Science.gov

Sample records for tactile language communication

  1. Tactile Signing with One-Handed Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesch, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Tactile signing among persons with deaf-blindness is not homogenous; rather, like other forms of language, it exhibits variation, especially in turn taking. Early analyses of tactile Swedish Sign Language, tactile Norwegian Sign Language, and tactile French Sign Language focused on tactile communication with four hands, in which partially blind or…

  2. Toward a tactile language for human-robot interaction: two studies of tacton learning and performance.

    PubMed

    Barber, Daniel J; Reinerman-Jones, Lauren E; Matthews, Gerald

    2015-05-01

    Two experiments were performed to investigate the feasibility for robot-to-human communication of a tactile language using a lexicon of standardized tactons (tactile icons) within a sentence. Improvements in autonomous systems technology and a growing demand within military operations are spurring interest in communication via vibrotactile displays. Tactile communication may become an important element of human-robot interaction (HRI), but it requires the development of messaging capabilities approaching the communication power of the speech and visual signals used in the military. In Experiment 1 (N = 38), we trained participants to identify sets of directional, dynamic, and static tactons and tested performance and workload following training. In Experiment 2 (N = 76), we introduced an extended training procedure and tested participants' ability to correctly identify two-tacton phrases. We also investigated the impact of multitasking on performance and workload. Individual difference factors were assessed. Experiment 1 showed that participants found dynamic and static tactons difficult to learn, but the enhanced training procedure in Experiment 2 produced competency in performance for all tacton categories. Participants in the latter study also performed well on two-tacton phrases and when multitasking. However, some deficits in performance and elevation of workload were observed. Spatial ability predicted some aspects of performance in both studies. Participants may be trained to identify both single tactons and tacton phrases, demonstrating the feasibility of developing a tactile language for HRI. Tactile communication may be incorporated into multi-modal communication systems for HRI. It also has potential for human-human communication in challenging environments. © 2014, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  3. Tactile communication.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1962-05-01

    Tactile communication presents a relatively unexploited channel of information transmission in the field of aviation. Visual and auditory input channels frequently reach an information saturation point during various flight operations. A cutaneous co...

  4. Visual and tactile interfaces for bi-directional human robot communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, Daniel; Lackey, Stephanie; Reinerman-Jones, Lauren; Hudson, Irwin

    2013-05-01

    Seamless integration of unmanned and systems and Soldiers in the operational environment requires robust communication capabilities. Multi-Modal Communication (MMC) facilitates achieving this goal due to redundancy and levels of communication superior to single mode interaction using auditory, visual, and tactile modalities. Visual signaling using arm and hand gestures is a natural method of communication between people. Visual signals standardized within the U.S. Army Field Manual and in use by Soldiers provide a foundation for developing gestures for human to robot communication. Emerging technologies using Inertial Measurement Units (IMU) enable classification of arm and hand gestures for communication with a robot without the requirement of line-of-sight needed by computer vision techniques. These devices improve the robustness of interpreting gestures in noisy environments and are capable of classifying signals relevant to operational tasks. Closing the communication loop between Soldiers and robots necessitates them having the ability to return equivalent messages. Existing visual signals from robots to humans typically require highly anthropomorphic features not present on military vehicles. Tactile displays tap into an unused modality for robot to human communication. Typically used for hands-free navigation and cueing, existing tactile display technologies are used to deliver equivalent visual signals from the U.S. Army Field Manual. This paper describes ongoing research to collaboratively develop tactile communication methods with Soldiers, measure classification accuracy of visual signal interfaces, and provides an integration example including two robotic platforms.

  5. Misunderstanding and Repair in Tactile Auslan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Louisa; Manns, Howard; Iwasaki, Shimako; Bartlett, Meredith

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses ways in which misunderstandings arise in Tactile Australian Sign Language (Tactile Auslan) and how they are resolved. Of particular interest are the similarities to and differences from the same processes in visually signed and spoken conversation. This article draws on detailed conversation analysis (CA) and demonstrates…

  6. Crossmodal Congruency Benefits of Tactile and Visual Signalling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-12

    modal information format seemed to produce faster and more accurate performance. The question of learning complex tactile communication signals...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: We conducted an experiment in which tactile messages were created based on five common military arm and hand signals. We...compared response times and accuracy rates of novice individuals responding to visual and tactile representations of these messages, which were

  7. Tactile communication using a CO(2) flux stimulation for blind or deafblind people.

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Jose Carlos; Bordignon, Luiz Alberto; Nohama, Percy

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a tactile stimulation system for producing nonvisual image patterns to blind or deafblind people. The stimulator yields a CO(2) pulsatile flux directed to the user's skin throughout a needle that is coupled to a 2-D tactile plotter. The fluxtactile plotter operates with two step motor mounted on a wood structure, controlled by a program developed to produce alphanumerical characters and geometric figures of different size and speed, which will be used to investigate the psychophysical properties of this kind of tactile communication. CO(2) is provided by a cylinder that delivers a stable flux, which is converted to a pulsatile mode through a high frequency solenoid valve that can chop it up to 1 kHz. Also, system temperature is controlled by a Peltier based device. Tests on the prototype indicate that the system is a valuable tool to investigate the psychophysical properties of the skin in response to stimulation by CO(2) jet, allowing a quantitative and qualitative analysis as a function of stimulation parameters. With the system developed, it was possible to plot the geometric figures proposed: triangles, rectangles and octagons, in different sizes and speeds, and verify the control of the frequency of CO(2) jet stimuli.

  8. Optical-to-Tactile Translator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langevin, Maurice L. (Inventor); Moynihan, Philip I. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An optical-to-tactile translator provides an aid for the visually impaired by translating a near-field scene to a tactile signal corresponding to said near-field scene. An optical sensor using a plurality of active pixel sensors (APS) converts the optical image within the near-field scene to a digital signal. The digital signal is then processed by a microprocessor and a simple shape signal is generated based on the digital signal. The shape signal is then communicated to a tactile transmitter where the shape signal is converted into a tactile signal using a series of contacts. The shape signal may be an outline of the significant shapes determined in the near-field scene, or the shape signal may comprise a simple symbolic representation of common items encountered repeatedly. The user is thus made aware of the unseen near-field scene, including potential obstacles and dangers, through a series of tactile contacts. In a preferred embodiment, a range determining device such as those commonly found on auto-focusing cameras is included to limit the distance that the optical sensor interprets the near-field scene.

  9. Teaching young people who are blind and have autism to make requests using a variation on the picture exchange communication system with tactile symbols: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Lund, Shelley K; Troha, Jeanette M

    2008-04-01

    This study used a single-subject multiple baseline across participants design to evaluate the effectiveness of a modified picture exchange communication system (PECS) teaching protocol with tactile symbols. Three students (two male, one female) aged 12-17 years who had autism and were blind participated in the study. The instructional program involved three phases. First, each participant learned to exchange a tactile symbol with his/her communication partner to request a preferred item/activity. Second, the distance between the communication partner and the participant was increased. Third, the participants were required to discriminate between two dissimilar tactile symbols. One out of three participants completed all phases of the instructional program. Although the other two participants did not complete the program, they demonstrated improvement from baseline responding rates. This study provided preliminary results that using tactile symbols with strategies from PECS may be an effective method to teach requesting to youth who are blind and have autism.

  10. Language and Communication Datum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, William J.

    1989-01-01

    Argues that communication is the primary function of language and that the signification function can be derived from it. Several theories of language are considered for their attitude toward the communication function. (26 references) (Author/VWL)

  11. Information and Language for Effective Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitoy, Sammy P.

    2012-01-01

    Information and Language for Effective Communication (ILEC) is a language teaching approach emphasizing learners' extensive exposure in different language communicative sources. In ILEC, the language learners will first receive instructions of ILEC principles and application. Afterwards, they will receive autonomous, direct, purposeful, and…

  12. Tactile communication, cooperation, and performance: an ethological study of the NBA.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Michael W; Huang, Cassey; Keltner, Dacher

    2010-10-01

    Tactile communication, or physical touch, promotes cooperation between people, communicates distinct emotions, soothes in times of stress, and is used to make inferences of warmth and trust. Based on this conceptual analysis, we predicted that in group competition, physical touch would predict increases in both individual and group performance. In an ethological study, we coded the touch behavior of players from the National Basketball Association (NBA) during the 2008-2009 regular season. Consistent with hypotheses, early season touch predicted greater performance for individuals as well as teams later in the season. Additional analyses confirmed that touch predicted improved performance even after accounting for player status, preseason expectations, and early season performance. Moreover, coded cooperative behaviors between teammates explained the association between touch and team performance. Discussion focused on the contributions touch makes to cooperative groups and the potential implications for other group settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. TACTILE RESPONSIVENESS PATTERNS AND THEIR ASSOCIATION WITH CORE FEATURES IN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    Foss-Feig, Jennifer H.; Heacock, Jessica L.; Cascio, Carissa J.

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are often associated with aberrant responses to sensory stimuli, which are thought to contribute to the social, communication, and repetitive behavior deficits that define ASD. However, there are few studies that separate aberrant sensory responses by individual sensory modality to assess modality-specific associations between sensory features and core symptoms. Differences in response to tactile stimuli are prevalent in ASD, and tactile contact early in infancy is a foundation for the development of social and communication skills affected by ASD. We assessed the association between three aberrant patterns of tactile responsiveness (hyper-responsiveness, hypo-responsiveness, sensory seeking) and core symptoms of ASD. Both sensory and core features were measured with converging methods including both parent-report and direct observation. Our results demonstrate that for the tactile modality, sensory hypo-responsiveness correlates strongly with increased social and communication impairments, and to a lesser degree, repetitive behaviors. Sensory seeking was found to correlate strongly with social impairment, nonverbal communication impairment, and repetitive behaviors. Surprisingly, tactile hyper-responsiveness did not significantly correlate with any core features of ASD. This differential association between specific tactile processing patterns and core features provides an important step in defining the significance of sensory symptoms in ASD, and may be useful in the development of sensory–based approaches for early detection and intervention. PMID:22059092

  14. An Examination of the Potential for Blissymbolics to Serve as the Foundation for a Tactile Symbol System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacson, Mickey

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether Blissymbolics have the potential for being developed into a tactile symbol communication system. Tactile techniques are used by many individuals with augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) needs. Tactile processing is optimized by the use of minimalistic stimuli, i.e., stimuli…

  15. Why language really is not a communication system: a cognitive view of language evolution

    PubMed Central

    Reboul, Anne C.

    2015-01-01

    While most evolutionary scenarios for language see it as a communication system with consequences on the language-ready brain, there are major difficulties for such a view. First, language has a core combination of features—semanticity, discrete infinity, and decoupling—that makes it unique among communication systems and that raise deep problems for the view that it evolved for communication. Second, extant models of communication systems—the code model of communication (Millikan, 2005) and the ostensive model of communication (Scott-Phillips, 2015) cannot account for language evolution. I propose an alternative view, according to which language first evolved as a cognitive tool, following Fodor’s (1975, 2008) Language of Thought Hypothesis, and was then exapted (externalized) for communication. On this view, a language-ready brain is a brain profoundly reorganized in terms of connectivity, allowing the human conceptual system to emerge, triggering the emergence of syntax. Language as used in communication inherited its core combination of features from the Language of Thought. PMID:26441802

  16. Shared language:Towards more effective communication.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Joyce; McDonagh, Deana

    2013-01-01

    The ability to communicate to others and express ourselves is a basic human need. As we develop our understanding of the world, based on our upbringing, education and so on, our perspective and the way we communicate can differ from those around us. Engaging and interacting with others is a critical part of healthy living. It is the responsibility of the individual to ensure that they are understood in the way they intended.Shared language refers to people developing understanding amongst themselves based on language (e.g. spoken, text) to help them communicate more effectively. The key to understanding language is to first notice and be mindful of your language. Developing a shared language is an ongoing process that requires intention and time, which results in better understanding.Shared language is critical to collaboration, and collaboration is critical to business and education. With whom and how many people do you connect? Your 'shared language' makes a difference in the world. So, how do we successfully do this? This paper shares several strategies.Your sphere of influence will carry forward what and how you are communicating. Developing and nurturing a shared language is an essential element to enhance communication and collaboration whether it is simply between partners or across the larger community of business and customers. Constant awareness and education is required to maintain the shared language. We are living in an increasingly smaller global community. Business is built on relationships. If you invest in developing shared language, your relationships and your business will thrive.

  17. Language Proficiency Tests in the Iranian Context: Do They Represent Communicative Language Testing Model?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razmjoo, Seyyed Ayatollah

    2011-01-01

    The Communicative Ability in language testing originates from a theory of language as communication proposed by Hymes (1972) and known as "communicative competence". The literature on language testing suggests that the practicality of communicative language testing (CLT) varies depending on how the instructors and teachers conceptualize…

  18. Vibrotactile pattern recognition: a portable compact tactile matrix.

    PubMed

    Thullier, Francine; Bolmont, Benoît; Lestienne, Francis G

    2012-02-01

    Compact tactile matrix (CTM) is a vibrotactile device composed of a seven-by-seven array of electromechanical vibrators "tactip" used to represent tactile patterns applied to a small skin area. The CTM uses a dynamic feature to generate spatiotemporal tactile patterns. The design requirements focus particularly on maximizing the transmission of the vibration from one tactip to the others as well as to the skin over a square area of 16 cm (2) while simultaneously minimizing the transmission of vibrations throughout the overall structure of the CTM. Experiments were conducted on 22 unpracticed subjects to evaluate how the CTM could be used to develop a tactile semantics for communication of instructions in order to test the ability of the subjects to identify: 1) directional prescriptors for gesture guidance and 2) instructional commands for operational task requirements in a military context. The results indicate that, after familiarization, recognition accuracies in the tactile patterns were remarkably precise for more 80% of the subjects. © 2011 IEEE

  19. Tactile-STAR: A Novel Tactile STimulator And Recorder System for Evaluating and Improving Tactile Perception.

    PubMed

    Ballardini, Giulia; Carlini, Giorgio; Giannoni, Psiche; Scheidt, Robert A; Nisky, Ilana; Casadio, Maura

    2018-01-01

    Many neurological diseases impair the motor and somatosensory systems. While several different technologies are used in clinical practice to assess and improve motor functions, somatosensation is evaluated subjectively with qualitative clinical scales. Treatment of somatosensory deficits has received limited attention. To bridge the gap between the assessment and training of motor vs. somatosensory abilities, we designed, developed, and tested a novel, low-cost, two-component (bimanual) mechatronic system targeting tactile somatosensation: the Tactile-STAR -a tactile stimulator and recorder. The stimulator is an actuated pantograph structure driven by two servomotors, with an end-effector covered by a rubber material that can apply two different types of skin stimulation: brush and stretch. The stimulator has a modular design, and can be used to test the tactile perception in different parts of the body such as the hand, arm, leg, big toe, etc. The recorder is a passive pantograph that can measure hand motion using two potentiometers. The recorder can serve multiple purposes: participants can move its handle to match the direction and amplitude of the tactile stimulator, or they can use it as a master manipulator to control the tactile stimulator as a slave. Our ultimate goal is to assess and affect tactile acuity and somatosensory deficits. To demonstrate the feasibility of our novel system, we tested the Tactile-STAR with 16 healthy individuals and with three stroke survivors using the skin-brush stimulation. We verified that the system enables the mapping of tactile perception on the hand in both populations. We also tested the extent to which 30 min of training in healthy individuals led to an improvement of tactile perception. The results provide a first demonstration of the ability of this new system to characterize tactile perception in healthy individuals, as well as a quantification of the magnitude and pattern of tactile impairment in a small cohort of

  20. Communicative Competence and Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciliberti, Anna

    1982-01-01

    Describes the issues considered at the 1979 "Communicative Competence and Language Teaching" conference held in Venice, Italy. Participants discussed teaching methods which could enhance second language competence. A model for determining language learning objectives is discussed. (AM)

  1. YES, #NO, Visibility and Variation in ASL and Tactile ASL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petronio, Karen; Dively, Valerie

    2006-01-01

    In American Sign Language (ASL), a receiver watches the signer and receives language visually. In contrast, when using tactile ASL, a variety of ASL, the deaf-blind receiver receives language by placing a hand on top of the signer's hand. In the study described in this article we compared the functions and frequency of the signs YES and #NO in…

  2. Oral Language Comprehension Using Hearing Aids and Tactile Aids: Three Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Adele

    1990-01-01

    Three prelinguistic, profoundly deaf children (aged three to four) used a wearable, single channel, vibrotactile communication aid in conjunction with hearing aids during individual speech and language therapy at school. Subjects exhibited a faster than average rate of learning to understand spoken language after the onset of vibrotactile…

  3. Symbol recognition produced by points of tactile stimulation: the illusion of linear continuity.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, G R

    1996-11-01

    To determine whether tactile receptive communication is possible through the use of a mechanical device that produces the phi phenomenon on the body surface. Twenty-six subjects (11 blind and 15 sighted participants) were tested with use of a tactile communication device (TCD) that produces an illusion of linear continuity forming numbers on the dorsal aspect of the wrist. Recognition of a number or number set was the goal. A TCD with protruding and vibrating solenoids produced sequentially delivered points of cutaneous stimulation along a pattern resembling numbers and created the illusion of dragging a vibrating stylet to form numbers, similar to what might be felt by testing for graphesthesia. Blind subjects recognized numbers with fewer trials than did sighted subjects, although all subjects were able to recognize all the numbers produced by the TCD. Subjects who had been blind since birth and had no prior tactile exposure to numbers were able to draw the numbers after experiencing them delivered by the TCD even though they did not recognize their meaning. The phi phenomenon is probably responsible for the illusion of continuous lines in the shape of numbers as produced by the TCD. This tactile illusion could potentially be used for more complex tactile communications such as letters and words.

  4. Tactile discrimination, but not tactile stimulation alone, reduces chronic limb pain.

    PubMed

    Moseley, G Lorimer; Zalucki, Nadia M; Wiech, Katja

    2008-07-31

    Chronic pain is often associated with reduced tactile acuity. A relationship exists between pain intensity, tactile acuity and cortical reorganisation. When pain resolves, tactile function improves and cortical organisation normalises. Tactile acuity can be improved in healthy controls when tactile stimulation is associated with a behavioural objective. We hypothesised that, in patients with chronic limb pain and decreased tactile acuity, discriminating between tactile stimuli would decrease pain and increase tactile acuity, but tactile stimulation alone would not. Thirteen patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) of one limb underwent a waiting period and then approximately 2 weeks of tactile stimulation under two conditions: stimulation alone or discrimination between stimuli according to their diameter and location. There was no change in pain (100 mm VAS) or two-point discrimination (TPD) during a no-treatment waiting period, nor during the stimulation phase (p > 0.32 for both). Pain and TPD were lower after the discrimination phase [mean (95% CI) effect size for pain VAS = 27 mm (14-40 mm) and for TPD = 5.7 mm (2.9-8. ), p < 0.015 for both]. These gains were maintained at three-month follow-up. We conclude that tactile stimulation can decrease pain and increase tactile acuity when patients are required to discriminate between the type and location of tactile stimuli.

  5. Cerebro, lenguaje y comunicacion (Brain, Language, and Communication).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strejilevich, Leonardo

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between the brain, language, and communication in the following sections: (1) combining words, (2) language as a system, (3) language as a function of the brain, (4) the science of communication, and (5) language as a social institution. (NCR)

  6. Initiatives in Communicative Language Teaching. A Book of Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savignon, Sandra J., Ed.; Berns, Margie S., Ed.

    A collection of readings on communicative language teaching explains what communicative language teaching is and how the goal of communicative competence is being met by teachers. The following articles are included:"Functional Approaches to Language and Language Teaching: Another Look" (Margie S. Berns); "Contextual Considerations in…

  7. Neural Insights into the Relation between Language and Communication

    PubMed Central

    Willems, Roel M.; Varley, Rosemary

    2010-01-01

    The human capacity to communicate has been hypothesized to be causally dependent upon language. Intuitively this seems plausible since most communication relies on language. Moreover, intention recognition abilities (as a necessary prerequisite for communication) and language development seem to co-develop. Here we review evidence from neuroimaging as well as from neuropsychology to evaluate the relationship between communicative and linguistic abilities. Our review indicates that communicative abilities are best considered as neurally distinct from language abilities. This conclusion is based upon evidence showing that humans rely on different cortical systems when designing a communicative message for someone else as compared to when performing core linguistic tasks, as well as upon observations of individuals with severe language loss after extensive lesions to the language system, who are still able to perform tasks involving intention understanding. PMID:21151364

  8. Tactile agnosia. Underlying impairment and implications for normal tactile object recognition.

    PubMed

    Reed, C L; Caselli, R J; Farah, M J

    1996-06-01

    In a series of experimental investigations of a subject with a unilateral impairment of tactile object recognition without impaired tactile sensation, several issues were addressed. First, is tactile agnosia secondary to a general impairment of spatial cognition? On tests of spatial ability, including those directed at the same spatial integration process assumed to be taxed by tactile object recognition, the subject performed well, implying a more specific impairment of high level, modality specific tactile perception. Secondly, within the realm of high level tactile perception, is there a distinction between the ability to derive shape ('what') and spatial ('where') information? Our testing showed an impairment confined to shape perception. Thirdly, what aspects of shape perception are impaired in tactile agnosia? Our results indicate that despite accurate encoding of metric length and normal manual exploration strategies, the ability tactually to perceive objects with the impaired hand, deteriorated as the complexity of shape increased. In addition, asymmetrical performance was not found for other body surfaces (e.g. her feet). Our results suggest that tactile shape perception can be disrupted independent of general spatial ability, tactile spatial ability, manual shape exploration, or even the precise perception of metric length in the tactile modality.

  9. Contextual Considerations in Communicative Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takala, Sauli

    Ten years of intensive research and development in foreign language teaching in Finland have resulted in a foreign language curriculum with a communicative orientation and textbooks to accompany it. Another outcome of this work was a realization of the complexity of language teaching, which led to models of the language teaching process. One such…

  10. Novel Tactile Sensor Technology and Smart Tactile Sensing Systems: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Chang; Wang, Z. Jane; Cretu, Edmond; Li, Xiaoou

    2017-01-01

    During the last decades, smart tactile sensing systems based on different sensing techniques have been developed due to their high potential in industry and biomedical engineering. However, smart tactile sensing technologies and systems are still in their infancy, as many technological and system issues remain unresolved and require strong interdisciplinary efforts to address them. This paper provides an overview of smart tactile sensing systems, with a focus on signal processing technologies used to interpret the measured information from tactile sensors and/or sensors for other sensory modalities. The tactile sensing transduction and principles, fabrication and structures are also discussed with their merits and demerits. Finally, the challenges that tactile sensing technology needs to overcome are highlighted. PMID:29149080

  11. The Languages of Communication. A Logical and Psychological Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, George N.

    Two methods of analysis, logical and psychological (or, loosely, aesthetic and functional) are used to investigate the many kinds of languages man uses to communicate, the ways in which these languages operate, and the reasons for communication failures. Based on a discussion of the nature of symbols, since most languages of communication draw…

  12. Brain basis of communicative actions in language

    PubMed Central

    Egorova, Natalia; Shtyrov, Yury; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2016-01-01

    Although language is a key tool for communication in social interaction, most studies in the neuroscience of language have focused on language structures such as words and sentences. Here, the neural correlates of speech acts, that is, the actions performed by using language, were investigated with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants were shown videos, in which the same critical utterances were used in different communicative contexts, to Name objects, or to Request them from communication partners. Understanding of critical utterances as Requests was accompanied by activation in bilateral premotor, left inferior frontal and temporo-parietal cortical areas known to support action-related and social interactive knowledge. Naming, however, activated the left angular gyrus implicated in linking information about word forms and related reference objects mentioned in critical utterances. These findings show that understanding of utterances as different communicative actions is reflected in distinct brain activation patterns, and thus suggest different neural substrates for different speech act types. PMID:26505303

  13. Language, Communication, and Culture: Current Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ting-Toomey, Stella, Ed.; Korzenny, Felipe, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Dealing with the relationships among language, communication, and culture, the 12 papers in this collection are divided into three parts. The first part deals with the critical issues related to language acquisition, context, and cognition. The second part presents an array of perspectives in analyzing the role of language in comparative…

  14. Tactile Sun: Bringing an Invisible Universe to the Visually Impaired

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isidro, G. M.; Pantoja, C. A.

    2014-07-01

    A tactile model of the Sun has been created as a strategy for communicating astronomy to the blind or visually impaired, and as a useful outreach tool for general audiences. The model design was a collaboration between an education specialist, an astronomy specialist and a sculptor. The tactile Sun has been used at astronomy outreach events in Puerto Rico to make activities more inclusive and to increase public awareness of the needs of those with disabilities.

  15. Children's views of communication and speech-language pathology.

    PubMed

    Merrick, Rosalind; Roulstone, Sue

    2011-08-01

    Children have the right to express their views and influence decisions in matters that affect them. Yet decisions regarding speech-language pathology are often made on their behalf, and research into the perspectives of children who receive speech-language pathology intervention is currently limited. This paper reports a qualitative study which explored experiences of communication and of speech-language pathology from the perspectives of children with speech, language, and communication needs (SLCN). The aim was to explore their perspectives of communication, communication impairment, and assistance. Eleven school-children participated in the study, aged between 7-10 years. They were recruited through a speech-language pathology service in south west England, to include a range of ages and severity of difficulties. The study used open-ended interviews within which non-verbal activities such as drawing, taking photographs, and compiling a scrapbook were used to create a context for supported conversations. Findings were analysed according to the principles of grounded theory. Three ways of talking about communication emerged. These were in terms of impairment, learning, and behaviour. Findings offer insight into dialogue between children with SLCN and adults; the way communication is talked about has implications for children's view of themselves, their skills, and their participation.

  16. Market study: Tactile paging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A market survey was conducted regarding the commercialization potential and key market factors relevant to a tactile paging system for deaf-blind people. The purpose of the tactile paging system is to communicate to the deaf-blind people in an institutional environment. The system consists of a main console and individual satellite wrist units. The console emits three signals by telemetry to the wrist com (receiving unit) which will measure approximately 2 x 4 x 3/4 inches and will be fastened to the wrist by a strap. The three vibration signals are fire alarm, time period indication, and a third signal which will alert the wearer of the wrist com to the fact that the pin on the top of the wrist is emitting a morse coded message. The Morse code message can be felt and recognized with the finger.

  17. Brain basis of communicative actions in language.

    PubMed

    Egorova, Natalia; Shtyrov, Yury; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2016-01-15

    Although language is a key tool for communication in social interaction, most studies in the neuroscience of language have focused on language structures such as words and sentences. Here, the neural correlates of speech acts, that is, the actions performed by using language, were investigated with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants were shown videos, in which the same critical utterances were used in different communicative contexts, to Name objects, or to Request them from communication partners. Understanding of critical utterances as Requests was accompanied by activation in bilateral premotor, left inferior frontal and temporo-parietal cortical areas known to support action-related and social interactive knowledge. Naming, however, activated the left angular gyrus implicated in linking information about word forms and related reference objects mentioned in critical utterances. These findings show that understanding of utterances as different communicative actions is reflected in distinct brain activation patterns, and thus suggest different neural substrates for different speech act types. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Scalable, MEMS-enabled, vibrational tactile actuators for high resolution tactile displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xin; Zaitsev, Yuri; Velásquez-García, Luis Fernando; Teller, Seth J.; Livermore, Carol

    2014-12-01

    The design, fabrication, and characterization of a new type of tactile display for people with blindness or low vision is reported. Each tactile element comprises a piezoelectric extensional actuator that vibrates in plane, with a microfabricated scissor mechanism to convert the in-plane actuations into robust, higher-amplitude, out-of-plane (vertical) vibrations that are sensed with the finger pads. When the tactile elements are formed into a 2D array, information can be conveyed to the user by varying the pattern of vibrations in space and time. Analytical models and finite element analysis were used to design individual tactile elements, which were implemented with PZT actuators and both SU-8 and 3D-printed scissor amplifiers. The measured displacements of these 3 mm × 10 mm, MEMS-enabled tactile elements exceed 10 µm, in agreement with models, with measured forces exceeding 45 mN. The performance of the MEMS-enabled tactile elements is compared with the performance of larger, fully-macroscale tactile elements to demonstrate the scale dependence of the devices. The creation of a 28-element prototype is also reported, and the qualitative user experience with the individual tactile elements and displays is described.

  19. A Linguistics Course on International Communication and Constructed Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherwood, Bruce Arne; Cheng, Chin-Chuan

    A course on international communication and constructed languages is described. General topics covered in the course included the roles various national languages have played in international communication, special forms of English, language practices and policies in international organizations and conferences, and the history and classification…

  20. The Impact of Electronic Communication Technology on Written Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamzah, Mohd. Sahandri Gani B.; Ghorbani, Mohd. Reza; Abdullah, Saifuddin Kumar B.

    2009-01-01

    Communication technology is changing things. Language is no exception. Some language researchers argue that language is deteriorating due to increased use in electronic communication. The present paper investigated 100 randomly selected electronic mails (e-mails) and 50 short messaging system (SMS) messages of a representative sample of…

  1. Unmyelinated tactile cutaneous nerves signal erotic sensations.

    PubMed

    Jönsson, Emma H; Backlund Wasling, Helena; Wagnbeck, Vicktoria; Dimitriadis, Menelaos; Georgiadis, Janniko R; Olausson, Håkan; Croy, Ilona

    2015-06-01

    Intrapersonal touch is a powerful tool for communicating emotions and can among many things evoke feelings of eroticism and sexual arousal. The peripheral neural mechanisms of erotic touch signaling have been less studied. C tactile afferents (unmyelinated low-threshold mechanoreceptors), known to underpin pleasant aspects of touch processing, have been posited to play an important role. In two studies, we investigated the relationship between C tactile activation and the perception of erotic and pleasant touch, using tactile brushing stimulation. In total, 66 healthy subjects (37 women, age range 19-51 years) were examined. In study 1 (n = 20), five different stroking velocities were applied to the forearm and the inner thigh. The participants answered questions about partnership, mood, and touch. In study 2 (n = 46), the same five stroking velocities were applied to the forearm. The participants answered questions about partnership, touch, and sexuality. Both touch eroticism and pleasantness were rated significantly higher for C tactile optimal velocities compared with suboptimal velocities. No difference was found between the ratings of the thigh and the forearm. The velocity-dependent rating curves of pleasantness, intensity, and eroticism differed from each other. Pleasantness was best explained by a quadratic fit, intensity by a linear fit, and eroticism by both. A linear transformation of pleasantness and intensity predicted the observed eroticism ratings reliably. Eroticism ratings were negatively correlated with length of relationship. Touch was rated most erotic when perceived as pleasant and weak. In human hairy skin, perception of pleasantness is correlated with the firing rate of C tactile afferents, and perception of intensity is correlated with the firing rate of Aβ afferents. Accordingly, eroticism may be perceived most readily for touch stimuli that induce high activity in C tactile fibers and low activity in Aβ fibers. © 2015 International

  2. Tactile device utilizing a single magnetorheological sponge: experimental investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soomin; Kim, Pyunghwa; Choi, Seung-Hyun; Oh, Jong-Seok; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2015-04-01

    In the field of medicine, several new areas have been currently introduced such as robot-assisted surgery. However, the major drawback of these systems is that there is no tactile communication between doctors and surgical sites. When the tactile system is brought up, telemedicine including telerobotic surgery can be enhanced much more than now. In this study, a new tactile device is designed using a single magnetorhological (MR) sponge cell to realize the sensation of human organs. MR fluids and an open celled polyurethane foam are used to propose the MR sponge cell. The viscous and elastic sensational behaviors of human organs are realized by the MR sponge cell. Before developing the tactile device, tactile sensation according to touch of human fingers are quantified in advance. The finger is then treated as a reduced beam bundle model (BBM) in which the fingertip is comprised of an elastic beam virtually. Under the reduced BBM, when people want to sense an object, the fingertip is investigated by pushing and sliding. Accordingly, while several magnitudes of magnetic fields are applied to the tactile device, normal and tangential reaction forces and bending moment are measured by 6-axis force/torque sensor instead of the fingertip. These measured data are used to compare with soft tissues. It is demonstrated that the proposed MR sponge cell can realize any part of the organ based on the obtained data.

  3. Communication Strategies in English as a Second Language (ESL) Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putri, Lidya Ayuni

    2013-01-01

    Communication is important for people around the world. People try to communicate to other people around the globe using language. In understanding the differences of some languages around the world, people need to learn the language of other people they try to communicate with, for example Indonesian people learn to acquire English. In the…

  4. Language and the Right to Communicate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corsetti, Renato, Comp.; And Others

    Drawn from the proceedings of the Sixty-second World Congress of Esperanto, the items in this publication focus on language and the right to communicate. Its contents include a discussion paper on the right to communicate, emphasizing the linguistic aspects of international communication; an address by the Director-General of the United Nations…

  5. Language and Communication Development in Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Joanne E.; Price, Johanna; Malkin, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    Although there is considerable variability, most individuals with Down syndrome have mental retardation and speech and language deficits, particularly in language production and syntax and poor speech intelligibility. This article describes research findings in the language and communication development of individuals with Down syndrome, first…

  6. Effects of inter-stimulus interval and intensity on the perceived urgency of tactile patterns.

    PubMed

    White, Timothy L; Krausman, Andrea S

    2015-05-01

    This research examines the feasibility of coding urgency into tactile patterns. Four tactile patterns were presented at either, 12 or 23.5 dB above mean threshold, with an ISI of either 0 (no interval) or 500 msec. Measures included pattern identification and urgency rating on a scale of 1 (least urgent) to 10 (most urgent). Two studies were conducted, a laboratory study and a field study. In the laboratory study, participants received the tactile patterns while seated in front of a computer. For the field study, participants performed dismounted Soldier maneuvers while receiving the tactile patterns. Higher identification rates were found for the 23.5 dB intensity. Patterns presented at the 23.5 dB intensity and no ISI were rated most urgent. No differences in urgency ratings were found for 12 dB based on ISI. Findings support the notion of coding urgency into tactile patterns as a way of augmenting tactile communication. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Learning Affordances of Language and Communication National Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, David

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the learning affordances of different language and communication curricula in the world. For reasons of space, only two national education systems (Finland and Singapore) and their language and communication curricula are referred to. The accounts of national education systems consist of the identification of mechanisms…

  8. Acculturation, Communication Apprehension, and Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mettler, Sally

    1987-01-01

    Describes acculturation as the negotiation of linguistic, behavioral, and affiliation barriers. Reviews three models of second-language acquisition and highlights problems for the learner related to linguistic noise, comprehension lag, and communication apprehension. Considers ways English-as-a-Second-Language instructors can ease linguistic and…

  9. Genetically identified spinal interneurons integrating tactile afferents for motor control

    PubMed Central

    Panek, Izabela; Farah, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Our movements are shaped by our perception of the world as communicated by our senses. Perception of sensory information has been largely attributed to cortical activity. However, a prior level of sensory processing occurs in the spinal cord. Indeed, sensory inputs directly project to many spinal circuits, some of which communicate with motor circuits within the spinal cord. Therefore, the processing of sensory information for the purpose of ensuring proper movements is distributed between spinal and supraspinal circuits. The mechanisms underlying the integration of sensory information for motor control at the level of the spinal cord have yet to be fully described. Recent research has led to the characterization of spinal neuron populations that share common molecular identities. Identification of molecular markers that define specific populations of spinal neurons is a prerequisite to the application of genetic techniques devised to both delineate the function of these spinal neurons and their connectivity. This strategy has been used in the study of spinal neurons that receive tactile inputs from sensory neurons innervating the skin. As a result, the circuits that include these spinal neurons have been revealed to play important roles in specific aspects of motor function. We describe these genetically identified spinal neurons that integrate tactile information and the contribution of these studies to our understanding of how tactile information shapes motor output. Furthermore, we describe future opportunities that these circuits present for shedding light on the neural mechanisms of tactile processing. PMID:26445867

  10. Good vibrations: tactile feedback in support of attention allocation and human-automation coordination in event-driven domains.

    PubMed

    Sklar, A E; Sarter, N B

    1999-12-01

    Observed breakdowns in human-machine communication can be explained, in part, by the nature of current automation feedback, which relies heavily on focal visual attention. Such feedback is not well suited for capturing attention in case of unexpected changes and events or for supporting the parallel processing of large amounts of data in complex domains. As suggested by multiple-resource theory, one possible solution to this problem is to distribute information across various sensory modalities. A simulator study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of visual, tactile, and redundant visual and tactile cues for indicating unexpected changes in the status of an automated cockpit system. Both tactile conditions resulted in higher detection rates for, and faster response times to, uncommanded mode transitions. Tactile feedback did not interfere with, nor was its effectiveness affected by, the performance of concurrent visual tasks. The observed improvement in task-sharing performance indicates that the introduction of tactile feedback is a promising avenue toward better supporting human-machine communication in event-driven, information-rich domains.

  11. Integrating language models into classifiers for BCI communication: a review.

    PubMed

    Speier, W; Arnold, C; Pouratian, N

    2016-06-01

    The present review systematically examines the integration of language models to improve classifier performance in brain-computer interface (BCI) communication systems. The domain of natural language has been studied extensively in linguistics and has been used in the natural language processing field in applications including information extraction, machine translation, and speech recognition. While these methods have been used for years in traditional augmentative and assistive communication devices, information about the output domain has largely been ignored in BCI communication systems. Over the last few years, BCI communication systems have started to leverage this information through the inclusion of language models. Although this movement began only recently, studies have already shown the potential of language integration in BCI communication and it has become a growing field in BCI research. BCI communication systems using language models in their classifiers have progressed down several parallel paths, including: word completion; signal classification; integration of process models; dynamic stopping; unsupervised learning; error correction; and evaluation. Each of these methods have shown significant progress, but have largely been addressed separately. Combining these methods could use the full potential of language model, yielding further performance improvements. This integration should be a priority as the field works to create a BCI system that meets the needs of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis population.

  12. Language-based communication strategies that support person-centered communication with persons with dementia.

    PubMed

    Savundranayagam, Marie Y; Moore-Nielsen, Kelsey

    2015-10-01

    There are many recommended language-based strategies for effective communication with persons with dementia. What is unknown is whether effective language-based strategies are also person centered. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to examine whether language-based strategies for effective communication with persons with dementia overlapped with the following indicators of person-centered communication: recognition, negotiation, facilitation, and validation. Conversations (N = 46) between staff-resident dyads were audio-recorded during routine care tasks over 12 weeks. Staff utterances were coded twice, using language-based and person-centered categories. There were 21 language-based categories and 4 person-centered categories. There were 5,800 utterances transcribed: 2,409 without indicators, 1,699 coded as language or person centered, and 1,692 overlapping utterances. For recognition, 26% of utterances were greetings, 21% were affirmations, 13% were questions (yes/no and open-ended), and 15% involved rephrasing. Questions (yes/no, choice, and open-ended) comprised 74% of utterances that were coded as negotiation. A similar pattern was observed for utterances coded as facilitation where 51% of utterances coded as facilitation were yes/no questions, open-ended questions, and choice questions. However, 21% of facilitative utterances were affirmations and 13% involved rephrasing. Finally, 89% of utterances coded as validation were affirmations. The findings identify specific language-based strategies that support person-centered communication. However, between 1 and 4, out of a possible 21 language-based strategies, overlapped with at least 10% of utterances coded as each person-centered indicator. This finding suggests that staff need training to use more diverse language strategies that support personhood of residents with dementia.

  13. Communicating in English: The Value of Certain Language Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, William R.

    Language learners want to communicate with others about the sort of things that interest them. Nearly everybody is interested in playing games. Many language games are kept going by communication and break down if communication itself does so. Four types of game are described to illustrate this point: guessing games, certain number games, games…

  14. Language Development Hinges on Communication: An Emergentist Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrar-Ul-Hassan, Shahid

    2011-01-01

    Studies on the human language system have brought to the fore two key aspects. First, the prime function of language is communication. Second, language exists in the social world. The language learning process takes place within the sociocultural context and the relevant macrostructures that influence language use and development. According to the…

  15. English as the Language of International Business Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuiper, Alison

    2007-01-01

    In teaching business communication, instructors usually can take for granted that English is the language of business communication in a globalised world. Even in a multicultural and multilinguistic country such as Malaysia, the assumption that English is the language to use is shared by those who manage programs, those who teach, and students.…

  16. Integrating language models into classifiers for BCI communication: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speier, W.; Arnold, C.; Pouratian, N.

    2016-06-01

    Objective. The present review systematically examines the integration of language models to improve classifier performance in brain-computer interface (BCI) communication systems. Approach. The domain of natural language has been studied extensively in linguistics and has been used in the natural language processing field in applications including information extraction, machine translation, and speech recognition. While these methods have been used for years in traditional augmentative and assistive communication devices, information about the output domain has largely been ignored in BCI communication systems. Over the last few years, BCI communication systems have started to leverage this information through the inclusion of language models. Main results. Although this movement began only recently, studies have already shown the potential of language integration in BCI communication and it has become a growing field in BCI research. BCI communication systems using language models in their classifiers have progressed down several parallel paths, including: word completion; signal classification; integration of process models; dynamic stopping; unsupervised learning; error correction; and evaluation. Significance. Each of these methods have shown significant progress, but have largely been addressed separately. Combining these methods could use the full potential of language model, yielding further performance improvements. This integration should be a priority as the field works to create a BCI system that meets the needs of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis population.

  17. Communication, Language, and Meaning: Psychological Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, George A.

    This volume contains original studies on communication and its psychological implications, presenting the latest developments in knowledge and research. It is designed for laymen and students interested in studying written and oral language, technological innovations, and the communications industries. Each of the 25 essays is written by an expert…

  18. Language Education for Intercultural Communication. Multilingual Matters 96.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ager, Dennis, Ed.; And Others

    Essays address the relationship between second language education and intercultural communication in several countries. Following an introduction are the following papers: "Second Language Learning in Belgium" (Ludo Beheydt); "Foreign Language Education in Bulgaria: Present-Day Situation and Future Tendencies" (Madeleine…

  19. Understanding Pervasive Language Impairment in Young Children: Exploring Patterns in Narrative Language and Functional Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Anna Jeddeloh

    2013-01-01

    Research has identified language impairment as a pervasive disability (Bishop & Edmundson, 1987; Greenhalgh & Strong, 2001). Classroom communication behaviors have a role in the maintenance of special education eligibility and functional communication difficulties for young children with language impairment. This paper reviews the…

  20. Form-focused Communicative Practice via CMC: What Language Learners Say

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meskill, Carla; Anthony, Natasha

    2007-01-01

    Computer-mediated communication (CMC) is being used widely to support and extend foreign language instruction. Language learners are practicing the target language by communicating with their instructors, peers, and native speakers at a distance. This study examines high-beginning and low-intermediate learners of Russian and their uses of, and…

  1. An overview of tactile sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawal, Rajeev; Jain, Ramesh

    1986-01-01

    Existing or proposed tactile sensors are reviewed. General considerations involved in tactile sensing and various performance criteria are discussed. Typical specifications to be expected from the sensors are also described. A representative set of present day tactile sensors is studied. Finally, some of the proposed recognition systems using tactile sensing are described.

  2. The influence of intuition and communication language in generating student conceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handhika, J.; Cari, C.; Suparmi, A.; Sunarno, W.

    2017-11-01

    This research aims to describe the influence of intuition and communication language in generating student conceptions. The conception diagnostic test is used to reveal student conception. The diagnostic test results described and communication language profiled by giving instruction to students to make sentences using physics quantities. Sentences expressed by students are reduced and profiled potential effects. Obtained information that (1) Students generalize non-scientific experience (based on feeling) into the physics problem. This process caused misconception. Communication language can make the students difficult to understand the concept because of the difference meaning of communication and physics language.

  3. Language Magazine: The Journal of Communication & Education, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Ben, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    These 12 issues of the journal include articles on such topics as the following: classical languages; early literacy; ancient languages; study abroad; teacher training; dialects; computer uses in education; classroom techniques; illustrated dictionaries for English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students; communication through poetry; bilingual…

  4. Why Early Tactile Speech Aids May Have Failed: No Perceptual Integration of Tactile and Auditory Signals.

    PubMed

    Rizza, Aurora; Terekhov, Alexander V; Montone, Guglielmo; Olivetti-Belardinelli, Marta; O'Regan, J Kevin

    2018-01-01

    Tactile speech aids, though extensively studied in the 1980's and 1990's, never became a commercial success. A hypothesis to explain this failure might be that it is difficult to obtain true perceptual integration of a tactile signal with information from auditory speech: exploitation of tactile cues from a tactile aid might require cognitive effort and so prevent speech understanding at the high rates typical of everyday speech. To test this hypothesis, we attempted to create true perceptual integration of tactile with auditory information in what might be considered the simplest situation encountered by a hearing-impaired listener. We created an auditory continuum between the syllables /BA/ and /VA/, and trained participants to associate /BA/ to one tactile stimulus and /VA/ to another tactile stimulus. After training, we tested if auditory discrimination along the continuum between the two syllables could be biased by incongruent tactile stimulation. We found that such a bias occurred only when the tactile stimulus was above, but not when it was below its previously measured tactile discrimination threshold. Such a pattern is compatible with the idea that the effect is due to a cognitive or decisional strategy, rather than to truly perceptual integration. We therefore ran a further study (Experiment 2), where we created a tactile version of the McGurk effect. We extensively trained two Subjects over 6 days to associate four recorded auditory syllables with four corresponding apparent motion tactile patterns. In a subsequent test, we presented stimulation that was either congruent or incongruent with the learnt association, and asked Subjects to report the syllable they perceived. We found no analog to the McGurk effect, suggesting that the tactile stimulation was not being perceptually integrated with the auditory syllable. These findings strengthen our hypothesis according to which tactile aids failed because integration of tactile cues with auditory speech

  5. Why Early Tactile Speech Aids May Have Failed: No Perceptual Integration of Tactile and Auditory Signals

    PubMed Central

    Rizza, Aurora; Terekhov, Alexander V.; Montone, Guglielmo; Olivetti-Belardinelli, Marta; O’Regan, J. Kevin

    2018-01-01

    Tactile speech aids, though extensively studied in the 1980’s and 1990’s, never became a commercial success. A hypothesis to explain this failure might be that it is difficult to obtain true perceptual integration of a tactile signal with information from auditory speech: exploitation of tactile cues from a tactile aid might require cognitive effort and so prevent speech understanding at the high rates typical of everyday speech. To test this hypothesis, we attempted to create true perceptual integration of tactile with auditory information in what might be considered the simplest situation encountered by a hearing-impaired listener. We created an auditory continuum between the syllables /BA/ and /VA/, and trained participants to associate /BA/ to one tactile stimulus and /VA/ to another tactile stimulus. After training, we tested if auditory discrimination along the continuum between the two syllables could be biased by incongruent tactile stimulation. We found that such a bias occurred only when the tactile stimulus was above, but not when it was below its previously measured tactile discrimination threshold. Such a pattern is compatible with the idea that the effect is due to a cognitive or decisional strategy, rather than to truly perceptual integration. We therefore ran a further study (Experiment 2), where we created a tactile version of the McGurk effect. We extensively trained two Subjects over 6 days to associate four recorded auditory syllables with four corresponding apparent motion tactile patterns. In a subsequent test, we presented stimulation that was either congruent or incongruent with the learnt association, and asked Subjects to report the syllable they perceived. We found no analog to the McGurk effect, suggesting that the tactile stimulation was not being perceptually integrated with the auditory syllable. These findings strengthen our hypothesis according to which tactile aids failed because integration of tactile cues with auditory speech

  6. When Content Matters: The Role of Processing Code in Tactile Display Design.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Thomas K; Sarter, Nadine

    2010-01-01

    The distribution of tasks and stimuli across multiple modalities has been proposed as a means to support multitasking in data-rich environments. Recently, the tactile channel and, more specifically, communication via the use of tactile/haptic icons have received considerable interest. Past research has examined primarily the impact of concurrent task modality on the effectiveness of tactile information presentation. However, it is not well known to what extent the interpretation of iconic tactile patterns is affected by another attribute of information: the information processing codes of concurrent tasks. In two driving simulation studies (n = 25 for each), participants decoded icons composed of either spatial or nonspatial patterns of vibrations (engaging spatial and nonspatial processing code resources, respectively) while concurrently interpreting spatial or nonspatial visual task stimuli. As predicted by Multiple Resource Theory, performance was significantly worse (approximately 5-10 percent worse) when the tactile icons and visual tasks engaged the same processing code, with the overall worst performance in the spatial-spatial task pairing. The findings from these studies contribute to an improved understanding of information processing and can serve as input to multidimensional quantitative models of timesharing performance. From an applied perspective, the results suggest that competition for processing code resources warrants consideration, alongside other factors such as the naturalness of signal-message mapping, when designing iconic tactile displays. Nonspatially encoded tactile icons may be preferable in environments which already rely heavily on spatial processing, such as car cockpits.

  7. Tactile Evaluation Feedback System for Multi-Layered Structure Inspired by Human Tactile Perception Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Iza Husna Mohamad; Kumamoto, Shogo; Takemura, Kenjiro; Maeno, Takashi; Okuda, Shin; Mori, Yukio

    2017-11-11

    Tactile sensation is one type of valuable feedback in evaluating a product. Conventionally, sensory evaluation is used to get direct subjective responses from the consumers, in order to improve the product's quality. However, this method is a time-consuming and costly process. Therefore, this paper proposes a novel tactile evaluation system that can give tactile feedback from a sensor's output. The main concept of this system is hierarchically layering the tactile sensation, which is inspired by the flow of human perception. The tactile sensation is classified from low-order of tactile sensation (LTS) to high-order of tactile sensation (HTS), and also to preference. Here, LTS will be correlated with physical measures. Furthermore, the physical measures that are used to correlate with LTS are selected based on four main aspects of haptic information (roughness, compliance, coldness, and slipperiness), which are perceived through human tactile sensors. By using statistical analysis, the correlation between each hierarchy was obtained, and the preference was derived in terms of physical measures. A verification test was conducted by using unknown samples to determine the reliability of the system. The results showed that the system developed was capable of estimating preference with an accuracy of approximately 80%.

  8. Coaching Parents to Use Naturalistic Language and Communication Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akamoglu, Yusuf; Dinnebeil, Laurie

    2017-01-01

    Naturalistic language and communication strategies (i.e., naturalistic teaching strategies) refer to practices that are used to promote the child's language and communication skills either through verbal (e.g., spoken words) or nonverbal (e.g., gestures, signs) interactions between an adult (e.g., parent, teacher) and a child. Use of naturalistic…

  9. Availability of vision and tactile gating: vision enhances tactile sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Colino, Francisco L; Lee, Ji-Hang; Binsted, Gordon

    2017-01-01

    A multitude of events bombard our sensory systems at every moment of our lives. Thus, it is important for the sensory and motor cortices to gate unimportant events. Tactile suppression is a well-known phenomenon defined as a reduced ability to detect tactile events on the skin before and during movement. Previous experiments (Buckingham et al. in Exp Brain Res 201(3):411-419, 2010; Colino et al. in Physiol Rep 2(3):e00267, 2014) found detection rates decrease just prior to and during finger abduction and decrease according to the proximity of the moving effector. However, what effect does vision have on tactile gating? There is ample evidence (see Serino and Haggard in Neurosci Biobehav Rev 34:224-236, 2010) observing increased tactile acuity when participants see their limbs. The present study examined how tactile detection changes in response to visual condition (vision/no vision). Ten human participants used their right hand to reach and grasp a cylinder. Tactors were attached to the index finger and the forearm of both the right and left arm and vibrated at various epochs relative to a "go" tone. Results replicate previous findings from our laboratory (Colino et al. in Physiol Rep 2(3):e00267, 2014). Also, tactile acuity decreased when participants did not have vision. These results indicate that the vision affects the somatosensation via inputs from parietal areas (Konen and Haggard in Cereb Cortex 24(2):501-507, 2014) but does so in a reach-to-grasp context.

  10. Research Timeline: Second Language Communication Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Sara; Trofimovich, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Speakers of a second language (L2), regardless of profciency level, communicate for specifc purposes. For example, an L2 speaker of English may wish to build rapport with a co-worker by chatting about the weather. The speaker will draw on various resources to accomplish her communicative purposes. For instance, the speaker may say "falling…

  11. Cassini Scientist for a Day: a tactile experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canas, L.; Altobelli, N.

    2012-09-01

    In September 2011, the Cassini spacecraft took images of three targets and a challenge was launched to all students: to choose the one target they thought would provide the best science and to write an essay explaining their reasons (more information on the "Cassini Scientist for a Day" essay contest official webpage in: http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/education/scientistforaday10thedition/, run by NASA/JPL) The three targets presented were: Hyperion, Rhea and Titan, and Saturn. The idea behind "Cassini Scientist for a Day: a tactile experience" was to transform each of these images into schematic tactile images, highlighting relevant features apprehended through a tactile key, accompanied by a small text in Braille with some additional information. This initial approach would allow reach a broader community of students, more specifically those with visual impairment disabilities. Through proper implementation and careful study cases the adapted images associated with an explanatory key provide more resources in tactile astronomy. As the 2012 edition approaches a new set of targeted objet images will be once again transformed and adapted to visually impaired students and will aim to reach more students into participate in this international competition and to engage them in a quest to expand their knowledge in the amazing Cassini discoveries and the wonders of Saturn and its moons. As the winning essays will be published on the Cassini website and contest winners invited to participate in a dedicated teleconference with Cassini scientists from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, this initiative presents a great chance to all visually impaired students and teachers to participate in an exciting experience. These initiatives must be complemented with further information to strengthen the learning experience. However they stand as a good starting point to tackle further astronomical concepts in the classroom, especially this field that sometimes lacks the resources. Although

  12. Multilingual Communication and Language Acquisition: New Research Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canagarajah, A. Suresh; Wurr, Adrian J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we outline the differences between a monolingual and multilingual orientation to language and language acquisition. The increasing contact between languages in the context of globalization motivates such a shift of paradigms. Multilingual communicative practices have remained vibrant in non-western communities for a long time. We…

  13. [Communication and language in the autistic spectrum: autism and dysphasia].

    PubMed

    Martos, J; Ayuda, R

    2002-02-01

    The alterations of language and communication seen in children with autistic spectrum disorders (TEA) have some similar and some dissimilar features to those seen in children with specific language disorders (TEL). The basic disorder of TEA seems to be due to alterations in the social and mental use of codes of communication, both verbal and non verbal. Children with TEL however have better non verbal and practical abilities. In view of this, we decided to determine the qualitative difference in function in communication and language between the two populations. The great heterogeneity between persons with autistic spectrum disorders and even variation between individuals makes investigation of large groups difficult. It is therefore necessary to study individual cases or groups with small numbers. If we fix our attention on language and communication, it is important to define subtypes of function with the population affected by the autistic spectrum of disorders at an early age, in the fields of communication, receptive language and expressive language in our small sample of persons; taking the normal course of development in each field as the parameter for comparison. This is a pilot study within a long term research project. The results reported here are the preliminary findings of what will be a more extensive study with fuller analysis of the results. The preliminary findings suggest that there are different linguistic and communication function profiles in the different populations compared.

  14. Assessment of communication abilities in multilingual children: Language rights or human rights?

    PubMed

    Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena

    2018-02-01

    Communication involves a sender, a receiver and a shared code operating through shared rules. Breach of communication results from disruption to any of these basic components of a communicative chain, although assessment of communication abilities typically focuses on senders/receivers, on two assumptions: first, that their command of features and rules of the language in question (the code), such as sounds, words or word order, as described in linguists' theorisations, represents the full scope of linguistic competence; and second, that languages are stable, homogeneous entities, unaffected by their users' communicative needs. Bypassing the role of the code in successful communication assigns decisive rights to abstract languages rather than to real-life language users, routinely leading to suspected or diagnosed speech-language disorder in academic and clinical assessment of multilingual children's communicative skills. This commentary reflects on whether code-driven assessment practices comply with the spirit of Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

  15. Language, Thinking, and Communication: A Developmental Psycholinguistic Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Phyllis

    There are a number of views of the relationship between language and thinking. Two prominent figures in developmental psychology, Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky, proposed theories of language and thinking which also involve the notion of "communication." For Piaget, thinking develops first, and language comes along as an expression of…

  16. Cross Currents; Communication/Language/Cross-Cultural Skills, Volume VIII, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross Currents, 1981

    1981-01-01

    The following articles on second language teaching techniques, English as a second language, and cross cultural communication are included: (1) "'Honne' and 'Tatemae': Tools for Developing Communicative Competence in a Second Language," by Gregory J. Thompson; (2) "Using Video-Taped Movies with Advanced ESOL Students," by…

  17. Teaching Young People Who Are Blind and Have Autism to Make Requests Using a Variation on the Picture Exchange Communication System with Tactile Symbols: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Shelley K.; Troha, Jeanette M.

    2008-01-01

    This study used a single-subject multiple baseline across participants design to evaluate the effectiveness of a modified picture exchange communication system (PECS) teaching protocol with tactile symbols. Three students (two male, one female) aged 12-17 years who had autism and were blind participated in the study. The instructional program…

  18. Languages Support Efficient Communication about the Environment: Words for Snow Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Carstensen, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    The claim that Eskimo languages have words for different types of snow is well-known among the public, but has been greatly exaggerated through popularization and is therefore viewed with skepticism by many scholars of language. Despite the prominence of this claim, to our knowledge the line of reasoning behind it has not been tested broadly across languages. Here, we note that this reasoning is a special case of the more general view that language is shaped by the need for efficient communication, and we empirically test a variant of it against multiple sources of data, including library reference works, Twitter, and large digital collections of linguistic and meteorological data. Consistent with the hypothesis of efficient communication, we find that languages that use the same linguistic form for snow and ice tend to be spoken in warmer climates, and that this association appears to be mediated by lower communicative need to talk about snow and ice. Our results confirm that variation in semantic categories across languages may be traceable in part to local communicative needs. They suggest moreover that despite its awkward history, the topic of “words for snow” may play a useful role as an accessible instance of the principle that language supports efficient communication. PMID:27073981

  19. Augmentative and Alternative Communication and Language: Evidence-Based Practice and Language Activity Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Katya

    2004-01-01

    The goal of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) is the most effective communication possible. Speech-language pathologists are obligated to collect data, measure communication, and apply the principles of evidence-based practice (EBP). This article presents a model for EBP that represents how collecting and evaluating performance data…

  20. Man/computer communication in a space environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, B. C.; Montoya, G.

    1973-01-01

    The present work reports on a study of the technology required to advance the state of the art in man/machine communications. The study involved the development and demonstration of both hardware and software to effectively implement man/computer interactive channels of communication. While tactile and visual man/computer communications equipment are standard methods of interaction with machines, man's speech is a natural media for inquiry and control. As part of this study, a word recognition unit was developed capable of recognizing a minimum of one hundred different words or sentences in any one of the currently used conversational languages. The study has proven that efficiency in communication between man and computer can be achieved when the vocabulary to be used is structured in a manner compatible with the rigid communication requirements of the machine while at the same time responsive to the informational needs of the man.

  1. Tactile interactions activate mirror system regions in the human brain.

    PubMed

    McKyton, Ayelet

    2011-12-07

    Communicating with others is essential for the development of a society. Although types of communications, such as language and visual gestures, were thoroughly investigated in the past, little research has been done to investigate interactions through touch. To study this we used functional magnetic resonance imaging. Twelve participants were scanned with their eyes covered while stroking four kinds of items, representing different somatosensory stimuli: a human hand, a realistic rubber hand, an object, and a simple texture. Although the human and the rubber hands had the same overall shape, in three regions there was significantly more blood oxygen level dependent activation when touching the real hand: the anterior medial prefrontal cortex, the ventral premotor cortex, and the posterior superior temporal cortex. The last two regions are part of the mirror network and are known to be activated through visual interactions such as gestures. Interestingly, in this study, these areas were activated through a somatosensory interaction. A control experiment was performed to eliminate confounds of temperature, texture, and imagery, suggesting that the activation in these areas was correlated with the touch of a human hand. These results reveal the neuronal network working behind human tactile interactions, and highlight the participation of the mirror system in such functions.

  2. Body language in health care: a contribution to nursing communication.

    PubMed

    de Rezende, Rachel de Carvalho; de Oliveira, Rosane Mara Pontes; de Araújo, Sílvia Teresa Carvalho; Guimarães, Tereza Cristina Felippe; do Espírito Santo, Fátima Helena; Porto, Isaura Setenta

    2015-01-01

    to classify body language used in nursing care, and propose "Body language in nursing care" as an analytical category for nursing communication. quantitative research with the systematic observation of 21:43 care situations, with 21 members representing the nursing teams of two hospitals. Empirical categories: sound, facial, eye and body expressions. sound expressions emphasized laughter. Facial expressions communicated satisfaction and happiness. Eye contact with members stood out in visual expressions. The most frequent body expressions were head movements and indistinct touches. nursing care team members use body language to establish rapport with patients, clarify their needs and plan care. The study classified body language characteristics of humanized care, which involves, in addition to technical, non-technical issues arising from nursing communication.

  3. Communicative Language Teaching: A Case of Much Ado About Nothing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhargava, Rajul

    The communicative approach to second language instruction has gained disproportionate publicity in the language teaching profession through the Communicative Teaching Project in Bangalore, India. Because of a series of articles and books and presentations at conferences advertising the project's alleged innovativeness and effectiveness, it has…

  4. People-Centered Language Recommendations for Sleep Research Communication.

    PubMed

    Fuoco, Rebecca E

    2017-04-01

    The growing embrace of patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR) in sleep medicine is a significant step forward for the field. In engaging and incorporating the unique perspectives of people with sleep disorders, PCOR enhances the relevance of findings and facilitates the uptake of research into practice. While centering research design around what matters most to people with sleep disorders is critical, research communication must be similarly people-centered. One approach is using "people-centered language" in both professional and public communications. People-centered language is rooted in sociolinguistic research demonstrating that language both reflects and shapes attitudes. People-centered language puts people first, is precise and neutral, and respects autonomy. By adhering to the language guidelines described in this article, sleep researchers will better serve the field's most important stakeholders. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Communicative Language Teaching in the Chinese Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Wei

    2010-01-01

    In order to explore effective ways to develop Chinese English learners' communicative competence, this study first briefly reviews the advantages of communicative language teaching (CLT) method which widely practiced in the Western countries and analyzes in details its obstacles in Chinese classroom context. Then it offers guidelines for…

  6. On Quantitative Comparative Research in Communication and Language Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Oller, D. Kimbrough; Griebel, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative comparison of human language and natural animal communication requires improved conceptualizations. We argue that an infrastructural approach to development and evolution incorporating an extended interpretation of the distinctions among illocution, perlocution, and meaning (Austin 1962; Oller and Griebel 2008) can help place the issues relevant to quantitative comparison in perspective. The approach can illuminate the controversy revolving around the notion of functional referentiality as applied to alarm calls, for example in the vervet monkey. We argue that referentiality offers a poor point of quantitative comparison across language and animal communication in the wild. Evidence shows that even newborn human cry could be deemed to show functional referentiality according to the criteria typically invoked by advocates of referentiality in animal communication. Exploring the essence of the idea of illocution, we illustrate an important realm of commonality among animal communication systems and human language, a commonality that opens the door to more productive, quantifiable comparisons. Finally, we delineate two examples of infrastructural communicative capabilities that should be particularly amenable to direct quantitative comparison across humans and our closest relatives. PMID:25285057

  7. On Quantitative Comparative Research in Communication and Language Evolution.

    PubMed

    Oller, D Kimbrough; Griebel, Ulrike

    2014-09-01

    Quantitative comparison of human language and natural animal communication requires improved conceptualizations. We argue that an infrastructural approach to development and evolution incorporating an extended interpretation of the distinctions among illocution, perlocution, and meaning (Austin 1962; Oller and Griebel 2008) can help place the issues relevant to quantitative comparison in perspective. The approach can illuminate the controversy revolving around the notion of functional referentiality as applied to alarm calls, for example in the vervet monkey. We argue that referentiality offers a poor point of quantitative comparison across language and animal communication in the wild. Evidence shows that even newborn human cry could be deemed to show functional referentiality according to the criteria typically invoked by advocates of referentiality in animal communication. Exploring the essence of the idea of illocution, we illustrate an important realm of commonality among animal communication systems and human language, a commonality that opens the door to more productive, quantifiable comparisons. Finally, we delineate two examples of infrastructural communicative capabilities that should be particularly amenable to direct quantitative comparison across humans and our closest relatives.

  8. Advances in Early Communication and Language Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Ann P.; Roberts, Megan Y.

    2011-01-01

    Learning to communicate using speech and language is a primary developmental task for young children. Delays in the acquisition of language are one of the earliest indicators of developmental deficits that may affect academic and social outcomes for individuals across the life span. In the period since the passage of PL 99-457, significant…

  9. Tactile Sensitivity in Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Tavassoli, Teresa; Calo, Susana; Thomas, Richard M.; Catmur, Caroline; Frith, Uta; Haggard, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    People with autism and Asperger syndrome are anecdotally said to be hypersensitive to touch. In two experiments, we measured tactile thresholds and suprathreshold tactile sensitivity in a group of adults with Asperger syndrome. In the first experiment, tactile perceptual thresholds were measured. Two frequencies of vibrotactile stimulation were…

  10. Communication Strategies in the Foreign Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Tony

    2006-01-01

    The focus of the present study is to examine the communication strategies used by learners and teachers in the foreign language classroom. The data is from introductory Spanish classrooms at the university level. The author analyzed the data for instances of communications strategies according to taxonomy developed for ESL studies. Important…

  11. Language and communication non-pharmacological interventions in patients with Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review. Communication intervention in Alzheimer

    PubMed Central

    Morello, Aline Nunes da Cruz; Lima, Tatiane Machado; Brandão, Lenisa

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Alzheimer's disease considerably compromises communication skills. Language changes become more prominent as the disease progresses. Deterioration of language and cognition reduces the ability of holding conversations, which has a negative impact on social interaction. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review of the literature for articles reporting interventions focused on the language and communication of people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) without use of medication. METHODS: We performed a search using the keywords Alzheimer's disease, language, communication, cognition, cognitive intervention, rehabilitation and therapy, and their corresponding Portuguese and Spanish terms, on the SciELO, LILACS, PubMed and PsychINFO databases. We analyzed intervention studies published from 1993 to 2016 that involved stimulation of language skills and/or communication with pre-and post-intervention quantitative results, and whose samples included at least 50% with a diagnosis of probable AD. Studies were analyzed and classified into four levels of evidence, according to the criteria described in the literature. RESULTS: Twenty-eight articles were included. The majority of the designs had medium-to-low scientific evidence. Most interventions showed benefits for at least one language or communicative skill. Eight types of interventions emerged from the analysis of the studies. Further research with higher levels of evidence is recommended in the investigation of interventions focused on language and communication skills of patients with dementia. CONCLUSION: Studies with high levels of evidence on the topic investigated are only being conducted on a small scale. Two intervention techniques seem potentially effective: lexical-semantic approaches and interventions that work with different cognitive skills (including language). PMID:29213519

  12. Dissociated active and passive tactile shape recognition: a case study of pure tactile apraxia.

    PubMed

    Valenza, N; Ptak, R; Zimine, I; Badan, M; Lazeyras, F; Schnider, A

    2001-11-01

    Disorders of tactile object recognition (TOR) may result from primary motor or sensory deficits or higher cognitive impairment of tactile shape representations or semantic memory. Studies with healthy participants suggest the existence of exploratory motor procedures directly linked to the extraction of specific properties of objects. A pure deficit of these procedures without concomitant gnostic disorders has never been described in a brain-damaged patient. Here, we present a patient with a right hemispheric infarction who, in spite of intact sensorimotor functions, had impaired TOR with the left hand. Recognition of 2D shapes and objects was severely deficient under the condition of spontaneous exploration. Tactile exploration of shapes was disorganized and exploratory procedures, such as the contour-following strategy, which is necessary to identify the precise shape of an object, were severely disturbed. However, recognition of 2D shapes under manually or verbally guided exploration and the recognition of shapes traced on the skin were intact, indicating a dissociation in shape recognition between active and passive touch. Functional MRI during sensory stimulation of the left hand showed preserved activation of the spared primary sensory cortex in the right hemisphere. We interpret the deficit of our patient as a pure tactile apraxia without tactile agnosia, i.e. a specific inability to use tactile feedback to generate the exploratory procedures necessary for tactile shape recognition.

  13. Pharmaceutical health care and Inuit language communications in Nunavut, Canada.

    PubMed

    Romain, Sandra J

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutical communication is an essential component of pharmaceutical health care, optimally ensuring patients understand the proper administration and side effects of their medications. Communication can often be complicated by language and culture, but with pharmaceuticals, misunderstandings can prove particularly harmful. In Nunavut, to ensure the preservation and revitalization of Inuit languages, the Inuit Language Protection Act and Official Languages Act were passed requiring that all public and private sector essential services offer verbal and written communication in Inuit languages (Inuktitut and Inuinnaqtun) by 2012. While the legislation mandates compliance, policy implementation for pharmaceutical services is problematic. Not a single pharmacist in Nunavut is fluent in either of the Inuit languages. Pharmacists have indicated challenges in formally translating written documentation into Inuit languages based on concerns for patient safety. These challenges of negotiating the joint requirements of language legislation and patient safety have resulted in pharmacies using verbal on-site translation as a tenuous solution regardless of its many limitations. The complex issues of pharmaceutical health care and communication among the Inuit of Nunavut are best examined through multimethod research to encompass a wide range of perspectives. This methodology combines the richness of ethnographic data, the targeted depth of interviews with key informants and the breadth of cross-Canada policy and financial analyses. The analysis of this information would provide valuable insights into the current relationships between health care providers, pharmacists and Inuit patients and suggest future directions for policy that will improve the efficacy of pharmaceuticals and health care spending for the Inuit in Canada.

  14. Tactile functions after cerebral hemispherectomy.

    PubMed

    Backlund, H; Morin, C; Ptito, A; Bushnell, M C; Olausson, H

    2005-01-01

    Patients that were hemispherectomized due to brain lesions early in life sometimes have remarkably well-preserved tactile functions on their paretic body half. This has been attributed to developmental neuroplasticity. However, the tactile examinations generally have been fairly crude, and subtle deficits may not have been revealed. We investigated monofilament detection and three types of tactile directional sensibility in four hemispherectomized patients and six healthy controls. Patients were examined bilaterally on the face, forearm and lower leg. Normal subjects were examined unilaterally. Following each test of directional sensibility, subjects were asked to rate the intensity of the stimulation. On the nonparetic side, results were almost always in the normal range. On the paretic side, the patients' capacity for monofilament detection was less impaired than their directional sensibility. Despite the disturbed directional sensibility on their paretic side the patients rated tactile sensations evoked by the stimuli, on both their paretic and nonparetic body halves, as more intense than normals. Thus, mechanisms of plasticity seem adequate for tactile detection and intensity coding but not for more complex tactile functions such as directional sensibility. The reason for the high vulnerability of tactile directional sensibility may be that it depends on spatially and temporally precise afferent information processed in a distributed cortical network.

  15. Recent Progress in Technologies for Tactile Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xuguang; Xue, Ning; Li, Tong; Liu, Chang

    2018-01-01

    Over the last two decades, considerable scientific and technological efforts have been devoted to developing tactile sensing based on a variety of transducing mechanisms, with prospective applications in many fields such as human–machine interaction, intelligent robot tactile control and feedback, and tactile sensorized minimally invasive surgery. This paper starts with an introduction of human tactile systems, followed by a presentation of the basic demands of tactile sensors. State-of-the-art tactile sensors are reviewed in terms of their diverse sensing mechanisms, design consideration, and material selection. Subsequently, typical performances of the sensors, along with their advantages and disadvantages, are compared and analyzed. Two major potential applications of tactile sensing systems are discussed in detail. Lastly, we propose prospective research directions and market trends of tactile sensing systems. PMID:29565835

  16. Recent Progress in Technologies for Tactile Sensors.

    PubMed

    Chi, Cheng; Sun, Xuguang; Xue, Ning; Li, Tong; Liu, Chang

    2018-03-22

    Over the last two decades, considerable scientific and technological efforts have been devoted to developing tactile sensing based on a variety of transducing mechanisms, with prospective applications in many fields such as human-machine interaction, intelligent robot tactile control and feedback, and tactile sensorized minimally invasive surgery. This paper starts with an introduction of human tactile systems, followed by a presentation of the basic demands of tactile sensors. State-of-the-art tactile sensors are reviewed in terms of their diverse sensing mechanisms, design consideration, and material selection. Subsequently, typical performances of the sensors, along with their advantages and disadvantages, are compared and analyzed. Two major potential applications of tactile sensing systems are discussed in detail. Lastly, we propose prospective research directions and market trends of tactile sensing systems.

  17. Communicative Language Teaching: Where Are We Going?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savignon, Sandra J., Ed.; Berns, Margie S., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    This collection of papers is a resource for classroom teachers and program administrators who want to know not only what the communicative approach to language teaching is all about but how the goal of communicative competence is being met in teaching contexts similar to their own. Papers and authors include: "Functional Approaches to…

  18. Communicative Anxiety in the Second and Third Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Alaitz; Gorter, Durk; Cenoz, Jasone

    2017-01-01

    The present paper reports a study on communicative anxiety of two groups of adult users. The paper aims at exploring the communicative anxiety of multilingual speakers and at analysing the communicative anxiety in second and third languages. This study includes 532 participants who were divided in two groups according their L1. One group of…

  19. Tactile modulation of hippocampal place fields.

    PubMed

    Gener, Thomas; Perez-Mendez, Lorena; Sanchez-Vives, Maria V

    2013-12-01

    Neural correlates of spatial representation can be found in the activity of the hippocampal place cells. These neurons are characterized by firing whenever the animal is located in a particular area of the space, the place field. Place fields are modulated by sensory cues, such as visual, auditory, or olfactory cues, being the influence of visual inputs the most thoroughly studied. Tactile information gathered by the whiskers has a prominent representation in the rat cerebral cortex. However, the influence of whisker-detected tactile cues on place fields remains an open question. Here we studied place fields in an enriched tactile environment where the remaining sensory cues were occluded. First, place cells were recorded before and after blockade of tactile transmission by means of lidocaine applied on the whisker pad. Following tactile deprivation, the majority of place cells decreased their firing rate and their place fields expanded. We next rotated the tactile cues and 90% of place fields rotated with them. Our results demonstrate that tactile information is integrated into place cells at least in a tactile-enriched arena and when other sensory cues are not available. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Language learning and the technology of international communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batley, Edward

    1991-03-01

    The author posits a reciprocal relationship between the recent popularisation of computer-based technology and the democratisation of Central and Eastern Europe. Brief reference is made to their common denominator, language and language change. The advent of the communicative approach to language learning and the new wave of language authenticity arising from it, both enhanced by the technological revolution, have made the defining of acceptability in the classroom and of communication in the process of testing more problematic than ever, although several advantages have also accrued. Advances in technology have generally outstripped our ability to apply their full or characteristic potential. While technology can personalise learning and in this way make learning more efficient, it can also impede motivation. Old methods, drills and routines are tending to be sustained by it. Lack of technology can also widen the gulf between developed, developing and underdeveloped countries of the world. The author proposes international partnerships as a means of preventing an imbalance which could threaten stability. Single language dominance is another threat to international understanding, given the growing awareness of our multilingual and multicultural environment. Enlightened language policies reaching from the individual to beyond the national community are needed, which adopt these aspects of language learning, explain decisions about the state's choice of languages and, at the same time, promote individual choice wherever practicable.

  1. "Language," "Communication," and the Longing for the Authentic in LSP Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoekje, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    This commentary argues that the OET research raises inescapable contradictions in trying to separate "language" from "communication" within a weak performance test and advocates for reconceptualizing the legitimate domain of "language" more widely, reclaiming the full potential of the communicative competence…

  2. Communicative Language Teaching Today. Portfolio Series #13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Jack C.

    2005-01-01

    This booklet examines the methodology known as Communicative Language Teaching or CLT and explores the assumptions it is based on, its origins and evolution since it was first proposed in the 1970s, and how it has influenced approaches to language teaching today. It serves to review what has been learned from CLT and what its relevance is today. A…

  3. The Challenge of Communication. ACTFL Review of Foreign Language Education, Vol. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Gilbert A., Ed.

    The relationship of communication to the foreign language profession is addressed in this volume. The following articles are presented: (1) "Communication and the Foreign Language Teacher," by Charles T. Brown; (2) "Rationale for Language Study," by Jane N. Lippman; (3) "Public Awareness: How Can Associations and Institutions Use Public Relations…

  4. Reliability of the Dutch-language version of the Communication Function Classification System and its association with language comprehension and method of communication.

    PubMed

    Vander Zwart, Karlijn E; Geytenbeek, Joke J; de Kleijn, Maaike; Oostrom, Kim J; Gorter, Jan Willem; Hidecker, Mary Jo Cooley; Vermeulen, R Jeroen

    2016-02-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the intra- and interrater reliability of the Dutch-language version of the Communication Function Classification System (CFCS-NL) and to investigate the association between the CFCS level and (1) spoken language comprehension and (2) preferred method of communication in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Participants were 93 children with CP (50 males, 43 females; mean age 7y, SD 2y 6mo, range 2y 9mo-12y 10mo; unilateral spastic [n=22], bilateral spastic [n=51], dyskinetic [n=15], ataxic [n=3], not specified [n=2]; Gross Motor Function Classification System level I [n=16], II [n=14], III, [n=7], IV [n=24], V [n=31], unknown [n=1]), recruited from rehabilitation centres throughout the Netherlands. Because some centres only contributed to part of the study, different numbers of participants are presented for different aspects of the study. Parents and speech and language therapists (SLTs) classified the communication level using the CFCS. Kappa was used to determine the intra- and interrater reliability. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to determine the association between CFCS level and spoken language comprehension, and Fisher's exact test was used to examine the association between the CFCS level and method of communication. Interrater reliability of the CFCS-NL between parents and SLTs was fair (r=0.54), between SLTs good (r=0.78), and the intrarater (SLT) reliability very good (r=0.85). The association between the CFCS and spoken language comprehension was strong for SLTs (r=0.63) and moderate for parents (r=0.51). There was a statistically significant difference between the CFCS level and the preferred method of communication of the child (p<0.01). Also, CFCS level classification showed a statistically significant difference between parents and SLTs (p<0.01). These data suggest that the CFCS-NL is a valid and reliable clinical tool to classify everyday communication in children with CP. Preferably

  5. Japan: Body Language and Etiquette as a Means of Intercultural Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, James L.

    While English-speaking businesspeople may have difficulty learning Japanese, they can improve communication skills with Japanese nationals by placing more emphasis on body language and etiquette. This knowledge can supplement limited verbal skills in Japanese and promote communication in all-English conversations. Body language, or gestures, are…

  6. Communicative Anxiety in English as a Third Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Alaitz; Cenoz, Jasone; Gorter, Durk

    2017-01-01

    The present study focuses on the link between three factors, proficiency, language certificates and bilingualism, and levels of communicative anxiety in the third language (English) in two groups of adult users, university students and young professionals. The first group consisted of 217 university students who were enrolled at the University of…

  7. Blind Braille readers mislocate tactile stimuli.

    PubMed

    Sterr, Annette; Green, Lisa; Elbert, Thomas

    2003-05-01

    In a previous experiment, we observed that blind Braille readers produce errors when asked to identify on which finger of one hand a light tactile stimulus had occurred. With the present study, we aimed to specify the characteristics of this perceptual error in blind and sighted participants. The experiment confirmed that blind Braille readers mislocalised tactile stimuli more often than sighted controls, and that the localisation errors occurred significantly more often at the right reading hand than at the non-reading hand. Most importantly, we discovered that the reading fingers showed the smallest error frequency, but the highest rate of stimulus attribution. The dissociation of perceiving and locating tactile stimuli in the blind suggests altered tactile information processing. Neuroplasticity, changes in tactile attention mechanisms as well as the idea that blind persons may employ different strategies for tactile exploration and object localisation are discussed as possible explanations for the results obtained.

  8. [A comparison of time resolution among auditory, tactile and promontory electrical stimulation--superiority of cochlear implants as human communication aids].

    PubMed

    Matsushima, J; Kumagai, M; Harada, C; Takahashi, K; Inuyama, Y; Ifukube, T

    1992-09-01

    Our previous reports showed that second formant information, using a speech coding method, could be transmitted through an electrode on the promontory. However, second formant information can also be transmitted by tactile stimulation. Therefore, to find out whether electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve would be superior to tactile stimulation for our speech coding method, the time resolutions of the two modes of stimulation were compared. The results showed that the time resolution of electrical promontory stimulation was three times better than the time resolution of tactile stimulation of the finger. This indicates that electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve is much better for our speech coding method than tactile stimulation of the finger.

  9. Language and communication development in preschool children with visual impairment: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mosca, Renata; Kritzinger, Alta; van der Linde, Jeannie

    2015-01-01

    Language and communication difficulties of young children with visual impairment (VI) are ascribed to intellectual disability, multiple disabilities and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) rather than their sensory impairment. Consequently, the communication difficulties of children with VI may have been underestimated and undertreated. This report aims to critically appraise recent peer reviewed literature relating to communication and language development in children with VI. A systematic search of the literature (2003–2013) was completed using the PRISMA guidelines, and primary and secondary search phrases. Nine publications were reviewed in terms of the strength of recent evidence. Thematic analysis was used to describe the early language and communication characteristics of children with VI. All the selected articles (n = 9) were from developed countries and participants from seven of the studies had congenital VI. Five of the studies received an evidence level rating of III while four articles were rated as IIb. Two main themes emerged from the studies: early intervention, and multiple disabilities and ASD. Language and communication development is affected by VI, especially in the early stages of development. Speech-language therapists should therefore be included in early intervention for children with VI. Recent evidence on the early language and communication difficulties of children with VI exists, but children in developing countries with acquired VI appear to not be investigated. The identified language and communication developmental characteristics may assist speech-language therapists to build a knowledge base for participation in early intervention for young children with VI and their families.

  10. Language and communication development in preschool children with visual impairment: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Kritzinger, Alta; van der Linde, Jeannie

    2015-01-01

    Background Language and communication difficulties of young children with visual impairment (VI) are ascribed to intellectual disability, multiple disabilities and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) rather than their sensory impairment. Consequently, the communication difficulties of children with VI may have been underestimated and undertreated. Objectives This report aims to critically appraise recent peer reviewed literature relating to communication and language development in children with VI. Method A systematic search of the literature (2003–2013) was completed using the PRISMA guidelines, and primary and secondary search phrases. Nine publications were reviewed in terms of the strength of recent evidence. Thematic analysis was used to describe the early language and communication characteristics of children with VI. Results All the selected articles (n = 9) were from developed countries and participants from seven of the studies had congenital VI. Five of the studies received an evidence level rating of III while four articles were rated as IIb. Two main themes emerged from the studies: early intervention, and multiple disabilities and ASD. Language and communication development is affected by VI, especially in the early stages of development. Speech-language therapists should therefore be included in early intervention for children with VI. Conclusion Recent evidence on the early language and communication difficulties of children with VI exists, but children in developing countries with acquired VI appear to not be investigated. The identified language and communication developmental characteristics may assist speech-language therapists to build a knowledge base for participation in early intervention for young children with VI and their families. PMID:26809155

  11. A Language Educator's First Sale: To Globalize Business Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush-Bacelis, Jean L.

    The business communication course, required in most colleges and schools of business, may be the best place for language educators to begin to help globalize the curriculum. In these courses, students are taught communication theory, business writing, oral business communication, leadership, meeting participation, and various functions used in…

  12. TOEFL from a Communicative Viewpoint on Language Proficiency: A Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duran, Richard P.; And Others

    The content characteristics of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) are examined from a communicative viewpoint, based on current theory in applied linguistics and language proficiency assessment. The study employed a four-part operational framework. The first component analyzed the communicative characteristics of a language…

  13. Pronunciation Teaching Practices in Communicative Second Language Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Jennifer Ann; Trofimovich, Pavel; Collins, Laura; Urzúa, Fernanda Soler

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was to provide longitudinal, corpus-based evidence of actual teacher behaviour with respect to the teaching of second language (L2) pronunciation in a communicative language learning context. The data involved 40 hours of videotaped lessons from three experienced teachers recorded four times at 100-hour increments…

  14. Framing Communicative Language Teaching for Better Teacher Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangubhai, Francis; Marland, Perc; Dashwood, Ann; Son, Jeong-Bae

    2007-01-01

    Studies of the use of Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) approaches in foreign language classrooms have frequently raised doubts about the adequacy of elementary and secondary teachers' understanding of CLT and their use of this approach in classrooms at those levels. Reasons for this alleged state of affairs are reviewed, with one potential…

  15. Handicapped Students Learn Language Skills with Communication Boards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detamore, Kristie L.; Lippke, Barbara A.

    1980-01-01

    Communication or picture boards are described as a successful alternative method for teaching language skills to mentally handicapped students. Reasons for using the communication board are pointed out, procedures for adapting the boards to meet classroom and student needs are considered, and requirements for board design are reviewed. (SBH)

  16. The effects of negative emotions on sensory perception: fear but not anger decreases tactile sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Nicholas J.; Schmeichel, Brandon J.

    2014-01-01

    Emotions and sensory perceptions are closely intertwined. Of the five senses, sight has been by far the most extensively studied sense in emotion research. Relatively less is known about how emotions influence the other four senses. Touch is essential for nonverbal communication in both humans and other animals. The current investigation tested competing hypotheses about the effect of fear on tactile perception. One hypothesis based on evolutionary considerations predicts that fear enhances sensory perception, including tactile sensitivity. A competing hypothesis based on research on peripheral psychophysiology predicts that fear should decrease tactile sensitivity. Two experiments that induced negative emotional states and measured two-point discrimination ability at the fingertip found that fear reduces tactile sensitivity relative to anger or a neutral control condition (Studies 1 and 2). These findings did not appear to be driven by participants’ naïve beliefs about the influence of emotions on touch (Study 3). The results represent the first evidence of the causal impact of emotional states on tactile sensitivity, are consistent with prior evidence for the peripheral physiological effects of fear, and offer novel empirical grounds for developing and advancing theories of emotional influences on sensory perception. PMID:25202299

  17. The effects of negative emotions on sensory perception: fear but not anger decreases tactile sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Nicholas J; Schmeichel, Brandon J

    2014-01-01

    Emotions and sensory perceptions are closely intertwined. Of the five senses, sight has been by far the most extensively studied sense in emotion research. Relatively less is known about how emotions influence the other four senses. Touch is essential for nonverbal communication in both humans and other animals. The current investigation tested competing hypotheses about the effect of fear on tactile perception. One hypothesis based on evolutionary considerations predicts that fear enhances sensory perception, including tactile sensitivity. A competing hypothesis based on research on peripheral psychophysiology predicts that fear should decrease tactile sensitivity. Two experiments that induced negative emotional states and measured two-point discrimination ability at the fingertip found that fear reduces tactile sensitivity relative to anger or a neutral control condition (Studies 1 and 2). These findings did not appear to be driven by participants' naïve beliefs about the influence of emotions on touch (Study 3). The results represent the first evidence of the causal impact of emotional states on tactile sensitivity, are consistent with prior evidence for the peripheral physiological effects of fear, and offer novel empirical grounds for developing and advancing theories of emotional influences on sensory perception.

  18. Using Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) in Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goertler, Senta

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how new and familiar computer technology tools can be used in a communicative language classroom. It begins by outlining the benefits and challenges of using such technology for language teaching in general, and it describes some sample activities that the author has used. Readers are shown how to implement various computer…

  19. Linguistic Analysis of Natural Language Communication with Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bozena Henisz

    Interaction with computers in natural language requires a language that is flexible and suited to the task. This study of natural dialogue was undertaken to reveal those characteristics which can make computer English more natural. Experiments were made in three modes of communication: face-to-face, terminal-to-terminal, and human-to-computer,…

  20. Language and Communication-Related Problems of Aviation Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushing, Steven

    A study of the problems posed by the use of natural language in various aspects of aviation is presented. The study, part of a larger investigation of the feasibility of voice input/output interfaces for communication in aviation, looks at representative real examples of accidents and near misses resulting from language confusions and omissions.…

  1. Communicative Language Testing: Current Issues and Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Luke

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses a range of current issues and future research possibilities in Communicative Language Testing (CLT) using, as its departure point, the key questions which emerged during the CLT symposium at the 2010 Language Testing Forum. The article begins with a summary of the 2010 symposium discussion in which three main issues related…

  2. Language Justice for Sign Language Peoples: The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batterbury, Sarah C. E.

    2012-01-01

    Sign Language Peoples (SLPs) across the world have developed their own languages and visuo-gestural-tactile cultures embodying their collective sense of Deafhood (Ladd 2003). Despite this, most nation-states treat their respective SLPs as disabled individuals, favoring disability benefits, cochlear implants, and mainstream education over language…

  3. SiSwati Communication and Culture Handbook. Peace Corps Language Handbook Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corum, Claudia W.; Kunene, E. C. L.

    The culture and communication handbook for siSwati is one of a series designed for Peace Corps volunteers using the language daily. It provides information about use of the language in everyday situations within the culture, focusing less on grammar than on appropriate communication in context. An introductory section suggests approaches and…

  4. Cultural Diversity and Information and Communication Impacts on Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Cheng; Lin, Chien-Hung; Chu, Ying-Chien

    2011-01-01

    Cultural diversity doesn't just entail differences in dress and language. It also encompasses different ways of thinking, managing, and communicating. The relationship between communication and culture is a very complex and intimate one. Cultures are created through communication; that is, communication is the means of human interaction through…

  5. Developing Learners' Second Language Communicative Competence through Active Learning: Clickers or Communicative Approach?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbatogun, Alaba Olaoluwakotansibe

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the impact of clickers, the communicative approach and the lecture method on the communicative competence development of learners who were taught English a second language (ESL). Ninety nine pupils from three primary schools participated in the study. Quasi-experimental non-randomised pre-test posttest…

  6. Active tactile exploration using a brain-machine-brain interface.

    PubMed

    O'Doherty, Joseph E; Lebedev, Mikhail A; Ifft, Peter J; Zhuang, Katie Z; Shokur, Solaiman; Bleuler, Hannes; Nicolelis, Miguel A L

    2011-10-05

    Brain-machine interfaces use neuronal activity recorded from the brain to establish direct communication with external actuators, such as prosthetic arms. It is hoped that brain-machine interfaces can be used to restore the normal sensorimotor functions of the limbs, but so far they have lacked tactile sensation. Here we report the operation of a brain-machine-brain interface (BMBI) that both controls the exploratory reaching movements of an actuator and allows signalling of artificial tactile feedback through intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) of the primary somatosensory cortex. Monkeys performed an active exploration task in which an actuator (a computer cursor or a virtual-reality arm) was moved using a BMBI that derived motor commands from neuronal ensemble activity recorded in the primary motor cortex. ICMS feedback occurred whenever the actuator touched virtual objects. Temporal patterns of ICMS encoded the artificial tactile properties of each object. Neuronal recordings and ICMS epochs were temporally multiplexed to avoid interference. Two monkeys operated this BMBI to search for and distinguish one of three visually identical objects, using the virtual-reality arm to identify the unique artificial texture associated with each. These results suggest that clinical motor neuroprostheses might benefit from the addition of ICMS feedback to generate artificial somatic perceptions associated with mechanical, robotic or even virtual prostheses.

  7. Teaching Languages in College: Communicative Proficiency and Cross-Cultural Issues. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Arnulfo G., Ed.

    A collection of papers concerning college language instruction and exploring issues related to promoting communicative skills and cross-cultural understanding includes the following titles: (1) "Languages at College: The Student and the Curriculum," by W. M. Rivers; (2) "Dimensions of Communicative Proficiency," by A. Ramirez; (3) "Communicative…

  8. Identifying children at risk for language impairment: screening of communication at 18 months.

    PubMed

    Bruce, B; Kornfält, R; Radeborg, K; Hansson, K; Nettelbladt, U

    2003-09-01

    To investigate the possibility of identifying children at risk for language impairment based on a new screening instrument to assess communication and language skills at 18 mo of age. At 18 mo, 58 children were assessed with a screening instrument for communication and language consisting of a professional assessment and a parents' questionnaire. Students of speech and language pathology, well trained in child language assessment, carried out the professional assessment, which was based on observations of play behaviour, interaction and expressive and receptive language skills. Of the 58 children, 43 attended a follow-up assessment of language skills at 54 mo of age. Nine children were considered to be at risk for language impairment at 18 mo and 10 children were evaluated as being at risk at 54 mo. A significant positive correlation was found between the professional evaluations at 18 mo and the language tests at 54 mo. Verbal comprehension and pretend play correlated significantly with the results on the language tests. A professional screening of communication and language at 18 mo of age is worthwhile for predicting problems in language development. The results further show that language comprehension and pretend play rather than expressive skills should be emphasized.

  9. Collaboration between Teachers and Speech and Language Therapists: Services for Primary School Children with Speech, Language and Communication Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Anna; McCormack, Jane; Smith-Tamaray, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Speech, language and communication needs (SLCN) are prevalent among primary school-aged children. Collaboration between speech and language therapists (SLTs) and teachers is beneficial for supporting children's communication skills. The aim of this study was to investigate the needs of both professional groups and their preferences for service…

  10. Neoliberal Paradoxes of Language Learning: Xenophobia and International Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubota, Ryuko

    2016-01-01

    Neoliberal ideology compels people to develop language skills as human capital. As English is considered to be the most useful language for global communication, learning, and teaching, English has been promoted in many countries. However, the belief that English connects people from diverse linguistic backgrounds in a borderless society…

  11. Language Variation and Limits to Communication. Technical Report No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Gary Francis

    Strategies are developed for understanding how language variation limits communication. Methods of measuring communication are discussed, including an intelligibility measure used in the Solomon Islands. The analysis of data gathered using communication measurement is discussed. The result of the analysis is a determination of the number of…

  12. Adaptation of Communicative Language Teaching Methodology to an English Textbook for English Language Learning of NIDA Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the researcher focuses on assessing the language learning benefits for students of adapting the communicative language teaching (CLT) methodology to an English textbook, a methodology that, according to Richards (2006), Littlewood (2008) and others, is influential in shaping second language learning worldwide. This paper is intended…

  13. Auditory-tactile echo-reverberating stuttering speech corrector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuniszyk-Jozkowiak, Wieslawa; Adamczyk, Bogdan

    1997-02-01

    The work presents the construction of a device, which transforms speech sounds into acoustical and tactile signals of echo and reverberation. Research has been done on the influence of the echo and reverberation, which are transmitted as acoustic and tactile stimuli, on speech fluency. Introducing the echo or reverberation into the auditory feedback circuit results in a reduction of stuttering. A bit less, but still significant corrective effects are observed while using the tactile channel for transmitting the signals. The use of joined auditory and tactile channels increases the effects of their corrective influence on the stutterers' speech. The results of the experiment justify the use of the tactile channel in the stutterers' therapy.

  14. Language Use in Asynchronous Computer-Mediated Communication in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Daphne Li-jung

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes how Chinese-English bilinguals in Taiwan use their languages in asynchronous computer-mediated communication, specifically, via Bulletin Board System (BBS) and email. The main data includes two types: emails collected from a social network and postings collected from two BBS websites. By examining patterns of language choice…

  15. Intercultural Communicative Competence: Creating Awareness and Promoting Skills in the Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    López-Rocha, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Intercultural Communicative Competence (ICC) needs to be incorporated in the language curriculum if educators hope to help students develop an appreciation for the language and culture studied, an awareness of their own culture, and the development of skills that will allow them to be competent, adaptable, communicators. The key question addressed…

  16. Exposure to Multiple Languages Enhances Communication Skills in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liberman, Zoe; Woodward, Amanda L.; Keysar, Boaz; Kinzler, Katherine D.

    2017-01-01

    Early exposure to multiple languages can enhance children's communication skills, even when children are effectively monolingual (Fan, Liberman, Keysar & Kinzler, 2015). Here we report evidence that the social benefits of multilingual exposure emerge in infancy. Sixteen-month-old infants participated in a communication task that required…

  17. Understanding and Implementing the CLT (Communicative Language Teaching) Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, George M.; Farell, Thomas S. C.

    2003-01-01

    The call to change seems to be a constant in education. In second language education, a constellation of changes have been proposed and, to some extent, implemented. This constellation of interconnected changes can perhaps best be termed a paradigm shift, with this paradigm fitting under the general umbrella of Communicative Language Teaching…

  18. An Effective Role of E-Learning Technology for English Language Teaching by Using Meta Communication Actors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Istifci, Ilknur; Lomidazde, Tamar; Demiray, Ugur

    2011-01-01

    Meta communication plays a key role in foreign language learning and teaching. Broadly speaking, meta communication is communication about communication. Meta communication is something that goes beyond communication and all language learners and teachers should be familiar with its existence. It should be stressed that meta communication which…

  19. Captured by Details: Sense-Making, Language and Communication in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noens, Ilse L. J.; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A.

    2005-01-01

    The communication of people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by a qualitative impairment in verbal and non-verbal communication. In past decades a growing body of descriptive studies has appeared on language and communication problems in ASD. Reviews suggest that the development of formal and semantic aspects is relatively…

  20. A case of cervico-brachial disorder due to tactile interpretation for deaf-blind persons.

    PubMed

    Kitahara, Teruyo; Nakamura, Kenji; Taoda, Kazushi; Shigeta, Hiromasa; Hirata, Mamoru

    2012-01-01

    We herein report a case of cervico-brachial disorder (CBD) due to long-term tactile interpreting. The patient was interviewed to investigate her past history, occupational history, work conditions and clinical course in detail. The case was diagnosed in accordance with the "Diagnostic Criteria for CBD 2007" established by the Research Association for CBD of the Japanese Society for Occupational Health. The patient was a 49-year-old female who has worked as a regular occupational instructor at a welfare work activity center for deaf people since April 22, 2010. Her primary job is to instruct and aid others in learning confectionery manufacturing and coffee shop tasks. She also performs tactile interpreting for two deaf-blind workers during a morning health check and during any meetings. On September 3, 2010, she interpreted by tactile signing for about three hours alone during a meeting, due to the absence of other interpreters. She developed severe pain in her back immediately after carrying out this interpretation, and the pain thereafter continued and developed in the upper extremities. She was diagnosed with a severe and prolonged case of the non-specific type of CBD. Interpretation by tactile signing may impose a heavier burden on the upper extremities, shoulders and neck than that imposed by common sign language. A shorter time of interpretation, ensuring the availability of rest time and supporting tools or methods for the upper extremities, are therefore considered to be necessary to prevent the incidence of CBD among interpreters using tactile signing.

  1. Verbal communication skills in typical language development: a case series.

    PubMed

    Abe, Camila Mayumi; Bretanha, Andreza Carolina; Bozza, Amanda; Ferraro, Gyovanna Junya Klinke; Lopes-Herrera, Simone Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate verbal communication skills in children with typical language development and ages between 6 and 8 years. Participants were 10 children of both genders in this age range without language alterations. A 30-minute video of each child's interaction with an adult (father and/or mother) was recorded, fully transcribed, and analyzed by two trained researchers in order to determine reliability. The recordings were analyzed according to a protocol that categorizes verbal communicative abilities, including dialogic, regulatory, narrative-discursive, and non-interactive skills. The frequency of use of each category of verbal communicative ability was analyzed (in percentage) for each subject. All subjects used more dialogical and regulatory skills, followed by narrative-discursive and non-interactive skills. This suggests that children in this age range are committed to continue dialog, which shows that children with typical language development have more dialogic interactions during spontaneous interactions with a familiar adult.

  2. Telesign: a videophone system for sign language distant communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozelle, Gerard; Preteux, Francoise J.; Viallet, Jean-Emmanuel

    1998-09-01

    This paper presents a low bit rate videophone system for deaf people communicating by means of sign language. Classic video conferencing systems have focused on head and shoulders sequences which are not well-suited for sign language video transmission since hearing impaired people also use their hands and arms to communicate. To address the above-mentioned functionality, we have developed a two-step content-based video coding system based on: (1) A segmentation step. Four or five video objects (VO) are extracted using a cooperative approach between color-based and morphological segmentation. (2) VO coding are achieved by using a standardized MPEG-4 video toolbox. Results of encoded sign language video sequences, presented for three target bit rates (32 kbits/s, 48 kbits/s and 64 kbits/s), demonstrate the efficiency of the approach presented in this paper.

  3. Overcoming language barriers in healthcare: A protocol for investigating safe and effective communication when patients or clinicians use a second language.

    PubMed

    Meuter, Renata F I; Gallois, Cindy; Segalowitz, Norman S; Ryder, Andrew G; Hocking, Julia

    2015-09-10

    Miscommunication in the healthcare sector can be life-threatening. The rising number of migrant patients and foreign-trained staff means that communication errors between a healthcare practitioner and patient when one or both are speaking a second language are increasingly likely. However, there is limited research that addresses this issue systematically. This protocol outlines a hospital-based study examining interactions between healthcare practitioners and their patients who either share or do not share a first language. Of particular interest are the nature and efficacy of communication in language-discordant conversations, and the degree to which risk is communicated. Our aim is to understand language barriers and miscommunication that may occur in healthcare settings between patients and healthcare practitioners, especially where at least one of the speakers is using a second (weaker) language. Eighty individual interactions between patients and practitioners who speak either English or Chinese (Mandarin or Cantonese) as their first language will be video recorded in a range of in- and out-patient departments at three hospitals in the Metro South area of Brisbane, Australia. All participants will complete a language background questionnaire. Patients will also complete a short survey rating the effectiveness of the interaction. Recordings will be transcribed and submitted to both quantitative and qualitative analyses to determine elements of the language used that might be particularly problematic and the extent to which language concordance and discordance impacts on the quality of the patient-practitioner consultation. Understanding the role that language plays in creating barriers to healthcare is critical for healthcare systems that are experiencing an increasing range of culturally and linguistically diverse populations both amongst patients and practitioners. The data resulting from this study will inform policy and practical solutions for

  4. Information and Communication Technology in Foreign Language Teaching: Leveraging the Internet to Make Language Learning Real

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Etáin

    2013-01-01

    The internet is the largest communications network in the world. It has become the virtual backbone of all communication. Therefore, it seems natural to leverage it as a major tool in any education involving communication skills, especially language skills. This chapter outlines a practitioner's experience on how this can be done in a foreign…

  5. Introduction of Communicative Language Teaching in Tourism in Cuba.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdes, Antonio Irizar; Jhones, Ada Chiappy

    1991-01-01

    Describes experimental program based on the ideas of the communicative approach to teaching English as a foreign language that was implemented at the Centre for Studies in Tourism in Havana in 1987. Special emphasis is on the difficulties encountered by teachers in a foreign language setting who had been previously used to teaching prescribed,…

  6. Variations in Figurative Language Use as a Function of Mode of Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boerger, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    Various studies have demonstrated that the mode by which people communicate affects the content of their messages. The present study examines the ways in which one aspect of language use, namely figurative language, differs as a function of mode of communication. Subjects worked together in pairs to build a small household appliance, with an…

  7. Are language and social communication intact in children with congenital visual impairment at school age?

    PubMed

    Tadić, Valerie; Pring, Linda; Dale, Naomi

    2010-06-01

    Development of children with congenital visual impairment (VI) has been associated with vulnerable socio-communicative outcomes often bearing striking similarities to those of sighted children with autism.(1) To date, very little is known about language and social communication in children with VI of normal intelligence. We examined the presentation of language and social communication of 15 children with VI and normal-range verbal intelligence, age 6-12 years, using a standardised language assessment and parental reports of everyday social and communicative behaviours. Their profiles were compared to those of typically developing sighted children of similar age and verbal ability. Compared to their sighted peers, and relative to their own good and potentially superior structural language skills, children with VI showed significantly poorer use of language for social purposes. Pragmatic language weaknesses were a part of a broader socio-communicative profile of difficulties, present in a substantial proportion of these children and consistent with the pattern found in sighted children with autism. There are ongoing socio-communicative and pragmatic language difficulties in children with congenital VI at school age, despite their good intellectual abilities and advanced linguistic skills. Further research is required to unpack the underlying causes and factors maintaining this vulnerability in such children.

  8. Comparison of tactile, auditory, and visual modality for brain-computer interface use: a case study with a patient in the locked-in state.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Tobias; Holz, Elisa M; Kübler, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a case study with a patient in the classic locked-in state, who currently has no means of independent communication. Following a user-centered approach, we investigated event-related potentials (ERP) elicited in different modalities for use in brain-computer interface (BCI) systems. Such systems could provide her with an alternative communication channel. To investigate the most viable modality for achieving BCI based communication, classic oddball paradigms (1 rare and 1 frequent stimulus, ratio 1:5) in the visual, auditory and tactile modality were conducted (2 runs per modality). Classifiers were built on one run and tested offline on another run (and vice versa). In these paradigms, the tactile modality was clearly superior to other modalities, displaying high offline accuracy even when classification was performed on single trials only. Consequently, we tested the tactile paradigm online and the patient successfully selected targets without any error. Furthermore, we investigated use of the visual or tactile modality for different BCI systems with more than two selection options. In the visual modality, several BCI paradigms were tested offline. Neither matrix-based nor so-called gaze-independent paradigms constituted a means of control. These results may thus question the gaze-independence of current gaze-independent approaches to BCI. A tactile four-choice BCI resulted in high offline classification accuracies. Yet, online use raised various issues. Although performance was clearly above chance, practical daily life use appeared unlikely when compared to other communication approaches (e.g., partner scanning). Our results emphasize the need for user-centered design in BCI development including identification of the best stimulus modality for a particular user. Finally, the paper discusses feasibility of EEG-based BCI systems for patients in classic locked-in state and compares BCI to other AT solutions that we also tested during the

  9. The Genetic Basis of Thought Disorder and Language and Communication Disturbances in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Deborah L.; Coleman, Michael J.; Sung, Heejong; Ji, Fei; Matthysse, Steven; Mendell, Nancy R.; Titone, Debra

    2009-01-01

    Thought disorder as well as language and communication disturbances are associated with schizophrenia and are over-represented in clinically unaffected relatives of schizophrenics. All three kinds of dysfunction involve some element of deviant verbalizations, most notably, semantic anomalies. Of particular importance, thought disorder characterized primarily by deviant verbalizations has a higher recurrence in relatives of schizophrenic patients than schizophrenia itself. These findings suggest that deviant verbalizations may be more penetrant expressions of schizophrenia susceptibility genes than schizophrenia. This paper reviews the evidence documenting the presence of thought, language and communication disorders in schizophrenic patients and in their first-degree relatives. This familial aggregation potentially implicates genetic factors in the etiology of thought disorder, language anomalies, and communication disturbances in schizophrenia families. We also present two examples of ways in which thought, language and communication disorders can enrich genetic studies, including those involving schizophrenia. PMID:20161689

  10. Linkage between Free Exploratory Movements and Subjective Tactile Ratings.

    PubMed

    Yokosaka, Takumi; Kuroki, Scinob; Watanabe, Junji; Nishida, Shinya

    2017-01-01

    We actively move our hands and eyes when exploring the external world and gaining information about object's attributes. Previous studies showing that how we touch might be related to how we felt led us to consider whether we could decode observers' subjective tactile experiences only by analyzing their exploratory movements without explicitly asking how they perceived. However, in those studies, explicit judgment tasks were performed about specific tactile attributes that were prearranged by experimenters. Here, we systematically investigated whether exploratory movements can explain tactile ratings even when participants do not need to judge any tactile attributes. While measuring both hand and eye movements, we asked participants to touch materials freely without judging any specific tactile attributes (free-touch task) or to evaluate one of four tactile attributes (roughness, hardness, slipperiness, and temperature). We found that tactile ratings in the judgment tasks correlated with exploratory movements even in the free-touch task and that eye movements as well as hand movements correlated with tactile ratings. These results might open up the possibility of decoding tactile experiences by exploratory movements.

  11. Study Abroad and Intercultural Communication. The Challenge of Communication. ACTFL Review of Foreign Language Education, Vol. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourque, Jane M.

    Preparation for study abroad is a valid part of the foreign language program. One advantage of study abroad is the motivational focus it gives to home-based foreign languages programs. The possibility of participating in the foreign culture and actually using the language are incentives. Teaching intercultural communication and understanding is a…

  12. Communicative English Language Teaching in Egypt: Classroom Practice and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Mona Kamal; Ibrahim, Yehia A.

    2017-01-01

    Following a "mixed methods" approach, this research is designed to examine whether teaching English as a foreign language (EFL) in Egypt's public schools matches the communicative English language teaching (CELT) approach. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from 50 classroom observations, 100 questionnaire responses from…

  13. The Effects of Electronic Communication on American Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Erin; Kozak, L. Viola; Santiago, Roberto; Stephen, Anika

    2012-01-01

    Technological and language innovation often flow in concert with one another. Casual observation by researchers has shown that electronic communication memes, in the form of abbreviations, have found their way into spoken English. This study focuses on the current use of electronic modes of communication, such as cell smartphones, and e-mail, and…

  14. 49 CFR 551.37 - Language of communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Language of communications. 551.37 Section 551.37 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY... knowledge and belief. The translator shall sign the certificate in ink and state his full legal name...

  15. 49 CFR 551.37 - Language of communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Language of communications. 551.37 Section 551.37 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY... knowledge and belief. The translator shall sign the certificate in ink and state his full legal name...

  16. 49 CFR 551.37 - Language of communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Language of communications. 551.37 Section 551.37 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY... knowledge and belief. The translator shall sign the certificate in ink and state his full legal name...

  17. 49 CFR 551.37 - Language of communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Language of communications. 551.37 Section 551.37 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY... knowledge and belief. The translator shall sign the certificate in ink and state his full legal name...

  18. 49 CFR 551.37 - Language of communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Language of communications. 551.37 Section 551.37 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY... knowledge and belief. The translator shall sign the certificate in ink and state his full legal name...

  19. The Contribution of Early Communication Quality to Low-Income Children's Language Success.

    PubMed

    Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Adamson, Lauren B; Bakeman, Roger; Owen, Margaret Tresch; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Pace, Amy; Yust, Paula K S; Suma, Katharine

    2015-07-01

    The disparity in the amount and quality of language that low-income children hear relative to their more-affluent peers is often referred to as the 30-million-word gap. Here, we expand the literature about this disparity by reporting the relative contributions of the quality of early parent-child communication and the quantity of language input in 60 low-income families. Including both successful and struggling language learners from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, we noted wide variation in the quality of nonverbal and verbal interactions (symbol-infused joint engagement, routines and rituals, fluent and connected communication) at 24 months, which accounted for 27% of the variance in expressive language 1 year later. These indicators of quality were considerably more potent predictors of later language ability than was the quantity of mothers' words during the interaction or sensitive parenting. Bridging the word gap requires attention to how caregivers and children establish a communication foundation within low-income families. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Exploration of the Effectiveness of Tactile Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldajani, Neda F.

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the tactile method and aims to explore the effectiveness of using tactile methods with students who are blind and visually impaired. Although there was limited research about using this strategy, all of the research agrees that using tactile is one of the best ways for students who are blind and visually impaired to be…

  1. Communicating Finnish Quietude: A Pedagogical Process for Discovering Implicit Cultural Meanings in Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Michael; Carbaugh, Donal; Nurmikari-Berry, Marjatta

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a pedagogical approach to integrating intercultural communication into language learning. The focus is on the development of competence in discovering and interpreting cultural meanings when communicating in English as an international language. The analyses of data which students produced illustrates how discovering implicit…

  2. "We communicated that way for a reason": language practices and language ideologies among hearing adults whose parents are deaf.

    PubMed

    Pizer, Ginger; Walters, Keith; Meier, Richard P

    2013-01-01

    Families with deaf parents and hearing children are often bilingual and bimodal, with both a spoken language and a signed one in regular use among family members. When interviewed, 13 American hearing adults with deaf parents reported widely varying language practices, sign language abilities, and social affiliations with Deaf and Hearing communities. Despite this variation, the interviewees' moral judgments of their own and others' communicative behavior suggest that these adults share a language ideology concerning the obligation of all family members to expend effort to overcome potential communication barriers. To our knowledge, such a language ideology is not similarly pervasive among spoken-language bilingual families, raising the question of whether there is something unique about family bimodal bilingualism that imposes different rights and responsibilities on family members than spoken-language family bilingualism does. This ideology unites an otherwise diverse group of interviewees, where each one preemptively denied being a "typical CODA [children of deaf adult]."

  3. Developmental pathways of language and social communication problems in 9-11 year olds: unpicking the heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Roy, P; Chiat, S

    2014-10-01

    This paper addressed relations between language, social communication and behaviour, and their trajectories, in a sample of 9-11-year-olds (n=91) who had been referred to clinical services with concerns about language as pre-schoolers. Children were first assessed at 2½-4 years, and again 18 months later. Results revealed increasing differentiation of profiles across time. By 9-11 years, 11% of the sample had social communication deficits, 27% language impairment, 20% both, and 42% neither. The size of group differences on key language and social communication measures was striking (2-3 standard deviations). Social communication deficits included autistic mannerisms and were associated with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (SEBDs); in contrast, language impairment was associated with hyperactivity only. Children with both language and social communication problems had the most severe difficulties on all measures. These distinct school-age profiles emerged gradually. Investigation of developmental trajectories revealed that the three impaired groups did not differ significantly on language or SEBD measures when the children were first seen. Only low performance on the Early Sociocognitive Battery, a new measure of social responsiveness, joint attention and symbolic understanding, differentiated the children with and without social communication problems at 9-11 years. These findings suggest that some children who first present with language delay or difficulties have undetected Autism Spectrum Disorders which may or may not be accompanied by language impairment in the longer term. This new evidence of developmental trajectories starting in the preschool years throws further light on the nature of social communication and language problems in school-age children, relations between language impairment and SEBDs, and on the nature of early language development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Case Study of College Level Second Language Teachers' Perceptions and Implementations of Communicative Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Chiu-Yin

    2012-01-01

    Previous research studies have indicated that some educators do not advocate Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) because of their misunderstanding of the methodology. This article explores the relationship between college-level second language (L2) educators' perceptions and their implementations of CLT. The results of this study show that the…

  5. Promoting Social Communication in a Child with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Handley, Roderick D.; Radley, Keith C.; Lum, John D. K.

    2016-01-01

    Social difficulties represent a major area of concern in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Social skills interventions targeting communication or language skills of children with SLI have been generally ineffective. The current study tested the efficacy of a social skills intervention consisting of multiple behavioral interventions…

  6. Fingertip-shaped optical tactile sensor for robotic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begej, Stefan

    1988-01-01

    Progress is described regarding the development of a high-density, fiber-optic, fingertip-shaped tactile sensor specifically designed for application to dexterous robotics. The sensor operates on optical principles involving the frustration of total internal reflection at a waveguide/elastomer interface and generates a grey-scale tactile image that represents the normal forces of contact. The sensor contains 256 taxels (sensing sites) distributed in a dual-density pattern that includes a tactile fovea near the tip which measures 13 mm x 13 mm and contains 169 taxels. The details regarding the design and construction of this tactile sensor are presented, in addition to photographs of tactile imprints.

  7. Summary of Tactile User Interfaces Techniques and Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spirkovska, Lilly

    2005-01-01

    Mental workload can be de.ned as the ratio of demand to allocated resources. Multiple-resource theory stresses the importance of distribution of tasks and information across various human sensory channels to reduce mental workload. One sensory channel that has been of interest since the late 1800s is touch. Unlike the more typical displays that target vision or hearing, tactile displays present information to the user s sense of touch. We present a summary of different methods for tactile display, historic and more recent systems that incorporate tactile display for information presentation, advantages and disadvantages of targeting the tactile channel, and future directions in tactile display research.

  8. Summary of Tactile User Interfaces Techniques and Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spirkovska, Lilly

    2004-01-01

    Mental workload can be defined as the ratio of demand to allocated resources. Multiple- resource theory stresses the importance of distribution of tasks and information across various sensory channels of the human to reduce mental workload. One sensory channel that has been of interest since the late 1800s is touch. Unlike the more typical displays that target vision or hearing, tactile displays present information to the user s sense of touch. We present a summary of different methods for tactile display; historic and more recent systems that incorporate tactile display for information presentation; advantages and disadvantages of targeting the tactile channel; and future directions in tactile display research.

  9. A Tactile Carina Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grice, Noreen A.; Mutchler, M.

    2010-01-01

    Astronomy was once considered a science restricted to fully sighted participants. But in the past two decades, accessible books with large print/Braille and touchable pictures have brought astronomy and space science to the hands and mind's eye of students, regardless of their visual ability. A new universally-designed tactile image featuring the Hubble mosaic of the Carina Nebula is being presented at this conference. The original dataset was obtained with Hubble's Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) hydrogen-alpha filter in 2005. It became an instant icon after being infused with additional color information from ground-based CTIO data, and released as Hubble's 17th anniversary image. Our tactile Carina Nebula promotes multi-mode learning about the entire life-cycle of stars, which is dramatically illustrated in this Hubble mosaic. When combined with descriptive text in print and Braille, the visual and tactile components seamlessly reach both sighted and blind populations. Specific touchable features of the tactile image identify the shapes and orientations of objects in the Carina Nebula that include star-forming regions, jets, pillars, dark and light globules, star clusters, shocks/bubbles, the Keyhole Nebula, and stellar death (Eta Carinae). Visit our poster paper to touch the Carina Nebula!

  10. Plain Language to Communicate Physical Activity Information: A Website Content Analysis.

    PubMed

    Paige, Samantha R; Black, David R; Mattson, Marifran; Coster, Daniel C; Stellefson, Michael

    2018-04-01

    Plain language techniques are health literacy universal precautions intended to enhance health care system navigation and health outcomes. Physical activity (PA) is a popular topic on the Internet, yet it is unknown if information is communicated in plain language. This study examined how plain language techniques are included in PA websites, and if the use of plain language techniques varies according to search procedures (keyword, search engine) and website host source (government, commercial, educational/organizational). Three keywords ("physical activity," "fitness," and "exercise") were independently entered into three search engines (Google, Bing, and Yahoo) to locate a nonprobability sample of websites ( N = 61). Fourteen plain language techniques were coded within each website to examine content formatting, clarity and conciseness, and multimedia use. Approximately half ( M = 6.59; SD = 1.68) of the plain language techniques were included in each website. Keyword physical activity resulted in websites with fewer clear and concise plain language techniques ( p < .05), whereas fitness resulted in websites with more clear and concise techniques ( p < .01). Plain language techniques did not vary by search engine or the website host source. Accessing PA information that is easy to understand and behaviorally oriented may remain a challenge for users. Transdisciplinary collaborations are needed to optimize plain language techniques while communicating online PA information.

  11. Practical Knowledge Growth in Communicative Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Communicative language teaching (CLT) is promoted in teacher education programmes around the world, although the appropriateness of this methodology in contexts outside the English-speaking West has been questioned, often from a theoretical perspective. In fact, very little empirical research has been conducted into the practical knowledge of CLT…

  12. Discrimination of Dynamic Tactile Contact by Temporally Precise Event Sensing in Spiking Neuromorphic Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wang Wei; Kukreja, Sunil L.; Thakor, Nitish V.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a neuromorphic tactile encoding methodology that utilizes a temporally precise event-based representation of sensory signals. We introduce a novel concept where touch signals are characterized as patterns of millisecond precise binary events to denote pressure changes. This approach is amenable to a sparse signal representation and enables the extraction of relevant features from thousands of sensing elements with sub-millisecond temporal precision. We also proposed measures adopted from computational neuroscience to study the information content within the spiking representations of artificial tactile signals. Implemented on a state-of-the-art 4096 element tactile sensor array with 5.2 kHz sampling frequency, we demonstrate the classification of transient impact events while utilizing 20 times less communication bandwidth compared to frame based representations. Spiking sensor responses to a large library of contact conditions were also synthesized using finite element simulations, illustrating an 8-fold improvement in information content and a 4-fold reduction in classification latency when millisecond-precise temporal structures are available. Our research represents a significant advance, demonstrating that a neuromorphic spatiotemporal representation of touch is well suited to rapid identification of critical contact events, making it suitable for dynamic tactile sensing in robotic and prosthetic applications. PMID:28197065

  13. Viewing the body modulates tactile receptive fields.

    PubMed

    Haggard, Patrick; Christakou, Anastasia; Serino, Andrea

    2007-06-01

    Tactile discrimination performance depends on the receptive field (RF) size of somatosensory cortical (SI) neurons. Psychophysical masking effects can reveal the RF of an idealized "virtual" somatosensory neuron. Previous studies show that top-down factors strongly affect tactile discrimination performance. Here, we show that non-informative vision of the touched body part influences tactile discrimination by modulating tactile RFs. Ten subjects performed spatial discrimination between touch locations on the forearm. Performance was improved when subjects saw their forearm compared to viewing a neutral object in the same location. The extent of visual information was relevant, since restricted view of the forearm did not have this enhancing effect. Vibrotactile maskers were placed symmetrically on either side of the tactile target locations, at two different distances. Overall, masking significantly impaired discrimination performance, but the spatial gradient of masking depended on what subjects viewed. Viewing the body reduced the effect of distant maskers, but enhanced the effect of close maskers, as compared to viewing a neutral object. We propose that viewing the body improves functional touch by sharpening tactile RFs in an early somatosensory map. Top-down modulation of lateral inhibition could underlie these effects.

  14. Language and Music as Communication: A Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Roger; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Roger Brown, Diana Deutsch, Warren Benson, and Ruth Day comment on the similarities and differences between verbal language and music as forms of communication. This discussion occurred at the first session of the National Symposium on the Applications of Psychology to the Teaching and Learning of Music, Ann Arbor. (SJL)

  15. Hand/Wrist Disorders among Sign Language Communicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Susan M.; Kress, Tyler A.; Hart, William M.

    2000-01-01

    A study assessed the frequency of self-reported hand/wrist problems among 184 sign-language communicators. Fifty-nine percent reported experiencing hand/wrist problems, 26 percent reported experiencing hand/wrist problems severe enough to limit their ability to work, and 18 percent reported a medical diagnosis of wrist tendinitis, carpal tunnel…

  16. Thinking about touch facilitates tactile but not auditory processing.

    PubMed

    Anema, Helen A; de Haan, Alyanne M; Gebuis, Titia; Dijkerman, H Chris

    2012-05-01

    Mental imagery is considered to be important for normal conscious experience. It is most frequently investigated in the visual, auditory and motor domain (imagination of movement), while the studies on tactile imagery (imagination of touch) are scarce. The current study investigated the effect of tactile and auditory imagery on the left/right discriminations of tactile and auditory stimuli. In line with our hypothesis, we observed that after tactile imagery, tactile stimuli were responded to faster as compared to auditory stimuli and vice versa. On average, tactile stimuli were responded to faster as compared to auditory stimuli, and stimuli in the imagery condition were on average responded to slower as compared to baseline performance (left/right discrimination without imagery assignment). The former is probably due to the spatial and somatotopic proximity of the fingers receiving the taps and the thumbs performing the response (button press), the latter to a dual task cost. Together, these results provide the first evidence of a behavioural effect of a tactile imagery assignment on the perception of real tactile stimuli.

  17. Tactility and the body in early Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Elisabeth

    2005-03-01

    If visual inspection of corpses was central to the development of anatomy in modern Europe, one may ask which of the senses was important for the emergence of the predominant currents of scholarly medical knowledge and practice in third- and second-century B.C.E. China? This article argues that it was tactile perception prompted by a tactile exploration of living bodies. The evidence, derived from a close reading of the Mawangdui medical manuscripts, the 105th chapter of the Records of the Historian, and selected passages from the Huang Di's Inner Canon, points to three important trends: first, the tactile exploration of the extremities led to a rich vocabulary of compound words for pain as localized in specific body parts; second, the tactile exploration of the mai gave rise to an even richer vocabulary on qualities of touch in pulse diagnostics; and third, the tactile exploration of the abdomen led to the assessment of the quality of the internal viscera with words that generally were used for describing the tactile quality of skin and flesh. This finding may appear surprising in the light of later developments during the dynastic history of Chinese medicine where tactile exploration of abdomen and extremities would appear unseemly. The author suggests that extensive tactile explorations of the body were possible before Confucius' teachings became a predominant aspect of state ideology.

  18. Successful communication does not drive language development: Evidence from adult homesign.

    PubMed

    Carrigan, Emily M; Coppola, Marie

    2017-01-01

    Constructivist accounts of language acquisition maintain that the language learner aims to match a target provided by mature users. Communicative problem solving in the context of social interaction and matching a linguistic target or model are presented as primary mechanisms driving the language development process. However, research on the development of homesign gesture systems by deaf individuals who have no access to a linguistic model suggests that aspects of language can develop even when typical input is unavailable. In four studies, we examined the role of communication in the genesis of homesign systems by assessing how well homesigners' family members comprehend homesign productions. In Study 1, homesigners' mothers showed poorer comprehension of homesign descriptions produced by their now-adult deaf child than of spoken Spanish descriptions of the same events produced by one of their adult hearing children. Study 2 found that the younger a family member was when they first interacted with their deaf relative, the better they understood the homesigner. Despite this, no family member comprehended homesign productions at levels that would be expected if family members co-generated homesign systems with their deaf relative via communicative interactions. Study 3 found that mothers' poor or incomplete comprehension of homesign was not a result of incomplete homesign descriptions. In Study 4 we demonstrated that Deaf native users of American Sign Language, who had no previous experience with the homesigners or their homesign systems, nevertheless comprehended homesign productions out of context better than the homesigners' mothers. This suggests that homesign has comprehensible structure, to which mothers and other family members are not fully sensitive. Taken together, these studies show that communicative problem solving is not responsible for the development of structure in homesign systems. The role of this mechanism must therefore be re-evaluated in

  19. Learning tactile skills through curious exploration

    PubMed Central

    Pape, Leo; Oddo, Calogero M.; Controzzi, Marco; Cipriani, Christian; Förster, Alexander; Carrozza, Maria C.; Schmidhuber, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    We present curiosity-driven, autonomous acquisition of tactile exploratory skills on a biomimetic robot finger equipped with an array of microelectromechanical touch sensors. Instead of building tailored algorithms for solving a specific tactile task, we employ a more general curiosity-driven reinforcement learning approach that autonomously learns a set of motor skills in absence of an explicit teacher signal. In this approach, the acquisition of skills is driven by the information content of the sensory input signals relative to a learner that aims at representing sensory inputs using fewer and fewer computational resources. We show that, from initially random exploration of its environment, the robotic system autonomously develops a small set of basic motor skills that lead to different kinds of tactile input. Next, the system learns how to exploit the learned motor skills to solve supervised texture classification tasks. Our approach demonstrates the feasibility of autonomous acquisition of tactile skills on physical robotic platforms through curiosity-driven reinforcement learning, overcomes typical difficulties of engineered solutions for active tactile exploration and underactuated control, and provides a basis for studying developmental learning through intrinsic motivation in robots. PMID:22837748

  20. Intercultural Communicative Competence: Exploring English Language Teachers' Beliefs and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Tony Johnstone; Sachdev, Itesh

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation into the beliefs and practices of experienced teachers in the USA, UK and France relating to the application of a model of intercultural communicative competence (ICC) to English language programmes. Broadly, "intercultural" approaches to language learning and teaching are strongly advocated in both the…

  1. Language and Communication Difficulties in Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Karen; Freer, Jackie; Furlong, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    Background: Studies of the prison population suggest that the numbers of prisoners with language and communication disorders is higher than that of the overall population. However, the prison population is heterogeneous and it is important to focus on specific areas of the population. This study focuses on juvenile offenders. Aims: The study aimed…

  2. Analytic study of the Tadoma method: language abilities of three deaf-blind subjects.

    PubMed

    Chomsky, C

    1986-09-01

    This study reports on the linguistic abilities of 3 adult deaf-blind subjects. The subjects perceive spoken language through touch, placing a hand on the face of the speaker and monitoring the speaker's articulatory motions, a method of speechreading known as Tadoma. Two of the subjects, deaf-blind since infancy, acquired language and learned to speak through this tactile system; the third subject has used Tadoma since becoming deaf-blind at age 7. Linguistic knowledge and productive language are analyzed, using standardized tests and several tests constructed for this study. The subjects' language abilities prove to be extensive, comparing favorably in many areas with hearing individuals. The results illustrate a relatively minor effect of limited language exposure on eventual language achievement. The results also demonstrate the adequacy of the tactile sense, in these highly trained Tadoma users, for transmitting information about spoken language sufficient to support the development of language and learning to produce speech.

  3. Developing Communicative Skills in the Second-Language Classroom: A Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papalia, Anthony

    1982-01-01

    Meaningful, comprehensible instructional materials that take into consideration the student's proficiency level are recommended for teaching communicative skills. Formulae developed for teaching various language functions (forms of socializing, showing emotion, judging, and getting information) and functional language rhetorical strategies are…

  4. Indirect Language Stimulation (ILS): AAC Techniques To Promote Communication Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boose, Martha A.; Stinnett, Tessa

    This report discusses the outcomes of a study that used indirect language stimulation techniques and modeling to encourage language development in a 5-year-old child with cerebral palsy. Initially, the student's communication system had very severe limitations. He used fewer than 10 spoken words which were unintelligible to most listeners. Both…

  5. The Four Pillars of Communication: Language Skills of Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jose, G. Rexlin; Raja, B. William Dharma

    2011-01-01

    Language is an effective tool of human communication system. It is the basis for social, cultural, aesthetical, spiritual and economic development and growth of every human being. It is the destiny of any professional who is hardly in need of an excellent command over English language. Every organization demands effective and excellent…

  6. The Cognitive and Neural Correlates of Tactile Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallace, Alberto; Spence, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Tactile memory systems are involved in the storage and retrieval of information about stimuli that impinge on the body surface and objects that people explore haptically. Here, the authors review the behavioral, neuropsychological, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging research on tactile memory. This body of research reveals that tactile memory…

  7. A Tactile Sensor Network System Using a Multiple Sensor Platform with a Dedicated CMOS-LSI for Robot Applications.

    PubMed

    Shao, Chenzhong; Tanaka, Shuji; Nakayama, Takahiro; Hata, Yoshiyuki; Bartley, Travis; Nonomura, Yutaka; Muroyama, Masanori

    2017-08-28

    Robot tactile sensation can enhance human-robot communication in terms of safety, reliability and accuracy. The final goal of our project is to widely cover a robot body with a large number of tactile sensors, which has significant advantages such as accurate object recognition, high sensitivity and high redundancy. In this study, we developed a multi-sensor system with dedicated Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) Large-Scale Integration (LSI) circuit chips (referred to as "sensor platform LSI") as a framework of a serial bus-based tactile sensor network system. The sensor platform LSI supports three types of sensors: an on-chip temperature sensor, off-chip capacitive and resistive tactile sensors, and communicates with a relay node via a bus line. The multi-sensor system was first constructed on a printed circuit board to evaluate basic functions of the sensor platform LSI, such as capacitance-to-digital and resistance-to-digital conversion. Then, two kinds of external sensors, nine sensors in total, were connected to two sensor platform LSIs, and temperature, capacitive and resistive sensing data were acquired simultaneously. Moreover, we fabricated flexible printed circuit cables to demonstrate the multi-sensor system with 15 sensor platform LSIs operating simultaneously, which showed a more realistic implementation in robots. In conclusion, the multi-sensor system with up to 15 sensor platform LSIs on a bus line supporting temperature, capacitive and resistive sensing was successfully demonstrated.

  8. Neural systems supporting linguistic structure, linguistic experience, and symbolic communication in sign language and gesture.

    PubMed

    Newman, Aaron J; Supalla, Ted; Fernandez, Nina; Newport, Elissa L; Bavelier, Daphne

    2015-09-15

    Sign languages used by deaf communities around the world possess the same structural and organizational properties as spoken languages: In particular, they are richly expressive and also tightly grammatically constrained. They therefore offer the opportunity to investigate the extent to which the neural organization for language is modality independent, as well as to identify ways in which modality influences this organization. The fact that sign languages share the visual-manual modality with a nonlinguistic symbolic communicative system-gesture-further allows us to investigate where the boundaries lie between language and symbolic communication more generally. In the present study, we had three goals: to investigate the neural processing of linguistic structure in American Sign Language (using verbs of motion classifier constructions, which may lie at the boundary between language and gesture); to determine whether we could dissociate the brain systems involved in deriving meaning from symbolic communication (including both language and gesture) from those specifically engaged by linguistically structured content (sign language); and to assess whether sign language experience influences the neural systems used for understanding nonlinguistic gesture. The results demonstrated that even sign language constructions that appear on the surface to be similar to gesture are processed within the left-lateralized frontal-temporal network used for spoken languages-supporting claims that these constructions are linguistically structured. Moreover, although nonsigners engage regions involved in human action perception to process communicative, symbolic gestures, signers instead engage parts of the language-processing network-demonstrating an influence of experience on the perception of nonlinguistic stimuli.

  9. Accelerating Early Language Development with Multi-Sensory Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorn, Piia M.; Kakkuri, Irma; Karvonen, Pirkko; Leppanen, Paavo H. T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the outcome of a multi-sensory intervention on infant language skills. A programme titled "Rhyming Game and Exercise Club", which included kinaesthetic-tactile mother-child rhyming games performed in natural joint attention situations, was intended to accelerate Finnish six- to eight-month-old infants' language development. The…

  10. Audio-Visual, Visuo-Tactile and Audio-Tactile Correspondences in Preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Nava, Elena; Grassi, Massimo; Turati, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Interest in crossmodal correspondences has recently seen a renaissance thanks to numerous studies in human adults. Yet, still very little is known about crossmodal correspondences in children, particularly in sensory pairings other than audition and vision. In the current study, we investigated whether 4-5-year-old children match auditory pitch to the spatial motion of visual objects (audio-visual condition). In addition, we investigated whether this correspondence extends to touch, i.e., whether children also match auditory pitch to the spatial motion of touch (audio-tactile condition) and the spatial motion of visual objects to touch (visuo-tactile condition). In two experiments, two different groups of children were asked to indicate which of two stimuli fitted best with a centrally located third stimulus (Experiment 1), or to report whether two presented stimuli fitted together well (Experiment 2). We found sensitivity to the congruency of all of the sensory pairings only in Experiment 2, suggesting that only under specific circumstances can these correspondences be observed. Our results suggest that pitch-height correspondences for audio-visual and audio-tactile combinations may still be weak in preschool children, and speculate that this could be due to immature linguistic and auditory cues that are still developing at age five.

  11. The communication of emotion via touch.

    PubMed

    Hertenstein, Matthew J; Holmes, Rachel; McCullough, Margaret; Keltner, Dacher

    2009-08-01

    The study of emotional communication has focused predominantly on the facial and vocal channels but has ignored the tactile channel. Participants in the current study were allowed to touch an unacquainted partner on the whole body to communicate distinct emotions. Of interest was how accurately the person being touched decoded the intended emotions without seeing the tactile stimulation. The data indicated that anger, fear, disgust, love, gratitude, and sympathy were decoded at greater than chance levels, as well as happiness and sadness, 2 emotions that have not been shown to be communicated by touch to date. Moreover, fine-grained coding documented specific touch behaviors associated with different emotions. The findings are discussed in terms of their contribution to the study of emotion-related communication. 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Simulation/Gaming and the Acquisition of Communicative Competence in Another Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Carbonell, Amparo; Rising, Beverly; Montero, Begona; Watts, Frances

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of communicative competence in second language acquisition focuses on a theoretical and practical meshing of simulation and gaming methodology with theories of foreign language acquisition, including task-based learning, interaction, and comprehensible input. Describes experiments conducted with computer-assisted simulations in…

  13. Communication in the second and third year of life: Relationships between nonverbal social skills and language.

    PubMed

    Cochet, Hélène; Byrne, Richard W

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to investigate developmental continuities between a range of early social and communicative abilities (including gestural communication) and language acquisition in children aged between 11 and 41 months. Initiation of joint attention and imitation were strongly correlated to language comprehension and production. Moreover, the analysis of different communicative gestures revealed significant relationships between language development and the production of symbolic gestures, declarative pointing (declarative informative pointing in particular), and head nodding. Other gestures such as imperative pointing, showing, and head shaking were not found to correlate with language level. Our results also suggest that distinct processes are involved in the development of language comprehension and production, and highlight the importance of considering various characteristics of children's early communicative skills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Meeting the needs of children and young people with speech, language and communication difficulties.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Geoff; Dockrell, Julie; Desforges, Martin; Law, James; Peacey, Nick

    2010-01-01

    The UK government set up a review of provision for children and young people with the full range of speech, language and communication needs led by a Member of Parliament, John Bercow. A research study was commissioned to provide empirical evidence to inform the Bercow Review. To examine the efficiency and effectiveness of different arrangements for organizing and providing services for children and young people with needs associated with primary speech, language and communication difficulties. Six Local Authorities in England and associated Primary Care Trusts were selected to represent a range of locations reflecting geographic spread, urban/rural and prevalence of children with speech, language and communication difficulties. In each case study, interviews were held with the senior Local Authority manager for special educational needs and a Primary Care Trust senior manager for speech and language therapy. A further 23 head teachers or heads of specialist provision for speech, language and communication difficulties were also interviewed and policy documents were examined. A thematic analysis of the interviews produced four main themes: identification of children and young people with speech, language and communication difficulties; meeting their needs; monitoring and evaluation; and research and evaluation. There were important differences between Local Authorities and Primary Care Trusts in the collection, analysis and use of data, in particular. There were also differences between Local Authority/Primary Care Trust pairs, especially in the degree to which they collaborated in developing policy and implementing practice. This study has demonstrated a lack of consistency across Local Authorities and Primary Care Trusts. Optimizing provision to meet the needs of children and young people with speech, language and communication difficulties will require concerted action, with leadership from central government. The study was used by the Bercow Review whose

  15. Acquisition of graphic communication by a young girl without comprehension of spoken language.

    PubMed

    von Tetzchner, S; Øvreeide, K D; Jørgensen, K K; Ormhaug, B M; Oxholm, B; Warme, R

    To describe a graphic-mode communication intervention involving a girl with intellectual impairment and autism who did not develop comprehension of spoken language. The aim was to teach graphic-mode vocabulary that reflected her interests, preferences, and the activities and routines of her daily life, by providing sufficient cues to the meanings of the graphic representations so that she would not need to comprehend spoken instructions. An individual case study design was selected, including the use of written records, participant observation, and registration of the girl's graphic vocabulary and use of graphic signs and other communicative expressions. While the girl's comprehension (and hence use) of spoken language remained lacking over a 3-year period, she acquired an active use of over 80 photographs and pictograms. The girl was able to cope better with the cognitive and attentional requirements of graphic communication than those of spoken language and manual signs, which had been focused in earlier interventions. Her achievements demonstrate that it is possible for communication-impaired children to learn to use an augmentative and alternative communication system without speech comprehension, provided the intervention utilizes functional strategies and non-language cues to the meaning of the graphic representations that are taught.

  16. The Impact of Language and Culture on Technical Communication in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohl, John R.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Analyzes ambiguity as a factor in Japanese language and culture as they affect technical communication. Presents and interprets results of a survey of Japanese and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists concerning the kinds of communication products they produce and use and their ideas of what should be taught in technical communication courses.…

  17. [Neuropsychological profiles associated with the children's oral language disorders].

    PubMed

    Conde-Guzón, P A; Conde-Guzón, M J; Bartolomé-Albistegui, M T; Quirós-Expósito, P

    Oral language disorders constitute a group of syndromes with a high prevalence among the childhood population. They form a heterogeneous group that ranges from simple problems in articulating a phoneme (dyslalias) to severe disorders affecting communication, such as children's dysarthrias and aphasias. In this paper our objective is to review the neuropsychological profiles of children who manifest different oral language disorders. Due to the wide range of clinical pictures and causations covered by children's oral language disorders, very few systematic reviews have been conducted to obtain an overall view of the neuropsychological profiles of these children. Although the linguistic signs and symptoms of these disorders are well understood, the associated neuropsychological signs and symptoms have not been studied. In some cases, these neuropsychological signs cause greater learning problems in children than the actual language problems themselves. Childhood language disorders are associated with different neuropsychological problems. The most commonly associated neuropsychological deficits are problems involving memory, attention, executive functions, motor dysfunctions, temporal perception, tactile recognition, body scheme, spatial orientation and difficulties in visual discrimination. Mnemonic disorders (essentially in short-term and working auditory memory) are usually a common denominator in the different clinical pictures that make up language disorders. The mnemonic impairment associated to dyslalias deserves special attention as this disorder is sometimes similar to that seen in language problems deriving from clinical pictures with important neurological alterations.

  18. Speaking their language: communicating research through new media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goruk, B.; Byrne, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    The research community primarily communicates internally through papers, books and other forms of print publication. Researchers typically depend upon the media to pick up on research important to policymakers, planners, managers and society at large. However in recent decades, there has been a major failure in this communication process as the media has become much less objective and far more opinionated; often contributing more confusion than clarity. We argue that the research community should be much more active in communicating work to sectors of society most in need of the knowledge. Members of society do not read research publications - we essentially speak different languages. Researchers have to reach out to society in a communication form that works for the listeners. We put forward a range of examples using new media to communicate climate change research results to society.

  19. Creating a Communicative Language Teaching Environment for Improving Students' Communicative Competence at EFL/EAP University Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farooq, Muhammad U.

    2015-01-01

    The present research focuses on teachers' perceptions and practices regarding Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) and its impact on communicative competency of the students. A questionnaire was used to collect the quantitative data from teachers. The results show that the EFL teachers are aware of the CLT characteristics, its implementation and…

  20. Causal Relationships between Communication Confidence, Beliefs about Group Work, and Willingness to Communicate in Foreign Language Group Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fushino, Kumiko

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on the causal relationships between three factors in second language (L2) group work settings: communication confidence (i.e., confidence in one's ability to communicate), beliefs about group work, and willingness to communicate (WTC). A questionnaire was administered to 729 first-year university students in Japan. A model…

  1. Compliant Tactile Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres-Jara, Eduardo R.

    2011-01-01

    Tactile sensors are currently being designed to sense interactions with human hands or pen-like interfaces. They are generally embedded in screens, keyboards, mousepads, and pushbuttons. However, they are not well fitted to sense interactions with all kinds of objects. A novel sensor was originally designed to investigate robotics manipulation where not only the contact with an object needs to be detected, but also where the object needs to be held and manipulated. This tactile sensor has been designed with features that allow it to sense a large variety of objects in human environments. The sensor is capable of detecting forces coming from any direction. As a result, this sensor delivers a force vector with three components. In contrast to most of the tactile sensors that are flat, this one sticks out from the surface so that it is likely to come in contact with objects. The sensor conforms to the object with which it interacts. This augments the contact's surface, consequently reducing the stress applied to the object. This feature makes the sensor ideal for grabbing objects and other applications that require compliance with objects. The operational range of the sensor allows it to operate well with objects found in peoples' daily life. The fabrication of this sensor is simple and inexpensive because of its compact mechanical configuration and reduced electronics. These features are convenient for mass production of individual sensors as well as dense arrays. The biologically inspired tactile sensor is sensitive to both normal and lateral forces, providing better feedback to the host robot about the object to be grabbed. It has a high sensitivity, enabling its use in manipulation fingers, which typically have low mechanical impedance in order to be very compliant. The construction of the sensor is simple, using inexpensive technologies like silicon rubber molding and standard stock electronics.

  2. Development of multichannel soft tactile sensors having fingerprint structure.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, H; Murashima, Y; Honma, N; Kobayashi, K

    2014-01-01

    It is possible to accurately recognize the shape of an object or to grip it by setting soft tactile sensors on a robot's hands. We studied a multichannel soft tactile sensor as an artificial hand and evaluated the pressure's response performance from several directions and the slipping and sliding responses. The tactile sensor consisted of multiple pneumatic sensors and a soft cap with a fingerprint structure that was made of silicone gum and was separated from multiple spaces. Evaluation tests showed that the multiple soft tactile sensors estimate both an object's contact force and its contact location. Our tactile sensor also measured the object's roughness by the slide on surface texture.

  3. Moving beyond Communicative Language Teaching: A Situated Pedagogy for Japanese EFL Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lochland, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    This article questions the appropriateness of communicative language teaching (CLT) in classrooms teaching English as a foreign language (EFL) to Japanese students. The four main criticisms of CLT are the ambiguity of its description, the benefits of CLT for language learning, the amalgamation of CLT methods with local classroom practices, and the…

  4. The impact of visual communication on the intersubjective development of early parent-child interaction with 18- to 24-month-old deaf toddlers.

    PubMed

    Loots, Gerrit; Devisé, Isabel; Jacquet, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a study that examined the impact of visual communication on the quality of the early interaction between deaf and hearing mothers and fathers and their deaf children aged between 18 and 24 months. Three communication mode groups of parent-deaf child dyads that differed by the use of signing and visual-tactile communication strategies were involved: (a) hearing parents communicating with their deaf child in an auditory/oral way, (b) hearing parents using total communication, and (c) deaf parents using sign language. Based on Loots and colleagues' intersubjective developmental theory, parent-deaf child interaction was analyzed according to the occurrence of intersubjectivity during free play with a standard set of toys. The data analyses indicated that the use of sign language in a sequential visual way of communication enabled the deaf parents to involve their 18- to 24-month-old deaf infants in symbolic intersubjectivity, whereas hearing parents who hold on to oral-only communication were excluded from involvement in symbolic intersubjectivity with their deaf infants. Hearing parents using total communication were more similar to deaf parents, but they still differed from deaf parents in exchanging and sharing symbolic and linguistic meaning with their deaf child.

  5. The Design of Tactile Thematic Symbols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Megan M.; Lobben, Amy K.

    2011-01-01

    The study reported here investigated the design and legibility of tactile thematic maps, focusing on symbolization and the comprehension of spatial patterns on the maps. The results indicate that discriminable and effective tactile thematic maps can be produced using classed data with a microcapsule paper production method. The participants…

  6. Communication and Gamification in the Web-Based Foreign Language Educational System: Web- Based Foreign Language Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osipov, Ilya V.; Volinsky, Alex A.; Nikulchev, Evgeny; Prasikova, Anna Y.

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes development of the educational online web communication platform for teaching and learning foreign languages. The main objective was to develop a web application for teaching foreigners to understand casual fluent speech. The system is based on the time bank principle, allowing users to teach others their native language along…

  7. Building freeways: piloting communication skills in additional languages to health service personnel in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Claassen, Joel; Jama, Zukile; Manga, Nayna; Lewis, Minnie; Hellenberg, Derek

    2017-06-07

    This study reflects on the development and teaching of communication skills courses in additional national languages to health care staff within two primary health care facilities in Cape Town, South Africa. These courses were aimed at addressing the language disparities that recent research has identified globally between patients and health care staff. Communication skills courses were offered to staff at two Metropolitan District Health Services clinics to strengthen patient access to health care services. This study reflects on the communicative proficiency in the additional languages that were offered to health care staff. A mixed-method approach was utilised during this case study with quantitative data-gathering through surveys and qualitative analysis of assessment results. The language profiles of the respective communities were assessed through data obtained from the South African National census, while staff language profiles were obtained at the health care centres. Quantitative measuring, by means of a patient survey at the centres, occurred on a randomly chosen day to ascertain the language profile of the patient population. Participating staff performed assessments at different phases of the training courses to determine their skill levels by the end of the course. The performances of the participating staff during the Xhosa and Afrikaans language courses were assessed, and the development of the staff communicative competencies was measured. Health care staff learning the additional languages could develop Basic or Intermediate Xhosa and Afrikaans that enables communication with patients. In multilingual countries such as South Africa, language has been recognised as a health care barrier preventing patients from receiving quality care. Equipping health care staff with communication skills in the additional languages, represents an attempt to bridge a vital barrier in the South African health care system. The study proves that offering communication

  8. A Tactile Sensor Network System Using a Multiple Sensor Platform with a Dedicated CMOS-LSI for Robot Applications †

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Chenzhong; Tanaka, Shuji; Nakayama, Takahiro; Hata, Yoshiyuki; Bartley, Travis; Muroyama, Masanori

    2017-01-01

    Robot tactile sensation can enhance human–robot communication in terms of safety, reliability and accuracy. The final goal of our project is to widely cover a robot body with a large number of tactile sensors, which has significant advantages such as accurate object recognition, high sensitivity and high redundancy. In this study, we developed a multi-sensor system with dedicated Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) Large-Scale Integration (LSI) circuit chips (referred to as “sensor platform LSI”) as a framework of a serial bus-based tactile sensor network system. The sensor platform LSI supports three types of sensors: an on-chip temperature sensor, off-chip capacitive and resistive tactile sensors, and communicates with a relay node via a bus line. The multi-sensor system was first constructed on a printed circuit board to evaluate basic functions of the sensor platform LSI, such as capacitance-to-digital and resistance-to-digital conversion. Then, two kinds of external sensors, nine sensors in total, were connected to two sensor platform LSIs, and temperature, capacitive and resistive sensing data were acquired simultaneously. Moreover, we fabricated flexible printed circuit cables to demonstrate the multi-sensor system with 15 sensor platform LSIs operating simultaneously, which showed a more realistic implementation in robots. In conclusion, the multi-sensor system with up to 15 sensor platform LSIs on a bus line supporting temperature, capacitive and resistive sensing was successfully demonstrated. PMID:29061954

  9. Language, Literacy, Children's Literature: The Link to Communicative Competency for ESOL Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flickinger, Gayle Glidden

    Developing literacy in adults who speak English as a second language (ESL) means more than rote memorization of letters and sounds, because literacy implies a familiarity with the language and culture sufficient for comfortable interaction and communication of ideas to others. Literacy can be defined as (1) a matter of language, (2) having many…

  10. Introducing Plain Language Principles to Business Communication Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Rachelle R.

    2012-01-01

    In response to current federal mandates requiring selected businesses and government agencies to use plain language (PL) when reporting information to the public, this article advocates the introduction of PL principles into current business communication curricula. Despite recent PL mandates and advances, many current business textbooks and…

  11. Promoting language and social communication development in babies through an early storybook reading intervention.

    PubMed

    Brown, Michelle I; Westerveld, Marleen F; Trembath, David; Gillon, Gail T

    2017-12-15

    This study examined the effectiveness of low- and high-intensity early storybook reading (ESR) intervention workshops delivered to parents for promoting their babies language and social communication development. These workshops educated parents on how to provide a stimulating home reading environment and engage in parent-child interactions during ESR. Parent-child dyads (n = 32); child age: 3-12 months, were assigned into two intervention conditions: low and high intensity (LI versus HI) groups. Both groups received the same ESR strategies; however, the HI group received additional intervention time, demonstrations and support. Outcome measures were assessed pre-intervention, one and three months post-intervention and when the child turned 2 years of age. A significant time-group interaction with increased performance in the HI group was observed for language scores immediately post-intervention (p = 0.007) and at 2-years-of-age (p = 0.022). Significantly higher broader social communication scores were associated with the HI group at each of the time points (p = 0.018, p = 0.001 and p = 0.021, respectively). Simple main effect revealed that both groups demonstrated a significant improvement in language, broader social communication and home reading practices scores. ESR intervention workshops may promote language and broader social communication skills. The HI ESR intervention workshop was associated with significantly higher language and broader social communication scores.

  12. Observing the Use of Tactile Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aasen, Gro; Naerland, Terje

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the use of tactile schedules in a heterogeneous sample of children with congenital blindness and varying degrees of additional disabilities. Basic conditions for the use of tactile schedules are proposed and discussed. Child behaviour indicative of some particular functions that can be attained with the use of tactile…

  13. Enhanced tactile encoding and memory recognition in congenital blindness.

    PubMed

    D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Waraich, Paul

    2002-06-01

    Several behavioural studies have shown that early-blind persons possess superior tactile skills. Since neurophysiological data show that early-blind persons recruit visual as well as somatosensory cortex to carry out tactile processing (cross-modal plasticity), blind persons' sharper tactile skills may be related to cortical re-organisation resulting from loss of vision early in their life. To examine the nature of blind individuals' tactile superiority and its implications for cross-modal plasticity, we compared the tactile performance of congenitally totally blind, low-vision and sighted children on raised-line picture identification test and re-test, assessing effects of task familiarity, exploratory strategy and memory recognition. What distinguished the blind from the other children was higher memory recognition and higher tactile encoding associated with efficient exploration. These results suggest that enhanced perceptual encoding and recognition memory may be two cognitive correlates of cross-modal plasticity in congenital blindness.

  14. Exploring Tactile Perceptual Dimensions Using Materials Associated with Sensory Vocabulary.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Maki; Watanabe, Junji

    2017-01-01

    Considering tactile sensation when designing products is important because the decision to purchase often depends on how products feel. Numerous psychophysical studies have attempted to identify important factors that describe tactile perceptions. However, the numbers and types of major tactile dimensions reported in previous studies have varied because of differences in materials used across experiments. To obtain a more complete picture of perceptual space with regard to touch, our study focuses on using vocabulary that expresses tactile sensations as a guiding principle for collecting material samples because these types of words are expected to cover all the basic categories within tactile perceptual space. We collected 120 materials based on a variety of Japanese sound-symbolic words for tactile sensations, and used the materials to examine tactile perceptual dimensions and their associations with affective evaluations. Analysis revealed six major dimensions: "Affective evaluation and Friction," "Compliance," "Surface," "Volume," "Temperature," and "Naturalness." These dimensions include four factors that previous studies have regarded as fundamental, as well as two new factors: "Volume" and "Naturalness." Additionally, we showed that "Affective evaluation" is more closely related to the "Friction" component (slipperiness and dryness) than to other tactile perceptual features. Our study demonstrates that using vocabulary could be an effective method for selecting material samples to explore tactile perceptual space.

  15. Tactile friction of topical formulations.

    PubMed

    Skedung, L; Buraczewska-Norin, I; Dawood, N; Rutland, M W; Ringstad, L

    2016-02-01

    The tactile perception is essential for all types of topical formulations (cosmetic, pharmaceutical, medical device) and the possibility to predict the sensorial response by using instrumental methods instead of sensory testing would save time and cost at an early stage product development. Here, we report on an instrumental evaluation method using tactile friction measurements to estimate perceptual attributes of topical formulations. Friction was measured between an index finger and an artificial skin substrate after application of formulations using a force sensor. Both model formulations of liquid crystalline phase structures with significantly different tactile properties, as well as commercial pharmaceutical moisturizing creams being more tactile-similar, were investigated. Friction coefficients were calculated as the ratio of the friction force to the applied load. The structures of the model formulations and phase transitions as a result of water evaporation were identified using optical microscopy. The friction device could distinguish friction coefficients between the phase structures, as well as the commercial creams after spreading and absorption into the substrate. In addition, phase transitions resulting in alterations in the feel of the formulations could be detected. A correlation was established between skin hydration and friction coefficient, where hydrated skin gave rise to higher friction. Also a link between skin smoothening and finger friction was established for the commercial moisturizing creams, although further investigations are needed to analyse this and correlations with other sensorial attributes in more detail. The present investigation shows that tactile friction measurements have potential as an alternative or complement in the evaluation of perception of topical formulations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Language & Communication Skills Curriculum Binder. Workplace Training Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This document, which is intended for workplace trainers, contains materials for conducting 10 workplace language and communication skills courses that were developed through the Workplace Training Project, which was a partnership involving Lane Community College in Oregon and five area businesses. The courses were developed by project staff based…

  17. Autism, Language Disorder, and Social (Pragmatic) Communication Disorder: DSM-V and Differential Diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Simms, Mark D; Jin, Xing Ming

    2015-08-01

    • Based on strong research evidence (1), the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has increased over the past decade, with a 2010 prevalence of 1:68 (1.5%) in children age 8 years. • Based on some research evidence as well as consensus (3), the most recent revision of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-V) identifies two core dimensions for the diagnosis of ASD: social (social communication and social interaction) and nonsocial (restricted, repetitive patterns of behaviors, interests, or activities). • Based on some research evidence as well as consensus (3) (31) (32) (33) (34), DSM-V identifies social pragmatic communication disorder (SPCD) as a dissociable dimension of language and communication ability that affects how individuals use language for social exchanges. SPCD is often found in children with language impairments and children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and other genetic/neurologic conditions. • Based on strong research evidence (2) (26) (27) (28), childhood language disorders affect 7.4% of kindergarteners, and 50% to 80% of these children experience persistent language, academic, and social-emotional difficulties into their adult years, despite having normal nonverbal cognitive abilities. • Based primarily on consensus due to lack of relevant clinical studies, differential diagnosis of autism and language disorders may require a multidisciplinary evaluation that takes into account a child’s overall development, including cognitive, communication, and social abilities. Monitoring the response to appropriate interventions and trajectory of development over time may improve the accuracy of diagnosis, especially in very young children.

  18. [Affective behavioural responses by dogs to tactile human-dog interactions].

    PubMed

    Kuhne, Franziska; Hössler, Johanna C; Struwe, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    The communication of dogs is based on complex, subtle body postures and facial expressions. Some social interaction between dogs includes physical contact. Humans generally use both verbal and tactile signals to communicate with dogs. Hence, interaction between humans and dogs might lead to conflicts because the behavioural responses of dogs to human-dog interaction may be misinterpreted and wrongly assessed. The behavioural responses of dogs to tactile human-dog interactions and human gestures are the focus of this study. The participating dogs (n = 47) were privately owned pets.They were of varying breed and gender.The test consisted of nine randomised test sequences (e. g. petting the dog's head or chest). A test sequence was performed for a period of 30 seconds. The inter-trial interval was set at 60 seconds and the test-retest interval was set at 10 minutes. The frequency and duration of the dogs'behavioural responses were recorded using INTERACT. To examine the behavioural responses of the dogs, a two-way analysis of variance within the linear mixed models procedure of IBM SPSS Statistics 19 was conducted. A significant influence of the test-sequenc order on the dogs' behaviour could be analysed for appeasement gestures (F8,137 = 2.42; p = 0.018), redirected behaviour (F8,161 = 6.31; p = 0.012) and socio-positive behaviour (F8,148 = 6.28; p = 0.012). The behavioural responses of the dogs, which were considered as displacement activities (F8,109 = 2.5; p = 0.014) differed significantly among the test sequences. The response of the dogs, measured as gestures of appeasement, redirected behaviours, and displacement activities, was most obvious during petting around the head and near the paws.The results of this study conspicuously indicate that dogs respond to tactile human-dog interactions with gestures of appeasement and displacement activities. Redirected behaviours, socio-positive behaviours as well displacement activities are behavioural responses which dogs

  19. Path integration in tactile perception of shapes.

    PubMed

    Moscatelli, Alessandro; Naceri, Abdeldjallil; Ernst, Marc O

    2014-11-01

    Whenever we move the hand across a surface, tactile signals provide information about the relative velocity between the skin and the surface. If the system were able to integrate the tactile velocity information over time, cutaneous touch may provide an estimate of the relative displacement between the hand and the surface. Here, we asked whether humans are able to form a reliable representation of the motion path from tactile cues only, integrating motion information over time. In order to address this issue, we conducted three experiments using tactile motion and asked participants (1) to estimate the length of a simulated triangle, (2) to reproduce the shape of a simulated triangular path, and (3) to estimate the angle between two-line segments. Participants were able to accurately indicate the length of the path, whereas the perceived direction was affected by a direction bias (inward bias). The response pattern was thus qualitatively similar to the ones reported in classical path integration studies involving locomotion. However, we explain the directional biases as the result of a tactile motion aftereffect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Virtual surface characteristics of a tactile display using magneto-rheological fluids.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chul-Hee; Jang, Min-Gyu

    2011-01-01

    Virtual surface characteristics of tactile displays are investigated to characterize the feeling of human touch for a haptic interface application. In order to represent the tactile feeling, a prototype tactile display incorporating Magneto-Rheological (MR) fluid has been developed. Tactile display devices simulate the finger's skin to feel the sensations of contact such as compliance, friction, and topography of the surface. Thus, the tactile display can provide information on the surface of an organic tissue to the surgeon in virtual reality. In order to investigate the compliance feeling of a human finger's touch, normal force responses of a tactile display under various magnetic fields have been assessed. Also, shearing friction force responses of the tactile display are investigated to simulate the action of finger dragging on the surface. Moreover, different matrix arrays of magnetic poles are applied to form the virtual surface topography. From the results, different tactile feelings are observed according to the applied magnetic field strength as well as the arrays of magnetic poles combinations. This research presents a smart tactile display technology for virtual surfaces.

  1. Planar and finger-shaped optical tactile sensors for robotic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begej, Stefan

    1988-01-01

    Progress is described regarding the development of optical tactile sensors specifically designed for application to dexterous robotics. These sensors operate on optical principles involving the frustration of total internal reflection at a waveguide/elastomer interface and produce a grey-scale tactile image that represents the normal (vertical) forces of contact. The first tactile sensor discussed is a compact, 32 x 32 planar sensor array intended for mounting on a parallel-jaw gripper. Optical fibers were employed to convey the tactile image to a CCD camera and microprocessor-based image analysis system. The second sensor had the shape and size of a human fingertip and was designed for a dexterous robotic hand. It contained 256 sensing sites (taxels) distributed in a dual-density pattern that included a tactile fovea near the tip measuring 13 x 13 mm and containing 169 taxels. The design and construction details of these tactile sensors are presented, in addition to photographs of tactile imprints.

  2. Communicating about quantity without a language model: number devices in homesign grammar.

    PubMed

    Coppola, Marie; Spaepen, Elizabet; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2013-01-01

    All natural languages have formal devices for communicating about number, be they lexical (e.g., two, many) or grammatical (e.g., plural markings on nouns and/or verbs). Here we ask whether linguistic devices for number arise in communication systems that have not been handed down from generation to generation. We examined deaf individuals who had not been exposed to a usable model of conventional language (signed or spoken), but had nevertheless developed their own gestures, called homesigns, to communicate. Study 1 examined four adult homesigners and a hearing communication partner for each homesigner. The adult homesigners produced two main types of number gestures: gestures that enumerated sets (cardinal number marking), and gestures that signaled one vs. more than one (non-cardinal number marking). Both types of gestures resembled, in form and function, number signs in established sign languages and, as such, were fully integrated into each homesigner's gesture system and, in this sense, linguistic. The number gestures produced by the homesigners' hearing communication partners displayed some, but not all, of the homesigners' linguistic patterns. To better understand the origins of the patterns displayed by the adult homesigners, Study 2 examined a child homesigner and his hearing mother, and found that the child's number gestures displayed all of the properties found in the adult homesigners' gestures, but his mother's gestures did not. The findings suggest that number gestures and their linguistic use can appear relatively early in homesign development, and that hearing communication partners are not likely to be the source of homesigners' linguistic expressions of non-cardinal number. Linguistic devices for number thus appear to be so fundamental to language that they can arise in the absence of conventional linguistic input. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Communicating about quantity without a language model: Number devices in homesign grammar

    PubMed Central

    Coppola, Marie; Spaepen, Elizabet; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2013-01-01

    All natural languages have formal devices for communicating about number, be they lexical (e.g., two, many) or grammatical (e.g., plural markings on nouns and/or verbs). Here we ask whether linguistic devices for number arise in communication systems that have not been handed down from generation to generation. We examined deaf individuals who had not been exposed to a usable model of conventional language (signed or spoken), but had nevertheless developed their own gestures, called homesigns, to communicate. Study 1 examined four adult homesigners and a hearing communication partner for each homesigner. The adult homesigners produced two main types of number gestures: gestures that enumerated sets (cardinal number marking), and gestures that signaled one vs. more than one (non-cardinal number marking). Both types of gestures resembled, in form and function, number signs in established sign languages and, as such, were fully integrated into each homesigner's gesture system and, in this sense, linguistic. The number gestures produced by the homesigners’ hearing communication partners displayed some, but not all, of the homesigners’ linguistic patterns. To better understand the origins of the patterns displayed by the adult homesigners, Study 2 examined a child homesigner and his hearing mother, and found that the child's number gestures displayed all of the properties found in the adult homesigners’ gestures, but his mother's gestures did not. The findings suggest that number gestures and their linguistic use can appear relatively early in homesign development, and that hearing communication partners are not likely to be the source of homesigners’ linguistic expressions of non-cardinal number. Linguistic devices for number thus appear to be so fundamental to language that they can arise in the absence of conventional linguistic input. PMID:23872365

  4. Practical low-cost visual communication using binary images for deaf sign language.

    PubMed

    Manoranjan, M D; Robinson, J A

    2000-03-01

    Deaf sign language transmitted by video requires a temporal resolution of 8 to 10 frames/s for effective communication. Conventional videoconferencing applications, when operated over low bandwidth telephone lines, provide very low temporal resolution of pictures, of the order of less than a frame per second, resulting in jerky movement of objects. This paper presents a practical solution for sign language communication, offering adequate temporal resolution of images using moving binary sketches or cartoons, implemented on standard personal computer hardware with low-cost cameras and communicating over telephone lines. To extract cartoon points an efficient feature extraction algorithm adaptive to the global statistics of the image is proposed. To improve the subjective quality of the binary images, irreversible preprocessing techniques, such as isolated point removal and predictive filtering, are used. A simple, efficient and fast recursive temporal prefiltering scheme, using histograms of successive frames, reduces the additive and multiplicative noise from low-cost cameras. An efficient three-dimensional (3-D) compression scheme codes the binary sketches. Subjective tests performed on the system confirm that it can be used for sign language communication over telephone lines.

  5. Anxiety about speaking a foreign language as a mediator of the relation between motivation and willingness to communicate.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Pei; Lin, Huey-Ju

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether anxiety about speaking a foreign language mediated the relation between motivation and a willingness to communicate among 107 Taiwanese students sampled from two public universities and one private university. A regression analysis indicated that motivation was negatively related to university students' anxiety about speaking a foreign language and positively related to willingness to communicate. Furthermore, anxiety about speaking a foreign language was negatively related to university students' willingness to communicate, and also partially mediated the relationship between motivation and willingness to communicate. The findings suggest that high motivation and low anxiety about speaking a foreign language are needed for Taiwanese students to demonstrate a stronger willingness to communicate.

  6. Real-time edge tracking using a tactile sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, Alan D.; Volpe, Richard; Khosla, Pradeep K.

    1989-01-01

    Object recognition through the use of input from multiple sensors is an important aspect of an autonomous manipulation system. In tactile object recognition, it is necessary to determine the location and orientation of object edges and surfaces. A controller is proposed that utilizes a tactile sensor in the feedback loop of a manipulator to track along edges. In the control system, the data from the tactile sensor is first processed to find edges. The parameters of these edges are then used to generate a control signal to a hybrid controller. Theory is presented for tactile edge detection and an edge tracking controller. In addition, experimental verification of the edge tracking controller is presented.

  7. Multimodal infant-directed communication: how caregivers combine tactile and linguistic cues.

    PubMed

    Abu-Zhaya, Rana; Seidl, Amanda; Cristia, Alejandrina

    2017-09-01

    Both touch and speech independently have been shown to play an important role in infant development. However, little is known about how they may be combined in the input to the child. We examined the use of touch and speech together by having mothers read their 5-month-olds books about body parts and animals. Results suggest that speech+touch multimodal events are characterized by more exaggerated touch and speech cues. Further, our results suggest that maternal touches are aligned with speech and that mothers tend to touch their infants in locations that are congruent with names of body parts. Thus, our results suggest that tactile cues could potentially aid both infant word segmentation and word learning.

  8. A Case-Controlled Investigation of Tactile Reactivity in Young Children with and without Global Developmental Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, Chantel C.; Tervo, Raymond; Wilcox, George L.; Symons, Frank J.

    2017-01-01

    Assessing tactile function among children with intellectual, motor, and communication impairments remains a clinical challenge. A case control design was used to test whether children with global developmental delays (GDD; n = 20) would be more/less reactive to a modified quantitative sensory test (mQST) compared to controls (n = 20). Reactivity…

  9. Enhancing Student Communication Skills Through Arabic Language Competency and Simulated Patient Assessments.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Sanah; Tarazi, Hamadeh M Khier; Halim Hilal, Dana Abdel

    2017-05-01

    Objective. To assess student communication and patient management skill with introduction of Arabic and use of simulated patient assessments to a communication and counseling course. Design. Five, 3-hour tutorials (clinical skill laboratory) were added to the course covering: listening and empathic responding, non-verbal communications, interviewing skills, assertiveness, counseling in special situations: conflict, anger, worry or rushed situations, and professional decision making. Arabic content was introduced to the course to enhance Arabic communications and competence among students. Simulated patient assessment was used to evaluate student skills. Students' feedback about course changes was evaluated. Assessment. The course now covers a wider content and Arabic language. Students' scores were similar in the assessment and other assessments within the course and between Arabic and English groups. Students favorably rated the changes in the course and provided constructive feedback on content usefulness and adequacy. Conclusion. Expanding the course to include Arabic language and content and simulated patient assessments enhanced student communication skills.

  10. Enhancing Student Communication Skills Through Arabic Language Competency and Simulated Patient Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Tarazi, Hamadeh (M. Khier); Halim Hilal, Dana Abdel

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To assess student communication and patient management skill with introduction of Arabic and use of simulated patient assessments to a communication and counseling course. Design. Five, 3-hour tutorials (clinical skill laboratory) were added to the course covering: listening and empathic responding, non-verbal communications, interviewing skills, assertiveness, counseling in special situations: conflict, anger, worry or rushed situations, and professional decision making. Arabic content was introduced to the course to enhance Arabic communications and competence among students. Simulated patient assessment was used to evaluate student skills. Students’ feedback about course changes was evaluated. Assessment. The course now covers a wider content and Arabic language. Students’ scores were similar in the assessment and other assessments within the course and between Arabic and English groups. Students favorably rated the changes in the course and provided constructive feedback on content usefulness and adequacy. Conclusion. Expanding the course to include Arabic language and content and simulated patient assessments enhanced student communication skills. PMID:28630517

  11. Online Synchronous Communication in the Second-Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The study reported on in this paper used a framework of benefits, challenges and solutions to categorize data from a design experiment using synchronous online communication for learning French as a second language (FSL). Participants were 92 Grade 6, FSL students and four teachers from urban and rural areas of Newfoundland, Canada. Data…

  12. Impact of Communication on Preventive Services Among Deaf American Sign Language Users

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Michael M.; Barnett, Steve L.; Block, Robert C.; Pearson, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Deaf American Sign Language (ASL) users face communication and language barriers that limit healthcare communication with their providers. Prior research has not examined preventive services with ASL-skilled clinicians. Purpose The goal of this study was to determine whether provider language concordance is associated with improved receipt of preventive services among deaf respondents. Methods This cross-sectional study included 89 deaf respondents aged 50–75 years from the Deaf Health Survey (2008), a BRFSS survey adapted for use with deaf ASL users. Association between the respondent's communication method with the provider (i.e., categorized as either concordant–doctor signs or discordant–other) and preventive services use was assessed using logistic regression adjusting for race, gender, income, health status, health insurance, and education. Analyses were conducted in 2010. Results Deaf respondents who reported having a concordant provider were more likely to report a greater number of preventive services (OR 3.42; 95% CI:1.31, 8.93; p=0.0122) when compared to deaf respondents who reported having a discordant provider even after adjusting for race, gender, income, health status, health insurance, and education. In unadjusted analyses, deaf respondents who reported having a concordant provider were more likely to receive an influenza vaccination in the past year (OR 4.55; p=0.016) when compared to respondents who had a discordant provider. Conclusions Language-concordant patient–provider communication is associated with higher appropriate use of preventive services by deaf ASL users. PMID:21665066

  13. Language Development in Nonverbal Autistic Children Using a Simultaneous Communication System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creedon, Margaret Procyk

    Twenty-one nonverbal autistic children, 4- to 9-years-old, with language ages of 4- to 24-months, participated in the communication learning program from 1 to 3 years. Simultaneous verbal and manual signs were chosen as the communications mode. The children initially displayed infrequent, unrecognizable vocalizations (Screeches, or vocal…

  14. Peer-Directed Communicative Interactions of Augmented Language Learners with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romski, Mary Ann; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Evaluation of naturally occurring peer-directed communicative interactions of 13 youth with moderate to severe mental retardation and little or no functional speech, who used the System for Augmenting Language as their primary means of communication, found that the system was an integral component of successful and effective conversations and…

  15. Translating medical documents into plain language enhances communication skills in medical students--A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bittner, Anja; Jonietz, Ansgar; Bittner, Johannes; Beickert, Luise; Harendza, Sigrid

    2015-09-01

    To train and assess undergraduate medical students' written communication skills by exercises in translating medical reports into plain language for real patients. 27 medical students participated in a newly developed communication course. They attended a 3-h seminar including a briefing on patient-centered communication and an introduction to working with the internet platform http://washabich.de. In the following ten weeks, participants "translated" one medical report every fortnight on this platform receiving feedback by a near-peer supervisor. A pre- and post-course assignment consisted of a self-assessment questionnaire on communication skills, analysis of a medical text with respect to medical jargon, and the translation of a medical report into plain language. In the self-assessment, students rated themselves in most aspects of patient-centered communication significantly higher after attending the course. After the course they marked significantly more medical jargon terms correctly than before (p<0.001). In a written plain language translation of a medical report they scored significantly higher with respect to communicative aspects (p<0.05) and medical correctness (p<0.001). Translating medical reports into plain language under near-peer supervision is associated with improved communication skills and medical knowledge in undergraduate medical students. To include translation exercises in the undergraduate medical curriculum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of language used and patterns of communication in interprofessional and multidisciplinary teams.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, D; Robertson, L; Ormond, T

    2007-02-01

    Can the language used and the patterns of communication differentiate a multidisciplinary team from an interprofessional team? This research question arose from an unexpected outcome of a study that investigated clinical reasoning of health professional team members in the elder care wards of two different hospitals. The issue at stake was the apparent disparity in the way in which the two teams communicated. To further explore this, the original transcribed interview data was analysed from a symbolic interactionist perspective in order that the language and communication patterns between the two teams could be identified and compared. Differences appeared to parallel the distinctions between multidisciplinary and interprofessional teams as reported in the literature. Our observations were that an interprofessional team was characterized by its use of inclusive language, continual sharing of information between team members and a collaborative working approach. In the multidisciplinary team, the members worked in parallel, drawing information from one another but did not have a common understanding of issues that could influence intervention. The implications of these communication differences for team members, team leaders and future research are then discussed.

  17. Infant communication and subsequent language development in children from low-income families: the role of early cognitive stimulation.

    PubMed

    Cates, Carolyn Brockmeyer; Dreyer, Benard P; Berkule, Samantha B; White, Lisa J; Arevalo, Jenny A; Mendelsohn, Alan L

    2012-09-01

    To explore the relationship between early cognitive stimulation in the home, 6-month infant communication, and 24-month toddler language in a low-socioeconomic status sample. Longitudinal analyses of mother-child dyads participating in larger study of early child development were performed. Dyads enrolled postpartum in an urban public hospital. Cognitive stimulation in the home at 6 months was assessed using StimQ-lnfant, including provision of toys, shared reading, teaching, and verbal responsivity. Early infant communication was assessed at 6 months including the following: (1) Emotion and eye gaze (Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scale DP-CSBS DP), (2) Communicative bids (CSBS DP), and (3) Expression of emotion (Short Temperament Scale for Infants). Toddler language was assessed at 24 months using the Preschool Language Scale-4, including the following: (1) expressive language and (2) auditory comprehension. Three hundred twenty families were assessed. In structural equation models, cognitive stimulation in the home was strongly associated with early infant communication (β = 0.63, p <.0001) and was predictive of 24-month language (β = 0.20, p <.05). The effect of early cognitive stimulation on 24-month language was mediated through early impacts on infant communication (Indirect β = 0.28, p =.001). Reading, teaching, availability of learning materials, and other reciprocal verbal interactions were all related directly to infant communication and indirectly to language outcomes. The impact of early cognitive stimulation on toddler language is manifested through early associations with infant communication. Pediatric primary care providers should promote cognitive stimulation beginning in early infancy and support the expansion and dissemination of intervention programs such as Reach Out and Read and the Video Interaction Project.

  18. Willingness to Communicate in English as a Second Language: A Case Study of Pakistani Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukhari, Syeda Farzana; Cheng, Xiaoguang; Khan, Salman Ali

    2015-01-01

    Willingness to communicate (WTC) construct plays an important role in second language (L2) teaching and learning. Almost any second language learner is likely to respond to a direct question, but many will not continue or initiate communication. The present study investigates Pakistani undergraduate students' perception of their willingness to…

  19. VR-Based Gamification of Communication Training and Oral Examination in a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reitz, Liesa; Sohny, Aline; Lochmann, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    The authors present a novel way of oral language training by embedding the English as a foreign language (EFL) learning process into a generic 3D Cooperative Virtual Reality (VR) Game. Due to lack of time, resources and innovation, the language classroom is limited in its possibilities of promoting authentic communication. Therefore, the…

  20. Measuring Pragmatic Language in Speakers with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Comparing the Children's Communication Checklist-2 and the Test of Pragmatic Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volden, Joanne; Phillips, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the Children's Communication Checklist-2 (CCC-2), a parent report instrument, with the Test of Pragmatic Language (TOPL), a test administered to the child, on the ability to identify pragmatic language impairment in speakers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) who had age-appropriate structural language skills. Method: Sixteen…

  1. Piezoelectric Polymer Tactile Sensor Arrays for Robotics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    response to slow and fast stimuli (Dario and others, 1984:2). The touch receptors relate tactile information through a variety of tactile sensory...flexure. The only occurrence when an evaporated electrode broke (and became intermit - tently open circuited) was during the measurement of the PPTSA *4

  2. Vibratory tactile display for textures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ikei, Yasushi; Ikeno, Akihisa; Fukuda, Shuichi

    1994-01-01

    We have developed a tactile display that produces vibratory stimulus to a fingertip in contact with a vibrating tactor matrix. The display depicts tactile surface textures while the user is exploring a virtual object surface. A piezoelectric actuator drives the individual tactor in accordance with both the finger movement and the surface texture being traced. Spatiotemporal display control schemes were examined for presenting the fundamental surface texture elements. The temporal duration of vibratory stimulus was experimentally optimized to simulate the adaptation process of cutaneous sensation. The selected duration time for presenting a single line edge agreed with the time threshold of tactile sensation. Then spatial stimulus disposition schemes were discussed for representation of other edge shapes. As an alternative means not relying on amplitude control, a method of augmented duration at the edge was investigated. Spatial resolution of the display was measured for the lines presented both in perpendicular and parallel to a finger axis. Discrimination of texture density was also measured on random dot textures.

  3. Using language for social interaction: Communication mechanisms promote recovery from chronic non-fluent aphasia.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Benjamin; Mohr, Bettina; Dreyer, Felix R; Lucchese, Guglielmo; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2016-12-01

    Clinical research highlights the importance of massed practice in the rehabilitation of chronic post-stroke aphasia. However, while necessary, massed practice may not be sufficient for ensuring progress in speech-language therapy. Motivated by recent advances in neuroscience, it has been claimed that using language as a tool for communication and social interaction leads to synergistic effects in left perisylvian eloquent areas. Here, we conducted a crossover randomized controlled trial to determine the influence of communicative language function on the outcome of intensive aphasia therapy. Eighteen individuals with left-hemisphere lesions and chronic non-fluent aphasia each received two types of training in counterbalanced order: (i) Intensive Language-Action Therapy (ILAT, an extended form of Constraint-Induced Aphasia Therapy) embedding verbal utterances in the context of communication and social interaction, and (ii) Naming Therapy focusing on speech production per se. Both types of training were delivered with the same high intensity (3.5 h per session) and duration (six consecutive working days), with therapy materials and number of utterances matched between treatment groups. A standardized aphasia test battery revealed significantly improved language performance with ILAT, independent of when this method was administered. In contrast, Naming Therapy tended to benefit language performance only when given at the onset of the treatment, but not when applied after previous intensive training. The current results challenge the notion that massed practice alone promotes recovery from chronic post-stroke aphasia. Instead, our results demonstrate that using language for communication and social interaction increases the efficacy of intensive aphasia therapy. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Assimilation of virtual legs and perception of floor texture by complete paraplegic patients receiving artificial tactile feedback.

    PubMed

    Shokur, Solaiman; Gallo, Simone; Moioli, Renan C; Donati, Ana Rita C; Morya, Edgard; Bleuler, Hannes; Nicolelis, Miguel A L

    2016-09-19

    Spinal cord injuries disrupt bidirectional communication between the patient's brain and body. Here, we demonstrate a new approach for reproducing lower limb somatosensory feedback in paraplegics by remapping missing leg/foot tactile sensations onto the skin of patients' forearms. A portable haptic display was tested in eight patients in a setup where the lower limbs were simulated using immersive virtual reality (VR). For six out of eight patients, the haptic display induced the realistic illusion of walking on three different types of floor surfaces: beach sand, a paved street or grass. Additionally, patients experienced the movements of the virtual legs during the swing phase or the sensation of the foot rolling on the floor while walking. Relying solely on this tactile feedback, patients reported the position of the avatar leg during virtual walking. Crossmodal interference between vision of the virtual legs and tactile feedback revealed that patients assimilated the virtual lower limbs as if they were their own legs. We propose that the addition of tactile feedback to neuroprosthetic devices is essential to restore a full lower limb perceptual experience in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients, and will ultimately, lead to a higher rate of prosthetic acceptance/use and a better level of motor proficiency.

  5. Assimilation of virtual legs and perception of floor texture by complete paraplegic patients receiving artificial tactile feedback

    PubMed Central

    Shokur, Solaiman; Gallo, Simone; Moioli, Renan C.; Donati, Ana Rita C.; Morya, Edgard; Bleuler, Hannes; Nicolelis, Miguel A.L.

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injuries disrupt bidirectional communication between the patient’s brain and body. Here, we demonstrate a new approach for reproducing lower limb somatosensory feedback in paraplegics by remapping missing leg/foot tactile sensations onto the skin of patients’ forearms. A portable haptic display was tested in eight patients in a setup where the lower limbs were simulated using immersive virtual reality (VR). For six out of eight patients, the haptic display induced the realistic illusion of walking on three different types of floor surfaces: beach sand, a paved street or grass. Additionally, patients experienced the movements of the virtual legs during the swing phase or the sensation of the foot rolling on the floor while walking. Relying solely on this tactile feedback, patients reported the position of the avatar leg during virtual walking. Crossmodal interference between vision of the virtual legs and tactile feedback revealed that patients assimilated the virtual lower limbs as if they were their own legs. We propose that the addition of tactile feedback to neuroprosthetic devices is essential to restore a full lower limb perceptual experience in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients, and will ultimately, lead to a higher rate of prosthetic acceptance/use and a better level of motor proficiency. PMID:27640345

  6. Language Learning Effects through the Integration of Synchronous Online Communication: The Case of Video Communication and Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canto, Silvia; Jauregi Ondarra, Kristi

    2017-01-01

    This article attempts to shed some light on the possible learning benefits for language acquisition and intercultural development of authentic social interaction with expert peers through computer mediated communication (CMC) tools. The environments used in this study are video communication and the 3D virtual world "Second Life." For…

  7. Supporting Children with Communication Difficulties in Inclusive Settings: School-Based Language Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Linda; And Others

    Preparing language interventionists and special education teachers to work with colleagues and families on collaborative teams in public school settings, this book provides basic procedures for intervention for all children with language and communication difficulties, with hands-on activities to give students practice in applying the procedures.…

  8. Endoscopic vs. tactile evaluation of subgingival calculus.

    PubMed

    Osborn, Joy B; Lenton, Patricia A; Lunos, Scott A; Blue, Christine M

    2014-08-01

    Endoscopic technology has been developed to facilitate imagery for use during diagnostic and therapeutic phases of periodontal care. The purpose of this study was to compare the level of subgingival calculus detection using a periodontal endoscope with that of conventional tactile explorer in periodontitis subjects. A convenience sample of 26 subjects with moderate periodontitis in at least 2 quadrants was recruited from the University of Minnesota School of Dentistry to undergo quadrant scaling and root planing. One quadrant from each subject was randomized for tactile calculus detection alone and the other quadrant for tactile detection plus the Perioscope ™ (Perioscopy Inc., Oakland, Cali). A calculus index on a 0 to 3 score was performed at baseline and at 2 post-scaling and root planing visits. Sites where calculus was detected at visit 1 were retreated. T-tests were used to determine within-subject differences between Perioscope™ and tactile measures, and changes in measures between visits. Significantly more calculus was detected using the Perioscope™ vs. tactile explorer for all 3 subject visits (p<0.005). Mean changes (reduction) in calculus detection from baseline to visit 1 were statistically significant for both the Perioscope™ and tactile quadrants (p<0.0001). However, further reductions in calculus detection from visit 1 to visit 2 was only significant for the Perioscope™ quadrant (p<0.025), indicating that this methodology was able to more precisely detect calculus at this visit. It was concluded that the addition of a visual component to calculus detection via the Perioscope™ was most helpful in the re-evaluation phase of periodontal therapy. Copyright © 2014 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  9. Interaction and Communication of Agents in Networks and Language Complexity Estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smid, Jan; Obitko, Marek; Fisher, David; Truszkowski, Walt

    2004-01-01

    Knowledge acquisition and sharing are arguably the most critical activities of communicating agents. We report about our on-going project featuring knowledge acquisition and sharing among communicating agents embedded in a network. The applications we target range from hardware robots to virtual entities such as internet agents. Agent experiments can be simulated using a convenient simulation language. We analyzed the complexity of communicating agent simulations using Java and Easel. Scenarios we have studied are listed below. The communication among agents can range from declarative queries to sub-natural language queries. 1) A set of agents monitoring an object are asked to build activity profiles based on exchanging elementary observations; 2) A set of car drivers form a line, where every car is following its predecessor. An unsafe distance cm create a strong wave in the line. Individual agents are asked to incorporate and apply directions how to avoid the wave. 3) A set of micro-vehicles form a grid and are asked to propagate information and concepts to a central server.

  10. Merkel cells transduce and encode tactile stimuli to drive Aβ-afferent impulses

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Ryo; Cha, Myeounghoon; Ling, Jennifer; Jia, Zhanfeng; Coyle, Dennis; Gu, Jianguo G.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Sensory systems for detecting tactile stimuli have evolved from touch-sensing nerves in invertebrates to complicated tactile end-organs in mammals. Merkel discs are tactile end-organs consisting of Merkel cells and Aβ-afferent nerve endings, and are localized in fingertips, whisker hair follicles and other touch-sensitive spots. Merkel discs transduce touch into slowly adapting impulses to enable tactile discrimination, but their transduction and encoding mechanisms remain unknown. Using rat whisker hair follicles, we show that Merkel cells rather than Aβ-afferent nerve endings are primary sites of tactile transduction, and identify the Piezo2 ion channel as the Merkel cell mechanical transducer. Piezo2 transduces tactile stimuli into Ca2+-action potentials in Merkel cells, which drive Aβ-afferent nerve endings to fire slowly adapting impulses. We further demonstrate that Piezo2 and Ca2+-action potentials in Merkel cells are required for behavioral tactile responses. Our findings provide insights into how tactile end-organs function and have clinical implications for tactile dysfunctions. PMID:24746027

  11. Impact of communication on preventive services among deaf American Sign Language users.

    PubMed

    McKee, Michael M; Barnett, Steve L; Block, Robert C; Pearson, Thomas A

    2011-07-01

    Deaf American Sign Language (ASL) users face communication and language barriers that limit healthcare communication with their providers. Prior research has not examined preventive services with ASL-skilled clinicians. The goal of this study was to determine whether provider language concordance is associated with improved receipt of preventive services among deaf respondents. This cross-sectional study included 89 deaf respondents aged 50-75 years from the Deaf Health Survey (2008), a Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey adapted for use with deaf ASL users. Association between the respondent's communication method with the provider (i.e., categorized as either concordant-doctor signs or discordant-other) and preventive services use was assessed using logistic regression adjusting for race, gender, income, health status, health insurance, and education. Analyses were conducted in 2010. Deaf respondents who reported having a concordant provider were more likely to report a greater number of preventive services (OR=3.42, 95% CI=1.31, 8.93, p=0.0122) when compared to deaf respondents who reported having a discordant provider even after adjusting for race, gender, income, health status, health insurance, and education. In unadjusted analyses, deaf respondents who reported having a concordant provider were more likely to receive an influenza vaccination in the past year (OR=4.55, p=0.016) when compared to respondents who had a discordant provider. Language-concordant patient-provider communication is associated with higher appropriate use of preventive services by deaf ASL users. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Tactile priming modulates the activation of the fronto-parietal circuit during tactile angle match and non-match processing: an fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jiajia; Yu, Yinghua; Kunita, Akinori; Huang, Qiang; Wu, Jinglong; Sawamoto, Nobukatsu; Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2014-01-01

    The repetition of a stimulus task reduces the neural activity within certain cortical regions responsible for working memory (WM) processing. Although previous evidence has shown that repeated vibrotactile stimuli reduce the activation in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, whether the repeated tactile spatial stimuli triggered the priming effect correlated with the same cortical region remains unclear. Therefore, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a delayed match-to-sample task to investigate the contributions of the priming effect to tactile spatial WM processing. Fourteen healthy volunteers were asked to encode three tactile angle stimuli during the encoding phase and one tactile angle stimulus during the recognition phase. Then, they answered whether the last angle stimulus was presented during the encoding phase. As expected, both the Match and Non-Match tasks activated a similar cerebral network. The critical new finding was decreased brain activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), the right posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and bilateral medial frontal gyri (mFG) for the match task compared to the Non-Match task. Therefore, we suggest that the tactile priming engaged repetition suppression mechanisms during tactile angle matching, and this process decreased the activation of the fronto-parietal circuit, including IFG, mFG and PPC. PMID:25566010

  13. Linking Ethics and Language in the Technical Communication Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Brenda R.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses research on ethics and technical communication and examines specific methods that writers may use to manipulate language and to present information unethically. Suggests questions designed to teach students how to analyze situations that may involve such manipulation and misrepresentation. Concludes with two case studies illustrating…

  14. Tactile mental body parts representation in obesity.

    PubMed

    Scarpina, Federica; Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Molinari, Enrico

    2014-12-30

    Obese people׳s distortions in visually-based mental body-parts representations have been reported in previous studies, but other sensory modalities have largely been neglected. In the present study, we investigated possible differences in tactilely-based body-parts representation between an obese and a healthy-weight group; additionally we explore the possible relationship between the tactile- and the visually-based body representation. Participants were asked to estimate the distance between two tactile stimuli that were simultaneously administered on the arm or on the abdomen, in the absence of visual input. The visually-based body-parts representation was investigated by a visual imagery method in which subjects were instructed to compare the horizontal extension of body part pairs. According to the results, the obese participants overestimated the size of the tactilely-perceived distances more than the healthy-weight group when the arm, and not the abdomen, was stimulated. Moreover, they reported a lower level of accuracy than did the healthy-weight group when estimating horizontal distances relative to their bodies, confirming an inappropriate visually-based mental body representation. Our results imply that body representation disturbance in obese people is not limited to the visual mental domain, but it spreads to the tactilely perceived distances. The inaccuracy was not a generalized tendency but was body-part related. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Willingness To Communicate, Social Support, and Language Learning Orientations of Immersion Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacIntyre, Peter D.; Baker, Susan C.; Clement, Richard; Conrod, Sarah

    2001-01-01

    Hypothesized that orientations toward language learning (L2) as well as social support would influence students willingness to communicate (WTC) in a second language. Grade 9 L2 students of French immersion participated in the study. Results showed endorsement of all five orientations (travel, job related, friendship with Francophones, personal…

  16. Synthetic tactile perception induced by transcranial alternating-current stimulation can substitute for natural sensory stimulus in behaving rabbits.

    PubMed

    Márquez-Ruiz, Javier; Ammann, Claudia; Leal-Campanario, Rocío; Ruffini, Giulio; Gruart, Agnès; Delgado-García, José M

    2016-01-21

    The use of brain-derived signals for controlling external devices has long attracted the attention from neuroscientists and engineers during last decades. Although much effort has been dedicated to establishing effective brain-to-computer communication, computer-to-brain communication feedback for "closing the loop" is now becoming a major research theme. While intracortical microstimulation of the sensory cortex has already been successfully used for this purpose, its future application in humans partly relies on the use of non-invasive brain stimulation technologies. In the present study, we explore the potential use of transcranial alternating-current stimulation (tACS) for synthetic tactile perception in alert behaving animals. More specifically, we determined the effects of tACS on sensory local field potentials (LFPs) and motor output and tested its capability for inducing tactile perception using classical eyeblink conditioning in the behaving animal. We demonstrated that tACS of the primary somatosensory cortex vibrissa area could indeed substitute natural stimuli during training in the associative learning paradigm.

  17. Central projections of sensory systems involved in honey bee dance language communication.

    PubMed

    Brockmann, Axel; Robinson, Gene E

    2007-01-01

    Honey bee dance language is a unique and complex form of animal communication used to inform nest mates in the colony about the specific location of food sources or new nest sites. Five different sensory systems have been implicated in acquiring and communicating the information necessary for dance language communication. We present results from neuronal tracer studies identifying the central projections from four of the five. Sensory neurons of the dorsal rim area of the compound eyes, involved in acquiring sun-compass based information, project to the dorsal-most part of the medulla. Sensory neurons of the neck hair plates, required to transpose sun-compass based information to gravity-based information in the dark hive, project to the dorsal labial neuromere of the subesophageal ganglion. Sensory neurons from the antennal joint hair sensilla and the Johnston's organ, which perceive information on dance direction and distance from mechanostimuli generated by abdomen waggling and wing vibration, project to the deutocerebral dorsal lobe and the subesophageal ganglion, and the posterior protocerebrum, respectively. We found no 'dance-specific' projections relative to those previously described for drone and queen honey bees and other insect species that do not exhibit dance communication. We suggest that the evolution of dance language communication was likely based on the modification of central neural pathways associated with path integration, the capability to calculate distance, and directional information during flight. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Languages, communication potential and generalized trust in Sub-Saharan Africa: evidence based on the Afrobarometer Survey.

    PubMed

    Buzasi, Katalin

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate whether speaking other than home languages in Sub-Saharan Africa promotes generalized trust. Based on various psychological and economic theories, a simple model is provided to illustrate how languages might shape trust through various channels. Relying on data from the Afrobarometer Project, which provides information on home and additional languages, the Index of Communication Potential (ICP) is introduced to capture the linguistic situation in the 20 sample countries. The ICP, which can be computed at any desired level of aggregation, refers to the probability that an individual can communicate with a randomly selected person in the society based on common languages. The estimated two-level hierarchical models show that, however, individual level communication potential does not seem to impact trust formation, but living in an area with higher average communication potential increases the chance of exhibiting higher trust toward unknown people. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Artificial tactile sensing in minimally invasive surgery - a new technical approach.

    PubMed

    Schostek, Sebastian; Ho, Chi-Nghia; Kalanovic, Daniel; Schurr, Marc O

    2006-01-01

    The loss of tactile sensation is a commonly known drawback of minimally invasive surgery (MIS). Since the advent of MIS, research activities in providing tactile information to the surgeon are still ongoing, in order to improve patient safety and to extend the indications for MIS. We have designed a tactile sensor system comprising a tactile laparoscopic grasper for surgical palpation. For this purpose, we developed a novel tactile sensor technology which allows the manufacturing of an integrated sensor array within an acceptable price range. The array was integrated into the jaws of a 10mm laparoscopic grasper. The tactile data are transferred wirelessly via Bluetooth and are presented visually to the surgeon. The goal was to be able to obtain information about the shape and consistency of tissue structures by gently compressing the tissue between the jaws of the tactile instrument and thus to be able to recognize and assess anatomical or pathological structures, even if they are hidden in the tissue. With a prototype of the tactile sensor system we have conducted bench-tests as well as in-vitro and in-vivo experiments. The system proved feasibility in an experimental environment, it was easy to use, and the novel tactile sensor array was applicable for both palpation and grasping manoeuvres with forces of up to 60N. The tactile data turned out to be a useful supplement to the minimal amount of haptic feedback that is provided by current endoscopic instruments and the endoscopic image under certain conditions.

  20. Tactile roughness perception in the presence of olfactory and trigeminal stimulants

    PubMed Central

    Koijck, Lara A.; Van Erp, Jan B.F.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that odorants consistently evoke associations with textures and their tactile properties like smoothness and roughness. Also, it has been observed that olfaction can modulate tactile perception. We therefore hypothesized that tactile roughness perception may be biased towards the somatosensory connotation of an ambient odorant. We performed two experiments to test this hypothesis. In the first experiment, we investigated the influence of ambient chemosensory stimuli with different roughness connotations on tactile roughness perception. In addition to a pleasant odor with a connotation of softness (PEA), we also included a trigeminal stimulant with a rough, sharp or prickly connotation (Ethanol). We expected that—compared to a No-odorant control condition—tactile texture perception would be biased towards smoothness in the presence of PEA and towards roughness in the presence of Ethanol. However, our results show no significant interaction between chemosensory stimulation and perceived tactile surface roughness. It could be argued that ambient odors may be less effective in stimulating crossmodal associations, since they are by definition extraneous to the tactile stimuli. In an attempt to optimize the conditions for sensory integration, we therefore performed a second experiment in which the olfactory and tactile stimuli were presented in synchrony and in close spatial proximity. In addition, we included pleasant (Lemon) and unpleasant (Indole) odorants that are known to have the ability to affect tactile perception. We expected that tactile stimuli would be perceived as less rough when simultaneously presented with Lemon or PEA (both associated with softness) than when presented with Ethanol or Indole (odors that can be associated with roughness). Again, we found no significant main effect of chemosensory condition on perceived tactile roughness. We discuss the limitations of this study and we present suggestions for future research

  1. Structural language, pragmatic communication, behavior, and social competence in children adopted internationally: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Petranovich, Christine L; Walz, Nicolay Chertkoff; Staat, Mary Allen; Chiu, Chung-Yiu Peter; Wade, Shari L

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the association of structural language and pragmatic communication with behavior problems and social competence in girls adopted internationally. Participants included girls between 6-12 years of age who were internationally adopted from China (n = 32) and Eastern-Europe (n = 25) and a control group of never-adopted girls (n = 25). Children completed the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. Parents completed the Child Communication Checklist- second edition, the Child Behavior Checklist, and the Home and Community Social Behavior Scales. Compared to the controls, parents in the Eastern European group reported more problems with social competence, externalizing behaviors, structural language, and pragmatic communication. The Chinese group evidenced more internalizing problems. Using generalized linear regression, interaction terms were examined to determine if the associations of pragmatic communication and structural language with behavior problems and social competence varied across groups. Controlling for general intellectual functioning, poorer pragmatic communication was associated with more externalizing problems and poorer social competence. In the Chinese group, poorer pragmatic communication was associated with more internalizing problems. Post-adoption weaknesses in pragmatic communication are associated with behavior problems and social competence. Internationally adopted children may benefit from interventions that target pragmatic communication.

  2. Evaluation of Theoretical and Empirical Characteristics of the Communication, Language, and Statistics Survey (CLASS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagler, Amy E.; Lesser, Lawrence M.

    2018-01-01

    The interaction between language and the learning of statistical concepts has been receiving increased attention. The Communication, Language, And Statistics Survey (CLASS) was developed in response to the need to focus on dynamics of language in light of the culturally and linguistically diverse environments of introductory statistics classrooms.…

  3. Learner Use of Holistic Language Units in Multimodal, Task-Based Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collentine, Karina

    2009-01-01

    Second language acquisition (SLA) researchers strive to understand the language and exchanges that learners generate in synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC). Doughty and Long (2003) advocate replacing open-ended SCMC with task-based language teaching (TBLT) design principles. Since most task-based SCMC (TB-SCMC) research addresses an…

  4. Communicative Language Testing: Implications for Computer Based Language Testing in French for Specific Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García Laborda, Jesús; López Santiago, Mercedes; Otero de Juan, Nuria; Álvarez Álvarez, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Current evolutions of language testing have led to integrating computers in FSP assessments both in oral and written communicative tasks. This paper deals with two main issues: learners' expectations about the types of questions in FSP computer based assessments and the relation with their own experience. This paper describes the experience of 23…

  5. It isn't all about language: communication barriers for Latinas using contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Campo, Shelly; Kohler, Connie; Askelson, Natoshia M; Ortiz, Cristina; Losch, Mary

    2015-11-01

    Little is known about barriers that Latinas in the United States face in preventing unintended pregnancies beyond those of language and cost. This study examined factors inhibiting contraceptive use among 18- to 30-year-old Latinas in the Midwest. Individual interviews (N = 31) were conducted in Spanish with Latinas residing across the state. The interview protocol included questions about contraceptives and unintended pregnancies. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, translated, and coded for themes related to barriers. The majority of the barriers were related to communication but not English proficiency. Respondents talked about specific situations and experiences in which communication presented obstacles to using contraceptives. While language and cost are important barriers, attention needs to be paid to the other communication issues that women face related to culture, religion, partners, family, and spontaneity. Health care providers need to address the range of communication barriers that affect Latinas' contraceptive use. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Microfabricated Tactile Sensors for Biomedical Applications: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Saccomandi, Paola; Schena, Emiliano; Oddo, Calogero Maria; Zollo, Loredana; Silvestri, Sergio; Guglielmelli, Eugenio

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades, tactile sensors based on different sensing principles have been developed due to the growing interest in robotics and, mainly, in medical applications. Several technological solutions have been employed to design tactile sensors; in particular, solutions based on microfabrication present several attractive features. Microfabrication technologies allow for developing miniaturized sensors with good performance in terms of metrological properties (e.g., accuracy, sensitivity, low power consumption, and frequency response). Small size and good metrological properties heighten the potential role of tactile sensors in medicine, making them especially attractive to be integrated in smart interfaces and microsurgical tools. This paper provides an overview of microfabricated tactile sensors, focusing on the mean principles of sensing, i.e., piezoresistive, piezoelectric and capacitive sensors. These sensors are employed for measuring contact properties, in particular force and pressure, in three main medical fields, i.e., prosthetics and artificial skin, minimal access surgery and smart interfaces for biomechanical analysis. The working principles and the metrological properties of the most promising tactile, microfabricated sensors are analyzed, together with their application in medicine. Finally, the new emerging technologies in these fields are briefly described. PMID:25587432

  7. A Pneumatic Tactile Sensor for Co-Operative Robots

    PubMed Central

    He, Rui; Yu, Jianjun; Zuo, Guoyu

    2017-01-01

    Tactile sensors of comprehensive functions are urgently needed for the advanced robot to co-exist and co-operate with human beings. Pneumatic tactile sensors based on air bladder possess some noticeable advantages for human-robot interaction application. In this paper, we construct a pneumatic tactile sensor and apply it on the fingertip of robot hand to realize the sensing of force, vibration and slippage via the change of the pressure of the air bladder, and we utilize the sensor to perceive the object’s features such as softness and roughness. The pneumatic tactile sensor has good linearity, repeatability and low hysteresis and both its size and sensing range can be customized by using different material as well as different thicknesses of the air bladder. It is also simple and cheap to fabricate. Therefore, the pneumatic tactile sensor is suitable for the application of co-operative robots and can be widely utilized to improve the performance of service robots. We can apply it to the fingertip of the robot to endow the robotic hand with the ability to co-operate with humans and handle the fragile objects because of the inherent compliance of the air bladder. PMID:29125565

  8. Microfabricated tactile sensors for biomedical applications: a review.

    PubMed

    Saccomandi, Paola; Schena, Emiliano; Oddo, Calogero Maria; Zollo, Loredana; Silvestri, Sergio; Guglielmelli, Eugenio

    2014-12-01

    During the last decades, tactile sensors based on different sensing principles have been developed due to the growing interest in robotics and, mainly, in medical applications. Several technological solutions have been employed to design tactile sensors; in particular, solutions based on microfabrication present several attractive features. Microfabrication technologies allow for developing miniaturized sensors with good performance in terms of metrological properties (e.g., accuracy, sensitivity, low power consumption, and frequency response). Small size and good metrological properties heighten the potential role of tactile sensors in medicine, making them especially attractive to be integrated in smart interfaces and microsurgical tools. This paper provides an overview of microfabricated tactile sensors, focusing on the mean principles of sensing, i.e., piezoresistive, piezoelectric and capacitive sensors. These sensors are employed for measuring contact properties, in particular force and pressure, in three main medical fields, i.e., prosthetics and artificial skin, minimal access surgery and smart interfaces for biomechanical analysis. The working principles and the metrological properties of the most promising tactile, microfabricated sensors are analyzed, together with their application in medicine. Finally, the new emerging technologies in these fields are briefly described.

  9. Review of Recent Inkjet-Printed Capacitive Tactile Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Salim, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Inkjet printing is an advanced printing technology that has been used to develop conducting layers, interconnects and other features on a variety of substrates. It is an additive manufacturing process that offers cost-effective, lightweight designs and simplifies the fabrication process with little effort. There is hardly sufficient research on tactile sensors and inkjet printing. Advancements in materials science and inkjet printing greatly facilitate the realization of sophisticated tactile sensors. Starting from the concept of capacitive sensing, a brief comparison of printing techniques, the essential requirements of inkjet-printing and the attractive features of state-of-the art inkjet-printed tactile sensors developed on diverse substrates (paper, polymer, glass and textile) are presented in this comprehensive review. Recent trends in inkjet-printed wearable/flexible and foldable tactile sensors are evaluated, paving the way for future research. PMID:29125584

  10. The influence of communication mode on written language processing and beyond.

    PubMed

    Barca, Laura; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests a broad impact of communication mode on cognition at large, beyond language processing. Using a sign language since infancy might shape the representation of words and other linguistic stimuli - for example, incorporating in it the movements and signs used to express them. Once integrated into linguistic representations, this visuo-motor content can affect deaf signers' linguistic and cognitive processing.

  11. Towards a Sign Language Synthesizer: a Bridge to Communication Gap of the Hearing/Speech Impaired Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maarif, H. A.; Akmeliawati, R.; Gunawan, T. S.; Shafie, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Sign language synthesizer is a method to visualize the sign language movement from the spoken language. The sign language (SL) is one of means used by HSI people to communicate to normal people. But, unfortunately the number of people, including the HSI people, who are familiar with sign language is very limited. These cause difficulties in the communication between the normal people and the HSI people. The sign language is not only hand movement but also the face expression. Those two elements have complimentary aspect each other. The hand movement will show the meaning of each signing and the face expression will show the emotion of a person. Generally, Sign language synthesizer will recognize the spoken language by using speech recognition, the grammatical process will involve context free grammar, and 3D synthesizer will take part by involving recorded avatar. This paper will analyze and compare the existing techniques of developing a sign language synthesizer, which leads to IIUM Sign Language Synthesizer.

  12. Neural reuse of action perception circuits for language, concepts and communication.

    PubMed

    Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2018-01-01

    Neurocognitive and neurolinguistics theories make explicit statements relating specialized cognitive and linguistic processes to specific brain loci. These linking hypotheses are in need of neurobiological justification and explanation. Recent mathematical models of human language mechanisms constrained by fundamental neuroscience principles and established knowledge about comparative neuroanatomy offer explanations for where, when and how language is processed in the human brain. In these models, network structure and connectivity along with action- and perception-induced correlation of neuronal activity co-determine neurocognitive mechanisms. Language learning leads to the formation of action perception circuits (APCs) with specific distributions across cortical areas. Cognitive and linguistic processes such as speech production, comprehension, verbal working memory and prediction are modelled by activity dynamics in these APCs, and combinatorial and communicative-interactive knowledge is organized in the dynamics within, and connections between APCs. The network models and, in particular, the concept of distributionally-specific circuits, can account for some previously not well understood facts about the cortical 'hubs' for semantic processing and the motor system's role in language understanding and speech sound recognition. A review of experimental data evaluates predictions of the APC model and alternative theories, also providing detailed discussion of some seemingly contradictory findings. Throughout, recent disputes about the role of mirror neurons and grounded cognition in language and communication are assessed critically. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Texture- and deformability-based surface recognition by tactile image analysis.

    PubMed

    Khasnobish, Anwesha; Pal, Monalisa; Tibarewala, D N; Konar, Amit; Pal, Kunal

    2016-08-01

    Deformability and texture are two unique object characteristics which are essential for appropriate surface recognition by tactile exploration. Tactile sensation is required to be incorporated in artificial arms for rehabilitative and other human-computer interface applications to achieve efficient and human-like manoeuvring. To accomplish the same, surface recognition by tactile data analysis is one of the prerequisites. The aim of this work is to develop effective technique for identification of various surfaces based on deformability and texture by analysing tactile images which are obtained during dynamic exploration of the item by artificial arms whose gripper is fitted with tactile sensors. Tactile data have been acquired, while human beings as well as a robot hand fitted with tactile sensors explored the objects. The tactile images are pre-processed, and relevant features are extracted from the tactile images. These features are provided as input to the variants of support vector machine (SVM), linear discriminant analysis and k-nearest neighbour (kNN) for classification. Based on deformability, six household surfaces are recognized from their corresponding tactile images. Moreover, based on texture five surfaces of daily use are classified. The method adopted in the former two cases has also been applied for deformability- and texture-based recognition of four biomembranes, i.e. membranes prepared from biomaterials which can be used for various applications such as drug delivery and implants. Linear SVM performed best for recognizing surface deformability with an accuracy of 83 % in 82.60 ms, whereas kNN classifier recognizes surfaces of daily use having different textures with an accuracy of 89 % in 54.25 ms and SVM with radial basis function kernel recognizes biomembranes with an accuracy of 78 % in 53.35 ms. The classifiers are observed to generalize well on the unseen test datasets with very high performance to achieve efficient material

  14. Second language social networks and communication-related acculturative stress: the role of interconnectedness

    PubMed Central

    Doucerain, Marina M.; Varnaamkhaasti, Raheleh S.; Segalowitz, Norman; Ryder, Andrew G.

    2015-01-01

    Although a substantial amount of cross-cultural psychology research has investigated acculturative stress in general, little attention has been devoted specifically to communication-related acculturative stress (CRAS). In line with the view that cross-cultural adaptation and second language (L2) learning are social and interpersonal phenomena, the present study examines the hypothesis that migrants’ L2 social network size and interconnectedness predict CRAS. The main idea underlying this hypothesis is that L2 social networks play an important role in fostering social and cultural aspects of communicative competence. Specifically, higher interconnectedness may reflect greater access to unmodified natural cultural representations and L2 communication practices, thus fostering communicative competence through observational learning. As such, structural aspects of migrants’ L2 social networks may be protective against acculturative stress arising from chronic communication difficulties. Results from a study of first generation migrant students (N = 100) support this idea by showing that both inclusiveness and density of the participants’ L2 network account for unique variance in CRAS but not in general acculturative stress. These results support the idea that research on cross-cultural adaptation would benefit from disentangling the various facets of acculturative stress and that the structure of migrants’ L2 network matters for language related outcomes. Finally, this study contributes to an emerging body of work that attempts to integrate cultural/cross-cultural research on acculturation and research on intercultural communication and second language learning. PMID:26300809

  15. Second language social networks and communication-related acculturative stress: the role of interconnectedness.

    PubMed

    Doucerain, Marina M; Varnaamkhaasti, Raheleh S; Segalowitz, Norman; Ryder, Andrew G

    2015-01-01

    Although a substantial amount of cross-cultural psychology research has investigated acculturative stress in general, little attention has been devoted specifically to communication-related acculturative stress (CRAS). In line with the view that cross-cultural adaptation and second language (L2) learning are social and interpersonal phenomena, the present study examines the hypothesis that migrants' L2 social network size and interconnectedness predict CRAS. The main idea underlying this hypothesis is that L2 social networks play an important role in fostering social and cultural aspects of communicative competence. Specifically, higher interconnectedness may reflect greater access to unmodified natural cultural representations and L2 communication practices, thus fostering communicative competence through observational learning. As such, structural aspects of migrants' L2 social networks may be protective against acculturative stress arising from chronic communication difficulties. Results from a study of first generation migrant students (N = 100) support this idea by showing that both inclusiveness and density of the participants' L2 network account for unique variance in CRAS but not in general acculturative stress. These results support the idea that research on cross-cultural adaptation would benefit from disentangling the various facets of acculturative stress and that the structure of migrants' L2 network matters for language related outcomes. Finally, this study contributes to an emerging body of work that attempts to integrate cultural/cross-cultural research on acculturation and research on intercultural communication and second language learning.

  16. Perceptions and Problems of English Language and Communication Abilities: A Final Check on Thai Engineering Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajprasit, Krich; Pratoomrat, Panadda; Wang, Tuntiga

    2015-01-01

    English language and communication abilities are an essential part of the global engineering community. However, non-native English speaking engineers and students tend to be unable to master these skills. This study aims to gauge the perceived levels of their general English language proficiency, to explore their English communicative problems,…

  17. Reflecting on Western TESOL Training and Communicative Language Teaching: Bangladeshi Teachers' Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowdhury, Raqib; Ha, Phan Le

    2008-01-01

    The increasing demand for competent users of English in the era of globalisation has had a significant impact on English Language Teaching (ELT) in Bangladesh. Among a number of changes to improve the quality of ELT, teachers of English have been encouraged, even required, to adopt a communicative language teaching (CLT) approach. To facilitate…

  18. Multimodal Application for Foreign Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magal-Royo, Teresa; Gimenez-Lopez, Jose Luis; Pairy, Blas; Garcia-Laborda, Jesus; Gonzalez-Del Rio, Jimena

    2011-01-01

    The current development of educational applications for language learning has experienced a qualitative change in the criteria of interaction between users and devices due to the technological advances of input and output data through keyboard, mouse, stylus, tactile screen, etc. The multiple interactions generated in a natural way by humans…

  19. Communicative Interaction and Second Language Acquisition: An Inuit Example.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crago, Martha B.

    1993-01-01

    The role of cultural context in the communicative interaction of young Inuit children, their caregivers, and their non-Inuit teachers was examined in a longitudinal ethnographic study conducted in two small communities of arctic Quebec. Focus was on discourse features of primary language socialization of Inuit families. (32 references) (Author/LB)

  20. Speech-Language Pathologists' Opinions on Communication Disorders and Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanger, Dixie; Moore-Brown, Barbara J.; Montgomery, Judy; Hellerich, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the opinions of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) regarding their role, education, and training in serving students with communication disorders who have been involved in violence. Method: A survey consisting of 26 items was given to 598 SLPs from eight states representing geographic regions of the United…

  1. New Bottles, Old Wine: Communicative Language Teaching in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hui, Leng

    1997-01-01

    As the largest English-learning population in the world, China is deeply involved in communicative language teaching (CLT). Because of economic, administrative, cultural, and population constraints, and the academic abilities of classroom teachers, China has to work to Adapt CLT to local conditions. This situation must be overcome or traditional,…

  2. Development of an LSI for Tactile Sensor Systems on the Whole-Body of Robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muroyama, Masanori; Makihata, Mitsutoshi; Nakano, Yoshihiro; Matsuzaki, Sakae; Yamada, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Ui; Nakayama, Takahiro; Nonomura, Yutaka; Fujiyoshi, Motohiro; Tanaka, Shuji; Esashi, Masayoshi

    We have developed a network type tactile sensor system, which realizes high-density tactile sensors on the whole-body of nursing and communication robots. The system consists of three kinds of nodes: host, relay and sensor nodes. Roles of the sensor node are to sense forces and, to encode the sensing data and to transmit the encoded data on serial channels by interruption handling. Relay nodes and host deal with a number of the encoded sensing data from the sensor nodes. A sensor node consists of a capacitive MEMS force sensor and a signal processing/transmission LSI. In this paper, details of an LSI for the sensor node are described. We designed experimental sensor node LSI chips by a commercial 0.18µm standard CMOS process. The 0.18µm LSIs were supplied in wafer level for MEMS post-process. The LSI chip area is 2.4mm × 2.4mm, which includes logic, CF converter and memory circuits. The maximum clock frequency of the chip with a large capacitive load is 10MHz. Measured power consumption at 10MHz clock is 2.23mW. Experimental results indicate that size, response time, sensor sensitivity and power consumption are all enough for practical tactile sensor systems.

  3. Displaying Sensed Tactile Cues with a Fingertip Haptic Device.

    PubMed

    Pacchierotti, Claudio; Prattichizzo, Domenico; Kuchenbecker, Katherine J

    2015-01-01

    Telerobotic systems enable humans to explore and manipulate remote environments for applications such as surgery and disaster response, but few such systems provide the operator with cutaneous feedback. This article presents a novel approach to remote cutaneous interaction; our method is compatible with any fingertip tactile sensor and any mechanical tactile display device, and it does not require a position/force or skin deformation model. Instead, it directly maps the sensed stimuli to the best possible input commands for the device's motors using a data set recorded with the tactile sensor inside the device. As a proof of concept, we considered a haptic system composed of a BioTac tactile sensor, in charge of measuring contact deformations, and a custom 3-DoF cutaneous device with a flat contact platform, in charge of applying deformations to the user's fingertip. To validate the proposed approach and discover its inherent tradeoffs, we carried out two remote tactile interaction experiments. The first one evaluated the error between the tactile sensations registered by the BioTac in a remote environment and the sensations created by the cutaneous device for six representative tactile interactions and 27 variations of the display algorithm. The normalized average errors in the best condition were 3.0 percent of the BioTac's full 12-bit scale. The second experiment evaluated human subjects' experiences for the same six remote interactions and eight algorithm variations. The average subjective rating for the best algorithm variation was 8.2 out of 10, where 10 is best.

  4. MEMS tactile display: from fabrication to characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miki, Norihisa; Kosemura, Yumi; Watanabe, Junpei; Ishikawa, Hiroaki

    2014-03-01

    We report fabrication and characterization of MEMS-based tactile display that can display users various tactile information, such as Braille codes and surface textures. The display consists of 9 micro-actuators that are equipped with hydraulic displacement amplification mechanism (HDAM) to achieve large enough displacement to stimulate the human tactile receptors. HDAM encapsulates incompressible liquids. We developed a liquid encapsulation process, which we termed as Bonding-in-Liquid Technique, where bonding with a UV-curable resin in glycerin is conducted in the liquid, which prevented interfusion of air bubbles and deformation of the membrane during the bonding. HDAM successfully amplified the displacement generated by piezoelectric actuators by a factor of 6. The display could virtually produce "rough" and "smooth" surfaces, by controlling the vibration frequency, displacement, and the actuation periods of an actuator until the adjacent actuator was driven. We introduced a sample comparison method to characterize the surfaces, which involves human tactile sensation. First, we prepared samples whose mechanical properties are known. We displayed a surface texture to the user by controlling the parameters and then, the user selects a sample that has the most similar surface texture. By doing so, we can correlate the parameters with the mechanical properties of the sample as well as find the sets of the parameters that can provide similar tactile information to many users. The preliminary results with respect to roughness and hardness is presented.

  5. Language Personality in the Conditions of Cross-Cultural Communication: Case-Study Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidovitch, Nitza; Khyhniak, Kateryna

    2018-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of identification of a language personality's traits under conditions of cross-cultural communication. It is shown that effective cross-cultural communication is revised under globalization and increasingly intensive social interactions. The results of the authors' research prove that it is possible to develop…

  6. A Single Session of Mirror-based Tactile and Motor Training Improves Tactile Dysfunction in Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy: A Replicated Randomized Controlled Case Series.

    PubMed

    Auld, Megan L; Johnston, Leanne M; Russo, Remo N; Moseley, G Lorimer

    2017-10-01

    This replicated randomized controlled crossover case series investigated the effect of mirror-based tactile and motor training on tactile registration and perception in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (UCP). Six children with UCP (6-18 years; median 10 years, five male, three-left hemiplegia, four-manual ability classification system (MACS) I, one MACS II and one MACS III) participated. They attended two 90-minute sessions - one of mirror-based training and one of standard practice, bimanual therapy - in alternated order. Tactile registration (Semmes Weinstein Monofilaments) and perception (double simultaneous or single-point localization) were assessed before and after each session. Change was estimated using reliable change index (RCI). Tactile perception improved in four participants (RCI > 1.75), with mirror-based training, but was unchanged with bimanual therapy (RCI < 1.0 for all participants). Neither intervention affected tactile registration. Mirror-based training demonstrates potential to improve tactile perception in children with UCP. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Teaching Pragmatics in the Foreign Language Classroom: Grammar as a Communicative Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felix-Brasdefer, J. Cesar; Cohen, Andrew D.

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the teaching of pragmatics in the Spanish as a Foreign Language classroom and examines the role of grammar as a communicative resource. It also aims to highlight the importance of teaching pragmatics from beginning levels of language instruction, with the spotlight on speech acts at the discourse level. After the concept of…

  8. Tactile Data Entry System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    The patent-pending Glove-Enabled Computer Operations (GECO) design leverages extravehicular activity (EVA) glove design features as platforms for instrumentation and tactile feedback, enabling the gloves to function as human-computer interface devices. Flexible sensors in each finger enable control inputs that can be mapped to any number of functions (e.g., a mouse click, a keyboard strike, or a button press). Tracking of hand motion is interpreted alternatively as movement of a mouse (change in cursor position on a graphical user interface) or a change in hand position on a virtual keyboard. Programmable vibro-tactile actuators aligned with each finger enrich the interface by creating the haptic sensations associated with control inputs, such as recoil of a button press.

  9. Effects of tactile cueing on concurrent performance of military and robotics tasks in a simulated multitasking environment.

    PubMed

    Chen, J Y C; Terrence, P I

    2008-08-01

    This study examined the concurrent performance of military gunnery, robotics control and communication tasks in a simulated environment. More specifically, the study investigated how aided target recognition (AiTR) capabilities (delivered either through tactile or tactile + visual cueing) for the gunnery task might benefit overall performance. Results showed that AiTR benefited not only the gunnery task, but also the concurrent robotics and communication tasks. The participants' spatial ability was found to be a good indicator of their gunnery and robotics task performance. However, when AiTR was available to assist their gunnery task, those participants of lower spatial ability were able to perform their robotics tasks as well as those of higher spatial ability. Finally, participants' workload assessment was significantly higher when they teleoperated (i.e. remotely operated) a robot and when their gunnery task was unassisted. These results will further understanding of multitasking performance in military tasking environments. These results will also facilitate the implementation of robots in military settings and will provide useful data to military system designs.

  10. Tactile texture and friction of soft sponge surfaces.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Akira; Suzuki, Makoto; Imai, Yumi; Nonomura, Yoshimune

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated the tactile texture and frictional properties of five soft sponges with various cell sizes. The frictional forces were measured by a friction meter containing a contact probe with human-finger-like geometry and mechanical properties. When the subjects touched these sponges with their fingers, hard-textured sponges were deemed unpleasant. This tactile feeling changed with friction factors including friction coefficients, their temporal patterns, as well as mechanical and shape factors. These findings provide useful information on how to control the tactile textures of various sponges. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Differential effects of tactile high- and low-frequency stimulation on tactile discrimination in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Ragert, Patrick; Kalisch, Tobias; Bliem, Barbara; Franzkowiak, Stephanie; Dinse, Hubert R

    2008-01-23

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) play important roles in mediating activity-dependent changes in synaptic transmission and are believed to be crucial mechanisms underlying learning and cortical plasticity. In human subjects, however, the lack of adequate input stimuli for the induction of LTP and LTD makes it difficult to study directly the impact of such protocols on behavior. Using tactile high- and low-frequency stimulation protocols in humans, we explored the potential of such protocols for the induction of perceptual changes. We delivered tactile high-frequency and low-frequency stimuli (t-HFS, t-LFS) to skin sites of approximately 50 mm2 on the tip of the index finger. As assessed by 2-point discrimination, we demonstrate that 20 minutes of t-HFS improved tactile discrimination, while t-LFS impaired performance. T-HFS-effects were stable for at least 24 hours whereas t-LFS-induced changes recovered faster. While t-HFS changes were spatially very specific with no changes on the neighboring fingers, impaired tactile performance after t-LFS was also observed on the right middle-finger. A central finding was that for both t-LFS and t-HFS perceptual changes were dependent on the size of the stimulated skin area. No changes were observed when the stimulated area was very small (< 1 mm2) indicating special requirements for spatial summation. Our results demonstrate differential effects of such protocols in a frequency specific manner that might be related to LTP- and LTD-like changes in human subjects.

  12. Supporting Caregivers in Developing Responsive Communication Partnerships with Their Children: Extending a Caregiver-Led Interactive Language Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cologon, Kathy; Wicks, Lilly; Salvador, Aliza

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates whether extension of a caregiver-led interactive language program may enhance its effectiveness in supporting communication. Caregiver-led language programs, which focus on establishing responsive interaction patterns to support opportunities for communication between caregivers and young children within natural settings,…

  13. Teaching First Language Speakers to Communicate across Linguistic Difference: Addressing Attitudes, Comprehension, and Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subtirelu, Nicholas Close; Lindemann, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    While most research in applied linguistics has focused on second language (L2) speakers and their language capabilities, the success of interaction between such speakers and first language (L1) speakers also relies on the positive attitudes and communication skills of the L1 speakers. However, some research has suggested that many L1 speakers lack…

  14. Differential associations between sensory response patterns and language, social, and communication measures in children with autism or other developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Watson, Linda R; Patten, Elena; Baranek, Grace T; Poe, Michele; Boyd, Brian A; Freuler, Ashley; Lorenzi, Jill

    2011-12-01

    To examine patterns of sensory responsiveness (i.e., hyperresponsiveness, hyporesponsiveness, and sensory seeking) as factors that may account for variability in social-communicative symptoms of autism and variability in language, social, and communication skill development in children with autism or other developmental disabilities (DDs). Children with autistic disorder (AD; n = 72, mean age = 52.3 months) and other DDs (n = 44, mean age = 48.1 months) participated in a protocol measuring sensory response patterns; social-communicative symptoms of autism; and language, social, and communication skills. Hyporesponsiveness was positively associated with social-communicative symptom severity, with no significant group difference in the association. Hyperresponsiveness was not significantly associated with social-communicative symptom severity. A group difference emerged for sensory seeking and social-communicative symptom severity, with a positive association for the AD group only. For the 2 groups of children combined, hyporesponsiveness was negatively associated with language skills and social adaptive skills. Sensory seeking also was negatively associated with language skills. These associations did not differ between the 2 groups. Aberrant sensory processing may play an important role in the pathogenesis of autism and other DDs as well as in the rate of acquisition of language, social, and communication skills.

  15. Tactile Radar: experimenting a computer game with visually disabled.

    PubMed

    Kastrup, Virgínia; Cassinelli, Alvaro; Quérette, Paulo; Bergstrom, Niklas; Sampaio, Eliana

    2017-09-18

    Visually disabled people increasingly use computers in everyday life, thanks to novel assistive technologies better tailored to their cognitive functioning. Like sighted people, many are interested in computer games - videogames and audio-games. Tactile-games are beginning to emerge. The Tactile Radar is a device through which a visually disabled person is able to detect distal obstacles. In this study, it is connected to a computer running a tactile-game. The game consists in finding and collecting randomly arranged coins in a virtual room. The study was conducted with nine congenital blind people including both sexes, aged 20-64 years old. Complementary methods of first and third person were used: the debriefing interview and the quasi-experimental design. The results indicate that the Tactile Radar is suitable for the creation of computer games specifically tailored for visually disabled people. Furthermore, the device seems capable of eliciting a powerful immersive experience. Methodologically speaking, this research contributes to the consolidation and development of first and third person complementary methods, particularly useful in disabled people research field, including the evaluation by users of the Tactile Radar effectiveness in a virtual reality context. Implications for rehabilitation Despite the growing interest in virtual games for visually disabled people, they still find barriers to access such games. Through the development of assistive technologies such as the Tactile Radar, applied in virtual games, we can create new opportunities for leisure, socialization and education for visually disabled people. The results of our study indicate that the Tactile Radar is adapted to the creation of video games for visually disabled people, providing a playful interaction with the players.

  16. Effects of Communication Tasks on the Grammatical Relations Marked by Second Language Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Jonathan; Kennedy, Graeme

    1996-01-01

    Examines the morpho-syntax of task-based interaction and reports some possible grammatical consequences of interaction in split and shared information tasks undertaken by adult second language learners of English. Results indicate that communication tasks for language learning can be designed to influence the use of particular linguistic…

  17. Practical Considerations When Supporting Transitions for Pupils with Speech, Language and Communication Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perfitt, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the impact of transitions upon pupils aged 11-14 with speech, language and communication needs, including specific language impairment and autism. The aim is to identify stress factors, examine whether these affect any subgroups in particular and suggest practical strategies to support pupils through transitions. Stress…

  18. Graphical tactile displays for visually-impaired people.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Verdú, Fernando; Hafez, Moustapha

    2007-03-01

    This paper presents an up-to-date survey of graphical tactile displays. These devices provide information through the sense of touch. At best, they should display both text and graphics (text may be considered a type of graphic). Graphs made with shapeable sheets result in bulky items awkward to store and transport; their production is expensive and time-consuming and they deteriorate quickly. Research is ongoing for a refreshable tactile display that acts as an output device for a computer or other information source and can present the information in text and graphics. The work in this field has branched into diverse areas, from physiological studies to technological aspects and challenges. Moreover, interest in these devices is now being shown by other fields such as virtual reality, minimally invasive surgery and teleoperation. It is attracting more and more people, research and money. Many proposals have been put forward, several of them succeeding in the task of presenting tactile information. However, most are research prototypes and very expensive to produce commercially. Thus the goal of an efficient low-cost tactile display for visually-impaired people has not yet been reached.

  19. RETENTION OF HIGH TACTILE ACUITY THROUGHOUT THE LIFESPAN IN BLINDNESS

    PubMed Central

    Legge, Gordon E.; Madison, Cindee; Vaughn, Brenna N.; Cheong, Allen M.Y.; Miller, Joseph C.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies of tactile acuity on the fingertip using passive touch have demonstrated an age-related decline in spatial resolution for both sighted and blind subjects. We have re-examined this age dependence with two newly designed tactile-acuity charts requiring active exploration of the test symbols. One chart used dot patterns similar to Braille and the other used embossed Landolt rings. Groups of blind Braille readers and sighted subjects, ranging in age from 12 to 85 years, were tested in two experiments. We replicated previous findings for sighted subjects by showing an age related decrease in tactile acuity by nearly 1% per year. Surprisingly, the blind subjects retained high acuity into old age showing no age-related decline. For the blind subjects, tactile acuity did not correlate with braille reading speed, the amount of daily reading, or the age at which braille was learned. We conclude that when measured with active touch, blind subjects retain high tactile acuity into old age, unlike their aging sighted peers. We propose that blind people's use of active touch in daily activities, not specifically Braille reading, results in preservation of tactile acuity across the lifespan. PMID:19064491

  20. To what extent do Gestalt grouping principles influence tactile perception?

    PubMed

    Gallace, Alberto; Spence, Charles

    2011-07-01

    Since their formulation by the Gestalt movement more than a century ago, the principles of perceptual grouping have primarily been investigated in the visual modality and, to a lesser extent, in the auditory modality. The present review addresses the question of whether the same grouping principles also affect the perception of tactile stimuli. Although, to date, only a few studies have explicitly investigated the existence of Gestalt grouping principles in the tactile modality, we argue that many more studies have indirectly provided evidence relevant to this topic. Reviewing this body of research, we argue that similar principles to those reported previously in visual and auditory studies also govern the perceptual grouping of tactile stimuli. In particular, we highlight evidence showing that the principles of proximity, similarity, common fate, good continuation, and closure affect tactile perception in both unimodal and crossmodal settings. We also highlight that the grouping of tactile stimuli is often affected by visual and auditory information that happen to be presented simultaneously. Finally, we discuss the theoretical and applied benefits that might pertain to the further study of Gestalt principles operating in both unisensory and multisensory tactile perception.

  1. Language and Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ransom, Grayce A.

    An analysis of the relationship of language to learning, particularly as it affects "avoidance behaviors" of remedial readers in the classroom, strongly emphasized the importance of greater stress on oral language development. New concern for cognitive and personality development in children stresses the role of language as an interaction medium…

  2. Blindness enhances tactile acuity and haptic 3-D shape discrimination.

    PubMed

    Norman, J Farley; Bartholomew, Ashley N

    2011-10-01

    This study compared the sensory and perceptual abilities of the blind and sighted. The 32 participants were required to perform two tasks: tactile grating orientation discrimination (to determine tactile acuity) and haptic three-dimensional (3-D) shape discrimination. The results indicated that the blind outperformed their sighted counterparts (individually matched for both age and sex) on both tactile tasks. The improvements in tactile acuity that accompanied blindness occurred for all blind groups (congenital, early, and late). However, the improvements in haptic 3-D shape discrimination only occurred for the early-onset and late-onset blindness groups; the performance of the congenitally blind was no better than that of the sighted controls. The results of the present study demonstrate that blindness does lead to an enhancement of tactile abilities, but they also suggest that early visual experience may play a role in facilitating haptic 3-D shape discrimination.

  3. Language competence and communication skills in 3-year-old children after prenatal exposure to analgesic opioids.

    PubMed

    Skovlund, Eva; Handal, Marte; Selmer, Randi; Brandlistuen, Ragnhild Eek; Skurtveit, Svetlana

    2017-06-01

    An increasing consumption of opioids in the general population has been reported in several countries also among pregnant women. Limited information is available regarding the effect of prenatal exposure to analgesic opioids on long-term neurocognitive function in children. The primary aim of the study was to determine the association between prenatal exposure to analgesic opioids and language competence and communication skills at 3 years of age. The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) prospectively included pregnant women during the period from 1999 to 2008. Participants reported medication use at pregnancy weeks 17-18 and 30, and 6 months after birth. Children's language competence and communication skills were reported by mothers on validated scales. A total of 45 211 women with 51 679 singleton pregnancies were included. The use of analgesic opioids was reported in 892 pregnancies (1.7%). In adjusted analyses, no association between opioid use and reduced language competence or communication skills was found, OR = 1.04 (95%CI: 0.89-1.22) and OR = 1.10 (95%CI: 0.95-1.27), respectively. Both pain and use of paracetamol were associated with a small reduction in communication skills. No such association was found for language competence. The use of analgesic opioids in pregnant women does not seem to affect language development or communication skills in children at 3 years of age. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. An Explanatory Mixed Method Study on Pre-Service Language Teachers' Communication Apprehension towards Their Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavanoz, Suzan

    2017-01-01

    Promoting higher communication efficiency among teacher candidates and acting as models are among the main professional responsibilities of teacher educators. This makes the task of teachers even more important in language education classes where students are prospective language teachers and their development as language teachers highly depend on…

  5. Does Powerful Language Training Affect Student Participation, Impression Formation, and Gender Communication in Online Discussions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Crystal Ann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate whether powerful language training affected student participation, impression formation, and gender communication style in online discussions. Powerful language was defined as a lack of the use of powerless language. Participants in this study were 507 freshmen taking a first-year college…

  6. Developmental profile of speech-language and communicative functions in an individual with the preserved speech variant of Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Marschik, Peter B; Vollmann, Ralf; Bartl-Pokorny, Katrin D; Green, Vanessa A; van der Meer, Larah; Wolin, Thomas; Einspieler, Christa

    2014-08-01

    We assessed various aspects of speech-language and communicative functions of an individual with the preserved speech variant of Rett syndrome (RTT) to describe her developmental profile over a period of 11 years. For this study, we incorporated the following data resources and methods to assess speech-language and communicative functions during pre-, peri- and post-regressional development: retrospective video analyses, medical history data, parental checklists and diaries, standardized tests on vocabulary and grammar, spontaneous speech samples and picture stories to elicit narrative competences. Despite achieving speech-language milestones, atypical behaviours were present at all times. We observed a unique developmental speech-language trajectory (including the RTT typical regression) affecting all linguistic and socio-communicative sub-domains in the receptive as well as the expressive modality. Future research should take into consideration a potentially considerable discordance between formal and functional language use by interpreting communicative acts on a more cautionary note.

  7. Social Communication Disorder outside Autism? A Diagnostic Classification Approach to Delineating Pragmatic Language Impairment, High Functioning Autism and Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Jenny; Adams, Catherine; Lockton, Elaine; Green, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Developmental disorders of language and communication present considerable diagnostic challenges due to overlapping of symptomatology and uncertain aetiology. We aimed to further elucidate the behavioural and linguistic profile associated with impairments of social communication occurring outside of an autism diagnosis. Methods: Six to…

  8. Synthetic and Bio-Artificial Tactile Sensing: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Lucarotti, Chiara; Oddo, Calogero Maria; Vitiello, Nicola; Carrozza, Maria Chiara

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art of artificial tactile sensing, with a particular focus on bio-hybrid and fully-biological approaches. To this aim, the study of physiology of the human sense of touch and of the coding mechanisms of tactile information is a significant starting point, which is briefly explored in this review. Then, the progress towards the development of an artificial sense of touch are investigated. Artificial tactile sensing is analysed with respect to the possible approaches to fabricate the outer interface layer: synthetic skin versus bio-artificial skin. With particular respect to the synthetic skin approach, a brief overview is provided on various technologies and transduction principles that can be integrated beneath the skin layer. Then, the main focus moves to approaches characterized by the use of bio-artificial skin as an outer layer of the artificial sensory system. Within this design solution for the skin, bio-hybrid and fully-biological tactile sensing systems are thoroughly presented: while significant results have been reported for the development of tissue engineered skins, the development of mechanotransduction units and their integration is a recent trend that is still lagging behind, therefore requiring research efforts and investments. In the last part of the paper, application domains and perspectives of the reviewed tactile sensing technologies are discussed. PMID:23348032

  9. Predicting behavior problems in deaf and hearing children: The influences of language, attention, and parent–child communication

    PubMed Central

    Barker, David H.; Quittner, Alexandra L.; Fink, Nancy E.; Eisenberg, Laurie S.; Tobey, Emily A.; Niparko, John K.

    2009-01-01

    The development of language and communication may play an important role in the emergence of behavioral problems in young children, but they are rarely included in predictive models of behavioral development. In this study, cross-sectional relationships between language, attention, and behavior problems were examined using parent report, videotaped observations, and performance measures in a sample of 116 severely and profoundly deaf and 69 normally hearing children ages 1.5 to 5 years. Secondary analyses were performed on data collected as part of the Childhood Development After Cochlear Implantation Study, funded by the National Institutes of Health. Hearing-impaired children showed more language, attention, and behavioral difficulties, and spent less time communicating with their parents than normally hearing children. Structural equation modeling indicated there were significant relationships between language, attention, and child behavior problems. Language was associated with behavior problems both directly and indirectly through effects on attention. Amount of parent–child communication was not related to behavior problems. PMID:19338689

  10. Predicting behavior problems in deaf and hearing children: the influences of language, attention, and parent-child communication.

    PubMed

    Barker, David H; Quittner, Alexandra L; Fink, Nancy E; Eisenberg, Laurie S; Tobey, Emily A; Niparko, John K

    2009-01-01

    The development of language and communication may play an important role in the emergence of behavioral problems in young children, but they are rarely included in predictive models of behavioral development. In this study, cross-sectional relationships between language, attention, and behavior problems were examined using parent report, videotaped observations, and performance measures in a sample of 116 severely and profoundly deaf and 69 normally hearing children ages 1.5 to 5 years. Secondary analyses were performed on data collected as part of the Childhood Development After Cochlear Implantation Study, funded by the National Institutes of Health. Hearing-impaired children showed more language, attention, and behavioral difficulties, and spent less time communicating with their parents than normally hearing children. Structural equation modeling indicated there were significant relationships between language, attention, and child behavior problems. Language was associated with behavior problems both directly and indirectly through effects on attention. Amount of parent-child communication was not related to behavior problems.

  11. Comparison of measurement methods for capacitive tactile sensors and their implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarapata, Grzegorz; Sienkiewicz, Rafał

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a review of ideas and implementations of measurement methods utilized for capacity measurements in tactile sensors. The paper describes technical method, charge amplification method, generation and as well integration method. Three selected methods were implemented in dedicated measurement system and utilised for capacitance measurements of ourselves made tactile sensors. The tactile sensors tested in this work were fully fabricated with the inkjet printing technology. The tests result were presented and summarised. The charge amplification method (CDC) was selected as the best method for the measurement of the tactile sensors.

  12. The Effects of Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Glove Pressure on Tactility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Shelby; Miranda, Mesloh; England, Scott; Benson, Elizabeth; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to quantify finger tactility, while wearing a Phase VI Extravehicular Activity (EVA) glove. Subjects were fully suited in an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) suit. Data was collected under three conditions: bare-handed, gloved at 0 psi, and gloved at 4.3 psi. In order to test tactility, a series of 30 tactile stimuli (bumps) were created that varied in both height and width. With the hand obscured, subjects applied pressure to each bump until detected tactilely. The amount of force needed to detect each bump was recorded using load cells located under a force-plate. The amount of force needed to detect a bump was positively related to width, but inversely related to height. In addition, as the psi of the glove increased, more force was needed to detect the bump. In terms of application, it was possible to determine the optimal width and height a bump needs to be for a specific amount of force applied for tactility.

  13. Communication Patterns between Internationally Adopted Children and Their Mothers: Implications for Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, K.; Genesee, F.; Dubois, M. E.; Kasparian K.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents findings on patterns of communication between internationally adopted children and their mothers in order to better understand the nature of these interactions and their influence on language learning. We examined maternal language use and joint attention behaviors of mothers and their children in 21 mother-child pairs: 10…

  14. Discourse Functions and Vocabulary Use in English Language Learners' Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabab'ah, Ghaleb

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the discourse generated by English as a foreign language (EFL) learners using synchronous computer-mediated communication (CMC) as an approach to help English language learners to create social interaction in the classroom. It investigates the impact of synchronous CMC mode on the quantity of total words, lexical range and…

  15. Audio-tactile integration and the influence of musical training.

    PubMed

    Kuchenbuch, Anja; Paraskevopoulos, Evangelos; Herholz, Sibylle C; Pantev, Christo

    2014-01-01

    Perception of our environment is a multisensory experience; information from different sensory systems like the auditory, visual and tactile is constantly integrated. Complex tasks that require high temporal and spatial precision of multisensory integration put strong demands on the underlying networks but it is largely unknown how task experience shapes multisensory processing. Long-term musical training is an excellent model for brain plasticity because it shapes the human brain at functional and structural levels, affecting a network of brain areas. In the present study we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate how audio-tactile perception is integrated in the human brain and if musicians show enhancement of the corresponding activation compared to non-musicians. Using a paradigm that allowed the investigation of combined and separate auditory and tactile processing, we found a multisensory incongruency response, generated in frontal, cingulate and cerebellar regions, an auditory mismatch response generated mainly in the auditory cortex and a tactile mismatch response generated in frontal and cerebellar regions. The influence of musical training was seen in the audio-tactile as well as in the auditory condition, indicating enhanced higher-order processing in musicians, while the sources of the tactile MMN were not influenced by long-term musical training. Consistent with the predictive coding model, more basic, bottom-up sensory processing was relatively stable and less affected by expertise, whereas areas for top-down models of multisensory expectancies were modulated by training.

  16. Design Methodology for Magnetic Field-Based Soft Tri-Axis Tactile Sensors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongbo; de Boer, Greg; Kow, Junwai; Alazmani, Ali; Ghajari, Mazdak; Hewson, Robert; Culmer, Peter

    2016-08-24

    Tactile sensors are essential if robots are to safely interact with the external world and to dexterously manipulate objects. Current tactile sensors have limitations restricting their use, notably being too fragile or having limited performance. Magnetic field-based soft tactile sensors offer a potential improvement, being durable, low cost, accurate and high bandwidth, but they are relatively undeveloped because of the complexities involved in design and calibration. This paper presents a general design methodology for magnetic field-based three-axis soft tactile sensors, enabling researchers to easily develop specific tactile sensors for a variety of applications. All aspects (design, fabrication, calibration and evaluation) of the development of tri-axis soft tactile sensors are presented and discussed. A moving least square approach is used to decouple and convert the magnetic field signal to force output to eliminate non-linearity and cross-talk effects. A case study of a tactile sensor prototype, MagOne, was developed. This achieved a resolution of 1.42 mN in normal force measurement (0.71 mN in shear force), good output repeatability and has a maximum hysteresis error of 3.4%. These results outperform comparable sensors reported previously, highlighting the efficacy of our methodology for sensor design.

  17. Design Methodology for Magnetic Field-Based Soft Tri-Axis Tactile Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongbo; de Boer, Greg; Kow, Junwai; Alazmani, Ali; Ghajari, Mazdak; Hewson, Robert; Culmer, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Tactile sensors are essential if robots are to safely interact with the external world and to dexterously manipulate objects. Current tactile sensors have limitations restricting their use, notably being too fragile or having limited performance. Magnetic field-based soft tactile sensors offer a potential improvement, being durable, low cost, accurate and high bandwidth, but they are relatively undeveloped because of the complexities involved in design and calibration. This paper presents a general design methodology for magnetic field-based three-axis soft tactile sensors, enabling researchers to easily develop specific tactile sensors for a variety of applications. All aspects (design, fabrication, calibration and evaluation) of the development of tri-axis soft tactile sensors are presented and discussed. A moving least square approach is used to decouple and convert the magnetic field signal to force output to eliminate non-linearity and cross-talk effects. A case study of a tactile sensor prototype, MagOne, was developed. This achieved a resolution of 1.42 mN in normal force measurement (0.71 mN in shear force), good output repeatability and has a maximum hysteresis error of 3.4%. These results outperform comparable sensors reported previously, highlighting the efficacy of our methodology for sensor design. PMID:27563908

  18. The phase of prestimulus alpha oscillations affects tactile perception.

    PubMed

    Ai, Lei; Ro, Tony

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that neural oscillations in the 8- to 12-Hz range influence sensory perception. In the current study, we examined whether both the power and phase of these mu/alpha oscillations predict successful conscious tactile perception. Near-threshold tactile stimuli were applied to the left hand while electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was recorded over the contralateral right somatosensory cortex. We found a significant inverted U-shaped relationship between prestimulus mu/alpha power and detection rate, suggesting that there is an intermediate level of alpha power that is optimal for tactile perception. We also found a significant difference in phase angle concentration at stimulus onset that predicted whether the upcoming tactile stimulus was perceived or missed. As has been shown in the visual system, these findings suggest that these mu/alpha oscillations measured over somatosensory areas exert a strong inhibitory control on tactile perception and that pulsed inhibition by these oscillations shapes the state of brain activity necessary for conscious perception. They further suggest that these common phasic processing mechanisms across different sensory modalities and brain regions may reflect a common underlying encoding principle in perceptual processing that leads to momentary windows of perceptual awareness.

  19. Contextual cueing of tactile search is coded in an anatomical reference frame.

    PubMed

    Assumpção, Leonardo; Shi, Zhuanghua; Zang, Xuelian; Müller, Hermann J; Geyer, Thomas

    2018-04-01

    This work investigates the reference frame(s) underlying tactile context memory, a form of statistical learning in a tactile (finger) search task. In this task, if a searched-for target object is repeatedly encountered within a stable spatial arrangement of task-irrelevant distractors, detecting the target becomes more efficient over time (relative to nonrepeated arrangements), as learned target-distractor spatial associations come to guide tactile search, thus cueing attention to the target location. Since tactile search displays can be represented in several reference frames, including multiple external and an anatomical frame, in Experiment 1 we asked whether repeated search displays are represented in tactile memory with reference to an environment-centered or anatomical reference frame. In Experiment 2, we went on examining a hand-centered versus anatomical reference frame of tactile context memory. Observers performed a tactile search task, divided into a learning and test session. At the transition between the two sessions, we introduced postural manipulations of the hands (crossed ↔ uncrossed in Expt. 1; palm-up ↔ palm-down in Expt. 2) to determine the reference frame of tactile contextual cueing. In both experiments, target-distractor associations acquired during learning transferred to the test session when the placement of the target and distractors was held constant in anatomical, but not external, coordinates. In the latter, RTs were even slower for repeated displays. We conclude that tactile contextual learning is coded in an anatomical reference frame. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Tactile Cueing for Target Acquisition and Identification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    method of coding tactile information, and the method of presenting elevation information were studied. Results: Subjects were divided into video game experienced...VGP) subjects and non- video game (NVGP) experienced subjects. VGPs showed a significantly lower’ target acquisition time with the 12...that video game players performed better with the highest level of tactile resolution, while non- video game players performed better with simpler pattern and a lower resolution display.

  1. Improvement and decline in tactile discrimination behavior after cortical plasticity induced by passive tactile coactivation.

    PubMed

    Hodzic, Amra; Veit, Ralf; Karim, Ahmed A; Erb, Michael; Godde, Ben

    2004-01-14

    Perceptual learning can be induced by passive tactile coactivation without attention or reinforcement. We used functional MRI (fMRI) and psychophysics to investigate in detail the specificity of this type of learning for different tactile discrimination tasks and the underlying cortical reorganization. We found that a few hours of Hebbian coactivation evoked a significant increase of primary (SI) and secondary (SII) somatosensory cortical areas representing the stimulated body parts. The amount of plastic changes was strongly correlated with improvement in spatial discrimination performance. However, in the same subjects, frequency discrimination was impaired after coactivation, indicating that even maladaptive processes can be induced by intense passive sensory stimulation.

  2. Differential Associations between Sensory Response Patterns and Language, Social, and Communication Measures in Children with Autism or Other Developmental Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Linda R.; Patten, Elena; Baranek, Grace T.; Poe, Michele; Boyd, Brian A.; Freuler, Ashley; Lorenzi, Jill

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Examine patterns of sensory responsiveness (i.e., hyperresponsiveness, hyporesponsiveness, and sensory seeking) as factors that may account for variability in social-communicative symptoms of autism and variability in language, social, and communication skill development in children with autism or other developmental disabilities. Method Children with autistic disorder (AD; n = 72, mean age = 52.3 months) and other developmental disabilities (DD; n = 44, mean age = 48.1 months) participated in a protocol measuring sensory response patterns, social-communicative symptoms of autism, and language, social, and communication skills. Results Hyporesponsiveness was positively associated with social-communicative symptom severity, with no significant group difference in the association. Hyperresponsiveness was not significantly associated with social-communicative symptom severity. A group difference emerged for sensory seeking and social-communicative symptom severity, with a positive association for the AD group only. For the two groups of children combined, hyporesponsiveness was negatively associated with language skills and social adaptive skills. Sensory seeking also was negatively associated with language skills. These associations did not differ between the two groups. Conclusions Aberrant sensory processing may play an important role in the pathogenesis of autism and other developmental disabilities, as well as in the rate of acquisition of language, social, and communication skills. PMID:21862675

  3. Factors Affecting the Implementation of Communicative Language Teaching in Taiwanese College English Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Ming; Goswami, Jaya S.

    2011-01-01

    Foreign language teaching in many Asian-Pacific countries in recent decades has shifted toward communicative-focused instruction. However, researchers have reported a gap between policy and practice. To incorporate teachers' voices in adopting the communicative approach in the curriculum, this study explores factors that promote or hinder EFL…

  4. Tactile Displays for Orientation, Navigation and Communication in Air, Sea and Land Environments (Les systemes d’affichage tactiles pour l’orientation, la navigation et la communication dans les environments aerien, maritime et terrestre)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-01

    objects and “ feel ” the forces applied on the object by the other individual or object. Feedback including active touch or proprioceptive signals (e.g...observer will notice that certain touches will feel “bright” or “cold.” In fact, the “experimenter/observer” has just activated his/her tactile cold...2008). More than a feeling : bringing touch into astronauts’ spatial orientation. Microgravity Science and Technology. (In press). [11] Vos, W.K

  5. Second Language Exposure, Functional Communication, and Executive Function in Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder (ADS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iarocci, Grace; Hutchison, Sarah M.; O'Toole, Gillian

    2017-01-01

    Parents and professionals are concerned that second language exposure may delay communication in children with ASD. In this study 174 youth (6-16 years) with and without ASD, exposed to a second language, were compared on executive function (EF) and functional communication (FC) with their peers without exposure. There were no significant…

  6. Cooperative processing in primary somatosensory cortex and posterior parietal cortex during tactile working memory.

    PubMed

    Ku, Yixuan; Zhao, Di; Bodner, Mark; Zhou, Yong-Di

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, causal roles of both the primary somatosensory cortex (SI) and the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) were investigated in a tactile unimodal working memory (WM) task. Individual magnetic resonance imaging-based single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (spTMS) was applied, respectively, to the left SI (ipsilateral to tactile stimuli), right SI (contralateral to tactile stimuli) and right PPC (contralateral to tactile stimuli), while human participants were performing a tactile-tactile unimodal delayed matching-to-sample task. The time points of spTMS were 300, 600 and 900 ms after the onset of the tactile sample stimulus (duration: 200 ms). Compared with ipsilateral SI, application of spTMS over either contralateral SI or contralateral PPC at those time points significantly impaired the accuracy of task performance. Meanwhile, the deterioration in accuracy did not vary with the stimulating time points. Together, these results indicate that the tactile information is processed cooperatively by SI and PPC in the same hemisphere, starting from the early delay of the tactile unimodal WM task. This pattern of processing of tactile information is different from the pattern in tactile-visual cross-modal WM. In a tactile-visual cross-modal WM task, SI and PPC contribute to the processing sequentially, suggesting a process of sensory information transfer during the early delay between modalities. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Communication as a human right: Citizenship, politics and the role of the speech-language pathologist.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Declan; Lyons, Rena; Carroll, Clare; Caulfield, Mari; De Paor, Gráinne

    2018-02-01

    According to Article 19 of the Universal Declaration on Human Rights "Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers." The purpose of this paper is to elucidate communication as a human right in the life of a young man called Declan who has Down syndrome. This commentary paper is co-written by Declan, his sister who is a speech-language pathologist (SLP) with an advocacy role, his SLP, and academics. Declan discusses, in his own words, what makes communication hard, what helps communication, his experiences of speech-language pathology, and what he knows about human rights. He also discusses his passion for politics, his right to be an active citizen and participate in the political process. This paper also focuses on the role of speech-language pathology in supporting and partnering with people with communication disabilities to have their voices heard and exercise their human rights.

  8. An Exploration of Chinese EFL Learners' Unwillingness to Communicate and Foreign Language Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Meihua; Jackson, Jane

    2008-01-01

    This article reports the results of a study of the unwillingness to communicate, and anxiety of Chinese learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) in English language classrooms. A 70-item survey of 547 first-year undergraduate non-English majors revealed that (a) Most of the students were willing to participate in interpersonal…

  9. Developmental profile of speech-language and communicative functions in an individual with the Preserved Speech Variant of Rett syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Marschik, Peter B.; Vollmann, Ralf; Bartl-Pokorny, Katrin D.; Green, Vanessa A.; van der Meer, Larah; Wolin, Thomas; Einspieler, Christa

    2018-01-01

    Objective We assessed various aspects of speech-language and communicative functions of an individual with the preserved speech variant (PSV) of Rett syndrome (RTT) to describe her developmental profile over a period of 11 years. Methods For this study we incorporated the following data resources and methods to assess speech-language and communicative functions during pre-, peri- and post-regressional development: retrospective video analyses, medical history data, parental checklists and diaries, standardized tests on vocabulary and grammar, spontaneous speech samples, and picture stories to elicit narrative competences. Results Despite achieving speech-language milestones, atypical behaviours were present at all times. We observed a unique developmental speech-language trajectory (including the RTT typical regression) affecting all linguistic and socio-communicative sub-domains in the receptive as well as the expressive modality. Conclusion Future research should take into consideration a potentially considerable discordance between formal and functional language use by interpreting communicative acts on a more cautionary note. PMID:23870013

  10. Languaging about Intercultural Communication: The Occurrence and Conceptual Focus of Intracultural Peer Collaborative Dialogues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Levi

    2017-01-01

    This study examined intracultural peers using language as a cognitive tool (i.e. "languaging") to recognise, understand, and explain intercultural communication concepts. In pairs, 42 Korean public school teachers enrolled in an in-service program completed a describe-interpret-evaluate task through synchronous computer-mediated…

  11. The effect of chronic low back pain on tactile suppression during back movements.

    PubMed

    Van Damme, Stefaan; Van Hulle, Lore; Danneels, Lieven; Spence, Charles; Crombez, Geert

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether tactile suppression, the phenomenon whereby tactile perception is suppressed during movement, would occur in the context of back movements. Of particular interest, it was investigated if tactile suppression in the back would be attenuated in those suffering from chronic low back pain. Individuals with chronic low back pain (N = 30) and a matched control group (N = 24) detected tactile stimuli on three possible locations (back, arm, chest) while performing a back or arm movement, or no movement. We hypothesized that the movements would induce tactile suppression, and that this effect would be largest for low-intense stimuli on the moving body part. We further hypothesized that, during back movements, tactile suppression on the back would be less pronounced in the chronic low back pain group than in the control group. The results showed the expected general tactile suppression effects. The hypothesis of back-specific attenuation of tactile suppression in the chronic low back pain group was not supported. However, back-specific tactile suppression in the chronic low back pain group was less pronounced in those who performed the back movements more slowly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Seeing the body distorts tactile size perception.

    PubMed

    Longo, Matthew R; Sadibolova, Renata

    2013-03-01

    Vision of the body modulates somatosensation, even when entirely non-informative about stimulation. For example, seeing the body increases tactile spatial acuity, but reduces acute pain. While previous results demonstrate that vision of the body modulates somatosensory sensitivity, it is unknown whether vision also affects metric properties of touch, and if so how. This study investigated how non-informative vision of the body modulates tactile size perception. We used the mirror box illusion to induce the illusion that participants were directly seeing their stimulated left hand, though they actually saw their reflected right hand. We manipulated whether participants: (a) had the illusion of directly seeing their stimulated left hand, (b) had the illusion of seeing a non-body object at the same location, or (c) looked directly at their non-stimulated right-hand. Participants made verbal estimates of the perceived distance between two tactile stimuli presented simultaneously to the dorsum of the left hand, either 20, 30, or 40mm apart. Vision of the body significantly reduced the perceived size of touch, compared to vision of the object or of the contralateral hand. In contrast, no apparent changes of perceived hand size were found. These results show that seeing the body distorts tactile size perception. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Re-examining overlap between tactile and visual motion responses within hMT+ and STS

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Fang; Beauchamp, Michael S.; Fine, Ione

    2015-01-01

    Here we examine overlap between tactile and visual motion BOLD responses within the human MT+ complex. Although several studies have reported tactile responses overlapping with hMT+, many used group average analyses, leaving it unclear whether these responses were restricted to sub-regions of hMT+. Moreover, previous studies either employed a tactile task or passive stimulation, leaving it unclear whether or not tactile responses in hMT+ are simply the consequence of visual imagery. Here we carried out a replication of one of the classic papers finding tactile responses in hMT+ (Hagen et al. 2002). We mapped MT and MST in individual subjects using visual field localizers. We then examined responses to tactile motion on the arm, either presented passively or in the presence of a visual task performed at fixation designed to minimize visualization of the concurrent tactile stimulation. To our surprise, without a visual task, we found only weak tactile motion responses in MT (6% of voxels showing tactile responses) and MST (2% of voxels). With an unrelated visual task designed to withdraw attention from the tactile modality, responses in MST reduced to almost nothing (<1% regions). Consistent with previous results, we did observe tactile responses in STS regions superior and anterior to hMT+. Despite the lack of individual overlap, group averaged responses produced strong spurious overlap between tactile and visual motion responses within hMT+ that resembled those observed in previous studies. The weak nature of tactile responses in hMT+ (and their abolition by withdrawal of attention) suggests that hMT+ may not serve as a supramodal motion processing module. PMID:26123373

  14. A preliminary investigation of lumbar tactile acuity in yoga practitioners.

    PubMed

    Flaherty, Mary; Connolly, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Tactile acuity in the back relates to voluntary lumbo-pelvic control and is lower in chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients. Two-point discrimination (TPD) thresholds are higher, indicating decreased tactile acuity in patients with CLBP. Yoga has been shown to help relieve CLBP. This study investigated the hypothesis that regular practitioners of yoga have increased tactile acuity (i.e., lower TPD thresholds) when compared to matched controls who regularly perform gym-based (resistance training or aerobic-type) exercise. Tactile acuity in the low back was assessed using TPD in 16 long-term practitioners of yoga (5 Ashtanga, 5 Bikram, and 6 Iyengar practitioners) and 16 age- and gender-matched healthy controls who exercise (with weights and aerobic exercise). The yoga practitioners' TPD was lower than that of the exercisers, indicating greater tactile acuity in the low back. While there was no difference between the TPD of the practitioners of different yoga styles, the TPD of the Ashtanga yoga participants were significantly lower than those of the exercisers. The yogis whose main reasons to practice yoga were for "meditation or increased mindfulness" and for "well-being" showed a nonsignificant trend of higher tactile acuity than those who did yoga for "physical exercise." There was no association between TPD threshold and cumulative amount of yoga practice in terms of hours per week and years of experience. However, increased hours of exercise per week correlated with higher TPD. The findings suggest that there may be a relationship between yoga practice and enhanced tactile acuity in the low back.

  15. Inert gas narcosis has no influence on thermo-tactile sensation.

    PubMed

    Jakovljević, Miroljub; Vidmar, Gaj; Mekjavic, Igor B

    2012-05-01

    Contribution of skin thermal sensors under inert gas narcosis to the raising hypothermia is not known. Such information is vital for understanding the impact of narcosis on behavioural thermoregulation, diver safety and judgment of thermal (dis)comfort in the hyperbaric environment. So this study aimed at establishing the effects of normoxic concentration of 30% nitrous oxide (N(2)O) on thermo-tactile threshold sensation by studying 16 subjects [eight females and eight males; eight sensitive (S) and eight non-sensitive (NS) to N(2)O]. Their mean (SD) age was 22.1 (1.8) years, weight 72.8 (15.3) kg, height 1.75 (0.10) m and body mass index 23.8 (3.8) kg m(-2). Quantitative thermo-tactile sensory testing was performed on forearm, upper arm and thigh under two experimental conditions: breathing air (air trial) and breathing normoxic mixture of 30% N(2)O (N(2)O trial) in the mixed sequence. Difference in thermo-tactile sensitivity thresholds between two groups of subjects in two experimental conditions was analysed by 3-way mixed-model analysis of covariance. There were no statistically significant differences in thermo-tactile thresholds either between the Air and N(2)O trials, or between S and NS groups, or between females and males, or with respect to body mass index. Some clinically insignificant lowering of thermo-tactile thresholds occurred only for warm thermo-tactile thresholds on upper arm and thigh. The results indicated that normoxic mixture of 30% N(2)O had no influence on thermo-tactile sensation in normothermia.

  16. Development of tactile sensory circuits in the CNS.

    PubMed

    Iwasato, Takuji; Erzurumlu, Reha S

    2018-06-13

    Molecular identification of neuronal types and genetic and imaging approaches to characterize their properties reveal morphological, physiological and dynamic aspects of sensory circuit development. Here we focus on the mouse tactile sensory circuitry, with particular emphasis on the main trigeminal pathway that connects the whiskers, the major tactile organ in rodents, to the neocortex. At each level of this pathway, neurogenesis, axonal elongation, pathfinding, target recognition and circuit reorganization including dendritic refinement of cortical layer 4 neurons occur contemporaneously and a multitude of molecular signals are used in differing combinations. We highlight recent advances in development of tactile circuitry and note gaps in our understanding. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Beyond literacy and numeracy in patient provider communication: Focus groups suggest roles for empowerment, provider attitude and language

    PubMed Central

    Brugge, Doug; Edgar, Timothy; George, Kelly; Heung, Janette; Laws, M Barton

    2009-01-01

    Background Although the number of people living in the United States with limited English proficiency (LEP) is substantial, the impact of language on patients' experience of provider-patient communication has been little explored. Methods We conducted a series of 12 exploratory focus groups in English, Spanish and Cantonese to elicit discussion about patient-provider communication, particularly with respect to the concerns of the health literacy framework, i.e. ability to accurately understand, interpret and apply information given by providers. Within each language, 2 groups had high education and 2 had low education participants to partially account for literacy levels, which cannot be assessed consistently across three languages. Eighty-five (85) adults enrolled in the focus groups. The resulting video tapes were transcribed, translated and analyzed via content analysis. Results We identified 5 themes: 1) language discordant communication; 2) language concordant communication; 3) empowerment; 4) providers' attitudes; 5) issues with the health care system. Despite efforts by facilitators to elicit responses related to cognitive understanding, issues of interpersonal process were more salient, and respondents did not readily separate issues of accurate understanding from their overall narratives of experience with health care and illness. Thematic codes often appeared to be associated with education level, language and/or culture. Conclusion Our most salient finding was that for most of our participants there was no clear demarcation between literacy and numeracy, language interpretation, health communication, interpersonal relations with their provider and the rest of their experience with the health care system. PMID:19772555

  18. Reach Trajectories Characterize Tactile Localization for Sensorimotor Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Brandes, Janina; Heed, Tobias

    2015-10-07

    Spatial target information for movement planning appears to be coded in a gaze-centered reference frame. In touch, however, location is initially coded with reference to the skin. Therefore, the tactile spatial location must be derived by integrating skin location and posture. It has been suggested that this recoding is impaired when the limb is placed in the opposite hemispace, for example, by limb crossing. Here, human participants reached toward visual and tactile targets located at uncrossed and crossed feet in a sensorimotor decision task. We characterized stimulus recoding by analyzing the timing and spatial profile of hand reaches. For tactile targets at crossed feet, skin-based information implicates the incorrect side, and only recoded information points to the correct location. Participants initiated straight reaches and redirected the hand toward a target presented in midflight. Trajectories to visual targets were unaffected by foot crossing. In contrast, trajectories to tactile targets were redirected later with crossed than uncrossed feet. Reaches to crossed feet usually continued straight until they were directed toward the correct tactile target and were not biased toward the skin-based target location. Occasional, far deflections toward the incorrect target were most likely when this target was implicated by trial history. These results are inconsistent with the suggestion that spatial transformations in touch are impaired by limb crossing, but are consistent with tactile location being recoded rapidly and efficiently, followed by integration of skin-based and external information to specify the reach target. This process may be implemented in a bounded integrator framework. How do you touch yourself, for instance, to scratch an itch? The place you need to reach is defined by a sensation on the skin, but our bodies are flexible, so this skin location could be anywhere in 3D space. The movement toward the tactile sensation must therefore be specified

  19. Test Review: Huer, M. B., & Miller, L. Tecel (2011), "Test of Early Communication and Emerging Language." Austin, TX: Pro-Ed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hua, Yi

    2018-01-01

    This article describes and reviews the "Test of Early Communication and Emerging Language" (TECEL; Huer & Miller, 2011). The test was constructed to assess infants' and toddlers' earliest communication and language abilities. The TECEL is a revision of the Nonspeech Test for Receptive/ Expressive Language (NST; Huer, 1983, 1988). The…

  20. Culturally/Linguistically Different Children: Report Writing Guidelines for Speech-Language Pathologists [and] Summary of Project Communicate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schloff, Rose-Laurie; Martinez, Silvia

    Guidelines for writing assessments of the English language skills of minority, bilingual, preschool and elementary school children are presented for monolingual speech-language pathologists. In addition, a project (Project Communicate) providing direct client services and training of speech-language pathologists is briefly described. With regard…

  1. A Cognitive Neural Architecture Able to Learn and Communicate through Natural Language.

    PubMed

    Golosio, Bruno; Cangelosi, Angelo; Gamotina, Olesya; Masala, Giovanni Luca

    2015-01-01

    Communicative interactions involve a kind of procedural knowledge that is used by the human brain for processing verbal and nonverbal inputs and for language production. Although considerable work has been done on modeling human language abilities, it has been difficult to bring them together to a comprehensive tabula rasa system compatible with current knowledge of how verbal information is processed in the brain. This work presents a cognitive system, entirely based on a large-scale neural architecture, which was developed to shed light on the procedural knowledge involved in language elaboration. The main component of this system is the central executive, which is a supervising system that coordinates the other components of the working memory. In our model, the central executive is a neural network that takes as input the neural activation states of the short-term memory and yields as output mental actions, which control the flow of information among the working memory components through neural gating mechanisms. The proposed system is capable of learning to communicate through natural language starting from tabula rasa, without any a priori knowledge of the structure of phrases, meaning of words, role of the different classes of words, only by interacting with a human through a text-based interface, using an open-ended incremental learning process. It is able to learn nouns, verbs, adjectives, pronouns and other word classes, and to use them in expressive language. The model was validated on a corpus of 1587 input sentences, based on literature on early language assessment, at the level of about 4-years old child, and produced 521 output sentences, expressing a broad range of language processing functionalities.

  2. Observation of Spontaneous Expressive Language (OSEL): A New Measure for Spontaneous and Expressive Language of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Other Communication Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So Hyun; Junker, Dörte; Lord, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    A new language measure, the Observation of Spontaneous Expressive Language (OSEL), is intended to document spontaneous use of syntax, pragmatics, and semantics in 2-12-year-old children with ASD and other communication disorders with expressive language levels comparable to typical 2-5 year olds. Because the purpose of the OSEL is to provide developmental norms for use of language, the first step involves assessment of the scale’s feasibility, validity, and reliability using a sample of 180 2-5 year-old typically developing children. Pilot data from the OSEL shows strong internal consistency, high reliabilities and validity. Once replicated with a large population-based sample and in special populations, the scale should be helpful in designing appropriate interventions for children with ASD and other communication disorders. PMID:25022249

  3. Observation of Spontaneous Expressive Language (OSEL): a new measure for spontaneous and expressive language of children with autism spectrum disorders and other communication disorders.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Hyun; Junker, Dörte; Lord, Catherine

    2014-12-01

    A new language measure, the Observation of Spontaneous Expressive Language (OSEL), is intended to document spontaneous use of syntax, pragmatics, and semantics in 2-12-year-old children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and other communication disorders with expressive language levels comparable to typical 2-5 year olds. Because the purpose of the OSEL is to provide developmental norms for use of language, the first step involves assessment of the scale's feasibility, validity, and reliability using a sample of 180 2-5 year-old typically developing children. Pilot data from the OSEL shows strong internal consistency, high reliabilities and validity. Once replicated with a large population-based sample and in special populations, the scale should be helpful in designing appropriate interventions for children with ASD and other communication disorders.

  4. Bilingual Language Acquisition in a Minority Context: Using the Irish-English Communicative Development Inventory to Track Acquisition of an Endangered Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Toole, Ciara; Hickey, Tina M.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the role of language exposure in vocabulary acquisition in Irish, a threatened minority language in Ireland which is usually acquired with English in a bilingual context. Using a bilingual Irish-English adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories) [Fenson, L., V. A. Marchman, D. J. Thal, P. S.…

  5. Prototype tactile feedback system for examination by skin touch.

    PubMed

    Lee, O; Lee, K; Oh, C; Kim, K; Kim, M

    2014-08-01

    Diagnosis of conditions such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, in the case of induration, involves palpating the infected area via hands and then selecting a ratings score. However, the score is determined based on the tester's experience and standards, making it subjective. To provide tactile feedback on the skin, we developed a prototype tactile feedback system to simulate skin wrinkles with PHANToM OMNI. To provide the user with tactile feedback on skin wrinkles, a visual and haptic Augmented Reality system was developed. First, a pair of stereo skin images obtained by a stereo camera generates a disparity map of skin wrinkles. Second, the generated disparity map is sent to an implemented tactile rendering algorithm that computes a reaction force according to the user's interaction with the skin image. We first obtained a stereo image of skin wrinkles from the in vivo stereo imaging system, which has a baseline of 50.8 μm, and obtained the disparity map with a graph cuts algorithm. The left image is displayed on the monitor to enable the user to recognize the location visually. The disparity map of the skin wrinkle image sends skin wrinkle information as a tactile response to the user through a haptic device. We successfully developed a tactile feedback system for virtual skin wrinkle simulation by means of a commercialized haptic device that provides the user with a single point of contact to feel the surface roughness of a virtual skin sample. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Nitrogen narcosis and tactile shape memory in low visibility.

    PubMed

    van Wijk, Charles H; Meintjes, W A J

    2014-01-01

    Commercial diving often occurs in low visibility, where divers are reliant on their tactile senses. This study examined the effect of nitrogen narcosis on tactile memory for shapes as well as the influence of psychological and biographical factors on this relationship. This crossover study tested 139 commercial divers in a dry hyperbaric chamber at 101.325 and 607.95 kPa (1 and 6 atmospheres absolute/atm abs). Divers memorized shapes while blindfolded, using their tactile senses only. Delayed recall was measured at the surface after each dive. Psychological and biographical data were also collected. A significant effect of hyperbaric pressure on tactile memory was demonstrated, and a further effect of sequence of testing found. Thus, divers' delayed shape recall deteriorated by 8% after learning material at depth, compared to learning on the surface. There were also significant but small effects of psychological and biographical markers on tactile memory performance, with lower trait anxiety associated with better recall, and lower education associated with poorer recall. The findings emphasize the importance of utilizing other forms of recording of events or objects at depth, particularly in conditions of low visibility during deeper diving, to aid memory encoding and subsequent recall at the surface.

  7. Impact of student ethnicity and primary childhood language on communication skill assessment in a clinical performance examination.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Alicia; Wang, Frances; Braveman, Melissa; Finkas, Lindsay K; Hauer, Karen E

    2007-08-01

    Clinical performance examinations (CPX) with standardized patients (SPs) have become a preferred method to assess communication skills in US medical schools. Little is known about how trainees' backgrounds impact CPX performance. The objective of this paper is to examine the impact of student ethnicity, primary childhood language, and experience of diversity on the communication scores of a high-stakes CPX using SPs. This research was designed as an observational study. The participants of this study were third-year medical students at one US medical school. The measurements used in this study were CPX scores from mandatory exam, student demographics and experience with diversity measured by self-report on a survey, and Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) and United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) scores. A total of 135 students participated. Asian and black students scored lower than white students on the communication portion of the CPX by approximately half a standard deviation (Asian, 67.4%; black, 64.4%; white, 69.4%, p < .05). There were no differences by ethnicity on history/physical exam scores. Multivariate analysis controlling for MCAT verbal scores reduced ethnic differences in communication scores (Asian-white mean differences = 1.95, p = 0.02), but Asian-white differences were eliminated only after sequential models included primary childhood language (difference = 0.57, p = 0.6). Even after controlling for English language knowledge as measured in MCAT verbal scores, speaking a primary childhood language other than English is associated with lower CPX communication scores for Asian students. While poorer communication skills cannot be ruled out, SP exams may contain measurement bias associated with differences in childhood language or culture. Caution is indicated when interpreting CPX communication scores among diverse examinees.

  8. Young children's communication and literacy: a qualitative study of language in the inclusive preschool.

    PubMed

    Kliewer, C

    1995-06-01

    Interactive and literacy-based language use of young children within the context of an inclusive preschool classroom was explored. An interpretivist framework and qualitative research methods, including participant observation, were used to examine and analyze language in five preschool classes that were composed of children with and without disabilities. Children's language use included spoken, written, signed, and typed. Results showed complex communicative and literacy language use on the part of young children outside conventional adult perspectives. Also, children who used expressive methods other than speech were often left out of the contexts where spoken language was richest and most complex.

  9. Social communication disorder outside autism? A diagnostic classification approach to delineating pragmatic language impairment, high functioning autism and specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Jenny; Adams, Catherine; Lockton, Elaine; Green, Jonathan

    2013-11-01

    Developmental disorders of language and communication present considerable diagnostic challenges due to overlapping of symptomatology and uncertain aetiology. We aimed to further elucidate the behavioural and linguistic profile associated with impairments of social communication occurring outside of an autism diagnosis. Six to eleven year olds diagnosed with pragmatic language impairment (PLI), high functioning autism (HFA) or specific language impairment (SLI) were compared on measures of social interaction with peers (PI), restricted and repetitive behaviours/interests (RRBIs) and language ability. Odds ratios (OR) from a multinomial logistic regression were used to determine the importance of each measure to diagnostic grouping. MANOVA was used to investigate differences in subscale scores for the PI measure. Greater degrees of PI difficulties (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.05-1.41), RRBI (OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.06-1.42) and expressive language ability (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.03-1.30) discriminated HFA from PLI. PLI was differentiated from SLI by elevated PI difficulties (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.70-0.96) and higher expressive language ability (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.77-0.98), but indistinguishable from SLI using RRBI (OR = 1.01, 95% CI=0.94-1.09). A significant effect of group on PI subscales was observed (θ = 1.38, F(4, 56) = 19.26, p < .01) and PLI and HFA groups shared a similar PI subscale profile. Results provide empirical support for a conceptualisation of PLI as a developmental impairment distinguishable from HFA by absence of RRBIs and by the presence of expressive language difficulties. PI difficulties appear elevated in PLI compared with SLI, but may be less pervasive than in HFA. Findings are discussed with reference to the proposed new category of 'social communication disorder' in DSM-5. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  10. Meet our Neighbours - a tactile experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canas, L.; Lobo Correia, A.

    2013-09-01

    Planetary science is a key field in astronomy that draws lots of attention and that engages large amounts of enthusiasts. On its essence, it is a visual science and the current resources and activities for the inclusion of visually impaired children, although increasing, are still costly and somewhat scarce. Therefore there is a paramount need to develop more low cost resources in order to provide experiences that can reach all, even the more socially deprived communities. "Meet our neighbours!-a tactile experience", plans to promote and provide inclusion activities for visually impaired children and their non-visually impaired peers through the use of astronomy hands-on low cost activities. Is aimed for children from the ages of 6 to 12 years old and produce data set 13 tactile images of the main objects of the Solar System that can be used in schools, science centres and outreach associations. Accessing several common problems through tactile resources, with this project we present ways to successfully provide low cost solutions (avoiding the expensive tactile printing costs), promote inclusion and interactive hands-on activities for visually impaired children and their non-visually impaired peers and create dynamic interactions based on oral knowledge transmission between them. Here we describe the process of implementing such initiative near target communities: establishing a bridge between scientists, children and teachers. The struggles and challenges perceived during the project and the enrichment experience of engaging astronomy with these specific groups, broadening horizons in an overall experience accessible to all.

  11. Evolutionary Specialization of Tactile Perception in Vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Eve R; Gracheva, Elena O; Bagriantsev, Slav N

    2016-05-01

    Evolution has endowed vertebrates with the remarkable tactile ability to explore the world through the perception of physical force. Yet the sense of touch remains one of the least well understood senses at the cellular and molecular level. Vertebrates specializing in tactile perception can highlight general principles of mechanotransduction. Here, we review cellular and molecular adaptations that underlie the sense of touch in typical and acutely mechanosensitive vertebrates. ©2016 Int. Union Physiol. Sci./Am. Physiol. Soc.

  12. Braille in the Sighted: Teaching Tactile Reading to Sighted Adults.

    PubMed

    Bola, Łukasz; Siuda-Krzywicka, Katarzyna; Paplińska, Małgorzata; Sumera, Ewa; Hańczur, Paweł; Szwed, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Blind people are known to have superior perceptual abilities in their remaining senses. Several studies suggest that these enhancements are dependent on the specific experience of blind individuals, who use those remaining senses more than sighted subjects. In line with this view, sighted subjects, when trained, are able to significantly progress in relatively simple tactile tasks. However, the case of complex tactile tasks is less obvious, as some studies suggest that visual deprivation itself could confer large advantages in learning them. It remains unclear to what extent those complex skills, such as braille reading, can be learnt by sighted subjects. Here we enrolled twenty-nine sighted adults, mostly braille teachers and educators, in a 9-month braille reading course. At the beginning of the course, all subjects were naive in tactile braille reading. After the course, almost all were able to read whole braille words at a mean speed of 6 words-per-minute. Subjects with low tactile acuity did not differ significantly in braille reading speed from the rest of the group, indicating that low tactile acuity is not a limiting factor for learning braille, at least at this early stage of learning. Our study shows that most sighted adults can learn whole-word braille reading, given the right method and a considerable amount of motivation. The adult sensorimotor system can thus adapt, to some level, to very complex tactile tasks without visual deprivation. The pace of learning in our group was comparable to congenitally and early blind children learning braille in primary school, which suggests that the blind's mastery of complex tactile tasks can, to a large extent, be explained by experience-dependent mechanisms.

  13. Braille in the Sighted: Teaching Tactile Reading to Sighted Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bola, Łukasz; Siuda-Krzywicka, Katarzyna; Paplińska, Małgorzata; Sumera, Ewa; Hańczur, Paweł; Szwed, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Blind people are known to have superior perceptual abilities in their remaining senses. Several studies suggest that these enhancements are dependent on the specific experience of blind individuals, who use those remaining senses more than sighted subjects. In line with this view, sighted subjects, when trained, are able to significantly progress in relatively simple tactile tasks. However, the case of complex tactile tasks is less obvious, as some studies suggest that visual deprivation itself could confer large advantages in learning them. It remains unclear to what extent those complex skills, such as braille reading, can be learnt by sighted subjects. Here we enrolled twenty-nine sighted adults, mostly braille teachers and educators, in a 9-month braille reading course. At the beginning of the course, all subjects were naive in tactile braille reading. After the course, almost all were able to read whole braille words at a mean speed of 6 words-per-minute. Subjects with low tactile acuity did not differ significantly in braille reading speed from the rest of the group, indicating that low tactile acuity is not a limiting factor for learning braille, at least at this early stage of learning. Our study shows that most sighted adults can learn whole-word braille reading, given the right method and a considerable amount of motivation. The adult sensorimotor system can thus adapt, to some level, to very complex tactile tasks without visual deprivation. The pace of learning in our group was comparable to congenitally and early blind children learning braille in primary school, which suggests that the blind’s mastery of complex tactile tasks can, to a large extent, be explained by experience-dependent mechanisms. PMID:27187496

  14. Intercultural Ethics: Questions of Methods in Language and Intercultural Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Alison

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores how questions of ethics and questions of method are intertwined and unavoidable in any serious study of language and intercultural communication. It argues that the focus on difference and solution orientations to intercultural conflict has been a fundamental driver for theory, data collection and methods in the field. These…

  15. A Sociocognitive Perspective on Second Language Classroom Willingness to Communicate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Yiqian

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a multiple case study that investigated the dynamic and situated nature of learners' willingness to communicate (WTC) in second language (L2) classrooms. Framed within a sociocognitive perspective on L2 learning which draws together social, environmental, and individual factors, this study traced WTC among six learners of…

  16. Merkel disc is a serotonergic synapse in the epidermis for transmitting tactile signals in mammals.

    PubMed

    Chang, Weipang; Kanda, Hirosato; Ikeda, Ryo; Ling, Jennifer; DeBerry, Jennifer J; Gu, Jianguo G

    2016-09-13

    The evolution of sensory systems has let mammals develop complicated tactile end organs to enable sophisticated sensory tasks, including social interaction, environmental exploration, and tactile discrimination. The Merkel disc, a main type of tactile end organ consisting of Merkel cells (MCs) and Aβ-afferent endings, are highly abundant in fingertips, touch domes, and whisker hair follicles of mammals. The Merkel disc has high tactile acuity for an object's physical features, such as texture, shape, and edges. Mechanisms underlying the tactile function of Merkel discs are obscured as to how MCs transmit tactile signals to Aβ-afferent endings leading to tactile sensations. Using mouse whisker hair follicles, we show herein that tactile stimuli are transduced by MCs into excitatory signals that trigger vesicular serotonin release from MCs. We identify that both ionotropic and metabotropic 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors are expressed on whisker Aβ-afferent endings and that their activation by serotonin released from MCs initiates Aβ-afferent impulses. Moreover, we demonstrate that these ionotropic and metabotropic 5-HT receptors have a synergistic effect that is critical to both electrophysiological and behavioral tactile responses. These findings elucidate that the Merkel disc is a unique serotonergic synapse located in the epidermis and plays a key role in tactile transmission. The epidermal serotonergic synapse may have important clinical implications in sensory dysfunctions, such as the loss of tactile sensitivity and tactile allodynia seen in patients who have diabetes, inflammatory diseases, and undergo chemotherapy. It may also have implications in the exaggerated tactile sensations induced by recreational drugs that act on serotoninergic synapses.

  17. Causal effects on child language development: A review of studies in communication sciences and disorders.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Clare R; Nulty, Karissa L; Betancourt, Mariana Aparicio; DeThorne, Laura S

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed recent studies published across key journals within the field of communication sciences and disorders (CSD) to survey what causal influences on child language development were being considered. Specifically, we reviewed a total of 2921 abstracts published within the following journals between 2003 and 2013: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools (LSHSS); American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology (AJSLP); Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research (JSLHR); Journal of Communication Disorders (JCD); and the International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders (IJLCD). Of the 346 eligible articles that addressed causal factors on child language development across the five journals, 11% were categorized as Genetic (37/346), 83% (287/346) were categorized as Environmental, and 6% (22/346) were categorized as Mixed. The bulk of studies addressing environmental influences focused on therapist intervention (154/296=52%), family/caregiver linguistic input (65/296=22%), or family/caregiver qualities (39/296=13%). A more in-depth review of all eligible studies published in 2013 (n=34) revealed that family/caregiver qualities served as the most commonly controlled environmental factor (e.g., SES) and only 3 studies explicitly noted the possibility of gene-environment interplay. This review highlighted the need to expand the research base for the field of CSD to include a broader range of environmental influences on child language development (e.g., diet, toxin exposure, stress) and to consider more directly the complex and dynamic interplay between genetic and environmental effects. Readers will be able to highlight causal factors on child language development that have been studied over the past decade in CSD and recognize additional influences worthy of consideration. In addition, readers will become familiar with basic tenets of developmental systems theory, including the complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors

  18. Instruction and Development of Second Language Acquisition Pragmatics: An Investigation into Sociolinguistic Communicative Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tchoutezo, Etienne

    2010-01-01

    The problem: The purpose of this study is first to explore the perceptions and attitudes of ESL instructors regarding pragmatics instruction in second language classes. Second, this study is also designed to add to the scholarly literature regarding the importance of pragmatics instruction in developing second language communicative competence.…

  19. Language Choice in an Acutely Multilingual Society: Communication and Development in Papua New Guinea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Geoff P.

    Acute intercultural communication problems posed by multilingualism in Papua New Guinea are discussed, and ways in which they are being addressed are examined. An introductory section outlines the language situation in Melanesia. It is noted that the area's language diversity and colonization and missionary activity have resulted in the emergence…

  20. Tactile display device using an electrorheological fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garner, H. Douglas (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A tactile display device utilizes an electrorheological fluid to activate a plurality of tactile dots. A voltage is selectively produced uniformly across an electrorheological fluid flowing between a common ground electrode and a plurality of conductive dot electrodes, thereby producing an increase in the fluid's viscosity to the extent that fluid flow between the two electrodes is restricted. The flow restriction produces a build-up of electrorheological fluid in a corresponding dot actuator chamber. The resulting pressure increase in the chamber displaces an elastic diaphragm fixed to a display surface to form a lump which can be perceived by the reader as one dot in a Braille character cell. A flow regulation system provides a continually pressurized flow system and provides for free flow of the electrorheological fluid through the plurality of dot actuator chambers when they are not activated. The device is adaptable to printed circuit techniques and can simultaneously display tactile dots representative of a full page of Braille characters stored on a medium such as a tape cassette or to display tactile dots representative of non-Braille data appearing on a computer monitor or contained on another data storage medium. In an alternate embodiment, the elastic diaphragm drives a plurality of spring-loaded pins provided with positive stops to maintain consistent displacements of the pins in both their actuated and nonactuated positions.

  1. Where are my hands? Influence of limb posture on tactile extinction.

    PubMed

    Auclair, Laurent; Barra, Julien; Raibaut, Patrick

    2012-05-01

    Tactile localization on the skin involves both a somatotopic and a postural schema (body-schema) representation. The present study determines the extent to which body posture influences tactile perception in right-brain-damaged patients. In a first set of experiments, patients were asked to detect single tactile stimulation delivered to their left or right hands or to both hands simultaneously (double stimulation) in different arm postures. Only patients who had no difficulty localizing single and double tactile stimulations when their hands were placed in anatomic position were tested. Participant's hands were crossed, one over the other, and the tactile stimuli were delivered either to the hand (beyond the crossing point, Experiment 1) or to the forearm (before the crossing point, Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, the left hand was placed in the right hemispace and the right hand in the left hemispace without crossing over (opposite condition). In a second set of experiments, patients were asked to detect stimulation delivered to the forefinger. The fingers were crossed, one over the other at the level of the middle phalanx, and stimuli were delivered either beyond or before the crossing point. In all experimental conditions, control participants performed at ceiling. We observed a left-hand tactile extinction on double stimulation in the crossed condition. These results suggest that tactile stimuli can be encoded based on multiple specific body-part representations rather than on an integrated body-schema representation.

  2. Doing Projects in a Foreign LanguageCommunications Management, Issues and Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xian, Deling

    The Qinghai Salt Lake Industry Co. Ltd. (QSLIC) smelter project involves a Chinese state-owned client, a Canadian engineering company, their American technology partner, several Chinese design institutes and international vendors. Proper technical communication plays an important role during the development of a project in a foreign language and across cultures. Using the QSLIC project as an example, this paper presents the role of Communications Manager and personal qualifications required, as well as technical communications management, issues and strategies, lessons learnt while doing smelter projects in China and Chinese business culture and etiquette.

  3. Tactile Acuity Charts: A Reliable Measure of Spatial Acuity

    PubMed Central

    Bruns, Patrick; Camargo, Carlos J.; Campanella, Humberto; Esteve, Jaume; Dinse, Hubert R.; Röder, Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    For assessing tactile spatial resolution it has recently been recommended to use tactile acuity charts which follow the design principles of the Snellen letter charts for visual acuity and involve active touch. However, it is currently unknown whether acuity thresholds obtained with this newly developed psychophysical procedure are in accordance with established measures of tactile acuity that involve passive contact with fixed duration and control of contact force. Here we directly compared tactile acuity thresholds obtained with the acuity charts to traditional two-point and grating orientation thresholds in a group of young healthy adults. For this purpose, two types of charts, using either Braille-like dot patterns or embossed Landolt rings with different orientations, were adapted from previous studies. Measurements with the two types of charts were equivalent, but generally more reliable with the dot pattern chart. A comparison with the two-point and grating orientation task data showed that the test-retest reliability of the acuity chart measurements after one week was superior to that of the passive methods. Individual thresholds obtained with the acuity charts agreed reasonably with the grating orientation threshold, but less so with the two-point threshold that yielded relatively distinct acuity estimates compared to the other methods. This potentially considerable amount of mismatch between different measures of tactile acuity suggests that tactile spatial resolution is a complex entity that should ideally be measured with different methods in parallel. The simple test procedure and high reliability of the acuity charts makes them a promising complement and alternative to the traditional two-point and grating orientation thresholds. PMID:24504346

  4. Rethinking Communicative Language Teaching: A Focus on Access to Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatbonton, Elizabeth; Segalowitz, Norman

    2005-01-01

    Although most teachers claim to practise communicative language teaching (CLT), many do not genuinely do so. In this paper, we examine some of the reasons for teachers' resistance to CLT use. We provide a theoretical analysis that focuses on one of the greatest challenges facing CLT methodology-how to promote automatic fluency within this…

  5. Force/torque and tactile sensors for sensor-based manipulator control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanbrussel, H.; Belieen, H.; Bao, Chao-Ying

    1989-01-01

    The autonomy of manipulators, in space and in industrial environments, can be dramatically enhanced by the use of force/torque and tactile sensors. The development and future use of a six-component force/torque sensor for the Hermes Robot Arm (HERA) Basic End-Effector (BEE) is discussed. Then a multifunctional gripper system based on tactile sensors is described. The basic transducing element of the sensor is a sheet of pressure-sensitive polymer. Tactile image processing algorithms for slip detection, object position estimation, and object recognition are described.

  6. Resonant vibrating sensors for tactile tissue differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemsel, T.; Stroop, R.; Oliva Uribe, D.; Wallaschek, J.

    2007-12-01

    Surgical resection of brain tumours is a difficult task. To enhance surgery results, a tactile sensor is wanted that gives better resolution and sensitivity than the human tactile sense. The characteristics of resonant vibrating piezoelectric elements change with varying load. This allows for calculation of mechanical load parameters by measuring electrical quantities. Different setups of piezoelectric sensors have been used to investigate soft materials. Finally, a piezoelectric bimorph sensor gave good results for distinguishing tissue mimicking gel-phantoms with different gelatine concentrations.

  7. Scalable fabric tactile sensor arrays for soft bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Nathan; Penaloza, Jimmy; Santos, Veronica J.; Killpack, Marc D.

    2018-06-01

    Soft robots have the potential to transform the way robots interact with their environment. This is due to their low inertia and inherent ability to more safely interact with the world without damaging themselves or the people around them. However, existing sensing for soft robots has at least partially limited their ability to control interactions with their environment. Tactile sensors could enable soft robots to sense interaction, but most tactile sensors are made from rigid substrates and are not well suited to applications for soft robots which can deform. In addition, the benefit of being able to cheaply manufacture soft robots may be lost if the tactile sensors that cover them are expensive and their resolution does not scale well for manufacturability. This paper discusses the development of a method to make affordable, high-resolution, tactile sensor arrays (manufactured in rows and columns) that can be used for sensorizing soft robots and other soft bodies. However, the construction results in a sensor array that exhibits significant amounts of cross-talk when two taxels in the same row are compressed. Using the same fabric-based tactile sensor array construction design, two different methods for cross-talk compensation are presented. The first uses a mathematical model to calculate a change in resistance of each taxel directly. The second method introduces additional simple circuit components that enable us to isolate each taxel electrically and relate voltage to force directly. Fabric sensor arrays are demonstrated for two different soft-bodied applications: an inflatable single link robot and a human wrist.

  8. Primate vocal communication: a useful tool for understanding human speech and language evolution?

    PubMed

    Fedurek, Pawel; Slocombe, Katie E

    2011-04-01

    Language is a uniquely human trait, and questions of how and why it evolved have been intriguing scientists for years. Nonhuman primates (primates) are our closest living relatives, and their behavior can be used to estimate the capacities of our extinct ancestors. As humans and many primate species rely on vocalizations as their primary mode of communication, the vocal behavior of primates has been an obvious target for studies investigating the evolutionary roots of human speech and language. By studying the similarities and differences between human and primate vocalizations, comparative research has the potential to clarify the evolutionary processes that shaped human speech and language. This review examines some of the seminal and recent studies that contribute to our knowledge regarding the link between primate calls and human language and speech. We focus on three main aspects of primate vocal behavior: functional reference, call combinations, and vocal learning. Studies in these areas indicate that despite important differences, primate vocal communication exhibits some key features characterizing human language. They also indicate, however, that some critical aspects of speech, such as vocal plasticity, are not shared with our primate cousins. We conclude that comparative research on primate vocal behavior is a very promising tool for deepening our understanding of the evolution of human speech and language, but much is still to be done as many aspects of monkey and ape vocalizations remain largely unexplored.

  9. Child speech, language and communication need re-examined in a public health context: a new direction for the speech and language therapy profession.

    PubMed

    Law, James; Reilly, Sheena; Snow, Pamela C

    2013-01-01

    Historically speech and language therapy services for children have been framed within a rehabilitative framework with explicit assumptions made about providing therapy to individuals. While this is clearly important in many cases, we argue that this model needs revisiting for a number of reasons. First, our understanding of the nature of disability, and therefore communication disabilities, has changed over the past century. Second, there is an increasing understanding of the impact that the social gradient has on early communication difficulties. Finally, understanding how these factors interact with one other and have an impact across the life course remains poorly understood. To describe the public health paradigm and explore its implications for speech and language therapy with children. We test the application of public health methodologies to speech and language therapy services by looking at four dimensions of service delivery: (1) the uptake of services and whether those children who need services receive them; (2) the development of universal prevention services in relation to social disadvantage; (3) the risk of over-interpreting co-morbidity from clinical samples; and (4) the overlap between communicative competence and mental health. It is concluded that there is a strong case for speech and language therapy services to be reconceptualized to respond to the needs of the whole population and according to socially determined needs, focusing on primary prevention. This is not to disregard individual need, but to highlight the needs of the population as a whole. Although the socio-political context is different between countries, we maintain that this is relevant wherever speech and language therapists have a responsibility for covering whole populations. Finally, we recommend that speech and language therapy services be conceptualized within the framework laid down in The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. © 2013 Royal College of Speech and Language

  10. INFANT AVOIDANCE DURING A TACTILE TASK PREDICTS AUTISM SPECTRUM BEHAVIORS IN TODDLERHOOD.

    PubMed

    Mammen, Micah A; Moore, Ginger A; Scaramella, Laura V; Reiss, David; Ganiban, Jody M; Shaw, Daniel S; Leve, Leslie D; Neiderhiser, Jenae M

    2015-01-01

    The experience of touch is critical for early communication and social interaction; infants who show aversion to touch may be at risk for atypical development and behavior problems. The current study aimed to clarify predictive associations between infant responses to tactile stimuli and toddler autism spectrum, internalizing, and externalizing behaviors. This study measured 9-month-old infants' (N = 561; 58% male) avoidance and negative affect during a novel tactile task in which parents painted infants' hands and feet and pressed them to paper to make a picture. Parent reports on the Pervasive Developmental Problems (PDP), Internalizing, and Externalizing scales of the Child Behavior Checklist were used to measure toddler behaviors at 18 months. Infant observed avoidance and negative affect were significantly correlated; however, avoidance predicted subsequent PDP scores only, independent of negative affect, which did not predict any toddler behaviors. Findings suggest that incorporating measures of responses to touch in the study of early social interaction may provide an important and discriminating construct for identifying children at greater risk for social impairments related to autism spectrum behaviors. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  11. Nano opto-mechanical systems (NOMS) as a proposal for tactile displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campo, E. M.; Roig, J.; Roeder, B.; Wenn, D.; Mamojka, B.; Omastova, M.; Terentjev, E. M.; Esteve, J.

    2011-10-01

    For over a decade, special emphasis has been placed in the convergence of different fields of science and technology, in an effort to serve human needs by way of enhancing human capabilities. The convergence of the Nano-Bio-Info-Cogni (NBIC) quartet will provide unique solutions to specific needs. This is the case of, Nano-opto mechanical Systems (NOMS), presented as a solution to tactile perception, both for the visually-impaired and for the general public. NOMS, based on photoactive polymer actuators and devices, is a much sought-after technology. In this scheme, light sources promote mechanical actuation producing a variety of nano-opto mechanical systems such as nano-grippers. In this paper, we will provide a series of specifications that the NOMS team is targeting towards the development of a tactile display using optically-activated smart materials. Indeed, tactile displays remain mainly mechanical, compromising reload speeds and resolution which inhibit 3D tactile representation of web interfaces. We will also discuss how advantageous NOMS tactile displays could be for the general public. Tactile processing based on stimulation delivered through the NOMS tablet, will be tested using neuropsychology methods, in particular event-related brain potentials. Additionally, the NOMS tablet will be instrumental to the development of basic neuroscience research.

  12. An international perspective: supporting adolescents with speech, language, and communication needs in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Joffe, Victoria

    2015-02-01

    This article provides an overview of the education system in the United Kingdom, with a particular focus on the secondary school context and supporting older children and young people with speech, language, and communication needs (SLCNs). Despite the pervasive nature of speech, language, and communication difficulties and their long-term impact on academic performance, mental health, and well-being, evidence suggests that there is limited support to older children and young people with SLCNs in the United Kingdom, relative to what is available in the early years. Focus in secondary schools is predominantly on literacy, with little attention to supporting oral language. The article provides a synopsis of the working practices of pediatric speech and language therapists working with adolescents in the United Kingdom and the type and level of speech and language therapy support provided for older children and young people with SLCNs in secondary and further education. Implications for the nature and type of specialist support to adolescents and adults with SLCNs are discussed. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  13. Tactile Aid Usage with Young Hearing-Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Adele

    Five hearing impaired children (2 to 4 years old) were followed longitudinally while using a single channel, vibrotactile aid as a supplement to hearing aids. Standardized language tests (including the Scales of Early Communication Skills for Hearing Impaired Children, the Test for Auditory Comprehension of Language, and the Test for Auditory…

  14. The usability of a Norwegian adaptation of the Children's Communication Checklist Second Edition (CCC-2) in differentiating between language impaired and non-language impaired 6- to 12-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Helland, Wenche Andersen; Biringer, Eva; Helland, Turid; Heimann, Mikael

    2009-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate if the Norwegian adaptation of the Children's Communication Checklist-2 (CCC-2) differentiates between a language impaired and a non-language impaired population and to make a first evaluation of the psychometric qualities of the questionnaire on a Norwegian sample. A total of 153 children aged 6-12 years participated in the study (45 language impaired and 108 non-language impaired). The Norwegian adaptation of the CCC-2 distinguished language impaired from non-language impaired children and thus seems to provide a useful screening tool for communication impairments in Norwegian children. The reliability of the CCC-2 appeared to be reasonable with internal consistency values ranging from 0.73 to 0.89.

  15. Adult English Language Learners' Perceptions of Audience Response Systems (Clickers) as Communication Aides: A Q-Methodology Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Lisa Ann; Shepard, MaryFriend

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions of adult English language learners about audience response systems (clickers) as tools to facilitate communication. According to second language acquisition theory, learners' receptive capabilities in the early stages of second language acquisition surpass expressive capabilities, often rendering them silent in…

  16. English in Education Policy Shift in Senegal: From Traditional Pedagogies to Communicative Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diallo, Ibrahima

    2014-01-01

    Despite its allegiance to French, language-in-education planning in Senegal has given top priority to English in its education system. In the 1980s, policy-makers shifted English language teaching pedagogy from the Centre de Linguistique Appliquée de Dakar (CLAD) [Centre for Applied Linguistics of Dakar] teaching methods to Communicative Language…

  17. The Development of Language Behavior in an Autistic Child Using a Total Communication Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Morris

    Following a review of the literature, the paper describes a total communication approach to the language development of a 4-year-old autistic child. It is explained that the child was videotaped while being trained to simultaneously use elements of American sign language together with the correct spoken word or words. Training procedures are…

  18. Learning in Tactile Channels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gescheider, George A.; Wright, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Vibrotactile intensity-discrimination thresholds for sinusoidal stimuli applied to the thenar eminence of the hand declined as a function of practice. However, improvement was confined to the tactile information-processing channel in which learning had occurred. Specifically, improvements in performance with training within the Pacinian-corpuscle…

  19. Can tactile sensory processing differentiate between children with autistic disorder and asperger's disorder?

    PubMed

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2011-05-01

    There are debates whether autistic disorder (autism) and Asperger's disorder are two distinct disorders. Moreover, interventional sensory occupational therapy should consider the clinical characteristics of patients. Already, commonalities and differences between Asperger's disorder and autistic disorder are not well studied. The aim of this study is to compare tactile sensory function of children with autistic disorder and children with Asperger's disorder. Tactile sensory function was compared between 36 children with autism and 19 children with Asperger's disorder. The two disorders were diagnosed based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition, Text Revision. The parent-reported Tactile Dysfunction Checklist was used to assess the three aspects of hypersensitivity, hyposensitivity, and poor tactile perception and discrimination. Developmental coordination was also assessed. Developmental coordination problems total score was not associated with group. The mean (standard deviation) score of tactile hyper-responsivity was not different between the groups. Tactile hyporesponsivity and poor tactile perception and discrimination scores were statistically higher in autistic disorder than Asperger's disorder group. These results for the first time indicated that at least some aspects of tactile perception can differentiate these two disorders. Children with autistic disorder have more tactile sensory seeking behaviors than children with Asperger's disorder. Moreover, the ability of children with autistic disorder for tactile discrimination and sensory perception is less than those with Asperger's disorder. Interventional sensory therapy in children with autistic disorder should have some characteristics that can be different and specific for children with Asperger's disorder. Formal intelligence quotient testing was not performed on all of the children evaluated, which is a limitation to this study. In some cases, a clinical estimation of

  20. Interactive Games with an Assistive Robotic System for Hearing-Impaired Children.

    PubMed

    Uluer, Pinar; Akalin, Neziha; Gurpinar, Cemal; Kose, Hatice

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an assistive robotic system, which can recognize and express sign language words from a predefined set, within interactive games to communicate with and teach hearing-impaired children sign language. The robotic system uses audio, visual and tactile feedback for interaction with the children and the teacher/researcher.

  1. Non-verbal communication of compassion: measuring psychophysiologic effects

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Calm, compassionate clinicians comfort others. To evaluate the direct psychophysiologic benefits of non-verbal communication of compassion (NVCC), it is important to minimize the effect of subjects' expectation. This preliminary study was designed to a) test the feasibility of two strategies for maintaining subject blinding to non-verbal communication of compassion (NVCC), and b) determine whether blinded subjects would experience psychophysiologic effects from NVCC. Methods Subjects were healthy volunteers who were told the study was evaluating the effect of time and touch on the autonomic nervous system. The practitioner had more than 10 years' experience with loving-kindness meditation (LKM), a form of NVCC. Subjects completed 10-point visual analog scales (VAS) for stress, relaxation, and peacefulness before and after LKM. To assess physiologic effects, practitioners and subjects wore cardiorespiratory monitors to assess respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) throughout the 4 10-minute study periods: Baseline (both practitioner and subjects read neutral material); non-tactile-LKM (subjects read while the practitioner practiced LKM while pretending to read); tactile-LKM (subjects rested while the practitioner practiced LKM while lightly touching the subject on arms, shoulders, hands, feet, and legs); Post-Intervention Rest (subjects rested; the practitioner read). To assess blinding, subjects were asked after the interventions what the practitioner was doing during each period (reading, touch, or something else). Results Subjects' mean age was 43.6 years; all were women. Blinding was maintained and the practitioner was able to maintain meditation for both tactile and non-tactile LKM interventions as reflected in significantly reduced RR. Despite blinding, subjects' VAS scores improved from baseline to post-intervention for stress (5.5 vs. 2.2), relaxation (3.8 vs. 8.8) and peacefulness (3.8 vs. 9.0, P < 0.05 for all

  2. Non-verbal communication of compassion: measuring psychophysiologic effects.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Kathi J; Shaltout, Hossam A

    2011-12-20

    Calm, compassionate clinicians comfort others. To evaluate the direct psychophysiologic benefits of non-verbal communication of compassion (NVCC), it is important to minimize the effect of subjects' expectation. This preliminary study was designed to a) test the feasibility of two strategies for maintaining subject blinding to non-verbal communication of compassion (NVCC), and b) determine whether blinded subjects would experience psychophysiologic effects from NVCC. Subjects were healthy volunteers who were told the study was evaluating the effect of time and touch on the autonomic nervous system. The practitioner had more than 10 years' experience with loving-kindness meditation (LKM), a form of NVCC. Subjects completed 10-point visual analog scales (VAS) for stress, relaxation, and peacefulness before and after LKM. To assess physiologic effects, practitioners and subjects wore cardiorespiratory monitors to assess respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) throughout the 4 10-minute study periods: Baseline (both practitioner and subjects read neutral material); non-tactile-LKM (subjects read while the practitioner practiced LKM while pretending to read); tactile-LKM (subjects rested while the practitioner practiced LKM while lightly touching the subject on arms, shoulders, hands, feet, and legs); Post-Intervention Rest (subjects rested; the practitioner read). To assess blinding, subjects were asked after the interventions what the practitioner was doing during each period (reading, touch, or something else). Subjects' mean age was 43.6 years; all were women. Blinding was maintained and the practitioner was able to maintain meditation for both tactile and non-tactile LKM interventions as reflected in significantly reduced RR. Despite blinding, subjects' VAS scores improved from baseline to post-intervention for stress (5.5 vs. 2.2), relaxation (3.8 vs. 8.8) and peacefulness (3.8 vs. 9.0, P < 0.05 for all comparisons). Subjects also

  3. A reconfigurable tactile display based on polymer MEMS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaosong

    A tactile display provides information such as shape, texture, temperature, and hardness to a user. Ultimately, a tactile display could be used to recreate a virtual object that may be stored in a computer. However, such advanced displays are not yet widely available, primarily due to the lack of low cost, large area, compact actuator arrays that can stimulate the large numbers of receptors of the user and that can also meet the high requirements for user safety and comfort. This research focuses on the development of polymer microfabrication technologies for the realization of two major components of a pneumatic tactile display: a microactuator array and a complementary microvalve (control) array. In this work, the concept, fabrication, and characterization of a kinematically-stabilized polymeric microbubble actuator ("endoskeletal microbubble actuator") is presented. A systematic design and modeling procedure was carried out to generate an optimized geometry of the corrugated diaphragm to satisfy membrane deflection, force, and stability requirements set forth by the tactile display goals. A mass-manufacturable actuator has been fabricated using the approaches of lithography and micromolding. A prototype of a single endoskeletal bubble actuator with a diameter of 2.6mm has been fabricated and characterized. In addition, in order to further reduce the size and cost of the tactile display, a microvalve array can be integrated into the tactile display system to control the pneumatic fluid that actuates the microbubble actuator. A piezoelectrically-driven and hydraulically-amplified polymer microvalve has been designed, fabricated, and tested. An incompressible elastomer was used as a solid hydraulic medium to convert the small axial displacement of a piezoelectric actuator into a large valve head stroke while maintaining a large blocking force. The function of the microvalve as an on-off switch for a pneumatic microbubble tactile actuator has been demonstrated

  4. Predicting Language Outcomes for Children Learning Augmentative and Alternative Communication: Child and Environmental Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Nancy C.; Thiemann-Bourque, Kathy; Fleming, Kandace; Matthews, Kris

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate a model of language development for nonverbal preschool-age children learning to communicate with augmentative or alternative communication. Method: Ninety-three preschool children with intellectual disabilities were assessed at Time 1, and 82 of these children were assessed 1 year later, at Time 2. The outcome variable was…

  5. Development of a tactile display with 5 mm resolution using an array of magnetorheological fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizuka, Hiroki; Miki, Norihisa

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the design and evaluation of a stiffness tactile display using a magnetorheological (MR) fluid. The tactile display is based on the change in mechanical properties under an external magnetic field. In the tactile display, the MR fluid is encapsulated in chambers of 3 mm diameter and arranged at intervals of 2 mm. Magnetic fields were spatially applied to the tactile display using neodymium magnets of 3.5 mm diameter. The design and spatial magnetic field application enable the tactile display to present stiff dots of 5 mm resolution. We confirmed that the tactile display can present a spatial stiff dot and its pattern on the surface by compression experiments. Sensory evaluation revealed that the users were able to perceive the approximate position of the stiff dots. From the experiments, the tactile display has potential as a palpation tactile display and requires improvement to present various types of tissues.

  6. Integrating Music Therapy Services and Speech-Language Therapy Services for Children with Severe Communication Impairments: A Co-Treatment Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geist, Kamile; McCarthy, John; Rodgers-Smith, Amy; Porter, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Documenting how music therapy can be integrated with speech-language therapy services for children with communication delay is not evident in the literature. In this article, a collaborative model with procedures, experiences, and communication outcomes of integrating music therapy with the existing speech-language services is given. Using…

  7. E-Pad: a comfortable electrocutaneous-based tactile feedback display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiabin; Zhao, Lu; Liu, Yue; Wang, Yongtian; Cai, Yi

    2018-01-01

    The devices with touchscreen are becoming more popular recently; however, most of them suffer from the crucial drawbacks of lacking accurate tactile feedback. A novel electrocutaneous-based tactile device with the name of E-pad is proposed to provide a dynamic and static low-voltage feedback for touchscreen. We optimize the key parameters of the output voltage and design custom-made hardwares to guarantee a comfortable user experience. Users could move their fingers freely across the touchscreen of the proposed device to really feel virtual objects. Two preliminary experiments are conducted to evaluate the interactive performance of the proposed device and the experimental results show that the proposed device can provide a comfortable and distinct tactile feedback.

  8. Affective Education and Foreign Language Learning. The Challenge of Communication. ACTFL Review of Foreign Language Education, Vol. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Disick, Renee S.; Barbanel, Laura

    The affective education movement and applications to foreign language learning are surveyed. Affective, or humanistic, education seeks to include self-knowledge, improved interpersonal communication, and clarification of one's values. Research studies show that thinking and feeling are intertwined. Emotion is present in the classroom and cannot be…

  9. Tactile Sensitivity of Children: Effects of Frequency, Masking, and the Non-Pacinian I Psychophysical Channel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guclu, Burak; Oztek, Cigdem

    2007-01-01

    Tactile perception depends on the contributions of four psychophysical tactile channels mediated by four corresponding receptor systems. The sensitivity of the tactile channels is determined by detection thresholds that vary as a function of the stimulus frequency. It has been widely reported that tactile thresholds increase (i.e., sensitivity…

  10. Change of reference frame for tactile localization during child development.

    PubMed

    Pagel, Birthe; Heed, Tobias; Röder, Brigitte

    2009-11-01

    Temporal order judgements (TOJ) for two tactile stimuli, one presented to the left and one to the right hand, are less precise when the hands are crossed over the midline than when the hands are uncrossed. This 'crossed hand' effect has been considered as evidence for a remapping of tactile input into an external reference frame. Since late, but not early, blind individuals show such remapping, it has been hypothesized that the use of an external reference frame develops during childhood. Five- to 10-year-old children were therefore tested with the tactile TOJ task, both with uncrossed and crossed hands. Overall performance in the TOJ task improved with age. While children older than 5 1/2 years displayed a crossed hand effect, younger children did not. Therefore the use of an external reference frame for tactile, and possibly multisensory, localization seems to be acquired at age 5.

  11. Multisensory effects on somatosensation: a trimodal visuo-vestibular-tactile interaction

    PubMed Central

    Kaliuzhna, Mariia; Ferrè, Elisa Raffaella; Herbelin, Bruno; Blanke, Olaf; Haggard, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Vestibular information about self-motion is combined with other sensory signals. Previous research described both visuo-vestibular and vestibular-tactile bilateral interactions, but the simultaneous interaction between all three sensory modalities has not been explored. Here we exploit a previously reported visuo-vestibular integration to investigate multisensory effects on tactile sensitivity in humans. Tactile sensitivity was measured during passive whole body rotations alone or in conjunction with optic flow, creating either purely vestibular or visuo-vestibular sensations of self-motion. Our results demonstrate that tactile sensitivity is modulated by perceived self-motion, as provided by a combined visuo-vestibular percept, and not by the visual and vestibular cues independently. We propose a hierarchical multisensory interaction that underpins somatosensory modulation: visual and vestibular cues are first combined to produce a multisensory self-motion percept. Somatosensory processing is then enhanced according to the degree of perceived self-motion. PMID:27198907

  12. Using narrative as a bridge: linking language processing models with real-life communication.

    PubMed

    Whitworth, Anne

    2010-02-01

    In chronic aphasia, maximizing generalization of improved language abilities from clinical tasks to everyday communication can require the same systematic planning process as the early stages of therapy, often drawing on additional areas of knowledge and successes from other clinical populations. The use of narrative structure is shown here to be a useful framework for building on the developments within sentence processing impairments in aphasia and creating a bridge to more real-life language tasks. An intervention based on narrative structure is described with two people with different language profiles and at different stages of the chronic aphasia spectrum. The insights gained in assessing language ability, underpinning intervention, and capturing therapeutic changes are demonstrated. Thieme Medical Publishers.

  13. A Tactile Stimulator for Studying Passive Shape Perception

    PubMed Central

    Lane, John W.; Fitzgerald, Paul J.; Yau, Jeffrey M.; Pembeci, Izzet; Hsiao, Steven S.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a computer-controlled tactile stimulator for use in human psychophysical and monkey neurophysiological studies of 3-D shape perception. The stimulator is constructed primarily of commercially available parts, as well as a few custom-built pieces for which we will supply diagrams upon request. There are two components to the stimulator: a tactile component and a hand positioner component. The tactile component consists of multiple stimulating units that move about in a Cartesian plane above the restrained hand. Each stimulating unit contains a servo-controlled linear motor with an attached small rotary stepper motor, allowing arbitrary stimulus shapes to contact the skin through vibration, static indentation, or scanning. The hand positioner component modifies the conformation of the restrained hand through a set of mechanical linkages under motorized control. The present design controls the amount of spread between digits two and three, the spread between digits four and three, and the degree to which digit three is flexed or extended, thereby simulating different conformations of the hand in contact with objects. This design is easily modified to suit the needs of the experimenter. Because the two components of the stimulator are independently controlled, the stimulator allows for parametric study of the mechanoreceptive and proprioceptive contributions to 3-D tactile shape perception. PMID:19800916

  14. Tactile short-term memory in sensory-deprived individuals.

    PubMed

    Papagno, Costanza; Minniti, Giovanna; Mattavelli, Giulia C; Mantovan, Lara; Cecchetto, Carlo

    2017-02-01

    To verify whether loosing a sense or two has consequences on a spared sensory modality, namely touch, and whether these consequences depend on practice or are biologically determined, we investigated 13 deafblind participants, 16 deaf participants, 15 blind participants, and 13 matched normally sighted and hearing controls on a tactile short-term memory task, using checkerboard matrices of increasing length in which half of the squares were made up of a rough texture and half of a smooth one. Time of execution of a fixed matrix, number of correctly reproduced matrices, largest matrix correctly reproduced and tactile span were recorded. The three groups of sensory-deprived individuals did not differ in any measure, while blind and deaf participants outscored controls in all parameters except time of execution; the difference approached significance for deafblind people compared to controls only in one measure, namely correctly reproduced matrices. In blind and deafblind participants, performance negatively correlated with age of Braille acquisition, the older being the subject when acquiring Braille, the lower the performance, suggesting that practice plays a role. However, the fact that deaf participants, who did not share tactile experience, performed similarly to blind participants and significantly better than controls highlights that practice cannot be the only contribution to better tactile memory.

  15. Structural design and output characteristic analysis of magnetostrictive tactile sensor for robotic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wendong; Wang, Bowen; Liu, Huaping; Li, Yunkai; Zhao, Ran; Weng, Ling; Zhang, Changgeng

    2018-05-01

    A novel magnetostrictive tactile sensor has been designed according to the transduction mechanism of cilia and Villari effect of iron-gallium alloy. The tactile sensor consists of a Galfenol beam, a pair of permanent magnets, a Hall sensor and a signal processing system. Compared with the conventional tactile sensor, our proposed tactile sensor can not only detect the contact-force, but also sense stiffness of an object. The performance and measurement range of tactile sensor have theoretically been analyzed and experimentally investigated. The results have revealed that the sensibility of tactile sensor for sensing force is up to 22.81mV/N at applied bias magnetic field of 2.56kA/m. Moreover, the sensor can effectively discriminate objects with different stiffness. The sensor is characterized by high sensitivity, good linearity, and quick response. It has the potential of being miniaturized and integrated into the finger of a robotic hand to realize force sensing and object recognition in real-time.

  16. Tactile massage as a nursing intervention in child and adolescent psychiatry: nurses' experiences.

    PubMed

    Robertz, A-C; Rudolfsson, G

    2016-10-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE SUBJECT?: There is little research on the implementation of tactile massage in child and adolescent psychiatry that describes children's and adolescents' experiences and outcomes. There is also limited knowledge of providing tactile massage in child and adolescent psychiatry. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This paper describes 10 nurses' experiences of tactile massage as a nursing intervention in child and adolescent psychiatry. The nurses considered tactile massage a non-verbal nursing intervention that could complement other available treatments. It reveals their reflections on the impact of tactile massage on their nursing and on themselves as a person, including the belief that they had developed deepened self-reflection and attentiveness. The nurses highlighted the importance of providing a trusting environment and collaborating with the children and adolescents. They both experienced and observed that tactile massage triggered various physical and mental processes in the children and adolescents, such as improvement in sleep disturbances, an ability to relax in body and mind and a deeper connectedness with their own bodies and feelings. The nurses described instructing next of kin in the use of tactile massage, which they believed could serve as a tool at home, mainly as a way for next of kin to help their children to relax, fall asleep more easily and to deepen connectedness. However, the nurses stressed the need to consider if it was appropriate or desired by the children and adolescents. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Tactile massage addresses the individual's emotional and physiological responses and could therefore bring holistic nursing to child and adolescent psychiatry. It could also help nurses in child and adolescent psychiatry to develop their attentiveness and sensitivity in acknowledging the needs of children and adolescents in psychiatric care. Introduction There is limited research on tactile

  17. Neonatal Restriction of Tactile Inputs Leads to Long-Lasting Impairments of Cross-Modal Processing

    PubMed Central

    Röder, Brigitte; Hanganu-Opatz, Ileana L.

    2015-01-01

    Optimal behavior relies on the combination of inputs from multiple senses through complex interactions within neocortical networks. The ontogeny of this multisensory interplay is still unknown. Here, we identify critical factors that control the development of visual-tactile processing by combining in vivo electrophysiology with anatomical/functional assessment of cortico-cortical communication and behavioral investigation of pigmented rats. We demonstrate that the transient reduction of unimodal (tactile) inputs during a short period of neonatal development prior to the first cross-modal experience affects feed-forward subcortico-cortical interactions by attenuating the cross-modal enhancement of evoked responses in the adult primary somatosensory cortex. Moreover, the neonatal manipulation alters cortico-cortical interactions by decreasing the cross-modal synchrony and directionality in line with the sparsification of direct projections between primary somatosensory and visual cortices. At the behavioral level, these functional and structural deficits resulted in lower cross-modal matching abilities. Thus, neonatal unimodal experience during defined developmental stages is necessary for setting up the neuronal networks of multisensory processing. PMID:26600123

  18. Impact of oral health education by audio aids, braille and tactile models on the oral health status of visually impaired children of Bhopal City.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Anjali; Bhambal, Ajay; Moghe, Swapnil

    2018-01-01

    Children with special needs face unique challenges in day-to-day practice. They are dependent on their close ones for everything. To improve oral hygiene in such visually impaired children, undue training and education are required. Braille is an important language for reading and writing for the visually impaired. It helps them understand and visualize the world via touch. Audio aids are being used to impart health education to the visually impaired. Tactile models help them perceive things which they cannot visualize and hence are an important learning tool. This study aimed to assess the improvement in oral hygiene by audio aids and Braille and tactile models in visually impaired children aged 6-16 years of Bhopal city. This was a prospective study. Sixty visually impaired children aged 6-16 years were selected and randomly divided into three groups (20 children each). Group A: audio aids + Braille, Group B: audio aids + tactile models, and Group C: audio aids + Braille + tactile models. Instructions were given for maintaining good oral hygiene and brushing techniques were explained to all children. After 3 months' time, the oral hygiene status was recorded and compared using plaque and gingival index. ANNOVA test was used. The present study showed a decrease in the mean plaque and gingival scores at all time intervals in individual group as compared to that of the baseline that was statistically significant. The study depicts that the combination of audio aids, Braille and tactile models is an effective way to provide oral health education and improve oral health status of visually impaired children.

  19. Contrast of Hand Preferences between Communicative Gestures and Non-Communicative Actions in Baboons: Implications for the Origins of Hemispheric Specialization for Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meguerditchian, Adrien; Vauclair, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Gestural communication is a modality considered in the literature as a candidate for determining the ancestral prerequisites of the emergence of human language. As reported in captive chimpanzees and human children, a study in captive baboons revealed that a communicative gesture elicits stronger degree of right-hand bias than non-communicative…

  20. Visual detail about the body modulates tactile localisation biases.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Aaron N; Longo, Matthew R

    2015-02-01

    The localisation of tactile stimuli requires the integration of visual and somatosensory inputs within an internal representation of the body surface and is prone to consistent bias. Joints may play a role in segmenting such internal body representations, and may therefore influence tactile localisation biases, although the nature of this influence remains unclear. Here, we investigate the relationship between conceptual knowledge of joint locations and tactile localisation biases on the hand. In one task, participants localised tactile stimuli applied to the dorsum of their hand. A distal localisation bias was observed in all participants, consistent with previous results. We also manipulated the availability of visual information during this task, to determine whether the absence of this information could account for the distal bias observed here and by Mancini et al. (Neuropsychologia 49:1194-1201, 2011). The observed distal bias increased in magnitude when visual information was restricted, without a corresponding decrease in precision. In a separate task, the same participants indicated, from memory, knuckle locations on a silhouette image of their hand. Analogous distal biases were also seen in the knuckle localisation task. The accuracy of conceptual joint knowledge was not correlated with tactile localisation bias magnitude, although a similarity in observed bias direction suggests that both tasks may rely on a common, higher-order body representation. These results also suggest that distortions of conceptual body representation may be more common in healthy individuals than previously thought.

  1. Short-Term Visual Deprivation, Tactile Acuity, and Haptic Solid Shape Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Crabtree, Charles E.; Norman, J. Farley

    2014-01-01

    Previous psychophysical studies have reported conflicting results concerning the effects of short-term visual deprivation upon tactile acuity. Some studies have found that 45 to 90 minutes of total light deprivation produce significant improvements in participants' tactile acuity as measured with a grating orientation discrimination task. In contrast, a single 2011 study found no such improvement while attempting to replicate these earlier findings. A primary goal of the current experiment was to resolve this discrepancy in the literature by evaluating the effects of a 90-minute period of total light deprivation upon tactile grating orientation discrimination. We also evaluated the potential effect of short-term deprivation upon haptic 3-D shape discrimination using a set of naturally-shaped solid objects. According to previous research, short-term deprivation enhances performance in a tactile 2-D shape discrimination task – perhaps a similar improvement also occurs for haptic 3-D shape discrimination. The results of the current investigation demonstrate that not only does short-term visual deprivation not enhance tactile acuity, it additionally has no effect upon haptic 3-D shape discrimination. While visual deprivation had no effect in our study, there was a significant effect of experience and learning for the grating orientation task – the participants' tactile acuity improved over time, independent of whether they had, or had not, experienced visual deprivation. PMID:25397327

  2. Short-term visual deprivation, tactile acuity, and haptic solid shape discrimination.

    PubMed

    Crabtree, Charles E; Norman, J Farley

    2014-01-01

    Previous psychophysical studies have reported conflicting results concerning the effects of short-term visual deprivation upon tactile acuity. Some studies have found that 45 to 90 minutes of total light deprivation produce significant improvements in participants' tactile acuity as measured with a grating orientation discrimination task. In contrast, a single 2011 study found no such improvement while attempting to replicate these earlier findings. A primary goal of the current experiment was to resolve this discrepancy in the literature by evaluating the effects of a 90-minute period of total light deprivation upon tactile grating orientation discrimination. We also evaluated the potential effect of short-term deprivation upon haptic 3-D shape discrimination using a set of naturally-shaped solid objects. According to previous research, short-term deprivation enhances performance in a tactile 2-D shape discrimination task - perhaps a similar improvement also occurs for haptic 3-D shape discrimination. The results of the current investigation demonstrate that not only does short-term visual deprivation not enhance tactile acuity, it additionally has no effect upon haptic 3-D shape discrimination. While visual deprivation had no effect in our study, there was a significant effect of experience and learning for the grating orientation task - the participants' tactile acuity improved over time, independent of whether they had, or had not, experienced visual deprivation.

  3. Human detection and discrimination of tactile repeatability, mechanical backlash, and temporal delay in a combined tactile-kinesthetic haptic display system.

    PubMed

    Doxon, Andrew J; Johnson, David E; Tan, Hong Z; Provancher, William R

    2013-01-01

    Many of the devices used in haptics research are over-engineered for the task and are designed with capabilities that go far beyond human perception levels. Designing devices that more closely match the limits of human perception will make them smaller, less expensive, and more useful. However, many device-centric perception thresholds have yet to be evaluated. To this end, three experiments were conducted, using one degree-of-freedom contact location feedback device in combination with a kinesthetic display, to provide a more explicit set of specifications for similar tactile-kinesthetic haptic devices. The first of these experiments evaluated the ability of humans to repeatedly localize tactile cues across the fingerpad. Subjects could localize cues to within 1.3 mm and showed bias toward the center of the fingerpad. The second experiment evaluated the minimum perceptible difference of backlash at the tactile element. Subjects were able to discriminate device backlash in excess of 0.46 mm on low-curvature models and 0.93 mm on high-curvature models. The last experiment evaluated the minimum perceptible difference of system delay between user action and device reaction. Subjects were able to discriminate delays in excess of 61 ms. The results from these studies can serve as the maximum (i.e., most demanding) device specifications for most tactile-kinesthetic haptic systems.

  4. Concurrent emotional pictures modulate temporal order judgments of spatially separated audio-tactile stimuli.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lina; Shi, Zhuanghua; Zang, Xuelian; Müller, Hermann J

    2013-11-06

    Although attention can be captured toward high-arousal stimuli, little is known about how perceiving emotion in one modality influences the temporal processing of non-emotional stimuli in other modalities. We addressed this issue by presenting observers spatially uninformative emotional pictures while they performed an audio-tactile temporal-order judgment (TOJ) task. In Experiment 1, audio-tactile stimuli were presented at the same location straight ahead of the participants, who had to judge "which modality came first?". In Experiments 2 and 3, the audio-tactile stimuli were delivered one to the left and the other to the right side, and participants had to judge "which side came first?". We found both negative and positive high-arousal pictures to significantly bias TOJs towards the tactile and away from the auditory event when the audio-tactile stimuli were spatially separated; by contrast, there was no such bias when the audio-tactile stimuli originated from the same location. To further examine whether this bias is attributable to the emotional meanings conveyed by the pictures or to their high arousal effect, we compared and contrasted the influences of near-body threat vs. remote threat (emotional) pictures on audio-tactile TOJs in Experiment 3. The bias manifested only in the near-body threat condition. Taken together, the findings indicate that visual stimuli conveying meanings of near-body interaction activate a sensorimotor functional link prioritizing the processing of tactile over auditory signals when these signals are spatially separated. In contrast, audio-tactile signals from the same location engender strong crossmodal integration, thus counteracting modality-based attentional shifts induced by the emotional pictures. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Exploring the Invisible Universe: A Tactile and Braille Exhibit of Astronomical Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcand, K. K.; Watzke, M.; de Pree, C.

    2010-06-01

    A tactile/Braille exhibit for the visually impaired community in the USA was launched in July 2009. The exhibit is part of the global From Earth to the Universe (FETTU) project, a Cornerstone of the International Year of Astronomy 2009. The science content of the travelling tactile/Braille exhibit includes explanations of our Sun, Eta Carinae, the Crab Nebula, the Whirlpool Galaxy and the electromagnetic spectrum, and was adapted from the tactile/Braille book Touch the Invisible Sky. We present some of the early observations and findings on the tactile/Braille FETTU exhibit. The new exhibit opens a wider door to experiencing and understanding astronomy for the underserved visually impaired population.

  6. Tactile display landing safety and precision improvements for the Space Shuttle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, John M.

    A tactile display belt using 24 electro-mechanical tactile transducers (tactors) was used to determine if a modified tactile display system, known as the Tactile Situation Awareness System (TSAS) improved the safety and precision of a complex spacecraft (i.e. the Space Shuttle Orbiter) in guided precision approaches and landings. The goal was to determine if tactile cues enhance safety and mission performance through reduced workload, increased situational awareness (SA), and an improved operational capability by increasing secondary cognitive workload capacity and human-machine interface efficiency and effectiveness. Using both qualitative and quantitative measures such as NASA's Justiz Numerical Measure and Synwork1 scores, an Overall Workload (OW) measure, the Cooper-Harper rating scale, and the China Lake Situational Awareness scale, plus Pre- and Post-Flight Surveys, the data show that tactile displays decrease OW, improve SA, counteract fatigue, and provide superior warning and monitoring capacity for dynamic, off-nominal, high concurrent workload scenarios involving complex, cognitive, and multi-sensory critical scenarios. Use of TSAS for maintaining guided precision approaches and landings was generally intuitive, reduced training times, and improved task learning effects. Ultimately, the use of a homogeneous, experienced, and statistically robust population of test pilots demonstrated that the use of tactile displays for Space Shuttle approaches and landings with degraded vehicle systems, weather, and environmental conditions produced substantial improvements in safety, consistency, reliability, and ease of operations under demanding conditions. Recommendations for further analysis and study are provided in order to leverage the results from this research and further explore the potential to reduce the risk of spaceflight and aerospace operations in general.

  7. Preparing Adult Educators: The Need to Develop Communicative Language Teaching Skills in College-Level Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawer, Saad

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines why communicative language teaching (CLT) fails to improve student learning in certain contexts by assessing two adult educators' communicative and noncommunicative practices through qualitative case studies, interviews, and participant observations. Results show no inherent CLT problems that prevent teachers from grasping…

  8. Communication Disorders in Speakers of Tone Languages: Etiological Bases and Clinical Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Patrick C. M.; Perrachione, Tyler K.; Gunasekera, Geshri; Chandrasekaran, Bharath

    2009-01-01

    Lexical tones are a phonetic contrast necessary for conveying meaning in a majority of the world’s languages. Various hearing, speech, and language disorders affect the ability to perceive or produce lexical tones, thereby seriously impairing individuals’ communicative abilities. The number of tone language speakers is increasing, even in otherwise English-speaking nations, yet insufficient emphasis has been placed on clinical assessment and rehabilitation of lexical tone disorders. The similarities and dissimilarities between lexical tones and other speech sounds make a richer scientific understanding of their physiological bases paramount to more effective remediation of speech and language disorders in general. Here we discuss the cognitive and biological bases of lexical tones, emphasizing the neural structures and networks that support their acquisition, perception, and cognitive representation. We present emerging research on lexical tone learning in the context of the clinical disorders of hearing, speech, and language that this body of research will help to address. PMID:19711234

  9. Establishing Auditory-Tactile-Visual Equivalence Classes in Children with Autism and Developmental Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Stuart; Dixon, Mark R.; Belisle, Jordan; Stanley, Caleb

    2017-01-01

    The current study sought to evaluate the efficacy of a stimulus equivalence training procedure in establishing auditory-tactile-visual stimulus classes with 2 children with autism and developmental delays. Participants were exposed to vocal-tactile (A-B) and tactile-picture (B-C) conditional discrimination training and were tested for the…

  10. Children with Speech, Language and Communication Needs: Their Perceptions of Their Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markham, Chris; van Laar, Darren; Gibbard, Deborah; Dean, Taraneh

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study is part of a programme of research aiming to develop a quantitative measure of quality of life for children with communication needs. It builds on the preliminary findings of Markham and Dean (2006), which described some of the perception's parents and carers of children with speech language and communication needs had…

  11. Tactile Perception in Adults with Autism: A Multidimensional Psychophysical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cascio, Carissa; McGlone, Francis; Folger, Stephen; Tannan, Vinay; Baranek, Grace; Pelphrey, Kevin A.; Essick, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    Although sensory problems, including unusual tactile sensitivity, are heavily associated with autism, there is a dearth of rigorous psychophysical research. We compared tactile sensation in adults with autism to controls on the palm and forearm, the latter innervated by low-threshold unmyelinated afferents subserving a social/affiliative…

  12. Captured by details: sense-making, language and communication in autism.

    PubMed

    Noens, Ilse L J; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A

    2005-01-01

    The communication of people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by a qualitative impairment in verbal and non-verbal communication. In past decades a growing body of descriptive studies has appeared on language and communication problems in ASD. Reviews suggest that the development of formal and semantic aspects is relatively spared, whereas pragmatic skills are considered to be specifically impaired. This unique profile was interpreted mainly within the framework of the theory of mind hypothesis, which links the social-communicative problems of people with autism to an incapacity to attribute mental states to themselves and others. This approach has proven useful, but has also left many questions unanswered. In more recent publications, limited intentionality and symbol formation have been identified as core problems in ASD. Problems in symbol formation in particular might be better understood from the viewpoint of the central coherence hypothesis, which conceptualizes ASD as a weaker drive for the integration of information. Possible links between cognitive findings and communication evoke new perspectives with respect to the complex of communication problems in ASD. The reader of this manuscript will be able to (1) describe the communication deficit in ASD; (2) discuss the central coherence account of ASD in relation to problems in sense-making; and (3) explain how these difficulties might lead to problems in communication in autism.

  13. Neuromimetic Event-Based Detection for Closed-Loop Tactile Feedback Control of Upper Limb Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Osborn, Luke; Kaliki, Rahul; Soares, Alcimar; Thakor, Nitish

    2016-01-01

    Upper limb amputees lack the valuable tactile sensing that helps provide context about the surrounding environment. Here we utilize tactile information to provide active touch feedback to a prosthetic hand. First, we developed fingertip tactile sensors for producing biomimetic spiking responses for monitoring contact, release, and slip of an object grasped by a prosthetic hand. We convert the sensor output into pulses, mimicking the rapid and slowly adapting spiking responses of receptor afferents found in the human body. Second, we designed and implemented two neuromimetic event-based algorithms, Compliant Grasping and Slip Prevention, on a prosthesis to create a local closed-loop tactile feedback control system (i.e. tactile information is sent to the prosthesis). Grasping experiments were designed to assess the benefit of this biologically inspired neuromimetic tactile feedback to a prosthesis. Results from able-bodied and amputee subjects show the average number of objects that broke or slipped during grasping decreased by over 50% and the average time to complete a grasping task decreased by at least 10% for most trials when comparing neuromimetic tactile feedback with no feedback on a prosthesis. Our neuromimetic method of closed-loop tactile sensing is a novel approach to improving the function of upper limb prostheses. PMID:27777640

  14. Methodological adaptations for investigating the perceptions of language-impaired adolescents regarding the relative importance of selected communication skills.

    PubMed

    Reed, Vicki A; Brammall, Helen

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the systematic and detailed processes undertaken to modify a research methodology for use with language-impaired adolescents. The original methodology had been used previously with normally achieving adolescents and speech pathologists to obtain their opinions about the relative importance of selected communication skills for adolescents' positive peer relationships. Modifications attempted to address language-impaired adolescents' characteristic metalinguistic, literacy, cognitive, and information processing weaknesses. Revising the original wording of the communication skills, reducing the reading level of the skills from grade 10 to 4.6, using a Q-sort approach to ranking the importance of the skills, and revising the instructions and administration procedures led to what pilot testing results indicated was a valid methodology for use with language-impaired adolescents. Results of a preliminary study using the revised methodology suggested that language-impaired adolescents may perceive the relative importance of some communication skills differently from their normally achieving peers.

  15. A flexible tactile sensitive sheet using a hetero-core fiber optic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujino, S.; Yamazaki, H.; Hosoki, A.; Watanabe, K.

    2014-05-01

    In this report, we have designed a tactile sensitive sheet based on a hetero-core fiber-optic sensor, which realize an areal sensing by using single sensor potion in one optical fiber line. Recently, flexible and wide-area tactile sensing technology is expected to applied to acquired biological information in living space and robot achieve long-term care services such as welfare and nursing-care and humanoid technology. A hetero-core fiber-optic sensor has several advantages such as thin and flexible transmission line, immunity to EMI. Additionally this sensor is sensitive to moderate bending actions with optical loss changes and is independent of temperature fluctuation. Thus, the hetero-core fiber-optic sensor can be suitable for areal tactile sensing. We measure pressure characteristic of the proposed sensitive sheet by changing the pressure position and pinching characteristic on the surface. The proposed tactile sensitive sheet shows monotonic responses on the whole sensitive sheet surface although different sensitivity by the position is observed at the sensitive sheet surface. Moreover, the tactile sensitive sheet could sufficiently detect the pinching motion. In addition, in order to realize the discrimination between pressure and pinch, we fabricated a doubled-over sensor using a set of tactile sensitive sheets, which has different kinds of silicon robbers as a sensitive sheet surface. In conclusion, the flexible material could be given to the tactile sensation which is attached under proposed sensitive sheet.

  16. Exploring potential social influences on brain potentials during anticipation of tactile stimulation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Guannan; Saby, Joni N; Drew, Ashley R; Marshall, Peter J

    2017-03-15

    This study explored interpersonal influences on electrophysiological responses during the anticipation of tactile stimulation. It is well-known that broad, negative-going potentials are present in the event-related potential (ERP) between a forewarning cue and a tactile stimulus. It has also been shown that the alpha-range mu rhythm shows a lateralized desynchronization over central electrode sites during anticipation of tactile stimulation of the hand. The current study used a tactile discrimination task in which a visual cue signaled that an upcoming stimulus would either be delivered 1500ms later to the participant's hand, to a task partner's hand, or to neither person. For the condition in which participants anticipated the tactile stimulation to their own hand, a negative potential (contingent negative variation, CNV) was observed in the ERP at central sites in the 1000ms prior to the tactile stimulus. Significant mu rhythm desynchronization was also present in the same time window. The magnitudes of the ERPs and of the mu desynchronization were greater in the contralateral than in the ipsilateral hemisphere prior to right hand stimulation. Similar ERP and EEG changes were not present when the visual cue indicated that stimulation would be delivered to the task partner or to neither person. The absence of social influences during anticipation of tactile stimulation, and the relationship between the two brain signatures of anticipatory attention (CNV and mu rhythm) are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigation and modification of a commercially available tactile sensor suited for robotic applications. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creus, Carolina

    1991-01-01

    Active (dynamic) tactile sensing was explored using a commercially available tactile array sensor. This task requires the redesign of the sensor interface and a full understanding of the old sensor hardware implementation. There were different stages to this research; the first stage involved the reverse engineering of the old tactile sensor. The second stage had to do with the exploration of the characteristics and behavior of the tactile sensor pad. The next stage dealt with the redesign of the sensor interface using the knowledge gained from the previous two stages. Finally, in the last stage, software to control the tactile sensor was developed to aid in the data acquisition process.

  18. Can Tactile Sensory Processing Differentiate Between Children with Autistic Disorder and Asperger's Disorder?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective There are debates whether autistic disorder (autism) and Asperger's disorder are two distinct disorders. Moreover, interventional sensory occupational therapy should consider the clinical characteristics of patients. Already, commonalities and differences between Asperger's disorder and autistic disorder are not well studied. The aim of this study is to compare tactile sensory function of children with autistic disorder and children with Asperger's disorder. Methods Tactile sensory function was compared between 36 children with autism and 19 children with Asperger's disorder. The two disorders were diagnosed based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition, Text Revision. The parent-reported Tactile Dysfunction Checklist was used to assess the three aspects of hypersensitivity, hyposensitivity, and poor tactile perception and discrimination. Developmental coordination was also assessed. Results Developmental coordination problems total score was not associated with group. The mean (standard deviation) score of tactile hyper-responsivity was not different between the groups. Tactile hyporesponsivity and poor tactile perception and discrimination scores were statistically higher in autistic disorder than Asperger's disorder group. Conclusion These results for the first time indicated that at least some aspects of tactile perception can differentiate these two disorders. Children with autistic disorder have more tactile sensory seeking behaviors than children with Asperger's disorder. Moreover, the ability of children with autistic disorder for tactile discrimination and sensory perception is less than those with Asperger's disorder. Interventional sensory therapy in children with autistic disorder should have some characteristics that can be different and specific for children with Asperger's disorder. Formal intelligence quotient testing was not performed on all of the children evaluated, which is a limitation to this study. In

  19. The Application of Natural Language Processing to Augmentative and Alternative Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higginbotham, D. Jeffery; Lesher, Gregory W.; Moulton, Bryan J.; Roark, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in the application of natural language processing (NLP) to augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), particularly in the areas of interface design and word prediction. This article will survey the current state-of-the-science of NLP in AAC and discuss its future applications for the development of next…

  20. Tactile Functioning in Children Who Are Blind: A Clinical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Withagen, Ans; Vervloed, Mathijs P. J.; Janssen, Neeltje M.; Knoors, Harry; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2010-01-01

    This study of 48 children with congenital blindness who attended mainstream schools focused on the tactile and haptic skills they needed in typical academic and everyday tasks. The results showed that, in general, the children mastered such tactile tasks, but some items posed special problems. (Contains 4 tables.)

  1. A Prototype Tactile Sensor Array.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-15

    Active Touch Sensing. Technical Report, MIT Artificial Inteligence Laboratory, 1981. (9] Larcombe, M. Carbon Fibre Tactile Sensors. Technical Report...thesis, Carnegie-Mellon University, 1981. [13] Purbrick, John A. A Force Transducer Employing Conductive Silicone Rubber. Technical Report, MIT Artificial

  2. Public Views of Minority Languages as Communication or Symbol: The Case of Gaelic in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Lindsay; O'Hanlon, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    Two social roles for language have been distinguished by Edwards--the communicative and the symbolic. Using data from a survey of public attitudes to Gaelic in Scotland, the article investigates the extent to which people's view of language may be characterised as relating to these roles. Respondents were grouped, using statistical cluster…

  3. Children with differing developmental trajectories of prelinguistic communication skills: language and working memory at age 5.

    PubMed

    Määttä, Sira; Laakso, Marja-Leena; Tolvanen, Asko; Ahonen, Timo; Aro, Tuija

    2014-06-01

    In this article, the authors examine the developmental continuity from prelinguistic communication to kindergarten age in language and working memory capacity. Following work outlining 6 groups of children with different trajectories of early communication development (ECD; Määttä, Laakso, Tolvanen, Ahonen, & Aro, 2012), the authors examined their later development by psychometric assessment. Ninety-one children first assessed at ages 12-21 months completed a battery of language and working memory tests at age 5;3 (years;months). Two of the ECD groups previously identified as being at risk for language difficulties continued to show weaker performance at follow-up. Seventy-nine percent of the children with compromised language skills at follow-up were identified on the basis of the ECD groups, but the number of false positives was high. The 2 at-risk groups also differed significantly from the typically developing groups in the measures tapping working memory capacity. In line with the dimensional view of language impairment, the accumulation of early delays predicted the amount of later difficulties; however, at the individual level, the prediction had rather low specificity. The results imply a strong link between language and working memory and call for further studies examining the early developmental interaction between language and memory.

  4. Flexible PZT Thin Film Tactile Sensor for Biomedical Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Hong-Jie; Tian, Wei-Cheng; Wu, Wen-Jong

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the development of tactile sensors using the sol-gel process to deposit a PZT thin-film from 250 nm to 1 μm on a flexible stainless steel substrate. The PZT thin-film tactile sensor can be used to measure human pulses from several areas, including carotid, brachial, finger, ankle, radial artery, and the apical region. Flexible PZT tactile sensors can overcome the diverse topology of various human regions and sense the corresponding signals from human bodies. The measured arterial pulse waveform can be used to diagnose hypertension and cardiac failure in patients. The proposed sensors have several advantages, such as flexibility, reliability, high strain, low cost, simple fabrication, and low temperature processing. The PZT thin-film deposition process includes a pyrolysis process at 150 °C/500 °C for 10/5 min, followed by an annealing process at 650 °C for 10 min. Finally, the consistent pulse wave velocity (PWV) was demonstrated based on human pulse measurements from apical to radial, brachial to radial, and radial to ankle. It is characterized that the sensitivity of our PZT-based tactile sensor was approximately 0.798 mV/g. PMID:23698262

  5. Flexible PZT thin film tactile sensor for biomedical monitoring.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Hong-Jie; Tian, Wei-Cheng; Wu, Wen-Jong

    2013-04-25

    This paper presents the development of tactile sensors using the sol-gel process to deposit a PZT thin-film from 250 nm to 1 μm on a flexible stainless steel substrate. The PZT thin-film tactile sensor can be used to measure human pulses from several areas, including carotid, brachial, finger, ankle, radial artery, and the apical region. Flexible PZT tactile sensors can overcome the diverse topology of various human regions and sense the corresponding signals from human bodies. The measured arterial pulse waveform can be used to diagnose hypertension and cardiac failure in patients. The proposed sensors have several advantages, such as flexibility, reliability, high strain, low cost, simple fabrication, and low temperature processing. The PZT thin-film deposition process includes a pyrolysis process at 150 °C/500 °C for 10/5 min, followed by an annealing process at 650 °C for 10 min. Finally, the consistent pulse wave velocity (PWV) was demonstrated based on human pulse measurements from apical to radial, brachial to radial, and radial to ankle. It is characterized that the sensitivity of our PZT-based tactile sensor was approximately 0.798 mV/g.

  6. A critical and interpretive literature review of birthing women's non-elicited pain language.

    PubMed

    Power, Stephanie; Bogossian, Fiona E; Sussex, Roland; Strong, Jenny

    2017-10-01

    Standardised pain assessment i.e. the McGill Pain Questionnaire provide an elicited pain language. Midwives observe spontaneous non-elicited pain language to guide their assessment of how a woman is coping with labour. This paper examined the labour pain experience using the questions: What type of pain language do women use? Do any of the words match the descriptors of standardised pain assessments? What type of information doverbal and non-verbal cues provide to the midwife? A literature search was conducted in 2013. Studies were included if they had pain as the primary outcome and examined non-elicited pain language from the maternal perspective. A total of 12 articles were included. The analysis revealed six categories in which labour pain can be viewed: 'positive', 'negative', 'physical', 'emotional', 'transcendent' and 'natural'. Women's language comprised i.e. prefixes and suffixes, which indicate the qualities of pain, and figurative language. Language indicated location of pain, gave insight into other life phenomena i.e. death, and shared similarities with standardised pain assessmentdescriptors. Labour cues were 'functional', 'dysfunctional,' or 'neutral' (part of the physiological childbirth process), and were verbal, non-verbal, emotional, psychological, physical behaviour or reactions, or tactile. Labour can bring about a spectrum of sensations and therefore emotions from happiness and pleasure to suffering and grief. Spontaneous pain language comprises verbal language and non-verbal behaviour. Narratives are an effective form of pain communication in that they provide details regarding the quality, nature and dimensions of pain, and details notcaptured in quantitative data. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Tactile-Foot Stimulation Can Assist the Navigation of People with Visual Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Velázquez, Ramiro; Pissaloux, Edwige; Lay-Ekuakille, Aimé

    2015-01-01

    Background. Tactile interfaces that stimulate the plantar surface with vibrations could represent a step forward toward the development of wearable, inconspicuous, unobtrusive, and inexpensive assistive devices for people with visual impairments. Objective. To study how people understand information through their feet and to maximize the capabilities of tactile-foot perception for assisting human navigation. Methods. Based on the physiology of the plantar surface, three prototypes of electronic tactile interfaces for the foot have been developed. With important technological improvements between them, all three prototypes essentially consist of a set of vibrating actuators embedded in a foam shoe-insole. Perceptual experiments involving direction recognition and real-time navigation in space were conducted with a total of 60 voluntary subjects. Results. The developed prototypes demonstrated that they are capable of transmitting tactile information that is easy and fast to understand. Average direction recognition rates were 76%, 88.3%, and 94.2% for subjects wearing the first, second, and third prototype, respectively. Exhibiting significant advances in tactile-foot stimulation, the third prototype was evaluated in navigation tasks. Results show that subjects were capable of following directional instructions useful for navigating spaces. Conclusion. Footwear providing tactile stimulation can be considered for assisting the navigation of people with visual impairments. PMID:27019593

  8. Tactile-Foot Stimulation Can Assist the Navigation of People with Visual Impairment.

    PubMed

    Velázquez, Ramiro; Pissaloux, Edwige; Lay-Ekuakille, Aimé

    2015-01-01

    Background. Tactile interfaces that stimulate the plantar surface with vibrations could represent a step forward toward the development of wearable, inconspicuous, unobtrusive, and inexpensive assistive devices for people with visual impairments. Objective. To study how people understand information through their feet and to maximize the capabilities of tactile-foot perception for assisting human navigation. Methods. Based on the physiology of the plantar surface, three prototypes of electronic tactile interfaces for the foot have been developed. With important technological improvements between them, all three prototypes essentially consist of a set of vibrating actuators embedded in a foam shoe-insole. Perceptual experiments involving direction recognition and real-time navigation in space were conducted with a total of 60 voluntary subjects. Results. The developed prototypes demonstrated that they are capable of transmitting tactile information that is easy and fast to understand. Average direction recognition rates were 76%, 88.3%, and 94.2% for subjects wearing the first, second, and third prototype, respectively. Exhibiting significant advances in tactile-foot stimulation, the third prototype was evaluated in navigation tasks. Results show that subjects were capable of following directional instructions useful for navigating spaces. Conclusion. Footwear providing tactile stimulation can be considered for assisting the navigation of people with visual impairments.

  9. Are Language and Social Communication Intact in Children with Congenital Visual Impairment at School Age?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tadic, Valerie; Pring, Linda; Dale, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    Background: Development of children with congenital visual impairment (VI) has been associated with vulnerable socio-communicative outcomes often bearing striking similarities to those of sighted children with autism. To date, very little is known about language and social communication in children with VI of normal intelligence. Methods: We…

  10. Motor development and motor resonance difficulties in autism: relevance to early intervention for language and communication skills

    PubMed Central

    McCleery, Joseph P.; Elliott, Natasha A.; Sampanis, Dimitrios S.; Stefanidou, Chrysi A.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that a sub-set of children with autism experience notable difficulties and delays in motor skills development, and that a large percentage of children with autism experience deficits in motor resonance. These motor-related deficiencies, which evidence suggests are present from a very early age, are likely to negatively affect social-communicative and language development in this population. Here, we review evidence for delayed, impaired, and atypical motor development in infants and children with autism. We then carefully review and examine the current language and communication-based intervention research that is relevant to motor and motor resonance (i.e., neural “mirroring” mechanisms activated when we observe the actions of others) deficits in children with autism. Finally, we describe research needs and future directions and developments for early interventions aimed at addressing the speech/language and social-communication development difficulties in autism from a motor-related perspective. PMID:23630476

  11. Lost in Translation: Strategies Japanese Language Learners Use in Communicating Culturally Specific L1 Expressions in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoue, Noriyuki; Molina, Sarina Chugani

    2011-01-01

    Communicating in a second language could be seen as a process requiring the deconstruction and reconstruction of cultural meanings. If this is the case, how do second language (L2) learners express cultural meanings of their first language (L1) expressions that do not have semantically equivalent L2 expressions? Twenty-nine Japanese students…

  12. Communicative Language Teaching: A Practical Scenario in the Context of Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Md. Kawser

    2016-01-01

    Communicative Language Teaching, popularly known as CLT, has become a newly adopted methodology in the teaching and learning context of Bangladesh. This methodology, since the initiation, has encountered and is still encountering a number of hurdles that need to be dealt with best care and feasible strategy. Of all methods, most of the educational…

  13. Family Ratings of Communication Largely Reflect Expressive Language and Conversation-Level Ability in People With Aphasia.

    PubMed

    Fucetola, Robert; Tabor Connor, Lisa

    2015-11-01

    Family ratings of communication and social interactions represent an important source of information about people with aphasia. Because of the reliance on family/partner ratings as an outcome measure in many aphasia treatment studies and in the clinic, there is a great need for the validation of commonly used family/partner rating measures, and a better understanding of predictors of family ratings of communication. The communication ability of 130 individuals with aphasia due to neurologic illness was rated by family members/partners on the Communicative Effectiveness Index (CETI; Lomas et al., 1989). Information on aphasia severity, mood, quality of life, nonverbal cognitive functioning, and various demographic factors was collected. Principal component analysis confirmed a 2-factor model best represents the relationships among CETI rating items, and this model largely consists of a conversation-level ability factor. Family ratings were largely predicted by the patient's expressive (not receptive) language but also patient self-perceived quality of communication life. Family/partners typically rate the effectiveness of communication based largely on expressive language, despite the fact that other aspects of the aphasia (e.g., listening comprehension) are as important for everyday communication.

  14. The confidence of speech-language pathology students regarding communicating with people with aphasia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aphasia is an acquired language disorder that can present a significant barrier to patient involvement in healthcare decisions. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are viewed as experts in the field of communication. However, many SLP students do not receive practical training in techniques to communicate with people with aphasia (PWA) until they encounter PWA during clinical education placements. Methods This study investigated the confidence and knowledge of SLP students in communicating with PWA prior to clinical placements using a customised questionnaire. Confidence in communicating with people with aphasia was assessed using a 100-point visual analogue scale. Linear, and logistic, regressions were used to examine the association between confidence and age, as well as confidence and course type (graduate-entry masters or undergraduate), respectively. Knowledge of strategies to assist communication with PWA was examined by asking respondents to list specific strategies that could assist communication with PWA. Results SLP students were not confident with the prospect of communicating with PWA; reporting a median 29-points (inter-quartile range 17–47) on the visual analogue confidence scale. Only, four (8.2%) of respondents rated their confidence greater than 55 (out of 100). Regression analyses indicated no relationship existed between confidence and students‘ age (p = 0.31, r-squared = 0.02), or confidence and course type (p = 0.22, pseudo r-squared = 0.03). Students displayed limited knowledge about communication strategies. Thematic analysis of strategies revealed four overarching themes; Physical, Verbal Communication, Visual Information and Environmental Changes. While most students identified potential use of resources (such as images and written information), fewer students identified strategies to alter their verbal communication (such as reduced speech rate). Conclusions SLP students who had received aphasia related

  15. The confidence of speech-language pathology students regarding communicating with people with aphasia.

    PubMed

    Finch, Emma; Fleming, Jennifer; Brown, Kyla; Lethlean, Jennifer; Cameron, Ashley; McPhail, Steven M

    2013-06-27

    Aphasia is an acquired language disorder that can present a significant barrier to patient involvement in healthcare decisions. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are viewed as experts in the field of communication. However, many SLP students do not receive practical training in techniques to communicate with people with aphasia (PWA) until they encounter PWA during clinical education placements. This study investigated the confidence and knowledge of SLP students in communicating with PWA prior to clinical placements using a customised questionnaire. Confidence in communicating with people with aphasia was assessed using a 100-point visual analogue scale. Linear, and logistic, regressions were used to examine the association between confidence and age, as well as confidence and course type (graduate-entry masters or undergraduate), respectively. Knowledge of strategies to assist communication with PWA was examined by asking respondents to list specific strategies that could assist communication with PWA. SLP students were not confident with the prospect of communicating with PWA; reporting a median 29-points (inter-quartile range 17-47) on the visual analogue confidence scale. Only, four (8.2%) of respondents rated their confidence greater than 55 (out of 100). Regression analyses indicated no relationship existed between confidence and students' age (p = 0.31, r-squared = 0.02), or confidence and course type (p = 0.22, pseudo r-squared = 0.03). Students displayed limited knowledge about communication strategies. Thematic analysis of strategies revealed four overarching themes; Physical, Verbal Communication, Visual Information and Environmental Changes. While most students identified potential use of resources (such as images and written information), fewer students identified strategies to alter their verbal communication (such as reduced speech rate). SLP students who had received aphasia related theoretical coursework, but not commenced clinical placements

  16. Zipf's Law of Abbreviation and the Principle of Least Effort: Language users optimise a miniature lexicon for efficient communication.

    PubMed

    Kanwal, Jasmeen; Smith, Kenny; Culbertson, Jennifer; Kirby, Simon

    2017-08-01

    The linguist George Kingsley Zipf made a now classic observation about the relationship between a word's length and its frequency; the more frequent a word is, the shorter it tends to be. He claimed that this "Law of Abbreviation" is a universal structural property of language. The Law of Abbreviation has since been documented in a wide range of human languages, and extended to animal communication systems and even computer programming languages. Zipf hypothesised that this universal design feature arises as a result of individuals optimising form-meaning mappings under competing pressures to communicate accurately but also efficiently-his famous Principle of Least Effort. In this study, we use a miniature artificial language learning paradigm to provide direct experimental evidence for this explanatory hypothesis. We show that language users optimise form-meaning mappings only when pressures for accuracy and efficiency both operate during a communicative task, supporting Zipf's conjecture that the Principle of Least Effort can explain this universal feature of word length distributions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. What sign language creation teaches us about language.

    PubMed

    Brentari, Diane; Coppola, Marie

    2013-03-01

    How do languages emerge? What are the necessary ingredients and circumstances that permit new languages to form? Various researchers within the disciplines of primatology, anthropology, psychology, and linguistics have offered different answers to this question depending on their perspective. Language acquisition, language evolution, primate communication, and the study of spoken varieties of pidgin and creoles address these issues, but in this article we describe a relatively new and important area that contributes to our understanding of language creation and emergence. Three types of communication systems that use the hands and body to communicate will be the focus of this article: gesture, homesign systems, and sign languages. The focus of this article is to explain why mapping the path from gesture to homesign to sign language has become an important research topic for understanding language emergence, not only for the field of sign languages, but also for language in general. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:201-211. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1212 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Tactile Imaging Markers to Characterize Female Pelvic Floor Conditions.

    PubMed

    van Raalte, Heather; Egorov, Vladimir

    2015-08-01

    The Vaginal Tactile Imager (VTI) records pressure patterns from vaginal walls under an applied tissue deformation and during pelvic floor muscle contractions. The objective of this study is to validate tactile imaging and muscle contraction parameters (markers) sensitive to the female pelvic floor conditions. Twenty-two women with normal and prolapse conditions were examined by a vaginal tactile imaging probe. We identified 9 parameters which were sensitive to prolapse conditions ( p < 0.05 for one-way ANOVA and/or p < 0.05 for t -test with correlation factor r from -0.73 to -0.56). The list of parameters includes pressure, pressure gradient and dynamic pressure response during muscle contraction at identified locations. These parameters may be used for biomechanical characterization of female pelvic floor conditions to support an effective management of pelvic floor prolapse.

  19. Pakistani Government Secondary Schools Students' Attitudes towards Communicative Language Teaching and Grammar Translation in Quetta, Balochistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhammad, Zeeshan

    2016-01-01

    Students' attitudes towards an English language teaching approach play an important role for its implementation success or failure. This study measured Pakistani government school students' attitudes towards Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) and Grammar Translation (GT). A survey instrument was used to assess students' attitudes. Data were…

  20. Optical based tactile shear and normal load sensor

    DOEpatents

    Salisbury, Curt Michael

    2015-06-09

    Various technologies described herein pertain to a tactile sensor that senses normal load and/or shear load. The tactile sensor includes a first layer and an optically transparent layer bonded together. At least a portion of the first layer is made of optically reflective material. The optically transparent layer is made of resilient material (e.g., clear silicone rubber). The tactile sensor includes light emitter/light detector pair(s), which respectively detect either normal load or shear load. Light emitter(s) emit light that traverses through the optically transparent layer and reflects off optically reflective material of the first layer, and light detector(s) detect and measure intensity of reflected light. When a normal load is applied, the optically transparent layer compresses, causing a change in reflected light intensity. When shear load is applied, a boundary between optically reflective material and optically absorptive material is laterally displaced, causing a change in reflected light intensity.

  1. Increasing Early Childhood Educators' Use of Communication-Facilitating and Language-Modelling Strategies: Brief Speech and Language Therapy Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, David; Proctor, Penny; Gill, Wendy; Heaven, Sue; Marr, Jane; Young, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Intensive Speech and Language Therapy (SLT) training courses for Early Childhood Educators (ECEs) can have a positive effect on their use of interaction strategies that support children's communication skills. The impact of brief SLT training courses is not yet clearly understood. The aims of these two studies were to assess the impact of a brief…

  2. Adopting public health approaches to communication disability: challenges for the education of speech-language pathologists.

    PubMed

    Wylie, Karen; McAllister, Lindy; Davidson, Bronwyn; Marshall, Julie; Law, James

    2014-01-01

    Public health approaches to communication disability challenge the profession of speech-language pathology (SLP) to reconsider both frames of reference for practice and models of education. This paper reviews the impetus for public health approaches to communication disability and considers how public health is, and could be, incorporated into SLP education, both now and in the future. The paper describes tensions between clinical services, which have become increasingly specialized, and public health approaches that offer a broader view of communication disability and communication disability prevention. It presents a discussion of these tensions and asserts that public health approaches to communication are themselves a specialist field, requiring specific knowledge and skills. The authors suggest the use of the term 'communication disability public health' to refer to this type of work and offer a preliminary definition in order to advance discussion. Examples from three countries are provided of how some SLP degree programmes are integrating public health into the SLP curriculum. Alternative models of training for communication disability public health that may be relevant in the future in different contexts and countries are presented, prompting the SLP profession to consider whether communication disability public health is a field of practice for speech-language pathologists or whether it has broader workforce implications. The paper concludes with some suggestions for the future which may advance thinking, research and practice in communication disability public health. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Communication skills training in English alone can leave Arab medical students unconfident with patient communication in their native language.

    PubMed

    Mirza, D M; Hashim, M J

    2010-08-01

    Communications skills curricula and pedagogy for medical students are often exported to non-English speaking settings. It is assumed that after learning communication skills in English, doctors will be able to communicate effectively with patients in their own language. We distributed a questionnaire to third year Emirati students at a medical school within the United Arab Emirates. We assessed their confidence in interviewing patients in Arabic after communication skills training in English. Of the 49 students in the sample, 36 subjects (73.5%) completed and returned the questionnaire. Nearly three-quarters (72.2%) of students said they felt confident in taking a history in English, while 27.8% of students expressed confidence in taking a history in Arabic. Half of students anticipated that after their training they would be communicating with their patients primarily in Arabic, and only 8.3% anticipated they would be communicating in English. Communication skills training purely in English can leave Arab medical students ill equipped to communicate with patients in their own communities and tongue.

  4. The application of natural language processing to augmentative and alternative communication.

    PubMed

    Higginbotham, D Jeffery; Lesher, Gregory W; Moulton, Bryan J; Roark, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in the application of natural language processing (NLP) to augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), particularly in the areas of interface design and word prediction. This article will survey the current state-of-the-science of NLP in AAC and discuss its future applications for the development of next generation of AAC technology.

  5. Cinderella's Coach or Just Another Pumpkin? Information Communication Technologies and the Continuing Marginalisation of Languages in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Lindy; Coutas, Penelope

    2014-01-01

    The rhetoric around global connectedness and advances in information communication technologies (ICTs) suggests that: Professional life for the marginalised and isolated language teacher should be easier; the experience of language learners in Australian schools should be more meaningful and bring them closer to the languages and communities that…

  6. Nanowire FET Based Neural Element for Robotic Tactile Sensing Skin

    PubMed Central

    Taube Navaraj, William; García Núñez, Carlos; Shakthivel, Dhayalan; Vinciguerra, Vincenzo; Labeau, Fabrice; Gregory, Duncan H.; Dahiya, Ravinder

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents novel Neural Nanowire Field Effect Transistors (υ-NWFETs) based hardware-implementable neural network (HNN) approach for tactile data processing in electronic skin (e-skin). The viability of Si nanowires (NWs) as the active material for υ-NWFETs in HNN is explored through modeling and demonstrated by fabricating the first device. Using υ-NWFETs to realize HNNs is an interesting approach as by printing NWs on large area flexible substrates it will be possible to develop a bendable tactile skin with distributed neural elements (for local data processing, as in biological skin) in the backplane. The modeling and simulation of υ-NWFET based devices show that the overlapping areas between individual gates and the floating gate determines the initial synaptic weights of the neural network - thus validating the working of υ-NWFETs as the building block for HNN. The simulation has been further extended to υ-NWFET based circuits and neuronal computation system and this has been validated by interfacing it with a transparent tactile skin prototype (comprising of 6 × 6 ITO based capacitive tactile sensors array) integrated on the palm of a 3D printed robotic hand. In this regard, a tactile data coding system is presented to detect touch gesture and the direction of touch. Following these simulation studies, a four-gated υ-NWFET is fabricated with Pt/Ti metal stack for gates, source and drain, Ni floating gate, and Al2O3 high-k dielectric layer. The current-voltage characteristics of fabricated υ-NWFET devices confirm the dependence of turn-off voltages on the (synaptic) weight of each gate. The presented υ-NWFET approach is promising for a neuro-robotic tactile sensory system with distributed computing as well as numerous futuristic applications such as prosthetics, and electroceuticals. PMID:28979183

  7. I understand you feel that way, but I feel this way: the benefits of I-language and communicating perspective during conflict

    PubMed Central

    Howieson, Jill; Neame, Casey

    2018-01-01

    Using hypothetical scenarios, we provided participants with potential opening statements to a conflict discussion that varied on I/you language and communicated perspective. Participants rated the likelihood that the recipient of the statement would react in a defensive manner. Using I-language and communicating perspective were both found to reduce perceptions of hostility. Statements that communicated both self- and other-perspective using I-language (e.g. ‘I understand why you might feel that way, but I feel this way, so I think the situation is unfair’) were rated as the best strategy to open a conflict discussion. Simple acts of initial language use can reduce the chances that conflict discussion will descend into a downward spiral of hostility. PMID:29796350

  8. Active Prior Tactile Knowledge Transfer for Learning Tactual Properties of New Objects

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Di

    2018-01-01

    Reusing the tactile knowledge of some previously-explored objects (prior objects) helps us to easily recognize the tactual properties of new objects. In this paper, we enable a robotic arm equipped with multi-modal artificial skin, like humans, to actively transfer the prior tactile exploratory action experiences when it learns the detailed physical properties of new objects. These experiences, or prior tactile knowledge, are built by the feature observations that the robot perceives from multiple sensory modalities, when it applies the pressing, sliding, and static contact movements on objects with different action parameters. We call our method Active Prior Tactile Knowledge Transfer (APTKT), and systematically evaluated its performance by several experiments. Results show that the robot improved the discrimination accuracy by around 10% when it used only one training sample with the feature observations of prior objects. By further incorporating the predictions from the observation models of prior objects as auxiliary features, our method improved the discrimination accuracy by over 20%. The results also show that the proposed method is robust against transferring irrelevant prior tactile knowledge (negative knowledge transfer). PMID:29466300

  9. The Impact of Computer-Mediated Communication Environments on Foreign Language Learning: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahdi, Hassan Saleh

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on the implementation of computer-mediated communication (CMC) in language learning, aiming at understanding how CMC environments have been implemented to foster language learning. The paper draws on 40 recent research articles selected from 10 peer-reviewed journals, 2 book chapters and one conference…

  10. Developmental Inventories Using Illiterate Parents as Informants: Communicative Development Inventory (CDI) Adaptation for Two Kenyan Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcock, K. J.; Rimba, K.; Holding, P.; Kitsao-Wekulo, P.; Abubakar, A.; Newton, C. R. J. C.

    2015-01-01

    Communicative Development Inventories (CDIs, parent-completed language development checklists) are a helpful tool to assess language in children who are unused to interaction with unfamiliar adults. Generally, CDIs are completed in written form, but in developing country settings parents may have insufficient literacy to complete them alone. We…

  11. Use of Communication Strategies by Tourism-Oriented EFL Learners in Relation to Gender and Perceived Language Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Tao; Intaraprasert, Channarong

    2013-01-01

    This study was intended to explore the relationship of gender, perceived language ability with communication strategy use by tourism-oriented EFL learners studying at the universities in the Southwest China to improve and maintain their oral communication in English. The Communication Strategy Questionnaire was used for data collection, and the…

  12. Salience of Tactile Cues: An Examination of Tactor Actuator and Tactile Cue Characteristics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing the burden, to Department of Defense ...patterns of tactile cue arrays, and some differences due to measurement approach. Implications for future research are discussed. 15. SUBJECT TERMS...results for tactor type, taction, and interaction term for the prediction of forced-choice preference ................................................21

  13. Surface texture can bias tactile form perception.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Masashi; Howe, Robert D; Tachi, Susumu

    2011-01-01

    The sense of touch is believed to provide a reliable perception of the object's properties; however, our tactile perceptions could be illusory at times. A recently reported tactile illusion shows that a raised form can be perceived as indented when it is surrounded by textured areas. This phenomenon suggests that the form perception can be influenced by the surface textures in its adjacent areas. As perception of texture and that of form have been studied independently of each other, the present study examined whether textures, in addition to the geometric edges, contribute to the tactile form perception. We examined the perception of the flat and raised contact surface (3.0 mm width) with various heights (0.1, 0.2, 0.3 mm), which had either textured or non-textured adjacent areas, under the static, passive and active touch conditions. Our results showed that texture decreased the raised perception of the surface with a small height (0.1 mm) and decreased the flat perception of the physically flat surface under the passive and active touch conditions. We discuss a possible mechanism underlying the effect of the textures on the form perception based on previous neurophysiological findings.

  14. Information and Communication Technologies in Learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL): Attitudes of EFL Learners in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngo, Hong T. P.

    2017-01-01

    Given breakthroughs in information and communication technologies (ICTs), language learners are increasingly presented with opportunities to advance their proficiency in a target language (herein English as a foreign language or EFL). The attitudes of learners toward the use of ICTs (ICT attitudes) can be predictive of their adoption of ICTs for…

  15. An Experimental Optical Three-axis Tactile Sensor Featured with Hemispherical Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohka, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Takata, Jumpei; Mitsuya, Yasunaga

    We are developing an optical three-axis tactile sensor capable of acquiring normal and shearing force to mount on a robotic finger. The tactile sensor is based on the principle of an optical waveguide-type tactile sensor, which is composed of an acrylic hemispherical dome, a light source, an array of rubber sensing elements, and a CCD camera. The sensing element of the silicone rubber comprises one columnar feeler and eight conical feelers. The contact areas of the conical feelers, which maintain contact with the acrylic dome, detect the three-axis force applied to the tip of the sensing element. Normal and shearing forces are then calculated from integration and centroid displacement of the grayscale value derived from the conical feeler's contacts. To evaluate the present tactile sensor, we conducted a series of experiments using an x-z stage, a rotational stage, and a force gauge. Although we discovered that the relationship between the integrated grayscale value and normal force depends on the sensor's latitude on the hemispherical surface, it is easy to modify the sensitivity based on the latitude to make the centroid displacement of the grayscale value proportional to the shearing force. When we examined the repeatability of the present tactile sensor with 1,000 load/unload cycles, the error was 2%.

  16. Clinical assessment of early language development: a simplified short form of the Mandarin communicative development inventory.

    PubMed

    Soli, Sigfrid D; Zheng, Yun; Meng, Zhaoli; Li, Gang

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a practical mean for clinical evaluation of early pediatric language development by establishing developmental trajectories for receptive and expressive vocabulary growth in children between 6 and 32 months of age using a simple, time-efficient assessment tool. Simplified short form versions of the Words and Gestures and Words and Sentences vocabulary inventories in the Mandarin Communicative Development Inventory [1] were developed and used to assess early language development in developmentally normal children from 6 to 32 months of age during routine health checks. Developmental trajectories characterizing the rate of receptive and expressive vocabulary growth between 6 and 32 months of age are reported. These trajectories allow the equivalent age corresponding to a score to be determined after a brief structured interview with the child's parents that can be conducted in a busy clinical setting. The simplified short forms of the Mandarin Communicative Development Inventories can serve as a clinically useful tool to assess early child language development, providing a practical mean of objectively assessing early language development following early interventions to treat young children with hearing impairment as well as speech and language delays. Objective evidence of language development is essential for achievement of effective (re)habilitation outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Bilateral Symmetry of Distortions of Tactile Size Perception.

    PubMed

    Longo, Matthew R; Ghosh, Arko; Yahya, Tasneem

    2015-01-01

    The perceived distance between touches on the limbs is generally bigger for distances oriented across the width of the limb than for distances oriented along the length of the limb. The present study aimed to investigate the coherence of such distortions of tactile size perception across different skin surfaces. We investigated distortions of tactile size perception on the dorsal and palmar surfaces of both the left and right hands as well as the forehead. Participants judged which of two tactile distances felt larger. One distance was aligned with the proximodistal axis (along the body), the other with the mediolateral axis (across the body). Clear distortions were found on all five skin surfaces, with stimuli oriented across the width of the body being perceived as farther apart than those oriented along the length of the body. Consistent with previous results, distortions were smaller on the palmar than on the dorsal hand surface. Distortion on the forehead was intermediate between the dorsal and palmar surfaces. There were clear correlations between distortion on the left and right hands, for both the dorsal and palmar skin surfaces. In contrast, within each hand, there was no significant correlation between the two skin surfaces. Distortion on the forehead was not significantly correlated with that on any of the other skin surfaces. These results provide evidence for bilaterally symmetric representations underlying tactile size perception. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Tactile Imaging Markers to Characterize Female Pelvic Floor Conditions

    PubMed Central

    van Raalte, Heather; Egorov, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    The Vaginal Tactile Imager (VTI) records pressure patterns from vaginal walls under an applied tissue deformation and during pelvic floor muscle contractions. The objective of this study is to validate tactile imaging and muscle contraction parameters (markers) sensitive to the female pelvic floor conditions. Twenty-two women with normal and prolapse conditions were examined by a vaginal tactile imaging probe. We identified 9 parameters which were sensitive to prolapse conditions (p < 0.05 for one-way ANOVA and/or p < 0.05 for t-test with correlation factor r from −0.73 to −0.56). The list of parameters includes pressure, pressure gradient and dynamic pressure response during muscle contraction at identified locations. These parameters may be used for biomechanical characterization of female pelvic floor conditions to support an effective management of pelvic floor prolapse. PMID:26389014

  19. How we developed Doctors Speak Up: an evidence-based language and communication skills open access resource for International Medical Graduates.

    PubMed

    Woodward-Kron, Robyn; Fraser, Catriona; Pill, John; Flynn, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    Some International Medical Graduates (IMGs) need to develop language and communication skills for patient-centred care but have limited opportunities to do so. To develop an evidence-based, language and communication skills web resource for IMG doctors and supervisors, focussing on culturally challenging patient interviews. Forty-eight IMGs participated in four practice OSCEs. We video-recorded the interactions and applied discourse analytic methods to investigate salient language and communication features. The findings from the OSCE workshops showed that many participants demonstrated aspects of patient-centred interviewing but were hindered by limited interactional competence to elicit information and negotiate behaviours as well as a limited repertoire of English grammar, vocabulary, and phonological phrasing for effective interaction. These findings guided the choice of content and pedagogy for the development of the web-based resource Doctors Speak Up. Evaluation and uptake of the Doctors Speak Up website confirm the demand for a resource combining targeted communication skills and language instruction. Over 19 500 users visited the website between March 2012 and November 2013.

  20. Mind and Material: The Interplay between Computer-Related and Second Language Factors in Online Communication Dialogues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Pin-hsiang Natalie; Kawamura, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    With a growing demand for learning English and a trend of utilizing computers in education, methods that can achieve the effectiveness of computer-mediated communication (CMC) to support language learning in higher education have been examined. However, second language factors manipulate both the process and production of CMC and, therefore,…

  1. Metapragmatic Explicitation and Social Attribution in Social Communication Disorder and Developmental Language Disorder: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Catherine; Lockton, Elaine; Collins, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this study are to investigate metapragmatic (MP) ability in 6-11-year-old children with social communication disorder (SCD), developmental language disorder (DLD), and typical language development and to explore factors associated with MP explicitation and social understanding (SU). Method: In this cross-sectional study,…

  2. Communicative Competence in Parents of Children with Autism and Parents of Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruser, Tilla F.; Arin, Deborah; Dowd, Michael; Putnam, Sara; Winklosky, Brian; Rosen-Sheidley, Beth; Piven, Joseph; Tomblin, Bruce; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Folstein, Susan

    2007-01-01

    While the primary language deficit in autism has been thought to be pragmatic, and in specific language impairment (SLI) structural, recent research suggests phenomenological and possibly genetic overlap between the two syndromes. To compare communicative competence in parents of children with autism, SLI, and down syndrome (DS), we used a…

  3. WaterML: an XML Language for Communicating Water Observations Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maidment, D. R.; Zaslavsky, I.; Valentine, D.

    2007-12-01

    One of the great impediments to the synthesis of water information is the plethora of formats used to publish such data. Each water agency uses its own approach. XML (eXtended Markup Languages) are generalizations of Hypertext Markup Language to communicate specific kinds of information via the internet. WaterML is an XML language for water observations data - streamflow, water quality, groundwater levels, climate, precipitation and aquatic biology data, recorded at fixed, point locations as a function of time. The Hydrologic Information System project of the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc (CUAHSI) has defined WaterML and prepared a set of web service functions called WaterOneFLow that use WaterML to provide information about observation sites, the variables measured there and the values of those measurments. WaterML has been submitted to the Open GIS Consortium for harmonization with its standards for XML languages. Academic investigators at a number of testbed locations in the WATERS network are providing data in WaterML format using WaterOneFlow web services. The USGS and other federal agencies are also working with CUAHSI to similarly provide access to their data in WaterML through WaterOneFlow services.

  4. A Phenomenological Study: The Impacts of Developing Phonetic Awareness through Technological Resources on English Language Learners' (ELL) Communicative Competences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabre-Merchán, Paolo; Torres-Jara, Gabriela; Andrade-Dominguez, Francisco; Ortiz-Zurita, Ma. José; Alvarez-Muñoz, Patricio

    2017-01-01

    Throughout our experience within the English Language Teaching (ELT) field and while acquiring a second language in English a Foreign Language (EFL) and English as a Second Language (ESL) settings, we have noticed that one of the main perceived challenges for English Language Learners (ELLs) is to effectively communicate. Most of the time, this…

  5. The Possible Contribution of Social Grammar of Language Analysis to Inter-Cultural Communication and the Avoidance of Misunderstanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayshon, Matthew C.

    Different languages code messages in different ways and use different channels for sending messages; thus there are many places for misinterpreting and mishearing messages in an intercultural context. To move from one language to another requires a description of the total language communication system, one that has its universals in social and…

  6. Braille and Tactile Graphics: Youths with Visual Impairments Share Their Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblum, L. Penny; Herzberg, Tina S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Data were collected from youths with visual impairment about their experiences with tactile graphics and braille materials used in mathematics and science classes. Methods: Youths answered questions and explored four tactile graphics made using different production methods. They located specific information on each graphic and shared…

  7. Caregiver communication to the child as moderator and mediator of genes for language.

    PubMed

    Onnis, Luca

    2017-05-15

    Human language appears to be unique among natural communication systems, and such uniqueness impinges on both nature and nurture. Human babies are endowed with cognitive abilities that predispose them to learn language, and this process cannot operate in an impoverished environment. To be effectively complete the acquisition of human language in human children requires highly socialised forms of learning, scaffolded over years of prolonged and intense caretaker-child interactions. How genes and environment operate in shaping language is unknown. These two components have traditionally been considered as independent, and often pitted against each other in terms of the nature versus nurture debate. This perspective article considers how innate abilities and experience might instead work together. In particular, it envisages potential scenarios for research, in which early caregiver verbal and non-verbal attachment practices may mediate or moderate the expression of human genetic systems for language. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Language-specific skills in intercultural healthcare communication: Comparing perceived preparedness and skills in nurses' first and second languages.

    PubMed

    Gasiorek, Jessica; van de Poel, Kris

    2018-02-01

    Interactions between people from different cultures are becoming increasingly commonplace in contemporary healthcare settings. To date, most research evaluating cross-cultural preparedness has assumed that medical professionals are speaking their first language (L1). However, as healthcare workers are increasingly mobile and patient populations are increasingly diverse, more and more interactions are likely to occur in a professional's non-native language (L2). This study assessed and compared nurses' perceived cross-cultural preparedness and skillfulness in their interactions with patients from other cultures when speaking both their L1 and L2. The goal of this project was to inform the creation of a communication skills training program. Nurses reported their perceived cross-cultural preparedness and skillfulness (scales adapted from Park et al., 2009) in their L1 and L2 via an online questionnaire. This questionnaire was distributed among nurses working in Vienna, Austria, through the Vienna Hospital Association (VHA). Nurses and nurses-in-training working in VHA hospitals participated. Most participants who provided demographic information were currently nurses (n=179) with an average of 16.88years (SD=11.50) of professional experience (range: 0-40); n=40 were nurses-in-training with an average of 2.13years (SD=0.88) of experience (range: 1-5). Descriptive statistics for each cross-cultural preparedness and skillfulness (in each language) are reported; comparisons between L1 and L2 responses were also conducted. Multiple regression analyses were used to identify predictors of preparedness and L1/L2 skillfulness. Nurses reported feeling significantly less confident in their skills when working in an L2, across a range of culture-related issues. Having had previous communication skills training predicted (better) self-reported L2 skillfulness, although it did not predict L1 skillfulness. These results indicate that there is a language-specific component to cross

  9. Language and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, John

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the language of law and its general interest to the field of applied linguistics. Specific focus is on legal language, the problems and remedies of legal communication (e.g., language and disadvantage before the law, improving legal communication) the legislation of language (e.g., language rights, language crimes), and forensic…

  10. Use of early tactile stimulation in rehabilitation of digital nerve injuries.

    PubMed

    Cheng, A S

    2000-01-01

    Digital nerves are the most frequently injured peripheral nerve. To improve the recovery of functional sensibility of digital nerve injuries, a prospective randomized controlled study was conducted to see the effect of using early tactile stimulation in rehabilitation of digital nerve injuries. Two specific tactile stimulators were made and prescribed for patients with digital nerve-injury. Twenty-four participants with 32 digital nerve injuries received the prescribed tactile stimulators (experimental group), and another 25 participants with 33 digital nerve injuries received only routine conventional therapy (control group). A significant difference (p < .05) was seen in the experimental group, although there were some variations between the different classes of associated injuries, with least benefit observed in the combined nerve, tendon, and bone injury class. Use of early tactile stimulation as described in this study can be considered an effective way to improve both quality and quantity of recovery of functional sensibility in digital nerve injuries without combined nerve, tendon, and bone injuries.

  11. Communicative Discourse in Second Language Classrooms: From Building Skills to Becoming Skillful

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suleiman, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of the communicative discourse is a natural process that requires an application of a wide range of skills and strategies. In particular, linguistic discourse and the interaction process have a huge impact on promoting literacy and academic skills in all students especially English language learners (ELLs). Using interactive…

  12. Fingerbraille: An Investigation of Japanese Methods for Communicating with Individuals Who Are Deaf-Blind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamichhane, Kamal

    2011-01-01

    There are many techniques for communicating with individuals who are deaf-blind. In Japan, another technique, known as fingerbraille, is also used. Fingerbraille is a tactile method of communication that is based on Japanese braille script. This article introduces the reader to the history of the development of this communication technique and to…

  13. Learning touch preferences with a tactile robot using dopamine modulated STDP in a model of insular cortex

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Ting-Shuo; Bucci, Liam D.; Krichmar, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Neurorobots enable researchers to study how behaviors are produced by neural mechanisms in an uncertain, noisy, real-world environment. To investigate how the somatosensory system processes noisy, real-world touch inputs, we introduce a neurorobot called CARL-SJR, which has a full-body tactile sensory area. The design of CARL-SJR is such that it encourages people to communicate with it through gentle touch. CARL-SJR provides feedback to users by displaying bright colors on its surface. In the present study, we show that CARL-SJR is capable of learning associations between conditioned stimuli (CS; a color pattern on its surface) and unconditioned stimuli (US; a preferred touch pattern) by applying a spiking neural network (SNN) with neurobiologically inspired plasticity. Specifically, we modeled the primary somatosensory cortex, prefrontal cortex, striatum, and the insular cortex, which is important for hedonic touch, to process noisy data generated directly from CARL-SJR's tactile sensory area. To facilitate learning, we applied dopamine-modulated Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity (STDP) to our simulated prefrontal cortex, striatum, and insular cortex. To cope with noisy, varying inputs, the SNN was tuned to produce traveling waves of activity that carried spatiotemporal information. Despite the noisy tactile sensors, spike trains, and variations in subject hand swipes, the learning was quite robust. Further, insular cortex activities in the incremental pathway of dopaminergic reward system allowed us to control CARL-SJR's preference for touch direction without heavily pre-processed inputs. The emerged behaviors we found in this model match animal's behaviors wherein they prefer touch in particular areas and directions. Thus, the results in this paper could serve as an explanation on the underlying neural mechanisms for developing tactile preferences and hedonic touch. PMID:26257639

  14. The Model of Forming Communicative Competence of Students in the Process of Teaching the English Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahrutdinova, Rezida A.; Fahrutdinov, Rifat R.; Yusupov, Rinat N.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the topic is specified by the necessity of forming the communicative competence of students in the process of teaching of the English language in the institute of higher education. This article is intended to define interactive methods of teaching foreign language, which are based on interactive conception of interaction between…

  15. Tactile agnosia. Casuistic evidence and theoretical remarks on modality-specific meaning representations and sensorimotor integration.

    PubMed

    Platz, T

    1996-10-01

    Somaesthetic, motor and cognitive functions were studied in a man with impaired tactile object-recognition (TOR) in his left hand due to a right parietal convexity meningeoma which had been surgically removed. Primary motor and somatosensory functions were not impaired, and discriminative abilities for various tactile aspects and cognitive skills were preserved. Nevertheless, the patient could often not appreciate the object's nature or significance when it was placed in his left hand and was unable to name or to describe or demonstrate the use of these objects. Therefore, he can be regarded as an example of associative tactile agnosia. The view is taken and elaborated that defective modality-specific meaning representations account for associative tactile agnosia. These meaning representations are conceptualized as learned unimodal feature-entity relationships which are thought to be defective in tactile agnosia. In line with this hypothesis, tactile feature analysis and cross-modal matching of features were largely preserved in the investigated patient, while combining features to form entities was defective in the tactile domain. The alternative hypothesis of agnosia as deficit of cross-modal association of features was not supported. The presumed distributed functional network responsible for TOR is thought to involve perception of features, object recognition and related tactile motor behaviour interactively. A deficit leading primarily to impaired combining features to form entities can therefore be expected to result in additional minor impairment of related perceptual-motor processes. Unilaterality of the gnostic deficit can be explained by a lateralized organization of the functional network responsible for tactile recognition of objects.

  16. Visual enhancing of tactile perception in the posterior parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Ro, Tony; Wallace, Ruth; Hagedorn, Judith; Farnè, Alessandro; Pienkos, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    The visual modality typically dominates over our other senses. Here we show that after inducing an extreme conflict in the left hand between vision of touch (present) and the feeling of touch (absent), sensitivity to touch increases for several minutes after the conflict. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of the posterior parietal cortex after this conflict not only eliminated the enduring visual enhancement of touch, but also impaired normal tactile perception. This latter finding demonstrates a direct role of the parietal lobe in modulating tactile perception as a result of the conflict between these senses. These results provide evidence for visual-to-tactile perceptual modulation and demonstrate effects of illusory vision of touch on touch perception through a long-lasting modulatory process in the posterior parietal cortex.

  17. Der didaktische Begriff der "kommunikativen Kompetenz" - kritische Bemerkungen (The Concept "Communicative Competence" in Foreign Language Teaching - Critical Observations)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melenk, Hartmut

    1977-01-01

    The learning goal "communicative competence" needs to be made concrete. Philosophy of language, communication sociology, and communication psychology must all contribute to this. The pedagogical claim of pragmadidactics regarding founding its own school, and its relation to pragmalinguistics, are discussed. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  18. Tactile Perception of Roughness and Hardness to Discriminate Materials by Friction-Induced Vibration

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xuezeng

    2017-01-01

    The human fingertip is an exquisitely powerful bio-tactile sensor in perceiving different materials based on various highly-sensitive mechanoreceptors distributed all over the skin. The tactile perception of surface roughness and material hardness can be estimated by skin vibrations generated during a fingertip stroking of a surface instead of being maintained in a static position. Moreover, reciprocating sliding with increasing velocities and pressures are two common behaviors in humans to discriminate different materials, but the question remains as to what the correlation of the sliding velocity and normal load on the tactile perceptions of surface roughness and hardness is for material discrimination. In order to investigate this correlation, a finger-inspired crossed-I beam structure tactile tester has been designed to mimic the anthropic tactile discrimination behaviors. A novel method of characterizing the fast Fourier transform integral (FFT) slope of the vibration acceleration signal generated from fingertip rubbing on surfaces at increasing sliding velocity and normal load, respectively, are defined as kv and kw, and is proposed to discriminate the surface roughness and hardness of different materials. Over eight types of materials were tested, and they proved the capability and advantages of this high tactile-discriminating method. Our study may find applications in investigating humanoid robot perceptual abilities. PMID:29182538

  19. Applying technology to visually support language and communication in individuals with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Shane, Howard C; Laubscher, Emily H; Schlosser, Ralf W; Flynn, Suzanne; Sorce, James F; Abramson, Jennifer

    2012-06-01

    The burgeoning role of technology in society has provided opportunities for the development of new means of communication for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). This paper offers an organizational framework for describing traditional and emerging augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) technology, and highlights how tools within this framework can support a visual approach to everyday communication and improve language instruction. The growing adoption of handheld media devices along with applications acquired via a consumer-oriented delivery model suggests a potential paradigm shift in AAC for people with ASD.

  20. Children with Differing Developmental Trajectories of Prelinguistic Communication Skills: Language and Working Memory at Age 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Määttä, Sira; Laakso, Marja-Leena; Tolvanen, Asko; Ahonen, Timo; Aro, Tuija

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, the authors examine the developmental continuity from prelinguistic communication to kindergarten age in language and working memory capacity. Method: Following work outlining 6 groups of children with different trajectories of early communication development (ECD; Määttä, Laakso, Tolvanen, Ahonen, & Aro, 2012), the…

  1. Integration of tactile input across fingers in a patient with finger agnosia.

    PubMed

    Anema, Helen A; Overvliet, Krista E; Smeets, Jeroen B J; Brenner, Eli; Dijkerman, H Chris

    2011-01-01

    Finger agnosia has been described as an inability to explicitly individuate between the fingers, which is possibly due to fused neural representations of these fingers. Hence, are patients with finger agnosia unable to keep tactile information perceived over several fingers separate? Here, we tested a finger agnosic patient (GO) on two tasks that measured the ability to keep tactile information simultaneously perceived by individual fingers separate. In experiment 1 GO performed a haptic search task, in which a target (the absence of a protruded line) needed to be identified among distracters (protruded lines). The lines were presented simultaneously to the fingertips of both hands. Similarly to the controls, her reaction time decreased when her fingers were aligned as compared to when her fingers were stretched and in an unaligned position. This suggests that she can keep tactile input from different fingers separate. In experiment two, GO was required to judge the position of a target tactile stimulus to the index finger, relatively to a reference tactile stimulus to the middle finger, both in fingers uncrossed and crossed position. GO was able to indicate the relative position of the target stimulus as well as healthy controls, which indicates that she was able to keep tactile information perceived by two neighbouring fingers separate. Interestingly, GO performed better as compared to the healthy controls in the finger crossed condition. Together, these results suggest the GO is able to implicitly distinguish between tactile information perceived by multiple fingers. We therefore conclude that finger agnosia is not caused by minor disruptions of low-level somatosensory processing. These findings further underpin the idea of a selective impaired higher order body representation restricted to the fingers as underlying cause of finger agnosia. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The role of tactile feedback in grip force during laparoscopic training tasks.

    PubMed

    Wottawa, Christopher R; Cohen, Jeremiah R; Fan, Richard E; Bisley, James W; Culjat, Martin O; Grundfest, Warren S; Dutson, Erik P

    2013-04-01

    Laparoscopic minimally invasive surgery has revolutionized surgical care by reducing trauma to the patient, thereby decreasing the need for medication and shortening recovery times. During open procedures, surgeons can directly feel tissue characteristics. However, in laparoscopic surgery, tactile feedback during grip is attenuated and limited to the resistance felt in the tool handle. Excessive grip force during laparoscopic surgery can lead to tissue damage. Providing additional supplementary tactile feedback may allow subjects to have better control of grip force and identification of tissue characteristics, potentially decreasing the learning curve associated with complex minimally invasive techniques. A tactile feedback system has been developed and integrated into a modified laparoscopic grasper that allows forces applied at the grasper tips to be felt by the surgeon's hands. In this study, 15 subjects (11 novices, 4 experts) were asked to perform single-handed peg transfers using these laparoscopic graspers in three trials (feedback OFF, ON, OFF). Peak and average grip forces (newtons) during each grip event were measured and compared using a Wilcoxon ranked test in which each subject served as his or her own control. After activating the tactile feedback system, the novice subject population showed significant decreases in grip force (p < 0.003). When the system was deactivated for the third trial, there were significant increases in grip force (p < 0.003). Expert subjects showed no significant improvements with the addition of tactile feedback (p > 0.05 in all cases). Supplementary tactile feedback helped novice subjects reduce grip force during the laparoscopic training task but did not offer improvements for the four expert subjects. This indicates that tactile feedback may be beneficial for laparoscopic training but has limited long-term use in the nonrobotic setting.

  3. Does communication partner training improve the conversation skills of speech-language pathology students when interacting with people with aphasia?

    PubMed

    Finch, Emma; Cameron, Ashley; Fleming, Jennifer; Lethlean, Jennifer; Hudson, Kyla; McPhail, Steven

    2017-07-01

    Aphasia is a common consequence of stroke. Despite receiving specialised training in communication, speech-language pathology students may lack confidence when communicating with People with Aphasia (PWA). This paper reports data from secondary outcome measures from a randomised controlled trial. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of communication partner training on the communication skills of speech-language pathology students during conversations with PWA. Thirty-eight speech-language pathology students were randomly allocated to trained and untrained groups. The first group received a lecture about communication strategies for communicating with PWA then participated in a conversation with PWA (Trained group), while the second group of students participated in a conversation with the PWA without receiving the lecture (Untrained group). The conversations between the groups were analysed according to the Measure of skill in Supported Conversation (MSC) scales, Measure of Participation in Conversation (MPC) scales, types of strategies used in conversation, and the occurrence and repair of conversation breakdowns. The trained group received significantly higher MSC Revealing Competence scores, used significantly more props, and introduced significantly more new ideas into the conversation than the untrained group. The trained group also used more gesture and writing to facilitate the conversation, however, the difference was not significant. There was no significant difference between the groups according to MSC Acknowledging Competence scores, MPC Interaction or Transaction scores, or in the number of interruptions, minor or major conversation breakdowns, or in the success of strategies initiated to repair the conversation breakdowns. Speech-language pathology students may benefit from participation in communication partner training programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Microstructured graphene arrays for highly sensitive flexible tactile sensors.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bowen; Niu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Hong; Leow, Wan Ru; Wang, Hua; Li, Yuangang; Zheng, Liyan; Wei, Jun; Huo, Fengwei; Chen, Xiaodong

    2014-09-24

    A highly sensitive tactile sensor is devised by applying microstructured graphene arrays as sensitive layers. The combination of graphene and anisotropic microstructures endows this sensor with an ultra-high sensitivity of -5.53 kPa(-1) , an ultra-fast response time of only 0.2 ms, as well as good reliability, rendering it promising for the application of tactile sensing in artificial skin and human-machine interface. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Improved tactile resonance sensor for robotic assisted surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva Uribe, David; Schoukens, Johan; Stroop, Ralf

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents an improved tactile sensor using a piezoelectric bimorph able to differentiate soft materials with similar mechanical characteristics. The final aim is to develop intelligent surgical tools for brain tumour resection using integrated sensors in order to improve tissue tumour delineation and tissue differentiation. The bimorph sensor is driven using a random phase multisine and the properties of contact between the sensor's tip and a certain load are evaluated by means of the evaluation of the nonparametric FRF. An analysis of the nonlinear contributions is presented to show that the use of a linear model is feasible for the measurement conditions. A series of gelatine phantoms were tested. The tactile sensor is able to identify minimal differences in the consistency of the measured samples considering viscoelastic behaviour. A variance analysis was performed to evaluate the reliability of the sensors and to identify possible error sources due to inconsistencies in the preparation method of the phantoms. The results of the variance analysis are discussed showing that ability of the proposed tactile sensor to perform high quality measurements.

  6. Tactile sensitivity of gloved hands in the cold operation.

    PubMed

    Geng, Q; Kuklane, K; Holmér, I

    1997-11-01

    In this study, tactile sensitivity of gloved hand in the cold operation has been investigated. The relations among physical properties of protective gloves and hand tactile sensitivity and cold protection were also analysed both objectively and subjectively. Subjects with various gloves participated in the experimental study during cold exposure at different ambient temperatures of -12 degrees C and -25 degrees C. Tactual performance was measured using an identification task with various sizes of objects over the percentage of misjudgment. Forearm, hand and finger skin temperatures were also recorded throughout. The experimental data were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) model and the Tukey's multiple range test. The results obtained indicated that the tactual performance was affected both by gloves and by hands/fingers cooling. Effect of object size on the tactile discrimination was significant and the misjudgment increased when similar sizes of objects were identified, especially at -25 degrees C.

  7. A language based on analogy to communicate cultural concepts in SETI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musso, Paolo

    2011-02-01

    The present paper is a synthesis of three presentation given by myself at the Toulouse IAC 2001 ( Analogy as a tool to communicate abstract concepts in SETI), the Bremen IAC 2003 ( From maths to culture: towards an effective message), and the Vancouver IAC 2004 ( Philosophical and religious implications of extraterrestrial intelligent life). Its aim is to find a way to make our cultural concepts understandable to hypothetical extraterrestrials (ETs) in a SETI communication. First of all, I expose the reasons why I think that analogy could be a good tool for this purpose. Then, I try to show that this is possible only in the context of an integrated language, using both abstract symbols and pictures, also sketching two practical examples about some basic concepts of our moral and religious tradition. Further studies are required to determine whether this method could be extended to the higher-level abstract concepts in the other fields of our culture. Finally, I discuss the possible role of mathematics, logic and natural science in the construction of an analogy-based language for interstellar messages with a cultural content and a possible way of managing this matter from a social point of view.

  8. Tactile perceptual learning: learning curves and transfer to the contralateral finger.

    PubMed

    Kaas, Amanda L; van de Ven, Vincent; Reithler, Joel; Goebel, Rainer

    2013-02-01

    Tactile perceptual learning has been shown to improve performance on tactile tasks, but there is no agreement about the extent of transfer to untrained skin locations. The lack of such transfer is often seen as a behavioral index of the contribution of early somatosensory brain regions. Moreover, the time course of improvements has never been described explicitly. Sixteen subjects were trained on the Ludvigh task (a tactile vernier task) on four subsequent days. On the fifth day, transfer of learning to the non-trained contralateral hand was tested. In five subjects, we explored to what extent training effects were retained approximately 1.5 years after the final training session, expecting to find long-term retention of learning effects after training. Results showed that tactile perceptual learning mainly occurred offline, between sessions. Training effects did not transfer initially, but became fully available to the untrained contralateral hand after a few additional training runs. After 1.5 years, training effects were not fully washed out and could be recuperated within a single training session. Interpreted in the light of theories of visual perceptual learning, these results suggest that tactile perceptual learning is not fundamentally different from visual perceptual learning, but might proceed at a slower pace due to procedural and task differences, thus explaining the apparent divergence in the amount of transfer and long-term retention.

  9. The tactile movement aftereffect.

    PubMed

    Hollins, M; Favorov, O

    1994-01-01

    The existence of a tactile movement aftereffect was established in a series of experiments on the palmar surface of the hand and fingers of psychophysical observers. During adaptation, observers cupped their hand around a moving drum for up to 3 min; following this period of stimulation, they typically reported an aftereffect consisting of movement sensations located on and deep to the skin, and lasting for up to 1 min. Preliminary experiments comparing a number of stimulus materials mounted on the drum demonstrated that a surface approximating a low-spatial-frequency square wave, with a smooth microtexture, was especially effective at inducing the aftereffect; this adapting stimulus was therefore used throughout the two main experiments. In Experiment 1, the vividness of the aftereffect produced by 2 min of adaptation was determined under three test conditions: with the hand (1) remaining on the now stationary drum; (2) in contact with a soft, textured surface; or (3) suspended in air. Subjects' free magnitude estimates of the peak vividness of the aftereffect were not significantly different across conditions; each subject experienced the aftereffect at least once under each condition. Thus the tactile movement aftereffect does not seem to depend critically on the ponditions of stimulation that obtain while it is being experienced. In Experiment 2, the vividness and duration of the aftereffect were measured as a function of the duration of the adapting stimulus. Both measures increased steadily over the range of durations explored (30-180 sec). In its dependence on adapting duration, the aftereffect resembles the waterfall illusion in vision. An explanation for the tactile movement aftereffect is proposed, based on the model of cortical dynamics of Whitsel et al. (1989, 1991). With assumed modest variation of one parameter across individuals, this application of the model is able to account both for the data of the majority of subjects, who experienced the

  10. Communication and Language in Learners Who Are Deaf and Hard of Hearing With Disabilities: Theories, Research, and Practice.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Susan M; Borders, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Findings are presented from communication intervention research in three areas related to deafness with disability (DWD): D/deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) with (a) intellectual disability, (b) autism spectrum disorders, (c) deafblindness. Early identification, prevalence, theoretical perspectives, and evidence-based practices are discussed. Developmental theory, behavioral theory, and social-interactionism theory undergird many assessment and intervention practices in communication. The tri-focus framework and the four aspects of communication are useful frameworks. While communication research is a relative strength in the deafblindness field, a dire need exists for research in the other two DWD areas. Across all DWD areas there is a need for interventions addressing receptive language. Effective communication and language intervention can only occur when children who are DWD are identified early, placed in individually suitable classrooms with appropriately prepared professionals, and provided with services that build on their strengths and meet their needs.

  11. Pure Amorphagnosia without Tactile Object Agnosia.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Shinichirou; Yamada, Mai; Satoh, Hideyo; Satoh, Akira; Tsujihata, Mitsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    A 54-year-old female showed amorphagnosia without ahylognosia and tactile agnosia 40 days after the onset of right cerebral infarction. Her basic somatosensory functions were normal. The appreciation of substance qualities (hylognosia) was preserved, but the patient's inability to recognize the size and shape (morphagnosia) was confined to 2- and 3-dimensional shapes (amorphagnosia) in the left hand. However, the patient's ability to recognize real daily objects was well preserved. Brain MRI after admission showed ischemic lesions confined to the right pre- and postcentral gyri and the medial frontal cortex on DWI and FLAIR images. An analysis of SPECT images revealed that the most decreased areas were localized to the pre- and postcentral gyri, superior and inferior parietal lobules, supramarginal gyrus, and angular gyrus. Considering the previous reported cases, the responsible lesion for the impaired perception of hylognosia and morphagnosia may not necessarily be confined to the right hemisphere. To date, 5 reports (6 cases) of tactile agnosia have been published; 4 cases presented with both ahylognosia and amorphagnosia, while 1 presented with only amorphagnosia, and another showed amorphagnosia and mild ahylognosia. Our case is the first to present with only amorphagnosia without tactile agnosia. The mechanism for the well-preserved recognition of real objects may depend on the preserved hylognosia. Of note, there have been no reports showing only ahylognosia without amorphagnosia. Further studies are necessary to clarify whether or not patients with preserved hylognosia or morphagnosia retain the ability to perceive real objects.

  12. Generalization of a tactile stimulus in horses.

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, D M; Lewis, P

    1993-01-01

    Using horses, we investigated the control of operant behavior by a tactile stimulus (the training stimulus) and the generalization of behavior to six other similar test stimuli. In a stall, the experimenters mounted a response panel in the doorway. Located on this panel were a response lever and a grain dispenser. The experimenters secured a tactile-stimulus belt to the horse's back. The stimulus belt was constructed by mounting seven solenoids along a piece of burlap in a manner that allowed each to provide the delivery of a tactile stimulus, a repetitive light tapping, at different locations (spaced 10.0 cm apart) along the horse's back. Two preliminary steps were necessary before generalization testing: training a measurable response (lip pressing) and training on several reinforcement schedules in the presence of a training stimulus (tapping by one of the solenoids). We then gave each horse two generalization test sessions. Results indicated that the horses' behavior was effectively controlled by the training stimulus. Horses made the greatest number of responses to the training stimulus, and the tendency to respond to the other test stimuli diminished as the stimuli became farther away from the training stimulus. These findings are discussed in the context of behavioral principles and their relevance to the training of horses. PMID:8315368

  13. Generalization of a tactile stimulus in horses.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, D M; Lewis, P

    1993-05-01

    Using horses, we investigated the control of operant behavior by a tactile stimulus (the training stimulus) and the generalization of behavior to six other similar test stimuli. In a stall, the experimenters mounted a response panel in the doorway. Located on this panel were a response lever and a grain dispenser. The experimenters secured a tactile-stimulus belt to the horse's back. The stimulus belt was constructed by mounting seven solenoids along a piece of burlap in a manner that allowed each to provide the delivery of a tactile stimulus, a repetitive light tapping, at different locations (spaced 10.0 cm apart) along the horse's back. Two preliminary steps were necessary before generalization testing: training a measurable response (lip pressing) and training on several reinforcement schedules in the presence of a training stimulus (tapping by one of the solenoids). We then gave each horse two generalization test sessions. Results indicated that the horses' behavior was effectively controlled by the training stimulus. Horses made the greatest number of responses to the training stimulus, and the tendency to respond to the other test stimuli diminished as the stimuli became farther away from the training stimulus. These findings are discussed in the context of behavioral principles and their relevance to the training of horses.

  14. Neural systems language: a formal modeling language for the systematic description, unambiguous communication, and automated digital curation of neural connectivity.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ramsay A; Swanson, Larry W

    2013-09-01

    Systematic description and the unambiguous communication of findings and models remain among the unresolved fundamental challenges in systems neuroscience. No common descriptive frameworks exist to describe systematically the connective architecture of the nervous system, even at the grossest level of observation. Furthermore, the accelerating volume of novel data generated on neural connectivity outpaces the rate at which this data is curated into neuroinformatics databases to synthesize digitally systems-level insights from disjointed reports and observations. To help address these challenges, we propose the Neural Systems Language (NSyL). NSyL is a modeling language to be used by investigators to encode and communicate systematically reports of neural connectivity from neuroanatomy and brain imaging. NSyL engenders systematic description and communication of connectivity irrespective of the animal taxon described, experimental or observational technique implemented, or nomenclature referenced. As a language, NSyL is internally consistent, concise, and comprehensible to both humans and computers. NSyL is a promising development for systematizing the representation of neural architecture, effectively managing the increasing volume of data on neural connectivity and streamlining systems neuroscience research. Here we present similar precedent systems, how NSyL extends existing frameworks, and the reasoning behind NSyL's development. We explore NSyL's potential for balancing robustness and consistency in representation by encoding previously reported assertions of connectivity from the literature as examples. Finally, we propose and discuss the implications of a framework for how NSyL will be digitally implemented in the future to streamline curation of experimental results and bridge the gaps among anatomists, imagers, and neuroinformatics databases. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Advanced Mathematics Communication beyond Modality of Sight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedaghatjou, Mina

    2018-01-01

    This study illustrates how mathematical communication and learning are inherently multimodal and embodied; hence, sight-disabled students are also able to conceptualize visuospatial information and mathematical concepts through tactile and auditory activities. Adapting a perceptuomotor integration approach, the study shows that the lack of access…

  16. Communication Strategies Used by High School English Language Learners in Multilingual Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spromberg, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    In this study, twenty-five high school English language learners were observed in their classrooms in a New York City public school while they worked in small groups. All observations were video recorded or done by the researcher while in the classrooms. The videos were then transcribed. Communication strategies that the participants used were…

  17. Integrated French and Spanish Curricula: Language Planning, Communicative, Linguistic and Cultural Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papalia, Anthony

    Two guides are presented to assist in organization of a thematic approach to instruction in French and Spanish that is helpful in integrating language and culture. Each booklet contains the following elements: (1) a general introduction to the factors that must be present in the teaching situation for real communication to take place, and to…

  18. Left hand tactile agnosia after posterior callosal lesion.

    PubMed

    Balsamo, Maddalena; Trojano, Luigi; Giamundo, Arcangelo; Grossi, Dario

    2008-09-01

    We report a patient with a hemorrhagic lesion encroaching upon the posterior third of the corpus callosum but sparing the splenium. She showed marked difficulties in recognizing objects and shapes perceived through her left hand, while she could appreciate elementary sensorial features of items tactually presented to the same hand flawlessly. This picture, corresponding to classical descriptions of unilateral associative tactile agnosia, was associated with finger agnosia of the left hand. This very unusual case report can be interpreted as an instance of disconnection syndrome, and allows a discussion of mechanisms involved in tactile object recognition.

  19. Refreshable tactile displays based on bistable electroactive polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Xiaofan; Brochu, Paul; Salazar, Brandon; Pei, Qibing

    2011-04-01

    Refreshable tactile displays can significantly improve the education of blind children and the quality of life of people with severe vision impairment. A number of actuator technologies have been investigated. Bistable Electroactive Polymer (BSEP) appears to be well suited for this application. The BSEP exhibits a bistable electrically actuated strain as large as 335%. We present improved refreshable tactile display devices fabricated on thin plastic sheets. Stacked BSEP films were employed to meet the requirements in raised dot height and supporting force. The bistable nature of the actuation reduces the power consumption and simplifies the device operation.

  20. Effect of tactile vibration on annoyance to synthesized propfan noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clevenson, S. A.

    1981-01-01

    Design information that maximizes passenger comfort for propfan aircraft is presented. Predicted noise and vibration environments and the resultant passenger acceptability were studied. The effect of high frequency tactile vibration (i.e., greater than 30 Hz) on passenger reactions was analyzed. Passenger reactions to a wide range of noise with and without tactile vibration was studied. The passenger ride quality simulator was employed using subjects who evaluated either synthesized propeller noises only, or these noises combined with seat/arm vibration. The noises ranging from 80-100 dB consisted of a turbulent boundary layer noise with a factorial combination of five blade passage frequencies (50-200 Hz), two harmonic rolloffs, and three tone/noise ratios. It is indicated that passenger reaction (annoyance) to noise is not significantly changed in the presence of tactile vibration.