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Sample records for tadla basin morocco

  1. Géodynamique et évolution thermique de la matière organique: exemple du bassin de Qasbat-Tadla, Maroc centralBasin geodynamics and thermal evolution of organic material: example from the Qasbat-Tadla Basin, central Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Er-Raïoui, H.; Bouabdelli, M.; Bélayouni, H.; Chellai, H.

    2001-05-01

    Seismic data analysis of the Qasbat-Tadla Basin allows the deciphering of the main tectonic and sedimentary events that characterised the Hercynian orogen and its role in the basin's structural development. The global tectono-sedimentary framework involves structural evolution of an orogenic foreland basin and was the source of rising geotherms in an epizonal metamorphic environment. The complementary effects of these parameters has led to different source rock maturity levels, ranging from oil producing to graphite domains. Different maturity levels result from three distinct structural domains within the basin, each of which exhibit characteristic geodynamic features (tectonic contraints, rate of subsidence, etc.).

  2. Spatiotemporal monitoring of soil salinization in irrigated Tadla Plain (Morocco) using satellite spectral indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Harti, Abderrazak; Lhissou, Rachid; Chokmani, Karem; Ouzemou, Jamal-eddine; Hassouna, Mohamed; Bachaoui, El Mostafa; El Ghmari, Abderrahmene

    2016-08-01

    Soil salinization is major environmental issue in irrigated agricultural production. Conventional methods for salinization monitoring are time and money consuming and limited by the high spatiotemporal variability of this phenomenon. This work aims to propose a spatiotemporal monitoring method of soil salinization in the Tadla plain in central Morocco using spectral indices derived from Thematic Mapper (TM) and Operational Land Imager (OLI) data. Six Landsat TM/OLI satellite images acquired during 13 years period (2000-2013) coupled with in-situ electrical conductivity (EC) measurements were used to develop the proposed method. After radiometric and atmospheric correction of TM/OLI images, a new soil salinity index (OLI-SI) is proposed for soil EC estimation. Validation shows that this index allowed a satisfactory EC estimation in the Tadla irrigated perimeter with coefficient of determination R2 varying from 0.55 to 0.77 and a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) ranging between 1.02 dS/m and 2.35 dS/m. The times-series of salinity maps produced over the Tadla plain using the proposed method show that salinity is decreasing in intensity and progressively increasing in spatial extent, over the 2000-2013 period. This trend resulted in a decrease in agricultural activities in the southwestern part of the perimeter, located in the hydraulic downstream.

  3. Hydrocarbon potential of Morocco

    SciTech Connect

    Achnin, H.; Nairn, A.E.M.

    1988-08-01

    Morocco lies at the junction of the African and Eurasian plates and carries a record of their movements since the end of the Precambrian. Four structural regions with basins and troughs can be identified: Saharan (Tarfaya-Ayoun and Tindouf basins); Anti-Atlas (Souss and Ouarzazate troughs and Boudnib basin); the Essaouria, Doukkala, Tadla, Missour, High Plateau, and Guercif basins; and Meseta and Rif (Rharb and Pre-Rif basins). The targets in the Tindouf basin are Paleozoic, Cambrian, Ordovician (clastics), Devonian (limestones), and Carboniferous reservoirs sourced primarily by Silurian shales. In the remaining basins, excluding the Rharb, the reservoirs are Triassic detritals, limestones atmore » the base of the Lias and Dogger, Malm detritals, and sandy horizons in the Cretaceous. In addition to the Silurian, potential source rocks include the Carboniferous and Permo-Carboniferous shales and clays; Jurassic shales, marls, and carbonates; and Cretaceous clays. In the Rharb basin, the objectives are sand lenses within the Miocene marls. The maturation level of the organic matter generally corresponds to oil and gas. The traps are stratigraphic (lenses and reefs) and structural (horsts and folds). The seals in the pre-Jurassic rocks are shales and evaporites; in the younger rocks, shales and marl. Hydrocarbon accumulations have been found in Paleozoic, Triassic, Liassic, Malm, and Miocene rocks.« less

  4. Potential cretaceous play in the Rharb basin of northern Morocco

    SciTech Connect

    Jobidon, G.P.

    1993-09-01

    The autochthonous Cretaceous in the Rharb basin of northern Morocco is located underneath a cover of neogene sediments and of the Prerif nappe olistostrome, which was emplaced during the Tortonian 7 m.y. The presence of infranappe Cretaceous sediments is documented in a few onshore wells in the Rharb basin and in the adjacent Prerif Rides area, as well as in the Rif Mountains. Their presence in the deeper portion of the Rharb basin is difficult to detail because of poor seismic resolution data beneath dispersive prerif nappe. A recent study of offshore seismic data acquired by PCIAC in 1987 indicatesmore » that the infranappe interval can be more than 1500 m thick in some of the offshore Kenitra area. These sediments have seismic signatures that would correspond to Middle Cretaceous transgressions, culminating with a Turonian highstand. Their deposition systems were located on the northern and western flanks of the Meseta and were followed by a hiatus lasting until the Miocene. Regional studies of gravity and magnetic data provide and additional understanding of the Rif province, its evolution, and the possible presence of autochthonous Cretaceous sediments below the prerif nappe cover. The infranappe of Rharb basin has a good potential to develop into a major hydrocarbon play with the presence of middle Cretaceous reservoir rocks, Turonian-Cenomanian black shale source rocks, as well as the timely combination of trap formation, source rock maturation, and hydrocarbon migration.« less

  5. Morocco.

    PubMed

    1986-07-01

    This discussion of Morocco covers geography, the people, history, the government, political conditions, the economy, foreign relations, and relations between Morocco and the US. In 1984, the population of Morocco totaled 22.8 million. The 1983 annual growth rate was 2.6%. Morocco lies at the northwest corner of Africa, with only the Strait of Gibraltar separating it from Europe. Topographically, Morocco is sharply divided into open, agriculturally rich plains in the northwest and economically poor mountians and plateaus in the east and south. Most Moroccans are Sunni Muslims of Arab, Berber, or mixed Arab-Berber stock. Most of 100,000 foreign residents are French or Spanish. Arabic is the official and principal language. Morocco's strategic location has shaped its history. Beginning with the Phoenicians, many foreigners have come to this area, some to trade or settle and others as invaders. The Kingdom of Morocco recovered its political independence from France on March 2, 1956. The King is chief of state, and his son, the Crown Prince, is heir apparent. Under the 1972 constitution, a prime minister appointed by the King is head of government. Morocco has 6 principal political groups and 2 smaller ones. The country, rich in human and natural resources, is beginning to develop a socioeconomic infrastructure. The economy grew rapidly from 1967 to 1977, but beginning in 1978, a series of external shocks and a cycle of domestic drought revealed weaknesses ineconomic policies and structures. By 1983, the country was no longer able to service the heavy foreign debt. Although Morocco has rapidly urbanized and industrialized over the past decade, agriculture remains the biggest single determinant of its economic health. 42% of the work force is employed in agriculture. Since Morocco attained independence, its foreign policy has been basically sympathetic to the West. FormaL US-Moroccan relations date to 1787, when the 2 nations negotiated a Treaty of Peace and Friendship

  6. Contribution de la gravimétrie à l'étude de la structure du bassin de Tadla (Maroc) : Implications hydrogéologiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najine, Abdessamad; Jaffal, Mohammed; Khammari, Kamal El; Aïfa, Tahar; Khattach, Driss; Himi, Mahjoub; Casas, Albert; Badrane, Said; Aqil, Hicham

    2006-08-01

    This study is based on the analysis and the interpretation of the gravity data of the Tadla basin. Its purpose is to increase the knowledge of this basin structure. A residual anomaly map was first calculated from the Bouguer anomaly data witch are strongly affected by a regional gradient. The computed map provides information on the ground density variation but it does not bring enough of new elements. Data filtering allows us to emphasize the structures affecting the basin. We chose the horizontal gradient coupled to the upward continuation techniques that permit to highlight news structures and to give information on their dip. The elaborated structural map of the study area constitutes a useful document for rationalizing the future groundwater exploration in the Tadla basin. To cite this article: A. Najine et al., C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006).

  7. La prospection geothermique de surface au Maroc: hydrodynamisme, anomalies thermiques et indices de surfaceGeothermal prospecting in Morocco: hydrodynamics, thermal anomalies and surface indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarhloule, Y.; Lahrache, A.; Ben Abidate, L.; Khattach, D.; Bouri, S.; Boukdir, A.; Ben Dhia, H.

    2001-05-01

    Shallow geothermal prospecting ( < 700 m) has been performed in four zones in Morocco for which few deep data are available: northwestern basin, northeastern basin, Tadla Basin and Agadir Basin. These areas are different geologically and hydrogeologically. The temperature data from 250 wells at depths between 15 and 500 m have been analysed in order to estimate the natural geothermal gradient in these areas, to determine the principal thermal anomalies, to identify the main thermal indices and to characterise the recharge, discharge and potential mixing limits of the aquifers. The hydrostratigraphical study of each basin revealed several potential reservoir layers in which the Turonian carbonate aquifer (Tadal and Agadir Basins) and Liassic acquifer (Moroccan northwestern and northeastern basins) are the most important hot water reservoirs in Morocco. The recharge zones of each aquifer are characterised by high topography, high water potential, shallow cold water, low geothermal gradient and negative anomalies. The discharge zones are characterized by low topography, low piezometric level, high geothermal gradient, high temperature with hot springs and positive anomalies. The main thermal indices and the principal thermal anomalies that coincide with the artesian zones of the Turonian and Liassic aquifers have been identified.

  8. Basin evolution and structural reconstruction of northeastern Morocco and northwestern Algeria

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, S.

    1995-08-01

    The high plateau region of Morocco and northwestern Algeria contains a Permo-Triassic rift basin with over 8,000 meters of Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Tertiary sediments. The area exhibits many similarities to the prolific Triassic basins of neighboring Algeria. Previous impediments to exploration in the high plateau area focused on the inability to seismically image sub-salt, pre-Jurassic block faulted structures and the perceived lack of adequate source rocks. This study combined seismic and basin modelling techniques to decipher the pre-salt structures, interpret basin evolution, and access source rock potential. Large structural and stratigraphic features can now be discerned where Permo-Triassic block faultedmore » structures are overlain by thick Triassic-Jurassic mobile evaporate seals and sourced by underlying Paleozoic shales. Contrary to the last published reports, over 20 years ago, oil and gas generation appears to have been continuous in the Carboniferous since 350 ma. Migration directly from the Carboniferous shales to Triassic conglomerates is envisaged with adequate seals provided by the overlying Triassic-Jurassic evaporate sequence. An earlier rapid pulse of oil and gas generation between 300-340 ma from the Silurian source rocks was probably too early to have resulted in hydrocarbon accumulation in the primary Triassic targets but if reservoir is present in the Carboniferous section, then those strata may have been sourced by the Silurian shales.« less

  9. Spatiotemporal characterization of current and future droughts in the High Atlas basins (Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zkhiri, Wiam; Tramblay, Yves; Hanich, Lahoucine; Jarlan, Lionel; Ruelland, Denis

    2018-02-01

    Over the past decades, drought has become a major concern in Morocco due to the importance of agriculture in the economy of the country. In the present work, the standardized precipitation index (SPI) is used to monitor the evolution, frequency, and severity of droughts in the High Atlas basins (N'Fis, Ourika, Rhéraya, Zat, and R'dat), located south of Marrakech city. The spatiotemporal characterization of drought in these basins is performed by computing the SPI with precipitation spatially interpolated over the catchments. The Haouz plain, located downstream of these basins, is strongly dependent on water provided by the mountain ranges, as shown by the positive correlations between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in the plain and the 3, 6, and 12-month SPI in the High Atlas catchments. On the opposite, no significant correlations are found with piezometric levels of the Haouz groundwater due to intensified pumping for irrigation in the recent decades. A relative SPI index was computed to evaluate the climate change impacts on drought occurrence, based on the projected precipitation (2006-2100) from five high-resolution CORDEX regional climate simulations, under two emission scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5). These models show a decrease in precipitation towards the future up to - 65% compared to the historical period. In terms of drought events, the future projections indicate a strong increase in the frequency of SPI events below - 2, considered as severe drought condition.

  10. Structural features of phosphate accumulations in the Gantour basin - Morocco : Application of GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Laadraoui; El Hassane, Boumaggard; Essaid, Jourani

    2010-05-01

    The Moroccan Atlantic margin raises a lot of interest because of its potential resources in phosphates. It also holds in its Mesetien part one of the largest phosphatic deposit in the world. The authors present the results of their researches on structural environments of the phosphatic sedimentary sequences in the Gantour deposit in western Morocco. These investigations are mainly based on field data, data recorded from work done by the OCP (Office Chérifien des Phosphates) group, the interpretation of industrial seismic profiles and the application of GIS. Our aim are devoted to the apprehension of the geometry and the cinematic of these basins which are contemporaneous to the Central Atlantic Rifting, as well as the determination of the list of factors liable to the genesis of these phosphatic basins. Other data of field observations (cartography, study of structural features,...) permit to identify the general structure of the prospect. Sedimentation of phosphated deposits is strained by the presence of two wrench faulting systems oriented N20¬40E, N80¬120E and N140¬160E.

  11. Evaluating Rifean Corridor Closure using Detrital Zircon Sediment Provenance of the Taza-Guercif Basin, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, J. R.; Barbeau, D. L.; Emran, A.

    2013-12-01

    In the late Miocene, the connection between the Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean was tectonically severed leading to severe evaporative draw down of Mediterranean sea level such that the entire basin was desiccated or near desiccated in an event from ~5.96-5.33 Ma known as the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC). The MSC sequestered 6% of global ocean salinity into evaporite deposits, created a deep, dry and hot basin that altered global atmospheric circulation, opened passageways for mammal migration between Europe, Africa and Arabia and ended in the largest flood observed in the geologic record. The combined effects of the Messinian Salinity Crisis make it the most important oceanic event in the last 20 million years, yet despite the dramatic ramifications of the MSC, the exact nature of its cause has remained both elusive and controversial. By examining the sedimentary provenance of Rifean Corridor, this research evaluates the progression of corridor closure and the tectonic context of the initiation of the Messinian Salinity Crisis. The difficulty in evaluating the progression of closure is due to the tectonic complexity of the Africa-Eurasia convergent plate boundary in north-central Morocco. The shortening associated with the tectonic convergence is accommodated by two genetically and tectonically distinct orogenic systems, the Rif and Atlas mountain belts, which lie in juxtaposition to the slab-rollback dominated Alboran Sea. The basins of the Rifean corridor lie between these two orogens and as such shortening and uplift associated with either or both ranges could be the cause of the corridor closure. Several hypotheses have been posited for the tectonic controls on basin emergence including slab-rollback related delamination on the Alboran margin, domal uplift of the Middle Atlas as well as a more traditional propagation of the Rifean orogenic wedge. This research provides the first quantitative provenance data for the Taza-Guercif basin in the form of LA

  12. Evaluation of the Tindouf Basin Region in Southern Morocco as an Analog Site for Soil Geochemistry on Noachian Mars.

    PubMed

    Oberlin, Elizabeth A; Claire, Mark W; Kounaves, Samuel P

    2018-02-09

    Locations on Earth that provide insights into processes that may be occurring or may have occurred throughout martian history are often broadly deemed "Mars analog environments." As no single locale can precisely represent a past or present martian environment, it is important to focus on characterization of terrestrial processes that produce analogous features to those observed in specific regions of Mars or, if possible, specific time periods during martian history. Here, we report on the preservation of ionic species in soil samples collected from the Tindouf region of Morocco and compare them with the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica, the Atacama Desert in Chile, the martian meteorite EETA79001, and the in situ Mars analyses from the Phoenix Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL). The Moroccan samples show the greatest similarity with those from Victoria Valley, Beacon Valley, and the Atacama, while being consistently depleted compared to University Valley and enriched compared to Taylor Valley. The NO 3 /Cl ratios are most similar to Victoria Valley and Atacama, while the SO 4 /Cl ratios are similar to those from Beacon Valley, Victoria Valley, and the Atacama. While perchlorate concentrations in the Moroccan samples are typically lower than those found in samples of other analog sites, conditions in the region are sufficiently arid to retain oxychlorines at detectable levels. Our results suggest that the Tindouf Basin in Morocco can serve as a suitable analogue for the soil geochemistry and subsequent aridification of the Noachian epoch on Mars. Key Words: Mars analogues-Antarctica-Morocco-Oxyanions-Perchlorate-Nitrate. Astrobiology 18, xxx-xxx.

  13. Influence of land use on rainfall simulation results in the Souss basin, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, Klaus Daniel; Ries, Johannes B.; Hssaine, Ali Ait

    2013-04-01

    Situated between the High and Anti-Atlas, the Souss basin is characterized by a dynamic land use change. It is one of the fastest growing agricultural regions of Morocco. Traditional mixed agriculture is replaced by extensive plantations of citrus fruits, bananas and vegetables in monocropping, mainly for the European market. For the implementation of the land use change and further expansion of the plantations into marginal land which was former unsuitable for agriculture, land levelling by heavy machinery is used to plane the fields and close the widespread gullies. These gully systems are cutting deep between the plantations and other arable land. Their development started already over 400 years ago with the introduction of sugar production. Heavy rainfall events lead to further strong soil and gully erosion in this with 200 mm mean annual precipitation normally arid region. Gullies are cutting into the arable land or are re-excavating their old stream courses. On the test sites around the city of Taroudant, a total of 122 rainfall simulations were conducted to analyze the susceptibility of soils to surface runoff and soil erosion under different land use. A small portable nozzle rainfall simulator is used for the rainfall simulation experiments, quantifying runoff and erosion rates on micro-plots with a size of 0.28 m2. A motor pump boosts the water regulated by a flow metre into the commercial full cone nozzle at a height of 2 m. The rainfall intensity is maintained at about 40 mm h-1 for each of the 30 min lasting experiments. Ten categories of land use are classified for different stages of levelling, fallow land, cultivation and rangeland. Results show that mean runoff coefficients and mean sediment loads are significantly higher (1.4 and 3.5 times respectively) on levelled study sites compared to undisturbed sites. However, the runoff coefficients of all land use types are relatively equal and reach high median coefficients from 39 to 56 %. Only the

  14. Along strike behavior of the Tizi n' Firest fault during the Lower Jurassic rifting (Central High Atlas Carbonate basin, Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarih, S.; Quiquerez, A.; Allemand, P.; Garcia, J. P.; El Hariri, K.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to document the along-strike early syn-rift history of the Lower Jurassic Carbonate basin of the Central High Atlas (Morocco) by combining sedimentological observations and high-resolution biostratigraphy. Six sections, each from the Sinemurian to the Upper Pliensbachian, were investigated along a 75 km-long transect at the hanging wall of a major fault of the Lower Jurassic Basin (i.e. the Tizi n' Firest fault). Depositional geometries of the early syn-rift deposits were reconstructed from the correlation between eight main timelines dated by biochronological markers for a time span covering about 6 Ma. Depocentre migration was examined and accommodation rates were calculated at the sub-zone timescale to discuss the along-strike-fault behavior of the Lower Jurassic basin formation. The early stages of extension are marked by contrasted along-strike variations in depositional geometry thickness, depocentre migration and accommodation rates, leading to the growth of three independent sub-basins (i.e. western, central, and eastern), ranging in size from 30 to 50 km, and displaying three contrasted tectono-sedimentary histories. Our results suggest that, during the early rifting phase, tectonic activity was not a continuous and progressive process evolving towards a rift climax stage, but rather a series of acceleration periods that alternated with periods of much reduced activity. The length of active fault segments is estimated at about 15-20 km, with a lifespan of a few ammonite sub-zones (> 2-3 Ma).

  15. The Messinian erosional surface and early Pliocene reflooding in the Alboran Sea: New insights from the Boudinar basin, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornée, Jean-Jacques; Münch, Philippe; Achalhi, Mohammed; Merzeraud, Gilles; Azdimousa, Ali; Quillévéré, Frédéric; Melinte-Dobrinescu, Mihaela; Chaix, Christian; Moussa, Abdelkhalak Ben; Lofi, Johanna; Séranne, Michel; Moissette, Pierre

    2016-03-01

    New investigations in the Neogene Boudinar basin (Morocco) provide new information about the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) and Zanclean reflooding in the southern part of the Alboran realm (westernmost Mediterranean). Based on a new field, sedimentological and palaeontological analyses, the age and the geometry of both the Messinian erosional surface (MES) and the overlying deposits have been determined. The MES is of late Messinian age and was emplaced in subaerial settings. In the Boudinar basin, a maximum of 200 m of Miocene sediments was eroded, including late Messinian gypsum blocks. The original geometry of the MES is preserved only when it is overlain by late Messinian continental deposits, conglomeratic alluvial fans or lacustrine marly sediments. These sediments are interpreted as indicators of the sea-level fall during the MSC. Elsewhere in the basin, the contact between late Messinian and early Pliocene deposits is a low-angle dipping, smooth surface that corresponds to the early Pliocene transgression surface that subsequently re-shaped the regressive MES. The early Pliocene deposits are characterized by: (i) their onlap onto either the basement of the Rif chain or the late Miocene deposits; (ii) lagoonal deposits at the base to offshore marls and sands at the top (earliest Pliocene; 5.33-5.04 Ma interval; foraminifer zone PL1); (iii) marine recovery occurring in the 5.32-5.26 Ma interval; and (iv) the change from lagoonal to offshore environments occurring within deposits tens of metres thick. This information indicates that at least the end of the reflooding period was progressive, not catastrophic as previously thought.

  16. Model of the development of the Rif/Prerif basin and implications for the hydrocarbon prospectivity of northern Morocco

    SciTech Connect

    Munro, S.E.

    1988-08-01

    The geology of northern Morocco is dominated by the mountainous areas of the Rif and the Prerif. These mountains form the southern half of the Rif-Betic arc. The surface geology of the Prerif area is characterized by the allochthonous mass of the Prerif nappe, which is variously described as a tectonic melange, an olistostrome, or a combination of the two. It is structurally extremely complex and this fact has, in the past, deterred international companies from exploring for oil in the area. Recently acquired seismic data shed some light on the structure within the Prerif nappe; it tends to supportmore » a tectonic origin rather than one based on gravity drive. In this framework, a model is proposed for the tectonic development of the Rif/Prerif in particular and the Rif/Betic arc in general, based upon the interaction of the Iberian, Moroccan, and Alboran plates from the Triassic to the Neogene. The seismic data also show, however, that a sizeable Mesozoic trough exists beneath the mass of the Prerif nappe. In addition, several piggyback basins are developed above the nappe. Therefore, considerable potential for oil and gas discoveries exists both above and below the nappe.« less

  17. Functioning of the Primary Aquifer Relating to the Maider Basin, Morocco: Case of the Ordovician aquifer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-said, E.; Boukdir, A.; Mahboub, A.; Younsi, A.; Zitouni, A.; Alili, L.; Ikhmerdi, H.

    2018-05-01

    The basin of Maider is limited northly by the vast ensemble Oriental Saghro-Ougnate, from the east by the Tafilalet plain, from the west by the oriental Jbel Bani, finally from the south and south-east by the Cretaceous Hamada of Kern-Kem. During last decades, groundwater in the basin of Maider, is confronting degradation in both cases: Quantitative and qualitative, as a result of the drought, the overexploitation and the salinization. The aim of this action research is to understand the current state of water resources in the area of stady. At the end of this work, we can get the following conclusions: the general flow of the ordovician aquifer is always directed from the north to the south-east of the basin by following the principal axes of the wadis:Taghbalt, Hssiya and Fezzou. The recharge of the aquifer is primarily done, either by the underground flow, or by the surface runoff of torrential waters from the upstream of Jbel Saghro. The piezometric anomaly noticed at the level of Ait Saàdane, explained by overexploitation linked to the needs of irrigation water. The physicochemical approach for the Maider basin identifies two essential factors of the salinisation of groundwater: the dissolution of the aquifer which is rich in minerals with high temperature on the one hand, and the decrease of the piezometric surface due to the overexploitation and drought on the other hand.

  18. Characterization of the Cretaceous aquifer structure of the Meskala region of the Essaouira Basin, Morocco

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanich, L.; Zouhri, L.; Dinger, J.

    2011-01-01

    The aquifer of early Cretaceous age in the Meskala region of the Essaouira Basin is defined by interpretation of geological drilling data of oil and hydrogeological wells, field measurement and analysis of in situ fracture orientations, and the application of a morphostructural method to identify lineaments. These analyzes are used to develop a stratigraphic-structural model of the aquifer delimited by fault zones of two principal orientations: NNE and WNW. These fault zones define fault blocks that range in area from 4 to 150km2. These blocks correspond either to elevated zones (horsts) or depressed zones (grabens). This structural setting with faults blocks of Meskala region is in accordance with the structure of the whole Essaouira Basin. Fault zones disrupt the continuity of the aquifer throughout the study area, create recharge and discharge zones, and create dip to the units from approximately 10?? to near vertical in various orientations. Fracture measurements and morphometric-lineament analyzes help to identify unmapped faults, and represent features important to groundwater hydraulics and water quality within fault blocks. The above geologic features will enable a better understanding of the behaviour and hydro-geo-chemical and hydrodynamics of groundwater in the Meskala aquifer. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Cenozoic sedimentary dynamics of the Ouarzazate foreland basin (Central High Atlas Mountains, Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Harfi, A.; Lang, J.; Salomon, J.; Chellai, E. H.

    2001-06-01

    Cenozoic continental sedimentary deposits of the Southern Atlas named "Imerhane Group" crop out (a) in the Ouarzazate foreland basin between the Precambrian basement of the Anti Atlas and the uplifted limestone dominated High Atlas, and (b) in the Aït Kandoula and Aït Seddrat nappes where Jurassic strata detached from the basement have been thrust southwards over the Ouarzazate Basin. New biostratigraphic and geochronological data constraining the final Eocene marine regression, the characterization of the new "Aït Ouglif Detrital Formation" presumed to be of Oligocene age, and the new stratigraphic division proposed for the Continental Imerhane Group clarify the major tectonogenetic alpidic movements of the Central High Atlas Range. Four continental formations are identified at regional scale. Their emplacement was governed principally by tectonic but also by eustatic controls. The Hadida and Aït Arbi formations (Upper Eocene) record the major Paleogene regression. They are composed of margino-littoral facies (coastal sabkhas and fluviatile systems) and reflect incipient erosion of the underlying strata and renewed fluvial drainage. The Aït Ouglif Formation (presumed Oligocene) had not been characterized before. It frequently overlies all earlier formations with an angular unconformity. It includes siliciclastic alluvial deposits and is composed predominantly of numerous thin fining-upward cycles. The Aït Kandoula Formation (Miocene-Pliocene) is discordant, extensive, and represents a thick coarsening-upward megasequence. It is composed of palustro-lacustrine deposits in a context of alluvial plain with localized sabkhas, giving way to alluvial fans and fluviatile environments. The Upper Conglomeratic Formation (Quaternary) is the trace of a vast conglomeratic pediment, forming an alluvial plain and terraces. The second and third formations correspond to two megasequences engendered by the uplift of the Central High Atlas in two major compressive phases

  20. Post-Panafrican late Proterozoic basins in the Central Anti-Atlas (Morocco): their influence on the Variscan contractional structures.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimerà, Joan; Arboleya, María. Luisa

    2010-05-01

    Located South of the High Atlas, in Morocco, The Anti-Atlas is a 700 km-long chain trending NE-SW. In the Central Anti-Atlas region, between Warzazat and Taznakht, the Proterozoic Pan-African basement (X1 to X2-3) crops out in isolated areas (boutonnières), where it is overlaid by late to post Pan-African Upper Proterozoic and Palaeozoic rocks. Late to post Pan-African Upper Proterozoic rocks (X3) have been classically divided into three units (X3i, X3m and X3s) which include volcanic rocks — mainly rhyolites— and continental siliciclastic rocks, the older units intruded by late granites (Choubert, 1952 and Choubert et al., 1970). Rocks belonging to the upper unit of post Pan-African Upper Proterozoic rocks (X3s) were deposited in basins bounded by faults with a dominant dip-slip normal motion; as a result, this unit have a variable thickness, being locally absent in the uplifted blocks. Uppermost Proterozoic (Adoudounian) and Palaeozoic rocks deposited unconformable on the older rocks in the Anti-Atlas. The Central Anti-Atlas was slightly deformed during the Variscan orogeny by folds and high-angle thrusts. Two areas are selected to study the post Pan-African to Variscan evolution of the area: the Tiwiyyine basin and the Anti-Atlas Major Fault. Tiwiyyine basin This basin is delimited by kilometric-scale normal faults. Three of them can be observed in the field: two striking NE-SW (NW and SE boundaries) and one striking NW-SE (SW boundary), while the NE boundary is covered by Cenozoic rocks. The basin fill reaches 725 m and has been divided into three units: 1. X3s1: Coarse conglomerates with basal breccias. 2. X3s2: Laminated dolomites at the base, red pelites and conglomerates. 3. X3s3: Conglomerates with interbedded andesites. Unit X3s2 passes laterally to the SW to unit X3s1. The thickness of the basin fill diminishes to the SE. This is specially visible at the basal X3s1 unit. At both sides of the two NE-SW-striking faults, only the upper X3s3 unit is

  1. Participatory Planning for the improvement of water management in uncertain conditions: Case study of the Souss-Massa basin in Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imani, Yasmina; Lahlou, Ouiam; Slimani, Imane; Joyce, Brian

    2016-04-01

    Due to its geographical location and to the natural features of its climate, Morocco is known as a drought prone and water scarce country. However, the country now faces, in the current context of Climate Change, an increasing and alarming water scarcity due to the combined effects of a strong decline of precipitations and a growing pressure on water resources induced by the economic development and demographic growth. Aware of this pressing issue, Morocco implemented a national water strategy based on the decentralization of water management at the river basin level and the establishment of Integrated Water Resources Management master plans for each basin. Unfortunately, these plans often underestimate the impact of uncertainty and this may lead to inefficient and unsustainable water management strategies. In this context, the aim of this study is to develop an innovative approach for robust decision making in uncertain conditions by coupling the WEAP (Water Evaluation and Planning System) model and the "XLRM" robust decision making framework to support the evaluation of management options and promote long-term sustainable integrated water management strategies at the basin level. The Souss-Massa basin, located in the south-western part of the country was retained as a case study because of its strategic importance but also because it now faces, as a consequence of the irrational use of water resources during the last decades significant water resources management challenges mainly due to the overexploitation of ground water resources, the increased of water demand due to the irrigation development, the urban and industrial growth and the expansion of tourism. Thus, in this study, a three step methodology was developed. First, the WEAP model were developed and calibrated for the Souss-Massa basin. In a second step, a XLRM participatory workshop gathering the basin main stakeholders were organized in order to identify the EXogenous factors (key uncertainties

  2. Controls on facies and sequence stratigraphy of an upper Miocene carbonate ramp and platform, Melilla basin, NE Morocco

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, K.J.; Collins, Luke S.

    2002-01-01

    Upwelling of cool seawater, paleoceanographic circulation, paleoclimate, local tectonics and relative sea-level change controlled the lithofacies and sequence stratigraphy of a carbonate ramp and overlying platform that are part of a temporally well constrained carbonate complex in the Melilla basin, northeastern Morocco. At Melilla, from oldest to youngest, a third-order depositional sequence within the carbonate complex contains (1) a retrogradational, transgressive, warm temperate-type rhodalgal ramp; (2) an early highstand, progradational, bioclastic platform composed mainly of a temperate-type, bivalve-rich molechfor facies; and (3) late highstand, progradational to downstepping, subtropical/tropical-type chlorozoan fringing Porites reefs. The change from rhodalgal ramp to molechfor platform occurred at 7.0??0.14 Ma near the Tortonian/Messinian boundary. During a late stage in the development of the bioclastic platform a transition from temperate-type molechfor facies to subtropical/tropical-type chlorozoan facies occurred and is bracketed by chron 3An.2n (??? 6.3-6.6 Ma). Comparison to a well-dated carbonate complex in southeastern Spain at Cabo de Gata suggests that upwelling of cool seawater influenced production of temperate-type limestone within the ramp and platform at Melilla during postulated late Tortonian-early Messinian subtropical/tropical paleoclimatic conditions in the western Paleo-Mediterranean region. The upwelling of cool seawater across the bioclastic platform at Melilla could be related to the beginning of 'siphoning' of deep, cold Atlantic waters into the Paleo-Mediterranean Sea at 7.17 Ma. The facies change within the bioclastic platform from molechfor to chlorozoan facies may be coincident with a reduction of the siphoning of Atlantic waters and the end of upwelling at Melilla during chron 3An.2n. The ramp contains one retrogradational parasequence and the bioclastic platform three progradational parasequences. Minor erosional surfaces

  3. Electrical and well log study of the Plio-Quaternary deposits of the southern part of the Rharb Basin, northern Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Bouhaddioui, Mohamed; Mridekh, Abdelaziz; Kili, Malika; El Mansouri, Bouabid; El Gasmi, El Houssine; Magrane, Bouchaib

    2016-11-01

    The Rharb Basin is located in the NW of Morocco. It is the onshore extension of a lager offshore basin between Kenitra and Moulay Bousselham. The Rharb plain (properly called) extends over an area of 4200 Km2 between two very different structural entities: the unstable Rif domain in the NE and the East and the ''relatively stable'' Meseta domain in the south. The distribution of Pliocene-Quaternary deposits under this plain is complex and was controlled by both tectonics and climatic factors. The main objective of the present work is to define the spatiotemporal evolution of these deposits in the onshore part of the basin and to make a comparison with a sequence analysis defined, for equivalent deposits in the offshore basin, by a previous work. The proposed model allows thus to characterize the geometry of these deposits in the extension of continental shelf under the present day onshore basin, and to explain there is genesis in terms of interactions between eustatic sea level fluctuations, tectonics and sedimentary rates at the mouths of paleo-rivers that had drained the Rharb plain during Pliocene to Quaternary Times.

  4. Coastal freshwater resources management in the frame of climate change: application to three basins (Italy, Morocco, Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, E.; Antonellini, M.; Dentinho, T.; Khattabi, A.

    2009-04-01

    Climate change becomes an increasing constraint in IWRM and many effects are expected in coastal watersheds like sea level rise and its consequences (i.e. beach erosion, salt water intrusion, soil salinization, groundwater and surface water pollution…) or water budget changes (i.e. seasonal and inter-annual fluctuations) and an increase of extreme events (i.e. floods, rainfalls and droughts). Beside this physical changes one can also observed the increase of water demand in coastal areas due to population growth and development of tourism activities. Both effects (e.g. physical and socio-economical) must be included into any coastal freshwater management option for a mid-term / long-term approach to set water mass/basin management plans as expected in European countries by the WDF or elsewhere in an IWRM objective. The Waterknow project funded by EraNet-Circle-Med program aims to develop a tool to help decisions makers in the implementation of IWRM plans in coastal areas that will have to cope with climate change effects and socio-economical pressures. This interdisciplinary project is applied to three basins (e.g. Fiumi Uniti Bevano, Italy; Terceira Island, Portugal and Taheddart, Morocco) and seeks to integrate and to develop research achievements in coastal hydrogeology, economical and land use modeling in each basin. In the Fiumi Uniti Bevano basin, a detailed hydrogeological survey was performed during the summer 2008. Twenty auger holes with an average spacing of 350 m where drilled with the objective of determining the top groundwater quality in the coastal aquifer. At the same time, we collected the chemical and physical parameters of the surface waters. The data collected in the field show that a fresh groundwater lens is still present in the aquifer of the backshore area below the coastal dunes and that the surface water is all brackish to salty. In the northern part of the study area, the fresh groundwater lens in the backshore zone is missing, as

  5. Epidemiological profile of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Morocco, 2004-2013.

    PubMed

    Laboudi, M

    2017-02-01

    The main objective of our study is to provide a comprehensive overview of the situation of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Morocco. We therefore conducted a retrospective descriptive study covering the decade 2004-2013. Data were collected from the Moroccan Ministry of Health's annual reports about the national program against leishmaniasis. These data show a regression in the cases due to Leishmania major and the persistence of L. tropica transmission. Mapping cutaneous leishmaniasis cases reported between 2004 and 2013 showed geographical changes ; the number of cases due to L. tropica were concentrated in the regions of Marrakech-Tensift-Elhaouz, Souss Massa-Draa Tadla-Azila, and Taza-Al Hoceima-Taounate. Cutaneous disease due to L. major was most common in the Souss-Massa-Draa region. Continuous monitoring of the epidemiological situation is important to assess the actions taken to reduce its incidence.

  6. Analyse sismo-stratigraphique du bassin d'Abda (Maroc occidental), exemple de structures inverses pendant le rifting atlantiqueSeismo-stratigraphic analysis of the Abda Basin (West Morocco): a case of reverse structures during the Atlantic rifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echarfaoui, Hassan; Hafid, Mohamed; Salem, Abdallah Aı̈t; Abderrahmane, Aı̈t Fora

    The review of the seismic reflection and well data from the coastal Abda Basin (western Morocco) shows that its Triassic and Jurassic sequences were deposited in a submeridean sag basin, whose eastern margin is characterised by progressive truncations and pinching out of these sequences against a prominent Palaeozoic high. The uplift of this latter is interpreted as a response to an Upper Triassic-Middle Jurassic local compressional event that controlled Triassic-Jurassic sedimentation within the Abda Basin. The present day 'West Meseta Flexure' is a surface expression of this uplift. To cite this article: H. Echarfaoui et al., C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 371-377.

  7. Radon constrains the transit time of springs water at the border between tabular Middle Atlas and the Sais Basin (Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Adriano; Rouai, Mohammed; Saracco, Ginette; Dekayir, Abdelilak; Miche, Héléne

    2010-05-01

    The tabular Middle Atlas (TMA) is an important fractured karstic reservoir in northern Morocco constituted by Liassic limestones and dolomites with a nearly sub-horizontal attitude, overlying basalts, shales and evaporates of Triassic age, as well as Paleozoic anchi-metamorphic schists. The zone is characterised by relative abundant rainfall (700 mm/y) and the absence of a surface watershed, which lead to an important groundwater reservoir hosted in the karstic (k-) aquifer. TMA is bordered to the North by extensive graben-like, normal, northward, fault-systems, which burden the Karstic formations under Plio-quaternary sediments at the Sais Basin border. At this limit, several important springs of high water-quality occur at the northernmost outcropping Lias limestone, which is overlaid in some areas by quaternary travertines. Two of these springs in particular, Bittit and Ribaa springs, provide almost drinking water for the town of Meknes (0.7 Million inhabitants), for local population and agriculture. These springs experienced a significant drop in water flow-rate in the last decades. Although the main origin of this water is certainly the k-aquifer, the drop in water-table raises several questions regarding the modality of water transport (influence of fractured and karstic systems in particular) and the possible participations of other groundwater reservoirs, which may deteriorate the high water-quality. A recent study has been carried out to shed some light on these questions, by using geochemical methods (K, Mg, Na, Ca, Fe, Mn, Ba, Sr, As, Sb, Hg, HCO3, SO4, NO3, Cl, Br, delta18-O, deltaD, Rn, EC, O2, pH, Eh, Temp). Constraints on the groundwater flow-path have been obtained by using a radon- hydrochemical- isotopic characterisation of spring waters. Here we report the results of the first geochemical sample collection (November 09). Several springs in the TMA yield Mg-Ca HCO3 rich water equilibrated with limestone and dolomite, having a very similar Rn

  8. Hydrochemical constraints between the karst Tabular Middle Atlas Causses and the Saïs basin (Morocco): implications of groundwater circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miche, Hélène; Saracco, Ginette; Mayer, Adriano; Qarqori, Khaoula; Rouai, Mohamed; Dekayir, Abdelilah; Chalikakis, Konstantinos; Emblanch, Christophe

    2018-02-01

    The karst Tabular Middle Atlas Causses reservoir is the main drinking-water supply of Fez-Meknes region (Saïs Basin) in Morocco. Recent analyses showed a decline in associated groundwater chemical quality and increased turbidity. To understand this hydrosystem, four surveys were undertaken during fall and spring, 2009-2011. Hydrogeochemical studies coupled with isotopic analyses (δ18O, δD and 222Rn) showed that the aquifers between the causses (mountains) and the Saïs Basin are of Liassic origin and at the southern extremities are of Triassic origin. Five recharge zones of different altitudes have been defined, including two main mixing zones in the south. Deuterium excess results suggest local recharge, while a plot of δ18O versus δD characterizes a confined aquifer in the eastern sector. 222Rn results reveal areas of rapid exchanges with an upwelling time of less than 2 weeks. A schematic conceptual model is presented to explain the groundwater circulation system and the behavior of this karst system.

  9. Trace elements and REE geochemistry of Middle Devonian carbonate mounds (Maïder Basin, Eastern Anti-Atlas, Morocco): Implications for early diagenetic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franchi, Fulvio; Turetta, Clara; Cavalazzi, Barbara; Corami, Fabiana; Barbieri, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    Trace and rare earth elements (REEs) have proven their utility as tools for assessing the genesis and early diagenesis of widespread geological bodies such as carbonate mounds, whose genetic processes are not yet fully understood. Carbonates from the Middle Devonian conical mud mounds of the Maïder Basin (eastern Anti-Atlas, Morocco) have been analysed for their REE and trace element distribution. Collectively, the carbonates from the Maïder Basin mud mounds appear to display coherent REE patterns. Three different geochemical patterns, possibly related with three different diagenetic events, include: i) dyke fills with a normal marine REE pattern probably precipitated in equilibrium with seawater, ii) mound micrite with a particular enrichment of overall REE contents and variable Ce anomaly probably related to variation of pH, increase of alkalinity or dissolution/remineralization of organic matter during early diagenesis, and iii) haematite-rich vein fills precipitated from venting fluids of probable hydrothermal origin. Our results reinforce the hypothesis that these mounds were probably affected by an early diagenesis induced by microbial activity and triggered by abundance of dispersed organic matter, whilst venting may have affected the mounds during a later diagenetic phase.

  10. Reconnaissance de la structure géologique du bassin de saïss occidental, Maroc, par sondages électriquesPreliminary survey of the structure and hydrogeology of the western Saiss Basin, Morocco, using electrical resistivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essahlaoui, A.; Sahbi, H.; Bahi, L.; El-Yamine, N.

    2001-05-01

    A geophysical study, based on 96 electrical resistivity measurements with a line length up to 4 km, was performed in the southern and southwestern parts of the Meknes Plateau, Morocco, which is a part of the Saiss Basin, located between the Rif Range to the north and the Middle Atlas Range to the south. This basin, whose maximum depth is ˜ 1.5 km in the north, is filled with Triassic to Quaternary deposits overlying the Palæozoic basement and includes two main aquifers. The interpretation of the resistivity measurements, calibrated from deep boreholes, made it possible to obtain a new hydrogeological model for the Saiss Basin. The understanding of the basin structure is of primary importance for the water supply of this area, which has been affected by severe droughts in recent years.

  11. Structural pattern of the Saïss basin and Tabular Middle Atlas in northern Morocco: Hydrological implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauteuil, O.; Moreau, F.; Qarqori, K.

    2016-07-01

    The plain of Saïss is a fertile area of great agricultural production with major economic interests. Therefore, the improved knowledge about the water supply is imperative within a context of recurrent droughts and overexploitation of the groundwater. This plain is located in the Meknes-Fes basin and between two deformed domains: the Rif and Middle Atlas. The aquifers are fed by water coming from the Tabular Middle Atlas, for which the pathways are poorly constrained. This study provides new data to determine the water pathways based on a structural map produced from a novel analysis of SPOT images and a digital elevation model. This structural map reveals two fracture sets trending NE-SW and NW-SE. The first set is well known and corresponds to a main trend that controlled the tectonic and stratigraphic evolution of the study area. On the other hand, the NW-SE set was poorly described until now: it is both diffuse and widespread on the Tabular Middle Atlas. A comparison between the regional water flow trend, drainage pattern and structural map shows that the NW-SE fractures control the water flow from the Tabular Middle Atlas to the Saïss plain. A hydrological model is discussed where the water flow is confined onto Liassic carbonates and driven by NW-SE fractures. This study explains how a detailed structural mapping shows hydrology constraints.

  12. Trends in rainfall and temperature extremes in Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomsi, K.; Mahe, G.; Tramblay, Y.; Sinan, M.; Snoussi, M.

    2015-02-01

    In Morocco, socioeconomic fields are vulnerable to weather extreme events. This work aims to analyze the frequency and the trends of temperature and rainfall extreme events in two contrasted Moroccan regions (the Tensift in the semi-arid South, and the Bouregreg in the sub-humid North), during the second half of the 20th century. This study considers long time series of daily extreme temperatures and rainfall, recorded in the stations of Marrakech and Safi for the Tensift region, and Kasba-Tadla and Rabat-Sale for the Bouregreg region, data from four other stations (Tanger, Fes, Agadir and Ouarzazate) from outside the regions were added. Extremes are defined by using as thresholds the 1st, 5th, 90th, 95th, and 99th percentiles. Results show upward trends in maximum and minimum temperatures of both regions and no generalized trends in rainfall amounts. Changes in cold events are larger than those for warm events, and the number of very cold events decrease significantly in the whole studied area. The southern region is the most affected with the changes of the temperature regime. Most of the trends found in rainfall heavy events are positive with weak magnitudes even though no statistically significant generalized trends could be identified during both seasons.

  13. Impact of land-levelling measures on gully and soil erosion analysed by rainfall simulation and UAV remote sensing data in the Souss Basin, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, Klaus Daniel; d'Oleire-Oltmanns, Sebastian; Ries, Johannes B.; Marzolff, Irene; Hssaine, Ali Ait

    2013-04-01

    Since the 16th century with the rise and fall of sugar production, the Souss basin, situated between High and Anti-Atlas, is affected by gully erosion due to the deforestation of Argan trees. Nowadays, it is one of the most intensive agricultural regions of Morocco. On its sedimentary fans and alluvial terraces, a very dynamic land use change is going on since the early 1960s with transformations of traditional agriculture into agro-industrial plantations of citrus fruits, bananas and vegetables irrigated by deep aquifer groundwater. The implementation of land use change and further expansion of plantations into former agriculturally unsuitable marginal land is accomplished today by land-levelling measures with heavy machinery. The levelling of badland areas and the infilling of existing gully systems lead to changes and disconnections of the drainage system and watersheds on the sedimentary fans. The aim of this study is the investigation of the influence of land-levelling measures and gully infilling on recent erosion rates and on both the re-activation of old and the initiation of new gully systems. An approach combining punctual process analysis through experimental rainfall simulation and gully mapping as well as volume quantification analysing on a local scale using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) remote sensing data was applied to relate runoff and sediment production in the gully catchment to current gully erosion rates. For conducting the rainfall simulations a small portable nozzle rainfall simulator with a rainfall intensity of 40 mm h-1 was used. We applied an autopiloted UAV for the monitoring of gullies with small-format aerial photography. Photogrammetric image processing enables the creation of Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) and ortho-image mosaics with very high (centimetre) resolution. Results of the experimental geomorphological fieldwork show a significant increase of mean runoff coefficients and mean sediment loads (1.4 and 3.5 times higher

  14. Morocco and Algeria

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-15

    ... mosaic of southwestern Europe and northwestern Morocco and Algeria. The image extends from 48°N, 16°W in the northwest to 32°N, 8°E in ... corner. The rugged Atlas Mountain ranges traverse northern Algeria and Morocco. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) ...

  15. Morocco Country Analysis Brief

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Morocco is a net hydrocarbon importer. The country produces marginal amounts of oil, natural gas, and refined petroleum products, which is mainly consumed domestically. Morocco has two refineries with a total crude oil distillation capacity of about 155,000 barrels per day (bbl/d), according to Oil & Gas Journal.

  16. Characterization of the Oum Er Rbia (Morocco) high basin karstic water sources by using solid state nuclear track detectors and radon as a natural tracer.

    PubMed

    Khalil, N; Misdaq, M A; Berrazzouk, S; Mania, J

    2002-06-01

    Uranium and thorium contents as well as radon alpha-activities per unit volume were evaluated inside different water samples by using a method based on calculating the CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) detection efficiencies for the emitted alpha-particles and measuring the resulting track density rates. The validity of the SSNTD technique utilized was checked by analysing uranyl nitrate (UO2(NO3)26H2O) standard solutions. A relationship between water radon concentration and water transmission of different water sources belonging to two regions of the Middle Atlas (Morocco) water reservoir was found. The influence of the water flow rate as well as the permeability and fracture system of the host rocks of the sources studied was investigated.

  17. États de contraintes et mécanismes d'ouverture et de fermeture des bassins permiens du Maroc hercynien. L'exemple des bassins des Jebilet et des RéhamnaStates of stresses and opening/closing mechanisms of the Permian basins in Hercynian Morocco. The example of the Jebilet and Réhamna Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saidi, Amal; Tahiri, Abdelfatah; Ait Brahim, Lahcen; Saidi, Maraim

    The fracturing analysis in the Permian basins of Jebilet and Rehamna (Hercynian Morocco) and the underlying terranes allowed us to suggest a model for their opening. Three tectonic episodes are distinguished: a transtensional episode NNE-SSW-trending (Permian I), occurring during the opening along sinistral wrench faults N70-110-trending, associated with synsedimentary normal faults; a transpressive episode ESE-WNW-trending (Permian II), initiating the closure, the normal faults playing back reverse faults and the N70 trending faults dextral wrench faults; a compressional episode NNW-SSE (post-Permian, ante-Triassic), accentuating the closure and the deformation and putting an end to the Tardi-Hercynian compressive movements. To cite this article: A. Saidi et al., C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 221-226.

  18. Structure sismique du socle paléozoïque du bassin des Doukkala, Môle côtier, Maroc occidental. Indication en faveur de l'existence d'une phase éo-varisqueSeismic structure of the Doukkala basin, Palaeozoic basement, western Morocco: a hint for an Eovariscan fold-and-thrust belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echarfaoui, Hassan; Hafid, Mohamed; Salem, Abdallah Aı̈t

    2002-01-01

    Seismic profiles and well data from the Doukkala basin unravel the structure of the Palaeozoic basement and suggest that this coastal zone of western Morocco was affected by a compressive phase during the Frasnian. This resulted in the formation of upright, plurikilometric folds associated with reverse faults (North Doukkala), and of asymmetrical folds associated with mostly west verging ramps (South Doukkala). Folding involved all pre-Upper Frasnian formations and caused partial or total hiatus of Upper Frasnian-Strunian strata. This event can be correlated with the orogenic phase reported from more internal domains of the Morocco Hercynian belt, where it is referred to as the 'Bretonne' or 'Eovariscan' phase. To cite this article: H. Echarfaoui et al., C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 13-20

  19. Anti-Atlas Mountains, Morocco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Anti-Atlas Mountains of northern Africa and the nearby Atlas mountains were created by the prolonged collision of the African and Eurasian tectonic plates, beginning about 80 million years ago. Massive sandstone and limestone layers have been crumpled and uplifted more than 4,000 meters in the High Atlas and to lower elevations in the Anti-Atlas. Between more continuous major fold structures, such as the Jbel Ouarkziz in the southwestern Anti-Atlas, tighter secondary folds (arrow) have developed. Earlier, the supercontinent of Pangea rifted apart to form precursors to the Mediterranean and the Atlantic Ocean (Beauchamp and others, 1996). In those seas sands, clays, limey sediments, and evaporite layers (gypsum, rock salt) were deposited. Later, during the mountain-building plate collision, the gypsum layers flowed under the pressure and provided a slippery surface on which overlying rigid rocks could glide (Burkhard, 2001). The broad, open style of folds seen in this view is common where evaporites are involved in the deformation. Other examples can be found in the Southern Zagros of Iran and the Sierra Madre Oriental of Mexico. Information Sources: Beauchamp, W., Barazangi, M., Demnati, A., and El Alji, M., 1996, Intracontinental rifting and inversion: Missour Basin and Atlas Mountains, Morocco: Tulsa, American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 80, No. 9, p. 1459-1482. Burkhard, Martin, 2001, Tectonics of the Anti-Atlas of Morocco -- Thin-skin/thick-skin relationships in an atypical foreland fold belt. University of Neuchatel, Switzerland: http://www-geol.unine.ch/Structural/Antiatlas.html (accessed 1/29/02). STS108-711-25 was taken in December, 2001 by the crew of Space Shuttle mission 108 using a Hasselblad camera with 250-mm lens. The image is provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography

  20. Contextualizing Multilingualism in Morocco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Mayra C.; Ball, Alexis

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the educational system of Morocco and the ways the country's multilingual history has influenced and continues to direct the choice of the languages used in schools. Suggestions that will eliminate cultural mismatch and thus facilitate interactions with Moroccan students and their families are included. The research focuses…

  1. Morocco: Country Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFerren, Margaret

    A survey of the status of language usage in Morocco begins with an overview of the distribution and usage of Arabic, the official language, the Berber dialects, and French, an unofficial second language. The continuing high status and widespread use of French despite arabization efforts is discussed. A matrix follows that rates these languages and…

  2. My Classroom: Morocco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobakova, Renata; Bedrouni, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    This article profiles the teaching context in Askaoun, in Taroudant province in the south of Morocco, and Karima Mezouari, a teacher dedicated to giving her students there a chance to learn English in meaningful and enjoyable ways. Adil Azhar describes how he learned to speak English through persistence and practice, and how he passes on his own…

  3. Medical informatics in morocco.

    PubMed

    Bouhaddou, O; Bennani Othmani, M; Diouny, S

    2013-01-01

    Informatics is an essential tool for helping to transform healthcare from a paper-based to a digital sector. This article explores the state-of-the-art of health informatics in Morocco. Specifically, it aims to give a general overview of the Moroccan healthcare system, the challenges it is facing, and the efforts undertaken by the informatics community and Moroccan government in terms of education, research and practice to reform the country's health sector. Through the experience of establishing Medical Informatics as a medical specialty in 2008, creating a Moroccan Medical Informatics Association in 2010 and holding a first national congress took place in April 2012, the authors present their assessment of some important priorities for health informatics in Morocco. These Moroccan initiatives are facilitating collaboration in education, research, and implementation of clinical information systems. In particular, the stakeholders have recognized the need for a national coordinator office and the development of a national framework for standards and interoperability. For developing countries like Morocco, new health IT approaches like mobile health and trans-media health advertising could help optimize scarce resources, improve access to rural areas and focus on the most prevalent health problems, optimizing health care access, quality, and cost for Morocco population.

  4. Implication of Guigo and L'Hajeb Causses in the renewal and circulations of Saïs basin groundwaters (Middle-Atlas Causses, Morocco).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miche, H.; Saracco, G.; Mayer, A.; Qarqori, K.; Rouai, M.; Dekayir, A.; Chalikakis, K.; Emblanch, C.

    2017-12-01

    In a context of overexploitation of the karst system of the Middle-Atlas Causses feeding the Saïs basin and, with the current climatic variations, the study of circulations and of renewal of waters of this system in the Fes-Meknes area becomes essential for the population, in order to maintain a sufficient quality of waters with a good management. By coupling hydrochemical and isotopic analyzes methods (δD, δ18O, 222Rn), saturation indices obtained from PHREEQC code and the help of a principal component analysis (PCA) of ten springs and three wells, a first conceptual model of groundwater flows of this karst system was obtained. These waters are mainly renewed by the rainfall of L'Hajeb Causse and secondarily by the rainfall of Guigo Causse containing several springs. Hydrochemistry and saturation indexes allowed us to highlight two types of waters: a main contribution of Liasic origin and two low contributions of Triassic origin at the southern extremities (SW, SE) of the basin. We pointed out the existence of five local recharge zones of different altitudes (900 to 1500 m asl.) including the two main mixing zones to the south (SE, SW). Radon-222 showed areas of rapid exchanges (upwelling time less than two weeks) between waters of Liasic aquifer and the ones of Triassic origin of high radon activity. The use of PCA on hydrochemical data, allowed us to refine the kind of waters, their transit times and highlighted the existence of several mixing zones between the Triassic aquitard and the Liasic aquifers in more or less faulted structures for the two causses. Our results allow us to obtain a first conceptual model of groundwater circulations between the two causses and the Saïs basin. Previous campaigns of electrical resistivity tomography coupled with electromagnetic measurements (EM34) revealed lateral and vertical variations of electrical conductivity changing with the depth along the North-South axis, and a preferential drain perpendicularly to the causses

  5. L'aquifère du bassin de la Mamora, Maroc: geometrie et ecoulements souterrainsThe aquifer of the Mamora Basin, Morocco: geometry and groundwater flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zouhri, L.

    2001-05-01

    The Mamora aquifer, in the northern Moroccan Meseta, constitutes the main regional water resource. Its impermeable basement is mostly composed of blue marls. The lithostratigraphy of the basin aquifer is characterised by a sequence of sandstones, sandy limestones, conglomerates and sandy clays. The structure of the basement of the Mamora aquifer, deduced from electrical resistivity measurements, allowed the hydrogeological behaviour of the reservoir, and the direction of the groundwater flow, to be established. The combination of the lithological, morphological, piezometric, geophysical and structural investigations revealed a northward thickening of the substrate with groundwater flow towards the Rharb (to the north) and towards the Atlantic Ocean (northwest). This 'multicriteria' approach enabled a structural model to be defined, which correlated well with the aquifer geometry and the groundwater flow. The variability of the hydrogeological units, and the northward thickening of the sedimentary facies, were controlled by northeast-southwest orientated faults, which affect their impermeability.

  6. Dynamique sédimentaire comparative dans les bassins stéphano-permiens des Ida Ou Zal et Ida Ou Ziki, haut Atlas Occidental, MarocDynamic sedimentology of two Upper Stephano-Lower Permian basins: Ida Ou Zal and Ida Ou Ziki, western High Atlas, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saber, H.; El-Wartiti, M.; Broutin, J.

    2001-05-01

    The intra-mountainous Ida Ou Zal Basin developed as a graben during the Stephanian (Carboniferous) and Lower Permian. Along its borders from east to west are the remnants of basal conglomerates. Passing laterally towards the centre of the basin are fine-grained fluvial-lacustrine sediments or flood-plain deposits. The important accumulation (1800 m) of sediments, associated with climatic and tectonic changes, caused substantial subsidence in a late orogenic setting. The remnants of sporadic volcanic products (shards) found in the Ida Ou Zal and the Ida Ou Zika Basins suggest nearby simultaneous magmatic activity. A comparison between the basins of Ida Ou Zal and Ida Ou Ziki suggest that the two basins formed a single unit, called the Souss Basin, ultimately terminated between the Lower Permian and Upper Permian times by a sinistral movement of the N70-80° Agadir Ou Anzizen Fault (west branch of the Tizi N'Test Fault) at the very end of the Hercynian Orogeny in Morocco.

  7. Muddy and dolomitic rip-up clasts in Triassic fluvial sandstones: Origin and impact on potential reservoir properties (Argana Basin, Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henares, Saturnina; Arribas, Jose; Cultrone, Giuseppe; Viseras, Cesar

    2016-06-01

    The significance of rip-up clasts as sandstone framework grains is frequently neglected in the literature being considered as accessory components in bulk sandstone composition. However, this study highlights the great value of muddy and dolomitic rip-up clast occurrence as: (a) information source about low preservation potential from floodplain deposits and (b) key element controlling host sandstone diagenetic evolution and thus ultimate reservoir quality. High-resolution petrographic analysis on Triassic fluvial sandstones from Argana Basin (T6 and T7/T8 units) highlights the significance of different types of rip-up clasts as intrabasinal framework components of continental sediments from arid climates. On the basis of their composition and ductility, three main types are distinguished: (a) muddy rip-up clasts, (b) dolomitic muddy rip-up clasts and (c) dolomite crystalline rip-up clasts. Spatial distribution of different types is strongly facies-related according to grain size. Origin of rip-up clasts is related to erosion of coeval phreatic dolocretes, in different development stages, and associated muddy floodplain sediments. Cloudy cores with abundant inclusions and clear outer rims of dolomite crystals suggest a first replacive and a subsequent displacive growth, respectively. Dolomite crystals are almost stoichiometric. This composition is very similar to that of early sandstone dolomite cement, supporting phreatic dolocretes as dolomite origin in both situations. Sandstone diagenesis is dominated by mechanical compaction and dolomite cementation. A direct correlation exists between: (1) muddy rip-up clast abundance and early reduction of primary porosity by compaction with irreversible loss of intergranular volume (IGV); and (2) occurrence of dolomitic rip-up clasts and dolomite cement nucleation in host sandstone, occluding adjacent pores but preserving IGV. Both processes affect reservoir quality by generation of vertical and 3D fluid flow baffles and

  8. Hashish revival in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Chouvy, Pierre-Arnaud; Afsahi, Kenza

    2014-05-01

    In less than a decade, Morocco reportedly saw cannabis cultivation decrease by 65%, and hashish production is widely believed to have followed the same trend. Yet large anomalies exist between the alleged fall of hashish production in Morocco and international seizure data. While no explanation for such a discrepancy existed, the main hypothesis was that cannabis cultivation and hashish production had not declined to the extent suggested by the available information. Based on existing data, on interviews with various actors, from European police sources to Moroccan cannabis cultivators, and on field research in Morocco, this article reviews contradictory available data and confronts it with observations made in the field. In the past decade cannabis cultivation underwent radical changes that could explain the discrepancy between official Moroccan cultivation and production data on the one hand, and international seizures on the other hand. The "traditional" kif cannabis variety is being rapidly replaced by hybrids with much larger resin yields and much higher potency. This unnoticed phenomenon, which slowly started in the early 2000s, explains how a two-third decline in cannabis cultivation was at least partially compensated for by three to five-fold yield increases. The fact that the massive ongoing switch to hybrid cultivation is largely unknown or unaccounted for is actually a serious issue, for it directly questions the economic strategies that are being implemented in part to reduce and suppress cannabis cultivation in the Rif. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Drought vulnerability assesssment and mapping in Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imani, Yasmina; Lahlou, Ouiam; Bennasser Alaoui, Si; Naumann, Gustavo; Barbosa, Paulo; Vogt, Juergen

    2014-05-01

    Drought vulnerability assessment and mapping in Morocco Authors: Yasmina Imani 1, Ouiam Lahlou 1, Si Bennasser Alaoui 1 Paulo Barbosa 2, Jurgen Vogt 2, Gustavo Naumann 2 1: Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II (IAV Hassan II), Rabat Morocco. 2: European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Environment and Sustainability (IES), Ispra, Italy. In Morocco, nearly 50% of the population lives in rural areas. They are mostly small subsistent farmers whose production depends almost entirely on rainfall. They are therefore very sensitive to drought episodes that may dramatically affect their incomes. Although, as a consequence of the increasing frequency, length and severity of drought episodes in the late 90's, the Moroccan government decided, to move on from a crisis to a risk management approach, drought management remains in practice mainly reactive and often ineffective. The lack of effectiveness of public policy is in part a consequence of the poor understanding of drought vulnerability at the rural community level, which prevents the development of efficient mitigation actions and adaptation strategies, tailored to the needs and specificities of each rural community. Thus, the aim of this study is to assess and map drought vulnerability at the rural commune level in the Oum Er-Rbia basin which is a very heterogeneous basin, showing a big variability of climates, landscapes, cropping systems and social habits. Agricultural data collected from the provincial and local administrations of Agriculture and socio-economic data from the National Department of Statistics were used to compute a composite vulnerability index (DVI) integrating four different components: (i) the renewable natural capacity, (ii) the economic capacity, (iii) human and civic resources, and (iv) infrastructure and technology. The drought vulnerability maps that were derived from the computation of the DVI shows that except very specific areas, most of the Oum er Rbia

  10. Nutrition transition in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Benjelloun, Sabah

    2002-02-01

    To analyse the nutritional transition in Morocco. Examination of Moroccan national survey data. Morocco is undergoing a demographic, epidemiological and social transition. The urban population increased from 29% in 1960 to 53% in 1997. Per capita gross domestic product increased steadily from 1972 to 1999. Life expectancy at birth increased to 70 years in 1999 from 47 years in 1962. Both infant and juvenile mortalities have decreased, from 92/1000 and 69/1000 in 1982-87 to 46/1000 and 37/1000 in 1992-97, respectively. In parallel, the diet changed considerably: the intake of animal products increased while that of cereals and sugar remained relatively high, reflecting the specificity of Moroccan dietary habits. The rise in the consumption of meats and vegetables was accompanied by a steady consumption of bread, used to eat the sauce in which the meat and vegetables are cooked. Sugar is mainly used in tea, the very sweet, national drink consumed throughout the day. Under-nourishment persists among children under five (23% stunting and 10% underweight in 1997) while overweight is rising (9% in 1997 compared with 3% in 1987 for children under three). Among adults, overweight (body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg m(-2)) increased from 26% in 1984 to 36% in 1998. It is higher among women (32% in 1984 and 45% in 1998) than among males (19% in 1984 and 25% in 1998). It is also higher among urban populations (30% in 1984 and 40% in 1998) than rural populations (20% in 1984 and 29% in 1998). Obesity (BMI > 30kg m(-2)) increased from 4% in 1984 to 10% in 1998. Overweight seems to be positively associated with economic status but negatively with education level. Overweight and obesity constitute major health problems in Morocco.

  11. Ecological and epidemiological status of species of the Phlebotomus perniciosus complex (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Zarrouk, Asmae; Kahime, Kholoud; Boussaa, Samia; Belqat, Boutaïna

    2016-03-01

    Leishmania infantum (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) infection is transmitted by an infected female sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) of the subgenus Larroussius: Phlebotomus ariasi, Phlebotomus perniciosus, and Phlebotomus longicuspis in the Mediterranean basin. In Morocco, the vectorial role of P. ariasi was demonstrated, while that of P. longicuspis and P. perniciosus is not elucidated. In addition, Moroccan P. longicuspis and P. perniciosus populations present a higher morphologic and genetic variability. It was classified as P. perniciosus complex, including typical (PN) and atypical (PNA) morphs of P. perniciosus, P. longicuspis sensu stricto (LCss), and a sibling species of P. longicuspis (LCx). With the aim to study the ecological and epidemiological status of P. perniciosus complex species in Morocco, entomological surveys were carried out during three entomological seasons (2012, 2013, and 2014). We collected a total of 6298 specimens from 81 localities of northern, central, and southern Morocco. After describing the geographical distribution of P. perniciosus complex trough Morocco according to many variables (altitude, latitude, and longitude), we discuss the resulting epidemiological implications of its species. Our results highlight the geographical distribution of the two morphs of P. perniciosus through Morocco: PN is limited to the north, while PNA is widespread in northern, central, and southern Morocco. In terms of vectorial role, we hypothesize the potential involvement of PN, LCss, and LCx, at least, with P. ariasi, in the epidemiological cycle of L. infantum in Morocco.

  12. Study of groundwater vulnerability to pollution using the DRASTIC method coupled with a geographic information system (GIS): application to groundwater Beni Amir, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knouz, Najat; Boudhar, Abdelghani; Bachaoui, El Mostafa

    2016-04-01

    Fresh water is the condition of all life on Earth for its vital role in the survival of living beings and in the social, economic and technological development. The Groundwater, as the surface water, is increasingly threatened by agricultural and industrial pollution. In this respect, the groundwater vulnerability assessment to pollution is a very valuable tool for resource protection, management of its quality and uses it in a sustainable way. The main objective of this study is the evaluation of groundwater vulnerability to pollution of the study area, Beni Amir, located in the first irrigated perimeter of Morocco, Tadla, using the DRASTIC method (depth to water, net recharge, aquifer media, soil media, Topography, impact of Vadose zone and hydraulic conductivity), and assessing the impact of each parameter on the DRASTIC vulnerability index by a sensitivity analysis. This study also highlights the role of geographic information systems (GIS) in assessing vulnerability. The Vulnerability index is calculated as the sum of product of ratings and weights assigned to each of the parameter DRASTIC. The results revealed four vulnerability classes, 7% of the study area has a high vulnerability, 31% are moderately vulnerable, 57% have a low vulnerability and 5% are of very low vulnerability.

  13. L'évolution paléoenvironnementale des faunes de poissons du Crétacé supérieur du bassin du Tafilalt et des régions avoisinantes (Sud-Est du Maroc) : implications paléobiogéographiquesPalaeoenvironmental evolution of the fish assemblages from the Late Cretaceous of the Tafilalt basin and surrounding areas, southeastern Morocco: palaeogeographical implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavin, Lionel; Boudad, Larbi; Duffaud, Sylvain; Kabiri, Lahcen; Le Lœuff, Jean; Rouget, Isabelle; Tong, Haiyan

    2001-11-01

    A critical revision of published data along with new field data allow to draw up the succession of the fish faunas from the Lower Cenomanian to the Lower Turonian in the Tafilalt basin and surrounding areas (southeast Morocco). The analysis of these faunas shows changes from freshwater to marine palaeoenvironments. The palaeogeographic distribution of some taxa is discussed. It shows that the crossing of strictly freshwater organisms between Africa and South America was likely impossible at the time of the formation of the deposits resting around the Tafilalt basin and named 'Kem Kem beds'. The Cenomano-Turonian transgression reached the Erfoud-Errachidia carbonate platform from the Central Tethys, and then connected the central Atlantic.

  14. The added value of water footprint assessment for national water policy: a case study for Morocco.

    PubMed

    Schyns, Joep F; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2014-01-01

    A Water Footprint Assessment is carried out for Morocco, mapping the water footprint of different activities at river basin and monthly scale, distinguishing between surface- and groundwater. The paper aims to demonstrate the added value of detailed analysis of the human water footprint within a country and thorough assessment of the virtual water flows leaving and entering a country for formulating national water policy. Green, blue and grey water footprint estimates and virtual water flows are mainly derived from a previous grid-based (5 × 5 arc minute) global study for the period 1996-2005. These estimates are placed in the context of monthly natural runoff and waste assimilation capacity per river basin derived from Moroccan data sources. The study finds that: (i) evaporation from storage reservoirs is the second largest form of blue water consumption in Morocco, after irrigated crop production; (ii) Morocco's water and land resources are mainly used to produce relatively low-value (in US$/m3 and US$/ha) crops such as cereals, olives and almonds; (iii) most of the virtual water export from Morocco relates to the export of products with a relatively low economic water productivity (in US$/m3); (iv) blue water scarcity on a monthly scale is severe in all river basins and pressure on groundwater resources by abstractions and nitrate pollution is considerable in most basins; (v) the estimated potential water savings by partial relocation of crops to basins where they consume less water and by reducing water footprints of crops down to benchmark levels are significant compared to demand reducing and supply increasing measures considered in Morocco's national water strategy.

  15. DIET QUALITY OF MOROCCAN ADOLESCENTS LIVING IN MOROCCO AND IN SPAIN.

    PubMed

    Montero, M Del Pilar; Mora-Urda, Ana Isabel; Anzid, Karim; Cherkaoui, Mohamed; Marrodan, M Dolores

    2017-03-01

    Intra-population socioeconomic changes and migration are powerful factors in changing eating habits. Changes in eating habits could affect the nutritional status, growth, development and health of adolescents. The aim of this study was to compare the diet of adolescents of Moroccan origin living in Spain with that of adolescents living in Morocco. The sample comprised 428 Moroccan adolescents aged from 12 to 19 recruited in high schools: 327 living in Ouarzazate (Morocco) and 101 living in Madrid (Spain). The variables studied were energy intake (kcal/day), diet quality indicators (adherence to the Mediterranean Adequacy Index (MAI); cholesterol intake (mg/day); fibre intake (g/day) and energy profile)); and indicators of keeping traditional customs (halal meat consumption, bread made at home). Teenagers from Morocco living in Madrid consumed more calories, proteins, saturated fats and simple sugars (p<0.001) than those living in Morocco. Their diet was of lower quality than that of their peers in Morocco. This difference was more marked in boys than in girls. Changes in eating habits associated with migration from the south to the north Mediterranean basin can benefit young migrants in an immediate way (through greater availability of energy and nutrients), but later in life it could have negative consequences for their health, increasing the risk of overweight, obesity and cardiovascular and metabolic problems.

  16. Workplace Learning in Morocco: Private Sector Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, J. Ben; Al Arkoubi, Khadija

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore training and development practices in Morocco and examine them in light of international practices provided from benchmarking data. Distinctions were also made between multinationals operating in Morocco and Moroccan owned companies. Contrasts in the results are discussed with possible explanations and…

  17. New Clinicoepidemiologic Profile of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Rhajaoui, Mohamed; Fellah, Hajiba; Azmi, Kifaya; Amarir, Fatima; Al-Jawabreh, Amer; Ereqat, Suheir; Planer, Joseph; Abdeen, Ziad

    2007-01-01

    During the past 20 years, cutaneous leishmaniasis has emerged as a major public health threat in Morocco. We describe distribution of Leishmania major and L. tropica in Morocco and a new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to L. infantum. We recommend using molecular techniques to diagnose suspected leishmaniasis cases. PMID:18252108

  18. Structure of the western Rif (Morocco): Possible hydrocarbon plays

    SciTech Connect

    Flinch, J.

    1995-08-01

    Seismic data offshore and onshore northwestern Morocco (i.e. Atlantic margin, Rharb Basin, Rif foothills) provided a detailed picture of the Western Rif Cordillera. The most external units of the folded-belt consist of allochthonous Cretaceous and Neogene strongly deformed sediments that constitute a westward-directed accretionary wedge. The structure of the accretionary wedge consist of a complex set of thrust and normal faults. The inner part of the study area consist of NW-SE trending thrust faults, partially exposed in the foothills of the Western Rif. Proceeding towards the foreland, thrust faults are offset by low-angle extensional detachments characterized by anastomosing extensional horses.more » Widespread extension overlying the accretionary wedge defines a Late Neogene episode of extensional collapse. Extension is not characterized by localized conventional half-grabens but consists of a complex extensional system with variable orientation. Locally shale ridges and toe-thrusts characterized by rear extension and frontal compression define a set of mixed extensional-compressional satellite basins that significantly differ from conventional thrust-related piggy-back basins. Satellite basins are filled with Upper Tortonian to Pliocene sediments. Shallow fields of biogenic gas are present in this Upper Neogene succession of the satellite basins. The frontalmost part of the wedge consist of WNW-ESE trending thrust imbricates. A flexural basin (foredeep) developed as a result of the accretionary prism loading. The foredeep basin discordantly overlies thinn Cretaceous and Lower-Middle Miocene shallow-water sediments that indistinctly cover Plaeozoic basement rocks and Triassic half-grabens. Pre-foredeep units are related to rifting and passive margin development of the Atlantic Ocean. East from the Rharb Basin the Rif Cordillera is essentially unexplored. Few scattered seismic sections display subsurface ramp anticlines similar to those exposed in the

  19. Interprétation hydrogéologique de l'aquifère des bassins sud-rifains (Maroc) : apport de la sismique réflexionHydrogeological interpretation of the southern Rifean basins aquifer (Morocco): seismic reflexion contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zouhri, Lahcen; Gorini, Christian; Lamouroux, Christian; Vachard, Daniel; Dakki, Mohammed

    2003-03-01

    The aquifer of the Rharb Basin is constituted by heterogeneous material. The seismic reflexion interpretation carried out in this area, highlighted a permeable device compartmentalized in raised and subsided blocks. Depressions identified in the northern and southernmost zones are characterized by Plio-Quaternary fillings that are favourable to the hydrogeological exploitation. Two mechanisms contribute to structure the Plio-Quaternary aquifer: the Hercynian reactivation in the southernmost part, and the gravitational mechanism of the Pre-Rifean nappe. The groundwater flow and the aquifer thickening are controlled by this reactivation.

  20. Effets thermique et hydrothermal de la coulée de basalte triasico-liasique sur les argiles du bassin d'Argana (Maroc)Thermal and hydrothermal effects of Triassic Liassic basalt flow deposition on clays (Agana Basin, Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daoudi, Lahcen; Pot de Vin, Jean-Luc

    Thermal and hydrothermal effects of Triassic-Liassic basalt flow deposition on sedimentary series of the Argana Basin are responsible for major modifications in detrital clays, until 20 m in depth. It expressed by transformation of detrital smectite to corrensite and moreover to chlorite, and by increasing illite crystallinity. On the 2 m of sediments located immediately under the flow, magnesium-rich hydrothermal fluids have caused precipitation of new mineral phases. To cite this article: L. Daoudi, J.-L. Pot de Vin, C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 463-468.

  1. Contribution à l'étude d'une partie du bassin d'Essaouira (Maroc) par sismique réflexionContribution to part of the Essaouira Basin (Morocco) by seismic reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffal, Mohammed; Kchikach, Azzouz; Lefort, Jean-Pierre; Hanich, Lahoucine

    A large number of seismic reflection lines and boreholes have been carried out in the Essaouira Basin by the oil industry. The present study concentrates on the reinterpretation of these data in the restricted area of Khemis Meskala, in order to better characterise the structure of the Cretaceous aquiferous system. The reflector corresponding to the bottom of the Vraconian formation has been identified on the different seismic sections. This horizon, which marks the base of the aquiferous system, was first digitised on time migration sections and then converted to depth sections using a suitable linear velocity law. The isobath map of the bottom of the Vraconian resulting from this study images the 3D geometrical structure of this horizon and shows that it is slightly folded in domes and basins. This document will be useful for rationalising the future hydrogeological researches that will be undertaken in the Khemis Meskala area. To cite this article: M. Jaffal et al., C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 229-234.

  2. Study of the technical performance of localized irrigation and its environmental and agroeconomic impact in the first areas of collective reconversion at the irrigated perimeter of the Tadla - Beni Moussa perimeter of the west - Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouradi, Abdellah; Ait Yacine, Zehor; El Harti, Abderrazak

    2018-05-01

    The evaluation of the performance of the localized irrigation system involved a selected sample of farmers to reflect the diversity of the study area. The hydraulic diagnosis revealed the absence of apparent malfunctioning anomalies of the installations studied (Coefficient of Distribution Uniformity ≥ 90% with average application efficiencies and overall of 90.54 and 86.83% respectively). In terms of the combined use of surface and underground irrigation water this new technique has saved about 30% compared to conventional irrigation. The agro-economic evaluation revealed that the crops practiced have high value-added and optimize the value of irrigation water. The environmental impact has resulted in an average drawdown of the static level of groundwater of 2.59 m due mainly to the new irrigation method introduced, which limited the percolation of water to the aquifer. The drip-to-drip transition resulted in an increase in salinity relative compared to the reference situation (+ 0.59 %, or 0.01 mS / cm) but to different degrees depending on the prospecting soil horizon. The practice of fertilization remains the major and probable cause of soil salinization of aquifers. The effect of soluble salts on the soil was investigated through the risks associated with sodium, which showed that the soil permeability problem does not arise at this time (SAR ≤ 15). The residual sodium carbonate remains less than 1.25 meq / l thus not causing soil dispersion.

  3. The Added Value of Water Footprint Assessment for National Water Policy: A Case Study for Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Schyns, Joep F.; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2014-01-01

    A Water Footprint Assessment is carried out for Morocco, mapping the water footprint of different activities at river basin and monthly scale, distinguishing between surface- and groundwater. The paper aims to demonstrate the added value of detailed analysis of the human water footprint within a country and thorough assessment of the virtual water flows leaving and entering a country for formulating national water policy. Green, blue and grey water footprint estimates and virtual water flows are mainly derived from a previous grid-based (5×5 arc minute) global study for the period 1996–2005. These estimates are placed in the context of monthly natural runoff and waste assimilation capacity per river basin derived from Moroccan data sources. The study finds that: (i) evaporation from storage reservoirs is the second largest form of blue water consumption in Morocco, after irrigated crop production; (ii) Morocco’s water and land resources are mainly used to produce relatively low-value (in US$/m3 and US$/ha) crops such as cereals, olives and almonds; (iii) most of the virtual water export from Morocco relates to the export of products with a relatively low economic water productivity (in US$/m3); (iv) blue water scarcity on a monthly scale is severe in all river basins and pressure on groundwater resources by abstractions and nitrate pollution is considerable in most basins; (v) the estimated potential water savings by partial relocation of crops to basins where they consume less water and by reducing water footprints of crops down to benchmark levels are significant compared to demand reducing and supply increasing measures considered in Morocco’s national water strategy. PMID:24919194

  4. Cost-effectiveness of diagnostic-therapeutic strategies for paediatric visceral leishmaniasis in Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Sergi; Tachfouti, Nabil; Najdi, Adil; Sicuri, Elisa; Picado, Albert

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected parasitic disease with a high fatality rate if left untreated. Endemic in Morocco, as well as in other countries in the Mediterranean basin, VL mainly affects children living in rural areas. In Morocco, the direct observation of Leishmania parasites in bone marrow (BM) aspirates is used to diagnose VL and meglumine antimoniate (SB) is the first line of treatment. Less invasive, more efficacious and safer alternatives exist. In this study we estimate the cost-effectiveness of alternative diagnostic-therapeutic algorithms for paediatric VL in Morocco. Methods A decision tree was used to estimate the cost-effectiveness of using BM or rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) as diagnostic tools and/or SB or two liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) regimens: 6-day and 2-day courses to treat VL. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios, expressed as cost per death averted, were estimated by comparing costs and effectiveness of the alternative algorithms. A threshold analysis evaluated at which price L-AmB became cost-effective compared with current practices. Results Implementing RDT and/or L-AmB treatments would be cost-effective in Morocco according to the WHO thresholds. Introducing the 6-day course L-AmB, current second-line treatment, would be highly cost-effective if L-AmB price was below US$100/phial. The 2-day L-AmB treatment, current standard treatment of paediatric VL in France, is highly cost-effective, with L-AmB at its market price (US$165/phial). Conclusions The results of this study should encourage the implementation of RDT and/or short-course L-AmB treatments for paediatric VL management in Morocco and other North African countries. PMID:29018581

  5. Cost-effectiveness of diagnostic-therapeutic strategies for paediatric visceral leishmaniasis in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Sergi; Tachfouti, Nabil; Najdi, Adil; Sicuri, Elisa; Picado, Albert

    2017-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected parasitic disease with a high fatality rate if left untreated. Endemic in Morocco, as well as in other countries in the Mediterranean basin, VL mainly affects children living in rural areas. In Morocco, the direct observation of Leishmania parasites in bone marrow (BM) aspirates is used to diagnose VL and meglumine antimoniate (SB) is the first line of treatment. Less invasive, more efficacious and safer alternatives exist. In this study we estimate the cost-effectiveness of alternative diagnostic-therapeutic algorithms for paediatric VL in Morocco. A decision tree was used to estimate the cost-effectiveness of using BM or rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) as diagnostic tools and/or SB or two liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) regimens: 6-day and 2-day courses to treat VL. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios, expressed as cost per death averted, were estimated by comparing costs and effectiveness of the alternative algorithms. A threshold analysis evaluated at which price L-AmB became cost-effective compared with current practices. Implementing RDT and/or L-AmB treatments would be cost-effective in Morocco according to the WHO thresholds. Introducing the 6-day course L-AmB, current second-line treatment, would be highly cost-effective if L-AmB price was below US$100/phial. The 2-day L-AmB treatment, current standard treatment of paediatric VL in France, is highly cost-effective, with L-AmB at its market price (US$165/phial). The results of this study should encourage the implementation of RDT and/or short-course L-AmB treatments for paediatric VL management in Morocco and other North African countries.

  6. Anti-Atlas Mountains, Morocco

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-01-08

    The Anti-Atlas Mountains of Morocco formed as a result of the collision of the African and Eurasian tectonic plates about 80 million years ago. This collision destroyed the Tethys Ocean; the limestone, sandstone, claystone, and gypsum layers that formed the ocean bed were folded and crumpled to create the Atlas and Anti-Atlas Mountains. In this ASTER image, short wavelength infrared bands are combined to dramatically highlight the different rock types, and illustrate the complex folding. The yellowish, orange and green areas are limestones, sandstones and gypsum; the dark blue and green areas are underlying granitic rocks. The ability to map geology using ASTER data is enhanced by the multiple short wavelength infrared bands, that are sensitive to differences in rock mineralogy. This image was acquired on June 13, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA03893

  7. Breast cancer in Morocco: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Slaoui, Meriem; Razine, Rachid; Ibrahimi, Azeddine; Attaleb, Mohammed; Mzibri, Mohammed El; Amrani, Mariam

    2014-01-01

    In Morocco, breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in women and a major public health problem. Several Moroccan studies have focused on studying this disease, but more are needed, especially at the genetic and molecular levels. It is therefore interesting to establish the genetic and molecular profile of Moroccan patients with breast cancer. In this paper, we will highlight some pertinent hypotheses that may enhance breast cancer care in Moroccan patients. This review will give a precise description of breast cancer in Morocco and propose some new markers for detection and prediction of breast cancer prognosis.

  8. Contrasting terrace systems of the lower Moulouya river as indicator of crustal deformation in NE Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rixhon, Gilles; Bartz, Melanie; El Ouahabi, Meriam; Szemkus, Nina; Brückner, Helmut

    2017-02-01

    The Moulouya river has the largest catchment in Morocco and drains an area characterized by active crustal deformation during the Late Cenozoic due to the N-S convergence between the African and Eurasian plates. As yet, its Pleistocene terrace sequence remains poorly documented. Our study focuses on the lowermost reach of the river in north-eastern Morocco, which drains the Zebra-Triffa sedimentary basin directly upstream of the estuary. New field observations, measurements and sedimentological data reveal contrasting fluvial environments on each side of a newly identified, W-E striking thrust zone disrupting the sedimentary basin. On the one hand, long-lasting fluvial aggradation, materialized by 37 m-thick stacked terraces, has occurred in the footwall of the thrust. On the other hand, the hanging wall is characterized by a well-preserved terrace staircase, with three Pleistocene terrace levels. Whilst the identification of this thrust zone question some previous interpretations about the local (hydro-)geology, it is consistent with the statement that most of the Plio-Quaternary deformation in the eastern Rif mountains has concentrated in this region of Morocco. Our new data and interpretations also agree with morphometric indicators showing that the whole Moulouya catchment is at desequilibrium state (i.e. several knickzones in its longitudinal profile), showing several knickzones in its longitudinal profile, is at disequilibrium state. We also suggest that the knickzone in the Beni Snassen gorge, located directly upstream of the Zebra-Triffa sedimentary basin, could (partly) result from a transient fluvial reaction to Late Cenozoic thrusting activity and correlated uplift in the hanging wall.

  9. Epidemiological characteristics of visceral leishmaniasis in Morocco (1990-2014): an update.

    PubMed

    Mniouil, Meryem; Fellah, Hajiba; Amarir, Fatima; Et-Touys, Abdeslamd; Bekhti, Khadija; Adlaoui, El Bachir; Bakri, Youssef; Nhammi, Haddou; Sadak, Abderrahim; Sebti, Faiza

    2017-06-01

    Leishmaniases are parasitic diseases frequent in the Mediterranean Basin. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a notifiable parasitic disease that increased in incidence in Morocco over the past few years and has recently emerged in several new foci, causing a public health problem in Morocco. The aim of this study is to describe the spatio-temporal distribution of VL in Morocco between 1990 and 2014 period in order to highlight important features and trends of VL and its epidemiology and to assess whether the activity of the unit reflects the situation of the disease at the national level and whether it could constitute an indicator of public health relevance. Two thousand four hundred and twenty one cases were reported in Morocco between 1990 and 2014 with an average annual reported incidence rate of 0.4 cases per 100.000 inhabitants. Before 1996 the average annual incidence of VL was 50 cases on average. After this date the number of cases increased and then remained stable with around 100-150 cases per year. Children whose age varies between 1 and 4 years old are the most affected with 1327 (74%) of total cases; nevertheless the adult starts to be affected by the disease. In 2000, 65% of positive cases of VL are concentrated at both northern regions: Taza-Al Hoceima- Taounate with 45% of cases, Tanger- Tetouan mainly represented by Chefchaoun with 20% of cases. The Fez-Boulemane region located in the center recorded 12% of cases. Throughout the years the map VL distribution has been progressively changed and spatial spread of the disease to the center is noted in 2007. 2014 has been marked by an even greater extension of the disease to the center and south of Morocco. Nationally in 2014, 34 of 75 provinces and prefectures are affected compared to 2000, when 22 out of 82 provinces and prefectures were affected. Leishmania infantum was identified the causative agent based on species- specific PCR-Lei70 assay. VL remains a sporadically endemic parasitic disease in

  10. A new species of Aphelocheirus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Aphelocheiridae) from Morocco.

    PubMed

    Millán, Andrés; L'Mohdi, Ouassima; Antonio Carbonell, José; Taybi, Abdelkhaleq Fouzi; Dakki, Mohamed

    2016-10-10

    This paper provides the description of a new species of Aphelocheirus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Aphelocheiridae), Aphelocheirus pemae sp. nov. from Morocco. The species was found in two sites located in different basins (Sebou and Moulouya rivers) that are separated by approximately 400 km. Photographs of the dorsal habitus of the female and illustrations of the male genitalic structures are provided. A graphical key to species of the genus in Western Europe and the Maghreb is also included. The new species can be easily distinguished by the unique shape of the left and right parameres and absence of apical spines on the aedeagus.

  11. Anti-Atlas Mountains, Morocco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Anti-Atlas Mountains of Morocco formed as a result of the collision of the African and Eurasian tectonic plates about 80 million years ago. This collision destroyed the Tethys Ocean; the limestone, sandstone, claystone, and gypsum layers that formed the ocean bed were folded and crumpled to create the Atlas and Anti-Atlas Mountains. In this ASTER image, short wavelength infrared bands are combined to dramatically highlight the different rock types, and illustrate the complex folding. The yellowish, orange and green areas are limestones, sandstones and gypsum; the dark blue and green areas are underlying granitic rocks. The ability to map geology using ASTER data is enhanced by the multiple short wavelength infrared bands, that are sensitive to differences in rock mineralogy. This image was acquired on June 13, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils

  12. Area Handbook Series: Morocco: A Country Study,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-01

    women have less use for another language and are said for the most part to remain monolingual . One authority has reported that less than 1 percent of...Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1970. Spencer, William. Historical Dictionary of Morocco. (African Historical Dictionaries ...Middle East and Africa, 5, No. 164 (FBIS-MEA-84-164), August 22, 1984, Q1-Q7. Hodges, Tony. Historical Dictionary of Western Sahara. (African

  13. Aerosols in Northern Morocco: Input pathways and their chemical fingerprint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benchrif, A.; Guinot, B.; Bounakhla, M.; Cachier, H.; Damnati, B.; Baghdad, B.

    2018-02-01

    The Mediterranean basin is one of the most sensitive regions in the world regarding climate change and air quality. Deserts and marine aerosols combine with combustion aerosols from maritime traffic, large urban centers, and at a larger scale from populated industrialized regions in Europe. From Tetouan city located in the North of Morocco, we attempted to better figure out the main aerosol transport pathways and their respective aerosol load and chemical profile by examining air mass back trajectory patterns and aerosol chemical compositions from May 2011 to April 2012. The back trajectory analysis throughout the sampling period led to four clusters, for which meteorological conditions and aerosol chemical characteristics have been investigated. The most frequent cluster (CL3: 39%) corresponds to polluted air masses coming from the Mediterranean Basin, characterized by urban and marine vessels emissions out of Spain and of Northern Africa. Two other polluted clusters were characterized. One is of local origin (CL1: 22%), with a marked contribution from urban aerosols (Rabat, Casablanca) and from biomass burning aerosols. The second (CL2: 32%) defines air masses from the near Atlantic Ocean, affected by pollutants emitted from the Iberian coast. A fourth cluster (CL4: 7%) is characterized by rather clean, fast and rainy oceanic air masses, influenced during their last 24 h before reaching Tetouan by similar sources with those affecting CL2, but to a lesser extent. The chemical data show that carbonaceous species are found in the fine aerosols fraction and are generally from local primary sources (low OC/EC) rather than long-range transported. In addition to fresh traffic and maritime vessel aerosols, our results suggest the contribution of local biomass burning.

  14. New clinico-epidemiologic profile of cutaneous leishmaniasis, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Rhajaoui, Mohamed; Nasereddin, Abedelmajeed; Fellah, Hajiba; Azmi, Kifaya; Amarir, Fatima; Al-Jawabreh, Amer; Ereqat, Suheir; Planer, Joseph; Abdeen, Ziad

    2007-09-01

    During the past 20 years, cutaneous leishmaniasis has emerged as a major public health threat in Morocco. We describe distribution of Leishmania major and L. tropica in Morocco and a new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to L. infantum. We recommend using molecular techniques to diagnose suspected leishmaniasis cases.

  15. Transnational Education in Morocco: Current and Future Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benahnia, Abdellah

    2015-01-01

    Transnational education (TNE) is becoming a phenomenon in the world of education in many countries. Morocco is included. The flourishing and spreading of many foreign educational institutions, products, and activities is becoming noticeable. As an Islamic nation, Morocco has long maintained its business and educational ties with different foreign…

  16. Discovering Morocco: Using the Five Fundamental Themes of Geography in Order to Discover Morocco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, William P.

    2005-01-01

    This curriculum unit, intended to be used with elementary school students, provides information about a North African, Moslem, Arab, country: Morocco. The unit presents objectives, strategies, materials needed, background notes, evaluation methods, and assignments that fulfill National Social Studies Standards and National Geography standards. It…

  17. Morocco and Senegal: Faces of Islam in Africa. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1999 (Morocco and Senegal).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for International Education (ED), Washington, DC.

    These projects were completed by participants in the Fulbright-Hays summer seminar in Morocco and Senegal in 1999. The participants represented various regions of the United States and different grade levels and subject areas. The 13 curriculum projects in the collection are: (1) "Doorway to Morocco: A Student Guide" (Sue Robertson); (2)…

  18. Challenges of Globalization: Morocco and Tunisia. Curriculum Projects. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2001 (Morocco and Tunisia).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This publication contains a collection of curriculum projects developed by educators who were participants in the 2001 Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program in Morocco and Tunisia. The 13 curriculum projects in the publication are entitled: "Women in Morocco, Artists and Artisans" (Virginia da Costa); "Cultures of…

  19. Morocco, Kingdom of the young geologist!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouttemy, Franck

    2015-04-01

    The Kingdom of Morocco is a country of 33 million people where about thirty French schools enroll 32,000 students including a majority of Moroccans. The Rabat Center includes several institutions enrolling 5,700 students aged 10 to 18 years old whose High School René Descartes is directed by the A.E.F.E, "Agency for French Teaching Abroad". Sixteen professors teach S.V.T. "Sciences de la Vie et de la Terre" that focuses on biology and geology. The programs involved are French but the biology-geology colleagues seek to place the teaching of geology in the context of Morocco through the choice of Moroccan examples. (https://sites.google.com/site/aefesvtmaroc/) Morocco's geology lends itself to this approach! The laboratory is equipped with a seismometer in the network "Sismos to School" (https://sites.google.com/a/lycee-descartes.ma/rabt_sismo/home) and we have the equipment necessary for making thin sections of the Moroccan rocks for practical work on a polarizing microscope. We organize several field trips: On a half-day in the region of Rabat, 12-year old pupils of "5ème", learn about reading the landscape and studying sedimentary rocks such as marls and sandstones. On a 3-day excursion in the region of Azrou, the16-year old pupils of "première scientifique" study the tectonic context of formation of mineral resources. A 2-day trip in the region of Oulmès, the17-year old pupils of "terminale scientifique" (the last year in the French system finishing with the "baccalaureate") study continental crust, tectonics and geothermal energy. These field trips will be presented in this poster. Students make field studies: observation, testing, photography, drawing and taking notes. Some works are evaluated during the field trip, others are the subject of home work: preparing a slide show, an audio recording work...

  20. Five new records of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Morocco.

    PubMed

    Taheri, Ahmed; Reyes-López, Joaquin L

    2015-01-01

    A recent catalogue of the rich ant fauna of Morocco included 214 species, with later studies adding an additional 12 species. Following recent fieldwork in the north of Morocco, we report five new records for the country (Plagiolepis pygmaea Latreille, 1798, Ponera testacea Emery, 1895, Strumigenys tenuipilis Emery, 1915, Temnothorax pardoi Tinaut, 1987, and Tetramorium parvioculum Guillem & Bensusan, 2009) and we present new data on the distribution and natural history of six additional species. This work brings the total number of ants known from Morocco to 233, taking into account two species which were omitted in the list of Cagniant. © Crown copyright 2015.

  1. Five New Records of Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) From Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Taheri, Ahmed; Reyes-López, Joaquin L.

    2015-01-01

    A recent catalogue of the rich ant fauna of Morocco included 214 species, with later studies adding an additional 12 species. Following recent fieldwork in the north of Morocco, we report five new records for the country (Plagiolepis pygmaea Latreille, 1798, Ponera testacea Emery, 1895, Strumigenys tenuipilis Emery, 1915, Temnothorax pardoi Tinaut, 1987, and Tetramorium parvioculum Guillem & Bensusan, 2009) and we present new data on the distribution and natural history of six additional species. This work brings the total number of ants known from Morocco to 233, taking into account two species which were omitted in the list of Cagniant. PMID:25843590

  2. Agricultural innovations in Morocco's cannabis industry.

    PubMed

    Chouvy, Pierre-Arnaud; Macfarlane, Jennifer

    2018-06-06

    Cannabis cultivation in Morocco's mountainous Rif region is undergoing its most profound development since mass production of hashish began in the early 1980s. The adoption of high-yielding varieties of cannabis, modern agricultural practices, and modern hashish production techniques began in the mid-2000s and accelerated after the mid-2010s, with the result that more potent and varied cannabis derivatives are now being produced and that increased quantities of highly potent hashish are seized in Europe. This research was initiated to answer a simple research question: how, and to what extent, is the illegal cannabis industry modernizing in Morocco, now that we know that it explains the THC increase in hashish seized in Europe? To answer this question in the context of a lack of literature and quantitative data, empirical fieldwork was undertaken in cannabis fields and hashish-producing farms in Morocco in July and October 2017. A mostly qualitative approach to data collection was employed through participatory rural appraisals (discussions, interviews, direct observations). As such, this work builds predominantly upon primary research. Fieldwork showed that, subsequent to very localized, experimental beginnings in the early 2000s, the progressive and varied adoption of agricultural innovations at the cultivation and production stages has spread throughout the Rif during the 2010s. Interviews and direct observations conducted in the field indicate that the ongoing adoption of modern farming techniques has enabled the production of high-quality hashish and potent modern extracts. The still ongoing modernization and professionalization of the Moroccan cannabis industry is a testimony of the country's leading position in global hashish production. What the future holds for Moroccan cannabis growers is difficult to predict. How legalization processes manifest themselves in Moroccan and European policies, and how upcoming developments will affect the social, economic

  3. Gerisa - Using Foss in Environmental Risk Management for the Coastal Areas of w- Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loewner, R.; Elbchari, F.; Theilen-Willige, B.; Ait Malek, H.; Ayt Ougougdal, M.; Chaibi, M.; Charif, A.; Nakhcha, C.; Ridaoui, M.

    2013-12-01

    Pilot region of the GeRiSa project (Gestion des risques de l'environnement dans la région de Safi) is the Sahel of Abda (Morocco) located on the Atlantic coast of western Morocco between the lagoon of Oualidia and the Tensift river basin. It belongs to the Coastal Meseta and forms an erosional platform covered by accumulations of various Meso-cenozoic sediments. Firstly, the study area is characterized by a variety of geomorphological units (depressions, plateaus, cliffs, dunes, estuaries, etc.) and shows a considerable natural richness. Secondly, it illustrates its importance for the national economy by intensive social and economic activities. During the last century, this region has been affected by intensive changes from urban growth, tourism, industrial and commercial development, inducing a considerable vulnerability to natural hazards such as coastal erosion, landslides, flooding, Tsunamis and seismicity. In order to give solutions to these problems, the three-year GeRiSa project with the support of the bilateral Moroccan-German Programme of Scientific Research (PMARS) promoted by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the German Aerospace Center (DLR), will implement a knowledge pool and a risk management centre for natural hazards at the Polydisciplinary Faculty of the Cadi Ayyad University of Safi (Morocco). GeRiSa addresses fundamental scientific, environmental and anthropological problems of national importance and social relevance. The aim is a regional real-time geoinformation system with worldwide access via Internet and interdisciplinary dynamic content, enabling the communication between universities, local authorities and public organisation. In this sense, this multidisciplinary project focuses on a synthesis of various works, approaches and collaborations in-progress, previous completed projects and already existing data combining it with new research results. One of the main research targets within this project is the

  4. Revisiting the magnetostratigraphy of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) in Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Font, E.; Youbi, N.; Fernandes, S.; El Hachimi, H.; Kratinová, Z.; Hamim, Y.

    2011-09-01

    The origin of the Triassic-Jurassic (Tr-J) mass extinction is still a matter of debate: proponents of the idea that continental flood basalts of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) are responsible for the crisis are opposed by those who favor an extraterrestrial origin linked to the impact of meteorite. Principal limitations reside in the difficulty to date and correlate CAMP lavas with the marine realm turnover. One argument widely used to suggest that CAMP lavas pre-dated the Tr-J boundary in Morocco is based on the presence of two brief magnetic reversals in the intermediate units of the Tiourjdal and Oued Lahr sections (Morocco) that were correlated to the E23r chron from the Newark basin and to the SA5n.2r/3r and SA5r chrons of the Saint Audrie Bay [Knight, K.B., Nomade, S., Renne, P.R., Marzoli, A., Betrand, H., Youbi, N., 2004. The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary: paleomagnetic and 40Ar/ 30Ar evidence from Morocco for brief, episodic volcanism. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 228, 143-160]. However the primary origin for these negative (reverse) magnetic components is questionable since no field or reversal test was provided to constrain the primary character of the remanence as well as because the small number of samples. Here we have conducted a detailed paleomagnetic and magnetic mineralogy study of the interbedded limestones of the Tiourjdal section and of other CAMP lavas sections where the intermediate unit is complete, namely the Tizi El Hajaj, Jbel Imzar and Aït Ourir sections, to better constrain the origin and stratigraphic location of these negative magnetic components. We show that the interbedded limestones of the Tiourjdal section were entirely remagnetized by chemical processes via acid and oxidizing hydrothermal fluids generated by eruptions of CAMP lavas. In addition, magnetostratigraphic data of the Tizi El Hajaj, Jbel Imzar and Aït Ourir sections show that the entire intermediate unit

  5. Health Financing And Insurance Reform In Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah; Kress, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The government of Morocco approved two reforms in 2005 to expand health insurance coverage. The first is a payroll-based mandatory health insurance plan for public-and formal private–sector employees to extend coverage from the current 16 percent of the population to 30 percent. The second creates a publicly financed fund to cover services for the poor. Both reforms aim to improve access to high-quality care and reduce disparities in access and financing between income groups and between rural and urban dwellers. In this paper we analyze these reforms: the pre-reform debate, benefits covered, financing, administration, and oversight. We also examine prospects and future challenges for implementing the reforms. PMID:17630444

  6. Urbanization of human visceral leishmaniasis in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Kahime, Kholoud; Boussaa, Samia; Nhammi, Haddou; Boumezzough, Ali

    2017-11-01

    Human visceral leishmaniasis one of the seven most neglected tropical diseases in the world. In Morocco, HVL is widespread in all regions; but it is more common in the northern part with sporadic cases observed in the South. During the period between 2004 and 2013, the most affected Moroccan provinces were Taounate province, with 220 cases (16.09% of all cases), followed by Chefchaouen with 13.17% and Taza with 10.46% of the total cases. Children < 5 years old are the most affected age group, most cases registered were male. Geographic distribution of HVL showed predominance in rural areas but we noted that it's opening to be urban.

  7. Contrasted terrace systems of the lower Moulouya valley as indicator of crustal deformation in NE Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rixhon, Gilles; Bartz, Melanie; El Ouahabi, Meriam; Szemkus, Nina; Brueckner, Helmut

    2016-04-01

    The Moulouya river has the largest catchment in Morocco and drains an area which is characterized by active crustal deformation during the Late Cenozoic due to the convergence between the African and Eurasian plates. As yet, its Pleistocene terrace sequence remains poorly documented. Our study focuses on the lowermost reach of the river in NE Morocco, which drains the Triffa sedimentary basin directly upstream of the estuary. New field observations, measurements and sedimentological data reveal contrasted fluvial environments on either side of a newly identified thrust zone, which disrupts the whole sedimentary basin and is associated with N-S compressive shortening in this region (Barcos et al., 2014). Long-lasting fluvial aggradation, materialized by ≥37 m-thick stacked fill terraces, and the development of a well-preserved terrace staircase, with (at least) three Pleistocene terrace levels, occur in the footwall and the hanging wall of the thrust, respectively. Same as for the Pleistocene terrace sediments of the middle Moulouya, a recurrent sedimentary pattern, characterized by fining-upward sequences was observed in the studied terrace profiles. Assessing the rates of crustal deformation along this main thrust zone requires age estimations for these Pleistocene terrace deposits of the lower Moulouya on each side of the thrust. Samples for luminescence (OSL/IRSL), electron spin resonance (ESR, on quartz) and cosmogenic nuclide dating (26Al/10Be, burial dating) were collected in terrace deposits located both in the foot- and hanging walls. Sample preparation and analysis as well as age determination are in progress. The preliminary data mentioned above, soon to be completed by chronological data, agree well with morphometric indicators stating that the whole Moulouya catchment is at disequilibrium state (Barcos et al., 2014). This is confirmed by several knickpoints in its longitudinal profile. Late Cenozoic uplift associated with crustal shortening, which

  8. Assessment of the effects rejections of feed fish on water resources.: (Ouedoumerrbia, Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouaissa, Khadija; Kritihi, Assia; Oumessoud, Youness; Maychal, Abdelaziz; Hasnaoui, Mustapha

    2018-05-01

    In order to compare the effects of three types of extruded food (A, B and C) on the growth of rainbow trout, an experimental test was conducted on June 15, 2015 at a rainbow trout farming station near river of Oumerrrabi .Morocco. The comparison of three foods of different composition and energy is performed in isoenergetic conditions. Six basins were used for this comparative test. These basins are fed with fresh water according to the open circuit with a renewal of twice an hour. The initial feeding conditions were the same for the three food types and the initial density of 1, 58 kg/m3 (kg by volume) and an initial flow rate of 1, 04 m3/h. Fish are fed by ratios two to three times a day depending on the magnification stage. The sampling frequency is fortnightly, where we measure the zootechnical performance of fish and collect water samples for physicochemical analyses in order to assess the quality of the water leaving in the basins before their discharge into the river of Oum Er-Rbia. The comparative trial of three fish foods (A, B, and C) revealed that diet B is the better formulation reflected by the zootechnical performances and low phosphate release than diet A and C.

  9. Use of (137)Cs technique for soil erosion study in the agricultural region of Casablanca in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Nouira, A; Sayouty, E H; Benmansour, M

    2003-01-01

    Accelerated erosion and soil degradation currently cause serious problems to the Oued El Maleh basin (Morocco). Furthermore, there is still only limited information on rates of soil loss for optimising strategies for soil conservation. In the present study we have used the (137)Cs technique to assess the soil erosion rates on an agricultural land in Oued el Maleh basin near Casablanca (Morocco). A small representative agricultural field was selected to investigate the soil degradation required by soil managers in this region. The transect approach was applied for sampling to identify the spatial redistribution of (137)Cs. The spatial variability of (137)Cs inventory has provided evidence of the importance of tillage process and the human effects on the redistribution of (137)Cs. The mean (137)Cs inventory was found about 842 Bq m(-2), this value corresponds to an erosion rate of 82 tha(-1) yr(-1) by applying simplified mass balance model in a preliminary estimation. When data on site characteristics were available, the refined mass balance model was applied to highlight the contribution of tillage effect in soil redistribution. The erosion rate was estimated about 50 tha(-1) yr(-1). The aspects related to the sampling procedures and the models for calculation of erosion rates are discussed.

  10. Primary and Secondary Education in Morocco: From Access to School into Generalization to Dropout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansouri, Zoulal; Moumine, Mohamed El Amine

    2017-01-01

    This article provides an overview of school wastage, namely repetition and dropout in primary and secondary schools in Morocco. It describes how this phenomenon has progressed since school was implemented in the 1960s. It shows that the fundamental principles of the education system established in the aftermath of Morocco?s independence in 1956…

  11. 75 FR 28187 - Importation of Tomatoes From Souss-Massa-Draa, Morocco; Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ...-0017] RIN 0579-AC77 Importation of Tomatoes From Souss-Massa-Draa, Morocco; Technical Amendment AGENCY... tomatoes from the Souss-Massa-Draa region of Morocco into the United States. However, we incorrectly... of commercial shipments of tomatoes from the Souss-Massa-Draa region of Morocco subject to a systems...

  12. Molecular epidemiology of canine parvovirus in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Amrani, Nadia; Desario, Costantina; Kadiri, Ahlam; Cavalli, Alessandra; Berrada, Jaouad; Zro, Khalil; Sebbar, Ghizlane; Colaianni, Maria Loredana; Parisi, Antonio; Elia, Gabriella; Buonavoglia, Canio; Malik, Jamal; Decaro, Nicola

    2016-07-01

    Since it first emergence in the mid-1970's, canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) has evolved giving rise to new antigenic variants termed CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c, which have completely replaced the original strain and had been variously distributed worldwide. In Africa limited data are available on epidemiological prevalence of these new types. Hence, the aim of the present study was to determine circulating variants in Morocco. Through TaqMan-based real-time PCR assay, 91 samples, collected from symptomatic dogs originating from various cities between 2011 and 2015, were diagnosed. Positive specimens were characterised by means of minor groove binder (MGB) probe PCR. The results showed that all samples but one (98.9%) were CPV positive, of which 1 (1.1%) was characterised as CPV-2a, 43 (47.7%) as CPV-2b and 39 (43.3%) as CPV-2c. Interestingly, a co-infection with CPV-2b and CPV-2c was detected in 4 (4.4%) samples and 3 (3.3%) samples were not characterised. Sequencing of the full VP2 gene revealed these 3 uncharacterised strains as CPV-2c, displaying a change G4068A responsible for the replacement of aspartic acid with asparagine at residue 427, impacting the MGB probe binding. In this work we provide a better understanding of the current status of prevailing CPV strains in northern Africa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Physical violence during pregnancy in Morocco].

    PubMed

    Boufettal, H; Obaid, B; Belhouss, A; Hermas, S; Noun, M; Samouh, N

    2012-02-01

    Physical abuse are a serious social problem and an issue of perinatal health. This article presents the results of a survey conducted at the CHU Ibn Rochd of Casablanca (Morocco), over a period of one year, in order to determine their frequency, risk factors, maternal diseases and obstetric complications. The results of our survey found that women who reported physical abuse have a frequency of 12.3% (107 cases). The average age of these women is 22.3 years; 65.6% of parturients are illiterate, 45% are from a disadvantaged socioeconomic status, 47% originated from a rural county; 37% are unmarried; half of the abused are multiparous with an average of 3.2 living children; 23% of the pregnancies are unplanned. Lastly, 37.3% of pregnant partners are unemployed and 67% have toxic habits. Obstetric complications are fairly frequent and mental effects are not negligible with 3 attempted suicides and attempted homicide. Early identification of abuse suffered by pregnant women and taking measures to prevent them could reduce the occurrence of these adverse effects. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  14. Cost of Pediatric Visceral Leishmaniasis Care in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Tachfouti, Nabil; Najdi, Adil; Alonso, Sergi; Sicuri, Elisa; Laamrani El Idrissi, Abderahmane; Nejjari, Chakib; Picado, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected parasitic disease that is fatal if left untreated. VL is endemic in Morocco and other countries in North Africa were it mainly affects children from rural areas. In Morocco, the direct observation of Leishmania parasites in bone marrow aspirates and serological tests are used to diagnose VL. Glucantime is the first line of treatment. The objective of this study was to report the costs associated to standard clinical management of pediatric VL from the provider perspective in Morocco. As a secondary objective we described the current clinical practices and the epidemiological characteristics of pediatric VL patients. From March to June 2014 we conducted a survey in eight hospitals treating pediatric VL patients in Morocco. A pro-forma was used to collect demographic, clinical and management data from medical records. We specifically collected data on VL diagnosis and treatment. We also estimated the days of hospitalization and the time to start VL treatment. Costs were estimated by multiplying the use of resources in terms of number of days in hospital, tests performed and drugs provided by the official prices. For patients receiving part of their treatment at Primary Health Centers (PHC) we estimated the cost of administering the Glucantime as outpatient. We calculated the median cost per VL patient. We also estimated the cost of managing a VL case when different treatment strategies were applied: inpatient and outpatient. We obtained data from 127 VL patients. The median total cost per pediatric VL case in Morocco is 520 US$. The cost in hospitals applying an outpatient strategy is significantly lower (307 US$) than hospitals keeping the patients for the whole treatment (636 US$). However the outpatient strategy is not yet recommended as VL treatment for children in the Moroccan guidelines. VL diagnosis and treatment regimens should be standardized following the current guidelines in Morocco.

  15. Cost of Pediatric Visceral Leishmaniasis Care in Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Sergi; Sicuri, Elisa; Laamrani El Idrissi, Abderahmane; Nejjari, Chakib; Picado, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected parasitic disease that is fatal if left untreated. VL is endemic in Morocco and other countries in North Africa were it mainly affects children from rural areas. In Morocco, the direct observation of Leishmania parasites in bone marrow aspirates and serological tests are used to diagnose VL. Glucantime is the first line of treatment. The objective of this study was to report the costs associated to standard clinical management of pediatric VL from the provider perspective in Morocco. As a secondary objective we described the current clinical practices and the epidemiological characteristics of pediatric VL patients. Methods From March to June 2014 we conducted a survey in eight hospitals treating pediatric VL patients in Morocco. A pro-forma was used to collect demographic, clinical and management data from medical records. We specifically collected data on VL diagnosis and treatment. We also estimated the days of hospitalization and the time to start VL treatment. Costs were estimated by multiplying the use of resources in terms of number of days in hospital, tests performed and drugs provided by the official prices. For patients receiving part of their treatment at Primary Health Centers (PHC) we estimated the cost of administering the Glucantime as outpatient. We calculated the median cost per VL patient. We also estimated the cost of managing a VL case when different treatment strategies were applied: inpatient and outpatient. Results We obtained data from 127 VL patients. The median total cost per pediatric VL case in Morocco is 520 US$. The cost in hospitals applying an outpatient strategy is significantly lower (307 US$) than hospitals keeping the patients for the whole treatment (636 US$). However the outpatient strategy is not yet recommended as VL treatment for children in the Moroccan guidelines. VL diagnosis and treatment regimens should be standardized following the current guidelines in Morocco

  16. NPHIs and public goods: a perspective from Morocco.

    PubMed

    Hassar, Mohammed

    2008-04-01

    National Public Health Institutes (NPHIs) provide critical functions that protect and support public health. In Morocco, these functions are divided among three different agencies. Consolidation of these functions into a single agency would encourage a comprehensive approach to public health in Morocco, providing an environment that can support work in new areas of public health (such as chronic diseases), decreasing competition and overlap among agencies, and increasing efficiency. Working together, NPHIs need to develop data and support advocacy so that funding goes not only to the diseases that are in the news and getting attention, but also to those Core Functions that contribute daily to the health and safety of all people.

  17. Découverte de deux nouvelles espèces du genre Myocricetodon dans le Miocène supérieur du bassin d'Aït Kandoula (Maroc)Discovery of two new species of Myocricetodon genus in the Upper Miocene of Aït Kandoula basin (Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benammi, Mouloud

    2001-08-01

    The Aı̈t Kandoula basin is known for its abundance of micromammal fauna. The systematic study of the fauna of two layers of the Afoud section (AF6 and AF5), highlights the presence of two new species: Myocricetodon afoudensis nov. sp. and Myocricetodon jaegeri nov. sp. These two layers are respectively dated at 10.1 and 6.3 Ma by magnetostratigraphic correlation.

  18. Educational Reforms in Morocco: Evolution and Current Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llorent-Bedmar, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Since 1956, the year in Morocco achieved independence, until now, the school system has been the subject of many discussions and controversies in the most varied areas of the country. We provide data on the educational situation. We analyze the reforms from a critical perspective, ending with final proposals. He underlined that the sector was…

  19. Pre-School Education in Morocco and Algeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouzoubaa, Khadija; Benghabrit-Remaoun, Nouria

    2004-01-01

    This article is an analysis of the current state of early childhood care in the Maghreb, in particular in Morocco and Algeria, where the pre-schooling rate for 5-year-olds is on the increase. Extending pre-school infrastructures and the need to create unified curricula have been among the most urgent questions to be tackled over the last decade in…

  20. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A 100-item bibliography with abstracts of books, newspaper articles, and periodical articles in English and French published predominantly in 1970 offers information on various aspects of education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Emphasis is placed on sections dealing with: (1) educational philosophy, administration, statistics, and…

  1. A Case Study on Undergraduate Entrepreneurial Constructivist Learning in Morocco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benamar, Said

    2016-01-01

    Jobs are available for university graduates with entrepreneurship skills, but unemployment in Morocco persists because of the dissociation between university entrepreneurship graduate skills and professional market demand. While university graduates have achieved academic standards, they have lacked the entrepreneurial attributes to be employable.…

  2. Apyretic gastrointestinal disorders due to giardiasis contracted in Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Meunier, Yann A.; Hole, Michael K.

    2011-01-01

    We present the case of a 32-year-old French man who presented with morning nausea, bloating, frequent flatulence, burping, occasional pyrosis, and alternating diarrhea and constipation two weeks after a trip to Morocco. The diagnosis was established by a parasitological stool exam that revealed cysts of Giardia lamblia. He was successfully treated with tinidazole. PMID:24765301

  3. The Teaching of English in Morocco: The Place of Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Martin

    1994-01-01

    This article discusses Moroccan attitudes toward English language instruction and usage, focusing on such issues as "cultural imperialism," the deculturalization of English, and implications for teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in Morocco. It is argued that a culturally sensitive approach to EFL instruction should focus more…

  4. Non-Formal Education for Women in Morocco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.

    Morocco's three non-formal educational programs for "the hard core poor female adolescent school drop-out" differ in the kind and effectiveness of training offered. The Foyers Feminins program, although it claims to emphasize crafts and literacy, is in fact, definitely geared towards the teaching of handicrafts. The Ouvroir Centers…

  5. Bituminaria antiatlantica (Psoraleeae, Fabaceae), a new species from Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Brullo, Salvatore; Brullo, Cristian; Cambria, Salvatore; Cristaudo, Antonia; del Galdo, Gianpietro Giusso

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Bituminaria is described and illustrated: Bituminaria antiatlantica Brullo, C. Brullo, Cambria, Cristaudo & Giusso, sp. nov., which is endemic to Anti-Atlas Mountains (Morocco). It is a true chasmophyte, characterized by a suffruticose habit, several woody branches, leaflets coriaceous, rounded to ovate, small, few-flowered inflorescences and corolla pale coloured. PMID:29033664

  6. Reform of Secondary Education in Morocco: Challenges and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diyen, Hayat

    2004-01-01

    As people embark on a new globalized world, the old formal system of education in the Arab world is facing challenges and dilemmas. How can the new system preserve their Islamic and Arabic culture, while incorporating strategies for a new globalized world? This article tries to answer some of these questions by focusing on Morocco as a case study.…

  7. Total petroleum systems of the Grand Erg/Ahnet Province, Algeria and Morocco; the Tanezzuft-Timimoun, Tanezzuft-Ahnet, Tanezzuft-Sbaa, Tanezzuft Mouydir, Tanezzuft-Benoud, and Tanezzuft-Bechar/Abadla

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.

    2000-01-01

    Undiscovered, conventional oil and gas resources were assessed within total petroleum systems of the Grand Erg/Ahnet Province (2058) as part of the U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000. The majority of the Grand Erg/ Ahnet Province is in western Algeria; a very small portion extends into Morocco. The province includes the Timimoun Basin, Ahnet Basin, Sbaa Basin, Mouydir Basin, Benoud Trough, Bechar/Abadla Basin(s), and part of the Oued Mya Basin. Although several petroleum systems may exist within each of these basins, only seven ?composite? total petroleum systems were identified. Each total petroleum system occurs in a separate basin, and each comprises a single assessment unit. The main source rocks are the Silurian Tanezzuft Formation (or lateral equivalents) and Middle to Upper Devonian mudstone. Maturation history and the major migration pathways from source to reservoir are unique to each basin. The total petroleum systems were named after the oldest major source rock and the basin in which it resides. The estimated means of the undiscovered conventional petroleum volumes in total petroleum systems of the Grand Erg/ Ahnet Province are as follows: [MMBO, million barrels of oil; BCFG, billion cubic feet of gas; MMBNGL, million barrels of natural gas liquids] Total Petroleum System MMBO BCFG MMBNGL Tanezzuft-Timimoun 31 1,128 56 Tanezzuft-Ahnet 34 2,973 149 Tanezzuft-Sbaa 162 645 11 Tanezzuft-Mouydir 12 292 14 Tanezzuft-Benoud 72 2,541 125 Tanezzuft-Bechar/Abadla 16 441 22

  8. Using Radar Interferometry (DinSAR) to Evaluate Land Subsidence Caused by Excessive Groundwater Withdrawal in Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durham, M. C.; Milewski, A.; El Kadiri, R.

    2013-12-01

    The combination of natural, anthropogenic, and climate change impacts on the water resources of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region has devastated its water resources well beyond its current and projected populations. The increased exploitation of groundwater resources in the past half-century coupled with successive droughts has resulted in the acceleration of subsidence rates in the Souss and Massa basins in Morocco. We have completed a preliminary investigation of these impacts on the Souss and Massa basins (~27,000 km2) in the southwestern part of Morocco. This area is characterized by a semi-arid climate (annual precipitation 70-250 mm/year) with agriculture, tourism, and commercial fishing as the primary economic activities, all of which require availability of adequate freshwater resources. Additionally the primary groundwater aquifer (Plio-Quaternary Plain Aquifer), an unconfined aquifer formed mostly of sand and gravel, is being harvested by >20,000 wells at a rate of 650 MCM/yr., exceeding the rate of recharge by 260 MCM/year. Intense development over the past 50 years has exposed the aquifer to a serious risk of groundwater table drawdown (0.5m-2.5m/yr.), land subsidence, loss of artesian pressure, salinization, salt water intrusions along the coast, and deterioration of water quality across the watershed. Differential Interferometry Synthetique Aperture Radar (DInSAR) was utilized to measure ground subsidence induced by groundwater withdrawal. Land subsidence caused by excessive groundwater extraction was determined using a threefold methodology: (1) extraction of subsidence and land deformation patterns using radar interferometry, (2) correlation of the high subsidence areas within the basins to possible natural and anthropogenic factors (e.g. sea level rise, unconsolidated lithological formations distribution, urbanization, excessive groundwater extraction), and (3) forecasting the future of the Souss and Massa basins over the next century

  9. Epidemiology of Tick-Borne Borreliosis in Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Diatta, Georges; Souidi, Yassine; Granjon, Laurent; Arnathau, Céline; Durand, Patrick; Chauvancy, Gilles; Mané, Youssouph; Sarih, M'hammed; Belghyti, Driss; Renaud, François; Trape, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    Background The presence in Morocco of Argasid ticks of the Ornithodoros erraticus complex, the vector of tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) in North Africa, has been known since 1919, but the disease is rarely diagnosed and few epidemiological data are available. Methodology/Principal Findings Between 2006 and 2011, we investigated the presence of Ornithodoros ticks in rodent burrows in 34 sites distributed across Morocco. We also collected small mammals in 10 sites and we investigated TBRF in febrile patients in Kenitra district. The prevalence of Borrelia infections was assessed by nested PCR amplification in ticks and the brain tissue of small mammals, and by evaluation of thick blood films in patients. A high proportion of burrows were infested with ticks of the O. erraticus complex in all regions of Morocco, with a mean of 39.5% for the whole country. Borrelia infections were found in 39/382 (10.2%) of the ticks and 12/140 (8.6%) of the rodents and insectivores studied by PCR amplification, and 102 patients tested positive by thick blood film. Five small mammalian species were found infected: Dipodillus campestris, Meriones shawi, Gerbillus hoogstrali, Gerbillus occiduus and Atelerix algirus. Three Borrelia species were identified in ticks and/or rodents: B. hispanica, B. crocidurae and B. merionesi. Conclusions/Significance Tick populations belonging to O. erraticus complex are widely distributed in Morocco and a high proportion of ticks and small mammals are infected by Borrelia species. Although rarely diagnosed, TBRF may be a common cause of morbidity in all regions of Morocco. PMID:23029574

  10. Hashish in Morocco and Lebanon: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Afsahi, Kenza; Darwich, Salem

    2016-05-01

    In the 1960s and the 1970s, Morocco and Lebanon became major producers of hashish for export to markets in West and Central Europe, Africa and the Middle East. By using a comparative approach, this paper aims to evaluate changes in production in the traditional areas of cannabis cultivation in the Rif (Morocco) and the Beqaa (Lebanon) and to better understand the role that these countries play in current trends in the global cultivation and consumption of cannabis. The comparative approach takes in account the historical and institutionnal context, and the perception of cannabis in those two country. We rely on primary field research done in the Rif (from 2002) and in the Beqaa (from 1995) in the form of interviews and observations with farmers and intermediaries. Acreage and production estimates of hashish for both countries have been triangulated from different sources. Maghreb and Middle East have a long history of consumption, production and marketing of cannabis. Over the past 12 centuries, migration, trade and different spiritual practices and trends have led to the expansion of cannabis markets. This long period is marked by stages and rifts caused by foreign interference, a worldwide prohibition of cannabis at the beginning of the 20th century and increased global demand in the 1960s and the 1970s. Morocco and Lebanon are among the most important producers of hashish to be exported for trade for the last fifty years. The global prohibition of cannabis and the global sustained demand have created opportunities for poor farmers in the Rif and the Beqaa regions to survive and get wealthy. It is difficult to understand the reasons why areas producing cannabis are steadily increasing. If the Rif and the Beqaa share some features (such are marginalized areas of production, repressive legislation, huge international demand, range of comparable tasks and Mediterranean climate suitable for growing cannabis, etc.) then a comparison between the two countries makes it

  11. Tectonic-karstic origin of the alleged "impact crater" of Lake Isli (Imilchil district, High Atlas, Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibouh, Hassan; Michard, André; Charrière, André; Benkaddour, Abdelfattah; Rhoujjati, Ali

    2014-03-01

    The scenic lakes Tislit and Isli of the Imilchil area in the central High Atlas of Morocco have been recently promoted to the rank of "dual impact crater" by a group of geoscientists. This was promptly denied by a group of meteorite specialists, but the first team reiterated their impact crater interpretation, now restricted to Lake Isli. This alleged 40-kyr-old impact crater would be associated with the Agoudal meteorite recognized further in the southeast. Here, we show that the lake formed during the Lowe-Middle Pleistocene in a small Pliocene (?) pull-apart basin through additional collapsing due to karst phenomena in the underlying limestones. This compares with the formation of a number of lakes of the Atlas Mountains. None of the "proofs" produced in support of a meteoritic origin of Lake Isli coincides with the geology of the area.

  12. Targeted Water Quality Assessment in Small Reservoirs in Brazil, Zimbabwe, Morocco and Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boelee, Eline; Rodrigues, Lineu; Senzanje, Aidan; Laamrani, Hammou; Cecchi, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    Background Physical and chemical parameters of water in reservoirs can be affected by natural and manmade pollutants, causing damage to the aquatic life and water quality. However, the exact water quality considerations depend on what the water will be used for. Brick making, livestock watering, fisheries, irrigation and domestic uses all have their own specific water quality requirements. In turn, these uses impact on water quality. Methodology Water quality was assessed with a variety of methods in small multipurpose reservoirs in the São Francisco Basin in Brazil, Limpopo in Zimbabwe, Souss Massa in Morocco and Nakambé in Burkina Faso. In each case the first step was to select the reservoirs for which the water quality was to be monitored, then identify the main water uses, followed by a determination of key relevant water quality parameters. In addition, a survey was done in some cases to identify quality perceptions of the users. Samples were taken from the reservoir itself and related water bodies such as canals and wells where relevant. Results Accordingly in the four basins different methods gave different locally relevant results. In the Preto River in the Sao Francisco in Brazil small reservoirs are mainly used for irrigated agriculture. Chemical analysis of various small reservoirs showed that water quality was mainly influenced by geological origins. In addition there was nutrient inflow from surrounding areas of intensive agriculture with high fertilizer use. In the Limpopo basin in Zimbabwe small reservoirs are used for almost all community water needs. Plankton was selected as indicator and sampling was carried out in reservoirs in communal areas and in a national park. Park reservoirs were significantly more diversified in phytoplankton taxa compared to those in the communal lands, but not for zooplankton, though communal lands had the highest zooplankton abundance. In Souss Massa in Morocco a combination of perceptions and scientific water

  13. Cornulitids (tubeworms) from the Late Ordovician Hirnantia fauna of Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez-Marco, Juan Carlos; Vinn, Olev

    2018-01-01

    Two species of cornulitids, Cornulites gondwanensis sp. nov. and C. aff. shallochensis Reed are described from the Hirnantian of Morocco, within an assemblage representative of the Hirnantia brachiopod fauna occurring near the Ordovician South Pole. The dominance of aggregated and solitary free forms could be explained by particular sedimentary environments preceding the Hirnantian glaciation and the latest Ordovician Extinction Event. The diversity of cornulitids in the Late Ordovician of Gondwana and related terranes was relatively low, and less diverse than the cornulitids of Laurentia and Baltica. Hirnantian cornulitids from Morocco do not resemble Late Ordovician cornulitids of Baltica and Laurentia. Moroccan cornulitids seem to be closely allied to some older Gondwanan cornulitids, especially Sardinian ones. They resemble species described from the Late Ordovician and Llandovery of Scotland suggesting a palaeobiogeographic link.

  14. Morocco and border of spain as seen from STS-59

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Atlantic Ocean, Straits of Gibraltar, and Alboran Sea (the westernmost portion of the Mediterranean Sea) separate Spain on the left from Morocco on the right. Algeciras Harbor is the prominent notch cut out of the eastern end of the north shore of the Strait; the Rock of Gibraltar is the tiny arrowhead that separates the notch from the Alboran Sea. The Sierra Nevada, farther away down the Spanish coast, lives up to its name in this April scene. The difference in elevation between the Sierra Morena and the Guadalquivir River valley is highlighted nicely by cumulus clouds. Tangier, Morocco can be seen as a light-toned spot on the southern shore of the Strait, near the entrance to the Atlantic Ocean.

  15. [Tinea capitis etiology in Ibn Sina Hospital in Rabat (Morocco)].

    PubMed

    Elmaataoui, A; Zeroual, Z; Lyagoubi, M; Aoufi, S

    2012-09-01

    Tinea capitis (TC) is a contagious infection that affects mainly children and teenagers. A retrospective study was realized at the mycology-parasitology department of the Ibn Sina hospital in Rabat, Morocco. The study includes 125 cases of TC. The mean age is 12.73 ± 11.61 year. The isolation of TC is dominated by two species Trichophyton violaceum 76 (60.8%) and Microsporum canis 27 (21.6%). Trichophyton verrucosum was isolated only in male and all of rural origin. In adults over 18 years, the most isolated species is T. violaceum (six cases) in females. For the last thirty years, the epidemiological profile of TC remains almost the same in Morocco. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Measles in Morocco: epidemiological profile and impact of vaccination strategy.

    PubMed

    Cheikh, Amine; Ziani, Mouncif; Cheikh, Zakia; Barakat, Amina; El Menzhi, Omar; Braikat, Mohammed; Benomar, Ali; Cherrah, Yahya; El Hassani, Amine

    2015-02-01

    Measles continues to persist as one of the leading causes of infant mortality due to preventable diseases through vaccination. This study aims to highlight measles in Morocco, and to present the vaccination strategy implemented to control and eliminate the disease in this country. Throughout this study, and based on data from the Directorate of Epidemiology and Control of Diseases and those of the Directorate of Population, we present an overview on the epidemiological trends of measles from 1997 to 2012, while evoking the plans established by the Ministry of Health (MoH) for the control and elimination of this disease. The number of measles cases has decreased in Morocco between 1997 and 2012 (2574-720 reported cases per year) as a result of four important steps: first, increasing the routine vaccination coverage (73-94%); second, the introduction of the second dose of the combined vaccine against measles and rubella in schools (children aged 6 years) since 2003; third, the first catch-up campaign of vaccination in Morocco in 2008, for which coverage was highly satisfactory (96% and 100% for age groups 5-59 months and 5-14 years, respectively); and fourth, the organization of a mass vaccination campaign in 2013 that targeted children from aged 9 months to 19 years. The vaccination plan and the surveillance system executed in Morocco within the framework of the regional project implemented by the World Health Organization (WHO) to eliminate measles has given remarkable results regarding the reduction of measles cases and mortality due to this disease. According to the data from MoH and WHO, the number of reported and confirmed measles cases decreased drastically during 2014. However, these efforts are still unsatisfactory compared to the prospective of eliminating the disease by 2015.

  17. Political Change in Morocco: Its Effect on the Traditional Monarchy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    been subjected to eight principal foriegn influences: the Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Romans, Vandals , Byzantines, Arabs, Turks, and French have all...percent are Jew. After the Romans, a quick succession of would-be conquerors and rulers entered the confines of Morocco’s borders. The Baltic Vandals , who...palace at Akhirat, fif- teen miles southwest of Rabat, to celebrate Hassan’s birthday. 117 At about 2:00 P.M. the garden party came under attack by troops

  18. Constraining the crustal root geometry beneath Northern Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, J.; Gil, A.; Carbonell, R.; Gallart, J.; Harnafi, M.

    2016-10-01

    Consistent constraints of an over-thickened crust beneath the Rif Cordillera (N. Morocco) are inferred from analyses of recently acquired seismic datasets including controlled source wide-angle reflections and receiver functions from teleseismic events. Offline arrivals of Moho-reflected phases recorded in RIFSIS project provide estimations of the crustal thicknesses in 3D. Additional constraints on the onshore-offshore transition are inferred from shots in a coeval experiment in the Alboran Sea recorded at land stations in northern Morocco. A regional crustal thickness map is computed from all these results. In parallel, we use natural seismicity data collected throughout TopoIberia and PICASSO experiments, and from a new RIFSIS deployment, to obtain receiver functions and explore the crustal thickness variations with a H-κ grid-search approach. This larger dataset provides better resolution constraints and reveals a number of abrupt crustal changes. A gridded surface is built up by interpolating the Moho depths inferred for each seismic station, then compared with the map from controlled source experiments. A remarkably consistent image is observed in both maps, derived from completely independent data and methods. Both approaches document a large crustal root, exceeding 50 km depth in the central part of the Rif, in contrast with the rather small topographic elevations. This large crustal thickness, consistent with the available Bouguer anomaly data, favors models proposing that the high velocity slab imaged by seismic tomography beneath the Alboran Sea is still attached to the lithosphere beneath the Rif, hence pulling down the lithosphere and thickening the crust. The thickened area corresponds to a quiet seismic zone located between the western Morocco arcuate seismic zone, the deep seismicity area beneath western Alboran Sea and the superficial seismicity in Alhoceima area. Therefore, the presence of a crustal root seems to play also a major role in the

  19. Rabid dog illegally imported to France from Morocco, August 2011.

    PubMed

    Mailles, A; Boisseleau, D; Dacheux, L; Michalewiscz, C; Gloaguen, C; Ponçon, N; Bourhy, H; Callon, H; Vaillant, V; Dabosville, I; Morineau-Le Houssine, P

    2011-08-18

    In August 2011, a case of canine rabies was notified to the French veterinary services. The dog was a three-month-old puppy illegally imported from Morocco that presented behavioural changes on 1 August and was admitted to a veterinary clinic on 6 August. It died the following day and the body was shortly sent to the national reference centre where rabies was laboratory-confirmed on 11 August. Contact tracing and post-exposure treatment were initiated immediately.

  20. Student perception of travel service learning experience in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Puri, Aditi; Kaddoura, Mahmoud; Dominick, Christine

    2013-08-01

    This study explores the perceptions of health profession students participating in academic service learning in Morocco with respect to adapting health care practices to cultural diversity. Authors utilized semi-structured, open-ended interviews to explore the perceptions of health profession students. Nine dental hygiene and nursing students who traveled to Morocco to provide oral and general health services were interviewed. After interviews were recorded, they were transcribed verbatim to ascertain descriptive validity and to generate inductive and deductive codes that constitute the major themes of the data analysis. Thereafter, NVIVO 8 was used to rapidly determine the frequency of applied codes. The authors compared the codes and themes to establish interpretive validity. Codes and themes were initially determined independently by co-authors and applied to the data subsequently. The authors compared the applied codes to establish intra-rater reliability. International service learning experiences led to perceptions of growth as a health care provider among students. The application of knowledge and skills learned in academic programs and service learning settings were found to help in bridging the theory-practice gap. The specific experience enabled students to gain an understanding of diverse health care and cultural practices in Morocco. Students perceived that the experience gained in international service learning can heighten awareness of diverse cultural and health care practices to foster professional growth of health professionals.

  1. Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Ennassiri, Wifak; Jaouhari, Sanae; Cherki, Wafa; Charof, Reda; Filali-Maltouf, Abdelkarim; Lahlou, Ouafae

    2017-12-01

    Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has recently been identified as a major global health threat. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of XDR-TB among Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Morocco and its association with demographic, clinical and epidemiological features. A total of 524 patients from the Moroccan National Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory, representative of all of the geographic regions, were subject to first-line drug susceptibility testing (DST). Subsequently, 155 isolates found to be multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) underwent second-line DST. Moreover, to enhance our understanding of the genetic basis of these drug-resistant strains, drug resistance-associated mutations were investigated in isolates either identified as pre-XDR- and XDR-TB or suspected resistant using the GenoType ® MTBDRsl V1.0 assay. In this study, 4 (2.6%) XDR-TB and 18 (11.6%) pre-XDR-TB isolates were identified. Agreement between the MTBDRsl assay results and phenotypic DST was 95.2% for ofloxacin, 81.0% for kanamycin and 95.2% for amikacin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the frequency of XDR-TB in Morocco. These results highlight the need to reinforce the TB management policy in Morocco with regard to control and detection strategies in order to prevent further spread of XDR-TB isolates. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Polyphased Inversions of an Intracontinental Rift: Case Study of the Marrakech High Atlas, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leprêtre, R.; Missenard, Y.; Barbarand, J.; Gautheron, C.; Jouvie, I.; Saddiqi, O.

    2018-03-01

    The High and Middle Atlas intraplate belts in Morocco correspond to Mesozoic rifted basins inverted during the Cenozoic during Africa/Eurasia convergence. The Marrakech High Atlas lies at a key location between Atlantic and Tethyan influences during the Mesozoic rifting phase but represents today high reliefs. Age and style of deformation and the mechanisms underlying the Cenozoic inversion are nevertheless still debated. To solve this issue, we produced new low-temperature thermochronology data (fission track and [U-Th]/He on apatite). Two cross sections were investigated in the western and eastern Marrakech High Atlas. Results of inverse modeling allow recognizing five cooling events attributed to erosion since Early Jurassic. Apart from a first erosional event from Middle/Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous, four stages can be related to the convergence processes between Africa and Europe since the Late Cretaceous. Our data and thermal modeling results suggest that the inversion processes are guided at first order by the fault network inherited from the rifting episodes. The sedimentary cover and the Neogene lithospheric thinning produced a significant thermal weakening that facilitated the inversion of this ancient rift. Our data show that the Marrakech High Atlas has been behaving as a giant pop-up since the beginning of Cenozoic inversion stages.

  3. Insights into the lithospheric architecture of Iberia and Morocco from teleseismic body-wave attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezada, Maximiliano J.

    2017-11-01

    The long and often complicated tectonic history of continental lithosphere results in lateral strength heterogeneities which in turn affect the style and localization of deformation. In this study, we produce a model for the attenuation structure of Iberia and northern Morocco using a waveform-matching approach on P-wave data from teleseismic deep-focus earthquakes. We find that attenuation is correlated with zones of intraplate deformation and seismicity, but do not find a consistent relationship between attenuation and recent volcanism. The main features of our model are low to moderate Δt* in the undeformed Tertiary basins of Spain and high Δt* in areas deformed by the Alpine orogeny. Additionally, low Δt* is found in areas where the Alboran slab is thought to be attached to the Iberian and African lithosphere, and high Δt* where it has detached. These features are robust with respect to inversion parameters, and are consistent with independent data. Very mild backazimuthal dependence of the measurements and comparison with previous results suggest that the source of the attenuation is sub-crustal. In line with other recent studies, the range of Δt* we observe is much larger than can be expected from lithospheric thickness or temperature variations.

  4. Paleomagnetic reconstruction of Late Cretaceous structures along the Midelt-Errachidia profile (Morocco). Tectonic implications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres López, Sara; José Villalain, Juan; Casas, Antonio; El ouardi, Hmidou; Moussaid, Bennacer; Ruiz-Martínez, Vicente Carlos

    2017-04-01

    Remagnetization data are used in this work to obtain the palinspastic reconstruction at 100 (Ma) of one of the most studied profiles of the Central High Atlas: the Midelt-Errachidia cross-section (Morocco). Previous studies in the area on syn-rift sedimentary rocks of subsiding basins have revealed that the Mesozoic sediments of this region acquired a pervasive remagnetization at the end of the Early Cretaceous. Fifty-eight sites (470 samples) corresponding to black limestones, marly limestones and marls, Early to Middle Jurassic in age, have been studied. Sites are distributed along a 70 km transect cutting across the basin and perpendicular to the main structures. The magnetic properties of samples are very regular showing very high NRM. Thermal and AF demagnetization showed a single stable paleomagnetic component with unblocking temperatures and coercivities spectra of 300-475°C and 20-100 mT respectively. This characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) showed systematically normal polarity suggesting a widespread remagnetization. In spite of the good outcrops and the relatively well-constrained structure of the High Atlas, there are many tectonic problems still unsolved, as the controversial existence of intra-Mesozoic deformation episodes. The restoration of paleomagnetic vectors to the remagnetization acquisition stage (100 Ma) allows to determine the dip of the beds during this period and, thereby, to obtain a reconstruction of structures during that time. This reconstruction accounts for the relative contribution of Mesozoic transpressional/transtrenssional movements vs. Cenozoic compression to the present-day dip. The results obtained indicate that these structures have undergone different degrees of pre-late Cretaceous deformation and were re-activated during the Cenozoic compression to finally acquire their present-day geometry.

  5. Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program 1992: Morocco and Tunisia. Final Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AMIDEAST, Washington, DC.

    The projects described in this document were submitted by U.S. teachers who spent time in Morocco and Tunisia as part of the 1992 Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program. The following are among the titles of the projects included: "Formal Education in Rural Morocco: Problems and Constraints" (Victoria Baker); "Continuity and Change…

  6. New records of the soldier flies of Morocco with a bibliographical inventory of the North African fauna (Diptera, Stratiomyidae)

    PubMed Central

    Yimlahi, Driss; Üstüner, Turgay; Zinebi, Sanae; Belqat, Boutaïna

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A checklist of soldier flies species recorded from the North African countries of Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt is based on both literature records and material newly collected in Morocco. Four subfamilies (Stratiomyinae, Sarginae, Nemotelinae, and Pachygasterinae), and twelve species from five genera have been collected and are recognized in Morocco. Pachygaster atra (Panzer, 1798), Oxycera pardalina (Meigen, 1822), Nemotelus danielssoni (Mason, 1989), and Oxycera terminata (Meigen, 1822) are newly recorded to the North African fauna. Nemotelus atriceps (Loew, 1856) and Nemotelus maculiventris (Bigot, 1861) are reported for the first time in Morocco. The present number of soldier flies known from Morocco is 33. PMID:29118638

  7. New records of the soldier flies of Morocco with a bibliographical inventory of the North African fauna (Diptera, Stratiomyidae).

    PubMed

    Yimlahi, Driss; Üstüner, Turgay; Zinebi, Sanae; Belqat, Boutaïna

    2017-01-01

    A checklist of soldier flies species recorded from the North African countries of Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt is based on both literature records and material newly collected in Morocco. Four subfamilies (Stratiomyinae, Sarginae, Nemotelinae, and Pachygasterinae), and twelve species from five genera have been collected and are recognized in Morocco. Pachygaster atra (Panzer, 1798), Oxycera pardalina (Meigen, 1822), Nemotelus danielssoni (Mason, 1989), and Oxycera terminata (Meigen, 1822) are newly recorded to the North African fauna. Nemotelus atriceps (Loew, 1856) and Nemotelus maculiventris (Bigot, 1861) are reported for the first time in Morocco. The present number of soldier flies known from Morocco is 33.

  8. Buried Mesozoic rift basins of Moroccan Atlantic continental margin

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, N.; Jabour, H.; El Mostaine, M.

    1995-08-01

    The Atlantic continental margin is the largest frontier area for oil and gas exploration in Morocco. Most of the activity has been concentrated where Upper Jurassic carbonate rocks have been the drilling objectives, with only one significant but non commercial oil discovery. Recent exploration activities have focused on early Mesozoic Rift basins buried beneath the post-rift sediments of the Middle Atlantic coastal plain. Many of these basins are of interest because they contain fine-grained lacustrine rocks that have sufficient organic richness to be classified as efficient oil prone source rock. Location of inferred rift basins beneath the Atlantic coastal plainmore » were determined by analysis of drilled-hole data in combination with gravity anomaly and aeromagnetic maps. These rift basins are characterized by several half graben filled by synrift sediments of Triassic age probably deposited in lacustrine environment. Coeval rift basins are known to be present in the U.S. Atlantic continental margin. Basin modeling suggested that many of the less deeply bored rift basins beneath the coastal plain are still within the oil window and present the most attractive exploration targets in the area.« less

  9. Nouvelles données biostratigraphiques et sédimentologiques des formations carbonifères de la région de Bouqachmir (Maroc central). Implications sur la paléogéographie des bassins carbonifères nord-mésétiensNew biostratigraphic and sedimentological data of the Carboniferous formations in the Bouqachmir area (central Morocco). Implications on the palaeogeography of the north Mesetian Carboniferous basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izart, Alain; Tahiri, Abdelfatah; El Boursoumi, Abdou; Vachard, Daniel; Saidi, Mariam; Chèvremont, Philippe; Berkhli, Mostafa

    2001-02-01

    New Visean formations and biozones of foraminifera were defined on the Bouqachmir map. The new biozonation concerns the Moroccan biozone, Cfm1, which is subdivided into two subzones, Cfm1a and Cfm1b. This map exhibited, from north-west to south-east, the Tilouine, Bouqachmir-Tougouroulmès and Fourhal turbiditic basins. The first one, from Tournaisian to Late Visean, was the equivalent of the Sidi Bettache basin, located westwards. The second extended the Tilouine basin eastwards during the Visean. The third was a basin from Visean to Westphalian. They were separated by the Zaer-Oulmes and El Hammam horsts, else emerged or immersed, bordered by faults and with materials feeding chaotic deposits.

  10. Transmission dynamics and elimination potential of zoonotic tuberculosis in morocco

    PubMed Central

    Justus Bless, Philipp; Crump, Lisa; Lohmann, Petra; Laager, Mirjam; Chitnis, Nakul; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is an endemic zoonosis in Morocco caused by Mycobacterium bovis, which infects many domestic animals and is transmitted to humans through consumption of raw milk or from contact with infected animals. The prevalence of BTB in Moroccan cattle is estimated at 18%, and 33% at the individual and the herd level respectively, but the human M. bovis burden needs further clarification. The current control strategy based on test and slaughter should be improved through local context adaptation taking into account a suitable compensation in order to reduce BTB prevalence in Morocco and decrease the disease burden in humans and animals. We established a simple compartmental deterministic mathematical model for BTB transmission in cattle and humans to provide a general understanding of BTB, in particular regarding transmission to humans. Differential equations were used to model the different pathways between the compartments for cattle and humans. Scenarios of test and slaughter were simulated to determine the effects of varying the proportion of tested animals (p) on the time to elimination of BTB (individual animal prevalence of less than one in a thousand) in cattle and humans. The time to freedom from disease ranged from 75 years for p = 20% to 12 years for p = 100%. For p > 60% the time to elimination was less than 20 years. The cumulated cost was largely stable: for p values higher than 40%, cost ranged from 1.47 to 1.60 billion euros with a time frame of 12 to 32 years to reach freedom from disease. The model simulations also suggest that using a 2mm cut off instead of a 4mm cut off in the Single Intradermal Comparative Cervical Tuberculin skin test (SICCT) would result in cheaper and quicker elimination programs. This analysis informs Moroccan bovine tuberculosis control policy regarding time frame, range of cost and levels of intervention. However, further research is needed to clarify the national human-bovine tuberculosis ratio in Morocco

  11. Transmission dynamics and elimination potential of zoonotic tuberculosis in morocco.

    PubMed

    Abakar, Mahamat Fayiz; Yahyaoui Azami, Hind; Justus Bless, Philipp; Crump, Lisa; Lohmann, Petra; Laager, Mirjam; Chitnis, Nakul; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2017-02-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is an endemic zoonosis in Morocco caused by Mycobacterium bovis, which infects many domestic animals and is transmitted to humans through consumption of raw milk or from contact with infected animals. The prevalence of BTB in Moroccan cattle is estimated at 18%, and 33% at the individual and the herd level respectively, but the human M. bovis burden needs further clarification. The current control strategy based on test and slaughter should be improved through local context adaptation taking into account a suitable compensation in order to reduce BTB prevalence in Morocco and decrease the disease burden in humans and animals. We established a simple compartmental deterministic mathematical model for BTB transmission in cattle and humans to provide a general understanding of BTB, in particular regarding transmission to humans. Differential equations were used to model the different pathways between the compartments for cattle and humans. Scenarios of test and slaughter were simulated to determine the effects of varying the proportion of tested animals (p) on the time to elimination of BTB (individual animal prevalence of less than one in a thousand) in cattle and humans. The time to freedom from disease ranged from 75 years for p = 20% to 12 years for p = 100%. For p > 60% the time to elimination was less than 20 years. The cumulated cost was largely stable: for p values higher than 40%, cost ranged from 1.47 to 1.60 billion euros with a time frame of 12 to 32 years to reach freedom from disease. The model simulations also suggest that using a 2mm cut off instead of a 4mm cut off in the Single Intradermal Comparative Cervical Tuberculin skin test (SICCT) would result in cheaper and quicker elimination programs. This analysis informs Moroccan bovine tuberculosis control policy regarding time frame, range of cost and levels of intervention. However, further research is needed to clarify the national human-bovine tuberculosis ratio in Morocco.

  12. Storytelling and environmental information: connecting schoolchildren and herpetofauna in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Fanini, Lucia; Fahd, Soumia

    2009-06-01

    Northwestern Morocco is undergoing a sudden change in the level of infrastructure growth and pressure on the environment from increased tourism. The ongoing changes are raising questions about how the ecosystem will react, and the relevant drivers of these changes. The Oued Laou valley in north-west Morocco hosts high landscape, species and human cultural diversity. The Talassemtane National Park has been established to preserve the environment in this region; however, what information tools are available to children regarding this environment? The ecosystem is illustrated here using three components: herpetofauna (representing ecosystem components), problems related to water quantity and quality (representing interactions within ecosystem components) and Talassemtane National Park (representing a case of ecosystem management). A children's book was written on this topic, and when the book was delivered to pupils, a questionnaire was included, aimed at determining their sources of environmental information. The results identified major changes in the sources of information utilized by children in this part of Morocco, a clear role of schools in explaining ecosystem components, and an increasing role of TV in environmental information supply. The role of the family was found to be less important than TV or school. Another major source of pupils' environmental knowledge is personal observation and hands-on experience, both for rural and urban children. Children are willing to discover and understand complex systems, and researchers should be encouraged to supply children with correct and up-to-date information on environmental systems, focusing at first on the local environment, as a background for sustainable development. © 2009 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  13. Epidemiology of Strongylus vulgaris infection of the horse in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Pandey, V S

    1981-05-01

    Between August 1978 and July 1979 the anterior mesenteric artery and its branches were collected regularly from adult horses and examined for Strongylus vulgaris larvae. The incidence of infection varied from 55 to 100% (annual mean 80%). The mean monthly number of larvae ranged form 3 to 22 with an annual overall mean of 13. The arterial infection was at its minimum in December to January, rose gradually to attain the peak in June and declined thereafter. These observations indicated that S. vulgaris is an annual species in Morocco, infection occurring during the rainy season (November-April), the heavy arterial population in spring and adult population during autumn and winter.

  14. BASINS Publications

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Although BASINS has been in use for the past 10 years, there has been limited modeling guidance on its applications for complex environmental problems, such as modeling impacts of hydro modification on water quantity and quality.

  15. Occurance and survival of Vibrio alginolyticus in Tamouda Bay (Morocco).

    PubMed

    Sabir, M; Cohen, N; Boukhanjer, A; Ennaji, M M

    2011-10-15

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the spatial and seasonal fluctuations of Vibrio alginolyticus in marine environment of the Tamouda Bay on the Mediterranean coast of Morocco and to determine the dominant factors of the environment that govern these fluctuations. The samples (sea water, plankton, shellfish and sediment) were collected fortnightly for two years from three study sites on the coast Tamouda Bay in northern Morocco. The charge of Vibrio alginolyticus is determined by MPN method. The physicochemical parameters including temperature of sea water, pH, salinity, turbidity and chlorophyll a concentration were determined. Analysis of variance of specific variables and several principal component analyses showed that the temperature of seawater is the major determinant of seasonal distribution of Vibrio alginolyticus. The results showed a positive linear correlation between Vibrio alginolyticus and the water temperature, pH, turbidity and chlorophyll a. Similarly, there are seasonal variations and spatial of Vibrio alginolyticus in marine environment of the Tamouda bay and the highest concentrations were recorded in both years of study during the warm season whereas it was minimal during the cold season. Linear positive correlation was recorded between Vibrio alginolyticus populations in all ecological types of samples studied.

  16. Poikiloderma with Neutropenia in Morocco: a Report of Four Cases.

    PubMed

    Aglaguel, Ayoub; Abdelghaffar, Houria; Ailal, Fatima; Habti, Norddine; Hesse, Sebastian; Kohistani, Naschla; Klein, Christoph; Bousfiha, Ahmed Aziz

    2017-05-01

    Poikiloderma with Neutropenia (PN) is inherited genodermatosis which results from a biallelic mutation in the USB1 gene (U Six Biogenesis 1). PN, first described in Navajo Native Americans, is characterized by early onset poikiloderma, pachyonychia, palmo-plantar hyperkeratosis, and permanent neutropenia. This condition results in frequent respiratory tract infections during infancy and childhood. From 2011 to 2013, four cases of PN were diagnosed in Morocco. In this paper, we report the first four cases of PN diagnosed in Morocco, out of three unrelated consanguinous families. We investigated the genetic, immunological, and clinical features of four Moroccan patients with PN from three unrelated consanguinous families. Mean age at onset was 3 months and mean age at diagnosis was 7.5 years. The diagnosis of these PN patients was made based on clinical features and confirmed by molecular analysis for three cases. We identified two undescribed homozygous mutations in the USB1 gene: c.609 + 1G>A in two siblings and c.518 T>G(p.(Leu173Arg)) in the other case. This report confirms the clinical and genetic identity of Poikiloderma with Neutropenia syndrome.

  17. Mineralogy and ore fluid chemistry of the Roc Blanc Ag deposit, Jebilet Hercynian massif, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essarraj, Samira; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Cathelineau, Michel; Tarantola, Alexandre; Leisen, Mathieu; Hibti, Mohamed

    2017-03-01

    The Roc Blanc Ag deposit is located about 20 km north of Marrakesh city (Morocco) in the Jebilet Hercynian massif. The ore bodies consist of N-S to NE-SW quartz (±carbonates) veins hosted by the Sarhlef marine sediments. These series, deposited in a Devonian-Carboniferous rift basin context, were deformed during the Hercynian orogeny, and submitted to low-grade regional metamorphism. Two major stages of fluid circulation and metal deposition are distinguished on the basis of mineralogical and paleo-fluid studies carried out on quartz and dolomite (microthermometry, Raman spectroscopy, LA-ICP-MS on individual inclusions, and O, H stable isotope data): (i) an early Fe-As stage, characterized by the circulation of metamorphic aqueous-carbonic fluids, under P-T conditions lower than 200 MPa ± 20 MPa and 400 °C respectively, along N-S structures; (ii) the ore stage, characterized by the circulation of a Na-Mg-K ± Ca high salinity brine, poor in gas but rich in metals such as Fe, Sr, Ba, Zn, Pb, ± Cu (salinity ranging from 19.6 wt% to likely more than 30 wt% NaCl equiv.) and the deposition of a sphalerite/dolomite-calcite assemblage; such a fluid likely evolved to a Na-K-(Ca-Mg)-Ag brine, with significant Pb and Sb concentrations and lower Sr, Ba and Zn concentrations than in the preceding fluid (salinity up to 19.4 wt% NaCl equiv.). The Ag content of the second mineralizing brine ranges from 0.9 mmol/kg to 9.4 mmol/kg solution (100 ppm-1000 ppm), whereas the base metal brine is generally Ag poor (up to 1.3 mmol/kg solution: 140 ppm). Dilution of the Ag brine by low salinity fluids (<6 wt% NaCl equiv., and Th from 130° to 230 °C) seems to be the main driving mechanism for the Ag ore deposition at Roc Blanc, with a possible involvement of cooling and reduction reactions in black schists. Base metal and Ag fluids may have circulated at average temperatures around 200 ± 30 °C or slightly higher and under hydrostatic pressures, along dominant E-W structures. The ore

  18. Nanometer-scale characterization of exceptionally preserved bacterial fossils in Paleocene phosphorites from Ouled Abdoun (Morocco).

    PubMed

    Cosmidis, J; Benzerara, K; Gheerbrant, E; Estève, I; Bouya, B; Amaghzaz, M

    2013-03-01

    Micrometer-sized spherical and rod-shaped forms have been reported in many phosphorites and often interpreted as microbes fossilized by apatite, based on their morphologic resemblance with modern bacteria inferred by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations. This interpretation supports models involving bacteria in the formation of phosphorites. Here, we studied a phosphatic coprolite of Paleocene age originating from the Ouled Abdoun phosphate basin (Morocco) down to the nanometer-scale using focused ion beam milling, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) coupled with x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (XANES). The coprolite, exclusively composed of francolite (a carbonate-fluroapatite), is formed by the accumulation of spherical objects, delimited by a thin envelope, and whose apparent diameters are between 0.5 and 3 μm. The envelope of the spheres is composed of a continuous crown dense to electrons, which measures 20-40 nm in thickness. It is surrounded by two thinner layers that are more porous and transparent to electrons and enriched in organic carbon. The observed spherical objects are very similar with bacteria encrusting in hydroxyapatite as observed in laboratory experiments. We suggest that they are Gram-negative bacteria fossilized by francolite, the precipitation of which started within the periplasm of the cells. We discuss the role of bacteria in the fossilization mechanism and propose that they could have played an active role in the formation of francolite. This study shows that ancient phosphorites can contain fossil biological subcellular structures as fine as a bacterial periplasm. Moreover, we demonstrate that while morphological information provided by SEM analyses is valuable, the use of additional nanoscale analyses is a powerful approach to help inferring the biogenicity of biomorphs found in phosphorites. A more systematic use of this approach could considerably

  19. Geochemical processes controlling groundwater quality under semi arid environment: A case study in central Morocco.

    PubMed

    Karroum, Morad; Elgettafi, Mohammed; Elmandour, Abdenabi; Wilske, Cornelia; Himi, Mahjoub; Casas, Albert

    2017-12-31

    Bahira plain is an important area for Morocco due to its agriculture and mining activities. Situated in a sub-arid to arid climate, this plain hosts an aquifer system that represents sequences of carbonates, phosphates, evaporates and alluvial deposits. Groundwater flows from Ganntour plateau (recharge area) to the basin-fill deposits and Zima Lake and Sed Elmejnoun where water evaporates. The objective of this study was to characterize the chemical properties of the groundwater and to assess the processes controlling the groundwater's chemistry. We can divide water samples into three hydrochemical water groups: recharge waters (Ca/Mg-HCO 3 ), transition zone waters (Ca-HCO 3 -SO 4 /Cl) and discharge waters (Na-Cl/SO 4 ). Accordingly, compositions of waters are determined by the availability of easily soluble minerals like calcite (Ca-HCO 3 dominant), halite (Na-Cl dominant) and gypsum (Ca-SO 4 dominant). Cl/Br ratios show that Cl concentration increases from dissolution of natural halite. When groundwater is affected by extreme evaporation Cl/Br ratios may increase up to 1900. High fluoride concentrations are associated with low Ca 2+ concentrations (<100mg/L). That means when recharge waters enter the aquifer, it starts dissolving fluorite since the Ca 2+ concentration is low. Once groundwater becomes saturated with Ca 2+ , the immobilization of fluoride is occurring by precipitation of fluoride-rich minerals like fluoro-apatite. According to the environmental isotope ( 18 O and 2 H) analyses, they are three potential processes affecting groundwater: 1. Evaporation as verified by low slope value, 2. Water-rock interaction, 3. admixture of waters showed different stable isotope compositions and salinities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Gravimetry contributions to the study of the complex western Haouz aquifer (Morocco): Structural and hydrogeological implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouikri, Ibtissam; el Mandour, Abdennabi; Jaffal, Mohammed; Baudron, Paul; García-Aróstegui, José-Luis; Manar, Ahmed; Casas, Albert

    2016-03-01

    This study provides new elements that illustrate the benefits of combining gravity, structural, stratigraphic and piezometric data for hydrogeological purposes. A combined methodology was applied to the western Haouz aquifer (Morocco), one of the main sources of water for irrigation and human consumption in the Marrakech region. First, a residual anomaly map was calculated from the Bouguer anomaly data. The computed map provided information on the ground density variation, revealing a strong control by a regional gradient. We then used various filtering techniques to delineate the major geological structures such as faults and basins: vertical and horizontal derivatives and upward continuation. This technique highlighted news structures and provided information on their dip. The gravity anomalies perfectly delineated the basement uplifts and the sedimentary thickening in depressions and grabens. The interpretation of gravimetric filtering, geological and hydrogeological data then highlighted two types of groundwater reservoirs, an unconfined aquifer hosted in conglomeratic mio-pliocene and quaternary rocks, covering the entire western Haouz and a deep confined aquifer contained in cenomanian-turonian limestone and eocene dolomitic formations in the south. Combining piezometric and residual anomaly maps revealed that groundwater flow and storage was in perfect agreement with the structures showing a negative anomaly, while structures with positive anomalies corresponded to groundwater divides. The study of gravity gradient zones by contact analysis enhanced the existing structural pattern of the study area and highlighted new structures, mainly oriented N70 and N130. The results of this study present a common framework and provide a notable step forward in the knowledge of the geometry and the groundwater flow pattern of the western Haouz aquifer, and will serve as a solid basis for a better water resource management.

  1. Pearl mussels (Margaritifera marocana) in Morocco: Conservation status of the rarest bivalve in African fresh waters.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Ronaldo; Varandas, Simone; Teixeira, Amílcar; Ghamizi, Mohamed; Froufe, Elsa; Lopes-Lima, Manuel

    2016-03-15

    Margaritifera marocana is one of the rarest freshwater mussel species (listed as critically endangered), and is endemic to Morocco. Despite its constrained distribution and low abundance, to date there are no quantitative studies addressing the conservation status of this species. Surveys were conducted in 36 sites along the Oum Er Rbia river basin (Rivers Derna, Laabid and Oum Er Rbia) to assess the distribution, abundance, population structure and genetic diversity of M. marocana. Just one specimen was found on River Oum Er Rbia and none on River Derna; however, a high abundance was found in the lower section of River Laabid (e.g., site Laabid 6 reached a mean density of 11.0 ± 6.8 ind.m(-2)). Contrary to earlier information, which reported an overall population size fewer than 250 individuals in a restricted area and no juvenile presence, this study showed that a much higher abundance exists in River Laabid alone. In addition, the species is present in more than 50 km of this river and is still recruiting since small specimens were found. Regarding genetic diversity, six of nine loci previously used in Margaritifera margaritifera were polymorphic and suitable in M. marocana. The spatial range contraction of this species is likely to be very recent, since no strong signature was detected by the molecular diversity indices. Information gathered in this study can be used as a reference to the present conservation status of M. marocana, and guide future research and management initiatives to better conserve it. We conclude discussing the potential major threats for the future survival of M. marocana and suggest some management measures (and research needs) that should be urgently applied. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Boundary layer aerosol size distribution, mass concentration and mineralogical composition in Morocco and at Cape Verde Islands during SAMUM I-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandler, K.; Lieke, K.

    2009-04-01

    The Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM) is dedicated to the understanding of the radiative effects of mineral dust. Two major field experiments were performed: A first joint field campaign took place at Ouarzazate and near Zagora, southern Morocco, from May 13 to June 7, 2006. Aircraft and ground based measurements of aerosol physical and chemical properties were carried out to collect a data set of surface and atmospheric columnar information within a major dust source. This data set combined with satellite data provides the base of the first thorough columnar radiative closure tests in Saharan dust. A second field experiment was conducted during January-February 2008, in the Cape Verde Islands region, where about 300 Tg of mineral dust are transported annually from Western Africa across the Atlantic towards the Caribbean Sea and the Amazon basin. Along its transport path, the mineral dust is expected to influence significantly the radiation budget - by direct and indirect effects - of the subtropical North Atlantic. We are lacking a radiative closure in the Saharan air plume. One focus of the investigation within the trade wind region is the spatial distribution of mixed dust/biomass/sea salt aerosol and their physical and chemical properties, especially with regard to radiative effects. We report on measurements of size distributions, mass concentrations and mineralogical composition conducted at the Zagora (Morocco) and Praia (Cape Verde islands) ground stations. The aerosol size distribution was measured from 20 nm to 500

  3. Pourquoi le francais et quel francais au Maroc? (Why French and Which French in Morocco?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akouaou, Ahmed

    1984-01-01

    The status of French in Morocco is ambiguous: it is neither an official language nor a foreign language, and it would benefit greatly from an official definition that would allow a variety of language conflicts to be resolved. (MSE)

  4. Holcophloeus caldarai (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Holcorhinini) a new weevil species from Morocco.

    PubMed

    Borovec, Roman; KoŠŤÁl, Michael; BÁborskÁ, Zuzana

    2018-04-05

    Holcophloeus caldarai sp. n. is described as a fifth species of the genus from central Morocco. The new species differs from all other species of the genus and, generally the entire tribe, by unique irregularly star-shaped appressed scales.

  5. Exploring Geographic Variability in Cancer Prevalence in Eastern Morocco: A Retrospective Study over Eight Years.

    PubMed

    Elidrissi Errahhali, Manal; Elidrissi Errahhali, Mounia; Abda, Naima; Bellaoui, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Malignant diseases have been believed to be more common in some areas of Eastern Morocco, but until now, cancer patterns have not been reported for this region. In this paper we present for the first time the cancer prevalence analysis in Eastern Morocco. Cross-sectional study carried out among all patients diagnosed and/or treated with cancer at the Hassan II Regional Oncology Center (ROC) since it was established in October 2005 until December 2012. The ROC is the only hospital specialized in cancer care in Eastern Morocco. A total of 8,508 cases of cancer were registered among residents in Eastern Morocco, with a female to male ratio of 2.1. The mean age at diagnosis was 53.9 ± 15.2 years (median age = 53 years). Thus, unlike in Western countries, cancer in Eastern Morocco afflicts younger population. The areas of Eastern Morocco did not differ significantly by mean age at diagnosis (p = 0.061). However, these regions differed significantly by sex ratio (p < 0.001). The highest sex ratio was observed in Figuig, with a female to male ratio of 3.1 (75.4% of the registered case were females), followed respectively by Taourirt, Oujda-Angad, Berkane, Nador-Driouch and Jerada. Clear variation in the distribution of cancer types between areas of Eastern Morocco was observed, both in males and females (p < 0.001). Furthermore, the areas of Eastern Morocco differed significantly by cancer prevalence (p < 0.001). The highest age-standardized five-year prevalence proportion was observed in Oujda-Angad with 420.2 per 100,000, followed respectively by Berkane (311.4), Jerada (287.8), Taourirt (269.3), Nador-Driouch (213.6) and Figuig (194.4). Trends in the five-year prevalence proportions decreased in Oujda-Angad, Berkane and Jerada throughout the study period, while an increasing trend was observed in Nador-Driouch, Taourirt and Figuig. For the first time, our study presents the pattern and distribution of diagnosed cancers in Eastern Morocco. Our study illustrates

  6. Exploring Geographic Variability in Cancer Prevalence in Eastern Morocco: A Retrospective Study over Eight Years

    PubMed Central

    Abda, Naima; Bellaoui, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Background Malignant diseases have been believed to be more common in some areas of Eastern Morocco, but until now, cancer patterns have not been reported for this region. In this paper we present for the first time the cancer prevalence analysis in Eastern Morocco. Methods Cross-sectional study carried out among all patients diagnosed and/or treated with cancer at the Hassan II Regional Oncology Center (ROC) since it was established in October 2005 until December 2012. The ROC is the only hospital specialized in cancer care in Eastern Morocco. Results A total of 8,508 cases of cancer were registered among residents in Eastern Morocco, with a female to male ratio of 2.1. The mean age at diagnosis was 53.9 ± 15.2 years (median age = 53 years). Thus, unlike in Western countries, cancer in Eastern Morocco afflicts younger population. The areas of Eastern Morocco did not differ significantly by mean age at diagnosis (p = 0.061). However, these regions differed significantly by sex ratio (p < 0.001). The highest sex ratio was observed in Figuig, with a female to male ratio of 3.1 (75.4% of the registered case were females), followed respectively by Taourirt, Oujda-Angad, Berkane, Nador-Driouch and Jerada. Clear variation in the distribution of cancer types between areas of Eastern Morocco was observed, both in males and females (p < 0.001). Furthermore, the areas of Eastern Morocco differed significantly by cancer prevalence (p < 0.001). The highest age-standardized five-year prevalence proportion was observed in Oujda-Angad with 420.2 per 100,000, followed respectively by Berkane (311.4), Jerada (287.8), Taourirt (269.3), Nador-Driouch (213.6) and Figuig (194.4). Trends in the five-year prevalence proportions decreased in Oujda-Angad, Berkane and Jerada throughout the study period, while an increasing trend was observed in Nador-Driouch, Taourirt and Figuig. Conclusions For the first time, our study presents the pattern and distribution of diagnosed cancers in Eastern

  7. Depleted arc volcanism in the Alboran Sea and shoshonitic volcanism in Morocco: geochemical and isotopic constraints on Neogene tectonic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, R. C. O.; Aparicio, A.; El Azzouzi, M.; Hernandez, J.; Thirlwall, M. F.; Bourgois, J.; Marriner, G. F.

    2004-12-01

    Samples of volcanic rocks from Alborán Island, the Alboran Sea floor and from the Gourougou volcanic centre in northern Morocco have been analyzed for major and trace elements and Sr-Nd isotopes to test current theories on the tectonic geodynamic evolution of the Alboran Sea. The Alborán Island samples are low-K tholeiitic basaltic andesites whose depleted contents of HFS elements (˜0.5×N-MORB), especially Nb (˜0.2×N-MORB), show marked geochemical parallels with volcanics from immature intra-oceanic arcs and back-arc basins. Several of the submarine samples have similar compositions, one showing low-Ca boninite affinity. 143Nd/ 144Nd ratios fall in the same range as many island-arc and back-arc basin samples, whereas 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios (on leached samples) are somewhat more radiogenic. Our data point to active subduction taking place beneath the Alboran region in Miocene times, and imply the presence of an associated back-arc spreading centre. Our sea floor suite includes a few more evolved dacite and rhyolite samples with ( 87Sr/ 86Sr) 0 up to 0.717 that probably represent varying degrees of crustal melting. The shoshonite and high-K basaltic andesite lavas from Gourougou have comparable normalized incompatible-element enrichment diagrams and Ce/Y ratios to shoshonitic volcanics from oceanic island arcs, though they have less pronounced Nb deficits. They are much less LIL- and LREE-enriched than continental arc analogues and post-collisional shoshonites from Tibet. The magmas probably originated by melting in subcontinental lithospheric mantle that had experienced negligible subduction input. Sr-Nd isotope compositions point to significant crustal contamination which appears to account for the small Nb anomalies. The unmistakable supra-subduction zone (SSZ) signature shown by our Alboran basalts and basaltic andesite samples refutes geodynamic models that attribute all Neogene volcanism in the Alboran domain to decompression melting of upwelling asthenosphere

  8. Energy trump for Morocco: the oil shales (in French)

    SciTech Connect

    Rosa, S.D.

    1981-10-01

    The mainstays of the economy in Morocco are still agriculture and phosphates; the latter represent 34% of world exports. Energy demand in 1985 will be probably 3 times that in 1975. Most of the oil, which covers 82% of its energy needs, must be imported. Other possible sources are the rich oil shale deposits and nuclear energy. Four nuclear plants with a total of 600 MW are projected, but shale oil still will play an important role. A contract for building a pilot plant has been met recently. The plant is to be located at Timahdit and cost $13 million,more » for which a loan from the World Bank has been requested. If successful in the pilot plant, the process will be used in full scale plants scheduled to produce 400,000 tons/yr of oil. Tosco also has a contract for a feasibility study.« less

  9. Poikiloderma with neutropenia, Clericuzio type, in a family from Morocco.

    PubMed

    Mostefai, Rahima; Morice-Picard, Fanny; Boralevi, Franck; Sautarel, Michel; Lacombe, Didier; Stasia, Marie José; McGrath, John; Taïeb, Alain

    2008-11-01

    Three siblings from Morocco consanguineous family presented with cutaneous poikiloderma following postnatal ichthyosiform lesions, associated with papillomatous lesions, palmoplantar keratoderma, pachyonychia of toenails, fragile carious teeth, and lachrymal duct obstruction. Photosensitivity and blistering improved with age. Atrophic scars were prominent on the limbs. Neutropenia developed in the first year secondary to dysmyelopoiesis affecting the granulocyte lineage, associated with a polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia. Several broncho-pulmonary infectious episodes complicated the evolution, and cystic fibrosis was first considered on the basis of repeated abnormal sweat chloride tests but not confirmed by molecular analyses. This autosomal recessive disorder matches that described originally as poikiloderma with neutropenia-Clericuzio type in Navajo Indians (OMIM 604173). It is discussed within the group of the major hereditary poikiloderma disorders, that is, Rothmund-Thomson syndrome, dyskeratosis congenita, and Kindler syndrome. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Tsunami Evacuation Plan for the City of Tangier-Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benchekroun, Sabah; Omira, Rachid; Baptista, Maria Ana; Arbi Toto, El

    2016-04-01

    Tsunami evacuation plan is an important tool to mitigate the tsunami impact. It is the most efficient way to save human lives, well before the waves reach the threatened coastal area, by providing evacuation routes and appropriate shelters. In this study, we propose a tsunami evacuation plan for the city of Tangier-Morocco. This plan is designed considering the tsunami threat from the tsunamigenic sources located in the SW Iberia Margin and using the inundation maps of the worst case to define the limit of flooding area. The evacuation plan is elaborated through modelling the required time for the threatened coastal population to reach the shelters. Results of this study will be useful for decision makers and local authorities in preventing the community resiliency for tsunami hazard. This work received funding from collaborative project ASTARTE - Assessment Strategy and Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe Grant 603839, FP7.

  11. The present environmental scenario of the Nador Lagoon (Morocco).

    PubMed

    Ruiz, F; Abad, M; Olías, M; Galán, E; González, I; Aguilá, E; Hamoumi, N; Pulido, I; Cantano, M

    2006-10-01

    In this paper, we present a multivariate approach (waters, sediments, microfauna) concerning the environmental state of the Nador Lagoon (NE Morocco). The normal water quality parameters (salinity, pH, nutrients) of the dominant marine flows are altered by local fecal water effluents, urban discharges, sewages derived from a water treatment station, and residues originated in a slaughterhouse. The geochemical analyses carried out in surficial sediment samples show very high concentrations of all metals studied near an old iron mine and moderate contents between Nador and its treatment station. Ostracods are good bioindicators of these environmental impacts, with the presence of a highly brackish assemblage in the quieter, more confined areas or the appearance of opportunistic species under hypoxic conditions. In addition, these microcrustaceans are absent in polluted bottom sediments or areas with high hydrodynamic gradients, whereas they decrease in both density and diversity if the subaerial exposure increases.

  12. High Prevalence of Anaplasma spp. in Small Ruminants in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Ait Lbacha, H; Alali, S; Zouagui, Z; El Mamoun, L; Rhalem, A; Petit, E; Haddad, N; Gandoin, C; Boulouis, H-J; Maillard, R

    2017-02-01

    The prevalence of infection by Anaplasma spp. (including Anaplasma phagocytophilum) was determined using blood smear microscopy and PCR through screening of small ruminant blood samples collected from seven regions of Morocco. Co-infections of Anaplasma spp., Babesia spp, Theileria spp. and Mycoplasma spp. were investigated and risk factors for Anaplasma spp. infection assessed. A total of 422 small ruminant blood samples were randomly collected from 70 flocks. Individual animal (breed, age, tick burden and previous treatment) and flock data (GPS coordinate of farm, size of flock and livestock production system) were collected. Upon examination of blood smears, 375 blood samples (88.9%) were found to contain Anaplasma-like erythrocytic inclusion bodies. Upon screening with a large spectrum PCR targeting the Anaplasma 16S rRNA region, 303 (71%) samples were found to be positive. All 303 samples screened with the A. phagocytophilum-specific PCR, which targets the msp2 region, were found to be negative. Differences in prevalence were found to be statistically significant with regard to region, altitude, flock size, livestock production system, grazing system, presence of clinical cases and application of tick and tick-borne diseases prophylactic measures. Kappa analysis revealed a poor concordance between microscopy and PCR (k = 0.14). Agreement with PCR is improved by considering microscopy and packed cell volume (PCV) in parallel. The prevalence of double infections was found to be 1.7, 2.5 and 24% for Anaplasma-Babesia, Anaplasma-Mycoplasma and Anaplasma-Theileria, respectively. Co-infection with three or more haemoparasites was found in 1.6% of animals examined. In conclusion, we demonstrate the high burden of anaplasmosis in small ruminants in Morocco and the high prevalence of co-infections of tick-borne diseases. There is an urgent need to improve the control of this neglected group of diseases. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Mapping Croplands in Morocco and Tunisia using MAGE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGaughey, K.; Purcell, B.; Tetrault, R. L.; Wasko, C.

    2017-12-01

    Morocco and Tunisia are both net-wheat importing countries, which experience fluctuations in production due to drought. Knowledge of food supply is critical for the local governments' understanding of food security and to re-assure the population regarding food availability. Tunisia was the epicenter for the event known as the "Arab Spring." Although the Arab Spring had several societal components, chronic uncertainty in the governments' reliability raised concerns about food supply and food availability despite the government's policy responses. Due to its importance for geopolitical as well as market opportunity reasons, in March and April of 2017, analysts from the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) traveled to Morocco and Tunisia to conduct crop assessment. Fieldwork data collection is necessary for us as crop analysts to use our convergence of evidence approach, which includes ground information, satellite imagery, meteorological information and reports from our offices abroad. During this trip, analysts used the new mobile application from the National Geospatial Intelligence Agency (NGA) called MAGE to collect fieldwork data for crop classification. Using the several thousand training data collected through the mobile application and by leveraging satellite data within Google Earth Engine, an in-season crop mask was created. The final product was delivered to the team just a few days after returning to USDA Washington and was used in the first wheat production estimate of the season released May 10, 2017. The final product helps analysts determine an experimental in-season area estimation and to focus our other remote sensing tools and products on our areas of interest. The US Department of Agriculture's International Production Assessment Division is responsible for publishing monthly production, area and yield estimates for 17 commodities in over 150 countries.

  14. Enseignement de la langue francaise au Maroc et dialogue des cultures (Teaching of the French Language in Morocco and Dialogue of Cultures).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahjomri, Abdeljalil

    1984-01-01

    In the process of Arabization of Morocco, it is necessary to maintain French language instruciton, but as a necessary foreign language and not as a primary language. French remains an important part of Morocco's diverse cultural identity. (MSE)

  15. Water quality assessment of a highly polluted Mediterranean River - Oued Fez (Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, J.-L.; Bellarbi, M.; Raïs, N.; Chahinian, N.; Moulin, P.; Ijjaali, M.

    2012-04-01

    In the South of the Mediterranean basin, many rivers are characterized by an alternation of very long dry periods only cut by short flood events. Currently, the socio-economical development of these zones is limited by water scarcity and poor quality of the water resources. Indeed human activities, generally concentrated in overpopulated cities, generate large quantity of domestic and industrial effluents which are directly rejected in the environment without any treatment. In Morocco, the well known city of Fez illustrates perfectly this situation, observed in most developing countries. The oued Fez receives continuously the non-treated domestic and industrial effluents (90.000 m3/day) of the city and pollutes all the downstream water bodies. Indeed, it is a tributary of the Sebou River, a major body of great economical importance used for irrigation and freshwater supply. This study aims at characterising and quantifying the pollutant concentrations and fluxes in various points of oued Fez's hydrological network and assessing its impact on the Sebou River; this river's preservation being considered a national priority in Morocco. A coupled water quality-water quantity monitoring scheme has been implemented on oued Fez since 2008. In addition to basic hydrological data, water quality samples are collected at regular intervals at 8 locations where discharge is simultaneously measured using an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP). Water samples are analysed for different forms of nitrogen (nitrates, nitrites, ammonium and total nitrogen), phosphorus (soluble reactive phosphorus and total phosphorus) but also total chromium which is used in the leather tanning processes, one of the most important industrial production of the city of Fez, using a photospectrometer (Hach Lange DR 2800 VIS-photometer (Germany). The results of 17 sampling campaigns, carried out over 3 hydrological years, indicate that the rural areas contribute mostly to baseflow during the wet

  16. Trends in the use of antiasthmatic medications in Morocco (1999-2010).

    PubMed

    Ghanname, Imane; Ahid, Samir; Berrada, Ghizlane; Belaiche, Abdelmjid; Hassar, Mohamed; Cherrah, Yahya

    2013-12-01

    Asthma is a big public health problem in Morocco. The drug therapy existing in Morocco is currently insufficient because of the low purchasing power and the low health insurance coverage available to the average citizen in Morocco. In this study we evaluated the consumption of antiasthmatics in Morocco during the period 1999-2010, the classes of used drugs and the generics' market share. We used sales data from the Moroccan subsidiaries of the IMS Health "Intercontinental Marketing Service". The consumption volume was converted to Defined Daily Doses (DDDs). During 1999-2010, antiasthmatics's consumption increased from 3.91 to 14.47 DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day. In 2010, the association Beta-2-mimetic-Glucocorticosteroids were the most consumed (8.53 DDD/1000 Inhabitants/day) followed by the short-acting inhaled Beta-2-mimetic (4 DDD/1000 Inhabitants/day) and inhaled Glucocorticosteroids alone accounted for 1.13 DDD/1000 Inhabitants/day. The largest consumption share in volume was held by the short-acting inhaled Beta-2-mimetic (42%) followed by the combination Beta-2-mimetic-Glucocorticosteroids (38%). Between 1999 and 2010, the market for generic antiasthmatics increased from 1.84 to 2.18 DDD/1000 Inhabitants/day. The ratio of the monthly average cost of treatment to the minimum wage in Morocco decreased from 10.8% in 1999 to 7.11% in 2010. Antiasthmatics' consumption in Morocco has undergone significant changes between 1999 and 2010. However, the availability of these drugs expressed as the Average Monthly Expenditure/Guaranteed Minimum Wage ratio improved. Despite this, the use of antiasmathics in Morocco remains low.

  17. Foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the Toarcian deposits (Lower Jurassic) from the Middle Atlas (Morocco). Comparison with western Tethyan areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejjaji, Zohra; Chakiri, Saïd; Reolid, Matías; Boutakiout, Mohamed

    2010-04-01

    The Toarcian sediments of the Middle Atlas show hemipelagic facies deposited in platform to basinal environments. They are represented by: (a) marly thick sections that accumulated in troughs under restricted dysoxic conditions, and (b) condensed sections of marly limestones found on fairly high ridges. The micropaleontological study of benthic foraminifera allowed us to establish the biostratigraphic extension of the different registered species. From the stratigraphic distribution of the benthic foraminifera two renewal phases can be characterized: one at the base of the Polymorphum Zone, and the other inside the Bifrons Zone. Five biozones were thus established ( Lingulina gr. tenera and Marginulina gr. prima Biozone; Lenticulina obonensis mg Planularia Biozone; Lenticulina pennensis mg Marginulinopsis and Ichtyolaria hauffi Biozone; Nodosariapulchra and Lenticulina ferruginea mg Falsopalmula Biozone; Lenticulinadorbignyi Biozone). These stratigraphic sub-divisions based on the benthic foraminifera are a useful tool when ammonoids are scarce. The Toarcian benthic foraminifera of the Middle Atlas are similar to the foraminiferal associations from neighbouring regions in the Maghreb (Morocco and Algeria) and Southwestern Europe (Spain, France and Portugal).

  18. Evolution of a Miocene sag basin in the Alboran Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do Couto, D.; Gorini, C.; Jolivet, L.; Letouzey, J.; Smit, J.; d'Acremont, E.; Auxietre, J. L.; Le Pourhiet, L.; Estrada, F.; Elabassi, M.; Ammar, A.; Jabour, H.; Vendeville, B.

    2012-04-01

    The Alboran domain represents the westernmost termination of the peri-Mediterranean Alpine orogen. Its arcuate shape, delimited to the North by the Betic range and to the South by the Rif range, is the result of subduction, collision and slab migration processes. During the Neogene, several sedimentary basins formed on the Betics metamorphic basement, mainly due to the extensional collapse of the previously thickened crust of the Betic-Rif belt. The major sedimentary depocentre, the Western Alboran Basin (WAB), is surrounded by the Gibraltar arc, the volcanic Djibouti mounts and the Alboran ridge, and is partly affected by shale tectonics and associated mud volcanism. High-quality 2-D seismic profiles acquired along the Moroccan margin during the last decade reveal a complete history of the basin. Our study deals with the analysis of seismic profiles oriented parallel and orthogonal to the Mediterranean Moroccan margin. The stratigraphy was calibrated using well data from offshore Spain and Morocco. Our study focuses particularly on the tectono-stratigraphic reconstruction of the basin. The formation of the WAB began in the Early Miocene (Aquitanian - Burdigalian). A massive unit of Early Miocene to Lower Langhian shales and olistostromes forms a thick mobile décollement layer that controls and accommodates deformation of the basin fill. From the Upper Langhian to the Upper Tortonian, the basin is filled by a thick sequence of siliciclastic deposits. Stratigraphic geometries identified on seismic data clearly indicate that deformation of the basin fill started during deposition of Upper Langhian to the Upper Tortonian clastics. Shale tectonic deformation was re-activated recently, during the Messinian desiccation of the Mediterranean Sea (and the following catastrophic Pliocene reflooding) or during the Quaternary contourite deposition The sedimentary layers gently dip towards the basin centre and "onlaps" onto the basin margin, especially onto the basement high

  19. Frequency-dependent Lg-wave attenuation in northern Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noriega, Raquel; Ugalde, Arantza; Villaseñor, Antonio; Harnafi, Mimoun

    2015-11-01

    Frequency-dependent attenuation (Q- 1) in the crust of northern Morocco is estimated from Lg-wave spectral amplitude measurements every quarter octave in the frequency band 0.8 to 8 Hz. This study takes advantage of the improved broadband data coverage in the region provided by the deployment of the IberArray seismic network. Earthquake data consist of 71 crustal events with magnitudes 4 ≤ mb ≤ 5.5 recorded on 110 permanent and temporary seismic stations between January 2008 and December 2013 with hypocentral distances between 100 and 900 km. 1274 high-quality Lg waveforms provide dense path coverage of northern Morocco, crossing a region with a complex structure and heterogeneous tectonic setting as a result of continuous interactions between the African and Eurasian plates. We use two different methods: the coda normalization (CN) analysis, that allows removal of the source and site effects from the Lg spectra, and the spectral amplitude decay (SAD) method, that simultaneously inverts for source, site, and path attenuation terms. The CN and SAD methods return similar results, indicating that the Lg Q models are robust to differences in the methodologies. Larger errors and no significant frequency dependence are observed for frequencies lower than 1.5 Hz. For distances up to 400 km and the frequency band 1.5 ≤ ƒ (Hz) ≤ 4.5, the model functions Q(f) = (529- 22+ 23)(f/1.5)0.23 ± 0.06 and Q(f) = (457- 7+ 7)(f/1.5)0.44 ± 0.02 are obtained using the CN and SAD methods, respectively. A change in the frequency dependence is observed above 4.5 Hz for both methods which may be related to the influence of the Sn energy on the Lg window. The frequency-dependent Q- 1 estimates represent an average attenuation beneath a broad region including the Rif and Tell mountains, the Moroccan and Algerian mesetas, the Atlas Mountains and the Sahara Platform structural domains, and correlate well with areas of moderate seismicity where intermediate Q values have been obtained.

  20. Tolerance Education in Morocco. "Anne Frank: A History for Today"--Learning about Our Past--Contributing to Our Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polak, Karen

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes recent developments in the field of history education and human rights education in Morocco. Educational reform in Morocco is ongoing and includes measures such as mandating that all schools create after-school Human Rights Clubs. These developments are then related to the possibility of teaching about the history of the…

  1. San Mateo Creek Basin

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The San Mateo Creek Basin comprises approximately 321 square miles within the Rio San Jose drainage basin in McKinley and Cibola counties, New Mexico. This basin is located within the Grants Mining District (GMD).

  2. [Acute myocardial infarction in Morocco: FES-AMI registry data].

    PubMed

    Akoudad, H; El Khorb, N; Sekkali, N; Mechrafi, A; Zakari, N; Ouaha, L; Lahlou, I

    2015-12-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is the most dangerous complication of coronary atherothrombosis. There are several disparities in regard to its management around the world. The aim of this study is to analyze the specificities of management of acute myocardial infarction in Morocco. FES-AMI (Fès Acute Myocardial Infarction) is a prospective monocentric registry conducted in cardiology department of Hassan II university hospital in Fès. In this registry, we enrolled patients with acute myocardial infarction who presented within 5 days after symptom onset. From January 2005 to August 2015, we enrolled 1835 patients. Seventy-five percent of patients were males and mean age was 60 years old. Fifty-one percent of patients were smokers, 27% were hypertensives and 14% were diabetics. Sixty-six percent of patients had more than 2 risk factors. Time from symptom onset to hospital admission was less than six hours for 40% of the patients. Thirty-six percent of patients were admitted more than twelve hours after the onset of chest pain. Only 37% of patients received reperfusion therapy, 31% with in-hospital thrombolysis and 6% with primary angioplasty. In-hospital mortality was 7.6%. The patients enrolled in our registry have late presentation of acute myocardial infarction and less rate of reperfusion therapy. Furthermore, the majority of our patients have multiple risk factors and this result underlines the failure of preventive interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Lung cancer: Incidence and survival in Rabat, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Lachgar, A; Tazi, M A; Afif, M; Er-Raki, A; Kebdani, T; Benjaafar, N

    2016-12-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide, but epidemiologic data from developing countries are lacking. This article reports lung cancer incidence and survival in Rabat, the capital of Morocco. All lung cancer cases diagnosed between 2005 and 2008 were analyzed using data provided by the Rabat Cancer Registry. The standardized rate was reported using age adjustment with respect to the world standard population, and the observed survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Three hundred fifty-one cases were registered (314 males and 37 females), aged 27-90 years (median, 59 years). The most common pathological type was adenocarcinoma (40.2%) followed by squamous cell carcinoma (31.9%); the majority of cases were diagnosed at stage IV (52%). The age-standardized incidence rate was 25.1 and 2.7 per 100,000 for males and females, respectively, and the overall observed survival rates at 1 and 5 years were 31.7% and 3.4%, respectively. The clinical stage of disease was the only independent predictor of survival. The survival rate of lung cancer in Rabat is very poor. This finding explains the need for measures to reduce the prevalence of tobacco and to improve diagnostic and therapeutic facilities for lung cancer. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  4. An acercostracan marrellomorph (Euarthropoda) from the Lower Ordovician of Morocco.

    PubMed

    Legg, David A

    2016-04-01

    Enosiaspis hrungnir gen. et sp. nov., a new species of marrellomorph arthropod from the Lower Ordovician (Tremadocian) Fezouata biota of Morocco, is described. This taxon is characterised by the possession of a cordiform dorsal carapace with an anterior notch and a doublure-like structure formed from fused marginal spines, covering the entire body. The head comprises at least five segments which bear an anterior pair of antenna, followed by three pairs of potentially biramous, geniculate appendages. The trunk possesses around 25 pairs of delicate, almost filamentous appendages, which decrease in size posteriorly. Similar features are also found in Xylokorys chledophilia from the Silurian of England, and Vachonisia rogeri from the Devonian of Germany, indicating acercostracan affinities for E. hrungnir. This was tested using a phylogenetic analysis which resolved this taxon as sister taxon to a group composed of the formerly mentioned taxa. The similarities between the ventral spinose carapace doublure of E. hrungnir and the mediolateral spines of marrellid marrellomorphs further support claims that the dorsal shield of acercostracans evolved from the fusion of spinose anlagen, akin to the formation of the carapace of crustaceans.

  5. Radiative forcing of the desert aerosol at Ouarzazate (Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahiri, Abdelouahid; Diouri, Mohamed

    2018-05-01

    The atmospheric aerosol contributes to the definition of the climate with direct effect, the diffusion and absorption of solar and terrestrial radiations, and indirect, the cloud formation process where aerosols behave as condensation nuclei and alter the optical properties. Satellites and ground-based networks (solar photometers) allow the terrestrial aerosol observation and the determination of impact. Desert aerosol considered among the main types of tropospheric aerosols whose optical property uncertainties are still quite important. The analysis concerns the optical parameters recorded in 2015 at Ouarzazate solar photometric station (AERONET/PHOTONS network, http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov/) close to Saharan zone. The daily average aerosol optical depthτaer at 0.5μm, are relatively high in summer and less degree in spring (from 0.01 to 1.82). Daily average of the Angstrom coefficients α vary between 0.01 and 1.55. The daily average of aerosol radiative forcing at the surface range between -150W/m2 and -10 W/m2 with peaks recorded in summer, characterized locally by large loads of desert aerosol in agreement with the advections of the Southeast of Morocco. Those recorded at the Top of the atmosphere show a variation from -74 W/m2 to +24 W/m2

  6. Contraceptive security, information flow, and local adaptations: family planning Morocco.

    PubMed

    Chandani, Y; Breton, G

    2001-12-01

    Many developing countries increasingly recognize and acknowledge family planning as a critical part of socio-economic development. However, with few health dollars to go around, countries tend to provide essential drugs for curative care, rather than for family planning products. Donors have historically provided free contraceptives for family planning services. Whether products are donated or purchased by the country, a successful family planning program depends on an uninterrupted supply of products, beginning with the manufacturer and ending with the customer. Any break in the supply chain may cause a family planning program to fail. A well-functioning logistics system can manage the supply chain and ensure that the customers have the products they need, when they need them. Morocco was selected for the case study. The researchers had ready access to key informants and information about the Logistics Management Information System. Because the study had time and resource constraints, research included desktop reviews and interview, rather than data collection in the field. The case study showed that even in a challenging environment an LMIS can be successfully deployed and fully supported by the users. It is critical to customize the system to a country-specific situation to ensure buy-in for the implementation. Significant external support funding and technical expertise are critical components to ensure the initial success of the system. Nonetheless, evidence from the case study shows that, after a system has been implemented, the benefits may not ensure its institutionalization. Other support, including local funding and technical expertise, is required.

  7. Risk factors for chronic mastitis in morocco and egypt.

    PubMed

    Oltean, Hanna N; Soliman, Amr S; Omar, Omar S; Youssef, Tamer F; Karkouri, Mehdi; Abdel-Aziz, Azza; Hablas, Ahmad; Blachley, Taylor; Tahri, Ali; Merajver, Sofia D

    2013-01-01

    Chronic mastitis is a prolonged inflammatory breast disease, and little is known about its etiology. We identified 85 cases and 112 controls from 5 hospitals in Morocco and Egypt. Cases were women with chronic mastitis (including periductal, lobular, granulomatous, lymphocytic, and duct ectasia with mastitis). Controls had benign breast disease, including fibroadenoma, benign phyllodes, and adenosis. Both groups were identified from histopathologically diagnosed patients from 2008 to 2011, frequency-matched on age. Patient interviews elicited demographic, reproductive, breastfeeding, and clinical histories. Cases had higher parity than controls (OR = 1.75, 1.62-1.90) and more reported history of contraception use (OR = 2.73, 2.07-3.61). Cases were less likely to report wearing a bra (OR = 0.56, 0.47-0.67) and less often used both breasts for breastfeeding (OR = 4.40, 3.39-5.72). Chronic mastitis cases were significantly less likely to be employed outside home (OR = 0.71, 0.60-0.84) and more likely to report mice in their households (OR = 1.63, 1.36-1.97). This is the largest case-control study reported to date on risk factors for chronic mastitis. Our study highlights distinct reproductive risk factors for the disease. Future studies should further explore these factors and the possible immunological and susceptibility predisposing conditions.

  8. Risk Factors for Chronic Mastitis in Morocco and Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Oltean, Hanna N.; Soliman, Amr S.; Omar, Omar S.; Youssef, Tamer F.; Karkouri, Mehdi; Abdel-Aziz, Azza; Hablas, Ahmad; Tahri, Ali; Merajver, Sofia D.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic mastitis is a prolonged inflammatory breast disease, and little is known about its etiology. We identified 85 cases and 112 controls from 5 hospitals in Morocco and Egypt. Cases were women with chronic mastitis (including periductal, lobular, granulomatous, lymphocytic, and duct ectasia with mastitis). Controls had benign breast disease, including fibroadenoma, benign phyllodes, and adenosis. Both groups were identified from histopathologically diagnosed patients from 2008 to 2011, frequency-matched on age. Patient interviews elicited demographic, reproductive, breastfeeding, and clinical histories. Cases had higher parity than controls (OR = 1.75, 1.62–1.90) and more reported history of contraception use (OR = 2.73, 2.07–3.61). Cases were less likely to report wearing a bra (OR = 0.56, 0.47–0.67) and less often used both breasts for breastfeeding (OR = 4.40, 3.39–5.72). Chronic mastitis cases were significantly less likely to be employed outside home (OR = 0.71, 0.60–0.84) and more likely to report mice in their households (OR = 1.63, 1.36–1.97). This is the largest case-control study reported to date on risk factors for chronic mastitis. Our study highlights distinct reproductive risk factors for the disease. Future studies should further explore these factors and the possible immunological and susceptibility predisposing conditions. PMID:24327928

  9. [Hospital deliveries in Morocco or how to reconcile different logics].

    PubMed

    Richard, F; Filali, H; Lardi, M; de Brouwere, V

    2003-02-01

    In Morocco, the majority of maternal deaths and severe obstetrical complications occurs outside a health structure. If accessibility to a referral hospital is clearly a problem, this problem can be exacerbated by the perception that women and their family have of the quality of care received in these maternity services. The objective of this article is to explore how women who went through a severe obstetrical complication experienced their hospitalisation and to confront this experience with the caregivers'perception. This study was carried out in Tetouan and Sidi Kacem between July 1999 and January 2001. Semi-structured individual interviews were held with 94 women who underwent an episode of severe morbidity, 91 family members, as well as 4 focus groups and 53 interviews with health staff members. Though all show gratitude towards the hospital staff for having saved their life, half of the women and their relatives reported problems of behaviour and attitude of the staff: verbal violence, baksheesh, patronage, lack of empathy and discrimination against certain categories of the population. These result from a complex interplay of factors: the stress-load within the profession, the institutional context which by its failures leads to or allows these behaviours and the representations peculiar to each of the players, the providers and the users. In order to be professionally more effective, it would be in the caregivers'interest to set up a system of communication that would place the patient back in the centre of hospital care.

  10. Roman bronze artefacts from Thamusida (Morocco): Chemical and phase analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gliozzo, E.; Kockelmann, W.; Bartoli, L.; Tykot, R. H.

    2011-02-01

    Twenty-six objects (1st to the 3rd century AD) found at the archaeological site of Thamusida (Morocco), which is a military settlement between the 1st and the 3rd century AD, have been investigated by means of portable X-ray fluorescence and time of flight-neutron diffraction. The combination of element-sensitive X-ray fluorescence and structure-sensitive neutron diffraction yields, in a totally non-destructive way, the necessary information to discriminate the copper alloy from corrosion and alteration layers. Results allowed dividing the repertory into five groups: (a) unalloyed copper, (b) binary alloys made of Cu and Sn, frequently leaded; (c) unleaded binary alloys made of Cu and Zn; (d) ternary alloys made of Cu, Sn and Zn, both leaded and unleaded; (e) quaternary alloys made of Cu, Sn, Zn and As. The choice of alloy is heterogeneous, mainly depending on availability and costs of raw and/or scrap materials and on technological constraints. Interestingly, the reconstruction obtained for Thamusida could either anticipate the important change in the Roman use of copper alloys generally referred as 'zinc decline', or more likely, indicate that brass never conspicuously entered the local metal-working activities of this military site.

  11. Spectrophotometry of pulsating stars at Oukaimeden Observatory in Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benhida, Abdelmjid; sefyani, Fouad; de France, Thibault; Elashab, Sana; Zohra Belharcha, fatim; Gillet, Denis; Mathias, phillipe; Daassou, Ahmed; Lazrek, Mohamed; Benkhaldoun, Zouhair

    2015-08-01

    Location of modern observatories requires high sky quality: good weather, isolated site to avoid any pollution, high altitude for a better transparency and to reduce temperature gradients, the main source of atmospheric turbulence. With an altitude of 2750m, the region of Oukaimeden in Morocco (longitude: 7°52'052" West, latitude: 3°112032" North) meets most of these criteriaWith its 10'' and 14'' dedicated telescopes operating in remote control modes that combines high precision photometry and high resolution spectroscopy (spectrograph Eshell of R~12000 resolution over a wide spectral range), the universitary observatory of Oukaimeden (code J43) aims to develop new thematics in addition to present science. In particular, through this instrumentation, we aim to develop the field of pulsating stars, especially the atmospheric dynamics of high amplitude pulsators such as RR Lyrae and RV Tauri star, in order to establish new models of the mechanical and thermal behaviour of their atmospheres (shock waves, relaxation time, energy loss...).In this work we will first describe our measuring instruments, and then analyze spectra and photometric curves of RR Lyrae star obtained during the maximum of the Blazhko effect.

  12. Air pollution assessment of Salé's city (Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bounakhla, M.; Fatah, A.; Embarch, K.; Ibn Majah, M.; Azami, R.; Sabir, A.; Nejjar, A.; Cherkaoui, R.; Gaudry, A.

    2003-05-01

    Four sites were selected in Sale's city in Morocco in order to contribute in air pollution level assessment and determination of its effects on public health. The sites were selected so that they are close to the most important industrialized areas, they have a very high demographic density and they cover a heavy traffic. Two approaches of air sampling and subsequent analysis methods of elements in atmospheric aerosols have been performed. The first is a classical approach, which consists in sampling total airborne materials with a High Volume Sampler and analysing the samples using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The second is having its interest for studies relating effects of particles on human health. It consists in employing a Dichotomous Sampler to collect inhalable particles and the X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) for elemental analysis. With such system, it was possible to collect separately respirable and inhalable aerosols. The ED-XRF analysis method used is appropriate for monitoring airborne polluants in living and working areas with advantage of simple preparation, nondestructive nature, rapidity and suitable limits of detection. Using this method, it was possible to identify and quantify S, Ca, CI, Fe, Cu, and Pb. With Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy Analysis Method, we quantified Cd. This study have been completed by measuring NOx SO2 and solid suspended particles or airborne particulate matter (APM).

  13. Multi-mycotoxin contamination of couscous semolina commercialized in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Zinedine, Abdellah; Fernández-Franzón, Mónica; Mañes, Jordi; Manyes, Lara

    2017-01-01

    The multi-mycotoxin contamination of ninety-eight (98) couscous semolina samples collected from various areas in Morocco was investigated in this study. Samples were surveyed for the presence of 22 mycotoxins (four aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, diacetoxiscyrpenol (DAS), three fumonisins, beauvericin (BEA), deoxynivalenol (DON), 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15-ADON), 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3-ADON), nivalenol (NIV), sterigmatocystin (STG), zearalenone (ZEA), four enniatins, T-2 and HT-2 toxins). Results showed that 96 out of 98 total couscous samples (98%) were contaminated by at least one mycotoxin. Enniatin B (ENB), Enniatin B1 (ENB1), Enniatin A1 (ENA1) and zearalenone (ZEA) have shown the highest incidences in contaminated samples. The dietary exposure was estimated to be 1.02, 0.57, 0.06, 0.57 and 0.3μg/kgbw/day for the sum of (DON+3-ADON+15-ADON), fumonisins (FB1+FB2+FB3), the sum of (T2+HT-2), NIV and ZEA, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Reexamination of the immature hominid maxilla from Tangier, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Minugh-Purvis, N

    1993-12-01

    Reexamination of the immature Upper Pleistocene hominid maxilla from Mugharet el-'Aliya (Tangier), Morocco is undertaken in light of new evidence on the growth and development of Upper Pleistocene hominids. Metric and qualitative comparisons were made with 17 immature Upper Pleistocene maxillae, and with a recent Homo sapiens sapiens sample. No unambiguous criteria for aligning the maxilla with Neandertals were found, although one character, the degree of maxillary flexion on the zygoma, strongly suggests that this child could be a representative of H.s. sapiens. The probable lack of a canine fossa in Mugharet el-'Aliya 1, the primary criterion used previously to align it with Neandertals, cannot be accurately extrapolated to its adult form from this juvenile. The present evidence suggests that it is inappropriate to refer to this fossil as "Neandertal-like" or as a North African "neandertaloid." Thus, the Tangier maxilla should not be cited as evidence for the presence of Neandertal facial features in North Africa during the Upper Pleistocene.

  15. [Generic drugs and the consumption trends of antihypertensives in Morocco].

    PubMed

    Berrada El Azizi, Ghizlane; Ahid, Samir; Ghanname, Imane; Ghannam, Imane; Belaiche, Abdelmajid; Hassar, Mohammed; Cherrah, Yahia

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the evolution of consumption of antihypertensive drugs generic among 1991-2010, to assess the impacts after the institution of Mandatory Health Insurance and the marketing of generic drugs. We used sales data from the Moroccan subsidiary of IMS Health Intercontinental Marketing Service. Consumption of generic antihypertensive drugs increased from 0.08 to 10.65 DDD/1 000 inhabitants/day between 1991 and 2010. In 2010, generic of the calcium channel blockers (CCBs) represented 4.08 DDD/1 000 inhabitants/day (82.09%), followed by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) by 2.40 DDD/1 000 inhabitants/day (48.29%). The generics market of CCBs is the most dominant and represented in 2010, 79.21% in volume and 62.58% in value. In developing countries like Morocco, the generic drug is a key element for access to treatment especially for the poor population. © 2013 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  16. [Saccharomyces cerevisiae invasive infection: The first reported case in Morocco].

    PubMed

    Maleb, A; Sebbar, E; Frikh, M; Boubker, S; Moussaoui, A; El Mekkaoui, A; Khannoussi, W; Kharrasse, G; Belefquih, B; Lemnouer, A; Ismaili, Z; Elouennass, M

    2017-06-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a cosmopolitan yeast, widely used in agro-alimentary and pharmaceutical industry. Its impact in human pathology is rare, but maybe still underestimated compared to the real situation. This yeast is currently considered as an emerging and opportunistic pathogen. Risk factors are immunosuppression and intravascular device carrying. Fungemias are the most frequent clinical forms. We report the first case of S. cerevisiae invasive infection described in Morocco, and to propose a review of the literature cases of S. cerevisiae infections described worldwide. A 77-year-old patient, with no notable medical history, who was hospitalized for a upper gastrointestinal stenosis secondary to impassable metastatic gastric tumor. Its history was marked by the onset of septic shock, with S. cerevisiae in his urine and in his blood, with arguments for confirmation of invasion: the presence of several risk factors in the patient, positive direct microbiological examination, abundant and exclusive culture of S. cerevisiae from clinical samples. Species identification was confirmed by the study of biochemical characteristics of the isolated yeast. Confirmation of S. cerevisiae infection requires a clinical suspicion in patients with risk factors, but also a correct microbiological diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. An acercostracan marrellomorph (Euarthropoda) from the Lower Ordovician of Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legg, David A.

    2016-04-01

    Enosiaspis hrungnir gen. et sp. nov., a new species of marrellomorph arthropod from the Lower Ordovician (Tremadocian) Fezouata biota of Morocco, is described. This taxon is characterised by the possession of a cordiform dorsal carapace with an anterior notch and a doublure-like structure formed from fused marginal spines, covering the entire body. The head comprises at least five segments which bear an anterior pair of antenna, followed by three pairs of potentially biramous, geniculate appendages. The trunk possesses around 25 pairs of delicate, almost filamentous appendages, which decrease in size posteriorly. Similar features are also found in Xylokorys chledophilia from the Silurian of England, and Vachonisia rogeri from the Devonian of Germany, indicating acercostracan affinities for E. hrungnir. This was tested using a phylogenetic analysis which resolved this taxon as sister taxon to a group composed of the formerly mentioned taxa. The similarities between the ventral spinose carapace doublure of E. hrungnir and the mediolateral spines of marrellid marrellomorphs further support claims that the dorsal shield of acercostracans evolved from the fusion of spinose anlagen, akin to the formation of the carapace of crustaceans.

  18. Geosites inventory of the northwestern Tabular Middle Atlas of Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Wartiti, Mohamed; Malaki, Amina; Zahraoui, Mohamed; El Ghannouchi, Abdelilah; di Gregorio, Felice

    2008-07-01

    Across the northwestern Tabular Middle Atlas of Morocco there are many examples of landscapes, rocks and fossils that provide key evidence of a particular moment or period in Earth history. Such Earth heritage sites are important for educating the general public in environmental matters. They also serve as tools for demonstrating sustainable development and for illustrating methods of site conservation as well as remembering that rocks, minerals, fossils, soils, landforms form an integral part of the natural world. The significance of certain sites for aesthetic or tourism reasons is obvious. There are numerous geosites, which could contribute to effective exploitation of geotourism, often in conjunction with ecotourism. The strategy employed to such sites involves close consultation with all communities in the vicinity of the respective geosite and is not only aimed at tourism and education, but also at sustainable improvement of the infrastructure of the people of this area. Geological heritage sites, properly managed, can generate employment and new economic activities, especially in regions in need of new or additional sources of income.

  19. Structure of Mesozooplankton Communities in the Coastal Waters of Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lidvanov, V. V.; Grabko, O. G.; Kukuev, E. I.; Korolkova, T. G.

    2018-03-01

    Mero- and holoplanktonic organisms from 23 large taxa have been detected in the coastal waters of Morocco. Seven Cladocera species and 164 Copepoda species were identified. Copepod fauna mostly consisted of oceanic epipelagic widely tropical species, but the constant species group (frequency of occurrence over 50%) included neritic and neritic-oceanic widely tropical species. The neritic community that formed a biotopic association with coastal upwelling waters and the distant-neritic community associated with Canary Current waters were the two major communities detected. The former community was characterized by a high abundance and biomass (5700 ind./m3 and 260 mg/m3) and predominance of neritic species. The trophic structure was dominated by thin filter feeders, mixed-food consumers, and small grabbers; the species structure was dominated by Paracalanus indicus, Acartia clausi, and Oncaea curta; the indices of species diversity (3.07 bit/ind.) and evenness (0.63) were relatively low. The latter community was characterized by low abundance and biomass (1150 ind./m3 and 90 mg/m3); variable biotopic, trophic, and species structure; and higher Shannon indices (3.99 bit/ind.) and Pielou (0.75). Seasonal variation of the abundance of organisms was not detected in the communities. Anomalous mesozooplankton states were observed in summer 1998 and winter 1998-1999.

  20. Crustal and lithospheric imaging of the Atlas Mountains of Morocco inferred from magnetotelluric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyan, D.; Jones, A. G.; Fullea, J.; Hogg, C.; Ledo, J.; Sinischalchi, A.; Campanya, J.; Picasso Phase II Team

    2010-12-01

    The Atlas System of Morocco is an intra-continental mountain belt extending for more than 2,000 km along the NW African plate with a predominant NE-SW trend. The System comprises three main branches: the High Atlas, the Middle Atlas, and the Anti Atlas. We present the results of a very recent multi-institutional magnetotelluric (MT) experiment across the Atlas Mountains region that started in September, 2009 and ended in February, 2010, comprising acquisition of broadband and long-period MT data. The experiment consisted of two profiles: (1) a N-S oriented profile crossing the Middle Atlas through the Central High Atlas to the east and (2) a NE-SW profile crossing the western High Atlas towards the Anti Atlas to the west. The MT measurements are part of the PICASSO (Program to Investigate Convective Alboran Sea System Overturn) and the concomitant TopoMed (Plate re-organization in the western Mediterranean: Lithospheric causes and topographic consequences - an ESF EUROCORES TOPO-EUROPE project) projects, to develop a better understanding of the internal structure and evolution of the crust and lithosphere of the Atlas Mountains. The MT data have been processed with robust remote reference methods and submitted to comprehensive strike and dimensionality analysis. Two clearly depth-differentiated strike directions are apparent for crustal (5-35 km) and lithospheric (50-150 km) depth ranges. These two orientations are roughly consistent with the NW-SE Africa-Eurasia convergence acting since the late Cretaceous, and the NNE-SSW Middle Atlas, where Miocene to recent Alkaline volcanism is present. Two-dimensional (2-D) smooth electrical resistivity models were computed independently for both 50 degrees and 20 degrees E of N strike directions. At the crustal scale, our preliminary results reveal a middle to lower-crustal conductive layer stretching from the Middle Atlas southward towards the High Moulouya basin. The most resistive (and therefore potentially thickest

  1. Ocepeia (Middle Paleocene of Morocco): The Oldest Skull of an Afrotherian Mammal

    PubMed Central

    Gheerbrant, Emmanuel; Amaghzaz, Mbarek; Bouya, Baadi; Goussard, Florent; Letenneur, Charlène

    2014-01-01

    While key early(iest) fossils were recently discovered for several crown afrotherian mammal orders, basal afrotherians, e.g., early Cenozoic species that comprise sister taxa to Paenungulata, Afroinsectiphilia or Afrotheria, are nearly unknown, especially in Africa. Possible stem condylarth-like relatives of the Paenungulata (hyraxes, sea-cows, elephants) include only Abdounodus hamdii and Ocepeia daouiensis from the Selandian of Ouled Abdoun Basin, Morocco, both previously only documented by lower teeth. Here, we describe new fossils of Ocepeia, including O.grandis n. sp., and a sub-complete skull of O. daouiensis, the first known before the Eocene for African placentals. O.daouiensis skull displays a remarkable mosaic of autapomophic, ungulate-like and generalized eutherian-like characters. Autapomorphies include striking anthropoid-like characters of the rostrum and dentition. Besides having a basically eutherian-like skull construction, Ocepeia daouiensis is characterized by ungulate-like, and especially paenungulate-like characters of skull and dentition (e.g., selenodonty). However, some plesiomorphies such as absence of hypocone exclude Ocepeia from crown Paenungulata. Such a combination of plesiomorphic and derived characters best fits with a stem position of Ocepeia relative to Paenungulata. In our cladistic analyses Ocepeia is included in Afrotheria, but its shared derived characters with paenungulates are not optimized as exclusive synapomorphies. Rather, within Afrotheria Ocepeia is reconstructed as more closely related to insectivore-like afroinsectiphilians (i.e., aardvarks, sengis, tenrecs, and golden moles) than to paenungulates. This results from conflict with undetected convergences of Paenungulata and Perissodactyla in our cladistic analysis, such as the shared bilophodonty. The selenodont pattern best supports the stem paenungulate position of Ocepeia; that, however, needs further support. The remarkable character mosaic of Ocepeia makes it the

  2. PAH Metabolites in Bile of European Eel (Anguilla anguilla) from Morocco.

    PubMed

    Wariaghli, Fatima; Kammann, Ulrike; Hanel, Reinhold; Yahyaoui, Ahmed

    2015-12-01

    Environmental pollution of fish with organic contaminants is a topic of rising attention in Morocco. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are prominent organic contaminants which are rapidly metabolized in fish. Their metabolites are accumulated in the bile fluid and can be used to assess PAH exposure. The two PAH metabolites 1-hydroxypyrene and 1-hydroxyphenanthrene were quantified in European eels (Anguilla anguilla) from two Moroccan river systems by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Mean values ranged from 52 to 210 ng/mL 1-hydroxypyrene and from 61 to 73 ng/mL 1-hydroxyphenanthrene. The overall concentrations of PAH metabolites in eel from Morocco appeared moderate compared to eel from European rivers and coastal sites. The present study provides first information on concentrations of PAH metabolites in fish from Morocco.

  3. Spatio-Temporal Identification of Areas Suitable for West Nile Disease in the Mediterranean Basin and Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Conte, Annamaria; Candeloro, Luca; Ippoliti, Carla; Monaco, Federica; De Massis, Fabrizio; Bruno, Rossana; Di Sabatino, Daria; Danzetta, Maria Luisa; Benjelloun, Abdennasser; Belkadi, Bouchra; El Harrak, Mehdi; Declich, Silvia; Rizzo, Caterina; Hammami, Salah; Ben Hassine, Thameur; Calistri, Paolo; Savini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted Flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex of the Flaviviridae family. Its spread in the Mediterranean basin and the Balkans poses a significant risk to human health and forces public health officials to constantly monitor the virus transmission to ensure prompt application of preventive measures. In this context, predictive tools indicating the areas and periods at major risk of WNV transmission are of paramount importance. Spatial analysis approaches, which use environmental and climatic variables to find suitable habitats for WNV spread, can enhance predictive techniques. Using the Mahalanobis Distance statistic, areas ecologically most suitable for sustaining WNV transmission were identified in the Mediterranean basin and Central Europe. About 270 human and equine clinical cases notified in Italy, Greece, Portugal, Morocco, and Tunisia, between 2008 and 2012, have been considered. The environmental variables included in the model were altitude, slope, night time Land Surface Temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Enhanced Vegetation Index, and daily temperature range. Seasonality of mosquito population has been modelled and included in the analyses to produce monthly maps of suitable areas for West Nile Disease. Between May and July, the most suitable areas are located in Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and North Cyprus. Summer/Autumn months, particularly between August and October, characterize the suitability in Italy, France, Spain, the Balkan countries, Morocco, North Tunisia, the Mediterranean coast of Africa, and the Middle East. The persistence of suitable conditions in December is confined to the coastal areas of Morocco, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and Israel.

  4. Family planning in Tunisia and Morocco: a summary and evaluation of the recent record.

    PubMed

    Lapham, R

    1971-05-01

    Family planning activity during 1969-1970 in Morocco and Tunisia is discussed in terms of 12 criteria (such as leadership, educational services, availability) used to evaluate the programs in the 2 countries. Significant differences between family planning activity in the 2 countries can be seen in the nature of involvement of their governments through the open and public endorsement of family planning by Tunisia's president compared to the reserve of Morocco's king. Although family planning programs in both countries are organized within the Ministries of Health, the Tunisian program is conducted by a separate division, the Department of Family Planning and Maternal and Child Health, while Morocco's program is completely integrated within existing health services, a fusion which seems to create financial problems for the Moroccan family planning efforts. The Tunisian program, when compared to that of Morocco, is also characterized by a greater availability of contraceptives, more postpartum education and information activity, available induced-abortion and sterilization services, more widespread use of mass media and communication techniques and greater success in program evaluation. On a population basis, Tunisia (population of 5.2 million in 1970) has about 3 times the number of acceptors as Morocco (population of 15.4 million). Both programs have record-keeping systems which improved considerably during 1969 and 1970, but neither program has an effective field worker network. While Tunisia's program has demonstrated more success in meeting the criteria than Morocco's program and a slight decline has occurred in the crude birth rate in Tunisia in recent years, much of this decline can be attributed to a rising age at marriage resulting from the government's policies of social development. Evaluation indicated that both countries will have to increase availability of contraceptives and encourage effective use if substantial decreases in the crude birth rate are

  5. Molecular characterization of bovine tuberculosis strains in two slaughterhouses in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Yahyaoui-Azami, Hind; Aboukhassib, Hamid; Bouslikhane, Mohammed; Berrada, Jaouad; Rami, Soukaina; Reinhard, Miriam; Gagneux, Sebastien; Feldmann, Julia; Borrell, Sonia; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2017-08-25

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is caused by Mycobacterium bovis, which belongs to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Mycobacterium bovis have been described to be responsible of most cases of bovine tuberculosis. Although M. tuberculosis, M. africanum and non-complex mycobacteria were isolated from cattle. In Morocco, so far, no molecular studies were conducted to characterize the strains responsible of BTB. The present study aims to characterize M. bovis in Morocco. The present study was conducted in slaughterhouses in Rabat and El Jadida. Samples were collected from 327 slaughtered animals with visible lesions suggesting BTB. A total of 225 isolates yielded cultures, 95% (n = 215) of them were acid-fast (AF). Sixty eight per cent of the AF positive samples were confirmed as tuberculous mycobacteria (n = 147), 99% of these (n = 146) having RD9 and among the latter, 98% (n = 143) positive while 2% (n = 3) negative for RD4 A total of 134 samples were analyzed by spoligotyping of which 14 were in cluster and with 41 different spoligotypes, ten of them were new patterns (23%). The most prevalent spoligotypes were SB0121, SB0265, and SB0120, and were already identified in many other countries, such as Algeria, Spain, Tunisia, the United States and Argentina. The shared borders between Algeria and Morocco, in addition to the previous importation of cattle from Europe and the US could explain the similarities found in M. bovis spoligotypes. On the other hand, the desert of Morocco could be considered as an efficient barrier preventing the introduction of BTB to Morocco from West Central and East Africa. Our findings suggest a low level endemic transmission of BTB similar to other African countries. However, more research is needed for further knowledge about the transmission patterns of BTB in Morocco.

  6. Seismic anisotropy beneath Southern Iberia and Northern Morocco: first results from the IberArray broad-band seismic network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, J.; Gallart, J.

    2009-12-01

    The region formed by the Betic and Rift belts and the extensional Alboran basin, located in Southern Iberia and Northern Morocco, is one of the most complex and controversial geological zones in Western Europe. There is still not a commonly accepted hypothesis about the mechanism responsible for its formation, as models including lithospheric delamination, convective removal or subduction have been proposed by different authors. In this context, the knowledge about the presence and properties of upper mantle anisotropy from SKS splitting measurements can provide valuable information. Until few years ago, very scarce data regarding the presence of anisotropy in the Southern part of the Iberian Peninsula were available. The installation of new permanent and semi-permanent broadband stations in the region has allowed obtaining a first insight into the anisotropic properties (Buontempo et al, 2008). Those data have evidenced the presence of geographical variations in the anisotropic parameters, with fast velocity directions (FVD) parallel to the mountain belt in the Internal Betics and a rotation on fast split directions towards NS around the Gibraltar arc. However additional data, especially in the Northern part of Morocco, seem to be necessary to discern between the different geodynamical models proposed. In the framework of the large-scale TOPOIBERIA project, the IberArray broad-band seismic network was deployed over this region for about 18 months, beginning in summer 2007. This portable array, formed by up to 55 new generation dataloggers equipped with broad-band seismometers, covers the southern part of Iberia (35 stations) and northern Morocco (20 stations) in an approximately regular grid, with a nominal spacing of 60 km. Data from the permanent broadband stations maintained by different institutions operating in the region has been integrated into the IberArray database. Events with epicentral distances between 85 and 120 degrees and magnitude greater than 5

  7. Cancer incidence in eastern Morocco: cancer patterns and incidence trends, 2005-2012.

    PubMed

    Elidrissi Errahhali, Manal; Elidrissi Errahhali, Mounia; Ouarzane, Meryem; Boulouiz, Redouane; Bellaoui, Mohammed

    2017-08-29

    Cancer is one of the major health problems worldwide. In this article, we present for the first time the cancer incidence trends, the distribution and the socioeconomic profile of incident cancer cases in Eastern Morocco over a period of eight years. Retrospective descriptive study of patients diagnosed with cancer at the Hassan II Regional Oncology Center (ROC) since it was created in October 2005 until December 2012. During the study period, the ROC was the only hospital specialized in cancer care in Eastern Morocco. A total of 7872 incident cases of cancer were registered in Eastern Morocco. Among these incident cases 5220 cases were women and 2652 were men, with a female to male ratio of 1.97. The mean age at diagnosis was 58 years for males and 52 for females and 94% of the patients aged over 30 years. For both sexes combined and for all cancer sites, breast cancer was the commonest followed by cervix uteri, colon-rectum, lung, nasopharynx, and stomach cancers. The most common cancer in women was breast cancer, followed respectively by cervix uteri cancer, colon-rectum cancer, ovary cancer, and stomach cancer. In men, the lung cancer ranked first, followed respectively by colon-rectum cancer, nasopharynx cancer, prostate cancer, and stomach cancer. For most cancers, crude incidence rates (CR) have increased significantly. The CR for all cancers combined has increased from 56.6 to 80.3 per 100,000 females and from 32.3 to 42.6 per 100,000 males during the study period. Patients profile analysis showed that 79% of cancer patients were from urban areas, 83% were unemployed and 85% had no health insurance. The distribution of cancers in Eastern Morocco is different from those observed in other regions of Morocco. Unlike most countries, women were much more affected with cancer than men in Eastern Morocco. More importantly, the rates of many cancers are rising. Therefore, our data justify the need to develop effective programs for cancer control and prevention in

  8. First checklist of the fruit flies of Morocco, including new records (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Harym, Younes El; Belqat, Boutaïna

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The first checklist of the Tephritidae of Morocco, containing 59 species, is presented here. Out of 38 species collected during the present project, three (Campiglossa martii (Becker, 1908), Tephritis divisa (Rondani, 1871), and Terellia sp. near longicauda) present new records for North Africa, and ten (Carpomya incompleta (Becker, 1903), Chaetorellia conjuncta (Becker, 1913), Chetostoma curvinerve Rondani, 1856, Dacus frontalis (Becker, 1922), D. longistylus (Wiedemann, 1830), Dioxyna sororcula (Wiedemann, 1830), Ensina sonchi (Linnaeus, 1767), Myopites inulaedyssentericae Blot, 1827, M. stylatus Fabricius, 1794, and Tephritis vespertina (Loew, 1844)) are new for Morocco. PMID:29118602

  9. Successful combination of electron spin resonance, luminescence and palaeomagnetic dating methods allows reconstruction of the Pleistocene evolution of the lower Moulouya river (NE Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartz, Melanie; Rixhon, Gilles; Duval, Mathieu; King, Georgina E.; Álvarez Posada, Claudia; Parés, Josep M.; Brückner, Helmut

    2018-04-01

    Based on a combination of Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) dating of quartz, luminescence dating of K-feldspar and palaeomagnetism, this study presents the first chronostratigraphic framework for the Pleistocene fluvial deposits of the lower Moulouya river in the Triffa basin (NE Morocco). K-feldspar pIRIR225 and pIRIR290 signals of all samples are saturated, suggesting fluvial deposition at least as early as the Middle Pleistocene (∼0.39-0.80 Ma). Consequently, further chronological information was obtained with ESR dating of quartz grains from the ancient Pleistocene fluvial deposits. As for ESR, the multiple centres approach provides equivalent dose values derived from the Al and Ti centres that mostly agree within 1σ-error, suggesting complete signal resetting from the former during fluvial transport. ESR dating results yield Calabrian deposition ages for all river profiles from ∼1.1 to ∼1.5 Ma. These ages are remarkably consistent with the palaeomagnetic results: the occurrence of mostly reversed polarity in the deposits indicates a Matuyama age (>0.78 Ma). While low incision rates in the Triffa basin (0.025 ± 0.003 mm/a) related to thrusting activity during the Calabrian could be inferred, the fluvial record points to an acyclic and discontinuous sedimentation pattern over the last ∼1.3 Ma. It thereby probably rules out climate as the main driver for fluvial aggradation in the lowermost sedimentary basin. At a regional scale, several indicators point to transient fluvial response resulting from major Quaternary tectonic activity along the Beni Snassen gorge, located directly upstream of the investigated basin. We suggest that a capture event at the margin of the uplifting Beni Snassen massif occurred between 1.04 and 1.36 Ma at the latest and subsequently led to the creation of the gorge.

  10. The external Rif of Morocco and its hydrocarbon potential

    SciTech Connect

    Jobidon, G.; Dakki, M.

    1993-09-01

    The Rif domain is a structurally complex area consisting of nappes and thrust sheets caused by the collision of the Eurasian and African plates during the Tertiary period. The structural complexity decreases southwardly. Autochthonous members are found only along the southern and southwestern periphery, while the northern units are autochthonous (internal Rif and mesorif). Recently acquired geophysical and geochemical data provide an improved understanding of the area and put the hydrocarbon potential of the prerif (south Rif) and the Rharb basin (southern foreland basin) in a new exploration perspective. The Rharb basin has a Cretaceous-to-Tertiary sedimentary evolution, with its maximummore » subsidence occurring during the Tortonian-to-Messinian with the emplacement of a thick olistrostrome (prerif nappe). Biogenic gas is found in the neritic postnappe Tortonian sediments, while a prenappe Cretaceous play now appears as a strong hydrocarbon potential. The Prerif Rides, which are separated from the Gharb basin by the northeast-southwest Sidi-Fili fault trend, are the structural consequence of salt tectonics within the Alpine compression system. Oil production occurred in thrusted Jurassic carbonates and fractured metamorphic Paleozoic rocks. The hydrocarbon potential of newly defined prospects in this area are still untapped.« less

  11. Estimation of Coda Wave Attenuation in Northern Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulanouar, Abderrahim; Moudnib, Lahcen El; Padhy, Simanchal; Harnafi, Mimoun; Villaseñor, Antonio; Gallart, Josep; Pazos, Antonio; Rahmouni, Abdelaali; Boukalouch, Mohamed; Sebbani, Jamal

    2018-03-01

    We studied the attenuation of coda waves and its frequency and lapse-time dependence in northern Morocco. We analysed coda waves of 66 earthquakes recorded in this region during 2008 for four lapse time windows of length 30, 40, 50, and 60 s, and at five frequency bands with central frequency in the range of 0.75-12 Hz. We determined the frequency dependent Q c relation for the horizontal (NS and EW) and vertical (Z) component seismograms. We analyzed three-component broadband seismograms of 66 local earthquakes for determining coda-Q based on the single back-scattering model. The Q c values show strong frequency dependence in 1.5-12 Hz that is related to high degree of heterogeneity of the medium. The lapse time dependence of Q c shows that Q 0 ( Q c at 1 Hz) significantly increases with lapse time that is related to the depth dependence of attenuation and hence of the level of heterogeneity of the medium. The average frequency-dependent Q c( f) values are Qc = (143.75 ± 1.09)f^{(0.864 ± 0.006)}, Qc = (149.12 ± 1.08)f^{(0.85 ± 0.005)} and Qc = (140.42 ± 1.81)f^{(0.902 ± 0.004)} for the vertical, north-south and east-west components of motion, respectively. The frequency-dependent Q c(f) relations are useful for evaluating source parameters (Singh et al. 2001), which are the key inputs for seismic hazard assessment of the region.

  12. Effectiveness of soil conservation strategies on erosion in Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benmansour, Moncef; Mabit, Lionel; Moussadek, Rachid; Yassin, Mohamed; Nouira, Asmae; Zouagui, Anis; Mrabet, Rachid; Iaaich, Hamza; Hajib, Said

    2016-04-01

    - In Morocco, reducing soil erosion and land degradation is a national priority for improving soil quality and protecting downstream water quality and quantity. The combined use of Cs-137 and Be-7 techniques permit to estimate long and short term erosion and deposition magnitudes under different agro-environment and climatic conditions and then to evaluate the effectiveness of soil conservation practices. Case studies using Cs-137 and Be-7 were carried out in three Moroccan agricultural sites: Marchouch, Harchane and Oued Mellah located in Rabat, Tétouan and Chaouia-Ouardigha regions, respectively. In these sites, fallout Cs-137 measurements allowed a retrospective assessment of long term (50-60 years) soil redistribution rates while fallout Be-7 (half-life of 53 days) was used to document short term soil erosion associated with rainfall events for different tillage systems and land uses. Long term soil erosion rates of the three regions evaluated by the Cs-137 method, ranged from 8 to 58 t/ha/yr. Mostly located in the upslope part of the fields, the eroding zones represented more than 70% of the total area. For the experimental sites in Rabat and Tétouan, the results obtained using Be-7 indicated that soil loss has been reduced significantly under no-till as compared to conventional tillage. Indeed, soil erosion rates were lowered by 50% for the Marchouch site and by 40% for the Harchane site. Concerning the Oued Mellah watershed, the results highlighted that high density Atriplex plantations have reduced soil loss by approximately 60 to 80%, while for the site under fruit plantations and cereals, soil erosion has been decreased by 58%.

  13. Rayleigh wave ellipticity across the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez García, Clara; Villaseñor, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Spectral amplitude ratios between horizontal and vertical components (H/V ratios) from seismic records are useful to evaluate site effects, predict ground motion and invert for S velocity in the top several hundred meters. These spectral ratios can be obtained from both ambient noise and earthquakes. H/V ratios from ambient noise depend on the content and predominant wave types: body waves, Rayleigh waves, a mixture of different waves, etc. The H/V ratio computed in this way is assumed to measure Rayleigh wave ellipticity since ambient vibrations are dominated by Rayleigh waves. H/V ratios from earthquakes are able to determine the local crustal structure at the vicinity of the recording station. These ratios obtained from earthquakes are based on surface wave ellipticity measurements. Although long period (>20 seconds) Rayleigh H/V ratio is not currently used because of large scatter has been reported and uncertainly about whether these measurements are compatible with traditional phase and group velocity measurements, we will investigate whether it is possible to obtain stable estimates after collecting statistics for many earthquakes. We will use teleseismic events from shallow earthquakes (depth ≤ 40 km) between 2007 January 1 and 2012 December 31 with M ≥ 6 and we will compute H/V ratios for more than 400 stations from several seismic networks across the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco for periods between 20 and 100 seconds. Also H/V ratios from cross-correlations of ambient noise in different components for each station pair will be computed. Shorter period H/V ratio measurements based on ambient noise cross-correlations are strongly sensitive to near-surface structure, rather than longer period earthquake Rayleigh waves. The combination of ellipticity measurements based on earthquakes and ambient noise will allow us to perform a joint inversion with Rayleigh wave phase velocity. Upper crustal structure is better constrained by the joint inversion compared

  14. Proterozoic to Mesozoic evolution of North-West Africa and Peri-Gondwana microplates: Detrital zircon ages from Morocco and Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzoli, Andrea; Davies, Joshua H. F. L.; Youbi, Nasrrddine; Merle, Renaud; Dal Corso, Jacopo; Dunkley, Daniel J.; Fioretti, Anna Maria; Bellieni, Giuliano; Medina, Fida; Wotzlaw, Jörn-Frederik; McHone, Greg; Font, Eric; Bensalah, Mohamed Khalil

    2017-05-01

    The complex history of assemblage and disruption of continental plates surrounding the Atlantic Ocean is in part recorded by the distribution of detrital zircon ages entrained in continental sedimentary strata from Morocco (Central High Atlas and Argana basins) and Canada (Grand Manan Island, New Brunswick). Here we investigate detrital zircon from the latest Triassic (ca. 202 Ma) sedimentary strata directly underlying lava flows of the Central Atlantic magmatic province or interlayered within them. SHRIMP (Sensitive High-Resolution Ion MicroProbe) and LA-ICP-MS (Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry) U-Pb ages for zircon range from Paleozoic to Archean with a dominant Neoproterozoic peak, and significant amounts of ca. 2 Ga zircon. These ages suggest a prevailing West African (Gondwanan) provenance at all sampling sites. Notably, the Paleoproterozoic zircon population is particularly abundant in central Morocco, north of the High Atlas chain, suggesting the presence of Eburnean-aged rocks in this part of the country, which is consistent with recent geochronologic data from outcropping rocks. Minor amounts of late Mesoproterozoic and early Neoproterozoic zircon ages (ca. 1.1-0.9 Ga) in Moroccan samples are more difficult to interpret. A provenance from Avalonia or Amazonia, as proposed by previous studies is not supported by the age distributions observed here. An involvement of more distal source regions, possibly located in north-eastern Africa (Arabian Nubian Shield) would instead be possible. Paleozoic zircon ages are abundant in the Canadian sample, pointing to a significant contribution from Hercynian aged source rocks. Such a signal is nearly absent in the Moroccan samples, suggesting that zircon-bearing Hercynian granitic rocks of the Moroccan Meseta block were not yet outcropping at ca. 200 Ma. The only Moroccan samples that yield Paleozoic zircon ages are those interlayered within the CAMP lavas, suggesting an increased dismantling

  15. [About Snake bites in children at the Fez University Hospital (Morocco)].

    PubMed

    Chippaux, Jean-Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The author stresses the importance of the specificity of immunotherapy and identifies the two appropriate antivenoms for North Africa and the Middle East in general, and Morocco in particular. Due to the very good tolerance of new generation antivenoms, the author recommends systematically administer antivenom as early as possible to avoid unfavorable clinical progression, particularly in children and pregnant women..

  16. Qur'anic Education and Social Change in Northern Morocco: Perspectives from Chefchaouen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tawil, Sobhi

    2006-01-01

    This article documents patterns of take-up of traditional religious and primary school education in Chefchaouen, one of the most disadvantaged provinces in Morocco located in the impoverished northwestern region of the country. First, the author provides some background on the socioeconomic and cultural characteristics of the province of…

  17. Screening wild oat accessions from Morocco for resistance to Puccinia coronata

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Here we report the screening of 338 new accessions of 11 different wild oat species (Avena) from the USDA Small Grains Collection for resistance to crown rust (Puccinia coronata). Wild oat species were originally collected in Morocco by C. Al Faiz, INRAT Rabat: Avena agadiriana, A. atlantica, A. bar...

  18. [Awareness of breast cancer screening among general practitioners in Mohammedia (Morocco)].

    PubMed

    Zine, Karima; Nani, Samira; Lahmadi, Imad Ait; Maaroufi, Abderrahmane

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a major public health problem in Morocco. It is the most common cancer in women. Our study aims to evaluate the extent of breast cancer awareness among general practitioners (GP) in the prefecture of Mohammedia, Morocco. We conducted a cross-sectional, descriptive, exhaustive study including 97 GP working in primary health care facilities (public and private sector) of the province of Mohammedia. Participation rate was 87%. The average age of GP was 49.6 ± 8.1. Eighty percent (n = 55) of the GP misstated the incidence of breast cancer, 77.6% (n = 85) recognized the existence of a national plan to prevent and control cancer (NPPCC) in Morocco and 67.1% of GP reported the existence of a cancer registry in Morocco. General practice sector was significantly related to the awareness of NPPCC among GP and to the existence of guidelines for the early detection of breast cancer (p = 0.003 and p = 0.001 respectively). A significant relationship was found between seniority and the existence of guidelines for the early detection of breast cancer and a breast cancer registry (p = 0.005 and p = 0.002 respectively). In light of these results GP awareness and practices should be enhanced by promoting initial and continuing training on breast cancer screening.

  19. Chemical Polymorphism of Origanum compactum Grown in All Natural Habitats in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Aboukhalid, Kaoutar; Lamiri, Abdeslam; Agacka-Mołdoch, Monika; Doroszewska, Teresa; Douaik, Ahmed; Bakha, Mohamed; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix; Machon, Nathalie; Faiz, Chaouki Al

    2016-09-01

    Origanum compactum L. (Lamiaceae) is one of the most important medicinal species in term of ethnobotany in Morocco. It is considered as a very threatened species as it is heavily exploited. Its domestication remains the most efficient way to safeguard it for future generations. For this purpose, wide evaluation of the existing variability in all over the Moroccan territory is required. The essential oils of 527 individual plants belonging to 88 populations collected from the whole distribution area of the species in Morocco were analyzed by GC/MS. The dominant constituents were carvacrol (0 - 96.3%), thymol (0 - 80.7%), p-cymene (0.2 - 58.6%), γ-terpinene (0 - 35.2%), carvacryl methyl ether (0 - 36.2%), and α-terpineol (0 - 25.8%). While in the Middle Atlas region and the Central Morocco mainly carvacrol type samples were found, much higher chemotypic diversity was encountered within samples from the north part of Morocco (occidental and central Rif regions). The high chemical polymorphism of plants offers a wide range for selection of valuable chemotypes, as a part of breeding and domestication programs of this threatened species. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zürich.

  20. Access and Equity in Financing Higher Education: The Case of Morocco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bougroum, Mohammed; Ibourk, Aomar

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the higher education financing policy in Morocco in light of the central issue of equity. First, it surveys the current situation, using a critical approach to the present financing policy, and looking at the three dimensions of adequacy, efficiency, and equity. Second, it describes the principal policy challenges in financing…

  1. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 4, Number 1, 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine, Comp.; And Others

    A 100-item bibliography with abstracts of books, newspaper articles, and periodical articles in English and French published predominantly in 1969 offers information on various aspects of education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Emphasis is placed on sections dealing with educational organization in primary, secondary, vocational, and…

  2. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 3, Number 1, 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A 130-item bibliography with abstracts of books and articles in English and French provides information on various aspects of education (many of them language-related) in the Maghreb countries of Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Each entry identifies the country with which it is concerned, and French titles are translated into English.…

  3. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 6, Number 1, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    Annotations of articles, written in English, provide the content for a bibliography of educational materials written in French useful to those with an interest in North Africa. Sections on Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia are preceded by a section on the Maghreb which deals with the special problems of illiteracy, multilingualism, and rapid…

  4. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 3, Numbers 2, 3, 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A two volume, 200-item bibliography with English abstracts of books and articles in English and French dating from 1957 offers information on various aspects of education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Emphasis is placed on sections dealing with educational organization in primary, secondary, vocational, and higher education; and…

  5. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 2, Numbers 1, 2, 3, 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    Three volumes comprise a 375-item bibliography with abstracts of books and articles in English, French, Italian, and Arabic that provides information on various aspects of education in the Maghreb countries of Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Each entry identifies the country with which it is concerned, and foreign language titles are…

  6. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 3, Number 4, 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A 100-item bibliography with abstracts of books, newspaper articles, and periodical articles in English and French dating from 1953 offers information on various aspects of education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Emphasis is placed on sections dealing with educational organization in primary, secondary, vocational and higher education;…

  7. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Maghreb, Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 10, No. 4, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    Ninety-one English language annotations are presented of newspaper articles and government publications about education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Most of the entries were published during the period October-December 1976. Organized by country, the references cover topics of philosophy and theory of education, teacher training,…

  8. Selected Bibliography of Materials; Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 1, Number 2, 1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A bibliography with abstracts of 106 items from books and articles covers materials on education in the Maghreb countries of Tunisia, Libya, Algeria, and Morocco. Special emphasis is given to the two problems besetting the area's educational system: illiteracy and multilingualism. The entries cover philosophy and theory of education,…

  9. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Maghreb, Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 9, No. 3, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine, Comp.; And Others

    The bibliography presents 91 English language annotations of newspaper articles, journals, and government publications about education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Although the title also includes Maghreb, this issue does not contain any annotations for that country. All articles were published during the period July-September 1975.…

  10. Vocational Education in Algeria, Egypt, and Morocco: The Crisis and its Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmi, Jamil

    1990-01-01

    Examines developments in vocational and technical education systems in Algeria, Egypt, and Morocco. Argues each system faces critical problems resulting from demographic pressures, educational demand, lack of funding, and job placement difficulties. Recommends programs should reflect industry's needs, urging integration between general and…

  11. Issues in Strategic Planning for Vocational Education: Lessons from Algeria, Egypt, and Morocco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmi, Jamil

    1991-01-01

    Although Algeria, Egypt, and Morocco have followed substantially different development strategies, they exhibit similar signs of crisis in vocational education. An integrated approach to planning that acknowledges social, financial, technological, and economic constraints could help coordinate general and vocational education and specialized…

  12. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 8, Number 1, 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    This annotated bibliography contains 100 English-language annotations of newspapers and government publications covering educational topics of interest to North Africans. The majority of the items cited were published in 1974. Citations are categorized by country: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Within these major categories are subtopics…

  13. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 4, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A 100-item bibliography with abstracts of books, newspaper articles, and periodical articles in English and French published predominantly in 1970 offers information on various aspects of education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Emphasis is placed on sections dealing with educational organization in primary, secondary, vocational, and…

  14. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 6, Number 2, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    Annotations of articles, written in English, provide the content for an annotated bibliography of educational materials written in French useful to those with an interest in North Africa. Sections on Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia cover topics such as the philosophy and theory of education, educational organization, adult education, teacher…

  15. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 4 No. 3, 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine, Comp.; And Others

    This report, part of a series of educational bibliographies from the Maghreb countries (Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia) and Libya, consists of excerpts from periodicals published in those countries. Each entry is marked to indicate the particular country. The articles are organized under 13 major subjects that include: the structure of educational…

  16. GEMINI-TITAN (GT-10) - EARTH SKY - SAHARA - MAURITANIA - ALGERIA - MOROCCO - OUTER SPACE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-07-18

    S66-46062 (18-21 July 1966) --- Area of the Spanish Sahara--Mauritania--Algeria--Morocco, looking north into Hamada Du Dra, as seen from the Gemini-10 spacecraft. Taken with a J.A. Maurer 70mm camera, using Eastman Kodak, Ektachrome, MS (S.O. 217) color film. Photo credit: NASA

  17. A Foggy Desert: Equitable Information Flow for a Fogwater System in Southwest Morocco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodson, Leslie Lynn

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation describes the design, implementation and evaluation of a gender-inclusive information system linking rural women in Agni Hiya, Morocco and water project managers from the Association Dar Si-Hmad. This research was motivated by an interest in exploring the linkages between information and communication technologies (ICT), climate…

  18. "We Are All Beginners": Amazigh in Language Policy and Educational Practice in Morocco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Aissati, Abderrahman; Karsmakers, Suzanne; Kurvers, Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    In 2003, the Amazigh (Berber) language and the Tifinagh script were, for the first time in history, introduced as a subject for all students in public primary schools in Morocco. This study first investigates the language planning policy behind the introduction of the new Amazigh curriculum: selection, codification, standardization, curriculum…

  19. Cross-Cultural Training of European and American Managers in Morocco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Mansour, Bassou; Wood, Evan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the training provided to US and European expatriates in Morocco, and subsequently build the body of knowledge for international HRD in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Design/methodology/approach: The study used the models of Black and Mendenhall and Mendenhall and Oddou, subdividing the…

  20. Piecewise Delamination Drives Uplift in the Atlas Mountains Region of Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezada, M. J.; Humphreys, E.; Martin Davila, J.; mimoun, H.; Josep, G.; Palomeras, I.

    2013-12-01

    The elevation of the intra-continental Atlas Mountains of Morocco and surrounding regions requires a mantle component of buoyancy, and there is consensus that this buoyancy results from an abnormally thin lithosphere. Lithospheric delamination under the Atlas Mountains and thermal erosion caused by upwelling mantle have each been suggested as thinning mechanisms. We use seismic tomography to image the upper mantle of Morocco by inverting teleseimic p-wave delay times, complemented with local delays, recorded on a dense array of stations in the Iberian peninsula and Morocco. A surface wave model provides constraint on the shallower layers. We determine the geometry of lithospheric cavities and mantle upwelling beneath the Middle Atlas and central High Atlas, and image delaminated lithosphere at ~400 km beneath the Middle Atlas. We propose discontinuous delamination of an intrinsically unstable Atlas lithosphere, enabled by the presence of anomalously hot mantle, as a mechanism for producing the imaged structures. The Atlas lithosphere was made unstable by a combination of tectonic shortening and eclogite loading during Mesozoic rifting and Cenozoic magmatism. The presence of hot mantle, sourced from regional upwellings in northern Africa or the Canary Islands, enabled the mobilization of this lithosphere. Flow around the retreating Alboran slab focused upwelling mantle under the Middle Atlas, where we image the most recent delamination. The Atlas Mountains of Morocco stand as an example of mantle-generated uplift and large-scale lithospheric loss in a mildly contractional orogen.

  1. New Mars meteorite fall in Morocco: collecting observations and determining the spatial distribution in the strewnfield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibhi, Abderrahmane

    2013-01-01

    The existence of Martian meteorites in the region of Tissint (Tata, Morocco) dropped by a very bright fireball on July 18, 2011, had been notified to a group of scientists of the Ibn Zohr University of Agadir, Morocco, at the beginning of January 2012, by a nomad of Tata who had found a small fragment in the region. As soon as a scientific expedition arrived at the place of the meteorite fall, the members of the laboratory of Geo-heritage and Geo-materials Science started gathering information and collecting the debris of this Martian meteorite. The Tissint fireball has been observed and reported by numerous witnesses across the southeastern Morocco. The event was extremely valuable to the scientific community: it was the brightest and most comprehensively observed fireball in Morocco's known astronomical history. We are now in a position to draw the distribution ellipse of the fall, which starts at Jbel Al Gallab and continues in east-southeastern direction, above big rocky plateaus.

  2. Learning to Weave the Threads of Honor: Understanding the Value of Female Schooling in Southern Morocco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naji, Myriem

    2012-01-01

    This article is concerned with the role of formal education in the upward social mobility of women in the Sirwa, a marginal Berber region of southern Morocco where carpets are produced by women, and marketed by men. To explore why girls' education in weaving takes precedence over formal education, the article considers the place of women's…

  3. Pupil's Beliefs about the Transformations of Energy in Three Countries (Canada, France and Morocco)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Métioui, Abdeljalil; MacWillie, Mireille Baulu

    2015-01-01

    A qualitative research approach was chosen to analyse the conceptions of pupils attending elementary school from Canada (N = 135), France (N = 30) and Morocco (N = 92) between 10 and 12 years of age. Their conceptions were identified while being mobilised on energy transformations during the working of a simple electric circuit made of a battery,…

  4. 19 CFR 10.787 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Morocco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in... States-Morocco Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.787 Goods re-entered...” means restoration, addition, renovation, re-dyeing, cleaning, re-sterilizing, or other treatment which...

  5. 19 CFR 10.787 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Morocco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in... States-Morocco Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.787 Goods re-entered...” means restoration, addition, renovation, re-dyeing, cleaning, re-sterilizing, or other treatment which...

  6. 19 CFR 10.787 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Morocco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in... States-Morocco Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.787 Goods re-entered...” means restoration, addition, renovation, re-dyeing, cleaning, re-sterilizing, or other treatment which...

  7. 19 CFR 10.787 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Morocco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in... States-Morocco Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.787 Goods re-entered...” means restoration, addition, renovation, re-dyeing, cleaning, re-sterilizing, or other treatment which...

  8. 19 CFR 10.787 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Morocco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in... States-Morocco Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.787 Goods re-entered...” means restoration, addition, renovation, re-dyeing, cleaning, re-sterilizing, or other treatment which...

  9. Situation Reports--Ceylon, Costa Rica, Ghana, Haiti, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia, and U.S.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in eight countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Ceylon, Costa Rica, Ghana, Haiti, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia, and the United States of America. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is…

  10. 78 FR 79634 - Importation of Fresh Blueberry Fruit From Morocco Into the Continental United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ...: Ceratitis capitata, the Mediterranean fruit fly, and the fungus Monilinia fructigena Honey ex Whetzel. (a...-0016] RIN 0579-AD81 Importation of Fresh Blueberry Fruit From Morocco Into the Continental United... proposing to amend the regulations concerning the importation of fruits and vegetables to allow the...

  11. From Assistance to Partnership: Morocco and Its Foreign Policy in West Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    class senior leaders, develops expert knowledge, and provides solutions to strategic Army issues affecting the national security community. The...employment of military forces; • Regional strategic appraisals; • The nature of land warfare; • Matters affecting the Army’s future; • The...countries, Morocco cannot achieve its economic and commercial objectives, since its own security is directly affected . Moroccan officials consider

  12. Description and Analysis of the USAID Girls' Education Activity in Guatemala, Morocco, and Peru. Qualitative Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brush, Lorelei; Heyman, Cory; Provasnik, Stephan; Fanning, Marina; Lent, Drew; De Wilde, Johan

    This qualitative report of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Girls' Education Activity (GEA) focuses on the results of project activities in Guatemala, Morocco, and Peru. Section 1 outlines the overall purpose and goals of the GEA; contrasts the major tactics of the program in each country; and describes the…

  13. Preliminary Investigations on the Distribution of Leptospira Serovars in Domestic Animals in North-west Morocco.

    PubMed

    Benkirane, A; Noury, S; Hartskeerl, R A; Goris, M G A; Ahmed, A; Nally, J E

    2016-04-01

    Leptospirosis is a neglected zoonosis of global importance with a complex epidemiology that affects humans, domestic and wild mammals. However, due to the diversity of clinical signs and difficulties of establishing a confirmatory laboratory diagnosis, the disease remains poorly investigated, particularly in the developing world. In Morocco, a descriptive study of the seroprevalence of Leptospira infection in animals has never been undertaken. To fill this gap, the current study was conducted on a subset of animals in north-west Morocco as a preliminary step towards understanding the epidemiological patterns of animal leptospirosis in the country. The study was conducted on 289 serum samples collected between January and April 2012 from dogs, cattle, sheep, goats and donkeys in the areas of Rabat-Temara, Sidi Kacem and Oulmes. All serum samples were tested by the MAT with 14 reference strains of the most prevalent pathogenic serovars of Leptospira and two serovars of non-pathogenic Leptospira. The overall seroprevalence of Leptospira in cattle, sheep, goats, dogs and donkeys was 15%, 18%, 20%, 21% and 20%, respectively. The most prevalent serogroups found in each species were Ballum, Sejroe, and Australis in cattle, Ballum, Australis and Sejroe in sheep, Australis and Ballum in goats, Javanica and Australis in donkey and Australis, Ballum and Canicola in dogs. Of all the serogroups tested in this study, Icterohaemorrhagiae, the only serogroup which has been previously reported in humans in Morocco, was rarely reactive. The majority of reactive sera were collected from low land areas. A large number of sera samples classified as seronegative when tested against pathogenic leptospires were positive when tested against non-pathogenic leptospires; this is suggestive of possible novel, as yet unclassified, Leptospira serovars in Morocco. Eleven of thirteen sheep urine samples were positive by real-time PCR confirming their role as Leptospira carriers in Morocco. © 2014

  14. Skin cancer knowledge and attitudes in the region of Fez, Morocco: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kelati, Awatef; Baybay, Hanane; Atassi, Mariam; Elfakir, Samira; Gallouj, Salim; Meziane, Mariame; Mernissi, Fatima Zahra

    2017-02-17

    The prevalence of skin cancers is constantly increasing in Morocco, and they have gradually become more aggressive due to a significant delay in the diagnosis. Our aim was to assess the levels of awareness and the influencing factors related to skin cancer knowledge in Morocco. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Morocco through the medium of a validated questionnaire, which contained several items - demographics, skin cancer knowledge and attitudes towards skin cancer patients- during a period of 1 year (2014). Out of the 700 participants enrolled in the study, 17.9% had never heard of skin cancer, 32.5% had a low score of skin cancer knowledge, 66.7% had a moderate score, and only 0.85% had a high score of skin cancer knowledge. Further, 15.1% of the participants were under the assumption that this cancer is contagious. The sun was the most incriminated risk factor in skin cancer occurrence by 74.3% of the participants, and 57.9% of them believed that prevention is important through using various means of photoprotection. After univariate and multivariate analysis, the influencing factors related to the skin cancer knowledge in Morocco were: the socioeconomic status (P = 0.003, OR = 7. 3) and the educational level (p < 0.001, OR = 20. 9). Due to the lack of knowledge or the underestimation of skin cancer in our study population, efforts are needed to promote skin cancer surveillance behaviors in Morocco.

  15. Cervical cancer and HPV: Awareness and vaccine acceptability among parents in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Mouallif, Mustapha; Bowyer, Harriet L; Festali, Soukaina; Albert, Adelin; Filali-Zegzouti, Younes; Guenin, Samuel; Delvenne, Philippe; Waller, Jo; Ennaji, Moulay Mustapha

    2014-01-09

    Cervical cancer is a major public health concern in Morocco where it represents the second most common and lethal cancer in women. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines have been licensed in Morocco since 2008 but there are no available data on their acceptability. This study aimed to assess awareness of HPV and the vaccine, and to identify factors associated with acceptability of the vaccine among parents in Morocco. We carried out a questionnaire-based survey using face-to-face interviews in a sample of 852 parents (670 mothers and 182 fathers) with at least one unmarried daughter ≤26 years. We collected data within public and private health centres and clinics in four regions in Morocco between July and August 2012. The main outcome measure was parental acceptability of the HPV vaccine for their daughter(s). Responses revealed very low awareness of HPV infection (4.7%) and the HPV vaccine (14.3%). None of the participants had vaccinated their daughter(s) against HPV and vaccine acceptability was low among mothers (32%) and fathers (45%). Higher education and income, previous awareness of the HPV vaccine and endorsement of the belief that a recommendation from the Ministry of Health or a doctor to have the vaccine would be encouraging, were associated with mothers' HPV vaccine acceptability. Non-acceptability among mothers was associated with having more than two daughters, believing the vaccine was expensive, lack of information and believing that whatever happens to an individual's health is God's will. The only factor associated with the fathers' acceptability of the vaccine was the cost of the vaccine. Increasing HPV and HPV vaccine awareness through educational campaigns, along with active recommendation by physicians and a publically funded vaccination programme could increase parental acceptability of the HPV vaccine in Morocco. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The 1992 Tafilalt seismic crisis (Anti-Atlas, Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bensaid, Ihsane; Cherkaoui, Taj-Eddine; Medina, Fida; Caldeira, Bento; Buforn, Elisa; Emran, Anas; Hahou, Youssef

    2012-01-01

    The Tafilalt region, located at the eastern end of the Anti-Atlas chain in Morocco, was shaken on 23 and 30 October 1992 by two moderate earthquakes of magnitude mb ˜ 5 and intensity ˜ VI MSK64, which caused two deaths and great damage in the area between Erfoud and Rissani. The review of data available on the seismic crisis allowed us to improve the knowledge on the macroseismic, instrumental and source parameters of the earthquakes. The main results of the present study are: (1) location of the epicentres with the help of data from a close portable network allowed us to propose new epicentral coordinates at 31.361° N, 4.182° W (23 October) and 31.286° N, 4.347° W (30 October); both events have focal depths of 2 km; (2) the shock of 30 October was followed by a series of 305 aftershocks, most of which were located west of Rissani; the 61 best-constrained events had focal depths of 5 to 19 km and magnitudes 0.7 to 3; (3) the largest damage was located in an area between the two epicentres within the Tafilalt valley and was probably amplified by site effects due to the proximity of the water table within the Quaternary sediments; (4) focal mechanisms of the main events correspond to strike-slip faulting with fault planes oriented N-S (left lateral) and E-W (right lateral); the only mechanism available for the aftershocks also corresponds to strike-slip faulting; (5) spectral analysis shows that the scalar seismic moment ( Mo) of the first event is slightly larger than the second; the corresponding values of Mw are 5.1 and 5.0, respectively; (6) the dimensions of the faults for a circular fault model are 7.7 ± 1.4 and 7.4 ± 1.2 km, respectively; the average displacement is 4 cm for the first event and 3.7 cm for the second; the stress drop is 0.4 and 0.3 MPa, respectively, in agreement with standard values; (7) the Coulomb Stress test performed for both earthquakes suggests a relationship between both events only when the used location is at the limit of the

  17. Molecular Identification of Commercialized Medicinal Plants in Southern Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, Åsa; Rydberg, Anders; Abbad, Abdelaziz; Björk, Lars; Martin, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Background Medicinal plant trade is important for local livelihoods. However, many medicinal plants are difficult to identify when they are sold as roots, powders or bark. DNA barcoding involves using a short, agreed-upon region of a genome as a unique identifier for species– ideally, as a global standard. Research Question What is the functionality, efficacy and accuracy of the use of barcoding for identifying root material, using medicinal plant roots sold by herbalists in Marrakech, Morocco, as a test dataset. Methodology In total, 111 root samples were sequenced for four proposed barcode regions rpoC1, psbA-trnH, matK and ITS. Sequences were searched against a tailored reference database of Moroccan medicinal plants and their closest relatives using BLAST and Blastclust, and through inference of RAxML phylograms of the aligned market and reference samples. Principal Findings Sequencing success was high for rpoC1, psbA-trnH, and ITS, but low for matK. Searches using rpoC1 alone resulted in a number of ambiguous identifications, indicating insufficient DNA variation for accurate species-level identification. Combining rpoC1, psbA-trnH and ITS allowed the majority of the market samples to be identified to genus level. For a minority of the market samples, the barcoding identification differed significantly from previous hypotheses based on the vernacular names. Conclusions/Significance Endemic plant species are commercialized in Marrakech. Adulteration is common and this may indicate that the products are becoming locally endangered. Nevertheless the majority of the traded roots belong to species that are common and not known to be endangered. A significant conclusion from our results is that unknown samples are more difficult to identify than earlier suggested, especially if the reference sequences were obtained from different populations. A global barcoding database should therefore contain sequences from different populations of the same species to assure the

  18. Cancer incidence in Rabat, Morocco: 2006–2008

    PubMed Central

    Tazi, Mohammed Adnane; Er-Raki, Abdelouahed; Benjaafar, Noureddine

    2013-01-01

    Introduction No population-based data of cancer incidence from Morocco have been published before. This is the first report of cancer incidence in Rabat from a population-based cancer registry for the period 2006–2008. Materials and methods The cancer registry collects data on all new cases of cancer diagnosed in the resident population of the Rabat area. Data collection is an active process involving visits by registry staff to all data sources, essentially hospitals, pathological laboratories, and private clinics in Rabat. Results A total of 2,473 new cases of cancer were registered among residents in Rabat during the period 2006–2008. The overall world age-standardised rate (ASR) for all sites combined was 136.6/100,000 for men and 114.5/100,000 for women. The most frequently diagnosed malignancies in males were lung cancer (19.0%, ASR 24.8/105), followed by prostate cancer (15.5%, ASR 22.9/105), colorectal cancer (8.8%, ASR 12.0/105), bladder cancer (6.9%, ASR 9.7/105), and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) (6.0%, ASR 8.2/105). In females, the most frequently reported malignancies were breast cancer (39.9%, ASR 43.4/105), followed by cervix uteri cancer (11.4%, ASR 13.0/105), colorectal cancer (7.5%, ASR 9.0/105), NHL (3.4, ASR 4.2/105), and thyroid cancer (3.4%, ASR 3.9/105). Of all cancers, 2% are observed in childhood (0–14 years), and ~43% of them are malignant haemopathies. Conclusion The data reported by Rabat Cancer Registry indicate that cancers of the breast, cervix, uteri, and colon and rectum in females and the lung, prostate, and colon and rectum in men are major cancers in the population of Rabat. The Incidences observed are sometimes different from those observed in the neighbouring North African countries. PMID:23940493

  19. Application of multiple isotopic and geochemical tracers for investigation of recharge, salinization, and residence time of water in the Souss-Massa aquifer, southwest of Morocco

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bouchaou, L.; Michelot, J.L.; Vengosh, A.; Hsissou, Y.; Qurtobi, M.; Gaye, C.B.; Bullen, T.D.; Zuppi, G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Groundwater and surface water in Souss-Massa basin in the west-southern part of Morocco is characterized by a large variation in salinity, up to levels of 37 g L-1. The high salinity coupled with groundwater level decline pose serious problems for current irrigation and domestic water supplies as well as future exploitation. A combined hydrogeologic and isotopic investigation using several chemical and isotopic tracers such as Br/Cl, ??18O, ??2H, 3H, 87Sr/86Sr, ??11B, and 14C was carried out in order to determine the sources of water recharge to the aquifer, the origin of salinity, and the residence time of water. Stable isotope, 3H and 14C data indicate that the high Atlas mountains in the northern margin of the Souss-Massa basin with high rainfall and low ??18O and ??2H values (-6 to -8??? and -36 to -50???) is currently constitute the major source of recharge to the Souss-Massa shallow aquifer, particularly along the eastern part of the basin. Localized stable isotope enrichments offset meteoric isotopic signature and are associated with high nitrate concentrations, which infer water recycling via water agricultural return flows. The 3H and 14C data suggest that the residence time of water in the western part of the basin is in the order of several thousands of years; hence old water is mined, particularly in the coastal areas. The multiple isotope analyses and chemical tracing of groundwater from the basin reveal that seawater intrusion is just one of multiple salinity sources that affect the quality of groundwater in the Souss-Massa aquifer. We differentiate between modern seawater intrusion, salinization by remnants of seawater entrapped in the middle Souss plains, recharge of nitrate-rich agricultural return flow, and dissolution of evaporate rocks (gypsum and halite minerals) along the outcrops of the high Atlas mountains. The data generated in this study provide the framework for a comprehensive management plan in which water exploitation should shift

  20. Timing of Pleistocene glaciations in the High Atlas, Morocco: New 10Be and 36Cl exposure ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Philip D.; Fink, David; Rodés, Ángel; Fenton, Cassandra R.; Fujioka, Toshiyuki

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents data from 42 new samples yielding Late Pleistocene cosmogenic 10Be and 36Cl exposure ages of moraine boulders across a series of glaciated valleys in the Toubkal Massif (4167 m a.s.l.), High Atlas, Morocco. This represents the first comprehensive Pleistocene glacial chronology in North Africa and one of the largest datasets from the Mediterranean region. The timing of these glacier advances has major implications for understanding the influence of Atlantic depressions on moisture supply to North Africa and the Mediterranean basin during the Pleistocene. The oldest and lowest moraines which span elevations from ∼1900 to 2400 m a.s.l. indicate that the maximum glacier advance occurred from MIS 5 to 3 with a combined mean 10Be and 36Cl age of 50.2 ± 19.5 ka (1 SD; n = 12, 7 outliers). The next moraine units up-valley at higher elevations (∼2200-2600 m a.s.l.) yielded exposure ages close to the global Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) with a combined mean 10Be and 36Cl age of 22.0 ± 4.9 ka (1 SD; n = 9, 7 outliers). The youngest exposure ages are from moraines that were emplaced during the Younger Dryas with a combined mean 10Be and 36Cl age of 12.3 ± 0.9 ka (1 SD; n = 7, no outliers) and are found in cirques at the highest elevations ranging from ∼2900 to 3300 m a.s.l. From moraines predating the Younger Dryas, a large number of young outliers are spread evenly between 6 and 13 ka suggesting a continuing process of exhumation or repositioning of boulders during the early to mid-Holocene. This attests to active seismic processes and possibly intense erosion during this period.

  1. Geophysical characterization of saltwater intrusion in a coastal aquifer: The case of Martil-Alila plain (North Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Himi, Mahjoub; Tapias, Josefiina; Benabdelouahab, Sara; Salhi, Adil; Rivero, Luis; Elgettafi, Mohamed; El Mandour, Abdenabi; Stitou, Jamal; Casas, Albert

    2017-02-01

    Several factors can affect the quantity and the quality of groundwater resources, but in coastal aquifers seawater intrusion is often the most significant issue regarding freshwater supply. Further, saltwater intrusion is a worldwide issue because about seventy percent of the world's population lives in coastal regions. Generally, fresh groundwater not affected by saltwater intrusion is characterized by low salinity and therefore low electrical conductivity (EC) values. Consequently, high values of EC in groundwater along the coastline are usually associated to seawater intrusion. This effect is amplified if the coastal aquifer is overexploited with a subsequent gradual displacement of the freshwater-saltwater interface towards the continent. Delineation of marine intrusion in coastal aquifers has traditionally relied upon observation wells and collection of water samples. This approach may miss important hydrologic features related to saltwater intrusion in areas where access is difficult and where wells are widely spaced. Consequently, the scarcity of sampling points and sometimes their total absence makes the number of data available limited and most of the time not representative for mapping the spatial and temporal variability of groundwater salinity. In this study, we use a series of geophysical methods for characterizing the aquifer geometry and the extension of saltwater intrusion in the Martil-Alila coastal region (Morocco) as a complement to geological and hydrogeochemical data. For this reason, we carried out three geophysical surveys: Gravity, Electrical Resistivity and Frequency Domain Electromagnetic. The geometry of the basin has been determined from the interpretation of a detailed gravity survey. Electrical resistivity models derived from vertical electrical soundings allowed to characterize the vertical and the lateral extensions of aquifer formations. Finally, frequency domain electromagnetic methods allowed delineating the extension of the

  2. A new species of the genus Baeoura from Morocco, with a key to the West Palaearctic species (Diptera, Tipuloidea, Limoniidae).

    PubMed

    Driauach, Ouafaa; Belqat, Boutaïna

    2015-01-01

    The genus Baeoura is represented in Morocco by two species, Baeoura ebenina Starý, 1981, and Baeoura staryi sp. n. The new species is described and illustrated, and a key to the West Palaearctic species of Baeoura is presented.

  3. Demographic change in the Arab world: the impact of migration, education and taxes in Egypt and Morocco.

    PubMed

    Courbage, Y

    1994-01-01

    The populations of Egypt and Morocco have grown since the beginning of the century from approximately 10 to 57 million and less than 5 to 25.5 million, respectively. Egypt and Morocco are two of the most populous Arab countries. After a long period of demographic growth, they adopted less pronatalist legislation and implemented family planning programs starting in the 1960s. Egypt's rate of total fertility (TFR) at that time was 6.7 children per woman, lower than most of the Arab world and lower than Morocco's 7.2. Egypt's fertility since then, however, has remained at 5-6, only dropping below 5 in 1989. TFR in Morocco increased to 7.4 in 1973, declined to 5.9 over the period 1973-77, and fell below 4 in 1989. The author questions why the goals of fertility control programs have not been reached in Egypt, yet have been surpassed in Morocco. Available data on contraceptive prevalence and breastfeeding practices would predict the opposite to be the case. 35.9% used birth control methods in Morocco in 1987 and 37.8% in Egypt in 1988. 6.9%, however, used less effective traditional methods in Morocco compared to only 2.4% who used such methods in Egypt. Egyptian women breastfeed their babies for 17.3 months compared to 14.4 months among Moroccan women, while between the ages 20-24, 60% of Egyptian women are married compared to 45% of women in Morocco. Moroccan and Egyptian families resist traditional explanations of demographic transition. It is concluded that although educational status affects fertility in the Maghrib and Mashriq, greater female labor force participation, state-citizen fiscal relations, and foreign migration play major determining roles.

  4. BASINS Technical Notes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has developed several technical notes that provide in depth information on a specific function in BASINS. Technical notes can be used to answer questions users may have, or to provide additional information on the application of features in BASINS.

  5. Los Angeles Basin

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-06-29

    The Los Angeles Basin is bordered on the north by the San Gabriel Mountains. Other smaller basins are separated by smaller mountain ranges, like the Verdugo Hills, and the Santa Monica Mountains in this image from NASA Terra spacecraft.

  6. BASINS Tutorials and Training

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A series of lectures and exercises on how to use BASINS for water quality modeling and watershed assessment. The lectures follow sequentially. Companion exercises are provided for users to practice different BASINS water quality modeling techniques.

  7. Stable isotope stratigraphy of Latest Miocene sequences in northwest Morocco: The Bou Regreg section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodell, David A.; Benson, Richard H.; Kennett, James P.; Rakic-El Bied, Kruna

    1989-08-01

    Oxygen and carbon isotopic ratios of foraminifers were measured from outcrop and drill core sequences from the Bou Regreg Section, northwest Morocco. This composite section was located at the western end of the Rifian Corridor during the late Miocene and thus potentially contains a record of water exchange between the Atlantic and Mediterranean during the late Tortonian and Messinian stages. Here we correlate isotopic and sedimentologic events in the Bou Regreg Section with Mediterranean and deep-sea sequences during the time leading up to and including the deposition of the Messinian evaporites. The late Miocene chron 6 carbon shift was identified in two Moroccan sequences, providing a valuable 6.3-Ma datum level. In both sections, the carbon shift coincides with the first occurrence of Globorotalia conomiozea and the Tortonian/Messinian boundary. Near this boundary, a major faunal turnover occurred in ostracod, planktonic foraminiferal, and nannofossil assemblages that indicates a cooling of surface and deep water in the Rifian Corridor. At 6.1 Ma, just above the Tortonian/Messinian boundary, mean ∂18O values of benthic foraminifers increased by 0.4-0.5‰ suggesting decreased temperature and/or increased continental ice volume. The faunal and isotopic changes are interpreted as reflecting a reversal in the direction of deep water flow through the Rifian Corridor that occurred between 6.3 and 6.1 Ma. At this time, cold, nutrient-rich waters filled the Mediterranean basins from intermediate depths of the Atlantic, and the production of Mediterranean Outflow Water ceased. The upwelling of nutrient-rich Atlantic intermediate water stimulated productivity in the Mediterranean, which led to the deposition of organic-rich strata such as those found in the Tripoli Formation. At ˜5.5 Ma, coincident with a coiling shift in Neogloboquadrina acostaensis, the variability of the benthic ∂18O signal increased markedly, and strong color variations appeared in the sediments

  8. Uplift and transtension within the Al Hoceima region, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poujol, A. P.; Ritz, J. F.; Vernant, P.; Braucher, R.; Blard, P. H.; Tahayt, A.; Maate, S.; Raji, O.

    2016-12-01

    On the southern margin of the Western Mediterranean sea, the Moroccan Rif Cordillera is a thin-skinned fold and thrust belt resulting from the NW-SE convergence between the African and Eurasian lithospheric plates. At the present-day, the kinematics of the W and S borders of the Rif are characterized by active thrusting consistent with the compressional setting. However, in the NE Rif, the present-day deformation is characterized by normal/transtensional faults oblique to the convergence and coeval with regional uplift movement. How did extensional/transtensional faults set up in a compressive regional stress field? And then how to explain uplift in this extensional pattern? In order to better constrain the present-day deformation in the NE Rif, we present results of morphotectonics and quaternary geochronology analysis performed along N-S (the Trougout, Rouadi and Boujibar conjugated faults) and NE-SW faults (the Nekor faults) surrounding the Al-Hoceima Bay hit by two destructives earthquakes in 1994 (Mw 6) and 2004 (Mw 6.4). High-resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEM) of depleted alluvial/marine markers and faults scarps coupled to 14C and TCN (terrestrial Cosmogenic Nuclides) dating of key sites allow determining (i) vertical and horizontal slip rates of 2 mm/yr and 1.5 mm/yr, respectively along the Trougout transtensional fault, (ii) horizontal slip rate of 1.5 mm/yr along the Nekor sinistral fault and (iii) < 1mm/yr along the Rouadi and Boujibar normal faults. Cosmogenic 10Be/3He dating of perched fluvial and marine surfaces yields an average uplift of 0.2mm/yr consistent with previous U/Th dating. These new morphotectonics constraints are consistent with the occurrence of an asymmetric 15-km wide pull-apart basin structure controlled by two major sinistral faults: the Nekor fault to the south and the Trans-Alboran Shear Zone to the north (?). The eastern side of the bay is likely controlled by the main Trougout fault, while on the western side the

  9. Anza palaeoichnological site. Late Cretaceous. Morocco. Part I. The first African pterosaur trackway (manus only)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masrour, Moussa; Pascual-Arribas, Carlos; de Ducla, Marc; Hernández-Medrano, Nieves; Pérez-Lorente, Félix

    2017-10-01

    Cretaceous pterosaurs tracksites are very rare worldwide. Until now,only one African Cretaceous site withtracks of (Agadirichnus elegans and Pteraichnus) was known. This makes the discovery of a new outcrop in the Upper Cretaceous of Anza (Morocco) the third manifestation of this type of footprint in Africa, extending the existence of such traces from the Coniacian-Santonian to the Maastrichtian. The site contains only manus tracks, which can be explained as a result of erosion of pes prints. The lack of pes prints and the morphometric characteristics of the manus prints only allow us to relate these prints to Agadirichnus, Pteraichnus or maybe to a new ichnogenus. It is possible that the trackmakers are related to Ornithocheiroidea or Azhdarchoidea superfamilies whose fossil bones have been found from the Late Cretaceous in Morocco.

  10. Creating Neoliberal Citizens in Morocco: Reproductive Health, Development Policy, and Popular Islamic Beliefs.

    PubMed

    Hughes Rinker, Cortney

    2015-01-01

    Self-governance and responsibility are two traits associated with neoliberal citizenship in scholarly and popular discourses, but little of the literature on this topic focuses on North Africa. My goal, in this article, is not only to fill this void but also to complicate understandings of neoliberalism through an examination of the relationship between reproductive health care, development policy, and popular Islamic beliefs in Morocco. My discussion is based on fieldwork in Rabat, Morocco, which included observations in health clinics, interviews with patients and staff, and visits to patients' homes. By analyzing the childbearing and childrearing practices of Moroccan women who visited the clinics, I pose that neoliberal logic cannot be predefined or understood as a monolithic concept. I demonstrate that women were active in their own governance and accountable for their reproductive behaviors, but they did so because of their understandings of what Islam says about fertility and motherhood.

  11. Meteorological Patterns and Fog Water in the Canary Islands and Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzol, M. V.; Sanchez Megía, J. L.; Yanes, A.; Bargach, J.; Derhem, A.

    2010-07-01

    The Stratocumulus cloud formation is very common in the Canary Islands (Spain) and on the Atlantic coast of Morocco. This cloud formation behaves as if it was fog when it comes into contact with the relief and its liquid content can be captured by artificial systems. The origin of this cloud formation is connected with the Azores anti-cyclone and with the anomalous structure of the low layers of the atmosphere caused by a subsidence thermal inversion. The aim of this article is to define a pattern of the most favourable meteorological and atmospheric conditions for this cloud formation to appear. In order to do this, a database has been compiled with the information about the days on which water has been collected in Morocco since June, 2006. This was when the collaboration with the Si Hmad Derhem Foundation (Casablanca) began. As well as meteorological data and data on water quantities, weather maps, thermodynamic soundings and satellite images are also analysed. The following two sites were studied: Anaga, on the island of Tenerife, Canary Islands, 864 m a.s.l. and 4 km from the coast, and Boutmezguida, Morocco, 1,225 m a.s.l. and 30 km from the coast. The research was conducted in three stages. The first stage consisted of looking for the most appropriate sites to obtain the greatest efficiency in fog water collection; the Standard Fog Collector (SFC, Schemenauer and Cereceda, 1994) was used for this purpose. The second stage consisted of studying the most favourable meteorological conditions for water collection where the Quarter Fog Collector (QFC, Marzol, 2002) connected to an automatic weather station providing information on temperature, humidity, precipitation, wind speed and direction and the amount of water collected on the netting every ten minutes was used to do this. The aim of the third stage, which was by nature an applied stage, was to construct large-sized fog collectors (Large Fog Collector, LFC) so that the water collected could be put to

  12. Antibiotic resistance determinants and genetic analysis of Salmonella enterica isolated from food in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Murgia, Manuela; Bouchrif, Brahim; Timinouni, Mohammed; Al-Qahtani, Ahmed; Al-Ahdal, Mohammed N; Cappuccinelli, Pietro; Rubino, Salvatore; Paglietti, Bianca

    2015-12-23

    Antimicrobial-resistant non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) are an important cause of infection in Africa, but there is a lack of information on their molecular mechanisms of resistance and epidemiology. This study contributes to fill this gap through the characterization by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), plasmid profiling and analysis of antibiotic-resistance determinants of 94 Salmonella enterica strains isolated from food in Morocco. PFGE revealed considerable heterogeneity among the strains, showing 32 pulsotypes. MLST of strains representative of the different serovars evidenced 13 sequence types (STs), three of which were newly identified (ST1694, ST1768 and ST1818) and nine not previously reported in Morocco. Thirty-four strains harbored from one to four plasmids, of IncI1 group in S. Mbandaka, IncFIIA in S. Typhimurium, IncL/M in S. Hadar and S. Blockley. For the first time in Morocco an intact Salmonella Genomic Island 1 (SGI1) carrying the resistance genes aadA2, floR, tetG, blaPSE-1 and sul1 was detected in S. Typhimurium DT104. In serovar Hadar resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline and streptomycin was associated to blaTEM-1, tetA and strA genes respectively, whereas one mutation in gyrA (Asp87Asn) and one in parC (Thr54Ser) genes conferred resistance to nalidixic acid. These findings improve the information on foodborne Salmonella in Morocco, evidencing the presence of MDR strains potentially dangerous to humans, and provide useful data for future studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Anaplasma spp. in dogs and owners in north-western Morocco.

    PubMed

    Elhamiani Khatat, Sarah; Daminet, Sylvie; Kachani, Malika; Leutenegger, Christian M; Duchateau, Luc; El Amri, Hamid; Hing, Mony; Azrib, Rahma; Sahibi, Hamid

    2017-04-24

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging tick-borne zoonotic pathogen of increased interest worldwide which has been detected in northern Africa. Anaplasma platys is also present in this region and could possibly have a zoonotic potential. However, only one recent article reports on the human esposure to A. phagocytophilum in Morocco and no data are available on canine exposure to both bacteria. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological study aiming to assess both canine and human exposure to Anaplasma spp. in Morocco. A total of 425 dogs (95 urban, 160 rural and 175 working dogs) and 11 dog owners were sampled from four cities of Morocco. Canine blood samples were screened for Anaplasma spp. antibodies by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and for A. phagocytophilum and A. platys DNA by a real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) targeting the msp2 gene. Human sera were tested for specific A. phagocytophilum immunoglobulin G (IgG) using a commercial immunofluorescence assay (IFA) kit. Anaplasma spp. antibodies and A. platys DNA were detected in 21.9 and 7.5% of the dogs, respectively. Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA was not amplified. Anaplasma platys DNA was significantly more frequently amplified for working dogs. No statistically significant differences in the prevalence of Anaplasma spp. antibodies or A. platys DNA detection were observed between sexes, age classes or in relation to exposure to ticks. A total of 348 Rhipicephalus sanguineus (sensu lato) ticks were removed from 35 urban and working dogs. The majority of dog owners (7/10) were seroreactive to A. phagoyctophilum IgG (one sample was excluded because of hemolysis). This study demonstrates the occurrence of Anaplasma spp. exposure and A. platys infection in dogs, and A. phagocytophilum exposure in humans in Morocco.

  14. The distribution of new HIV infections by mode of exposure in Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Mumtaz, Ghina R; Kouyoumjian, Silva P; Hilmi, Nahla; Zidouh, Ahmed; Rhilani, Houssine El; Alami, Kamal; Bennani, Aziza; Gouws, Eleanor; Ghys, Peter Denis; Abu-Raddad, Laith J

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Building on a wealth of new empirical data, the objective of this study was to estimate the distribution of new HIV infections in Morocco by mode of exposure using the modes of transmission (MoT) mathematical model. Methods The MoT model was implemented within a collaboration with the Morocco Ministry of Health and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. The model was parameterised through a comprehensive review and synthesis of HIV and risk behaviour data in Morocco, mainly through the Middle East and North Africa HIV/AIDS Synthesis Project. Uncertainty analyses were used to assess the reliability of and uncertainty around our calculated estimates. Results Female sex workers (FSWs), clients of FSWs, men who have sex with men (MSM) and injecting drug users (IDUs) contributed 14%, 24%, 14% and 7% of new HIV infections, respectively. Two-thirds (67%) of new HIV infections occurred among FSWs, clients of FSWs, MSM and IDUs, or among the stable sexual partners of these populations. Casual heterosexual sex contributed 7% of HIV infections. More than half (52%) of HIV incidence is among females, but 71% of these infections are due to an infected spouse. The vast majority of HIV infections among men (89%) are due to high-risk behaviour. A very small HIV incidence is predicted to arise from medical injections or blood transfusions (0.1%). Conclusions The HIV epidemic in Morocco is driven by HIV incidence in high-risk population groups, with commercial heterosexual sex being the largest contributor to incidence. There is a need to focus HIV response more on these populations, mainly through proactive and sustainable HIV surveillance, and the expansion and increased geographical coverage of services such as condom promotion among FSWs, voluntary counselling and testing, harm reduction and treatment. PMID:23413401

  15. Study of marbles from Middle Atlas (Morocco): elemental, mineralogical and structural analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khrissi, S.; Bejjit, L.; Haddad, M.; Falguères, C.; Ait Lyazidi, S.; El Amraoui, M.

    2018-05-01

    A series of marbles sampled from the region of Middle Atlas (Morocco), are characterized by different complementary spectroscopic techniques. X-Ray fluorescence is used to determine elemental composition of rock while X-Ray diffraction and the Raman spectroscopy are used to determine major crystalline phases (calcite and dolomite) and minor ones (quartz).The samples display typical EPR spectra of Mn2+ in calcite and reveal the presence of Fe3+ ions.

  16. Vaccination with Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine reduces bacterial meningitis in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Braikat, Mohamed; Barkia, Abdelaziz; El Mdaghri, Naima; Rainey, Jeanette J; Cohen, Adam L; Teleb, Nadia

    2012-03-28

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is a leading cause of bacterial meningitis and pneumonia and can be prevented by Hib vaccine. We conducted a vaccine impact evaluation to support continued use of Hib vaccine in Morocco following introduction in 2007. Bacterial meningitis surveillance data from 2004 to 2009 were obtained from 11 sentinel hospitals located in eight provinces and one prefecture in Morocco to examine Hi meningitis reporting for cases aged <5 years. We defined the years of 2004-2006 as the pre-vaccine period and 2008-2009 as the post-vaccine period and compared the mean annual number of confirmed Hi meningitis cases for these time periods using a Chi-square test. We calculated the minimum incidence of Hi meningitis during the evaluation period in Grand Casa Prefecture, where the catchment population could be estimated. From 2004 to 2009, 1844 suspected meningitis case-patients aged <5 years were reported; 354 (19.2%) were confirmed with bacterial meningitis, including 105 (29.7%) Hi cases. The mean annual number of confirmed Hi meningitis cases decreased by 75%, from 24 in the pre-vaccine period to 6 during the post-vaccine period (p<0.001). Assuming Hi cases with unknown age were <5 years of age, the estimated minimum incidence of confirmed Hi meningitis in Grand Casa Prefecture decreased by 93%, from 15 cases per 100,000 children in the pre-vaccine period to 1 case per 100,000 children in the post-vaccine period. Hib vaccine introduction likely significantly reduced the occurrence of Hi meningitis among children aged <5 years at the 11 sentinel hospitals included in this evaluation in Morocco, suggesting that continued use of Hib vaccine in Morocco would be beneficial. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. First data on direct costs of lung cancer management in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Tachfouti, N; Belkacemi, Y; Raherison, C; Bekkali, R; Benider, A; Nejjari, C

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality. Its management has a significant economic impact on society. Despite a high incidence of cancer, so far, there is no national register for this disease in Morocco. The main goal of this report was to estimate the medical costs of lung cancer in our country. We first estimated the number of annual new cases according to stage of the disease on the basis of the Grand-Casablanca-Region Cancer Registry data. For each sub-group, the protocol of treatment was described taking into account the international guidelines, and an evaluation of individual costs during the first year following diagnosis was made. Extrapolation of the results to the whole country was used to calculate the total annual cost of treatments for lung cancer in Morocco. Overall approximately 3,500 new cases of lung cancer occur each year in the country. Stages I and II account for only 4% of cases, while 96% are diagnosed at locally advanced or metastatic stages III and IV. The total medical cost of lung cancer in Morocco is estimated to be around USD 12 million. This cost represents approximately 1% of the global budget of the Health Department. According to AROME Guidelines, about 86% of the newly diagnosed lung cancer cases needed palliative treatment while 14% required curative intent therapy. The total cost of early and advanced stages lung cancer management during the first year were estimated to be 4,600 and 3,420 USD, respectively. This study provides health decision-makers with a first estimate of costs and the opportunity to achieve the optimal use of available data to estimate the needs of health facilities in Morocco. A substantial proportion of the burden of lung cancer could be prevented through the application of existing cancer control knowledge and by implementing tobacco control programs.

  18. Imaging Canary Island hotspot material beneath the lithosphere of Morocco and southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Meghan S.; O'Driscoll, Leland J.; Butcher, Amber J.; Thomas, Christine

    2015-12-01

    The westernmost Mediterranean has developed into its present day tectonic configuration as a result of complex interactions between late stage subduction of the Neo-Tethys Ocean, continental collision of Africa and Eurasia, and the Canary Island mantle plume. This study utilizes S receiver functions (SRFs) from over 360 broadband seismic stations to seismically image the lithosphere and uppermost mantle from southern Spain through Morocco and the Canary Islands. The lithospheric thickness ranges from ∼65 km beneath the Atlas Mountains and the active volcanic islands to over ∼210 km beneath the cratonic lithosphere in southern Morocco. The common conversion point (CCP) volume of the SRFs indicates that thinned lithosphere extends from beneath the Canary Islands offshore southwestern Morocco, to beneath the continental lithosphere of the Atlas Mountains, and then thickens abruptly at the West African craton. Beneath thin lithosphere between the Canary hot spot and southern Spain, including below the Atlas Mountains and the Alboran Sea, there are distinct pockets of low velocity material, as inferred from high amplitude positive, sub-lithospheric conversions in the SRFs. These regions of low seismic velocity at the base of the lithosphere extend beneath the areas of Pliocene-Quaternary magmatism, which has been linked to a Canary hotspot source via geochemical signatures. However, we find that this volume of low velocity material is discontinuous along strike and occurs only in areas of recent volcanism and where asthenospheric mantle flow is identified with shear wave splitting analyses. We propose that the low velocity structure beneath the lithosphere is material flowing sub-horizontally northeastwards beneath Morocco from the tilted Canary Island plume, and the small, localized volcanoes are the result of small-scale upwellings from this material.

  19. The Origins of Marshal Lyautey’s Pacification Doctrine in Morocco From 1912 to 1925

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-11

    passion in many people, so the author has found more than four hundred documents on varying topics, some very fair , others with a hidden agendas...Strait of Gibraltar, Morocco managed to protect herself from attempts at intervention by the European countries20 The situation changed dramatically...it was supported by the organization of various fairs in Casablanca (September 1915), in Fez (October 1916) and in Rabat (September 1917). These

  20. Risk factors for MERS coronavirus infection in dromedary camels in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, and Morocco, 2015.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Eve; Chevalier, Véronique; Ayelet, Gelagay; Ben Bencheikh, Med Nadir; Boussini, Hiver; Chu, Daniel Kw; El Berbri, Ikhlass; Fassi-Fihri, Ouaffa; Faye, Bernard; Fekadu, Getnet; Grosbois, Vladimir; Ng, Bryan Cy; Perera, Ranawaka Apm; So, T Y; Traore, Amadou; Roger, François; Peiris, Malik

    2017-03-30

    Understanding Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) transmission in dromedary camels is important, as they consitute a source of zoonotic infection to humans. To identify risk factors for MERS-CoV infection in camels bred in diverse conditions in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia and Morocco, blood samples and nasal swabs were sampled in February-March 2015. A relatively high MERS-CoV RNA rate was detected in Ethiopia (up to 15.7%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 8.2-28.0), followed by Burkina Faso (up to 12.2%; 95% CI: 7-20.4) and Morocco (up to 7.6%; 95% CI: 1.9-26.1). The RNA detection rate was higher in camels bred for milk or meat than in camels for transport (p = 0.01) as well as in younger camels (p = 0.06). High seropositivity rates (up to 100%; 95% CI: 100-100 and 99.4%; 95% CI: 95.4-99.9) were found in Morocco and Ethiopia, followed by Burkina Faso (up to 84.6%; 95% CI: 77.2-89.9). Seropositivity rates were higher in large/medium herds (≥51 camels) than small herds (p = 0.061), in camels raised for meat or milk than for transport (p = 0.01), and in nomadic or sedentary herds than in herds with a mix of these lifestyles (p < 0.005). This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  1. Borrelia crocidurae in Ornithodoros ticks from northwestern Morocco: a range extension in relation to climatic change?

    PubMed

    Souidi, Yassine; Boudebouch, Najma; Ezikouri, Sayeh; Belghyti, Driss; Trape, Jean-François; Sarih, M'hammed

    2014-12-01

    Tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is caused by Borrelia spirochetes transmitted to humans by Argasid soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros. We investigated the presence of Ornithodoros ticks in rodent burrows in nine sites of the Gharb region of northwestern Morocco where we recently documented a high incidence of TBRF in humans. We assessed the Borrelia infection rate by nested PCR and sequencing. All sites investigated were colonized by ticks of the Ornithodoros marocanus complex and a high proportion of burrows (38.4%) were found to be infested. Borrelia infections were observed in 6.8% of the ticks tested. Two Borrelia species were identified by sequencing: B. hispanica and B. crocidurae. The discovery in northwestern Morocco of Ornithodoros ticks infected by B. crocidurae represents a 350 km range extension of this Sahelo-Saharan spirochete in North Africa. The spread of B. crocidurae may be related to the increasing aridity of northwestern Morocco in relation to climate change. © 2014 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  2. Investigation of a Possible Link Between Vaccination and the 2010 Sheep Pox Epizootic in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Haegeman, A; Zro, K; Sammin, D; Vandenbussche, F; Ennaji, M M; De Clercq, K

    2016-12-01

    Sheep pox is endemic in most parts of Northern Africa and has the potential to cause severe economic problems. Live attenuated vaccines are used in Morocco, and in many other countries, to control the disease. Sheep pox virus (SPPV) re-appeared in 2010 causing a nodular clinical form previously not observed in Morocco. The severe clinical signs observed during the course of this outbreak and initial reports citing similarity in nucleotide sequence between the Moroccan vaccine strain and field isolates warranted a more in depth analysis of this epizootic. In this study, sequence analysis showed that isolates obtained from four provinces of eastern Morocco were identical, demonstrating that a single SPPV strain was responsible for the 2010 epizootic. In addition, the genome fragments sequenced and phylogenetic analyses undertaken as part of this study showed significant differences between field isolates and the Moroccan vaccine strain. New PCR methods were developed to differentiate between wild-type isolates and vaccine strains of SPPV. Using these methods, no trace of wild-type SPPV was found in the vaccine and no evidence was found to suggest that the vaccine strain was causing clinical disease. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Risk factors for MERS coronavirus infection in dromedary camels in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, and Morocco, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Miguel, Eve; Chevalier, Véronique; Ayelet, Gelagay; Ben Bencheikh, Med Nadir; Boussini, Hiver; Chu, Daniel KW; El Berbri, Ikhlass; Fassi-Fihri, Ouaffa; Faye, Bernard; Fekadu, Getnet; Grosbois, Vladimir; Ng, Bryan CY; Perera, Ranawaka APM; So, TY; Traore, Amadou; Roger, François; Peiris, Malik

    2017-01-01

    Understanding Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) transmission in dromedary camels is important, as they consitute a source of zoonotic infection to humans. To identify risk factors for MERS-CoV infection in camels bred in diverse conditions in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia and Morocco, blood samples and nasal swabs were sampled in February–March 2015. A relatively high MERS-CoV RNA rate was detected in Ethiopia (up to 15.7%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 8.2–28.0), followed by Burkina Faso (up to 12.2%; 95% CI: 7–20.4) and Morocco (up to 7.6%; 95% CI: 1.9–26.1). The RNA detection rate was higher in camels bred for milk or meat than in camels for transport (p = 0.01) as well as in younger camels (p = 0.06). High seropositivity rates (up to 100%; 95% CI: 100–100 and 99.4%; 95% CI: 95.4–99.9) were found in Morocco and Ethiopia, followed by Burkina Faso (up to 84.6%; 95% CI: 77.2–89.9). Seropositivity rates were higher in large/medium herds (≥51 camels) than small herds (p = 0.061), in camels raised for meat or milk than for transport (p = 0.01), and in nomadic or sedentary herds than in herds with a mix of these lifestyles (p < 0.005). PMID:28382915

  4. Cultural constructions of "obesity": understanding body size, social class and gender in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Batnitzky, Adina K

    2011-01-01

    This article presents data from an in-depth qualitative study of overweight and diabetic women in Morocco, a North African country experiencing a rapid increase in obesity according to national statistics. This case study explores the heterogeneous relationship among health, culture and religion in Morocco by highlighting the relationship between the intricacies of women's everyday lives and their body sizes. My findings suggest that although the Body Mass Index (BMI) of adult women has been documented to have increased in Morocco along with other macroeconomic changes (i.e., increases in urbanization, etc.), "obesity" has yet to be universally medicalized in the Moroccan context. As such women do not generally utilize a medicalized concept of obesity in reference to their larger body sizes. Rather, cultural constructions of "obesity" are understood through cultural understandings of a larger body size, religious beliefs about health and illness, and the nature of women's religious participation. This stands in contrast to dominant accounts about the region that promote an overall veneration of a larger body size for women. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mapping Malaria Transmission Risk in Northern Morocco Using Entomological and Environmental Data

    PubMed Central

    Adlaoui, E.; Faraj, C.; El Bouhmi, M.; El Aboudi, A.; Ouahabi, S.; Tran, A.; Fontenille, D.; El Aouad, R.

    2011-01-01

    Malaria resurgence risk in Morocco depends, among other factors, on environmental changes as well as the introduction of parasite carriers. The aim of this paper is to analyze the receptivity of the Loukkos area, large wetlands in Northern Morocco, to quantify and to map malaria transmission risk in this region using biological and environmental data. This risk was assessed on entomological risk basis and was mapped using environmental markers derived from satellite imagery. Maps showing spatial and temporal variations of entomological risk for Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum were produced. Results showed this risk to be highly seasonal and much higher in rice fields than in swamps. This risk is lower for Afrotropical P. falciparum strains because of the low infectivity of Anopheles labranchiae, principal malaria vector in Morocco. However, it is very high for P. vivax mainly during summer corresponding to the rice cultivation period. Although the entomological risk is high in Loukkos region, malaria resurgence risk remains very low, because of the low vulnerability of the area. PMID:22312566

  6. [Update on microbiological quality assurance meat and meat products in Morocco].

    PubMed

    Rachidi, H; Latrache, H

    2018-03-01

    Food safety has become an absolute necessity in all countries. As a result, Morocco has taken several measures and actions to develop food safety and food-borne disease control. This study aimed to highlight the level of improvement in the quality assurance of meat and meat products in Morocco. It is based on a non-exhaustive review of the regulatory texts governing food safety in the country, as well as a statistical study on establishments of meat and meat products adopting a self-checking system and approved by the National Office of Sanitary Safety of Food. Morocco has introduced several laws and regulations requiring sanitary control of food products. Also, the number of establishments of meat and meat products adopting a system of self-control and approved by the National Office of Sanitary Safety of Food has improved significantly. It has increased from 58 in 2007 to 273 in 2016. The adoption of self-monitoring systems allows better access to international markets, improved quality of food products and a considerable reduction in microbial contamination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of nitrogen and phosphate balance and the roles of bacteria and viruses at the water-sediment interface in the Allal El Fassi reservoir (Morocco).

    PubMed

    Alaoui-Mhamdi, Mohamed; Dhib, Amel; Bouhaddioui, Abderrahim; Ziadi, Boutheina; Turki, Souad; Aleya, Lotfi

    2014-09-01

    Balances of nitrogen and phosphate were studied in the Allal El Fassi reservoir (Morocco); the results showing that nitrogen input (296 mg m(-2) d(-1)) was 161% higher than output (183 mg m(-2) d(-1)). Phosphate input (35.65 mg m(-2) d(-1)) was 865% higher than output (4.12 mg m(-2) d(-1)), causing a progressive increase in the internal phosphate stock. Sedimentation flux was equally high (53.80 and 18 mg m(-2) d(-1)) for both nitrogen and phosphate input, mainly from the Sebou River and in particulate form which immediately settles upon arrival in the reservoir. The release of nitrogen and phosphate from the sediment (5.40 and 1.15 mg m(-2) d(-1), respectively) depended on physicochemical and biological (bacteria and viruses) variability and the calcareous nature of the catchment basin. Calcium-bound phosphate prevailed in the reservoir. Drastic control of phosphate input is suggested to avoid accumulation of calcium-bound phosphate which may dissociate and thereby contribute to eutrophication.

  8. Flood frequency analysis and generation of flood hazard indicator maps in a semi-arid environment, case of Ourika watershed (western High Atlas, Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Alaoui El Fels, Abdelhafid; Alaa, Noureddine; Bachnou, Ali; Rachidi, Said

    2018-05-01

    The development of the statistical models and flood risk modeling approaches have seen remarkable improvements in their productivities. Their application in arid and semi-arid regions, particularly in developing countries, can be extremely useful for better assessment and planning of flood risk in order to reduce the catastrophic impacts of this phenomenon. This study focuses on the Setti Fadma region (Ourika basin, Morocco) which is potentially threatened by floods and is subject to climatic and anthropogenic forcing. The study is based on two main axes: (i) the extreme flow frequency analysis, using 12 probability laws adjusted by Maximum Likelihood method and (ii) the generation of the flood risk indicator maps are based on the solution proposed by the Nays2DFlood solver of the Hydrodynamic model of two-dimensional Saint-Venant equations. The study is used as a spatial high-resolution digital model (Lidar) in order to get the nearest hydrological simulation of the reality. The results showed that the GEV is the most appropriate law of the extreme flows estimation for different return periods. Taking into consideration the mapping of 100-year flood area, the study revealed that the fluvial overflows extent towards the banks of Ourika and consequently, affects some living areas, cultivated fields and the roads that connects the valley to the city of Marrakech. The aim of this study is to propose new technics of the flood risk management allowing a better planning of the flooded areas.

  9. Cartographie de corps stériles sous couverture quaternaire par méthode de résistivités électriques dans le gisement phosphaté de Sidi Chennane (Maroc)Sterile bodies mapping under Quaternary cover using resistivity-sounding method in the phosphatic bearing of Sidi Chennane (Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kchikach, Azzouz; Jaffal, Mohammed; Aı̈fa, Tahar; Bahi, Lahcen

    In the Ouled Abdoun sedimentary basin (Morocco), the phosphatic series is composed of regular interbedded phosphatic and marly limestone layers. Some phosphatic deposits in this basin show sterile bodies causing two kinds of problems: (1) as they are hard, compact and masked by a Quaternary cover, they disturb the exploitation in some yards and give bad reserve calculations; (2) even the use of wells and mechanical boreholes did not evidence their delimitation. Therefore, electric prospecting method has been used to evidence their geometrical shape. Petrographical and geometrical studies on these sterile bodies allowed us to choose the appropriate geophysical method to map them. The electrical resistivity survey that we used in the Sidi Chennane area shows that this technique is a good tool to contour these sterile bodies. This method is now considered as useful to the mining engineers to get round them during the exploitation. To cite this article: A. Kchikach et al., C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 379-386.

  10. Quantitative risk assessment model of canine rabies introduction: application to the risk to the European Union from Morocco.

    PubMed

    Napp, S; Casas, M; Moset, S; Paramio, J L; Casal, J

    2010-11-01

    Although rabies incidence in humans in Western Europe is low, the repeated importation of rabid animals from enzootic areas threatens the rabies-free status of terrestrial animals and challenges the public health systems in this area. Most rabid animals imported into the European Union (EU) in recent years came from Morocco. The aim of this study was to develop a probabilistic risk assessment model to estimate the probability of rabies introduction, which was applied to the risk to the EU from dogs coming from Morocco. The mean annual probability of rabies introduction was 0.21 (90% CI 0.02-0.65). The pathways that contributed the most to this probability were: (a) EU citizens who adopted a dog in Morocco (59% of the total probability) and (b) EU citizens who travelled with their dog to Morocco by ferry (34% of the total probability). The model showed a marked seasonality in the risk of rabies with almost 40% of the annual probability occurring during the months of July and August. The application of stricter border controls (assuming 100% compliance) would result in a >270-fold reduction in the likelihood of rabies introduction into the EU from Morocco.

  11. De la dualite a la complementaire: Le cas du bilingualisme au Maroc (From Duality to Complementarity: The Case of Bilingualism in Morocco).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redouane, Rabia

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the case of bilingualism in Morocco, a territory where a large variety of languages intersect, including French, Arabic, and Tamazight. The contact of cultures articulated through these languages allows Morocco to assign value to bilingualism that is not perceived as rivalry but as complementing the development of modern cosmopolitan…

  12. Sandy contourite drift in the late Miocene Rifian Corridor (Morocco): Reconstruction of depositional environments in a foreland-basin seaway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capella, W.; Hernández-Molina, F. J.; Flecker, R.; Hilgen, F. J.; Hssain, M.; Kouwenhoven, T. J.; van Oorschot, M.; Sierro, F. J.; Stow, D. A. V.; Trabucho-Alexandre, J.; Tulbure, M. A.; de Weger, W.; Yousfi, M. Z.; Krijgsman, W.

    2017-06-01

    The Rifian Corridor was a seaway between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea during the late Miocene. The seaway progressively closed, leading to the Messinian Salinity Crisis in the Mediterranean Sea. Despite the key palaeogeographic importance of the Rifian Corridor, patterns of sediment transport within the seaway have not been thoroughly studied. In this study, we investigated the upper Miocene sedimentation and bottom current pathways in the South Rifian Corridor. The planktic and benthic foraminifera of the upper Tortonian and lower Messinian successions allow us to constrain the age and palaeo-environment of deposition. Encased in silty marls deposited at 150-300 m depth, there are (i) 5 to 50 m thick, mainly clastic sandstone bodies with unidirectional cross-bedding; and (ii) 50 cm thick, mainly clastic, tabular sandstone beds with bioturbation, mottled silt, lack of clear base or top, and bi-gradational sequences. Furthermore, seismic facies representing elongated mounded drifts and associated moat are present at the western mouth of the seaway. We interpret these facies as contourites: the products of a westward sedimentary drift in the South Rifian Corridor. The contourites are found only on the northern margin of the seaway, thus suggesting a geostrophic current flowing westward along slope and then northward. This geostrophic current may have been modulated by tides. By comparing these fossil examples with the modern Gulf of Cadiz, we interpret these current-dominated deposits as evidence of late Miocene Mediterranean overflow into the Atlantic Ocean, through the Rifian Corridor. This overflow may have affected late Miocene ocean circulation and climate, and the overflow deposits may represent one of the first examples of mainly clastic contourites exposed on land.

  13. Deciphering ocean acidification from eutrophication events as the main cause of neritic carbonate factory collapse: Insight from a recurrently-perturbed Earth (Lower Jurassic, Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodin, S.; Krencker, F.; Suan, G.; Heimhofer, U.; Immenhauser, A.

    2013-12-01

    Shallow-marine carbonate ecosystems react sensitively to environmental changes and have often been documented as being early responders to climatic deteriorations. In extreme cases, such as pronounced global warming, ocean eutrophication or acidification events, the shallow-water carbonate community can collapse, leading to the so-called drowning events. However, deciphering the exact cause of carbonate platform demise in the geological record is not straightforward as the aforementioned mechanisms are intimately linked via feedback processes. The Upper Pliensbachian-Toarcian of Morocco presents an exceptional case study with regard to this question for several reasons: (1) It offers outstanding outcrops of carbonate ecosystem, that can be traced from shallow- to deep-water settings. (2) Over a period of ca. 15 Myrs, the Western Tethyan area was submitted to recurrent extreme environmental changes, linked to the long-lasting activity of the Karoo-Ferrar Large Igneous Province (LIP). During this period, the planet Earth has experienced several rapid changes between coldhouse and hothouse state, accompanied by massive injection of carbon into the ocean/atmosphere reservoirs. (3) The magnitude of change differs however from one event to another, with an oceanic acidification event only likely to have happened at the onset of the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE), but not for the other events. In the High Atlas Basin of Morocco, a total of four successive events of carbonate factory demise can be documented during the Late Pliensbachian - Toarcian time interval. These events are contemporaneous with marine extinction events and can be linked to environmental deterioration consecutive to pulsed activity of the Karoo-Ferrar LIP. They all lead to a shutdown of carbonate accumulation. They however differ in their timing and unfolding. Of major interest are the demise events recorded at the Pliensbachian-Toarcian boundary (eT-E) and at the onset of the T-OAE. An intense

  14. Multi-modeling assessment of recent changes in groundwater resource: application to the semi-arid Haouz plain (Central Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakir, Younes; Brahim, Berjamy; Page Michel, Le; Fathallah, Sghrer; Houda, Nassah; Lionel, Jarlan; Raki Salah, Er; Vincent, Simonneaux; Said, Khabba

    2015-04-01

    The Haouz plain (6000 km2) is a part of the Tensift basin located in the Central Morocco. The plain has a semi-arid climate (250 mm/y of rainfall) and is bordered in the south by the High-Atlas mountains. Because the plain is highly anthropized, the water resources face heavy demands from various competing sectors, including agriculture (over than 273000 ha of irrigated areas), water supply for more than 2 million inhabitants and about 2 millions of tourists annually. Consequently the groundwater is being depleted on a large area of the plain, with problems of water scarcity which pose serious threats to water supplies and to sustainable development. The groundwater in the Haouz plain was modeled previously by MODFLOW (USGS groundwater numerical modeling) with annual time steps. In the present study a multi-modeling approach is applied. The aim is to enhance the evaluation of the groundwater pumping for irrigation, one of the most difficult data to estimate, and to improve the water balance assessment. In this purpose, two other models were added: SAMIR (Satellite Estimation of Agricultural Water Demand) and WEAP (integrated water resources planning). The three models are implemented at a monthly time step and calibrated over the 2001-2011 period, corresponding to 120 time steps. This multi-modeling allows assessing the evolution of water resources both in time and space. The results show deep changes during the last years which affect generally the water resources and groundwater particularly. These changes are induced by a remarkable urbanism development, succession of droughts, intensive agriculture activities and weak management of irrigation and water resources. Some indicators of these changes are as follow: (i) the groundwater table decrease varies between 1 to 3m/year, (ii) the groundwater depletion during the last ten year is equivalent to 50% of the lost reserves during 40 years, (iii) the annual groundwater deficit is about 100 hm3, (iv) the renewable

  15. Le volcanisme cambrien du Maroc central : implications géodynamiquesThe Central Morocco Cambrian volcanism: geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouali, Houssa; Briand, Bernard; Bouchardon, Jean-Luc; Capiez, Paul

    2003-05-01

    In southeastern Central Morocco, the Bou-Acila volcanic complex is considered of Cambrian age. In spite of low-grade metamorphic effect, initial volcanic texture and mineralogy can be recognized and volcanic rocks are dominated by dolerites and porphyric dolerites. The initial mineralogy is composed of plagioclases, pyroxenes and dark minerals. A secondary mineral assemblage is composed of albite, epidote, chlorite and calcite. According to their immobile elements compositions, the southeastern central Morocco metavolcanites are of within-plate continental tholeiites. This volcanism and those recognized in many other areas in Morocco confirm a Cambrian extensive episode within the Gondwana supercontinent. To cite this article: H. Ouali et al., C. R. Geoscience 335 (2003).To cite this article: H. Ouali et al., C. R. Geoscience 335 (2003).

  16. Spatio-Temporal Identification of Areas Suitable for West Nile Disease in the Mediterranean Basin and Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Conte, Annamaria; Candeloro, Luca; Ippoliti, Carla; Monaco, Federica; De Massis, Fabrizio; Bruno, Rossana; Di Sabatino, Daria; Danzetta, Maria Luisa; Benjelloun, Abdennasser; Belkadi, Bouchra; El Harrak, Mehdi; Declich, Silvia; Rizzo, Caterina; Hammami, Salah; Ben Hassine, Thameur; Calistri, Paolo; Savini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted Flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex of the Flaviviridae family. Its spread in the Mediterranean basin and the Balkans poses a significant risk to human health and forces public health officials to constantly monitor the virus transmission to ensure prompt application of preventive measures. In this context, predictive tools indicating the areas and periods at major risk of WNV transmission are of paramount importance. Spatial analysis approaches, which use environmental and climatic variables to find suitable habitats for WNV spread, can enhance predictive techniques. Using the Mahalanobis Distance statistic, areas ecologically most suitable for sustaining WNV transmission were identified in the Mediterranean basin and Central Europe. About 270 human and equine clinical cases notified in Italy, Greece, Portugal, Morocco, and Tunisia, between 2008 and 2012, have been considered. The environmental variables included in the model were altitude, slope, night time Land Surface Temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Enhanced Vegetation Index, and daily temperature range. Seasonality of mosquito population has been modelled and included in the analyses to produce monthly maps of suitable areas for West Nile Disease. Between May and July, the most suitable areas are located in Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and North Cyprus. Summer/Autumn months, particularly between August and October, characterize the suitability in Italy, France, Spain, the Balkan countries, Morocco, North Tunisia, the Mediterranean coast of Africa, and the Middle East. The persistence of suitable conditions in December is confined to the coastal areas of Morocco, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and Israel. PMID:26717483

  17. Great Basin insect outbreaks

    Treesearch

    Barbara Bentz; Diane Alston; Ted Evans

    2008-01-01

    Outbreaks of native and exotic insects are important drivers of ecosystem dynamics in the Great Basin. The following provides an overview of range, forest, ornamental, and agricultural insect outbreaks occurring in the Great Basin and the associated management issues and research needs.

  18. Great Basin aspen ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Dale L. Bartos

    2008-01-01

    The health of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) in the Great Basin is of growing concern. The following provides an overview of aspen decline and die-off in areas within and adjacent to the Great Basin and suggests possible directions for research and management.

  19. Early Mesozoic rift basin architecture and sediment routing system in the Moroccan High Atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, N.; Teixell, A.; Gomez, D.

    2016-12-01

    Late Permian to Triassic extensional systems associated with Pangea breakup governed the structural framework and rift basin architecture that was inherited by Cenozoic High Atlas Mountains in Morocco. U-Pb detrital zircon geochronologic and mapping results from Permo-Triassic deposits now incorporated into the High Atlas Mountains provide new constraints on the geometry and interconnectivity among synextensional depocenters. U-Pb detrital zircon data provide provenance constraints of Permo-Triassic deposits, highlighting temporal changes in sediment sources and revealing the spatial pattern of sediment routing along the rift. We also characterize the U-Pb detrital zircon geochronologic signature of distinctive interfingering fluvial, tidal, and aeolian facies that are preferentially preserved near the controlling normal faults. These results highlight complex local sediment mixing patterns potentially linked to the interplay between fault motion, eustatic, and erosion/transport processes. We compare our U-Pb geochronologic results with existing studies of Gondwanan and Laurentian cratonic blocks to investigate continent scale sediment routing pathways, and with analogous early Mesozoic extensional systems situated in South America (Mitu basin, Peru) and North America (Newark Basin) to assess sediment mixing patterns in rift basins.

  20. An updated checklist of the Culicidae (Diptera) of Morocco, with notes on species of historical and current medical importance.

    PubMed

    Trari, Bouchra; Dakki, Mohamed; Harbach, Ralph E

    2017-06-01

    An updated checklist of the mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) recorded in Morocco from 1916 to 2016 is provided, including synonyms and synonymous usage for each species. Forty-three species belonging to seven genera are recorded so far: Anopheles (9), Aedes (12) Coquillettidia (2), Culex (12), Culiseta (5), Orthopodomyia (1) and Uranotaenia (2). Traditional and equivalent names in the polyphyletic concept of Aedes are provided for the aedine species. The historical importance and current potential threat of mosquitoes to human health in Morocco is reviewed. © 2017 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  1. 'Ayn mika: Traumatic experience, social invisibility, and emotional distress of sub-Saharan women with precarious status in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Mekki-Berrada, Abdelwahed

    2018-01-01

    Morocco has become a permanent transit country for tens of thousands of sub-Saharan migrants heading to Europe. Many of these migrants are women who have a precarious legal status and can no longer reach Europe, whose borders have been considerably securitized since September 11, 2001. They also have no wish to risk their lives again returning south across the Sahara Desert. This paper discusses the results of an exploratory research project conducted in Morocco on the relationships between the sub-Saharan migrant women's traumatic experiences, social invisibility, and emotional distress in the context of a massive securitization of Euro-Mediterranean borders.

  2. JACK CREEK BASIN, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiilsgaard, Thor H.; Van Noy, Ronald M.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Jack Creek basin area in Montana revealed that phosphate rock underlies the basin. The phosphate rock is in thin beds that dip steeply and are broken and offset by faults. These features plus the rugged topography of the region would make mining difficult; however, this study finds the area to have a probable mineral-resource potential for phosphate. Sedimentary rock formations favorable for oil and gas also underlie the basin. No oil or gas has been produced from the basin or from nearby areas in southwestern Montana, but oil and gas have been produced from the same favorable formations elsewhere in Montana. The possibility of oil and gas being produced from the basin is slight but it cannot be ignored.

  3. Assessment and comparison of the pathogenicity of Sheeppox Virus strains isolated in Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Hajjou, Saida; Khataby, Khadija; Amghar, Souad; El Fahime, Mustapha; El Harrak, Mehdi; Fakiri, Malika; Loutfi, Chafiqa

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Sheeppox virus causes systemic disease in sheep that is often associated with high morbidity and mortality. Protection against sheep pox is mainly based on medical prophylaxis, vaccination being the only way. In Morocco, and up to now, there is no available information about local challenge strain to use for controlling the efficiency of vaccines produced against sheep pox. Hence, the objective of the present study was to evaluate and compare the pathogenicity of seven Sheeppox virus (SPVs) isolates from 1993–1995 in Morocco. Materials and Methods: These seven SPV isolates have undergone various tests to evaluate their pathogenicity: Passages and titration on cell culture, Experimental inoculation on sheep, Virus-neutralization, In vivo titration and viral re-isolation by real-time PCR assay. Results: All infected lambs showed severe clinical signs, while most of them have been reproduced on 5 dpi and persisted until 21 dpi. The lambs infected by Oj1P4, Oj2P4 and BerP5 appeared lethargic, reluctant to move compared to those infected by other isolates. The results also revealed that all isolates were able to induce serological response. Virus isolation from infected organs and blood and amplification of the viral DNA by real-time PCR proved the presence of the virus in tissues and blood of infected lambs. These Moroccan SPVs demonstrated that the three isolates Oj1P4, Oj2P4 and BerP5 have a high pathogenicity; especially the BerP5 isolate which has an important infectious titer. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that the Berkane isolate is the most pathogenic of the tested isolates and it can be an excellent challenge strain for the control of the efficiency of vaccines against sheep pox produced in Morocco. PMID:29487736

  4. Breast Cancer Screening in Morocco: Performance Indicators During Two Years of an Organized Programme.

    PubMed

    El Fakir, Samira; Najdi, Adil; Khazraji, Youssef Chami; Bennani, Maria; Belakhel, Latifa; Abousselham, Loubna; Lyoussi, Badiaa; Bekkali, Rachid; Nejjari, Chakib

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is commonly diagnosed at late stages in countries with limited resources. In Morocco, breast cancer is ranked the first female cancer (36.1%) and screening methods could reduce the proportion presenting with a late diagnosis. Morocco is currently adopting a breast cancer screening program based on clinical examination at primary health facilities, diagnosis at secondary level and treatment at tertiary level. So far, there is no systematic information on the performance of the screening program for breast cancer in Morocco. The aim of this study was to analyze early performance indicators. A retrospective evaluative study conducted in Temara city. The target population was the entire female population aged between 45-70 years. The study was based on process and performance indicators collected at the individual level from the various health structures in Tamara between 2009 and 2011. A total of 2,350 women participated in the screening program; the participation rate was 35.7%. Of these, 76.8% (1,806) were married and 5.2% (106) of this group had a family history of breast cancer. Of the women who attended screening, 9.3% (190) were found to have an abnormal physical examination findings. A total of 260 (12.7%) were referred for a specialist consultation. The positive predictive value of clinical breast examination versus mammography was 23.0%. Forty four (35.5%) of the lesions found on the mammograms were classified as BI-RADs 3; 4 or 5 category. Cancer was found in 4 (1.95%) of the total number of screened women and benign cases represented 0.58%. These first results of the programme are very encouraging, but there is a need to closely monitor performance and to improve programme procedures with the aim of increasing both the participation rate and the proportion of women eligible to attend screening.

  5. Patients' Acceptance of the Use of Serious Games in Physical Rehabilitation in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Bonnechère, Bruno; Van Vooren, Mélissa; Jansen, Bart; Van Sint, Jan S; Rahmoun, Mohamed; Fourtassi, Maryam

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether serious games especially customized for physical rehabilitation could be used in daily clinics with patients who are not familiar with informatics and/or new technologies and whether such a clinical approach would be culturally acceptable within a North African population to plan further clinical distribution if the hypothesis appears to be positive. Twenty-one patients participated in this study. Experiments were performed in the University Hospital Mohammed VI Oujda in Morocco. Patients were asked to perform physical rehabilitation exercises with dedicated serious games after their conventional therapy session. A questionnaire was used to evaluate patients' habits to rehabilitation exercises and satisfaction and expectation about the use of serious games for physical rehabilitation. The same problem of low participation in at-home exercises was found in Morocco compared to Europe and the United States: 60 (30)% of the exercises was performed by the patients in Morocco and 48 (28)% in Europe and the United States. Results of this study show that serious games are well accepted by the patients (100%) and that it can help during rehabilitation (90%). Most of the patients prefer exercises with games than conventional rehabilitation exercises. Even in a context of low education (participants in this study attended school until the age of 10 years old), and low access and knowledge about new technology and informatics, rehabilitation exercises within serious games seem to be an interesting option to motivate patients during rehabilitation with a physiotherapist. Such a system could be installed also at home to increase patient's participation.

  6. Risk factors and prediction analysis of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania tropica in Southwestern Morocco.

    PubMed

    El Alem, Mohamed Mahmoud Mohamed; Hakkour, Maryam; Hmamouch, Asmae; Halhali, Meryem; Delouane, Bouchra; Habbari, Khalid; Fellah, Hajiba; Sadak, Abderrahim; Sebti, Faiza

    2018-07-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is currently a serious public health problem in northern Africa, especially in Morocco. The causative parasite is transmitted to a human host through the bite of infected female sandflies of the genus Phlebotomus. The objective of the present study is to characterize the causative organisms and to predict the risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) cases in six provinces in southwestern Morocco, based on the spatial distribution of cases in relation to environmental factors and other risk factors such as socio-economic status and demographics. A molecular study was carried out using ITS1 PCR-RFLP method of the ribosomal DNA of Leishmania. An epidemiological study on CL cases was reported between 2000 and 2016 in this current investigation in six provinces in southwestern Morocco. Statistical analysis was performed using a linear regression model to identify the impact as well as the interaction between all predictor variables on the distribution of CL in the studied provinces. The forecast Holt-Winters (HW) method was used to describe the trend and seasonality of CL cases. The ITS1-PCR- RFLP analysis revealed the presence of Leishmania tropica in all studied provinces. The spatial distribution of CL cases documented in all studied provinces during the sixteen years showed a heterogeneous pattern and fluctuation trend with an average prevalence of 9.92 per 100,000 inhabitants. In addition, the forecast HW model predicts continued variability of trend and seasonality of CL cases in the upcoming years. This study confirmed the importance of socioeconomic factors, in particular poverty and the vulnerability rate, on distribution and emergence of CL. This study revealed a relationship between increasing risk of CL occurrence due to Leishmania tropica, as well as the distribution and emergence thereof, and socioeconomic factors in the investigated area. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of oil pollution on the North-western coast of Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksissou, M.

    2003-04-01

    The North-western coast of Morocco has approximately 160 km from Asila city while passing by the towns of Tangier, Fnideq, M'diq and Tetouan to Oued Laou and shelters wetlands (lake Smir.), beaches, cliffs and mountains. Investigations carried out in 2000-2001 in this zone show scattered beaches and wetlands (Smir lake, Maleh river) polluted by oil. These polluted beaches and coastal wetlands are generally close to Marina or fishing ports and to the residential areas. Cases of fish (Rays and other Chondrychtiens), tortoises (Caretta caretta) and dolphins dead have been noted in some of these beaches during spring and summer (2000-2001) most probably because of oil pollution. Increased dredging in beaches (Haouara, Martil...) involves the salinity of the ground water and the disturbance of the marine biodiversity. Some management (construction of Kabila marina and Smir dam) involved disturbance of hydrology (salinity increased) and biodiversity (migration of the Birds from Smir lake towards Smir dam) in Smir lake. This management, dredging, algae extraction and oil act on the coastal biodiversity and involve the deterioration of the natural environment. The beaches polluted by oil obstruct the tourism activity. Measurements of prevention (by prohibition to get rid of the motor oil and the washing of the boats on the open sea, construction of sewage stations and industrial water purification) are necessary for the conservation of biological diversity and the tourism development. The cleaning of the beaches polluted within the framework of the activities of the ONG or the local communities is also necessary. An integrated coastal zone management is necessary for the nature conservation and the sustainable development of the North Western of Morocco. Keywords: Oil pollution, Biodiversity, Coast, Morocco.

  8. The "New Climate" New Atmospheric Events and "New Climate Risks": The case of Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karrouk, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    Since the end of last century, qualified meteorological events of "exceptional" causing floods have ceased to occur in Morocco and elsewhere, with a recurrence increasingly high, prompting to wonder about the "new" mode of climate's hydrothermal functioning inducing torrential rains, as well as its effect on the environment and societies.The latest event is the disaster of November 2014 flooding in southern Morocco, which is due especially to the non usual rains return.Weather conditions were marked by enhanced Meridian Atmospheric Circulation (MAC), characterized by persistent high temperatures during the autumn period in Morocco, mainly south of the Atlas, combined by the intrusion of a cold drop in the beginning of the event on 11.17.2014, and straightforward installation of a planetary valley across the Moroccan coast on 11.24.2014, which has evolved into storm (Xandra) in which depression has reached the surprising value of 975 hPa on 11.28.2014.Human and material damage caused by this flood are impressive: people died, roads, bridges and crops have been destroyed, overwhelmed dams. It has been a catastrophe.This event and others like it (Mohammedia 2002, Tangier 2008, Gharb 2009-2010, Casablanca 2010), must be considered as references for the simulation of future situations, and integration into development plans on future.This communication aims to identify the processes and conditions that have generated these events causing floods, the "exceptional" characteristics of recorded rainfall, the spatial and temporal distribution of events. Those floods affect the whole country, especially low areas, foothills and the mouths of rivers. There are the most vulnerable locations mainly on the autumn which is the most exposed to torrential rainfall season !! ... Etc.

  9. A Century Spent Combating Rabies in Morocco (1911-2015): How Much Longer?

    PubMed

    Darkaoui, Sami; Cliquet, Florence; Wasniewski, Marine; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Aboulfidaa, Nadia; Bouslikhane, Mohammed; Fassi-Fihri, Ouafaa

    2017-01-01

    Rabies has no known beginning in Morocco and to date, government control efforts and plans fail to eradicate the disease. A review and analysis of available epidemiological data are crucial to learn lessons from the past and to propose effective actions. Legally, animal rabies is a notifiable disease since 1913 and legislation has been updated periodically since. Dogs have always been considered as both the disease's vector and reservoir, while cattle, other herbivores, and humans are victims. Animal rabies cases evolution from 1942 to 2015 is characterized by ascending phase then decreasing one following structured rabies control plan implementation in 1980s. Indeed, from 1986 to 2010, three rabies control plans have been conducted based on free of charge rabies vaccination of owned dogs through mass campaigns. The geographical distribution of rabies is stable over the years with highest cases number in rich rural areas and around cities. Human rabies cases are decreasing over the time (1976-2015) thanks to the opening of new antirabic treatment centers in the last decade which permit the administration of more PEPs. After a century of rabies control, Morocco registered an average of 301 animal cases and 21 human cases annually for the last decade (2005-2015). Few reasons led to those limited results. The lack in law enforcement and, moreover, the fact that the law do not take into account responsible dog ownership aspect are of importance. Lack of dog population knowledge and management and intersectoral coordination deficiency are additional failure reasons. The gathered data will help to build a new strategy with a focus on a "One Health" approach. Dog population ecology parameters' study is of primary importance. We estimated dog population to be 2.8 million dogs based on human:dog ratio. Enhancing vaccination coverage of dog population is feasible by combining parenteral vaccination and complementary oral vaccination. Updating legislation by inclusion of

  10. Distribution and features of hematological malignancies in Eastern Morocco: a retrospective multicenter study over 5 years.

    PubMed

    Elidrissi Errahhali, Mounia; Elidrissi Errahhali, Manal; Boulouiz, Redouane; Ouarzane, Meryem; Bellaoui, Mohammed

    2016-02-25

    Hematological malignancies (HM) are a public health problem. The pattern and distribution of diagnosed hematological cancers vary depending on age, sex, geography, and ethnicity suggesting the involvement of genetic and environmental factors for the development of these diseases. To our knowledge, there is no published report on HM in the case of Eastern Morocco. In this report we present for the first time the overall pattern of HM for this region. Retrospective descriptive study of patients diagnosed with HM between January 2008 and December 2012 in three centres in Eastern Morocco providing cancer diagnosis, treatment or palliative care services. The FAB (French-American-British) classification system has been taken into account in the analysis of myeloid and lymphoid neoplasms. In this study, a total of 660 cases of HM were registered between January 2008 and December 2012. Overall, 6075 cases of cancers all sites combined were registered during this study period, indicating that HM account for around 10.9 % (660/6075) of all cancers recorded. Among the 660 registered cases of HM, 53 % were males and 47 % were females, with a male to female ratio of 1.1. Thus, overall, men are slightly more affected with HM than women. By contrast, a female predominance was observed in the case of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL), myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and the myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). HM occur at a relatively young age, with an overall median age at diagnosis of 54 years. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) was the most common HM accounting for 29.7 % of all HM, followed by HL, MPN, multiple myelomas (MM), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), AML, MDS, acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM). The majority of HM cases have been observed among patients aged 60 years and over (40.4 % of HM). Among this age group, NHL was the most common HM. In adolescents, HL was the most frequent HM. This study provided for the

  11. First report of L1014F-kdr mutation in Culex pipiens complex from Morocco.

    PubMed

    Bkhache, Meriem; Tmimi, Fatim-Zohra; Charafeddine, Omar; Faraj, Chafika; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Sarih, M'hammed

    2016-12-16

    Mosquitoes of the Culex pipiens complex, competent vectors for West Nile virus (WNV) and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) are widely targeted by insecticide treatments. The intensive application of chemical insecticides led to the development of resistance in many insects including Culex pipiens mosquitoes. The absence of data on resistance mechanisms in Morocco allow us to assess the levels of lambda-cyhalothrin resistance and the frequency of the mutated gene L1014F kdr in different forms of Cx. pipiens complex from three regions of Morocco. Mosquito adults were reared from immature stages collected in three different regions in Morocco (Tangier, Casablanca and Marrakech). Standard WHO insecticide susceptibility tests were conducted on adults emerged from collected larvae. Specimens were identified as belonging to the Culex pipiens complex using a multiplex PCR assay with diagnostic primers designed from the flanking region of microsatellite CQ11. Identified mosquitoes were then tested for the presence of the L1014F kdr mutation using PCR assay. Our results showed that 21% of the tested population has a resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin. The molecular identification of survivors shows that 43% belonged to the Cx. pipiens pipiens and only 9.5% to the Cx. pipiens molestus form. On the other hand, 416 specimens were screened for the L1014F kdr mutation. L1014F mutation was detected in different forms of Cx. pipiens in different sites. The frequency of L1014F mutation was similar between the Cx. pipiens pipiens form and hybrid form, while it was lower in the Cx. pipiens molestus form. The presence of the L1014F kdr allele was significantly associated with resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin in Cx. pipiens pipiens (P < 0.0001) and hybrid form (P < 0.0001). Resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin of Cx. pipiens populations appears to be largely due to the L1014F kdr mutation. To our knowledge, the frequencies of L1014F kdr mutation are examined for the first time in

  12. [Legislation on the pharmaceutical industry in Morocco during the French protectorate 1912 - 1956].

    PubMed

    Nhaili, Hicham; Taoufik, Jamal

    2015-06-01

    In Morocco, the pharmaceutical industry was born with the French protectorate. She knew a great evolution: from a limited production for local needs, it became an important activity, organized to export pharmaceutical patent medicines. This article revisits the birth and history of this industry during the protectorate. It refers to the situation at the time by listing some examples of active establishments and some specialities marketed. It also aims to increase knowledge about the industry and provides an overview of the situation of practitioners remembering the texts governing the profession. Based on the available literature, we examined and analyzed the arrangements related to the establishment, organization and evolution of the pharmaceutical industry.

  13. Statistical analysis of global horizontal solar irradiation GHI in Fez city, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bounoua, Z.; Mechaqrane, A.

    2018-05-01

    An accurate knowledge of the solar energy reaching the ground is necessary for sizing and optimizing the performances of solar installations. This paper describes a statistical analysis of the global horizontal solar irradiation (GHI) at Fez city, Morocco. For better reliability, we have first applied a set of check procedures to test the quality of hourly GHI measurements. We then eliminate the erroneous values which are generally due to measurement or the cosine effect errors. Statistical analysis show that the annual mean daily values of GHI is of approximately 5 kWh/m²/day. Daily monthly mean values and other parameter are also calculated.

  14. A Century Spent Combating Rabies in Morocco (1911–2015): How Much Longer?

    PubMed Central

    Darkaoui, Sami; Cliquet, Florence; Wasniewski, Marine; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Aboulfidaa, Nadia; Bouslikhane, Mohammed; Fassi-Fihri, Ouafaa

    2017-01-01

    Rabies has no known beginning in Morocco and to date, government control efforts and plans fail to eradicate the disease. A review and analysis of available epidemiological data are crucial to learn lessons from the past and to propose effective actions. Legally, animal rabies is a notifiable disease since 1913 and legislation has been updated periodically since. Dogs have always been considered as both the disease’s vector and reservoir, while cattle, other herbivores, and humans are victims. Animal rabies cases evolution from 1942 to 2015 is characterized by ascending phase then decreasing one following structured rabies control plan implementation in 1980s. Indeed, from 1986 to 2010, three rabies control plans have been conducted based on free of charge rabies vaccination of owned dogs through mass campaigns. The geographical distribution of rabies is stable over the years with highest cases number in rich rural areas and around cities. Human rabies cases are decreasing over the time (1976–2015) thanks to the opening of new antirabic treatment centers in the last decade which permit the administration of more PEPs. After a century of rabies control, Morocco registered an average of 301 animal cases and 21 human cases annually for the last decade (2005–2015). Few reasons led to those limited results. The lack in law enforcement and, moreover, the fact that the law do not take into account responsible dog ownership aspect are of importance. Lack of dog population knowledge and management and intersectoral coordination deficiency are additional failure reasons. The gathered data will help to build a new strategy with a focus on a “One Health” approach. Dog population ecology parameters’ study is of primary importance. We estimated dog population to be 2.8 million dogs based on human:dog ratio. Enhancing vaccination coverage of dog population is feasible by combining parenteral vaccination and complementary oral vaccination. Updating legislation by

  15. Constraining the crustal root geometry beneath the Rif Cordillera (North Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Jordi; Gil, Alba; Carbonell, Ramon; Gallart, Josep; Harnafi, Mimoun

    2016-04-01

    The analyses of wide-angle reflections of controlled source experiments and receiver functions calculated from teleseismic events provide consistent constraints of an over-thickened crust beneath the Rif Cordillera (North Morocco). Regarding active source data, we investigate now offline arrivals of Moho-reflected phases recorded in RIFSIS project to get new estimations of 3D crustal thickness variations beneath North Morocco. Additional constrains on the onshore-offshore transition are derived from onland recording of marine airgun shots from the coeval Gassis-Topomed profiles. A regional crustal thickness map is computed from all these results. In parallel, we use natural seismicity data collected throughout TopoIberia and PICASSO experiments, and from a new RIFSIS deployment, to obtain teleseismic receiver functions and explore the crustal thickness variations with a H-κ grid-search approach. The use of a larger dataset including new stations covering the complex areas beneath the Rif Cordillera allow us to improve the resolution of previous contributions, revealing abrupt crustal changes beneath the region. A gridded surface is built up by interpolating the Moho depths inferred for each seismic station, then compared with the map from controlled source experiments. A remarkably consistent image is observed in both maps, derived from completely independent data and methods. Both approaches document a large modest root, exceeding 50 km depth in the central part of the Rif, in contrast with the rather small topographic elevations. This large crustal thickness, consistent with the available Bouguer anomaly data, favor models proposing that the high velocity slab imaged by seismic tomography beneath the Alboran Sea is still attached to the lithosphere beneath the Rif, hence pulling down the lithosphere and thickening the crust. The thickened area corresponds to a quiet seismic zone located between the western Morocco arcuate seismic zone, the deep seismicity area

  16. Risk factors for tuberculosis treatment failure, default, or relapse and outcomes of retreatment in Morocco

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients with tuberculosis require retreatment if they fail or default from initial treatment or if they relapse following initial treatment success. Outcomes among patients receiving a standard World Health Organization Category II retreatment regimen are suboptimal, resulting in increased risk of morbidity, drug resistance, and transmission.. In this study, we evaluated the risk factors for initial treatment failure, default, or early relapse leading to the need for tuberculosis retreatment in Morocco. We also assessed retreatment outcomes and drug susceptibility testing use for retreatment patients in urban centers in Morocco, where tuberculosis incidence is stubbornly high. Methods Patients with smear- or culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis presenting for retreatment were identified using clinic registries in nine urban public clinics in Morocco. Demographic and outcomes data were collected from clinical charts and reference laboratories. To identify factors that had put these individuals at risk for failure, default, or early relapse in the first place, initial treatment records were also abstracted (if retreatment began within two years of initial treatment), and patient characteristics were compared with controls who successfully completed initial treatment without early relapse. Results 291 patients presenting for retreatment were included; 93% received a standard Category II regimen. Retreatment was successful in 74% of relapse patients, 48% of failure patients, and 41% of default patients. 25% of retreatment patients defaulted, higher than previous estimates. Retreatment failure was most common among patients who had failed initial treatment (24%), and default from retreatment was most frequent among patients with initial treatment default (57%). Drug susceptibility testing was performed in only 10% of retreatment patients. Independent risk factors for failure, default, or early relapse after initial treatment included male gender (aOR = 2

  17. Risk factors for tuberculosis treatment failure, default, or relapse and outcomes of retreatment in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Dooley, Kelly E; Lahlou, Ouafae; Ghali, Iraqi; Knudsen, Janine; Elmessaoudi, My Driss; Cherkaoui, Imad; El Aouad, Rajae

    2011-02-28

    Patients with tuberculosis require retreatment if they fail or default from initial treatment or if they relapse following initial treatment success. Outcomes among patients receiving a standard World Health Organization Category II retreatment regimen are suboptimal, resulting in increased risk of morbidity, drug resistance, and transmission.. In this study, we evaluated the risk factors for initial treatment failure, default, or early relapse leading to the need for tuberculosis retreatment in Morocco. We also assessed retreatment outcomes and drug susceptibility testing use for retreatment patients in urban centers in Morocco, where tuberculosis incidence is stubbornly high. Patients with smear- or culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis presenting for retreatment were identified using clinic registries in nine urban public clinics in Morocco. Demographic and outcomes data were collected from clinical charts and reference laboratories. To identify factors that had put these individuals at risk for failure, default, or early relapse in the first place, initial treatment records were also abstracted (if retreatment began within two years of initial treatment), and patient characteristics were compared with controls who successfully completed initial treatment without early relapse. 291 patients presenting for retreatment were included; 93% received a standard Category II regimen. Retreatment was successful in 74% of relapse patients, 48% of failure patients, and 41% of default patients. 25% of retreatment patients defaulted, higher than previous estimates. Retreatment failure was most common among patients who had failed initial treatment (24%), and default from retreatment was most frequent among patients with initial treatment default (57%). Drug susceptibility testing was performed in only 10% of retreatment patients. Independent risk factors for failure, default, or early relapse after initial treatment included male gender (aOR = 2.29, 95% CI 1

  18. A multiple dating approach (luminescence and electron spin resonance) to assess rates of crustal deformation using Quaternary fluvial terraces of the lower Moulouya River (NE Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartz, Melanie; Rixhon, Gilles; Duval, Mathieu; King, Georgina; Brückner, Helmut

    2017-04-01

    40 and MIS 32, whilst the last terrace formation in the hanging wall is dated between 1.19±0.11 and 1.61±0.15 Ma, indicating even older fluvial deposition. This study shows the high potential of the multiple centre approach in ESR dating, especially when dealing with samples beyond the dating range of luminescence techniques. Nevertheless, independent age control is still required to evaluate the reliability of the ESR dating results; this will be achieved in the near future using palaeomagnetism (CENIEH, Burgos) and isochron burial dating (26Al/10Be) on the same deposits. The acquisition of a reliable chronological framework based on different techniques will eventually give new insights into the rate of Quaternary crustal deformation in this region of Morocco. References: Barcos, L., Jabaloy, A., Azdimousa, A., Asebriy, L., Gómez-Ortiz, D., Rodríguez-Peces, M.J., Tejero, R., Pérez-Peña, J.V., 2014. Study of relief changes related to active doming in the eastern Moroccan Rif (Morocco) using geomorphological indices. J. African Earth Sci. 100, 493-509. Duval, M., Sancho, C., Calle, M., Guilarte, V., Penna-Monné, J.L., 2015. On the interest of using the multiple centre approach in ESR dating of optically bleached quartz grains: Some examples from the Early Pleistocene terraces of the Alcanadre River (Ebro basin, Spain). Quat. Geochr. 29, 58-69. Huntley, 2006. An explanation of the power-law decay of luminescence. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 18, 1359-1365. Kars, R.H., Wallinga, J., Cohen, K.M., 2008. A new approach towards anomalous fading correction for feldspar IRSL dating - tests on samples in field saturation. Radiation Measurements 43, 786-790. Rixhon, G., Bartz, M., El Ouahabi, M., Szemkus, N., Brückner, H., 2017, Contrasting terrace systems of the lower Moulouya river as indicator of crustal deformation in NE Morocco. J. African Earth Sci. 126, 45-47.

  19. A review of the heat flow data of NE Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiozzi, Paolo; Barkaoui, Alae-Eddine; Rimi, Abdelkrim; Verdoya, Massimo; Zarhloule, Yassine

    2016-04-01

    background terrestrial heat flow and loosing heat by conduction through the overlying cover. The results slightly modify the heat-flow picture proposed in previous investigations and point to negligible effects of advection. The heat flow ranges from 64 to 112 mW m-2, showing a variation in relation to the different tectonic units, and increases with the decrease of crustal thickness. Heat-flow data do not satisfactorily track the volcanism of the northeastern sector. The largest values (86-112 mW m-2) are found in the Oujda region, at the easternmost edge of the investigated area. The mantle origin of this thermal anomaly can be neither ruled out nor proved using only heat flow data, because ˜15 Ma or less is a too short time to enhance the surface heat flow for pure conduction through a ˜ 100 km-thick lithosphere. We speculate that the heat flow in the Oujda region might be related to subduction and rifting processes that occurred during the opening of the western Mediterranean basins.

  20. Construction at Turn Basin

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-14

    Modifications are underway at the Launch Complex 39 turn basin wharf at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida to prepare for the arrival of the agency's massive Space Launch System (SLS) core stage aboard the barge Pegasus. Precast concrete poles are being driven to a depth of about 70 feet into the bedrock below the water around the turn basin; later filled with concrete. The upgrades are necessary to accommodate the increased weight of the core stage along with ground support and transportation equipment aboard the modified barge Pegasus. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing the upgrades to the turn basin wharf.

  1. Turn Basin Construction

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-14

    Modifications are underway at the Launch Complex 39 turn basin wharf at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida to prepare for the arrival of the agency's massive Space Launch System (SLS) core stage aboard the barge Pegasus. A crane will be used to lift up precast concrete poles and position them to be driven to a depth of about 70 feet into the bedrock below the water around the turn basin. The upgrades are necessary to accommodate the 300,000-pound core booster aboard the modified Pegasus barge. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing the upgrades to the turn basin wharf.

  2. Turn Basin Construction

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-14

    Modifications are underway at the Launch Complex 39 turn basin wharf at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida to prepare for the arrival of the agency's massive Space Launch System (SLS) core stage aboard the barge Pegasus. Precast concrete poles are being driven to a depth of about 70 feet into the bedrock below the water around the turn basin. The upgrades are necessary to accommodate the increased weight of the core stage along with ground support and transportation equipment aboard the modified barge Pegasus. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing the upgrades to the turn basin wharf.

  3. Turn Basin Construction

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-14

    Modifications are underway at the Launch Complex 39 turn basin wharf at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida to prepare for the arrival of the agency's massive Space Launch System (SLS) core stage aboard the barge Pegasus. A crane will be used to lift up precast concrete poles and position them to be driven to a depth of about 70 feet into the bedrock below the water around the turn basin. The upgrades are necessary to accommodate the increased weight of the core stage along with ground support and transportation equipment aboard the modified barge Pegasus. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing the upgrades to the turn basin wharf.

  4. Control of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major in south-eastern Morocco.

    PubMed

    Bennis, Issam; De Brouwere, Vincent; Ameur, Btissam; El Idrissi Laamrani, Abderrahmane; Chichaoui, Smaine; Hamid, Sahibi; Boelaert, Marleen

    2015-10-01

    The incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by Leishmania major has increased in Morocco over the last decade, prompting the Ministry of Health to take intersectoral response measures including vector and reservoir control. The aim of this article was to describe the CL outbreak response measures taken in the province of Errachidia, where the reservoir of L. major, a sand rat (Meriones shawi), was targeted using strychnine-poisoned wheat baits from 2010 to 2012. We analysed routine surveillance data and other information using the data of the CL control programme. We present data on the evolution and the extension of CL in this province as well as the epidemiological profile of the disease. Between 2004 and 2013, 7099 cases of CL were recorded in Errachidia Province, gradually affecting all districts. Our results demonstrate that more women were affected than men and that all age groups were represented. Errachidia Province was the epicentre of the recent CL outbreak in Morocco. A notable decline in incidence rates was observed after 2011. The outbreak control measures may have contributed to this decline, as well as climatic trends or progressing herd immunity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The free delivery and caesarean policy in Morocco: how much do households still pay?

    PubMed

    Boukhalfa, C; Abouchadi, S; Cunden, N; Witter, S

    2016-02-01

    The Free Deliveries and Caesarean Policy (FDCP) entitles all women in Morocco to deliver free of charge within public hospitals. This study assesses the policy's effectiveness by analysing household expenditures related to childbirth, by delivery type and quintile. Structured exit survey of 973 women in six provinces at five provincial hospitals, two regional hospitals, two university hospitals and three primary health centres with maternity units. Households reported spending a median of US$ 59 in total for costs inside and outside of hospitals. Women requiring caesareans payed more than women with uncomplicated deliveries (P < 0.0001). The median cost was US$45 for a uncomplicated delivery, US$50 for a complicated delivery and US$65 for a caesarean section. The prescription given upon exiting the hospital comprised 62% of the total costs. Eighty-eight per cent of women from the poorest quintiles faced catastrophic expenditures. The women's perception of their hospital stay and the FDCP policy was overwhelmingly positive, but differences were noted at the various sites. The policy has been largely but not fully effective in removing financial barriers for delivery care in Morocco. More progress should also be made on increasing awareness of the policy and on easing the financial burden, which is still borne by households with lower incomes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. HPV and cofactors for invasive cervical cancer in Morocco: a multicentre case-control study.

    PubMed

    Berraho, Mohamed; Amarti-Riffi, Afaf; El-Mzibri, Mohammed; Bezad, Rachid; Benjaafar, Noureddine; Benideer, Abdelatif; Matar, Noureddine; Qmichou, Zinab; Abda, Naima; Attaleb, Mohammed; Znati, Kaoutar; El Fatemi, Hind; Bendahhou, Karima; Obtel, Majdouline; Filali Adib, Abdelhai; Mathoulin-Pelissier, Simone; Nejjari, Chakib

    2017-06-20

    Limited national information is available in Morocco on the prevalence and distribution of HPV-sub-types of cervical cancer and the role of other risk factors. The aim was to determine the frequency of HPV-sub-types of cervical cancer in Morocco and investigate risk factors for this disease. Between November 2009 and April 2012 a multicentre case-control study was carried out. A total of 144 cases of cervical cancer and 288 age-matched controls were included. Odds-ratios and corresponding confidence-intervals were computed by conditional logistic regression models. Current HPV infection was detected in 92.5% of cases and 13.9% of controls. HPV16 was the most common type for both cases and controls. Very strong associations between HPV-sub-types and cervical cancer were observed: total-HPV (OR = 39), HPV16 (OR = 49), HPV18 (OR = 31), and multiple infections (OR = 13). Education, high parity, sexual intercourse during menstruation, history of sexually transmitted infections, and husband's multiple sexual partners were also significantly associated with cervical cancer in the multivariate analysis. Our results could be used to establish a primary prevention program and to prioritize limited screening to women who have specific characteristics that may put them at an increased risk of cervical cancer.

  7. Differential Cytotoxic Activity of Essential Oil of Lippia citriodora from Different Regions in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Oukerrou, Moulay Ali; Tilaoui, Mounir; Mouse, Hassan Ait; Bouchmaa, Najat; Zyad, Abdelmajid

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the cytotoxic effect of the essential oil of dried leaves of Lippia citriodora (H.B. & K.) harvested in different regions of Morocco. This effect was evaluated against the P815 murine mastocytoma cell line using the MTT assay. Interestingly, this work demonstrated for the first time that these essential oils exhibited a strong cytotoxic activity against the P815 cell line, with IC 50 values ranging from 7.75 to 13.25 μg/ml. This cytotoxicity began early and increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The chemical profile of these essential oils was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Importantly, the difference in terms of major components' contents was not significant suggesting probably that the differential cytotoxicity between these essential oils could be attributed to the difference in the content of these essential oils in minor compounds, which could interact with each other or with the main molecules. Finally, this study demonstrated for the first time that essential oils of L. citriodora from different regions in Morocco induced apoptosis against P815 tumor cell line. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  8. [Epidemiological profile of respiratory diseases in children hospitalized at the Rabat Children's Hospital, Morocco].

    PubMed

    Benchekroun, Ilham; Boubkraoui, Mohamed El Mahdi; Mekaoui, Nour; Karboubi, Lamia; Mahraoui, Chafiq; Dakhama, Badr Sououd Benjelloun

    2017-01-01

    Respiratory diseases are a common cause of pediatric hospitalization. This study aimed to evaluate the epidemiological profile of respiratory diseases among children at the Rabat Children's Hospital, Morocco. We conducted an observational-cross sectional study of all children aged 3 months to 15 years hospitalized for respiratory disease at the Department of Pneumoallergology and Pediatric Infectious Diseases at the Rabat Children's Hospital, Morocco over a one-year period, from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2014. Out of 3537 hospitalized patients, 2493 (70.5%) had respiratory disease. Hospitalizations due to asthmatic exacerbation (p < 0.001), acute bronchiolitis (p < 0.001) and laryngeal dyspnoea (p = 0.004) were more frequent among boys, while hospitalizations due to acute pneumonia (p = 0.005), inhalation of a foreign body (p = 0.007) and pertussis (p = 0.020) were frequent among girls. Hospitalizations due to acute pneumonia (p < 0.001), exacerbation of serious viral disease sequelae (p < 0.001) and pertussis (p < 0.001) were more frequent among infants. Hospitalizations due to acute pneumonia (p < 0.001) and pertussis (p = 0.015) were more frequent during the autumn-winter period. The causes of hospitalization were dominated by asthmatic exacerbations and acute bronchiolitis, which were more frequent among boys. Respiratory infections, such as acute pneumonitis and pertussis, were more frequent during the autumn-winter period and mainly affected the infants.

  9. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ouazzane and Sidi Kacem provinces, Morocco (1997-2012).

    PubMed

    El Miri, H; Faraj, C; Himmi, O; Hmamouch, A; Maniar, S; Laaroussi, T; Rhajaoui, M; Sebti, F; Benhoussa, A

    2016-12-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a major public health problem in Morocco. Three distinct parasites are involved; Leishmania tropica, Leishmania major and Leishmania infantum. The objective of this study is to investigate the epidemiological and the clinical features of endemic foci of CL in Sidi Kacem and Ouazzane provinces in the north of Morocco including molecular identification of parasites. We studied the evolution and the distribution of 1,656 CL cases coming from 39 sectors in these provinces between 1997 and 2012. The causative agents of CL in these areas were identified by using the ITS1-PCR-RFLP method. A tendency of seasonality in incidence was observed, showing a peak in April. Most infected patients were from Ouazzane province. The patients' ages ranged from 6 months to 85 years; 54% of them were females. The highest rate lesions were found in the age group of 9 years or less and most lesions were localized in the face (79.6%). The movement of populations from neighboring endemic areas and establishment of habitation in areas where housing conditions are unfavorable favored the emergence of the disease.

  10. The evolutionary psychology of mate selection in Morocco : A multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Walter, A

    1997-06-01

    Patterns of mate preference in Morocco are investigated in order to test whether they support hypotheses advanced by David Buss and other evolutionary psychologists. Because of the custom of cousin marriage in Morocco, a multivariate model that included cosocialization data was developed for the purpose of testing the Westermarck hypothesis of inbreeding avoidance. Hence, two previously separate domains of research are unified in one design that permits the further exploration of questions pertaining to the domain specificity of psychological mechanisms. Multiple independent mate choice predictors were identified using logistic regression analysis. Results support the Westermarck hypothesis of inbreeding avoidance. Sleeping in the same room during childhood was found in both sexes to produce an aversion to marriage. Other evidence suggests that aversion to inbreeding extends further among females than males in that females but not males show an aversion to marriage to related individuals with whom they had daily social contact in early childhood. The evolutionary prediction that females differ from males concerning resource holding capacity was also supported. Females showed a preference for males whom they judged to have higher social status than theirs, while this criterion was unimportant for males. The predicted sex difference in preferred age of marriage partner was also supported. Contrary to previous findings, the predicted difference between the sexes with regard to physical attractiveness was not supported.

  11. Occurrence of Clostridium perfringens in sausages sold in Meknes city, Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Ed-Dra, Abdelaziz; Filali, Fouzia Rhazi; El Allaoui, Abdellah; Sfendla, Anis

    2017-01-01

    In Morocco, the consumption of meat products has experienced a sharp increase in recent years despite the presence of pathogenic bacteria due to hygiene failure. The present study was designed to determine the prevalence of Clostridium perfringens in sausages sold in Meknes city (Morocco) and to study the different factors affecting it contamination with this bacterium. To this end, 156 samples of sausages were taken in various shopping sites during one year from March 2014 to February 2015. The microbiological analysis was carried out using the specific medium for isolation and identification of C. perfringens. ANOVA test was used for Statistical analysis (p< 0.05). The results of this study showed the presence of C. perfringens in 77.56% (121 of 156) samples, with 88.88% (32 of 36) in street vendors, 79.16% (19 of 24) in a weekly market, 70.83% (51 of 72) in butchery and 62.5% (15 of 24) in a supermarket. The average rate was 2.42 Log CFU/g, with a minimum value of 0 CFU/g recorded in several outlets and a maximum value of 6.05 Log CFU/g recorded in butchery. This study reveals that the contamination rate of sausages with C. perfringens is related to the sausages origin, retail sites and seasonal variations related to temperature increase. PMID:29201661

  12. Molecular characterization of patulin producing and non-producing Penicillium species in apples from Morocco.

    PubMed

    Rharmitt, Sanae; Hafidi, Majida; Hajjaj, Hassan; Scordino, Fabio; Giosa, Domenico; Giuffrè, Letterio; Barreca, Davide; Criseo, Giuseppe; Romeo, Orazio

    2016-01-18

    The isolation of patulin-producing Penicillia in apples collected in different markets in four localities in Morocco is reported. Fungi were identified by β-tubulin sequencing and further characterized using a specific PCR-based method targeting the isoepoxydon dehydrogenase (IDH) gene to discriminate between patulin-producing and non-producing strains. Production of patulin was also evaluated using standard cultural and biochemical methods. Results showed that 79.5% of contaminant fungi belonged to the genus Penicillium and that Penicillium expansum was the most isolated species (83.9%) followed by Penicillium chrysogenum (~9.7%) and Penicillium crustosum (~6.4%). Molecular analysis revealed that 64.5% of the Penicillium species produced the expected IDH-amplicon denoting patulin production in these strains. However, patulin production was not chemically confirmed in all P. expansum strains. The isolation of IDH(-)/patulin(+) strains poses the hypothesis that gentisylaldehyde is not a direct patulin precursor, supporting previous observations that highlighted the importance of the gentisyl alcohol in the production of this mycotoxin. Total agreement between IDH-gene detection and cultural/chemical methods employed was observed in 58% of P. expansum strains and for 100% of the other species isolated. Overall the data reported here showed a substantial genetic variability within P. expansum population from Morocco. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Intra-household conflicts in migration decisionmaking: return and pendulum migration in Morocco.

    PubMed

    De Haas, Hein; Fokkema, Tineke

    2010-01-01

    By analyzing the migration behavior and transnational residential strategies of first-generation, aging migrants from a particular Moroccan sending region, this study contributes to a conceptual critique of migration theories that identify the household as the most relevant decisionmaking unit. It highlights the role of intra-household power inequalities and conflicts in migration decisionmaking as well as the effects of migration decisions for intra-household power relations. Many labor migrants who left Morocco to work in Europe in the 1960s and 1970s did not realize their wish to return but instead ended up reunifying their families at the destination. An increasing proportion adopts a pendulum migration strategy to reconcile their own wish to retain strong ties with Morocco with the reluctance of children and spouses to return. Migrants who unilaterally decided not to reunify their families usually return after their active working life. However, this unilateral decision also blocks legal entry into Europe for their children, which has generated considerable intergenerational tensions.

  14. Highlights of NASA/DOE photovoltaic market assessment visit to Morocco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A broad range of agricultural, rural development, and other power applications in various regions of Morocco were examined to determine the potential market for photovoltaic products in Moroccan development. The primary focus of the study was the agriculture sector which accounts for approximately 17% of the country's GNP. The country has a clear need for reliable remote power systems, but does not have the financial resources to invest in the relatively high capital cost PV equipment. A modest potential for PV use was identified in nonagricultural rural services, such as refrigerators for rural clinics and rural radio-telephones. The main potential for PV in Morocco in the next five years lies mainly in the telecommunications sector. Applications include rural TV sets, TV repeater stations, microwave relay stations, and railroad, marine, and airline signalling. Market size estimates were derived from development and expansion plans. At an average customer cost for complete installed systems from $18/Wp to $30/Wp the total potential market value is estimated in the range of $6.6 to $11 million over the 1981-1986 period.

  15. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steingass, H.; Asmon, I.

    1981-09-01

    Results of a month-long study in Morocco aimed at assessing the market potential for stand-alone photovoltaic systems in agriculture and rural service applications are presented. The following applications, requiring less than 15 kW of power, are described: irrigation, cattle watering, refrigeration, crop processing, potable water and educational TV. Telecommunications and transportation signalling applications, descriptions of power and energy use profiles, assessments of business environment, government and private sector attitudes towards photovoltaics, and financing were also considered. The Moroccan market presents both advantages and disadvantages for American PV manufacturers. The principle advantages of the Moroccan market are: a limited grid, interest in and present use of PV in communications applications, attractive investment incentives, and a stated policy favoring American investment. Disadvantages include: lack of government incentives for PV use, general unfamiliarity with PV technology, high first cost of PV, a well-established market network for diesel generators, and difficulty with financing. The market for PV in Morocco (1981-1986), will be relatively small, about 340 kwp. The market for PV is likely to be more favorable in telecommunications, transport signalling and some rural services. The primary market appears to be in the public (i.e., government) rather than private sector, due to financial constraints and the high price of PV relative to conventional power sector.

  16. Tsunami Impact in Morocco due to Most Credible Tsunami Scenarios in the Gulf of Cadiz.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omira, R.; Baptista, M. A.; Miranda, J. M.; Toto, E. A.

    2009-04-01

    In the Gulf of Cadiz, the tsunami risk should be considered major due to the peculiar geological context close to the Nubia-Eurasia plate boundary and also to the high vulnerability of the coastlines in the region. The extensive occupation of coastal areas in the surrounding countries - Portugal, Spain and Morocco, the enormous influxes of tourists during high season and the large economic value of harbors and other coastal facilities increase considerably the vulnerability to tsunami impact. In order to establish the Most Credible Tsunami Scenarios we used the earthquake scenarios in the Gulf of Cadiz area. Each scenario has an associated typical fault/or faults and a set of fault parameters that are used as input to compute the sea bottom deformation using Okada's equations. Tsunami propagation uses COMCOT-LX, modified version of the COMCOT Cornnell University code. Maximum wave height (MWH) and tsunami energy direction are computed, for each tsunamigenic scenario for the north Atlantic coast of Morocco. Finally we selected the harbor of Casablanca for the production of inundation maps for Casablanca This research was funded by NEAREST and TRANSFER, 6FP-European Union.

  17. Integrating the environment in local strategic planning : Guidelines (Case of Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benbrahim, Hafsa

    2018-05-01

    Since 2010, an advanced regionalization project has been initiated by Morocco, which plans to consolidate the processes of decentralization and deconcentration by extending the powers of the regions and other local authorities. This project, institutionalized in the 2011 Constitution, defines the territorial organization of the Kingdom and reinforces decentralization according to a model of advanced regionalization. Through advanced regionalization, Morocco aims at integrated and sustainable development in economic, social, cultural and environmental terms, through the development of the potential and resources of each region. However, in order to honor this commitment of advanced regionalization, local authorities must be assisted in adopting a local strategic planning approach, allowing them to develop territorial plans for sustainable development in accordance with the national legal framework, specifically the Framework law 99-12, and international commitments in terms of environmental protection. This research deals with the issue of environmental governance in relation to the role and duties of local authorities. Thus, the main goal of our study is to present the guidelines to be followed by the local authorities to improve the quality of the environment integration process in the local strategic planning with the aim of putting it in a perspective of sustainable development.

  18. Sn to Sg conversion and focusing along the Atlantic margin, Morocco - Implications for earthquake hazard evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seber, Dogan; Barazangi, Muawia; Tadili, Ben A.; Ramdani, Mohamed; Ibenbrahim, Aomar; Ben Sari, Driss; El Alami, Sidi O.

    1993-07-01

    Digital data from a telemetered, short-period seismic network in Morocco provide a new perspective for understanding the cause of severe shaking and macroseismic reports in Morocco produced by large offshore earthquakes located along the Azores-Gibraltar seismic zone. Even though the earthquake epicenters are 500-1000 km away from the Moroccan coast, historical records show that such events are capable of producing considerable damage in inland areas. We analyze 15 earthquakes that occurred in this region. The records show multiple S phases with varying frequencies and amplitudes. The S phase with the largest amplitude, usually misinterpreted as Sn, has a phase velocity of 4.2-4.4 km/s. We show that these S arrivals can best be explained as Sn to Sg converted phases. Calculated locations of the conversion points for these phases exhibit two distinct zones almost parallel to the Atlantic coastline: one is located along the passive continental margin and the other is located about 100 km inland from the coastline. We interpret these two zones to be regions where a sudden change in crustal thickness occurs. Such zones act to focus and magnify the amplitudes of seismic phases.

  19. Lessons learned from national food fortification projects: experiences from Morocco, Uzbekistan, and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Wirth, James P; Laillou, Arnaud; Rohner, Fabian; Northrop-Clewes, Christine A; Macdonald, Barbara; Moench-Pfanner, Regina

    2012-12-01

    Fortification of staple foods has been repeatedly recommended as an effective approach to reduce micronutrient deficiencies. With the increased number of fortification projects globally, there is a need to share practical lessons learned relating to their implementation and responses to project-related and external challenges. To document the achievements, challenges, lessons learned, and management responses associated with national fortification projects in Morocco, Uzbekistan, and Vietnam. Independent end-of-project evaluations conducted for each project served as the primary data source and contain the history of and project activities undertaken for, each fortification project. Other sources, including national policy documents, project reports from the Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN) and other stakeholders, industry assessments, and peer-reviewed articles, were used to document the current responses to challenges and future project plans. All projects had key achievements related to the development of fortification standards and the procurement of equipment for participating industry partners. Mandatory fortification of wheat flour was a key success in Morocco and Uzbekistan. Ensuring the quality of fortified foods was a common challenge experienced across the projects, as were shifts in consumption patterns and market structures. Adjustments were made to the projects' design to address the challenges faced. National fortification projects are dynamic and must be continually modified in response to specific performance issues and broader shifts in market structure and consumption patterns.

  20. Speleothem records decadal to multidecadal hydroclimate variations in southwestern Morocco during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ait Brahim, Yassine; Cheng, Hai; Sifeddine, Abdelfettah; Wassenburg, Jasper A.; Cruz, Francisco W.; Khodri, Myriam; Sha, Lijuan; Pérez-Zanón, Núria; Beraaouz, El Hassane; Apaéstegui, James; Guyot, Jean-Loup; Jochum, Klaus Peter; Bouchaou, Lhoussaine

    2017-10-01

    This study presents the first well-dated high resolution stable isotope (δ18 O and δ13 C) and trace element (Mg and Sr) speleothem records from southwestern Morocco covering the last 1000 yrs. Our records reveal substantial decadal to multidecadal swings between dry and humid periods, consistent with regional paleorecords with prevailing dry conditions during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), wetter conditions during the second part of the Little Ice Age (LIA), and a trend towards dry conditions during the current warm period. These coherent regional climate signals suggest common climate controls. Statistical analyses indicate that the climate of southwestern Morocco remained under the combined influence of both the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) over the last millennium. Interestingly, the generally warmer MCA and colder LIA at longer multidecadal timescales probably influenced the regional climate in North Africa through the influence on Sahara Low which weakened and strengthened the mean moisture inflow from the Atlantic Ocean during the MCA and LIA respectively.

  1. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in Morocco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steingass, H.; Asmon, I.

    1981-01-01

    Results of a month-long study in Morocco aimed at assessing the market potential for stand-alone photovoltaic systems in agriculture and rural service applications are presented. The following applications, requiring less than 15 kW of power, are described: irrigation, cattle watering, refrigeration, crop processing, potable water and educational TV. Telecommunications and transportation signalling applications, descriptions of power and energy use profiles, assessments of business environment, government and private sector attitudes towards photovoltaics, and financing were also considered. The Moroccan market presents both advantages and disadvantages for American PV manufacturers. The principle advantages of the Moroccan market are: a limited grid, interest in and present use of PV in communications applications, attractive investment incentives, and a stated policy favoring American investment. Disadvantages include: lack of government incentives for PV use, general unfamiliarity with PV technology, high first cost of PV, a well-established market network for diesel generators, and difficulty with financing. The market for PV in Morocco (1981-1986), will be relatively small, about 340 kwp. The market for PV is likely to be more favorable in telecommunications, transport signalling and some rural services. The primary market appears to be in the public (i.e., government) rather than private sector, due to financial constraints and the high price of PV relative to conventional power sector.

  2. Schooling and Cognitive Achievements of Children in Morocco: Can the Government Improve Outcomes? World Bank Discussion Papers, No. 264.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khandker, Shahidur R.; And Others

    This paper uses data from the Morocco Living Standard Survey in an econometric investigation of the relative effectiveness of supply- and demand-side factors in determining educational outcomes. A wide range of factors are examined that may be responsible for differences in grade completion levels and achievement among sexes, regions, and urban…

  3. Designing, Implementing, and Evaluating a Department-Wide Service-Learning Program for English Language Learners in Morocco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seilstad, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the theoretical and pedagogical background and results from the first semester of a service-learning program for English learners at a public Moroccan university and the local high school. This study fills a gap in the literature related to service-learning practice and outcomes in Morocco and the Arab world in general. The…

  4. Principals as Leaders of School and Community Revitalization: A Phenomenological Study of Three Urban Schools in Morocco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmeski, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    This article explores leadership of place in the context of three urban middle schools in Morocco. School reform means that principals are changing from agents of authority to leaders with school improvement responsibilities. This shift in mission can be stressful for principals who are called to lead, but are often constrained by bureaucratic and…

  5. The Growth of Qur'anic Schooling and the Marginalization of Islamic Pedagogy: The Case of Morocco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Helen N.

    For centuries, Morocco has had a dynamic network of Qur'anic schools, serving children from elementary age through adulthood. Qur'anic schools are religious schools that facilitate memorization of the Qur'an through teaching children to pronounce and recite the Qur'an according to an accepted recitational style. Despite 44 years of French…

  6. Conceptions of Pupils of the Primary on the Topic of an Electric Circuit in Three Countries (Canada, France and Morocco)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Métioui, Abdeljalil; MacWillie, Mireille Baulu; Trudel, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research conducted with 237 pupils from Canada, France, and Morocco, between 10 and 12 years of age, on the setting and functioning of simple electric circuits, demonstrates that similar explanatory systems of the students. For this, we had given them a paper and pencil questionnaire of a sixty minutes duration. The first question was…

  7. Analysis of Interactivity and Autonomy of Existing Digital Educational Resources: The Case of Life and Earth Sciences in Morocco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettazarini, Said

    2017-01-01

    The educational policy in Morocco is aimed at promoting the wide use of Information and Communication Technologies in Education and the adoption of interactive and autonomous digital resources for distance teaching and self-learning. The objective of this research is to evaluate the suitability of the existing digital educational resources for…

  8. 75 FR 4440 - Meeting of the Working group on Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Morocco...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 6885] Meeting of the Working group on Environmental Cooperation... meeting of the Working Group on Environmental Cooperation (``Working Group'') in Rabat, Morocco on February 9, 2010, at a venue to be announced. Meetings of the Working Group were forecast in paragraph five...

  9. Review of toxoplasmosis in Morocco: seroprevalence and risk factors for toxoplasma infection among pregnant women and HIV- infected patients.

    PubMed

    Laboudi, Majda

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a disease caused by a protozoal parasite: Toxoplasma gondii . This infection can cause severe illness when the organism is contracted congenitally or when it is reactivated in immunosuppressed people. In this paper we review for the first time prevalence and risk factors of T. gondii among pregnant women and HIV-infected adults in Morocco. A systematic review methodology was used to consult three databases: Pub Med, Science Direct and Google Scholar dated until 2015, regarding prevalence data and risk factors of infection among pregnant women and people living with HIV. Data collection and eligibility criteria were established in this paper. No statistical method was employed in this study. Our review resulted in a total of 6 publications meeting the inclusion criteria of prevalence and risk factors of toxoplasmosis in Morocco. Seropositive rates of T. gondii infection reach up to 51% in pregnant women. Risk factors that were reported included contact with soil, lack of knowledge about toxoplasmosis, and a low educational level. For HIV-infected adults, the limited data show a 62.1% prevalence rate of T. gondii .According to our review, there is still very little information on toxoplasmosis disease in pregnant women and HIV infected patients in Morocco. Further research on toxoplasmosis is needed to better ascertain the human disease burden in Morocco.

  10. Local Farmers' Organisations: A Space for Peer-to-Peer Learning? The Case of Milk Collection Cooperatives in Morocco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faysse, Nicolas; Srairi, Mohamed Taher; Errahj, Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The study investigated to what extent local farmers' organisations are spaces where farmers discuss, learn and innovate. Design/methodology/approach: Two milk collection cooperatives in Morocco were studied. The study analysed the discussion networks, their impacts on farmers' knowledge and innovation, and the performance of collective…

  11. Review of toxoplasmosis in Morocco: seroprevalence and risk factors for toxoplasma infection among pregnant women and HIV- infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Laboudi, Majda

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a disease caused by a protozoal parasite: Toxoplasma gondii. This infection can cause severe illness when the organism is contracted congenitally or when it is reactivated in immunosuppressed people. In this paper we review for the first time prevalence and risk factors of T. gondii among pregnant women and HIV-infected adults in Morocco. A systematic review methodology was used to consult three databases: Pub Med, Science Direct and Google Scholar dated until 2015, regarding prevalence data and risk factors of infection among pregnant women and people living with HIV. Data collection and eligibility criteria were established in this paper. No statistical method was employed in this study. Our review resulted in a total of 6 publications meeting the inclusion criteria of prevalence and risk factors of toxoplasmosis in Morocco. Seropositive rates of T. gondii infection reach up to 51% in pregnant women. Risk factors that were reported included contact with soil, lack of knowledge about toxoplasmosis, and a low educational level. For HIV-infected adults, the limited data show a 62.1% prevalence rate of T. gondii .According to our review, there is still very little information on toxoplasmosis disease in pregnant women and HIV infected patients in Morocco. Further research on toxoplasmosis is needed to better ascertain the human disease burden in Morocco. PMID:29187938

  12. Turn Basin Construction

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-14

    Modifications are underway at the Launch Complex 39 turn basin wharf at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida to prepare for the arrival of the agency's massive Space Launch System (SLS) core booster aboard the barge Pegasus. Construction workers with Southeast Cherokee Construction Inc. work to shore up the turn basin area. A crane will be used to lift up precast concrete poles and position them to be driven to a depth of about 70 feet into the bedrock below the water around the turn basin. The upgrades are necessary to accommodate the 300,000-pound core booster aboard the modified Pegasus barge. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing the upgrades to the turn basin wharf.

  13. BASINS Framework and Features

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    BASINS enables users to efficiently access nationwide environmental databases and local user-specified datasets, apply assessment and planning tools, and run a variety of proven nonpoint loading and water quality models within a single GIS format.

  14. Turn Basin Construction

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-30

    At NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, cement is poured as part of a construction project to upgrade the turn basin wharf. The work includes driving multiple precast concrete piles to a depth of about 70 feet to accommodate arrival of the core stage for the agency's Space Launch System (SLS) rocket. When the stage for NASA's SLS departs the Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans, it will be shipped by the agency's modified barge to the Launch Complex 39 turn basin.

  15. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    PECH, S.H.

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  16. Ambient seismic noise levels: A survey of the permanent and temporary seismographic networks in Morocco, North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Fellah, Y.; Khairy Abd Ed-Aal, A.; El Moudnib, L.; Mimoun, H.; Villasenor, A.; Gallart, J.; Thomas, C.; Elouai, D.; Mimoun, C.; Himmi, M.

    2013-12-01

    Abstract The results, of a conducted study carried out to analyze variations in ambient seismic noise levels at sites of the installed broadband stations in Morocco, North Africa, are obtained. The permanent and the temporary seismic stations installed in Morocco of the Scientific Institute ( IS, Rabat, Morocco), institute de Ciencias de la Tierra Jaume almera (ICTJA, Barcelona, Spain) and Institut für Geophysik (Munster, Germany) were used in this study. In this work, we used 23 broadband seismic stations installed in different structural domains covering all Morocco from south to north. The main purposes of the current study are: 1) to present a catalog of seismic background noise spectra for Morocco obtained from recently installed broadband stations, 2) to assess the effects of experimental temporary seismic vault construction, 3) to determine the time needed for noise at sites to stabilize, 4) to establish characteristics and origin of seismic noise at those sites. We calculated power spectral densities of background noise for each component of each broadband seismometer deployed in the different investigated sites and then compared them with the high-noise model and low-noise Model of Peterson (1993). All segments from day and night local time windows were included in the calculation without parsing out earthquakes. The obtained results of the current study could be used forthcoming to evaluate permanent station quality. Moreover, this study could be considered as a first step to develop new seismic noise models in North Africa not included in Peterson (1993). Keywords Background noise; Power spectral density; Model of Peterson; Scientific Institute; Institute de Ciencias de la Tierra Jaume almera; Institut für Geophysik

  17. Molecular detection of Leishmania infantum and Leishmania tropica in rodent species from endemic cutaneous leishmaniasis areas in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Echchakery, Mohamed; Chicharro, Carmen; Boussaa, Samia; Nieto, Javier; Carrillo, Eugenia; Sheila, Ortega; Moreno, Javier; Boumezzough, Ali

    2017-10-02

    Leishmaniasis remains a major public health problem in African nations, including Morocco, where little is known about the vertebrate reservoirs involved in the causal parasites' transmission cycles. The present study investigates the role of rodent species as potential reservoirs of Leishmania spp. in central Morocco, where both L. tropica and L. infantum have been reported. Rodents were caught from 22 sites in central Morocco, by using Sherman metal traps, and identified morphologically. For each specimen, genomic DNA was extracted from different tissues using the Speed Tools DNA extraction Kit. Then, samples were PCR-analyzed, targeting the SSU rRNA gene to detect Leishmania spp. DNA, followed by amplification of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and its sequencing to identify the species. A total of 197 rodents belonging to ten species were captured and identified: Rattus rattus (40.61%), Mus musculus (25.38%), Apodemus sylvaticus (8.63%), Mus spretus (7.11%), Meriones shawi (5.58%), Rattus norvegicus (4.57%), Meriones libycus (3.05%), Mastomys erythroleucus (2.03%), Gerbillus campestris (2.03%) and Lemniscomys barbarus (1.01%). Molecular analysis revealed the presence of Leishmania species in 18 specimens: six R. rattus (out of 80 captured; 7.5%), 11 M. musculus (out of 50 captured; 22%), and one R. norvegicus (out of 9 captured; 11.11%). To the best of our knowledge, L. infantum and L. tropica were identified in rodent species for the first time in Morocco. These findings suggest that rodent species may be involved in L. infantum and L. tropica transmission cycles in this country but that further studies are needed to confirm their role as reservoirs of Leishmania species in Morocco.

  18. A sheeppox outbreak in Morocco: isolation and identification of virus responsible for the new clinical form of disease.

    PubMed

    Zro, Khalil; Zakham, Fathiah; Melloul, Marouane; El Fahime, Elmostafa; Ennaji, Moulay Mustapha

    2014-01-27

    Sheeppoxvirus (SPPV) is a member of the Capripoxvirus genus of the Poxviridae family, which causes significant economic losses in Morocco. The resurgence of the sheeppox disease during 2010 was characterized by an emergence of a classical nodular form for the first time in Morocco. However, little is known about the virus strain responsible for nodular form. In this study, thirty three sheep, from the eastern region of Morocco, clinically infected were examined and dead animals were autopsied.A rapid diagnostic assay for SPPV using different type of clinical samples would be useful for outbreak management. The aim of this work was to isolate the virus strain responsible for nodular form and we identified and compared by phylogenetic analysis the field strain with Moroccan vaccine strain targeting the thymidine kinase (TK) gene and the chemokine analogue receptor of interleukin (IL8) gene. Further, it was important to investigate and validate a real-time PCR using different clinical and post-mortem samples to manage epidemic sheeppox disease. The nodular form of sheeppox disease observed in Morocco was clinically characterized by fever, depression, lacrimation, diarrhea in lambs and nodule. At necropsy, the most affected organ was the lung. The etiological strain was successfully isolated from lung nodule in a dead lamb and was identified by using real-time PCR that has been tested and validated on different types of clinical and post mortem samples from naturally infected animals. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of TK and IL8 gene showed that there was a very close relationship between field and vaccine strain. They were clustered within other SPPV strains. In the current study, we show for the first time the nodular form of sheeppox in Morocco. We demonstrate a robust real-time PCR-based diagnostic assay to detect the sheeppox virus in multiple sample that can be implemented to efficiently manage the disease outbreak. Our study also offers the prospect for

  19. New 40Ar-39Ar dating of Lower Cretaceous basalts at the southern front of the Central High Atlas, Morocco: insights on late Mesozoic tectonics, sedimentation and magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moratti, G.; Benvenuti, M.; Santo, A. P.; Laurenzi, M. A.; Braschi, E.; Tommasini, S.

    2018-04-01

    This study is based upon a stratigraphic and structural revision of a Middle Jurassic-Upper Cretaceous mostly continental succession exposed between Boumalne Dades and Tinghir (Southern Morocco), and aims at reconstructing the relation among sedimentary, tectonic and magmatic processes that affected a portion of the Central High Atlas domains. Basalts interbedded in the continental deposits have been sampled in the two studied sites for petrographic, geochemical and radiogenic isotope analyses. The results of this study provide: (1) a robust support to the local stratigraphic revision and to a regional lithostratigraphic correlation based on new 40Ar-39Ar ages (ca. 120 Ma) of the intervening basalts; (2) clues for reconstructing the relation between magma emplacement in a structural setting characterized by syn-depositional crustal shortening pre-dating the convergent tectonic inversion of the Atlasic rifted basins; (3) a new and intriguing scenario indicating that the Middle Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous basalts of the Central High Atlas could represent the first signal of the present-day Canary Islands mantle plume impinging, flattening, and delaminating the base of the Moroccan continental lithosphere since the Jurassic, and successively dragged passively by the Africa plate motion to NE. The tectono-sedimentary and magmatic events discussed in this paper are preliminarily extended from their local scale into a peculiar geodynamic setting of a continental plate margin flanked by the opening and spreading Central Atlantic and NW Tethys oceans. It is suggested that during the late Mesozoic this setting created an unprecedented condition of intraplate stress for concurrent crustal shortening, related mountain uplift, and thinning of continental lithosphere.

  20. Thick-skinned tectonics in a Late Cretaceous-Neogene intracontinental belt (High Atlas Mountains, Morocco): The flat-ramp fault control on basement shortening and cover folding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fekkak, A.; Ouanaimi, H.; Michard, A.; Soulaimani, A.; Ettachfini, E. M.; Berrada, I.; El Arabi, H.; Lagnaoui, A.; Saddiqi, O.

    2018-04-01

    Most of the structural studies of the intracontinental High Atlas belt of Morocco have dealt with the central part of the belt, whose basement does not crop out. Here we study the Alpine deformation of the North Subatlas Zone, which is the part of the Western High Atlas (WHA) Paleozoic Massif that involves both Paleozoic basement units and remnants of their Mesozoic-Cenozoic cover formations. Our aim is to better constrain the geometry and kinematics of the basement faults during the Alpine shortening. Based on detail mapping, satellite imagery and field observations, we describe an array of sub-equatorial, transverse and oblique faults between the WHA Axial Zone and the Haouz Neogene basin. They define a mosaic of basement blocks pushed upon one another and upon the Haouz basement along the North Atlas Fault (NAF). The Axial Zone makes up the hanging-wall of the Adassil-Medinet Fault (AMF) south of this mosaic. The faults generally presents flat-ramp-flat geometry linked to the activation of multiple décollement levels, either within the basement where its foliation is subhorizontal or within favourable cover formations (Jurassic evaporites, Lower Cretaceous silty red beds, Upper Cretaceous evaporitic marls, Neogene basal argillites). The occurrence of the North Atlas detachment (NAD) allowed folded pop-up units to develop in front of the propagating NAF. Shortening began as early as the Campanian-Maastrichtian along the AMF. The direction of the maximum horizontal stress rotated from NNE-SSW to NNW-SSE from the Maastrichtian-Paleocene to the Neogene. The amount of shortening reaches 20% in the Azegour transect. This compares with the shortening amount published for the central-eastern High Atlas, suggesting that similar structures characterize the Paleozoic basement all along the belt. The WHA thick-skinned tectonics evokes that of the frontal Sevier belt and of the external Western Alps, although with a much minor pre-inversion burial.

  1. Mechanics of forearc basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassola, Teodoro; Willett, Sean D.; Kopp, Heidrun

    2010-05-01

    In this study, the mechanics of forearc basins will be the object of a numerical investigation to understand the relationships between wedge deformation and forearc basin formation. The aim of this work is to gain an insight into the dynamics of the formation of the forearc basin, in particular the mechanism of formation of accommodation space and the preservation of basin stratigraphy. Our tool is a two-dimensional numerical model that includes the rheological properties of the rock, including effective internal friction angle, effective basal friction angle and thermally-dependent viscosity. We also simulate different sedimentation rates in the basin, to study the influence of underfilled and overfilled basin conditions on wedge deformation. The stratigraphy of the basin will also be studied, because in underfilled conditions the sediments are more likely to undergo tectonic deformation due to inner wedge deformation. We compare the numerical model with basins along the Sunda-Java Trench. This margin shows a variety of structural-settings and basin types including underfilled and overfilled basins and different wedge geometries. We interpret and document these structural styles, using depth migrated seismic sections of the Sunda Trench, obtained in three surveys, GINCO (11/98 - 01/99), MERAMEX (16/09/04 - 7/10/04) and SINDBAD (9/10/06 - 9/11/06) and made available through the IFM-GEOMAR and the Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften and Rohstoffe (BGR). One important aspect of these margins that we observe is the presence of a dynamic backstop, characterized by older accreted material, that, although deformed during and after accretion, later becomes a stable part of the upper plate. We argue that, following critical wedge theory, it entered into the stable field of a wedge either by steepening or weakening of the underlying detachment. As a stable wedge, this older segment of the wedge acts as a mechanical backstop for the frontal deforming wedge. This dynamic

  2. Comparison of Mediterranean diet compliance between European and non-European populations in the Mediterranean basin.

    PubMed

    Benhammou, Samira; Heras-González, Leticia; Ibáñez-Peinado, Diana; Barceló, Carla; Hamdan, May; Rivas, Ana; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel; Olea-Serrano, Fatima; Monteagudo, Celia

    2016-12-01

    Fruit, vegetables, cereals, and olive oil are common elements of the Mediterranean diet (MD), but each country in the Mediterranean basin has its own gastronomic customs influenced by socio-cultural, religious, and economic factors. This study compared the dietary habits of three Mediterranean populations with different cultures and lifestyles, a total of 600 adults (61.9% females) between 25 and 70 yrs from Spain, Morocco, and Palestine. All participants completed a self administered questionnaire, including sociodemographic and anthropometric items, a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire adapted to the foods consumed in each country, and three 24-h recalls. MD adherence was estimated with the MD Serving Score (MDSS). All populations showed a moderate adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern. In comparison to the Palestine population, MDSS-assessed adherence to the MD was 6.36-fold higher in the Spanish population and 3.88-fold higher in the Moroccan population. Besides the country of origin, age was another predictive factor of MD adherence, which was greater (higher MDSS) in participants aged over 50 yrs than in those aged 30 yrs or younger. This preliminary study contributes initial data on dietary differences between European and non-European countries in the Mediterranean basin. The Spanish diet was shown to be closer to MD recommendations than the diet of Morocco or Palestine. Given the impact of good dietary habits on the prevention of chronic non-transmittable diseases, health policies should focus on adherence to a healthy diet, supporting traditional dietary patterns in an era of intense commercial pressures for change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used by people in Oriental Morocco to manage various ailments.

    PubMed

    Jamila, Fakchich; Mostafa, Elachouri

    2014-05-28

    This document presents the uses of plants in traditional herbal medicines in Oriental Morocco. It also determines the homogeneity of informant knowledge in medicinal plants suitable for different ailment categories and the most preferred plant species used to treat each illness category in the study area. The ethnobotanical information was obtained from 3151 inhabitants who were 20 years and older in five different areas of Oriental Morocco region. The data were analyzed through informant consensus factor (ICF) and frequency of uses (FC). The results indicated that 65.7% of the participants interviewed used medicinal plants to treat 23 ailments. The inventory of medicinal plants is summarized in a synoptic table, which contains the scientific and vernacular names of the plant, the part of the plant and the preparation used and the therapeutic indication. Extensive investigations have brought to light 148 medicinal plants belonging to 60 families; of these, 108 are used for the disorders of the digestive system, 74 for diabetes, 73 for dermatological problems, 66 for allergy, 66 for cardiovascular disorders and 63 for respiratory problems. In this region, the most frequently used plants including Origanum compactum Benth., Trigonella foenum graecum L., Lavandula dentata L., Mentha pulegium L., Nigella sativa L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Lippia citriodora L., Tetraclinis articulata Benth., and Atemisia herba-alba Asso. Lamiaceae and Asteraceae are the dominant locally used families. Most medicines were prepared in the form of powder and used orally. Leaves were the most frequently used plant part. Gastro-intestinal ailments have high ICF (0.92) whereas pathologies of the circulatory and ophthalmological uses have low ICF (0.22 and 0.24, respectively). Oriental Morocco boasts an extensive phytotherapy knowledge base and ICF values indicated that there was high agreement in the use of plants in gastro-intestinal ailment category among the users. The frequency use

  4. New epidemiological pattern of cutaneous leishmaniasis in two pre-Saharan arid provinces, southern Morocco.

    PubMed

    Ait Kbaich, Mouad; Mhaidi, Idriss; Ezzahidi, Abdelkacem; Dersi, Nouredine; El Hamouchi, Adil; Riyad, Myriam; Akarid, Khadija; Lemrani, Meryem

    2017-09-01

    Three Leishmania species are responsible of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Morocco. Zoonotic CL due to Leishmania major and Leishmania infantum, the first is known as established in the eastern arid regions, whereas the latter evolves sporadically, especially in the North. While Leishmania tropica, classically considered anthroponotic, is endemic in the semi-arid regions and is largely distributed throughout the country. The aim of this study was to identify the Leishmania species causing CL in two Provinces in arid pre-Saharan region known as zoonotic CL foci, and to contribute an update to the national data concerning the distribution of Leishmania species in both regions. The recruitment of patients was done in six localities in Ouarzazate and Zagoura provinces in 2015 and 2016. Out of 81 samples collected, 66 were positive (81%) by ITS1-PCR amplification of Leishmania DNA extracted from stained smears. The highest rate of Leishmania infection was registered in children aged 9 years or less (71,2%). The ITS1-PCR- RFLP analysis revealed the predominance of L. major infecting 52 patients (79%), followed by L. tropica in 12 patients (18%) and L. infantum in 2 patients who had no history of travel outside the studied area (3%). The sequencing of the ITS1 of both L. infantum, showed 100% similarities with L. infantum strains isolated from dogs and visceral leishmaniasis patients from the south and north of Morocco. The coexistence of the 3 Leishmania species in the same focus, and the difficult distinction of infections associated to the different Leishmania species based only on clinical lesions' aspects complicate the diagnosis and then the national control strategy, as well as the therapeutic management. The epidemiological pattern of CL in the studied areas appears to have changed during the last decades, from a predominant zoonotic CL caused by L. major to a polymorphic disease that can be due to any of the 3 Leishmania species. The expansion of L. infantum and

  5. Isolation and identification of group A rotaviruses among neonatal diarrheic calves, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Ennima, Imane; Sebbar, Ghizlane; Harif, Bachir; Amzazi, Saaid; Loutfi, Chafiqa; Touil, Nadia

    2016-05-05

    Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are the main cause of neonatal calve diarrhea (NCD) in Morocco. In this study, we isolated RVA strains from NCD clinical samples in order to support RVA disease control in Morocco. This isolation process constitutes a first step toward vaccine development. Thirteen fecal samples were obtained from calves with a single episode of neonate calf diarrhea at three different dairies and two samples were collected from field during a severe NCD outbreak. Diagnosis of RVA infection was based on fecal immune-chromatographic rapid test and further evaluated for their hemagglutination (HA) activity. RVA isolation was carried out on MA104 cells after inoculates were treated with different concentrations of trypsin TPCK. All RVA isolates were confirmed by LSI VetMAX™ Triplex Ruminant Rotavirus & Coronavirus Real-Time PCR kit. G and P typing were determined by direct sequencing of the VP4 and VP7 amplicons. RVA isolation was achieved for nine clinical samples following one or two passages (60 %) and was properly depended on HA activity and trypsin treatment of inoculates. The first sign of CPE detected consisted of increased cell granularity, obscure cell boundaries, cell rounding, and eventual degeneration and detachment of cells. At lower TPCK concentration (3-10 μg/inoculum), no changes at the cellular level were observed, while cells activated with 25-30 μg of trypsin/inoculums, they degenerated and trypsin cytotoxicity was enhanced. Appreciable changes in cell's morphology were detected with optimal trypsin concentration of 15-20 μg trypsin/inoculums. Data from qRT-PCR confirmed that unsuccessful cultivations have No-Ct, and all nine isolates have Ct values ranged between 12.17 and 24.69. Analysis sequencing revealed that field isolates were of G6 P[5] serotype and isolates from the dairy NCD samples were of G10 P[14] serotype. To our knowledge, this is the first study in Morocco which reports the circulation of G10P[14] in NCD on dairy

  6. Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants used in Daraa-Tafilalet region (Province of Errachidia), Morocco.

    PubMed

    Eddouks, Mohamed; Ajebli, Mohammed; Hebi, Morad

    2017-02-23

    We carried out an ethnobotanical survey in Tafilalet region. This region is classified by the UNESCO as a reserve of biosphere and represents an important area with important knowledge of traditional medicine, especially the use of medicinal plants for human healthcare. Furthermore, the geographic location of this region makes this site a diverse and interesting resource of herbal biodiversity. The study aimed to collect information about medicinal plants used in Tafilalet region as well as the indigenous knowledge related to the use of this natural resource in healthcare by the local population in order to preserve and protect this invaluable inheritance from loss and overlook. We aimed also to compare taxa used by the indigenous people of Tafilalet for health-care purposes in comparison with other regions of Morocco as well as neighboring countries. The total of informants interviewed in this study was 1616 (1500 were local inhabitants and 116 were herbalists). This enquiry was carried out through semi-structured and unstructured interviews and the sampling technique used was the stratified sample (9 stratums). Data obtained were analyzed calculating 6 indices: Use Value (UV), Family Use Value (FUV), Fidelity Level (FL), Rank Order Priority (ROP), Informant Consensus Factor (Fic) and Jaccard similarity Index (JI). 194 species belonging to 69 families were inventoried in this survey and 17 species were cited for the first time in an ethnobotanical survey in Morocco. The highest value of UV was obtained for Rosmarinus officinalis L. (UV=0.24) and Liliaceae was the family frequently used by inhabitants of Tafilalet (FUV=0.106). In addition, the highest value of FL was recorded for Cistus salviifolius L. and Daphne gnidium L. with FL value of 100% for both species and Origanium vulgare L. had the highest ROP with a value of 53% while the highest value of FIC was mentioned for digestive system disorders (FIC=0.29). Concerning the level of similarity between our study

  7. Determinants of Maternal Near-Miss in Morocco: Too Late, Too Far, Too Sloppy?

    PubMed Central

    Assarag, Bouchra; Dujardin, Bruno; Delamou, Alexandre; Meski, Fatima-Zahra; De Brouwere, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Background In Morocco, there is little information on the circumstances surrounding maternal near misses. This study aimed to determine the incidence, characteristics, and determinants of maternal near misses in Morocco. Method A prospective case-control study was conducted at 3 referral maternity hospitals in the Marrakech region of Morocco between February and July 2012. Near-miss cases included severe hemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, and prolonged obstructed labor. Three unmatched controls were selected for each near-miss case. Three categories of risk factors (sociodemographics, reproductive history, and delays), as well as perinatal outcomes, were assessed, and bivariate and multivariate analyses of the determinants were performed. A sample of 30 near misses and 30 non-near misses was interviewed. Results The incidence of near misses was 12‰ of births. Hypertensive disorders during pregnancy (45%) and severe hemorrhage (39%) were the most frequent direct causes of near miss. The main risk factors were illiteracy [OR = 2.35; 95% CI: (1.07–5.15)], lack of antenatal care [OR = 3.97; 95% CI: (1.42–11.09)], complications during pregnancy [OR = 2.81; 95% CI:(1.26–6.29)], and having experienced a first phase delay [OR = 8.71; 95% CI: (3.97–19.12)] and a first phase of third delay [OR = 4.03; 95% CI: (1.75–9.25)]. The main reasons for the first delay were lack of a family authority figure who could make a decision, lack of sufficient financial resources, lack of a vehicle, and fear of health facilities. The majority of near misses demonstrated a third delay with many referrals. The women’s perceptions of the quality of their care highlighted the importance of information, good communication, and attitude. Conclusion Women and newborns with serious obstetric complications have a greater chance of successful outcomes if they are immediately directed to a functioning referral hospital and if the providers are responsive. PMID:25612095

  8. [Experience of liaison psychiatry in Morocco: transversal study over 24 months].

    PubMed

    Barrimi, M; Elghazouani, F; Aarab, C; Tliji, A; Rharrabti, S; Lahlou, F; Rammouz, I; Aalouane, R

    2014-10-01

    Liaison psychiatry is a discipline caring for psychiatric disorders in patients of general hospitals. It involves clinical, educational, and research aspects. The liaison psychiatry supports patients hospitalized for full-time in medical and surgical departments, patients admitted in day-hospital and patients treated in the emergency department. In this transversal study, we assessed the liaison psychiatry impact that is still in development stage in Morocco. This study lasted 24 months, and was conducted at the University Hospital in Fez, Morocco. The goal of this work was to evaluate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders managed by liaison psychiatry, identify those requiring medical and surgical departments of such psychiatric support, and classify the motivations involved in their needs. This transversal study was initiated in January 2010 and has lasted 24 months. The study recruited 180 patients requiring psychiatric consultation from different medical and surgical departments at the University Hospital in Fes, Morocco. The psychiatric assessment was based on a psychiatric interview using the MINI. The data were collected by a certified psychiatrist using a questionnaire containing 24 items. After initial psychiatric assessment, the follow-up was proposed to the patient in the psychiatric department. During this study, 22 medical and surgical departments of our University Hospital had requested a psychiatric assessment for their patients. Most demands were respectively emitted by the Department of Dermatology (16%) and Nephrology (11%). The most common motivations for psychiatric consultations were respectively psychomotor agitation (17%) and an evaluation of suicide attempts (17%). Depressive and psychotic disorders were the most diagnosed disorders with 47% and 11% respectively. The psychiatric support was based on pharmacological treatment in 60% of cases. Finally, the outcome was favourable in 80% of followed cases. Hospitalized patients in different

  9. Determinants of child and forced marriage in Morocco: stakeholder perspectives on health, policies and human rights

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Morocco, the social and legal framework surrounding sexual and reproductive health has transformed greatly in the past decade, especially with the introduction of the new Family Law or Moudawana. Yet, despite raising the minimum age of marriage for girls and stipulating equal rights in the family, child and forced marriage is widespread. The objective of this research study was to explore perspectives of a broad range of professionals on factors that contribute to the occurrence of child and forced marriage in Morocco. Methods A qualitative approach was used to generate both primary and secondary data for the analysis. Primary data consist of individual semi-structured interviews that were conducted with 22 professionals from various sectors: health, legal, education, NGO’s and government. Sources of secondary data include academic papers, government and NGO reports, various legal documents and media reports. Data were analyzed using thematic qualitative analysis. Results Four major themes arose from the data, indicating that the following elements contribute to child and forced marriage: (1) the legal and social divergence in conceptualizing forced and child marriage; (2) the impact of legislation; (3) the role of education; and (4) the economic factor. Emphasis was especially placed on the new Family Code or Moudawana as having the greatest influence on advancement of women's rights in the sphere of marriage. However, participants pointed out that embedded patriarchal attitudes and behaviours limit its effectiveness. Conclusion The study provided a comprehensive understanding of the factors that compound the problem of child and forced marriage in Morocco. From the viewpoint of professionals, who are closely involved in tackling the issue, policy measures and the law have the greatest potential to bring child and forced marriage to a halt. However, the implementation of new legal tools is facing barriers and resistance. Additionally, the legal and

  10. Effects of Canary hotspot volcanism on structure of oceanic crust off Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holik, James S.; Rabinowitz, Philip D.; Austin, James A., Jr.

    1991-07-01

    Analysis of over 6400 km of multichannel seismics (MCS) and 50 sonobuoy reflection and refraction experiments reduced both in the domain of X-T and tau-p shows that a region within the Jurassic Quiet Zone off Morocco underwent dramatic changes as a result of the passage of the lithosphere over the Canary hotspot commencing approximately 60 Ma. A seismic unit (UCF), interpreted as volcanic in origin, is observed within the sediments in a region characterized by a broad bathymetric swell. It shows diffractions from its upper surface and an internally chaotic seismic facies and pinches out between sedimentary units of continuous, subparallel facies. A velocity inversion is noted between the UCF (4.7km/s) and the underlying sediment (3.1 km/s). The UCF is time transgressive; it lies near the Cretaceous/s Tertiary boundary in the northern portion of the study area and is younger to the south. Kinematic studies of the movement of the Canary hotspot relative to Africa show that the hotspot first appeared off NW Africa about 60 Ma and was located beneath oceanic crust in the region where the UCF is observed. Depth-to-basement measurements in areas not effected by the hotspot show a consistent linear trend of increased depth with age. In areas effected by the hotspot the thermal rejuvenation is evident as basement depths shoal with increased proximity to the present hotspot. The reheating of the crust resets the thermal age of the lithosphere with many of the properties of crust of a younger age. Subsidence curves of the reheated crust off Morocco show good correlation to subsidence curves of other reheated crust on a global basis. A zone characterized by high crustal velocities, (7.1-7.4 km/s) and greater crustal thicknesses (by ˜1-2 km) is observed in an area that corresponds to the bathymetric swell, the region of the UCF, and the reelevated basement. The high velocities and increased crustal thickness are interpreted to be the result of underplating and assimilation of

  11. Determinants of child and forced marriage in Morocco: stakeholder perspectives on health, policies and human rights.

    PubMed

    Sabbe, Alexia; Oulami, Halima; Zekraoui, Wahiba; Hikmat, Halima; Temmerman, Marleen; Leye, Els

    2013-10-16

    In Morocco, the social and legal framework surrounding sexual and reproductive health has transformed greatly in the past decade, especially with the introduction of the new Family Law or Moudawana. Yet, despite raising the minimum age of marriage for girls and stipulating equal rights in the family, child and forced marriage is widespread. The objective of this research study was to explore perspectives of a broad range of professionals on factors that contribute to the occurrence of child and forced marriage in Morocco. A qualitative approach was used to generate both primary and secondary data for the analysis. Primary data consist of individual semi-structured interviews that were conducted with 22 professionals from various sectors: health, legal, education, NGO's and government. Sources of secondary data include academic papers, government and NGO reports, various legal documents and media reports. Data were analyzed using thematic qualitative analysis. Four major themes arose from the data, indicating that the following elements contribute to child and forced marriage: (1) the legal and social divergence in conceptualizing forced and child marriage; (2) the impact of legislation; (3) the role of education; and (4) the economic factor. Emphasis was especially placed on the new Family Code or Moudawana as having the greatest influence on advancement of women's rights in the sphere of marriage. However, participants pointed out that embedded patriarchal attitudes and behaviours limit its effectiveness. The study provided a comprehensive understanding of the factors that compound the problem of child and forced marriage in Morocco. From the viewpoint of professionals, who are closely involved in tackling the issue, policy measures and the law have the greatest potential to bring child and forced marriage to a halt. However, the implementation of new legal tools is facing barriers and resistance. Additionally, the legal and policy framework should go hand in hand

  12. Tsunami hazard, vulnerability and impact assessment of the coastal area of Rabat, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesne, Olivia; Mangin, Antoine; Renou, Camille; Rouffi, Frédéric; Atillah, Abderrahman; Moudni, Hicham

    2010-05-01

    Among African countries, Morocco is probably one of the most exposed to tsunami hazard. Indeed, Morocco is integrated in the particular geodynamic context of the northern African margin characterized by the existence of the Azores-Gibraltar fault separating two active tectonic plates: the African and the Eurasian plates. This area generated and still generates many large earthquakes exceeding a magnitude of 6. The Moroccan Atlantic coasts are thus exposed to tsunamigenic earthquakes occurring offshore. Tsunamis generated in this area are not frequent but can be really disastrous and could have a huge impact. In the framework of the SCHEMA project, a 3 year European project, we studied the consequences on the Moroccan coastal area of two potential tsunami scenarios, applying the generic methodology developed during the project for building tsunami vulnerability and impact maps. The study focuses on the "Rabat Zaïr" region. Centred on the Bouregreg Valley, this study area encompasses three main coastal and densely populated towns of Morocco: Rabat (capital), Salé and Temara. Using a combination of numerical modelling, field surveys, earth observation and GIS data, the risk has been evaluated for this highly vulnerable area (flat topography, small beaches with many tourists in summer, presence of several bridges on the Bouregreg river separating Rabat and Salé, presence of a dam upstream the 2 cities, and development of a new residential and touristic complex on the coastline and in the vicinity of the estuary). Two scenarios of tsunami have been studied to estimate the hazard on the coastal zone of Rabat: a worst case scenario based on the historical Lisbon earthquake of 1755 as well as a moderate scenario based on the historical Portugal earthquake of 1969. For each scenario, numerical models allowed to produce inundation maps consisting of inundation limits as well as maximum water heights. Land use data together with earth observation data interpretation

  13. Regional influence of decadal to multidecadal Atlantic Oscillations during the last two millennia in Morocco, inferred from two high resolution δ18O speleothem records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ait Brahim, Yassine; Sifeddine, Abdelfettah; Khodri, Myriam; Bouchaou, Lhoussaine; Cruz, Francisco W.; Pérez-Zanón, Núria; Wassenburg, Jasper A.; Cheng, Hai

    2017-04-01

    Climate projections predict substantial increase of extreme heats and drought occurrences during the coming decades in Morocco. It is however not clear what can be attributed to natural climate variability and to anthropogenic forcing, as hydroclimate variations observed in areas such as Morocco are highly influenced by the Atlantic climate modes. Since observational data sets are too short to resolve properly natural modes of variability acting on decadal to multidecadal timescales, high resolution paleoclimate reconstructions are the only alternative to reconstruct climate variability in the remote past. Herein, we present two high resolution and well dated speleothems oxygen isotope (δ18O) records sampled from Chaara and Ifoulki caves (located in Northeastern and Southwestern Morocco respectively) to investigate hydroclimate variations during the last 2000 years. Our results are supported by a monitoring network of δ18O in precipitation from 17 stations in Morocco. The new paleoclimate records are discussed in the light of existing continental and marine paleoclimate proxies in Morocco to identify significant correlations at various lead times with the main reconstructed oceanic and atmospheric variability modes and possible climate teleconnections that have potentially influenced the climate during the last two millennia in Morocco. The results reveal substantial decadal to multidecadal swings between dry and humid periods, consistent with regional paleorecords. Evidence of dry conditions exist during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) period and the Climate Warm Period (CWP) and humid conditions during the Little Ice Age (LIA) period. Statistical analyses suggest that the climate of southwestern Morocco remained under the combined influence of both the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) over the last two millennia. Interestingly, the generally warmer MCA and colder LIA at longer multidecadal timescales probably

  14. SURVEY OF CROSS-BASIN BOAT TRAFFIC, ATCHAFALAYA BASIN, LOUISIANA

    EPA Science Inventory

    For flood control and for the preservation and enhancement of environmental quality of overflow swamp habitats, introduction of sediment from the Atchafalaya Basin Main Channel into backwater areas of the Atchafalaya Basin Floodway should be minimized. This introduction occurs ma...

  15. The epidemiology of HIV infection in Morocco: systematic review and data synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kouyoumjian, S P; Mumtaz, G R; Hilmi, N; Zidouh, A; El Rhilani, H; Alami, K; Bennani, A; Gouws, E; Ghys, P D; Abu-Raddad, L J

    2013-01-01

    Summary Morocco has made significant strides in building its HIV research capacity. Based on a wealth of empirical data, the objective of this study was to conduct a comprehensive and systematic literature review and analytical synthesis of HIV epidemiological evidence in this country. Data were retrieved using three major sources of literature and data. HIV transmission dynamics were found to be focused in high-risk populations, with female sex workers (FSWs) and clients contributing the largest share of new HIV infections. There is a pattern of emerging epidemics among some high-risk populations, and some epidemics, particularly among FSWs, appear to be established and stable. The scale of the local HIV epidemics and populations affected show highly heterogeneous geographical distribution. To optimize the national HIV response, surveillance and prevention efforts need to be expanded among high-risk populations and in geographic settings where low intensity and possibly concentrated HIV epidemics are emerging or are already endemic. PMID:23970764

  16. Spatial patterns and secular trends in human leishmaniasis incidence in Morocco between 2003 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Sadeq, Mina

    2016-05-11

    Few studies on spatial patterns or secular trends in human leishmanias have been conducted in Morocco. This study aimed to examine spatial patterns and trends associated with the human leishmaniasis incidence rate (HLIR) at the province/prefecture level between 2003 and 2013 in Morocco. Only the available published country data on the HLIR between 2003 and 2013, from the open access files of the Ministry of Health, were used. Secular trends were examined using Kendall's rank correlation. An exploratory spatial data analysis was also conducted to examine the spatial autocorrelation (Global Moran's I and local indicator of spatial association [LISA]), and spatial diffusion at the province/prefecture level. The influence of various covariates (poverty rate, vulnerability rate, population density, and urbanization) on the HLIR was tested via spatial regression (ordinary least squares regression). At the country level, no secular variation was observed. Poisson annual incidence rate estimates were 13 per 100 000 population (95 % CI = 12.9-13.1) for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and 0.4 per 100 000 population (95 % CI = 0.4-0.5) for visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The available data on HLIR were based on combined CL and VL cases, however, as the CL cases totally outnumbered the VL ones, HLIR may be considered as CL incidence rate. At the provincial level, a secular increase in the incidence rate was observed in Al Hoceima (P = 0.008), Taounate (P = 0.04), Larache (P = 0.002), Tétouan (P = 0.0003), Khenifra (P = 0.008), Meknes (P = 0.03), and El Kelaa (P = 0.0007), whereas a secular decrease was observed only in the Chichaoua province (P = 0.006). Even though increased or decreased rate was evident in these provinces, none of them showed clustering of leishmaniasis incidence. Significant spatial clusters of high leishmaniasis incidence were located in the northeastern part of Morocco, while spatial clusters of low leishmaniasis

  17. Monitoring of Nitrate and Pesticide Pollution in Mnasra, Morocco Soil and Groundwater.

    PubMed

    Marouane, Bouchra; Dahchour, Abdelmalek; Dousset, Sylvie; El Hajjaji, Souad

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluates the levels of nitrates and pesticides occurring in groundwater and agricultural soil in the Mnasra, Morocco area, a zone with intensive agricultural activity. A set of 108 water samples and 68 soil samples were collected from ten selected sites in the area during agricultural seasons, from May 2010 to September 2012. The results reveal that 89.7% of water samples exceeded the standard limit of nitrate concentrations for groundwater (50 mg/L). These results can be explained by the prevailing sandy nature of the soil in the area, the frequency of fertilizer usage, and the shallow level of the water table, which favors the leaching of nitrate from field to groundwater. In contrast, the selected pesticide molecules were not detected in the analysed soil and water samples; levels were below the quantification limit in all samples. This situation could be explained by the probable partial or total transformation of the molecules in soil.

  18. A comparison of Gemini and ERTS imagery obtained over southern Morocco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blodget, H. W.; Anderson, A. T.

    1973-01-01

    A mosaic constructed from three ERTS MSS band 5 images enlarged to 1:500,000 compares favorably with a similar scale geologic map of southern Morocco, and a near-similar scale Gemini 5 photo pair. A comparative plot of lineations and generalized geology on the three formats show that a significantly greater number of probable fractures are visible on the ERTS imagery than on the Gemini photography, and that both orbital formats show several times more lineaments than were previously mapped. A plot of mineral occurrences on the structural overlays indicates that definite structure-mineralization relationships exist; this finding is used to define underdeveloped areas which are prospective for mineralization. More detailed mapping is possible using MSS imagery than on Gemini 5 photographs, and in addition, the ERTS format is not restricted to limited coverage.

  19. Geographical Genomics of Human Leukocyte Gene Expression Variation in Southern Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Idaghdour, Youssef; Czika, Wendy; Shianna, Kevin V.; Lee, S. Hong; Visscher, Peter M.; Martin, Hilary C.; Miclaus, Kelci; Jadallah, Sami J.; Goldstein, David B.; Wolfinger, Russell D.; Gibson, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Studies of the genetics of gene expression reveal expression SNPs that explain variation in transcript abundance. Here we address the robustness of eSNP associations to environmental geography and population structure in a comparison of 194 Arab and Amazigh individuals from a city and two villages in southern Morocco. Gene expression differed between pairs of locations for up to a third of all transcripts, with notable enrichment for ribosomal biosynthesis and oxidative phosphorylation. Robust associations were observed in the leukocyte samples with cis-eSNPs (P < 10−08) for 346 genes, and trans-eSNPs (P < 10−11) with 10 genes. All of these were consistent across the three sample locations and after controlling for ethnicity and relatedness. No evidence for large-effect trans-acting mediators of the pervasive environmental influence was found and instead genetic and environmental factors acted in a largely additive manner. PMID:19966804

  20. Voice, boundary work, and visibility in research on sex work in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Anne

    2015-01-01

    How might the ethnographer conduct research on health and suffering among populations who would rather remain hidden? Drawing on my research with female sex workers in southern Morocco, I suggest and demonstrate an approach that allows interlocutors' discretionary practices to guide ethnographic inquiry. I show how boundary work--as a politics of visibility founded on practices of discretion, concealment, and distancing--emerged as central to my interlocutors' livelihood strategies and their efforts to enact moral personhood, integrate themselves into networks of solidarity, and articulate social critiques. A methodological focus on discourses and practices of boundary drawing, I argue, was essential for conceptualizing and representing the suffering of the women with whom I worked. Using boundary work as a guide, the ethnographer does not give voice to suffering, but learns how suffering is already voiced as part of attempts to survive, aspire, and become.

  1. Geotechnical valorisation of large recycling concrete in FezMeknes region (Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demehati, A.; Abidi, A.; El Qandil, M.

    2018-05-01

    The growing and accelerated development of agglomerations is resulting in increasing pressure on deposits of materials as natural resources. This results in shortages of aggregates including sand. Situation in the different regions of Morocco, including that of FezMeknes. In addition, the threat to the stability or durability of buildings in general and road works and their annexes in particular is often started either from the surface of the grounds or from areas vulnerable to their geotechnical contact as seating materials surrounding them. The large concrete with recycles aggregates filling or protective mask provides adequate solutions. According to the results of our research, it offers a well-adapted physical and mechanical characterization in transition between conventional concretes, whether or not they are armed, and their support. Its use of protection against the effects of erosion or scouring and against the seismic movements further strengthens its potential field employment.

  2. Characterization and antibiotic susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from poultry and red meat in Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Ennaji, Hayat; Timinouni, Mohammed; Ennaji, My Mustapha; Hassar, Mohammed; Cohen, Nozha

    2008-01-01

    This study was carried out on 426 samples of raw meats collected from butcheries and supermarkets in Casablanca, Morocco. The samples were examined for the occurrence of Listeria species. Strains of Listeria monocytogenes were characterized by several biochemical tests and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). β-hemolytic cultures and nonhemolytic isolates were tested for biochemical properties with the Listeria API test. Among the 43 Listeria species isolates; we identified 10 strains for L. monocytogenes (23.3%), 31 strains for L. innocua (72.1%) and 2 strains for L. welshimeri (4.6%). Strains of L. monocytogenes were separated by multiplex PCR; two serogroups IIb and IVb were thus differentiated. Antibiotic susceptibility of L. monocytogenes to 21 antibiotics was determined by the disk diffusion method. All isolates were susceptible to a wide range of the tested antibiotics with the exception of nalidixic acid, colistine and cephalosporins second and third generation for which they were all resistant. PMID:21694879

  3. A Critically Endangered new dragonfly species from Morocco: Onychogomphus boudoti sp. nov. (Odonata: Gomphidae).

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Sónia; Velo-Antón, Guillermo; Brochard, Christophe; Vieira, Cristiana; Alves, Paulo Célio; Thompson, David J; Watts, Phillip C; Brito, José Carlos

    2014-08-25

    Both sexes of Onychogomphus boudoti sp. nov. Ferreira (Odonata: Anisoptera: Gomphidae) and exuviae are described and illustrated from a single locality in Morocco. This newly discovered species differs markedly from other Onychogomphus species by the morphology of the male epiproct and the female vulvar scale. It is genetically distinct in the mitochondrial DNA and the nuclear PRMT gene from all other Western Palaearctic Onychogomphus species. The known distribution of the new species is confined to a small stream with unusual habitat characteristics in the vicinity of Khenifra, in the Middle Atlas, where it experiences low population size and limited genetic diversity. We suggest listing this species both locally and globally as "Critically Endangered" [CR (B1, B2 + abiii)] following the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. 

  4. Inadequacy of vitamins and minerals among high-school pupils in Ouarzazate, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Anzid, Karim; Baali, Abdellatif; Vimard, Patrice; Levy-Desroches, Susan; Cherkaoui, Mohamed; López, Pilar Montero

    2014-08-01

    To assess micronutrient intakes and the prevalence of inadequacy in a sample of high-school pupils in Ouarzazate, Morocco. Food records were compiled over three non-consecutive days by pre-trained pupils. Micronutrient intakes were estimated using the DIAL software, adapted to include foods commonly eaten in Morocco. The prevalence of inadequacy was estimated by the proportion of individuals with intakes below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for vitamins B12, A and K, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, folate, ascorbic acid, iodine, Ca, Mg and P; below the Adequate Intake (AI) level for pantothenic acid, biotin, Na and K; and using the probability approach for Fe. Data were adjusted for intra-individual variation with exclusion of under-reporters. Ouarzazate, a semi-urban region situated on the southern slopes of the High Atlas with little industrial development but an important tourism sector. A self-selected sample of 312 pupils aged 15-19 years from the five public high schools. After exclusion of under-reporters, 293 remained for analysis. The highest proportions of below-EAR/AI intakes were seen for pantothenic acid (girls 85·1 %, boys 78·0 %), biotin (boys 83·1 %, girls 79·4 %), thiamin (boys 66·9 %), folate (girls 93·1 %, boys 74·6 %), iodine (boys 94·9 %, girls 88·0 %) and Ca (girls 83·4 %, boys 74·6 %). Na intake was generally in excess whereas K intake was below the AI level. In general, girls had better-quality diets than boys, who appeared to consume more 'empty calories'. Our findings suggest that in this population of Moroccan adolescents, nutritional intervention and educational strategies are needed to promote healthy eating habits and correct micronutrient inadequacies. To provide reliable and precise estimates of nutrient intakes, an update of Moroccan food composition databases is urgently needed. We recommend that national authorities address these issues.

  5. Recent uplift of the Atlantic Atlas (offshore West Morocco): Tectonic arch and submarine terraces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benabdellouahed, M.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Gutscher, M.-A.; Rabineau, M.; Biari, Y.; Hafid, M.; Duarte, J. C.; Schnabel, M.; Baltzer, A.; Pedoja, K.; Le Roy, P.; Reichert, C.; Sahabi, M.

    2017-06-01

    Re-examination of marine geophysical data from the continental margin of West Morocco reveals a broad zone characterized by deformation, active faults and updoming offshore the High Atlas (Morocco margin), situated next to the Tafelney Plateau. Both seismic reflection and swath-bathymetric data, acquired during Mirror marine geophysical survey in 2011, indicate recent uplift of the margin including uplift of the basement. This deformation, which we propose to name the Atlantic Atlas tectonic arch, is interpreted to result largely through uplift of the basement, which originated during the Central Atlantic rifting stage - or even during phases of Hercynian deformation. This has produced a large number of closely spaced normal and reverse faults, ;piano key faults;, originating from the basement and affecting the entire sedimentary sequence, as well as the seafloor. The presence of four terraces in the Essaouira canyon system at about 3500 meters water depth and ;piano key faults; and the fact that these also affect the seafloor, indicate that the Atlantic Atlas is still active north of Agadir canyon. We propose that recent uplift is causing morphogenesis of four terraces in the Essaouira canyon system. In this paper the role of both Canary plume migration and ongoing convergence between the African and Eurasian plates in the formation of the Atlantic Atlas are discussed as possibilities to explain the presence of a tectonic arch in the region. The process of reactivation of passive margins is still not well understood. The region north of Agadir canyon represents a key area to better understand this process.

  6. Characterization of A. actinomycetemcomitans strains in subgingival samples from periodontitis subjects in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Mínguez, M; Ennibi, O K; Pousa, X; Lakhdar, L; Abdellaoui, L; Sánchez, M; Sanz, M; Herrera, D

    2016-09-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, specially its highly leucotoxic strain (JP2 clone), represents an etiological factor for the onset and progression of aggressive types of periodontitis. The aims of this investigation were to investigate the most relevant periodontal pathogens in the subgingival microbiota of periodontitis patients from Morocco and to describe the clinical and microbiological characteristics of subjects positive for A. actinomycetemcomitans, including serotype, leukotoxin gene, and operon of the cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) distribution. In consecutive Moroccan subjects diagnosed of periodontitis, subgingival samples were taken and processed by culture. From the positive samples for A. actinomycetemcomitans, one to three isolates were subcultured and characterized by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), assessing their specific serotype distribution, the variation in the sequences of the leukotoxin gene, and the operon of the cdt. Twenty-one (35.6 %) out of 59 periodontitis patients harbored A. actinomycetemcomitans. These patients demonstrated statistically significant deeper pockets (p = 0.035) and higher proportions of P. micra (p = 0.045) than did the negative group. The 39 studied isolates were serotype "b"; in 16 out of 17 patients, there was mono-colonization with this serotype. Five isolates, from two patients, presented the 530-bp deletion in the leukotoxin's promoter region. Thirty-two isolates (78 % of the strains) were cdt-positive. A. actinomycetemcomitans was frequently found (35.6 %) in our sample. All strains were serotype "b," and most (78 %) were also cdt-positive. The JP2 strain type was only detected in 12.2 % of the strains. A. actinomycetemcomitans can be frequently found in Morocco. This fact can influence the therapeutic approach of this type of patients.

  7. Psychosocial impact of scars due to cutaneous leishmaniasis on high school students in Errachidia province, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Bennis, Issam; Thys, Séverine; Filali, Hind; De Brouwere, Vincent; Sahibi, Hamid; Boelaert, Marleen

    2017-04-07

    In Morocco, cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is usually known to be a slowly healing localized skin disease, but in some cases, it can lead to mutilating scars. The outbreak of CL due to Leishmania major in the Errachidia province in southeastern Morocco between 2008 and 2010 left many adolescents with permanent scar tissue on the face or other exposed body parts. We studied the psychosocial impact of CL on these young people. In 2015 we conducted a cross-sectional survey among high-school students living in boarding schools in two CL-endemic areas of Errachidia: Rissani and Tinejdad. A self-administered questionnaire elicited responses about general knowledge of CL and related scars. An open-ended question focused on the possible psychosocial effects associated with these scars. The quantitative data were analyzed with Epi Info™ and the text data with NVivo software. Almost 20% of 448 respondents reported they had experienced a CL lesion and 87% said it could possibly or definitely lead to psychological consequences. The text analysis showed that girls more often than boys expanded on the negative psychological effects of CL. The students considered CL as "dangerous", "serious", and "deathly", and said it sometimes led to extreme suicidal ideations. The burden of CL in this age group is not negligible. The indelible CL scars lead to self-stigma and social stigma, and the emergence of negative psychological effects in this age group. While some students accepted their CL scars and related suffering as their "destiny", others were eagerly demanding protective measures against CL and treatment for the scars.

  8. Echinococcus granulosus infection in dogs in Sidi Kacem Province (North-West Morocco).

    PubMed

    Dakkak, A; El Berbri, I; Petavy, A F; Boué, F; Bouslikhane, M; Fassi Fihri, O; Welburn, S; Ducrotoy, M J

    2017-01-01

    This study was undertaken in the Province of Sidi Kacem in northwest Morocco between April 2010 and March 2011. The main objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of Echinococcus granulosus (Eg) infection in owned dogs. This province was selected as a case study because of the social conditions, geographic and climatic diversity making it a model representative of many parts of Morocco. The survey was carried out in 23 rural communes and in the 5 municipalities (urban districts) of the Province and sampling was undertaken in randomly selected households. A total of 273 owned dogs comprising 232 from the 23 rural communes (rural dogs) and 41 from the 5 municipalities (urban dogs) were tested. Arecoline hydrobromide purgation was selected as the diagnostic method of choice to enable visualisation of expelled worms by dog owners, thereby imparting messages on the transmission mode of Eg to humans and farm animals. Of the 273 dogs tested, purgation was effective in a total of 224 dogs (82.1%). The overall estimated prevalence of Eg infection was 35.3% (79/224, 95% CI 22.3-47.0%). Dogs inhabiting rural communes were at greater risk of infection (38.0%, 95% CI 31.1-45.3%) than dogs roaming in municipalities or urban areas (18.8%, 95% CI 7.2-36.4%) and the prevalence of infection was higher in those inhabiting rural communes with slaughterhouses (62.7%, 95% CI 48.1-75.9%) than in communes without (29.1%, 95% CI 21.7-37.2%). This first assessment of Eg infection in Sidi Kacem Province indicates a key role of rural slaughterhouses in parasite transmission to dogs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. From Morocco to Italy: How Women's Bodies Reflect their Change of Residence.

    PubMed

    Maqoud, Fatima; Vacca, Eligio; Tommaseo-Ponzetta, Mila

    2016-04-01

    The body structure and nutritional status of Moroccan women who have immigrated to Italy are examined here in relation to changes in their alimentary behaviors and life-styles, and compared with those of women living in Morocco, who still retain a traditional rural life-style. It is known that the choice to migrate to a foreign country may not only lead to conflicting situations, when the people involved encounter socio-cultural contexts which are very different from those of their original countries, but such choices may also involve severe consequences for health and nutritional status, following changes in alimentary behaviors and life-styles. Among groups recently migrated to Italy, the Moroccan-community is an appropriate reference to highlight these effects. The choice to examine women as the focus of this survey allows extension of observations of their nutritional behavior to the whole family group. According to the bio-indicators examined here, groups of immigrant women are quite different from those remaining at home. The former show a considerable increase in weight, as assessed by both anthropometric and impedentiometric parameters. More than one-third of Moroccan immigrant women are obese, to an extent well beyond that of women in Morocco. The cause of this difference is ascribed to quantitative and qualitative changes induced after migration. Migrant women tend to adopt a mixed diet, which includes both traditional food and that typical of the host country. However, there is a considerable increase in the use of prepared foods, such as pasta, among farinaceous products, and meat, although vegetables and fruit are also consumed. Moroccan women consider both their socio-economic status and alimentary behavior as very private matters--an attitude which makes it difficult to recruit them for this kind of research. Future interventions require their preliminary acceptance and involvement in research aims, to demonstrate its great importance in improving

  10. Socioeconomic Status and Stroke Prevalence in Morocco: Results from the Rabat-Casablanca Study

    PubMed Central

    Engels, Thomas; Baglione, Quentin; Audibert, Martine; Viallefont, Anne; Mourji, Fouzi; El Alaoui Faris, Mustapha

    2014-01-01

    Background Stroke is a growing public health concern in low- and middle- income countries. Improved knowledge about the association between socioeconomic status and stroke in these countries would enable the development of effective stroke prevention and management strategies. This study presents the association between socioeconomic status and the prevalence of stroke in Morocco, a lower middle-income country. Methods Data on the prevalence of stroke and stroke-related risk factors were collected during a large population-based survey. The diagnosis of stroke in surviving patients was confirmed by neurologists while health, demographic, and socioeconomic characteristics of households were collected using structured questionnaires. We used Multiple Correspondence Analysis to develop a wealth index based on characteristics of the household dwelling as well as ownership of selected assets. We used logistic regressions controlling for multiple variables to assess the statistical association between socioeconomic status and stroke. Findings Our results showed a significant association between household socioeconomic status and the prevalence of stroke. This relationship was non-linear, with individuals from both the poorest (mainly rural) and richest (mainly urban) households having a lower prevalence of stroke as compared to individuals with medium wealth level. The latter belonged mainly to urban households with a lower socioeconomic status. When taking into account the urban population only, we observed that a third of poorest households experienced a significantly higher prevalence of stroke compared to the richest third (OR = 2.06; CI 95%: 1.09; 3.89). Conclusion We conclude that individuals from the most deprived urban households bear a higher risk of stroke than the rest of the population in Morocco. This result can be explained to a certain extent by the higher presence of behavioral risk factors in this specific category of the population, which leads in

  11. Delaware River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, Jeffrey M.

    1999-01-01

    Assessing the quality of water in every location of the Nation would not be practical. Therefore, NAWQA investigations are conducted within 59 selected areas called study units (fig. 1). These study units encompass important river and aquifer systems in the United States and represent the diverse geographic, waterresource, land-use, and water-use characteristics of the Nation. The Delaware River Basin is one of 15 study units in which work began in 1996. Water-quality sampling in the study unit will begin in 1999. This fact sheet provides a brief overview of the NAWQA program, describes the Delaware River Basin study unit, identifies the major water-quality issues in the basin, and documents the plan of study that will be followed during the study-unit investigation.

  12. Turn Basin Construction

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-14

    Modifications are underway at the Launch Complex 39 turn basin wharf at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida to prepare for the arrival of the agency's massive Space Launch System (SLS) core stage aboard the barge Pegasus. Tammy Kelly, in the center, site manager, with Southeast Cherokee Construction Inc. talks with construction workers. A crane will be used to lift up precast concrete poles and position them to be driven to a depth of about 70 feet into the bedrock below the water around the turn basin. The upgrades are necessary to accommodate the increased weight of the core stage along with ground support and transportation equipment aboard the modified barge Pegasus. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing the upgrades to the turn basin wharf.

  13. Turn Basin Construction

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-14

    Modifications are underway at the Launch Complex 39 turn basin wharf at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida to prepare for the arrival of the agency's massive Space Launch System (SLS) core stage aboard the barge Pegasus. Equipment is staged and a crane will be used to lift up precast concrete poles and position them to be driven to a depth of about 70 feet into the bedrock below the water around the turn basin. The upgrades are necessary to accommodate the increased weight of the core stage along with ground support and transportation equipment aboard the modified barge Pegasus. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing the upgrades to the turn basin wharf.

  14. Turn Basin Construction

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-14

    Modifications are underway at the Launch Complex 39 turn basin wharf at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida to prepare for the arrival of the agency's massive Space Launch System (SLS) core stage aboard the barge Pegasus. In the foreground is Tammy Kelly, site manager, with Southeast Cherokee Construction Inc. A crane will be used to lift up precast concrete poles and position them to be driven to a depth of about 70 feet into the bedrock below the water around the turn basin. The upgrades are necessary to accommodate the increased weight of the core stage along with ground support and transportation equipment aboard the modified barge Pegasus. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing the upgrades to the turn basin wharf.

  15. Turn Basin Construction

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-30

    Across from the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, cement trucks stand by to support a construction project to upgrade the turn basin wharf. The work includes driving multiple precast concrete piles to a depth of about 70 feet to accommodate arrival of the core stage for the agency's Space Launch System (SLS) rocket. When the stage for NASA's SLS departs the Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans, it will be shipped by the agency's modified barge to the Launch Complex 39 turn basin.

  16. Turn Basin Construction

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-30

    Across from the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, cement is poured as part of a construction project to upgrade the turn basin wharf. The work includes driving multiple precast concrete piles to a depth of about 70 feet to accommodate arrival of the core stage for the agency's Space Launch System (SLS) rocket. When the stage for NASA's SLS departs the Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans, it will be shipped by the agency's modified barge to the Launch Complex 39 turn basin.

  17. BASINS User Information and Guidance

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page provides links to guidance on how to use BASINS, including the User’s Manual, tutorials and training, technical notes, case studies, and publications that highlight the use of BASINS in various watershed analyses.

  18. BASINS Climate Assessment Tool Tutorials

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The BASINS Climate Assessment Tool (CAT) provides a flexible set of capabilities for exploring the potential effects of climate change on streamflow and water quality using different watershed models in BASINS.

  19. Narrative overview of animal and human brucellosis in Morocco: intensification of livestock production as a driver for emergence?

    PubMed

    Ducrotoy, Marie J; Ammary, Khaoula; Ait Lbacha, Hicham; Zouagui, Zaid; Mick, Virginie; Prevost, Laura; Bryssinckx, Ward; Welburn, Susan C; Benkirane, Abdelali

    2015-12-22

    Brucellosis is one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world caused by several species of the genus Brucella. The disease, eradicated in many developed countries, is a re-emerging neglected zoonosis endemic in several zones especially in the Mediterranean region, impacting on human health and livestock production. A One Health approach could address brucellosis control in Morocco but scarcity of reliable epidemiological data, as well as underreporting, hinders the implementation of sustainable control strategies. Surveillance and control policies implemented by the Moroccan government in domestic animals (cattle and small ruminants) in the last few decades are assessed for disease impact. This study considers the origins of animal brucellosis in Morocco and the potential for emergence of brucellosis during a shift from extensive to intensive livestock production.

  20. Temporal changes in Ce-anomalies in biogenic apatite from the Upper Cretaceous-Lower Eocene phosphate beds of Morocco. Is there a link to global paleoceanography?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocsis, L.; Gheerbrant, E.; Mouflih, M.; Cappetta, H.; Ulianov, A.

    2012-12-01

    Shallow marine phosphorites are widespread along the western coast of Morocco. These sediments were deposited in three, first order transgressive-regressive cycles during the late Cretaceous-early Eocene. The layers are exceptionally rich in marine vertebrate fossils and three periods - Maastrichtian, Danian-Thanetian and Ypresian - can be distinguished by the especially abundant selachian fauna. A comprehensive geochemical study is carried out on these biogenic apatite fossils, and here we present trace element data analyzed on enameloid and dentin of shark teeth, coprolites, and bones coming from the Ouled Abdoun and Ganntour Basins. A clear separation is apparent between enameloid and the other archives in terms of the former has lower Cu, Ba, rare earth elements (REE) and U, and higher Zn and Sr concentrations. The REE and U in phosphatic fossils originate almost entirely from early diagenetic pore fluid and thus they can be used as a fingerprint of burial conditions. The above observed differences in the trace element concentrations relate to the originally different structure of these fossils, which means the better crystallized and denser enameloid interacted less with the burial fluid than the other remains. All the fossils revealed very similar shale normalized REE patterns, with negative Ce-anomaly and heavy REE enrichment, which mimics the REE distribution of typical modern seawater. This would indicate that the early diagenetic pore fluid was dominated by seawater, when these fossils gained their REE composition. However, the patterns show small differences with lower La/Sm, and higher La/Yb and Sm/Yb ratios in the coprolites, dentine and bones, which would appear as slight flattening of the patterns on the heavy REE end. This signifies again that these latter archives are more susceptible to interaction with the pore fluid. In contrast, the Ce-anomaly does not vary among the different remains and the values are very similar in a given layer. However

  1. Control of Sand Flies with Attractive Toxic Sugar Baits (ATSB) and Potential Impact on Non-Target Organisms in Morocco

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-08

    dinotefuran has successful con- trolled Culex and Aedes spp. in similar field sites in Morocco [22]. However, this if the first report of the use of...et al. Control of Aedes abopttus with attractive toxic sugar baits (A TSB) and potential Impact on non target organisms In St. Augustine, Florida...of Anopheles sergenti and Aedes CO!Pk.JS populations following presentation of attractive toxic (splnosad) sugar bait stations In an oasis. J Am

  2. Multilocus Microsatellite Typing reveals intra-focal genetic diversity among strains of Leishmania tropica in Chichaoua Province, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Krayter, Lena; Alam, Mohammad Zahangir; Rhajaoui, Mohamed; Schnur, Lionel F; Schönian, Gabriele

    2014-12-01

    In Morocco, cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by Leishmania (L.) tropica is a major public health threat. Strains of this species have been shown to display considerable serological, biochemical, molecular biological and genetic heterogeneity; and Multilocus Enzyme Electrophoresis (MLEE), has shown that in many countries including Morocco heterogenic variants of L. tropica can co-exist in single geographical foci. Here, the microsatellite profiles discerned by MLMT of nine Moroccan strains of L. tropica isolated in 2000 from human cases of CL from Chichaoua Province were compared to those of nine Moroccan strains of L. tropica isolated between 1988 and 1990 from human cases of CL from Marrakech Province, and also to those of 147 strains of L. tropica isolated at different times from different worldwide geographical locations within the range of distribution of the species. Several programs, each employing a different algorithm, were used for population genetic analysis. The strains from each of the two Moroccan foci separated into two phylogenetic clusters independent of their geographical origin. Genetic diversity and heterogeneity existed in both foci, which are geographically close to each other. This intra-focal distribution of genetic variants of L. tropica is not considered owing to in situ mutation. Rather, it is proposed to be explained by the importation of pre-existing variants of L. tropica into Morocco. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Detection of influenza B viruses with reduced sensitivity to neuraminidase inhibitor in Morocco during 2014/15 season.

    PubMed

    Elfalki, F; Ihazmad, H; Bimouhen, A; Regragui, Z; Benkaroum, S; Bakri, Y; Barakat, A

    2016-10-02

    We monitored phenotypic and genotypic susceptibility of influenza viruses circulating in Morocco during 2014-2015 to oseltamivir and zanamivir. Throat and nasal swab specimens were collected from outpatients (with influenza-like illness) and inpatients (with severe acute respiratory illness) and tested for influenza viruses using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Positive samples were inoculated in MDCK cells and virus phenotypic susceptibility to neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) was assessed using fluorescent NA inhibition. Of 440 specimens, 135 were positive for influenza B Yamagata-like virus, 38 were A(H1N1)pdm09 and 25 were A(H3N2). Sixty influenza B viruses isolated from MDCK cells showed no significant resistance to NAIs. However, two of these strains, B/Morocco/176H/2015 and B/Morocco/CP10/2015, showed reduced susceptibility to oseltamivir. The two influenza B viruses with reduced susceptibility to oseltamivir show that ongoing NAI susceptibility surveillance is essential.

  4. Helicobacter pylori Primary Antibiotic Resistance in 2015 in Morocco: A Phenotypic and Genotypic Prospective and Multicenter Study.

    PubMed

    Bouihat, Najat; Burucoa, Christophe; Benkirane, Ahmed; Seddik, Hassan; Sentissi, Sara; Al Bouzidi, Abderrahmane; Elouennas, Mustapha; Benouda, Amina

    2017-09-01

    Knowledge of local antibiotic resistance is crucial to adaption of the choice of effective empirical first-line treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate, for the first time in Morocco, the prevalence of the primary resistance of H. pylori to clarithromycin, metronidazole, amoxicillin, levofloxacin, tetracycline, and rifamycin. We conducted a 1-year prospective study (2015), including 255 Moroccan patients referred for gastro-duodenal endoscopy to two hospitals of Rabat (Morocco) and never previously treated for H. pylori infection. Three gastric biopsies were collected: one for histology, one for culture, and one for molecular detection of H. pylori and the mutations in 23S rRNA genes that confer resistance to clarithromycin. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on isolated strains by Etest and disk diffusion methods. One hundred seventy-seven patients were infected (69.4%). The prevalence of primary resistances of H. pylori to clarithromycin was 29%, 40% to metronidazole, 0% to amoxicillin, tetracycline, and rifamycin, and 11% to levofloxacin. Only four isolates (2%) were resistant to both clarithromycin and metronidazole. The high level of primary clarithromycin resistance in the H. pylori strains infecting the Moroccan population leads us to recommend the abandonment of the standard clarithromycin-based triple therapy as a first-line treatment in Morocco and to prefer a concomitant quadruple therapy.

  5. IL-12Rβ1 Deficiency in Two of Fifty Children with Severe Tuberculosis from Iran, Morocco, and Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, Jacinta; Feinberg, Jacqueline; Samarina, Arina; Grant, Audrey V.; Janniere, Lucile; El Hafidi, Naima; Hassani, Amal; Nolan, Daniel; Najib, Jilali; Camcioglu, Yildiz; Hatipoglu, Nevin; Aydogmus, Cigdem; Tanir, Gonul; Aytekin, Caner; Keser, Melike; Somer, Ayper; Aksu, Guside; Kutukculer, Necil; Mansouri, Davood; Mahdaviani, Alireza; Mamishi, Setareh; Alcais, Alexandre; Abel, Laurent; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives In the last decade, autosomal recessive IL-12Rβ1 deficiency has been diagnosed in four children with severe tuberculosis from three unrelated families from Morocco, Spain, and Turkey, providing proof-of-principle that tuberculosis in otherwise healthy children may result from single-gene inborn errors of immunity. We aimed to estimate the fraction of children developing severe tuberculosis due to IL-12Rβ1 deficiency in areas endemic for tuberculosis and where parental consanguinity is common. Methods and Principal Findings We searched for IL12RB1 mutations in a series of 50 children from Iran, Morocco, and Turkey. All children had established severe pulmonary and/or disseminated tuberculosis requiring hospitalization and were otherwise normally resistant to weakly virulent BCG vaccines and environmental mycobacteria. In one child from Iran and another from Morocco, homozygosity for loss-of-function IL12RB1 alleles was documented, resulting in complete IL-12Rβ1 deficiency. Despite the small sample studied, our findings suggest that IL-12Rβ1 deficiency is not a very rare cause of pediatric tuberculosis in these countries, where it should be considered in selected children with severe disease. Significance This finding may have important medical implications, as recombinant IFN-γ is an effective treatment for mycobacterial infections in IL-12Rβ1-deficient patients. It also provides additional support for the view that severe tuberculosis in childhood may result from a collection of single-gene inborn errors of immunity. PMID:21533230

  6. HIV, syphilis and sexual risk behaviours among men who have sex with men in Agadir and Marrakesh, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Lisa Grazina; Alami, Kamal; El Rhilani, M Houssine; Karkouri, Mehdi; Mellouk, Othoman; Abadie, Alise; Rafif, Nadia; Ouarsas, Lahoucine; Bennani, Aziza; El Omari, Boutaina

    2013-11-01

    To collect baseline measurements of HIV and syphilis prevalence and sexual risk behaviours among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Agadir and Marrakech, Morocco, and provide strategic information to improve outreach programmes. Respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit men who reported having anal sex with another man in the last 6 months, aged 18 years and older and living in either Agadir or Marrakech for the past 6 months, regardless of nationality. Data were analysed with the multiplicity estimator using respondent-driven sampling analysis tool V.6.0. 323 MSM in Agadir and 346 in Marrakech were recruited into the survey. Most MSM in both cities reported being < 25 years, being unemployed, bisexual and in a couple with both a man and a woman. Most reported selling sex and having sex with women. HIV prevalence was 5.6% in Agadir and 2.8% in Marrakesh; syphilis was 7.0% in Agadir and 10.8% in Marrakesh. Among MSM who tested positive for HIV, 31.6% in Agadir and 56.4% in Marrakesh were co-infected with syphilis. HIV and syphilis findings coupled with high risk activities indicate the need for expanding programmes targeting MSM throughout Morocco. Selling sex and sex with women may be a strategy to cope with extreme stigma towards MSM. Criminalisation and discrimination of MSM in Morocco underscores the urgent need for long-term and sustainable risk reduction through legal reforms and promotion and protection of human rights.

  7. Usefulness of autosomal STR polymorphisms beyond forensic purposes: data on Arabic- and Berber-speaking populations from central Morocco.

    PubMed

    Gaibar, Maria; Esteban, María Esther; Via, Marc; Harich, Nourdin; Kandil, Mostafa; Fernández-Santander, Ana

    2012-07-01

    This work describes, for the first time, the profile of Middle Atlas Berbers and Arabic-speaking central Moroccans for 15 autosomal STR loci widely used in forensic sciences. The main objectives were to determine the degree of heterogeneity among different Moroccan samples to identify geographic or linguistic patterns and to evaluate the usefulness of forensic STRs in anthropological studies. Blood samples were collected from 71 Arabic-speakers and 75 Berbers from the regions of Doukkala (central-west coast) and Khenifra (Middle Atlas), respectively. The AmpFlSTR Identifier kit was used to genotype 15 autosomal STR in both samples. Middle Atlas Berbers showed slightly higher genetic variation values compared to Arabic-speakers, both in the number of alleles and heterozygosity. In order to assess population relationships, data from Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Kuwait, Qatar, Palestine, Syria, South-Spain and Turkey were included in the analysis. Within Morocco, genetic distances followed a clear geographic pattern. In the Arabic-speaking sample the genetic proportion of 'Arabian' admixture was estimated in 13%. The low value of admixture suggests that the Arabization of Morocco had a reduced demographic impact, which should be taken with caution because it is based on autosomal STRs with low inter-population variation levels.

  8. Les liaisons dangereuses: resource surveillance, uranium diplomacy and secret French-American collaboration in 1950s Morocco.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    This study explores the origins and consequences of a unique, secret, French-American collaboration to prospect for uranium in 1950s Morocco. This collaboration permitted mediation between the United States and France. The appearance of France in an American-supported project for raw nuclear materials signalled American willingness to accept a new nuclear global order in which the French assumed a new, higher position as regional nuclear ally as opposed to suspicious rival. This collaboration also permitted France and the United States to agree tacitly to the same geopolitical status for the French Moroccan Protectorate, a status under dispute both in Morocco and outside it. The secret scientific effort reassured the French that, whatever the Americans might say publicly, they stood behind the maintenance of French hegemony in the centuries-old kingdom. But Moroccan independence proved impossible to deny. With its foreseeable arrival, the collaboration went from seductive to dangerous, and the priority of American and French geologists shifted from finding a major uranium lode to making sure that nothing was readily available to whatever post-independence interests might prove most powerful. Ultimately, the Kingdom of Morocco took a page out of the French book, using uranium exploration to assert sovereignty over a different disputed territory, its de facto colony of the Western Sahara.

  9. Canada Basin revealed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Chian, D; Lebedeva-Ivanova, Nina; Jackson, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    More than 15,000 line-km of new regional seismic reflection and refraction data in the western Arctic Ocean provide insights into the tectonic and sedimentologic history of Canada Basin, permitting development of new geologic understanding in one of Earth's last frontiers. These new data support a rotational opening model for southern Canada Basin. There is a central basement ridge possibly representing an extinct spreading center with oceanic crustal velocities and blocky basement morphology characteristic of spreading centre crust surrounding this ridge. Basement elevation is lower in the south, mostly due to sediment loading subsidence. The sedimentary succession is thickest in the southern Beaufort Sea region, reaching more than 15 km, and generally thins to the north and west. In the north, grabens and half-grabens are indicative of extension. Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge is a large igneous province in northern Amerasia Basin, presumably emplaced synchronously with basin formation. It overprints most of northern Canada Basin structure. The seafloor and sedimentary succession of Canada Basin is remarkably flat-lying in its central region, with little bathymetric change over most of its extent. Reflections that correlate over 100s of kms comprise most of the succession and on-lap bathymetric and basement highs. They are interpreted as representing deposits from unconfined turbidity current flows. Sediment distribution patterns reflect changing source directions during the basin’s history. Initially, probably late Cretaceous to Paleocene synrift sediments sourced from the Alaska and Mackenzie-Beaufort margins. This unit shows a progressive series of onlap unconformities with a younging trend towards Alpha and Northwind ridges, likely a response to contemporaneous subsidence. Sediment source direction appeared to shift to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago margin for the Eocene and Oligocene, likely due to uplift of Arctic islands during the Eurekan Orogeny. The final

  10. Sexual violence and sub-Saharan migrants in Morocco: a community-based participatory assessment using respondent driven sampling.

    PubMed

    Keygnaert, Ines; Dialmy, Abdessamad; Manço, Altay; Keygnaert, Jeroen; Vettenburg, Nicole; Roelens, Kristien; Temmerman, Marleen

    2014-05-08

    The European Union contracted Morocco to regulate migration from so-called “transit migrants” from Morocco to Europe via the European Neighbourhood Policy. Yet, international organisations signal that human, asylum and refugee rights are not upheld in Morocco and that many sub-Saharan migrants suffer from ill-health and violence. Hence, our study aimed at 1) investigating the nature of violence that sub-Saharan migrants experience around and in Morocco, 2) assessing which determinants they perceive as decisive and 3) formulating prevention recommendations. Applying Community-Based Participatory Research, we trained twelve sub-Saharan migrants as Community Researchers to conduct in-depth interviews with peers, using Respondent Driven Sampling. We used Nvivo 8 to analyse the data. We interpreted results with Community Researchers and the Community Advisory Board and commonly formulated prevention recommendations. Among the 154 (60 F-94 M) sub-Saharan migrants interviewed, 90% reported cases of multiple victimizations, 45% of which was sexual, predominantly gang rape. Seventy-nine respondents were personally victimized, 41 were forced to witness how relatives or co-migrants were victimized and 18 others knew of peer victimisation. Severe long lasting ill-health consequences were reported while sub-Saharan victims are not granted access to the official health care system. Perpetrators were mostly Moroccan or Algerian officials and sub-Saharan gang leaders who function as unofficial yet rigorous migration professionals at migration ‘hubs’. They seem to proceed in impunity. Respondents link risk factors mainly to their undocumented and unprotected status and suggest that migrant communities set-up awareness raising campaigns on risks while legal and policy changes enforcing human rights, legal protection and human treatment of migrants along with severe punishment of perpetrators are politically lobbied for. Sub-Saharan migrants are at high risk of sexual

  11. Sexual violence and sub-Saharan migrants in Morocco: a community-based participatory assessment using respondent driven sampling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The European Union contracted Morocco to regulate migration from so-called “transit migrants” from Morocco to Europe via the European Neighbourhood Policy. Yet, international organisations signal that human, asylum and refugee rights are not upheld in Morocco and that many sub-Saharan migrants suffer from ill-health and violence. Hence, our study aimed at 1) investigating the nature of violence that sub-Saharan migrants experience around and in Morocco, 2) assessing which determinants they perceive as decisive and 3) formulating prevention recommendations. Methods Applying Community-Based Participatory Research, we trained twelve sub-Saharan migrants as Community Researchers to conduct in-depth interviews with peers, using Respondent Driven Sampling. We used Nvivo 8 to analyse the data. We interpreted results with Community Researchers and the Community Advisory Board and commonly formulated prevention recommendations. Results Among the 154 (60 F-94 M) sub-Saharan migrants interviewed, 90% reported cases of multiple victimizations, 45% of which was sexual, predominantly gang rape. Seventy-nine respondents were personally victimized, 41 were forced to witness how relatives or co-migrants were victimized and 18 others knew of peer victimisation. Severe long lasting ill-health consequences were reported while sub-Saharan victims are not granted access to the official health care system. Perpetrators were mostly Moroccan or Algerian officials and sub-Saharan gang leaders who function as unofficial yet rigorous migration professionals at migration ‘hubs’. They seem to proceed in impunity. Respondents link risk factors mainly to their undocumented and unprotected status and suggest that migrant communities set-up awareness raising campaigns on risks while legal and policy changes enforcing human rights, legal protection and human treatment of migrants along with severe punishment of perpetrators are politically lobbied for. Conclusion Sub

  12. Snakebites notified to the poison control center of Morocco between 2009 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Chafiq, Fouad; El Hattimy, Faiçal; Rhalem, Naima; Chippaux, Jean-Philippe; Soulaymani, Abdelmajid; Mokhtari, Abdelrhani; Soulaymani-Bencheikh, Rachida

    2016-01-01

    Snakebites cause considerable death and injury throughout the globe, particularly in tropical regions, and pose an important yet neglected threat to public health. In 2008, the Centre Anti Poison et de Parmacovigilance du Maroc (CAPM) started to set up a specific strategy for the control of snakebites that was formalized in 2012. The aim of the present study is to describe and update the epidemiological characteristics of snakebites notified to CAPM between 2009 and 2013. This retrospective five-year study included all cases of snakebites notified to CAPM by mail or phone. During the study period, 873 snakebite cases were reported to CAPM, an average incidence of 2.65 cases per 100,000 inhabitants with 218 cases each year. The highest incidence was found in Tangier-Tetouan region with 357 cases (40.9 %) followed by Souss Massa Draa region with 128 cases (14.6 %). The average age of patients was 26.8 ± 17.2 years. The male to female sex ratio was 1.67:1 and 77 % of cases occurred in rural areas. The bites occurred mainly in spring (44 %) followed by summer (42 %). Snake species was identified in 54 cases (6.2 %): colubrids represented 31 % (n = 18) and vipers 67 % (n = 36), mainly Daboia mauritanica, Bitis arietans and Cerastes cerastes. In 311 cases (35.6 %), the patients showed viper syndrome. Thrombocytopenia was observed in 23.5 % of viper syndrome cases, whereas, compartment syndrome was observed in 7.6 % patients. FAV-Afrique® was administered in 41 patients (5 %). In patients treated with antivenom, 38 patients recovered and three died. Twenty-seven deaths were reported (3.9 %). Despite specific efforts to better understand the epidemiology of snakebites in Morocco (incidence, severity, snake species involved), it remains underestimated. Therefore, further work is still necessary to ensure accessibility of appropriate antivenom against venomous species and to improve the management of envenomation in Morocco.

  13. Clinicopathologic and prognostic features of breast cancer in young women: a series from North of Morocco.

    PubMed

    Bakkach, Joaira; Mansouri, Mohamed; Derkaoui, Touria; Loudiyi, Ali; Fihri, Mohamed; Hassani, Samia; Barakat, Amina; Ghailani Nourouti, Naima; Bennani Mechita, Mohcine

    2017-11-09

    Literature data reported a higher frequency of breast cancer in young women (BCYW) in developing countries. BCYW is associated with delayed diagnosis, aggressive biology and poor prognosis. However, our knowledge of biological profile, treatment received and outcome of young patients is still limited in Morocco. We propose to analyze clinicopathologic, therapeutic and prognostic features of BCYW among a series of patients native and/or inhabitant of North of Morocco. We carried out a retro-prospective study of 331 infiltrating breast cancer cases registered between January 2010 and December 2015. Details of tumor pathology, treatment and outcome were collected. Disease-Free Survival (DFS) and Overall Survival (OS) were assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis. A total of 82 patients were diagnosed with breast cancer at the age of 40 or younger (24.8%). Median age was 36 years. More than one quarter (26%) of patients had family history of breast or ovarian cancer. Advanced stages accounted for 34.2% of cases. Median tumor diameter was 2.8 cm. Intermediate and high-grade tumors represented 47.6% and 40.2%, respectively. Nodal involvement was present in 58.5% and lymphovascular invasion was found in 47.7% of the patients. About two thirds (66.2%) of tumors were hormone receptor positive, 29.2% over-expressed HER2 receptor and 23% were triple negative. Patients underwent breast conserving surgery in 38.2% of cases, 61.7% were offered adjuvant chemotherapy and 84.6% received hormone therapy. Five-year DFS and OS were respectively 88.9% and 75.6%. Locoregional recurrence occurred in 2.8% of cases and 8.3% of patients developed distant metastases. Our findings are in accordance with previous studies that have shown a higher frequency of breast cancer among Moroccan young women. In line with literature data, clinicopathologic profile seems to be aggressive and prognosis is pejorative in our series.

  14. Epidemiology of pertussis in Casablanca (Morocco): contribution of conventional and molecular diagnosis tools.

    PubMed

    Katfy, Khalid; Guiso, Nicole; Diawara, Idrissa; Zerouali, Khalid; Slaoui, Bouchra; Jouhadi, Zineb; Zineddine, Abdelhadi; Belabbes, Houria; Elmdaghri, Naima

    2017-05-16

    Pertussis, a vaccine preventable disease, is still responsible of significant morbidity and mortality around the world, mostly in newborns. The aim of the present study was (1) to introduce pertussis surveillance in the major pediatric hospital of Casablanca (2) to analyze the prevalence of pertussis among children under 14 years of age and their entourage in Casablanca, Morocco. This is a prospective and non-case controlled study, including children suspected of Pertussis admitted at the Abderrahim Harouchi Pediatric Hospital in Casablanca, from January 2013 to June 2015. Nasopharyngeal samples were obtained for Bordetella spp. culture and Real time PCR detection (RT-PCR) with specific primers of Bordetella spp., B. pertussis, B. parapertussis and B. holmesii. The detection of Bordetella spp. was also performed in some household contacts of the children suspected of pertussis. During the 2.5-years period, a total of 282 samples were collected from hospitalized children (156) and in some of their contacts (126). Among 156 samples from the children (from whom 57% were under 2 month of age), Bordetella DNA was detected in 61% (96/156) by RT-PCR. Among these positive samples, 91.7% (88/96) corresponded to B. pertussis DNA. Furthermore, in 39.5% (38/96) of the Bordetella positive samples, B. holmesii DNA was also detected. B. parapertussis DNA was detected in only one sample (1/156). Out of the 156 samples collected from the hospitalized children, only 48 were tested by culture, and 4 B. pertussis were isolated (8.3%). Among the 126 samples from the contacts of the children, mostly mothers (115 cases), Bordetella DNA was detected in 47% (59/126), 90% (53/59) being B. pertussis DNA. Moreover, B. holmesii DNA was also detected in 18.6% (11/59) of the Bordetella positive samples, and coexistence of B. pertussis and B. holmesii DNA in 36.5% (35/96). Two B. pertussis were isolated by culture performed on 43 samples of the contacts of the children (4.6%). This study

  15. Assessment of iodine concentration in dietary salt at household level in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Zahidi, Ahmed; Zahidi, Meriem; Taoufik, Jamal

    2016-05-20

    Following WHO recommendations, Morocco adopted in 1995 the universal salt iodization (USI) as a strategy to prevent and control iodine deficiency disorders. In 2009, the standard salt iodine concentration was adjusted to 15-40 mg/kg. The success of USI for the control of iodine deficiency disorders requires an evaluation of iodine concentration in salt prior to assessing the iodine nutritional status of a population. In our study we refer to the anterior studies that were made in Morocco in 1993 and 1998. 178 salt samples from households were tested for iodine using spot-testing kits. The iodometric titration method was used to analyze accurately the concentration of iodine in the 178 household salt samples. An empiric polling method was adopted, using a non-probability sampling method; across the different twelve regions in the country. The median and interquartile range iodine concentration in salt was 2.9 mg/kg (IQR: 2.4-3.7). The results show that only 25 % of households use iodized salt. The recommended iodine concentration in salt of 15-40 mg/kg was met only in 4.5 % of salt samples. The bulk salt is used by 8 % of households. All samples of this bulk salt were found in rural areas. According to nonparametric appropriate tests used, there is no significant difference in iodine concentrations between regions, between urban and rural areas and between packaged and bulk salt. Two decades since introducing legislation on Universal Salt Iodization, our survey shows that generalization of iodized salt is far from being reached. In 2015, only a quarter of Moroccan households use the iodized salt and only 4.5 % of salt is in conformity with regulations. The use of bulk salt by households in rural areas constitutes a major obstacle to the success of USI. The National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Program can only be achieved if an internal follow-up and a control of external quality of program is put in place.

  16. Assessment of the HBV vaccine response in a group of HIV-infected children in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Haban, Houda; Benchekroun, Soumia; Sadeq, Mina; Benjouad, Abdelaziz; Amzazi, Said; Oumzil, Hicham; Elharti, Elmir

    2017-09-29

    Since its development in the early 1980s, Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine has been proven to be highly protective. However, its immunogenicity may be ineffective among HIV-infected children. In Morocco, HBV vaccine was introduced in 1999, and since then all infants, including vertically HIV-infected infants, have been following the vaccination schedule, implemented by the Moroccan ministry of health. An assessment of the immunization of these children is important to optimize efforts aimed at tackling Hepatitis B coinfection, within the country. Forty-nine HIV-infected children (HIV group) and 112 HIV uninfected children (control group) were enrolled in this study. Samples were tested by Elisa (Monolisa Anti-HBs, Biorad) to quantify the anti-HBs antibodies. The % of lymphocyte subsets i.e. CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, B cells, and NK, was determined by flow cytometry, using CellQuest Pro software (Becton-Dickinson), and for HIV group, HIV viral load was measured by real time PCR assay (Abbott). All variables were statistically compared in the two groups. The median age was 51 ± 35 months for the HIV group and 50 ± 36 months (p > 0.05) for the control group. Female represented 63% and 41% (p = 0.01), among the HIV group and the control group, respectively. Among HIV-infected children, 71.4% (35/49) were under HAART therapy at the enrollment in the study. Seroprotection titer i.e. anti-HBs ≥10mUI/ml among control group was 76% (85/112), and only 29% (14/49) among the perinatally HIV-infected children (p < 0.0001). Lower % of CD4 + T cells was observed in HIV-infected children with a poor anti-HBs response. In this studied group, we have shown that despite the vaccination of HIV-children with HBV vaccine, 71% did not show any seroprotective response. These findings support the need for monitoring HBV vaccine response among HIV-infected children in Morocco, in order to revaccinate non-immunized children.

  17. Large Dew water collectors in a village of S-Morocco (Idouasskssou)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekouch, I.; Clus, O.; Durand, M.; Lanfourmi, M.; Muselli, M.; Milimouk, I.; Beysens, D.

    2010-07-01

    With precipitations close to 227 mm/year in average, the coastal region of south Morocco presents a chronically shortage of drinkable and fresh water. Since 1994, in the Mirleft area (150 km south of Agadir), inhabitants are facing a critically drought event. In the year 2007, only 49 mm of rain was recorded. However, measurements in Mirleft in the same year, showed that the dew yield was on order of 40 % of rain fall. In order to show to the local population the interest of recovering dew water in addition to rain water, a small nearby village (Idouasskssou, 8 km SE of Mirleft) was equipped with three pilot condensers of 136 m2 total surface area. In order to ensure a good integration of the project by the village inhabitants, a local organization (Association IMRJANE) collaborated to the project. A concrete tank at ground level with a flat horizontal surface, easily accessible for inhabitants and also a model for traditional Morocco terrace roofings, has been equipped with two lines of condensers (40.6 m²). All roofing materials were from local shops. Only the special radiative and hydrophilic coating was coming from non local resources (see www.opur.fr). The top of a second tank (aside the first one) was renovated and covered with a 21.2 m² two slopes steel roof, insulated and painted with the special dew coating as above. These roofs represent a condensation surface comparable to that of a very little house. A third condenser, with 73.8 m² surface area, was implemented directly on the ground, ensuring minimal work and very cheap implementation costs. Dew was collected and measured in one of the concrete tanks. The water production during 6 months, from 15-12-2008 to 31-07-2009 (137 dew events, 47 % of days) was more than 3800 L (more than 0.2 mm/dew day). It is important to note that, while the devices are specifically designed to condense dew water, they also harvest rain and fog as well, thus providing to the population a valuable water resource.

  18. Global Climatic Indices Influence on Rainfall Spatiotemporal Distribution : A Case Study from Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkadiri, R.; Zemzami, M.; Phillips, J.

    2017-12-01

    The climate of Morocco is affected by the Mediterranean Sea, the Atlantic Ocean the Sahara and the Atlas mountains, creating a highly variable spatial and temporal distribution. In this study, we aim to decompose the rainfall in Morocco into global and local signals and understand the contribution of the climatic indices (CIs) on rainfall. These analyses will contribute in understanding the Moroccan climate that is typical of other Mediterranean and North African climatic zones. In addition, it will contribute in a long-term prediction of climate. The constructed database ranges from 1950 to 2013 and consists of monthly data from 147 rainfall stations and 37 CIs data provided mostly by the NOAA Climate Prediction Center. The next general steps were followed: (1) the study area was divided into 9 homogenous climatic regions and weighted precipitation was calculated for each region to reduce the local effects. (2) Each CI was decomposed into nine components of different frequencies (D1 to D9) using wavelet multiresolution analysis. The four lowest frequencies of each CI were selected. (3) Each of the original and resulting signals were shifted from one to six months to account for the effect of the global patterns. The application of steps two and three resulted in the creation of 1225 variables from the original 37 CIs. (4) The final 1225 variables were used to identify links between the global and regional CIs and precipitation in each of the nine homogenous regions using stepwise regression and decision tree. The preliminary analyses and results were focused on the north Atlantic zone and have shown that the North Atlantic Oscillation (PC-based) from NCAR (NAOPC), the Arctic Oscillation (AO), the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the Western Mediterranean Oscillation (WMO) and the Extreme Eastern Tropical Pacific Sea Surface Temperature (NINO12) have the highest correlation with rainfall (33%, 30%, 27%, 21% and -20%, respectively). In addition the 4-months lagged

  19. Botanical identification of medicinal roots collected and traded in Morocco and comparison to the existing literature.

    PubMed

    Ouarghidi, Abderrahim; Martin, Gary J; Powell, Bronwen; Esser, Gabrielle; Abbad, Abdelaziz

    2013-08-15

    A literature review revealed heavy reliance on a few key publications for identification of medicinal plant species from local or vernacular names and a lack of citation of voucher specimens in many publications. There is a need for more reliable and standardized data on the identity of species used for medicine, especially because local names vary from region to region. This is especially true in the case of medicinal roots, for which identification of species is difficult. This paper contributes to existing data on the species sold as medicinal roots (and other underground plant parts such as bulbs, corms, rhizomes and tubers) in Morocco. Data were collected in collaboration with herbalists in Marrakech and collectors in rural regions near Marrakech where species are collected from the wild. The ethno-medicinal uses of these species were also recorded. We identified the vernacular names for 67 medicinal roots (by free listing) used to treat a variety of human diseases. We were able to collect and identify one or more species for 39 of the recorded vernacular names. The ones we were not able to identify were either imported or no longer available in the markets. We collected more than one species for some of the vernacular names for a total of 43 species. We identified six new vernacular names and four species which had not been previously described in the literature. Our botanical identification matched at least one of the names listed in the literature 63% of the time and did not match any species listed in the literature 37% of the time. Of the three most commonly cited pieces of literature we compared to, we found the greatest overlap with the broader, more comprehensive work of Bellakhdar 1997 (as opposed to Benchâabane and Abbad 1997 which worked in a similarly focused geographical area). However there was only 63% agreement between Bellakhdar 1997 and our botanical identifications, and 29% of the time our identification didn't match even the genus of any

  20. Comparison of several satellite-derived databases of surface solar radiation against ground measurement in Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchand, Mathilde; Ghennioui, Abdellatif; Wey, Etienne; Wald, Lucien

    2018-04-01

    HelioClim-3v4 (HC3v4), HelioClim-3v5 (HC3v5) and the radiation service version 2 of the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS-Rad) are databases that contain hourly values of solar radiation at ground level. These estimated hourly irradiations are compared to coincident measurements made at five stations in Morocco. The correlation coefficients between measurements and estimates are similar for the three databases and around 0.97-0.98 for global irradiation. For the direct irradiation, the correlation coefficients are around 0.70-0.79 for HC3v4, 0.79-0.84 for HC3v5 and 0.78-0.87 for CAMS-Rad. For global irradiation, the bias relative to the average of the measurements is small and ranges between -6 and -1 % for HC3v4, -4 and 0 % for HC3v5, and -4 and 7 % for CAMS-Rad; HC3v4 and HC3v5 exhibit a tendency to slightly underestimate the global irradiation. The root mean square error (RMSE) ranges between 53 (12 %) and 72 Wh m-2 (13 %) for HC3v4, 55 (12 %) and 71 Wh m-2 (13 %) for HC3v5, and 59 (11 %) and 97 Wh m-2 (21 %) for CAMS-Rad. For the direct irradiation, the relative bias ranges between -16 and 21 % for HC3v4, -7 and 22 % for HC3v5, and -18 and 7 % for CAMS-Rad. The RMSE ranges between 170 (28 %) and 210 Wh m-2 (33 %) for HC3v4, 153 (25 %) and 209 Wh m-2 (40 %) for HC3v5, and 159 (26 %) and 244 Wh m-2 (39 %) for CAMS-Rad. HC3v5 captures the temporal and spatial variability of the irradiation field well. The performance is poorer for HC3v4 and CAMS-Rad which exhibit more variability from site to site. As a whole, the three databases are reliable sources on solar radiation in Morocco.

  1. Botanical identification of medicinal roots collected and traded in Morocco and comparison to the existing literature

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A literature review revealed heavy reliance on a few key publications for identification of medicinal plant species from local or vernacular names and a lack of citation of voucher specimens in many publications. There is a need for more reliable and standardized data on the identity of species used for medicine, especially because local names vary from region to region. This is especially true in the case of medicinal roots, for which identification of species is difficult. This paper contributes to existing data on the species sold as medicinal roots (and other underground plant parts such as bulbs, corms, rhizomes and tubers) in Morocco. Methods Data were collected in collaboration with herbalists in Marrakech and collectors in rural regions near Marrakech where species are collected from the wild. The ethno-medicinal uses of these species were also recorded. Results We identified the vernacular names for 67 medicinal roots (by free listing) used to treat a variety of human diseases. We were able to collect and identify one or more species for 39 of the recorded vernacular names. The ones we were not able to identify were either imported or no longer available in the markets. We collected more than one species for some of the vernacular names for a total of 43 species. We identified six new vernacular names and four species which had not been previously described in the literature. Our botanical identification matched at least one of the names listed in the literature 63% of the time and did not match any species listed in the literature 37% of the time. Of the three most commonly cited pieces of literature we compared to, we found the greatest overlap with the broader, more comprehensive work of Bellakhdar 1997 (as opposed to Benchâabane and Abbad 1997 which worked in a similarly focused geographical area). However there was only 63% agreement between Bellakhdar 1997 and our botanical identifications, and 29% of the time our identification didn

  2. All About That Basin

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-02-25

    This mosaic of Caloris basin is an enhanced-color composite overlain on a monochrome mosaic featured in a previous post. The color mosaic is made up of WAC images obtained when both the spacecraft and the Sun were overhead, conditions best for discerning variations in albedo, or brightness. The monochrome mosaic is made up of WAC and NAC images obtained at off-vertical Sun angles (i.e., high incidence angles) and with visible shadows so as to reveal clearly the topographic form of geologic features. The combination of the two datasets allows the correlation of geologic features with their color properties. In portions of the scene, color differences from image to image are apparent. Ongoing calibration efforts by the MESSENGER team strive to minimize these differences. Caloris basin has been flooded by lavas that appear orange in this mosaic. Post-flooding craters have excavated material from beneath the surface. The larger of these craters have exposed low-reflectance material (blue in this mosaic) from beneath the surface lavas, likely giving a glimpse of the original basin floor material. Analysis of these craters yields an estimate of the thickness of the volcanic layer: 2.5-3.5 km (1.6-2.2 mi.). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19216

  3. Great Basin Paleontological Bibliography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blodgett, Robert B.; Zhang, Ning; Hofstra, Albert H.; Morrow, Jared R.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction This work was conceived as a derivative product for 'The Metallogeny of the Great Basin' project of the Mineral Resources Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. In the course of preparing a fossil database for the Great Basin that could be accessed from the Internet, it was determined that a comprehensive paleontological bibliography must first be compiled, something that had not previously been done. This bibliography includes published papers and abstracts as well as unpublished theses and dissertations on fossils and stratigraphy in Nevada and adjoining portions of California and Utah. This bibliography is broken into first-order headings by geologic age, secondary headings by taxonomic group, followed by ancillary topics of interest to both paleontologists and stratigraphers; paleoecology, stratigraphy, sedimentary petrology, paleogeography, tectonics, and petroleum potential. References were derived from usage of Georef, consultation with numerous paleontologists and geologists working in the Great Basin, and literature currently on hand with the authors. As this is a Web-accessible bibliography, we hope to periodically update it with new citations or older references that we have missed during this compilation. Hence, the authors would be grateful to receive notice of any new or old papers that the readers think should be added. As a final note, we gratefully acknowledge the helpful reviews provided by A. Elizabeth J. Crafford (Anchorage, Alaska) and William R. Page (USGS, Denver, Colorado).

  4. Integrated Hydrographical Basin Management. Study Case - Crasna River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visescu, Mircea; Beilicci, Erika; Beilicci, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Hydrographical basins are important from hydrological, economic and ecological points of view. They receive and channel the runoff from rainfall and snowmelt which, when adequate managed, can provide fresh water necessary for water supply, irrigation, food industry, animal husbandry, hydrotechnical arrangements and recreation. Hydrographical basin planning and management follows the efficient use of available water resources in order to satisfy environmental, economic and social necessities and constraints. This can be facilitated by a decision support system that links hydrological, meteorological, engineering, water quality, agriculture, environmental, and other information in an integrated framework. In the last few decades different modelling tools for resolving problems regarding water quantity and quality were developed, respectively water resources management. Watershed models have been developed to the understanding of water cycle and pollution dynamics, and used to evaluate the impacts of hydrotechnical arrangements and land use management options on water quantity, quality, mitigation measures and possible global changes. Models have been used for planning monitoring network and to develop plans for intervention in case of hydrological disasters: floods, flash floods, drought and pollution. MIKE HYDRO Basin is a multi-purpose, map-centric decision support tool for integrated hydrographical basin analysis, planning and management. MIKE HYDRO Basin is designed for analyzing water sharing issues at international, national and local hydrographical basin level. MIKE HYDRO Basin uses a simplified mathematical representation of the hydrographical basin including the configuration of river and reservoir systems, catchment hydrology and existing and potential water user schemes with their various demands including a rigorous irrigation scheme module. This paper analyzes the importance and principles of integrated hydrographical basin management and develop a case

  5. Caribbean basin framework, 3: Southern Central America and Colombian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Kolarsky, R.A.; Mann, P.

    1991-03-01

    The authors recognize three basin-forming periods in southern Central America (Panama, Costa Rica, southern Nicaragua) that they attempt to correlate with events in the Colombian basin (Bowland, 1984): (1) Early-Late Cretaceous island arc formation and growth of the Central American island arc and Late Cretaceous formation of the Colombian basin oceanic plateau. During latest Cretaceous time, pelagic carbonate sediments blanketed the Central American island arc in Panama and Costa Rica and elevated blocks on the Colombian basin oceanic plateau; (2) middle Eocene-middle Miocene island arc uplift and erosion. During this interval, influx of distal terrigenous turbidites in most areas ofmore » Panama, Costa Rica, and the Colombian basin marks the uplift and erosion of the Central American island arc. In the Colombian basin, turbidites fill in basement relief and accumulate to thicknesses up to 2 km in the deepest part of the basin. In Costa Rica, sedimentation was concentrated in fore-arc (Terraba) and back-arc (El Limon) basins; (3) late Miocene-Recent accelerated uplift and erosion of segments of the Central American arc. Influx of proximal terrigenous turbidites and alluvial fans in most areas of Panama, Costa Rica, and the Colombian basin marks collision of the Panama arc with the South American continent (late Miocene early Pliocene) and collision of the Cocos Ridge with the Costa Rican arc (late Pleistocene). The Cocos Ridge collision inverted the Terraba and El Limon basins. The Panama arc collision produced northeast-striking left-lateral strike-slip faults and fault-related basins throughout Panama as Panama moved northwest over the Colombian basin.« less

  6. [Suicide by poisoning in the Souss-Massa-Drâa region of Morocco].

    PubMed

    Mahir, Siham; Soulaymani, Abdelmajid; Hami, Hind; Mokhtari, Abdelrhani; Benali, Doha; Ouammi, Lahcen; Windy, Maria; Benchekh, Rachida Soulaymani

    2013-01-01

    Deliberate self-poisoning is a serious problem in Morocco, including in the Souss-Massa-Drâa region. However, our understanding of the problem of suicidal poisoning remains limited. This paper aims to describe the characteristics of patients, toxic substances and poisoning and to identify the risk factors influencing patient outcomes. A retrospective study was conducted of all cases of deliberate self-poisoning recorded between 1981 and 2007 by the Centre Anti-Poison et de Pharmacovigilance du Maroc. 1,130 cases of self-poisoning were identified. The mean age was 25 ± 10.1 years and the sex ratio was 0.4. Paraphenylenediamine was the most common cause of death (48 deaths), followed by hydrochloric acid (15 deaths). A close relationship was found between progression to healing and female adolescents and between progression to death and men in other age groups. The study also found that patients who used paraphenylenediamine were twelve times more likely to die (CI95%: 7.4%-19.2%) than those who used other substances. Patients with respiratory and cardiovascular conditions had a relative risk of 9.8 (CI95%: 6.3%-16%) and 3.6 (CI95%: 2.3%-5.7%). Of the 937 cases with known outcome, 89 died (9.5%).

  7. New fossils from Jebel Irhoud, Morocco and the pan-African origin of Homo sapiens.

    PubMed

    Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Ben-Ncer, Abdelouahed; Bailey, Shara E; Freidline, Sarah E; Neubauer, Simon; Skinner, Matthew M; Bergmann, Inga; Le Cabec, Adeline; Benazzi, Stefano; Harvati, Katerina; Gunz, Philipp

    2017-06-07

    Fossil evidence points to an African origin of Homo sapiens from a group called either H. heidelbergensis or H. rhodesiensis. However, the exact place and time of emergence of H. sapiens remain obscure because the fossil record is scarce and the chronological age of many key specimens remains uncertain. In particular, it is unclear whether the present day 'modern' morphology rapidly emerged approximately 200 thousand years ago (ka) among earlier representatives of H. sapiens or evolved gradually over the last 400 thousand years. Here we report newly discovered human fossils from Jebel Irhoud, Morocco, and interpret the affinities of the hominins from this site with other archaic and recent human groups. We identified a mosaic of features including facial, mandibular and dental morphology that aligns the Jebel Irhoud material with early or recent anatomically modern humans and more primitive neurocranial and endocranial morphology. In combination with an age of 315 ± 34 thousand years (as determined by thermoluminescence dating), this evidence makes Jebel Irhoud the oldest and richest African Middle Stone Age hominin site that documents early stages of the H. sapiens clade in which key features of modern morphology were established. Furthermore, it shows that the evolutionary processes behind the emergence of H. sapiens involved the whole African continent.

  8. Entomological and epidemiological study of a new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Ramaoui, K; Guernaoui, S; Boumezzough, A

    2008-09-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) due to Leishmania tropica Wright has become an increasingly important problem in Al-Haouz province, Morocco. The objective of this paper was to undertake a retrospective analysis of CL between 2000 and 2006 and to study the sandfly fauna for the first time in this focus. The consultation of bulletins, registers and monthly and annual reports published by local and national medical services permitted a global synthesis of CL in Al-Haouz between 2000 and 2006. Sandflies were collected using sticky-paper traps in five selected stations in two communes, Ourika and Sti Fadma, the most affected by CL in Al-Haouz. Overall, 2,648 sandflies, belonging to five species of Phlebotomus and three of Sergentomyia, were collected. Phlebotomus sergenti Parrot (14.5%) was found in all studied stations where it was associated with domestic and peridomestic habitats. Based on this first report on ecology of sandflies and epidemiology of CL, Al-Haouz seems to be a typical focus of L. tropica and P. sergenti like the other Moroccan foci. Two communes, Sti Fadma and Ourika, constituted an important CL micro-focus in this region. Considering their economical importance (trade and tourism), they contribute probably to the dissemination of Leishmania parasite in bordering regions.

  9. New epidemiological aspects of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis in Taza, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Hakkour, Maryam; Hmamouch, Asmae; El Alem, Mohamed Mahmoud; Rhalem, Abdelkbir; Amarir, Fatima; Touzani, Mohamed; Sadak, Abderrahim; Fellah, Hajiba; Sebti, Faiza

    2016-11-29

    Leishmaniasis is considered among the main endemic diseases in Morocco. However, further knowledge about epidemiological aspects of this disease is needed in several provinces to plan control and preventive strategies to tackle the disease. The present study aims to determine the epidemiological aspect of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis in Taza Province from 2007-2014 and to identify the circulating species in this province. The temporal study from 2007 to 2014 showed that the number of cutaneous leishmaniasis cases increased since 2010. During the period of study, most leishmaniasis cases were detected in both urban and rural areas with 34% of cases detected in two urban localities, Bab Zitouna and Bab tété with 297 and 106 cases, respectively. The molecular study of cutaneous leishmaniasis showed the presence of non-sporadic Leishmania infantum and Leishmania tropica in this province. Regarding visceral leishmaniasis, Leishmania infantum is the species that has been identified. The epidemio-molecular study of leishmaniasis in Taza Province showed the coexistence of two species of Leishmania in the same foci. They also indicated that CL due to Leishmania infantum is more prevalent than reported in the literature. These results will be helpful for the implementation of control strategies by targeting dogs that constitute a reservoir of Leishmania infantum.

  10. Human Exposure to Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Two Cities of Northwestern Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Elhamiani Khatat, Sarah; Sahibi, Hamid; Hing, Mony; Alaoui Moustain, Ismail; El Amri, Hamid; Benajiba, Mohammed; Kachani, Malika; Duchateau, Luc; Daminet, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging tick-borne zoonosis with extensive increased interest. Epidemiological data are available in several regions of the USA, Europe and Asia in contrast to other parts of the world such as North Africa. Blood samples of 261 healthy individuals divided in two groups i.e., dog handlers and blood donors were analysed. Indirect immunofluorescent assay using a commercial kit was performed to detect specific A. phagocytophilum IgG. Two dilutions were used to assess the prevalence of seroreactive samples. Demographic variables were assessed as potential risk factors using exact logistic regression. Seropositivity rates reached 37% and 27% in dog handlers and 36% and 22% in blood donors. No statistically significant differences were found in the prevalence rates between the two groups. Analysis of risk factors such as gender, age groups, outdoor activities, self-reported previous exposure to ticks, or contact with domestic animals (dogs, cats, ruminants and horses) did not shown any significant difference. A. phagocytophilum exposure was common in both high-risk population and blood donors in Morocco. PMID:27532208

  11. [Assessment of a supervision grid being used in the laboratories of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Morocco].

    PubMed

    El Mansouri, Bouchra; Amarir, Fatima; Hajli, Yamina; Fellah, Hajiba; Sebti, Faiza; Delouane, Bouchra; Sadak, Abderrahim; Adlaoui, El Bachir; Rhajaoui, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess a standardized supervisory grid as a new supervision tool being used in the laboratories of leishmaniasis. We conducted a pilot trial to evaluate the ongoing performances of seven provincial laboratories, in four provinces in Morocco, over a period of two years, between 2006 and 2014. This study detailed the situation in provincial laboratories before and after the implementation of the supervisory grid. A total of twenty-one grids were analyzed. In 2006, the results clearly showed a poor performance of laboratories: need for training (41.6%), staff performing skin biopsy (25%), shortage of materials and reagents (65%), non-compliant document and local management (85%). Several corrective actions were conducted by the National Reference Laboratory (LNRL) of Leishmaniasis during the study period. In 2014, the LNRL recorded a net improvement of the performances of the laboratories. The need for training, the quality of the biopsy, the supply of tools and reagents were met and an effective coordination activity was established between the LNRL and the provincial laboratories. This trial shows the effectiveness of the grid as a high quality supervisory tool and as a cornerstone of making progress on fight programs against leishmaniases.

  12. Dinosaur Footprints and Other Ichnofauna from the Cretaceous Kem Kem Beds of Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Nizar; Varricchio, David J.; Sereno, Paul C.; Wilson, Jeff A.; Dutheil, Didier B.; Martill, David M.; Baidder, Lahssen; Zouhri, Samir

    2014-01-01

    We describe an extensive ichnofossil assemblage from the likely Cenomanian-age ‘lower’ and ‘upper’ units of the ‘Kem Kem beds’ in southeastern Morocco. In the lower unit, trace fossils include narrow vertical burrows in cross-bedded sandstones and borings in dinosaur bone, with the latter identified as the insect ichnotaxon Cubiculum ornatus. In the upper unit, several horizons preserve abundant footprints from theropod dinosaurs. Sauropod and ornithischian footprints are much rarer, similar to the record for fossil bone and teeth in the Kem Kem assemblage. The upper unit also preserves a variety of invertebrate traces including Conichnus (the resting trace of a sea-anemone), Scolicia (a gastropod trace), Beaconites (a probable annelid burrow), and subvertical burrows likely created by crabs for residence and detrital feeding on a tidal flat. The ichnofossil assemblage from the Upper Cretaceous Kem Kem beds contributes evidence for a transition from predominantly terrestrial to marine deposition. Body fossil and ichnofossil records together provide a detailed view of faunal diversity and local conditions within a fluvial and deltaic depositional setting on the northwestern coast of Africa toward the end of the Cretaceous. PMID:24603467

  13. Acute Upper Gastro-Intestinal Bleeding in Morocco: What Have Changed?

    PubMed Central

    Timraz, A.; Khannoussi, W.; Ajana, F. Z.; Essamri, W.; Benelbarhdadi, I.; Afifi, R.; Benazzouz, M.; Essaid, A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. In the present study, we aimed to investigate epidemiological, clinical, and etiological characteristics of acute upper gastro-intestinal bleeding. Materials and Methods. This retrospective study was conducted between January 2003 and December 2008. It concerned all cases of acute upper gastroduodenal bleeding benefited from an urgent gastro-intestinal endoscopy in our department in Morocco. Characteristics of patients were evaluated in terms of age, gender, medical history, presenting symptoms, results of rectal and clinical examinations, and endoscopy findings. Results. 1389 cases were registered. As 66% of the patients were male, 34% were female. Mean age was 49. 12% of patients had a history of previous hemorrhage, and 26% had a history of NSAID and aspirin use. Endoscopy was performed in 96%. The gastroduodenal ulcer was the main etiology in 38%, followed by gastritis and duodenitis in 32.5%. Conclusion. AUGIB is still a frequent pathology, threatening patients' life. NSAID and aspirin are still the major risk factors. Their impact due to peptic ulcer remains stable in our country. PMID:21991509

  14. Economic concepts to address future water supply-demand imbalances in Iran, Morocco and Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellegers, Petra; Immerzeel, Walter; Droogers, Peter

    2013-10-01

    In Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries, renewable groundwater and surface water supply are limited while demand for water is growing rapidly. Climate change is expected to increase water demand even further. The main aim of this paper is to evaluate the water supply-demand imbalances in Iran, Morocco and Saudi Arabia in 2040-2050 under dry, average and wet climate change projections and to show on the basis of the marginal cost and marginal value of water the optimum mix of supply-side and demand-side adjustments to address the imbalance. A hydrological model has been used to estimate the water supply-demand imbalance. Water supply and demand curves have been used to explore for which (marginal value of) water usage the marginal cost of supply-enhancement becomes too expensive. The results indicate that in the future in all cases, except in Iran under the wet climate projection, the quantity of water demanded has to be reduced considerably to address the imbalance, which is indeed what is currently happening already.

  15. Epidemiological profile of invasive bacterial diseases in children in Casablanca, Morocco: antimicrobial susceptibilities and serotype distribution.

    PubMed

    El Mdaghri, N; Jilali, N; Belabbes, H; Jouhadi, Z; Lahssoune, M; Zaid, S

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this prospective study in Morocco was to investigate the causes of invasive bacterial diseases in children in order to inform antibiotic therapy and vaccine choices. Of 238 children aged < or = 5 years admitted to the Children's Hospital of Casablanca for invasive diseases over a 12-month period, 185 were diagnosed with bacterial infection: 76 had chest-X-ray-confirmed pneumonia, 59 had meningitis and 50 had sepsis. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most common pathogen identified (n = 24), followed by Neisseria meningitidis (n = 18, all group B) and Haemophilus influenzae (n = 11). The rate of penicillin non-susceptibility was 62.5% among Str. pneumoniae isolates and 11.1% among N. meningitidis and all isolates were ceftriaxone-susceptible. Of the 11 H. influenzae isolates, only 1 produced a beta-lactamase. The 5 predominant Str. pneumoniae serotypes were 19F, 14, 23F, 6B and 19A and the theoretical coverage of the 7, 10 and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines was 60%, 78% and 91% respectively.

  16. Air pollution as a determinant of asthma among schoolchildren in Mohammedia, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Houssaini, Ahmed S Squalli; Messaouri, Hafida; Nasri, Isaad; Roth, Marie P; Nejjari, Chakib; Benchekroun, Mohammed N

    2007-08-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate whether air quality in western Morocco is truly a significant risk factor in the development and exacerbation of respiratory diseases and, in particular, asthma. The continuous measurement of the mean concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) in the air and the density of Total Suspended Particulates (TSP) for a period of four years was determined. Information on individual characteristics and indoor environments from 1318 children with an average age of 12 years was evaluated by questionnaire, completed by parents (assisted by professional investigators) and symptoms/diseases were medically diagnosed and reported. We have used the Student's t-test, Chi-square tests & odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI 95%) for estimates of the risk of asthma. The prevalence of asthma varies in a significant way according to the zone (chi(2) = 14.61, p < 0.05). Respiratory diseases (OR 6.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.09-9.64, p < 0.0001), strongly polluted zone (OR 3.62, 95% CI 1.71-7.81, p < or = 0.0001) and infectious diseases (OR 3.29, 95% CI 1.99-5.47, p < 0.0001) are high risk factors for asthma. Air pollution is a determinant factor but is not the only factor increasing the risk of asthma in children; other factors such as respiratory diseases, infectious diseases, genetic and passive smoking present a high-risk threat.

  17. Remineralization of permeate water by calcite bed in the Daoura's plant (south of Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biyoune, M. G.; Atbir, A.; Bari, H.; Hassnaoui, L.; Mongach, E.; Khadir, A.; Boukbir, L.; Bellajrou, R.; Elhadek, M.

    2017-04-01

    To face water shortage and to fight drought, the National office of Water and Electricity (ONEE) carried out a program aiming at constructing several desalination stations of seawater in the South of Morocco. However, the final product water after desalination (osmosis water) has turned out to be unbalanced and has an aggressive character. Therefore, a post-treatment of remineralization is necessary to recover the calco-carbonic equilibrium of water and to protect the distribution network from corrosion degradation. Thereby, our work aims to examine the performance of the remineralization used in Daoura plant by the calcite bed in the absence of carbon dioxide CO2 (without acidification), we have followed many parameters indicating the performance of this technique adopted such as pH, TAC (hydroxide, carbonate and bicarbonate content), Ca content, Langelier saturation index (LSI), Larson index (LR). The results obtained show that this technique adopted in Daoura plant brings to water back its entire calco-carbonic balance to measure up to the Moroccan standards of drinking water. Generally, the exploitation of the calcite bed technique for remineralization is simple, easy and it does not require any major efforts or precautions.

  18. Tetradactyl Footprints of an Unknown Affinity Theropod Dinosaur from the Upper Jurassic of Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Nouri, Jaouad; Díaz-Martínez, Ignacio; Pérez-Lorente, Félix

    2011-01-01

    Background New tetradactyl theropod footprints from Upper Jurassic (Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian) have been found in the Iouaridène syncline (Morocco). The tracksites are at several layers in the intermediate lacustrine unit of Iouaridène Formation. The footprints were named informally in previous works “Eutynichnium atlasipodus”. We consider as nomen nudum. Methodology/Principal Findings Boutakioutichnium atlasicus ichnogen. et ichnosp. nov. is mainly characterized by the hallux impression. It is long, strong, directed medially or forward, with two digital pads and with the proximal part of the first pad in lateral position. More than 100 footprints in 15 trackways have been studied with these features. The footprints are large, 38–48 cm in length, and 26–31 cm in width. Conclusions/Significance Boutakioutichnium mainly differs from other ichnotaxa with hallux impression in lacking metatarsal marks and in not being a very deep footprint. The distinct morphology of the hallux of the Boutakioutichnium trackmaker –i.e. size and hallux position- are unique in the dinosaur autopodial record to date. PMID:22180775

  19. Influence of Environmental Factors on Essential Oil Variability in Origanum compactum Benth. Growing Wild in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Aboukhalid, Kaoutar; Al Faiz, Chaouki; Douaik, Ahmed; Bakha, Mohamed; Kursa, Karolina; Agacka-Mołdoch, Monika; Machon, Nathalie; Tomi, Félix; Lamiri, Abdeslam

    2017-09-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of environmental factors on essential oils (EOs) composition of Origanum compactum populations sampled all over the distribution area of the species in Morocco, and to determine the extent of the chemical profiles throughout the geographical distribution of the species. The chemical compositions were submitted to canonical correlation analysis and canonical discriminant analysis that indicated a significant relationship between oil components and some environmental factors. According to their chemical composition and edapho-climatic characteristics, two major groups of populations were differentiated. The first group was composed of samples growing in regions with humid climate, clayey, sandy, and alkaline soils. These samples showed high thymol, α-terpineol, linalool, and carvacryl methyl oxide content. The second group consisted of plants belonging to semi-arid climate, and growing at high altitudes and silty soils. These samples were characterized by high carvacrol, α-thujene, α-terpinene, and myrcene content. However, populations exposed to sub-humid climate, appeared less homogeneous and belong mainly either to the first or second group. A significant correlation between some edaphic factors (pH, K 2 O content, soil texture) and the EOs yield of O. compactum plants was evidenced. In spite of the correlation obtained for the oil composition with edapho-climatic factors and the variance explained by the environmental data set, the observed EO diversity might be also genetically determined. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  20. EGFR Amplification and IDH Mutations in Glioblastoma Patients of the Northeast of Morocco.

    PubMed

    Senhaji, Nadia; Louati, Sara; Chbani, Laila; El Fatemi, Hind; Hammas, Nawal; Mikou, Karima; Maaroufi, Mustapha; Benzagmout, Mohammed; Boujraf, Said; El Bardai, Sanae; Giry, Marine; Marie, Yannick; Chaoui El Faiz, Mohammed; Mokhtari, Karima; Idbaih, Ahmed; Amarti, Afaf; Bennis, Sanae

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastomas are the most frequent and aggressive primary brain tumors which are expressing various evolutions, aggressiveness, and prognosis. Thus, the 2007 World Health Organization classification based solely on the histological criteria is no longer sufficient. It should be complemented by molecular analysis for a true histomolecular classification. The new 2016 WHO classification of tumors of the central nervous system uses molecular parameters in addition to histology to reclassify these tumors and reduce the interobserver variability. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of IDH mutations and EGFR amplifications in the population of the northeast region of Morocco and then to compare the results with other studies. Methods . IDH1 codon 132 and IDH2 codon 172 were directly sequenced and the amplification of exon 20 of EGFR gene was investigated by qPCR in 65 glioblastoma tumors diagnosed at the University Hospital of Fez between 2010 and 2014. Results . The R132H IDH1 mutation was observed in 8 of 65 tumor samples (12.31%). No mutation of IDH2 was detected. EGFR amplification was identified in 17 cases (26.15%). Conclusion . A systematic search of both histological and molecular markers should be requisite for a good diagnosis and a better management of glioblastomas.

  1. A New Pterosaur (Pterodactyloidea: Azhdarchidae) from the Upper Cretaceous of Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Nizar; Unwin, David M.; Martill, David M.; Baidder, Lahssen; Zouhri, Samir

    2010-01-01

    The Kem Kem beds in South Eastern Morocco contain a rich early Upper (or possibly late Lower) Cretaceous vertebrate assemblage. Fragmentary remains, predominantly teeth and jaw tips, represent several kinds of pterosaur although only one species, the ornithocheirid Coloborhynchus moroccensis, has been named. Here, we describe a new azhdarchid pterosaur, Alanqa saharica nov. gen. nov. sp., based on an almost complete well preserved mandibular symphysis from Aferdou N'Chaft. We assign additional fragmentary jaw remains, some of which have been tentatively identified as azhdarchid and pteranodontid, to this new taxon which is distinguished from other azhdarchids by a remarkably straight, elongate, lance-shaped mandibular symphysis that bears a pronounced dorsal eminence near the posterior end of its dorsal (occlusal) surface. Most remains, including the holotype, represent individuals of approximately three to four meters in wingspan, but a fragment of a large cervical vertebra, that probably also belongs to A. saharica, suggests that wingspans of six meters were achieved in this species. The Kem Kem beds have yielded the most diverse pterosaur assemblage yet reported from Africa and provide the first clear evidence for the presence of azhdarchids in Gondwana at the start of the Late Cretaceous. This, the relatively large size achieved by Alanqa, and the additional evidence of variable jaw morphology in azhdarchids provided by this taxon, indicates a longer and more complex history for this clade than previously suspected. PMID:20520782

  2. Estimating the size of hidden populations using respondent-driven sampling data: Case examples from Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Lisa G; McLaughlin, Katherine R; Rhilani, Houssine El; Latifi, Amina; Toufik, Abdalla; Bennani, Aziza; Alami, Kamal; Elomari, Boutaina; Handcock, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    Background Respondent-driven sampling is used worldwide to estimate the population prevalence of characteristics such as HIV/AIDS and associated risk factors in hard-to-reach populations. Estimating the total size of these populations is of great interest to national and international organizations, however reliable measures of population size often do not exist. Methods Successive Sampling-Population Size Estimation (SS-PSE) along with network size imputation allows population size estimates to be made without relying on separate studies or additional data (as in network scale-up, multiplier and capture-recapture methods), which may be biased. Results Ten population size estimates were calculated for people who inject drugs, female sex workers, men who have sex with other men, and migrants from sub-Sahara Africa in six different cities in Morocco. SS-PSE estimates fell within or very close to the likely values provided by experts and the estimates from previous studies using other methods. Conclusions SS-PSE is an effective method for estimating the size of hard-to-reach populations that leverages important information within respondent-driven sampling studies. The addition of a network size imputation method helps to smooth network sizes allowing for more accurate results. However, caution should be used particularly when there is reason to believe that clustered subgroups may exist within the population of interest or when the sample size is small in relation to the population. PMID:26258908

  3. Detection of sand encroachment patterns in desert oases. The case of Erg Chebbi (Morocco).

    PubMed

    Puy, Arnald; Herzog, Manuel; Escriche, Pedro; Marouche, Amou; Oubana, Yousef; Bubenzer, Olaf

    2018-06-11

    Desert oases are fragile agrarian areas, very vulnerable to sand encroachment by wind. Ensuring their conservation highly depends on our capacity to identify sand encroachment patterns, e.g. the origin of sand and its spatial distribution in the irrigated plots. Here we show how to tackle this issue using the case study of Erg Chebbi (Morocco), where two oases (Hassilabiad and Merzouga) are surrounded by dunes, Hamada and alluvial sediments from the Wadi Ziz. We combine field interviews with the study of wind dynamics, sediment sampling, Particle Size Distribution (PSD) tests and End-Member Modelling Analysis (EMMA). We observe that the most relevant contributor to sand encroachment is the Wadi Ziz (30%), followed by the Hamada (28%), an undetermined source of dust (25%), and the Erg dunes (16%). These genetically different sediments cluster unevenly in the oases, indicating the existence of areas with contrasting degrees of exposure to sedimentary sources. The results allow to define on solid grounds which sand source areas should be stabilized first in order to obtain the greatest reduction in sand encroachment. Our approach also provides policy-makers with better tools to identify which spots are specially vulnerable to accumulate a specific sediment, thus allowing for a more nuanced management of sand in oasis environments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. EGFR Amplification and IDH Mutations in Glioblastoma Patients of the Northeast of Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Louati, Sara; Chbani, Laila; El Fatemi, Hind; Hammas, Nawal; Mikou, Karima; Maaroufi, Mustapha; Benzagmout, Mohammed; Boujraf, Said; El Bardai, Sanae; Giry, Marine; Marie, Yannick; Chaoui El Faiz, Mohammed; Mokhtari, Karima; Amarti, Afaf; Bennis, Sanae

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastomas are the most frequent and aggressive primary brain tumors which are expressing various evolutions, aggressiveness, and prognosis. Thus, the 2007 World Health Organization classification based solely on the histological criteria is no longer sufficient. It should be complemented by molecular analysis for a true histomolecular classification. The new 2016 WHO classification of tumors of the central nervous system uses molecular parameters in addition to histology to reclassify these tumors and reduce the interobserver variability. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of IDH mutations and EGFR amplifications in the population of the northeast region of Morocco and then to compare the results with other studies. Methods. IDH1 codon 132 and IDH2 codon 172 were directly sequenced and the amplification of exon 20 of EGFR gene was investigated by qPCR in 65 glioblastoma tumors diagnosed at the University Hospital of Fez between 2010 and 2014. Results. The R132H IDH1 mutation was observed in 8 of 65 tumor samples (12.31%). No mutation of IDH2 was detected. EGFR amplification was identified in 17 cases (26.15%). Conclusion. A systematic search of both histological and molecular markers should be requisite for a good diagnosis and a better management of glioblastomas. PMID:28785587

  5. [Survival rate for breast cancer in Rabat (Morocco) 2005-2008].

    PubMed

    Mechita, Nada Bennani; Tazi, Mohammed Adnane; Er-Raki, Abdelouahed; Mrabet, Mustapha; Saadi, Asma; Benjaafar, Noureddine; Razine, Rachid

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a public health problem in Morocco. This study aims to estimate the survival rate for patients with breast cancer living in Rabat. We conducted a prognostic study of female patients with breast cancer diagnosed during 2005-2008, living in Rabat and whose data were recorded in the Rabat Cancer Registry. The date of inclusion in this study corresponded with the date on which cancer was histologically confirmed. Survival rate was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and the comparison between the different classes of a variable was made using the log rank test. The study of factors associated with survival was performed using the Cox model. During the study period 628 cases of breast cancer were collected. Mortality rate was 19.9%. Overall 1-year survival rate was 97.1%, 89.2% at 3 years and 80.6% at 5 years. In multivariate analysis, breast cancer survival was statistically lower in patients over 70 years of age (p <0.001) with large tumor size (p < 0.001), advanced-stage adenopathies (p = 0.007), metastases (p < 0.001) and not using hormone therapy (p = 0.002). Large tumor size and metastases are poor prognostic factors in breast cancer, hence the need to strengthen screening programs.

  6. Inclusion study of hourglass amethyst from Boudi (Morocco) by Raman microspectroscopy and microthermometric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumańska-Słowik, Magdalena; Toboła, Tomasz; Jarmołowicz-Szulc, Katarzyna; Naglik, Beata; Dyląg, Joanna; Szczerba, Jacek

    2017-12-01

    Amethyst from Boudi with characteristic hourglass colour zoning hosts numerous pseudo-secondary fluid and mineral inclusions. Measured values of temperature homogenization (Th) for selected fluid inclusion assemblages (FIA) in colourless and violet regions of the crystal range from 154 to 330 °C. The higher temperatures values are characteristic for violet zones than colourless regions of the crystal. The brine content and concentration vary from 5.71 to 13.94 wt% NaCl eq. Raman spectra of selected fluid inclusions revealed they are mainly composed of H2O (3500-3000 cm- 1) and subordinately CO2 both gaseous and liquid (1386 cm- 1 and 1281 cm- 1). Mineral inclusions are mainly represented by hematite with marker bands at 1321, 413, 293 and 227 cm- 1, subordinately quartz. Amethyst crystallized from medium- to low-temperature silica fluids (191-445 °C, 64-131 MPa) containing some amounts of CO2 and Fe at hydrothermal stage of post magmatic activity in Boudi (Morocco). Its possible depth of formation was calculated to be ca. 2.8-5.7 km.

  7. Effect of environmental conditions on the decay of stone in archaeological site of Volubilis - Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aalil, Issam; Chaaba, Ali; Cherkaoui, Khalid; Brunetaud, Xavier; Beck, Kevin; Al-Mukhtar, Muzahim

    2015-04-01

    Volubilis is the most excavated and the best preserved archaeological site of Morocco. Located about thirty kilometres north of Meknes, it was a Mauritanian capital founded in the 3rd century B.C., and became an important outpost of the Roman Empire. Volubilis monuments are constructed with five regional lithotypes of limestone. A grey massive limestone and beige-yellowish calcarenite limestone are the two most largely used on Volubilis site, representing respectively about 30% and 60 % of the total volume of building stones. Field observations showed that the calcarenite limestone is more decayed than the massive limestone and is mainly affected by scaling, alveolization and sanding. This work aims to estimate the role of environmental conditions on the decay of the calcarenite stone through the effect of thermal stresses and freezing-thawing action. Air temperature data of Meknes station is analysed. Furthermore, mineralogical composition of the calcarenite limestone and its intrinsic properties required for stress calculation are determined. The results of this study show that the calcarenite limestone is a quite soft carbonate stone, contains about 71 % of calcite, 18 % of quartz and others accessory minerals. Besides, there is no risk of damage due to freezing-thawing processes. Nonetheless, thermal stresses may have an important role in the decay of calcarenite stones of the Volubilis site.

  8. Studies on the epidemiology and control of seasonal conjunctivitis and trachoma in southern Morocco*

    PubMed Central

    Reinhards, J.; Weber, A.; Nižetič, B.; Kupka, K.; Maxwell-Lyons, F.

    1968-01-01

    It has been noted in many parts of the world that bacterial conjunctivitis is a major cause of total or partial loss of vision. In addition, trachoma is aggravated if there are associated bacterial infections and these lead to more frequent corneal complications. In the trials described the seasonal variation of bacterial infections was studied in addition to trachoma in 3 pilot sectors in southern Morocco. The frequency of complications and late sequelae from these infections in the whole population of these sectors was also studied. In one of the sectors 3 different methods of limiting the regular seasonal increase in bacterial infections and of curing trachoma were evaluated separately or in combination. These included the effect of fly-suppression on the transmission of infection, a possible method of chemoprophylaxis, and intermittent treatment with chlortetracycline ointment. The effect of the latter, when applied to a whole population group by auxiliary personnel, was compared with the long-term effect of self-treatment, in this and the two other sectors. The total observation period covered 12 years. PMID:5304804

  9. Contribution of Modis Satellite Image to Estimate the Daily Air Temperature in the Casablanca City, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahi, Hicham; Rhinane, Hassan; Bensalmia, Ahmed

    2016-10-01

    Air temperature is considered to be an essential variable for the study and analysis of meteorological regimes and chronics. However, the implementation of a daily monitoring of this variable is very difficult to achieve. It requires sufficient of measurements stations density, meteorological parks and favourable logistics. The present work aims to establish relationship between day and night land surface temperatures from MODIS data and the daily measurements of air temperature acquired between [2011-20112] and provided by the Department of National Meteorology [DMN] of Casablanca, Morocco. The results of the statistical analysis show significant interdependence during night observations with correlation coefficient of R2=0.921 and Root Mean Square Error RMSE=1.503 for Tmin while the physical magnitude estimated from daytime MODIS observation shows a relatively coarse error with R2=0.775 and RMSE=2.037 for Tmax. A method based on Gaussian process regression was applied to compute the spatial distribution of air temperature from MODIS throughout the city of Casablanca.

  10. Age, temperature and pressure of metamorphism in the Tasriwine Ophiolite Complex, Sirwa, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samson, S. D.; Inglis, J.; Hefferan, K. P.; Admou, H.; Saquaque, A.

    2013-12-01

    Sm-Nd garnet-whole rock geochronology and phase equilbria modeling have been used to determine the age and conditions of regional metamorphism within the Tasriwine ophiolite complex,Sirwa, Morocco. Pressure and temperature estimates obtained using a NaCaKFMASHT phase diagram (pseudosection) and garnet core and rim compositions predict that garnet growth began at ~0.72GPa and ~615°C and ended at ~0.8GPa and ~640°C. A bulk garnet Sm-Nd age of 645.6 × 1.6 Ma, calculated from a four point isochron that combines whole rock, garnet full dissolution and two successively more aggressive partial dissolutions, provides a precise date for garnet formation and regional metamorphism. The age is nearly 20 million years younger than a previous age estimate of regional metamorphism of 663 × 14 Ma based upon a SHRIMP U-Pb date from rims on zircon from the Irri migmatite. The new data provide further constraints on the age and nature of regional metamorphism in the Anti-Atlas mountains and emphasizes that garnet growth during regional metamorphism may not necessarily coincide with magmatism/anatexis which predominate the signature witnessed by previous U-Pb studies. The ability to couple PT estimates for garnet formation with high precision Sm- Nd geochronology highlights the utility of garnet studies for uncovering the detailed metamorphic history of the Anti-Atlas mountain belt.

  11. Structural styles of the western onshore and offshore termination of the High Atlas, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafid, Mohamad; Zizi, Mahmoud; Bally, Albert W.; Ait Salem, Abdellah

    2006-01-01

    The present work aims (1) at documenting, by regional seismic transects, how the structural style varies in the western High Atlas system and its prolongation under the present-day Atlantic margin, (2) at understanding how this variation is related to the local geological framework, especially the presence of salt within the sedimentary cover, and (3) at discussing the exact geographic location of the northern front of the western High Atlas and how it links with the most western Atlas front in the offshore Cap Tafelney High Atlas. Previous work showed that the structural style of the Atlas belt changes eastward from a dominantly thick-skinned one in central and eastern High Atlas and Middle Atlas of Morocco to a dominantly thin-skinned one in Algeria and Tunisia. We propose here to show that a similar structural style change can be observed in the other direction of the Atlas Belt within its western termination, where the western High Atlas intersects at right angle the Atlantic passive margin and develops into a distinct segment, namely the High Atlas of Cap Tafelney, where salt/evaporite-based décollement tectonics prevail. To cite this article: M. Hafid et al., C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006).

  12. Prevalence of Iron Deficiency Anaemia Among School Children in Kenitra, Northwest of Morocco.

    PubMed

    Achouri, I; Aboussaleh, Y; Sbaibi, R; Ahami, A; El Hioui, M

    2015-04-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia is an important health problem in Morocco. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of anaemia among school children in Kenitra. The sample represents school children of all educational levels and age ranged between 6-15 years. The level of hemoglobin, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration was measured in a group of 271 school children. The seric iron was assessed and anaemia was defined when hemoglobin < 11.5 g dL(-1). A questionnaire was developed to obtain information about the daily food consumption and socio-economic conditions. The prevalence of anaemia was 16.2%. The mean hemoglobin concentration was 12.53 g dL(-1) in boys and 12.52 g dL(-1) in girls. The results suggest that iron deficiency is an important determinant of anaemia in this population. There was a significant relationship between education of the mother and anaemia in children (p = 0.004) but not with the family income. It is concluded that improving the economic status of the family, women education and health education about balanced animal and plant food consumption are recommended strategies to reduce the burden of anaemia.

  13. Enhancing economic competiveness of dish Stirling technology through production volume and localization: Case study for Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larchet, Kevin; Guédez, Rafael; Topel, Monika; Gustavsson, Lars; Machirant, Andrew; Hedlund, Maria-Lina; Laumert, Björn

    2017-06-01

    The present study quantifies the reduction in the levelized cost of electricity (LCoE) and capital expenditure (CAPEX) of a dish Stirling power plant (DSPP) through an increase in localization and unit production volume. Furthermore, the localization value of the plant is examined to determine how much investment is brought into the local economy. Ouarzazate, Morocco, was chosen as the location of the study due to the country's favorable regulatory framework with regards to solar power technologies and its established industry in the concentrating solar power (CSP) field. A detailed techno-economic model of a DSPP was developed using KTH's in-house modelling tool DYESOPT, which allows power plant evaluation by means of technical and economic performance indicators. Results on the basis of LCoE and CAPEX were compared between two different cases of production volume, examining both a minimum and maximum level of localization. Thereafter, the DSPP LCoE and localization value were compared against competing solar technologies to evaluate its competitiveness. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was conducted around key design parameters. The study confirms that the LCoE of a DSPP can be reduced to values similar to solar photovoltaic (PV) and lower than other CSP technologies. Furthermore, the investment in the local economy is far greater when compared to PV and of the same magnitude to other CSP technologies. The competiveness of a DSPP has the potential to increase further when coupled with thermal energy storage (TES), which is currently under development.

  14. Solid-state characterization and impurities determination of fluconazol generic products marketed in Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Bourichi, Houda; Brik, Youness; Hubert, Philipe; Cherrah, Yahia; Bouklouze, Abdelaziz

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we report the results of quality control based in physicochemical characterization and impurities determination of three samples of fluconazole drug substances marketed in Morocco. These samples were supplied by different pharmaceuticals companies. The sample A, as the discovered product, was supplied by Pfizer, while samples B and C (generics), were manufactured by two different Indian industries. Solid-state characterization of the three samples was realized with different physicochemical methods as: X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier-transformation infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry. High performance liquid chromatography was used to quantify the impurities in the different samples. The results from the physicochemical methods cited above, showed difference in polymorph structure of the three drug substances. Sample A consisted in pure polymorph III, sample B consisted in pure polymorph II, sample C consisted in a mixture of fluconazole Form III, form II and the monohydrate. This result was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry. Also it was demonstrated that solvents used during the re-crystallization step were among the origins of these differences in the structure form. On the other hand, the result of the stability study under humidity and temperature showed that fluconazole polymorphic transformation could be owed to the no compliance with the conditions of storage. The HPLC analysis of these compounds showed the presence of specific impurities for each polymorphic form, and a possible relationship could be exist between impurities and crystalline form of fluconazole. PMID:29403776

  15. Human Exposure to Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Two Cities of Northwestern Morocco.

    PubMed

    Elhamiani Khatat, Sarah; Sahibi, Hamid; Hing, Mony; Alaoui Moustain, Ismail; El Amri, Hamid; Benajiba, Mohammed; Kachani, Malika; Duchateau, Luc; Daminet, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging tick-borne zoonosis with extensive increased interest. Epidemiological data are available in several regions of the USA, Europe and Asia in contrast to other parts of the world such as North Africa. Blood samples of 261 healthy individuals divided in two groups i.e., dog handlers and blood donors were analysed. Indirect immunofluorescent assay using a commercial kit was performed to detect specific A. phagocytophilum IgG. Two dilutions were used to assess the prevalence of seroreactive samples. Demographic variables were assessed as potential risk factors using exact logistic regression. Seropositivity rates reached 37% and 27% in dog handlers and 36% and 22% in blood donors. No statistically significant differences were found in the prevalence rates between the two groups. Analysis of risk factors such as gender, age groups, outdoor activities, self-reported previous exposure to ticks, or contact with domestic animals (dogs, cats, ruminants and horses) did not shown any significant difference. A. phagocytophilum exposure was common in both high-risk population and blood donors in Morocco.

  16. Integrated health messaging for multiple neglected zoonoses: Approaches, challenges and opportunities in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Ducrotoy, M J; Yahyaoui Azami, H; El Berbri, I; Bouslikhane, M; Fassi Fihri, O; Boué, F; Petavy, A F; Dakkak, A; Welburn, S; Bardosh, K L

    2015-12-01

    Integrating the control of multiple neglected zoonoses at the community-level holds great potential, but critical data is missing to inform the design and implementation of different interventions. In this paper we present an evaluation of an integrated health messaging intervention, using powerpoint presentations, for five bacterial (brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis) and dog-associated (rabies, cystic echinococcosis and leishmaniasis) zoonotic diseases in Sidi Kacem Province, northwest Morocco. Conducted by veterinary and epidemiology students between 2013 and 2014, this followed a process-based approach that encouraged sequential adaptation of images, key messages, and delivery strategies using auto-evaluation and end-user feedback. We describe the challenges and opportunities of this approach, reflecting on who was targeted, how education was conducted, and what tools and approaches were used. Our results showed that: (1) replacing words with local pictures and using "hands-on" activities improved receptivity; (2) information "overload" easily occurred when disease transmission pathways did not overlap; (3) access and receptivity at schools was greater than at the community-level; and (4) piggy-backing on high-priority diseases like rabies offered an important avenue to increase knowledge of other zoonoses. We conclude by discussing the merits of incorporating our validated education approach into the school curriculum in order to influence long-term behaviour change. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Morphological characteristics and medium-term evolution of the beaches between Ceuta and Cabo Negro (Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anfuso, G.; Martínez Del Pozo, J. A.; Nachite, D.; Benavente, J.; Macias, A.

    2007-05-01

    This work presents the results of a combined study on the beach morphology and the evolution at short- and medium-term of the littoral between Ceuta and Cabo Negro (Morocco). It is an interesting sector showing a great increase of human occupation and coastal structures. The monitoring program allowed for the reconstruction of the beach morphological behavior and the seasonal changes. The studied beaches presented reflective profiles recording little seasonality, with the most notable morphological changes being strictly related to storms. Surf Similarity and Surf Scaling parameters highlighted the existence of intermediate and reflective beach states, characterized by plunging breakers. Aerial photographs and a satellite image have been geo-referenced and elaborated with GIS tools to reconstruct the short- and medium-term evolution of the littoral and the sediment transport pathways. The littoral showed important erosion at short- and medium-term related to a negative sedimentary budget because of offshore transport. Sand accumulation was recorded close to the main ports, i.e., Marina Smir and Marina Kabila. These port structures constituted impermeable, fixed limits, which divided the studied area into littoral cells. Other free, transit limits were also observed.

  18. Epidemiology and risk factors of voluntary pesticide poisoning in Morocco (2008-2014).

    PubMed

    Nabih, Zineb; Amiar, Latifa; Abidli, Zakaria; Windy, Maria; Soulaymani, Abdelmajid; Mokhtari, Abdelrhani; Soulaymani-Bencheikh, Rachida

    2017-01-01

    To determine the epidemiological profile and risk factors of voluntary poisoning by pesticides. A retrospective analysis was conducted of all cases of voluntary poisoning by pesticides registered at the AntiPoison and Pharmacovigilance Center of Morocco between January 2008 and December 2014. During the study period, 2,690 cases of acute pesticide poisoning were registered. The region of Rabat-Salé-Zemmour-Zaer accounted for the largest proportion, with 598 cases. The average age of the patients was 24.63±10.29 years. The sex ratio (female-to-male) was 0.45. Adults and teenagers were most affected by this type of poisoning, with 1,667 cases (62.0%) and 806 cases (30.0%), respectively. Suicide attempts accounted for 98.4% of the cases (2,469 cases). Pesticide poisoning occurred more often in urban zones (64.8%). Insecticides were incriminated in 14.0% of cases, with a mortality rate of 4.2%. Among the 1,635 patients for whom the outcomes were known, 154 died, corresponding to a mortality rate of 5.7%. Voluntary intoxication by pesticides presents a real scourge that affects public health, and in this study, we developed an epidemiological profile of this phenomenon. Nevertheless, this study has limitations in that it did not evaluate the impact of the socioeconomic and psychological factors that are important contributors to this type of poisoning.

  19. Epidemiology and risk factors of voluntary pesticide poisoning in Morocco (2008-2014)

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine the epidemiological profile and risk factors of voluntary poisoning by pesticides. METHODS A retrospective analysis was conducted of all cases of voluntary poisoning by pesticides registered at the AntiPoison and Pharmacovigilance Center of Morocco between January 2008 and December 2014. RESULTS During the study period, 2,690 cases of acute pesticide poisoning were registered. The region of Rabat-Salé-Zemmour-Zaer accounted for the largest proportion, with 598 cases. The average age of the patients was 24.63±10.29 years. The sex ratio (female-to-male) was 0.45. Adults and teenagers were most affected by this type of poisoning, with 1,667 cases (62.0%) and 806 cases (30.0%), respectively. Suicide attempts accounted for 98.4% of the cases (2,469 cases). Pesticide poisoning occurred more often in urban zones (64.8%). Insecticides were incriminated in 14.0% of cases, with a mortality rate of 4.2%. Among the 1,635 patients for whom the outcomes were known, 154 died, corresponding to a mortality rate of 5.7%. CONCLUSIONS Voluntary intoxication by pesticides presents a real scourge that affects public health, and in this study, we developed an epidemiological profile of this phenomenon. Nevertheless, this study has limitations in that it did not evaluate the impact of the socioeconomic and psychological factors that are important contributors to this type of poisoning. PMID:28882026

  20. Qualitative study of perceived causes of tuberculosis treatment default among health care workers in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Kizub, D; Ghali, I; Sabouni, R; Bourkadi, J E; Bennani, K; El Aouad, R; Dooley, K E

    2012-09-01

    In Morocco, tuberculosis (TB) treatment default is increasing in some urban areas. To provide a detailed description of factors that contribute to patient default and solutions from the point of view of health care professionals who participate in TB care. In-depth interviews were conducted with 62 physicians and nurses at nine regional public pulmonary clinics and local health clinics. Participants had a median of 24 years of experience in health care. Treatment default was seen as a result of multilevel factors related to the patient (lack of means, being a migrant worker, distance to treatment site, poor understanding of treatment, drug use, mental illness), medical team (high patient load, low motivation, lack of resources for tracking defaulters), treatment organization (poor communication between treatment sites, no systematic strategy for patient education or tracking, incomplete record keeping), and health care system and society. Tailored recommendations for low- and higher-cost interventions are provided. Interventions to enhance TB treatment completion should take into account the local context and multilevel factors that contribute to default. Qualitative studies involving health care workers directly involved in TB care can be powerful tools to identify contributing factors and define strategies to help reduce treatment default.

  1. Distribution of naturally occurring radionuclides (U, Th) in Timahdit black shale (Morocco).

    PubMed

    Galindo, C; Mougin, L; Fakhi, S; Nourreddine, A; Lamghari, A; Hannache, H

    2007-01-01

    Attention has been focused recently on the use of Moroccan black oil shale as the raw material for production of a new type of adsorbent and its application to U and Th removal from contaminated wastewaters. The purpose of the present work is to provide a better understanding of the composition and structure of this shale and to determine its natural content in uranium and thorium. A black shale collected from Timahdit (Morocco) was analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction and SEM techniques. It was found that calcite, dolomite, quartz and clays constitute the main composition of the inorganic matrix. Pyrite crystals are also present. A selective leaching procedure, followed by radiochemical purification and alpha-counting, was performed to assess the distribution of naturally occurring radionuclides. Leaching results indicate that 238U, 235U, 234U, 232Th, 230Th and 228Th have multiple modes of occurrence in the shale. U is interpreted to have been concentrated under anaerobic conditions. An integrated isotopic approach showed the preferential mobilization of uranium carried by humic acids to carbonate and apatite phases. Th is partitioned between silicate minerals and pyrite.

  2. Argan woodlands in South Morocco as an area of conflict between degradation and sustainable land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchhoff, Mario; Kagermeier, Andreas; Ries, Johannes B.

    2016-04-01

    The Argan woodlands are endemic for South Morocco and prone to degradation through expanding and intensifying agriculture and overgrazing. Unvegetated areas extend further due to degradation of soil and vegetation. Here infiltration is less than on vegetated areas, while runoff and soil erosion increase. The sale of the highly valuable oil, gained from the seeds of the argan tree, can be seen as an economic alternative for the region and a chance of survival for the argan woodlands. With the introduction of women's cooperatives for the production and sale of the oil, the Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ, Association for Technical Cooperation) hoped to halt argan degradation from 1995 to 2002. The effects of this approach shall be studied in a proposed DFG-project. The erosion gradient between soils under canopy cover and intertree areas in varying stages of degradation will be at the center of the analysis. Insight into onsite and offsite degradation shall be gained through the measurement of runoff and erosion rates, which lead to rill and gully erosion downslope. Measurements of soil chemical and physical properties might also help indicate when an argan woodland can be classified as natural. Furthermore to be studied are the effects of the new found value of the Argan woodlands among the local population with focus on regional tourism and a possible reduction of grazing pressure. Sustainable soil management in combination with the needs of the local population is essential for a sustainable land use in the region.

  3. Folding kinematics expressed in fracture patterns: An example from the Anti-Atlas fold belt, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismat, Zeshan

    2008-11-01

    The Anti-Atlas fold belt, Morocco, formed during the same Variscan collisional event that produced the Valley-and-Ridge fold-thrust belt of the Appalachian mountains. Both are external belts of the Appalachian-Ouachita-Mauritanides chain and at the map scale have very similar topographic expressions. The Anti-Atlas, however, consists of map-scale folds that are buckle-related, detachment folds, whereas the Valley-and-Ridge folds developed in response to imbricate thrusting. For this reason, the Anti-Atlas is referred to as a fold belt rather than a fold-thrust belt. This paper examines Variscan folding processes in the Anti-Atlas Mountains. Folding in some layers occurred by sliding along a penetrative network of mesoscale fractures, i.e. cataclastic flow, during buckling. Layer-parallel shortening fractures were reactivated in the later stages of folding to accommodate limb rotation. Although 'boutonnieres', i.e. basement uplifts, punctuate the fold belt, the fracture patterns indicate that the uplifts failed to provide any 'bending' component. Folding is also interpreted to occur under low to moderate confining pressures because the fracture network includes conjugate shear fractures with very small (˜20°) dihedral angles.

  4. Famine relief and imperial policy in early modern Morocco: the political functions of public health.

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, A R

    1981-01-01

    There has been no systematic ethnology nor comparative history of public health. In fact, there has been a broad consensus that prior to the arrival of missionaries and colonial health authorities there was no indigenous public health. These assumptions apply to only some settings and do not reflect the general history of public health. The present study concerns public health in the first century of Alawi rule in Morocco, ca. 1670-1790. The early Alawi sultans undertook public health programs, most of which concerned the prevention and relief of mass starvation. Goals of the programs were consistent with other features of their public policies. Effectiveness of the programs was limited partly by technical and scientific factors, but more by political constraints, especially the sultans' higher priorities for political stability than public welfare and public health. These data provide important insights not only into Moroccan social and political history, but also into the more general problem of the political nature of public health. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 PMID:7027811

  5. Tsunami vulnerability and damage assessment in the coastal area of Rabat and Salé, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atillah, A.; El Hadani, D.; Moudni, H.; Lesne, O.; Renou, C.; Mangin, A.; Rouffi, F.

    2011-12-01

    This study, a companion paper to Renou et al. (2011), focuses on the application of a GIS-based method to assess building vulnerability and damage in the event of a tsunami affecting the coastal area of Rabat and Salé, Morocco. This approach, designed within the framework of the European SCHEMA project (www.schemaproject.org) is based on the combination of hazard results from numerical modelling of the worst case tsunami scenario (inundation depth) based on the historical Lisbon earthquake of 1755 and the Portugal earthquake of 1969, together with vulnerability building types derived from Earth Observation data, field surveys and GIS data. The risk is then evaluated for this highly concentrated population area characterized by the implementation of a vast project of residential and touristic buildings within the flat area of the Bouregreg Valley separating the cities of Rabat and Salé. A GIS tool is used to derive building damage maps by crossing layers of inundation levels and building vulnerability. The inferred damage maps serve as a base for elaborating evacuation plans with appropriate rescue and relief processes and to prepare and consider appropriate measures to prevent the induced tsunami risk.

  6. The contribution of the seismic component of Topo-Iberia to the imaging of the deep structure of the Iberian Peninsula and North Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Jordi; Gallart, Josep; de Lis Mancilla, Flor; Villaseñor, Antonio; Bonatto, Luciana; Schimmel, Martin; Harnafi, Mimoun; El Moudnib, Lahcen

    2015-04-01

    -correlation/stacking techniques. Ambient noise tomography allows to identify the main sedimentary basins and to discriminate between the Variscan and the Alpine reworked areas. Local body-wave tomography in North Morocco has improved the location of the small magnitude events on the area and the details of the crustal structure. Teleseismic tomography has confirmed, using an independent data set, the presence of a high-velocity slab beneath the Gibraltar Arc.

  7. The IberArray BB seismic network of Topo-Iberia: new constraints revealing the deep structure of the Iberian Peninsula and North Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallart, J.; Diaz Cusi, J.; Villasenor, A.; Mancilla, F. D. L.; Bonatto, L.; Schimmel, M.; El moudnib, L.

    2014-12-01

    Topo-Iberia has been a large-scale Spanish project running from 2007 to 2013 that integrated more than 150 researchers on Earth Sciences. One of its key assets was the management of an observatory platform, named IberArray, aimed to provide new geophysical datasets (seismic, GPS, MT) to constrain the structure of Iberia with unprecedented resolution. The IberArray seismic pool was composed by 70+ BB stations, covering the study area in 3 deployments with a site-density of 60km x 60km. The data base holds ~300 sites, including the permanent networks in the area. Hence it forms a unique seismic database in Europe that allow for multiple analyses to constrain the complex geodinamics of the Western Mediterranean. A summary of new results coming from different techniques is presented here. The SKS splitting analysis has provided a spectacular image of the rotation of the fast velocity direction along the Gibraltar Arc. In central and northern Iberia, the fast polarization directions are close to EW, consistently with global mantle flow models considering contributions of surface plate motion, density variations and net lithosphere rotation. Those results suggest an asthenospheric origin of the observed anisotropy related to present-day mantle flow. Receiver functions have revealed the crustal thickness variations beneath the Rif and southern Iberia, including a crustal root beneath the Rif. The Variscan Iberian massif shows a flat Moho discontinuity, while the areas reworked in the Alpine orogeny show a slightly thicker crust. Beneath N Iberia, the imbrication of the Iberian and Eurasian crusts results in complex receiver functions. Depths exceeding 45 km are observed along the Pyrenean range, while the crust thins to values of 26-28 km close to the Atlantic coasts. The geometry of the 410-km and 660-km discontinuities has been investigated using novel cross-correlation/stacking techniques. Ambient noise tomography allows to identify the main sedimentary basins and to

  8. A new 200 Ma paleomagnetic pole for Africa, and paleo-secular variation scatter from Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) intrusives in Morocco (Ighrem and Foum Zguid dykes)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palencia-Ortas, A.; Ruiz-Martínez, V. C.; Villalaín, J. J.; Osete, M. L.; Vegas, R.; Touil, A.; Hafid, A.; McIntosh, G.; van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.; Torsvik, T. H.

    2011-06-01

    Available apparent polar wander (APW) paths for the 200 Ma configuration of Pangea, just prior to the opening of the Central Atlantic Ocean, differ as much as 10o in arc length. Here, we add new data from northwest Africa for this time, obtained from the northeast-trending Foum-Zguid and Ighrem dykes (ca. 200 Ma). These dykes form part of the northern domain of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), and crosscut the Anti-Atlas Ranges in Morocco, and compositionally correspond to quartz-normative tholeiites intruded in continental lithosphere shortly before the opening of the Central Atlantic Ocean. The Foum-Zguid dyke has been intensively studied, whereas the Ighrem dyke has received less scientific focus. We sampled both dykes for paleomagnetic investigation along 100 km of each dyke (12 sites for Foum-Zguid and 11 for Ighrem, 188 samples included in the final analyses). Rock magnetic experiments indicate a mixture of multidomain and single-domain magnetite and/or low-Ti titanomagnetite particles as the principal remanence carriers. In both dykes, the primary nature of the characteristic remanent magnetization is supported by positive contact tests, related to Fe-metasomatism or baked overprints of the corresponding sedimentary country rocks. The directions of the characteristic magnetization exhibit exclusively normal polarity. Site-mean virtual geomagnetic poles are differently grouped in each dyke, suggesting distinct geomagnetic secular variation records. The Foum-Zguid paleomagnetic pole (N= 12, PLat= 67.9°N, PLon= 247.9°E, κ= 125, A95= 3.9°) plots close to that of Ighrem (N= 11, PLat= 78.4°N, PLon= 238.2°E, κ= 47, A95= 6.7°), confirming those mineralogical and geochemical evidences supporting that they represent dissimilar magmatic stages. Virtual geomagnetic poles dispersion from both dykes (S= 10.5°13.0°8.1°) is in line with those obtained from recent studies of a CAMP-related dyke in Iberia and results from CAMP lavas in the Argana

  9. First record of Stegomyia albopicta (= Aedes albopictus) in Morocco: a major threat to public health in North Africa?

    PubMed

    Bennouna, A; Balenghien, T; El Rhaffouli, H; Schaffner, F; Garros, C; Gardès, L; Lhor, Y; Hammoumi, S; Chlyeh, G; Fassi Fihri, O

    2017-03-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito Stegomyia albopicta (= Aedes albopictus) (Diptera: Culicidae), native to Asian forests, is a nuisance mosquito and is responsible for the transmission of arboviruses of public health importance, such as dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. It has colonized parts of all continents, except Antarctica, over the past 30-40 years. However, to date, the only records of S. albopicta in North Africa refer to occasional collections in 2010 and 2014 in Algeria. In early September 2015, S. albopicta larvae and adults were collected in a district of Rabat, Morocco. Morphological identification was confirmed by molecular analysis. This is the first record of this invasive mosquito in Morocco. A national surveillance programme will be implemented in 2016 to establish its geographical distribution in Morocco and to instigate control measures to prevent the establishment of new populations and the transmission of arboviruses. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  10. Great Basin paleontological database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, N.; Blodgett, R.B.; Hofstra, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has constructed a paleontological database for the Great Basin physiographic province that can be served over the World Wide Web for data entry, queries, displays, and retrievals. It is similar to the web-database solution that we constructed for Alaskan paleontological data (www.alaskafossil.org). The first phase of this effort was to compile a paleontological bibliography for Nevada and portions of adjacent states in the Great Basin that has recently been completed. In addition, we are also compiling paleontological reports (Known as E&R reports) of the U.S. Geological Survey, which are another extensive source of l,egacy data for this region. Initial population of the database benefited from a recently published conodont data set and is otherwise focused on Devonian and Mississippian localities because strata of this age host important sedimentary exhalative (sedex) Au, Zn, and barite resources and enormons Carlin-type An deposits. In addition, these strata are the most important petroleum source rocks in the region, and record the transition from extension to contraction associated with the Antler orogeny, the Alamo meteorite impact, and biotic crises associated with global oceanic anoxic events. The finished product will provide an invaluable tool for future geologic mapping, paleontological research, and mineral resource investigations in the Great Basin, making paleontological data acquired over nearly the past 150 yr readily available over the World Wide Web. A description of the structure of the database and the web interface developed for this effort are provided herein. This database is being used ws a model for a National Paleontological Database (which we am currently developing for the U.S. Geological Survey) as well as for other paleontological databases now being developed in other parts of the globe. ?? 2008 Geological Society of America.

  11. [Hemogram profile and interest of pre-donation hemoglobin measurement in blood donors in the northwest region of Morocco].

    PubMed

    Bakrim, S; Ouarour, A; Jaidann, K; Benajiba, M; Masrar, A

    2018-02-01

    Blood donation in Morocco and more particularly in the northwest region is carried out without prior determination of the pre-donation hemoglobin. In addition, we note the lack of scientific research that reports data on the red blood cells, leukocytes and platelet lines in donated blood at the regional or even national level. To study hemogram profile in blood donors taken from the Northwest region of Morocco in order to provide decision makers of the National Center of Blood Transfusion and Hematology with valid scientific arguments to complete the criteria to donate whole blood, by the hemogram. Prospective study, conducted in 15797 volunteer blood donors (BD) aged between 18 and 60 years, collected during mobile or fixed collections carried out by the Regional Blood Transfusion Center of Tangier and Tetouan from November 2014 to May 2016. The hemogram was performed using a Sysmex KX21N ® and the analysis of the data was done by the software SPSS 20.0. According to the World Health Organization, anemia corresponds to a hemoglobin level less than 12g/dL in women and less than 13g/dL in men. We found that 14.5 % of women (n=1054) and 3.0 % of men (n=245) were anemic and anemia was hypochromic microcytic in 58,66 % of these BD. Analysis of the white line showed leucopenia in 2.05 % of BD and 807 cases of leukocytosis (5.27 % of BD). Platelet study showed thrombocytopenia in 3.97 % of BD and thrombocytosis in 151BD (0.99 % of cases). This study shows the interest of systematic pre-donation hemoglobin measurement and periodic realization of the hemogram among BD in the Northwest region of Morocco. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. "The mosquitoes that destroy your face". Social impact of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in South-eastern Morocco, A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Bennis, Issam; Belaid, Loubna; De Brouwere, Vincent; Filali, Hind; Sahibi, Hamid; Boelaert, Marleen

    2017-01-01

    To document the psychosocial burden of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) in rural communities in Southeastern Morocco. Between March and April 2015, we conducted qualitative research in communities exposed to Leishmania major or L. tropica in Errachidia and Tinghir provinces. Twenty-eight focus groups discussions (FGDs) were realized, with a stratification by gender and tradition of medicine (users of folk versus professional medicine). Data were analyzed using content analysis. This rural population most exposed to CL in Morocco lacks access to health care in general and clearly points out there are other major public health issues that need to be resolved. Nonetheless, respondents consider the impact of CL lesions and scars as important and similar to that of burn scar tissue. Young women with CL scars in the face are stigmatized and will often be rejected for marriage in these communities. People usually try a long list of folk remedies on the active lesions, but none was felt adequate. There was a clear demand for better treatment as well as for treatment of the scars. The psycho-social impact of CL due to L.major and L.tropica is substantial, especially for young single women with facial scars. These generate social and self-stigma and diminish their marriage prospects. CL is well known, but not considered as a major health priority by these poor rural communities in South-eastern Morocco where gender discrimination is still an issue and access to basic health care is as neglected as CL. Early CL diagnosis and new treatment options with better skin outcomes are urgently needed.

  13. "Candidatus anaplasma camelii" in one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Morocco: a novel and emerging anaplasma species?

    PubMed

    Ait Lbacha, Hicham; Zouagui, Zaid; Alali, Said; Rhalem, Abdelkbir; Petit, Elisabeth; Ducrotoy, Marie Julie; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Maillard, Renaud

    2017-02-05

    There has been a growing interest in camel anaplasmosis due to its recent emergence in this reservoir species and concerns for its zoonotic potential. The epidemiology of anaplasmosis in camels therefore remains poorly understood mostly because camels belong to marginalised poor and often transhumant populations whose interests are largely neglected. Most studies of anaplasmosis in camels have relied on microscopy and serology for diagnosis and only three studies, undertaken in Tunisia, Saudia Arabia and China, have used molecular diagnostics. The present work characterises Anaplasmataceae strains circulating in the Camelus dromedarius reservoir in Morocco using PCR. Camels (n = 106) were randomly sampled from 6 regions representing different agro-ecological areas in southern Morocco. Whole blood was collected and screened using PCR methods targeting the gene groEL. Anaplasmataceae strains were characterised by sequence analysis of the gene groEL. A total of 39.62% (42/106) camels screened were positive for Anaplasmataceae spp. GenBank BLAST analysis of five positive sequenced samples revealed that all strains were 100% identical to "Candidatus Anaplasma camelii". Phylogenetic investigation and genetic characterisation of the aligned segment (650 bp) of the gene groEL confirmed high similarity with A. platys. This study demonstrates the circulation of a previously unidentified species of the genus Anaplasma in Morocco which is genetically close to the agent causing canine anaplasmosis but whose main reservoir is thought to be Camelus dromedarius. This study is not a clinical trial and therefore a trial registration number does not apply.

  14. Human cystic echinococcosis in Morocco: Ultrasound screening in the Mid Atlas through an Italian-Moroccan partnership.

    PubMed

    Chebli, Houda; Laamrani El Idrissi, Abderrhamane; Benazzouz, Mustapha; Lmimouni, Badre Eddine; Nhammi, Haddou; Elabandouni, Mourad; Youbi, Mohammed; Afifi, Rajaa; Tahiri, Sara; Essayd El Feydi, Abdellah; Settaf, Adbellatif; Tinelli, Carmine; De Silvestri, Annalisa; Bouhout, Souad; Abela-Ridder, Bernadette; Magnino, Simone; Brunetti, Enrico; Filice, Carlo; Tamarozzi, Francesca

    2017-03-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a neglected parasitic zoonosis with considerable socioeconomic impact on affected pastoral communities. CE is endemic throughout the Mediterranean, including Morocco, where the Mid Atlas is the most prevalent area for both human and animal infection. The highest hospital annual incidence of human CE is recorded in the provinces of Ifrane and El Hajeb. However, hospital-based statistics likely underestimate the real prevalence of infection, as a proportion of cases never reach medical attention or official records. In 2012, a project on clinical management of CE in Morocco was launched with the aims of estimating the prevalence of human abdominal CE in selected rural communes of the above mentioned provinces using ultrasound (US) screening and training local physicians to implement US-based focused assessment and rational clinical management of CE according to the WHO-IWGE Expert Consensus. A total of 5367 people received abdominal US during four campaigns in April-May 2014. During the campaigns, 24 local general practitioners received >24 hours of hands-on training and 143 health education sessions were organized for local communities. We found an overall CE prevalence of 1.9%, with significantly higher values in the rural communes of Ifrane than El Hajeb (2.6% vs 1.3%; p<0.001). CE cysts were predominantly in inactive stage, especially in older age groups. However, active cysts were present also in adults, indicating acquisition of infection at all ages. Province of residence was the only risk factor consistently associated with CE infection. Our results show a high prevalence and on-going, likely environmental transmission of CE in the investigated provinces of Morocco, supporting the implementation of control activities in the area by national health authorities and encouraging the acceptance and divulgation of diagnosis and treatment algorithms based on imaging for CE at both national and local level.

  15. Human cystic echinococcosis in Morocco: Ultrasound screening in the Mid Atlas through an Italian-Moroccan partnership

    PubMed Central

    Chebli, Houda; Laamrani El Idrissi, Abderrhamane; Benazzouz, Mustapha; Lmimouni, Badre Eddine; Nhammi, Haddou; Elabandouni, Mourad; Youbi, Mohammed; Afifi, Rajaa; Tahiri, Sara; Essayd El Feydi, Abdellah; Settaf, Adbellatif; Tinelli, Carmine; De Silvestri, Annalisa; Bouhout, Souad; Abela-Ridder, Bernadette; Magnino, Simone; Brunetti, Enrico; Filice, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Background Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a neglected parasitic zoonosis with considerable socioeconomic impact on affected pastoral communities. CE is endemic throughout the Mediterranean, including Morocco, where the Mid Atlas is the most prevalent area for both human and animal infection. The highest hospital annual incidence of human CE is recorded in the provinces of Ifrane and El Hajeb. However, hospital-based statistics likely underestimate the real prevalence of infection, as a proportion of cases never reach medical attention or official records. Methodology/Principal findings In 2012, a project on clinical management of CE in Morocco was launched with the aims of estimating the prevalence of human abdominal CE in selected rural communes of the above mentioned provinces using ultrasound (US) screening and training local physicians to implement US-based focused assessment and rational clinical management of CE according to the WHO-IWGE Expert Consensus. A total of 5367 people received abdominal US during four campaigns in April-May 2014. During the campaigns, 24 local general practitioners received >24 hours of hands-on training and 143 health education sessions were organized for local communities. We found an overall CE prevalence of 1.9%, with significantly higher values in the rural communes of Ifrane than El Hajeb (2.6% vs 1.3%; p<0.001). CE cysts were predominantly in inactive stage, especially in older age groups. However, active cysts were present also in adults, indicating acquisition of infection at all ages. Province of residence was the only risk factor consistently associated with CE infection. Conclusions/Significance Our results show a high prevalence and on-going, likely environmental transmission of CE in the investigated provinces of Morocco, supporting the implementation of control activities in the area by national health authorities and encouraging the acceptance and divulgation of diagnosis and treatment algorithms based on imaging for

  16. Trends in health facility deliveries and caesarean sections by wealth quintile in Morocco between 1987 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Cresswell, Jenny A; Assarag, Bouchra; Meski, Fatima-Zahra; Filippi, Veronique; Ronsmans, Carine

    2015-05-01

    To examine trends in the utilisation of facility-based delivery care and caesareans in Morocco between 1987 and 2012, particularly among the poor, and to assess whether uptake increased at the time of introduction of policies or programmes aimed at improving access to intrapartum care. Using data from nationally representative household surveys and routine statistics, our analysis focused on whether women delivered within a facility, and whether the delivery was by caesarean; analyses were stratified by relative wealth quintile and public/private sector where possible. A segmented Poisson regression model was used to assess whether trends changed at key events. Uptake of facility-based deliveries and caesareans in Morocco has risen considerably over the past two decades, particularly among the poor. The rate of increase in facility deliveries was much faster in the poorest quintile (annual increase RR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.07-1.11) than the richest quintile (annual increase RR: 1.01; 95% CI: 1.02-1.02). A similar pattern was observed for caesareans (annual increase among poorest RR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.07-1.19 vs. annual increase among richest RR: 1.08; 95% CI: 1.06-1.10). We found no significant acceleration in trend coinciding with any of the events investigated. Morocco's success in improving uptake of facility deliveries and caesareans is likely to be the result of the synergistic effects of comprehensive demand and supply-side strategies, including a major investment in human resources and free delivery care. Equity still needs to be improved; however, the overall trend is positive. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Performance of GenoType® MTBDRplus assay in the diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis in Tangier, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Hind; En-Nanai, Latifa; Oudghiri, Amal; Chaoui, Imane; Laglaoui, Amin; Bourkadi, Jamal Eddine; El Mzibri, Mohammed; Abid, Mohammed

    2018-03-01

    In Morocco, tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem with high morbidity and mortality. The main problem faced by the national TB programme is the high rate of drug-resistant (DR), particularly multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains. Diagnosis of DR-TB is mainly performed by conventional techniques that are time consuming with limited efficacy. In 2014, the GenoType ® MTBDRplus assay was introduced in Morocco for drug susceptibility testing (DST). In this regard, the present study was planned to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the GenoType ® MTBDRplus assay. A total of 70 samples from suspected TB cases in Tangier (Morocco) were analysed by conventional DST and GenoType ® MTBDRplus assay. Among the 70 samples, 37.1% were MDR, whereas monoresistance to isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF) was detected in 186% and 17.1% of strains, respectively, by DST. Using the GenoType ® MTBDRplus approach, 12 isolates (17.1%) were identified as INH monoresistant, 9 (12.9%) as RIF monoresistant and 26 (37.1%) as MDR. rpoB531 and katG315 mutations were the most common mutations associated with resistance to RIF and INH, respectively. Significantly, all phenotypically MDR strains were also MDR by GenoType ® MTBDRplus. The sensitivity of GenoType ® MTBDRplus was 92.1% for RIF resistance and 97.4% for INH resistance, whereas the specificity was 100% for the two tested drugs. GenoType ® MTBDRplus assay is a rapid, reliable and accurate tool for the detection of DR-TB in clinical specimens. Its routine use will be of a great interest to prevent the dissemination of DR-TB in the community. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Irrigated Agriculture in Morocco: An Agent-Based Model of Adaptation and Decision Making Amid Increasingly Frequent Drought Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, M.

    2015-12-01

    In the past 100 years, Morocco has undertaken a heavy investment in developing water infrastructure that has led to a dramatic expansion of irrigated agriculture. Irrigated agriculture is the primary user of water in many arid countries, often accounting for 80-90% of total water usage. Irrigation is adopted by farmers not only because it leads to increased production, but also because it improves resilience to an uncertain climate. However, the Mediterranean region as a whole has also seen an increase in the frequency and severity of drought events. These droughts have had a dramatic impact on farmer livelihoods and have led to a number of coping strategies, including the adoption or disadoption of irrigation. In this study, we use a record of the annual extent of irrigated agriculture in Morocco to model the effect of drought on the extent of irrigated agriculture. Using an agent-based socioeconomic model, we seek to answer the following questions: 1) Do farmers expand irrigated agriculture in response to droughts? 2) Do drought events entail the removal of perennial crops like orchards? 3) Can we detect the retreat of irrigated agriculture in the more fragile watersheds of Morocco? Understanding the determinants of irrigated crop expansion and contractions will help us understand how agro-ecological systems transition from 20th century paradigms of expansion of water supply to a 21st century paradigm of water use efficiency. The answers will become important as countries learn how to manage water in new climate regimes characterized by less reliable and available precipitation.

  19. Actions on social determinants and interventions in primary health to improve mother and child health and health equity in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Boutayeb, Wiam; Lamlili, Mohamed; Maamri, Abdellatif; Ben El Mostafa, Souad; Boutayeb, Abdesslam

    2016-02-02

    Over the last two decades, Moroccan authorities launched a number of actions and strategies to enhance access to health services and improve health outcomes for the whole population in general and for mother and child in particular. The Ministry of Health launched the action plans 2008-2012 and 2012-2016 and created the maternal mortality surveillance system. The Moroccan government opted for national health coverage through a mandatory health insurance and a scheme of health assistance to the poorest households. Other initiatives were devoted indirectly to health by acting on social determinants of health and poverty reduction. In this paper, we present results of an evaluation of interventions and programmes and their impact on health inequity in Morocco. We used data provided by national surveys over the last decades, information released on the website of the Ministry of Health, documentation published by the Moroccan government and international reports and studies related to Morocco and published by international bodies like the World Health Organisation, United Nations Development Programme, United Nations Population Fund, UNICEF, UNESCO and the World Bank. A short review of scientific publications was also carried out in order to select papers published on health equity, social determinants, health system and interventions in primary health in Morocco. Inferential and descriptive statistics (including principal component analysis) were carried out using software SPSS version 18. The findings indicate that substantial achievements were obtained in terms of access to health care and health outcomes for the whole Moroccan population in general and for mothers and children in particular. However, achievements are unfairly distributed between advantaged and less advantaged regions, literate and illiterate women, rural and urban areas, and rich and poor segments of the Moroccan population. Studies have shown that it is difficult to trace the effect of a primary

  20. Contribution of spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTRs to characterize prevalent Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes infecting tuberculosis patients in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Chaoui, Imane; Zozio, Thierry; Lahlou, Ouafae; Sabouni, Radia; Abid, Mohammed; El Aouad, Rajae; Akrim, Mohammed; Amzazi, Said; Rastogi, Nalin; El Mzibri, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) clinical isolates from culture-positive TB patients in Morocco were studied by spoligotyping and 12-loci MIRU-VNTR typing methods to characterize prevalent genotypes (n = 219 isolates from 208 patients). Spoligotyping resulted in 39 unique patterns and 167 strains in 30 clusters (2-50 strains per cluster). Comparison with international database showed that 29 of 39 unique patterns matched existing shared spoligotype international types (SITs). Nine shared types containing 10 strains were newly created (SIT 2891 to SIT 2899); this led to the description of 69 SITs with 206 strains and two orphan patterns. The most prevalent spoligotype was SIT42 (LAM; n = 50 or 24% of isolates). The repartition of strains according to major MTBC clades was as follows LAM (46.1%)> Haarlem (26%) >ill-defined T superfamily (22.6%) and S clade (0.96%). On the other hand, Beijing, CAS (Central Asian) and EAI (East-African Indian) strains were absent in this setting. Subsequent 12-Loci MIRU typing resulted in a total of 25 SIT/MIT clusters (n = 66 isolates, 2-6 isolates per cluster), with a resulting recent transmission rate of 22.3%. The MIRU-VNTR patterns corresponded to 69 MITs for 138 strains and 46 orphan patterns. The most frequent patterns were MIT43 (n = 8), MIT9 (n = 7) and MIT42 (n = 7). HGDI analysis of the 12 MIRU loci showed that loci 10, 23 and 40 were highly discriminative in our setting. The results also underlined the usefulness of spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR to detect mixed infections among certain of our TB patients. Globally, the results obtained showed that TB is almost exclusively transmitted in Morocco through evolutionary-modern MTBC lineages belonging to principal genetic groups 2/3 strains (Haarlem, LAM, T), with a high level of biodiversity seen by MIRU typing. This study provides with a 1st global snapshot of MTBC population structure in Morocco, and validates the potential use of spoligotyping in

  1. International academic service learning: lessons learned from students' travel experiences of diverse cultural and health care practices in morocco.

    PubMed

    Kaddoura, Mahmoud; Puri, Aditi; Dominick, Christine A

    2014-01-01

    Academic service learning (ASL) is an active teaching-learning approach to engage students in meaningful hands-on activities to serve community-based needs. Nine health professions students from a private college and a private university in the northeastern United States volunteered to participate in an ASL trip to Morocco. The participants were interviewed to reflect on their experiences. This article discusses the lessons learned from students' ASL experiences regarding integrating ASL into educational programs. The authors recommend a paradigm shift in nursing and dental hygiene curricula to appreciate diversity and promote cultural competency, multidisciplinary teamwork, and ethics-based education. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Upper Illinois River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedel, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    During the past 25 years, industry and government made large financial investments that resulted in better water quality across the Nation; however, many water-quality concerns remain. Following a 1986 pilot project, the U.S. Geological Survey began implementation of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program in 1991. This program differs from other national water-quality assessment studies in that the NAWQA integrates monitoring of surface- and ground-water quality with the study of aquatic ecosystems. The goals of the NAWQA Program are to (1) describe current water-quality conditions for a large part of the Nation's freshwater streams and aquifers (water-bearing sediments and rocks), (2) describe how water quality is changing over time, and (3) improve our understanding of the primary natural and human factors affecting water quality.The Upper Illinois River Basin National Water- Quality Assessment (NAWQA) study will increase the scientific understanding of surface- and ground-water quality and the factors that affect water quality in the basin. The study also will provide information needed by water-resource managers to implement effective water-quality management actions and evaluate long-term changes in water quality.

  3. Consequences of severe obstetric complications on women's health in Morocco: please, listen to me!

    PubMed

    Assarag, Bouchra; Dujardin, Bruno; Essolbi, Amina; Cherkaoui, Imad; De Brouwere, Vincent

    2015-11-01

    In Morocco, medical care for women with severe obstetric complications (near-miss cases) ends at discharge from the hospital. Little information exists regarding what happens after returning home. The aim of the study was to assess the physical and mental health consequences of near-miss events on Moroccan women 8 months after childbirth. A prospective cohort study of 76 near-miss women was conducted in three hospitals. For every case, we recruited at least two women from the same hospital who had uncomplicated deliveries (n = 169). We used a mixed-methods approach. For the quantitative part, we analysed sociodemographic characteristics collected via a questionnaire and medical complications extracted from the medical records during a medical consultation at 8 months post-partum. Forty in-depth interviews were also conducted with 20 near-miss cases and 20 women with uncomplicated deliveries. The near-miss women were poorer and less educated than those who had uncomplicated deliveries. The proportion of physical consequences (serious illness) was higher among near-miss cases (22%) than uncomplicated deliveries (6%, P = 0.001). The risk of depression was significantly higher among near-miss cases with perinatal death (OR = 7.16; [95% CI: 2.85-17.98]) than among those who had an uncomplicated delivery. Interviews revealed that the economic burden of near-miss care contributed to social problems among the women and their households. A near-miss event has consequences that go beyond the first days after delivery. Developing new mechanisms for maternal and newborn health follow-up is essential and should address the mother's physical and mental health problems and involve husbands and family members. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. First Lunar Flashes Observed from Morocco (ILIAD Network): Implications for Lunar Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ait Moulay Larbi, Mamoun; Daassou, Ahmed; Baratoux, David; Bouley, Sylvain; Benkhaldoun, Zouhair; Lazrek, Mohamed; Garcia, Raphael; Colas, Francois

    2015-07-01

    We report the detection of two transient luminous events recorded on the lunar surface on February 6, 2013, at 06:29:56.7 UT and April 14, 2013, 20:00:45.4 from the Atlas Golf Marrakech observatory in Morocco. Estimated visual magnitudes are 9.4 ± 0.2 and 7.7 ± 0.2. We show that these events have the typical characteristics of impact flashes generated by meteoroids impacting the lunar surface, despite proof using two different telescopes is not available. Assuming these events were lunar impact flashes, meteoroid masses are 0.3 ± 0.05 and 1.8 ± 0.3 kg, corresponding to diameters of 7-8 and 14-15 cm for a density of 1500 kg m-3. The meteoroids would have produced craters of about 2.6 ± 0.3 and 4.4 ± 0.3 m in diameter. We then present a method based on the identification of lunar features illuminated by the Earthshine to determine the position of the flash. The method does not require any information about the observation geometry or lunar configuration. The coordinates are respectively 08.15° ± 0.15°S 59.1° ± 0.15°E and 26.81° ± 0.15°N 09.10° ± 0.15°W. Further improvement on the determination of the flash position is necessary for seismological applications. This studies demonstrates that permanent lunar impact flashes observation programs may be run in different parts of the globe using mid-sized telescopes. We call for the development of an international lunar impact astronomical detection networks that would represent an opportunity for scientific and cultural developments in countries where astronomy is under-represented.

  5. Influence of Saharan dust on cloud glaciation in southern Morocco during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansmann, A.; Tesche, M.; Althausen, D.; Müller, D.; Seifert, P.; Freudenthaler, V.; Heese, B.; Wiegner, M.; Pisani, G.; Knippertz, P.; Dubovik, O.

    2008-02-01

    Multiwavelength lidar, Sun photometer, and radiosonde observations were conducted at Ouarzazate (30.9°N, 6.9°W, 1133 m above sea level, asl), Morocco, in the framework of the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM) in May-June 2006. The field site is close to the Saharan desert. Information on the depolarization ratio, backscatter and extinction coefficients, and lidar ratio of the dust particles, estimates of the available concentration of atmospheric ice nuclei at cloud level, profiles of temperature, humidity, and the horizontal wind vector as well as backward trajectory analysis are used to study cases of cloud formation in the dust with focus on heterogeneous ice formation. Surprisingly, most of the altocumulus clouds that form at the top of the Saharan dust layer, which reaches into heights of 4-7 km asl and has layer top temperatures of -8°C to -18°C, do not show any ice formation. According to the lidar observations the presence of a high number of ice nuclei (1-20 cm-3) does not automatically result in the obvious generation of ice particles, but the observations indicate that cloud top temperatures must typically reach values as low as -20°C before significant ice production starts. Another main finding is that liquid clouds are obviously required before ice crystals form via heterogeneous freezing mechanisms, and, as a consequence, that deposition freezing is not an important ice nucleation process. An interesting case with cloud seeding in the free troposphere above the dust layer is presented in addition. Small water clouds formed at about -30°C and produced ice virga. These virga reached water cloud layers several kilometers below the initiating cloud cells and caused strong ice production in these clouds at temperatures as high as -12°C to -15°C.

  6. Water quality in turkey farms in Khemisset (Morocco) and potential risk factors.

    PubMed

    El Allaoui, A; Rhazi Filali, F; Derouich, A

    2016-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the microbiological and physical/chemical quality of water in broiler turkey farms in the province of Khemisset (north-western Morocco) and, based on a questionnaire, to ascertain potential risk factors for contamination of drinking water with faecal coliforms. A total of 80 samples were collected and analysed in 20 farms (four from each farm). At the main inlet to the water line at the entrance to each turkey house, 100% of the samples were of unacceptable quality in terms of faecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, faecal streptococci, sulphitereducing anaerobes and enterococci. A significant reduction in microbiological contamination of the water line (p < 0.05) was observed on Day 60. While more than 90% of the samples were of satisfactory quality in terms of pH, nitrites, conductivity, nitrates and iron, only 35% were satisfactory in terms of total hardness and only 20% met quality standards for ammonium content. The factors affecting levels of contamination with faecal coliforms were water chlorination (p = 0.065; odds ratio = 14; 90% confidence interval [CI] = 1.14-71), cleaning and disinfection (p = 0.028; odds ratio = 14; 95% CI = 1.25-156.6) and antibiotic treatment (p = 0.001; odds ratio = 6; 95% CI = 2.1-35.2). To improve water quality in poultry farms, farmers are advised to protect wells from contamination and to install water purification units (pre-oxidation, coagulation, flocculation, disinfection). In addition, turkey houses and rearing equipment should be rigorously cleaned and disinfected between each batch of birds. © OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health), 2016.

  7. Mg-enriched erythrite from Bou Azzer, Anti-Atlas Mountains, Morocco: geochemical and spectroscopic characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumańska-Słowik, Magdalena; Pieczka, Adam; Natkaniec-Nowak, Lucyna; Kunecki, Piotr; Gaweł, Adam; Heflik, Wiesław; Smoliński, Wojciech; Kozub-Budzyń, Gabriela

    2018-06-01

    Supergene Mg-enriched erythrite, with an average composition (Co2.25Mg0.58Ni0.14Fe0.04Mn0.02 Zn0.02) (As1.97P<0.01O8)·8H2O, accompanied by skutterudite, roselite and alloclasite, was identified in a pneumo-hydrothermal quartz-feldspar-carbonate matrix within the ophiolite sequence of Bou Azzer in Morocco. The unit cell parameters of monoclinic Mg-enriched erythrite [space group C2/ m, a = 10.252(2) Å, b = 13.427(3) Å, c = 4.757(3) Å, ß = 105.12(1)°] make the mineral comparable with erythrite from other localities. The composition of the sample represents the solid solution between erythrite, hörnesite and annabergite, that is, the nearest to the endmember erythrite. However, Mg-enriched erythrite forming the crystal exhibits variable compositions, especially in Mg and Co contents, with Mg increasing from 0.32 up to 1.39 apfu, and Co decreasing from 2.53 to 1.50 apfu, which manifests in the fine compositional oscillatory zoning. It is the highest content of Mg in erythrite structure reported so far. The most intensive Raman active ν3 and ν1 bands, recorded for the crystal's zones with maximum Mg contents, occur at 865 and 800 cm- 1 and are shifted towards higher wavenumbers, where normally hörnesite Raman bands appear. The characteristic oscillatory zoning texture results from varying contents of main and trace elements mobilized from the host ores (Co arsenides, mainly skutterudite) and rock-forming minerals (among others, dolomite) by the solutions in the oxidation zone of the ore deposits. The heating of the Mg-enriched erythrite up to 1000 °C leads to the crystallization of the water-free (Co,Mg)3(AsO4)2 phase.

  8. Geological trainings for analogue astronauts: Lessons learned from MARS2013 expedition, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orgel, C.; Achorner, I.; Losiak, A.; Gołębiowska, I.; Rampey, M.; Groemer, G.

    2013-09-01

    The Austrian Space Forum (OeWF) is a national organisation for space professionals and space enthusiasts. In collaboration with internal partner organisations, the OeWF focuses on Mars analogue research with their space volunteers and organises space-related outreach/education activities and conducts field tests with the Aouda.X and Aouda.S spacesuit simulators in Mars analogue environment. The main project of OeWF is called "PolAres" [1]. As the result of lessons learned from the Río Tinto 2011 expedition [4], we started to organise geological training sessions for the analogue astronauts. The idea was to give them basic geological background to perform more efficiently in the field. This was done in close imitation of the Apollo astronaut trainings that included theoretical lectures (between Jan. 1963-Nov. 1972) about impact geology, igneous petrology of the Moon, geophysics and geochemistry as well as several field trips to make them capable to collect useful samples for the geoscientists on Earth [3] [5]. In the last year the OeWF has organised three geoscience workshops for analogue astronauts as the part of their "astronaut" training. The aim was to educate the participants to make them understand the fundamentals in geology in theory and in the field (Fig. 1.). We proposed the "Geological Experiment Sampling Usefulness" (GESU) experiment for the MARS2013 simulation to improve the efficiency of the geological trainings. This simulation was conducted during February 2013, a one month Mars analogue research was conducted in the desert of Morocco [2] (Fig. 2.).

  9. Groundwater assessment and environmental impact in the abandoned mine of Kettara (Morocco).

    PubMed

    Moyé, Julien; Picard-Lesteven, Tanguy; Zouhri, Lahcen; El Amari, Khalid; Hibti, Mohamed; Benkaddour, Abdelfattah

    2017-12-01

    Many questions about the soil pollution due to mining activities have been analyzed by numerous methods which help to evaluate the dispersion of the Metallic Trace Elements (MTE) in the soil and stream sediments of the abandoned mine of Kettara (Morocco). The transport of these MTE could have an important role in the degradation of groundwater and the health of people who are living in the vicinity. The present paper aims to evaluate the groundwater samples from 15 hydrogeological wells. This evaluation concerns the hydrogeological parameters, pH, Electrical conductivity, temperature and the groundwater level, and the geochemical assessment of Mg, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Cu, As, Se, Cd, Sb, Tl and Pb. Furthermore, the Metallic Trace Elements are transported in the saturated zone via the fractures network. The groundwater flow is from the north-east to south-west. The spatial distribution of As, Fe, Zn and Mn is very heterogeneous, with high values observed in the north, upstream, of the mine site. This distribution is maybe related to: i) the existence of hydrogeological structures (dividing and drainage axes); ii) the individualization of the fractures network that affects the shaly lithostratigraphical formation; iii) the transport of the contaminants from the soil towards groundwater; and iv) interaction water/rocks. Some MTE anomalies are linked to the lithology and the fracturation system of the area. Therefore, the groundwater contamination by Arsenic is detected in the hydrogeological wells (E1 and E2). This pollution which is higher than guideline standards of Moroccan drinking water could affect the public health. The hydrogeological and geochemical investigations favor the geological origin (mafic rocks) of this contamination rather than mining activities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Prevalence, molecular and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolated from sausages in Meknes, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Ed-Dra, Abdelaziz; Filali, Fouzia Rhazi; Karraouan, Bouchra; El Allaoui, Abdellah; Aboulkacem, Amal; Bouchrif, Brahim

    2017-04-01

    Salmonella is among the most important food borne pathogens worldwide contaminating a wide range of animal products including meat products. The aims of this study go through two steps: The first step is to estimate the proportion of sausages products contaminated with Salmonella in Meknes city (Morocco), which were collected from various shopping sites: butchery, street vendors, supermarket and souk (Weekly market combines the population of the small villages around Meknes city). The second one is to identify serovars, to determine the antimicrobials resistance patterns of isolates and to detect the invA and spvC genes. 34 (21.79%) Salmonella were isolated, recovered 4 serogroups and 12 serotypes. The most prevalent serotypes were Salmonella Corvallis (23.53%) and Salmonella Kentucky (17.65%). All Salmonella isolates were tested for their susceptibility to 18 selected antimicrobials agents, of which 100% were resistant to at least one antimicrobial, 85.30% (29/34) were resistant to two or more antimicrobials and 44.12% (15/34) were resistant to at least three antimicrobials. All Salmonella are resistant to ampicillin, 76.47% to streptomycin, 20.59% to sulfonamides, 17.65% to Tetracycline and 11.77% to Ofloxacin. The "ACSSuT" penta-resistance pattern was observed in tow of the Salmonella Typhimurium strains. In addition, this study showed that all Salmonella strains (34) were positive for invasion gene invA and negative for the virulence gene spvC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Microbiological, physicochemical, and heavy metals assessment of groundwater quality in the Triffa plain (eastern Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahya, Hameed Saleh Ali; Jilali, Abdelhakim; Mostareh, Mohammed Mohammed Mohammed; Chafik, Zouheir; Chafi, Abdelhafid

    2017-12-01

    The focus of this study is the physicochemical and bacteriological characteristics of groundwater in the Triffa plain, Morocco. In total, 34 groundwater samples were analyzed for major elements (Tp, pH, EC, K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, SO4 2-, NO3 -, NO2 -, NH4 +, H2PO4 -, CO3, and HCO3 -) and trace metal (Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, and Zn) content. The results show that the pH values range between 6.7 and 8.9, electrical conductivity ranges between 740 and 7340 µS/cm, and nitrate content ranges between 1.7 and 212 mg/l. Hydrochemical facies represented using a Piper diagram indicate an Na-K-Cl type water. All the trace metal concentrations are within the admissible standard range except for Cd. The bacteriological analysis showed that the majority of groundwater samples are contaminated. Generally, the content of total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and fecal streptococci ranged from 0 to 140, 0 to 125, and 0 to 108 CFU/100 ml, respectively. The samples are grouped according to three factors. Factor 1 shows strong positive loadings of EC, Mg, Cl, Na and K with 51.91% of total variance (TV); factor 2 shows strong negative loadings of NO3, SO4 and Ca with 17.98% of TV; and factor 3 shows strong negative loading of HCO3 with 15.56 of TV. We conclude that the quality of this groundwater is suitable for irrigation and domestic use (cleaning house, ect).

  12. Emplacement and Deformation of Mesozoic Gabbros of the High Atlas (Morocco): Paleomagnetism and Magnetic Fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvín, P.; Ruiz-Martínez, V. C.; Villalaín, J. J.; Casas-Sainz, A. M.; Moussaid, B.

    2017-12-01

    A paleomagnetic and magnetic fabric study is performed in Upper Jurassic gabbros of the central High Atlas (Morocco). These gabbros were emplaced in the core of preexisting structures developed during the extensional stage and linked to basement faults. These structures were reactivated as anticlines during the Cenozoic compressional inversion. Gabbros from 19 out of the 33 sampled sites show a stable characteristic magnetization, carried by magnetite, which has been interpreted as a primary component. This component shows an important dispersion due to postemplacement tectonic movements. The absence of paleoposition markers in these igneous rocks precludes direct restorations. A novel approach analyzing the orientation of the primary magnetization is used here to restore the magmatic bodies and to understand the deformational history recorded by these rocks. Paleomagnetic vectors are distributed along small circles with horizontal axes, indicating horizontal axis rotations of the gabbro bodies. These rotations are higher when the ratio between shales and gabbros in the core of the anticlines increases. Due to the uncertainties inherent to this work (the igneous bodies recording strong rotations), interpretations must be qualitative. The magnetic fabric is carried by ferromagnetic (s.s.) minerals mimicking the magmatic fabric. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) axes, using the rotation routine inferred from paleomagnetic results, result in more tightly clustered magnetic lineations, which also become horizontal and are considered in terms of magma flow trend during its emplacement: NW-SE (parallel to the general extensional direction) in the western sector and NE-SW (parallel to the main faults) in the easternmost structures.

  13. [Tinea capitis in the military hospital Avicenna (Morocco): Review of 8 years (2006-2013)].

    PubMed

    El Mezouari, E; Hocar, O; Atarguine, H; Akhdari, N; Amal, S; Moutaj, R

    2016-03-01

    Tinea capitis are due to fungal infection by dermatophytes. They are common in developing countries including Morocco. The objective of this study intended to describe the epidemiology, clinical and mycological profile of tinea capitis in Avicenna military hospital of Marrakech. This is a retrospective study over an 8-year period (from 1st January 2006 to 31st December 2013). All patients targeted through this study presented to the laboratory with the suspicion of tinea capitis, they were under a detailed investigation with a careful mycological analysis; diagnosis of tinea capitis was established as the direct examination and/or the sampling proved positive. Of the 334 patients investigated, 216 had a TC with an overall prevalence of 64.67%. The average age was 6 years. The M/F sex ratio was 0.55. The isolated dermatophytes were Microsporum canis with 105 cases (63.26%), Trichophyton violaceum in 44 cases (26.51%), T. mentographytes in 8 cases (4.81%), M. langeronii in 5 cases (3.01%), T. verrucosum in 3 cases (1.8%) and T. schoenleinii in 1 case (0.61%). The contact with animals was found in 40% of cases and immunosupression in 3.47% of cases. We verify through our investigation that tineas predominate among school age children with a female predominance. The epidemiological profile of TC in our study is similar to that of other studies in Moroccan and Maghrebian countries investigations. The TC is relatively a mild infection but can be confused with other dermatoses not easy to diagnose. For this reason, their treatment necessitates a mycological analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Detrital and oceanic dysoxia influence on OAE2 sediment geochemistry from Tarfaya, SW Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turgeon, S. C.; Kolonic, S.; Brumsack, H.-J.; Wagner, T.

    2003-04-01

    The Cretaceous "greenhouse" world's stratigraphic record is punctuated by several important organic-rich intervals representing quasi-global "Oceanic Anoxic Events" (OAEs). This study focuses on sediments from Tarfaya in SW Morocco deposited during the Cenomanian-Turonian Boundary Event (CTBE or OAE2 at 93.5 Ma). These sediments consist of distinctly laminated, carbonate-rich black shales alternating with lighter coloured structureless intervals and sporadic chert lenses. Sediments from three sites representing proximal to distal settings were studied. Samples were analysed for Ctot, Corg, Stot, as well as several major-, minor- and trace elements using XRF and ICP-MS. These sediments are characterised by high Corg, Stot, and CaCO3 contents and consist of a simple two component mixing system ("average shale"-CaCO3). Major element concentrations are low, except for Ca and P, owing in part to the carbonate dilution effect. Most elements plot along "average shale" lines. Elements such as Si, Ti, Fe, K, Rb, and Zr show positive relationships with Al2O3, pointing to homogeneous source area material. Several Al-normalised elements (As, Ba, Cr, Cu, Ni, Sr, U, V, Y, Zn), many of them redox-sensitive or sulphide-residing, are enriched in the sediments indicating an oxygen-depleted environment and potential availability of hydrogen sulfide in the water column at the time of deposition. High Zn concentrations suggest increased submarine volcanism and/or hydrothermal activity during this time interval. High Ba concentrations are possibly indicative of high regional paleoproductivity, which is further supported by the elevated P concentrations hinting at nutrient availability. Basinward trends in the geochemical distribution of some elements are apparent and probably reflect the decreasing influence of terrestrial sediments away from the shoreline.

  15. Wastewater toxicity of tannin- versus chromium-based leather tanneries in Marrakesh, Morocco.

    PubMed

    De Nicola, E; Meriç, S; Della Rocca, C; Gallo, M; Iaccarino, M; Manini, P; Petruzzelli, D; Belgiorno, V; Cheggour, M; Di Gennaro, A; Moukrim, A; Tünay, O; Pagano, G

    2007-10-01

    The toxicity of leather tanning wastewater from a traditional tannery (TT), which is based on vegetable tannin (VT), was compared with wastewater from a tannery combining the use of chromium-based tanning (CT) with VT-based tanning operations. Wastewater samples from a TT and a CT plant as well as from five sewer sampling points were collected in Marrakesh, Morocco, and the concentrations of VT and some selected inorganics were measured. A set of bioassays were used to test wastewater toxicity in sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) embryos and sperm, in Daphnia magna, and in marine microalgae (Dunaliella tertiolecta). Toxicity end points included: (1) developmental defects, embryonic mortality, sperm fertilization success, and offspring damage in sea urchins; (2) D. magna immobilization; and (3) algal growth rate inhibition. Toxicity tests on TT and CT effluents (TTE and CTE) were run at dilutions ranging from 0.1% to 2% (sea urchins and algae) or up to 12% in D. magna. Parallel bioassays were run on VT extract (VTE) at nominal tannin concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 mg l(-1). The results showed higher toxicity of CTE compared with TTE. CTE toxicity in sea urchins and algae showed concentration-related trends, whereas TTE exerted hormetic effects at levels of 0.1% to 0.2% and toxic effects at levels >or=1%. The same trends were observed for VTE, suggesting a prevailing role of tannin in TTE-associated effects. The moderate wastewater toxicity of VT-based tanneries might prompt interest in the VT tanning process.

  16. Sleep apnea syndrome: experience of the pulmonology department in Ibn Sina Hospital, Rabat, Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Jniene, Asmaa; el Ftouh, Mustapha; Fihry, Mohamed Tawfiq el Fassy

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Sleep apnea syndrome is a highly prevalent disorder that is still underdiagnosed and undertreated and whose obstructive form is the most common. The diagnosis is suspected on clinical signs collected by interrogation and questionnaires (Berlin questionnaire and Epworth sleepiness scale), then confirmed by objective sleep study findings (polygraphy or polysomnography). It is necessary to conduct studies in each context on the characteristics and management of sleep apnea syndrome comprising the testing of reliability of the questionnaires. Methods Prospective and descriptive study of 104 patients addressed to sleep consultation at pulmononology Department of Ibn Sina Hospital, Morocco over a period of 5 years (January 2006 to December 2010), agreed to participate in the study, responded to a predetermined questionnaire, and benefited from clinical examination and paraclinical tests including a polygraphy or a polysomnography Results 59(56.7%) patients had an obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome with a similar prevalence in both sexes. 32.2% of patients were obese and 28,8% had cardio-vascular diseases. Snoring, excessive daytime sleepiness and witnessed apnea were found in respectively 79.7%, 50.8% and 16.9%. Berlin questionnaire and Epworth sleepiness scale had an acceptable internal consistency against apnea hypopnea index with a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient respectively 0.79 and 0.78. Depending on severity, clinical impact and results of investigations, the adequate treatment has been proposed based on the 2010 recommendations for clinical practice. Conclusion This study has provided an idea about the profile and the management of patients having an obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome and showed that both Berlin questionnaire and Epworth sleepiness scale are two simple and reliable methods in our context. A larger and further study across the country should be considered. PMID:23308333

  17. Sleep apnea syndrome: experience of the pulmonology department in Ibn Sina Hospital, Rabat, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Jniene, Asmaa; el Ftouh, Mustapha; Fihry, Mohamed Tawfiq el Fassy

    2012-01-01

    Sleep apnea syndrome is a highly prevalent disorder that is still underdiagnosed and undertreated and whose obstructive form is the most common. The diagnosis is suspected on clinical signs collected by interrogation and questionnaires (Berlin questionnaire and Epworth sleepiness scale), then confirmed by objective sleep study findings (polygraphy or polysomnography). It is necessary to conduct studies in each context on the characteristics and management of sleep apnea syndrome comprising the testing of reliability of the questionnaires. Prospective and descriptive study of 104 patients addressed to sleep consultation at pulmononology Department of Ibn Sina Hospital, Morocco over a period of 5 years (January 2006 to December 2010), agreed to participate in the study, responded to a predetermined questionnaire, and benefited from clinical examination and paraclinical tests including a polygraphy or a polysomnography 59(56.7%) patients had an obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome with a similar prevalence in both sexes. 32.2% of patients were obese and 28,8% had cardio-vascular diseases. Snoring, excessive daytime sleepiness and witnessed apnea were found in respectively 79.7%, 50.8% and 16.9%. Berlin questionnaire and Epworth sleepiness scale had an acceptable internal consistency against apnea hypopnea index with a Cronbach's alpha coefficient respectively 0.79 and 0.78. Depending on severity, clinical impact and results of investigations, the adequate treatment has been proposed based on the 2010 recommendations for clinical practice. This study has provided an idea about the profile and the management of patients having an obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome and showed that both Berlin questionnaire and Epworth sleepiness scale are two simple and reliable methods in our context. A larger and further study across the country should be considered.

  18. Climate change and precipitation evolution in Ifran region (Middle Atlas of Morocco).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddad, H.; Bakhat, M.; Damnati, B.

    2012-04-01

    Climate variability and extreme climatic events pose significant risks to human beings and generate terrestrial ecosystem dysfunctions. These effects are usually amplified by an inappropriate use of the existing natural resources. To face the new context of climate change, a rational and efficient use of these resources - particularly, water resource - on a global and regional scale must be implemented. Annual precipitation provides an overall amount of water, the assessment and management of this water is complicated due to the spatio-temporal variation of disturbance (aridity, rainfall intensity, length of dry season...). Therefore, understanding rainfall behavior would at least help to plan interventions to manage this resource and protect ecosystems that depend on it. Time-series analysis has become one of the major tools in hydrology. It is used for building mathematical models to detect trends and shifts in hydrologic records and to forecast hydrologic events. In this paper we present a case study of IFRAN region, which is situated in the Middle Atlas Mountains in Morocco. This study deals with modeling and forecasting rainfall time series using monthly rainfall data for the period 1970-2005. To determine the seasonal properties of this series we used first the Box-Jenkins methodology to build ARIMA model, and we expended the analysis with the Hylleberg-Engle-Granger-Yoo (HEGY) tests. The results of time series modeling showed the presence of significant deterministic seasonal pattern and no seasonal unit roots. This means that the series is stationary in all frequencies. The model can be used to predict rainfall in IFRAN and near sites; this prediction is not without interest in so far as any information about these random variables could provide a contribution to the researches made in domain for fighting against climate change. It doesn't give solutions to eradicate the precipitation variability phenomenon, but just to adapt to it.

  19. Quality of life of early stage colorectal cancer patients in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Mrabti, Hind; Amziren, Mounia; ElGhissassi, Ibrahim; Bensouda, Youssef; Berrada, Narjiss; Abahssain, Halima; Boutayeb, Saber; El Fakir, Samira; Nejjari, Chakib; Benider, Abdellatif; Mellas, Nawfel; El Mesbahi, Omar; Bennani, Maria; Bekkali, Rachid; Zidouh, Ahmed; Errihani, Hassan

    2016-10-12

    A multicentre cohort study was held in Morocco, designed to evaluate the quality of life of cancer patients. The aim of this paper is to report the assessment of the quality of life of early colorectal cancer patients, before and after cancer treatment, to identify other factors which are related to this quality of life. We used the third version of the QLQ-C30 questionnaire of the European organization for Research and treatment of Cancer (EORTC) after a transcultural validation. The Data collection was done at inclusion and then every twelve weeks to achieve one year of follow up. Overall 294 patients presented with early colorectal cancer, the median age was 56 years (range: 21-88). The male-female sex ratio was 1.17. At inclusion, the global health status was the most affected functional dimension. For symptoms: financial difficulties and fatigue scores were the highest ones. Emotional and social functions were significantly worse in rectal cancer. Most symptoms were more present in rectal cancer. At inclusion, global health status score was significantly worse in stage III. Anorexia was significantly more important among colorectal female patients. For Patients over 70 years-old, the difference was statistically significant for the physical function item which was lower. Overall, Functional dimensions scores were improved after chemotherapy. The symptoms scores did not differ significantly for patients treated by radiotherapy, between inclusion and at one year. Our EORTC QLQ C30 scores are overall comparable to the reference values. Neither chemotherapy, nor radiotherapy worsened the quality of life at one year.

  20. Needs Assessment for Performance Improvement of Personnel in Charge of Epidemiological Surveillance in Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Priotto, Gerardo; Rguig, Ahmed; Ziani, Moncef; Berger, Anouk; Nabeth, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Background In line with the International Health Regulations (IHR 2005), the Morocco health surveillance system has been reinforced via infrastructure strengthening and decentralization in its regions. To plan for personnel capacity reinforcement actions, a national workforce needs assessment was conducted by the National Epidemiological Surveillance Service and the World Health Organization. Methods The assessment used an ad-hoc method comprising two stages: (1) A survey via a standardized electronic questionnaire, administered to all staff in regional and provincial surveillance teams. Data collected included demographics, basic qualification, complementary training, perceived training needs, and preferred training modalities. Individuals were asked to grade, on a nine-point scale, their perception of importance of a given list of tasks and of their capacity to perform them. The gap between perceptions was quantified and described. (2) Field visits to national, regional and provincial sites for direct observation and opinion gathering on broader issues such as motivators, barriers, and training needs from the local perspective. Results Questionnaire respondents were 122/158 agents at 78 surveillance units countrywide. Mean age was 43.6 years and job longevity 5.7 years. Only 53% (65/122) had epidemiology training, posted in 62% (48/78) of the structures. Self-assessed capacity varied by basic qualification and by structure level (regional vs. provincial). The gap between the importance granted to a task and the perceived capacity to perform it was sizable, showing an uneven distribution across competency domains, regions, surveillance level and staff's basic qualification. From the opinions gathered, a problem of staff demotivation and high turnover emerged clearly. Conclusions Our method was successful in revealing specific details of the training needs countrywide. A national strategy is needed to ensure rational planning of training, personnel motivation and

  1. [Child labor in the artisan sector of Morocco: determinants and health effects].

    PubMed

    Laraqui, C H; Caubet, A; Laraqui, O; Belamallem, I; Harourate, K; Curtes, J P; Verger, C

    2000-03-01

    Despite the fact that child labour is regulated through the work code, and the convention on child rights adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations in 1989 and ratified by Morocco in 1993, multiple surveys have shown that children are often put to work at a very early age and few employers respect the work conditions laid out in the texts. The aim of this study was to assess the different situations of child labour in the handicraft sector, the reasons and the problems surrounding it, to study its repercussions on health and to propose several preventive measures. From March to July 1997, a retrospective cohort study of working children and children in school was carried out in a small neighbourhood of Casablanca. We interviewed and examined a random sample of two hundred children working in the handicraft sector. The health status of these children was compared to that of the same sample size of children in school, from the same age group and socio-economic status. Each subject was given a standardized questionnaire that was translated into dialectal Arabic and administered by a occupational health doctor and a communications specialist. The results of the study have pointed out the small school network of the working children, the painful conditions of work and the important consequences on their health state with a wide prevalence of pathologies higher than for the children attending school. The misery in addition of the rural exodus, the no-adapted educative and socio-economic systems, the splitting of the family unit often go to generate a submissive childhood without defense and "ready to be used".

  2. Enterotoxigenic coagulase positive Staphylococcus in milk and milk products, lben and jben, in northern Morocco.

    PubMed

    Bendahou, Abdrezzak; Abid, Mohammed; Bouteldoun, Nadine; Catelejine, Dierick; Lebbadi, Mariam

    2009-04-30

    The aim of this research was to determine the prevalence of enterotoxin genes (sea-seo) in Coagulase Positive Staphylococcus (CPS) isolated from unpasteurized milk and milk products. These results were compared with the results obtained by using the detection kit SET-RPLA for the specific detection of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEA-SED). Eighty-one samples of milk and milk products were analyzed for the presence of Staphylococcus strains. Forty-six coagulase positive Staphylococcus isolates were tested for the production of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEA-SED) by using the reversed passive latex agglutination method. The strains were also tested for the presence of se genes (sea-seo) by polymerase chain reaction. One or more classical enterotoxin products (SEA-SED) were observed in 39% of the strains tested, while se genes were detected in 56.5%. SEA and sea were most commonly detected. For newly discovered se genes among CPS isolates tested in this study, except the seh gene which was revealed in four isolates (8.7 %), none of the strains harbored any of the other se genes (see, seg, sei, sej, sek, sel, sem, seo and sen). The finding of a pathogen such as staphylococci-producing SEs and containing se genes in milk and milk products in northern Morocco may indicate a problem for public health in this region. The presence of enterotoxigenic strains in food does not always necessarily mean that the toxin will be produced. For that reason, the combination of both methods (RPLA and PCR) is a guarantee for success in diagnostic analysis tests.

  3. Influence of agricultural management on chemical quality of a clay soil of semi-arid Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibno Namr, Khalid; Mrabet, Rachid

    2004-06-01

    Morocco's semi-arid lands are characterized by unique challenges. The most important obstacles to the development of durable agriculture are (1) limited and unpredictable supply of soil moisture and (2) low soil quality. Intensive use of soil throughout history has led to depletion in soil quality, leading in return to reduced yields because of the consequent reduced organic matter. Recognizing the need to recover soil quality and production decline, INRA scientists began, in the early 1980s, research on the effects of crop rotations, tillage and residue management on the productivity and quality of cropped soils. The present study concerns the short-term effect of rotation, tillage and residue management on selected quality indices of a calcixeroll (organic matter, nitrogen, particulate organic carbon (Cpom), particulate organic nitrogen (Npom) and pH). Hence, three rotations (wheat-wheat, WW; fallow-wheat, FW; and fallow-wheat-barley, FWB), two tillage systems (conventional offset disking, CT and no-tillage, NT), and three levels of residue in the NT system (NT 0 = no-residue cover, NT 50 = half surface residue cover, NT 100 = full surface residue cover) were selected. Three surface horizons were sampled (0-2.5, 2.5-7 and 7-20 cm). The study results showed an improvement of measured soil chemical properties under NT compared to CT, at the surface layer. No-tillage system helped sequestration of carbon and nitrogen, build-up of particulate organic carbon and nitrogen and sensible reduction of pH only at the surface layer. Continuous wheat permitted a slight improvement of soil quality, mainly at the 0-2.5 cm depth. Effects of rotation, tillage and residue level were reduced with depth of measurements.

  4. Catalog of total excitation-emission and total synchronous fluorescence maps with synchronous fluorescence spectra of homologated fluorescent pesticides in large use in Morocco: development of a spectrometric low cost and direct analysis as an alert method in case of massive contamination of soils and waters by fluorescent pesticides.

    PubMed

    Foudeil, S; Hassoun, H; Lamhasni, T; Ait Lyazidi, S; Benyaich, F; Haddad, M; Choukrad, M; Boughdad, A; Bounakhla, M; Bounouira, H; Duarte, R M B O; Cachada, A; Duarte, A C

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a direct spectrometric approach to monitor soils and waters, at a lower cost than the widely used chromatographic techniques; a spectrometric approach that is effective, reliable, fast, easy to implement, and without any use of organic solvents whose utilization is subject to law limitation. It could be suitable at least as an alert method in case of massive contamination. Here, we present for the first time a catalog of excitation-emission and total synchronous fluorescence maps that may be considered as fingerprints of a series of homologated pesticides, in large use in Morocco, aiming at a direct detection of their remains in agricultural soils and neighboring waters. After a large survey among farmers, agricultural workers and product distributors in two important agricultural regions of Morocco (Doukkala-Abda and Sebou basin), 48 commercial pesticides, which are fluorescent, were chosen. A multi-component spectral database of these targeted commercial pesticides was elaborated. For each pesticide, dissolved in water at the lowest concentration giving a no-noise fluorescence spectrum, the total excitation-emission matrix (TEEM), the total synchronous fluorescence matrix (TSFM) in addition to synchronous fluorescence spectra (SFS) at those offsets giving the highest fluorescence intensity were recorded. To test this preliminary multi-component database, two real soil samples, collected at a wheat field and at a vine field in the region of Doukkala, were analyzed. Remains of the commercial Pirimor (Carbamate) and Atlantis (Sulfonylurea) were identified by comparison of the recorded TEEM, TSFM, and SFS to those of the preliminary catalog at one hand, and on the basis of the results of a field pre-survey. The developed approach seems satisfactory, and the fluorimetric fingerprint database is under extension to a higher number of fluorescent pesticides in common use among the Moroccan agricultural regions.

  5. Crustal structure of mountain belts and basins: Industry and academic collaboration at Cornell

    SciTech Connect

    Allmendinger, R.; Barazangi, M.; Brown, L.

    1995-08-01

    Interdisciplinary investigations of the large-scale structure and evolution of key basins and orogenic belts around the world are the focal point of academic-industry interaction at Cornell. Ongoing and new initiatives with significant industry involvement include: Project INDEPTH (Interdisciplinary Deep Profiling of Tibet and the Himalayas), a multinational effort to delineate deep structure across the type example of active continent-continent collision. 300 km of deep reflection profiling was collected across the Himalaya: and southern Tibet Plateau in 1992 and 1994. CAP (Cornell Andes Project), a long-standing interdisciplinary effort to understand the structure and evolution of the Andes, with a focus onmore » Argentina, Chile and Bolivia. A deep reflection profile is tentatively planned for 1997. Intra-plate Orogeny in the Middle East and North Africa is the focus of multidisciplinary regional syntheses of existing seismic reflection and other databases in Syria (Palmyrides)and Morocco (Atlas), with an emphasis on reactivation and inversion tectonics. Project URSEIS (Urals Reflection Seismic Experiment and Integrated Studies) is a collaboration with EUROPROBE to collect 500 km of vibroseis and dynamite deep reflection profiling across the southern Urals in 1995. Project CRATON, an element in COCORP`s systematic exploration of the continental US, is a nascent multi-disciplinary effort to understand the buried craton of the central US and the basins built upon it. Global Basins Research Network (GBRN) is a diversified observational and computational effort to image and model the movement of pore fluids in detail and on a regional scale for a producing oil structure in the Gulf of Mexico.« less

  6. Clays of Ladon Basin

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-01-23

    Ladon Basin was a large impact structure that was filled in by the deposits from Ladon Valles, a major ancient river on Mars as seen in this image from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). These wet sediments were altered into minerals such as various clay minerals. Clays imply chemistry that may have been favorable for life on ancient Mars, if anything lived there, so this could be a good spot for future exploration by rovers and perhaps return of samples to Earth. The map is projected here at a scale of 50 centimeters (19.7 inches) per pixel. [The original image scale is 52.1 centimeters (20.5 inches) per pixel (with 2 x 2 binning); objects on the order of 156 centimeters (61.4 inches) across are resolved.] North is up. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA22183

  7. Isidis Basin Ejecta

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-02

    This scene is a jumbled mess. There are blocks and smears of many different rocks types that appear to have been dumped into a pile. That's probably about what happened, as ejecta from the Isidis impact basin to the east. This pile of old rocks is an island surrounded by younger lava flows from Syrtis Major. The map is projected here at a scale of 25 centimeters (9.8 inches) per pixel. [The original image scale is 27.4 centimeters (10.8 inches) per pixel (with 1 x 1 binning); objects on the order of 82 centimeters (32.2 inches) across are resolved.] North is up. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21553

  8. Aleutian basin oceanic crust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christeson, Gail L.; Barth, Ginger A.

    2015-01-01

    We present two-dimensional P-wave velocity structure along two wide-angle ocean bottom seismometer profiles from the Aleutian basin in the Bering Sea. The basement here is commonly considered to be trapped oceanic crust, yet there is a change in orientation of magnetic lineations and gravity features within the basin that might reflect later processes. Line 1 extends ∼225 km from southwest to northeast, while Line 2 extends ∼225 km from northwest to southeast and crosses the observed change in magnetic lineation orientation. Velocities of the sediment layer increase from 2.0 km/s at the seafloor to 3.0–3.4 km/s just above basement, crustal velocities increase from 5.1–5.6 km/s at the top of basement to 7.0–7.1 km/s at the base of the crust, and upper mantle velocities are 8.1–8.2 km/s. Average sediment thickness is 3.8–3.9 km for both profiles. Crustal thickness varies from 6.2 to 9.6 km, with average thickness of 7.2 km on Line 1 and 8.8 km on Line 2. There is no clear change in crustal structure associated with a change in orientation of magnetic lineations and gravity features. The velocity structure is consistent with that of normal or thickened oceanic crust. The observed increase in crustal thickness from west to east is interpreted as reflecting an increase in melt supply during crustal formation.

  9. [Craniometrical study of the species complex of Meriones shawii-grandis (Mammalia: Rodentia) in Morocco, in Algeria and in Tunisia].

    PubMed

    Djelaila, Yassine; Denys, Christiane; Stoetzel, Emmanuelle; Cornette, Raphaël; Lalis, Aude; Adamou-Djerbaoui, Malika; Boukhemza, Mohamed

    2018-01-01

    In North Africa, the rodents of the species complex Meriones shawii-grandis have a considerable ecological, economic and epidemiological importance. Until now, the systematics of these species was subject to discussion due to the presence of populations displaying high morphological variability. By means of an approach of traditional morphometrics based on cranial distances and by using the method of the log shape-ratio, we attempt to characterize morphologically these two taxa. The results show significant differences in size and shape between the specimens of Morocco, on the one hand, and those of Algeria and Tunisia, on the other hand. The samples of Morocco that have been molecularly typed and attributed to M. grandis have larger tooth rows and narrower skulls, as well as relatively small tympanic bullae. On the other hand, those of Algeria and Tunisia assigned to M. shawii are characterized by small tooth rows and wide skulls with well-developed tympanic bullae. The morphological distance is relatively strong between both clades (79.5%), which corresponds to the molecular distance. However, the discriminant analysis performed after molecularly-typed specimens allows the correct classification of only 91.8% of the individuals. Copyright © 2017 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Wild leafy vegetable use and knowledge across multiple sites in Morocco: a case study for transmission of local knowledge?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There are few publications on the use and diversity of wild leafy vegetables (WLVs) in Morocco. In order to address this gap, we conducted ethnobotanical field work in Taounate, Azilal and El House regions. Methods Ethnobotanical collections, free listing, qualitative interviews and a 7 day food frequency questionnaire. Results More than 30 species in 23 genera of WLV were identified. Of these 4 had not previously recorded as WLVs used in Morocco in the literature. WLVs were used by 84% of households surveyed in Taounate (N = 61, in March 2005), and were used up to 4 times a week. Qualitative data revealed both positive and negative perceptions of WLVs and detailed knowledge about preparation among women. The greatest diversity of WLV knowledge and use was in the Rif Mountains (Taounate). There was significant variation in nomenclature and salience of WLVs, not only between regions, but also between villages in the same region. Within the same region (or even village) different local names were used for a given species or genus, and different species were identified by the same local name (including species from different botanical families). Data showed greater overlap in knowledge among villages using the same market. Conclusion We believe the results suggest that markets are important sites for WLV knowledge transmission. PMID:24708730

  11. Knowledge and practice related to gestational diabetes among primary health care providers in Morocco: Potential for a defragmentation of care?

    PubMed

    Utz, Bettina; Assarag, Bouchra; Essolbi, Amina; Barkat, Amina; Delamou, Alexandre; De Brouwere, Vincent

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess knowledge and practices of general practitioners, nurses and midwives working at primary health care facilities in Morocco regarding screening and management of gestational diabetes (GDM). Structured interviews with 100 doctors, midwives and nurses at 44 randomly selected public health care centers were conducted in Marrakech and Al Haouz. All data were descriptively analyzed. Ethical approval for the study was granted by the institutional review boards in Belgium and Morocco. Public primary health care providers have a basic understanding of gestational diabetes but screening and management practices are not uniform. Although 56.8% of the doctors had some pre-service training on gestational diabetes, most nurses and midwives lack such training. After diagnosing GDM, 88.5% of providers refer patients to specialists, only 11.5% treat them as outpatients. Updating knowledge and skills of providers through both pre- and in-service-training needs to be supported by uniform national standards enabling first line health care workers to manage women with GDM and thus increase access and provide a continuity in care. Findings of this study will be used to pilot a model of GDM screening and initial management through the primary level of care. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Patterns of acoustic variation in Cicada barbara Stål (Hemiptera, Cicadoidea) from the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Juma, G A; Seabra, S G; Quartau, J A

    2008-02-01

    Field recordings of the calling song and of an amplitude modulated signal produced by males of Cicada barbara from North Africa and the Iberian Peninsula were analysed in order to assess the geographical acoustic variation and the potential usefulness of acoustic data in the discrimination of subspecies and populations. Sound recordings were digitized and the frequency and temporal properties of the calls of each cicada were analysed. In all regions studied, peak frequency, quartiles 25, 50 and 75% and syllable rate showed low coefficients of variation suggesting inherent static properties. All frequency variables were correlated with the latitude, decreasing from south to north. In addition, most acoustic variables of the calling song showed significant differences between regions, and PCA and DFA analyses supported a partitioning within this species between Iberian Peninsula+Ceuta and Morocco, corroborating mtDNA data on the same species. Therefore, the subspecific division of C. barbara into C. barbara barbara from Morocco and C. barbara lusitanica from Portugal, Spain and Ceuta finds support from the present acoustic analyses, a result which is also reinforced by molecular markers.

  13. Relationships Between Seed Weight, Germination Potential and Biochemical Reserves of Maritime Pine in Morocco: Elements for Tree Seedlings Improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahid, Nadya; Bounoua, Lahouari

    2011-01-01

    Selection of quality seeds in breeding programs can significantly improve seedling productivity. Germination and biochemical analyses on seeds from ten natural populations of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) in Morocco reveals significant differences among populations in seed weight, germination characters and protein content in both dry seeds and megagametophytes. During germination, the mobilization of protein content in megagametophyte is significantly different among populations than sugar content. A strong positive correlation between the germination capacity and the protein content i