized in two groups, OMK1 and OAG. The first group was treated with OMK1 three times per day, plus hypotensive therapy for two months and one month of wash out. The second group was treated only with hypotensive treatment for three months. Results: LC-MS/MS detected the molecule very well, and only OMK1 showed systemic absorption. Thirty-four patients were enrolled, 16 in the OMK1 and 18 in the OAG group. Perimetric parameters showed a positive trend in individual eyes of patients in OMK1 group, but these values were not statistically significant in the whole group. Retinal ganglion cells function improved as shown by reduced P50 latency (P = 0.04) and increased P50-N95 amplitude (P < 0.0001) of pattern electroretinogram, up to 30 days after the washout (P = 0.01; P = 0.002). Visual evoked potential and retino-cortical time improvement regressed after 30 days of washout. In OAG group, there was any change during the follow-up. No adverse reactions were reported in both groups. Conclusions: Topical citicoline seems to have a neuroprotective action. PMID:24881599

  13. Successful treatment with tacrolimus in TAFRO syndrome: two case reports and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Shirai, Taiichiro; Onishi, Akira; Waki, Daisuke; Saegusa, Jun; Morinobu, Akio

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: TAFRO syndrome is a systemic inflammatory disorder characterized by thrombocytopenia, anasarca, fever, reticulin fibrosis, renal dysfunction, and organomegaly. In contrast to that in multicentric Castleman disease, interleukin-6 targeting strategies seem ineffective in some TAFRO syndrome cases; however, the optimal treatment remains unclear. Here, we report 2 cases of TAFRO syndrome, where 1 with cardiomyopathy, successfully treated with tacrolimus. This is the first case report of successful treatment with tacrolimus in TAFRO syndrome. Patient concerns: Both patients (cases 1 and 2) developed fever, anasarca, thrombocytopenia, renal dysfunction, and mild hepatosplenomegaly. Diagnoses: In both patients, lymph node pathology revealed mixed type Castleman disease-like features, and bone marrow showed reticulin myelofibrosis. TAFRO syndrome was diagnosed based on the patients’ laboratory, clinical, and pathologic findings. In case 2, we observed a rare complication of cardiomyopathy with no evidence of takotsubo cardiomyopathy or viral myocarditis. Interventions and outcomes: In case 1, tocilizumab combined with glucocorticoids was ineffective and caused septic shock; additionally, cyclosporine A was discontinued because of hepatotoxicity. However, tacrolimus was effective in resolving TAFRO syndrome without any adverse events. In case 2, tacrolimus completely reversed TAFRO syndrome and was also effective in cardiomyopathy. Lessons: This report suggests that tacrolimus is potentially effective and safe as an initial treatment and a glucocorticoid-sparing agent. Our literature review shows that calcineurin inhibitors, including tacrolimus, may be effective in TAFRO syndrome. Since previous studies indicate a role of Th1 inflammation in TAFRO syndrome pathogenesis, tacrolimus may, therefore, be effective in treating TAFRO syndrome. PMID:29879072

  14. N-Acetylcarnosine sustained drug delivery eye drops to control the signs of ageless vision: glare sensitivity, cataract amelioration and quality of vision currently available treatment for the challenging 50,000-patient population.

    PubMed

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Burke, Leslie; Micans, Philip; Richer, Stuart P

    2009-01-01

    Innovative Vision Products, Inc. (IVP)'s scientists developed the lubricant eye drops (Can-C) designed as 1% N-acetylcarnosine (NAC) prodrug of L-carnosine containing a mucoadhesive cellulose-based compound combined with corneal absorption promoters in a sustained drug delivery system. Only the natural L-isomeric form of NAC raw material was specifically synthesized at the cGMP facility and employed for the manufacturing of Can-C eye drops. In the present clinical study the authors assessed vision before and after 9 month term of topical ocular administration of NAC lubricant eye drops or placebo in 75 symptomatic patients with age-related uncomplicated cataracts in one or both eyes, with acuity in one eye of 20/40 or worse (best-corrected distance), and no previous cataract surgery in either eye and no other ocular abnormality and 72 noncataract subjects ranged in age from 54 to 78 years. Subjects in these subsample groups have reported complaints of glare and wanted to administer eye drops to get quick eye relief and quality of vision for their daily activities including driving and computer works. Following 9 months of treatment with NAC lubricant eye drops, most patients' glare scores were improved or returned to normal in disability glare tests with Halometer DG. Improvement in disability glare was accompanied with independent improvement in acuity. Furthermore, patients with the poorest pretreatment vision were as likely to regain certain better visual function after 9 months of treatment with N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops as those with the worth pretreatment vision. The authors made a reference to electronic records of the product sales to patients who have been made the repurchase of the Can-C eye drops since December 2001. Based on this analysis of recorded adjustments to inventory, various parameters were analyzed during the continued repurchase behavior program, including testimonials from buyers. With these figures, researchers judged on the

  15. The calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus as a new therapy in severe cherubism.

    PubMed

    Kadlub, Natacha; Vazquez, Marie-Paule; Galmiche, Louise; L'Herminé, Aurore Coulomb; Dainese, Linda; Ulinski, Tim; Fauroux, Brigitte; Pavlov, Ioana; Badoual, Cécile; Marlin, Sandrine; Deckert, Marcel; Leboulanger, Nicolas; Berdal, Ariane; Descroix, Vianney; Picard, Arnaud; Coudert, Amélie E

    2015-05-01

    Cherubism is a rare genetic disorder characterized by extensive growth of a bilateral granuloma of the jaws, resulting in facial disfigurement. Cherubism is caused by gain-of-function mutations in the SH3BP2 gene, leading to overactivation of nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1)-dependent osteoclastogenesis. Recent findings in human and mouse cherubism have suggested that calcineurin inhibitors might be drug candidates in cherubism medical treatment. A 4-year-old boy with aggressive cherubism was treated with the calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus for 1 year, and clinical, radiological, and molecular data were obtained. Immunohistologic analysis was performed to compare preoperative and postoperative NFATc1 staining and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity. Real-time PCR was performed to analyze the relative expression levels of OPG and RANKL. After tacrolimus therapy, the patient showed significant clinical improvement, including stabilization of jaw size and intraosseous osteogenesis. Immunohistologic analyses on granuloma showed that tacrolimus caused a significant reduction in the number of TRAP-positive osteoclasts and NFATc1 nuclear staining in multinucleated giant cells. Molecular analysis showed that tacrolimus treatment also resulted in increased OPG expression. We present the first case of effective medical therapy in cherubism. Tacrolimus enhanced bone formation by stimulating osteogenesis and inhibiting osteoclastogenesis. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  16. Donor CYP3A5 genotype influences tacrolimus disposition on the first day after paediatric liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Pier Luigi; Serpe, Loredana; Brunati, Andrea; Nonnato, Antonello; Bongioanni, Daniela; Olio, Dominic Dell'; Pinon, Michele; Ferretti, Carlo; Tandoi, Francesco; Carbonaro, Giulia; Salizzoni, Mauro; Amoroso, Antonio; Romagnoli, Renato; Canaparo, Roberto

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4/5 genotype in paediatric liver transplant recipients and donors, and the contribution of age and gender to tacrolimus disposition on the first day after transplantation. The contribution of the CYP3A4/5 genotype in paediatric liver transplant recipients and donors to the tacrolimus blood trough concentrations (C 0 ) and the tacrolimus concentration/weight-adjusted dose ratio on day 1 was evaluated in 67 liver-transplanted children: 33 boys and 34 girls, mean age 4.5 years. Donor CYP3A5 genotype appears to be significantly associated with tacrolimus disposition on the first day after liver transplantation (P < 0.0002). Other physiological factors, such as recipient age and donor gender may also play a role and lead to significant differences in tacrolimus C 0 and tacrolimus concentration/weight-adjusted dose ratio on day 1. However, according to the general linear model, only recipient age appears to be independently associated with tacrolimus disposition on the first day after liver transplantation (P < 0.03). Indeed, there was a faster tacrolimus metabolism in children under 6 years of age (P < 0.02). Donor CYP3A5 genotype, recipient age and, to a lesser extent, donor gender appear to be associated with tacrolimus disposition on day 1 after transplant. This suggests that increasing the starting tacrolimus doses in paediatric patients under 6 years of age who receive a graft from a male extensive metabolizer may enhance the possibility of their tacrolimus levels reaching the therapeutic range sooner. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  17. Differences in Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes between Brand-Name and Generic Tacrolimus Used in Stable Liver Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Man; Kwon, Choon Hyuck David; Joh, Jae-Won; Sinn, Dong Hyun; Choi, Gyu-Seong; Park, Jae Berm; Kang, Eun-Suk; Lee, Suk-Koo

    2017-01-01

    In this study, peripheral blood lymphocytes were compared between a brand-name and a generic tacrolimus group in stable liver transplant recipients. Sixteen patients who underwent ABO-compatible living donor liver transplants between 2012 and 2013 and had stable graft function were included in this study. Ten patients received brand-name tacrolimus and 6 patients received generic tacrolimus. CD3, CD4, CD8, γδ, CD4+FoxP3+, and CD3-CD56+ T cells were analyzed in peripheral blood obtained preoperatively and 4, 8, 12, and 24 weeks after liver transplantation. Categorical variables were compared using a χ2 test or Fisher exact test, and continuous variables were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Regarding the baseline and perioperative characteristics, there were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups. Immunosuppression also was not different. Subtype analysis of T-cell populations carried out in parallel showed similar levels of CD3, CD4, CD8, and γδT cells with brand-name tacrolimus and generic tacrolimus in stable liver transplant recipients. However, the levels of CD4+Foxp3+ and CD3-CD56+ T cells were higher in the brand-name tacrolimus group than in the generic tacrolimus group 8 weeks after transplantation (p < 0.05). The level of CD4+Foxp3+ T cells was higher in the brand-name tacrolimus group than in the generic tacrolimus group after transplantation. This finding showed that brand-name tacrolimus could have more potential immunosuppressive activity than generic tacrolimus regarding the contribution of CD4+Foxp3+ T cells to graft tolerance in liver transplant recipients. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. The carcinogenic potential of tacrolimus ointment beyond immune suppression: a hypothesis creating case report.

    PubMed

    Becker, Jürgen C; Houben, Roland; Vetter, Claudia S; Bröcker, Eva B

    2006-01-11

    Since tacrolimus ointment was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a promising treatment for atopic dermatitis, it has been approved in more than 30 additional countries, including numerous European Union member nations. Moreover, in the current clinical routine the use of this drug is no longer restricted to the approved indication, but has been extended to a wide variety of inflammatory skin diseases including some with the potential of malignant transformation. So far, the side-effects reported from the topical use of tacrolimus have been relatively minor (e.g. burning, pruritus, erythema). Recently, however, the FDA reviewed the safety of topical tacrolimus, which resulted in a warning that the use of calcineurin inhibitors may be associated with an increased risk of cancer. Oral lichen planus (OLP) was diagnosed in a 56-year-old women in February 1999. After several ineffective local and systemic therapeutic measures an off-label treatment of this recalcitrant condition using Tacrolimus 0.1% ointment was initiated in May 2002. After a few weeks of treatment most of the lesions ameliorated, with the exception of the plaques on the sides of the tongue. Nevertheless, the patient became free of symptoms which, however, reoccurred once tacrolimus was weaned, as a consequence treatment was maintained. In April 2005, the plaques on the left side of the tongue appeared increasingly compact and a biopsy specimen confirmed the suspected diagnosis of an oral squamous cell carcinoma. The suspected causal relationship between topical use of tacrolimus and the development of a squamous cell carcinoma prompted us to test the notion that the carcinogenicity of tacrolimus may go beyond mere immune suppression. To this end, tacrolimus has been shown to have an impact on cancer signalling pathways such as the MAPK and the p53 pathway. In the given case, we were able to demonstrate that these pathways had also been altered subsequent to tacrolimus therapy.

  19. The Pittsburgh Randomized Trial of Tacrolimus Compared to Cyclosporine for Hepatic Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Fung, John J.; Eliasziw, Michael; Todo, Satoru; Jain, Ashok; Demetris, Anthony J.; McMichael, John P.; Starzl, Thomas E.; Meier, Paul; Donner, Allan

    2009-01-01

    Background Tacrolimus (formerly FK 506) was first used clinically in 1989 to successfully replace cyclosporine in hepatic transplant recipients who were experiencing intractable rejection or as the baseline drug from the time of operation. After extensive pilot experience, an institutional review board-mandated clinical trial comparing cyclosporine with tacrolimus was performed. Study Design From February 16, 1990 to December 26, 1991, 154 patients were recruited. The competing drugs were combined with equal induction doses of prednisone in both arms of the study for the first 81 patients and with subsequently higher doses of prednisone in the remaining 35 patients who received cyclosporine and were entered into the trial. Drug crossover was permitted for lack of efficacy or adverse events. End points were rejection confirmed by biopsy and treatment failure leading to retransplantation or death. Results Seventy-nine patients were randomized to the tacrolimus arm and 75 to the cyclosporine arm during 1990 and 1991. All patients were available for follow-up throughout the trial, which terminated on May 30, 1995. The mean duration of follow-up was four years. Patients randomized to the tacrolimus arm were less likely to experience acute rejection than were those receiving cyclosporine, with 36.2 percent of the patients receiving tacrolimus and 16.8 percent of the patients receiving cyclosporine showing freedom from rejection at one year (p=0.003, likelihood ratio test). Survival of patients over the course of the study was virtually the same in the two groups. Conclusions Tacrolimus was more effective than cyclosporine in preventing acute rejection. PMID:8696542

  20. Cyclosporine versus tacrolimus: cost-effectiveness analysis for renal transplantation in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Augusto Afonso; Silva, Grazielle Dias; Andrade, Eli Iola Gurgel; Cherchiglia, Mariângela Leal; Costa, Juliana de Oliveira; Almeida, Alessandra Maciel; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the cost-effectiveness of treatment regimens with cyclosporine or tacrolimus, five years after renal transplantation. METHODS This cost-effectiveness analysis was based on historical cohort data obtained between 2000 and 2004 and involved 2,022 patients treated with cyclosporine or tacrolimus, matched 1:1 for gender, age, and type and year of transplantation. Graft survival and the direct costs of medical care obtained from the National Health System (SUS) databases were used as outcome results. RESULTS Most of the patients were women, with a mean age of 36.6 years. The most frequent diagnosis of chronic renal failure was glomerulonephritis/nephritis (27.7%). In five years, the tacrolimus group had an average life expectancy gain of 3.96 years at an annual cost of R$78,360.57 compared with the cyclosporine group with a gain of 4.05 years and an annual cost of R$61,350.44. CONCLUSIONS After matching, the study indicated better survival of patients treated with regimens using tacrolimus. However, regimens containing cyclosporine were more cost-effective. PMID:25741648

  1. Cyclosporine versus tacrolimus: cost-effectiveness analysis for renal transplantation in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Guerra Júnior, Augusto Afonso; Silva, Grazielle Dias; Andrade, Eli Iola Gurgel; Cherchiglia, Mariângela Leal; Costa, Juliana de Oliveira; Almeida, Alessandra Maciel; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the cost-effectiveness of treatment regimens with cyclosporine or tacrolimus, five years after renal transplantation. METHODS This cost-effectiveness analysis was based on historical cohort data obtained between 2000 and 2004 and involved 2,022 patients treated with cyclosporine or tacrolimus, matched 1:1 for gender, age, and type and year of transplantation. Graft survival and the direct costs of medical care obtained from the National Health System (SUS) databases were used as outcome results. RESULTS Most of the patients were women, with a mean age of 36.6 years. The most frequent diagnosis of chronic renal failure was glomerulonephritis/nephritis (27.7%). In five years, the tacrolimus group had an average life expectancy gain of 3.96 years at an annual cost of R$78,360.57 compared with the cyclosporine group with a gain of 4.05 years and an annual cost of R$61,350.44. CONCLUSIONS After matching, the study indicated better survival of patients treated with regimens using tacrolimus. Moreover, regimens containing cyclosporine were more cost-effective [corrected].

  2. De novo use of generic tacrolimus in liver transplantation - a single center experience with one-yr follow-up.

    PubMed

    Dannhorn, E; Cheung, M; Rodrigues, S; Cooper, H; Thorburn, D; Patch, D; Burroughs, A K; O'Beirne, J

    2014-12-01

    Use of generic tacrolimus in liver transplantation (LT) could result in cost savings. Generic tacrolimus has been shown to be bioequivalent to innovator tacrolimus in healthy volunteers and renal transplant patients. There are limited data on the de novo use of generic tacrolimus in LT. This study aimed to determine whether the de novo use of generic tacrolimus (Adoport, Sandoz,UK) was associated with differences in outcomes, safety, and cost compared with innovator tacrolimus (Prograf, Astellas, Japan). Patients were studied before and after a programmatic change from de novo IS with Prograf to Adoport. Outcomes, tacrolimus levels, doses, and costs were compared for the first-yr post-LT. Ninety-four patients were studied, 46 Prograf, 48 Adoport. No significant differences in rejection, cytomegalovirus infection, acute kidney injury, sepsis, or graft loss were observed between groups. Tacrolimus costs were significantly reduced with the de novo use of Adoport. Day 14 dose normalized levels in Adoport patients showed significant variation but at the day 30 and one yr, there were no significant differences in the doses or levels of tacrolimus between groups. Adoport is safe and effective compared to Prograf when used de novo in LT patients. Tacrolimus costs were significantly reduced by the use of Adoport. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Use of Topical Tacrolimus and Topical Pimecrolimus in Four European Countries: A Multicentre Database Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Kuiper, Josephina G; van Herk-Sukel, Myrthe P P; Castellsague, Jordi; Pottegård, Anton; Berglind, Ingegärd Anveden; Dedman, Daniel; Gutierrez, Lia; Calingaert, Brian; Hallas, Jesper; Sundström, Anders; Gallagher, Arlene M; Kaye, James A; Pardo, Carolina; Rothman, Kenneth J; Perez-Gutthann, Susana

    2018-05-07

    Despite the concerns about a potential increased risk of skin cancer and lymphoma with the use of topical tacrolimus and pimecrolimus, no population-based studies have given an overview of the use of these drugs in Europe. To assess the use of topical tacrolimus and pimecrolimus in children and adults in Europe. Multicentre database cohort study comprising data from the Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden and the UK. We analysed users of topical tacrolimus and pimecrolimus starting from the date of first availability (between 2002 and 2003) or start establishment of the prescription database in Sweden (2006) through 2011. Use was assessed separately for children (≤ 18 years) and adults. 32,052 children and 104,902 adults were treated with topical tacrolimus, and 32,125 children and 58,280 adults were treated with topical pimecrolimus. The number of users increased rapidly after first availability, especially for topical tacrolimus. Topical tacrolimus was more frequently used in all countries except Denmark. For both drugs, there was a decrease in users after 2004 in the Netherlands and Denmark and after 2005 in the UK, especially among children. This decrease was largest in Denmark. The decrease in the number of users was temporary for topical tacrolimus, while use remained relatively low for topical pimecrolimus. The number of topical tacrolimus and pimecrolimus users increased rapidly after regulatory approval. A transient reduction in topical tacrolimus use and a persistent reduction in topical pimecrolimus use was seen after 2004 in the Netherlands and Denmark and after 2005 in the UK.

  4. Eye and orbit ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    Echography - eye orbit; Ultrasound - eye orbit; Ocular ultrasonography; Orbital ultrasonography ... eye is numbed with medicine (anesthetic drops). The ultrasound wand (transducer) is placed against the front surface ...

  5. Topical tacrolimus in alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Price, Vera H; Willey, Andrea; Chen, Bryan K

    2005-01-01

    Eleven patients with alopecia areata affecting 10% to 75% of the scalp, average duration 6 years, had no terminal hair growth in response to tacrolimus ointment 0.1% applied twice daily for 24 weeks. Treatment failure may reflect insufficient depth of penetration of the ointment formulation and less than optimal patient selection.

  6. Rectal and sublingual administration of tacrolimus: a single-dose pharmacokinetic study in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Stifft, Frank; Vanmolkot, Floris; Scheffers, Ingrid; van Bortel, Luc; Neef, Cees; Christiaans, Maarten

    2014-11-01

    The immunosuppressant tacrolimus is usually administered orally. When this is not feasible, other routes of administration may be useful. Previous research suggested that tacrolimus may be applied sublingually or rectally. Pharmacokinetic data are sparse. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the pharmacokinetics of these alternative formulations with orally administered tacrolimus. Three single, fixed-dose formulations of tacrolimus were administered in a random sequence in 18 healthy subjects, using a cross-over study design. For sublingual administration, 3 mg of powder obtained from oral capsules was applied under the tongue for a period of 15 min without swallowing, with mouth rinsing afterwards. For rectal administration, a suppository containing 15 mg of the oral powder was used. Oral administration consisted of 7 mg of instant-release tacrolimus capsules (Prograf). Main pharmacokinetic outcome parameters were compared by anova. Sublingual administration showed no clinically significant exposure, contrary to rectal administration, where all subjects had clinically relevant exposure, with a lower relative bioavailability (78%), a lower maximal blood concentration and a later time of maximal blood concentration compared with oral administration. Sublingual administration of a single dose of tacrolimus does not result in systemic exposure if care is taken not to swallow saliva and to rinse the oral cavity afterwards. Rectal administration of tacrolimus results in clinically relevant systemic exposure and might represent an alternative formulation in case oral administration is not feasible. When used as a topical agent, systemic side-effects should be considered. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  7. Rectal and sublingual administration of tacrolimus: a single-dose pharmacokinetic study in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Stifft, Frank; Vanmolkot, Floris; Scheffers, Ingrid; van Bortel, Luc; Neef, Cees; Christiaans, Maarten

    2014-01-01

    Aims The immunosuppressant tacrolimus is usually administered orally. When this is not feasible, other routes of administration may be useful. Previous research suggested that tacrolimus may be applied sublingually or rectally. Pharmacokinetic data are sparse. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the pharmacokinetics of these alternative formulations with orally administered tacrolimus. Methods Three single, fixed-dose formulations of tacrolimus were administered in a random sequence in 18 healthy subjects, using a cross-over study design. For sublingual administration, 3 mg of powder obtained from oral capsules was applied under the tongue for a period of 15 min without swallowing, with mouth rinsing afterwards. For rectal administration, a suppository containing 15 mg of the oral powder was used. Oral administration consisted of 7 mg of instant-release tacrolimus capsules (Prograf). Main pharmacokinetic outcome parameters were compared by anova. Results Sublingual administration showed no clinically significant exposure, contrary to rectal administration, where all subjects had clinically relevant exposure, with a lower relative bioavailability (78%), a lower maximal blood concentration and a later time of maximal blood concentration compared with oral administration. Conclusions Sublingual administration of a single dose of tacrolimus does not result in systemic exposure if care is taken not to swallow saliva and to rinse the oral cavity afterwards. Rectal administration of tacrolimus results in clinically relevant systemic exposure and might represent an alternative formulation in case oral administration is not feasible. When used as a topical agent, systemic side-effects should be considered. PMID:24809233

  8. Comparison of the safety and protective efficacy of vaccination with glycoprotein-G-deficient infectious laryngotracheitis virus delivered via eye-drop, drinking water or aerosol.

    PubMed

    Devlin, J M; Browning, G F; Gilkerson, J R; Fenton, S P; Hartley, C A

    2008-02-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), an alphaherpesvirus, causes respiratory disease in chickens and is commonly controlled by vaccination with conventionally attenuated virus strains. These vaccines have limitations due to residual pathogenicity and reversion to virulence. To avoid these problems and to better control disease, attention has recently turned towards developing a novel vaccine strain that lacks virulence gene(s). Glycoprotein G (gG) is a virulence factor in ILTV. A gG-deficient strain of ILTV has been shown to be less pathogenic than currently available vaccine strains following intratracheal inoculation of specific pathogen free chickens. Intratracheal inoculation of gG-deficient ILTV has also been shown to induce protection against disease following challenge with virulent virus. Intratracheal inoculation, however, is not suitable for large-scale vaccination of commercial poultry flocks. In this study, inoculation of gG-deficient ILTV via eye-drop, drinking water and aerosol were investigated. Aerosol inoculation resulted in undesirably low levels of safety and protective efficacy. Inoculation via eye-drop and drinking water was safe, and the levels of protective efficacy were comparable with intratracheal inoculation. Thus, gG-deficient ILTV appears to have potential for use in large-scale poultry vaccination programmes when administered via eye-drop or in drinking water.

  9. Effects of eye drops containing a mixture of omega-3 essential fatty acids and hyaluronic acid on the ocular surface in desiccating stress-induced murine dry eye.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhengri; Choi, Jung-Han; Oh, Han-Jin; Park, Soo-Hyun; Lee, Jee-Bum; Yoon, Kyung Chul

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the efficacy of the topical application of omega-3 essential fatty acids (EFAs) and hyaluronic acid (HA) mixtures in a mouse model of experimental dry eye (EDE). Eye drops consisting of 0.1% HA, 0.02%, or 0.2% omega-3 EFAs alone and mixture of 0.02%, or 0.2% omega-3 EFAs and 0.1% HA were applied in desiccating stress-induced murine dry eye. Corneal irregularity scores and fluorescein staining scores were measured 5 and 10 days after treatment. Levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, -17, and interferon gamma-induced protein (IP)-10 were measured in the conjunctiva at 10 days using a multiplex immunobead assay. The concentrations of hexanoyl-lys (HEL) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) in conjunctiva tissue were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Mice treated with the mixture containing 0.2% omega-3 EFAs showed a significant improvement in corneal irregularity scores and corneal fluorescein staining scores compared with EDE, HA, 0.02% or 0.2% omega-3 EFAs alone, and 0.02% omega-3 EFAs mixture-treated mice. A significant decrease in the levels of IL-1β, -17, and IP-10 were observed in the 0.2% EFAs mixture-treated group, compared with the other groups. In the mice treated with the mixture containing 0.2% omega-3 EFAs, the concentration of 4-HNE was also lower than the other groups. Although 0.2% omega-3 EFAs alone group also had a significant improvement in corneal irregularity scores and IL-17, IL-10, and 4 HNE levels compared with the other groups, the efficacy was lower than 0.2% omega-3 mixture group. Topically applied eye drops containing a mixture of omega-3 EFAs and HA could improve corneal irregularity and corneal epithelial barrier disruption, and decrease inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress markers on the ocular surface. Topical omega-3 EFAs and HA mixture may have a greater therapeutic effect on clinical signs and inflammation of dry eye compared with HA artificial tears.

  10. ATG-Fresenius treatment and low-dose tacrolimus: results of a randomized controlled trial in liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Benítez, C E; Puig-Pey, I; López, M; Martínez-Llordella, M; Lozano, J J; Bohne, F; Londoño, M C; García-Valdecasas, J C; Bruguera, M; Navasa, M; Rimola, A; Sánchez-Fueyo, A

    2010-10-01

    We report the results of a prospective randomized controlled trial in liver transplantation assessing the efficacy and safety of antithymocyte globulin (ATG-Fresenius) plus tacrolimus monotherapy at gradually decreasing doses. Patients were randomized to either: (a) standard-dose tacrolimus plus steroids;or (b) peritransplant ATG-Fresenius plus reduced-dose tacrolimus monotherapy followed by weaning of tacrolimus starting 3 months after transplantation. The primary end-point was the achievement of very low-dose tacrolimus (every-other-day or once daily dose with <5 ng/mL trough levels) at 12 months after transplantation. Acute rejection occurring during the first 3 months after transplantation was more frequent in the ATG group (52.4% vs. 25%). Moreover, late acute rejection episodes occurred in all recipients in whom weaning was attempted and no recipients reached the primary end-point. This motivated the premature termination of the trial. Tacrolimus trough levels were lower in the ATG-Fresenius group but no benefits in terms of improved renal function, lower metabolic complications or increased prevalence of tolerance-related biomarkers were observed. In conclusion, the use of ATG-Fresenius and tacrolimus at gradually decreasing doses was associated with a high rate of rejection, did not allow for the administration of very low doses of tacrolimus and failed to provide detectable clinical benefits. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00436722. © 2010 The Authors Journal compilation © 2010 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  11. Lactobacillus Fermentum Improves Tacrolimus-Induced Hypertension by Restoring Vascular Redox State and Improving eNOS Coupling.

    PubMed

    Toral, Marta; Romero, Miguel; Rodríguez-Nogales, Alba; Jiménez, Rosario; Robles-Vera, Iñaki; Algieri, Francesca; Chueca-Porcuna, Natalia; Sánchez, Manuel; de la Visitación, Néstor; Olivares, Mónica; García, Federico; Pérez-Vizcaíno, Francisco; Gálvez, Julio; Duarte, Juan

    2018-05-30

    Our aim was to analyse whether the probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum CECT5716 (LC40) could prevent endothelial dysfunction and hypertension induced by tacrolimus in mice. Tacrolimus increased systolic blood pressure (SBP) and impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine and these effects were partially prevented by LC40. Endothelial dysfunction induced by tacrolimus was related to both increased NADPH oxidase (NOX2) and uncoupled eNOS driven-superoxide production and Rho-kinase mediated eNOS inhibition. LC40 treatment prevented all the aortic changes induced by tacrolimus. LC40 restored the imbalance between T-helper 17 (Th17)/ regulatory T (Treg) cells induced by tacrolimus in mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen. Tacrolimus induced gut dysbiosis, i.e. it decreased microbial diversity, increased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and decreased acetate- and butyrate-producing bacteria and these effects were prevented by LC40. Fecal microbiota transplantation from LC40 treated mice to control mice prevented the increase in SBP and the impaired relaxation to acetylcholine induced by tacrolimus. LC40 treatment prevented hypertension and endothelial dysfunction induced by tacrolimus by inhibiting gut dysbiosis. These effects were associated with a reduction in vascular oxidative stress, mainly through NOX2 down-regulation and prevention of eNOS-uncoupling, and inflammation possibly because of decreased Th17 and increased Treg cells polarization in mesenteric lymph nodes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Cobicistat Significantly Increases Tacrolimus Serum Concentrations in a Renal Transplant Recipient with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhe; Kane, Brenna M; Petty, Lindsay A; Josephson, Michelle A; Sutor, Jozefa; Pursell, Kenneth J

    2016-06-01

    Cobicistat is a pharmacokinetic booster in several fixed-dose combination products for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. As a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A enzymes, significant drug-drug interactions are expected between cobicistat and medications that are metabolized primarily through the CYP3A pathway, including calcineurin inhibitors (e.g., tacrolimus and cyclosporine). We describe a case of tacrolimus toxicity due to supratherapeutic tacrolimus concentrations when Stribild (elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate) was initiated for newly diagnosed HIV infection in a 50-year-old renal transplant recipient who was previously receiving a stable tacrolimus regimen. Drug-drug interaction via CYP3A inhibition was acknowledged, and weekly labs were ordered to allow for close monitoring of renal function and tacrolimus serum concentrations as recommended by Stribild prescribing information. The patient reported headache, insomnia, stomachache, and decreased urine output within 1 week of starting Stribild and was found to have acute kidney injury (serum creatinine [S cr ]concentration increasing from 1.5-2.3 mg/dl) and a serum tacrolimus concentration of 111.2 ng/ml at 1 week follow-up (goal trough level 4-6 ng/ml). Both tacrolimus and Stribild were withheld. In 15 days, the patient's tacrolimus serum concentration returned to goal. In the interim, he required twice/week clinic visits for laboratory assessments and an emergency department visit for management of hyperkalemia (potassium 6.5 mEq/L). Triumeq (abacavir, dolutegravir, and lamivudine) was started about 4 weeks later after S cr returned to baseline, and his tacrolimus serum trough concentrations subsequently remained stable. To our knowledge, this is the first case report describing the extent, significance, and onset of cobicistat and tacrolimus drug-drug interaction in clinical practice. As more fixed-dose combination products

  13. Evaluation of the onset and duration of effect of azelastine eye drops (0.05%) versus placebo in patients with allergic conjunctivitis using an allergen challenge model.

    PubMed

    Friedlaender, M H; Harris, J; LaVallee, N; Russell, H; Shilstone, J

    2000-12-01

    The trial evaluated the effectiveness of the investigational antihistaminic and antiallergic compound Azelastine Eye Drops (AZE) in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis using an allergen challenge model. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, paired-eye study. Adults with a history of allergic conjunctivitis (>/=2 years) who were asymptomatic throughout the trial, had a positive skin test (cat dander, grass, or ragweed pollen within the last year), and had a positive conjunctival reaction (score 2+ or more for itching and redness in both eyes on a 0-4 scale) during two separate conjunctival provocation tests (CPT) before randomization. Eighty patients underwent a 2-week screening period (visits 1 and 2) that included a CPT during visit 1 to establish the allergen threshold dose and a second confirmatory CPT performed at visit 2. Eye symptom assessments for itching (evaluated by patient) and conjunctival redness (evaluated by physician) were performed 5 and 10 minutes after CPT using a 5-point scale (from 0 = none to 4+ = severe). Qualified patients were randomized to receive one drop of AZE (0.015 mg of azelastine hydrochloride) in one eye and one drop of placebo in the other eye 20 minutes before CPT at visit 3 (onset) and 8 or 10 hours before CPT at visit 4 (duration). Individual severity scores for itching (evaluated by patient) and conjunctival redness (evaluated by physician) for each eye at 3, 5, and 10 minutes after CPT at visits 3 and 4 using a 5-point scale (0 = none to 4+ = very severe). Each of the 80 randomized patients completed the trial. Mean itching and conjunctival redness scores at visit 3 (onset) were significantly lower (P: < 0.001) in the AZE-treated eyes than in the placebo-treated eyes. At visit 4 (duration), mean itching and conjunctival redness scores (P: eyes than in the placebo-treated eyes

  14. N-Acetylcarnosine sustained drug delivery eye drops to control the signs of ageless vision: Glare sensitivity, cataract amelioration and quality of vision currently available treatment for the challenging 50,000-patient population

    PubMed Central

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Burke, Leslie; Micans, Philip; Richer, Stuart P

    2009-01-01

    Background: Innovative Vision Products, Inc. (IVP)’s scientists developed the lubricant eye drops (Can-C™) designed as 1% N-acetylcarnosine (NAC) prodrug of l-carnosine containing a mucoadhesive cellulose-based compound combined with corneal absorption promoters in a sustained drug delivery system. Only the natural l-isomeric form of NAC raw material was specifically synthesized at the cGMP facility and employed for the manufacturing of Can-C™ eye drops. Objective and study design: In the present clinical study the authors assessed vision before and after 9 month term of topical ocular administration of NAC lubricant eye drops or placebo in 75 symptomatic patients with age-related uncomplicated cataracts in one or both eyes, with acuity in one eye of 20/40 or worse (best-corrected distance), and no previous cataract surgery in either eye and no other ocular abnormality and 72 noncataract subjects ranged in age from 54 to 78 years. Setting: Subjects in these subsample groups have reported complaints of glare and wanted to administer eye drops to get quick eye relief and quality of vision for their daily activities including driving and computer works. Following 9 months of treatment with NAC lubricant eye drops, most patients’ glare scores were improved or returned to normal in disability glare tests with Halometer DG. Improvement in disability glare was accompanied with independent improvement in acuity. Furthermore, patients with the poorest pretreatment vision were as likely to regain certain better visual function after 9 months of treatment with N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops as those with the worth pretreatment vision. Patients or other participants: The authors made a reference to electronic records of the product sales to patients who have been made the repurchase of the Can-C™ eye drops since December 2001. Intervention: Based on this analysis of recorded adjustments to inventory, various parameters were analyzed during the continued

  15. Randomized Comparison of Topical Betamethasone Valerate Foam, Intralesional Triamcinolone Acetonide and Tacrolimus Ointment in Management of Localized Alopecia Areata

    PubMed Central

    Kuldeep, CM; Singhal, Himanshu; Khare, Ashok Kumar; Mittal, Asit; Gupta, Lalit K; Garg, Anubhav

    2011-01-01

    Background: Alopecia areata (AA) is a common, non-scarring, patchy loss of hair at scalp and elsewhere. Its pathogenesis is uncertain; however, auto-immunity has been exemplified in various studies. Familial incidence of AA is 10-42%, but in monozygotic twins is 50%. Local steroids (topical / intra-lesional) are very effective in treatment of localized AA. Aim: To compare hair regrowth and side effects of topical betamethasone valerate foam, intralesional triamcinolone acetonide and tacrolimus ointment in management of localized AA. Materials and Methods: 105 patients of localized AA were initially registered but 27 were drop out. So, 78 patients allocated at random in group A (28), B (25) and C (25) were prescribed topical betamethasone valerate foam (0.1%) twice daily, intralesional triamcinolone acetonide (10mg/ml) every 3 weeks and tacrolimus ointment (0.1%) twice daily, respectively, for 12 weeks. They were followed for next12 weeks. Hair re-growth was calculated using “HRG Scale”; scale I- (0-25%), S II-(26-50%), S III - (51-75%) and S IV- (75-100%). Results: Hair re-growth started by 3 weeks in group B (Scale I: P<0.03), turned satisfactory at 6 weeks in group A and B (Scale I: P<0.005, Scale IV: P<0.001)), good at 9 weeks (Scale I: P<0.0005, Scale IV: P<0.00015), and better by 12 weeks of treatment (Scale I: P<0.000021, Scale IV: P<0.000009) in both A and B groups. At the end of 12 weeks follow-up hair re-growth (>75%, HRG IV) was the best in group B (15 of 25, 60%), followed by A (15 of 28, 53.6%) and lastly group-C (Nil of 25, 0%) patients. Few patients reported mild pain and atrophy at injection sites, pruritus and burning with betamethasone valerate foam and tacrolimus. Conclusion: Intralesional triamcinolone acetonide is the best, betamethasone valerate foam is better than tacrolimus in management of localized AA. PMID:21769231

  16. Renal Function in De Novo Liver Transplant Recipients Receiving Different Prolonged-Release Tacrolimus Regimens-The DIAMOND Study.

    PubMed

    TruneČka, P; Klempnauer, J; Bechstein, W O; Pirenne, J; Friman, S; Zhao, A; Isoniemi, H; Rostaing, L; Settmacher, U; Mönch, C; Brown, M; Undre, N; Tisone, G

    2015-07-01

    DIAMOND: multicenter, 24-week, randomized trial investigating the effect of different once-daily, prolonged-release tacrolimus dosing regimens on renal function after de novo liver transplantation. Arm 1: prolonged-release tacrolimus (initial dose 0.2mg/kg/day); Arm 2: prolonged-release tacrolimus (0.15-0.175mg/kg/day) plus basiliximab; Arm 3: prolonged-release tacrolimus (0.2mg/kg/day delayed until Day 5) plus basiliximab. All patients received MMF plus a bolus of corticosteroid (no maintenance steroids). eGFR (MDRD4) at Week 24. Secondary endpoints: composite efficacy failure, BCAR and AEs. Baseline characteristics were comparable. Tacrolimus trough levels were readily achieved posttransplant; initially lower in Arm 2 versus 1 with delayed initiation in Arm 3. eGFR (MDRD4) was higher in Arms 2 and 3 versus 1 (p = 0.001, p = 0.047). Kaplan-Meier estimates of composite efficacy failure-free survival were 72.0%, 77.6%, 73.9% in Arms 1-3. BCAR incidence was significantly lower in Arm 2 versus 1 and 3 (p = 0.016, p = 0.039). AEs were comparable. Prolonged-release tacrolimus (0.15-0.175mg/kg/day) immediately posttransplant plus basiliximab and MMF (without maintenance corticosteroids) was associated with lower tacrolimus exposure, and significantly reduced renal function impairment and BCAR incidence versus prolonged-release tacrolimus (0.2mg/kg/day) administered immediately posttransplant. Delayed higher-dose prolonged-release tacrolimus initiation significantly reduced renal function impairment compared with immediate posttransplant administration, but BCAR incidence was comparable. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Transplantation published by Wiley Periodicals Inc.

  17. Sirolimus Versus Tacrolimus as Primary Immunosuppressant After Renal Transplantation: A Meta-Analysis and Economics Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin-Yu; Song, Ming; Guo, Min; Huang, Feng; Ma, Bing-Jun; Zhu, Lan; Xu, Gang; Li, Juan; You, Ru-Xu

    Sirolimus and tacrolimus are the major immunosuppressants for renal transplantation. Several studies have compared these 2 drugs, but the outcomes were not consistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and pharmacoeconomics of sirolimus and tacrolimus in the treatment of renal transplantation and provide evidence for the selection of essential drugs. Trials were identified through a computerized literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane controlled trials register, Cochrane Renal Group Specialized Register of randomized controlled trials, and Chinese Biomedical database. Two independent reviewers assessed trials for eligibility and quality and then extracted data. Data were extracted for patient and graft mortality, acute rejection (AR), and adverse events. Dichotomous outcomes were reported as relative risk with 95% confidence intervals. A decision tree model was populated with data from a literature review and used to estimate costs and QALYs gained and incremental cost-effectiveness. Altogether, 1189 patients from 8 randomized controlled trials were included. The results of our analysis were that tacrolimus reduced the risks after renal transplantation of AR and patient withdrawn. Nevertheless, tacrolimus increased the risk of infection. Pharmacoeconomic analysis showed that tacrolimus represented a more cost-effective treatment than does cyclosporine for the prevention of adverse events after renal transplant. Tacrolimus is an effective and safe immunosuppressive agent, and it may be more cost-effective than cyclosporine for the primary prevention of AR in renal transplant recipients. However, it should be noted that such superiority was reversal when the cost of sirolimus and tacrolimus changed.

  18. Early alteration of kidney function in nonuremic type 1 diabetic islet transplant recipients under tacrolimus-mycophenolate therapy.

    PubMed

    Gillard, Pieter; Rustandi, Maria; Efendi, Achmad; Lee, Da Hae; Ling, Zhidong; Hilbrands, Robert; Kuypers, Dirk; Mathieu, Chantal; Jacobs-Tulleneers-Thevissen, Daniel; Gorus, Frans; Pipeleers, Daniel; Keymeulen, Bart

    2014-08-27

    Transplant patients on tacrolimus therapy exhibit a reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The type of graft and immune treatment protocol may influence the extent and reversibility of this side effect. The present single-center study is conducted in 48 nonuremic type 1 diabetic recipients of an intraportal islet-cell graft under maintenance immunosuppression (IS) with tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil. Estimated GFR (eGFR) and albuminuria were followed up to 5 years posttransplantation. Mean eGFR values decreased by 19 mL/min/1.73 m after 1 to 2 weeks of IS (P<0.0001) and then remained stable throughout the complete treatment period. The decrease was related to predose trough tacrolimus concentrations or doses and disappeared upon its discontinuation; it was also associated with the presence of albuminuria at the time of transplantation. Tacrolimus treatment resulted in a reduction of albuminuria; its discontinuation restored albuminuria to the initial levels. The use of tacrolimus in our islet-cell transplant protocol caused an initial 20% reduction in eGFR, which was reversible following its discontinuation, at least within the 5-year follow-up period. The associated reduction in albuminuria was also reversible, compatible with a tacrolimus-induced preglomerular vasoconstriction. These observations support further use of our tacrolimus regimen in this patient population.

  19. Clinical and genetic factors affecting tacrolimus trough levels and drug-related outcomes in Korean kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Kim, In-Wha; Moon, Yoo Jin; Ji, Eunhee; Kim, Kyung Im; Han, Nayoung; Kim, Sung Ju; Shin, Wan Gyoon; Ha, Jongwon; Yoon, Jeong-Hyun; Lee, Hye Suk; Oh, Jung Mi

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the effects of clinical and genetic variables on the pharmacokinetics and complications of tacrolimus during the first year after kidney transplantation. One hundred and thirty-two Korean kidney recipients who received tacrolimus were genotyped for ABCB1 (exons 12, 21, and 26) and CYP3A5 (intron 3). Tacrolimus trough levels, dose, or dose-adjusted trough levels and complications were compared among patients during the early stage (3, 7, 14, 30, and 90 days) and up to 1 year according to the genotypes. A donor source-adjusted linear mixed model with multilevel analysis adjusting for age, body weight, hematocrit, and serum creatinine showed that CYP3A5 genotype is associated with dose-adjusted level of tacrolimus (p < 0.001). The influence of ABCB1 polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics or complications of tacrolimus was less certain in our study. The incidence of acute rejections was significantly higher in recipients of cadaveric donor kidney (p < 0.05). A generalized estimating equation model analysis showed that alopecia and hyperlipidemia were associated with dose-adjusted level of tacrolimus (p < 0.001). Genotype of CYP3A5 variants along with significant clinical covariates may be useful in individualizing tacrolimus therapy in kidney transplantation patients.

  20. Bioactivation antioxidant and transglycating properties of N-acetylcarnosine autoinduction prodrug of a dipeptide L-carnosine in mucoadhesive drug delivery eye-drop formulation: powerful eye health application technique and therapeutic platform.

    PubMed

    Babizhayev, Mark A

    2012-06-01

    A considerable interest in N-acetylcarnosine ocular drug design for eye health is based on clinical strategies to improve ocular drug delivery through metabolic enzymatic activation. Human biology aspects of ocular N-acetylcarnosine deacetylation during its pass through the cornea to the aqueous humor and dipeptide hydrolyzing enzymes are characterized. Novel approaches to ocular drug delivery increasing intraocular bioavailability of N-acetylcarnosine biologically activated metabolite carnosine become an integral development ensuring prolonged retention of the medication in the mucoadhesive precorneal area and facilitating transcorneal penetration of the natural dipeptide with the corneal promoters. A comprehensive list of techniques for peptide drug design, synthesis, purification, and biological analyses was considered: liquid chromatography (LC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), (1) H and (13) C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectroscopy, and spectrophotometry. The antioxidant activity of therapeutics-targeted molecules was studied in aqueous solution and in a lipid membrane environment. A deglycation therapeutic system was developed involving removal, by transglycation of sugar or aldehyde moieties from Schiff bases by histidyl-hydrazide compounds or aldehyde scavenger L-carnosine. Clinical studies included ophthalmoscopy, visual acuity (VA), halometer disability glare tests, slit-image, and retro-illumination photography. N-acetylcarnosine 1% lubricant eye drops are considered as an auto-induction prodrug and natural ocular redox state balance therapies with implications in prevention and treatment of serious eye diseases that involve pathways of continuous oxidative damage to ocular tissues(cataracts, primary open-angle glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration) and sight-threatening glycosylation processes (diabetic retinopathy and consequent visual impairment) important for public health. The results of

  1. Ranolazine, tacrolimus, and diltiazem might be a hazardous combination in a transplant patient.

    PubMed

    Patni, Hitesh; Gitman, Michael; Hazzan, Azzour; Jhaveri, Kenar D

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of a renal transplant patient who was maintained on tacrolimus and diltiazem therapy and developed tacrolimus toxicity leading to reversible acute kidney injury when started on ranolazine. A 62-year-old Caucasian male status post renal transplant in 2009 (on prednisone and tacrolimus) was evaluated for ischemic heart disease and was initiated on ranolazine 500 mg tablets twice daily, which was later increased to 1000 mg twice daily. After 2 weeks, he developed fatigue, loss of appetite, tremors, and decreased urine output and was admitted to our hospital. His other significant medications included enalapril 2.5 mg and diltiazem 240 mg daily. The patient was awake and alert, but lethargic. He was found to be bradycardic with a heart rate of 42/min. The rest of his physical examination was benign. His electrocardiogram revealed sinus bradycardia. Laboratory studies revealed serum creatinine of 2.4 mg/dL from a baseline of 1.5 mg/dL (stable for the past 2 years). The tacrolimus trough was elevated at 14 ng/mL, which decreased after stopping ranolazine, reaching 7 ng/mL after 3 days, while continuing the same dose of tacrolimus. His creatinine trended downward and reached his baseline of 1.5 mg/dL over the next 2 days. His bradycardia and other symptoms resolved after cessation of ranolazine. He was discharged to follow up, to initiate an alternate agent for ischemic heart disease. Specific pharmacokinetic studies are warranted to study these drug interactions, and tacrolimus levels should be closely monitored in transplant patients who initiate ranolazine treatment.

  2. Tacrolimus treatment of atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thestrup-Pedersen, Kristian

    2003-10-01

    Atopic dermatitis is today the most common chronic disease of children in Europe, the US and Japan. The 'golden standard' of therapy is topical glucocorticosteroids and emollients. The steroids have been on the market for four decades, are efficacious, but only advised for short-term treatment due to their risks of side effects. More than 16,000 persons suffering from atopic dermatitis have been enrolled in clinical studies of tacrolimus. One third of patients with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis experience over 90% improvement in their disease over a 12-week treatment period and up to 70% of patients have over 50% improvement. A 1-year treatment leads to more than 90% improvement in 75% of patients. The most pronounced side effect is a burning sensation occurring in up to 60% of patients. Atopic dermatitis is a chronic skin disease leading to a demand for long-term treatment control. Such treatment options have not previously been available--except for emollients which are not efficacious for controlling skin inflammation. Tacrolimus and pimecrolimus are new treatment options, free from the potential side effects of topical steroids, which are known for their efficacy in short-term treatment. The new treatment modalities prevent the eczema from relapsing and at the same time they control active eczema. The future will see a shift towards the long-term use of tacrolimus which is able to control the skin inflammation and, hopefully, shorten the course of the eczema.

  3. A high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for the quantification of tacrolimus in human bile in liver transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Tron, Camille; Rayar, Michel; Petitcollin, Antoine; Beaurepaire, Jean-Marie; Cusumano, Caterina; Verdier, Marie-Clémence; Houssel-Debry, Pauline; Camus, Christophe; Boudjema, Karim; Bellissant, Eric; Lemaitre, Florian

    2016-12-02

    Tacrolimus whole-blood concentrations imperfectly reflect concentrations at the effect site. Tacrolimus concentrations in the transplanted organ could be more relevant to predict rejection events. Because liver biopsy cannot be repeatedly performed after liver transplantation, we suggested measuring tacrolimus in the bile to have a cost-effective and clinically implementable surrogate marker of intra-hepatic tacrolimus concentration. We developed and fully validated a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of tacrolimus in human bile. Sample purification was achieved using protein precipitation and liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl-acetate. Gradient elution was performed using a C18 analytical column with a 5min run-time. The method was linear from 0.5ng/mL to 20ng/mL. In this concentration range, within-day and between-day precisions as well as overall bias were within ±15%. Matrix effect was fully corrected by the internal standard (ascomycin). The assay was optimized to achieve good selectivity in this complex biological matrix. Tacrolimus was found to be stable in bile stored 6 months at -80°C, after 3 freeze and thaw cycles, 20h at room temperature and 24h in extracts kept at 15°C in the auto-sampler. The method was applied to quantify tacrolimus in bile from liver transplant recipients. It allowed getting preliminary data about tacrolimus excretion profile in bile and showed the lack of correlation between tacrolimus whole blood concentration and tacrolimus liver exposition. This alternative and innovative analytical approach of tacrolimus bio-analysis appears suitable for further studies evaluating relevance of biliary tacrolimus concentration as a new pharmacological marker of immunosuppressive activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The onset risk of carcinoma in patients continuing tacrolimus topical treatment for oral lichen planus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Morita, Mayu; Asoda, Seiji; Tsunoda, Kazuyuki; Soma, Tomoya; Nakagawa, Taneaki; Shirakawa, Masayori; Shoji, Hirofumi; Yagishita, Hisao; Nishikawa, Takeji; Kawana, Hiromasa

    2017-04-01

    Oral lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disease. Topical use of steroids and other immuno-modulating therapies have been tried for this intractable condition. Nowadays, tacrolimus ointment is used more commonly as a choice for treatment. However, a number of discussions have taken place after tacrolimus was reported to be carcinogenic. This report describes a patient who applied tacrolimus ointment to the lower lip after being diagnosed with oral lichen planus in 2008, and whose lesion developed squamous cell carcinoma in 2010. Since the relationship between tacrolimus and cancer development has been reported in only a few cases, including this case report, the clinician must be careful selecting tacrolimus as a second-line treatment for oral lichen planus.

  5. The role of amniotic membrane extract eye drop (AMEED) in in vivo cultivation of limbal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Baradaran-Rafii, Alireza; Asl, Niloufar Shayan; Ebrahimi, Marzieh; Jabbehdari, Sayena; Bamdad, Shahram; Roshandel, Danial; Eslani, Medi; Momeni, Maryam

    2018-01-01

    Limbal stem cell transplantation (LSCT) is the definitive treatment for total limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). This study evaluates the anatomical and visual outcomes of a surgical technique supplemented by amniotic membrane extract eye drop (AMEED) for in vivo cultivation of limbal stem cells (LSCs). One small limbal block (2 × 1 mm) harvested from the contralateral healthy eye was transferred to the diseased eye, which had been already covered by cryopreserved amniotic membrane (N = 20). The patients were categorized into case and control groups. AMEED was administered postoperatively only for patients in the case group (N = 14). Sequential penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) was performed in 4 eyes of the case group for optical clarity. Visual acuity, epithelial healing, corneal clarity and regression of conjunctivalization/vascularization were evaluated after surgery. The corneal buttons of post-PKP eyes were evaluated for LSC markers. In the case group, the mean corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) was 20/400 before surgery, which improved to 20/40 and 20/50 at the last follow-up in eyes with and without PKP, respectively. Epithelial defects healed in all eyes of the case group during 2 weeks after surgery. Corneal conjunctivalization/vascularization regressed dramatically in all patients of the case group 2-3 months after surgery. In PKP cases, all transplanted corneas were clear at the last follow-up. LSC markers were expressed on the surface of all trephined corneal buttons. All eyes in the control group developed persistent epithelial defect. This study suggests that amniotic membrane extract may be helpful for in vivo cultivation of limbal stem cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Open-Label, Randomized Study of Transition From Tacrolimus to Sirolimus Immunosuppression in Renal Allograft Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Tedesco-Silva, Helio; Peddi, V. Ram; Sánchez-Fructuoso, Ana; Marder, Brad A.; Russ, Graeme R.; Diekmann, Fritz; Flynn, Alison; Hahn, Carolyn M.; Li, Huihua; Tortorici, Michael A.; Schulman, Seth L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Calcineurin inhibitor–associated nephrotoxicity and other adverse events have prompted efforts to minimize/eliminate calcineurin inhibitor use in kidney transplant recipients. Methods This open-label, randomized, multinational study evaluated the effect of planned transition from tacrolimus to sirolimus on kidney function in renal allograft recipients. Patients received tacrolimus-based immunosuppression and then were randomized 3 to 5 months posttransplantation to transition to sirolimus or continue tacrolimus. The primary end point was percentage of patients with 5 mL/min per 1.73 m2 or greater improvement in estimated glomerular filtration rate from randomization to month 24. Results The on-therapy population included 195 patients (sirolimus, 86; tacrolimus, 109). No between-group difference was noted in percentage of patients with 5 mL/min per 1.73 m2 or greater estimated glomerular filtration rate improvement (sirolimus, 34%; tacrolimus, 42%; P = 0.239) at month 24. Sirolimus patients had higher rates of biopsy-confirmed acute rejection (8% vs 2%; P = 0.02), treatment discontinuation attributed to adverse events (21% vs 3%; P < 0.001), and lower rates of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin (0% vs 5%; P = 0.012). Conclusions Our findings suggest that renal function improvement at 24 months is similar for patients with early conversion to sirolimus after kidney transplantation versus those remaining on tacrolimus. PMID:27500260

  7. Development of a Simple and Rapid Method to Measure the Free Fraction of Tacrolimus in Plasma Using Ultrafiltration and LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Stienstra, Nicolaas A; Sikma, Maaike A; van Dapperen, Anouk L; de Lange, Dylan W; van Maarseveen, Erik M

    2016-12-01

    Tacrolimus is an immunosuppressant mainly used in the prophylaxis of solid organ transplant rejection. Therapeutic drug monitoring of tacrolimus is essential for avoiding toxicity related to overexposure and transplant rejection from underexposure. Previous studies suggest that unbound tacrolimus concentrations in the plasma may serve as a better predictor of tacrolimus-associated nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity compared to tacrolimus concentration in whole blood. Monitoring the plasma concentrations of unbound tacrolimus might be of interest in preventing tacrolimus-related toxicity. Therefore, the aim was to develop a method for the measurement of total and unbound tacrolimus concentrations in plasma. The sample preparation for the determination of the plasma concentrations of unbound tacrolimus consisted of an easy-to-use ultrafiltration method followed by solid-phase extraction. To determine the total concentration of tacrolimus in plasma, a simple method based on protein precipitation was developed. The extracts were injected into a Thermo Scientific HyPurity C18 column using gradient elution. The analytes were detected by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with positive ionization. The method was validated over a linear range of 1.00-200 ng/L for unbound tacrolimus concentrations in plasma and 100-3200 ng/L for total plasma concentrations. The lower limit of quantification was 1.00 ng/L in ultrafiltrate and 100 ng/L in plasma. The inaccuracy and imprecision for the determination of unbound tacrolimus concentrations in ultrafiltrate and plasma showed a maximum coefficients of variation (CV) of 11.7% and a maximum bias of 3.8%. A rapid and easy method based on ultrafiltration and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was established to measure the total and unbound tacrolimus concentrations in plasma. This method can facilitate further investigations on the relationship between plasma concentrations of unbound tacrolimus and clinical

  8. Pharmacogenetic considerations for optimizing tacrolimus dosing in liver and kidney transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    Provenzani, Alessio; Santeusanio, Andrew; Mathis, Erin; Notarbartolo, Monica; Labbozzetta, Manuela; Poma, Paola; Provenzani, Ambra; Polidori, Carlo; Vizzini, Giovanni; Polidori, Piera; D’Alessandro, Natale

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of tacrolimus in clinical practice has improved patient survival after organ transplant. However, despite the long use of tacrolimus in clinical practice, the best way to use this agent is still a matter of intense debate. The start of the genomic era has generated new research areas, such as pharmacogenetics, which studies the variability of drug response in relation to the genetic factors involved in the processes responsible for the pharmacokinetics and/or the action mechanism of a drug in the body. This variability seems to be correlated with the presence of genetic polymorphisms. Genotyping is an attractive option especially for the initiation of the dosing of tacrolimus; also, unlike phenotypic tests, the genotype is a stable characteristic that needs to be determined only once for any given gene. However, prospective clinical studies must show that genotype determination before transplantation allows for better use of a given drug and improves the safety and clinical efficacy of that medication. At present, research has been able to reliably show that the CYP3A5 genotype, but not the CYP3A4 or ABCB1 ones, can modify the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus. However, it has not been possible to incontrovertibly show that the corresponding changes in the pharmacokinetic profile are linked with different patient outcomes regarding tacrolimus efficacy and toxicity. For these reasons, pharmacogenetics and individualized medicine remain a fascinating area for further study and may ultimately become the face of future medical practice and drug dosing. PMID:24409044

  9. Effect of lipid-based dry eye supplements on the tear film in wearers of eye cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Michael T M; Cho, Irene Sung Hee; Jung, Soo Hee; Craig, Jennifer P

    2017-08-01

    To compare the effects on tear film parameters and contamination in cosmetic eyeliner wearers, after single application of two lipid-based dry eye treatments: a lipid-containing lubricant eye drop and a phospholipid liposomal spray. Fifty participants were enrolled in a prospective, randomised, paired-eye, investigator-masked trial. Pencil eyeliner (Body Shop ® Crayon Eye Definer) was applied to the upper eyelid periocular skin of both eyes, anterior to the lash line. Baseline tear film quality was assessed fifteen minutes after eyeliner application. A lubricant drop (Systane ® Balance) was then applied to one eye (randomised), and liposomal spray (Tears Again ® ) to the contralateral eye. Tear film contamination, lipid layer grade, non-invasive tear film break-up time and tear evaporation rate were evaluated fifteen minutes post-treatment and compared to pre-treatment values. Pre-treatment measurements did not differ between eyes assigned to lubricant drop and liposomal spray. Tear film contamination was observed in a greater proportion of eyes following both treatments (both p<0.05), with no significant difference between treatments (p=0.41). Both treatments improved lipid layer thickness (both p≤0.01), but effected no significant change in non-invasive tear film break-up time or tear evaporation rate (all p>0.05). Changes in tear film parameters did not differ between treatments (all p>0.05). Both the lipid-containing lubricant eye drop and phospholipid liposomal spray result in clinically apparent tear film contamination in eyeliner cosmetic wearers. Although both treatments effected an increase in lipid layer thickness, neither displayed clinical efficacy in improving tear film stability. Copyright © 2017 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A randomized, crossover pharmacokinetic study comparing generic tacrolimus vs. the reference formulation in subpopulations of kidney transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Bloom, R D; Trofe-Clark, J; Wiland, A; Alloway, R R

    2013-01-01

    An exploratory, post hoc analysis was performed using data from a prospective, multicenter, open-label, randomized, two-period (14 d per period), two-sequence, crossover, steady-state pharmacokinetic study comparing generic tacrolimus (Sandoz) vs. reference tacrolimus in stable renal transplant patients receiving their pre-study twice-daily dose. Pharmacokinetic parameters were compared in 68 patients according to gender, African American ethnicity, the presence or absence of diabetes, and use of steroids. The ratios of tacrolimus AUC0-12 h , Cmax , and C12 with generic vs. reference tacrolimus were calculated using the geometric mean (GM) of dose-normalized values at days 14 and 28. Mean (SD) tacrolimus dose at baseline was 5.7 (4.2) mg/d. There were no consistent differences in dose-normalized AUC0-12 h , C12 , Cmax, or tmax between the generic and reference preparations within subpopulations. The 90% confidence intervals (CI) for the ratios of dose-normalized AUC0-12 h and C12 with generic vs. reference tacrolimus were within 80-125% for all subpopulations, as were 90% CIs for Cmax other than for females, African Americans, and non-diabetics, which is not unexpected given the wide variability of tacrolimus Cmax and the small subpopulation sizes. These exploratory results suggest that this generic tacrolimus preparation would be expected to offer comparable bioavailability to the reference drug in these patient subpopulations. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Comparing the effects of ketotifen fumarate eye drops and ketotifen oral pills on symptom severity and quality of life in patients with allergic rhinitis: a double-blind randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Akhavan, Asghar; Karimi-Sari, Hamidreza; Khosravi, Mohammad Hossein; Arefzadeh, Esmaeil; Yavarahmadi, Mohammadhosein

    2015-05-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of nasal mucosa. Previous studies have shown the therapeutic effects of ketotifen eye drops on allergic conjunctivitis and rhinitis patients. This study was designed to compare the effects of ketotifen drops and oral ketotifen pills on symptoms and quality of life in allergic rhinitis patients. In this double-blind randomized clinical trial, patients with mild allergic rhinitis who were referred to the allergy clinic of Baqiyatallah Hospital from March to April 2014 were randomly allocated to 2 groups; the first group received ketotifen drops (1 drop every 12 hours) with placebo pills (2 pills daily), and the second group received placebo eye drops with ketotifen pills for 4 weeks. Symptoms (sneezing, runny nose, itching, and nasal obstruction) severity were examined and Rhinitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ) scores were evaluated in the second and fourth weeks. A total of 140 patients were evaluated in 2 groups. The mean age was 30.33 years. There were no significant differences in demographic data between the groups (p > 0.05). Both groups showed a significant improvement in rhinorrhea, nasal congestion, nasal itching, coughing, sneezing, RQLQ, and nasal smear eosinophil percent compared to baseline amounts (p < 0.05). Improvements were significantly more in the drops group (p < 0.05). Because of the absence of systemic complications in ketotifen eye drops in patients with allergic rhinitis and their easy availability in Iran, using this medication instead of systemic therapies is suggested. Nevertheless, more studies are required to evaluate the long-term effects of using this drug and the recurrence rate of symptoms. © 2015 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  12. Tacrolimus hydrate ointment inhibits skin plasma extravasation in rats induced by topical m-xylene but not capsaicin.

    PubMed

    Goto, Shiho; Kondo, Fumio; Ikai, Yoshitomo; Miyake, Mio; Futamura, Masaki; Ito, Komei; Sakamoto, Tatsuo

    2009-04-17

    Tacrolimus ointment is used to treat various chronic inflammatory skin diseases. However, the effect of this ointment on acute neurogenic inflammation in the skin remains to be fully elucidated. Topical capsaicin and m-xylene produce tachykinin release from sensory nerves in the skin, resulting in skin plasma leakage. We investigated the effect of tacrolimus ointment (0.1%) on skin microvascular leakage induced by topical capsaicin (10 mM) and m-xylene (neat), and intracutaneous compound 48/80 (c48/80) (10 microg/ml, 50 microl/site) in two groups of rats pretreated with excessive capsaicin or its vehicle. The amount of leaked Evans blue dye reflected skin plasma leakage. Capsaicin, m-xylene or c48/80 was applied to the shaved abdomens of rats 8 h after topical application of tacrolimus ointment or its base. Desensitization with capsaicin reduced the skin response to capsaicin and m-xylene by 100% and 65%, respectively, but not to c48/80. Tacrolimus ointment significantly inhibited the skin response induced by m-xylene and c48/80, regardless of pretreatment with capsaicin. However, topical tacrolimus did not influence the skin response induced by capsaicin. We also evaluated whether topical capsaicin and m-xylene, and intracutaneous c48/80 cause mast cell degranulation in skin treated with tacrolimus. Mast cell degranulation was microscopically assessed. Topical tacrolimus only significantly suppressed degranulation induced by m-xylene and c48/80. Our data shows that tacrolimus ointment partially inhibits plasma leakage and mast cell degranulation in rat skin induced by m-xylene and c48/80 but not capsaicin, suggesting that the inhibitory effect is not associated with a reduction in neurogenic-mediated mechanisms.

  13. Population pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus in paediatric systemic lupus erythematosus based on real-world study.

    PubMed

    Wang, D-D; Lu, J-M; Li, Q; Li, Z-P

    2018-05-15

    Different population pharmacokinetics (PPK) models of tacrolimus have been established in various populations. However, the tacrolimus PPK model in paediatric systemic lupus erythematosus (PSLE) is still undefined. This study aimed to establish the tacrolimus PPK model in Chinese PSLE. A total of nineteen Chinese patients with PSLE from real-world study were characterized with nonlinear mixed-effects modelling (NONMEM). The impact of demographic features, biological characteristics, and concomitant medications was evaluated. Model validation was assessed by bootstrap and prediction-corrected visual predictive check (VPC). A one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination was determined to be the most suitable model in PSLE. The typical values of apparent oral clearance (CL/F) and the apparent volume of distribution (V/F) in the final model were 2.05 L/h and 309 L, respectively. Methylprednisolone and simvastatin were included as significant. The first validated tacrolimus PPK model in patients with PSLE is presented. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Nano-liposomal dry powder inhaler of tacrolimus: preparation, characterization, and pulmonary pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Chougule, Mahavir; Padhi, Bijay; Misra, Ambikanandan

    2007-01-01

    The studies were undertaken to evaluate feasibility of pulmonary delivery of liposomaly encapsulated tacrolimus dry powder inhaler for prolonged drug retention in lungs as rescue therapy to prevent refractory rejection of lungs after transplantation. Tacrolimus encapsulated liposomes were prepared by thin film evaporation technique and liposomal dispersion was passed through high pressure homogenizer. Tacrolimus nano-liposomes (NLs) were separated by centrifugation and characterized. NLs were dispersed in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) pH 7.4 containing different additives like lactose, sucrose, and trehalose, and L-leucine as antiadherent. The dispersion was spray dried and spray dried powders were characterized. In vitro and in vivo pulmonary deposition was performed using Andersen Cascade Impactor and intratracheal instillation in rats respectively. NLs were found to have average size of 140 nm, 96% +/- 1.5% drug entrapment, and zeta potential of 1.107 mV. Trehalose based formulation was found to have low density, good flowability, particle size of 9.46 +/- 0.8 microm, maximum fine particle fraction (FPF) of 71.1 +/- 2.5%, mean mass aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) 2.2 +/- 0.1 microm, and geometric standard deviation (GSD) 1.7 +/- 0.2. Developed formulations were found to have in vitro prolonged drug release up to 18 hours, following Higuchi's Controlled Release model. In vivo studies revealed maximal residence of tacrolimus within lungs of 24 hours, suggesting slow clearance from the lungs. The investigation provides a practical approach for direct delivery of tacrolimus encapsulated in NLs for controlled and prolonged retention at the site of action. It may play a promising role as rescue therapy in reducing the risk of acute rejection and chronic rejection.

  15. LASIK and dry eye.

    PubMed

    Toda, Ikuko

    2007-01-01

    Dry eye is one of the most common complications after laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). The clinical signs of post-LASIK dry eye include positive vital staining of ocular surface, decreased tear film breakup time and Schirmer test, reduced corneal sensitivity, and decreased functional visual acuity. The symptoms and signs last at least 1 month after LASIK. Although the mechanisms for developing post-LASIK dry eye are not completely understood, loss of corneal innervation by flap-making may affect the reflex loops of the corneal-lacrimal gland, corneal-blinking, and blinking-meibomian gland, and blinking-meibomian gland, resulting in decreased aqueous and lipid tear secretion and mucin expression. As LASIK enhancement by flap-lifting induces less dry eye symptoms and signs than first surgery, it is suggested that other factors rather than loss of neurotrophic effect may be involved in the mechanisms of post-LASIK dry eye. The treatments of dry eye include artificial tears, topical cyclosporine, hot compress, punctal plugs, and autologous serum eye drops. For patients with severe preoperative dry eye, a combination of punctal plugs and serum eye drops is required to be used before surgery.

  16. The cost effectiveness of tacrolimus versus microemulsified cyclosporin: a 10-year model of renal transplantation outcomes.

    PubMed

    Orme, Michelle E; Jurewicz, Wieslaw A; Kumar, Nagappan; McKechnie, Tracy L

    2003-01-01

    In 1983, the launch of cyclosporin was a significant clinical advance for organ transplant recipients. Subsequent drug research led to further advances with the introduction of cyclosporin microemulsion (cyclosporin ME) and tacrolimus. This paper presents the results from a long-term model comparing the clinical and economic outcomes associated with cyclosporin ME and tacrolimus immunosuppression for the prevention of graft rejection following renal transplantation. A model was developed to project the costs and outcomes over a 10-year period following transplantation. The model was based on the results of a prospective, randomised study of 179 renal transplantation recipients receiving either cyclosporin ME or tacrolimus, which was conducted by the Welsh Transplantation Research Group (median follow-up: 2.7 years). The short-term costs and outcomes were the averages from the actual head-to-head trial data. From this, the long-term costs and outcomes were extrapolated based on the rate of change in patient and graft survival at 3, 5 and 10 years post transplant, as reported in the 1995 United Kingdom Transplant Support Service Authority Renal Transplant Audit. PERSPECTIVE AND YEAR OF COST DATA: The analysis was conducted from the perspective of a UK transplant unit. Costs were at 1999 prices (pounds sterling 1 = dollars US 1.42 = Euro 1.5) and costs and outcomes were discounted at 6% and 1.5%, respectively. The model estimated that 10 years after transplantation, the proportion of patients surviving was 56% of the cyclosporin ME cohort and 64% of the tacrolimus cohort. The cumulative cost of maintenance therapy at 10 years was pounds sterling 23204 per patient maintained on cyclosporin ME versus pounds sterling 23803 per patient on tacrolimus. The cost per survivor at 10 years was pounds sterling 37000 (tacrolimus) versus pounds sterling 41000 (cyclosporin ME) and the cost per patient with a functioning graft was pounds sterling 39000 versus pounds sterling 45000

  17. Development of extended-release solid dispersion granules of tacrolimus: evaluation of release mechanism and human oral bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Tsunashima, Daisuke; Yamashita, Kazunari; Ogawara, Ken-Ichi; Sako, Kazuhiro; Hakomori, Tadashi; Higaki, Kazutaka

    2017-12-01

    We aimed to prepare a once-daily modified-release oral formulation of tacrolimus by utilizing an extended-release granules (ERG). Extended-release granules were prepared using ethylcellulose (EC), hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and lactose via a solvent evaporation method with ethanol. Physicochemical and biopharmaceutical studies were performed to determine the formulation with optimum release profile of tacrolimus from ERG. Tacrolimus existed in an amorphous state in ERG. Tacrolimus release from ERG was attenuated by EC and facilitated by lactose, suggesting that drug release kinetics could adequately be regulated by these components. Those release profiles were consistent with Higuchi's equation, suggesting a diffusion-type release mechanism. Smooth surface of ERG changed to the structure with pores after the release test, likely derived from the dissolution of HPMC and lactose. But ERG structure formed by EC was still maintained after the release test, leading to the longer maintenance of diffusion-type release. Two ERG formulations selected by blood concentration simulation successfully provided long-term retention of tacrolimus in blood in a human absorption study. We successfully developed the formulation exhibiting a significant reduction in C max , the longer mean residence time and AUC close to that of an immediate-release tacrolimus formulation, being preferred from the viewpoint of safe and effective immunosuppressant pharmacotherapy. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  18. Outcome of tacrolimus and vedolizumab after corticosteroid and anti-TNF failure in paediatric severe colitis.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Blaise; Wu, May; Hamel, Elizabeth O; Bass, Dorsey M; Park, K T

    2018-01-01

    Severe colitis flare from ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD) may be refractory to corticosteroids and antitumour necrosis factor (TNF) agents resulting in high colectomy rates. We aimed to describe the utility of tacrolimus to prevent colectomy during second-line vedolizumab initiation after corticosteroid and anti-TNF treatment failure in paediatric severe colitis. A retrospective cohort analysis was performed between 1 October 2014 and 31 October 2016 at a single tertiary care centre. Inclusion criteria were patients with severe colitis who received tacrolimus before or during vedolizumab induction and previous exposure to anti-TNF therapy with or without corticosteroids. The initiation of tacrolimus was clinician dependent based on an institutional protocol. Twelve patients (10 UC, two CD; median age 16 years; three female) received at least one dose of vedolizumab 10 mg/kg (max of 300 mg) due to anti-TNF therapy failure and persistent flare not responsive to corticosteroids. Of the 12 patients, eight (67%) and four (33%) had failed one or two anti-TNF agents, respectively. Tacrolimus was initiated for acute disease severity during hospitalisation (58%) or ongoing flare during outpatient care (42%). 9 (75%) of 12 patients avoided colectomy or inflammatory bowel disease-related surgery at 24 weeks and eight (68%) continued on vedolizumab maintenance with no adverse events out to 80 weeks. We report real-world data on the outcome of tacrolimus around vedolizumab initiation in paediatric UC or CD after corticosteroid and anti-TNF therapy treatment failure. Our pilot experience indicates a potential benefit of concomitant tacrolimus when initiating vedolizumab therapy.

  19. Tacrolimus Versus Cyclosporine as Primary Immunosuppressant After Renal Transplantation: A Meta-Analysis and Economics Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin-Yu; You, Ru-Xu; Guo, Min; Zeng, Lu; Zhou, Pu; Zhu, Lan; Xu, Gang; Li, Juan; Liu, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Tacrolimus and cyclosporine are the major immunosuppressants for renal transplantation. Several studies have compared these 2 drugs, but the outcomes were not consistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and pharmacoeconomics of cyclosporine and tacrolimus in the treatment of renal transplantation and provide evidence for the selection of essential drugs. Trials were identified through a computerized literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Cochrane Renal Group Specialized Register of randomized controlled trials, and Chinese Biomedical database. Two independent reviewers assessed trials for eligibility and quality and then extracted data. Data were extracted for patient and graft mortality, acute rejection, and adverse events. Dichotomous outcomes were reported as relative risk with 95% confidence intervals. A decision tree model was populated with data from a literature review and used to estimate costs and quality-adjusted life years gained and incremental cost-effectiveness. Altogether, 6137 patients from 27 randomized controlled trials were included. The results of our analysis were that tacrolimus reduced the risks after renal transplantation of patient mortality, graft loss, acute rejection, and hypercholesterolemia. Nevertheless, tacrolimus increased the risk of new-onset diabetes. Pharmacoeconomic analysis showed that tacrolimus represented a more cost-effective treatment than does cyclosporine for the prevention of adverse events following renal transplant. Tacrolimus is an effective and safe immunosuppressive agent and it may be more cost-effective than cyclosporine for the primary prevention of graft rejection in renal transplant recipients. However, new-onset diabetes should be closely monitored during the medication period.

  20. Comparison between the efficacy of microneedling combined with 5-fluorouracil vs microneedling with tacrolimus in the treatment of vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Mina, Mary; Elgarhy, Lamia; Al-Saeid, Hanan; Ibrahim, Zeinab

    2018-03-12

    Several treatment modalities had been used for the treatment of vitiligo, but the optimal treatment has not yet been identified. To study the efficacy of microneedling with 5-flurouracil vs its efficacy with tacrolimus in the treatment of vitiligo. Twenty-five patients with vitiligo were subjected to microneedling of 2 patches of vitiligo with dermapen, then application of 5-fluorouracil to 1 patch and tacrolimus on the other patch. This procedure was repeated every 2 weeks for every patient for maximum 6 months (12 sessions). The patients were followed up for 3 months after the last session. The overall repigmentation was significantly higher in 5-fluorouracil-treated patches compared with tacrolimus. Excellent improvement occurred in 48% of 5- flurouracil-treated patches while only in 16% of tacrolimus-treated patches. In the acral parts, 40% of the patches treated with 5-fluorouracil achieved excellent improvement (repigmentation >75%), while no patch in the acral parts achieved excellent improvement with tacrolimus. However, there was significant difference between the 2 drugs,regarding inflammation, ulceration, and hyperpigmentation which occurred with 5-fluorouracil. Microneedling combined with 5-fluorouracil or tacrolimus is safe and effective treatment of vitiligo. However, 5-fluorouracil achieved a greater percentage of repigmentation than tacrolimus particularly in the acral parts. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Topical tacrolimus for parastomal pyoderma gangrenosum: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Altieri, Maria; Vaziri, Khashayar; Orkin, Bruce A

    2010-09-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is an idiopathic, ulcerative, inflammatory dermatologic condition that occurs in patients with systemic diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This inflammatory skin disorder is presumably caused by an autoimmune mechanism and the diagnosis is one of exclusion. PG is not a common condition but it is thought to account for approximately 50% of chronic parastomal ulcers. Refractory parastomal PG (PPG) occurs in patients with inactive disease or after bowel resection. Multiple medical treatments, ranging from topical agents for mild disease to systemic immunosuppressive therapy for severe disease, have been used with varying rates of success. Using topical tacrolimus, an immunosuppressant that inhibits T-lymphocyte proliferation, and meticulous stoma care can result in successful treatment. Two women (ages 59 and 62 years) with a history of ulcerative colitis and colon resection presented with parastomal ulcers consistent with PPG. The 59-year patient presented with a painful 2 cm x 2 cm parastomal ulcer that improved following daily application of topical tacrolimus 0.1%. The 62-year old woman first was prescribed daily appliance changes and application of topical triamcinolone 0.5% to her 3-cm ulcer. The ulcer increased in size and treatment was changed to daily application of tacrolimus 0.1%. After 2 months and a reduction in ulcer size and severity, the dosage was changed to daily application of tacrolimus 0.03%. Both patients reported resolution of pain and itching, the most common symptoms of PPG, and no adverse effects were observed. The encouraging results observed in these two cases confirm that tacrolimus helps resolve PPG lesions even at concentrations previously thought to be ineffective. Additional studies to help clinicians optimize care of these painful lesions are needed.

  2. Nano-liposomal dry powder inhaler of tacrolimus: Preparation, characterization, and pulmonary pharmacokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Chougule, Mahavir; Padhi, Bijay; Misra, Ambikanandan

    2007-01-01

    The studies were undertaken to evaluate feasibility of pulmonary delivery of liposomaly encapsulated tacrolimus dry powder inhaler for prolonged drug retention in lungs as rescue therapy to prevent refractory rejection of lungs after transplantation. Tacrolimus encapsulated liposomes were prepared by thin film evaporation technique and liposomal dispersion was passed through high pressure homogenizer. Tacrolimus nano-liposomes (NLs) were separated by centrifugation and characterized. NLs were dispersed in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) pH 7.4 containing different additives like lactose, sucrose, and trehalose, and L-leucine as antiadherent. The dispersion was spray dried and spray dried powders were characterized. In vitro and in vivo pulmonary deposition was performed using Andersen Cascade Impactor and intratracheal instillation in rats respectively. NLs were found to have average size of 140 nm, 96% ± 1.5% drug entrapment, and zeta potential of 1.107 mV. Trehalose based formulation was found to have low density, good flowability, particle size of 9.46 ± 0.8 μm, maximum fine particle fraction (FPF) of 71.1 ± 2.5%, mean mass aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) 2.2 ± 0.1 μm, and geometric standard deviation (GSD) 1.7 ± 0.2. Developed formulations were found to have in vitro prolonged drug release up to 18 hours, following Higuchi’s Controlled Release model. In vivo studies revealed maximal residence of tacrolimus within lungs of 24 hours, suggesting slow clearance from the lungs. The investigation provides a practical approach for direct delivery of tacrolimus encapsulated in NLs for controlled and prolonged retention at the site of action. It may play a promising role as rescue therapy in reducing the risk of acute rejection and chronic rejection. PMID:18203434

  3. Erratic tacrolimus exposure, assessed using the standard deviation of trough blood levels, predicts chronic lung allograft dysfunction and survival.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Harry M; Sarwar, Ghulam; Tse, Tracy; Sladden, Timothy M; Hii, Esmond; Yerkovich, Stephanie T; Hopkins, Peter M; Chambers, Daniel C

    2015-11-01

    Erratic tacrolimus blood levels are associated with liver and kidney graft failure. We hypothesized that erratic tacrolimus exposure would similarly compromise lung transplant outcomes. This study assessed the effect of tacrolimus mean and standard deviation (SD) levels on the risk of chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) and death after lung transplantation. We retrospectively reviewed 110 lung transplant recipients who received tacrolimus-based immunosuppression. Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to investigate the effect of tacrolimus mean and SD levels on survival and CLAD. At census, 48 patients (44%) had developed CLAD and 37 (34%) had died. Tacrolimus SD was highest for the first 6 post-transplant months (median, 4.01; interquartile range [IQR], 3.04-4.98 months) before stabilizing at 2.84 μg/liter (IQR, 2.16-4.13 μg/liter) between 6 and 12 months. The SD then remained the same (median, 2.85; IQR, 2.00-3.77 μg/liter) between 12 and 24 months. A high mean tacrolimus level 6 to 12 months post-transplant independently reduced the risk of CLAD (hazard ratio [HR], 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63-0.86; p < 0.001) but not death (HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.83-1.12; p = 0.65). In contrast, a high tacrolimus SD between 6 and 12 months independently increased the risk of CLAD (HR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.23-1.73; p < 0.001) and death (HR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.08-1.51; p = 0.005). Erratic tacrolimus levels are a risk factor for poor lung transplant outcomes. Identifying and modifying factors that contribute to this variability may significantly improve outcomes. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of gingival alterations in rats medicated with cyclosporine A, tacrolimus and sirolimus: a stereological study.

    PubMed

    Pamuk, F; Cetinkaya, B O; Ayas, B; Keles, G C; Gacar, A

    2015-10-01

    It has previously been shown that both cyclosporine A and tacrolimus cause gingival overgrowth in the rat. We proposed that sirolimus may play an important role in decreasing the severity of gingival overgrowth. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the gingival changes induced by immunosuppressants, in the presence and absence of sirolimus, using histopathology and stereological methods. Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were distributed into six treatment groups, each containing six rats, as follows: (i) cyclosporine A for 8 wk; (ii) tacrolimus for 8 wk; (iii) sirolimus for 8 wk; (iv) cyclosporine A + sirolimus for 8 wk; (v) tacrolimus + sirolimus for 8 wk; and (vi) distilled water for 8 wk. Histomorphometric analyses included measurements of epithelial thickness and connective tissue width and height. Stereological analyses included measurements of volumetric densities of fibroblasts (Vf ), collagen fibers (Vcf ) and blood vessels (Vbv ). Connective tissue width and height were significantly increased in cyclosporine A, tacrolimus and cyclosporine A + sirolimus groups compared with the control group (p < 0.05), and epithelial thickness was significantly increased in the cyclosporine A group and tacrolimus group compared with the control group (p < 0.05). Vf was significantly increased in the cyclosporine A group and the tacrolimus group compared with the control group (p < 0.05), whereas Vcf and Vbv were significantly increased in the cyclosporine A, tacrolimus and cyclosporine A + sirolimus groups compared with the control group (p < 0.05). The results of the study suggest that sirolimus seems not to be associated with gingival overgrowth, and combined usage of sirolimus and immunosuppressants decreases the severity of gingival overgrowth. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Sirolimus Associated with Tacrolimus at Low Doses in Elderly Kidney Transplant Patients: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Cristiane Akemi; Nga, Hong Si; Takase, Henrique Mochida; Bravin, Ariane Moyses; Martinez Garcia, Márcia de Fátima Faraldo; Garcia, Paula Dalsoglio; Contti, Mariana Moraes; de Andrade, Luis Gustavo Modelli

    2018-06-01

    There is no consensus on the best immunosuppressive regimen for elderly renal transplant recipients. The objective of this study was to assess cytomegalovirus infection incidence and kidney transplant outcomes in elderly recipients treated with mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors sirolimus/ tacrolimus at low doses compared with those receiving tacrolimus/mycophenolate sodium. In this single-center prospective randomized study (Trial Registration No. NCT02683291), kidney transplant recipients over 60 years of age were randomly allocated into 2 groups: tacrolimus-sirolimus (21 patients) and tacrolimus-mycophenolate (23 patients). Cytomegalovirus infection rate and patient survival, biopsy-proven acute rejection, and renal function at 12 months were assessed. Cytomegalovirus infection rate was higher in the mycophenolate group (60.9%) than in the sirolimus group (16.7%; P = .004). The rates of biopsy-proven acute rejection, patient survival, graft survival, and estimated glomerular filtration rate over 12 months did not significantly differ between groups. The incidence of cytomegalovirus infection was significantly lower in the sirolimus group. The use of tacrolimus combined with sirolimus in elderly kidney transplant recipients is safe.

  6. Feline dry eye syndrome of presumed neurogenic origin: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Sebbag, Lionel; Pesavento, Patricia A; Carrasco, Sebastian E; Reilly, Christopher M; Maggs, David J

    2018-01-01

    Case summary A 14-year-old female spayed Abyssinian cat, which about 1 year previously underwent thoracic limb amputation, radiotherapy and chemotherapy for an incompletely excised vaccine-related fibrosarcoma, was presented for evaluation of corneal opacity in the left eye (OS). The ocular surface of both eyes (OU) had a lackluster appearance and there was a stromal corneal ulcer OS. Results of corneal aesthesiometry, Schirmer tear test-1 (STT-1) and tear film breakup time revealed corneal hypoesthesia, and quantitative and qualitative tear film deficiency OU. Noxious olfactory stimulation caused increased lacrimation relative to standard STT-1 values suggesting an intact nasolacrimal reflex. Various lacrimostimulants were administered in succession; namely, 1% pilocarpine administered topically (15 days) or orally (19 days), and topically applied 0.03% tacrolimus (47 days). Pilocarpine, especially when given orally, was associated with notable increases in STT-1 values, but corneal ulceration remained/recurred regardless of administration route, and oral pilocarpine resulted in gastrointestinal upset. Tacrolimus was not effective. After 93 days, the cat became weak and lame and a low thyroxine concentration was detected in serum. The cat was euthanized and a necropsy performed. Both lacrimal glands were histologically normal, but chronic neutrophilic keratitis and reduced conjunctival goblet cell density were noted OU. Relevance and novel information The final diagnosis was dry eye syndrome (DES) of presumed neurogenic origin, associated with corneal hypoesthesia. This report reinforces the importance of conducting tearfilm testing in cats with ocular surface disease, as clinical signs of DES were different from those described in dogs. PMID:29318025

  7. Feline dry eye syndrome of presumed neurogenic origin: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sebbag, Lionel; Pesavento, Patricia A; Carrasco, Sebastian E; Reilly, Christopher M; Maggs, David J

    2018-01-01

    A 14-year-old female spayed Abyssinian cat, which about 1 year previously underwent thoracic limb amputation, radiotherapy and chemotherapy for an incompletely excised vaccine-related fibrosarcoma, was presented for evaluation of corneal opacity in the left eye (OS). The ocular surface of both eyes (OU) had a lackluster appearance and there was a stromal corneal ulcer OS. Results of corneal aesthesiometry, Schirmer tear test-1 (STT-1) and tear film breakup time revealed corneal hypoesthesia, and quantitative and qualitative tear film deficiency OU. Noxious olfactory stimulation caused increased lacrimation relative to standard STT-1 values suggesting an intact nasolacrimal reflex. Various lacrimostimulants were administered in succession; namely, 1% pilocarpine administered topically (15 days) or orally (19 days), and topically applied 0.03% tacrolimus (47 days). Pilocarpine, especially when given orally, was associated with notable increases in STT-1 values, but corneal ulceration remained/recurred regardless of administration route, and oral pilocarpine resulted in gastrointestinal upset. Tacrolimus was not effective. After 93 days, the cat became weak and lame and a low thyroxine concentration was detected in serum. The cat was euthanized and a necropsy performed. Both lacrimal glands were histologically normal, but chronic neutrophilic keratitis and reduced conjunctival goblet cell density were noted OU. The final diagnosis was dry eye syndrome (DES) of presumed neurogenic origin, associated with corneal hypoesthesia. This report reinforces the importance of conducting tearfilm testing in cats with ocular surface disease, as clinical signs of DES were different from those described in dogs.

  8. The effect of anesthetic eye drop instillation on the distribution of corneal thickness.

    PubMed

    Sanchis-Gimeno, Juan A; Palanca-Sanfrancisco, José M; García-Lázaro, Santiago; Madrid-Costa, David; Cerviño, Alejandro

    2013-05-01

    To address the effect of topical instillation of oxybuprocaine on the relative distribution of corneal thickness (CT) in young healthy subjects. Prospective study involving 30 eyes of 30 emmetropic subjects (24 ± 3 years). Corneal thickness measurements were carried out before and 3 minutes after the instillation of oxybuprocaine 4% using slit-scanning corneal topography (Orbscan topography system II). No acoustic correction factor was applied. The mean of 5 consecutive Orbscan measurements was obtained at the center and 3 mm from the visual axis in the temporal, superior, nasal, and inferior hemimeridians. No significant mean differences were found at any corneal location after anesthesia (P > 0.05). The difference between the baseline values obtained of the central, superior, inferior, nasal, and temporal cornea and those obtained after anesthesia ranged from -15 to 16 μm, from -19 to 32 μm, from -14 to 24 μm, from -20 to 33 μm, and from -31 to 18 μm, respectively. The maximum paracentral CT was never found at the temporal location before anesthesia, whereas it was never found at the inferior location after anesthesia. The minimum paracentral CT was never found in the superior location after anesthesia. Topical anesthetic eye drops induce CT increases and decreases at each corneal location; however, the differences are not significant. Nevertheless, a change in the location of the minimum and maximum paracentral thickness occurs in some individuals after corneal anesthesia.

  9. Using Supercritical Fluid Technology (SFT) in Preparation of Tacrolimus Solid Dispersions.

    PubMed

    Obaidat, Rana M; Tashtoush, Bassam M; Awad, Alaa Abu; Al Bustami, Rana T

    2017-02-01

    Tacrolimus is an immunosuppressant agent that suffers from poor and variable bioavailability. This can be related to limited solubility and dissolution. The main objective of this study is to use SFT to prepare solid dispersions of tacrolimus in order to enhance its dissolution. SFT was selected since it offers several advantages over conventional techniques such as efficiency and stability. Several solid dispersions of tacrolimus were prepared using SFT to enhance its dissolution. The selected polymers included soluplus, PVP, HPMC, and porous chitosan. TPGS was used as a surfactant additive with chitosan, HPMC, and PVP. Soluplus dispersions were used to study the effect of processing parameters (time, temperature, and pressure) on loading efficiency (LE) and dissolution of the preparation. Physicochemical characterization was performed using DSC, X-ray diffraction, FTIR analysis, SEM, and in vitro drug release. Stability testing was evaluated after 3 months for selected dispersions. Significant improvement for the release profile was achieved for the prepared dispersions. Better release achieved in the soluplus dispersions which reached maximum cumulative release equal to 98.76% after 24 h. Drug precipitated in its amorphous form in all prepared dispersions except those prepared from chitosan. All dispersions were physically stable except for PVP preparations that contained TPGS which started to re-crystallize after one month. Prepared dispersions were proved to be affected by supercritical processing parameters. In conclusion, SFT was successfully used to prepare dispersions of tacrolimus that exhibited higher dissolution than raw drug. Dissolution rate and stability are affected by the type of the polymer.

  10. [Adjustment of eye muscle surgery dosage under drop anaesthesia in patients with Grave's orbitopathy].

    PubMed

    Kalpadakis, P; Rudolph, G; Boergen, K P

    2002-12-01

    Motility restrictions of the eye muscles represent a common and serious impairment for patients with Grave's orbitopathy. Various surgical approaches have been developed for the rehabilitation of these patients. In this study 64 patients in which only one of the rectus inferior muscles was recessed are presented. The recession was performed using drop anaesthesia. The active cooperation of the patients was necessary for adjustment of the dosage so that undercorrections or more important overcorrections could be prevented. Indications for this recession were a constant diplopia, an abnormal head posture, a pseudoretraction of the upper eyelid or corneal scarring complications. In all patients the squint angle was significantly reduced. A statistical mathematical correlation between the intraoperatively chosen recession length and the reduction of squint angle was found. On the other hand, the variance of the effect of the operation was so large that no dosage recommendations could be made. This operation technique seems to be able to avoid overcorrections (9.3%) for the majority of patients and only a small group of them presented diplopia postoperatively (10.9%). These results show a good functional rehabilitation of our patients. Performing the operation under drop anaesthesia, while taking into account the motility situation, seems to be a good method in order to manage the dosage problems presenting in this clinical entity.

  11. Changing trends in the treatment of dry-eye disease.

    PubMed

    Dogru, Murat; Nakamura, Masatsugu; Shimazaki, Jun; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2013-12-01

    Dry eye is a visually disabling disease encountered in many countries with a wide variation of treatment practices all over the world. On that front, the 2007 Report of the International Dry Eye WorkShop (DEWS) reviewed the current knowledge on all aspects of dry-eye disease (DED), in an evidence-based manner, and outlined the trends and recommendations in the treatment of DED on the basis of disease severity. This review mainly focuses on treatments for DED based on severity as recommended in the DEWS report, particularly artificial eye drops, hyaluronate sodium eye drops, autologous serum, anti-inflammatory eye drops including cyclosporine and steroids, and mucin secretagogues. New dry-eye treatment modalities in current trials outlined on the clinicaltrial.gov site are also outlined. Further investigations into the mechanism of action of the new mucin and tear secretagogues which have been suggested to have anti-inflammatory properties will enrich our understanding in relation to relevant ocular surface responses after treatment with these new agents.

  12. Immunophenotype of infiltrating cells in protocol renal allograft biopsies from tacrolimus-versus cyclosporine-treated patients.

    PubMed

    Serón, Daniel; O'Valle, Francisco; Moreso, Francesc; Gomà, Montse; Hueso, Miguel; Grinyó, Josep M; Garcia del Moral, Raimundo

    2007-03-15

    The prevalence of subclinical rejection is lower in patients receiving tacrolimus than in patients treated with cyclosporine. However, it is not known whether this difference is related to the modulation of a specific cell immunophenotype. We perform a two case-one control study in patients treated with tacrolimus (n=44) or cyclosporine (n=22) with a protocol biopsy performed at 4 to 6 months. Immunophenotype of infiltrating cells was evaluated with monoclonal antibodies directed against CD45 (all leukocytes), CD3 (T lymphocytes), CD68 (monocytes/macrophages), and CD20 (B lymphocytes) and expressed as interstitial positive cells/mm(2). The number of interstitial CD45 (290+/-209 vs. 696+/-560; P<0.01), CD3 (121+/-84 vs. 208+/-104; P<0.01), and CD68 (155+/-232 vs. 242+/-280; P<0.05) but not CD20 (137+/-119 vs. 197+/-154) positive cells was lower in tacrolimus-treated patients. T lymphocytes and macrophages interstitial infiltration was reduced in tacrolimus treated patients evaluated with protocol biopsies in comparison to cyclosporine-treated patients.

  13. Large-Scale Variability of Inpatient Tacrolimus Therapeutic Drug Monitoring at an Academic Transplant Center: a Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Strohbehn, Garth W; Pan, Warren W; Petrilli, Christopher M; Heidemann, Lauren; Larson, Sophia; Aaronson, Keith D; Johnson, Matt; Ellies, Tammy; Heung, Michael

    2018-04-30

    Inpatient tacrolimus therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) lacks standardized guidelines. In this study, the authors analyzed variability in the pre-analytical phase of the inpatient tacrolimus TDM process at their institution. Patients receiving tacrolimus (twice-daily formulation) and tacrolimus laboratory analysis were included in the study. Times of tacrolimus administration and laboratory study collection were extracted and time distribution plots for each step in the inpatient TDM process were generated. Trough levels were drawn appropriately in 25.9% of the cases. Timing between doses was consistent, with 91.9% of the following dose administrations occurring 12 +/- 2 hours after the previous dose. Only 38.1% of the drug administrations occurred within one hour of laboratory study collection. Tacrolimus-related patient safety events were reported at a rate of 1.9 events per month while incorrect timing of TDM sample collection occurred approximately 200 times per month. Root cause analysis identified a TDM process marked by a lack of communication and coordination of drug administration and TDM sample collection. Extrapolating findings nationwide, we estimate $22 million in laboratory costs wasted annually. Based on this large single-center study, the authors concluded that the inpatient TDM process is prone to timing errors, thus is financially wasteful, and at its worst harmful to patients due to clinical decisions being made on the basis of unreliable data. Further work is needed on systems solutions to better align the laboratory study collection and drug administration processes.

  14. Design and physicochemical characterization of advanced spray-dried tacrolimus multifunctional particles for inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiao; Hayes, Don; Zwischenberger, Joseph B; Kuhn, Robert J; Mansour, Heidi M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design, develop, and optimize respirable tacrolimus microparticles and nanoparticles and multifunctional tacrolimus lung surfactant mimic particles for targeted dry powder inhalation delivery as a pulmonary nanomedicine. Particles were rationally designed and produced at different pump rates by advanced spray-drying particle engineering design from organic solution in closed mode. In addition, multifunctional tacrolimus lung surfactant mimic dry powder particles were prepared by co-dissolving tacrolimus and lung surfactant mimic phospholipids in methanol, followed by advanced co-spray-drying particle engineering design technology in closed mode. The lung surfactant mimic phospholipids were 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-[phosphor-rac-1-glycerol]. Laser diffraction particle sizing indicated that the particle size distributions were suitable for pulmonary delivery, whereas scanning electron microscopy imaging indicated that these particles had both optimal particle morphology and surface morphology. Increasing the pump rate percent of tacrolimus solution resulted in a larger particle size. X-ray powder diffraction patterns and differential scanning calorimetry thermograms indicated that spray drying produced particles with higher amounts of amorphous phase. X-ray powder diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry also confirmed the preservation of the phospholipid bilayer structure in the solid state for all engineered respirable particles. Furthermore, it was observed in hot-stage micrographs that raw tacrolimus displayed a liquid crystal transition following the main phase transition, which is consistent with its interfacial properties. Water vapor uptake and lyotropic phase transitions in the solid state at varying levels of relative humidity were determined by gravimetric vapor sorption technique. Water content in the various powders was very low and well within the levels necessary

  15. Switching Stable Kidney Transplant Recipients to a Generic Tacrolimus Is Feasible and Safe, but It Must Be Monitored.

    PubMed

    González, Fernando; López, René; Arriagada, Elizabeth; Carrasco, René; Gallardo, Natalia; Lorca, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Background . Tacrolimus is the primary immunosuppressive drug used in kidney transplant patients. Replacing brand name products with generics is a controversial issue that we studied after a Chilean Ministry of Health mandate to implement such a switch. Methods . Forty-one stable Prograf (Astellas) receiving kidney transplant patients were switched to a generic tacrolimus (Sandoz) in a 1 : 1 dose ratio and were followed up for up to 8 months. All other drugs were maintained as per normal practice. Results . Neither tacrolimus doses nor their trough blood levels changed significantly after the switch, but serum creatinine did: 1.62 ± 0.90 versus 1.75 ± 0.92 mg/dL ( p < 0.001). At the same time, five graft biopsies were performed, and two of them showed cellular acute rejection. There were nine infectious episodes treated satisfactorily with proper therapies. No patient or graft was lost during the follow-up time period. Conclusion . Switching from brand name tacrolimus to a generic tacrolimus (Sandoz) is feasible and appears to be safe, but it must be monitored carefully by treating physicians.

  16. Tacrolimus potently inhibits human osteoclastogenesis induced by IL-17 from human monocytes alone and suppresses human Th17 differentiation.

    PubMed

    Yago, Toru; Nanke, Yuki; Kawamoto, Manabu; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Kotake, Shigeru

    2012-08-01

    Tacrolimus (FK506, Prograf®) is an orally available, T cell specific and anti-inflammatory agent that has been proposed as a therapeutic drug in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. It has been known that T cells have a critical role in the pathogenesis of RA. Recent studies suggest that Th17 cells, which mainly produce IL-17, are involved in many autoimmune inflammatory disease including RA. The present study was undertaken to assess the effect of tacrolimus on IL-17-induced human osteoclastogenesis and human Th17 differentiation. Human CD14(+) monocytes were cultured in the presence of macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and IL-17. From day 4, tacrolimus was added to these cultures. Osteoclasts were immunohistologically stained for vitronectin receptor 10days later. IL-17 production from activated T cells stimulated with IL-23 was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Th17 differentiation from naïve T cells was assayed by flow cytometry. Tacrolimus potently inhibited IL-17-induced osteoclastogenesis from human monocytes and osteoclast activation. Addition of tacrolimus also reduced production of IL-17 in human activated T cells stimulated with IL-23. Interestingly, the population of human IL-17(+)IFN-γ(-) CD4 T cells or IL-17(+)TNF-α(+) CD4 T cells were decreased by adding of tacrolimus. The present study demonstrates that the inhibitory effect of tacrolimus on IL-17-induced osteoclastogenesis from human monocytes. Tacrolimus also inhibited expression of IL-17 or TNF-α by reducing the proportion of Th17, suggesting that therapeutic effect on Th17-associated disease such as RA, inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, or allograft rejection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Stability of tacrolimus injection diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and stored in Excel bags.

    PubMed

    Myers, Alan L; Zhang, Yanping; Kawedia, Jitesh D; Shank, Brandon R; Deaver, Melissa A; Kramer, Mark A

    2016-12-15

    The chemical stability and physical compatibility of tacrolimus i.v. infusion solutions prepared in Excel bags and stored at 23 or 4 °C for up to nine days were studied. Tacrolimus admixtures (2, 4, and 8 μg/mL) were prepared in Excel bags using 0.9% sodium chloride injection and stored at 23 °C without protection from light or at 4 °C in the dark. Test samples were withdrawn from triplicate bag solutions immediately after preparation and at predetermined time intervals (1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 days). Chemical stability was assessed by measuring tacrolimus concentrations using a validated stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography assay. The physical stability of the admixtures was assessed by visual examination and by measuring turbidity, particle size, and drug content. All test solutions stored at 23 or 4 °C had a no greater than 6% loss of the initial tacrolimus concentration throughout the nine-day study period. All test samples of tacrolimus admixtures, under both storage conditions, were without precipitation and remained clear initially and throughout the nine-day observation period. Changes in turbidities were minor; measured particulates remained few in number in all samples throughout the study. Extemporaneously prepared infusion solutions of tacrolimus 2, 4, and 8 μg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection in Excel bags were chemically and physically stable for at least nine days when stored at room temperature (23 °C) without protection from light and when stored in a refrigerator (4 °C) in the dark. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dyslipidaemia among renal transplant recipients: cyclosporine versus tacrolimus.

    PubMed

    Fazal, Muhammad Asim; Idrees, Muhammad Khalid; Akhtar, Syed Fazal

    2014-05-01

    To compare new onset dyslipidaemia in live-related renal transplant recipients taking cyclosporine versus tacrolimus after 3 months of therapy. The randomised controlled trial was conducted at the Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation (SIUT) Karachi, from September 2010 to April 2011, and included 182 End Stage Renal Disease patients on maintenance haemodialysis with pre-transplant normal lipid profile. The patients, who had live-related renal transplant, were randomly allocated to two equal groups using lottery. Group A received cyclosporine (3 mg/kg) and group B was treated with tacrolimus (0.1 mg/kg). All patients had pre-transplant fasting lipid profile checked when they were on maintenance haemodialysis and 3 months after renal transplantation. Serum fasting lipid profile was collected by taking 5 ml blood by venipuncture after an overnight fast of 9-12 hours. SPSS 10 was used for statistical analyses. Of the 182 patients, 144 (79.1%) were males and 38 (20.9%) were females. The overall mean age was 30.18 +/- 9.57 years, and the mean weight was 54.41 +/- 11.144 kg. Significant difference was not observed between the two groups regarding age and weight of the patients. Dyslipidaemia was found in 115(63.2%) subjects; 61(67%) in group A and 54 (59.3%) in group B. There was no statistical difference (p=0.28) when comparison was done after 3 months of therapy. The occurrence of new onset hyperlipidaemia is similar in renal transplant recipients receiving either cyclosporine or tacrolimus in first 3 months post-transplant, but there is room for more research in this field as dyslipidaemia following successful renal transplantation is a frequent and persistent complication.

  19. Betel Nut Chewing Is Associated With Reduced Tacrolimus Concentration in Taiwanese Liver Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Chen, W-Y; Lee, C-Y; Lin, P-Y; Hsieh, C-E; Ko, C-J; Lin, K-H; Lin, C-C; Ming, Y-Z; Chen, Y-L

    2017-03-01

    Studies have shown that arecoline, the major alkaloid component of betel nuts, alters the activity of enzymes in the cytochrome P450 (CYP-450) family. Tacrolimus, an immunosuppressant that protects against organ rejection in transplant recipients, not only is mainly metabolized by CYP3A enzymes but also has a narrow therapeutic range. We aimed to investigate whether dose-adjusted blood trough levels of tacrolimus differed over time between betel nut-chewing and non-betel nut-chewing liver transplant recipients. In this retrospective case-control study, 14 active betel nut-using liver recipients were matched at a 1:2 ratio to 28 non-betel nut-using liver recipients by sex, age, graft source, duration of follow-up after liver transplantation, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Differences in liver function index, renal function index, and dose-adjusted blood trough levels of tacrolimus over an 18-month period were compared between the 2 groups by using the Generalized Estimating Equation approach. Dose-adjusted blood trough levels of tacrolimus tended to be significantly (P = .04) lower in betel nut chewers (mean = 0.81, medium = 0.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.73 to 0.90) than in nonchewers (mean = 1.12, medium = 0.88, 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.22) during the 18-month study period. However, there was no significant difference in renal and liver function index between the 2 groups. Liver transplant recipients receiving tacrolimus tend to have lower blood trough levels of the drug over time if they chew betel nuts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [The therapeutic drug monitoring network server of tacrolimus for Chinese renal transplant patients].

    PubMed

    Deng, Chen-Hui; Zhang, Guan-Min; Bi, Shan-Shan; Zhou, Tian-Yan; Lu, Wei

    2011-07-01

    This study is to develop a therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) network server of tacrolimus for Chinese renal transplant patients, which can facilitate doctor to manage patients' information and provide three levels of predictions. Database management system MySQL was employed to build and manage the database of patients and doctors' information, and hypertext mark-up language (HTML) and Java server pages (JSP) technology were employed to construct network server for database management. Based on the population pharmacokinetic model of tacrolimus for Chinese renal transplant patients, above program languages were used to construct the population prediction and subpopulation prediction modules. Based on Bayesian principle and maximization of the posterior probability function, an objective function was established, and minimized by an optimization algorithm to estimate patient's individual pharmacokinetic parameters. It is proved that the network server has the basic functions for database management and three levels of prediction to aid doctor to optimize the regimen of tacrolimus for Chinese renal transplant patients.

  1. Albuminuria after renal transplantation: maintenance with sirolimus/low-dose tacrolimus vs. mycophenolate mofetil/high-dose tacrolimus.

    PubMed

    Miles, Clifford D; Skorupa, Jill Y; Sandoz, John P; Rigley, Theodore H; Nielsen, Kathleen J; Stevens, R Brian

    2011-01-01

    Maintenance immunosuppression with sirolimus (SRL) in renal transplantation has been associated with proteinuria. We report long-term outcomes of kidney transplant recipients maintained on steroid-free regimens, either SRL with low-dose tacrolimus (SRL/L-Tac) or mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) with high-dose tacrolimus (MMF/H-Tac). We conducted a case-matched study of 50 patients receiving MMF/H-Tac, matched 1:2 with 100 patients maintained on SRL/L-Tac. All patients were induced with rabbit antithymocyte globulin followed by early steroid withdrawal. Comparisons were made of patient and graft survival, graft function, acute rejection, and albuminuria. There were no significant differences between the SRL/L-Tac and MMF/H-Tac groups for patient survival, graft survival, occurrence of acute rejection, or graft function. There was no difference in the proportion of patients with albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) ≥300 μg/mg (19% vs. 20%), but more patients in the SRL group were receiving renin-angiotensin system blocking agents (72% vs. 53%, p = 0.04). Only flushing the donor kidney with histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate solution (vs. UW solution) was predictive of albuminuria. Long-term outcomes are similar at our center for kidney transplant patients receiving either SRL/L-Tac or MMF/H-Tac. Although the occurrence of albuminuria was not different, significantly more SRL-treated patients were receiving antiproteinuric medications. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Treatment of contact lens related dry eye with antibacterial honey.

    PubMed

    Wong, Daniel; Albietz, Julie M; Tran, Huan; Du Toit, Cimonette; Li, Anita Hui; Yun, Tina; Han, Jee; Schmid, Katrina L

    2017-12-01

    Contact lens induced dry eye affects approximately 50% of contact lens wearers. The aim was to assess the effects of Manuka (Leptospermum sp.) honey eye drops (Optimel, Melcare, Australia) on dry eye in contact lens wearers. The safety of the honey eye drops in contact lens wear and contact lens wearers' compliance were also evaluated. Prospective, randomised, cross over study, examiner masked, pilot treatment trial. Twenty-four participants aged 20 to 55 years with contact lens related dry eye were recruited and randomised to two treatment groups; 20 completed the study. One group used Optimel eye drops twice a day for two weeks followed by conventional lubricant (Systane Ultra, Alcon) therapy for two weeks; the other group completed the treatments in the reverse order. Before and after each treatment dry eye symptomology, ocular surface inflammation, and tear quantity and quality were assessed. Participants completed a daily log detailing their usage of treatments and any issues. Dry eye symptoms improved significantly after Optimel treatment. Patients with more severe symptoms at baseline showed a greater improvement in symptoms. No significant differences were observed in the objective signs of dry eye; presumably because of the short treatment duration. Seventy-five% of contact lens wearers reported good adherence to Optimel treatment and 95% reported no issues using this product. Optimel Eye Drops reduce the symptoms of dry eye in contact lens wearers and are safe to use. A longer treatment period to assess the effect on clinical signs of dry eye is required. Copyright © 2017 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Switching Stable Kidney Transplant Recipients to a Generic Tacrolimus Is Feasible and Safe, but It Must Be Monitored

    PubMed Central

    López, René; Arriagada, Elizabeth; Carrasco, René; Gallardo, Natalia; Lorca, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Background. Tacrolimus is the primary immunosuppressive drug used in kidney transplant patients. Replacing brand name products with generics is a controversial issue that we studied after a Chilean Ministry of Health mandate to implement such a switch. Methods. Forty-one stable Prograf (Astellas) receiving kidney transplant patients were switched to a generic tacrolimus (Sandoz) in a 1 : 1 dose ratio and were followed up for up to 8 months. All other drugs were maintained as per normal practice. Results. Neither tacrolimus doses nor their trough blood levels changed significantly after the switch, but serum creatinine did: 1.62 ± 0.90 versus 1.75 ± 0.92 mg/dL (p < 0.001). At the same time, five graft biopsies were performed, and two of them showed cellular acute rejection. There were nine infectious episodes treated satisfactorily with proper therapies. No patient or graft was lost during the follow-up time period. Conclusion. Switching from brand name tacrolimus to a generic tacrolimus (Sandoz) is feasible and appears to be safe, but it must be monitored carefully by treating physicians. PMID:28246556

  4. Artificial neural network model for predicting the bioavailability of tacrolimus in patients with renal transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Thishya, Kalluri; Vattam, Kiran Kumar; Naushad, Shaik Mohammad; Raju, Shree Bhushan

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to explore the role of ABCB1 and CYP3A5 genetic polymorphisms in predicting the bioavailability of tacrolimus and the risk for post-transplant diabetes. Artificial neural network (ANN) and logistic regression (LR) models were used to predict the bioavailability of tacrolimus and risk for post-transplant diabetes, respectively. The five-fold cross-validation of ANN model showed good correlation with the experimental data of bioavailability (r2 = 0.93–0.96). Younger age, male gender, optimal body mass index were shown to exhibit lower bioavailability of tacrolimus. ABCB1 1236 C>T and 2677G>T/A showed inverse association while CYP3A5*3 showed a positive association with the bioavailability of tacrolimus. Gender bias was observed in the association with ABCB1 3435 C>T polymorphism. CYP3A5*3 was shown to interact synergistically in increasing the bioavailability in combination with ABCB1 1236 TT or 2677GG genotypes. LR model showed an independent association of ABCB1 2677 G>T/A with post transplant diabetes (OR: 4.83, 95% CI: 1.22–19.03). Multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis (MDR) revealed that synergistic interactions between CYP3A5*3 and ABCB1 2677 G>T/A as the determinants of risk for post-transplant diabetes. To conclude, the ANN and MDR models explore both individual and synergistic effects of variables in modulating the bioavailability of tacrolimus and risk for post-transplant diabetes. PMID:29621269

  5. Sirolimus and tacrolimus trough concentrations and dose requirements after kidney transplantation in relation to CYP3A5 and MDR1 polymorphisms and steroids.

    PubMed

    Mourad, Michel; Mourad, Georges; Wallemacq, Pierre; Garrigue, Valérie; Van Bellingen, Christophe; Van Kerckhove, Valérie; De Meyer, Martine; Malaise, Jacques; Eddour, Djamila Chaib; Lison, Dominique; Squifflet, Jean Paul; Haufroid, Vincent

    2005-10-15

    CYP3A5 and MDR1 polymorphisms have been shown to influence tacrolimus blood concentrations and dose requirements. The aim is to determine whether these polymorphisms also affect sirolimus trough concentrations and dose requirements after kidney transplantation. Eighty-five renal transplant recipients receiving sirolimus were included. Twenty-four were treated with a combined sirolimus-tacrolimus regimen. Eighty-one patients received steroids. Sirolimus and tacrolimus were adjusted to a target therapeutic window. CYP3A5 (intron 3) and MDR1 (exons 12, 21, 26) genotypes were correlated to the adjusted trough concentrations and dose requirements for both sirolimus and tacrolimus. There were no significant correlation between adjusted sirolimus trough concentrations or dose requirements and genetic polymorphisms. In a multiple regression model, adjusted-prednisone dose was involved with a positive or negative effect when considering sirolimus dose requirements or adjusted concentrations, respectively. In the subgroup of patients treated by tacrolimus and sirolimus, adjusted tacrolimus doses were higher in patients carrying at least one CYP3A5 *1 allele (median 0.083 vs. 0.035 mg/kg for CYP3A5*3/*3 patients, P<0.05). Adjusted-prednisolone dose and CYP3A5 polymorphism explained up to 61% of the variability in tacrolimus dose requirements. Unlike tacrolimus, sirolimus adjusted trough concentrations and dose requirements seem not affected by CYP3A5 and MDR1 polymorphisms. Adjusted-prednisone dose has a significant impact on tacrolimus and sirolimus dose requirements.

  6. Multi-center Performance Evaluations of Tacrolimus and Cyclosporine Electrochemiluminescence Immunoassays in the Asia-Pacific Region

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xuzhen; Rui, Jianzhong; Xia, Yong; Mu, Hong; Song, Sang Hoon; Raja Aziddin, Raja Elina; Miles, Gabrielle; Sun, Yuli

    2018-01-01

    Background The immunosuppressant drugs (ISDs), tacrolimus and cyclosporine, are vital for solid organ transplant patients to prevent rejection. However, toxicity is a concern, and absorption is highly variable across patients; therefore, ISD levels need to be precisely monitored. In the Asia-Pacific (APAC) region, tacrolimus and cyclosporine concentrations are typically measured using immunoassays. The objective of this study was to assess the analytical performance of Roche Elecsystacrolimus and cyclosporinee electrochemiluminescence immunoassays (ECLIAs). Methods This evaluation was performed in seven centers across China, South Korea, and Malaysia. Imprecision (repeatability and reproducibility), assay accuracy, and lot-to-lot reagent variability were tested. The Elecsys ECLIAs were compared with commercially available immunoassays (Architect, Dimension, and Viva-E systems) using whole blood samples from patients with various transplant types (kidney, liver, heart, and bone marrow). Results Coefficients of variation for repeatability and reproducibility were ≤5.4% and ≤12.4%, respectively, for the tacrolimus ECLIA, and ≤5.1% and ≤7.3%, respectively, for the cyclosporine ECLIA. Method comparisons of the tacrolimus ECLIA with Architect, Dimension, and Viva-E systems yielded slope values of 1.01, 1.14, and 0.897, respectively. The cyclosporine ECLIA showed even closer agreements with the Architect, Dimension, and Viva-E systems (slope values of 1.04, 1.04, and 1.09, respectively). No major differences were observed among the different transplant types. Conclusions The tacrolimus and cyclosporine ECLIAs demonstrated excellent precision and close agreement with other immunoassays tested. These results show that both assays are suitable for ISD monitoring in an APAC population across a range of different transplant types. PMID:29214751

  7. High Intrapatient Variability of Tacrolimus Levels and Outpatient Clinic Nonattendance Are Associated With Inferior Outcomes in Renal Transplant Patients

    PubMed Central

    Goodall, Dawn L.; Willicombe, Michelle; McLean, Adam G.; Taube, David

    2017-01-01

    Background Nonadherence to immunosuppressants is associated with rejection and allograft loss. Intrapatient variability (IPV) of immunosuppression levels is a marker of nonadherence. This study describes the impact of IPV of tacrolimus levels in patients receiving a tacrolimus monotherapy immunosuppression protocol. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the outpatient tacrolimus levels of kidney-only transplant patients taken between 6 and 12 months posttransplant. IPV was determined using the coefficient of variance. Results Six hundred twenty-eight patients with a mean number of 8.98 ± 3.81 tacrolimus levels and a mean follow-up of 4.72 ± 2.19 years were included. Multivariate analysis showed death was associated with increasing age (1.04 [1.01-1.07], P = 0.0055), diabetes at time of transplant (2.79 [1.44-5.41], P = 0.0024), and rejection (2.34 [1.06-5.19], P = 0.036). Variables associated with graft loss included the highest variability group (2.51 [1.01-6.27], P = 0.048), mean tacrolimus level less than 5 ng/mL (4.32 [1.94-9.63], P = 0.0003), a high clinic nonattendance rate (1.10 [1.01-1.20], P = 0.03), and rejection (9.83 [4.62-20.94], P < 0.0001). Independent risk factors for rejection were de novo donor-specific antibody (3.15 [1.84-5.39], P < 0.0001), mean tacrolimus level less than 5 ng/mL (2.57 [1.27-5.19], P = 0.00860, and a high clinic nonattendance rate (1.11 [1.05-1.18], P = 0.0005). Conclusions This study shows that high tacrolimus IPV and clinic nonattendance are associated with inferior allograft survival. Interventions to minimize the causes of high variability, particularly nonadherence are essential to improve long-term allograft outcomes. PMID:28795143

  8. Personalized tacrolimus doses determined by CYP3A5 genotype for induction and maintenance phases of kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Vannaprasaht, Suda; Reungjui, Sirirat; Supanya, Darika; Sirivongs, Dhavee; Pongskul, Cholatip; Avihingsanon, Yingyos; Tassaneeyakul, Wichittra

    2013-11-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and 3A5 are major isoforms involved in the metabolism of tacrolimus, with the CYP3A5 gene being more polymorphic. It is hypothesized that individual variation in the metabolism of tacrolimus drug may result from genetic polymorphism of CYP3A5. It has been reported that the clearance of tacrolimus in patients with the CYP3A5*1 allele was ~2.5-fold greater than that in those with the CYP3A5*3/*3 genotype. Recent data have also shown that polymorphism in exon 26 (C3435T) of the multidrug resistance gene (MDR1) was correlated with the expression level and function of P-glycoprotein in the lower duodenum, making the relationship between polymorphism of MDR1 and the effective dose of tacrolimus a source of controversy. This study investigated the influence of genetic polymorphisms of CYP3A5 and MDR1 on the dose requirements for the induction and maintenance phases of tacrolimus therapy in kidney transplant recipients. Sixty-eight kidney transplant recipients were enrolled, and their clinical and laboratory data were retrospectively reviewed after 6 months of tacrolimus administration. Genotypes of CYP3A5*1 and CYP3A5*3 and exon 26 of MDR1 (C3435T) were determined by the single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping method. The frequencies of CYP3A5*3/*3, CYP3A5*1/*3, and CYP3A5*1/*1 were 44.1%, 35.3%, and 20.6%, respectively. The mean dose of tacrolimus required for the induction phase was significantly greater in the CYP3A5*1/*1 group (0.142 [0.050] mg/kg/d) than that required in the CYP3A5*1/*3 group (0.097 [0.040] mg/kg/d; P = 0.072) and in the CYP3A5*3/*3 group (0.077 [0.020] mg/kg/d; P = 0.005). The maintenance dose of tacrolimus required in the CYP3A5*1/*1 group (0.12 [0.03] mg/kg/d) was 1.3-fold higher than that in the CYP3A5*1/*3 group (0.09 [0.03] mg/kg/d; P = 0.018) and 2.4-fold higher than in the CYP3A5*3/*3 group (0.05 [0.02] mg/kg/d; P < 0.0001). No statistically significant relationship was observed between the doses of tacrolimus

  9. Dexamethasone nanowafer as an effective therapy for dry eye disease.

    PubMed

    Coursey, Terry G; Henriksson, Johanna Tukler; Marcano, Daniela C; Shin, Crystal S; Isenhart, Lucas C; Ahmed, Faheem; De Paiva, Cintia S; Pflugfelder, Stephen C; Acharya, Ghanashyam

    2015-09-10

    Dry eye disease is a major public health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. It is presently treated with artificial tear and anti-inflammatory eye drops that are generally administered several times a day and may have limited therapeutic efficacy. To improve convenience and efficacy, a dexamethasone (Dex) loaded nanowafer (Dex-NW) has been developed that can release the drug on the ocular surface for a longer duration of time than drops, during which it slowly dissolves. The Dex-NW was fabricated using carboxymethyl cellulose polymer and contains arrays of 500 nm square drug reservoirs filled with Dex. The in vivo efficacy of the Dex-NW was evaluated using an experimental mouse dry eye model. These studies demonstrated that once a day Dex-NW treatment on alternate days during a five-day treatment period was able to restore a healthy ocular surface and corneal barrier function with comparable efficacy to twice a day topically applied dexamethasone eye drop treatment. The Dex-NW was also very effective in down regulating expression of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, and IFN-γ), chemokines (CXCL-10 and CCL-5), and MMP-3, that are stimulated by dry eye. Despite less frequent dosing, the Dex-NW has comparable therapeutic efficacy to topically applied Dex eye drops in experimental mouse dry eye model, and these results provide a strong rationale for translation to human clinical trials for dry eye. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Adult Heart Transplantation Under Tacrolimus (FK506) Immunosuppression: Histopathologic Observations and Comparison to a Cyclosporine-based Regimen with Lympholytic (ATG) Induction

    PubMed Central

    Tsamandas, Athanassios C.; Pham, Si M.; Seaberg, Eric C.; Pappo, Orit; Kormos, Robert L.; Kawai, Akihiko; Griffith, Bartley P.; Zeevi, Adriana; Duquesnoy, Rene; Fung, John J.; Starzl, Thomas E.; Demetris, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Tacrolimus (FK506) is an effective immunosuppressant for human heart transplantation, but information about its effects on cardiac allograft and nonallograft kidney and liver histopathologic study is limited. Methods We therefore reviewed 1145 endomyocardial biopsy specimens and eight autopsy results from 80 heart transplant recipients who received tacrolimus as baseline immunosuppression. These were compared with 619 endomyocardial biopsy specimens and four autopsy results from 51 patients treated with cyclosporine-based immunosuppression with lympholytic induction (CLI) by use of rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin. Twenty-one histologic features including the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation histopathologic grade were retrospectively assessed without knowledge of the treatment regimen. The lymphocyte growth index on biopsy specimens obtained from these patients was also compared. Results In general, there were no qualitative differences in the histopathologic appearance of various allograft syndromes between tacrolimus- and CLI-treated patients. Thus histopathologic criteria used to diagnose various graft syndromes are applicable under tacrolimus immunosuppression. However, early (between 10 and 30 days) after transplantation, biopsy specimens from patients treated with tacrolimus showed a significantly higher percentage of inflamed fragments (p = 0.02), the inflammation tended to be more severe (p = 0.09), and the rejection grade tended to be slightly higher (p = 0.08). In contrast, during the late transplantation period (275 to 548 days), biopsy specimens from patients treated with CLI showed a significantly higher percentage of inflamed fragments (p = 0.03), more severe inflammation (p = 0.03), higher rejection grades (p = 0.01), and a higher frequency of Quilty lesions (p = 0.05). Although overall freedom from any grade 3A or higher rejection was greater in the CLI-treated arm, tacrolimus was successfully used to treat

  11. Successful treatment of eosinophilic pustular folliculitis with topical tacrolimus 0.1 percent ointment.

    PubMed

    Ng, Shanna Shan-Yi; Tay, Yong-Kwang

    2012-02-15

    Classic eosinophilic pustular folliculitis (EPF), otherwise known as Ofugi disease, is a rare condition commonly treated with topical glucocorticosteroids. If this fails, oral indomethacin is frequently the next line. Because the condition is recurrent, the use of long term steroids may cause side effects such as skin atrophy, hypertrichosis, and dyspigmentation. Topical tacrolimus is an immunosuppressant that is generally used as a steroid-sparing agent in atopic dermatitis. We report a case of classic EPF, which was recurrent over 5 years that had failed topical glucocorticosteroids but was successfully treated with topical tacrolimus 0.1 percent ointment.

  12. Effects of topical corticosteroid and tacrolimus on ceramides and irritancy to sodium lauryl sulphate in healthy skin.

    PubMed

    Jungersted, Jakob Mutanu; Høgh, Julie K; Hellegren, Lars I; Jemec, Gregor B E; Agner, Tove

    2011-05-01

    The skin barrier, located in the stratum corneum, is influenced mainly by the lipid and protein composition of this layer. In eczematous diseases impairment of the skin barrier is thought to be of prime importance. Topical anti-inflammatory drugs and emollients are the most widely used eczema treatments. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of topically applied corticosteroid, tacrolimus and emollient on stratum corneum lipids and barrier parameters. Nineteen healthy volunteers participated in the study. Both forearms of the subjects were divided into four areas, which were treated twice daily for one week with betamethasone, tacrolimus, emollient, or left untreated, respectively. After one week each area was challenged with a 24 h sodium lauryl sulphate patch test. The lipids were collected using the cyanoacrylate method and evaluated by high performance thin layer chromatography. For evaluation of the skin barrier, transepidermal water loss, erythema and electrical capacitance were measured. The ceramide/cholesterol ratio was increased in betamethasone- (p = 0.008) and tacrolimus-treated (p = 0.025) skin compared with emollient-treated skin. No differences in ceramide subgroups were found between treatment regimes. Pretreatment with betamethasone (p = 0.01) or with tacrolimus (p = 0.001) causes a decreased inflammatory response to sodium lauryl sulphate compared with emollient. In conclusion, treatment with betamethasone and tacrolimus has a positive effect on the ceramide/cholesterol ratio and susceptibility to irritant reaction compared with an emollient.

  13. Conversion from tacrolimus-mycophenolate mofetil to tacrolimus-mTOR immunosuppression after kidney-pancreas transplantation reduces the incidence of both BK and CMV viremia.

    PubMed

    Knight, Richard J; Graviss, Edward A; Nguyen, Duc T; Kuten, Samantha A; Patel, Samir J; Gaber, Lillian; Gaber, A Osama

    2018-04-19

    We sought to determine whether conversion from tacrolimus/mycophenolate mofetil (TAC-MMF) into tacrolimus/mTOR inhibitor (TAC-mTOR) immunosuppression would reduce the incidences of BK and CMV viremia after kidney/pancreas (KP) transplantation. In this single-center review, the TAC-mTOR cohort (n = 39) was converted at 1 month post-transplant to an mTOR inhibitor and reduced-dose tacrolimus. Outcomes were compared to a cohort of KP recipients (n = 40) maintained on TAC-MMF. At 3 years post-transplant, KP survivals and incidences of kidney/pancreas rejection were equivalent between mTOR and MMF-treated cohorts. (P = ns). BK viremia-free survival was better for the mTOR vs MMF-treated group (P = .004). In multivariate analysis, MMF vs mTOR immunosuppression was an independent risk factor for BK viremia (hazard ratio 12.27, P = .02). Similarly, mTOR-treated recipients displayed better CMV infection-free survival compared to the MMF-treated cohort (P = .01). MMF vs mTOR immunosuppression (hazard ratio 18.77, P = .001) and older recipient age (hazard ratio 1.13 per year, P = .006) were independent risk factors for CMV viremia. Mean estimated GFR and HgbA1c levels were equivalent between groups at 1, 2, and 3 years post-transplantation. Conversion from TAC/MMF into TAC/mTOR immunosuppression after KP transplantation reduced the incidences of BK and CMV viremia with an equivalent risk of acute rejection and similar renal/pancreas function. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Adjuvant effect of Chakshushya Rasayana with beta-blocker eye drops in the management of progressive glaucomatous optic neuropathy: An open-label randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, K S; Adhoor, Veeranagouda S; Agarwal, Riju; Mehta, Amit J

    2016-01-01

    Primary open angle glaucoma is an insidious and chronic vision-threatening eye ailment due to neuro-retino-optic nerve degeneration, which may be due to the raised intraocular pressure (IOP) or due to independent factors. Management of glaucoma is mainly concentrated on lowering IOP that requires lifetime topical medication, different ocular medicaments for lowering of IOP, and surgical interventions, but it has its own limitations to control the progression of glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON), and this is the reason behind the use of alternative neuroprotective adjuvants. To evaluate the neuroprotective effect of Ayurvedic line of management of progressive GON. Ingredients of trial drug Vara Fort powder ( Chakshushya Rasayana ) were procured from the Institute Pharmacy, except Swarnamakshika Bhasma , which was purchased from Dhootapapeshwar Pharmaceuticals. The patients fulfilling inclusion criteria, attending outpatient and inpatient departments, irrespective of their sex, race, religion, occupation, etc., were selected and divided into two groups with open-labeled randomization. In Group A, in addition to betaxolol (0.1%) or timolol (0.5%) (non-iobrim), Chakshushya Rasayana 6 g/day orally with Triphala Ghrita and honey along with Koshtha-Shuddhi (body-microchannel clearing treatment) protocol was tried. Nasya (oleation through nasal route) with Jeevantyadi Taila and Tarpana (eye satiation) with Go-Ghrita were also performed. In Group B (control), brimonidine (iobrim) 0.2% eye drop was used for 3 months. Significant improvement was observed in subjective parameters in Group A such as blurred vision, frequent change of presbyopic glasses, and delayed dark adaptation. Chakshushya Rasayana , if administered in a systematic approach along with a modern topical betaxolol or timolol eye drops, has a definite role in improving the lost retinal sensitivity as much as up to 12 dB in 3 months duration.

  15. Conservation of small-airway function by tacrolimus/cyclosporine conversion in the management of bronchiolitis obliterans following lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Revell, M P; Lewis, M E; Llewellyn-Jones, C G; Wilson, I C; Bonser, R S

    2000-12-01

    We studied serial lung function in 11 patients with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome who were treated with tacrolimus conversion following lung or heart-lung transplantation. Our results show that tacrolimus conversion slows the decline of lung function in bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. The attenuation continues for at least 1 year following conversion.

  16. Solid state compatibility study and characterization of a novel degradation product of tacrolimus in formulation.

    PubMed

    Rozman Peterka, Tanja; Grahek, Rok; Hren, Jure; Bastarda, Andrej; Bergles, Jure; Urleb, Uroš

    2015-06-10

    Tacrolimus is macrolide drug that is widely used as a potent immunosuppressant. In the present work compatibility testing was conducted on physical mixtures of tacrolimus with excipients and on compatibility mixtures prepared by the simulation of manufacturing process used for the final drug product preparation. Increase in one major degradation product was detected in the presence of magnesium stearate based upon UHPLC analysis. The degradation product was isolated by preparative HPLC and its structure was elucidated by NMR and MS studies. Mechanism of the formation of this degradation product is proposed based on complementary degradation studies in a solution and structural elucidation data. The structure was proven to be alpha-hydroxy acid which is formed from the parent tacrolimus molecule through a benzilic acid type rearrangement reaction in the presence of divalent metallic cations. Degradation is facilitated at higher pH values. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Preliminary study on the treatment of vitiligo with carbon dioxide fractional laser together with tacrolimus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Zhou, Yuan; Huang, Fei-Ran; Luo, Dan; Wang, Da-Guang

    2018-04-10

    Tacrolimus is a conventional medication for the treatment of vitiligo, but the effect of a single medication is limited. This paper aims at observing the effects, adverse responses, and repigmentation results of the joint treatment of vitiligo by Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) fractional laser together with tacrolimus. Forty-five patients with vitiligo were randomly divided into two groups: treatment (T) group and control (C) group, and each group was further divided into three subgroups (face, torso and limbs, and hand and foot) according to the location of the skin defect. Both groups used topical 0.1% tacrolimus cream, but the T group was given one CO 2 fractional laser treatment each month. We observed the clinical efficacy, adverse responses, and repigmentation results after 6 months. Compared to the C group, the T group showed better improvement in both objective and subjective assessments. When the treatment time was increased, the efficacy was also improved, and the repigmentation in the T group occured in three ways: perifollicular repigmentation, marginal repigmentation and diffuse repigmentation. There were three cases of isomorphic responses (2 cases in the rapid progression stage, one case in the progression stage), and 1 case formed scarring on the neck in the T group. The treatment of vitiligo by CO 2 fractional laser together with tacrolimus is significantly effective and is most suitable for patients in the progression stage. Patients in the rapid progression stage should use this approach with caution, and its efficacy was limited for patients in the stable stage. An extended course of treatment is helpful for the repigmentation of white patches. All three forms of repigmentation can occur in the joint treatment of vitiligo by CO 2 fractional laser together with tacrolimus. Lasers Surg. Med. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) associated with tacrolimus (FK506) after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fukazawa, Kyota; Nishida, Seigo; Aguina, Luz; Pretto, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) is the most detrimental neurologic complication after liver transplantation. The incidence of CPM after liver transplantation ascends to 17%. Although the precise etiology and pathogenesis of CPM is largely unknown, a growing literature implicates a possible role of immunosuppressive agents, such as Cyclosporine (incidence 30%) on its development. Other immunosuppressive agents also can cause CPM but the frequency of these cases is less compared to Cyclosporine. There is only one case report for Tacrolimus (FK506)-associated speech disorder, which might be an atypical presentation of CPM, and no case reports for Rapamycin. We present a case of Tacrolimus induced CPM. A 62-year-old woman who underwent liver transplantation developed clinical symptoms with radiologic evidence consistent with CPM 7 days after liver transplant. Since the electrolytes in this patient remained normal from her admission, the hypothesis of inmunossupressor neurotoxicity was established and the therapy was switched, resulting in an evident clinical and radiological improvement of her condition in the following days. Five months later, the patient's only neurological deficit was slight dysarthria and a follow-up MRI showed no abnormalities. This case provides evidence of Tacrolimus-associated CPM after transplantation, which presented with a classic "lock-in syndrome" with radiographic confirmation.

  19. Effect of mistletoe combined with carboxymethyl cellulose on dry eye in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Nan; Ye, Lin-Hong; Ye, Lei; Yu, Jing; Yang, Qi-Chen; Yuan, Qing; Zhu, Pei-Wen; Shao, Yi

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the protective effect of mistletoe combined with carboxymethyl cellulose eye drops on dry eye in postmenopausal women. METHODS Sixty postmenopause female patients diagnosed of dry eye were assigned randomly to mistletoe combined with carboxymethyl cellulose eye drops treatment group (n=30) and control group treated with normal saline eye drops (n=30). The subjective symptoms of ocular surface, Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), tear film function tests, tear protein and corneal morphology by confocal scanning microscopy were analyzed before treatment and at 1, 2, 4 and 8wk after treatment respectively. To ensure the safety of the trial, all patients were examined with systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, urine creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen at 8wk after treatment. RESULTS There were no obvious differences between two groups before the treatment (P>0.05). In two months after the treatment, the symptoms of ocular surface, OSDI, tear protein, and tear film function were only slightly changed in normal saline eye drops group. However, all indices were improved after the treatment of mistletoe combined with carboxymethyl cellulose eye drops group (P<0.05). In addition, the average amount of corneal epithelium basal cells and inflammatory cells of mistletoe treated group were 3174±379 and 38±25 cells/mm2, significantly decreased as compared to the control group with 4309±612 and 158± 61 cells/mm2, respectively. In the control group, although nerves still maintained straight under corneal epithelium, the number of nerves were significantly decreased, as compared with normal female. In the mistletoe treated group, the number of nerves was only slightly reduced, compared with normal female. CONCLUSION Mistletoe combined with carboxymethyl cellulose eye drops can alleviate the symptoms and signs of dry eye symptoms. PMID:29181309

  20. Evaluation of treatment for dry eye with 2-hydroxyestradiol using a dry eye rat model.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Akihiro; Oonishi, Erina; Kawakita, Tetsuya; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    2-hydroxy estradiol (2-OHE2) is a catechol derivative of 17β -Estradiol (E2) and it is synthesized from E2 catalyzed by cytochrome P4501A1. Previous studies reported that 2-OHE2 is a physiologic antioxidant in lipoproteins, liver microsomes, and the brain. Catechol derivatives show an anti-inflammatory effect through the inhibition of prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase (PGS) activity. Corneal erosion caused by dry eye is related to an increase in oxidative stress and inflammation in ocular surface cells. We investigated the therapeutic effects of 2-OHE2 on corneal damage caused by dry eye. Steroidal radical scavenging activity was confirmed through the electron spin resonance (ESR) method. PGS activity was measured using the COX Fluorescent Activity Assay Kit. To evaluate the effect of 2-OHE2 on the treatment for dry eye, 2-OHE2 was applied as an eye drop experiment using dry eye model rats. 2-OHE2 scavenged tyrosyl radical and possibly suppressed oxidative stress in corneal epithelial cells. In addition, 2-OHE2 inhibited PGS activity, and 2-OHE2 is probably a competitive inhibitor of PGS. Corneal PGS activity was upregulated in the dry eye group. Therefore, 2-OHE2 eye drops improved corneal erosion in dry eye model rats. 2-OHE2 is a candidate for the treatment of dry eye through the suppression of inflammation and oxidative stress in the cornea.

  1. Influence of ABCB1 polymorphisms and haplotypes on tacrolimus nephrotoxicity and dosage requirements in children with liver transplant

    PubMed Central

    Hawwa, Ahmed F; McKiernan, Patrick J; Shields, Michael; Millership, Jeff S; Collier, Paul S; McElnay, James C

    2009-01-01

    AIMS The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of genetic polymorphisms in ABCB1 on the incidence of nephrotoxicity and tacrolimus dosage-requirements in paediatric patients following liver transplantation. METHODS Fifty-one paediatric liver transplant recipients receiving tacrolimus were genotyped for ABCB1 C1236>T, G2677>T and C3435>T polymorphisms. Dose-adjusted tacrolimus trough concentrations and estimated glomerular filtration rates (EGFR) indicative of renal toxicity were determined and correlated with the corresponding genotypes. RESULTS The present study revealed a higher incidence of the ABCB1 variant-alleles examined among patients with renal dysfunction (≥30% reduction in EGFR) at 6 months post-transplantation (1236T allele: 63.3% vs 37.5% in controls, P= 0.019; 2677T allele: 63.3% vs. 35.9%, p = 0.012; 3435T allele: 60% vs. 39.1%, P= 0.057). Carriers of the G2677->T variant allele also had a significant reduction (%) in EGFR at 12 months post-transplant (mean difference = 22.6%; P= 0.031). Haplotype analysis showed a significant association between T-T-T haplotypes and an increased incidence of nephrotoxicity at 6 months post-transplantation (haplotype-frequency = 52.9% in nephrotoxic patients vs 29.4% in controls; P= 0.029). Furthermore, G2677->T and C3435->T polymorphisms and T-T-T haplotypes were significantly correlated with higher tacrolimus dose-adjusted pre-dose concentrations at various time points examined long after drug initiation. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that ABCB1 polymorphisms in the native intestine significantly influence tacrolimus dosage-requirement in the stable phase after transplantation. In addition, ABCB1 polymorphisms in paediatric liver transplant recipients may predispose them to nephrotoxicity over the first year post-transplantation. Genotyping future transplant recipients for ABCB1 polymorphisms, therefore, could have the potential to individualize better tacrolimus immunosuppressive therapy and

  2. A rare but important adverse effect of tacrolimus in a heart transplant recipient: diabetic ketoacidosis.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Zeynelabidin; Gönç, E Nazlı; Akcan, Leman; Kesici, Selman; Ertuğrul, İlker; Bayrakçı, Benan

    2015-01-01

    Heart transplantation indications in pediatric population include congenital heart diseases, cardiomyopathies and retransplants. Cardiomyopathy is the primary indication for 11 to 17 years of age. The surveillance after transplantation is a very important issue because of both the rejection risk and the adverse effects due to medications after transplantation. Immunosuppressive agents that are commonly used after heart transplantations have several toxicities. Here we present an adolescent patient diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy, performed heart transplantation, treated with tacrolimus and suffered from diabetic ketoacidosis due to tacrolimus. After the diagnosis was made the appropriate fluid and insulin therapy was started immediately and ketoacidosis resolved in the first 24 hours of the therapy. The diagnosis revised as new onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation and the tacrolimus dosage titrated to therapeutic level. After glycemic control the patient discharged with rapid acting insulin, three times daily, before meals; and long acting insulin once daily at night. In ten month follow up time the insulin dosages were progressively reduced.

  3. Progressive necrotic encephalopathy following tacrolimus therapy for liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Aridon, Paolo; Ragonese, Paolo; Di Benedetto, Norma; Grasso, Giovanni; Conaldi, Pier Giulio; D'Amelio, Marco; Savettieri, Giovanni

    2009-12-01

    Previously described neurologic damage induced by immunosuppressive treatments includes transient or reversible central nervous system involvement. We describe a 57-year-old man who underwent liver transplantation and was started on immunosuppressive therapy with tacrolimus (FK506). Six months later, he started complaining of a progressive motor and sensory impairment of the left side, together with cognitive impairment. Brain MRI showed an enlarging lesion of the white matter with peripheral contrast enhancement. PET study indicated severe hypometabolism in the right hemisphere and spectroscopic MRI showed a peak of choline and relative reduction of other metabolites. Findings of CSF examinations and cultures, serology, and molecular techniques were normal. Tacrolimus treatment was stopped. A cerebral biopsy of the lesion showed a sub acute necrotizing process. In the following months, cognitive status of the patient tended to improve although he remained hemiplegic, while serial MRI confirmed the tendency to the recovery of the lesion that was still present 1 year after. The present observation describes a progressive encephalopathy associated with immune suppression with an unusual feature and permanent brain damage.

  4. Analysis of tacrolimus and creatinine from a single dried blood spot using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Koop, Dennis R; Bleyle, Lisa A; Munar, Myrna; Cherala, Ganesh; Al-Uzri, Amira

    2013-05-01

    Long term therapeutic drug monitoring and assessment of renal function are required in renal transplant recipients on immunosuppressant therapy such as tacrolimus. Dry blood spots (DBS) have been used successfully in the clinic for many years and offers a convenient, simple and non-invasive method for repeated blood tests. We developed and performed a preliminary validation of a method for the analysis of tacrolimus and creatinine from a single DBS using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS). Tacrolimus and creatinine were extracted from a 6mm punch with a mixture of methanol/acetonitrile containing ascomycin and deuterated creatinine as internal standards. A 10 μl aliquot of the extract was analyzed directly after dilution for creatinine with normal phase high performance liquid chromatography and multiple reaction monitoring. The remainder of the extract was processed and analyzed for tacrolimus. The lower limit of quantification for tacrolimus was 1 ng/ml with accuracy of 0.34% bias and precision (CV) of 11.1%. The precision ranged from 1.33% to 7.68% and accuracy from -4.44% to 11.6% bias for the intra- and inter-day analysis. The lower limit of quantification of creatinine was 0.01 mg/dL with precision of 7.94%. Accuracy was based on recovery of additional creatinine spiked into whole blood samples and ranged from -2.45% bias at 5 mg/dL to 3.75% bias at 0.5 mg/dL. Intra- and inter-day precision was from 3.48 to 4.11%. The assay was further validated with DBS prepared from pediatric renal transplant recipients. There was excellent correlation between the levels of tacrolimus and creatinine obtained from the clinical laboratory and the DBS method developed. After additional validation, this assay may have a significant impact on compliance with medication intake as well as potentially lowering the cost associated with intravenous blood draws in clinical laboratories. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Tacrolimus loaded biocompatible lecithin-based microemulsions with improved skin penetration: Structure characterization and in vitro/in vivo performances.

    PubMed

    Savić, Vedrana; Todosijević, Marija; Ilić, Tanja; Lukić, Milica; Mitsou, Evgenia; Papadimitriou, Vassiliki; Avramiotis, Spyridon; Marković, Bojan; Cekić, Nebojša; Savić, Snežana

    2017-08-30

    In order to improve skin penetration of tacrolimus we aimed to develop potentially non-irritant, lecithin-based microemulsions containing ethanol, isopropanol and/or propylene glycol as cosurfactants, varying caprylic/capric triglycerides and propylene glycol monocaprylate as oil phase. The influence of excipients on the size of microemulsion region in pseudo-ternary phase diagrams and their ability to form different types of microemulsions was evaluated. The comprehensive physicochemical characterization of microemulsions and the evaluation of their structure was performed, while the localization of tacrolimus in microemulsions was further investigated using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Moreover, stability studies proved no change in tacrolimus content during one year of storage at room temperature. In addition, in vivo skin performance indicated no skin irritation potential of blank microemulsions, whereas in vitro release testing using Franz diffusion cells showed superior release rate of tacrolimus from microemulsions (0.98±0.10 and 0.92±0.11μg/cm 2 /h for two bicontinuous and 1.00±0.24μg/cm 2 /h for oil-in-water microemulsion) compared to referent Protopic ointment (0.15±0.08μg/cm 2 /h). Furthermore, ex vivo penetration assessed through porcine ear skin using tape stripping, confirmed superiority of two microemulsions related to the reference, implying developed microemulsions as promising carriers for dermal delivery of tacrolimus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of Tacrolimus or Sirolimus on the adhesion of vascular wall cells: Controlled in-vitro comparison study.

    PubMed

    Krüger-Genge, A; Hiebl, B; Franke, R P; Lendlein, A; Jung, F

    2017-01-01

    In drug eluting stents the cytostatic drugs Sirolimus or Tacrolimus are used to inhibit blood vessel restenosis by limiting the proliferation of smooth muscle cells. However, the cytostatic activity of both drugs was shown to be not cell specific and could also affect the stent endothelialisation, respectively. Currently, only limited in vitro data are available about the impact of Sirolimus and Tacrolimus on endothelial cell proliferation over a broad concentration range. To answer this question the following study was performed.Commercially obtained HUVEC were expanded with DMEM cell culture medium (GIBCO, Germany) supplemented with 5 vol% fetal calf serum on non-coated regular polystyrene-based 24-multiwell plates. For drug testings 2×104 cells/cm2 were seeded and grown for 24 h until 30-40% of the multiwell surfaces were covered and then exposed to Sirolimus (1.0×10-11 - 1.0×10-5 mol/l) or Tacrolimus (2.0×10-8 - 6.2×10-5 mol/l), both dissolved in DMSO. 12, 24 and 48 h after adding the drugs cell numbers per area were quantified by counting the cells in six wells with four fields of view per well, representing 0.6 mm2, using a confocal laser microscope.After 48 h of cell growth in the drug-free cell culture medium, the HUVEC number increased from 2.0×104 to 3.55×104 cells/cm2 (mean cell doubling time: 53.6 h, n = 6). At lower concentrations (≤2.0×10-6 mol/l) Tacrolimus reduced the number of adherent HUVEC significantly less than Sirolimus (p < 0.05). However, at higher concentrations (≥2.07×10-5 mol/l) the effect of Tacrolimus on the number of adherent endothelial cells was significantly greater than that of Sirolimus (p < 0.05). At the highest concentration applied (6.22×10-5 mol/l), Tacrolimus induced detachment of all HUVECs within 12 h after drug application. The number of adherent HUVEC decreased only slightly (about 9%) after Sirolimus application at the highest concentration (1.09×10-5 mol/l).These data

  7. Usability of prostaglandin monotherapy eye droppers.

    PubMed

    Drew, Tom; Wolffsohn, James S

    2015-09-01

    To determine the force needed to extract a drop from a range of current prostaglandin monotherapy eye droppers and how this related to the comfortable and maximum pressure subjects could exert. The comfortable and maximum pressure subjects could apply to an eye dropper constructed around a set of cantilevered pressure sensors and mounted above their eye was assessed in 102 subjects (mean 51.2±18.7 years), repeated three times. A load cell amplifier, mounted on a stepper motor controlled linear slide, was constructed and calibrated to test the force required to extract the first three drops from 13 multidose or unidose latanoprost medication eye droppers. The pressure that could be exerted on a dropper comfortably (25.9±17.7 Newtons, range 1.2-87.4) could be exceeded with effort (to 64.8±27.1 Newtons, range 19.9-157.8; F=19.045, p<0.001), and did not differ between repeats (F=0.609, p=0.545). Comfortable and maximum pressures exerted were correlated (r=0.618, p<0.001), neither were influenced strongly by age (r=0.138, p=0.168; r=-0.118, p=0237, respectively), but were lower in women than in men (F=12.757, p=0.001). The force required to expel a drop differed between dropper designs (F=22.528, p<0.001), ranging from 6.4 Newtons to 23.4 Newtons. The force needed to exert successive drops increased (F=36.373, p<0.001) and storing droppers in the fridge further increased the force required (F=7.987, p=0.009). Prostaglandin monotherapy droppers for glaucoma treatment vary in their resistance to extract a drop and with some a drop could not be comfortably achieved by half the population, which may affect compliance and efficacy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. MDR1 haplotypes derived from exons 21 and 26 do not affect the steady-state pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus in renal transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Mai, Ingrid; Perloff, Elke S; Bauer, Steffen; Goldammer, Mark; Johne, Andreas; Filler, Guido; Budde, Klemens; Roots, Ivar

    2004-11-01

    This retrospective study investigated the influence of MDR1 haplotypes derived from the polymorphisms 2677G > T (exon 21) and 3435C > T (exon 26) on the pharmacokinetics of the immunosuppressant drug tacrolimus in 73 renal transplant patients. Based on both variants of SNPs 2677 and 3435, four different haplotypes and eight different genotypes were identified in the study sample. Tacrolimus trough concentrations (C(0)) were compared between different SNP variants and genotypes, as well as between carriers and noncarriers of each haplotype. Additionally, CYP3A5 genotype (6956G > A) was determined. No significant differences were observed between groups. Differences in mean tacrolimus C(0) values between carriers and noncarriers of each haplotype ranged from -0.04 microg/litre (95% confidence interval: -0.53 to 0.60) to -23 microg/litre (-1.07 to 1.53). No association was found between CYP3A5*1/*3 genotype and tacrolimus Co concentractions. MDR1 haplotypes derived from the SNPs 2677G > T (exon 21) and 3435C > T (exon 26) do not influence the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus in renal transplant patients.

  9. EFFICACY OF TACROLIMUS FOR INDUCTION OF REMISSION IN PATIENTS WITH MODERATE-TO-SEVERE ULCERATIVE COLITIS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS.

    PubMed

    Lasa, Juan; Olivera, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    There is evidence that shows that calcineurin inhibitors may be useful for the treatment of severe ulcerative colitis. However, evidence regarding the efficacy of tacrolimus for remission induction in this setting is scarce. To develop a systematic review on the existing evidence regarding the clinical efficacy of tacrolimus for the induction of remission in patients with moderate-to-severe ulcerative colitis. A literature search was undertaken from 1966 to August 2016 using MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS and the Cochrane Library. The following MeSH terms were used: "Inflammatory Bowel Diseases" or "Ulcerative Colitis" and "Calcineurin Inhibitors" or "Tacrolimus" or "FK506". Studies performed in adult ulcerative colitis patients that evaluated the clinical efficacy of tacrolimus for the induction of remission were considered for revision. A meta-analysis was performed with those included studies that were also placebo-controlled and randomized. Clinical response as well as clinical remission and mucosal healing were evaluated. Overall, 755 references were identified, from which 22 studies were finally included. Only two of them were randomized, placebo-controlled trials. A total of 172 patients were evaluated. A significantly lower risk of failure in clinical response was found for tacrolimus versus placebo [RR 0.58 (0.45-0.73)]; moreover, a lower risk of failure in the induction of remission was also found versus placebo [RR 0.91 (0.82-1)]. Tacrolimus seems to be a valid therapeutic alternative for the induction of remission in patients with moderate-to-severe ulcerative colitis.

  10. False Elevation of the Blood Tacrolimus Concentration, as Assessed by an Affinity Column-mediated Immunoassay (ACMIA), Led to Acute T Cell-mediated Rejection after Kidney Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kono, Momoko; Hasegawa, Jumpei; Ogawa, Hina; Yoshikawa, Kanae; Ishiwatari, Ayumi; Wakai, Sachiko; Tanabe, Kazunari; Shirakawa, Hiroki

    2018-05-01

    Tacrolimus is the most commonly used immunosuppressant. Because of its narrow therapeutic range, it is necessary to frequently monitor its concentration. We report the case of a 25-year-old man who underwent kidney transplantation whose tacrolimus concentrations, as measured by an affinity column-mediated immunoassay, were falsely elevated. As we reduced the dose of tacrolimus, the recipient developed T cell-mediated rejection. Using the same blood samples, an enzyme-multiplied immunoassay technique showed that the patient's levels of tacrolimus were extremely low. A further examination indicated that the false increase in the tacrolimus concentration was likely due to an unknown interfering substance. We administered methylprednisolone and antithymocyte-globulin. The patient's serum creatinine level decreased and remained stable after these treatments.

  11. Successful treatment of oral lichen planus-like chronic graft-versus-host disease with topical tacrolimus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Andrés R; Sheridan, Phillip J; Rogers, Roy S

    2004-04-01

    Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is a common treatment used for deficiencies of host marrow or in the control of blood malignancies. Post-allogeneic BMT complications include graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). GVHD occurs when immunologically active T lymphocytes are transplanted into an immunosuppressed recipient who is genetically disparate from the donor. In this case report we describe the occurrence of oral lichen planus-like lesions as the first manifestation of chronic GVHD (c-GVHD) and the subsequent management of this disease with topical tacrolimus. Diagnostic aids included routine histology and direct immunofluorescence studies to rule out immunobullous diseases and to confirm the c-GVHD. Treatment consisted of topical application of 0.1% tacrolimus ointment three times a day. Routine histology confirmed the clinical diagnosis of oral lichen planus-like c-GVHD. Treatment with tacrolimus ointment completely resolved the oral lesions after 2 months of therapy. Topical tacrolimus at low concentrations (0.1%) shows promise in the management of oral lichen planus-like c-GVHD. Controlled studies are necessary to assess the efficacy, the duration of therapy required for effective results, and the safety of this treatment over the long-term.

  12. Regulatory effect of calcineurin inhibitor, tacrolimus, on IL-6/sIL-6R-mediated RANKL expression through JAK2-STAT3-SOCS3 signaling pathway in fibroblast-like synoviocytes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This study investigated whether the calcineurin inhibitor, tacrolimus, suppresses receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) expression in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) through regulation of IL-6/Janus activated kinase (JAK2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) and suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS3) signaling. Methods The expression of RANKL, JAK2, STAT3, and SOCS3 proteins was assessed by western blot analysis, real-time PCR and ELISA in IL-6 combined with soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R)-stimulated rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-FLS with or without tacrolimus treatment. The effects of tacrolimus on synovial inflammation and bone erosion were assessed using mice with arthritis induced by K/BxN serum. Immunofluorescent staining was performed to identify the effect of tacrolimus on RANKL and SOCS3. The tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining assay was performed to assess the effect of tacrolimus on osteoclast differentiation. Results We found that RANKL expression in RA FLS is regulated by the IL-6/sIL-6R/JAK2/STAT3/SOCS3 pathway. Inhibitory effects of tacrolimus on RANKL expression in a serum-induced arthritis mice model were identified. Tacrolimus inhibits RANKL expression in IL-6/sIL-6R-stimulated FLS by suppressing STAT3. Among negative regulators of the JAK/STAT pathway, such as CIS1, SOCS1, and SOCS3, only SOCS3 is significantly induced by tacrolimus. As compared to dexamethasone and methotrexate, tacrolimus more potently suppresses RANKL expression in FLS. By up-regulating SOCS3, tacrolimus down-regulates activation of the JAK-STAT pathway by IL-6/sIL-6R trans-signaling, thus decreasing RANKL expression in FLS. Conclusions These data suggest that tacrolimus might affect the RANKL expression in IL-6 stimulated FLS through STAT3 suppression, together with up-regulation of SOCS3. PMID:23406906

  13. Application of Machine-Learning Models to Predict Tacrolimus Stable Dose in Renal Transplant Recipients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jie; Liu, Rong; Zhang, Yue-Li; Liu, Mou-Ze; Hu, Yong-Fang; Shao, Ming-Jie; Zhu, Li-Jun; Xin, Hua-Wen; Feng, Gui-Wen; Shang, Wen-Jun; Meng, Xiang-Guang; Zhang, Li-Rong; Ming, Ying-Zi; Zhang, Wei

    2017-02-01

    Tacrolimus has a narrow therapeutic window and considerable variability in clinical use. Our goal was to compare the performance of multiple linear regression (MLR) and eight machine learning techniques in pharmacogenetic algorithm-based prediction of tacrolimus stable dose (TSD) in a large Chinese cohort. A total of 1,045 renal transplant patients were recruited, 80% of which were randomly selected as the “derivation cohort” to develop dose-prediction algorithm, while the remaining 20% constituted the “validation cohort” to test the final selected algorithm. MLR, artificial neural network (ANN), regression tree (RT), multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), boosted regression tree (BRT), support vector regression (SVR), random forest regression (RFR), lasso regression (LAR) and Bayesian additive regression trees (BART) were applied and their performances were compared in this work. Among all the machine learning models, RT performed best in both derivation [0.71 (0.67-0.76)] and validation cohorts [0.73 (0.63-0.82)]. In addition, the ideal rate of RT was 4% higher than that of MLR. To our knowledge, this is the first study to use machine learning models to predict TSD, which will further facilitate personalized medicine in tacrolimus administration in the future.

  14. Drug delivery to the ocular posterior segment using lipid emulsion via eye drop administration: effect of emulsion formulations and surface modification.

    PubMed

    Ying, Lin; Tahara, Kohei; Takeuchi, Hirofumi

    2013-09-10

    This work explored submicron-sized lipid emulsion as potential carriers for intraocular drug delivery to the posterior segment via eye drops. The effects of physicochemical properties of lipid emulsion on drug delivery were evaluated in vivo using mice. Different formulations of submicron-sized lipid emulsions were prepared using a high pressure homogenization system. Using coumairn-6 as a model drug and fluorescent marker, fluorescence could be observed in the retina after administration of the lipid emulsion. The fluorescence intensity observed after administration of medium chain triglycerides containing the same amount of coumarin-6 was much lower than that observed after administration of lipid emulsions. The inner oil property and phospholipid emulsifier did not affect the drug delivery efficiency to the retina. However, compared with unmodified emulsions, the fluorescence intensity in the retina increased by surface modification using a positive charge inducer and the functional polymers chitosan (CS) and poloxamer 407 (P407). CS-modified lipid emulsions could be electrostatically interacted with the eye surface. By its adhesive property, poloxamer 407, a surface modifier, possibly increased the lipid emulsion retention time on the eye surface. In conclusion, we suggested that surface-modified lipid emulsions could be promising vehicles of hydrophobic drug delivery to the ocular posterior segment. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Physicochemical characterization of tacrolimus-loaded solid dispersion with sodium carboxylmethyl cellulose and sodium lauryl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Park, Young-Joon; Ryu, Dong-Sung; Li, Dong Xun; Quan, Qi Zhe; Oh, Dong Hoon; Kim, Jong Oh; Seo, Youn Gee; Lee, Young-Im; Yong, Chul Soon; Woo, Jong Soo; Choi, Han-Gon

    2009-06-01

    To develop a novel tacrolimus-loaded solid dispersion with improved solubility, various solid dispersions were prepared with various ratios of water, sodium lauryl sulfate, citric acid and carboxylmethylcellulose-Na using spray drying technique. The physicochemical properties of solid dispersions were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetery and powder X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, their solubility and dissolution were evaluated compared to drug powder. The solid dispersion at the tacrolimus/CMC-Na/sodium lauryl sulfate/citric acid ratio of 3/24/3/0.2 significantly improved the drug solubility and dissolution compared to powder. The scanning electron microscopy result suggested that carriers might be attached to the surface of drug in this solid dispersion. Unlike traditional solid dispersion systems, the crystal form of drug in this solid dispersion could not be converted to amorphous form, which was confirmed by the analysis of DSC and powder X-ray diffraction. Thus, the solid dispersion system with water, sodium lauryl sulfate, citric acid and CMC-Na should be a potential candidate for delivering a poorly water-soluble tacrolimus with enhanced solubility and no convertible crystalline.

  16. The effect of CYP3A5 and ABCB1 single nucleotide polymorphisms on tacrolimus dose requirements in Caucasian liver transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Provenzani, Alessio; Notarbartolo, Monica; Labbozzetta, Manuela; Poma, Paola; Biondi, Filippo; Sanguedolce, Rosario; Vizzini, Giovanni; Palazzo, Ugo; Polidori, Piera; Triolo, Fabio; Gridelli, Bruno; D'Alessandro, Natale

    2009-01-01

    Tacrolimus is a substrate of cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 3A enzyme and of the drug transporter ABCB1. We have investigated the effects of possible relevant CYP3A5 and ABCB1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) present in both donors and recipients on tacrolimus blood levels achieved in a population of 32 Caucasian liver transplant patients. At 1, 3 and 6 months after transplantation, tacrolimus doses (mg/kg/day) and trough blood levels (C(0)) were determined. Polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was used for genotyping CYP3A5*3 [6986A>G] as well as ABCB1 at exons 21 [2677G>T] and 26 [3435C>T]. 87.5% of the population showed a CYP3A5*3/*3 genotype. For the ABCB1 SNPs, in the case of 3435C>T the total frequency observed for the allelic variant was 50%. For the 2677G>T, the total frequency of the allelic variant was 12.5%, lower than in other Caucasian populations and without any significant linkage with 3435C>T. At 3 and 6 months after transplantation, tacrolimus dose requirements were significantly higher in patients receiving a liver with one copy of the *1 allele compared to those homozygous for the *3 allele (0.111+/-0.057 vs. 0.057+/-0.030 [P<0.05] at 3 month and 0.086+/-0.051 vs. 0.044+/-0.025 [P<0.05] at 6 month). For the recipients' genotypes, the presence of at least one *1 copy tended, though not statistically significantly, to increase tacrolimus doses. With regard to the ABCB1 SNPs, they did not show any influence on tacrolimus dosing requirements. Pharmacogenetic analysis of CYP3A5 in the donor could contribute to determine the appropriate initial dosage of tacrolimus in liver transplant patients.

  17. Cost of dry eye treatment in an Asian clinic setting.

    PubMed

    Waduthantri, Samanthila; Yong, Siew Sian; Tan, Chien Hua; Shen, Liang; Lee, Man Xin; Nagarajan, Sangeetha; Hla, Mynt Htoon; Tong, Louis

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the cost and patterns of expenditure of dry eye treatment. We retrieved data on the type and cost of dry eye treatment in Singapore National Eye Centre from pharmacy and clinic inventory databases over a 2 year period (2008-2009) retrospectively. According to the type of treatment, data were sorted into 7 groups; meibomien gland disease (MGD) treatment, preservative free lubricant eye drops, preserved lubricant eye drops, lubricant ointments and gels, cyclosporine eye drops, oral supplements and non-pharmacological treatments/procedures. Each recorded entry was considered as one patient episode (PE). Comparisons in each group between two years were carried out using Pearson Chi-Square test. Significance level was set at alpha  =  0.05. Cost data from 54,052 patients were available for analysis. Total number of recorded PEs was 132,758. Total annual expenditure on dry eye treatment for year 2008 and 2009 were US$1,509,372.20 and US$1,520,797.80 respectively. Total expenditure per PE in year 2008 and 2009 were US$22.11 and US$23.59 respectively. From 2008 to 2009, there was a 0.8% increase in total annual expenditure and 6.69% increase in expenditure per PE. Pharmacological treatment attributes to 99.2% of the total expenditure with lubricants accounting for 79.3% of the total pharmacological treatment expenditure. Total number of units purchased in preservative free lubricants, cyclosporine eye drops and MGD therapy have increased significantly (p<0.001) whereas number of units purchased in preserved lubricants and ointments/gels have reduced significantly (p<0.001) from 2008 to 2009. Dry eye imposes a significant direct burden to health care expenditure even without considering indirect costs. Health care planners should be aware that these direct costs appear to increase over the time and more so for particular types of medications. Given the limitations of socio-economic data, true societal costs of Dry eye syndrome are likely to be much higher

  18. Alemtuzumab induction with tacrolimus monotherapy in de novo renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, M E; Muñoz, A S; Casasola, C C; Africa, J B; Danguilan, R A; Ona, E T

    2008-09-01

    Alemtuzumab is increasingly being used as induction therapy for kidney transplantation, allowing immunosuppression minimization. This study examined the efficacy of alemtuzumab induction followed by low-dose tacrolimus monotherapy in standard risk primary kidney transplant patients. This retrospective cohort of primary standard risk renal transplant recipients were given alemtuzumab induction and low-dose tacrolimus maintenance immunosuppression (target trough 7 to 10 ng/mL for the first 6 months and 5 to 7 ng/mL thereafter). Serum creatinine values, acute rejection episodes, and graft survival were noted at week 1 as well as months 3, 6, 12, and 18. At the time of analysis, 47 patients were at 6 months, 28 at 12 months, and 6 patients at 18 months from transplant. Mean follow-up was 12.53 months (range, 6 to 23). Mean serum creatinine was 1.47 +/- 0.65 mg/dL at 3 months, 1.56 +/- 0.84 at 6 months, 1.45 +/- 0.37 at 12 months, and 1.74 +/- 0.35 at 18 months. The 1-year clinical acute rejection rate was 21% (6/28), occurring at 0 to 3 months in 2 (33%), 4 to 6 months in 1 (17%), and >6 months in 3 patients (50%). Biopsy-proven acute rejection was 14% (4/28). The episodes were classified as borderline in one, Banff 2A in two, and Banff 3 in one patients. One patient had both acute cellular and acute humoral rejection; half responded to steroid pulse therapy. The 1-year patient survival rate was 90%. The 1-year death-censored graft survival rate was 98%. Alemtuzumab induction with tacrolimus monotherapy is an acceptable option in standard risk patients. BPAR was 14%, but renal function remained satisfactory at 18 months posttransplant.

  19. Simple Preparation of Timolol 0.5% Gel from Eye Drop Solution for Superficial Infantile Hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Choo, Winnie

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of beta-adrenergic blocker effects on infantile hemangiomas has affected the choice of treatment in recent years. Oral propranolol is effective in treating infantile hemangiomas, but the risk of systemic side effects remains a concern. Data from literature review reported positive clinical outcomes with no major adverse effects observed in children using topical beta-blocker such as timolol maleate. Topical application of timolol eye drop has been mentioned in few studies, most of which reported that the solution cannot stay on the site of application due to its fluidity. Adding hydroxyethyl cellulose into a timolol solution increased its viscosity by forming a hydrogel and thus changed the rheology property. The compounded timolol gel exhibited thixotropy property allowing better and longer contact at sites of application. Experimental data from literature review showed desirable characteristics and measurable flux of timolol across human stratum corneum. Gel dosage form allows easy and precise application and maximizes timolol's therapeutic efficacy at the sites of application. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  20. German register for glaucoma patients with dry eye. I. Basic outcome with respect to dry eye.

    PubMed

    Erb, Carl; Gast, Ulrike; Schremmer, Dieter

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this register was to determine the links between glaucoma, age, concomitant disease, medication, and dry eye in a large group of glaucoma patients. A total of 20,506 patients from 900 centers across Germany were included. The first 30 consecutive glaucoma patients at each center were recruited. Epidemiological data as well as information on glaucoma, medication, concomitant diseases, dry eye, and local symptoms were elicited by means of a questionnaire. We analyzed primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PEX), and pigmentary glaucoma (PDG). According to the register data, more women develop dry eye and glaucoma than men (56.9 vs. 45.7%). The most frequent concomitant systemic diseases were hypertension (48.1%), diabetes mellitus (22.5%), and dry mouth, nose, and skin (11.3%). As expected, the highest incidence of dry eye was found in those patients with dry mouth, nose, and skin. Dry eye occurred with dissimilar frequencies in association with the various glaucoma types: PEX>POAG>PDG. The incidence of dry eye increases with age. The gender difference in the occurrence of dry eye becomes apparent from the age of 50. Dry eye occurred more frequently when three or more antiglaucoma drugs were used and increased with the duration of glaucoma disease. We publish the first results from the German Glaucoma and Dry Eye Register. We found that the occurrence of dry eye is linked to several factors. Thus, the type of glaucoma has an impact on the risk of dry eye. The quantity of eye drops applied also plays a role in the development of the dry eye syndrome if more than three medications are used. While POAG is usually treated with one drug, PEX and PDG tend to be treated with multiple drugs. The gender difference in the occurrence of dry eye becomes apparent from the age 50 years. Because of the vicious circle of dry eye, antiglaucoma eye drops containing benzalkonium chloride compromises patient compliance. The results of the register

  1. Increased medication compliance of liver transplant patients switched from a twice-daily to a once-daily tacrolimus-based immunosuppressive regimen.

    PubMed

    Eberlin, M; Otto, G; Krämer, I

    2013-01-01

    Compliance with immunosuppressive therapy plays a major role in the long-term success of liver transplantation. Thus, the development of strategies to promote compliance of liver transplant patients and its evaluation over time are of particular interest. The main objective of this study was to compare medication compliance rates among liver transplant patients over time after transplantation where switched from a twice- to once-daily tacrolimus-based regimen. Sixty-five liver transplant patients being administered tacrolimus-based therapy were classified into three subgroups with regard to time posttransplantation. Medication compliance with tacrolimus-based therapy was measured using an electronic medication event monitoring system over a 12-month period: for 6 months tacrolimus was administered twice-daily and for 6 months, once-daily. Dosing, taking, and timing compliance as well as drug holidays were compared intra-individually between twice- and once-daily intake and among the three subgroups. In addition, patient compliance and quality of life were evaluated using questionnaires. A per protocol analysis of electronically obtained data showed 63 patients to be eligible. The resulting dosing, taking, and timing compliance rates of the patients were higher during the once-daily dosing period. No significant differences in compliance rates with tacrolimus therapy were observed among three subgroups independent of the dosing regimen. More patients failed the correct timing of the evening compared to the morning dose. Missing doses occurred particularly during weekends. Compliance variables measured by questionnaires (Morisky score, self-report, Medication Experience Scale for Immunosuppressants (MESI) score) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale score were similar in the two dosing periods. The short-form health survey (SF-36) score was higher with once-daily intake. The high measured compliance rates did not vary significantly dependent upon the time

  2. Physical and microbiological stability of an extemporaneous tacrolimus suspension for paediatric use.

    PubMed

    Han, J; Beeton, A; Long, P F; Wong, I; Tuleu, C

    2006-04-01

    An extemporaneous suspension of tacrolimus for paediatric use has recently been developed but poor bioavailability and erratic plasma concentrations were observed during clinical use. It was not clear whether this was due to changes in the physical properties of the suspension during storage. The aim of this work was to investigate the physical and microbiological stability over the recommended 8-week shelf-life of this extemporaneous tacrolimus suspension. Suspensions (0.5 mg/mL) were custom made by a special manufacturer under Good Manufacturing Practice conditions. The procedure involved mixing tacrolimus capsule contents into Ora Plus and Simple Syrup (1 : 1) using a mortar and pestle followed by an homogenization step. The particle sizes of the suspensions were measured using a MasterSizer. A light microscope equipped with polarizers was used to visualize any particle size changes or crystal growth. Viable bacterial and fungal contamination was assessed using standard colony count techniques on solid media. The suspensions were kept at 22-26 degrees C and evaluated weekly. The volume mean diameter d((4,3)) from laser diffraction did not change significantly. Light microscopy did not reveal any significant change in particle size or crystal growth. Contamination by viable and culturable micro-organisms could not be detected. The suspension was physically (particle size) and microbiologically stable during the 8-week study period suggesting other factors including poor dosing could be responsible for the pharmacokinetic variation observed during clinical use which warrants further investigation.

  3. Dispersion of microemulsion drops in HEMA hydrogel: a potential ophthalmic drug delivery vehicle.

    PubMed

    Gulsen, Derya; Chauhan, Anuj

    2005-03-23

    Approximately 90% of all ophthalmic drug formulations are now applied as eye-drops. While eye-drops are convenient and well accepted by patients, about 95% of the drug contained in the drops is lost due to absorption through the conjunctiva or through the tear drainage. A major fraction of the drug eventually enters the blood stream and may cause side effects. The drug loss and the side effects can be minimized by using disposable soft contact lenses for ophthalmic drug delivery. The essential idea is to encapsulate the ophthalmic drug formulations in nanoparticles, and disperse these drug-laden particles in the lens material. Upon insertion into the eye, the lens will slowly release the drug into the pre lens (the film between the air and the lens) and the post-lens (the film between the cornea and the lens) tear films, and thus provide drug delivery for extended periods of time. This paper focuses on dispersing stabilized microemulsion drops in poly-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (p-HEMA) hydrogels. The results of this study show that the p-HEMA gels loaded with a microemulsion that is stabilized with a silica shell are transparent and that these gels release drugs for a period of over 8 days. Contact lenses made of microemulsion-laden gels are expected to deliver drugs at therapeutic levels for a few days. The delivery rates can be tailored by controlling the particle and the drug loading. It may be possible to use this system for both therapeutic drug delivery to eyes and the provision of lubricants to alleviate eye problems prevalent in extended lens wear.

  4. A novel approach for prediction of tacrolimus blood concentration in liver transplantation patients in the intensive care unit through support vector regression.

    PubMed

    Van Looy, Stijn; Verplancke, Thierry; Benoit, Dominique; Hoste, Eric; Van Maele, Georges; De Turck, Filip; Decruyenaere, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Tacrolimus is an important immunosuppressive drug for organ transplantation patients. It has a narrow therapeutic range, toxic side effects, and a blood concentration with wide intra- and interindividual variability. Hence, it is of the utmost importance to monitor tacrolimus blood concentration, thereby ensuring clinical effect and avoiding toxic side effects. Prediction models for tacrolimus blood concentration can improve clinical care by optimizing monitoring of these concentrations, especially in the initial phase after transplantation during intensive care unit (ICU) stay. This is the first study in the ICU in which support vector machines, as a new data modeling technique, are investigated and tested in their prediction capabilities of tacrolimus blood concentration. Linear support vector regression (SVR) and nonlinear radial basis function (RBF) SVR are compared with multiple linear regression (MLR). Tacrolimus blood concentrations, together with 35 other relevant variables from 50 liver transplantation patients, were extracted from our ICU database. This resulted in a dataset of 457 blood samples, on average between 9 and 10 samples per patient, finally resulting in a database of more than 16,000 data values. Nonlinear RBF SVR, linear SVR, and MLR were performed after selection of clinically relevant input variables and model parameters. Differences between observed and predicted tacrolimus blood concentrations were calculated. Prediction accuracy of the three methods was compared after fivefold cross-validation (Friedman test and Wilcoxon signed rank analysis). Linear SVR and nonlinear RBF SVR had mean absolute differences between observed and predicted tacrolimus blood concentrations of 2.31 ng/ml (standard deviation [SD] 2.47) and 2.38 ng/ml (SD 2.49), respectively. MLR had a mean absolute difference of 2.73 ng/ml (SD 3.79). The difference between linear SVR and MLR was statistically significant (p < 0.001). RBF SVR had the advantage of requiring only 2

  5. Extended release of hyaluronic acid from hydrogel contact lenses for dry eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maulvi, Furqan A; Soni, Tejal G; Shah, Dinesh O

    2015-01-01

    Current dry eye treatment includes delivering comfort enhancing agents to the eye via eye drops, but low residence time of eye drops leads to low bioavailability. Frequent administration leads to incompliance in patients, so there is a great need for medical device such as contact lenses to treat dry eye. Studies in the past have demonstrated the efficacy of hyaluronic acid (HA) in the treatment of dry eyes using eye drops. In this paper, we present two methods to load HA in hydrogel contact lenses, soaking method and direct entrapment. The contact lenses were characterized by studying their optical and physical properties to determine their suitability as extended wear contact lenses. HA-laden hydrogel contact lenses prepared by soaking method showed release up to 48 h with acceptable physical and optical properties. Hydrogel contact lenses prepared by direct entrapment method showed significant sustained release in comparison to soaking method. HA entrapped in hydrogels resulted in reduction in % transmittance, sodium ion permeability and surface contact angle, while increase in % swelling. The impact on each of these properties was proportional to HA loading. The batch with 200-μg HA loading showed all acceptable values (parameters) for contact lens use. Results of cytotoxicity study indicated the safety of hydrogel contact lenses. In vivo pharmacokinetics studies in rabbit tear fluid showed dramatic increase in HA mean residence time and area under the curve with lenses in comparison to eye drop treatment. The study demonstrates the promising potential of delivering HA through contact lenses for the treatment of dry eye syndrome.

  6. [Clinical study of the effectiveness of a dexpanthenol containing artificial tears solution (Siccaprotect) in treatment of dry eyes].

    PubMed

    Göbbels, M; Gross, D

    1996-01-01

    In this controlled, randomized, double-masked study the effect of dexpanthenol-containing artificial tears (Siccaprotect) on patients with dry eyes was examined. 50 patients applied either dexpanthenol-containing artificial tears (Siccaprotect) or the identical, but free of dexpanthenol, eye drops five times daily into the conjunctival sac. No other ophthalmics were administered. The corneal epithelial permeability was measured by fluorophotometry and Schirmer-Test, Rose Bengal staining, tear film break-up time and the patients' subjective complaints were determined before and after 6 weeks of treatment. The dexpanthenol-containing artificial tears (Siccaprotect) improved disturbances of the corneal epithelial permeability significantly in comparison to the dexpanthenol-free eyes drops. The other parameters didn't show relevant differences. These data suggest that, in dry eyes, treatment with dexpanthenol-containing eye drops leads to a favorable and comparing with dexpanthenol-free eye drops superior improvement in disturbances of corneal epithelium permeability.

  7. Potentiation of intraocular absorption and drug metabolism of N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops: drug interaction with sight threatening lipid peroxides in the treatment for age-related eye diseases.

    PubMed

    Babizhayev, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    lenses obtained from patients with senile and complicated cataracts as compared to normal donors. Utilizing the pharmacokinetic studies and the specific purity N-acetylcarnosine (NAC) ingredient as a source of pharmacological principal L-carnosine, we have created an ophthalmic time-release prodrug form combined with a muco-adhesive lubricant compound carboxymethylcellulose and other essential corneal absorption promoter excipients tailoring the increased intraocular absorption of L-carnosine in the aqueous humor and optimizing its specific effect in producing the basic antioxidant activity in vivo and reducing toxic effects of lipid peroxides to the crystalline lens. L-Carnosine that finds its way into the aqueous humor can accumulate in the lens tissue for a reasonable period of time. However, administration of pure L-carnosine (1% solution) to the rabbit eye (instillation, subconjunctival injection) does not lead to accumulation of this natural compound in the aqueous humor over 30 min in concentration exceeding that in the placebo-treated matched eyes, and its effective concentration is exhausted more rapidly. The NAC prodrug eye drops optimize the clinical effects for the treatment of ophthalmic disorders (such as prevention and reversal of cataracts in human and animal [canine] eyes). The data provided predict a particular NAC ophthalmic prodrug's clinical effect; the suitable magnitude and duration of this effect suggest dose-related bioavailability of L-camosine released from NAC in the aqueous humor of the anterior eye segment. The ophthalmic NAC drug shows promise in the treatment of a range of ophthalmic disorders which have a component of oxidative stress in their genesis (including cataract and after-cataract, glaucoma, dry eye, vitreous floaters, inflammatory disorders, corneal, retinal and systemic diseases [such as diabetes mellitus and its ophthalmic complications]). The clinical efficacy of N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops in ripe cataracts and

  8. The impact of conversion from prograf to generic tacrolimus in liver and kidney transplant recipients with stable graft function.

    PubMed

    Momper, J D; Ridenour, T A; Schonder, K S; Shapiro, R; Humar, A; Venkataramanan, R

    2011-09-01

    Bioequivalence of the recently available generic tacrolimus formulation, manufactured by Sandoz, to the reference product (Prograf; Astellas Pharma, Tokyo, Japan) has been demonstrated in healthy subjects. However, the safety and efficacy of substitution with generic tacrolimus in transplant patients have not been evaluated. Tacrolimus trough concentrations and indices of liver and kidney function were recorded before and after generic substitution in 48 liver and 55 kidney transplant recipients. In liver transplant patients, the mean tacrolimus concentration/dose (C/D) ratio (± SD) was 184.1 (± 123.2) ([ng/mL]/[mg/kg/day]) for the reference product and 154.7 (± 87.8) ([ng/mL]/[mg/kg/day]) for the generic product (p < 0.05). The mean C/D-ratios in kidney transplant patients were 125.3 (± 92.7) and 110.4 (± 79.2) ([ng/mL]/[mg/kg/day]) for the reference and generic products, respectively (p < 0.05). Actual trough concentrations declined by an average of 1.98 ng/mL in liver and 0.87 ng/mL in kidney transplant patients following the switch, after accounting for all significant covariates. No change was observed in biochemical indices of liver or kidney function and no cases of acute rejection occurred following the substitution. These results suggest that transplant patients currently taking the reference tacrolimus formulation may be safely switched to the Sandoz-generic product provided trough concentrations are closely monitored following the substitution. © 2011 The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  9. Influence of CYP3A5 and ABCB1 gene polymorphisms and other factors on tacrolimus dosing in Caucasian liver and kidney transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Provenzani, Alessio; Notarbartolo, Monica; Labbozzetta, Manuela; Poma, Paola; Vizzini, Giovanni; Salis, Paola; Caccamo, Chiara; Bertani, Tullio; Palazzo, Ugo; Polidori, Piera; Gridelli, Bruno; D'Alessandro, Natale

    2011-12-01

    Tacrolimus is a substrate of cytochrome P4503A (CYP3A) enzymes as well as of the drug transporter ABCB1. We have investigated the possible influence of CYP3A5 and ABCB1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and other factors (e.g. albumin, hematocrit and steroids) on tacrolimus blood levels achieved in a population of Caucasian liver (n=51) and kidney (n=50) transplant recipients. At 1, 3 and 6 months after transplantation, tacrolimus doses (mg/kg/day) and trough blood levels (C0) were recorded and the weight-adjusted tacrolimus dosage (mg/kg/day) was calculated. Polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was used for genotyping CYP3A5*1 and *3 [6986A>G] as well as ABCB1 at exons 21 [2677G>T/A] and 26 [3435C>T] in both liver transplant donors and recipients and in kidney transplant recipients. Of the 152 subjects studied, 84.9% showed a CYP3A5*3/*3 genotype. The total frequency of the allelic variant *3 was 93%. For the G2677T/A and C3435T polymorphisms the total frequencies of the allelic variants T/A and T were 44.7 and 46.7%, respectively. At 1, 3 and 6 months after transplantation the dose-adjusted C0 levels were significantly lower in patients with one copy of the *1 allele compared to those homozygous for the *3 allele. In the case of liver transplant patients the tacrolimus dose requirements were dominantly influenced by the polymorphisms of the CYP3A5 gene in the donors. With regard to the ABCB1 SNPs, in general they did not show any appreciable influence on tacrolimus dosing requirements; however, kidney transplant recipients carrying the 2677T/A allele required significantly higher daily tacrolimus doses than subjects homozygous for the wild-type allele. Identification of CYP3A5 single nucleotide polymorphisms prior to transplantation could contribute to evaluate the appropriate initial dosage of tacrolimus in the patients.

  10. Different top-down approaches to estimate measurement uncertainty of whole blood tacrolimus mass concentration values.

    PubMed

    Rigo-Bonnin, Raül; Blanco-Font, Aurora; Canalias, Francesca

    2018-05-08

    Values of mass concentration of tacrolimus in whole blood are commonly used by the clinicians for monitoring the status of a transplant patient and for checking whether the administered dose of tacrolimus is effective. So, clinical laboratories must provide results as accurately as possible. Measurement uncertainty can allow ensuring reliability of these results. The aim of this study was to estimate measurement uncertainty of whole blood mass concentration tacrolimus values obtained by UHPLC-MS/MS using two top-down approaches: the single laboratory validation approach and the proficiency testing approach. For the single laboratory validation approach, we estimated the uncertainties associated to the intermediate imprecision (using long-term internal quality control data) and the bias (utilizing a certified reference material). Next, we combined them together with the uncertainties related to the calibrators-assigned values to obtain a combined uncertainty for, finally, to calculate the expanded uncertainty. For the proficiency testing approach, the uncertainty was estimated in a similar way that the single laboratory validation approach but considering data from internal and external quality control schemes to estimate the uncertainty related to the bias. The estimated expanded uncertainty for single laboratory validation, proficiency testing using internal and external quality control schemes were 11.8%, 13.2%, and 13.0%, respectively. After performing the two top-down approaches, we observed that their uncertainty results were quite similar. This fact would confirm that either two approaches could be used to estimate the measurement uncertainty of whole blood mass concentration tacrolimus values in clinical laboratories. Copyright © 2018 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of tacrolimus and erythropoietin in experimental spinal cord lesion in rats: functional and histological evaluation

    PubMed Central

    de Mesquita Coutinho, P R; Cristante, A F; de Barros Filho, T E P; Ferreira, R; dos Santos, G B

    2016-01-01

    Study design: Experimental study with rats. Objective: To evaluate functional and histological effects of tacrolimus (FK 506) and erythropoietin (EPO) after experimental spinal cord contusion injury (SCI). Setting: Brazil. Methods: Wistar rats (n=60) were submitted to SCI with the NYU Impactor system. The control group received saline; the EPO group received EPO; the group EPO+FK 506 received EPO associated with tacrolimus and the group FK 506 received tacrolimus only. The Sham group underwent SCI, but did not receive any drug. Locomotor function was evaluated after SCI by BBB (Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan) weekly and by the motor-evoked potential test in 42 days. The spinal cord was histologically evaluated. Results: There was a significant difference between treated and the control groups from the seventh day on for BBB scores, with no difference between the groups EPO and EPO+FK 506 by the end of the study. There were significant differences between groups for necrosis and bleeding, but not for hiperemia, degeneration and cellular infiltrate. Axon neuron count was different between all groups (P=0.001), between EPO+FK 506 and FK 506 (P=0.011) and between EPO+FK 506 and Sham (P=0.002). Amplitude was significantly different between all groups except between control and sham. For latency, there was no difference. Conclusions: This study did not reveal significant differences in the recovery of locomotor function, or in the histological and electrophysiological analysis in animals treated with EPO and tacrolimus after thoracic SCI. PMID:26481712

  12. Dominant Drop mutants are gain-of-function alleles of the muscle segment homeobox gene (msh) whose overexpression leads to the arrest of eye development.

    PubMed

    Mozer, B A

    2001-05-15

    Dominant Drop (Dr) mutations are nearly eyeless and have additional recessive phenotypes including lethality and patterning defects in eye and sensory bristles due to cis-regulatory lesions in the cell cycle regulator string (stg). Genetic analysis demonstrates that the dominant small eye phenotype is the result of separate gain-of-function mutations in the closely linked muscle segment homeobox (msh) gene, encoding a homeodomain transcription factor required for patterning of muscle and nervous system. Reversion of the Dr(Mio) allele was coincident with the generation of lethal loss-of-function mutations in msh in cis, suggesting that the dominant eye phenotype is the result of ectopic expression. Molecular genetic analysis revealed that two dominant Dr alleles contain lesions upstream of the msh transcription start site. In the Dr(Mio) mutant, a 3S18 retrotransposon insertion is the target of second-site mutations (P-element insertions or deletions) which suppress the dominant eye phenotype following reversion. The pattern of 3S18 expression and the absence of msh in eye imaginal discs suggest that transcriptional activation of the msh promoter accounts for ectopic expression. Dr dominant mutations arrest eye development by blocking the progression of the morphogenetic furrow leading to photoreceptor cell loss via apoptosis. Gal4-mediated ubiquitous expression of msh in third-instar larvae was sufficient to arrest the morphogenetic furrow in the eye imaginal disc and resulted in lethality prior to eclosion. Dominant mutations in the human msx2 gene, one of the vertebrate homologs of msh, are associated with craniosynostosis, a disease affecting cranial development. The Dr mutations are the first example of gain-of-function mutations in the msh/msx gene family identified in a genetically tractible model organism and may serve as a useful tool to identify additional genes that regulate this class of homeodomain proteins. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  13. [Eye stress from work with visual screens].

    PubMed

    Läubli, T; Hünting, W; Grandjean, E

    1980-09-01

    Four groups of office tasks were studied: Data entry terminals, conversational terminals, traditional office work and typing. Eye impairments are observed in every group of office employees, but the impairments are more frequent in VDU operators. The impairments persist during leisure time. High luminance contrasts between screen and source document are associated with an increase of eye troubles. Increased oscillating luminance of characters is associated with lower visual acuity, with a higher incidence of subjective and objective symptoms of eye irritation including more frequent use of eye drops.

  14. Successful treatment of plasma cell cheilitis with topical tacrolimus: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Hanami, Yuka; Motoki, Yoshikazu; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki

    2011-02-15

    Plasma cell cheilitis is an uncommon chronic inflammatory dermatitis that presents with flat to slightly elevated erosive erythematous plaques. It is histologically characterized by plasma cell infiltrates into the mucosa. Other than the lip, genital areas are often involved, which is called plasma cell balanitis or vulvitis. Plasma cell cheilitis is sometimes resistant to conventional topical corticosteroid therapy. Other choices include oral griseofulvin, topical cyclosporine, and intralesional corticosteroid injection, all of which occasionally fail to produce satisfactory results. Recent reports show that topical calcineurin inhibitors are effective for plasma cell cheilitis, balanitis, and vulvitis. However, there are so far only 2 reports of plasma cell cheilitis successfully treated with topical pimecrolimus and tacrolimus. We present herein two cases of plasma cell cheilitis, in which topical tacrolimus showed beneficial effects, suggesting that this immunomodulatory agent is a promising option for plasma cell cheilitis.

  15. A Markov chain model to evaluate the effect of CYP3A5 and ABCB1 polymorphisms on adverse events associated with tacrolimus in pediatric renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sy, Sherwin K B; Heuberger, Jules; Shilbayeh, Sireen; Conrado, Daniela J; Derendorf, Hartmut

    2013-10-01

    The SNP A6986G of the CYP3A5 gene (*3) results in a non-functional protein due to a splicing defect whereas the C3435T was associated with variable expression of the ABCB1 gene, due to protein instability. Part of the large interindividual variability in tacrolimus efficacy and toxicity can be accounted for by these genetic factors. Seventy-two individuals were examined for A6986G and C3435T polymorphism using a PCR-RFLP-based technique to estimate genotype and allele frequencies in the Jordanian population. The association of age, hematocrit, platelet count, CYP3A5, and ABCB1 polymorphisms with tacrolimus dose- and body-weight-normalized levels in the subset of 38 pediatric renal transplant patients was evaluated. A Markov model was used to evaluate the time-dependent probability of an adverse event occurrence by CYP3A5 phenotypes and ABCB1 genotypes. The time-dependent probability of adverse event was about double in CYP3A5 non-expressors compared to the expressors for the first 12 months of therapy. The CYP3A5 non-expressors had higher corresponding normalized tacrolimus levels compared to the expressors in the first 3 months. The correlation trend between probability of adverse events and normalized tacrolimus concentrations for the two CYP3A5 phenotypes persisted for the first 9 months of therapy. The differences among ABCB1 genotypes in terms of adverse events and normalized tacrolimus levels were only observed in the first 3 months of therapy. The information on CYP3A5 genotypes and tacrolimus dose requirement is important in designing effective programs toward management of tacrolimus side effects particularly for the initial dose when tacrolimus blood levels are not available for therapeutic drug monitoring.

  16. An upright eyedrop bottle: accuracy, usage of excess drops, and contamination compared to a conventional bottle.

    PubMed

    Davies, Isaiah J; Brown, Ninita H; Wen, Joanne C; Stinnett, Sandra S; Kubelick, Kelsey; Patel, Roma P; Benokraitis, Kristin L; Greene, Latoya; Cheek, Curry; Muir, Kelly W

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the feasibility of using an upright eyedrop bottle (UEB), a device designed to assist patients with eyedrop placement without reclining their head. Experienced eyedrop users were enrolled who answered "yes" to the question, "Do you ever have trouble getting your eyedrops in?" After being shown a multimedia presentation and answering a questionnaire regarding eyedrop usage, participants were observed instilling eyedrops. Participants were instructed to instill a single eyedrop in each eye with both a standard bottle and the UEB. They repeated this process three times. With each trial, the amount of time taken to instill drops was recorded, as well as whether a drop landed in the eye (accuracy), if excess drops were used, and if the bottle tip was contaminated. Forty participants were enrolled, with an average age of 72.4±8.9 years; the majority were females (24 females). Thirty-four participants had been using eyedrops for at least 1 year. The time required to instill eyedrops was significantly less with the UEB in the second and third trials. There was no difference in accuracy between the conventional bottle and the UEB in the left or right eye in any trials. Significantly more participants used excess number of drops while using the conventional bottle in both the left and right eyes in all three trials. The bottle tip was never contaminated with the UEB. Depending on the trial and the eye, the conventional bottle was contaminated by between 42% and 53% of participants. The UEB has the potential to assist patients with eyedrop placement. Although there was no difference in accuracy between the UEB and the conventional bottle, the UEB was associated with less use of excess drops and less contamination of the bottle tip, compared to the conventional bottle.

  17. Conversion from cyclosporine to tacrolimus improves renal function and lipid profile after cardiac transplantation.

    PubMed

    Garlicki, Mirosław; Czub, Paweł; Labuś, Krzysztof; Ehrlich, Marek P; Rdzanek, Hanna

    2006-01-01

    Calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) have become the cornerstone of immunosuppressive regimens following heart transplantation, but their use is associated with nephrotoxicity. The impact on renal function after conversion from cyclosporine (CsA) to tacrolimus (TAC) is reported. Fifteen patients (men age 42 +/- 11 years) after cardiac transplantation (HTX) were switched from CsA to TAC (mean time after HTX 21 +/- 6 months). There were 13 male and 2 female patients. Mean cholesterol and LDL level at the time of conversion were 217 +/- 65 ml/dl and and 136 +/- 51 mg/100 ml respectively. Indication for HTX was ischemic cardiomyopathy (CMP) in 8, congenital in 3 and dilatative CMP in the remaining 4 patients. Mean tacrolimus level (microg/dl) at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months were 8.6 +/- 3.3, 8.6 +/- 1.4, 9.2 +/- 2.8 and 9.8 +/- 2.5 respectively. There was a statistically significant improvement in creatinine levels at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after conversion from baseline 1.9 +/- 0.7 mg/dl to 1.4 +/- 0.5 mg/dl, 1.4 +/- 0.4 mg/dl, 1.3 +/- 0.4 mg/dl and 1.2 +/- 0.4 mg/dl, respectively (p < 0.05). Furthermore, TAC decreased cholesterol as well as LDL-levels during this one-year time frame. This study shows that conversion from CsA to tacrolimus after orthotopic heart transplantation improves renal function.

  18. Sex Differences in the Blood Concentration of Tacrolimus in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients with CYP3A5*3/*3.

    PubMed

    Ito, Ayano; Okada, Yuko; Hashita, Tadahiro; Aomori, Tohru; Hiromura, Keiju; Nojima, Yoshihisa; Nakamura, Tomonori; Araki, Takuya; Yamamoto, Koujirou

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the impact of sex and cytochrome P450 3A5 (CYP3A5) variant on the blood concentration of tacrolimus in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus or rheumatoid arthritis. The blood concentration of tacrolimus (ng/mL) divided by the daily dose of tacrolimus (mg/day) and the patient's weight (kg) (C/D) was obtained from 55 patients. The C/D value was analysed according to genetic variation in CYP3A5 or ATP binding cassette subfamily B member 1 (ABCB1), sex, and age. The C/D value in the CYP3A5*3/*3 group was significantly higher than in the CYP3A5*1/*1 and *1/*3 groups (p < 0.05, effect size: d = 1.40). In the CYP3A5*3/*3 group, the concentration of tacrolimus was significantly higher in men than in women (p < 0.05, effect size: d = 1.78). Furthermore, in the CYP3A5*3/*3 group, the concentration of tacrolimus was significantly higher in women aged over 50 years than in women aged under 50 years (p < 0.05, effect size: d = 1.18). In contrast, ABCB1 genetic variations did not show any significant effect on the C/D value. Since the blood concentration of tacrolimus in patients with CYP3A5*3/*3 varies depending on sex and age, these factors should be considered when studying the difference of sex in CYP3A.

  19. Local Tacrolimus (FK506) Delivery for Prevention of Acute Rejection in the Nonhuman Primate Delayed Mixed Chimerism Vascularized Composite Allograft Tolerance Induction Protocol

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    Chimerism Vascularized Composite Allograft Tolerance Induction Protocol PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATORS: Dr. Curtis L. Cetrulo CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...Tacrolimus (FK506) Delivery for Prevention of Acute Rejection in the Nonhuman Primate Delayed Mixed Chimerism Vascularized Composite Allograft Tolerance...tacrolimus, FK506, vascularized composite allografts , immune rejection, preclinical, transplant, nonhuman primate model, degradable polymer, tyrosine

  20. Plasma Rich in Growth Factors for the Treatment of Dry Eye after LASIK Surgery.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Avila, Ronald Mauricio; Merayo-Lloves, Jesus; Fernandez, Maria Laura; Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Luis Alberto; Jurado, Nancy; Muruzabal, Francisco; Orive, Gorka; Anitua, Eduardo

    2018-06-08

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) eye drops in patients with dry eye disease after laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) surgery. This is a longitudinal, retrospective, comparative, and descriptive study of 77 eyes of 42 patients with dry eye disease following LASIK surgery. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of PRGF treatment compared to conventional therapy (control group). Outcome measures including signs and symptoms of dry eye disease were evaluated before and after treatment. The percentage of change before and after treatment for each clinical variable measured was compared between both groups. There were 1-4 treatment cycles with PRGF eye drops (1 cycle = 6 weeks). Results showed a statistically significant improvement in the Ocular Surface Disease Index (38.12%), visual analogue scale scores for frequency (41.89%) and severity (42.47%), and the Schirmer test scores (88.98%) after PRGF treatment (p < 0.05). No adverse events were reported after PRGF treatment. These results suggest that PRGF eye drops are effective for the improvement of dry eye symptoms in patients who underwent LASIK surgery in comparison to the conventional therapy. The treatment with PRGF is an alternative for patients who suffer from postoperative dry eye. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Time-course of eye movement-related decrease in vividness and emotionality of unpleasant autobiographical memories.

    PubMed

    Smeets, Monique A M; Dijs, M Willem; Pervan, Iva; Engelhard, Iris M; van den Hout, Marcel A

    2012-01-01

    The time-course of changes in vividness and emotionality of unpleasant autobiographical memories associated with making eye movements (eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing, EMDR) was investigated. Participants retrieved unpleasant autobiographical memories and rated their vividness and emotionality prior to and following 96 seconds of making eye movements (EM) or keeping eyes stationary (ES); at 2, 4, 6, and 10 seconds into the intervention; then followed by regular larger intervals throughout the 96-second intervention. Results revealed a significant drop compared to the ES group in emotionality after 74 seconds compared to a significant drop in vividness at only 2 seconds into the intervention. These results support that emotionality becomes reduced only after vividness has dropped. The results are discussed in light of working memory theory and visual imagery theory, following which the regular refreshment of the visual memory needed to maintain it in working memory is interfered with by eye movements that also tax working memory, which affects vividness first.

  2. Efficacy and Safety of Tacrolimus Therapy for Active Ulcerative Colitis; A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Komaki, Yuga; Komaki, Fukiko; Ido, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Background: Approximately 25% of patients with ulcerative colitis [UC] experience a severe flare requiring steroid therapy to avoid colectomy. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the efficacy of tacrolimus as a rescue therapy for active UC. Methods: Electronic databases were searched for relevant studies assessing the efficacy of tacrolimus for active UC. Outcomes included short- and long-term clinical response, colectomy free rates, and rate of adverse events in randomised controlled trials [RCTs] and observational studies. Results: Two RCTs comparing high trough concentration [10–15ng/ml] versus placebo [n = 103] and 23 observational studies [n = 831] were identified. Clinical response at 2 weeks was significantly higher with tacrolimus compared with placebo (risk ratio [RR] = 4.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.09–10.17, p = 0.15 x 10-3] among RCTs. Rates of clinical response at 1 and 3 months were 0.73 [95% CI = 0.64–0.81] and 0.76 [95% CI = 0.59–0.87], and colectomy-free rates remained high at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months [0.86, 0.84, 0.78, and 0.69, respectively] among observational studies. Among RCTs, adverse events were more frequent compared with placebo [RR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.20–3.37, p = 0.83 x 10-2], but there was no difference in severe adverse events [RR = 3.15, 95% CI = 0.14–72.9, p = 0.47]. Severe adverse events were rare among observational studies [0.11, 95% CI = 0.06–0.20]. Conclusions: In the present meta-analysis, tacrolimus was associated with high clinical response and colectomy-free rates without increased risk of severe adverse events for active UC. PMID:26645641

  3. Efficacy and Safety of Tacrolimus Therapy for Active Ulcerative Colitis; A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Komaki, Yuga; Komaki, Fukiko; Ido, Akio; Sakuraba, Atsushi

    2016-04-01

    Approximately 25% of patients with ulcerative colitis [UC] experience a severe flare requiring steroid therapy to avoid colectomy. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the efficacy of tacrolimus as a rescue therapy for active UC. Electronic databases were searched for relevant studies assessing the efficacy of tacrolimus for active UC. Outcomes included short- and long-term clinical response, colectomy free rates, and rate of adverse events in randomised controlled trials [RCTs] and observational studies. Two RCTs comparing high trough concentration [10-15ng/ml] versus placebo [n = 103] and 23 observational studies [n = 831] were identified. Clinical response at 2 weeks was significantly higher with tacrolimus compared with placebo (risk ratio [RR] = 4.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.09-10.17, p = 0.15 x 10(-3)] among RCTs. Rates of clinical response at 1 and 3 months were 0.73 [95% CI = 0.64-0.81] and 0.76 [95% CI = 0.59-0.87], and colectomy-free rates remained high at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months [0.86, 0.84, 0.78, and 0.69, respectively] among observational studies. Among RCTs, adverse events were more frequent compared with placebo [RR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.20-3.37, p = 0.83 x 10(-2)], but there was no difference in severe adverse events [RR = 3.15, 95% CI = 0.14-72.9, p = 0.47]. Severe adverse events were rare among observational studies [0.11, 95% CI = 0.06-0.20]. In the present meta-analysis, tacrolimus was associated with high clinical response and colectomy-free rates without increased risk of severe adverse events for active UC. Copyright © 2015 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. A simple and highly sensitive on-line column extraction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of protein-unbound tacrolimus in human plasma samples.

    PubMed

    Bittersohl, Heike; Schniedewind, Björn; Christians, Uwe; Luppa, Peter B

    2018-04-27

    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of the immunosuppressive drug tacrolimus is essential to avoid side effects and rejection of the allograft after transplantation. In the blood circulation, tacrolimus is largely located inside erythrocytes or bound to plasma proteins and less than 0.1% is protein-unbound (free). One basic principle of clinical pharmacology is that only free drug is pharmacologically active and monitoring this portion has the potential to better reflect the drug effect than conventional measurements of total tacrolimus in whole blood. To address this, a highly sensitive and straightforward on-line liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed, validated and applied to patient plasma samples. The sample preparation included ultracentrifugation and addition of the stable isotope labeled drug analogue D2,13C-tacrolimus, followed by on-line sample extraction and measurement using a Sciex QTRAP ® 6500 in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. Due to very low concentrations of protein-unbound tacrolimus, it was important to develop a highly sensitive, precise and accurate assay. Here, we first report the efficient formation of tacrolimus lithium adduct ions, which greatly increased assay sensitivity. A lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 1 pg/mL (10 fg on column) was achieved and the assay was linear between 1 and 200 pg/mL. There was no carry-over detected. The inaccuracy ranged from -9.8 to 7.4% and the greatest imprecision was 7.5%. The matrix factor was found to be smaller than 1.1%. In summary, this method represents a suitable tool to investigate the potential clinical value of free tacrolimus monitoring in organ transplant recipients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Over the counter (OTC) artificial tear drops for dry eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pucker, Andrew D; Ng, Sueko M; Nichols, Jason J

    2016-02-23

    Over the counter (OTC) artificial tears historically have been the first line of treatment for dry eye syndrome and dry eye-related conditions like contact lens discomfort, yet currently we know little regarding the overall efficacy of individual, commercially available artificial tears. This review provides a much needed meta-analytical look at all randomized and quasi-randomized clinical trials that have analyzed head-to-head comparisons of OTC artificial tears. To evaluate the effectiveness and toxicity of OTC artificial tear applications in the treatment of dry eye syndrome compared with another class of OTC artificial tears, no treatment, or placebo. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2015, Issue 12), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to December 2015), EMBASE (January 1980 to December 2015), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to December 2015), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en) and the US Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) website (www.fda.gov). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 4 December 2015. We searched reference lists of included trials for any additional trials not identified by the electronic searches. This review includes randomized controlled trials with adult participants who were diagnosed with dry eye, regardless of race and gender. We included trials in which the age of participants was not reported, and clinical trials comparing OTC artificial tears with another class of OTC artificial tears, placebo, or no treatment. This review did not consider head-to-head comparisons of artificial tears with

  6. A differential impact of mycophenolic acid, prednisolone, and tacrolimus exposure on sCD30 levels in adult kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Barraclough, Katherine A; Staatz, Christine E; Johnson, David W; Gillis, David; Lee, Katie J; McWhinney, Brett C; Ungerer, Jacobus P J; Campbell, Scott B; Isbel, Nicole M

    2013-04-01

    Soluble CD30 (sCD30) has been associated with rejection and graft loss in kidney transplantation, leading to the suggestion that sCD30 might be a useful biomarker to adjust immunosuppressant medication dosing. However, there has been minimal study of the influence of individual immunosuppressive drugs on sCD30 levels. To evaluate the influence of mycophenolic acid (MPA), prednisolone, and tacrolimus exposure on sCD30 levels in adult kidney transplant recipients. The sCD30 levels were measured pretransplant and 30 days posttransplant. Area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) for each drug was estimated on day 30 using validated, multiple regression-derived limited sampling strategies. One hundred twenty-five subjects were included. Median (interquartile range) sCD30 levels were lower on day 30 posttransplant compared with pretransplant [10.7 (3.7-20.1) pg/mL versus 66.5 (46.0-95.1) pg/mL; P < 0.0001]. On univariate analyses, day 30 sCD30 levels were negatively correlated with MPA exposure and positively correlated with tacrolimus exposure. Using multivariate logistic regression, higher tacrolimus exposure was independently associated with higher day 30 sCD30 levels (2.2 change in odds for an SD increase in tacrolimus AUC 0-12, P = 0.01; 5.5 change in odds for an SD increase in tacrolimus predose concentration, P < 0.0001). In contrast, MPA and total and free prednisolone exposures were not independently associated with sCD30 levels. The sCD30 levels are significantly reduced in the presence of combination immunosuppression but are differentially affected by different immunosuppressant agents. More research is required before introduction of sCD30 measurement into clinical practice can be considered.

  7. Rapamycin Eye Drops Suppress Lacrimal Gland Inflammation In a Murine Model of Sjögren's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Mihir; Edman, Maria C.; Reddy Janga, Srikanth; Yarber, Frances; Meng, Zhen; Klinngam, Wannita; Bushman, Jonathan; Ma, Tao; Liu, Siyu; Louie, Stan; Mehta, Arjun; Ding, Chuanqing; MacKay, J. Andrew; Hamm-Alvarez, Sarah F.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy of topical rapamycin in treating autoimmune dacryoadenitis in a mouse model of Sjögren's syndrome. Methods We developed rapamycin in a poly(ethylene glycol)-distearoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-DSPE) micelle formulation to maintain solubility. Rapamycin or PEG-DSPE eye drops (vehicle) were administered in a well-established Sjögren's syndrome disease model, the male nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, twice daily for 12 weeks starting at 8 weeks of age. Mouse tear fluid was collected and tear Cathepsin S, a putative tear biomarker for Sjögren's syndrome, was measured. Lacrimal glands were retrieved for histological evaluation, and quantitative real-time PCR of genes associated with Sjögren's syndrome pathogenesis. Tear secretion was measured using phenol red threads, and corneal fluorescein staining was used to assess corneal integrity. Results Lymphocytic infiltration of lacrimal glands from rapamycin-treated mice was significantly (P = 0.0001) reduced by 3.8-fold relative to vehicle-treated mice after 12 weeks of treatment. Rapamycin, but not vehicle, treatment increased tear secretion and decreased corneal fluorescein staining after 12 weeks. In rapamycin-treated mice, Cathepsin S activity was significantly reduced by 3.75-fold in tears (P < 0.0001) and 1.68-fold in lacrimal gland lysates (P = 0.003) relative to vehicle-treated mice. Rapamycin significantly altered the expression of several genes linked to Sjögren's syndrome pathogenesis, including major histocompatibility complex II, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-12a, as well as Akt3, an effector of autophagy. Conclusions Our findings suggest that topical rapamycin reduces autoimmune-mediated lacrimal gland inflammation while improving ocular surface integrity and tear secretion, and thus has potential for treating Sjögren's syndrome–associated dry eye. PMID:28122086

  8. 16 CFR 1500.42 - Test for eye irritants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... before testing, and only those animals without eye defects or irritation shall be used. The animal is held firmly but gently until quiet. The test material is placed in one eye of each animal by gently pulling the lower lid away from the eyeball to form a cup into which the test substance is dropped. The...

  9. Tacrolimus concentration to dose ratio in solid organ transplant patients treated with fecal microbiota transplantation for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection.

    PubMed

    Woodworth, Michael H; Kraft, Colleen S; Meredith, Erika J; Mehta, Aneesh K; Wang, Tiffany; Mamo, Yafet T; Dhere, Tanvi; Sitchenko, Kaitlin L; Patzer, Rachel E; Friedman-Moraco, Rachel J

    2018-04-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is increasingly being performed for Clostridium difficile infection in solid organ transplant (SOT) patients; however, little is known about the potential pharmacokinetic or pharmacomicrobial effects this may have on tacrolimus levels. We reviewed the medical records of 10 SOT patients from September 2012-December 2016 who were taking tacrolimus at time of FMT for recurrent C. difficile infection. We compared the differences in tacrolimus concentration/dose ratio (C/D ratio) 3 months prior to FMT vs 3 months after FMT. The mean of the differences in C/D ratio calculated as (ng/mL)/(mg/kg/d) was -17.65 (95% CI -1.25 to 0.58) (ng/mL)/(mg/kg/d), P-value .43 by Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The mean of the differences in C/D ratio calculated as (ng/mL)/(mg/d) was -0.33 (95% CI -1.25 to 0.58) (ng/mL)/(mg/d), P-value .28 by Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Of these patients, 2/10 underwent allograft biopsy for allograft dysfunction in the year after FMT, with no evidence of allograft rejection on pathology. These preliminary data suggest that FMT may not predictably alter tacrolimus levels and support its safety for SOT patients however further study in randomized trials is needed. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Tacrolimus in the treatment of myasthenia gravis in patients with an inadequate response to glucocorticoid therapy: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study conducted in China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lei; Liu, Weibin; Li, Wei; Li, Haifeng; Zhang, Xu; Shang, Huifang; Zhang, Xu; Bu, Bitao; Deng, Hui; Fang, Qi; Li, Jimei; Zhang, Hua; Song, Zhi; Ou, Changyi; Yan, Chuanzhu; Liu, Tao; Zhou, Hongyu; Bao, Jianhong; Lu, Jiahong; Shi, Huawei; Zhao, Chongbo

    2017-09-01

    To determine the efficacy of low-dose, immediate-release tacrolimus in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) with inadequate response to glucocorticoid therapy in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Eligible patients had inadequate response to glucocorticoids (GCs) after ⩾6 weeks of treatment with prednisone ⩾0.75 mg/kg/day or 60-100 mg/day. Patients were randomized to receive 3 mg tacrolimus or placebo daily (orally) for 24 weeks. Concomitant glucocorticoids and pyridostigmine were allowed. Patients continued GC therapy from weeks 1-4; from week 5, the dose was decreased at the discretion of the investigator. The primary efficacy outcome measure was a reduction, relative to baseline, in quantitative myasthenia gravis (QMG) score assessed using a generalized linear model; supportive analyses used alternative models. Of 138 patients screened, 83 [tacrolimus ( n = 45); placebo ( n = 38)] were enrolled and treated. The change in adjusted mean QMG score from baseline to week 24 was -4.9 for tacrolimus and -3.3 for placebo (least squares mean difference: -1.7, 95% confidence interval: -3.5, -0.1; p = 0.067). A post-hoc analysis demonstrated a statistically significant difference for QMG score reduction of ⩾4 points in the tacrolimus group (68.2%) versus the placebo group (44.7%; p = 0.044). Adverse event profiles were similar between treatment groups. Tacrolimus 3 mg treatment for patients with MG and inadequate response to GCs did not demonstrate a statistically significant improvement in the primary endpoint versus placebo over 24 weeks; however, a post-hoc analysis demonstrated a statistically significant difference for QMG score reduction of ⩾4 points in the tacrolimus group versus the placebo group. This study was limited by the low number of patients, the absence of testing for acetylcholine receptor antibody and the absence of stratification by disease duration (which led to a disparity between the two groups). Clinical

  11. Over the counter (OTC) artificial tear drops for dry eye syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pucker, Andrew D; Ng, Sueko M; Nichols, Jason J

    2016-01-01

    Background Over the counter (OTC) artificial tears historically have been the first line of treatment for dry eye syndrome and dry eye-related conditions like contact lens discomfort, yet currently we know little regarding the overall efficacy of individual, commercially available artificial tears. This review provides a much needed meta-analytical look at all randomized and quasi-randomized clinical trials that have analyzed head-to-head comparisons of OTC artificial tears. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness and toxicity of OTC artificial tear applications in the treatment of dry eye syndrome compared with another class of OTC artificial tears, no treatment, or placebo. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2015, Issue 12), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to December 2015), EMBASE (January 1980 to December 2015), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to December 2015), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en) and the US Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) website (www.fda.gov). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 4 December 2015. We searched reference lists of included trials for any additional trials not identified by the electronic searches. Selection criteria This review includes randomized controlled trials with adult participants who were diagnosed with dry eye, regardless of race and gender. We included trials in which the age of participants was not reported, and clinical trials comparing OTC artificial tears with another class of OTC artificial tears, placebo, or no treatment. This review did not

  12. A case of vesicular cutaneous lupus erythematosus in a Border collie successfully treated with topical tacrolimus and nicotinamide-tetracycline.

    PubMed

    Lehner, Georg M; Linek, Monika

    2013-12-01

    Canine vesicular cutaneous lupus erythematosus (VCLE) is an autoimmune skin disease of the Shetland sheepdog and rough collie, which manifests as an erosive dermatitis of sparsely haired skin of the ventrum and concave pinnae. Reported treatment consists of immunosuppression with glucocorticoids alone or in combination with azathioprine, but successful treatment is unpredictable. To report on the treatment of VCLE in a Border collie dog with topical 0.1% tacrolimus and nicotinamide in combination with tetracycline. An 8-year-old male neutered Border collie was presented with multiple coalescing erosions on the ventral abdomen, groin and axillae and ulceration on the oral commissures. Clinical presentation, routine diagnostics, histology and immunohistochemistry were consistent with VCLE. Remission was achieved with topical 0.1% tacrolimus and combination therapy of nicotinamide and tetracycline. This dog responded well to treatment with topical 0.1% tacrolimus, nicotinamide-tetracycline and sun avoidance. Complete remission was achieved after 2.5 months, and the dog was lesion free during a 1 year follow-up period. © 2013 ESVD and ACVD.

  13. Dried blood spot measurement: application in tacrolimus monitoring using limited sampling strategy and abbreviated AUC estimation.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Chi Yuen; van der Heijden, Jaques; Hoogtanders, Karin; Christiaans, Maarten; Liu, Yan Lun; Chan, Yiu Han; Choi, Koon Shing; van de Plas, Afke; Shek, Chi Chung; Chau, Ka Foon; Li, Chun Sang; van Hooff, Johannes; Stolk, Leo

    2008-02-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling and high-performance liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry have been developed in monitoring tacrolimus levels. Our center favors the use of limited sampling strategy and abbreviated formula to estimate the area under concentration-time curve (AUC(0-12)). However, it is inconvenient for patients because they have to wait in the center for blood sampling. We investigated the application of DBS method in tacrolimus level monitoring using limited sampling strategy and abbreviated AUC estimation approach. Duplicate venous samples were obtained at each time point (C(0), C(2), and C(4)). To determine the stability of blood samples, one venous sample was sent to our laboratory immediately. The other duplicate venous samples, together with simultaneous fingerprick blood samples, were sent to the University of Maastricht in the Netherlands. Thirty six patients were recruited and 108 sets of blood samples were collected. There was a highly significant relationship between AUC(0-12), estimated from venous blood samples, and fingerprick blood samples (r(2) = 0.96, P < 0.0001). Moreover, there was an excellent correlation between whole blood venous tacrolimus levels in the two centers (r(2) = 0.97; P < 0.0001). The blood samples were stable after long-distance transport. DBS sampling can be used in centers using limited sampling and abbreviated AUC(0-12) strategy as drug monitoring.

  14. Bioequivalence between innovator and generic tacrolimus in liver and kidney transplant recipients: A randomized, crossover clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Vinks, Alexander A.; Fukuda, Tsuyoshi; King, Eileen C.; Zou, Yuanshu; Jiang, Wenlei; Klawitter, Jelena; Christians, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Background Although the generic drug approval process has a long-term successful track record, concerns remain for approval of narrow therapeutic index generic immunosuppressants, such as tacrolimus, in transplant recipients. Several professional transplant societies and publications have generated skepticism of the generic approval process. Three major areas of concern are that the pharmacokinetic properties of generic products and the innovator (that is, “brand”) product in healthy volunteers may not reflect those in transplant recipients, bioequivalence between generic and innovator may not ensure bioequivalence between generics, and high-risk patients may have specific bioequivalence concerns. Such concerns have been fueled by anecdotal observations and retrospective and uncontrolled published studies, while well-designed, controlled prospective studies testing the validity of the regulatory bioequivalence testing approach for narrow therapeutic index immunosuppressants in transplant recipients have been lacking. Thus, the present study prospectively assesses bioequivalence between innovator tacrolimus and 2 generics in individuals with a kidney or liver transplant. Methods and findings From December 2013 through October 2014, a prospective, replicate dosing, partially blinded, randomized, 3-treatment, 6-period crossover bioequivalence study was conducted at the University of Cincinnati in individuals with a kidney (n = 35) or liver transplant (n = 36). Abbreviated New Drug Applications (ANDA) data that included manufacturing and healthy individual pharmacokinetic data for all generics were evaluated to select the 2 most disparate generics from innovator, and these were named Generic Hi and Generic Lo. During the 8-week study period, pharmacokinetic studies assessed the bioequivalence of Generic Hi and Generic Lo with the Innovator tacrolimus and with each other. Bioequivalence of the major tacrolimus metabolite was also assessed. All products fell within

  15. Bioequivalence between innovator and generic tacrolimus in liver and kidney transplant recipients: A randomized, crossover clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Alloway, Rita R; Vinks, Alexander A; Fukuda, Tsuyoshi; Mizuno, Tomoyuki; King, Eileen C; Zou, Yuanshu; Jiang, Wenlei; Woodle, E Steve; Tremblay, Simon; Klawitter, Jelena; Klawitter, Jost; Christians, Uwe

    2017-11-01

    Although the generic drug approval process has a long-term successful track record, concerns remain for approval of narrow therapeutic index generic immunosuppressants, such as tacrolimus, in transplant recipients. Several professional transplant societies and publications have generated skepticism of the generic approval process. Three major areas of concern are that the pharmacokinetic properties of generic products and the innovator (that is, "brand") product in healthy volunteers may not reflect those in transplant recipients, bioequivalence between generic and innovator may not ensure bioequivalence between generics, and high-risk patients may have specific bioequivalence concerns. Such concerns have been fueled by anecdotal observations and retrospective and uncontrolled published studies, while well-designed, controlled prospective studies testing the validity of the regulatory bioequivalence testing approach for narrow therapeutic index immunosuppressants in transplant recipients have been lacking. Thus, the present study prospectively assesses bioequivalence between innovator tacrolimus and 2 generics in individuals with a kidney or liver transplant. From December 2013 through October 2014, a prospective, replicate dosing, partially blinded, randomized, 3-treatment, 6-period crossover bioequivalence study was conducted at the University of Cincinnati in individuals with a kidney (n = 35) or liver transplant (n = 36). Abbreviated New Drug Applications (ANDA) data that included manufacturing and healthy individual pharmacokinetic data for all generics were evaluated to select the 2 most disparate generics from innovator, and these were named Generic Hi and Generic Lo. During the 8-week study period, pharmacokinetic studies assessed the bioequivalence of Generic Hi and Generic Lo with the Innovator tacrolimus and with each other. Bioequivalence of the major tacrolimus metabolite was also assessed. All products fell within the US Food and Drug Administration

  16. Morphological Changes of Human Corneal Endothelial Cells after Rho-Associated Kinase Inhibitor Eye Drop (Ripasudil) Administration: A Prospective Open-Label Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Okumura, Naoki; Suganami, Hideki; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effect and safety of a selective Rho kinase inhibitor, ripasudil 0.4% eye drops, on corneal endothelial cells of healthy subjects. Design Prospective, interventional case series. Methods In this study, 6 healthy subjects were administered ripasudil 0.4% in the right eye twice daily for 1 week. Morphological changes and corneal endothelial cell density were examined by noncontact and contact specular microscopy. Central corneal thickness and corneal volume of 5 mm-diameter area of center cornea were analyzed by Pentacam Scheimpflug topography. All the above measurements were conducted in both eyes before administration, 1.5 and 6 hours after the initial administration on day 0; and in the same manner after the final administration on day 7. Results By noncontact specular microscopy, indistinct cell borders with pseudo guttae were observed, but by contact specular microscopy, morphological changes of corneal endothelial cells were mild and pseudo guttae was not observed after single and repeated administration of ripasudil in all subjects. These changes resolved prior to the next administration, and corneal endothelial cell density, central corneal thickness and corneal volume were not changed throughout the study period. Conclusion Transient morphological changes of corneal endothelial cells such as indistinct cell borders with pseudo guttae were observed by noncontact specular microscopy in healthy subjects after ripasudil administration. Corneal edema was not observed and corneal endothelial cell density did not decrease after 1 week repetitive administration. These morphological changes were reversible and corneal endothelial cell morphology returned to normal prior to the next administration. Trial Registration JAPIC Clinical Trials Information 142705 PMID:26367375

  17. Novel Once-Daily Extended-Release Tacrolimus Versus Twice-Daily Tacrolimus in De Novo Kidney Transplant Recipients: Two-Year Results of Phase 3, Double-Blind, Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Rostaing, Lionel; Bunnapradist, Suphamai; Grinyó, Josep M; Ciechanowski, Kazimierz; Denny, Jason E; Silva, Helio Tedesco; Budde, Klemens

    2016-04-01

    1-year data from this trial showed the noninferiority of a novel once-daily extended-release tacrolimus (LCPT; Envarsus XR) to immediate-release tacrolimus (IR-Tac) twice daily after kidney transplantation. Final 24-month analysis of a 2-armed, parallel-group, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, multicenter, phase 3 trial. 543 de novo kidney recipients randomly assigned to LCPT (n=268) or IR-Tac (n=275); 507 (93.4%) completed the 24-month study. LCPT tablets once daily at 0.17 mg/kg/d or IR-Tac twice daily at 0.1 mg/kg/d; subsequent doses were adjusted to maintain target trough ranges (first 30 days, 6-11 ng/mL; thereafter, 4-11 ng/mL). The intervention was 24 months; the study was double blinded for the entirety. Treatment failure (death, transplant failure, biopsy-proven acute rejection, or loss to follow up) within 24 months. Safety end points included adverse events, serious adverse events, new-onset diabetes, kidney function, opportunistic infections, and malignancies. Pharmacokinetic measures included total daily dose (TDD) of study drugs and tacrolimus trough levels. 24-month treatment failure was LCPT, 23.1%; IR-Tac, 27.3% (treatment difference, -4.14% [95% CI, -11.38% to +3.17%], well below the +10% noninferiority criterion defined for the primary 12-month end point). Subgroup analyses showed fewer treatment failures for LCPT versus IR-Tac among black, older, and female recipients. Safety was similar between groups. From month 1, TDD was lower for LCPT; the difference increased over time. At month 24, mean TDD for LCPT was 24% lower than for the IR-Tac group (P<0.001), but troughs were similar (means at 24 months: LCPT, 5.47 ± 0.17 ng/mL; IR-Tac, 5.8 ± 0.30 ng/mL; P=0.4). Trial participant eligibility criteria may limit the generalizability of results to the global population of de novo kidney transplant recipients. Results suggest that once-daily LCPT in de novo kidney transplantation has comparable efficacy and safety profile to that of IR

  18. De novo use of a generic formulation of tacrolimus versus reference tacrolimus in kidney transplantation: evaluation of the clinical results, histology in protocol biopsies, and immunological monitoring.

    PubMed

    Melilli, Edoardo; Crespo, Elena; Sandoval, Diego; Manonelles, Anna; Sala, Neus; Mast, Richard; Padulles, Ariadna; Grinyo, Josep M; Bestard, Oriol; Cruzado, Josep Maria

    2015-11-01

    The use of generic formulations of immunosuppressive drugs in renal transplantation has been and still is a controversial subject. The lack of clinical studies about safety and efficacy in transplant patients is one of the factors restricting the diffusion of generic drugs in the renal transplant field. Since March 2013, our transplant unit has incorporated generic tacrolimus (Adoport(®) ; Sandoz), replacing the one we were currently using (Prograf(®) ; Astellas). When carrying out our retrospective analysis comparing the two different formulations, we evaluated several clinical results: tacrolimus trough concentrations (C0) at 5-7 days; 1, 3, and 6 months post-transplantation; concentration/dose ratio at 6 months; acute rejection incidence; delayed graft function (DGF); renal function (as CKD-EPI); and proteinuria at 6 months in 120 patients (1:1 ratio of Prograf(®) versus Adoport(®) ), noticing no important differences. We also evaluated the results of protocol biopsies at 6 months in a subgroup of patients, thus verifying the safety and efficacy of this particular generic drug versus the reference product on a histological basis as well. No difference in the development of dnDSA (de novo donor-specific antibody) was found between the two groups. © 2015 Steunstichting ESOT.

  19. Effects of unilateral topical atropine on binocular pupil responses and eye growth in mice.

    PubMed

    Barathi, V A; Beuerman, Roger W; Schaeffel, Frank

    2009-02-01

    Studies on drugs selected to target myopia development often use the vehicle-treated fellow eye as a control. However, it is not clear how much of the drug reaches the fellow eye, rendering it a potentially invalid control. Therefore, in this study, pupil responses were used to probe the effects of atropine in both eyes in mice, after unilateral topical application. In a second experiment, interocular differences in refractive development and axial eye growth were studied while atropine was applied daily to one eye. In 20 C57BL/6 (B6) wildtype mice, a single drop of 1% atropine solution was instilled into one eye. Mice were gently restrained by holding their necks while video image processing software detected the pupil and measured its diameter at a sampling rate of 30 Hz. A bright green LED, attached to the photoretinoscope of the video camera, was flashed. Pupil responses were quantified daily over a period of 2 weeks. In another group of 24 mice, one drop of 1% atropine was applied daily for 28 days. Axial length was measured pre- and post-treatment, using low coherence interferometry (the Zeiss AC-Master). Refractive development was measured by infrared photorefraction. Similar to previous findings with the same device, untreated eyes displayed a pupil constriction of 24.84+/-1.73% upon stimulation with the green LED. A single drop of 1% atropine caused complete suppression with no significant recovery over the whole observation period of two weeks. The responses in the fellow eye were temporarily reduced to about 75% and then recovered towards baseline. After daily atropine application, there was significant reduction in axial length of the eyes, relative to the saline-treated fellow eyes (3.234+/-0.186 versus 3.378+/-0.176 mm, n=24, p<0.01, paired t-test) and the refractions became more hyperopic/less myopic (+13.46+/-2.15 D versus +10.06+/-2.02 D, n=24, p<0.01). In line with previous findings, one drop of atropine solution caused a long lasting suppression

  20. Effects of two eye drop products on computer users with subjective ocular discomfort.

    PubMed

    Skilling, Francis C; Weaver, Tony A; Kato, Kenneth P; Ford, Jerry G; Dussia, Elyse M

    2005-01-01

    An increasing number of people seek medical attention for symptoms of visual discomfort due to computer vision syndrome (CVS). We compared the efficacy and adverse event rates of a new eye lubricant, OptiZen (InnoZen, Inc., polysorbate 80 0.5%) and Visine Original (Pfizer Consumer Healthcare, tetrahydrozoline HCl 0.05%). In this double-blind parallel arm trial, 50 healthy men and women, ages 18 to 65 years, with symptoms of CVS who use a video display terminal for a minimum of 4 hours per day were randomized to OptiZen (n = 25) or Visine Original (n= 25), 1 to 2 drops b.i.d. for 5 days. The primary end-points were ocular discomfort and adverse events. OptiZen and Visine Original had similar efficacy in alleviating symptoms of ocular discomfort (odds ratio of 1.23 [95% confidence interval, 0.63 to 2.42], P= 0.55). OptiZen and Visine Original were very similar with respect to odds ratios and 95% confidence interval (CI) for each of the measurement times (P= 0.72). Visine Original users reported a significantly higher incidence of temporary ocular stinging/burning immediately after drug instillation (28%, 7/25) than did OptiZen users (4%, 1/24) (P= 0.05). Patients using OptiZen were 89% less likely to have stinging/burning effects than those patients using Visine Original (95% CI: 0.01 to 0.95). OptiZen and Visine Original are effective at alleviating ocular discomfort associated with prolonged computer use. Adverse event findings suggest that OptiZen causes less ocular discomfort on instillation, potentially attributable to its milder ingredient profile.

  1. The relief of dry eye signs and symptoms using a combination of lubricants, lid hygiene and ocular nutraceuticals.

    PubMed

    Ngo, William; Srinivasan, Sruthi; Houtman, Diane; Jones, Lyndon

    To determine the combined effect of TheraTears ® Lubricant Eye Drops, TheraTears ® SteriLid Eyelid Cleanser, and TheraTears ® Nutrition on dry eye signs and symptoms. This prospective study enrolled 28 dry eye participants. Participants were instructed to use the Lubricant Eye Drops at least 2-4× a day, SteriLid 1-2× a day, and Nutrition 3 gel caps once a day. Participants were followed up at baseline, 1 month and 3 months. Outcome variables were the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), Symptom Assessment iN Dry Eye (SANDE) questionnaire, non-invasive tear break-up time (NIBUT), osmolarity, number of meibomian glands blocked (#MG blocked), meibum quality, eyelid margin features, Schirmer's test, tear film lipid layer thickness (LLT), meniscus height, corneal and conjunctival staining. Twenty participants (mean age=43, from 23 to 66, 17F, 3M) completed the study. Participants reported having used, on average, the Lubricant Eye Drop 2.4×/day, the SteriLid 1.1×/day, and the Nutrition 3 gel caps 1×/day. There was a significant change over time (p<0.05) for OSDI (-21.2 points), SANDE (-32.4 points), NIBUT (+0.43s), eyelid margin features (-1.1 grade), meibum quality (-1.0 grade), and #MG blocked (-4.0 glands). By using a combination of TheraTears ® Lubricant Eye Drop, SteriLid, and Nutrition, patients experience significant relief in both dry eye symptoms and signs. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. The Correlation between Daily Lens Wear Duration and Dry Eye Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lubis, Rodiah Rahmawaty; Gultom, Monica Tumiar Hanna

    2018-05-20

    To analyze the correlation between the daily lens wear duration and dry eye syndrome. This study was an analytic cross sectional study using consecutive sampling conducted among the students in Economy and Bussiness Faculty and Faculty of Humanities in University of Sumatera Utara aged between 17 to 23 that wore contact lens continously for at least a year and 5 days a week. The symptoms were assessed using Contact Lens Dry Eye Questionnaire-8 (CLDEQ-8) and interview about their contact lens comfort; eye drops usage, contact lens washing habit, daily circumstances, places to buy contact lens and personal experince in wearing contact lens. The questionnaire was completed by 53 students. All of them were female and wore softlens wearers. The mean duration of daily wear was 8.19 ± 2.20 hours. The most common symptom experienced was dry eye and the least symptom experienced was removing lens. The most frequent symptom experienced was closing eyes and the least frequent symptom experienced was removing lenses. This study used Exact Test as analysis statistic method. The result was p > 0.05 which means there is no correlation between daily lens wear duration and dry eye syndrome. This study showed that dry eye syndrome was not correlated with daily lens wear duration, but affected by many factors such as contact lens, lens care solution, eye drops usage and environment.

  3. Successful treatment for ulcerative proctitis with rectal tacrolimus in an 8-year-old girl with intolerance to mesalamine.

    PubMed

    Navas-López, Víctor Manuel; Blasco-Alonso, Javier; Girón Fernández-Crehuet, Francisco; Serrano Nieto, Maria Juliana; Gallego-Gutiérrez, Silvia; Luque Pérez, Silvia; Sierra Salinas, Carlos

    2014-08-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is defined as a chronic inflammatory condition causing continuous mucosal inflammation of the colon without granulomas on biopsy. It affects the rectum, and, to a variable extent, the colon in continuity and is characterized by a relapsing and remitting course. Oral 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) regimens are recommended as first-line induction therapy for mild to moderately active pediatric UC and for maintenance of remission regardless of other initial treatments. In large clinical trials in adults, mesalamine intolerance was found in 2-5 % of the patients. We present a case of an 8-year-old female patient with intolerance to mesalamine and proctitis resistant to conventional therapy who responded to rectal tacrolimus treatment. The patient started with a dose of 2 mg/day at night with an excellent response. She reported feeling better than any of the previously prescribed treatments and without feeling the discomfort of previously administered enemas. After four weeks of treatment, the dose was reduced to 2 mg/week with no relapses. Tacrolimus suppositories were very well tolerated, and no adverse effects have been reported. Although only very little data has been published, rectal tacrolimus seems to be safe and of efficacy in ulcerative proctitis resistant to standard therapy.

  4. Quantitation of tacrolimus in whole blood using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS-MS).

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Keri J; Shaw, Leslie M

    2010-01-01

    We describe a multiple reaction monitoring positive ion HPLC/tandem mass spectrometric method for quantification of tacrolimus in human whole blood with online extraction and cleanup. Included in this procedure: API 2000 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with turbo-ion spray source (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA); 10-port diverter/switching valve (Valco, Houston, TX); HPLC system (Agilent Technologies series 1100, Wilmington, DE); 10 mm (C(18)) guard cartridge (Perkin Elmer, Norwalk, CT) used as an extraction column; a Nova-Pak C18 analytical column (2.1 x 150 mm I.D., 4 microm, Waters Corp, Milford, MA); washing solution, methanol: 30 mM ammonium acetate pH 5.1 (80:20); eluting solution, methanol:30 mM ammonium acetate pH 5.1 (97:3); flow rate 0.8 mL/min; and a run-time of 2.8 min. The first and third quadrupoles were set to detect the ammonium adduct ion and a high mass fragment of tacrolimus (m/z 821.5-->768.3), and of an internal standard (ascomycin) (m/z 901.8-->834.4). The lower limit of quantification of this method is 3.75 mg/L. The concentration of drug is determined by comparing peak-area ratios for tacrolimus and internal standard to a standard curve constructed using non-weighted linear through zero regression.

  5. Relative bioavailability of single doses of prolonged-release tacrolimus administered as a suspension, orally or via a nasogastric tube, compared with intact capsules: a phase 1 study in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Undre, Nasrullah; Dickinson, James

    2017-04-04

    Tacrolimus, an immunosuppressant widely used in solid organ transplantation, is available as a prolonged-release capsule for once-daily oral administration. In the immediate postsurgical period, if patients cannot take intact capsules orally, tacrolimus therapy is often initiated as a suspension of the capsule contents, delivered orally or via a nasogastric tube. This study evaluated the relative bioavailability of prolonged-release tacrolimus suspension versus intact capsules in healthy participants. A phase 1, open-label, single-dose, cross-over study. A single clinical research unit. In total, 20 male participants, 18-55 years old, entered and completed the study. All participants received nasogastric administration of tacrolimus 10 mg suspension in treatment period 1, with randomisation to oral administration of suspension or intact capsules in periods 2 and 3. Blood concentration-time profile over 144 hours was used to estimate pharmacokinetic parameters. Primary end point: relative bioavailability of prolonged-release intact capsule versus oral or nasogastric administration of prolonged-release tacrolimus suspension (area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) from time 0 to infinity post-tacrolimus dose (AUC 0-∞ ); AUC measured until the last quantifiable concentration (AUC 0-tz ); maximum observed concentration (C max ); time to C max (T max )). Tolerability was assessed throughout the study. Relative bioavailability of prolonged-release tacrolimus suspension administered orally was similar to intact capsules, with a ratio of least-square means for AUC 0-tz and AUC 0-∞ of 1.05 (90% CI 0.96 to 1.14). Bioavailability was lower with suspension administered via a nasogastric tube versus intact capsules (17%; ratio 0.83; CI 0.76 to 0.92). C max was higher for oral and nasogastric suspension (30% and 28%, respectively), and median T max was shorter (difference 1.0 and 1.5 hours postdose, respectively) versus intact capsules (2.0 hours). Single 10

  6. Evaluation of a community-based participatory farmworker eye health intervention in the "black dirt" region of New York state.

    PubMed

    Earle-Richardson, Giulia; Wyckoff, Lynae; Carrasquillo, Marilyn; Scribani, Melissa; Jenkins, Paul; May, John

    2014-09-01

    Eye irritation is a constant hazard for migrant and seasonal farmworkers, but there are few studies of the problem or how to address it. Researchers evaluated the effect of a community-based participatory eye health intervention on farmworker eye symptoms in the Hudson Valley, NY. A randomized pre-post intervention with 2, 4-week follow-up periods was implemented with a sample of 97 farmworkers. Five eye symptoms were measured, along with utilization of protective eyewear and eye drops. Leading baseline eye symptoms were redness (49%), blurred vision (43%), itching (43%), and eye pain (29%). Significant reductions in eye pain (P = 0.009), and non-significant reductions in redness were observed for the intervention group while controls experienced increases in both. The intervention was effective in significantly reducing eye pain, and to a lesser extent, redness. Future eyewear promotion programs should offer a range of eye wear, tailor offerings to local climate and tasks, evaluate eyewear durability, and include eye drops. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Systematic review of randomized controlled trials in the treatment of dry eye disease in Sjogren syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shih, Kendrick Co; Lun, Christie Nicole; Jhanji, Vishal; Thong, Bernard Yu-Hor; Tong, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Primary Sjögren's syndrome is an autoimmune disease characterized by dry eye and dry mouth. We systematically reviewed all the randomized controlled clinical trials published in the last 15 years that included ocular outcomes. We found 22 trials involving 9 topical, 10 oral, 2 intravenous and 1 subcutaneous modalities of treatment. Fluoromethalone eye drops over 8 weeks were more effective than topical cyclosporine in the treatment of dry eye symptoms and signs; similarly, indomethacin eye drops over 1 month were more efficacious than diclofenac eye drops. Oral pilocarpine 5 mg twice daily over 3 months was superior to use of lubricants or punctal plugs for treating dry eye, but 5% of participants had gastrointestinal adverse effects from pilocarpine, though none discontinued treatment. In contrast, etanercept, a TNF-alpha blocking antibody, administered as subcutaneous injections twice weekly, did not improve dry eye significantly compared to placebo injections. In conclusion, topical corticosteroids have been shown to be effective in dry eye associated with Sjögren's syndrome. As some topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may be more effective than others, these should be further evaluated. Systemic secretagogues like pilocarpine have a role in Sjögren's syndrome but the adverse effects may limit their clinical use. It is disappointing that systemic cytokine therapy did not produce encouraging ocular outcomes but participants should have assessment of cytokine levels in such trials, as those with higher baseline cytokine levels may respond better. (229 words).

  8. Targeted delivery of hyaluronic acid to the ocular surface by a polymer-peptide conjugate system for dry eye disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, David; Lu, Qiaozhi; Sommerfeld, Sven D; Chan, Amanda; Menon, Nikhil G; Schmidt, Tannin A; Elisseeff, Jennifer H; Singh, Anirudha

    2017-06-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) solutions effectively lubricate the ocular surface and are used for the relief of dry eye related symptoms. However, HA undergoes rapid clearance due to limited adhesion, which necessitates frequent instillation. Conversely, highly viscous artificial tear formulations with HA blur vision and interfere with blinking. Here, we developed an HA-eye drop formulation that selectively binds and retains HA for extended periods of time on the ocular surface. We synthesized a heterobifunctional polymer-peptide system with one end binding HA while the other end binding either sialic acid-containing glycosylated transmembrane molecules on the ocular surface epithelium, or type I collagen molecule within the tissue matrix. HA solution was mixed with the polymer-peptide system and tested on both ex vivo and in vivo models to determine its ability to prolong HA retention. Furthermore, rabbit ocular surface tissues treated with binding peptides and HA solutions demonstrated superior lubrication with reduced kinetic friction coefficients compared to tissues treated with conventional HA solution. The results suggest that binding peptide-based solution can keep the ocular surface enriched with HA for prolonged times as well as keep it lubricated. Therefore, this system can be further developed into a more effective treatment for dry eye patients than a standard HA eye drop. Eye drop formulations containing HA are widely used to lubricate the ocular surface and relieve dry eye related symptoms, however its low residence time remains a challenge. We designed a polymer-peptide system for the targeted delivery of HA to the ocular surface using sialic acid or type I collagen as anchors for HA immobilization. The addition of the polymer-peptide system to HA eye drop exhibited a reduced friction coefficient, and it can keep the ocular surface enriched with HA for prolonged time. This system can be further developed into a more effective treatment for dry eye than a

  9. Use of traditional eye medicine and self-medication in rural India: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Noopur; Vashist, Praveen; Tandon, Radhika; Gupta, Sanjeev K; Kalaivani, Mani; Dwivedi, S N

    2017-01-01

    To determine the type and nature of traditional eye medicine (TEM), their sources and use and practices related to self-medication for ophthalmic diseases in a rural Indian population. A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in 25 randomly selected clusters of Rural Gurgaon, Haryana, India as part of CORE (Cornea Opacity Rural Epidemiological) study. In addition to comprehensive ophthalmic examination, health-seeking behavior and use of self-medication and TEM was assessed in the adult population using a semi-structured questionnaire. Physical verification of available ophthalmic medications in the enumerated households was conducted by the study team. Descriptive statistics were computed along with multivariable logistic regression analysis to determine associated factors for use of self-medication and TEM. Of the 2160 participants interviewed, 396 (18.2%) reported using ophthalmic medications without consulting an ophthalmologist, mainly for symptoms like watering (37.1%), redness (27.7%), itching (19.2%) and infection (13.6%). On physical verification of available eye drops that were being used without prescription, 26.4% participants were practicing self-medication. Steroid, expired/unlabeled and indigenous eye drops were being used by 151(26.5%), 120(21.1%) and 75 (13.2%) participants respectively. Additionally, 25.7% (529) participants resorted to home remedies like 'kajal'(61.4%), honey (31.4%), ghee (11.7%) and rose water (9.1%). Use of TEM is prevalent in this population. The rampant use of steroid eye drops without prescription along with use of expired or unlabelled eye drops warrants greater emphasis on safe eye care practices in this population. Public awareness and regulatory legislations must be implemented to decrease harmful effects arising due to such practices.

  10. Red or uncomfortable eye.

    PubMed Central

    Davey, C.; Hurwitz, B.

    1992-01-01

    1. A red, uncomfortable eye may be accompanied by other symptoms such as blurred, decreased, or double vision, haloes, photophobia, pain or discharge. 2. A careful history and brief systematic examination will sort out most problems. 3. Examine eyelids, the conjunctivae and corneas. Checking visual acuity is often important. 4. The most common underlying causes can usually be managed within general practice, though a few patients will require urgent eye assessment, or routine referral to ophthalmic outpatients. 5. The following are typical eye problems which require urgent referral: History of pain as opposed to discomfort, Trauma including foreign bodies, chemicals and suspected penetrating injury, Unexplained drop in visual acuity of two lines or more in a painful eye. Specific conditions: preseptal cellulitis, herpes simplex ulcer, scleritis, orbital cellulitis, herpes zoster, bacterial corneal ulcer, dacryocystitis. 6. The following are typical problems which may require routine referral: Persistence of the problem not relieved by simple measures, Recurrent disorders of uncertain diagnosis, Eyelid swelling such as chalazion, cysts, basal cell carcinoma, Gradual loss of vision, for example cataract, macular degeneration. PMID:1345157

  11. Tacrolimus interaction with nafcillin resulting in significant decreases in tacrolimus concentrations: A case report.

    PubMed

    Wungwattana, Minkey; Savic, Marizela

    2017-04-01

    Tacrolimus (TAC) is subject to many drug interactions as a result of its metabolism primarily via CYP450 isoenzyme 3A4. Numerous case reports of TAC and CYP3A4 inducers and inhibitors have been described including antimicrobials, calcium channel antagonists, and antiepileptic drugs. We present the case of a 13-year-old patient with cystic fibrosis and a history of liver transplantation, where subtherapeutic TAC concentrations were suspected to be a result of concomitant TAC and nafcillin (NAF) therapy. The observed drug interaction occurred on two separate hospital admissions, during both of which the patient exhibited therapeutic TAC concentrations prior to exposure to NAF, a CYP3A4 inducer. Upon discontinuation of NAF, TAC concentrations recovered in both instances. This case represents a drug-drug interaction between TAC and NAF that has not previously been reported to our knowledge. Despite the lack of existing reports of interaction between these two agents, this case highlights the importance of therapeutic drug monitoring and assessing for any potential drug-drug or drug-food interactions in patients receiving TAC therapy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Tear film thickness after treatment with artificial tears in patients with moderate dry eye disease.

    PubMed

    Schmidl, Doreen; Schmetterer, Leopold; Witkowska, Katarzyna J; Unterhuber, Angelika; dos Santos, Valentin Aranha; Kaya, Semira; Nepp, Johannes; Baar, Carina; Rosner, Peter; Werkmeister, René M; Garhofer, Gerhard

    2015-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of a single-drop instillation of different lacrimal substitutes on tear film thickness (TFT) assessed with optical coherence tomography in patients with mild to moderate dry eye disease. The study was performed in a randomized, double-masked, controlled parallel group design. Patients received a single dose of either unpreserved trehalose 30 mg/mL and sodium hyaluronate 1.5 mg/mL (TH-SH, Thealoz Duo), unpreserved sodium hyaluronate, 0.15% (HA, Hyabak) or sodium chloride, 0.9% (NaCl, Hydrabak) eye drops. Sixty patients finished the study according to the protocol. TFT was measured with a custom-built ultrahigh-resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography system providing a resolution of 1.2 μm. The mean TFT before treatment was 2.5 ± 0.4 μm. Ten minutes after instillation, TFT significantly increased in the TH-SH group from 2.4 ± 0.4 to 3.1 ± 0.9 μm (P < 0.01) and in the HA group from 2.4 ± 0.3 to 2.9 ± 0.5 μm (P < 0.01), whereas no significant change was observed in the NaCl group (from 2.6 ± 0.4 to 2.7 ± 0.4 μm, P = 0.76). The increase in TFT remained statistically significant up to 240 minutes after administration of TH-SH. In contrast, the increase in TFT after administration of HA was only statistically significant at 10, 20, and 40 minutes after drop instillation. The findings of this study indicate that single instillation of TH-SH and HA eye drops increases TFT in patients with dry eye disease. The data also indicate longer corneal residence of the TH-containing eye drops. The effect of multiple instillation and long-term use of artificial tears on TFT warrants further investigation.

  13. Plasma cell cheilitis, successfully treated with topical 0.03% tacrolimus ointment.

    PubMed

    Jin, Seon Pil; Cho, Kwang Hyun; Huh, Chang Hun

    2010-05-01

    Plasma cell cheilitis is a rare, idiopathic mucosal condition. The treatment of plasma cell cheilitis is often disappointing. It is often resistant to various topical treatments. We present a 65-year-old woman who had a painful, eroded area on her lower lip, which responded poorly to various topical treatments. A biopsy revealed a band-like infiltration composed mainly of plasma cells in the dermis. She was diagnosed as having plasma cell cheilitis, and was successfully treated with 0.03% topical tacrolimus ointment.

  14. The application of artificial neural networks and support vector regression for simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of commercial eye drop contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valizadeh, Maryam; Sohrabi, Mahmoud Reza

    2018-03-01

    In the present study, artificial neural networks (ANNs) and support vector regression (SVR) as intelligent methods coupled with UV spectroscopy for simultaneous quantitative determination of Dorzolamide (DOR) and Timolol (TIM) in eye drop. Several synthetic mixtures were analyzed for validating the proposed methods. At first, neural network time series, which one type of network from the artificial neural network was employed and its efficiency was evaluated. Afterwards, the radial basis network was applied as another neural network. Results showed that the performance of this method is suitable for predicting. Finally, support vector regression was proposed to construct the Zilomole prediction model. Also, root mean square error (RMSE) and mean recovery (%) were calculated for SVR method. Moreover, the proposed methods were compared to the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as a reference method. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test at the 95% confidence level applied to the comparison results of suggested and reference methods that there were no significant differences between them. Also, the effect of interferences was investigated in spike solutions.

  15. Prediabetes in patients receiving tacrolimus in the first year after kidney transplantation: a prospective and multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Porrini, Esteban; Moreno, Jose Manuel; Osuna, Antonio; Benitez, Rocio; Lampreabe, Ildefonso; Diaz, Juan Manuel; Silva, Irene; Domínguez, Rosa; Gonzalez-Cotorruelo, Julio; Bayes, Beatriz; Lauzurica, Ricardo; Ibernon, Meritxell; Moreso, Francisco; Delgado, Patricia; Torres, Armando

    2008-04-27

    Tacrolimus-based immunosuppression, the most widely used regimen in kidney transplantation, increases the risk of new onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT). However, the prevalence, evolution and risk factors of different prediabetic alterations: impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, and provisional diabetes, have not been established. In this multicenter and prospective study we evaluated 154 nondiabetic kidney transplant recipients receiving tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and low dose steroids. An oral glucose tolerance test was performed 3 and 12 months after transplantation and prediabetes was defined by American Diabetes Association criteria. Prediabetes was highly prevalent and showed little variation between 3 and 12 months (36% and 33%, respectively). Impaired glucose tolerance was the most frequent abnormality observed (23% and 25%, respectively) observed. In addition, 20% of recipients showed NODAT by 1 year. Multivariate analysis showed that age (odds ratio [OR]: 1.07, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.004-1.14), pretransplant body mass index (OR: 1.3, CI: 1.09-1.6) and triglyceride/high density lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio, a marker of insulin resistance, (OR: 1.4, CI: 1.05-1.9) were independent risk factors for prediabetes. One in two recipients with tacrolimus-based immunosuppresion showed prediabetes or NODAT by 1 year posttransplantation when properly investigated. Older age and high pretransplant body mass index and triglyceride/high density lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio were risk factors for prediabetes. These findings may help applying early interventions to prevent the disorder.

  16. The Tacrolimus Metabolism Rate Influences Renal Function after Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Thölking, Gerold; Fortmann, Christian; Koch, Raphael; Gerth, Hans Ulrich; Pabst, Dirk; Pavenstädt, Hermann; Kabar, Iyad; Hüsing, Anna; Wolters, Heiner

    2014-01-01

    The effective calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) tacrolimus (Tac) is an integral part of the standard immunosuppressive regimen after renal transplantation (RTx). However, as a potent CNI it has nephrotoxic potential leading to impaired renal function in some cases. Therefore, it is of high clinical impact to identify factors which can predict who is endangered to develop CNI toxicity. We hypothesized that the Tac metabolism rate expressed as the blood concentration normalized by the dose (C/D ratio) is such a simple predictor. Therefore, we analyzed the impact of the C/D ratio on kidney function after RTx. Renal function was analyzed 1, 2, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after RTx in 248 patients with an immunosuppressive regimen including basiliximab, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisolone. According to keep the approach simple, patients were split into three C/D groups: fast, intermediate and slow metabolizers. Notably, compared with slow metabolizers fast metabolizers of Tac showed significantly lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) values at all the time points analyzed. Moreover, fast metabolizers underwent more indication renal biopsies (p = 0.006) which revealed a higher incidence of CNI nephrotoxicity (p = 0.015) and BK nephropathy (p = 0.024) in this group. We herein identified the C/D ratio as an easy calculable risk factor for the development of CNI nephrotoxicity and BK nephropathy after RTx. We propose that the simple C/D ratio should be taken into account early in patient’s risk management strategies. PMID:25340655

  17. Use of traditional eye medicine and self-medication in rural India: A population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Noopur; Tandon, Radhika; Gupta, Sanjeev K.; Kalaivani, Mani; Dwivedi, S. N.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine the type and nature of traditional eye medicine (TEM), their sources and use and practices related to self-medication for ophthalmic diseases in a rural Indian population. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in 25 randomly selected clusters of Rural Gurgaon, Haryana, India as part of CORE (Cornea Opacity Rural Epidemiological) study. In addition to comprehensive ophthalmic examination, health-seeking behavior and use of self-medication and TEM was assessed in the adult population using a semi-structured questionnaire. Physical verification of available ophthalmic medications in the enumerated households was conducted by the study team. Descriptive statistics were computed along with multivariable logistic regression analysis to determine associated factors for use of self-medication and TEM. Results Of the 2160 participants interviewed, 396 (18.2%) reported using ophthalmic medications without consulting an ophthalmologist, mainly for symptoms like watering (37.1%), redness (27.7%), itching (19.2%) and infection (13.6%). On physical verification of available eye drops that were being used without prescription, 26.4% participants were practicing self-medication. Steroid, expired/unlabeled and indigenous eye drops were being used by 151(26.5%), 120(21.1%) and 75 (13.2%) participants respectively. Additionally, 25.7% (529) participants resorted to home remedies like ‘kajal’(61.4%), honey (31.4%), ghee (11.7%) and rose water (9.1%). Conclusion Use of TEM is prevalent in this population. The rampant use of steroid eye drops without prescription along with use of expired or unlabelled eye drops warrants greater emphasis on safe eye care practices in this population. Public awareness and regulatory legislations must be implemented to decrease harmful effects arising due to such practices. PMID:28829812

  18. [Effect of anti-inflammatory therapy on the treatment of dry eye syndrome].

    PubMed

    Mrukwa-Kominek, Ewa; Rogowska-Godela, Anna; Gierek-Ciaciura, Stanisława

    2007-01-01

    Dry eye syndrome is a common chronic disease; agents and strategies for its effective management are still lacking. The syndrome tends to be accompanied by ocular surface inflammation; therefore, the use of anti-inflammatory agents might prove beneficial. The authors present up-to-date guidelines, strategies, and efficacy of dry eye syndrome management, including anti-inflammatory treatment. As no diagnostic tests are now available to assess ocular surface inflammation severity, the right timing to launch an anti-inflammatory agent is difficult to determine. Patients with mild intermittent bouts of symptoms which can be alleviated with ophthalmic lubricants do not typically require anti-inflammatory therapy. The latter should be considered in those who do not respond to lubricating drops, obtain poor results on clinical tests, and show symptoms of ocular surface irritation (eg. conjunctivae redness). Anti-inflammatory treatment of dry eye syndrome may include short-term corticosteroids, cyclosporine A emulsion, oral tetracycline therapy, oral omega-3 fatty acid supplements, and autologous serum eye drops. Anti-inflammatory treatment should be safe and effective; potential benefits should be evaluated for each individual patient. The authors have reviewed the advantages of anti-inflammatory treatment in dry eye syndrome, presented in literature.

  19. The Drop Tower Bremen -An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Kampen, Peter; Könemann, Thorben; Rath, Hans J.

    The Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM) was founded in 1985 as an institute of the University of Bremen, which focuses on research on gravitational and space-related phenomena. In 1988, the construction of ZARM`s drop tower began. Since its inau-guration in September 1990, the eye-catching Drop Tower Bremen with a height of 146m and its characteristic glass roof has become twice a landmark on the campus of the University of Bremen and the emblem of the technology park Bremen. As such an outstanding symbol of space science in Bremen the drop tower provides an european unique facility for experiments under conditions of high-quality weightlessness with residual gravitational accelerations in the microgravity regime. The period of maximum 4.74s of each freely falling experiment at the Drop Tower Bremen is only limited by the height of the drop tower vacuum tube, which was fully manufactured of steal and enclosed by an outer concrete shell. Thus, the pure free fall height of each microgravity drop experiment is approximately 110m. By using the later in-stalled catapult system established in 2004 ZARM`s short-term microgravity laboratory is able to nearly double the time of free fall. This world-wide inimitable capsule catapult system meets scientists` demand of extending the period of weightlessness. During the catapult operation the experiment capsule performs a vertical parabolic flight within the drop tower vacuum tube. In this way the time of microgravity can be extended to slightly over 9s. Either in the drop or in the catapult operation routine the repetition rates of microgravity experiments at ZARM`s drop tower facility are the same, generally up to 3 times per day. In comparison to orbital platforms the ground-based laboratory Drop Tower Bremen represents an economic alternative with a permanent access to weightlessness on earth. Moreover, the exceptional high quality of weightlessness in order of 1e-6 g (in the frequency range below 100

  20. Patients undergoing long-term treatment with antihypertensive eye drops responded positively with respect to their ocular surface disorder to oral supplementation with antioxidants and essential fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Galbis-Estrada, Carmen; Pinazo-Durán, Maria D; Cantú-Dibildox, Jorge; Marco-Ramírez, Carla; Díaz-Llópis, Manuel; Benítez-del-Castillo, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Glaucoma and dry eye disorders (DEDs) are frequent comorbidities. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids have been extensively studied in relation to eye diseases. Our objective was to determine the effects of oral supplementation with a combined formulation of antioxidants and essential polyunsaturated fatty acids on expression of cytokines and chemokines in tears from patients with DEDs or primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Participants (n = 97) were distributed into three groups: (1) individuals with nonsevere DEDs (DEDG), (2) individuals with nonadvanced POAG (POAGG), and (3) healthy controls. These groups were randomized into two subgroups: one received a daily antioxidant and essential polyunsaturated fatty acid supplement (two pills) for 3 months (+S), and the other did not (-NS). Participants were interviewed and ophthalmologically examined. Concentrations of specific cytokines and chemokines in reflex tears were determined by multiplexed particle-based flow cytometry. The data were analyzed statistically (SPSS version 15.0). Comparison of the results from the DEDG and POAGG patients showed significant differences in tear expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (P = 0.008), tumor necrosis factor α (P = 0.005), vascular endothelial growth factor (P = 0.038), interleukin-4 (P = 0.030), and interleukin-6 (P = 0.044). The main signs and symptoms of dry eyes such as dryness, burning, photophobia, eye heaviness, and blurred vision, as well as positive changes in eyelashes, hair, nails and skin, were significantly improved in DEDG +S and POAGG +S patients relative to unsupplemented patients. Inflammation biomarkers were differentially expressed in glaucomatous tears, but the differences changed upon antioxidant/essential polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation. Chronic instillation of antihypertensive eye drops must be considered for integrating protocols to glaucoma standards of care.

  1. [Observation on therapeutic effect of dry eye syndrome treated with acupuncture on the acupoints around the eyes].

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei-Ping; Liu, Min; Zhang, Yi-Biao

    2010-06-01

    To observed the clinical efficacy on dry eye syndrome treated with acupuncture on the acupoints around the eyes. Fifty-six cases of dry eye syndrome were divided into two groups, acupuncture group and western medicine group, 28 cases in each one. In acupuncture group, acupuncture was applied to Jingming (BL 1), Cuanzhu (BL 2), Sizhukong (TE 23), Tongziliao (GB 1), etc. In western medicine group, the topical artificial tear eye drops were administered. The corneal fluorescein staining, breaking-up time (BUT), tear volume and the symptom score were observed before and after treatment in two groups. In comparison before and after treatment in acupuncture group, the statistical significant difference presented in BUT, tear volume and the symptom score (all P < 0.01). In comparison before and after treatment in western medicine group, the statistical significant difference presented in corneal staining, BUT and the symptom score (P < 0.01). The improvements in BUT, tear volume and the symptom score in acupuncture group were superior to those in western medicine group (P < 0.01). Acupuncture on the acupoints around the eyes achieves a quite good efficacy on dry eye syndrome.

  2. Pilot Analysis of Late Conversion to Belatacept in Kidney Transplant Recipients for Biopsy-Proven Chronic Tacrolimus Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Rosales, Ivy

    2018-01-01

    Background Calcineurin inhibitors are associated with chronic nephrotoxicity, manifesting as interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy (IF/TA) and arteriolar hyalinosis. Conversion from tacrolimus to belatacept may be one strategy to preserve renal function. Methods We conducted a retrospective review of renal transplant patients followed at our institution who were converted to belatacept and found to have chronic tacrolimus toxicity on biopsy. The primary outcome was eGFR at conversion as compared to eGFR at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after conversion. We also assessed incidence of infection and rates of allograft survival at 1 year. Results The average time between transplant and conversion was 11.9 years. There was no decrease in eGFR at any postconversion time point as compared with preconversion. The mean eGFR at time of preconversion was 32.9 mL/min, as compared with 35.6 mL/min at 3 months (p = 0.09), 34.1 mL/min at 6 months (p = 0.63), 34.9 mL/min at 12 months (p = 0.57), and 39.6 mL/min at 24 months after conversion (p = 0.92). Four of 7 patients had increases in their eGFR after conversion. All grafts were functioning at 1 year after conversion. Conclusion While this study was limited by a small number of patients, belatacept conversion stabilized eGFR at all time points in patients with late allograft function due to chronic tacrolimus toxicity, with a trend towards increased eGFR at 3 months. PMID:29854421

  3. A single-centre comparison of the clinical outcomes at 6 months of renal transplant recipients administered Adoport® or Prograf® preparations of tacrolimus

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Andrew; Prowse, Andrew; Newell, Paul; Rowe, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of generic formulations of immunosuppressive drugs in place of brand name drugs offers considerable cost savings. Brand name tacrolimus (Prograf®) came off patent in April 2008. However, published evidence supporting therapeutic equivalence of generic formulations of tacrolimus in solid organ transplantation is lacking. The South West Transplant Centre switched from administering Prograf® to a generic formulation (Adoport®) for de novo transplant recipients in November 2010. This study sought to compare the clinical outcomes of renal transplant recipients administered Prograf® with those receiving Adoport®. Methods Data regarding patient characteristics and clinical outcomes were collected retrospectively for all patients undergoing renal transplantation at the South West Transplant Centre between 8 November 2009 and 8 November 2011 to whom tacrolimus was prescribed. Results A total of 48 patients received Prograf® and 51 received Adoport®. At 6 months, no statistically significant differences were identified in the rates of patient survival, graft survival, acute allograft rejection, delayed graft function, calcineurin inhibitor toxicity or cytomegalovirus infection occurring within the two groups. Conclusions This is the first study to compare the clinical outcomes of patients receiving Adoport® with those receiving brand name tacrolimus. We report comparable clinical outcomes at 6 months in patients receiving either Prograf® or Adoport® from the time of renal transplantation. These early outcome data therefore support the use of Adoport® in place of Prograf® as a potential cost-saving measure. PMID:27818747

  4. Evaluating the efficacy, safety and evolution of renal function with early initiation of everolimus-facilitated tacrolimus reduction in de novo liver transplant recipients: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Nashan, Bjorn; Schemmer, Peter; Braun, Felix; Dworak, Markus; Wimmer, Peter; Schlitt, Hans

    2015-03-26

    Introduction of calcineurin inhibitors had led to improved survival rates in liver transplant recipients. However, long-term use of calcineurin inhibitors is associated with a higher risk of chronic renal failure, neurotoxicity, de novo malignancies, recurrence of hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection and hepatocellular carcinoma. Several studies have shown that everolimus has the potential to provide protection against viral replication, malignancy, and progression of fibrosis, as well as preventing nephrotoxicity by facilitating calcineurin inhibitor reduction without compromising efficacy. The Hephaistos study evaluates the beneficial effects of early initiation of everolimus in de novo liver transplant recipients. Hephaistos is an ongoing 12-month, multi-center, open-label, controlled study aiming to enroll 330 de novo liver transplant recipients from 15 centers across Germany. Patients are randomized in a 1:1 ratio (7-21 days post-transplantation) to receive everolimus (trough levels 3-8 ng/mL) with reduced tacrolimus (trough levels <5 ng/mL), or standard tacrolimus (trough levels 6-10 ng/mL) after entering a run-in period (3-5 days post-transplantation). In the run-in period, patients are treated with induction therapy, mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus, and corticosteroids according to local practice. Randomization is stratified by HCV status and model of end-stage liver disease scores at transplantation. The primary objective of the study is to exhibit superior renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate assessed by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD)-4 formula) with everolimus plus reduced tacrolimus compared to standard tacrolimus at Month 12. Other objectives are: to assess the incidence of treated biopsy-proven acute rejection, graft loss, or death; the incidences of components of the composite efficacy endpoint; renal function via estimated glomerular filtration rate using various formulae (MDRD-4, Nankivell, Cockcroft

  5. [Clinical characteristics of short tear film breakup time (BUT) -type dry eye].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yuji; Yokoi, Norihiko; Higashihara, Hisayo; Inagaki, Kayoko; Sonomura, Yukiko; Komuro, Aoi; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the clinical characteristics and management of short tear film breakup time (BUT) -type dry eye. Clinical background and post-treatment changes of symptoms in 77 patients with short BUT -type dry eye were investigated. Treatment consisted of artificial-tear eye-drop instillation and, if necessary, the addition of a low-density-level steroid, hyaluronic acid, a low-density-level cyclopentolate prepared by ourselves and punctal plugs inserted into the upper and lower lacrimal puncta. There were three times more women than men among the patients, and the peak age of occurrence was in the twenties in the men and in the sixties in the women. Our findings show that visual display terminal (VDT) work, contact lens (CL) wear, and changes in the sex hormones may initiate subjective symptoms. Some patients had simultaneous conjunctivochalasis, allergic conjunctivitis, and meibomian gland dysfunction. Nineteen patients (24.7%) were effectively treated with eye-drop instillation alone. Thirty-seven patients (48.1%) required punctal-plug insertion, which was completely effective in only 8 of them (21.6%). Mainly young men and menopausal women contract short BUT -type dry eye. Changes in sex hormones, VDT work and CL wear may be causal, and the disease cannot be controlled by eyedrop and punctal-plug treatment alone.

  6. Coalescence of a Drop inside another Drop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugundhan, Vivek; Jian, Zhen; Yang, Fan; Li, Erqiang; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur

    2016-11-01

    Coalescence dynamics of a pendent drop sitting inside another drop, has been studied experimentally and in numerical simulations. Using an in-house fabricated composite micro-nozzle, a smaller salt-water drop is introduced inside a larger oil drop which is pendent in a tank containing the same liquid as the inner drop. On touching the surface of outer drop, the inner drop coalesces with the surrounding liquid forming a vortex ring, which grows in time to form a mushroom-like structure. The initial dynamics at the first bridge opening up is quantified using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), while matching the refractive index of the two liquids. The phenomenon is also numerically simulated using the open-source code Gerris. The problem is fully governed by two non-dimensional parameters: the Ohnesorge number and the diameter ratios of the two drops. The validated numerical model is used to better understand the dynamics of the phenomenon. In some cases a coalescence cascade is observed with liquid draining intermittently and the inner drop reducing in size.

  7. Symptomatic Dry Eye and Its Associated Factors: A Study of University Undergraduate Students in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Asiedu, Kofi; Kyei, Samuel; Boampong, Frank; Ocansey, Stephen

    2017-07-01

    To estimate the prevalence and risk factors of symptomatic dry eye disease (DED) among undergraduate students in a Ghanaian university. This cross-sectional study included 700 undergraduate students of the University of Cape Coast, aged 18 to 34 years. Participants completed questionnaires delivered directly to randomly and systematically selected subjects to detect symptomatic dry eye and its predictive factors. Symptomatic dry eye was defined as any reported symptom on the Standard Patient Evaluation Eye Dryness (SPEED) questionnaire reported as often or constant or if any symptom on the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) was reported as most of the time or all of the time. Furthermore, OSDI ≥13 and SPEED ≥6 were used to defined symptomatic dry eye and prevalence were also estimated with these criteria as secondary measures. Current symptoms of dry eye and possible risk factors such as age, gender, current alcohol drinking, use of oral contraceptives, use of computer more than an hour daily, environmental conditions, allergies, and self-medication with over-the-counter eye drops were the main outcome measures. We used logistic regression analysis to examine the associations between dry eye and its predictive factors. Of the 700 participants, 650 completed the questionnaire. The prevalence of symptomatic dry eye was 44.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 40.6%-48.2%). There was a significant association between symptomatic dry eye and discomfort with eyes in windy conditions (χ=110.1; df=4; P<0.001), areas with low humidity (χ=91.6; df=4; P<0.001), and air-conditioned rooms (χ=89.0; df=4; P<0.001). Self-medication with over-the-counter eye drops (OR 4.20; 95% CI, 2.61-6.74; P<0.001), any allergies (OR 2.46; 95% CI, 1.42-4.29; P=0.001), and use of oral contraceptives (OR 4.04; 95% CI, 1.02-16.01; P=0.047) were predictive factors of symptomatic dry eye. Sex was predictive in univariate analysis but was not significantly associated in multivariate analysis. The

  8. The new Drop Tower catapult system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Kampen, Peter; Kaczmarczik, Ulrich; Rath, Hans J.

    2006-07-01

    The Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM) was founded in 1985 as an institute of the University Bremen, which focuses on research on gravitational and space-related phenomena. In 1988, the construction of the "Drop Tower" began. Since then, the eye-catching tower with a height of 146 m and its characteristic glass roof has become the emblem of the technology centre in Bremen. The Drop Tower Bremen provides a facility for experiments under conditions of weightlessness. Items are considered weightless, when they are in "free fall", i.e. moving without propulsion within the gravity field of the earth. The height of the tower limits the simple "free fall" experiment period to max. 4.74 s. With the inauguration of the catapult system in December 2004, the ZARM is entering a new dimension. This world novelty will meet scientists' demands of extending the experiment period up to 9.5 s. Since turning the first sod on May 3rd, 1988, the later installation of the catapult system has been taken into account by building the necessary chamber under the tower. The catapult system is located in a chamber 10 m below the base of the tower. This chamber is almost completely occupied by 12 huge pressure tanks. These tanks are placed around the elongation of the vacuum chamber of the drop tube. In its centre there is the pneumatic piston that accelerates the drop capsule by the pressure difference between the vacuum inside the drop tube and the pressure inside the tanks. The acceleration level is adjusted by means of a servo hydraulic breaking system controlling the piston velocity. After only a quarter of a second the drop capsule achieves its lift-off speed of 175 km/h. With this exact speed, the capsule will rise up to the top of the tower and afterwards fall down again into the deceleration unit which has been moved under the drop tube in the meantime. The scientific advantages of the doubled experiment time are obvious: during almost 10 s of high

  9. Dry eye syndrome among computer users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajta, Aurora; Turkoanje, Daniela; Malaescu, Iosif; Marin, Catalin-Nicolae; Koos, Marie-Jeanne; Jelicic, Biljana; Milutinovic, Vuk

    2015-12-01

    Dry eye syndrome is characterized by eye irritation due to changes of the tear film. Symptoms include itching, foreign body sensations, mucous discharge and transitory vision blurring. Less occurring symptoms include photophobia and eye tiredness. Aim of the work was to determine the quality of the tear film and ocular dryness potential risk in persons who spend more than 8 hours using computers and possible correlations between severity of symptoms (dry eyes symptoms anamnesis) and clinical signs assessed by: Schirmer test I, TBUT (Tears break-up time), TFT (Tear ferning test). The results show that subjects using computer have significantly shorter TBUT (less than 5 s for 56 % of subjects and less than 10 s for 37 % of subjects), TFT type II/III in 50 % of subjects and type III 31% of subjects was found when compared to computer non users (TFT type I and II was present in 85,71% of subjects). Visual display terminal use, more than 8 hours daily, has been identified as a significant risk factor for dry eye. It's been advised to all persons who spend substantial time using computers to use artificial tears drops in order to minimize the symptoms of dry eyes syndrome and prevents serious complications.

  10. Safety and efficacy of the switch to generic mycophenolate mofetil and tacrolimus in heart transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Söderlund, Carl; Rådegran, Göran

    2015-07-01

    Generic immunosuppressants may offer economic advantages, but their use is still controversial. At our center, 55 heart transplant patients were switched from CellCept(®) to Myfenax Teva(®) (MT) (n = 51, 18% female, 8.1 ± 6.6 yr post-transplantation) and/or Prograf(®) to Tacrolimus Sandoz(®) (TS) (n = 17, 41% female, 6.6 ± 5.8 yr post-transplantation). We conducted an acute monitoring and a retrospective follow-up with regard to safety and efficacy. Acute cellular rejections (ACRs) on endomyocardial biopsies (EMBs) four wk after the MT switch were specifically compared to a matched retrospective control group. Tacrolimus C0 levels (TS switch) as well as hemoglobin, leukocytes, and thrombocytes (MT switch) did not change (p = NS) during the three wk after each respective switch (8.7 ± 2.9 vs. 8.4 ± 1.9 μg/L, 129.1 ± 12.6 vs. 130.1 ± 12.8 g/L, 6.3 vs. 6.2 × 10(9) /L, and 217.4 ± 56.6 vs. 219.3 ± 61.8 × 10(9) /L, respectively). 0% of the EMBs in the MT switch vs. 3% of the EMBs in the control group showed ACR>grade 1R (p = NS). After six months, survival was 96% (MT switch) and 100% (TS switch), and the frequency of severe ACR was low. Safety parameters measured at the next annual follow-up were also stable following each switch. Switching to MT and/or TS several years after heart transplantation appeared safe in the short-term perspective, showing no detectable changes in tacrolimus C0 levels, safety or efficacy, during an average follow-up of six months. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Eye temperature and heart rate variability of calves disbudded with or without local anaesthetic.

    PubMed

    Stewart, M; Stafford, K J; Dowling, S K; Schaefer, A L; Webster, J R

    2008-03-18

    The possibility that pain can be detected from changes in eye temperature and heart rate variability (HRV) during disbudding was examined in thirty calves, randomly assigned to four treatments: 1) sham handling (control), 2) local anaesthetic (LA, cornual nerve injection) and sham disbudded, 3) sham LA and disbudded, 4) LA and disbudded. During a 40 min sampling period, maximum eye temperature, behavior and HRV parameters were recorded continuously. One week later, twelve disbudded calves were injected with adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) or saline and maximum eye temperature was recorded. There was a rapid drop in eye temperature during the 5 min following disbudding without LA (P<0.05). Eye temperature then increased and was higher than baseline over the remaining sampling period following both disbudding procedures (P<0.001), a response which could not be explained by increased physical activity LA increased eye temperature prior to disbudding (P<0.001). Heart rate increased (P<0.001) during the 5 min following disbudding with and without LA, however, LF/HF ratio only increased during this time (P<0.01) following disbudding without LA. Eye temperature did not change following ACTH, suggesting that hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) activity is not responsible for the changes in eye temperature following disbudding. The increase in LF/HF ratio following disbudding without LA suggests an acute sympathetic response to pain, which could be responsible for the drop in eye temperature via vasoconstriction. HRV and eye temperature together may be a useful non-invasive and more immediate index of pain than HPA activity alone.

  12. Novel gastroretentive sustained-release tablet of tacrolimus based on self-microemulsifying mixture: in vitro evaluation and in vivo bioavailability test.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-ping; Gan, Yong; Zhang, Xin-xin

    2011-10-01

    To develop a novel gastroretentive drug delivery system based on a self-microemulsifying (SME) lipid mixture for improving the oral absorption of the immunosuppressant tacrolimus. Liquid SME mixture, composed of Cremophor RH40 and monocaprylin glycerate, was blended with polyethylene oxide, chitosan, polyvinylpyrrolidone and mannitol, and then transformed into tablets via granulation, with ethanol as the wetting agent. The tablets were characterized in respect of swelling, bioadhesive and SME properties. In vitro dissolution was conducted using an HCl buffer at pH 1.2. Oral bioavailability of the tablets was examined in fasted beagle dogs. The tablet could expand to 13.5 mm in diameter and 15 mm in thickness during the initial 20 min of contact with the HCl buffer at pH 1.2. The bioadhesive strength was as high as 0.98±0.06 N/cm(2). The SME gastroretentive sustained-release tablets preserved the SME capability of the liquid SME formations under transmission electron microscope. The drug-release curve was fit to the zero-order release model, which was helpful in reducing fluctuations in blood concentration. Compared with the commercially available capsules of tacrolimus, the relative bioavailability of the SME gastroretentive sustained-release tablets was 553.4%±353.8%. SME gastroretentive sustained-release tablets can enhance the oral bioavailability of tacrolimus with poor solubility and a narrow absorption window.

  13. A pilot study: the efficacy of virgin coconut oil as ocular rewetting agent on rabbit eyes.

    PubMed

    Mutalib, Haliza Abdul; Kaur, Sharanjeet; Ghazali, Ahmad Rohi; Chinn Hooi, Ng; Safie, Nor Hasanah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. An open-label pilot study of virgin coconut oil (VCO) was conducted to determine the safety of the agent as ocular rewetting eye drops on rabbits. Methods. Efficacy of the VCO was assessed by measuring NIBUT, anterior eye assessment, corneal staining, pH, and Schirmer value before instillation and at 30 min, 60 min, and two weeks after instillation. Friedman test was used to analyse any changes in all the measurable variables over the period of time. Results. Only conjunctival redness with instillation of saline agent showed significant difference over the period of time (P < 0.05). However, further statistical analysis had shown no significant difference at 30 min, 60 min, and two weeks compared to initial measurement (P > 0.05). There were no changes in the NIBUT, limbal redness, palpebral conjunctiva redness, corneal staining, pH, and Schirmer value over the period of time for each agent (P > 0.05). Conclusion. VCO acts as safe rewetting eye drops as it has shown no significant difference in the measurable parameter compared to commercial brand eye drops and saline. These study data suggest that VCO is safe to be used as ocular rewetting agent on human being.

  14. A Pilot Study: The Efficacy of Virgin Coconut Oil as Ocular Rewetting Agent on Rabbit Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Mutalib, Haliza Abdul; Kaur, Sharanjeet; Ghazali, Ahmad Rohi; Chinn Hooi, Ng; Safie, Nor Hasanah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. An open-label pilot study of virgin coconut oil (VCO) was conducted to determine the safety of the agent as ocular rewetting eye drops on rabbits. Methods. Efficacy of the VCO was assessed by measuring NIBUT, anterior eye assessment, corneal staining, pH, and Schirmer value before instillation and at 30 min, 60 min, and two weeks after instillation. Friedman test was used to analyse any changes in all the measurable variables over the period of time. Results. Only conjunctival redness with instillation of saline agent showed significant difference over the period of time (P < 0.05). However, further statistical analysis had shown no significant difference at 30 min, 60 min, and two weeks compared to initial measurement (P > 0.05). There were no changes in the NIBUT, limbal redness, palpebral conjunctiva redness, corneal staining, pH, and Schirmer value over the period of time for each agent (P > 0.05). Conclusion. VCO acts as safe rewetting eye drops as it has shown no significant difference in the measurable parameter compared to commercial brand eye drops and saline. These study data suggest that VCO is safe to be used as ocular rewetting agent on human being. PMID:25802534

  15. Tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil after nonmyeloablative matched-sibling donor allogeneic stem-cell transplantations conditioned with fludarabine and low-dose total body irradiation.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Yago; Patton, Nigel; Hawkins, Timothy; Spearing, Ruth; Bearman, Scott I; Jones, Roy B; Shpall, Elizabeth J; Rabinovitch, Rachel; Zeng, Chan; Barón, Anna; McSweeney, Peter A

    2006-02-01

    We evaluated tacrolimus/mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis after a nonmyeloablative stem cell transplantation (NST) from a matched sibling donor (MSD). Thirty-two patients (median age, 57 years) with advanced hematologic malignancies, who were poor candidates for a conventional myeloablative transplantation, received fludarabine (30 mg/m(2), day -4 to day -2), total-body irradiation (TBI) (200 cGy, day 0), infusion of donor peripheral blood progenitor cells (day 0), oral tacrolimus 0.06 mg/kg twice daily (from day 3), and oral MMF at 15 mg/kg twice daily (days 0-+27). Tacrolimus was tapered from day +100 to day +180 in those patients with indolent malignancies (n = 25), and from day +35 to day +56 in those with aggressive tumors (n = 7). Regimen toxicities and myelosuppression were mild, allowing 75% of patients to have entirely outpatient transplantations. One patient (3%) experienced a nonfatal graft rejection. Rates of grades II-IV and III-IV acute GVHD were 15.6% and 3%, respectively. Acute GVHD was diagnosed at median day +78 (range, days +31-+84). Extensive chronic GVHD was observed in 10 of 24 evaluable patients (41.6%) at a median onset of day +198 (range, days +128-+277), either spontaneously (n = 5) or elicited after tumor progression (n = 5). Five patients experienced transplantation-related mortality (TRM) (15.6%) from either acute GVHD-related multiorgan failure (MOF) (n = 3) or infectious complications (n = 2). At median follow-up of 19 months (range, 2-41 months), the overall survival, progression-free survival, and disease-free survival rates are 62.5%, 50%, and 40%, respectively. In conclusion, the use of tacrolimus/MMF after MSD NST is associated with encouraging rates of GVHD control.

  16. Topical Tacrolimus and Periodontal Therapy in the Management of a Case of Oral Chronic GVHD Characterized by Specific Gingival Localization

    PubMed Central

    Conrotto, Davide; Broccoletti, Roberto; Carcieri, Paola; Giaccone, Luisa; Arduino, Paolo G.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Chronic graft versus host disease (cGVHD) is a complication following bone marrow transplantation. The oral lesions are difficult to control with a systemic pharmacological therapy. Case Description. A 63-year-old female patient, who underwent an allogeniec transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia, developed a chronic oral and cutaneous GVHD. The patient was treated with topical tacrolimus 0.1%, twice daily for two months, and underwent a protocol of oral hygiene characterized by 3 appointments of scaling, root planning, and daily oral hygiene instructions. The patient showed marked resolution of gingival lesions and a significant improvement of related pain and gingival inflammatory indexes. Clinical Implications. This case report suggests that treatment with topical tacrolimus and professional oral hygiene may be helpful in the management of chronic oral GVHD with severe gingival involvement. PMID:24639902

  17. Topical tacrolimus and periodontal therapy in the management of a case of oral chronic GVHD characterized by specific gingival localization.

    PubMed

    Conrotto, Davide; Broccoletti, Roberto; Carcieri, Paola; Giaccone, Luisa; Arduino, Paolo G

    2014-01-01

    Background. Chronic graft versus host disease (cGVHD) is a complication following bone marrow transplantation. The oral lesions are difficult to control with a systemic pharmacological therapy. Case Description. A 63-year-old female patient, who underwent an allogeniec transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia, developed a chronic oral and cutaneous GVHD. The patient was treated with topical tacrolimus 0.1%, twice daily for two months, and underwent a protocol of oral hygiene characterized by 3 appointments of scaling, root planning, and daily oral hygiene instructions. The patient showed marked resolution of gingival lesions and a significant improvement of related pain and gingival inflammatory indexes. Clinical Implications. This case report suggests that treatment with topical tacrolimus and professional oral hygiene may be helpful in the management of chronic oral GVHD with severe gingival involvement.

  18. Cord blood serum-based eye drops: the impact of donor haematological and obstetric factors on the variability of epidermal growth factor levels

    PubMed Central

    Versura, Piera; Buzzi, Marina; Giannaccare, Giuseppe; Grillini, Marco; Terzi, Adriana; Pagliaro, Pasqualepaolo; Campos, Emilio C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cord blood serum (CBS)-based eye drops are successfully used in corneal epithelial wound healing and are prepared to supply a known amount of epidermal growth factor (EGF). Product standardisation includes expensive EGF dosage in all cord blood (CB) units. The influence of donor obstetric and haematological characteristics on EGF content was evaluated, to exclude unsuitable CBS and pre-select those CB units able to provide the correct EGF supply for healing corneal wounds. Materials and methods Data were retrospectively collected from 135 donors included in the Emilia Romagna Cord Blood Bank records. Obstetric characteristics, parity and gestational age of the mother, sex, birth weight and Apgar score of the neonate, placental weight, duration of labour and mode of delivery were considered. Haematological characteristics, CD34+ cell number, and total nucleated cell, white blood cell and platelet counts were recorded. EGF content in CB units was estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Statistical evaluation was performed by Mann-Whitney unpaired and Student’s t tests. Correlations between variables were evaluated by using Pearson’s (r) or Spearman’s (ρ) correlation coefficients. Results EGF content was significantly higher in CBS from donors aged <30 years and after vaginal deliveries as compared with scheduled Caesarean sections (1,386±580 vs 1,106±391 pg/mL; P=0.002). EGF content was significantly correlated with duration of labour (r=0.45; P=0.0001), number of CD34+ cells/mL (r=0.3; P=0.002) particularly in vaginal deliveries (r=0.36; P=0.003), mother’s age (−0.25; P=0.005), neonate’s birth weight (r=0.27; P=0.005), and total nucleated cell (r=0.25; P=0.006), white cell (r=0.29; P=0.001) and platelet (r=0.24; P=0.009) counts. No significant correlations were found between EGF content and parity, gestational age, placental weight, neonate’s sex or Apgar scores. Discussion EGF levels are higher in CB units from younger mothers

  19. Management of digital eye strain.

    PubMed

    Coles-Brennan, Chantal; Sulley, Anna; Young, Graeme

    2018-05-23

    Digital eye strain, an emerging public health issue, is a condition characterised by visual disturbance and/or ocular discomfort related to the use of digital devices and resulting from a range of stresses on the ocular environment. This review aims to provide an overview of the extensive literature on digital eye strain research with particular reference to the clinical management of symptoms. As many as 90 per cent of digital device users experience symptoms of digital eye strain. Many studies suggest that the following factors are associated with digital eye strain: uncorrected refractive error (including presbyopia), accommodative and vergence anomalies, altered blinking pattern (reduced rate and incomplete blinking), excessive exposure to intense light, closer working distance, and smaller font size. Since a symptom may be caused by one or more factors, a holistic approach should be adopted. The following management strategies have been suggested: (i) appropriate correction of refractive error, including astigmatism and presbyopia; (ii) management of vergence anomalies, with the aim of inducing or leaving a small amount of heterophoria (~1.5 Δ Exo); (iii) blinking exercise/training to maintain normal blinking pattern; (iv) use of lubricating eye drops (artificial tears) to help alleviate dry eye-related symptoms; (v) contact lenses with enhanced comfort, particularly at end-of-day and in challenging environments; (vi) prescription of colour filters in all vision correction options, especially blue light-absorbing filters; and (vii) management of accommodative anomalies. Prevention is the main strategy for management of digital eye strain, which involves: (i) ensuring an ergonomic work environment and practice (through patient education and the implementation of ergonomic workplace policies); and (ii) visual examination and eye care to treat visual disorders. Special consideration is needed for people at a high risk of digital eye strain, such as computer

  20. Novel gastroretentive sustained-release tablet of tacrolimus based on self-microemulsifying mixture: in vitro evaluation and in vivo bioavailability test

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan-ping; Gan, Yong; Zhang, Xin-xin

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To develop a novel gastroretentive drug delivery system based on a self-microemulsifying (SME) lipid mixture for improving the oral absorption of the immunosuppressant tacrolimus. Methods: Liquid SME mixture, composed of Cremophor RH40 and monocaprylin glycerate, was blended with polyethylene oxide, chitosan, polyvinylpyrrolidone and mannitol, and then transformed into tablets via granulation, with ethanol as the wetting agent. The tablets were characterized in respect of swelling, bioadhesive and SME properties. In vitro dissolution was conducted using an HCl buffer at pH 1.2. Oral bioavailability of the tablets was examined in fasted beagle dogs. Results: The tablet could expand to 13.5 mm in diameter and 15 mm in thickness during the initial 20 min of contact with the HCl buffer at pH 1.2. The bioadhesive strength was as high as 0.98±0.06 N/cm2. The SME gastroretentive sustained-release tablets preserved the SME capability of the liquid SME formations under transmission electron microscope. The drug-release curve was fit to the zero-order release model, which was helpful in reducing fluctuations in blood concentration. Compared with the commercially available capsules of tacrolimus, the relative bioavailability of the SME gastroretentive sustained-release tablets was 553.4%±353.8%. Conclusion: SME gastroretentive sustained-release tablets can enhance the oral bioavailability of tacrolimus with poor solubility and a narrow absorption window. PMID:21927013

  1. Specialized moisture retention eyewear for evaporative dry eye.

    PubMed

    Waduthantri, Samanthila; Tan, Chien Hua; Fong, Yee Wei; Tong, Louis

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the suitablity of commercially available moisture retention eyewear for treating evaporative dry eye. Eleven patients with evaporative dry eyes were prescibed moisture retention eyewear for 3 months in addition to regular lubricant eye drops. Frequency and severity of dry eye symptoms, corneal fluorescein staining and tear break up time (TBUT) were evaluated at baseline and 3-month post-treatment. Main outcome measure was global symptom score (based on severity and frequency of dry eye symptoms on a visual analog scale) and secondary outcomes were changes in sectoral corneal fluorescein staining and tear break up time (TBUT) from pre-treatment level. There was a significant improvement in dry eye symptoms after using moisture retention eyewear for 3 months (p < 0.05). Corneal fluorescein staining in all five zones of the cornea in both eyes improved significantly (p < 0.05). There was no significant improvement in TBUT. Patients used ocular lubricants less frequently (p < 0.05) compared to the commencement of the study. Patients found moisture retention eyewear to be useful in relieving dry eye symptoms in windy, air-conditioned environments or when doing vision-related daily tasks. This study shows that moisture retention eyewear might be a valuable adjunct in management of evaporative dry eye and this new design of commercially available eyewear could have a good acceptability rate.

  2. A comparison of the extended-release and standard-release formulations of tacrolimus in de novo kidney transplant recipients: a 12-month outcome study.

    PubMed

    Fanous, Helen; Zheng, Rebecca; Campbell, Carolyn; Huang, Michael; Nash, Michelle M; Rapi, Lindita; Zaltzman, Jeffrey S; Prasad, G V Ramesh

    2013-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited comparative data are available on the outcomes between extended-release and standard-release tacrolimus when used de novo in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). METHODS: We identified KTRs transplanted at our institution during 2009-10 routinely prescribed extended-release tacrolimus and compared them with those transplanted during 2008-09 prescribed standard-release tacrolimus. Graft function (eGFR by MDRD-7 equation) at 12 months post-transplant (primary outcome); new-onset diabetes and other cardiovascular risk factors, BK viremia incidence, acute rejection, and graft survival to 12 months (secondary outcomes) were compared by intent-to-treat analysis. Time-to-steady-state concentration and number of dose adjustments required to attain steady state were recorded. RESULTS: There were no important demographic differences between the extended-release (N = 106) and standard-release (N = 95) cohorts. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at 12 months was similar (58.8 ± 17 versus 59.2 ± 18 mL/min/1.73 m(2), P = 0.307). There was no difference in new-onset diabetes (17 versus 20%, P = 0.581), BK viremia (10 versus 7%, P = 0.450), acute rejection (7 versus 16%, P = 0.067) or graft survival (97 versus 95%, P = 0.301). Time-to-steady state was similar (9.2 ± 1.1 versus 8.1 ± 4.7 days, P = 0.490) although extended-release patients required fewer adjustments to attain steady state (1.2 ± 1.7 [0-8] versus 1.7 ± 1.5 [0-7], P = 0.030) but a similar dose (7.2 ± 2.4 [2-17] versus 7 ± 2.7 [2-16] mg/day, P = 0.697). CONCLUSION: De novo KTRs prescribed extended-release or standard-release tacrolimus demonstrate similar 12-month outcomes.

  3. Effect of diquafosol ophthalmic solution on the optical quality of the eyes in patients with aqueous-deficient dry eye.

    PubMed

    Koh, Shizuka; Maeda, Naoyuki; Ikeda, Chikako; Oie, Yoshinori; Soma, Takeshi; Tsujikawa, Motokazu; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Nishida, Kohji

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the short- and long-term effects of diquafosol ophthalmic solution on the optical quality of the eyes in patients with aqueous-deficient dry eye. Sixteen eyes in 16 patients with mild or moderate aqueous-deficient dry eye were treated with 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution. Ocular higher-order aberrations (HOAs) were measured with a wavefront sensor before and at 15 min after diquafosol instillation at the baseline visit and at 4 weeks after treatment initiation. Dry eye symptoms, tear break-up time (BUT), corneal/conjunctival fluorescein staining and Schirmer's test were also evaluated before and after treatment with diquafosol. Treatment with diquafosol ophthalmic solution significantly improved dry eye symptoms, corneal staining and BUT. Compared with mean total HOAs at baseline (0.180 ± 0.06 μm), those at 4 weeks after treatment significantly decreased (0.148 ± 0.039 μm; p = 0.035), whereas those 15 min after diquafosol instillation at the baseline visit did not change significantly (0.170 ± 0.049 μm; p = 0.279). Although no significant change in HOAs was observed as a short-term effect of a single-drop instillation of diquafosol, long-term use of diquafosol to treat aqueous-deficient dry eye reduced HOAs as well as improved corneal epithelial damage and tear film stability. © 2014 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Comparison of preservative-free ketotifen fumarate and preserved olopatadine hydrochloride eye drops in the treatment of moderate to severe seasonal allergic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Mortemousque, B; Bourcier, T; Khairallah, M; Messaoud, R; Brignole-Baudouin, F; Renault, D; Rebika, H; Brémond-Gignac, D

    2014-01-01

    To compare preservative-free ketotifen 0.025% ophthalmic solution to olopatadine 0.1% ophthalmic solution in with the treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC) in clinical practice. This was a comparative, randomised, investigator-masked, pilot clinical study in adult patients with documented history of SAC and presenting with moderate to severe itching and conjunctival hyperemia. Eligible patients initiated either ketotifen or olopatadine treatment at a dose of one drop twice daily for 28days. The resolution of ocular signs and symptoms was assessed on day 7 and day 28. Itching was also assessed within 15minutes following the first instillation (day 0). Conjunctival impression cytology was performed at each visit to assess the evolution of ICAM-1 expression (day 0, 7 and 28). Seventy-five patients were randomised (ketotifen: 38 patients; olopatadine: 37 patients). At day 28, the composite score for primary criteria (itching, tearing, and conjunctival hyperemia) improved from 6.8±1.2 to 0.9±1.0 in the Ketotifen group, without statistically significant difference between treatment groups (P=0.67). There was no relevant difference between treatment groups in other efficacy parameters, except a trend for a more rapid resolution of conjunctival hyperemia in the Ketotifen group. Both drugs were well tolerated, with a trend for a better tolerability reported by patients on ketotifen compared to those on olopatadine at day 7 (P=0.054). A rapid and comparable improvement in SAC was achieved after 28days of treatment with both preservative-free ketotifen and preserved olopatadine ophthalmic solutions, with a slightly better ocular tolerance with unpreserved ketotifen 0.025% eye drops. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  5. [Application of Fourier amplitude sensitivity test in Chinese healthy volunteer population pharmacokinetic model of tacrolimus].

    PubMed

    Guan, Zheng; Zhang, Guan-min; Ma, Ping; Liu, Li-hong; Zhou, Tian-yan; Lu, Wei

    2010-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated the influence of different variance from each of the parameters on the output of tacrolimus population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) model in Chinese healthy volunteers, using Fourier amplitude sensitivity test (FAST). Besides, we estimated the index of sensitivity within whole course of blood sampling, designed different sampling times, and evaluated the quality of parameters' and the efficiency of prediction. It was observed that besides CL1/F, the index of sensitivity for all of the other four parameters (V1/F, V2/F, CL2/F and k(a)) in tacrolimus PopPK model showed relatively high level and changed fast with the time passing. With the increase of the variance of k(a), its indices of sensitivity increased obviously, associated with significant decrease in sensitivity index for the other parameters, and obvious change in peak time as well. According to the simulation of NONMEM and the comparison among different fitting results, we found that the sampling time points designed according to FAST surpassed the other time points. It suggests that FAST can access the sensitivities of model parameters effectively, and assist the design of clinical sampling times and the construction of PopPK model.

  6. Drop jumping. II. The influence of dropping height on the biomechanics of drop jumping.

    PubMed

    Bobbert, M F; Huijing, P A; van Ingen Schenau, G J

    1987-08-01

    In the literature, athletes preparing for explosive activities are recommended to include drop jumping in their training programs. For the execution of drop jumps, different techniques and different dropping heights can be used. This study was designed to investigate for the performance of bounce drop jumps the influence of dropping height on the biomechanics of the jumps. Six subjects executed bounce drop jumps from heights of 20 cm (designated here as DJ20), 40 cm (designated here as DJ40), and 60 cm (designated here as DJ60). During jumping, they were filmed, and ground reaction forces were recorded. The results of a biomechanical analysis show no difference between DJ20 and DJ40 in mechanical output about the joints during the push-off phase. Peak values of moment and power output about the ankles during the push-off phase were found to be smaller in DJ60 than in DJ40 (DJ20 = DJ60). The amplitude of joint reaction forces increased with dropping height. During DJ60, the net joint reaction forces showed a sharp peak on the instant that the heels came down on the ground. Based on the results, researchers are advised to limit dropping height to 20 or 40 cm when investigating training effects of the execution of bounce drop jumps.

  7. A Crosslinked HA-Based Hydrogel Ameliorates Dry Eye Symptoms in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David L.; Mann, Brenda K.

    2013-01-01

    Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, commonly referred to as dry eye or KCS, can affect both humans and dogs. The standard of care in treating KCS typically includes daily administration of eye drops to either stimulate tear production or to hydrate and lubricate the corneal surface. Lubricating eye drops are often applied four to six times daily for the life of the patient. In order to reduce this dosing regimen yet still provides sufficient hydration and lubrication, we have developed a crosslinked hydrogel based on a modified, thiolated hyaluronic acid (HA), xCMHA-S. This xCMHA-S gel was found to have different viscosity and rheologic behavior than solutions of noncrosslinked HA. The gel was also able to increase tear breakup time in rabbits, indicating a stabilization of the tear film. Further, in a preliminary clinical study of dogs with KCS, the gel significantly reduced the symptoms associated with KCS within two weeks while only being applied twice daily. The reduction of symptoms combined with the low dosing regimen indicates that this gel may lead to both improved patient health and owner compliance in applying the treatment. PMID:23840213

  8. Voltage Drop in a Ferroelectric Single Layer Capacitor by Retarded Domain Nucleation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu Jin; Park, Hyeon Woo; Hyun, Seung Dam; Kim, Han Joon; Kim, Keum Do; Lee, Young Hwan; Moon, Taehwan; Lee, Yong Bin; Park, Min Hyuk; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2017-12-13

    Ferroelectric (FE) capacitor is a critical electric component in microelectronic devices. Among many of its intriguing properties, the recent finding of voltage drop (V-drop) across the FE capacitor while the positive charges flow in is especially eye-catching. This finding was claimed to be direct evidence that the FE capacitor is in negative capacitance (NC) state, which must be useful for (infinitely) high capacitance and ultralow voltage operation of field-effect transistors. Nonetheless, the NC state corresponds to the maximum energy state of the FE material, so it has been widely accepted in the community that the material alleviates that state by forming ferroelectric domains. This work reports a similar V-drop effect from the 150 nm thick epitaxial BaTiO 3 ferroelectric thin film, but the interpretation was completely disparate; the V-drop can be precisely simulated by the reverse domain nucleation and propagation of which charge effect cannot be fully compensated for by the supplied charge from the external charge source. The disappearance of the V-drop effect was also observed by repeated FE switching only up to 10 cycles, which can hardly be explained by the involvement of the NC effect. The retained reverse domain nuclei even after the subsequent poling can explain such behavior.

  9. Granulosis rubra nasi: a rare condition treated successfully with topical tacrolimus.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Piyush; Gosai, Anubhav; Mondal, Ashim Kumar; Lal, Niharika Ranjan; Gharami, Ramesh Chandra

    2012-01-02

    A 20 years-old girl presented with multiple asymptomatic reddish vesicles on face for four years. It used to get worse in summer and was associated with localized hyperhidrosis. The lesions were notable for disappearance on diascopy. Histopathology from the vesicle showed mononuclear cell infiltration in the upper dermis, especially around eccrine sweat apparatus, along with dilatation of superficial capillaries and lymphatics. Based on clinical presentation and histopathology, diagnosis of Granulosis rubra nasi (GRN) was made. GRN usually resolves at puberty; however, rarely it may persist in adulthood. We here report a case of GRN having lesions persisting in adulthood. Moreover, she showed excellent response to topical tacrolimus, a finding not observed in literature.

  10. Traumatic Brain Injury Causes a Tacrolimus-Sensitive Increase in Non-Convulsive Seizures in a Rat Model of Post-Traumatic Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Campbell, John N; Gandhi, Anandh; Singh, Baljinderjit; Churn, Severn B

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is a significant but potentially preventable complication of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Previous research in animal models of acquired epilepsy has implicated the calcium-sensitive phosphatase, calcineurin. In addition, our lab recently found that calcineurin activity in the rat hippocampus increases acutely after lateral TBI. Here we use a calcineurin inhibitor test whether an acute increase in calcineurin activity is necessary for the development of late post-traumatic seizures. Adult rats were administered the calcineurin inhibitor Tacrolimus (5mg/kg; i.p.) 1 hour after lateral fluid percussion TBI and then monitored by video-electrocorticography (video-ECoG) for spontaneous seizure activity 5 weeks or 33 weeks later. At 5 weeks post-TBI, we observed epileptiform activity on the video-ECoG of brain injured rats but no seizures. By 33 weeks post-TBI though, nearly all injured rats exhibited spontaneous seizures, including convulsive seizures which were infrequent but lasted minutes (18% of injured rats), and non-convulsive seizures which were frequent but lasted tens of seconds (94% of injured rats). We also identified non-convulsive seizures in a smaller subset of control and sham TBI rats (56%), reminiscent of idiopathic seizures described in other rats strains. Non-convulsive seizures in the brain injured rats, however, were four-times more frequent and two-times longer lasting than in their uninjured littermates. Interestingly, rats administered Tacrolimus acutely after TBI showed significantly fewer non-convulsive seizures than untreated rats, but a similar degree of cortical atrophy. The data thus indicate that administration of Tacrolimus acutely after TBI suppressed non-convulsive seizures months later.

  11. Mechanisms and management of dry eye in cataract surgery patients.

    PubMed

    Sutu, Christine; Fukuoka, Hideki; Afshari, Natalie A

    2016-01-01

    To provide a summary of the mechanisms that may cause dry eye after cataract surgery and discuss available and upcoming treatment modalities. Development or worsening of dry eye symptoms after cataract surgery is multifactorial with corneal nerve transection, inflammation, goblet cell loss, and meibomian gland dysfunction commonly cited as underlying disorders. With increasing awareness of the prevalence of dry eye disease, current surgical techniques are being analyzed for their contribution to the issue. Although many classic interventions, such as artificial tears and anti-inflammatory drops, remain first-line treatment options, they may not adequately address abnormalities of the tear film. The trend has been to create new drugs and technologies that target meibomian gland deficiencies and restore goblet cell numbers. Therapy for postoperative dry eye symptoms should be determined based on symptom severity and which underlying cause is most prominent at a given time. Patients with high-level risk factors for dry eye should be evaluated preoperatively to determine whether they have preexisting dry eye disease or if they are susceptible to developing disease after surgery.

  12. Green synthesized gold nanoparticles decorated graphene oxide for sensitive determination of chloramphenicol in milk, powdered milk, honey and eye drops.

    PubMed

    Karthik, R; Govindasamy, Mani; Chen, Shen-Ming; Mani, Veerappan; Lou, Bih-Show; Devasenathipathy, Rajkumar; Hou, Yu-Shen; Elangovan, A

    2016-08-01

    A simple and rapid green synthesis using Bischofia javanica Blume leaves as reducing agent was developed for the preparation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). AuNPs decorated graphene oxide (AuNPs/GO) was prepared and employed for the sensitive amperometric determination of chloramphenicol. The green biosynthesis requires less than 40s to reduce gold salts to AuNPs. The formations of AuNPs and AuNPs/GO were evaluated by scanning electron and atomic force microscopies, UV-Visible and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction studies, and electrochemical methods. AuNPs/GO composite film modified electrode was fabricated and shown excellent electrocatalytic ability towards chloramphenicol. Under optimal conditions, the amperometric sensing platform has delivered wide linear range of 1.5-2.95μM, low detection limit of 0.25μM and high sensitivity of 3.81μAμM(-1)cm(-2). The developed sensor exhibited good repeatability and reproducibility, anti-interference ability and long-term storage stability. Practical feasibility of the sensor has been demonstrated in food samples (milk, powdered milk and honey) and pharmaceutical sample (eye drops). The green synthesized AuNPs/GO composite has great potential for analysis of food samples in food safety measures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Perceptions of eye health in schools in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Khabir; Khan, Mohammad Aman; Khan, Mohammad Daud; Qureshi, Mohammad Babar; Chaudhry, Tanveer Anjum; Gilbert, Clare

    2006-01-01

    Background Research exploring children's and their teachers' perceptions of eye health is lacking. This paper reports for the first time on perceptions of primary schoolchildren and their teachers of healthy and diseased eyes, things that keep eyes healthy and damage them, and what actions to be taken in case of an eye injury. Methods Using draw and write technique, 160 boys and girls (9–12 years old) attending four primary schools in Abbottabad district, northern Pakistan, were invited to draw pictures in response to a set of semi-structured questions and then label them. Sixteen teachers who were currently teaching the selected students were interviewed one-on-one. Results Analysis of text accompanying 800 drawings and of the interview scripts revealed that most children and teachers perceived healthy eyes to be those which could see well, and diseased eyes to be those which have redness, watering, dirty discharge, pain, and itching; or those which have "weak eyesight" and blindness. Among things that students and teachers thought damage the eyes included sun, television, and sharp pointed objects, particularly pencils. Teachers noted that children with eye problems "have difficulty seeing the blackboard well", "screw up their eyes", and "hold their books too close". Conclusion We conclude that schoolchildren and their teachers had a good knowledge of eye health, but many of them had serious misconceptions e.g., use of kohl, medicines and eye drops keeps eyes healthy. Kohl is an important source of lead and can reduce children's intelligence even at low blood levels. Health education in schools must take into account children's existing knowledge of and misconceptions about various aspects of eye health. Such steps if taken could improve the relevance of eye health education to schoolchildren. PMID:16512897

  14. Perceptions of eye health in schools in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Khabir; Khan, Mohammad Aman; Khan, Mohammad Daud; Qureshi, Mohammad Babar; Chaudhry, Tanveer Anjum; Gilbert, Clare

    2006-03-02

    Research exploring children's and their teachers' perceptions of eye health is lacking. This paper reports for the first time on perceptions of primary schoolchildren and their teachers of healthy and diseased eyes, things that keep eyes healthy and damage them, and what actions to be taken in case of an eye injury. Using draw and write technique, 160 boys and girls (9-12 years old) attending four primary schools in Abbottabad district, northern Pakistan, were invited to draw pictures in response to a set of semi-structured questions and then label them. Sixteen teachers who were currently teaching the selected students were interviewed one-on-one. Analysis of text accompanying 800 drawings and of the interview scripts revealed that most children and teachers perceived healthy eyes to be those which could see well, and diseased eyes to be those which have redness, watering, dirty discharge, pain, and itching; or those which have "weak eyesight" and blindness. Among things that students and teachers thought damage the eyes included sun, television, and sharp pointed objects, particularly pencils. Teachers noted that children with eye problems "have difficulty seeing the blackboard well", "screw up their eyes", and "hold their books too close". We conclude that schoolchildren and their teachers had a good knowledge of eye health, but many of them had serious misconceptions e.g., use of kohl, medicines and eye drops keeps eyes healthy. Kohl is an important source of lead and can reduce children's intelligence even at low blood levels. Health education in schools must take into account children's existing knowledge of and misconceptions about various aspects of eye health. Such steps if taken could improve the relevance of eye health education to schoolchildren.

  15. Sensing Passive Eye Response to Impact Induced Head Acceleration Using MEMS IMUs.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yuan; Bottenfield, Brent; Bolding, Mark; Liu, Lei; Adams, Mark L

    2018-02-01

    The eye may act as a surrogate for the brain in response to head acceleration during an impact. Passive eye movements in a dynamic system are sensed by microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) inertial measurement units (IMU) in this paper. The technique is validated using a three-dimensional printed scaled human skull model and on human volunteers by performing drop-and-impact experiments with ribbon-style flexible printed circuit board IMUs inserted in the eyes and reference IMUs on the heads. Data are captured by a microcontroller unit and processed using data fusion. Displacements are thus estimated and match the measured parameters. Relative accelerations and displacements of the eye to the head are computed indicating the influence of the concussion causing impacts.

  16. Effects of Quercetin in a Mouse Model of Experimental Dry Eye.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ha Na; Kim, Chae Eun; Lee, Ji Hyun; Yang, Jae Wook

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of treatment with quercetin in a mouse model of dry eye. 0.5% quercetin eye drops were prepared and an experimental dry eye model was induced in NOD.B10.H2(b) mice through desiccation stress. The mice were divided into 3 groups according to the treatment regimen: the DS 10D group (desiccation stress for 10 days), the phosphate buffered saline (PBS) group, and the quercetin group. Tear volumes and corneal irregularity scores were measured at 3, 5, 7, and 10 days after treatment. Hematoxylin and eosin staining, periodic acid-Schiff staining, and immunohistochemistry were performed at the end of the experiment. The quercetin group had increased tear volumes (0.2 ± 0.03 μm, P < 0.05) and decreased corneal irregularity scores (0.7 ± 0.6, P < 0.05) compared with those of the PBS group. On histological examination, the quercetin group exhibited restored smooth corneal surfaces without detaching corneal epithelial cells and had significantly increased goblet cell density (13.8 ± 0.8 cells/0.1 mm², P < 0.05) compared with the PBS group. The quercetin group also exhibited significant declines of MMP-2 (5.1-fold of control, P < 0.01), MMP-9 (2.5-fold of control, P < 0.01), ICAM-1 (2.2-fold of control, P < 0.01), and VCAM-1 (2.3-fold of control, P < 0.01) levels in the lacrimal gland than did the PBS group. Topical application of quercetin can help to improve ocular surface disorders of dry eye not only by decreasing the corneal surface irregularity but also by increasing the tear volume and goblet cell density. Moreover, quercetin has the potential for use in eye drops as a treatment for dry eye disease with antiinflammatory effects on the lacrimal functional unit.

  17. Optimization and validation of an existing, surgical and robust dry eye rat model for the evaluation of therapeutic compounds.

    PubMed

    Joossen, Cedric; Lanckacker, Ellen; Zakaria, Nadia; Koppen, Carina; Joossens, Jurgen; Cools, Nathalie; De Meester, Ingrid; Lambeir, Anne-Marie; Delputte, Peter; Maes, Louis; Cos, Paul

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this research was to optimize and validate an animal model for dry eye, adopting clinically relevant evaluation parameters. Dry eye was induced in female Wistar rats by surgical removal of the exorbital lacrimal gland. The clinical manifestations of dry eye were evaluated by tear volume measurements, corneal fluorescein staining, cytokine measurements in tear fluid, MMP-9 mRNA expression and CD3(+) cell infiltration in the conjunctiva. The animal model was validated by treatment with Restasis(®) (4 weeks) and commercial dexamethasone eye drops (2 weeks). Removal of the exorbital lacrimal gland resulted in 50% decrease in tear volume and a gradual increase in corneal fluorescein staining. Elevated levels of TNF-α and IL-1α have been registered in tear fluid together with an increase in CD3(+) cells in the palpebral conjunctiva when compared to control animals. Additionally, an increase in MMP-9 mRNA expression was recorded in conjunctival tissue. Reference treatment with Restasis(®) and dexamethasone eye drops had a positive effect on all evaluation parameters, except on tear volume. This rat dry eye model was validated extensively and judged appropriate for the evaluation of novel compounds and therapeutic preparations for dry eye disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of topical 3% diquafosol sodium on eyes with dry eye disease and meibomian gland dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Amano, Shiro; Inoue, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate the effect of topical diquafosol sodium on eyes with dry eye disease (DED) and meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). The subjects were consecutive patients diagnosed with both DED and MGD at Inouye Eye Hospital between March and September of 2016. The subjects were administered topical 3% diquafosol sodium ophthalmic solution six times a day for 3 months. At each study visit, subjects underwent slit-lamp examination and completed MGD symptoms and dry eye-related quality of life score (DEQS) questionnaires. Meibum quality (meibum score) and meibomian gland loss (meiboscore) were evaluated. Tear lipid layer thickness was measured in both eyes with an ocular surface interferometer immediately after clinic arrival and 20 minutes after instillation of one drop of topical diquafosol. Thirteen patients (3 men, 10 women) with a mean age of 69.5±8.3 years completed the 3-month study. The number of telangiectasia and plugged meibomian gland orifices significantly decreased from baseline after 1 month of diquafosol use. The meibum score and the meiboscore significantly decreased from baseline at 3 months. Also, the lipid layer thickness was greater after diquafosol administration than before administration at baseline and 1, 2, and 3 months by 12.2, 11.5, 9.5, and 17.0 nm, respectively, but this difference was only significant at 3 months ( p =0.039). The DEQS ocular symptom ( p =0.065) and MGD questionnaire ( p =0.081) scores tended to be lower than baseline at 3 months. Diquafosol sodium ophthalmic solution improves DED- and MGD-related signs in eyes with MGD.

  19. Dry eye syndrome. Etiological and therapeutic aspects.

    PubMed

    Apostol, Silvia; Filip, M; Dragne, Carmen; Filip, A

    2003-01-01

    "Dry eye syndrome" is a common disorder of the tear film that results from inadequate tear production, excessive tear evaporation or abnormality in mucin or lipid components of the tear film. A number of 53 patients suffering from dry eye syndrome were followed up for a period of 18 months. The study group was heterogeneous, including a lot of conditions accompanied by dry eye syndrome: Syogren's syndrome, lupus erythematous, ocular rosacea, patients with systemic treatments with antidepressants, betablockers, diuretics, oral contraceptives, glaucomatous patients with topical beta-blockers, postmenopausal women, aging people, computer users and long-term contact lens wearers. The therapeutical options were dictated by the severity of the syndrome: substitution therapy, treatment of the underlying eyelid diseases, modifying of the environmental conditions and treatment of the complications in the most severe cases. The new pathological approach is innovative and it may provide a real therapeutical measure for this condition: topical A Cyclosporine and androgen drops.

  20. Advantage of Rapamycin Over Mycophenolate Mofetil When Used With Tacrolimus for Simultaneous Pancreas Kidney Transplants: Randomized, Single-Center Trial at 10 Years

    PubMed Central

    Ciancio, G.; Sageshima, J.; Chen, L.; Gaynor, J. J.; Hanson, L.; Tueros, L.; Montenora-Velarde, E.; Gomez, C.; Kupin, W.; Guerra, G.; Mattiazzi, A.; Fornoni, A.; Pugliese, A.; Roth, D.; Wolf, M.; Burke, G. W.

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous pancreas kidney transplantation (SPKT) is the treatment of choice for patients with type 1 diabetes and end-stage renal disease. Rapamycin and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) have been used for maintenance immunosuppression with tacrolimus in SPKT; however, long-term outcomes are lacking. From September 2000 through December 2009, 170 SPKT recipients were enrolled in a randomized, prospective trial receiving Rapamycin (n = 84) or MMF (n = 86). All patients received dual induction therapy with thymoglobulin and daclizumab, and low-dose maintenance tacrolimus and corticosteroids. Compared to MMF, rates of freedom from first biopsy-proven acute kidney or pancreas rejection were superior for Rapamycin at year 1 (kidney: 100% vs. 88%; P = 0.001; pancreas: 99% vs. 92%; P = 0.04) and at year 10 (kidney: 88% vs. 71%, P = 0.01; pancreas: 99% vs. 89%, P = 0.01). The higher rates of rejection were associated with withholding MMF (vs. Rapamycin, p = 0.009), generally for gastrointestinal or bone marrow toxicity. There was no significant difference in creatinine, proteinuria, c-peptide, viral infections, lymphoproliferative disorders or posttransplant diabetes. HbA1C and lipid levels were normal in both groups, although higher in the Rapamycin arm. There were no significant differences in patient or allograft survival. In this 10-year SPKT study, Rapamycin in combination with tacrolimus was better tolerated and more effective than MMF. Overall, the patient and allograft survival were equivalent. PMID:22946986

  1. Erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp successfully treated with oral prednisone and topical tacrolimus*

    PubMed Central

    Zahdi, Mariana Ribas; Seidel, Gabriela Bestani; Soares, Vanessa Cristina; de Freitas, Camila Fernanda Novak Pinheiro; Mulinari-Brenner, Fabiane Andrade

    2013-01-01

    Erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp is a rare inflammatory disorder of the scalp, affecting elderly patients after local trauma and leading to scarring or cicatricial alopecia. Case Report: An elderly female patient complained of painful pustules on the parietal region bilaterally with progressive enlargement and ulceration. A biopsy suggested erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp and the patient was treated with prednisone 40 mg/day and 0.1% topical tacrolimus. After 10 weeks complete closure of the eroded areas was observed and a stable scarring alopecia developed. PMID:24173187

  2. Corneal anesthesia following application of 0.4% oxybuprocaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution to normal feline eyes.

    PubMed

    Giudici, Valentina; Baeza, Sophia; Douet, Jean-Yves; Regnier, Alain

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the loss and recovery of corneal sensitivity after instillation of 0.4% oxybuprocaine hydrochloride solution in the normal feline eye. Eighteen European shorthair cats free of ocular disease Baseline corneal touch threshold (CTT) readings were obtained bilaterally with a Cochet-Bonnet aesthesiometer prior to treatment. Subsequently, each cat received a single drop of 0.4% oxybuprocaine ophthalmic solution in the right eye and one drop of sterile 0.9% NaCl in the left eye to serve as control. The corneal touch threshold (CTT) of both eyes was then measured 1 min after drug administration and every 5 min for 60 min. The potential for ocular irritation following oxybuprocaine application was also evaluated. Baseline CTT readings were not significantly different (P > 0.05) between the control and oxybuprocaine-treated eyes with values of 1.75 ± 0.31 cm and 1.75 ± 0.30 cm, respectively. In control eyes, mean CTT did not significantly change (P > 0.05) during the study period. By contrast, after oxybuprocaine application mean CTT was significantly reduced from baseline (P < 0.05) for 45 min. Maximal corneal anesthesia, with a CTT value of 0, was achieved at 1 and 5 min in all treated eyes. A markedly reduced mean CTT of 0.14 ± 0.23 cm was still present at 20 min. Age and gender did not significantly affect corneal anesthesia. No clinically relevant ocular side effects occurred during the observation period. This is the first study that provides objective information on the depth and duration of corneal anesthesia following instillation of oxybuprocaine in healthy feline eyes. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  3. A new experimental device to evaluate eye ulcers using a multispectral electrical impedance technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellotti, Mariela I.; Bast, Walter; Berra, Alejandro; Bonetto, Fabián J.

    2011-07-01

    We present a novel experimental technique to determine eye ulcers in animals using a spectral electrical impedance technique. We expect that this technique will be useful in dry eye syndrome. We used a sensor that is basically a platinum (Pt) microelectrode electrically insulated by glass from a cylindrical stainless steel counter-electrode. This sensor was applied to the naked eye of New Zealand rabbits (2.0-3.5 kg in weight). Whereas half of the eyes were normal (control), we applied to the remainder a few drops of 20% (v/v) alcohol to produce an ulcer in the eye. Using a multispectral electrical impedance system we measured ulcerated and control eyes and observed significant difference between normal and pathological samples. We also investigated the effects of different applied pressures and natural degradation of initially normal eyes as a function of time. We believe that this technique could be sufficiently sensitive and repetitive to help diagnose ocular surface diseases such as dry eye syndrome.

  4. A new experimental device to evaluate eye ulcers using a multispectral electrical impedance technique.

    PubMed

    Bellotti, Mariela I; Bast, Walter; Berra, Alejandro; Bonetto, Fabián J

    2011-07-01

    We present a novel experimental technique to determine eye ulcers in animals using a spectral electrical impedance technique. We expect that this technique will be useful in dry eye syndrome. We used a sensor that is basically a platinum (Pt) microelectrode electrically insulated by glass from a cylindrical stainless steel counter-electrode. This sensor was applied to the naked eye of New Zealand rabbits (2.0-3.5 kg in weight). Whereas half of the eyes were normal (control), we applied to the remainder a few drops of 20% (v/v) alcohol to produce an ulcer in the eye. Using a multispectral electrical impedance system we measured ulcerated and control eyes and observed significant difference between normal and pathological samples. We also investigated the effects of different applied pressures and natural degradation of initially normal eyes as a function of time. We believe that this technique could be sufficiently sensitive and repetitive to help diagnose ocular surface diseases such as dry eye syndrome.

  5. Traumatic Brain Injury Causes a Tacrolimus-Sensitive Increase in Non-Convulsive Seizures in a Rat Model of Post-Traumatic Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, John N.; Gandhi, Anandh; Singh, Baljinderjit; Churn, Severn B.

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is a significant but potentially preventable complication of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Previous research in animal models of acquired epilepsy has implicated the calcium-sensitive phosphatase, calcineurin. In addition, our lab recently found that calcineurin activity in the rat hippocampus increases acutely after lateral TBI. Here we use a calcineurin inhibitor test whether an acute increase in calcineurin activity is necessary for the development of late post-traumatic seizures. Adult rats were administered the calcineurin inhibitor Tacrolimus (5mg/kg; i.p.) 1 hour after lateral fluid percussion TBI and then monitored by video-electrocorticography (video-ECoG) for spontaneous seizure activity 5 weeks or 33 weeks later. At 5 weeks post-TBI, we observed epileptiform activity on the video-ECoG of brain injured rats but no seizures. By 33 weeks post-TBI though, nearly all injured rats exhibited spontaneous seizures, including convulsive seizures which were infrequent but lasted minutes (18% of injured rats), and non-convulsive seizures which were frequent but lasted tens of seconds (94% of injured rats). We also identified non-convulsive seizures in a smaller subset of control and sham TBI rats (56%), reminiscent of idiopathic seizures described in other rats strains. Non-convulsive seizures in the brain injured rats, however, were four-times more frequent and two-times longer lasting than in their uninjured littermates. Interestingly, rats administered Tacrolimus acutely after TBI showed significantly fewer non-convulsive seizures than untreated rats, but a similar degree of cortical atrophy. The data thus indicate that administration of Tacrolimus acutely after TBI suppressed non-convulsive seizures months later. PMID:25580467

  6. Tacrolimus has immunosuppressive effects on heavy/light chain pairs and free light chains in patients after heart transplantation: A relationship with infection.

    PubMed

    Lavríková, Petra; Sečník, Peter; Kubíček, Zdenek; Jabor, Antonín; Hošková, Lenka; Franeková, Janka

    2018-06-15

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between tacrolimus (TAC) immunosuppressive treatment and serum concentrations of immunoglobulin heavy/light chain pairs (sHLC) and free light chains (sFLC) in patients after heart transplantation (HTX) and to use these biomarkers to predict the risk of infection in these patients. A total of 88 patients with an immunosuppressive regimen involving tacrolimus who underwent HTX were analyzed over 24 months of follow-up. sFLC and sHLC levels were determined before and at three time points after HTX. TAC concentrations were determined at several time points after HTX, and mean TAC concentrations and areas under the curve (AUCs) of TAC concentration were calculated. Relevant clinical data were obtained from patients' medical records. A larger AUC of TAC was associated with decreases in the concentrations of IgG total (p < 0.05); similarly, cumulative AUC of TAC during 18 post-transplant months correlated inversely with sHLC IgG kappa (r = -0.228, p < 0.05) and IgG total (r = -0.352, p < 0.05). Concentrations of sFLC kappa, sFLC lambda, sHLC IgG kappa, and sHLC IgG total were significantly lower in infected patients (in the 9th month after HTX, all p < 0.05). Combined criteria for increased AUC (greater than the median of 12.9 mg·d/l) and decreased sFLC kappa (less than the median of 12.5 mg/l) correlated with the presence of infection (p < 0.03) in the 9th month after HTX. Ratio of concentration of TAC to sFLC kappa or lambda was significantly higher in infected patients (both p < 0.05). Intensive treatment with tacrolimus after HTX is possibly reflected by decreases in sFLC and sHLC (mainly sHLC IgG). Patients with decreased concentrations of these biomarkers are at increased risk for infection, primarily in the 9th month after HTX, when the concentrations of tacrolimus were the highest. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. GAMMA RADIATION OF EYE MEDICAMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Ogg, A.J.

    1963-07-13

    The use of x rays to sterilize ophthalmological pharmaceutical preparations is described, particularly penicillin and fluorescein drops. The method used with penicillin is to place a tablet (1500 units) in a small vial which is closed with a cork and attached with Sellotape to a 5-ml eye-drop bottle containing 3 ml of normal saline. The bottles were sealed in two polythene envelopes and irradiated at the Wantage Research Lab (AERE) at a dose of 2.5 Mrad. The bags are then stored in a refrigerator at 4 deg C. When required for operation, the outer bag is opened with sterile scissors,more » and the contents tipped onto the surface of the sterile instrument tray. The dropper bulb is filled with saline and introduced into the vial, thereby dissolving the tablet of penicillin. All irradiated preparations were found to be absolutely sterile and fully potent. In the case of fluorescein, 1-in. lengths of gauge 2-intraarterial polythene tubes are filled with the dye from a syringe, and the ends of the tube sealed in a flame. Several hundreds of tubes are irradiated in a single container, and when required, one end of the tube is cut off and a drop squeezed out into the conjunctival sac. (BBB)« less

  8. BK Polyomavirus Replication in Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells Is Inhibited by Sirolimus, but Activated by Tacrolimus Through a Pathway Involving FKBP-12.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, H H; Yakhontova, K; Lu, M; Manzetti, J

    2016-03-01

    BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) replication causes nephropathy and premature kidney transplant failure. Insufficient BKPyV-specific T cell control is regarded as a key mechanism, but direct effects of immunosuppressive drugs on BKPyV replication might play an additional role. We compared the effects of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)- and calcineurin-inhibitors on BKPyV replication in primary human renal tubular epithelial cells. Sirolimus impaired BKPyV replication with a 90% inhibitory concentration of 4 ng/mL by interfering with mTOR-SP6-kinase activation. Sirolimus inhibition was rapid and effective up to 24 h postinfection during viral early gene expression, but not thereafter, during viral late gene expression. The mTORC-1 kinase inhibitor torin-1 showed a similar inhibition profile, supporting the notion that early steps of BKPyV replication depend on mTOR activity. Cyclosporine A also inhibited BKPyV replication, while tacrolimus activated BKPyV replication and reversed sirolimus inhibition. FK binding protein 12kda (FKBP-12) siRNA knockdown abrogated sirolimus inhibition and increased BKPyV replication similar to adding tacrolimus. Thus, sirolimus and tacrolimus exert opposite effects on BKPyV replication in renal tubular epithelial cells by a mechanism involving FKBP-12 as common target. Immunosuppressive drugs may therefore contribute directly to the risk of BKPyV replication and nephropathy besides suppressing T cell functions. The data provide rationales for clinical trials aiming at reducing the risk of BKPyV replication and disease in kidney transplantation. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  9. Investigating the Impact of Drug Crystallinity in Amorphous Tacrolimus Capsules on Pharmacokinetics and Bioequivalence Using Discriminatory In Vitro Dissolution Testing and Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling and Simulation.

    PubMed

    Purohit, Hitesh S; Trasi, Niraj S; Sun, Dajun D; Chow, Edwin C Y; Wen, Hong; Zhang, Xinyuan; Gao, Yi; Taylor, Lynne S

    2018-05-01

    Delivering a drug in amorphous form in a formulated product is a strategy used to enhance the apparent solubility of a drug substance and its oral bioavailability. Drug crystallization in such products may occur during the manufacturing process or on storage, reducing the solubility advantage of the amorphous drug. However, the impact of partial drug crystallization in the drug product on the resulting bioavailability and pharmacokinetics is unknown. In this study, dissolution testing of commercial tacrolimus capsules (which are formulated to contain amorphous drug), both fresh and those containing different amounts of crystalline drug, was conducted using both United States Pharmacopeia and noncompendial dissolution tests with different dissolution media and volumes. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) absorption model was developed to predict the impact of crystallinity extent on the oral absorption of the products and to evaluate the discriminatory ability of the different dissolution methods. Virtual bioequivalence simulations between partially crystallized tacrolimus capsules versus fresh Prograf or generic tacrolimus capsules were performed using the PBPK model and in vitro dissolution data of the various fresh and partially crystallized capsules under United States Pharmacopeia and noncompendial dissolution conditions. The results suggest that compendial dissolution tests may not be sufficiently discriminatory with respect to the presence of crystallinity in an amorphous formulation. Nonsink dissolution tests using lower dissolution volumes generate more discriminatory profiles that predict different pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus capsules containing different extents of drug crystallinity. In conclusion, the PBPK modeling approach can be used to assess the impact of partial drug crystallinity in the formulated product and to guide the development of appropriate dissolution methods. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. All rights

  10. Clinical study of double dose of valsartan combined with tacrolimus in treatment of diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Jin, H; Zhang, H-N; Hou, X-L; Zhang, B; Wu, J; Zhang, H-B

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the clinical effect of double dose of valsartan combined with tacrolimus in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy (DN). HA total of 86 cases diagnosed with DN were selected from October 2013 to October 2014 in Zaozhuang Municipal Hospital, China. The study was approved by our hospital Ethics Committee and written consent was obtained from patients and their family members. Patients were randomly divided into three groups according to the sequence of admission, group A (conventional dose of valsartan group, n = 28 cases), group B (double dose of valsartan group, n = 29 cases) and group C (double dose of valsartan combined with tacrolimus group, n = 29). Clinical effects were compared by analyzing the renal function tests after 8 weeks. 24h urine protein, serum creatinine level of patients in group B and group C were significantly lower than that of group A. Those in group C was much lower. The glomerular filtration rates were significantly higher for group B and C than that of group A, and those in group C were much higher. The difference is statistically significant (p < 0.05). High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs CRP) and adiponectin levels of patients in group B and C of were significantly lower than that of group A and those in group C were much lower. The difference is statistically significant (p < 0.05). The high mobility group protein 1 (HMGB1) and renal tubular and interstitial damage index (TDI) of patients in B and C groups were significantly lower than those in the A group, and those in C group were significantly lower. The difference was statistically significant p < 0.05). The clinical effective rates of patients in group B and C were significantly higher than that in group A, and those of group C were much higher. The difference is statistically significant (p < 0.05). The recurrence rates of patients in group B and group C were significantly lower than those of group A and those in group C were much lower. The difference is

  11. Correlation between viral load of cytomegalovirus and tacrolimus and sirolimus levels in transplanted pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Pérez, Herlinda; Sánchez-Huerta, José Luis; Varela-Fascinetto, Gustavo; Romo-Vázquez, José Carlos; Morales-Sánchez, Abigail; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M; Parra-Ortega, Israel; Ramírez-Ramírez, Graciela; López-Martínez, Briceida

    Survival of transplant patients and grafts depends largely on the use of immunosuppressive drugs. However, a balance remains to be established among immunosuppression, transplant rejection and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, which results in a high rate of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to define a better strategy for monitoring transplanted patients based on the analysis of the blood concentration of sirolimus and tacrolimus and the burden of CMV. Fifty five post-transplant (kidney and liver) pediatric patients, nine treated with sirolimus and 46 treated with tacrolimus, were included. A total of 541 measurements were obtained. In each measurement the concentration of immunosuppressant in whole blood and CMV viral load in plasma and whole blood was quantified by real-time PCR. Pearson correlation coefficient (r) was estimated. Values of r ≤0.0747 were found for the relationship between dose and concentration of immunosuppressant; r = 0.9406 for the relationship between viral load in whole blood and plasma, and r ≤0.4616 for the relationship between concentration of immunosuppressant and viral load. These data support that the doses of immunosuppressive drugs do not correlate with the levels of the same in whole blood. Therefore, systemic levels of immunosuppressant should be constantly monitored together with CMV load. Meanwhile, a high correlation between viral load measured in whole blood and plasma was found. Copyright © 2016 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  12. Drop dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elleman, D. D.

    1981-01-01

    The drop dynamics module is a Spacelab-compatible acoustic positioning and control system for conducting drop dynamics experiments in space. It consists basically of a chamber, a drop injector system, an acoustic positioning system, and a data collection system. The principal means of collecting data is by a cinegraphic camera. The drop is positioned in the center of the chamber by forces created by standing acoustic waves generated in the nearly cubical chamber (about 12 cm on a side). The drop can be spun or oscillated up to fission by varying the phse and amplitude of the acoustic waves. The system is designed to perform its experiments unattended, except for start-up and shutdown events and other unique events that require the attention of the Spacelab payload specialist.

  13. Drop Impact Dynamics with Sessile Drops and Geometries: Spreading, Jetting, and Fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilger, Christopher F.

    The tendency of surface tension to cause small parcels of fluid to form into drops allows convenient packaging, transport, dispersal of liquid phase matter. Liquid drop impacts with solids, liquids, and other drops have realized and additional future applications in biological, manufacturing, heat transfer, and combustion systems. Experiments were conducted to investigate the dynamics of multiple drop collisions, rather than the most-studied phenomenon of single drop impacts. Additional drop impacts were performed on rigid hemispheres representing sessile drops, angled substrates, and into the vertex of two tilted surfaces arranged into a vee shape. A qualitative inspection of drop-sessile drop impacts shows distinct post-impact shapes depending on the offset distance between the drops. At intermediate offset distances, distinct jets issue from the overlap region between the two drops projected areas. These jets are observed to reach their maximum extent at a critical offset distance ratio, epsilon epsilon ˜ 0.75-0.80, with substrate contact angle and W e having a lesser effect. Capillary waves that traverse the sessile drop after collision cause a lower aspect ratio liquid column to emanate from the sessile drop opposite the impact. In order to better understand the jetting phenomenon seen in the offset drop-sessile drop impacts, simpler solid geometries are investigated that elicit a similar behavior. Solid hemispheres do not show the singular jetting observed in the fluidic case, however, a simple vee formed by two intersection planar substrates do jet in a similar fashion to the fluidic case. A geometric model with partnered experiments is developed to describe the bisymmetric spread of an impacting drop on an angled substrate. This geometric model is used to guide a time of arrival based model for various features of the drop impact, which is used to predict jetting in various vee channel experiments.

  14. Relevance of Lipid-Based Products in the Management of Dry Eye Disease.

    PubMed

    Garrigue, Jean-Sébastien; Amrane, Mourad; Faure, Marie-Odile; Holopainen, Juha M; Tong, Louis

    2017-11-01

    Components of the ocular surface synergistically contribute to maintaining and protecting a smooth refractive layer to facilitate the optimal transmission of light. At the air-water interface, the tear film lipid layer (TFLL), a mixture of lipids and proteins, plays a key role in tear surface tension and is important for the physiological hydration of the ocular surface and for ocular homeostasis. Alterations in tear fluid rheology, differences in lipid composition, or downregulation of specific tear proteins are found in most types of ocular surface disease, including dry eye disease (DED). Artificial tears have long been a first line of treatment in DED and aim to replace or supplement tears. More recently, lipid-containing eye drops have been developed to more closely mimic the combination of aqueous and lipid layers of the TFLL. Over the last 2 decades, our understanding of the nature and importance of lipids in the tear film in health and disease has increased substantially. The aim of this article is to provide a brief overview of our current understanding of tear film properties and review the effectiveness of lipid-based products in the treatment of DED. Liposome lid sprays, emulsion eye drops, and other lipid-containing formulations are discussed.

  15. Relevance of Lipid-Based Products in the Management of Dry Eye Disease

    PubMed Central

    Amrane, Mourad; Faure, Marie-Odile; Holopainen, Juha M.; Tong, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Components of the ocular surface synergistically contribute to maintaining and protecting a smooth refractive layer to facilitate the optimal transmission of light. At the air–water interface, the tear film lipid layer (TFLL), a mixture of lipids and proteins, plays a key role in tear surface tension and is important for the physiological hydration of the ocular surface and for ocular homeostasis. Alterations in tear fluid rheology, differences in lipid composition, or downregulation of specific tear proteins are found in most types of ocular surface disease, including dry eye disease (DED). Artificial tears have long been a first line of treatment in DED and aim to replace or supplement tears. More recently, lipid-containing eye drops have been developed to more closely mimic the combination of aqueous and lipid layers of the TFLL. Over the last 2 decades, our understanding of the nature and importance of lipids in the tear film in health and disease has increased substantially. The aim of this article is to provide a brief overview of our current understanding of tear film properties and review the effectiveness of lipid-based products in the treatment of DED. Liposome lid sprays, emulsion eye drops, and other lipid-containing formulations are discussed. PMID:28956698

  16. Comparison of in vivo efficacy of different ocular lubricants in dry eye animal models.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaodong; Goto, Tomoko; Ohashi, Yuichi

    2014-04-29

    To compare the efficacy of three types of ocular lubricants in protecting corneal epithelial cells in dry eye animal models. Ocular lubricants containing 0.1% or 0.3% sodium hyaluronate (SH), carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), or hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) were tested. First, ocular lubricant containing 0.002% fluorescein was dropped onto the rabbit corneas. The fluorescein intensity as an index of retention was measured. Second, a rabbit dry eye model was made by holding the eye open with a speculum, and 50 μL of each ocular lubricant was dropped onto the cornea. After 3 hours, the corneas were stained with 1% methylene blue (MB), and the absorbance of MB was measured. Third, a rat dry eye model was treated with the ocular lubricants for 4 weeks, and the corneal fluorescein staining was scored. Eyes treated with physiological saline were used as controls. Finally, immunohistochemistry was used to analyze occludin, an epithelial barrier protein, in cultured human corneal epithelial cells pretreated with ocular lubricants and desiccated for 20 or 60 minutes. Our results showed that 0.3% SH had a significantly longer retention time than the other lubricants (all P < 0.01). The absorbance of MB was significantly lower in the 0.3% SH group. The corneas of rats exposed to 0.3% SH had significantly lower fluorescein staining scores. A significantly higher number of occludin-positive cells were found after exposure to 0.3% SH than other lubricants. Ocular lubricant containing 0.3% SH would be preferable to treat patients with dry eye syndrome. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  17. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Dry Eye Treatment by Institutional Chinese Physicians in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Wanwen; Lee, Sze Yee; Lee, Man Xin; Tong, Louis

    2012-01-01

    Dry eye is a common health problem worldwide, causing significant discomfort and inconvenience to sufferers. The conventional treatment of dry eye via topical administration of eye drops is deemed palliative and unsatisfactory to many. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has shown some promise in dry eye treatment; however, the extent of its use and acceptance is uncertain. We evaluated the knowledge, attitude, and practice of institutional TCM practitioners in the treatment of dry eye in Singapore. A questionnaire was generated to address the study aims and sent to TCM practitioners listed in the Singapore TCM practitioners' board database. About three quarters of respondents thought that dry eye was not severe enough to be a public health burden but most thought that TCM was effective in the treatment of dry eye. Acupuncture and herbal medicine were most commonly used TCM modalities in dry eye treatment, and a single TCM treatment session would be charged S$20–50 by the practitioner. The majority of surveyed institutional TCM practitioners in Singapore believe that TCM is relevant in dry eye treatment. Public awareness should be raised regarding the availability of TCM as alternative medicine for dry eye. PMID:23213306

  18. Pupillographic evaluation of the time course of atropine effects in the mouse eye.

    PubMed

    Schaeffel, Frank; Burkhardt, Eva

    2005-03-01

    The nonselective muscarinic antagonist atropine is currently the most potent drug against myopia development in both humans and animal models. However, the mechanism by which myopia is suppressed is still unknown, and the time course of its action is not well documented. Therefore, we have studied the duration of mydriasis in the mouse, a new model of myopia, after topical application of a single eye drop with different doses of atropine. The light-induced pupil response of the C57BL/6 (B6) wildtype strain was studied in alert mice that were restrained by grasping their necks. A video image-processing program detected the pupil and measured its diameter at 25 Hz sampling rate. To stimulate, an arrangement of green LEDs, which was attached to the recording video camera, could be flashed for 40 ms by pressing a key on the keyboard. A single drop of atropine solution (1, 0.5, or 0.1%) was instilled in one eye and the recovery of the pupil responses was followed for at least 150 h. Both eyes were measured. 1) Under the defined stimulation conditions, untreated wildtype mice displayed a pupil constriction of 23.7 +/- 2.4%. 2) All doses of atropine caused complete suppression of the pupil responses in the treated eyes within 1 min. 3) The pupil responses of the fellow eyes remained unaffected and were not different from those in untreated animals. 4) The recovery from mydriasis was very slow and did not show clear differences with dose. The extrapolated duration of complete recovery was about 10 d (0.1%: 217 h; 0.5%: 230 h; 1%: 294 h). Atropine caused a longlasting suppression of the pupil responses in the mouse eye. That the duration of recovery was not obviously dose-dependent suggests that all doses used in this study were saturating the receptors in the iris musculature.

  19. A review on recent advances in dry eye: Pathogenesis and management

    PubMed Central

    Bhavsar, Ankita S.; Bhavsar, Samir G.; Jain, Sunita M.

    2011-01-01

    Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, more commonly known as dry eye, is an extremely common and often unrecognized disease. It is the condition in ophthalmology that in its mild grade of severity will affect most of the population at one time or other. Due to a wide variety of presentations and symptoms, it often frustrates the ophthalmologists as well as patients. Due to multifactorial and elusive etiology, it is often challenging to treat dry eye. Ocular surface disorders are also clinically important to treat especially in terms of visual acuity. Xero-dacryology is therefore becoming a very important branch of ophthalmology. Recent studies have given insight into the inflammatory etiology of dry eye. The conventional and main approach to the treatment of dry eye is providing lubricating eye drops or tear substitutes. However, the newer treatment approach is to target the underlying cause of dry eye instead of conventional symptomatic relief. In light of the above knowledge, the present article focuses on newer theories on pathogenesis of dry eye and their impact on dry eye management. Method of Literature Search: A systematic literature review was performed using PubMed databases in two steps. The first step was oriented to articles published for dry eye. The second step was focused on the role of inflammation and anti-inflammatory therapy for dry eye. The search strategy was not limited by year of publication. A manual literature search was also undertaken from authentic reference books on ocular surface disease. PMID:21897618

  20. Ocular surface and tear functions after topical cyclosporine treatment in dry eye patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Ogawa, Y; Dogru, M; Kawai, M; Tatematsu, Y; Uchino, M; Okada, N; Igarashi, A; Kujira, A; Fujishima, H; Okamoto, S; Shimazaki, J; Tsubota, K

    2008-02-01

    We investigated the effect of 0.05% topical cyclosporine (Cys) on the ocular surface and tear functions in dry eye patients with chronic GVHD (cGVHD) in a prospective comparative study. Thirty eyes of 15 patients refractory to baseline treatment were recruited and the patients assigned for topical Cys treatment group (14 eyes of 7 patients) and control group (12 eyes of 6 patients) respectively. Two patients dropped out because of intolerable irritation while using topical Cys eye drops. Visual analog scale symptom scores, corneal sensitivity, Schirmer I test value, tear film break-up time (TBUT), tear evaporation rate and ocular surface vital staining scores were recorded at baseline and at the end of the following one month. Conjunctival impression and brush cytology were performed before and after the treatment. After topical Cys treatment, significant improvements were found in symptom scores, corneal sensitivity, tear evaporation rate, TBUT, vital staining scores, goblet cells density, conjunctival squamous metaplasia grade, inflammatory cell numbers and the MUC5AC expression. Our study suggests that 0.05% topical Cys may be an effective treatment for dry eye patients with cGVHD. The improvements in the ocular surface and tear functions resulted presumably from the decreased inflammation, increased goblet cell density and MUC5AC mRNA expression. Bone Marrow Transplantation (2008) 41, 293-302; doi:10.1038/sj.bmt.1705900; published online 5 November 2007.

  1. Drop-on-demand drop formation of polyethylene oxide solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xuejia; Carr, Wallace W.; Dong, Hongming

    2011-10-01

    The dynamics of drop-on-demand (DOD) drop formation for solutions containing polyethylene oxide (PEO) have been studied experimentally. Using a piezoelectrical actuated inkjet printhead with the nozzle orifice diameter of 53 μm, experiments were conducted for a series of PEO aqueous solutions with molecular weights ranging from 14 to 1000 kg/mol, polydispersity from 1.02 to 2.5, and concentrations from 0.005 to 10 wt. %. The addition of a small amount of PEO can have a significant effect on the DOD drop formation process, increasing breakup time, decreasing primary drop speed, and decreasing the number of satellite drops in some cases. The effects depend on both molecular weight and concentration. At lower molecular weights (14 and 35 kg/mol), the effect of PEO over the dilute solution regime is insignificant even at concentrations large enough that the solution does not fall in the dilute regime. As PEO molecular weight increased, the effects became significant. For monodispersed PEO solutions, breakup time and primary drop speed closely correlated with effective relaxation time but not for polydispersed PEO. Effective relaxation time depended greatly on molecular weight distribution. Viscosity-average molecular weight, used in calculating effective relaxation time for polydispersed PEO solutions, did not adequately account for high molecular fractions in the molecular weight distribution of the polydispersed PEOs. A mixture rule was developed to calculate the effective relaxation times for aqueous solutions containing mixtures of monodispersed PEO, and breakup times and primary drop speeds correlated well with effective relaxation times. For our experiments, DOD drop formation was limited to Deborah number ≲ 23.

  2. Cooperative breakups induced by drop-to-drop interactions in one-dimensional flows of drops against micro-obstacles.

    PubMed

    Schmit, Alexandre; Salkin, Louis; Courbin, Laurent; Panizza, Pascal

    2015-03-28

    Depending on the capillary number at play and the parameters of the flow geometry, a drop may or may not break when colliding with an obstacle in a microdevice. Modeling the flow of one-dimensional trains of monodisperse drops impacting a micro-obstacle, we show numerically that complex dynamics may arise through drop-to-drop hydrodynamic interactions: we observe sequences of breakup events in which the size of the daughter drops created upon breaking mother ones becomes a periodic function of time. We demonstrate the existence of numerous bifurcations between periodic breakup regimes and we establish diagrams mapping the possible breakup dynamics as a function of the governing (physicochemical, hydrodynamic, and geometric) parameters. Microfluidic experiments validate our model as they concur very well with predictions.

  3. Management of dry eye in UK pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Bilkhu, Paramdeep S; Wolffsohn, James S; Tang, Gou W; Naroo, Shehzad A

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the ability of pharmacy staff in the United Kingdom (UK) to diagnose and treat dry eye. A mystery shopper technique to simulate a patient with presumed dry eye was used in 50 pharmacy practices in major towns and cities across the UK. Pharmacies were unaware of their involvement in the study. With the exception of a predetermined opening statement to initiate the consultation, no further information was volunteered. Questions asked, diagnoses given, management strategy advised and staff type was recorded immediately after the consultation. The mean number of questions was 4.5 (SD 1.7; range 1-10). The most common question was the duration of symptoms (56%) and the least common was whether the patient had a history of headaches (2%). All pharmacy staff gave a diagnosis, but the majority were incorrect (58%), with only 42% correctly identifying dry eye. Treatment was advised by 92% of pharmacy staff, with the remaining 8% advising referral directly to the patient's GP or optometrist. Dry eye treatments involved topical ocular lubrication via eye drops (90%) and lipid based sprays (10%). However, only 10% gave administration advice, 10% gave dosage advice, 9% asked about contact lens wear, and none offered follow up although 15% also advised GP or optometrist referral. There is a need for improved ophthalmological training amongst pharmacists and pharmacy staff and establishment of cross referral relationships between pharmacies and optometry practices. Copyright © 2014 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The precautionary principle: what is the risk of reusing disposable drops in routine ophthalmology consultations and what are the costs of reducing this risk to zero?

    PubMed

    Somner, J E A; Cavanagh, D J; Wong, K K Y; Whitelaw, M; Thomson, T; Mansfield, D

    2010-02-01

    Instilling eye drops is a ubiquitous procedure in eye clinics. This audit aimed to assess the risk of contamination of disposable droppers and to quantify the financial and waste implications of reducing this risk to zero by using disposable droppers only once. A total of 100 disposable Minims were used to place one drop in each eye of 70 patients. The dropper tip was then cultured for aerobic and anaerobic microbes. Coagulase-negative staphylococcus was cultured from five samples. The contamination rate per drop application was 2.5%. The risk of cross-contamination with coagulase-negative staphylococcus would be between 1 : 400 and 1 : 80 if the bottle was reused once or six times. Reducing this risk to zero costs between pound2.75 and pound4.6 million per annum and generates between 6.85 and 11.42 more tonnes of paper waste and between 12.69 and 21.15 more tonnes of plastic waste than a strategy that reuses the disposable dropper. Reducing the risk of dropper contamination and subsequent cross infection has financial and environmental costs. As exposure to coagulase-negative staphylococcus is not necessarily associated with infection, it would be useful to decide acceptable risk levels for a given cost to maximise both cost-effectiveness and patient safety.

  5. Bacterial Contamination of Multi-dose Eye Drops at Ophthalmology Department, University of Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tsegaw, Asegedech; Tsegaw, Asamere; Abula, Tefera; Assefa, Yared

    2017-01-01

    Ophthalmic solutions used for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes were found to be contaminated with bacteria pathogens and caused serious ocular infections such as keratitis and endophthalmitis. The objective was to assess the magnitude and pattern of bacterial contamination of multi-dose ophthalmic medications and investigate the drug susceptibility pattern of the isolates in the Department of Ophthalmology at Gondar University Teaching Hospital. A total of 100 ophthalmic medications in-use by patients and eye-care workers have been taken and cultured for potential bacterial contamination in the Microbiology Department after 1 week and >1 week of use. The dropper tip and the residual eye medications were examined for contamination. The contaminating bacteria were identified using a standard procedure and drug susceptibility testing to selected antimicrobial agents was done. Eleven ophthalmic medications were contaminated by different bacterial species with a prevalence of 11%. Multi-use and longer duration of use of eye medications were associated with higher rate of contamination. The contamination level ranges from 0% for antibiotics, 20% for local anesthetics, and 40% for povidone iodine. Among bacteria identified, Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species were resistant to methicillin while others were sensitive to the antibiotics tested. The prevalence of contamination was low, but methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus was a potential risk. It is recommended that the Department of Ophthalmology should design set of rules about duration of use and safe handling of ophthalmic medications by the staff and patients.

  6. Medium-Term Renal Function in a Large Cohort of Stable Kidney Transplant Recipients Converted From Twice-Daily to Once-Daily Tacrolimus.

    PubMed

    Guirado, Lluís; Burgos, Dolores; Cantarell, Carme; Fernández, Ana; Franco, Antonio; Gentil, Miguel Ángel; Mazuecos, Auxiliadora; Torregrosa, Josep Vicenç; Huertas, Ernesto Gómez; Ruiz, Juan Carlos; Plumed, Jaime Sánchez; Paul, Javier; Lauzurica, Ricardo; Zárraga, Sofía; Osuna, Antonio; Jiménez, Carlos; Alonso, Ángel; Rodríguez, Alberto; Bardají, Beatriz; Hernández, Domingo

    2015-08-01

    There is some evidence pointing toward better renal function in kidney transplant recipients (KTR) treated with once-daily tacrolimus (QD-TAC) vs. twice-daily tacrolimus (BID-TAC). This is an extension study of a 1-year, single arm prospective study of stable KTR who were converted from BID-TAC to QD-TAC (4.9 ± 4.0 years after transplantation) in Spanish routine clinical practice. Patient and graft survival, renal function, acute rejection episodes, and other analytic parameters were assessed at 24 and 36 months after conversion. A total of 1798 KTR were included in the extension study. Tacrolimus doses at 36 months were significantly lower compared to those at time of conversion (-0.2 mg/day; P = 0.023). Blood levels were lower than baseline during all the study (P < 0.001). Graft and patient survival at 3 years after conversion were 93.9% and 95.1%, respectively. Compared with baseline, the mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) remained very stable at all timepoints (56.7 ± 19.8 vs 58.1 ± 24.6 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) at month 36; P = 0.623). Even when patients reinitiating dialysis were counted as eGFR = 0, the mean eGFR was very stable. In fact, a small but significant increase was observed at 36 months versus baseline (+0.1 mL/min per 1.73 m(2); P = 0.025). An increase in proteinuria was observed at 36 months versus baseline (+0.11 g/24 h; P < 0.001). Acute rejection rates were low during the study. Conversion from BID-TAC to QD-TAC in a large cohort of stable KTR was safe and associated with a very stable renal function after 3 years. Comparative studies are warranted to assess the feasibility of such conversion.

  7. Medium-Term Renal Function in a Large Cohort of Stable Kidney Transplant Recipients Converted From Twice-Daily to Once-Daily Tacrolimus

    PubMed Central

    Guirado, Lluís; Burgos, Dolores; Cantarell, Carme; Fernández, Ana; Franco, Antonio; Gentil, Miguel Ángel; Mazuecos, Auxiliadora; Torregrosa, Josep Vicenç; Huertas, Ernesto Gómez; Ruiz, Juan Carlos; Plumed, Jaime Sánchez; Paul, Javier; Lauzurica, Ricardo; Zárraga, Sofía; Osuna, Antonio; Jiménez, Carlos; Alonso, Ángel; Rodríguez, Alberto; Bardají, Beatriz; Hernández, Domingo

    2015-01-01

    Background There is some evidence pointing toward better renal function in kidney transplant recipients (KTR) treated with once-daily tacrolimus (QD-TAC) vs. twice-daily tacrolimus (BID-TAC). Methods This is an extension study of a 1-year, single arm prospective study of stable KTR who were converted from BID-TAC to QD-TAC (4.9 ± 4.0 years after transplantation) in Spanish routine clinical practice. Patient and graft survival, renal function, acute rejection episodes, and other analytic parameters were assessed at 24 and 36 months after conversion. Results A total of 1798 KTR were included in the extension study. Tacrolimus doses at 36 months were significantly lower compared to those at time of conversion (−0.2 mg/day; P = 0.023). Blood levels were lower than baseline during all the study (P < 0.001). Graft and patient survival at 3 years after conversion were 93.9% and 95.1%, respectively. Compared with baseline, the mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) remained very stable at all timepoints (56.7 ± 19.8 vs 58.1 ± 24.6 mL/min per 1.73 m2 at month 36; P = 0.623). Even when patients reinitiating dialysis were counted as eGFR = 0, the mean eGFR was very stable. In fact, a small but significant increase was observed at 36 months versus baseline (+0.1 mL/min per 1.73 m2; P = 0.025). An increase in proteinuria was observed at 36 months versus baseline (+0.11 g/24 h; P < 0.001). Acute rejection rates were low during the study. Conclusions Conversion from BID-TAC to QD-TAC in a large cohort of stable KTR was safe and associated with a very stable renal function after 3 years. Comparative studies are warranted to assess the feasibility of such conversion. PMID:27500226

  8. Sustained Release of an Anti-Glaucoma Drug: Demonstration of Efficacy of a Liposomal Formulation in the Rabbit Eye

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Marcus; Darwitan, Anastasia; Foo, Selin; Zhen, Ma; Koo, Magdalene; Wong, Tina T.; Venkatraman, Subbu S.

    2011-01-01

    Topical medication remains the first line treatment of glaucoma; however, sustained ocular drug delivery via topical administration is difficult to achieve. Most drugs have poor penetration due to the multiple physiological barriers of the eye and are rapidly cleared if applied topically. Currently, daily topical administration for lowering the intra-ocular pressure (IOP), has many limitations, such as poor patient compliance and ocular allergy from repeated drug administration. Poor compliance leads to suboptimal control of IOP and disease progression with eventual blindness. The delivery of drugs in a sustained manner could provide the patient with a more attractive alternative by providing optimal therapeutic dosing, with minimal local toxicity and inconvenience. To investigate this, we incorporated latanoprost into LUVs (large unilamellar vesicles) derived from the liposome of DPPC (di-palmitoyl-phosphatidyl-choline) by the film hydration technique. Relatively high amounts of drug could be incorporated into this vesicle, and the drug resides predominantly in the bilayer. Vesicle stability monitored by size measurement and DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) analysis showed that formulations with a drug/lipid mole ratio of about 10% have good physical stability during storage and release. This formulation demonstrated sustained release of latanoprost in vitro, and then tested for efficacy in 23 rabbits. Subconjunctival injection and topical eye drop administration of the latanoprost/liposomal formulation were compared with conventional daily administration of latanoprost eye drops. The IOP lowering effect with a single subconjunctival injection was shown to be sustained for up to 50 days, and the extent of IOP lowering was comparable to daily eye drop administration. To