Sample records for tai chi qigong

  1. A comprehensive review of health benefits of qigong and tai chi.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, Roger; Larkey, Linda; Rogers, Carol; Etnier, Jennifer; Lin, Fang

    2010-01-01

    Research examining psychological and physiological benefits of Qigong and Tai Chi is growing rapidly. The many practices described as Qigong or Tai Chi have similar theoretical roots, proposed mechanisms of action, and expected benefits. Research trials and reviews, however, treat them as separate targets of examination. This review examines the evidence for achieving outcomes from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of both. The key words Tai Chi, Taiji, Tai Chi Chuan, and Qigong were entered into electronic search engines for the Cumulative Index for Allied Health and Nursing (CINAHL), psychological literature (PsycINFO), PubMed, Cochrane database, and Google Scholar. STUDY INCLUSION CRITERIA: RCTs reporting on the results of Qigong or Tai Chi interventions and published in peer-reviewed journals from 1993 to 2007. Country, type and duration of activity, number/type of subjects, control conditions, and reported outcomes were recorded for each study. Outcomes related to Qigong and Tai Chi practice were identified and evaluated. Seventy-seven articles met the inclusion criteria. The nine outcome category groupings that emerged were bone density (n = 4), cardiopulmonary effects (n = 19), physical function (n = 16), falls and related risk factors (n = 23), quality of life (n = 17), self-efficacy (n = 8), patient-reported outcomes (n = 13), psychological symptoms (n = 27), and immune function (n = 6). Research has demonstrated consistent, significant results for a number of health benefits in RCTs, evidencing progress toward recognizing the similarity and equivalence of Qigong and Tai Chi.

  2. A Comprehensive Review of Health Benefits of Qigong and Tai Chi

    PubMed Central

    Jahnke, Roger; Larkey, Linda; Rogers, Carol; Etnier, Jennifer; Lin, Fang

    2011-01-01

    Objective Research examining psychological and physiological benefits of Qigong and Tai Chi is growing rapidly. The many practices described as Qigong or Tai Chi have similar theoretical roots, proposed mechanisms of action and expected benefits. Research trials and reviews, however, treat them as separate targets of examination. This review examines the evidence for achieving outcomes from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of both. Data Sources The key words tai chi, taiji, and qigong were entered into electronic search engines for the Cumulative Index for Allied Health and Nursing (CINAHL), Psychological Literature (PsychInfo), PubMed, Cochrane database, and Google Scholar. Study Inclusion Criteria RCTs reporting on the results of Qigong or Tai Chi interventions and published in peer reviewed journals published from 1993–2007 Data Extraction Country, type and duration of activity, number/type of subjects, control conditions, and reported outcomes were recorded for each study. Synthesis Outcomes related to Qigong and Tai Chi practice were identified and evaluated. Results Seventy-seven articles met the inclusion criteria. The 9 outcome category groupings that emerged were: bone density (n=4), cardiopulmonary effects (n=19), physical function (n=16), falls and related risk factors (n=23), Quality of Life (n=17), self-efficacy (n=8), patient reported outcomes (n=13), psychological symptoms (n=27), and immune function (n=6). Conclusions Research has demonstrated consistent, significant results for a number of health benefits in RCTs, evidencing progress toward recognizing the similarity and equivalence of Qigong and Tai Chi. PMID:20594090

  3. Everybody was Kung-Fu fighting-The beneficial effects of Tai Chi Qigong and self-defense Kung-Fu training on psychological and endocrine health in middle aged and older men.

    PubMed

    Walther, A; Lacker, T J; Ehlert, U

    2018-02-01

    Higher age is associated to a variety of physical and mental disorders. Age-related changes in steroid secretion have been suggested to be an underlying mechanism leading to frailty, depression, and sexual dysfunction. However, Tai chi qigong and similar forms of exercise have been shown to improve a great variety of health-related parameters in older individuals. We examined 56 self-reporting healthy men actively practicing Tai chi qigong and/or self-defense Kung-fu and 55 age-matched self-reporting healthy controls. Saliva samples were obtained in a standardized procedure for subsequent quantification of circulating testosterone and cortisol levels. In addition, depressive symptoms, life satisfaction, and sexual health were assessesd via self-report questionnaires. Age was negatively associated with testosterone, while no association emerged for cortisol. Tai chi qigong and/or self-defense Kung-fu training was neither associated with testosterone nor cortisol. More weekly Tai chi qigong and/or self-defense Kung-fu training (4 or more times per week) was instead associated with a lower CT-ratio, less depressive symptoms, and higher life satisfaction compared to individuals, who trained only one to three times per week. More years of Tai chi qigong and/or self-defense Kung-fu training were associated with less depressive symptoms and higher life satisfaction but not with the CT-ratio. No significant associations emerged for Tai chi qigong and/or self-defense Kung-fu training and sexual health. When compared to the age-matched controls, there is a significant effect of Tai chi, qigong and/or self-defense Kung-fu on the CT-ratio. Contrast analyses revealed a significantly lower CT-ratio for the high training load group in contrast to the low training load group. Further, in contrast to the control group, the low training load group exhibits a significantly higher CT-ratio. For depression, contrast analyses revealed a significantly lower level of depression in the

  4. Qigong/Tai Chi Easy for fatigue in breast cancer survivors: Rationale and design of a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Larkey, Linda; Huberty, Jennifer; Pedersen, Maja; Weihs, Karen

    2016-09-01

    Breast cancer survivors (BCSs) often report fatigue that persists for years following treatment. Despite a growing body of evidence for meditative movement practices to improve symptoms among BCSs, few studies have explored using Qigong/Tai Chi to reduce fatigue. Additionally, few have examined the biological mechanisms through which fatigue may be reduced using Qigong/Tai Chi. We will recruit 250 fatigued, post-menopausal women diagnosed with breast cancer (stage 0-III), between 6months and 5years past primary treatment and randomize to a standardized Qigong/Tai Chi Easy (QG/TCE) intervention, a "sham" Qigong group (movements without a focus on the breath and meditative state) (SQG), or an educational support (ES) group. The primary outcome (fatigue), secondary outcomes (anxiety, depression, sleep quality, cognitive function, physical activity), and a biomarker of HPA axis dysregulation (diurnal cortisol) will be assessed at baseline, post-intervention and 6months postintervention, and biomarkers of inflammation (IL1ra, IL6, TNFα and INFᵧ) at pre/post-intervention. We hypothesize that QG/TCE will reduce fatigue (and improve other symptoms associated with fatigue) in BCSs experiencing persistent cancer-related fatigue more than SQG and ES. Biomarkers will be examined for relationships to changes in fatigue. Findings from this study may reveal the effects of the unique mind-body aspects of QG/TCE on fatigue in BCSs with a complex design that separates the effects of low-intensity physical activity (SQG) and social support/attention (ES) from the primary intervention. Further, results will likely contribute greater understanding of the biological mechanisms of these practices related to improved symptoms among BCSs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of tai chi qigong on psychosocial well-being among hidden elderly, using elderly neighborhood volunteer approach: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Chan, Aileen Wk; Yu, Doris Sf; Choi, K C

    2017-01-01

    To test the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of a tai chi qigong program with the assistance of elderly neighborhood volunteers in strengthening social networks and enhancing the psychosocial well-being of hidden elderly. "Hidden elderly" is a term used to describe older adults who are socially isolated and refuse social participation. This pilot randomized controlled trial recruited 48 older adults aged 60 or above who did not engage in any social activity. They were randomized into tai chi qigong (n=24) and standard care control (n=24) groups. The former group underwent a three-month program of two 60-minute sessions each week, with the socially active volunteers paired up with them during practice. Standard care included regular home visits by social workers. Primary outcomes were assessed by means of the Lubben social network and De Jong Gieveld loneliness scales, and by a revised social support questionnaire. Secondary outcomes were covered by a mental health inventory and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale, and quality of life by using the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey. Data was collected at baseline, and at three and six months thereafter. The generalized estimating equations model revealed general improvement in outcomes among participants on the tai chi qigong program. In particular, participants reported a significantly greater improvement on the loneliness scale ( B =-1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] -2.54 to -0.11, P =0.033) and the satisfaction component of the social support questionnaire ( B =3.43, 95% CI 0.10-6.76, P =0.044) than the control group. The pilot study confirmed that tai chi qigong with elderly neighborhood volunteers is a safe and feasible social intervention for hidden elderly. Its potential benefits in improving social and psychological health suggest the need for a full-scale randomized controlled trial to reveal its empirical effects.

  6. Participation trends in holistic movement practices: a 10-year comparison of yoga/Pilates and t'ai chi/qigong use among a national sample of 195,926 Australians.

    PubMed

    Vergeer, Ineke; Bennie, Jason A; Charity, Melanie J; Harvey, Jack T; van Uffelen, Jannique G Z; Biddle, Stuart J H; Eime, Rochelle M

    2017-06-06

    In recent decades, the evidence supporting the physical and mental health benefits of holistic movement practices such as yoga and t'ai chi have become increasingly established. Consequently, investigating the participation prevalence and patterns of these practices is a relevant pursuit in the public health field. Few studies have provided population-level assessment of participation rates, however, and even fewer have focused on patterns over time. The purpose of this study was to examine participation prevalence and trends in yoga/Pilates and t'ai chi/qigong over a ten-year period in a nationally representative sample of Australians aged 15 years and over, with particular attention to sex and age. A secondary purpose was to juxtapose these findings with participation trends in traditional fitness activities over the same period. Data comprised modes and types of physical activity, age, and sex variables collected through the Exercise, Recreation and Sport Survey (ERASS), a series of independent cross-sectional Australia-wide surveys conducted yearly between 2001 and 2010. For each year, weighted population estimates were calculated for those participating in yoga/Pilates, t'ai chi/qigong, and fitness activities (e.g. aerobics, calisthenics). Linear regression and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine trends in prevalence rates over time and differences among sex and age (15-34; 35-54; 55+ years) groups, respectively. Average prevalence rates between 2001 and 2010 were 3.0% (95% CI 2.9-3.1) for yoga/Pilates, 0.6% (95% CI 0.5-0.6) for t'ai chi/qigong, and 19.2% (95% CI 18.9-19.4) for fitness activities. Across the decade, overall participation rates remained relatively stable for yoga/Pilates and t'ai chi/qigong, while increasing linearly for fitness activities. For both genders and in all three age groups, participation in fitness activities increased, whereas only in the 55+ age group was there a significant increase in yoga

  7. Effects of Acupuncture, Tuina, Tai Chi, Qigong, and Traditional Chinese Medicine Five-Element Music Therapy on Symptom Management and Quality of Life for Cancer Patients: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Tao, Wei-Wei; Jiang, Hua; Tao, Xiao-Mei; Jiang, Ping; Sha, Li-Yan; Sun, Xian-Ce

    2016-04-01

    Most cancer patients suffer from both the disease itself and symptoms induced by conventional treatment. Available literature on the clinical effects on cancer patients of acupuncture, Tuina, Tai Chi, Qigong, and Traditional Chinese Medicine Five-Element Music Therapy (TCM-FEMT) reports controversial results. The primary objective of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of acupuncture, Tuina, Tai Chi, Qigong, and TCM-FEMT on various symptoms and quality of life (QOL) in patients with cancer; risk of bias for the selected trials also was assessed. Studies were identified by searching electronic databases (MEDLINE via both PubMed and Ovid, Cochrane Central, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Scientific Journal Database, China Biology Medicine, and Wanfang Database). All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) using acupuncture, Tuina, Tai Chi, Qigong, or TCM-FEMT published before October 2, 2014, were selected, regardless of whether the article was published in Chinese or English. We identified 67 RCTs (5465 patients) that met our inclusion criteria to perform this meta-analysis. Analysis results showed that a significant combined effect was observed for QOL change in patients with terminal cancer in favor of acupuncture and Tuina (Cohen's d: 0.21-4.55, P < 0.05), whereas Tai Chi and Qigong had no effect on QOL of breast cancer survivors (P > 0.05). The meta-analysis also demonstrated that acupuncture produced small-to-large effects on adverse symptoms including pain, fatigue, sleep disturbance, and some gastrointestinal discomfort; however, no significant effect was found on the frequency of hot flashes (Cohen's d = -0.02; 95% CI = -1.49 to 1.45; P = 0.97; I(2) = 36%) and mood distress (P > 0.05). Tuina relieved gastrointestinal discomfort. TCM-FEMT lowered depression level. Tai Chi improved vital capacity of breast cancer patients. High risk of bias was present in 74.63% of the selected RCTs. Major sources of risk of bias were lack of blinding

  8. The story of the evolution of a unique tai chi form: origins, philosophy, and research.

    PubMed

    Robins, Jo Lynne W; Elswick, R K; McCain, Nancy L

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce a unique tai chi form that has been successfully implemented in two large randomized clinical trials. The intervention is composed of a series of tai chi movements chosen for their particular meanings, thus adding a cognitive component to the practice of a moving meditation. Over the last decade, the intervention has continued to evolve as it has been used in different populations. Most recently, medical qigong has been integrated to strengthen its potential impact on a variety of biobehavioral measures associated with cardiometabolic risk in women. Following an appraisal of the authors' process as well as the philosophy, practice, and research of tai chi and qigong, the authors share the story of their intervention to contribute to the evolving research of these safe, well-received, low-cost, and beneficial practices.

  9. Can Tai Chi and Qigong Postures Shape Our Mood? Toward an Embodied Cognition Framework for Mind-Body Research

    PubMed Central

    Osypiuk, Kamila; Thompson, Evan; Wayne, Peter M.

    2018-01-01

    Dynamic and static body postures are a defining characteristic of mind-body practices such as Tai Chi and Qigong (TCQ). A growing body of evidence supports the hypothesis that TCQ may be beneficial for psychological health, including management and prevention of depression and anxiety. Although a variety of causal factors have been identified as potential mediators of such health benefits, physical posture, despite its visible prominence, has been largely overlooked. We hypothesize that body posture while standing and/or moving may be a key therapeutic element mediating the influence of TCQ on psychological health. In the present paper, we summarize existing experimental and observational evidence that suggests a bi-directional relationship between body posture and mental states. Drawing from embodied cognitive science, we provide a theoretical framework for further investigation into this interrelationship. We discuss the challenges involved in such an investigation and propose suggestions for future studies. Despite theoretical and practical challenges, we propose that the role of posture in mind-body exercises such as TCQ should be considered in future research. PMID:29765313

  10. Can Tai Chi and Qigong Postures Shape Our Mood? Toward an Embodied Cognition Framework for Mind-Body Research.

    PubMed

    Osypiuk, Kamila; Thompson, Evan; Wayne, Peter M

    2018-01-01

    Dynamic and static body postures are a defining characteristic of mind-body practices such as Tai Chi and Qigong (TCQ). A growing body of evidence supports the hypothesis that TCQ may be beneficial for psychological health, including management and prevention of depression and anxiety. Although a variety of causal factors have been identified as potential mediators of such health benefits, physical posture, despite its visible prominence, has been largely overlooked. We hypothesize that body posture while standing and/or moving may be a key therapeutic element mediating the influence of TCQ on psychological health. In the present paper, we summarize existing experimental and observational evidence that suggests a bi-directional relationship between body posture and mental states. Drawing from embodied cognitive science, we provide a theoretical framework for further investigation into this interrelationship. We discuss the challenges involved in such an investigation and propose suggestions for future studies. Despite theoretical and practical challenges, we propose that the role of posture in mind-body exercises such as TCQ should be considered in future research.

  11. Tai Chi for Essential Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Feng, Bo; Yang, Xiaochen; Liu, Wei; Teng, Fei; Li, Shengjie; Xiong, Xingjiang

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the current clinical evidence of Tai Chi for essential hypertension (EH). Search Strategy. 7 electronic databases were searched until 20 April, 2013. Inclusion Criteria. We included randomized trials testing Tai Chi versus routine care or antihypertensive drugs. Trials testing Tai Chi combined with antihypertensive drugs versus antihypertensive drugs were also included. Data Extraction and Analyses. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analyses were conducted according to the Cochrane standards. Results. 18 trials were included. Methodological quality of the trials was low. 14 trials compared Tai Chi with routine care. 1 trial compared Tai Chi with antihypertensive drugs. Meta-analysis all showed significant effect of TaiChi in lowering blood pressure (BP). 3 trials compared Tai Chi plus antihypertensive drugs with antihypertensive drugs. Positive results in BP were found in the other 2 combination groups. Most of the trials did not report adverse events, and the safety of Tai Chi is still uncertain. Conclusions. There is some encouraging evidence of Tai Chi for EH. However, due to poor methodological quality of included studies, the evidence remains weak. Rigorously designed trials are needed to confirm the evidence. PMID:23986780

  12. Tai chi and chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Peng, Philip W H

    2012-01-01

    In the last 2 decades, a growing body of research aimed at investigating the health benefits of Tai Chi in various chronic health conditions has been recognized in the literature. This article reviewed the history, the philosophy, and the evidence for the role of Tai Chi in a few selected chronic pain conditions. The ancient health art of Tai Chi contributes to chronic pain management in 3 major areas: adaptive exercise, mind-body interaction, and meditation. Trials examining the health benefit of Tai Chi in chronic pain conditions are mostly low quality. Only 5 pain conditions were reviewed: osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, rheumatoid arthritis, low back pain, and headache. Of these, Tai Chi seems to be an effective intervention in osteoarthritis, low back pain, and fibromyalgia. The limitations of the Tai Chi study design and suggestions for the direction of future research are also discussed.

  13. Stress Management: Tai Chi

    MedlinePlus

    ... in constant motion. Tai chi has many different styles. Each style may subtly emphasize various tai chi principles and methods. There are variations within each style. Some styles may focus on health maintenance, while ...

  14. T'ai chi ch'uan.

    PubMed

    Lewis, D E

    2000-11-01

    The Chinese practice of t'ai chi seems to be receiving increased interest in the West. This article gives a brief overview of t'ai chi, including its origins, development, principles and potential health benefits. The function of the essential elements of t'ai chi, namely the Form and chi kung are described and their potential benefits for patients and nurses are discussed. Exponents of t'ai chi believe that it has health benefits on physical, psychological and spiritual levels, thus promoting a feeling of well-being. In addition, regular practitioners are empowered to be in greater control of themselves, their health, and situations in which they find themselves.

  15. Tai-Chi Chuan; Teacher's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Joe, Ed.

    The exercises and basic movements of Tai-chi Chuan, one form of the Chinese martial arts, are described and illustrated (through photographs) in this teaching guide. Chinese terms used in the text are defined, the benefits of Tai-chi Chuan are discussed, and background information concerning the history of Chinese martial arts and Tai-chi Chuan is…

  16. Tai chi and rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenchen

    2011-02-01

    Tai chi is a complex multicomponent mind-body exercise. Many studies have provided evidence that tai chi benefits patients with a variety of chronic disorders. This form of mind-body exercise enhances cardiovascular fitness, muscular strength, balance, and physical function and seems to be associated with reduced stress, anxiety, and depression and improved quality of life. Thus, despite certain limitations in the evidence, tai chi can be recommended to patients with osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and fibromyalgia as a complementary and alternative medical approach. This article overviews the current knowledge about tai chi to better inform clinical decision making for rheumatic patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Biomedical wellness by tai chi and sports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Daniel C.; Chin, Amita G.

    2011-06-01

    Tai-chi chuan is popular worldwide especially in China. People practice tai-chi chuan daily with faith believing that they will be rewarded with health and varieties of other rewords. The Tai Chi Chuan Theory by Master Chang and the Tai Chi Chuan Theory by Master Wang are translated to be the baseline of the tai-chi chuan. The theory described in these two papers clearly shows that the tai-chi power source is the combination of the two antigravity forces distinction by each foot. The ying, yang and hollowed, solid discussed in the papers are the properties and body relationship of the two antigravity forces. The antigravity forces presented inside of body are as air to the balloon termed chi. However chi could be generated by any muscle pressing; only the antigravity forces from feet are called nature chi that has the maximum strength of the person. When a person is soft, as an infant the nature chi will fulfill entire body with no time and effort. The sequence forms were designed for deploying the nature chi in speed and power. The combination of chi and tai-chi form make tai chi chuan supreme than other kinds of martial art. In the training process chi massages whole body many time for a sequence form practice that stimulate all organs and could lead to cure body diseases, lose weight, postpone aging process, and remove the aging symptoms. For the people practicing in the park daily with proper guidance they will fulfill their wishes. Tai chi exercise could also apply to other sports as in dancing and golfing they are discussed at the end of the paper.

  18. Tai Chi research review.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany

    2011-08-01

    This review briefly summarizes recent Tai Chi research on physical benefits including balance and muscle strength and psychological benefits including attentiveness, sleep and anxiety. Cardiovascular changes following Tai Chi include decreased heart rate and blood pressure, increased vagal activity and decreased cholesterol. Pain syndromes that have been affected include fibromyalgia, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Autoimmune and immune conditions recently researched and reviewed here include osteoporosis, diabetes and HIV. Methodological problems with this research include the variability in forms (series of postures) used across studies as well as the intensity of the Tai Chi schedule. Further, most of the studies are based on within group changes rather than attention control group comparisons. Nonetheless, significant clinical improvements have been noted. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Tai Chi Chuan in Medicine and Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Ching; Chen, Ssu-Yuan; Lai, Jin-Shin; Wong, Alice May-Kuen

    2013-01-01

    Tai Chi Chuan (Tai Chi) is a Chinese traditional mind-body exercise and recently, it becomes popular worldwide. During the practice of Tai Chi, deep diaphragmatic breathing is integrated into body motions to achieve a harmonious balance between body and mind and to facilitate the flow of internal energy (Qi). Participants can choose to perform a complete set of Tai Chi or selected movements according to their needs. Previous research substantiates that Tai Chi has significant benefits to health promotion, and regularly practicing Tai Chi improves aerobic capacity, muscular strength, balance, health-related quality of life, and psychological well-being. Recent studies also prove that Tai Chi is safe and effective for patients with neurological diseases (e.g., stroke, Parkinson's disease, traumatic brain injury, multiple sclerosis, cognitive dysfunction), rheumatological disease (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and fibromyalgia), orthopedic diseases (e.g., osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, low-back pain, and musculoskeletal disorder), cardiovascular diseases (e.g., acute myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass grafting surgery, and heart failure), chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and breast cancers. Tai Chi is an aerobic exercise with mild-to-moderate intensity and is appropriate for implementation in the community. This paper reviews the existing literature on Tai Chi and introduces its health-promotion effect and the potential clinical applications. PMID:24159346

  20. Tai chi chuan in medicine and health promotion.

    PubMed

    Lan, Ching; Chen, Ssu-Yuan; Lai, Jin-Shin; Wong, Alice May-Kuen

    2013-01-01

    Tai Chi Chuan (Tai Chi) is a Chinese traditional mind-body exercise and recently, it becomes popular worldwide. During the practice of Tai Chi, deep diaphragmatic breathing is integrated into body motions to achieve a harmonious balance between body and mind and to facilitate the flow of internal energy (Qi). Participants can choose to perform a complete set of Tai Chi or selected movements according to their needs. Previous research substantiates that Tai Chi has significant benefits to health promotion, and regularly practicing Tai Chi improves aerobic capacity, muscular strength, balance, health-related quality of life, and psychological well-being. Recent studies also prove that Tai Chi is safe and effective for patients with neurological diseases (e.g., stroke, Parkinson's disease, traumatic brain injury, multiple sclerosis, cognitive dysfunction), rheumatological disease (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and fibromyalgia), orthopedic diseases (e.g., osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, low-back pain, and musculoskeletal disorder), cardiovascular diseases (e.g., acute myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass grafting surgery, and heart failure), chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and breast cancers. Tai Chi is an aerobic exercise with mild-to-moderate intensity and is appropriate for implementation in the community. This paper reviews the existing literature on Tai Chi and introduces its health-promotion effect and the potential clinical applications.

  1. Tai Chi and Rheumatic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chenchen

    2011-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Many patients with chronic rheumatic diseases such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and fibromyalgia experience high levels of pain, psychological distress and negative emotions and have limited therapeutic options. Tai Chi is a complex multi-component mind-body exercise that increasing numbers of Americans are practicing, particularly those with musculoskeletal conditions. Clinical trials and observational studies have provided encouraging evidence that Tai Chi, both short and long-term, has benefits for patients with a variety of chronic disorders. As a form of physical exercise, Tai Chi enhances cardiovascular fitness, muscular strength, balance, and physical function. It also appears to be associated with reduced stress, anxiety and depression as well as improved quality of life. Thus, despite the noted limitations in the evidence, and the need for further methodologically rigorous studies, Tai Chi can be safely recommended to patients with osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and fibromyalgia as a complementary and alternative medical approach to affect patient well-being. This overview synthesizes the current body of knowledge about this ancient Chinese mind-body medicine to better inform clinical decision-making for our rheumatic patients. PMID:21220083

  2. Therapeutic benefits of Tai Chi exercise: research review.

    PubMed

    Kuramoto, Alice M

    2006-10-01

    The majority of studies on Tai Chi conducted between 1996 and 2004 had focused on health and well being of Tai Chi exercise for senior adults. The results show that Tai Chi may lead to improved balance, reduced fear of falling, increased strength, increased functional mobility, greater flexibility, and increased psychological well-being, sleep enhancement for sleep disturbed elderly individuals, and increased cardio functioning. Wang, Collet, and Lau did a systematic review on Tai Chi research and found some limitations or biases existing in some of the studies, and it was difficult to draw firm conclusions about the benefits reported. Therefore, more well-designed studies are needed in the future. There need to be studies on the effects on younger and middle-aged people. More longitudinal studies are needed, since time is an important factor of physical and psychological interventions. Studies on the effects of Tai Chi on the immune system and bone loss reduction are still very exploratory and will be especially useful for arthritis patients and others with immune disorders. Future studies should investigate outcomes associated with Tai Chi training as a function of different instructional techniques, different Tai Chi styles, different diagnostic groups, and different age groups. It is not yet clear which of the components in Tai Chi makes the exercise form especially effective for seniors. Tai Chi exercise is a relatively "low tech" approach to preventing disability and maintaining physical performance in older adults. The positive effects of Tai Chi may be due solely to its relaxing, meditative aspects. The current data suggest that Tai Chi can influence older individuals' functioning and well being and provide some appreciation for why this exercise form has been practiced by older Chinese for more than 3 centuries.

  3. A Journey to Wholeness Through Tai Chi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Turki, Faiza

    Healing is a multifaceted venture. Whereas many traditional cultures see healing as a journey that, by necessity, combines body, mind, and spirit, today's Western society frequently divides healing, relegating its parts to various experts--body to physicians, mind to psychologists, spirit to religions. Employing heuristic and alchemical hermeneutic methodologies, this thesis explores tai chi as a healing tool that bridges that division, exploring the following question: is it possible that the connection of body, mind, and spirit offered by tai chi is the very mechanism by which it facilitates healing? The cultural and historical context of tai chi is introduced, as well as research showing various Western views. A heuristic approach offers personal examples of the use of tai chi as a process partner, while a depth psychological lens informs the use of tai chi principles to guide moments of self-exploration and transformation in a therapeutic way.

  4. Tai Chi for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    PubMed

    Ngai, Shirley P C; Jones, Alice Y M; Tam, Wilson Wai San

    2016-06-07

    Tai Chi, a systematic callisthenic exercise first developed in ancient China, involves a series of slow and rhythmic circular motions. It emphasises use of 'mind' or concentration to control breathing and circular body motions to facilitate flow of internal energy (i.e. 'qi') within the body. Normal flow of 'qi' is believed to be essential to sustain body homeostasis, ultimately leading to longevity. The effect of Tai Chi on balance and muscle strength in the elderly population has been reported; however, the effect of Tai Chi on dyspnoea, exercise capacity, pulmonary function and psychosocial status among people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains unclear. • To explore the effectiveness of Tai Chi in reducing dyspnoea and improving exercise capacity in people with COPD.• To determine the influence of Tai Chi on physiological and psychosocial functions among people with COPD. We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register of trials (which included the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED) and PsycINFO); handsearched respiratory journals and meeting abstracts; and searched Chinese medical databases including Wanfang Data, Chinese Medical Current Contents (CMCC), Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM), China Journal Net (CJN) and China Medical Academic Conference (CMAC), from inception to September 2015. We checked the reference lists of all primary studies and review articles for relevant additional references. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing Tai Chi (Tai Chi alone or Tai Chi in addition to another intervention) versus control (usual care or another intervention identical to that used in the Tai Chi group) in people with COPD. Two independent review authors screened and selected studies. Two independent review authors extracted data from included

  5. T'ai Chi

    MedlinePlus

    ... who practice it wear a martial arts training uniform. T'ai chi is usually practiced barefoot or ... health problem. Is your schedule jam-packed with school, work, and social activities? Here are a few ...

  6. [T'ai chi in the elderly: practical aspects].

    PubMed

    Kressig, Reto W; Beauchet, Olivier; Tharicharu, Jai

    2003-11-01

    New approaches to health promotion for the growing geriatric population are needed. Low to moderately intense exercise programs, such as T'ai Chi seem particularly appropriate for older individuals because of many worthwhile physiological and psychological long-term benefits. T'ai Chi reduces falls and improves postural stability in older adults. It also has a positive impact on muscle strength and cardiovascular fitness and can improve mobility in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. It imparts a sense of well-being and confidence, and can reduce fear of falling in older adults. This article reviews the current medical literature regarding the multiple effects of T'ai Chi. Historical aspects of T'ai Chi and its current adaptation for practice by healthy older adults are presented. Finally, a set of modified exercises is proposed that is based on underlying principles of T'ai Chi and can be applied to patients with mild to moderate cognitive impairment.

  7. Tai Chi and older people in the community: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Morris Docker, Sara

    2006-05-01

    This paper outlines a qualitative exploratory study of the individual experiences of older people who practise Tai Chi for health. The study aimed to identify factors that influence the attraction of Tai Chi for older people. Participants were recruited from a selection of Tai Chi clubs in the north of England. Participant and non-participant observation of a selection of Tai Chi practice sessions was undertaken along with interviews with 7 older people. Findings show that individuals who practice Tai Chi report a variety of immediate and lasting physical and mental benefits. Being part of a group that both learns and practises Tai Chi together appears to be important to the experience and awareness of the spiritual nature of Tai Chi was also reported. It is argued that older people who practise Tai Chi may have a particular view on ageing, health and well-being that the activity of Tai Chi allows them to express and future study intends to investigate this in more detail.

  8. The Tai Chi in Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hua-bai

    2017-10-01

    Tai Chi, a Chinese martial art developed based on the laws of nature, emphasises how 'to conquer the unyielding with the yielding'. The recent observation of star formation shows that stars result from the interaction between gravity, turbulence and magnetic fields. This interaction again follows the nature rules that inspired Tai Chi. For example, if self-gravity is the force that dominates, the molecular cloud will collapse isotropically, which compresses magnetic field lines. The density of the yielding field lines increases until magnetic pressure reaches the critical value to support the cloud against the gravitational force in directions perpendicular to the field lines (Lorentz force). Then gravity gives way to Lorentz force, accumulating gas only along the field lines till the gas density achieves the critical value to again compress the field lines. The Tai Chi goes on in a self-similar way.

  9. A randomized controlled trial of tai chi for long-term low back pain (TAI CHI): study rationale, design, and methods.

    PubMed

    Hall, Amanda M; Maher, Chris G; Latimer, Jane; Ferreira, Manuela L; Lam, Paul

    2009-05-28

    Low back pain persisting for longer than 3 months is a common and costly condition for which many current treatments have low-moderate success rates at best. Exercise is among the more successful treatments for this condition, however, the type and dosage of exercise that elicits the best results is not clearly defined. Tai chi is a gentle form of low intensity exercise that uses controlled movements in combination with relaxation techniques and is currently used as a safe form of exercise for people suffering from other chronic pain conditions such as arthritis. To date, there has been no scientific evaluation of tai chi as an intervention for people with back pain. Thus the aim of this study will be to examine the effects of a tai chi exercise program on pain and disability in people with long-term low back pain. The study will recruit 160 healthy individuals from the community setting to be randomised to either a tai chi intervention group or a wait-list control group. Individuals in the tai chi group will attend 2 tai chi sessions (40 minutes)/week for 8 weeks followed by 1 tai chi session/week for 2 weeks. The wait-list control will continue their usual health care practices and have the opportunity to participate in the tai chi program once they have completed the follow-up assessments. The primary outcome will be bothersomeness of back symptoms measured with a 0-10 numerical rating scale. Secondary outcomes include, self-reports of pain-related disability, health-related quality of life and global perceived effect of treatment. Statistical analysis of primary and secondary outcomes will be based on the intention to treat principle. Linear mixed models will be used to test for the effect of treatment on outcome at 10 weeks follow up. This trial has received ethics approval from The University of Sydney Human Research Ethics Committee. HREC Approval No.10452 This study will be the first trial in this area and the information on its effectiveness will allow

  10. Tai chi and meditation: A conceptual (re)synthesis?

    PubMed

    Posadzki, Paul; Jacques, Samantha

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this article is to review the literature on Tai Chi and meditation. A coherent construct is developed that includes a comparative analysis and conceptual synthesis of existing theories. The authors discuss a set of assumptions that justify this synthesis; they also argue that this construct would facilitate greater understanding of Tai Chi from the perspective of meditation. Such synthesis may bring "additional" benefits to Tai Chi practitioners as they could recognize that this mind-body technique holds the essence of meditation. Within the scope of this article, the evidence shows a majority of common features when concerning Tai Chi and meditation. These mutual similarities should be taken into account when performing this type of mind-body medicine by patients and/or therapists. Finally, the authors suggest that this inspiring compilation of movements and mindfulness can be used for practical purposes.

  11. Protocol for the MATCH study (Mindfulness and Tai Chi for cancer health): A preference-based multi-site randomized comparative effectiveness trial (CET) of Mindfulness-Based Cancer Recovery (MBCR) vs. Tai Chi/Qigong (TCQ) for cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Linda E; Zelinski, Erin L; Speca, Michael; Balneaves, Lynda G; Jones, Jennifer M; Santa Mina, Daniel; Wayne, Peter M; Campbell, Tavis S; Giese-Davis, Janine; Faris, Peter; Zwicker, Jennifer; Patel, Kamala; Beattie, Tara L; Cole, Steve; Toivonen, Kirsti; Nation, Jill; Peng, Philip; Thong, Bruce; Wong, Raimond; Vohra, Sunita

    2017-08-01

    A growing number of cancer survivors suffer high levels of distress, depression and stress, as well as sleep disturbance, pain and fatigue. Two different mind-body interventions helpful for treating these problems are Mindfulness-Based Cancer Recovery (MBCR) and Tai Chi/Qigong (TCQ). However, while both interventions show efficacy compared to usual care, they have never been evaluated in the same study or directly compared. This study will be the first to incorporate innovative design features including patient choice while evaluating two interventions to treat distressed cancer survivors. It will also allow for secondary analyses of which program best targets specific symptoms in particular groups of survivors, based on preferences and baseline characteristics. The design is a preference-based multi-site randomized comparative effectiveness trial. Participants (N=600) with a preference for either MBCR or TCQ will receive their preferred intervention; while those without a preference will be randomized into either intervention. Further, within the preference and non-preference groups, participants will be randomized into immediate intervention or wait-list control. Total mood disturbance on the Profile of mood states (POMS) post-intervention is the primary outcome. Other measures taken pre- and post-intervention and at 6-month follow-up include quality of life, psychological functioning, cancer-related symptoms and physical functioning. Exploratory analyses investigate biomarkers (cortisol, cytokines, blood pressure/Heart Rate Variability, telomere length, gene expression), which may uncover potentially important effects on key biological regulatory and antineoplastic functions. Health economic measures will determine potential savings to the health system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Randomized Trial of Tai Chi for Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chenchen; Schmid, Christopher H.; Rones, Ramel; Kalish, Robert; Yinh, Janeth; Goldenberg, Don L.; Lee, Yoojin; McAlindon, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous research has suggested that tai chi offers a therapeutic benefit in patients with fibromyalgia. Methods We conducted a single-blind, randomized trial of classic Yang-style tai chi as compared with a control intervention consisting of wellness education and stretching for the treatment of fibromyalgia (defined by American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria). Sessions lasted 60 minutes each and took place twice a week for 12 weeks for each of the study groups. The primary end point was a change in the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) score (ranging from 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating more severe symptoms) at the end of 12 weeks. Secondary end points included summary scores on the physical and mental components of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). All assessments were repeated at 24 weeks to test the durability of the response. Results Of the 66 randomly assigned patients, the 33 in the tai chi group had clinically important improvements in the FIQ total score and quality of life. Mean (±SD) baseline and 12-week FIQ scores for the tai chi group were 62.9±15.5 and 35.1±18.8, respectively, versus 68.0±11 and 58.6±17.6, respectively, for the control group (change from baseline in the tai chi group vs. change from baseline in the control group, −18.4 points; P<0.001). The corresponding SF-36 physical-component scores were 28.5±8.4 and 37.0±10.5 for the tai chi group versus 28.0±7.8 and 29.4±7.4 for the control group (between-group difference, 7.1 points; P = 0.001), and the mental-component scores were 42.6±12.2 and 50.3±10.2 for the tai chi group versus 37.8±10.5 and 39.4±11.9 for the control group (between-group difference, 6.1 points; P = 0.03). Improvements were maintained at 24 weeks (between-group difference in the FIQ score, −18.3 points; P<0.001). No adverse events were observed. Conclusions Tai chi may be a useful treatment for fibromyalgia and merits long-term study in

  13. A randomized trial of tai chi for fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenchen; Schmid, Christopher H; Rones, Ramel; Kalish, Robert; Yinh, Janeth; Goldenberg, Don L; Lee, Yoojin; McAlindon, Timothy

    2010-08-19

    Previous research has suggested that tai chi offers a therapeutic benefit in patients with fibromyalgia. We conducted a single-blind, randomized trial of classic Yang-style tai chi as compared with a control intervention consisting of wellness education and stretching for the treatment of fibromyalgia (defined by American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria). Sessions lasted 60 minutes each and took place twice a week for 12 weeks for each of the study groups. The primary end point was a change in the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) score (ranging from 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating more severe symptoms) at the end of 12 weeks. Secondary end points included summary scores on the physical and mental components of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). All assessments were repeated at 24 weeks to test the durability of the response. Of the 66 randomly assigned patients, the 33 in the tai chi group had clinically important improvements in the FIQ total score and quality of life. Mean (+/-SD) baseline and 12-week FIQ scores for the tai chi group were 62.9+/-15.5 and 35.1+/-18.8, respectively, versus 68.0+/-11 and 58.6+/-17.6, respectively, for the control group (change from baseline in the tai chi group vs. change from baseline in the control group, -18.4 points; P<0.001). The corresponding SF-36 physical-component scores were 28.5+/-8.4 and 37.0+/-10.5 for the tai chi group versus 28.0+/-7.8 and 29.4+/-7.4 for the control group (between-group difference, 7.1 points; P=0.001), and the mental-component scores were 42.6+/-12.2 and 50.3+/-10.2 for the tai chi group versus 37.8+/-10.5 and 39.4+/-11.9 for the control group (between-group difference, 6.1 points; P=0.03). Improvements were maintained at 24 weeks (between-group difference in the FIQ score, -18.3 points; P<0.001). No adverse events were observed. Tai chi may be a useful treatment for fibromyalgia and merits long-term study in larger study populations. (Funded by

  14. Tai chi/yoga effects on anxiety, heartrate, EEG and math computations.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria

    2010-11-01

    To determine the immediate effects of a combined form of Tai chi/yoga. 38 adults participated in a 20-min Tai chi/yoga class. The session was comprised of standing Tai chi movements, balancing poses and a short Tai chi form and 10 min of standing, sitting and lying down yoga poses. The pre- and post- Tai chi/yoga effects were assessed using the State Anxiety Inventory (STAI), EKG, EEG and math computations. Heartrate increased during the session, as would be expected for this moderate-intensity exercise. Changes from pre to post-session assessments suggested increased relaxation including decreased anxiety and a trend for increased EEG theta activity. The increased relaxation may have contributed to the increased speed and accuracy noted on math computations following the Tai chi/yoga class. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Tai Chi/ Yoga Effects on Anxiety, Heartrate, EEG and Math Computations

    PubMed Central

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the immediate effects of a combined form of tai chi/yoga. Design 38 adults participated in a 20-minute tai chi/yoga class. The session was comprised of standing tai chi movements, balancing poses and a short tai chi form and 10 minutes of standing, sitting and lying down yoga poses. Main outcome measures The pre- and post- tai chi/ yoga effects were assessed using the State Anxiety Inventory (STAI), EKG, EEG and math computations. Results Heartrate increased during the session, as would be expected for this moderate intensity exercise. Changes from pre to post session assessments suggested increased relaxation including decreased anxiety and a trend for increased EEG theta activity. Conclusions The increased relaxation may have contributed to the increased speed and accuracy noted on math computations following the tai chi/yoga class. PMID:20920810

  16. Tai Chi and Qi Gong

    MedlinePlus

    ... Iversen MD, McAlindon T, et al. Assessing the comparative effectiveness of tai chi versus physical therapy for knee osteoarthritis: design and rationale for a randomized trial. BMC Complementary ...

  17. Health benefits of tai chi: What is the evidence?

    PubMed

    Huston, Patricia; McFarlane, Bruce

    2016-11-01

    To summarize the evidence on the health benefits of tai chi. A literature review was conducted on the benefits of tai chi for 25 specific conditions, as well as for general health and fitness, to update a 2014 review of systematic reviews. Systematic reviews and recent clinical trials were assessed and organized into 5 different groups: evidence of benefit as excellent, good, fair, or preliminary, or evidence of no direct benefit. During the past 45 years more than 500 trials and 120 systematic reviews have been published on the health benefits of tai chi. Systematic reviews of tai chi for specific conditions indicate excellent evidence of benefit for preventing falls, osteoarthritis, Parkinson disease, rehabilitation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and improving cognitive capacity in older adults. There is good evidence of benefit for depression, cardiac and stroke rehabilitation, and dementia. There is fair evidence of benefit for improving quality of life for cancer patients, fibromyalgia, hypertension, and osteoporosis. Current evidence indicates no direct benefit for diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, or chronic heart failure. Systematic reviews of general health and fitness benefits show excellent evidence of benefit for improving balance and aerobic capacity in those with poor fitness. There is good evidence for increased strength in the lower limbs. There is fair evidence for increased well-being and improved sleep. There were no studies that found tai chi worsened a condition. A recent systematic review on the safety of tai chi found adverse events were typically minor and primarily musculoskeletal; no intervention-related serious adverse events have been reported. There is abundant evidence on the health and fitness effects of tai chi. Based on this, physicians can now offer evidence-based recommendations to their patients, noting that tai chi is still an area of active research, and patients should continue to receive medical follow-up for any

  18. Teaching Balance with Tai Chi: Strategies for College and Secondary School Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, David D.; Sherman, Clay P.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the benefits of incorporating Tai Chi into the secondary and college curriculum to teach balance, discussing: the history and philosophical underpinnings of Tai Chi, principles of Tai Chi movement, health benefits, and teaching Tai Chi in public schools. Tips for instructors include: follow the principles of progression, follow a…

  19. Psychosocial effects of Tai Chi exercise on people with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Waite-Jones, Jennifer M; Hale, Claire A; Lee, Hea-Young

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the perceived psychosocial effects of participating in taught sessions of Tai Chi on people diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Tai Chi is thought to be psychologically as well as physically beneficial for people with arthritis. This study adopted a qualitative approach to follow-up participants who had previously demonstrated physical and psychological benefits from a specifically modified Tai Chi programme in an attempt to explore perceived psychosocial improvements. Nineteen semi-structured, audio-taped, interviews were carried out with participants who had taken part in, twice weekly, group-based Tai Chi sessions for 12 weeks. Data from transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. Analysis suggests that participating in shared Tai Chi sessions provides increased awareness of the links between mind and body; reduces anxiety and depression; and improves self-esteem, self-efficacy and motivation. It was particularly striking to find that the highly structured nature of Tai Chi was felt to improve memory and seemed to offer aesthetic experiences through developing graceful, 'fluid' moves rather than the 'jarring' movements often imposed by having RA. Such group sessions were found to provide social support and help improve participants' sense of perspective. Although small scale, this study suggests that Tai Chi has the potential to offer psychosocial benefits for people with RA. Offering Tai Chi alongside traditional treatments for RA could promote psychological health and well-being, help inform clinical decision-making and prove cost-effective. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Tai chi for upper limb rehabilitation in stroke patients: the patient's perspective.

    PubMed

    Desrochers, Pascal; Kairy, Dahlia; Pan, Shujuan; Corriveau, Hélène; Tousignant, Michel

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed at exploring the perceived benefits and drawbacks of practicing tai chi, an alternative therapy that can be implemented in the community, as part of upper-limb rehabilitation following stroke. Semistructured interviews were carried out with participants with chronic stroke (>6 months). The participants took part in 16 tai chi sessions over 8 weeks. Interviews were conducted in person using an interview guide based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB), and a thematic analysis was conducted. Eight interviews were carried out with participants at various stages of motor recovery. Participants perceived a number of physical, functional, and psychological benefits. They found tai chi to be a global exercise, including both physical and mental aspects, and suggested that it can be included as part of rehabilitation for stroke patients. Many participants expressed a desire to continue practicing tai chi after completion of the study because it exceeded their expectations, among other reasons. This study can serve to guide future tai chi interventions and research on tai chi for rehabilitation in terms of the characteristics of the intervention and the various areas to assess in order to measure the overall benefits. IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATION Tai chi was perceived as a good way of integrating various skills learned during rehabilitation. Despite having different functional abilities, all the participants noted various physical, functional, and psychological benefits from participating in the tai chi sessions. Tai chi seems to be a form of exercise that stroke patients would perform more long-term since all the participants in this study expressed the desire to continue practicing tai chi.

  1. Water-based Tai Chi: theoretical benefits in musculoskeletal diseases. Current evidence

    PubMed Central

    Macías-Hernández, Salvador Israel; Vázquez-Torres, Lucio; Morones-Alba, Juan Daniel; Coronado-Zarco, Roberto; de los Angeles Soria-Bastida, María; Cruz-Medina, Eva; Nava-Bringas, Tania Inés

    2015-01-01

    Tai Chi is a low-impact and moderate intensity exercise that has shown positive effects in patients with musculoskeletal disorders. Recently have been developed clinical studies on the benefits of Tai Chi techniques combined with hydrotherapy. Both types of treatment include physical training of balance, mobility, strength, coordination and sensory input that could complement each other. This report aims to present the current evidence about the benefits of the combination of water based Tai Chi in musculoskeletal diseases in order to establish whether the combined intervention is better than Tai Chi or hydrotherapy alone. PMID:26171376

  2. Tai Chi Exercise to Improve Non-Motor Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Nocera, Joe R; Amano, Shinichi; Vallabhajosula, Srikant; Hass, Chris J

    2013-08-20

    A substantial number of individuals with Parkinson's disease exhibit debilitating non-motor symptoms that decrease quality of life. To date, few treatment options exist for the non-motor symptomatology related to Parkinson's disease. The goal of this pilot investigation was to determine the effects of Tai Chi exercise on the non-motor symptomology in Parkinson's disease. Twenty-one individuals with Parkinson's disease were enrolled in a Tai Chi intervention (n=15) or a noncontact control group (n=6). Participants assigned to Tai Chi participated in 60-minute Tai Chi sessions three times per week, for 16 weeks. Pre and post measures included indices of cognitive-executive function including visuomotor tracking and attention, selective attention, working memory, inhibition, processing speed and task switching. Additionally, all participants were evaluated on the Parkinson's disease Questionnaire-39 and Tinetti's Falls Efficacy Scale. Results indicated that the Tai Chi training group had significantly better scores following the intervention than the control group on the Parkinson's disease Questionnaire-39 total score as well as the emotional well-being sub score. Trends for improvement were noted for the Tai Chi group on Digits Backwards, Tinetti's Falls Efficacy Scale, and the activities of daily living and communication sub scores of the Parkinson's disease Questionnaire-39. This research provides initial data that supports future studies to definitively establish efficacy of Tai Chi to improve non-motor features of Parkinson's disease.

  3. Tai Chi training reduced coupling between respiration and postural control.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Matthew L; Manor, Brad; Hsieh, Wan-hsin; Hu, Kun; Lipsitz, Lewis A; Li, Li

    2016-01-01

    In order to maintain stable upright stance, the postural control system must account for the continuous perturbations to the body's center-of-mass including those caused by spontaneous respiration. Both aging and disease increase "posturo-respiratory synchronization;" which reflects the degree to which respiration affects postural sway fluctuations over time. Tai Chi training emphasizes the coordination of respiration and bodily movements and may therefore optimize the functional interaction between these two systems. The purpose of the project was to examine the effect of Tai Chi training on the interaction between respiration and postural control in older adults. We hypothesized that Tai Chi training would improve the ability of the postural control system to compensate for respiratory perturbations and thus, reduce posturo-respiratory synchronization. Participants were recruited from supportive housing facilities and randomized to a 12-week Tai Chi intervention (n=28; 86 ± 5 yrs) or educational-control program (n=34, 85 ± 6 yrs). Standing postural sway and respiration were simultaneously recorded with a force plate and respiratory belt under eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions. Posturo-respiratory synchronization was determined by quantifying the variation of the phase relationship between the dominant oscillatory mode of respiration and corresponding oscillations within postural sway. Groups were similar in age, gender distribution, height, body mass, and intervention compliance. Neither intervention altered average sway speed, sway magnitude or respiratory rate. As compared to the education-control group, however, Tai Chi training reduced posturo-respiratory synchronization when standing with eyes open or closed (p<0.001). Tai Chi training did not affect traditional parameters of standing postural control or respiration, yet reduced the coupling between respiration and postural control. The beneficial effects of Tai Chi training may therefore stem in part

  4. Tai Chi training reduced coupling between respiration and postural control

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Matthew L; Manor, Brad; Hsieh, Wan-hsin; Hu, Kun; Lipsitz, Lewis A; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    In order to maintain stable upright stance, the postural control system must account for the continuous perturbations to the body’s center-of-mass including those caused by spontaneous respiration. Both aging and disease increase “posturo-respiratory synchronization;” which reflects the degree to which respiration affects postural sway fluctuations over time. Tai Chi training emphasizes the coordination of respiration and bodily movements and may therefore optimize the functional interaction between these two systems. The purpose of the project was to examine the effect of Tai Chi training on the interaction between respiration and postural control in older adults. We hypothesized that Tai Chi training would improve the ability of the postural control system to compensate for respiratory perturbations and thus, reduce posturo-respiratory synchronization. Participants were recruited from supportive housing facilities and randomized to a 12-week Tai Chi intervention (n=28; 86±5yrs) or educational-control program (n=34, 85±6yrs). Standing postural sway and respiration were simultaneously recorded with a force plate and respiratory belt under eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions. Posturo-respiratory synchronization was determined by quantifying the variation of the phase relationship between the dominant oscillatory mode of respiration and corresponding oscillations within postural sway. Groups were similar in age, gender distribution, height, body mass, and intervention compliance. Neither intervention altered average sway speed, sway magnitude or respiratory rate. As compared to the education-control group, however, Tai Chi training reduced posturo-respiratory synchronization when standing with eyes open or closed (p<0.001). Tai Chi training did not affect traditional parameters of standing postural control or respiration, yet reduced the coupling between respiration and postural control. The beneficial effects of Tai Chi training may therefore stem in part

  5. The psychosocial effect of Tai Chi on nursing home residents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Linda Y K; Lee, Diana T F; Woo, Jean

    2010-04-01

    To determine the psychosocial effect of Tai Chi on nursing home residents. Moving into a nursing home usually imposes a certain degree of psychosocial challenge to older people. However, there is limited evidence suggesting a promising intervention that can promote the psychosocial health for this group. Although previous studies suggest that Tai Chi has the potential to enhance psychosocial well-being, existing evidence is deemed scarce and thus imposes a limitation on drawing out conclusions on this matter. Non-equivalent pretest-posttest control group design. A convenience sample of 139 residents from six nursing homes in Hong Kong was recruited for this study. The experimental group (n = 66) participated in a 26-week Tai Chi programme, while the control group (n = 73) continued its normal daily activities. The outcome measures included state self-esteem, the physical and mental component of health-related quality of life, social support network and social support satisfaction. Resident satisfaction was identified as a covariate because it demonstrated significant correlation with the outcome variables and, likewise, showed significant difference between the two study groups at baseline. Doubly multivariate analysis of covariance was performed to examine the effect of the intervention. Results indicate significant Group x Time interactions, with the experimental group experiencing significant improvement in the composite outcome of state self-esteem, the physical component of health-related quality of life and the mental component of health-related quality of life across the 26-week study period [F(6, 131) = 2.61, p = 0.02)]. No significant changes were detected regarding the effect of the Tai Chi programme on social support. Tai Chi practice is beneficial for nursing home residents. Tai Chi has unique characteristics that are particularly suitable in the practice of health exercise for nursing home residents. The inclusion of Tai Chi in residential care

  6. Qigong improves balance in young women: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    González López-Arza, María Victoria; Varela-Donoso, Enrique; Montanero-Fernández, Jesús; Rodríguez-Mansilla, Juan; González-Sánchez, Blanca; González López-Arza, Luis

    2013-07-01

    Balance problems are common in people of all ages and can lead to falls, thus causing fractures with consequent disability. Qigong practice has long been part of daily life in Chinese culture, and has good effects on physical health maintenance. The present work describes the change in balance in young, healthy women after practising Qigong for eight weeks. The study took the form of a controlled, randomised longitudinal trial, and involved 30 women aged 18-25 years. The subjects had no prior experience of Qigong or Tai Chi and were unaware of the aims of the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to a Qigong intervention group or a control group. Those in the Qigong intervention group performed "exercises in 20 figures for health and long-life" (Wang Ziping) for 1 h twice per week, for 4 weeks. The control group undertook no exercise at all. The main outcome measure was the stabilometry values. These were obtained in a unipodal support test, using a plantar pressure platform with optical sensors. The Qigong subjects showed a significant improvement in their stabilometry results (40.1% pre-intervention and 56.4% post-intervention) (P< 0.045), while no improvement was seen in the control group (51.2% pre-intervention and 53.5% post-intervention). At the beginning of the intervention, the stabilometry values recorded for the Qigong intervention group were worse than those recorded for the control group (40.15% and 51.21% respectively; P=0.121). However, a comparison of the post-intervention values between these groups showed that these differences have disappeared (P=0.653). Qigong can improve balance in healthy, young women.

  7. Comparative Effectiveness of Tai Chi Versus Physical Therapy for Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chenchen; Schmid, Christopher H.; Iversen, Maura D.; Harvey, William F.; Fielding, Roger A.; Driban, Jeffrey B.; Price, Lori Lyn; Wong, John B.; Reid, Kieran F.; Rones, Ramel; McAlindon, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Background Few remedies effectively treat long-term pain and disability from knee osteoarthritis. Studies suggest that Tai Chi alleviates symptoms, but no trials have directly compared Tai Chi with standard therapies for osteoarthritis. Objective To compare Tai Chi with standard physical therapy for patients with knee osteoarthritis. Design Randomized, 52-week, single-blind comparative effectiveness trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01258985) Setting An urban tertiary care academic hospital. Patients 204 participants with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (mean age, 60 years; 70% women; 53% white). Intervention Tai Chi (2 times per week for 12 weeks) or standard physical therapy (2 times per week for 6 weeks, followed by 6 weeks of monitored home exercise). Measurements The primary outcome was Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) score at 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes included physical function, depression, medication use, and quality of life. Results At 12 weeks, the WOMAC score was substantially reduced in both groups (Tai Chi, 167 points [95% CI, 145 to 190 points]; physical therapy, 143 points [CI, 119 to 167 points]). The between-group difference was not significant (24 points [CI, −10 to 58 points]). Both groups also showed similar clinically significant improvement in most secondary outcomes, and the benefits were maintained up to 52 weeks. Of note, the Tai Chi group had significantly greater improvements in depression and the physical component of quality of life. The benefit of Tai Chi was consistent across instructors. No serious adverse events occurred. Limitation Patients were aware of their treatment group assignment, and the generalizability of the findings to other settings remains undetermined. Conclusion Tai Chi produced beneficial effects similar to those of a standard course of physical therapy in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. Primary Funding Source National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health of

  8. A Study on How to Breathe Properly When Practicing Tai Chi Chuan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hanchun

    2011-01-01

    When practicing Tai Chi Chuan, proper breath plays an important role in shaping Tai Chi Chuan's style and its fitness value. The paper aims to analyse the postures of Tai Chi Chuan and its breath characteristics. The paper also presents some new insights on how to co-ordinate breath with postures by case studies.

  9. [Qualitative research of the elderly real experience of long-term adherence to Tai Chi exercise].

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xue; Hao, Yu-fang

    2012-12-01

    To explore the experience of the process of Tai Chi exercise. The study was conducted in a local park in Beijing of China where varying numbers of community members gathered to practice Tai Chi every day. Volunteers meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were recruited after signed an informed consent form. In-depth interview and the participatory observation were used to know of the real feeling of practicing Tai Chi. The qualitative data obtained from the interviews were analyzed by using Colaizzi seven-step method to find the subjects. Six volunteers having a long-time Tai Chi exercise were recruited in this qualitative study, and their real experience was summarized in the physiological level, psychological level, social level and cultural level. In the physiological level, Tai Chi improves the health and exercise of Tai Chi assists the elderly to develop good living habits. In the psychological level, Tai Chi practice guides the person to inner peace, relieves tension, improves depressive mood state, and makes the elderly regain self worth. In the social level Tai Chi is a good form of community practice. In the cultural level, Tai Chi roots in yin and yang culture and integrates internal and external exercises. Tai Chi is good for body and mind health and the community of practice is very important for practitioners. Tai Chi gains popularity for its benefits to health and psychological adjustments, and its cultural connotation.

  10. [Effects of tai chi in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Chang, Ting-Jung; Ting, Yu-Ting; Sheu, Shei-Lan; Chang, Hsiao-Yun

    2014-10-01

    Tai chi has been increasingly applied in osteoporosis patients. However, systematic reviews of the efficacy of this practice have been few and of limited scope. This study reviews previous experimental research work using tai chi as an intervention in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and to appraise the reported research designs used, tai chi methods used, and outcomes. A systematic review method was used to search 14 databases for articles published between January 1980 and July 2013. Searched keywords included: "tai chi," "osteoporosis," and "postmenopausal women". The 2,458 articles initially identified were reduced to 4 valid articles based on considerations of criteria and repeatability. The 4 valid articles used either a randomized clinical trial (RCT) or a controlled clinical trial (CCT). They were further analyzed and synthesized in terms of common variables such as balance, muscle strength, and quality of life. Three of the 4 studies identified significant pretest / posttest differences in physiological aspects of quality of life in participants but did not obtain consistent results in terms of the psychological aspects. While reports identified a significant and positive tai chi effect on balance, they all used different measurements to do so. Only one of the four studies identified significant improvement in muscle strength. Therefore, this review could not identify clear support for the effectiveness of tai chi on balance or muscle strength. This review did not definitively support the positive effects of tai chi on balance, muscle strength, and quality of life in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. The designs used in the tai chi interventions may be referenced for future studies. We suggest that future studies use data triangulation rather than a single-item tool to validate the research in order to cross-verify the same information. This may strengthen the research and increase the credibility and the validity of related findings.

  11. Do older t'ai chi practitioners have better attention and memory function?

    PubMed

    Man, David W K; Tsang, William W N; Hui-Chan, Christina W Y

    2010-12-01

    Cognitive declines are common in older people and can be a major health issue in an aging world. One type of body-mind exercises, t'ai chi, can be a possible means to help maintaining older adults' cognitive abilities, in addition to beneficial effects of physical exercises. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether t'ai chi practitioners had better attention and memory functions than older people with or without regular exercises. A cross-sectional study examining the relationship between t'ai chi practice and age-, gender- and education-similar older peoples' attention and memory functions. Forty-two (42) community-dwelling elderly subjects, aged 60 or older, recruited from t'ai chi clubs in Hong Kong formed the t'ai chi group. Another 49 elderly having regular exercise habits were recruited from community centers for inclusion in the exercise group. A nonexercise group (normal healthy control) consisting of 44 subjects were also recruited by random selection and through contacting local elderly centers. They were also screened by the Modified Barthel Index, Chinese Mini-mental Status Examination, Geriatric Depression Scale, and evaluated by attention tests (Color Trail Form A-1 and 2) and memory tests (including Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test and The Hong Kong List Learning Test). The main finding was that the three groups differed in attention and memory functions, and the t'ai chi group had demonstrated better performance than the other two groups in most subtests. As a causal relationship cannot be assumed in the present cross-sectional study, future research is required to examine how t'ai chi can improve cognitive function using a randomized control trial as well as determining whether t'ai chi practice can lead to better health status among elderly people.

  12. Role of Tai Chi in the treatment of rheumatologic diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenchen

    2012-12-01

    Rheumatologic diseases (e.g., fibromyalgia, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis) consist of a complex interplay between biologic and psychological aspects, resulting in therapeutically challenging chronic conditions to control. Encouraging evidence suggests that Tai Chi, a multi-component Chinese mind-body exercise, has multiple benefits for patients with a variety of chronic disorders, particularly those with musculoskeletal conditions. Thus, Tai Chi may modulate complex factors and improve health outcomes in patients with chronic rheumatologic conditions. As a form of physical exercise, Tai Chi enhances cardiovascular fitness, muscular strength, balance, and physical function. It also appears to be associated with reduced stress, anxiety, and depression, as well as improved quality of life. Thus, Tai Chi can be safely recommended to patients with fibromyalgia, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis as a complementary and alternative medical approach to improve patient well-being. This review highlights the current body of knowledge about the role of this ancient Chinese mind-body medicine as an effective treatment of rheumatologic diseases to better inform clinical decision-making for our patients.

  13. Tai chi for health benefits in patients with multiple sclerosis: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huiru; Xiao, ZhongJun; Fang, Qun; Zhang, Mark; Li, Ting; Du, Geng; Liu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the existing evidence on the effectiveness and safety of Tai chi, which is critical to provide guidelines for clinicians to improve symptomatic management in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). After performing electronic and manual searches of many sources, ten relevant peer-reviewed studies that met the inclusion criteria were retrieved. The existing evidence supports the effectiveness of Tai chi on improving quality of life (QOL) and functional balance in MS patients. A small number of these studies also reported the positive effect of Tai chi on flexibility, leg strength, gait, and pain. The effect of Tai chi on fatigue is inconsistent across studies. Although the findings demonstrate beneficial effects on improving outcome measures, especially for functional balance and QOL improvements, a conclusive claim should be made carefully for reasons such as methodological flaws, small sample size, lack of specific-disease instruments, unclear description of Tai chi protocol, unreported safety of Tai chi, and insufficient follow-up as documented by the existing literature. Future research should recruit a larger number of participants and utilize the experimental design with a long-term follow-up to ascertain the benefits of Tai chi for MS patients. PMID:28182629

  14. Tai Chi exercise in improving cardiorespiratory capacity.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Everard W

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate evidence relating to effects of Tai Chi on cardiovascular outcomes, with emphasis on randomised control designs. Studies reviewed in 2004 were re-examined, together with more recent controlled trials of Tai Chi relating to cardiovascular outcome. The analysis provided comment on problems associated with randomised control design, including sources of bias in such trials. With a single exception, data support reduction of baseline systolic/diastolic blood pressure (BP). While there may be positive bias in these studies, data are from diverse ethnic groups, different gender, age, and level of functional ability. There are no data relating to BP reactive change to subsequent stressors. Few studies consider potential mediating mechanisms through which Tai Chi may provide these benefits. Caution is advocated in using randomised controlled trials as the only effective type of study. Such designs are difficult to conduct and effective trials are more likely given a better understanding of the mediating mechanism(s) through which benefits may be derived. It is currently unclear how changes in BP are derived. Some data indicate a shift to increased vagal relative to sympathetic dominance and there may be other potential physiological mediators. No study has examined relationships between potential psychological gains such as self-efficacy and BP change, or individual differences in outcomes.

  15. Tai Chi for People with Visual Impairments: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miszko, Tanya A.; Ramsey, Vincent K.; Blasch, Bruce B.

    2004-01-01

    This pilot study assessed the physical and psychological outcomes of a tai chi exercise program for eight adults with visual impairments. It found that after eight weeks of orientation and mobility training and tai chi practice, the participants' single leg-stance time and total knee flexion work and power improved, as did their frequency of,…

  16. Tai Chi and Postural Stability in Patients with Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fuzhong; Harmer, Peter; Fitzgerald, Kathleen; Eckstrom, Elizabeth; Stock, Ronald; Galver, Johnny; Maddalozzo, Gianni; Batya, Sara S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients with Parkinson's disease have substantially impaired balance, leading to diminished functional ability and an increased risk of falling. Although exercise is routinely encouraged by health care providers, few programs have been proven effective. Methods We conducted a randomized, controlled trial to determine whether a tailored tai chi program could improve postural control in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. We randomly assigned 195 patients with stage 1 to 4 disease on the Hoehn and Yahr staging scale (which ranges from 1 to 5, with higher stages indicating more severe disease) to one of three groups: tai chi, resistance training, or stretching. The patients participated in 60-minute exercise sessions twice weekly for 24 weeks. The primary outcomes were changes from baseline in the limits-of-stability test (maximum excursion and directional control; range, 0 to 100%). Secondary outcomes included measures of gait and strength, scores on functional-reach and timed up-and-go tests, motor scores on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, and number of falls. Results The tai chi group performed consistently better than the resistance-training and stretching groups in maximum excursion (between-group difference in the change from baseline, 5.55 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12 to 9.97; and 11.98 percentage points; 95% CI, 7.21 to 16.74, respectively) and in directional control (10.45 percentage points; 95% CI, 3.89 to 17.00; and 11.38 percentage points; 95% CI, 5.50 to 17.27, respectively). The tai chi group also performed better than the stretching group in all secondary outcomes and outperformed the resistance-training group in stride length and functional reach. Tai chi lowered the incidence of falls as compared with stretching but not as compared with resistance training. The effects of tai chi training were maintained at 3 months after the intervention. No serious adverse events were observed. Conclusions

  17. Managing cardiovascular risks with Tai Chi in people with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Park, In Sook; Song, Rhayun; Oh, Kyong Ok; So, Hee Young; Kim, Dal Sook; Kim, Jong Im; Kim, Tae Sook; Kim, Hyun Li; Ahn, Suk Hee

    2010-02-01

    The paper is a report of the study to determine the effects of the cardiovascular risk management programme with Tai Chi on cardiovascular risks, health behaviours and quality of life in individuals with coronary artery disease. Many eligible patients with coronary artery disease do not participate in programmes for cardiovascular risk management, mainly because of lack of motivation, high cost or limited accessibility. Tai Chi has been introduced by health professionals to promote cardiovascular functioning and quality of life. A quasi-experimental design with a non-equivalent control group was used. Eighty-five people with a mean age of 66 years completed pretest and 6-month follow-up measures in the following three groups: Tai Chi with education (n = 33), Tai Chi only (n = 19) and control (n = 33). Analysis of covariance was used to compare outcome variables with pretest variables as covariates to adjust for baseline differences. The data were collected in 2005-2006. In the Tai-Chi-with-education group there were statistically significant reductions in modifiable cardiovascular risk factors (F = 3.49, P = 0.035) and improvements in health behaviours (F = 6.12, P = 0.003), mental scores (F = 3.96, P = 0.023), and in the role-emotional (F = 7.30, P = 0.001) and vitality (F = 3.81, P = 0.026) dimensions of quality of life. Tai Chi was safely implemented as an alternative form of exercise in a cardiovascular risk management programme. Whether the beneficial effects of Tai Chi in cardiovascular risk management are comparable with those induced by other types of aerobic exercise requires further investigation.

  18. Tai Chi Improves Brain Metabolism and Muscle Energetics in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Min; Liao, Huijun; Sreepada, Lasya P; Ladner, Joshua R; Balschi, James A; Lin, Alexander P

    2018-04-17

    Tai Chi is a mind-body exercise that has been shown to improve both mental and physical health. As a result, recent literature suggests the use of Tai Chi to treat both physical and psychological disorders. However, the underlying physiological changes have not been characterized. The aim of this pilot study is to assess the changes in brain metabolites and muscle energetics after Tai Chi training in an aging population using a combined brain-muscle magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) examination. Six healthy older adults were prospectively recruited and enrolled into a 12-week Tai Chi program. A brain 1 H MRS and a muscle 31 P MRS were scanned before and after the training, and postprocessed to measure N-acetylaspartate to creatine (NAA/Cr) ratios and phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery time. Wilcoxon-signed rank tests were utilized to assess the differences between pre- and post-Tai Chi training. A significant within-subject increase in both the NAA/Cr ratios (P = .046) and the PCr recovery time (P = .046) was observed between the baseline and the posttraining scans. The median percentage changes were 5.38% and 16.51% for NAA/Cr and PCr recovery time, respectively. Our pilot study demonstrates significant increase of NAA/Cr ratios in posterior cingulate gyrus and significantly improved PCr recovery time in leg muscles in older adults following short-term Tai Chi training, and thus provides insight into the beneficial mechanisms. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Neuroimaging published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society of Neuroimaging.

  19. Epigenetic Changes in Response to Tai Chi Practice: A Pilot Investigation of DNA Methylation Marks

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Hua; Collins, Veronica; Clarke, Sandy J.; Han, Jin-Song; Lam, Paul; Clay, Fiona; Williamson, Lara M.; Andy Choo, K. H.

    2012-01-01

    Tai chi exercise has been shown to improve physiological and psychosocial functions, well-being, quality of life, and disease conditions. The biological mechanisms by which tai chi exerts its holistic effects remain unknown. We investigated whether tai chi practice results in positive epigenetic changes at the molecular level. Design. The DNA methylation profiles of sixty CpG-dinucleotide marks in female tai chi practitioners (N = 237; 45–88 years old) who have been practising tai chi for three or more years were compared with those of age-matched control females (N = 263) who have never practised tai chi. Results. Six CpG marks originating from three different chromosomes reveal a significant difference (P < 0.05) between the two cohorts. Four marks show losses while two marks show gains in DNA methylation with age in the controls. In the tai chi cohort all six marks demonstrate significant slowing (by 5–70%) of the age-related methylation losses or gains observed in the controls, suggesting that tai chi practice may be associated with measurable beneficial epigenetic changes. Conclusions. The results implicate the potential use of DNA methylation as an epigenetic biomarker to better understand the biological mechanisms and the health and therapeutic efficacies of tai chi. PMID:22719790

  20. Tai Chi for Risk of Falls. A Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lomas-Vega, Rafael; Obrero-Gaitán, Esteban; Molina-Ortega, Francisco J; Del-Pino-Casado, Rafael

    2017-09-01

    To analyze the effectiveness of tai chi for falls prevention. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Pubmed, Scopus, CINHAL, and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) were searched to May 26, 2016. Older adult population and at-risk adults. Randomized controlled trials analyzing the effect of tai chi versus other treatments on risk of falls. The incidence rate ratio (IRR) for falls incidence and hazard ratio (HR) for time to first fall. The search strategy identified 891 potentially eligible studies, of which 10 met the inclusion criteria. There was high-quality evidence of a medium protective effect for fall incidence over the short term (IRR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.46, 0.70) and a small protective effect over the long term (IRR = 0.87; 95% CI = 0.77, 0.98). Regarding injurious falls, we found very low-quality evidence of a medium protective effect over the short term (IRR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.33, 0.74) and a small effect over the long term (IRR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.54, 0.95). There was no effect on time to first fall, with moderate quality of evidence (HR = 0.98; 95% CI = 0.69, 1.37). In at-risk adults and older adults, tai chi practice may reduce the rate of falls and injury-related falls over the short term (<12 months) by approximately 43% and 50%, respectively. Tai chi practice may not influence time to first fall in these populations. Due to the low quality of evidence, more studies investigating the effects of tai chi on injurious falls and time to first fall are required. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  1. Comparative effectiveness of Tai Chi versus physical therapy for knee osteoarthritis: a randomized trial

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Few remedies effectively treat long-term pain and disability from knee osteoarthritis. Studies suggest that Tai Chi alleviates symptoms, but no trials have directly compared Tai Chi with standard therapies for osteoarthritis. Objective: To compare Tai Chi with standard physical therapy f...

  2. Tai Chi and health-related quality of life in nursing home residents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Linda Y K; Lee, Diana T F; Woo, Jean

    2009-03-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) that is good is regarded as the goal of elderly residential care. However, limited evidence exists indicating a promising intervention that can achieve this goal. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of Tai Chi on HRQOL in nursing home residents. A nonequivalent pretest-posttest control-group design. A convenience sample of 139 residents from six nursing homes in Hong Kong was used. The experimental group (n=66) joined a 26-week Tai Chi program, while the control group (n=73) continued with usual daily activities. The physical and mental components of HRQOL were designated as the dependent variables. Resident satisfaction was considered as a covariate. Doubly multivariate repeated measures analysis of covariance was done to examine the intervention effect. After adjusting for the confounding effect of resident satisfaction, a statistically significant difference (p<0.05) in the physical and mental components of HRQOL between the experimental and control groups was found. Findings showed significant improvement in HRQOL after residents practiced Tai Chi. These investigators contribute additional knowledge about the health benefits of Tai Chi among nursing home residents and indicates support for its use in this population to improve HRQOL. Tai Chi has unique characteristics as a health exercise that is particularly suitable for nursing home residents. The inclusion of Tai Chi exercise in elderly residential care practice is recommended.

  3. Change in perceived psychosocial status following a 12-week Tai Chi exercise programme.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Piliae, Ruth E; Haskell, William L; Waters, Catherine M; Froelicher, Erika Sivarajan

    2006-05-01

    This paper reports a study to examine change in psychosocial status following a 12-week Tai Chi exercise intervention among ethnic Chinese people with cardiovascular disease risk factors living in the United States of America. Regular participation in physical activity is associated with protection against cardioavascular disease, and improvements in physical and psychological health. Increasing amounts of scientific evidence suggests that mind-body exercise, such as Tai Chi, are related to improvements in mental health, emotional well-being, and stress reduction. No prior study has examined the effect of a Tai Chi exercise intervention on psychosocial status among people with cardiovascular disease risk factors. This was a quasi-experimental study. Participants attended a 60-minute Tai Chi exercise class three times per week for 12 weeks. Data were collected at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks following the intervention. Psychosocial status was assessed using Chinese versions of Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale, Profile of Mood States, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and Tai Chi exercise self-efficacy. A total of 39 participants, on average 66-year-old (+/-8.3), married (85%), Cantonese-speaking (97%), immigrants participated. The majority were women (69%), with < or =12 years education (87%). Statistically significant improvements in all measures of psychosocial status were found (P < or = 0.05) following the intervention. Improvement in mood state (eta2 = 0.12), and reduction in perceived stress (eta2 = 0.13) were found. In addition, Tai Chi exercise statistically significantly increased self-efficacy to overcome barriers to Tai Chi (eta2 = 0.19), confidence to perform Tai Chi (eta2 = 0.27), and perceived social support (eta2 = 0.12). Tai Chi was a culturally appropriate mind-body exercise for these older adults, with statistically significant psychosocial benefits observed over 12-weeks. Further research examining Tai Chi exercise using a randomized

  4. Tai Chi exercise and the improvement of health and well-being in older adults.

    PubMed

    Yau, Matthew Kwai-sang

    2008-01-01

    Activity participation has a positive impact on both quantity and quality of life (QOL). Regular participations in physical, social, and cultural activities are associated with successful aging. There is considerable evidence that Tai Chi has positive health benefits; physical, psychosocial and therapeutic. Furthermore, Tai Chi does not only consist of a physical component, but also sociocultural, meditative components that are believed to contribute to overall well-being. This chapter describes the benefits of Tai Chi exercise for the older adults, particularly in terms of the psychosocial aspect. The perceived meanings, associated values and well-being, as well as the impact on QOL, of Tai Chi practice among the older adults in Hong Kong are also discussed. Tai Chi exercise is chosen by the elderly participants for its gentle and soft movements. Besides the physical aspect, the benefits they describe include lifestyle issues, as well as psychological and social benefits. Evidence points out that the improvements in physical and mental health through the practice of Tai Chi among the older adults are related to their perceived level of QOL. Findings from numerous studies support the belief that the practice of Tai Chi has multiple benefits to practitioners that are not only physical in nature. It is recommended as a strategy to promote successful aging.

  5. Tai Chi for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Pao-Feng; Kitch, Stephanie; Chang, Jason Y; James, G Andrew; Dubbert, Patricia; Roca, J Vincent; Powers, Cheralyn H

    2018-06-01

    Explore the feasibility of a Tai Chi intervention to improve musculoskeletal pain, emotion, cognition, and physical function in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder. Two-phase, one-arm quasi-experimental design. Phase 1: 11 participants completed one Tai Chi session, feasibility questionnaire, and were offered participation in Phase 2, a 12-week Tai Chi intervention. Ten participants participated in Phase 2. Pain intensity, interference, physical function scales, an emotional battery, and cognition tests were used for pre- and postintervention outcome measures. Paired t tests and thematic analysis were used for analysis. In Phase 1, most felt Tai Chi would benefit health (90.9%) and expressed interest in continuing Tai Chi (6.73 out of 7). Phase 2 results showed improvement in fear-affect (raw t = -2.64, p = .03; age adjusted t = -2.90, p = .02), fear-somatic arousal (raw t = -2.53, p = .035), List Sorting Working Memory (raw t = 2.62, p = .031; age adjusted t = 2.96, p = .018), 6-Minute Walk Test ( t = 3.541, p = .008), and current level of Pain Intensity ( t = -4.00, p = .004). Tai Chi is an acceptable, holistic treatment to individuals with musculoskeletal pain and posttraumatic stress disorder. It may reduce pain, improve emotion, memory, and physical function.

  6. Kinematic and electromyographic analysis of the push movement in tai chi

    PubMed Central

    Chan, S; Luk, T; Hong, Y

    2003-01-01

    Background: Tai chi is a form of exercise derived from the martial art folk traditions of China. The force used in tai chi includes different principles of mechanical advantage. No studies on the kinematic features of tai chi exercise have been published. Objective: To analyse the kinematics and electromyographic characteristics of tai chi. Methods: An experienced tai chi master was asked to perform a sequence of basic movements: ward off, roll back, press, and push. The movements were videotaped and digitised using a motion analysis system. Electromyographic activities of the lumbar erector spinae, rectus femoris, medial hamstrings, and medial head of gastrocnemius were recorded by surface electrodes. The push movement data were analysed. Results: The medial hamstrings and medial head of gastrocnemius muscle groups maintained low activity, with higher electromyographic values in the lumbar erector spinae and substantially higher ones in the rectus femoris during the push movement. Both concentric and eccentric contractions occurred in muscles of the lower limbs, with eccentric contraction occurring mainly in the anti-gravity muscles such as the rectus femoris and the medial head of gastrocnemius. The forward and backward shifts in centre of gravity (CG) were mainly accomplished by increasing and decreasing respectively the joint angles of the bilateral lower limbs rather than by adopting a forward or backward postural lean. The path of the CG in the anteroposterior and mediolateral component was unique, and the sway or deviation from the path was small. The master maintained an upright posture and maintained a low CG (hips, knees, and ankles bent) while travelling slowly and steadily from one position to another. Conclusion: The eccentric muscle contraction of the lower limbs in the push movement of tai chi may help to strengthen the muscles. PMID:12893721

  7. Effectiveness of Tai-Chi for decreasing acute pain in fibromyalgia patients.

    PubMed

    Segura-Jiménez, V; Romero-Zurita, A; Carbonell-Baeza, A; Aparicio, V A; Ruiz, J R; Delgado-Fernández, M

    2014-05-01

    Tai-Chi has shown benefits in physical and psychological outcomes in diverse populations. We aimed to determine the changes elicited by a Tai-Chi program (12 and 24 weeks) in acute pain (before vs. after session) in fibromyalgia patients. We also assessed the cumulative changes in pain brought about by a Tai-Chi program. Thirty-six patients (29 women) with fibromyalgia participated in a low-moderate intensity Tai-Chi program for 12 weeks (3 sessions/week). Twenty-eight patients (27 women) continued the program for an additional 12 weeks (i. e., 24 weeks). We assessed pain by means of a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) before and after each single session (i. e., 72 sessions). We observed significant immediate changes (P-values from 0.037 to 0.0001) with an approximately 12% mean decrease of acute pain in the comparison of VAS-values before and after each session (72 sessions in total), with the exception of 4 sessions. We observed significant changes in cumulative pain pre-session (95% CI=-0.019; -0.014; P<0.001) and cumulative pain post-session (95% CI=-0.021; -0.015; P<0.001) along the 24-week intervention only. In conclusion, a low-moderate intensity Tai-Chi program for 12 weeks (3 times/week) decreased levels of acute pain in fibromyalgia patients. A longer period is necessary (e. g. 24 weeks) for observing cumulative changes in pain. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Foot forces induced through Tai Chi push-hand exercises.

    PubMed

    Wong, Shiu Hong; Ji, Tianjian; Hong, Youlian; Fok, Siu Lun; Wang, Lin

    2013-08-01

    The low impact forces of Tai Chi push-hand exercises may be particularly suited for older people and for those with arthritis; however, the biomechanics of push-hand exercises have not previously been reported. This paper examines the ground reaction forces (GRFs) and plantar force distributions during Tai Chi push-hand exercises in a stationary stance with and without an opponent. Ten male Tai Chi practitioners participated in the study. The GRFs of each foot were measured in three perpendicular directions using two force plates (Kistler). The plantar force distribution of each foot was measured concurrently using an insole sensor system (Novel). The results showed that the average maximum vertical GRF of each foot was not more than 88% ± 6.1% of the body weight and the sum of the vertical forces (103% ± 1.4%) generated by the two feet approximately equals the body weight at any one time. The horizontal GRFs generated by the two feet were in the opposite directions and the measured mean peak values were not more than 12% ± 2.8% and 17% ± 4.3% of the body weight in the medio-lateral and antero-posterior directions respectively. Among the nine plantar areas, the toes sustained the greatest plantar force. This study indicates that push-hand exercises generate lower vertical forces than those induced by walking, bouncing, jumping and Tai Chi gait, and that the greatest plantar force is located in the toe area, which may have an important application in balance training particularly for older adults.

  9. Comparative Effectiveness of Tai Chi Versus Physical Therapy for Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenchen; Schmid, Christopher H; Iversen, Maura D; Harvey, William F; Fielding, Roger A; Driban, Jeffrey B; Price, Lori Lyn; Wong, John B; Reid, Kieran F; Rones, Ramel; McAlindon, Timothy

    2016-07-19

    Few remedies effectively treat long-term pain and disability from knee osteoarthritis. Studies suggest that Tai Chi alleviates symptoms, but no trials have directly compared Tai Chi with standard therapies for osteoarthritis. To compare Tai Chi with standard physical therapy for patients with knee osteoarthritis. Randomized, 52-week, single-blind comparative effectiveness trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01258985). An urban tertiary care academic hospital. 204 participants with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (mean age, 60 years; 70% women; 53% white). Tai Chi (2 times per week for 12 weeks) or standard physical therapy (2 times per week for 6 weeks, followed by 6 weeks of monitored home exercise). The primary outcome was Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) score at 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes included physical function, depression, medication use, and quality of life. At 12 weeks, the WOMAC score was substantially reduced in both groups (Tai Chi, 167 points [95% CI, 145 to 190 points]; physical therapy, 143 points [CI, 119 to 167 points]). The between-group difference was not significant (24 points [CI, -10 to 58 points]). Both groups also showed similar clinically significant improvement in most secondary outcomes, and the benefits were maintained up to 52 weeks. Of note, the Tai Chi group had significantly greater improvements in depression and the physical component of quality of life. The benefit of Tai Chi was consistent across instructors. No serious adverse events occurred. Patients were aware of their treatment group assignment, and the generalizability of the findings to other settings remains undetermined. Tai Chi produced beneficial effects similar to those of a standard course of physical therapy in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health of the National Institutes of Health.

  10. Effect of tai chi versus aerobic exercise for fibromyalgia: comparative effectiveness randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Christopher H; Fielding, Roger A; Harvey, William F; Reid, Kieran F; Price, Lori Lyn; Driban, Jeffrey B; Kalish, Robert; Rones, Ramel; McAlindon, Timothy

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objectives To determine the effectiveness of tai chi interventions compared with aerobic exercise, a current core standard treatment in patients with fibromyalgia, and to test whether the effectiveness of tai chi depends on its dosage or duration. Design Prospective, randomized, 52 week, single blind comparative effectiveness trial. Setting Urban tertiary care academic hospital in the United States between March 2012 and September 2016. Participants 226 adults with fibromyalgia (as defined by the American College of Rheumatology 1990 and 2010 criteria) were included in the intention to treat analyses: 151 were assigned to one of four tai chi groups and 75 to an aerobic exercise group. Interventions Participants were randomly assigned to either supervised aerobic exercise (24 weeks, twice weekly) or one of four classic Yang style supervised tai chi interventions (12 or 24 weeks, once or twice weekly). Participants were followed for 52 weeks. Adherence was rigorously encouraged in person and by telephone. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was change in the revised fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQR) scores at 24 weeks compared with baseline. Secondary outcomes included changes of scores in patient’s global assessment, anxiety, depression, self efficacy, coping strategies, physical functional performance, functional limitation, sleep, and health related quality of life. Results FIQR scores improved in all five treatment groups, but the combined tai chi groups improved statistically significantly more than the aerobic exercise group in FIQR scores at 24 weeks (difference between groups=5.5 points, 95% confidence interval 0.6 to 10.4, P=0.03) and several secondary outcomes (patient’s global assessment=0.9 points, 0.3 to 1.4, P=0.005; anxiety=1.2 points, 0.3 to 2.1, P=0.006; self efficacy=1.0 points, 0.5 to 1.6, P=0.0004; and coping strategies, 2.6 points, 0.8 to 4.3, P=0.005). Tai chi treatment compared with aerobic exercise administered with

  11. Effect of tai chi versus aerobic exercise for fibromyalgia: comparative effectiveness randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenchen; Schmid, Christopher H; Fielding, Roger A; Harvey, William F; Reid, Kieran F; Price, Lori Lyn; Driban, Jeffrey B; Kalish, Robert; Rones, Ramel; McAlindon, Timothy

    2018-03-21

    To determine the effectiveness of tai chi interventions compared with aerobic exercise, a current core standard treatment in patients with fibromyalgia, and to test whether the effectiveness of tai chi depends on its dosage or duration. Prospective, randomized, 52 week, single blind comparative effectiveness trial. Urban tertiary care academic hospital in the United States between March 2012 and September 2016. 226 adults with fibromyalgia (as defined by the American College of Rheumatology 1990 and 2010 criteria) were included in the intention to treat analyses: 151 were assigned to one of four tai chi groups and 75 to an aerobic exercise group. Participants were randomly assigned to either supervised aerobic exercise (24 weeks, twice weekly) or one of four classic Yang style supervised tai chi interventions (12 or 24 weeks, once or twice weekly). Participants were followed for 52 weeks. Adherence was rigorously encouraged in person and by telephone. The primary outcome was change in the revised fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQR) scores at 24 weeks compared with baseline. Secondary outcomes included changes of scores in patient's global assessment, anxiety, depression, self efficacy, coping strategies, physical functional performance, functional limitation, sleep, and health related quality of life. FIQR scores improved in all five treatment groups, but the combined tai chi groups improved statistically significantly more than the aerobic exercise group in FIQR scores at 24 weeks (difference between groups=5.5 points, 95% confidence interval 0.6 to 10.4, P=0.03) and several secondary outcomes (patient's global assessment=0.9 points, 0.3 to 1.4, P=0.005; anxiety=1.2 points, 0.3 to 2.1, P=0.006; self efficacy=1.0 points, 0.5 to 1.6, P=0.0004; and coping strategies, 2.6 points, 0.8 to 4.3, P=0.005). Tai chi treatment compared with aerobic exercise administered with the same intensity and duration (24 weeks, twice weekly) had greater benefit (between group

  12. Tai Chi for Chronic Pain Conditions: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Ling Jun; Lauche, Romy; Klose, Petra; Bu, Jiang Hui; Yang, Xiao Cun; Guo, Chao Qing; Dobos, Gustav; Cheng, Ying Wu

    2016-01-01

    Several studies reported that Tai Chi showed potential effects for chronic pain, but its role remains controversial. This review assessed the evidence regarding the effects of Tai Chi for chronic pain conditions. 18 randomized controlled trials were included in our review. The aggregated results have indicated that Tai Chi showed positive evidence on immediate relief of chronic pain from osteoarthritis (standardized mean difference [SMD], −0.54; 95% confidence intervals [CI], −0.77 to −0.30; P < 0.05). The valid duration of Tai Chi practice for osteoarthritis may be more than 5 weeks. And there were some beneficial evidences regarding the effects of Tai Chi on immediate relief of chronic pain from low back pain (SMD, −0.81; 95% CI, −1.11 to −0.52; P < 0.05) and osteoporosis (SMD, −0.83; 95% CI, −1.37 to −0.28; P = 0.003). Therefore, clinicians may consider Tai Chi as a viable complementary and alternative medicine for chronic pain conditions. PMID:27125299

  13. Study on community Tai Chi Chuan participants' leisure benefits and well-being: Using Taoyuan City as an example.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheng-Jong; Tseng, Chun-Chi; Liu, Mei-Yu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to discuss the Research of Community Tai Chi Chuan Participants' Leisure Benefits and Well-being. A questionnaire survey was conducted on the community Tai Chi Chuan participants in Taoyuan city. A total of 500 valid questionnaires were retrieved, and the data were analyzed with SPSS 12.0 and AMOS 7.0 structural equation model analysis (SEM). The findings were as followed: 1) The background variables of the community Tai Chi Chuan participants in Taoyuan City: Gender had no difference in the factor of ``psychological benefit'' of leisure benefits. Occupation, age, education, the number of times a week to participate community Tai Chi Chuan and participation in seniority reached significant difference in leisure benefits. 2) The background variables of the community Tai Chi Chuan participants in Taoyuan City: gender, occupation, age, education, the number of times a week to participate community Tai Chi Chuan, participation in seniority reached significant difference in well-being. 3) The study showed community Tai Chi Chuan participants' leisure benefits had a significant positive correlation in well-being. Based on the findings, suggestions were proposed to related Taiwan Tai Chi Chuan promotion for reference.

  14. An evidence map of the effect of Tai Chi on health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Solloway, Michele R; Taylor, Stephanie L; Shekelle, Paul G; Miake-Lye, Isomi M; Beroes, Jessica M; Shanman, Roberta M; Hempel, Susanne

    2016-07-27

    This evidence map describes the volume and focus of Tai Chi research reporting health outcomes. Originally developed as a martial art, Tai Chi is typically taught as a series of slow, low-impact movements that integrate the breath, mind, and physical activity to achieve greater awareness and a sense of well-being. The evidence map is based on a systematic review of systematic reviews. We searched 11 electronic databases from inception to February 2014, screened reviews of reviews, and consulted with topic experts. We used a bubble plot to graphically display clinical topics, literature size, number of reviews, and a broad estimate of effectiveness. The map is based on 107 systematic reviews. Two thirds of the reviews were published in the last five years. The topics with the largest number of published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were general health benefits (51 RCTs), psychological well-being (37 RCTs), interventions for older adults (31 RCTs), balance (27 RCTs), hypertension (18 RCTs), fall prevention (15 RCTs), and cognitive performance (11 RCTs). The map identified a number of areas with evidence of a potentially positive treatment effect on patient outcomes, including Tai Chi for hypertension, fall prevention outside of institutions, cognitive performance, osteoarthritis, depression, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pain, balance confidence, and muscle strength. However, identified reviews cautioned that firm conclusions cannot be drawn due to methodological limitations in the original studies and/or an insufficient number of existing research studies. Tai Chi has been applied in diverse clinical areas, and for a number of these, systematic reviews have indicated promising results. The evidence map provides a visual overview of Tai Chi research volume and content. PROSPERO CRD42014009907.

  15. Effects of Tai Chi intervention on dual-task ability in older adults: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hall, Courtney D; Miszko, Tanya; Wolf, Steven L

    2009-03-01

    To determine if a 12-week program of Tai Chi that has been shown to reduce falls incidence in older adults would improve the ability to allocate attention to balance under dual-task conditions. Pre-/posttest experimental research design. Movement studies research laboratory. Community dwelling older adults (N=15; range, 62-85y) participated in either Tai Chi training or health education classes (controls) for 12 weeks. Participants in the Tai Chi group attended a twice-weekly, 1.5-hour class taught by an experienced instructor. The control group attended a biweekly, 1-hour class for lectures on health-related topics. Two cognitive tasks (responding to auditory or visual stimulus as quickly as possible) were performed concurrently while maintaining static balance during the Sensory Organization Test (SOT) and while avoiding obstacles while walking. The percent change in performance relative to the single-task condition was calculated and defined as the dual-task cost. The dual-task cost was calculated for both the postural and cognitive measures. There was no improvement in the performance of postural stability or cognitive task under dual-task conditions for the SOT for Tai Chi versus controls. There was no improvement in avoiding obstacles under dual-task conditions for Tai Chi versus controls. Contrary to our hypothesis, the findings of this study did not support a benefit of Tai Chi on the ability to allocate attention to balance under dual-task conditions.

  16. Effects of Tai Chi exercise on physical and psychological health of older people.

    PubMed

    Blake, Holly; Hawley, Helen

    2012-02-01

    Tai Chi is a traditional Chinese form of conditioning exercise derived from martial arts and rooted in eastern philosophy and Chinese Medicine. Based on the inter-relatedness of mind, body and spirit this form of exercise focuses on producing an inner calmness which is thought to have both physical and psychological therapeutic value. This article provides a brief overview of selected current evidence examining the relationship between Tai Chi and physical, neurocognitive and psychosocial outcomes in older people. This is an emerging and growing area of research and improvements have often been reported in health functioning, physical and emotional health, reducing falls, fear of falling and risk of falls, and possibly enhancing cardiovascular functioning in older adults although the effects on bone density, cognitive and immunological functioning are less clear. Results overall are inconsistent and health improvements have not been evident in all studies. Tai Chi is becoming increasingly popular in practice, and more recent evidence is emerging which is based on experimental and longitudinal designs, although many of the proposed benefits of Tai Chi are yet to be validated in large, randomised controlled trials.

  17. Tai chi exercise in patients with chronic heart failure: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Gloria Y; McCarthy, Ellen P; Wayne, Peter M; Stevenson, Lynne W; Wood, Malissa J; Forman, Daniel; Davis, Roger B; Phillips, Russell S

    2011-04-25

    Preliminary evidence suggests that meditative exercise may have benefits for patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HF); this has not been rigorously tested in a large clinical sample. We sought to investigate whether tai chi, as an adjunct to standard care, improves functional capacity and quality of life in patients with HF. A single-blind, multisite, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial evaluated 100 outpatients with systolic HF (New York Heart Association class I-III, left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40%) who were recruited between May 1, 2005, and September 30, 2008. A group-based 12-week tai chi exercise program (n = 50) or time-matched education (n = 50, control group) was conducted. Outcome measures included exercise capacity (6- minute walk test and peak oxygen uptake) and disease-specific quality of life (Minnesota Living With Heart Failure Questionnaire). Mean (SD) age of patients was 67 (11) years; baseline values were left ventricular ejection fraction, 29% (8%) and peak oxygen uptake, 13.5 mL/kg/min; the median New York Heart Association class of HF was class II. At completion of the study, there were no significant differences in change in 6-minute walk distance and peak oxygen uptake (median change [first quartile, third quartile], 35 [-2, 51] vs 2 [-7, 54] meters, P = .95; and 1.1 [-1.1, 1.5] vs -0.5 [-1.2, 1.8] mL/kg/min, P = .81) when comparing tai chi and control groups; however, patients in the tai chi group had greater improvements in quality of life (Minnesota Living With Heart Failure Questionnaire, -19 [-23, -3] vs 1 [-16, 3], P = .02). Improvements with tai chi were also seen in exercise self-efficacy (Cardiac Exercise Self-efficacy Instrument, 0.1 [0.1, 0.6] vs -0.3 [-0.5, 0.2], P < .001) and mood (Profile of Mood States total mood disturbance, -6 [-17, 1] vs -1 [-13, 10], P = .01). Tai chi exercise may improve quality of life, mood, and exercise self-efficacy in patients with HF. Trial Registration clinicaltrials

  18. Seated Tai Chi to alleviate pain and improve quality of life in individuals with spinal cord disorder

    PubMed Central

    Karasik, Darlene; Carufel, Paul; Kao, Ming-Chih; Zheng, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Context Previous research studies have confirmed therapeutic physical and psychological benefits of Tai Chi for both the able-bodied and disabled populations. However, given the limited availability of seated Tai Chi, there have not been any studies to date that have examined the effectiveness of seated Tai Chi in individuals with spinal cord disorder (SCD). We designed a customized seated Tai Chi program to meet the need for improved exercise options for individuals with SCD. Findings Twenty-six participants were enrolled in a 12-week seated Tai Chi course consisting of weekly sessions. After each Tai Chi session, patients reported improved visual analog scale (VAS) monitoring pain (P) (3.18 v 2.93; P 1.63E-03), emotional sense of well-being (EWB) (2.61 vs 2.04; P 2.86E-07), mental distraction (MD) (3.13 v 2.29; P 9.36E-08), physical sense of well-being (PWB) (2.84 v 2.25; p 7.38E-08), and sense of spiritual connection (SC) (3.28 v 2.50; P 6.46E-08). In our limited follow-up of 9 participants who completed half of the sessions and the long term surveys after the 12-week course, there were no detectable differences in weekly P, EWB, MD, PWB, and SC before each session. Conclusion and Clinical Relevance Individuals with SCD demonstrated benefits in pain, emotional sense of well-being, mental distraction, physical sense of well-being, and sense of spiritual connection immediately after seated Tai Chi exercise sessions in our pilot study. More research in a larger population would be needed to study the long-term impact of seated Tai Chi. PMID:26914968

  19. Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin Increase Grey Matter Volume in Older Adults: A Brain Imaging Study.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jing; Liu, Jiao; Liu, Weilin; Huang, Jia; Xue, Xiehua; Chen, Xiangli; Wu, Jinsong; Zheng, Guohua; Chen, Bai; Li, Ming; Sun, Sharon; Jorgenson, Kristen; Lang, Courtney; Hu, Kun; Chen, Shanjia; Chen, Lidian; Kong, Jian

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate and compare how 12-weeks of Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin exercise can modulate brain structure and memory function in older adults. Magnetic resonance imaging and memory function measurements (Wechsler Memory Scale-Chinese revised, WMS-CR) were applied at both the beginning and end of the study. Results showed that both Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin could significantly increase grey matter volume (GMV) in the insula, medial temporal lobe, and putamen after 12-weeks of exercise. No significant differences were observed in GMV between the Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin groups. We also found that compared to healthy controls, Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin significantly improved visual reproduction subscores on the WMS-CR. Baduanjin also improved mental control, recognition, touch, and comprehension memory subscores of the WMS-CR compared to the control group. Memory quotient and visual reproduction subscores were both associated with GMV increases in the putamen and hippocampus. Our results demonstrate the potential of Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin exercise for the prevention of memory deficits in older adults.

  20. Does Tai Chi relieve fatigue? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Yu; Lu, Liming; Chen, Xiankun

    2017-01-01

    Background Fatigue is not only a familiar symptom in our daily lives, but also a common ailment that affects all of our bodily systems. Several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have proven Tai Chi to be beneficial for patients suffering from fatigue, however conclusive evidence is still lacking. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed on all RCTs reporting the effects of Tai Chi for fatigue. Methods In the end of April 2016, seven electronic databases were searched for RCTs involving Tai Chi for fatigue. The search terms mainly included Tai Chi, Tai-ji, Taiji, fatigue, tiredness, weary, weak, and the search was conducted without language restrictions. Methodological quality was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. RevMan 5.3 software was used for meta-analysis. Publication bias was estimated with a funnel plot and Egger’s test. We also assessed the quality of evidence with the GRADE system. Results Ten trials (n = 689) were included, and there was a high risk of bias in the blinding. Two trials were determined to have had low methodological quality. Tai Chi was found to have improved fatigue more than conventional therapy (standardized mean difference (SMD): -0.45, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.70, -0.20) overall, and have positive effects in cancer-related fatigue (SMD:-0.38, 95% CI: -0.65, -0.11). Tai Chi was also more effective on vitality (SMD: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.20, 1.07), sleep (SMD: -0.32, 95% CI: -0.61, -0.04) and depression (SMD: -0.58, 95% CI: -1.04, -0.11). However, no significant difference was found in multiple sclerosis-related fatigue (SMD: -0.77, 95% CI: -1.76, 0.22) and age-related fatigue (SMD: -0.77, 95% CI: -1.78, 0.24). No adverse events were reported among the included studies. The quality of evidence was moderate in the GRADE system. Conclusions The results suggest that Tai Chi could be an effective alternative and /or complementary approach to existing therapies for people with fatigue. However, the quality of the

  1. Changes of heart rate variability and prefrontal oxygenation during Tai Chi practice versus arm ergometer cycling.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xi; Hui-Chan, Christina Wan-Ying; Tsang, William Wai-Nam

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] Exercise has been shown to improve cardiovascular fitness and cognitive function. Whether the inclusion of mind over exercise would increase parasympathetic control of the heart and brain activities more than general exercise at a similar intensity is not known. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of Tai Chi (mind-body exercise) versus arm ergometer cycling (body-focused exercise) on the heart rate variability and prefrontal oxygenation level. [Subjects and Methods] A Tai Chi master was invited to perform Tai Chi and arm ergometer cycling with similar exercise intensity on two separate days. Heart rate variability and prefrontal oxyhemoglobin levels were measured continuously by a RR recorder and near-infrared spectroscopy, respectively. [Results] During Tai Chi exercise, spectral analysis of heart rate variability demonstrated a higher high-frequency power as well as a lower low-frequency/high-frequency ratio than during ergometer cycling, suggesting increased parasympathetic and decreased sympathetic control of the heart. Also, prefrontal oxyhemoglobin and total hemoglobin levels were higher than those during arm ergometer exercise. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that increased parasympathetic control of the heart and prefrontal activities may be associated with Tai Chi practice. Having a "mind" component in Tai Chi could be more beneficial for older adults' cardiac health and cognitive function than body-focused ergometer cycling.

  2. Tai Chi for osteopenic women: design and rationale of a pragmatic randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Post-menopausal osteopenic women are at increased risk for skeletal fractures. Current osteopenia treatment guidelines include exercise, however, optimal exercise regimens for attenuating bone mineral density (BMD) loss, or for addressing other fracture-related risk factors (e.g. poor balance, decreased muscle strength) are not well-defined. Tai Chi is an increasingly popular weight bearing mind-body exercise that has been reported to positively impact BMD dynamics and improve postural control, however, current evidence is inconclusive. This study will determine the effectiveness of Tai Chi in reducing rates of bone turnover in post-menopausal osteopenic women, compared with standard care, and will preliminarily explore biomechanical processes that might inform how Tai Chi impacts BMD and associated fracture risks. Methods/Design A total of 86 post-menopausal women, aged 45-70y, T-score of the hip and/or spine -1.0 and -2.5, have been recruited from primary care clinics of a large healthcare system based in Boston. They have been randomized to a group-based 9-month Tai Chi program plus standard care or to standard care only. A unique aspect of this trial is its pragmatic design, which allows participants randomized to Tai Chi to choose from a pre-screened list of community-based Tai Chi programs. Interviewers masked to participants' treatment group assess outcomes at baseline and 3 and 9 months after randomization. Primary outcomes are serum markers of bone resorption (C-terminal cross linking telopeptide of type I collagen), bone formation (osteocalcin), and BMD of the lumbar spine and proximal femur (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry). Secondary outcomes include health-related quality-of-life, exercise behavior, and psychological well-being. In addition, kinetic and kinematic characterization of gait, standing, and rising from a chair are assessed in subset of participants (n = 16) to explore the feasibility of modeling skeletal mechanical loads and

  3. Analysis of static and dynamic balance in healthy elderly practitioners of Tai Chi Chuan versus ballroom dancing

    PubMed Central

    Rahal, Miguel Antônio; Alonso, Angélica Castilho; Andrusaitis, Felix Ricardo; Rodrigues, Thuam Silva; Speciali, Danielli Souza; Greve, Júlia Maria D′Andréa; Leme, Luiz Eugênio Garcez

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Tai Chi Chuan or ballroom dancing promotes better performance with respect to postural balance, gait, and postural transfer among elderly people. METHODS: We evaluated 76 elderly individuals who were divided into two groups: the Tai Chi Chuan Group and the Dance Group. The subjects were tested using the NeuroCom Balance Master® force platform system with the following protocols: static balance tests (the Modified Clinical Tests of Sensory Interaction on Balance and Unilateral Stance) and dynamic balance tests (the Walk Across Test and Sit-to-stand Transfer Test). RESULTS: In the Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Balance, the Tai Chi Chuan Group presented a lower sway velocity on a firm surface with open and closed eyes, as well as on a foam surface with closed eyes. In the Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Unilateral Stance, the Tai Chi Chuan Group presented a lower sway velocity with open eyes, whereas the Dance Group presented a lower sway velocity with closed eyes. In the Walk Across Test, the Tai Chi Chuan Group presented faster walking speeds than those of the Dance Group. In the Sit-to-stand Transfer Test, the Tai Chi Chuan Group presented shorter transfer times from the sitting to the standing position, with less sway in the final standing position. CONCLUSION: The elderly individuals who practiced Tai Chi Chuan had better bilateral balance with eyes open on both types of surfaces compared with the Dance Group. The Dance Group had better unilateral postural balance with eyes closed. The Tai Chi Chuan Group had faster walking speeds, shorter transfer times, and better postural balance in the final standing position during the Sit-to-stand Test. PMID:26017644

  4. Analysis of static and dynamic balance in healthy elderly practitioners of Tai Chi Chuan versus ballroom dancing.

    PubMed

    Rahal, Miguel Antônio; Alonso, Angélica Castilho; Andrusaitis, Felix Ricardo; Rodrigues, Thuam Silva; Speciali, Danielli Souza; Greve, Júlia Maria D Andréa; Leme, Luiz Eugênio Garcez

    2015-03-01

    To determine whether Tai Chi Chuan or ballroom dancing promotes better performance with respect to postural balance, gait, and postural transfer among elderly people. We evaluated 76 elderly individuals who were divided into two groups: the Tai Chi Chuan Group and the Dance Group. The subjects were tested using the NeuroCom Balance Master¯ force platform system with the following protocols: static balance tests (the Modified Clinical Tests of Sensory Interaction on Balance and Unilateral Stance) and dynamic balance tests (the Walk Across Test and Sit-to-stand Transfer Test). In the Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Balance, the Tai Chi Chuan Group presented a lower sway velocity on a firm surface with open and closed eyes, as well as on a foam surface with closed eyes. In the Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Unilateral Stance, the Tai Chi Chuan Group presented a lower sway velocity with open eyes, whereas the Dance Group presented a lower sway velocity with closed eyes. In the Walk Across Test, the Tai Chi Chuan Group presented faster walking speeds than those of the Dance Group. In the Sit-to-stand Transfer Test, the Tai Chi Chuan Group presented shorter transfer times from the sitting to the standing position, with less sway in the final standing position. The elderly individuals who practiced Tai Chi Chuan had better bilateral balance with eyes open on both types of surfaces compared with the Dance Group. The Dance Group had better unilateral postural balance with eyes closed. The Tai Chi Chuan Group had faster walking speeds, shorter transfer times, and better postural balance in the final standing position during the Sit-to-stand Test.

  5. Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin increase grey matter volume in older adults: a brain imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Jing; Liu, Jiao; Liu, Weilin; Huang, Jia; Xue, Xiehua; Chen, Xiangli; Wu, Jinsong; Zheng, Guohua; Chen, Bai; Li, Ming; Sun, Sharon; Jorgenson, Kristen; Lang, Courtney; Hu, Kun; Chen, Shanjia; Chen, Lidian; Kong, Jian

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate and compare how 12-weeks of Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin exercise can modulate brain structure and memory function in older adults. Magnetic Resonance Imaging(MRI) and memory function measurements (Wechsler Memory Scale-Chinese revised, WMS-CR)were applied at both the beginning and end of the study. Results showed that both Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin could significantly increase grey matter volume (GMV) in the insula, medial temporal lobe (MTL), and putamen after 12-weeks of exercise. No significant differences were observed in grey matter volume (GMV) between the Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin groups. We also found that compared to healthy controls, Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin significantly improved visual reproduction subscores on the WMS-CR. Baduanjin also improved mental control, recognition, touch and comprehension memory subscores of the WMS-CR compared to the control group. Memory quotient (MQ)and visual reproduction subscores were both associated with GMV increases in the putamen and hippocampus. Our results demonstrate the potential of Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin exercise for the prevention of memory deficits in older adults. PMID:28869478

  6. The effect of Tai Chi exercises on postural stability and control in older patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Ghandali, Elham; Moghadam, Saeed Talebian; Hadian, Mohammad Reza; Olyaei, Gholamreza; Jalaie, Shohreh; Sajjadi, Elaheh

    2017-07-01

    A few studies have examined the effect of Tai Chi on balance in elder patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). The aim of this study was to determine the balance measures in elder patients with knee OA after Tai Chi exercises. For this purpose 14 females and 6 males with knee OA were chosen. Area and mean velocity of the center of pressure movements (CoP) were measured by force plate in standing positions (on foam and rigid surfaces). The measurements of area and mean velocity of CoP were performed before and after 60 min of Tai Chi sessions (twice a week for 8 weeks). The results showed that the area of CoP in standing position on rigid surface was significantly decreased (P < 0.01) after Tai Chi exercises. Furthermore, the mean velocity of CoP was significantly decreased after Tai Chi exercises on both rigid and foam surfaces (P < 0.001). Our study also indicated that changes in surfaces (rigid and foam) would cause significant differences regarding the area of CoP in standing positions. However, similar findings were not found regarding the mean velocity of CoP. Considering the effects of Tai Chi on mean velocity of CoP, it might be concluded that motor control and postural stability improvements have occurred. Therefore, based on these results, Tai Chi exercises could be recommended for elder patients with knee OA as part of their rehabilitation and physical therapy protocols. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. The effect of tai chi exercise on quality of life in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Shahgholian, Nahid; Eshghinezhad, Ameneh; Mortazavi, Mojgan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Today, despite remarkable advances in the care of hemodialysis patients, the quality of life (QOL) for these patients is still unsatisfactory. Although previous reports confirmed the effect of exercise on the well-being of renal patients, less than 50% of end-stage kidney patients participate in a regular sports program. Tai chi is a slow and gentle exercise that is suitable for people with chronic illnesses and those with severe intolerance of exercise. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of tai chi exercise on the QOL of hemodialysis patients. Materials and Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study conducted in a single group and in two steps. Twenty-five hemodialysis patients, admitted to hospitals in Isfahan, Iran, were selected, and their QOL was compared before and after intervention in two domains of satisfaction and importance. Convenience sampling was used. The sampling was convenience. The subjects were trained in the intervention through a single session of tai chi exercise class for one hour weekly, for 12 weeks, with a training compact disc (CD) that helped the patients to exercise at least twice a week at home. Data were collected by the completion of a demographic characteristics form and a researcher-made QOL questionnaire adopted from Ferrans and Powers Quality of Life Index Dialysis Version and the Kidney Disease Quality of Life-Short Form (KDQOL-SF) questionnaire by the researchers. The data were analyzed by a paired t-test through SPSS software version 18. Results: Data analysis showed that there was a statistically significant difference in health and functioning (P < 0.001), socioeconomic (P < 0.001), and psychospiritual (P < 0.001) dimensions, and the family dimension had P = 0.002 in the satisfaction domain and P = 0.008 in the importance domain; the total score of quality of life in both domains was P < 0.001. Conclusions: According to the research findings, tai chi exercise improves the QOL score

  8. To Your Health: NLM update transcript - Fibromyalgia and tai chi

    MedlinePlus

    ... for 24 weeks - or six months, reported more comparative benefits than peers who left the exercise program ... and fitness. While some previous studies suggested a comparative benefit of tai chi for fibromyalgia patients, the ...

  9. Patient Engagement in Randomized Controlled Tai Chi Clinical Trials among the Chronically Ill.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Dongsheng; Kong, Weihong; Jiang, Joanna J

    2017-01-01

    Physicians encounter various symptom-based complaints each day. While physicians strive to support patients with chronic illnesses, evidence indicates that patients who are actively involved in their health care have better health outcomes and sometimes lowers costs. This article is to analyze how patient engagement is described when complex interventions such as Tai Chi were delivered in Randomized Controlled clinical Trials (RCTs). It reviews the dynamic patient- physician relationship in chronic illness management and to illustrate the patient engagement process, using Tai Chi as an example intervention. RCTs are considered the gold standard in clinical research. This study is a qualitative analysis of RCTs using Tai Chi as an intervention. A systematic literature search was performed to identify quality randomized controlled clinical trials that investigated the effects of Tai Chi. Selected clinical trials were classified according to research design, intervention style, patient engagement, and outcomes. Patient engagement was classified based on levels of patient participation, compliance, and selfmanagement. The chronic health conditions included in this paper are Parkinson's disease, polyneuropathy, hypertension, stroke, chronic insomnia, chronic heart failure, fibromyalgia, osteoarthritis, central obesity, depression, deconditioning in the elderly, or being pre-clinically disabled. We found that patient engagement, as a concept, was not well defined in literature. It covers a wide range of related terms, such as patient involvement, participation, shared decision- making, patient activation, adherence, compliance, and self-management. Tai Chi, as a very complex practice system, is to balance all aspects of a patient's life; however, the level of patient engagement is difficult to describe using conventional clinical trial design. To accurately illustrate the effect of a complex intervention, novel research design must explore ways to measure patient

  10. The Effects of Tai Chi Intervention on Healthy Elderly by Means of Neuroimaging and EEG: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhujun; Su, Xiwen; Fang, Qun; Hou, Lijuan; Lee, Younghan; Chen, Chih C; Lamberth, John; Kim, Mi-Lyang

    2018-01-01

    Aging is a process associated with a decline in cognitive and motor functions, which can be attributed to neurological changes in the brain. Tai Chi, a multimodal mind-body exercise, can be practiced by people across all ages. Previous research identified effects of Tai Chi practice on delaying cognitive and motor degeneration. Benefits in behavioral performance included improved fine and gross motor skills, postural control, muscle strength, and so forth. Neural plasticity remained in the aging brain implies that Tai Chi-associated benefits may not be limited to the behavioral level. Instead, neurological changes in the human brain play a significant role in corresponding to the behavioral improvement. However, previous studies mainly focused on the effects of behavioral performance, leaving neurological changes largely unknown. This systematic review summarized extant studies that used brain imaging techniques and EEG to examine the effects of Tai Chi on older adults. Eleven articles were eligible for the final review. Three neuroimaging techniques including fMRI ( N = 6), EEG ( N = 4), and MRI ( N = 1), were employed for different study interests. Significant changes were reported on subjects' cortical thickness, functional connectivity and homogeneity of the brain, and executive network neural function after Tai Chi intervention. The findings suggested that Tai Chi intervention give rise to beneficial neurological changes in the human brain. Future research should develop valid and convincing study design by applying neuroimaging techniques to detect effects of Tai Chi intervention on the central nervous system of older adults. By integrating neuroimaging techniques into randomized controlled trials involved with Tai Chi intervention, researchers can extend the current research focus from behavioral domain to neurological level.

  11. Effects of regular Tai Chi practice and jogging on neuromuscular reaction during lateral postural control in older people.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shao-Jun; Xu, Dong-Qing; Li, Jing-Xian

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of regular Tai Chi practice and jogging on the neuromuscular activity of the trunk, hip, and ankle joint muscles of older people during lateral postural perturbation. A total of 42 older people participated in the study and formed the Tai Chi, jogging, and sedentary control groups. Electromyography signals were collected from the peroneus longus, anterior tibialis, gluteus medius, and erector spinae during unpredictable mediolateral perturbation. The Tai Chi group exhibited significantly faster latencies of the tibialis anterior and erector spinae than the control group. The jogging group showed a significantly shorter neuromuscular reaction time of the erector spinae than the control group. No significant difference was observed between the Tai Chi and jogging groups. Long-term regular Tai Chi practice enhanced the neuromuscular reaction of the erector spinae and tibialis anterior to lateral perturbation and will help timely posture correction when lateral postural distributions occur.

  12. Tai-Chi for Residential Patients with Schizophrenia on Movement Coordination, Negative Symptoms, and Functioning: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Rainbow T. H.; Au Yeung, Friendly S. W.; Lo, Phyllis H. Y.; Law, Kit Ying; Wong, Kelvin O. K.; Cheung, Irene K. M.; Ng, Siu Man

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Patients with schizophrenia residing at institutions often suffer from negative symptoms, motor, and functional impairments more severe than their noninstitutionalized counterparts. Tai-chi emphasizes body relaxation, alertness, and movement coordination with benefits to balance, focus, and stress relief. This pilot study explored the efficacy of Tai-chi on movement coordination, negative symptoms, and functioning disabilities towards schizophrenia. Methods. A randomized waitlist control design was adopted, where participants were randomized to receive either the 6-week Tai-chi program and standard residential care or only the latter. 30 Chinese patients with schizophrenia were recruited from a rehabilitation residency. All were assessed on movement coordination, negative symptoms, and functional disabilities at baseline, following intervention and 6 weeks after intervention. Results. Tai-chi buffered from deteriorations in movement coordination and interpersonal functioning, the latter with sustained effectiveness 6 weeks after the class was ended. Controls showed marked deteriorations in those areas. The Tai-chi group also experienced fewer disruptions to life activities at the 6-week maintenance. There was no significant improvement in negative symptoms after Tai-chi. Conclusions. This study demonstrated encouraging benefits of Tai-chi in preventing deteriorations in movement coordination and interpersonal functioning for residential patients with schizophrenia. The ease of implementation facilitates promotion at institutional psychiatric services. PMID:23304224

  13. Tai-chi for residential patients with schizophrenia on movement coordination, negative symptoms, and functioning: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ho, Rainbow T H; Au Yeung, Friendly S W; Lo, Phyllis H Y; Law, Kit Ying; Wong, Kelvin O K; Cheung, Irene K M; Ng, Siu Man

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Patients with schizophrenia residing at institutions often suffer from negative symptoms, motor, and functional impairments more severe than their noninstitutionalized counterparts. Tai-chi emphasizes body relaxation, alertness, and movement coordination with benefits to balance, focus, and stress relief. This pilot study explored the efficacy of Tai-chi on movement coordination, negative symptoms, and functioning disabilities towards schizophrenia. Methods. A randomized waitlist control design was adopted, where participants were randomized to receive either the 6-week Tai-chi program and standard residential care or only the latter. 30 Chinese patients with schizophrenia were recruited from a rehabilitation residency. All were assessed on movement coordination, negative symptoms, and functional disabilities at baseline, following intervention and 6 weeks after intervention. Results. Tai-chi buffered from deteriorations in movement coordination and interpersonal functioning, the latter with sustained effectiveness 6 weeks after the class was ended. Controls showed marked deteriorations in those areas. The Tai-chi group also experienced fewer disruptions to life activities at the 6-week maintenance. There was no significant improvement in negative symptoms after Tai-chi. Conclusions. This study demonstrated encouraging benefits of Tai-chi in preventing deteriorations in movement coordination and interpersonal functioning for residential patients with schizophrenia. The ease of implementation facilitates promotion at institutional psychiatric services.

  14. Relationships between flow experience, IKIGAI, and sense of coherence in Tai chi practitioners.

    PubMed

    Iida, Kenji; Oguma, Yuko

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the mental health effects of Tai chi on regular practitioners by investigating the relationships between flow experience, IKIGAI (Japanese: "Life worth living"), and sense of coherence. The results indicated that flow experience may influence IKIGAI and IKIGAI may influence sense of coherence; this suggests that IKIGAI may act as an intermediary between flow experience and sense of coherence. The results also indicated that the longer the Tai chi experience, the higher was the flow experience.

  15. "Stretch Your Body and Your Mind" (Tai Chi as an Adaptive Activity).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crider, Duane A.; Klinger, William

    Tai Chi may be an ideal activity for accommodating a wide variety of individuals with varying interests and physical skills while providing substantial health benefits. Theory suggests that children, adolescents, and healthy adults, as well as senior citizens and people debilitated by illness or injury, may benefit from the practice of Tai Chi…

  16. Reduced Cognitive-Motor Interference on Voluntary Balance Control in Older Tai Chi Practitioners.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Rini; Hui-Chan, Christina W Y; Bhatt, Tanvi

    2016-01-01

    Recent dual-task studies suggest that Tai Chi practitioners displayed better control of standing posture and maintained a quicker response time of postural muscle activation during a stepping down activity. Whether this effect extends to voluntary balance control, specifically the limits of excursion of the center of pressure, remains to be examined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cognitive-motor interference pattern by examining the effects of a concurrently performed cognitive task on attention of voluntary balance control in older adults who are long-term practitioners of Tai Chi. Ten older Tai Chi practitioners and 10 age-matched nonpractitioners performed a voluntary balance task that required them to shift their weight to reach a preset target in the forward and backward directions, with (single task, ST) and without (dual task, DT) a secondary cognitive task, which was the counting backward task. The counting backward task required the individual to compute and verbalize a series of arithmetic differences between a given pair of randomly generated numbers. The cognitive task was also performed independently (cognitive-ST). All trials were performed in a random order. Balance outcomes included reaction time, movement velocity, and maximal excursion of the center of pressure provided by the NeuroCom system. Cognitive outcome was the number of correct responses generated within the 8-second trial during the ST and DT conditions. Outcome variables were analyzed using a 2-factor, group by task, analysis of variance. DT costs for the variables were calculated as the relative difference between ST and DT conditions and were compared between the 2 groups using independent t tests. Tai Chi practitioners displayed shorter reaction times (P < .001) and faster movement velocities (P < .05) of their center of pressure than older nonpractitioners for both directions; however, no difference was found between the maximal excursions of the 2 groups. Cost

  17. Mindfulness-based interventions in multiple sclerosis: beneficial effects of Tai Chi on balance, coordination, fatigue and depression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients suffering from Multiple Sclerosis (MS) experience a wide array of symptoms, including balance problems, mobility impairment, fatigue and depression. Physical exercise has recently been acknowledged as a treatment option complementary to medication. However, information regarding putative effects of structured exercise programs on neurological symptoms is sparse. Tai Chi, a Chinese martial art incorporating physical exercise and mindfulness training, has been shown to yield health benefits in various neurological groups. It seems particularly suitable for patients with motoric deficits as it challenges coordination and balance. The purpose of the current study was to explore the therapeutic value of structured Tai Chi training for coordination, balance, fatigue and depression in mildly disabled MS patients. Methods A sample of 32 MS patients (Expanded Disability Status Scale, EDSS < 5) was examined. A structured Tai Chi course was devised and a Tai Chi group participated in two weekly sessions of 90 minutes duration for six months, while a comparison group received treatment as usual (TAU). Both groups were examined prior to and following the six-months interval with regards to balance and coordination performance as well as measures of fatigue, depression and life satisfaction. Results Following the intervention, the Tai Chi group showed significant, consistent improvements in balance, coordination, and depression, relative to the TAU group (range of effect-sizes: partial η2 = 0.16 – 0.20). Additionally, life satisfaction improved (partial η2 = 0.31). Fatigue deteriorated in the comparison group, whereas it remained relatively stable in the Tai Chi group (partial η2 = 0.24). Conclusions The consistent pattern of results confirms that Tai Chi holds therapeutic potential for MS patients. Further research is needed to determine underlying working mechanisms, and to verify the results in a larger sample and different MS

  18. A systematic review of the health benefits of Tai Chi for students in higher education.

    PubMed

    Webster, Craig S; Luo, Anna Y; Krägeloh, Chris; Moir, Fiona; Henning, Marcus

    2016-06-01

    The poor health consequences of stress are well recognized, and students in higher education may be at particular risk. Tai Chi integrates physical exercise with mindfulness techniques and seems well suited to relieve stress and related conditions. We conducted a systematic review of the health benefits of Tai Chi for students in higher education reported in the English and Chinese literature, using an evidence hierarchy approach, allowing the inclusion of studies additional to randomized controlled trials. Sixty eight reports in Chinese and 8 in English were included - a combined study sample of 9263 participants. Eighty one health outcomes were extracted from reports, and assigned evidence scores according to the evidence hierarchy. Four primary and eight secondary outcomes were found. Tai Chi is likely to benefit participants by increasing flexibility, reducing symptoms of depression, decreasing anxiety, and improving interpersonal sensitivity (primary outcomes). Secondary outcomes include improved lung capacity, balance, 800/1000m run time, quality of sleep, symptoms of compulsion, somatization and phobia, and decreased hostility. Our results show Tai Chi yields psychological and physical benefits, and should be considered by higher education institutions as a possible means to promote the physical and psychological well-being of their students.

  19. The Effects of Tai Chi and Neck Exercises in the Treatment of Chronic Nonspecific Neck Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Lauche, Romy; Stumpe, Christoph; Fehr, Johannes; Cramer, Holger; Cheng, Ying Wu; Wayne, Peter M; Rampp, Thomas; Langhorst, Jost; Dobos, Gustav

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to test the efficacy of Tai Chi for treating chronic neck pain. Subjects with chronic nonspecific neck pain were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of group Tai Chi or conventional neck exercises with weekly sessions of 75 to 90 minutes, or a wait-list control. The primary outcome measure was pain intensity (visual analogue scale). Secondary outcomes included pain on movement, functional disability, quality of life, well-being and perceived stress, postural and interoceptive awareness, satisfaction, and safety. Altogether, 114 participants were included (91 women, 49.4 ± 11.7 years of age). After 12 weeks Tai Chi participants reported significantly less pain compared with the wait list group (average difference in mm on the visual analogue scale: -10.5; 95% confidence interval, -20.3 to -.9; P = .033). Group differences were also found for pain on movement, functional disability, and quality of life compared with the wait list group. No differences were found for Tai Chi compared with neck exercises. Patients' satisfaction with both exercise interventions was high, and only minor side effects were observed. Tai Chi was more effective than no treatment in improving pain in subjects with chronic nonspecific neck pain. Because Tai Chi is probably as effective as neck exercises it may be considered a suitable alternative to conventional exercises for those with a preference toward Tai Chi. This article presents results of a randomized controlled trial comparing Tai Chi, conventional neck exercises, and no treatment for chronic nonspecific neck pain. Results indicate that Tai Chi exercises and conventional neck exercises are equally effective in improving pain and quality of life therefore representing beneficial interventions for neck pain. Copyright © 2016 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The effects of Tai Chi on physical and psychosocial function among persons with multiple sclerosis: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Emily; Taylor-Piliae, Ruth E

    2017-04-01

    Conduct a systematic review to evaluate the effects of Tai Chi on physical and psychosocial function among individuals with Multiple Sclerosis. An electronic literature search of 12 databases using controlled vocabulary function and keywords from inception through August 2016. All Tai Chi intervention studies assessing physical and psychosocial function among persons with Multiple Sclerosis were included. Study quality was scored using an established tool examining 16 study elements (range=0-32). A total of 91 articles were retrieved, with 3 additional articles identified through reviewing bibliographies of relevant articles. A total of 8 studies (randomized controlled trials, n=3; quasi-experimental, n=5) enrolled 193 participants with Multiple Sclerosis. Studies were conducted in the USA (n=3), Europe (n=3), Iran, (n=1), and India (n=1). A total of 3 studies reported using the Yang style of Tai Chi (not specified, n=5 studies). The Tai Chi intervention averaged 27 sessions over 11 weeks. Study quality scores for the randomized controlled trials had a mean score of 23 (range 19-26), while quality scores for quasi-experimental studies had a mean score of 20 (range 13-26). Overall, participants enrolled in Tai Chi had better balance, gait and flexibility, less fatigue and depression, and better quality of life after the intervention; though mixed results were reported. The results indicate that Tai Chi is likely safe and may provide physical and psychosocial benefits in individuals with Multiple Sclerosis. Further research is needed using more rigorous study designs to assess the benefits of Tai Chi for individuals with Multiple Sclerosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fall Risk-Relevant Functional Mobility Outcomes in Dementia Following Dyadic Tai Chi Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Lan; Giordani, Bruno J.; Algase, Donna L.; You, Mei; Alexander, Neil B.

    2012-01-01

    Whether persons with dementia benefit from fall prevention exercise is unclear. Applying the Positive Emotion-Motivated Tai Chi protocol, preliminary findings concerning adherence and effects of a dyadic Tai Chi exercise program on persons with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are reported. Using pre/ posttest design, 22 community-dwelling AD-caregiver dyads participated in the program. Fall-risk-relevant functional mobility was measured using Unipedal Stance Time (UST) and Timed Up and Go (TUG) tests. Results showed that 19/22 (86.4%) AD patients completed the 16-week program and final assessment; 16/19 dyads (84.2%) completed the prescribed home program as reported by caregivers. UST adjusted mean improved from 4.0 to 5.1 (Week 4, p < .05) and 5.6 (Week 16, p < .05); TUG improved from 13.2 to 11.6 (Week 4, p < .05) and 11.6 (Week 16, p > .05) post intervention. Retaining dementia patients in an exercise intervention remains challenging. The dyadic Tai Chi approach appears to succeed in keeping AD-caregiver dyads exercising and safe. PMID:22517441

  2. Fall risk-relevant functional mobility outcomes in dementia following dyadic tai chi exercise.

    PubMed

    Yao, Lan; Giordani, Bruno J; Algase, Donna L; You, Mei; Alexander, Neil B

    2013-03-01

    Whether persons with dementia benefit from fall prevention exercise is unclear. Applying the Positive Emotion-Motivated Tai Chi protocol, preliminary findings concerning adherence and effects of a dyadic Tai Chi exercise program on persons with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are reported. Using pre/posttest design, 22 community-dwelling AD-caregiver dyads participated in the program. Fall-risk-relevant functional mobility was measured using Unipedal Stance Time (UST) and Timed Up and Go (TUG) tests. Results showed that 19/22 (86.4%) AD patients completed the 16-week program and final assessment; 16/19 dyads (84.2%) completed the prescribed home program as reported by caregivers. UST adjusted mean improved from 4.0 to 5.1 (Week 4, p < .05) and 5.6 (Week 16, p < .05); TUG improved from 13.2 to 11.6 (Week 4, p < .05) and 11.6 (Week 16, p > .05) post intervention. Retaining dementia patients in an exercise intervention remains challenging. The dyadic Tai Chi approach appears to succeed in keeping AD-caregiver dyads exercising and safe.

  3. The effects of Tai Chi on physical function and well-being among persons with Parkinson's Disease: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ćwiękała-Lewis, Klaudia J; Gallek, Matthew; Taylor-Piliae, Ruth E

    2017-04-01

    Current medical treatments for Parkinson's disease (PD) are mainly palliative, though research indicates Tai Chi exercise improves physical function and well-being. An electronic database search of PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO and Embase was conducted, to examine current scientific literature for potential benefits of Tai Chi on physical function and well-being among persons with PD. A total of 11 studies met the inclusion criteria: 7 randomized clinical trials and 4 quasi-experimental studies. PD participants (n = 548) were on average age 68 years old and 50% women. Overall, participants enrolled in Tai Chi had better balance and one or more aspect of well-being, though mixed results were reported. Further research is needed with more rigorous study designs, larger sample sizes, adequate Tai Chi exercise doses, and carefully chosen outcome measures that assess the mechanisms as well as the effects of Tai Chi, before widespread recommendations can be made. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Psychological effects of Tai Chi Chuan.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, P J; Melendez, A; Albers, U

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the scientific studies which have been carried out at the international level on the psychological benefits that Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) brings to those who practice it. It analyzes the framework in which the research was performed, the real benefits that this activity achieves and their causes. The present article brings a new analytical perspective to the reviews carried out to date in regard to classifying and analyzing the psychological variables involved in the practice of TCC and offers a homogeneous framework within which to develop research in this field based on the model proposed by Spirduso et al. (2005). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Feasibility, qualitative findings and satisfaction of a brief Tai Chi mind–body programme for veterans with post-traumatic stress symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Niles, Barbara L; Mori, DeAnna L; Polizzi, Craig P; Pless Kaiser, Anica; Ledoux, Annie M; Wang, Chenchen

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine feasibility, qualitative feedback and satisfaction associated with a 4-session introduction to Tai Chi for veterans with post-traumatic stress symptoms. Design We observed and reported recruitment and retention rates, participant characteristics, adherence, and satisfaction across 2 cohorts. We also examined qualitative feedback provided by questionnaires, focus groups and individual interviews. Main outcome measures Rates of recruitment and retention, focus group and individual feedback interviews, self-reported satisfaction. Participants 17 veterans with post-traumatic stress symptoms. Results Almost 90% (17/19) of those eligible following the telephone screen enrolled in the programme. Three-quarters (76.4%) of the participants attended at least 3 of the 4 Tai Chi sessions. Qualitative data analysis revealed themes indicating favourable impressions of the Tai Chi sessions. In addition, participants reported feeling very engaged during the sessions, and found Tai Chi to be helpful for managing distressing symptoms (ie, intrusive thoughts, concentration difficulties, physiological arousal). Participants also reported high satisfaction: 93.8% endorsed being very or mostly satisfied with the programme. All participants (100%) indicated that they would like to participate in future Tai Chi programmes and would recommend it to a friend. Conclusions Tai Chi appears to be feasible and safe for veterans with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), is perceived to be beneficial and is associated with high rates of satisfaction. This study highlights the need for future investigation of Tai Chi as a novel intervention to address symptoms of PTSD. PMID:27899398

  6. Seated T'ai Chi in Older Taiwanese People Using Wheelchairs: A Randomized Controlled Trial Investigating Mood States and Self-Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chen-Yuan; Moyle, Wendy; Cooke, Marie; Jones, Cindy

    2016-12-01

    There is growing interest in t'ai chi, but little research has addressed whether t'ai chi is effective in older people using wheelchairs for mobilization. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of seated t'ai chi exercise and usual standard activities on mood states and self-efficacy in older people living in a long-term care facility and using wheelchairs for mobilization. Randomized controlled trial (trial registration no. ACTRN12613000029796). One long-term-care facility in Taiwan. Sixty participants were randomly assigned by a computer-generated random sequence to a t'ai chi group (n = 30) or a usual exercise and entertainment activities group (n = 30). Seated t'ai chi exercise for 40 minutes three times a week for 26 weeks was provided. Mood states (Profile of Mood States Short Form [POMS-SF]) and self-efficacy (Self-Efficacy for Exercise [SEE]). At week 26, participants in the t'ai chi group reported significantly lower mood states on the fatigue-inertia dimension of the POMS-SF (mean score ± standard deviation, 3.56 ± 3.71) than did the control group (mean score, 7.16 ± 6.36) (F [1, 58] = 7.15; p < 0.05). The t'ai chi group recorded significantly higher SEE levels (mean, 35.66 ± 36.83) than did those in the control group (mean, 15.30 ± 26.43) (F [1, 58] = 6.05; p < 0.05). The findings highlight the importance of t'ai chi for a reduction in the fatigue-inertia mood state and an increase in self-efficacy for older people using wheelchairs.

  7. A randomized controlled trial of 8-form Tai chi improves symptoms and functional mobility in fibromyalgia patients.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kim D; Sherman, Christy A; Mist, Scott D; Carson, James W; Bennett, Robert M; Li, Fuzhong

    2012-08-01

    Previous researchers have found that 10-form Tai chi yields symptomatic benefit in patients with fibromyalgia (FM). The purpose of this study was to further investigate earlier findings and add a focus on functional mobility. We conducted a parallel-group randomized controlled trial FM-modified 8-form Yang-style Tai chi program compared to an education control. Participants met in small groups twice weekly for 90 min over 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was symptom reduction and improvement in self-report physical function, as measured by the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), from baseline to 12 weeks. Secondary endpoints included pain severity and interference (Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), sleep (Pittsburg sleep Inventory), self-efficacy, and functional mobility. Of the 101 randomly assigned subjects (mean age 54 years, 93 % female), those in the Tai chi condition compared with the education condition demonstrated clinically and statistically significant improvements in FIQ scores (16.5 vs. 3.1, p = 0.0002), BPI pain severity (1.2 vs. 0.4, p = 0.0008), BPI pain interference (2.1 vs. 0.6, p = 0.0000), sleep (2.0 vs. -0.03, p = 0.0003), and self-efficacy for pain control (9.2 vs. -1.5, p = 0.0001). Functional mobility variables including timed get up and go (-.9 vs. -.3, p = 0.0001), static balance (7.5 vs. -0.3, p    0.0001), and dynamic balance (1.6 vs. 0.3, p = 0.0001) were significantly improved with Tai chi compared with education control. No adverse events were noted. Twelve weeks of Tai chi, practice twice weekly, provided worthwhile improvement in common FM symptoms including pain and physical function including mobility. Tai chi appears to be a safe and an acceptable exercise modality that may be useful as adjunctive therapy in the management of FM patients. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier, NCT01311427).

  8. The influence of Tai Chi training on the center of pressure trajectory during gait initiation in older adults.

    PubMed

    Hass, Chris J; Gregor, Robert J; Waddell, Dwight E; Oliver, Alanna; Smith, Dagan W; Fleming, Richard P; Wolf, Steven L

    2004-10-01

    To determine if a program of intense Tai Chi exercise that has been shown to reduce the risk of falling in older adults improves postural control by altering the center of pressure (COP) trajectory during gait initiation. Before-after trial. Biomechanics research laboratory. Twenty-eight older adults transitioning to frailty who participated in either a 48-week intervention of intense Tai Chi training or a wellness education (WE) program. Eight Tai Chi forms emphasizing trunk rotation, weight shifting, coordination, and narrowing of lower-extremity stance were taught twice weekly. WE program participants met once a week and received lectures focused on health. Main outcome measures The COP was recorded during gait initiation both before and after the 48-week intervention by using a forceplate sampling at 300 Hz. The COP trajectory was divided into 3 periods (S1, S2, S3) by identifying 2 landmark events. Displacement and average velocity of the COP trace in the anteroposterior (x) and mediolateral (y) directions, as well as smoothness, were calculated. Tai Chi training increased the posterior displacement of the COP during S1 and improved the smoothness of the COP during S2. Tai Chi improved the mechanism by which forward momentum is generated and improved coordination during gait initiation, suggesting improvements in postural control.

  9. Effects of T'ai Chi exercise on fibromyalgia symptoms and health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Taggart, Helen M; Arslanian, Christine L; Bae, Sejong; Singh, Karan

    2003-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM), one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders, is associated with high levels of impaired health and inadequate or limited symptom relief. The cause of this complex syndrome is unknown, and there is no known cure. Numerous research results indicate that a combination of physical exercise and mind-body therapy is effective in symptom management. T'ai Chi, an ancient Chinese exercise, combines physical exercise with mindbody therapy. To investigate the effects of T'ai Chi exercise on FM symptoms and health-related quality of life. Pilot study, one group pre-to-post posttest design. Participants with FM (n = 39) formed a single group for 6 weeks of 1-hour, twice weekly T'ai Chi exercise classes. FM symptoms and health-related quality of life were measured before and after exercise. Twenty-one participants completed at least 10 of the 12 exercise sessions. Although the dropout rate was higher than expected, measurements on both the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) (Buckhardt, Clark, & Bennett, 1991) and the Short Form-36 (SE-36) (Ware & Sherbourne, 1992) revealed statistically significant improvement in symptom management and health-related quality of life. Knowledge of interventions to enhance health for the patient with musculoskeletal problems is a National Association of Orthopaedic Nurses priority. Tai Chi is potentially beneficial to patients with FM. Further research is needed to support evidence-based practice.

  10. Physical activity for osteoarthritis management: a randomized controlled clinical trial evaluating hydrotherapy or Tai Chi classes.

    PubMed

    Fransen, Marlene; Nairn, Lillias; Winstanley, Julie; Lam, Paul; Edmonds, John

    2007-04-15

    To determine whether Tai Chi or hydrotherapy classes for individuals with chronic symptomatic hip or knee osteoarthritis (OA) result in measurable clinical benefits. A randomized controlled trial was conducted among 152 older persons with chronic symptomatic hip or knee OA. Participants were randomly allocated for 12 weeks to hydrotherapy classes (n = 55), Tai Chi classes (n = 56), or a waiting list control group (n = 41). Outcomes were assessed 12 and 24 weeks after randomization and included pain and physical function (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index), general health status (Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 12 Health Survey [SF-12], version 2), psychological well-being, and physical performance (Up and Go test, 50-foot walk time, timed stair climb). At 12 weeks, compared with controls, participants allocated to hydrotherapy classes demonstrated mean improvements (95% confidence interval) of 6.5 (0.4, 12.7) and 10.5 (3.6, 14.5) for pain and physical function scores (range 0-100), respectively, whereas participants allocated to Tai Chi classes demonstrated improvements of 5.2 (-0.8, 11.1) and 9.7 (2.8, 16.7), respectively. Both class allocations achieved significant improvements in the SF-12 physical component summary score, but only allocation to hydrotherapy achieved significant improvements in the physical performance measures. All significant improvements were sustained at 24 weeks. In this almost exclusively white sample, class attendance was higher for hydrotherapy, with 81% attending at least half of the available 24 classes, compared with 61% for Tai Chi. Access to either hydrotherapy or Tai Chi classes can provide large and sustained improvements in physical function for many older, sedentary individuals with chronic hip or knee OA.

  11. Effects of Tai Chi on Cognition and Fall Risk in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Sungkarat, Somporn; Boripuntakul, Sirinun; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Watcharasaksilp, Kanokwan; Lord, Stephen R

    2017-04-01

    To examine whether combined center- and home-based Tai Chi training can improve cognitive ability and reduce physiological fall risk in older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI). Randomized controlled trial. Chiang Mai, Thailand. Adults aged 60 and older who met Petersen's criteria for multiple-domain a-MCI (N = 66). Three weeks center-based and 12 weeks home-based Tai Chi (50 minutes per session, 3 times per week). Cognitive tests, including Logical Memory (LM) delayed recall, Block Design, Digit Span forward and backward, and Trail-Making Test Part B-A (TMT B-A), and fall risk index using the Physiological Profile Assessment (PPA). At the end of the trial, performance on LM, Block Design, and TMT B-A were significantly better for the Tai Chi group than the control group after adjusting for baseline test performance. The Tai Chi group also had significantly better composite PPA score and PPA parameter scores: knee extension strength, reaction time, postural sway, and lower limb proprioception. Combined center- and home-based Tai Chi training three times per week for 15 weeks significantly improved cognitive function and moderately reduced physiological fall risk in older adults with multiple-domain a-MCI. Tai Chi may be particularly beneficial to older adults with this condition. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  12. Ground reaction force characteristics of Tai Chi push hand.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yao-Ting; Chang, Jia-Hao; Huang, Chen-Fu

    2014-01-01

    Push Hand is an advanced training technique for the Yang-style old frame 108 forms Tai Chi Chuan. It is performed by two practitioners. To clarify how people use forces during Push Hand training, it is important to review the ground reaction force (GRF). Here, we quantify the characteristics of the GRF during Push Hand training. Kinematic data and GRF data from 10 Tai Chi Chuan practitioners (29.9 ± 7.87 years) were synchronously recorded using a three-dimensional motion analysis system (200 frames · s(-1)) and three-dimensional force plates (1000 Hz). The resultant GRF for both feet for the 0%, 50% and 100% phases of attack and defence were compared to body weight using a paired-samples t-test. The differences in the resultant GRF between the 0%, 50% and 100% phases of attack and defence were tested by one-way repeated-measures ANOVA. The significance level was set to 0.05. The total resultant GRF was almost equal to the participant's body weight in push hand. This result was consistent throughout the entire push hand process. Our results revealed that the GRF was comparable to the body weight, implying that practitioners do not push or resist their opponents during the push hand process.

  13. Effects of Sun-style Tai Chi exercise on physical fitness and fall prevention in fall-prone older adults.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung Hyun; Moon, Jung-Soon; Song, Rhayun

    2005-07-01

    This paper reports a study to determine changes in the physical fitness (knee and ankle muscle strength, balance, flexibility, and mobility), fall avoidance efficacy, and fall episodes of institutionalized older adults after participating in a 12-week Sun-style Tai Chi exercise programme. Fall prevention has a high priority in health promotion for older people because a fall is associated with serious morbidity in this population. Regular exercise is effective in fall prevention for older adults because of improvements in strength and balance. Tai Chi exercise is considered to offer great potential for health promotion and rehabilitation, particularly in the maintenance of good mental and physical condition in older people. A quasi-experimental design with a non-equivalent control group was used. Data were collected from September 2001 to January 2002. A total of 68 fall-prone older adults with a mean age of 77.8 years participated in the study, and 29 people in the Tai Chi group and 30 controls completed the post-test measures. The Tai Chi exercise programme was provided three times a week for 12 weeks in the experimental group. Data were analysed for group differences using t-tests. At post-test, the experimental group showed significantly improved muscle strength in knee and ankle flexors (P < 0.001) and extensors (P < 0.01), and improved flexibility (P < 0.01) and mobility (P < 0.001) compared with the control group. There was no significant group difference in fall episodes, but the relative risk ratio for the Tai Chi exercise group compared with the control group was 0.62. The experimental group reported significantly more confidence in fall avoidance than did the control group. The findings reveal that Tai Chi exercise programmes can safely improve physical strength and reduce fall risk for fall-prone older adults in residential care facilities.

  14. Tai Chi Improves Sleep Quality in Healthy Adults and Patients with Chronic Conditions: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Gowri; Zhang, Yuan; Minichiello, Vincent J; D'Ambrosio, Carolyn M.; Wang, Chenchen

    2017-01-01

    Background Physical activity and exercise appear to improve sleep quality. However, the quantitative effects of Tai Chi on sleep quality in the adult population have rarely been examined. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis evaluating the effects of Tai Chi on sleep quality in healthy adults and disease populations. Methods Medline, Cochrane Central databases, and review of references were searched through July 31, 2013. English-language studies of all designs evaluating Tai Chi’s effect on sleep outcomes in adults were examined. Data were extracted and verified by 2 reviewers. Extracted information included study setting and design, population characteristics, type and duration of interventions, outcomes, risk of bias and main results. Random effect models meta-analysis was used to assess the magnitude of treatment effect when at least 3 trials reported on the same sleep outcomes. Results Eleven studies (9 randomized and 2 non-randomized trials) totaling 994 subjects published between 2004 and 2012 were identified. All studies except one reported Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index. Nine randomized trials reported that 1.5 to 3 hour each week for a duration of 6 to 24 weeks of Tai Chi significantly improved sleep quality (Effect Size, 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.28 to 1.50), in community-dwelling healthy participants and in patients with chronic conditions. Improvement in health outcomes including physical performance, pain reduction, and psychological well-being occurred in the Tai Chi group compared with various controls. Limitations Studies were heterogeneous and some trials were lacking in methodological rigor. Conclusions Tai Chi significantly improved sleep quality in both healthy adults and patients with chronic health conditions, which suggests that Tai Chi may be considered as an alternative behavioral therapy in the treatment of insomnia. High-quality, well-controlled randomized trials are needed to better inform clinical decisions

  15. A randomized controlled trial of 8-form Tai chi improves symptoms and functional mobility in fibromyalgia patients

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Christy A.; Mist, Scott D.; Carson, James W.; Bennett, Robert M.; Li, Fuzhong

    2017-01-01

    Previous researchers have found that 10-form Tai chi yields symptomatic benefit in patients with fibromyalgia (FM). The purpose of this study was to further investigate earlier findings and add a focus on functional mobility. We conducted a parallel-group randomized controlled trial FM-modified 8-form Yang-style Tai chi program compared to an education control. Participants met in small groups twice weekly for 90 min over 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was symptom reduction and improvement in self-report physical function, as measured by the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), from baseline to 12 weeks. Secondary endpoints included pain severity and interference (Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), sleep (Pittsburg sleep Inventory), self-efficacy, and functional mobility. Of the 101 randomly assigned subjects (mean age 54 years, 93 % female), those in the Tai chi condition compared with the education condition demonstrated clinically and statistically significant improvements in FIQ scores (16.5 vs. 3.1, p=0.0002), BPI pain severity (1.2 vs. 0.4, p=0.0008), BPI pain interference (2.1 vs. 0.6, p=0.0000), sleep (2.0 vs. −0.03, p=0.0003), and self-efficacy for pain control (9.2 vs. −1.5, p=0.0001). Functional mobility variables including timed get up and go (−.9 vs. −.3, p=0.0001), static balance (7.5 vs. −0.3, p= 0.0001), and dynamic balance (1.6 vs. 0.3, p=0.0001) were significantly improved with Tai chi compared with education control. No adverse events were noted. Twelve weeks of Tai chi, practice twice weekly, provided worthwhile improvement in common FM symptoms including pain and physical function including mobility. Tai chi appears to be a safe and an acceptable exercise modality that may be useful as adjunctive therapy in the management of FM patients. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier, NCT01311427) PMID:22581278

  16. What Do We Really Know About the Safety of Tai Chi?: A Systematic Review of Adverse Event Reports in Randomized Trials

    PubMed Central

    Wayne, Peter M.; Berkowitz, Danielle L.; Litrownik, Daniel E.; Buring, Julie E.; Yeh, Gloria Y.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Systematically review frequency and quality of adverse event (AE) reports in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of Tai Chi (TC). Data Sources Electronic searches of PubMed/MEDLINE and additional databases from inception through March 2013 of English-language RCTs. Search terms were tai chi, taiji, tai chi chuan. Data were independently extracted by two investigators. Study Selection We included all available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that were published in English and used Tai Chi as an intervention. Inclusion and exclusion of studies were reported in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Data Extraction Eligible RCTs were categorized with respect to AE reporting: 1) No mention of protocols for monitoring AEs or reports of AEs; 2) Reports of AEs either with or without explicit protocols for monitoring AEs. Data Synthesis 153 eligible RCTs were identified, most targeting older adults. Only 50 eligible trials (33%) included reporting of AEs, and of these, only 18 trials (12% overall) also reported an explicit AE monitoring protocol. Protocols varied with respect to rigor of systematic monitoring in both Tai Chi and comparison groups. Reported AEs were typically minor and expected, and primarily musculoskeletal related (e.g., knee and back pain); no intervention-related serious AEs were reported. Conclusions Tai Chi is unlikely to result in serious adverse events, but may be associated with minor musculoskeletal aches and pains. However, poor and inconsistent reporting of AEs greatly limits the conclusions that can be drawn regarding the safety of Tai Chi. PMID:24878398

  17. Increased Hippocampus-Medial Prefrontal Cortex Resting-State Functional Connectivity and Memory Function after Tai Chi Chuan Practice in Elder Adults.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jing; Liu, Jiao; Egorova, Natalia; Chen, Xiangli; Sun, Sharon; Xue, Xiehua; Huang, Jia; Zheng, Guohua; Wang, Qin; Chen, Lidian; Kong, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies provide evidence that aging is associated with the decline of memory function and alterations in the hippocampal (HPC) function, including functional connectivity to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). In this study, we investigated if longitudinal (12-week) Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin practice can improve memory function and modulate HPC resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC). Memory function measurements and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) were applied at the beginning and the end of the experiment. The results showed that (1) the memory quotient (MQ) measured by the Wechsler Memory Scale-Chinese Revision significantly increased after Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin practice as compared with the control group, and no significant difference was observed in MQ between the Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin groups; (2) rs-FC between the bilateral hippocampus and mPFC significantly increased in the Tai Chi Chuan group compared to the control group (also in the Baduanjin group compared to the control group, albeit at a lower threshold), and no significant difference between the Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin groups was observed; (3) rs-FC increases between the bilateral hippocampus and mPFC were significantly associated with corresponding memory function improvement across all subjects. Similar results were observed using the left or right hippocampus as seeds. Our results suggest that both Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin may be effective exercises to prevent memory decline during aging.

  18. Increased Hippocampus–Medial Prefrontal Cortex Resting-State Functional Connectivity and Memory Function after Tai Chi Chuan Practice in Elder Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Jing; Liu, Jiao; Egorova, Natalia; Chen, Xiangli; Sun, Sharon; Xue, Xiehua; Huang, Jia; Zheng, Guohua; Wang, Qin; Chen, Lidian; Kong, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies provide evidence that aging is associated with the decline of memory function and alterations in the hippocampal (HPC) function, including functional connectivity to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). In this study, we investigated if longitudinal (12-week) Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin practice can improve memory function and modulate HPC resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC). Memory function measurements and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) were applied at the beginning and the end of the experiment. The results showed that (1) the memory quotient (MQ) measured by the Wechsler Memory Scale-Chinese Revision significantly increased after Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin practice as compared with the control group, and no significant difference was observed in MQ between the Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin groups; (2) rs-FC between the bilateral hippocampus and mPFC significantly increased in the Tai Chi Chuan group compared to the control group (also in the Baduanjin group compared to the control group, albeit at a lower threshold), and no significant difference between the Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin groups was observed; (3) rs-FC increases between the bilateral hippocampus and mPFC were significantly associated with corresponding memory function improvement across all subjects. Similar results were observed using the left or right hippocampus as seeds. Our results suggest that both Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin may be effective exercises to prevent memory decline during aging. PMID:26909038

  19. The Effect of T'ai Chi Exercise on Lipid Profiles: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Alenazi, Aqeel M; Alshehri, Mohammed M; Hoover, Jeffrey C; Yabroudi, Mohammad A; Kachanathu, Shaji John; Liu, Wen

    2018-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a common health problem resulting from many factors, including dyslipidemia. T'ai chi is one of the interventions assigned to improve lipid profiles and other physical outcomes. However, conflicting results might be attributed to different study designs and interventional approaches. A systematic review and meta-analysis are needed to evaluate existing evidence. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate existing randomized clinical trials (RCTs) regarding the overall effect of t'ai chi exercise on lipid profiles. Electronic databases (MEDLINE and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) were searched. The authors included only English peer reviewed published RCTs that used a t'ai chi intervention and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) as the primary outcome along with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and/or total cholesterol (TC) as secondary outcomes. The authors identified 37 potentially eligible studies. Only eight RCTs were eligible for their qualitative review, and seven studies were eligible for meta-analysis. The included studies were rated as having a low risk of bias. Despite the overall low risk of bias, all studies failed to blind participants to group assignment and were generally unclear about whether they were selectively reporting data. A fixed effect model (I 2  = 38.16%) demonstrated a small positive effect of t'ai chi on HDL-C (Cohen d = 0.12; standard error [SE] = 0.067; p = 0.037). A random effect model demonstrated a medium effect and small effect for LDL-C (Cohen d = 0.47; SE = 0.347; p = 0.089) and TC (Cohen d = 0.34; SE = 0.225; p = 0.066), respectively. T'ai chi may potentially be beneficial on lipid profiles across different age groups and populations. Although there were conflicting results regarding the effect of t'ai chi on lipid profiles, the majority of studies had at least a small positive effect indicating

  20. Effect of Tai Chi Training on Dual-Tasking Performance That Involves Stepping Down among Stroke Survivors: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wing-Nga; Tsang, William Wai-Nam

    2017-01-01

    Descending stairs demands attention and neuromuscular control, especially with dual-tasking. Studies have demonstrated that stroke often degrades a survivor's ability to descend stairs. Tai Chi has been shown to improve dual-tasking performance of healthy older adults, but no such study has been conducted in stroke survivors. This study investigated the effect of Tai Chi training on dual-tasking performance that involved stepping down and compared it with that of conventional exercise among stroke survivors. Subjects were randomized into Tai Chi ( n = 9), conventional exercise ( n = 8), and control ( n = 9) groups. Those in the former two groups received 12-week training. Assessments included auditory Stroop test, stepping down test, and dual-tasking test involving both simultaneously. They were evaluated before training (time-1), after training (time-2), and one month after training (time-3). Tai Chi group showed significant improvement in the auditory Stroop test from time-1 to time-3 and the performance was significantly better than that of the conventional exercise group in time-3. No significant effect was found in the stepping down task or dual-tasking in the control group. These results suggest a beneficial effect of Tai Chi training on cognition among stroke survivors without compromising physical task performance in dual-tasking. The effect was better than the conventional exercise group. Nevertheless, further research with a larger sample is warranted.

  1. Tai Chi and balance control.

    PubMed

    Wong, Alice M K; Lan, Ching

    2008-01-01

    Balance function begins to decline from middle age on, and poor balance function increases the risk of fall and injury. Suitable exercise training may improve balance function and prevent accidental falls. The coordination of visual, proprioceptive, vestibular and musculoskeletal system is important to maintain balance. Balance function can be evaluated by functional balance testing and sensory organization testing. Tai Chi Chuan (TC) is a popular conditioning exercise in the Chinese community, and recent studies substantiate that TC is effective in balance function enhancement and falls prevention. In studies utilizing functional balance testing, TC may increase the duration of one-leg standing and the distance of functional reach. In studies utilizing sensory organization testing, TC improves static and dynamic balance, especially in more challenging sensory perturbed condition. Therefore, TC may be prescribed as an alternative exercise program for elderly subjects or balance-impaired patients. Participants can choose to perform a complete set of TC or selected movements according to their needs. In conclusion, TC may improve balance function and is appropriate for implementation in the community.

  2. Tai Chi and Your Health: A Modern Take on an Ancient Practice

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be geared toward college students and stress management; others may be designed for folks over age 60 with particular medical conditions. Observe several teachers and classes to find a fit for you. There are different teaching styles, levels, and ways to practice tai chi. Don’ ...

  3. Cross-Sectional Comparison of Executive Attention Function in Normally Aging Long-Term T'ai Chi, Meditation, and Aerobic Fitness Practitioners Versus Sedentary Adults

    PubMed Central

    Manselle, Wayne; Woollacott, Marjorie H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This cross-sectional field study documented the effect of long-term t'ai chi, meditation, or aerobic exercise training versus a sedentary lifestyle on executive function. It was predicted that long-term training in t'ai chi and meditation plus exercise would produce greater benefits to executive function than aerobic exercise. T'ai chi and meditation plus exercise include mental and physical training. Fifty-four volunteers were tested: t'ai chi (n=10); meditation+exercise (n=16); aerobic exercisers (n=16); and sedentary controls (n=12). A one-factor (group), one-covariate (age) multivariate analysis of covariance was performed. Significant main effects of group and age were found (group, 67.9%, p<0.001; age, 76.3%, p=0.001). T'ai chi and meditation practitioners but not aerobic exercisers outperformed sedentary controls on percent switch costs (p=0.001 and p=0.006, respectively), suggesting that there may be differential effects of training type on executive function. PMID:24286339

  4. Effects of Tai Chi on health related quality of life in patients with chronic conditions: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Li, Guichen; Yuan, Hua; Zhang, Wei

    2014-08-01

    To determine the effects of Tai Chi practice on health related quality of life in patients with various chronic medical conditions. One of the characters of chronic illness is life-long condition with the deterioration in health related quality of life. Tai Chi has become a popular mind-body exercise and self-management strategy for patients with chronic conditions regarding its various physical and psychological effects. Eight databases (the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Medline, EBSCO, Web of science and three Chinese databases: CNKI, Wanfang data and VIP) were searched (up to December 2013) for relevant studies. Studies including participants with chronic conditions were selected. All studies were randomized controlled trials reporting the effects of Tai Chi on health related quality of life. Two independent reviewers extracted trial data and assessed risk of bias using the risk of bias tool recommended by the Cochrane Back Review Group. Of the 2021 papers which were screened, 21 studies including 1200 patients met the eligibility criteria. Most studies (18 of 21 studies) found significant improvements on health related quality of life for participants with chronic conditions in Tai Chi group. No evidence was observed to suggest that Tai Chi was more effective than other types of exercise. And objective measures were not always consistent with self-reported quality of life measures. Tai Chi appears to be safe and has positive effects on health related quality of life in patients with chronic conditions, especially for patients with disorders in Cardio-cerebrovascular and respiratory systems, and musculoskeletal system. However, as the delivery mood of Tai Chi provides multiply benefits, which part of the group provides the most benefit in improving quality of life is unclear. Due to the design limitations of previous studies, more larger and well-designed RCTs are needed to confirm the effects. And qualitative researches are warranted to explore how Tai Chi may work

  5. Effect of a Combined Tai Chi, Resistance Training and Dietary Intervention on Cognitive Function in Obese Older Women.

    PubMed

    Xu, F; Delmonico, M J; Lofgren, I E; Uy, K M; Maris, S A; Quintanilla, D; Taetzsch, A G; Letendre, J; Mahler, L

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive decline in older adults is a major public health problem and can compromise independence and quality of life. Exercise and diet have been studied independently and have shown to be beneficial for cognitive function, however, a combined Tai Chi, resistance training, and diet intervention and its influence on cognitive function has not been undertaken. The current study used a 12-week non-randomized research design with experiment and control groups to examine the effect of a combined Tai Chi, resistance training, and diet intervention on cognitive function in 25 older obese women. Results revealed improvements in domain specific cognitive function in our sample. Baseline cognitive function was correlated with changes in dietary quality. These findings suggest that Tai Chi and resistance training combined with diet intervention might be beneficial for community-based programs aiming to improve cognitive function.

  6. Sitting Tai Chi Improves the Balance Control and Muscle Strength of Community-Dwelling Persons with Spinal Cord Injuries: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, William W. N.; Gao, Kelly L.; Chan, K. M.; Purves, Sheila; Macfarlane, Duncan J.; Fong, Shirley S. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effects of sitting Tai Chi on muscle strength, balance control, and quality of life (QOL) among survivors with spinal cord injuries (SCI). Methods. Eleven SCI survivors participated in the sitting Tai Chi training (90 minutes/session, 2 times/week for 12 weeks) and eight SCI survivors acted as controls. Dynamic sitting balance was evaluated using limits of stability test and a sequential weight shifting test in sitting. Handgrip strength was also tested using a hand-held dynamometer. QOL was measured using the World Health Organization's Quality of Life Scale. Results. Tai Chi practitioners achieved significant improvements in their reaction time (P = 0.042); maximum excursion (P = 0.016); and directional control (P = 0.025) in the limits of stability test after training. In the sequential weight shifting test, they significantly improved their total time to sequentially hit the 12 targets (P = 0.035). Significant improvement in handgrip strength was also found among the Tai Chi practitioners (P = 0.049). However, no significant within and between-group differences were found in the QOL outcomes (P > 0.05). Conclusions. Twelve weeks of sitting Tai Chi training could improve the dynamic sitting balance and handgrip strength, but not QOL, of the SCI survivors. PMID:25688276

  7. Effectiveness of tai chi as a community-based falls prevention intervention: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Denise; Hale, Leigh; Schluter, Philip; Waters, Debra L; Binns, Elizabeth E; McCracken, Hamish; McPherson, Kathryn; Wolf, Steven L

    2012-05-01

    To compare the effectiveness of tai chi and low-level exercise in reducing falls in older adults; to determine whether mobility, balance, and lower limb strength improved and whether higher doses of tai chi resulted in greater effect. Randomized controlled trial. Eleven sites throughout New Zealand. Six hundred eighty-four community-residing older adults (mean age 74.5; 73% female) with at least one falls risk factor. Tai chi once a week (TC1) (n = 233); tai chi twice a week (TC2) (n = 220), or a low-level exercise program control group (LLE) (n = 231) for 20 wks. Number of falls was ascertained according to monthly falls calendars. Mobility (Timed-Up-and-Go Test), balance (step test), and lower limb strength (chair stand test) were assessed. The adjusted incident rate ratio (IRR) for falls was not significantly different between the TC1 and LLE groups (IRR = 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.83-1.33, P = .70) or between the TC2 and LLE groups (IRR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.68-1.16, P = .37). Adjusted multilevel mixed-effects Poisson regression showed a significant reduction in logarithmic mean fall rate of -0.050 (95% CI = -0.064 to -0.037, P < .001) per month for all groups. Multilevel fixed-effects analyses indicated improvements in balance (P < .001 right and left leg) and lower limb strength (P < .001) but not mobility (P = .54) in all groups over time, with no differences between the groups (P = .37 (right leg), P = .66 (left leg), P = .21, and P = .44, respectively). There was no difference in falls rates between the groups, with falls reducing similarly (mean falls rate reduction of 58%) over the 17-month follow-up period. Strength and balance improved similarly in all groups over time. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, The American Geriatrics Society.

  8. A novel comparative effectiveness study of Tai Chi versus aerobic exercise for fibromyalgia: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenchen; McAlindon, Timothy; Fielding, Roger A; Harvey, William F; Driban, Jeffrey B; Price, Lori Lyn; Kalish, Robert; Schmid, Anna; Scott, Tammy M; Schmid, Christopher H

    2015-01-30

    Fibromyalgia is a chronic musculoskeletal pain syndrome that causes substantial physical and psychological impairment and costs the US healthcare system over $25 billion annually. Current pharmacological therapies may cause serious adverse effects, are expensive, and fail to effectively improve pain and function. Finding new and effective non-pharmacological treatments for fibromyalgia patients is urgently needed. We are currently conducting the first comparative effectiveness randomized trial of Tai Chi versus aerobic exercise (a recommended component of the current standard of care) in a large fibromyalgia population. This article describes the design and conduct of this trial. A single-center, 52-week, randomized controlled trial of Tai Chi versus aerobic exercise is being conducted at an urban tertiary medical center in Boston, Massachusetts. We plan to recruit 216 patients with fibromyalgia. The study population consists of adults ≥21 years of age with fibromyalgia who meet American College of Rheumatology 1990 and 2010 diagnostic criteria. Participants are randomized to one of four Tai Chi intervention groups: 12 or 24 weeks of supervised Tai Chi held once or twice per week, or a supervised aerobic exercise control held twice per week for 24 weeks. The primary outcome is the change in Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire total score from baseline to 24 weeks. Secondary outcomes include measures of widespread pain, symptom severity, functional performance, balance, muscle strength and power, psychological functioning, sleep quality, self-efficacy, durability effects, and health-related quality of life at 12, 24, and 52 week follow-up. This study is the first comparative effectiveness randomized trial of Tai Chi versus aerobic exercise in a large fibromyalgia population with long-term follow up. We present here a robust and well-designed trial to determine the optimal frequency and duration of a supervised Tai Chi intervention with regard to short

  9. Effects of Tai Chi Exercise on Glucose Control, Neuropathy Scores, Balance, and Quality of Life in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sukhee

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Tai Chi exercise on glucose control, neuropathy scores, balance, and quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes and neuropathy. Methods A pretest–posttest design with a nonequivalent control group was utilized to recruit 59 diabetic patients with neuropathy from an outpatient clinic of a university hospital. A standardized Tai Chi for diabetes program was provided, which comprised 1 hour of Tai Chi per session, twice a week for 12 weeks. Outcome variables were fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin for glucose control, the Semmes-Weinstein 10-g monofilament examination scores and total symptom scores for neuropathy, single leg stance for balance, and the Korean version of the SF-36v2 for quality of life. Thirty-nine patients completed the posttest measures after the 12-week Tai Chi intervention, giving a 34% dropout rate. Results The mean age of the participants was 64 years, and they had been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes for more than 12 years. The status was significantly better for the participants in the Tai Chi group (n=20) than for their control (i.e., nonintervention) counterparts (n=19) in terms of total symptom scores, glucose control, balance, and quality of life. Conclusion Tai Chi improved glucose control, balance, neuropathic symptoms, and some dimensions of quality of life in diabetic patients with neuropathy. Further studies with larger samples and long-term follow-up are needed to confirm the effects of Tai Chi on the management of diabetic neuropathy, which may have an impact on fall prevention in this population. PMID:22985218

  10. Feasibility and effectiveness of a Chen-style Tai Chi programme for stress reduction in junior secondary school students.

    PubMed

    Lee, Linda Y K; Chong, Yeuk Lan; Li, Ngai Yin; Li, Man Chung; Lin, Lai Na; Wong, Lee Yi; Wong, Brian Kit; Yip, Wing Ping; Hon, Cho Hang; Chung, Pui Kuen; Man, Shuk Yee

    2013-04-01

    Stress is common in junior secondary school students (JSSS). This study aimed to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of a Chen-style Tai Chi programme for stress reduction in JSSS. A non-equivalent pre-test/post-test control group design was adopted, and a convenience sample of 69 JSSS was recruited. The experimental group (n = 32) joined a Chen-style Tai Chi programme, which included 10 sessions of 80-minute Tai Chi training (one session per week). The control group (n = 37) proceeded with self-study. Participants' stress levels were assessed using the Perceived Stress Scale. Feasibility was determined as the percentage of participants completing and attending the programme. Effectiveness was measured as the significant difference in changes in stress levels before and after the intervention between the two groups. Results preliminarily supported that the programme was feasible for JSSS. Completion rate was 100%, and attendance rate was 90%. However, no significant difference was noted in changes in stress levels before and after the intervention between the two groups. The potential health benefits of Tai Chi could not be detected owing to the restrictions imposed by the research setting and study limitations. The present study represents initial efforts in this direction and serves as reference for future study. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. The effect of supervised Tai Chi intervention compared to a physiotherapy program on fall-related clinical outcomes: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Tousignant, Michel; Corriveau, Hélène; Roy, Pierre-Michel; Desrosiers, Johanne; Dubuc, Nicole; Hébert, Réjean; Tremblay-Boudreault, Valérie; Beaudoin, Audrée-Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    To assess some fall-related clinical variables (balance, gait, fear of falling, functional autonomy, self-actualization and self-efficacy) that might explain the fact that supervised Tai Chi has a better impact on preventing falls compared to a conventional physiotherapy program. The participants (152 older adults over 65 who were admitted to a geriatric day hospital program) were randomly assigned to either a supervised Tai Chi group or the usual physiotherapy. The presence of the clinical variables related to falls was evaluated before the intervention (T1), immediately after (T2), and 12 months after the end of the intervention (T3). Both exercise programs significantly improved fall-related outcomes but only the Tai Chi intervention group decreased the incidence of falls. For both groups, most variables followed the same pattern, i.e. showed significant improvement with the intervention between T1 and T2, and followed by a statistically significant decrease at the T3 evaluation. However, self-efficacy was the only variable that improved solely with the Tai Chi intervention (p = 0.001). The impact of supervised Tai Chi on fall prevention can not be explained by a differential effect on balance, gait and fear of falling. It appeared to be related to an increase of general self-efficacy, a phenomenon which is not seen in the conventional physiotherapy program.

  12. Effectiveness of a tai-chi training and detraining on functional capacity, symptomatology and psychological outcomes in women with fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Romero-Zurita, Alejandro; Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Aparicio, Virginia A; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Tercedor, Pablo; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Background. The purpose was to analyze the effects of Tai-Chi training in women with fibromyalgia (FM). Methods. Thirty-two women with FM (mean age, 51.4 ± 6.8 years) attended to Tai-Chi intervention 3 sessions weekly for 28 weeks. The outcome measures were: tenderness, body composition, functional capacity and psychological outcomes (Fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ), Short Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36)). Results. Patients showed improvements on pain threshold, total number of tender points and algometer score (all P < 0.001). The intervention was effective on 6-min walk (P = 0.006), back scratch (P = 0.002), handgrip strength (P = 0.006), chair stand, chair sit & reach, 8 feet up & go and blind flamingo tests (all P < 0.001). Tai-Chi group improved the FIQ total score (P < 0.001) and six subscales: stiffness (P = 0.005), pain, fatigue, morning tiredness, anxiety, and depression (all P < 0.001). The intervention was also effective in six SF-36 subscales: bodily pain (P = 0.003), vitality (P = 0.018), physical functioning, physical role, general health, and mental health (all P < 0.001). Conclusions. A 28-week Tai-Chi intervention showed improvements on pain, functional capacity, symptomatology and psychological outcomes in female FM patients.

  13. Effectiveness of a Tai-Chi Training and Detraining on Functional Capacity, Symptomatology and Psychological Outcomes in Women with Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Zurita, Alejandro; Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Aparicio, Virginia A.; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Tercedor, Pablo; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Background. The purpose was to analyze the effects of Tai-Chi training in women with fibromyalgia (FM). Methods. Thirty-two women with FM (mean age, 51.4 ± 6.8 years) attended to Tai-Chi intervention 3 sessions weekly for 28 weeks. The outcome measures were: tenderness, body composition, functional capacity and psychological outcomes (Fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ), Short Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36)). Results. Patients showed improvements on pain threshold, total number of tender points and algometer score (all P < 0.001). The intervention was effective on 6-min walk (P = 0.006), back scratch (P = 0.002), handgrip strength (P = 0.006), chair stand, chair sit & reach, 8 feet up & go and blind flamingo tests (all P < 0.001). Tai-Chi group improved the FIQ total score (P < 0.001) and six subscales: stiffness (P = 0.005), pain, fatigue, morning tiredness, anxiety, and depression (all P < 0.001). The intervention was also effective in six SF-36 subscales: bodily pain (P = 0.003), vitality (P = 0.018), physical functioning, physical role, general health, and mental health (all P < 0.001). Conclusions. A 28-week Tai-Chi intervention showed improvements on pain, functional capacity, symptomatology and psychological outcomes in female FM patients. PMID:22649476

  14. Tai Chi practitioners have better postural control and selective attention in stepping down with and without a concurrent auditory response task.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xi; Siu, Ka-Chun; Fu, Siu N; Hui-Chan, Christina W Y; Tsang, William W N

    2013-08-01

    To compare the performance of older experienced Tai Chi practitioners and healthy controls in dual-task versus single-task paradigms, namely stepping down with and without performing an auditory response task, a cross-sectional study was conducted in the Center for East-meets-West in Rehabilitation Sciences at The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong. Twenty-eight Tai Chi practitioners (73.6 ± 4.2 years) and 30 healthy control subjects (72.4 ± 6.1 years) were recruited. Participants were asked to step down from a 19-cm-high platform and maintain a single-leg stance for 10 s with and without a concurrent cognitive task. The cognitive task was an auditory Stroop test in which the participants were required to respond to different tones of voices regardless of their word meanings. Postural stability after stepping down under single- and dual-task paradigms, in terms of excursion of the subject's center of pressure (COP) and cognitive performance, was measured for comparison between the two groups. Our findings demonstrated significant between-group differences in more outcome measures during dual-task than single-task performance. Thus, the auditory Stroop test showed that Tai Chi practitioners achieved not only significantly less error rate in single-task, but also significantly faster reaction time in dual-task, when compared with healthy controls similar in age and other relevant demographics. Similarly, the stepping-down task showed that Tai Chi practitioners not only displayed significantly less COP sway area in single-task, but also significantly less COP sway path than healthy controls in dual-task. These results showed that Tai Chi practitioners achieved better postural stability after stepping down as well as better performance in auditory response task than healthy controls. The improved performance that was magnified by dual motor-cognitive task performance may point to the benefits of Tai Chi being a mind-and-body exercise.

  15. Translation of an Effective Tai Chi Intervention Into a Community-Based Falls-Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fuzhong; Harmer, Peter; Glasgow, Russell; Mack, Karin A.; Sleet, David; Fisher, K. John; Kohn, Melvin A.; Millet, Lisa M.; Mead, Jennifer; Xu, Junheng; Lin, Mei-Li; Yang, Tingzhong; Sutton, Beth; Tompkins, Yvaughn

    2008-01-01

    Tai Chi—Moving for Better Balance, a falls-prevention program developed from a randomized controlled trial for community-based use, was evaluated with the RE-AIM framework in 6 community centers. The program had a 100% adoption rate and 87% reach into the target older adult population. All centers implemented the intervention with good fidelity, and participants showed significant improvements in health-related outcome measures. This evidence-based tai chi program is practical to disseminate and can be effectively implemented and maintained in community settings. PMID:18511723

  16. The defence technique in Tai Chi Push Hands: a case study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui-Chuan; Cheng, Kuang-You B; Liu, Yu-Jen; Chiu, Hung-Ta; Cheng, Kuang-Yu

    2010-12-01

    Developed from traditional Chinese martial arts, Tai Chi exercise includes different forms and interactive Push Hands but biomechanical analyses have focused on the former only. To analyse the techniques of Push Hands, an experienced master was asked to defend pushing by four opponents. Movements were videotaped and digitized using a motion analysis system. Surface electrodes were used to record the electromyographic activity of ten muscle groups. Two force plates were used to measure the ground reaction force on each foot. Inexperienced individuals performed the same procedure to serve as the control group. The results indicate that the master adopted a postural adjustment to maintain balance. A clear shift of body weight from the front to the rear foot and mediolateral displacement of the centre of gravity was observed. Low electromyographic activity was observed in the upper body muscle groups, while high electromyographic activity was observed in the right rectus femoris and very high activity in the left rectus femoris during the defence. All inexperienced participants lost their balance in resisting pushing. It is concluded that the Tai Chi defensive technique includes a subtle postural adjustment that slightly changes the pushing force direction, and allows the rear leg to resist the incoming force.

  17. Efficacy and Safety of Tai Chi for Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Xiaojia; Liu, Shaonan; Lu, Fuchang; Shi, Xiaogeng; Guo, Xinfeng

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective In Parkinson's disease (PD), wearing off and side effects of long-term medication and complications pose challenges for neurologists. Although Tai Chi is beneficial for many illnesses, its efficacy for PD remains uncertain. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Tai Chi for PD. Methods Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of Tai Chi for PD were electronically searched by the end of December 2013 and identified by two independent reviewers. The tool from the Cochrane Handbook 5.1 was used to assess the risk of bias. A standard meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.2 software. Results Ten trials with PD of mild-to-moderate severity were included in the review, and nine trials (n = 409) were included in the meta-analysis. The risk of bias was generally high in the blinding of participants and personnel. Improvements in the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III (mean difference (MD) −4.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) −6.67–−2.01), Berg Balance Scale (MD: 4.25, 95% CI: 2.83–5.66), functional reach test (MD: 3.89, 95% CI: 1.73–6.04), Timed Up and Go test (MD: −0.75, 95% CI: −1.30–−0.21), stride length (standardized MD: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.03–1.09), health-related quality of life (standardized MD: −1.10, 95% CI: −1.81–−0.39) and reduction of falls were greater after interventions with Tai Chi plus medication. Satisfaction and safety were high. Intervention with Tai Chi alone was more effective for only a few balance and mobility outcomes. Conclusions Tai Chi performed with medication resulted in promising gains in mobility and balance, and it was safe and popular among PD patients at an early stage of the disease. This provides a new evidence for PD management. More RCTs with larger sample size that carefully address blinding and prudently select outcomes are needed. PROSPERO registration number CRD42013004989. PMID:24927169

  18. Participant characteristics of users of holistic movement practices in Australia.

    PubMed

    Vergeer, Ineke; Bennie, Jason A; Charity, Melanie J; van Uffelen, Jannique G Z; Harvey, Jack T; Biddle, Stuart J H; Eime, Rochelle M

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the characteristics of users of holistic movement practices in Australia to people who were physically active but not using holistic movement practices. A second aim was to compare characteristics of users of specific holistic movement practices (yoga/Pilates and t'ai chi/qigong). We performed a secondary data analysis on pooled data of a nationally-representative physical activity survey conducted yearly 2001-2010 (n = 195,926). Australia-wide Exercise, Recreation, and Sport Survey (ERASS). A range of socio-demographic and participation characteristics were documented and compared between users and non-users of holistic movement practices and between yoga/Pilates and t'ai chi/qigong users, employing descriptive statistics, chi square, and multiple logistic regression analyses. Users of holistic movement practices (n = 6826) were significantly more likely than non-users to be female, older, have fewer children at home, and have higher levels of education, socio-economic background, and physical activity involvement (p < 0.001). Yoga/Pilates (n = 5733) and t'ai chi/qigong (n = 947) users were also found to differ on a number of characteristics, including age, sex, socioeconomic background, and marital status. As a group, Australian users of holistic movement practices differ on a range of characteristics from those Australians active in other types of physical activities. However, differences between yoga/Pilates and t'ai chi/qigong users suggest these practices attract somewhat different sub-populations. To what extent these differences are due to characteristics inherent to the practices themselves or to differences in delivery-related parameters needs to be examined in future research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of T'ai Chi on Serotonin, Nicotine Dependency, Depression, and Anger in Hospitalized Alcohol-Dependent Patients.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chung-Uk; Kim, Nam-Cho

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of t'ai chi on blood serotonin levels, nicotine dependence, depression, and anger in hospitalized alcohol-dependent patients. This study followed an experimental and nonequivalent control group in a non-synchronized design. It was performed in a hospital located in Young Ju city, Korea, from April to August 2013. Thirty-eight patients who were hospitalized with alcohol dependence were included. They were randomly divided into an experimental and a control group, with 19 patients in each group. Patients in the experimental group practiced the 24-posture yang style t'ai chi for 50 min three times per week for 8 weeks as part of the routine hospital rehabilitation program, and those in the control group followed only the routine hospital rehabilitation program. The effect of treatment was measured using blood serotonin levels and a questionnaire on nicotine dependence, depression, and anger. Both measurements were performed before and after 8 weeks of intervention. Data were analyzed using the t-test, chi-square test, and paired t-tests. The experimental group showed a significantly increased blood serotonin level (p = 0.001) and significantly reduced nicotine dependence, depression, and anger (p = 0.001) than the control group did after 8 weeks of treatment. T'ai chi was shown to be an effective nursing intervention in hospitalized alcohol-dependent patients.

  20. Knee osteoarthritis pain in the elderly can be reduced by massage therapy, yoga and tai chi: A review.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany

    2016-02-01

    This is a review of recently published research, both empirical studies and meta-analyses, on the effects of complementary therapies including massage therapy, yoga and tai chi on pain associated with knee osteoarthritis in the elderly. The massage therapy protocols have been effective in not only reducing pain but also in increasing range of motion, specifically when moderate pressure massage was used and when both the quadriceps and hamstrings were massaged. The yoga studies typically measured pain by the WOMAC. Most of those studies showed a clinically significant reduction in pain, especially the research that focused on poses (e.g. the Iyengar studies) as opposed to those that had integrated protocols (poses, breathing and meditation exercises). The tai chi studies also assessed pain by self-report on the WOMAC and showed significant reductions in pain. The tai chi studies were difficult to compare because of their highly variable protocols in terms of the frequency and duration of treatment. Larger, randomized control trials are needed on each of these therapies using more standardized protocols and more objective variables in addition to the self-reported WOMAC pain scale, for example, range-of-motion and observed range-of-motion pain. In addition, treatment comparison studies should be conducted so, for example, if the lower-cost yoga and tai chi were as effective as massage therapy, they might be used in combination with or as supplemental to massage therapy. Nonetheless, these therapies are at least reducing pain in knee osteoarthritis and they do not seem to have side effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluating Exercise Prescription and Instructional Methods Used in Tai Chi Studies Aimed at Improving Balance in Older Adults: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yin; MacDonald, Hayley V; Pescatello, Linda S

    2016-10-01

    To develop an evaluation instrument to determine to what extent Tai Chi interventions aimed at improving the balance of older adults disclosed their exercise prescription (Ex R x ) and instructional methods and met best-practice exercise recommendations for balance improvement. Review. PubMed, Scopus, and CINAHL databases were searched from their inception until August 22, 2014. Adults aged 60 and older without debilitating disease. Three electronic databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of Tai Chi interventions aimed at improving balance in older adults without severe debilitating diseases. Three Ex R x (frequency, time, intervention length) and 10 instructional (e.g., style, number of forms) methods of the included RCTs were evaluated. Twenty-seven interventions were identified from 26 RCTs. On average, Tai Chi was performed for a mean 56.5 ± 14.4 minutes per session for 2.8 ± 1.4 sessions per week for 19.7 ± 12.7 weeks. Most interventions reported all three Ex R x methods items, with a mean reporting rate of 92.6 ± 19.2%. For the 10 instructional methods items, the mean reporting rate was 41.1 ± 18.0%, significantly lower than for the Ex R x methods items (P < .001). Fewer than half of the interventions reported unsupervised practice (15%), progression (22%), or the use of breathing (30%) and relaxation (15%) techniques. The instructional methods items most important for targeting Tai Chi practice to improve balance were not routinely disclosed, with only 15% reporting names of forms and 52% reporting movement principles. Most Tai Chi interventions disclosed their Ex R x methods yet routinely failed to report instructional methods. To increase the effectiveness of Tai Chi to improve balance in older adults, future RCTs should disclose their Ex R x and instructional methods, especially methods that target balance. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  2. Genomic profiling of neutrophil transcripts in Asian Qigong practitioners: a pilot study in gene regulation by mind-body interaction.

    PubMed

    Li, Quan-Zhen; Li, Ping; Garcia, Gabriela E; Johnson, Richard J; Feng, Lili

    2005-02-01

    The great similarity of the genomes of humans and other species stimulated us to search for genes regulated by elements associated with human uniqueness, such as the mind-body interaction. DNA microarray technology offers the advantage of analyzing thousands of genes simultaneously, with the potential to determine healthy phenotypic changes in gene expression. The aim of this study was to determine the genomic profile and function of neutrophils in Falun Gong (FLG, an ancient Chinese Qigong) practitioners, with healthy subjects as controls. Six (6) Asian FLG practitioners and 6 Asian normal healthy controls were recruited for our study. The practitioners have practiced FLG for at least 1 year (range, 1-5 years). The practice includes daily reading of FLG books and daily practice of exercises lasting 1-2 hours. Selected normal healthy controls did not perform Qigong, yoga, t'ai chi, or any other type of mind-body practice, and had not followed any conventional physical exercise program for at least 1 year. Neutrophils were isolated from fresh blood and assayed for gene expression, using microarrays and RNase protection assay (RPA), as well as for function (phagocytosis) and survival (apoptosis). The changes in gene expression of FLG practitioners in contrast to normal healthy controls were characterized by enhanced immunity, downregulation of cellular metabolism, and alteration of apoptotic genes in favor of a rapid resolution of inflammation. The lifespan of normal neutrophils was prolonged, while the inflammatory neutrophils displayed accelerated cell death in FLG practitioners as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Correlating with enhanced immunity reflected by microarray data, neutrophil phagocytosis was significantly increased in Qigong practitioners. Some of the altered genes observed by microarray were confirmed by RPA. Qigong practice may regulate immunity, metabolic rate, and cell death, possibly at the transcriptional level. Our pilot study

  3. The influence of tai chi and yoga on balance and falls in a residential care setting: A randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Saravanakumar, Padmapriya; Higgins, Isabel Johanna; van der Riet, Pamela Jane; Marquez, Jodie; Sibbritt, David

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Falls amongst older people is a global public health concern. Whilst falling is not a typical feature of ageing, older people are more likely to fall. Fall injuries amongst older people are a leading cause of death and disability. Many older people do not do regular exercise so that they lose muscle tone, strength, and flexibility which affect balance and predispose them to falls. The management of falls in residential care settings is a major concern with strategies for prevention and monitoring a focus in this setting. Yoga and tai chi have shown potential to improve balance and prevent falls in older adults. They also have potential to improve pain and quality of life. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of conducting a three-arm randomised controlled trial (RCT) with frail older people in a residential care setting to test the hypothesis that a 14-week modified tai chi or yoga programme is more effective than usual care activity in improving balance function, quality of life, pain experience and in reducing number of falls. There were no statistically significant differences between the three groups in the occurrence of falls. Yoga demonstrated a slight decrease in fall incidence; quality of life improved for the tai chi group. Only the yoga group experienced a reduction in average pain scores though not statistically significant. The findings of the study suggest it is possible to safely implement modified yoga and tai chi in a residential care setting and evaluate this using RCT design. They show positive changes to balance, pain and quality of life and a high level of interest through attendance amongst the older participants. The results support offering tai chi and yoga to older people who are frail and dependent with physical and cognitive limitations.

  4. Protocol: the effect of 12 weeks of Tai Chi practice on anxiety in healthy but stressed people compared to exercise and wait-list comparison groups: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shuai; Lal, Sara; Meier, Peter; Sibbritt, David; Zaslawski, Chris

    2014-06-01

    Stress is a major problem in today's fast-paced society and can lead to serious psychosomatic complications. The ancient Chinese mind-body exercise of Tai Chi may provide an alternative and self-sustaining option to pharmaceutical medication for stressed individuals to improve their coping mechanisms. The protocol of this study is designed to evaluate whether Tai Chi practice is equivalent to standard exercise and whether the Tai Chi group is superior to a wait-list control group in improving stress coping levels. This study is a 6-week, three-arm, parallel, randomized, clinical trial designed to evaluate Tai Chi practice against standard exercise and a Tai Chi group against a nonactive control group over a period of 6 weeks with a 6-week follow-up. A total of 72 healthy adult participants (aged 18-60 years) who are either Tai Chi naïve or have not practiced Tai Chi in the past 12 months will be randomized into a Tai Chi group (n = 24), an exercise group (n = 24) or a wait-list group (n = 24). The primary outcome measure will be the State Trait Anxiety Inventory with secondary outcome measures being the Perceived Stress Scale 14, heart rate variability, blood pressure, Short Form 36 and a visual analog scale. The protocol is reported using the appropriate Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) items. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. The Impact of Combined Music and Tai Chi on Depressive Symptoms Among Community-Dwelling Older Persons: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Liao, S J; Tan, M P; Chong, M C; Chua, Y P

    2018-05-01

    The effectiveness of pharmacological treatment may be limited in older persons. Several studies using Tai Chi or music therapy separately confirmed positive effects in the reduction of depressive symptoms. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial to evaluate the possible synergistic effect of combined music and Tai Chi on depressive symptoms. One hundred and seven older adults with mild to moderate depressive symptoms were recruited from Ya'an city. Fifty-five participants were cluster randomized to combined music and Tai Chi group for three months, while the other fifty-two individuals were randomized to the control group that entailed routine health education delivered monthly by community nurses. The primary outcome of depressive symptoms was measured with the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) at baseline and monthly for three months. At three-month follow-up, a statistically significant improvement in depressive symptoms was found in the intervention group compared with control group (F(3,315) = 69.661, P < 0.001). Following adjustments for socio-demographic data, the true effect of intervention on depressive symptoms was significant (F = 41.725, P < 0.01, η p 2 = 0.574). Combined music and Tai Chi reduced depressive symptoms among community-dwelling older persons. This represents an economically viable solution to the management of depression in highly populous developing nations.

  6. Effects of Tai Chi-based cardiac rehabilitation on aerobic endurance, psychosocial well-being, and cardiovascular risk reduction among patients with coronary heart disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting; Chan, Aileen Wk; Liu, Yun Hong; Taylor-Piliae, Ruth E

    2018-04-01

    Tai Chi is an attractive exercise to improve cardiovascular health. This review aimed to synthesize articles written both in Chinese and in English to evaluate the effects of Tai Chi-based cardiac rehabilitation on aerobic endurance, psychosocial well-being and cardiovascular diseases risk reduction for coronary heart diseases patients. PRISMA guidelines were used to search major health databases to identify randomized controlled trials or non-randomized controlled clinical trials that evaluated Tai Chi intervention compared with active or non-active control groups in coronary heart disease patients. When suitable, data were pooled using a random-effects meta-analysis model. Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Tai Chi groups showed a large and significant improvement in aerobic endurance compared with both active and non-active control interventions (standard mean difference (SMD) 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.58-1.66; p <0.001). Tai Chi groups also showed a significantly lower level of anxiety (SMD=9.28; CI: 17.46-1.10; p=0.03) and depression (SMD=9.42; CI: 13.59-5.26; p <0.001), and significantly better quality of life (SMD=0.73; 95% CI: 0.39-1.08; p <0.001) compared with non-active control groups. Significant effects of Tai Chi have been found in improving aerobic endurance and psychosocial well-being among coronary heart disease patients. Tai Chi could be a cost-effective and safe exercise option in cardiac rehabilitation. However, the effect of Tai Chi on cardiovascular disease risk reduction has not been amply investigated among coronary heart disease patients. Caution is also warranted in view of a small number of studies for this meta-analysis and potential heterogeneity in differences in the varied designs of Tai Chi intervention.

  7. Efficacy of supervised Tai Chi exercises versus conventional physical therapy exercises in fall prevention for frail older adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tousignant, Michel; Corriveau, Hélène; Roy, Pierre-Michel; Desrosiers, Johanne; Dubuc, Nicole; Hébert, Réjean

    2013-08-01

    To compare the effectiveness of supervised Tai Chi exercises versus the conventional physical therapy exercises in a personalized rehabilitation program in terms of the incidence and severity of falls in a frail older population. The participants were frail older adults living in the community, admitted to the day hospital program in Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada (n = 152). They were randomized to receive a 15-week intervention, either by supervised Tai Chi exercises (n = 76) or conventional physical therapy (n = 76). Fall incidence and severity were assessed using both the calendar technique and phone interviews once a month during 12 months following the end of the intervention. Other variables were collected at baseline to compare the two groups: age, comorbidity, balance, sensory interaction on balance, and self-rated health. Both interventions demonstrated a protective effect on falls but Tai Chi showed a greater one (RR = 0.74; 95% CI = 0.56-0.98) as compared to conventional physical therapy exercises. Supervised Tai Chi exercises as part of a rehabilitation program seem to be a more effective alternative to the conventional physical therapy exercises for this specific population.

  8. Evaluation of Tai Chi Yunshou exercises on community-based stroke patients with balance dysfunction: a study protocol of a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jing; Rao, Ting; Lin, Lili; Liu, Wei; Wu, Zhenkai; Zheng, Guohua; Su, Yusheng; Huang, Jia; Lin, Zhengkun; Wu, Jinsong; Fang, Yunhua; Chen, Lidian

    2015-02-25

    Balance dysfunction after stroke limits patients' general function and participation in daily life. Previous researches have suggested that Tai Chi exercise could offer a positive improvement in older individuals' balance function and reduce the risk of falls. But convincing evidence for the effectiveness of enhancing balance function after stroke with Tai Chi exercise is still inadequate. Considering the difficulties for stroke patients to complete the whole exercise, the current trial evaluates the benefit of Tai Chi Yunshou exercise for patients with balance dysfunction after stroke through a cluster randomization, parallel-controlled design. A single-blind, cluster-randomized, parallel-controlled trial will be conducted. A total of 10 community health centers (5 per arm) will be selected and randomly allocated into Tai Chi Yunshou exercise group or balance rehabilitation training group. Each community health centers will be asked to enroll 25 eligible patients into the trial. 60 minutes per each session, 1 session per day, 5 times per week and the total training round is 12 weeks. Primary and secondary outcomes will be measured at baseline and 4-weeks, 8-weeks, 12-weeks, 6-week follow-up, 12-week follow-up after randomization. Safety and economic evaluation will also be assessed. This protocol aims to evaluate the effectiveness of Tai Chi Yunshou exercise for the balance function of patients after stroke. If the outcome is positive, this project will provide an appropriate and economic balance rehabilitation technology for community-based stroke patients. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-TRC-13003641. Registration date: 22 August, 2013 http://www.chictr.org/usercenter/project/listbycreater.aspx .

  9. Design and methods of the Gentle Cardiac Rehabilitation Study – A behavioral study of tai chi exercise for patients not attending cardiac rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Salmoirago-Blotcher, Elena; Wayne, Peter; Bock, Beth C; Dunsiger, Shira; Wu, Wen-Chih; Stabile, Loren; Yeh, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs reduce overall and cardiovascular mortality in patients with a history of acute coronary events or revascularization procedures, but only 30 % of patients enroll in CR and attrition rates reach up to 60 %. Tai chi, a mind-body practice based on light/moderate aerobic exercise accompanied by meditative components could be a possible exercise option for patients who do not attend CR. Methods/Design Sixty patients will be randomized to a “LITE ” condition (one tai chi session twice weekly for 12 weeks) or to a “PLUS” condition (one tai chi session 3 times weekly for 12 weeks, followed by maintenance classes 1–2 times weekly for an additional 12 weeks). Measurements will be conducted at baseline, 3-, 6-, and 9 months after enrollment. The primary outcome is to determine the feasibility, acceptability and safety of each dose. Secondary outcomes include estimates of effect size of each dose on accelerometry-assessed physical activity; the proportion of patients meeting current recommendations for physical activity; and measures of fitness, quality of life, body weight, and sleep. In addition, we will collect exploratory information on possible mediators (exercise self-efficacy, perceived social support, resilience, mindfulness, and depression). Conclusions Findings from this pilot study will provide preliminary indications about the usefulness of tai chi as an exercise option for patients not attending traditional CR programs. Results will also shed light on the possible mechanisms by which tai chi practice may improve overall physical activity among patients with atherosclerotic coronary heart disease. PMID:26115880

  10. The effects of Tai-Chi in conjunction with thera-band resistance exercise on functional fitness and muscle strength among community-based older people.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shu-Fen; Sung, Huei-Chuan; Li, Tzai-Li; Hsieh, Tsung-Cheng; Lan, Hsiao-Chin; Perng, Shoa-Jen; Smith, Graeme D

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Tai-Chi in conjunction with thera-band resistance exercise on functional fitness and muscle strength in community-based older people. Tai-Chi is known to improve functional fitness in older people. Tai-Chi is usually performed with free hands without resistance training and usually focuses on training lower limbs. To date, no study has examined the use of Tai-Chi in conjunction with thera-band resistance exercise in this population. Cluster randomised trial design. Older people at six senior day care centres in Taiwan were assigned to thera-band resistance exercise or control group using a cluster randomisation. The thera-band resistance exercise group (n = 48) received sixty minute thera-band resistance exercise twice weekly for a period of 16 weeks. The control group (n = 47) underwent routine activities in the day care centre, receiving no Tai-Chi or resistance exercise. After receiving the thera-band resistance exercise, intervention participants displayed a significant increase in muscle strength of upper and lower extremities. Significant improvements were recorded on most measures of the Senior Fitness Test, with the exception of the chair-stand and back-scratch test. Thera-band resistance exercise has the potential to improve functional fitness and muscle strength in community-based older people. Thera-band resistance exercise potentially offers a safe and appropriate form of physical activity that nursing staff can easily incorporate into the daily routine of older people in day care centres, potentially improving functional performance and muscle strength. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Tai Chi and Kung-Fu practice maintains physical performance but not vascular health in young versus old participants.

    PubMed

    McAnulty, Steven; McAnulty, Lisa; Collier, Scott; Souza-Junior, Tacito P; McBride, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Kung-Fu and Tai Chi along with other martial arts are gaining popularity but studies examining the benefits of martial arts on physical fitness, vascular health, nutrition, and psychological wellness are limited. Aging is associated with declines in these health components. The objectives of this study were to examine whether Tai Chi and Kung-Fu training would maintain physical fitness, vascular health, and psychological wellness components on older versus younger practitioners. Seventeen subjects were recruited and divided into Young (age <40 years, n=9) and Old (age 40 years and above, n=8). Participants reported twice for health screens, vascular and nutrition assessment, and fitness tests. Mean differences were compared between groups for all tests using Student's t-tests. Age, months of practice, systolic blood pressure, and cardiovascular augmentation index were significantly greater in Old versus Young (p=0.001, p=0.007, p=0.049, and p=0.011, respectively). Psychologically, old practitioners experienced greater sleep interference (p=0.035) and overall pain (p=0.036). No other differences existed for any variable. Our study indicates that the practice of Tai Chi and Kung-Fu maintains physical fitness in older compared to younger practitioners. However, age associated changes in cardiovascular stiffness, systolic blood pressure, and pain were not prevented.

  12. Dance-Based Exercise and Tai Chi and Their Benefits for People with Arthritis: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Ray

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The first aim of this review article is to systematically summarise, synthesise, and critically evaluate the research base concerning the use of two art forms, namely, dance-based exercises and Tai Chi, as applied to people with arthritis (a chronic condition that results in considerable disability and, particularly in later life,…

  13. Does Tai Chi improve psychological well-being and quality of life in patients with cardiovascular disease and/or cardiovascular risk factors? A systematic review protocol.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guoyan; Li, Wenyuan; Cao, Huijuan; Klupp, Nerida; Liu, Jianping; Bensoussan, Alan; Kiat, Hosen; Chang, Dennis

    2017-08-18

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Psychological risk factors such as stress, anxiety and depression are known to play a significant and independent role in the development and progression of CVD and its risk factors. Tai Chi has been reported to be potentially effective for health and well-being. It is of value to assess the effectiveness and safety of Tai Chi on psychological well-being and quality of life in people with CVD and/or cardiovascular risk factors. We will include all relevant randomised controlled trials on Tai Chi for stress, anxiety, depression, psychological well-being and quality of life in people with CVD and cardiovascular risk factors. Literature searching will be conducted until 31 December 2016 from major English and Chinese databases. Two authors will conduct data selection and extraction independently. Quality assessment will be conducted using the risk of bias tool recommended by the Cochrane Collaboration. We will conduct data analysis using Cochrane's RevMan software. Forest plots and summary of findings tables will illustrate the results from a meta-analysis if sufficient studies are identified. Ethics approval is not required as this study will not involve patients. The results of this study will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal for publication, to inform both clinical practice and further research on Tai Chi and CVDs. This review will summarise the evidence on Tai Chi for psychological well-being and quality of life in people with CVD and their risk factors. We anticipate that the results of this review would be useful for healthcare professionals and researchers on Tai Chi and CVDs. International Prospective Register for Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) number CRD42016042905. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Tai Chi: moving for better balance -- development of a community-based falls prevention program.

    PubMed

    Li, Fuzhong; Harmer, Peter; Mack, Karin A; Sleet, David; Fisher, K John; Kohn, Melvin A; Millet, Lisa M; Xu, Junheng; Yang, Tingzhong; Sutton, Beth; Tompkins, Yvaughn

    2008-05-01

    This study was designed to develop an evidence- and community based falls prevention program -- Tai Chi: Moving for Better Balance. A mixed qualitative and quantitative approach was used to develop a package of materials for program implementation and evaluation. The developmental work was conducted in 2 communities in the Pacific Northwest. Participants included a panel of experts, senior service program managers or activity coordinators, and older adults. Outcome measures involved program feasibility and satisfaction. Through an iterative process, a program package was developed. The package contained an implementation plan and class training materials (ie, instructor's manual, videotape, and user's guidebook). Pilot testing of program materials showed that the content was appropriate for the targeted users (community-living older adults) and providers (local senior service organizations). A feasibility survey indicated interest and support from users and providers for program implementation. A 2-week pilot evaluation showed that the program implementation was feasible and evidenced good class attendance, high participant satisfaction, and interest in continuing Tai Chi. The package of materials developed in this study provides a solid foundation for larger scale implementation and evaluation of the program in community settings.

  15. Facilitators and Barriers to Tai Chi in an Older Adult Community: A Theory-Driven Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gryffin, Pete A.; Chen, William C.; Chaney, Beth H.; Dodd, Virginia J.; Roberts, Beverly

    2015-01-01

    Background: Prevention has been identified as a primary strategy for reducing health care costs, with potential Medicare savings up to $142.8 billion annually. Falls alone resulted in $28.2 billion in direct care costs. A growing body of research documents significant benefits of tai chi (TC) for balance and prevention and management of chronic…

  16. Effect of green tea and Tai Chi on bone health in postmenopausal osteopenic women: a 6-month randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Shen, C-L; Chyu, M-C; Yeh, J K; Zhang, Y; Pence, B C; Felton, C K; Brismée, J-M; Arjmandi, B H; Doctolero, S; Wang, J-S

    2012-05-01

    Postmenopausal women with osteopenia received green tea polyphenols (GTP) supplement and/or Tai Chi exercise for 6 months. Bone turnover biomarkers, calcium metabolism, and muscle strength were measured. This study showed that GTP supplementation and Tai Chi exercise increased bone formation biomarkers and improved bone turnover rate. Tai Chi exercise increased serum parathyroid hormone. GTP supplementation, Tai Chi exercise, and the combination of the two all improved muscle strength in postmenopausal women with osteopenia. This study evaluated the effect of GTP supplementation and Tai Chi (TC) exercise on serum markers of bone turnover (bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, BAP, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, TRAP), calcium metabolism, and muscle strength in postmenopausal osteopenic women. One hundred and seventy-one postmenopausal osteopenic women were randomly assigned to four groups: (1) placebo (500 mg starch/day), (2) GTP (500 mg GTP/day), (3) placebo + TC (placebo plus TC training at 60 min/session, three sessions/week), and (4) GTP + TC (GTP plus TC training). Overnight fasting blood and urine samples were collected at baseline, 1, 3, and 6 months for biomarker analyses. Muscle strength was evaluated at baseline, 3, and 6 months. One hundred and fifty subjects completed the 6-month study. Significant increases in BAP level due to GTP intake (at 1 month) and TC (at 3 months) were observed. Significant increases in the change of BAP/TRAP ratio due to GTP (at 3 months) and TC (at 6 months) were also observed. Significant main effect of TC on the elevation in serum parathyroid hormone level was observed at 1 and 3 months. At 6 months, muscle strength significantly improved due to GTP, TC, and GTP + TC interventions. Neither GTP nor TC affected serum TRAP, serum and urinary calcium, and inorganic phosphate. In summary, GTP supplementation and TC exercise increased BAP and improved BAP/TRAP ratio. TC exercise increased serum parathyroid hormone. GTP

  17. Study design for a randomised controlled trial to explore the modality and mechanism of Tai Chi in the pulmonary rehabilitation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Fu, Juan-Juan; Min, Jie; Yu, Peng-Ming; McDonald, Vanessa M; Mao, Bing

    2016-08-04

    Although pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is associated with significant clinical benefits in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and has been recommended by guidelines, PR with conventional exercise training has not been widely applied in the clinic because of its inherent limitations. Alternative exercise such as Tai Chi has been investigated and the results are promising. However, the strengths and weaknesses of the exercise modality of Tai Chi, conventional PR and a combination of Tai Chi and conventional PR and the possible mechanisms underlying Tai Chi exercise remain unclear. This study aims to address the above research gaps in a well-designed clinical trial. This study is a single-blind, randomised controlled trial. Participants with stable COPD will be recruited and randomly assigned to one of four groups receiving Tai Chi exercise, conventional PR using a total body recumbent stepper (TBRS), combined Tai Chi and TBRS, or usual care (control) in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. Participants will perform 30 min of supervised exercise three times a week for 8 weeks; they will receive sequential follow-ups until 12 months after recruitment. The primary outcome will be health-related quality of life as measured by the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire. Secondary outcomes will include 6 min walking distance, pulmonary function, the modified Medical Research Council Dyspnoea Scale, the COPD Assessment Test, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Berg Balance Scale, exacerbation frequency during the study period, and systemic inflammatory and immune markers. Ethics approval has been granted by the Clinical Trial and Biomedical Ethics Committee of West China Hospital of Sichuan University (No TCM-2015-82). Written informed consent will be obtained from each participant before any procedures are performed. The study findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national and international conferences. ChiCTR-IOR-15006874; Pre

  18. Preliminary findings of a 4-month Tai Chi intervention on tenderness, functional capacity, symptomatology, and quality of life in men with fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Romero, Alejandro; Aparicio, Virginia A; Ortega, Francisco B; Tercedor, Pablo; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Ruiz, Jonatan R

    2011-09-01

    The study aimed to determine the effects of a 4-month Tai Chi intervention on tenderness, functional capacity, symptomatology, and quality of life in men with fibromyalgia. The effect of a 3-month detraining period was also analyzed. Six men with fibromyalgia (age 52.3 ± 9.3 years) followed a 4-month Tai Chi intervention. The outcome variables were tenderness, functional capacity (30-second chair stand, handgrip strength, chair sit and reach, back scratch, blind flamingo, 8 feet up and go, and 6-minute walk tests), and self-administered questionnaires. A significant improvement (p = .028) after the intervention period for the chair sit and reach test was found, such improvement was maintained after the detraining phase. Tenderness, symptomatology, and quality of life did not significantly change after the intervention period or the detraining phase. In summary, a 4-month Tai Chi intervention improved lower body flexibility in men with fibromyalgia. This improvement persisted after the detraining period.

  19. The effect of Tai Chi Chuan in reducing falls among elderly people: design of a randomized clinical trial in the Netherlands [ISRCTN98840266].

    PubMed

    Zeeuwe, Petra E M; Verhagen, Arianne P; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita Ma; van Rossum, Erik; Faber, Marjan J; Koes, Bart W

    2006-03-30

    Falls are a significant public health problem. Thirty to fifty percent of the elderly of 65 years and older fall each year. Falls are the most common type of accident in this age group and can result in fractures and subsequent disabilities, increased fear of falling, social isolation, decreased mobility, and even an increased mortality. Several forms of exercise have been associated with a reduced risk of falling and with a wide range of physiological as well as psychosocial health benefits. Tai Chi Chuan seems to be the most promising form of exercise in the elderly, but the evidence is still controversial. In this article the design of a randomized clinical trial is presented. The trial evaluates the effect of Tai Chi Chuan on fall prevention and physical and psychological function in older adults. 270 people of seventy years and older living at home will be identified in the files of the participating general practitioners. People will be asked to participate when meeting the following inclusion criteria: have experienced a fall in the preceding year or suffer from two of the following risk factors: disturbed balance, mobility problems, dizziness, or the use of benzodiazepines or diuretics. People will be randomly allocated to either the Tai Chi Chuan group (13 weeks, twice a week) or the no treatment control group. The primary outcome measure is the number of new falls, measured with a diary. The secondary outcome measures are balance, fear of falling, blood pressure, heart rate, lung function parameters, physical activity, functional status, quality of life, mental health, use of walking devices, medication, use of health care services, adjustments to the house, severity of fall incidents and subsequent injuries. Process parameters will be measured to evaluate the Tai Chi Chuan intervention. A cost-effectiveness analysis will be carried out alongside the evaluation of the clinical results. Follow-up measurements will be collected at 3, 6 and 12 months after

  20. The benefits of Tai Chi and brisk walking for cognitive function and fitness in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Zhiguang; Feng, Tian; Liu, Xiaolei; You, Yihong; Meng, Fanying; Wang, Ruoqing; Lu, Jialing

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the benefits of exercises with different cognitive demands for cognitive functions (Executive and non-Executive) in healthy older adults. A cross-sectional design was adopted. In total, 84 healthy older adults were enrolled in the study. They were categorized into the Tai Chi group (TG), the brisk walking group (BG) or the control group (CG). Each participant performed the Stroop task and a digit comparison task. The Stroop task included the following three conditions: a naming condition, an inhibition condition and an executive condition. There were two experimental conditions in the digit comparison task: the non-delay condition and the delay condition. The results indicated that participants of the TG and BG revealed significant better performance than the CG in the executive condition of cognitive tasks and fitness. There was no significant difference of reaction time (RT) and accuracy rate in the inhibition and delay conditions of cognitive tasks and fitness between the TG and BG. The TG showed shorter reaction time in the naming and the executive conditions, and more accurate in the inhibition conditions than the BG. These findings demonstrated that regular participation in brisk walking and Tai Chi have significant beneficial effects on executive function and fitness. However, due to the high cognitive demands of the exercise, Tai Chi benefit cognitive functions (Executive and non-Executive) in older adults more than brisk walking does. Further studies should research the underlying mechanisms at the behavioural and neuroelectric levels, providing more evidence to explain the effect of high-cognitive demands exercise on different processing levels of cognition. PMID:29062610

  1. Tactile acuity in experienced Tai Chi practitioners: evidence for use dependent plasticity as an effect of sensory-attentional training

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Catherine E.; Shaw, Jessica R; Wasserman, Rachel H.; Chen, Vanessa W; Kanojia, Alok; Bayer, Thomas; Kelley, John M.

    2008-01-01

    The scientific discovery of novel training paradigms has yielded better understanding of basic mechanisms underlying cortical plasticity, learning and development. This study is a first step in evaluating Tai Chi (TC), the Chinese slow-motion meditative exercise, as a training paradigm that, while not engaging in direct tactile stimulus training, elicits enhanced tactile acuity in long-term practitioners, The rationale for this study comes from the fact that, unlike previously studied direct-touch tactile training paradigms, TC practitioners focus specific mental attention on the body’s extremities including the fingertips and hands as they perform their slow routine. To determine whether TC is associated with enhanced tactile acuity, experienced adult TC practitioners were recruited and compared to age-gender matched controls. A blinded assessor used a validated method (Van Boven, Hamilton, Kauffman, Keenan, & Pascual-Leone, 2000) to compare TC practitioners’ and controls’ ability to discriminate between two different orientations (parallel and horizontal) across different grating widths at the fingertip. Study results showed TC practitioners’ tactile spatial acuity was superior to that of the matched controls (p<.04). There was a trend showing TC may have an enhanced effect on older practitioners (p<.066), suggesting TC may slow age related decline in this measure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate a long-term attentional practice’s effects on a perceptual measure. Longitudinal studies are needed to examine whether TC initiates or is merely correlated with perceptual changes and whether it elicits long-term plasticity in primary sensory cortical maps. Further studies should also assess whether related somatosensory attentional practices (such as Yoga, mindfulness meditation and Qigong) achieve similar effects. PMID:18512052

  2. A systems biology approach to studying Tai Chi, physiological complexity and healthy aging: design and rationale of a pragmatic randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wayne, Peter M; Manor, Brad; Novak, Vera; Costa, Madelena D; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Goldberger, Ary L; Ahn, Andrew C; Yeh, Gloria Y; Peng, C-K; Lough, Matthew; Davis, Roger B; Quilty, Mary T; Lipsitz, Lewis A

    2013-01-01

    Aging is typically associated with progressive multi-system impairment that leads to decreased physical and cognitive function and reduced adaptability to stress. Due to its capacity to characterize complex dynamics within and between physiological systems, the emerging field of complex systems biology and its array of quantitative tools show great promise for improving our understanding of aging, monitoring senescence, and providing biomarkers for evaluating novel interventions, including promising mind-body exercises, that treat age-related disease and promote healthy aging. An ongoing, two-arm randomized clinical trial is evaluating the potential of Tai Chi mind-body exercise to attenuate age-related loss of complexity. A total of 60 Tai Chi-naïve healthy older adults (aged 50-79) are being randomized to either six months of Tai Chi training (n=30), or to a waitlist control receiving unaltered usual medical care (n=30). Our primary outcomes are complexity-based measures of heart rate, standing postural sway and gait stride interval dynamics assessed at 3 and 6months. Multiscale entropy and detrended fluctuation analysis are used as entropy- and fractal-based measures of complexity, respectively. Secondary outcomes include measures of physical and psychological function and tests of physiological adaptability also assessed at 3 and 6months. Results of this study may lead to novel biomarkers that help us monitor and understand the physiological processes of aging and explore the potential benefits of Tai Chi and related mind-body exercises for healthy aging. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Efficacy of practising Tai Chi for older people with mild dementia: protocol for a randomised controlled study.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Jihui; Li, Wenjie; Rong, Xiangjiang; Wei, Lian; Huang, Nayan; Champ, Mei; Xiong, Qian; Chen, Xueli; Li, Mo; Li, Fangling

    2018-05-14

    Many studies suggest that Tai Chi exercise is a safe and appropriate mind-body exercise for older people and effectively slows down age-related cognitive decline. A set of bespoke Tai Chi exercise named 'Cognition Protecting Tai Chi' (CPT) has been created for older people with cognitive impairments by the research team of geriatricians, neurologists, rehabilitation specialists, experts of sports medicine and experienced practitioners of traditional Chinese medicine. This trial is designed to evaluate its effects on cognitive function, behaviour/moods, risk of falls and activities of daily living of the participants with mild dementia. A randomised controlled study will be conducted. Eighty participants with mild dementia will be recruited and randomly allocated to an intervention group and a control group. The intervention group will practice the CPT exercise three times a week for 20 min each time under the guidance of professional therapists. The control group will continue receiving their routine treatments. The duration of this study will be 10 months. All participants will be assessed with a battery of neuropsychological and functional evaluations, which include Mini Mental State Examination, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, the WHO-University of California Los Angeles-Auditory Verbal Learning test (WHO-UCLA-AVLT), Trail Making Test (TMT), Geriatric Depression Scale, Neuropsychological Inventory and Barthel Index, at the baseline, 5 and 10 months during the study period. Fall incident will also be recorded. The primary outcome will be the WHO-UCLA-AVLT delayed recall score. The secondary outcome will be the TMT score. This study has been approved by the ethical review committee of the Beijing Geriatric Hospital (protocol number: 2015-021). Informed consent will be obtained from all participants or their guardians. The authors intend to submit the findings of the study to peer-reviewed journals or academic conferences to be published. ChiCTR-INR-16009872; Pre

  4. In vitro test of external Qigong

    PubMed Central

    Yount, Garret; Solfvin, Jerry; Moore, Dan; Schlitz, Marilyn; Reading, Melissa; Aldape, Ken; Qian, Yifang

    2004-01-01

    Background Practitioners of the alternative medical practice 'external Qigong' generally claim the ability to emit or direct "healing energy" to treat patients. We investigated the ability of experienced Qigong practitioners to enhance the healthy growth of cultured human cells in a series of studies, each following a rigorously designed protocol with randomization, blinding and controls for variability. Methods Qigong practitioners directed healing intentionality toward normal brain cell cultures in a basic science laboratory. Qigong treatments were delivered for 20 minutes from a minimum distance of 10 centimeters. Cell proliferation was measured by a standard colony-forming efficiency (CFE) assay and a CFE ratio (CFE for treated samples/CFE for sham samples) was the dependent measure for each experiment. Results During a pilot study (8 experiments), a trend of increased cell proliferation in Qigong-treated samples (CFE Qigong/sham ratios > 1.0) was observed (P = 0.162). In a formal study (28 experiments), a similar trend was observed, with Qigong-treated samples showing on average more colony formation than sham samples (P = 0.036). In a replication study (60 experiments), no significant difference between Qigong-treated samples and sham samples was observed (P = 0.465). Conclusion We observed an apparent increase in the proliferation of cultured cells following external Qigong treatment by practitioners under strictly controlled conditions, but we did not observe this effect in a replication study. These results suggest the need for more controlled and thorough investigation of external Qigong before scientific validation is claimed. PMID:15102336

  5. Comparative impacts of Tai Chi, balance training, and a specially-designed yoga program on balance in older fallers.

    PubMed

    Ni, Meng; Mooney, Kiersten; Richards, Luca; Balachandran, Anoop; Sun, Mingwei; Harriell, Kysha; Potiaumpai, Melanie; Signorile, Joseph F

    2014-09-01

    To compare the effect of a custom-designed yoga program with 2 other balance training programs. Randomized controlled trial. Research laboratory. A group of older adults (N=39; mean age, 74.15 ± 6.99 y) with a history of falling. Three different exercise interventions (Tai Chi, standard balance training, yoga) were given for 12 weeks. Balance performance was examined during pre- and posttest using field tests, including the 8-foot up-and-go test, 1-leg stance, functional reach, and usual and maximal walking speed. The static and dynamic balances were also assessed by postural sway and dynamic posturography, respectively. Training produced significant improvements in all field tests (P<.005), but group difference and time × group interaction were not detected. For postural sway, significant decreases in the area of the center of pressure with eyes open (P=.001) and eyes closed (P=.002) were detected after training. For eyes open, maximum medial-lateral velocity significantly decreased for the sample (P=.013). For eyes closed, medial-lateral displacement decreased for Tai Chi (P<.01). For dynamic posturography, significant improvements in overall score (P=.001), time on the test (P=.006), and 2 linear measures in lateral (P=.001) and anterior-posterior (P<.001) directions were seen for the sample. Yoga was as effective as Tai Chi and standard balance training for improving postural stability and may offer an alternative to more traditional programs. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessing the comparative effectiveness of Tai Chi versus physical therapy for knee osteoarthritis: design and rationale for a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenchen; Iversen, Maura D; McAlindon, Timothy; Harvey, William F; Wong, John B; Fielding, Roger A; Driban, Jeffrey B; Price, Lori Lyn; Rones, Ramel; Gamache, Tressa; Schmid, Christopher H

    2014-09-08

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) causes pain and long-term disability with annual healthcare costs exceeding $185 billion in the United States. Few medical remedies effectively influence the course of the disease. Finding effective treatments to maintain function and quality of life in patients with knee OA is one of the national priorities identified by the Institute of Medicine. We are currently conducting the first comparative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness randomized trial of Tai Chi versus a physical-therapy regimen in a sample of patients with symptomatic and radiographically confirmed knee OA. This article describes the design and conduct of this trial. A single-center, 52-week, comparative effectiveness randomized controlled trial of Tai Chi versus a standardized physical-therapy regimen is being conducted at an urban tertiary medical center in Boston, Massachusetts. The study population consists of adults ≥ 40 years of age with symptomatic and radiographic knee OA (American College of Rheumatology criteria). Participants are randomly allocated to either 12 weeks of Tai Chi (2x/week) or Physical Therapy (2x/week for 6 weeks, followed by 6 weeks of rigorously monitored home exercise). The primary outcome measure is pain (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities WOMAC) subscale at 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes include WOMAC stkiffness and function domain scores, lower extremity strength and power, functional balance, physical performance tests, psychological and psychosocial functioning, durability effects, health related quality of life, and healthcare utilization at 12, 24 and 52 weeks. This study will be the first randomized comparative-effectiveness and cost-effectiveness trial of Tai Chi versus Physical Therapy in a large symptomatic knee OA population with long-term follow up. We present here a robust and well-designed randomized comparative-effectiveness trial that also explores multiple outcomes to elucidate the potential mechanisms of mind

  7. The effect of Tai Chi on four chronic conditions-cancer, osteoarthritis, heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analyses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Wen; Hunt, Michael A; Campbell, Kristin L; Peill, Kortni; Reid, W Darlene

    2016-04-01

    Many middle-aged and older persons have more than one chronic condition. Thus, it is important to synthesise the effectiveness of interventions across several comorbidities. The aim of this systematic review was to summarise current evidence regarding the effectiveness of Tai Chi in individuals with four common chronic conditions-cancer, osteoarthritis (OA), heart failure (HF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). 4 databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and SPORTDiscus) were searched for original articles. Two reviewers independently screened the titles and abstracts and then conducted full-text reviews, quality assessment and finally data abstraction. 33 studies met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analyses were performed on disease-specific symptoms, physiological outcomes and physical performance of each chronic condition. Subgroup analyses on disease-specific symptoms were conducted by categorising studies into subsets based on the type of comparison groups. Meta-analyses showed that Tai Chi improved or showed a tendency to improve physical performance outcomes, including 6-min walking distance (6MWD) and knee extensor strength, in most or all four chronic conditions. Tai Chi also improved disease-specific symptoms of pain and stiffness in OA. The results demonstrated a favourable effect or tendency of Tai Chi to improve physical performance and showed that this type of exercise could be performed by individuals with different chronic conditions, including COPD, HF and OA. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Comparison of tai chi vs. strength training for fall prevention among female cancer survivors: study protocol for the GET FIT trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Women with cancer are significantly more likely to fall than women without cancer placing them at higher risk of fall-related fractures, other injuries and disability. Currently, no evidence-based fall prevention strategies exist that specifically target female cancer survivors. The purpose of the GET FIT (Group Exercise Training for Functional Improvement after Treatment) trial is to compare the efficacy of two distinct types of exercise, tai chi versus strength training, to prevent falls in women who have completed treatment for cancer. The specific aims of this study are to: 1) Determine and compare the efficacy of both tai chi training and strength training to reduce falls in older female cancer survivors, 2) Determine the mechanism(s) by which tai chi and strength training each reduces falls and, 3) Determine whether or not the benefits of each intervention last after structured training stops. Methods/Design We will conduct a three-group, single-blind, parallel design, randomized controlled trial in women, aged 50–75 years old, who have completed chemotherapy for cancer comparing 1) tai chi 2) strength training and 3) a placebo control group of seated stretching exercise. Women will participate in supervised study programs twice per week for six months and will be followed for an additional six months after formal training stops. The primary outcome in this study is falls, which will be prospectively tracked by monthly self-report. Secondary outcomes are maximal leg strength measured by isokinetic dynamometry, postural stability measured by computerized dynamic posturography and physical function measured by the Physical Performance Battery, all measured at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months. The sample for this trial (N=429, assuming 25% attrition) will provide adequate statistical power to detect at least a 47% reduction in the fall rate over 1 year by being in either of the 2 exercise groups versus the control group. Discussion The GET FIT trial

  9. Tai Chi Chuan: an ancient wisdom on exercise and health promotion.

    PubMed

    Lan, Ching; Lai, Jin-Shin; Chen, Ssu-Yuan

    2002-01-01

    Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) is a Chinese conditioning exercise and is well known for its slow and graceful movements. Recent investigations have found that TCC is beneficial to cardiorespiratory function, strength, balance, flexibility, microcirculation and psychological profile. The long-term practice of TCC can attenuate the age decline in physical function, and consequently it is a suitable exercise for the middle-aged and elderly individuals. TCC can be prescribed as an alternative exercise programme for selected patients with cardiovascular, orthopaedic, or neurological diseases, and can reduce the risk of falls in elderly individuals. The exercise intensity of TCC depends on training style, posture and duration. Participants can choose to perform a complete set of TCC or selected movements according to their needs. In conclusion, TCC has potential benefits in health promotion, and is appropriate for implementation in the community.

  10. Coping with future epidemics: Tai chi practice as an overcoming strategy used by survivors of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in post-SARS Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Siu, Judy Yuen-Man

    2016-06-01

    Although SARS had been with a controversial topic for a decade at the time of this study, numerous SARS survivors had not yet physically, psychologically or socially recovered from the aftermath of SARS. Among chronically ill patients, the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is reported to be widespread. However, extremely little is known about the use of CAM by SARS survivors in the post-SARS period and even less is known about how the use of CAM is related to the unpleasant social and medical-treatment experiences of SARS survivors, their eagerness to re-establish social networks, and their awareness to prepare for future epidemics. To investigate the motivations for practising tai chi among SARS survivors in post-SARS Hong Kong. Using a qualitative approach, I conducted individual semi-structured interviews with 35 SARS survivors, who were purposively sampled from a tai chi class of a SARS-patient self-help group in Hong Kong. Health concerns and social experiences motivated the participants to practise tai chi in post-SARS Hong Kong. Experiencing health deterioration in relation to SARS-associated sequelae, coping with unpleasant experiences during follow-up biomedical treatments, a desire to regain an active role in recovery and rehabilitation, overcoming SARS-associated stigmas by establishing a new social network and preparing for potential future stigmatization and discrimination were the key motivators for them. The participants practised tai chi not only because they sought to improve their health but also because it provided a crucial social function and meaning to them. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. EEG source imaging during two Qigong meditations.

    PubMed

    Faber, Pascal L; Lehmann, Dietrich; Tei, Shisei; Tsujiuchi, Takuya; Kumano, Hiroaki; Pascual-Marqui, Roberto D; Kochi, Kieko

    2012-08-01

    Experienced Qigong meditators who regularly perform the exercises "Thinking of Nothing" and "Qigong" were studied with multichannel EEG source imaging during their meditations. The intracerebral localization of brain electric activity during the two meditation conditions was compared using sLORETA functional EEG tomography. Differences between conditions were assessed using t statistics (corrected for multiple testing) on the normalized and log-transformed current density values of the sLORETA images. In the EEG alpha-2 frequency, 125 voxels differed significantly; all were more active during "Qigong" than "Thinking of Nothing," forming a single cluster in parietal Brodmann areas 5, 7, 31, and 40, all in the right hemisphere. In the EEG beta-1 frequency, 37 voxels differed significantly; all were more active during "Thinking of Nothing" than "Qigong," forming a single cluster in prefrontal Brodmann areas 6, 8, and 9, all in the left hemisphere. Compared to combined initial-final no-task resting, "Qigong" showed activation in posterior areas whereas "Thinking of Nothing" showed activation in anterior areas. The stronger activity of posterior (right) parietal areas during "Qigong" and anterior (left) prefrontal areas during "Thinking of Nothing" may reflect a predominance of self-reference, attention and input-centered processing in the "Qigong" meditation, and of control-centered processing in the "Thinking of Nothing" meditation.

  12. Comparative effects of Yi Jin Jing versus Tai Chi exercise training on benign prostatic hyperplasia-related outcomes in older adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Liu, XiangYun; Huang, Guoyuan; Chen, Peijie; Li, Yong; Xiang, JiuLin; Chen, Ting; Wang, Ru

    2016-07-16

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and its associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) occur very commonly in older men. BPH and LUTS cause substantial physical and psychological impairment that could seriously affect the quality of late life and greatly cost the health-care systems. Current surgical and pharmacological therapies are expensive, may not effectively improve prostate function and health but cause adverse effects. There is an urgent need to find new and effective non-pharmacological preventions and treatments. Yi Jin Jing and Tai Chi are two common traditional Chinese mind-body exercises with different movements and techniques, but both emphasize regulating functional homeostasis and keeping whole body harmony. Yi Jin Jing and Tai Chi have not been studied much for potentially use in the treatment of BPH-related problems. The primary purpose of this protocol is to assess the effectiveness of Yi Jin Jing versus Tai Chi on the monographic and functional changes of prostate in older men. A prospective single-center randomized controlled trial will be conducted. A total of 150 old men (60-70 years old) will be recruited from the urban tertiary of Shanghai, China. Of these, 50 eligible participants will be randomly assigned to a control group and two intervention groups with either Yi Jin Jing or Tai Chi exercise training. They will undergo 30 minutes for each exercise for five times a week for 6 months. The primary outcomes are changes of signs and symptoms in BPH and lower urinary tract from baseline to post-intervention. The main secondary outcomes are exercise-induced effects on the circulating levels of estrogen and androgen. All the outcome measures will be assessed at baseline, immediately after the 6-month intervention, and at the 3-month post-intervention follow-up. This proposed study will be the first comparative randomized clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness of Yi Jin Jing versus Tai Chi exercise on prostate health among older

  13. Qigong and the Older Adult

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mittelstaedt, Robin D.; Hinton, Jennifer; Rana, Sharon; Cade, Dennis; Xue, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Qigong is a traditional Chinese exercise that is used to enhance health, vitality, and well-being. Some of the health benefits attributed to qigong include improved circulation, coordination, muscle tone, and flexibility. Scientists and researchers in the Eastern world have documented numerous medical benefits. While fewer Western medical studies…

  14. Effects of a 12-week program of Tai Chi exercise on the kidney disease quality of life and physical functioning of patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jo-Han; Koo, Malcolm; Wu, Sheng-Wen; Chen, Chiu-Yuan

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that exercise training in patients with end-stage renal disease could improve their physical functioning and quality of life. Nevertheless, few studies have evaluated the effects of Tai Chi exercise in patients on hemodialysis. To investigate the effects of a Tai Chi exercise intervention on the quality of life and physical functioning in end-stage renal disease patients on hemodialysis. A pre-post experimental design. Patients, aged 20 years or older, on hemodialysis recruited from the hemodialysis unit at a medical center in central Taiwan were assigned, based on their own preference, to either a control group (n=25) or an intervention group (n=21). A weekly one-hour short-form Yang style Tai Chi session for a total of 12 weeks. Physical functioning and Kidney Disease Quality of Life (KDQOL) at the baseline and at the end of the intervention. The least square means of repetition of sit-to-stand cycles in one minute (STS-60), 6-min walk test, and gait speed test were significantly improved in the intervention group. In addition, the least square means of the five different dimensions of the KDQOL were all significantly higher in the intervention group, except the SF-12 physical health score. Improvements in the kidney disease quality of life and physical functioning were observed in Taiwanese patients on hemodialysis with a 12-week Tai Chi exercise intervention. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Effects of Tai Chi exercise on blood pressure and plasma levels of nitric oxide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide in real-world patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiaogui; Zhang, Yi; Tao, Sai

    2015-01-01

    Objective was to investigate the effects of Tai Chi exercise on nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) levels, and blood pressure (BP) in patients with essential hypertension (EH). EH patients were assigned to the Tai Chi exercise group (HTC, n = 24), and hypertension group (HP, n = 16) by patients' willingness. Healthy volunteers matched for age and gender were recruited as control (NP, n = 16). HTC group performed Tai Chi (60 min/d, 6 d/week) for 12 weeks. Measurements (blood glucose, cholesterol, NO, CO, H2S and BP) were obtained at week 0, 6, and 12. SBP, MAP, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased by week 12 in the HTC group (all p < 0.05 versus baseline). Plasma NO, CO, and H2S levels in the HTC group were increased after 12 weeks (all p < 0.05 versus baseline). SBP, DBP and MAP levels were significantly lower in the HTC than in the HP group (all p < 0.05). However, no changes were observed in the HP and NP groups. Correlations were observed between changes in SBP and changes in NO, CO and H2S (r = -0.45, -0.51 and -0.46, respectively, all p < 0.05), and between changes in MAP and changes in NO, CO and H2S (r = -0.36, -0.45 and -0.42, respectively, all p < 0.05). In conclusion, Tai Chi exercise seems to have beneficial effects on BP and gaseous signaling molecules in EH patients. However, further investigation is required to understand the exact mechanisms underlying these observations, and to confirm these results in a larger cohort.

  16. Feasibility and effects of TAI CHI for the promotion of sleep quality and quality of life: a single-group study in a sample of older Chinese individuals in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lo, Catherine Mei-Han; Lee, Paul H

    2014-03-01

    Poor sleep in later life is a global issue that reduces many individuals' quality of life (QOL). The purpose of this pilot study was to test the feasibility and effects of a simplified tai chi exercise intervention on sleep quality and QOL among Chinese community-dwelling older adults with poor sleep quality. This single-group, descriptive feasibility study included 34 individuals with poor sleep quality who agreed to participate in a 12-week tai chi intervention. Twenty-six individuals completed the program (23.5% dropout rate). Older adults with poor sleep quality who completed the intervention showed significant improvement in the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 mental component and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index global and component scores. The low recruitment and attendance and high dropout rates might be associated with participants' age, gender, and sleep quality. Further long-term studies are required to examine the potential effects of the tai chi intervention. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 40(3), 46-52.]. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Tai Chi training for patients with coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Lan, Ching; Chen, Ssu-Yuan; Wong, May-Kuen; Lai, Jin-Shin

    2008-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in the developed countries and many developing countries. Exercise training is the cornerstone of cardiac rehabilitation program for patients with CHD, and exercise intensities in the 50-70% heart rate reserve have been shown to improve functional capacity. However, recent studies found exercise with lower intensity also displayed benefits to CHD patients, and increased the acceptance of exercise program, particularly unfit and elderly patients. Tai Chi Chuan (TC) is a traditional conditioning exercise in the Chinese community, and recently it has become more popular in the Western societies. The exercise intensity of TC is low to moderate, depending on the training style, posture and duration. Participants can choose to perform a complete set of TC or selected movements according to their needs. Previous research substantiates that TC enhances aerobic capacity, muscular strength, endothelial function and psychological wellbeing. In addition, TC reduces some cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension and dyslipidemia. Recent studies have also proved that TC is safe and effective for patients with myocardial infarction, coronary bypass surgery and heart failure. Therefore, TC may be prescribed as an alternative exercise program for selected patients with cardiovascular diseases. In conclusion, TC has potential benefits for patients with CHD, and is appropriate for implementation in the community.

  18. Qigong for hypertension: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xingjiang; Wang, Pengqian; Li, Xiaoke; Zhang, Yuqing

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of qigong for hypertension.A systematic literature search was performed in 7 databases from their respective inceptions until April 2014, including the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PubMed, Chinese Scientific Journal Database, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, Wanfang database, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure. Randomized controlled trials of qigong as either monotherapy or adjunctive therapy with antihypertensive drugs versus no intervention, exercise, or antihypertensive drugs for hypertension were identified. The risk of bias was assessed using the tool described in Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Review of Interventions, version 5.1.0.Twenty trials containing 2349 hypertensive patients were included in the meta-analysis. The risk of bias was generally high. Compared with no intervention, qigong significantly reduced systolic blood pressure (SBP) (weighted mean difference [WMD] = -17.40 mm Hg, 95% confidence interval [CI] -21.06 to -13.74, P < 0.00001) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (WMD = -10.15 mm Hg, 95% CI -13.99 to -6.30, P < 0.00001). Qigong was inferior to exercise in decreasing SBP (WMD = 6.51 mm Hg, 95% CI 2.81 to 10.21, P = 0.0006), but no significant difference between the effects of qigong and exercise on DBP (WMD = 0.67 mm Hg, 95% CI -1.39 to 2.73, P = 0.52) was identified. Compared with antihypertensive drugs, qigong produced a clinically meaningful but not statistically significant reduction in SBP (WMD = -7.91 mm Hg, 95% CI -16.81 to 1.00, P = 0.08), but appeared to be more effective in lowering DBP (WMD = -6.08 mm Hg, 95% CI -9.58 to -2.58, P = 0.0007). Qigong plus antihypertensive drugs significantly lowered both SBP (WMD = -11.99 mm Hg, 95% CI -15.59 to -8.39, P < 0.00001) and DBP (WMD = -5.28 mm Hg, 95% CI, -8.13 to -2.42, P = 0.0003) compared with antihypertensive drugs alone

  19. Effects of a T'ai Chi-Based Health Promotion Program on Metabolic Syndrome Markers, Health Behaviors, and Quality of Life in Middle-Aged Male Office Workers: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ye-Sook; Song, Rhayun; Ku, Bon Jeong

    2017-12-01

    To determine the effects of a t'ai chi-applied worksite health promotion program on metabolic syndrome markers, health behaviors, and quality of life in middle-aged male office workers at a high risk of metabolic syndrome. A prospective randomized controlled study. Health center of a government office building in Korea. Forty-three male office workers with two or more metabolic syndrome markers. The office workers were randomly assigned either to an experimental group that received t'ai chi combined with health education twice weekly for 12 weeks, or to a control group that received health education only. Blood sampling for metabolic syndrome markers and structured questionnaires for health behaviors and quality of life. The experimental group showed significant reductions in systolic (t = -3.103, p = 0.003) and diastolic (t = -2.159, p = 0.037) blood pressures and the triglyceride level (t = -2.451, p = 0.019) compared with the control group. Those in the experimental group also performed health behaviors more frequently (t = 4.047, p < 0.001) and reported a significantly better quality of life (t = 3.193, p = 0.003) than those in the control group. The study findings show that t'ai chi was an effective adjunctive intervention in a worksite health promotion program for middle-aged office workers at a high risk of metabolic syndrome. Future studies should examine the long-term effects of t'ai chi-applied worksite health promotion programs in individuals with confirmed metabolic syndrome.

  20. Psychophysiological reactions associated with qigong therapy.

    PubMed

    Xu, S H

    1994-03-01

    Qigong as a part of the traditional Chinese medicine is similar to western "meditation", Indian "Yoga" or Japanese "Zen", which can all be included in the category of traditional psychotherapy. A series of physiological and psychological effects occur in the course of Qigong training, but inappropriate training can lead to physical and mental disturbances. Physiological effects include changes in EEG, EMG, respiratory movement, heart rate, skin potential, skin temperature and finger tip volume, sympathetic nerve function, function in stomach and intestine, metabolism, endocrine and immunity systems. Psychological effects are motor phenomena and perceptual changes: patients experienced warmness, chilliness, itching sensation in the skin, numbness, soreness, bloatedness, relaxation, tenseness, floating, dropping, enlargement or constriction of the body image, a sensation of rising to the sky, falling off, standing upside down, playing on the swing following respiration, circulation of the intrinsic Qi, electric shock, formication, during Qigong exercise. Some patients experienced dreamland illusions, unreality and pseudohallucination. These phenomena were transient and vanished as the exercise terminated. Qigong deviation syndrome has become a diagnostic term and is now used widely in China.

  1. The management of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia in residential homes: does Tai Chi have any role for people with dementia?

    PubMed

    Tadros, George; Ormerod, Sara; Dobson-Smyth, Penny; Gallon, Mark; Doherty, Donna; Carryer, Angela; Oyebode, Jan; Kingston, Paul

    2013-03-01

    Dementia is a common illness that is increasing in frequency and set to challenge the resources and expertise of health and social care services over the coming years. Increasingly, there has been interest in the management of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), as they are both common and associated with a range of negative outcomes. BPSD are associated with the admission of people with dementia to care homes. Limited resources and lack of knowledge in permanent care settings often lead to BPSD being managed with antipsychotic medications, which are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. There is evidence for the benefits of exercise within care home settings, although only a few studies include those with cognitive impairment. Tai Chi is a mind-body exercise combining relaxed physical movement and meditation, and has been suggested to have many health benefits. This article discusses the rationale and available options for treating BPSD and the current practice and reviews the literature regarding the benefits of exercise and, in particular, Tai Chi in the management of BPSD.

  2. Taoist Tai Chi® and Memory Intervention for Individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Fogarty, Jennifer N; Murphy, Kelly J; McFarlane, Bruce; Montero-Odasso, Manuel; Wells, Jennie; Troyer, Angela K; Trinh, Daniel; Gutmanis, Iris; Hansen, Kevin T

    2016-04-01

    It was hypothesized that a combined Taoist Tai Chi (TTC) and a memory intervention program (MIP) would be superior to a MIP alone in improving everyday memory behaviors in individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). A secondary hypothesis was that TTC would improve cognition, self-reported health status, gait, and balance. A total of 48 individuals were randomly assigned to take part in MIP + TTC or MIP alone. The TTC intervention consisted of twenty 90 min sessions. Outcome measures were given at baseline, and after 10 and 22 weeks. Both groups significantly increased their memory strategy knowledge and use, ratings of physical health, processing speed, everyday memory, and visual attention. No preferential benefit was found for individuals in the MIP + TTC group on cognition, gait, or balance measures. Contrary to expectations, TTC exercise did not specifically improve cognition or physical mobility. Explanations for null findings are explored.

  3. How to Integrate Tai Ji Quan into Physical Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Chunlei

    2008-01-01

    Tai ji quan, also known as "tai chi," is an ancient Chinese exercise characterized by soft, slow, and meditative movements. It consists of a set of continuous, evenly paced, carefully choreographed, but natural, body shifts. "Tai ji" is an ancient Chinese philosophy, while "tai ji quan" refers to a type of physical activity based on tai ji…

  4. Qigong exercise with concentration predicts increased health.

    PubMed

    Jouper, John; Hassmén, Peter; Johansson, Mattias

    2006-01-01

    Regular physical activity has many positive health effects. Despite this, approximately 50% of all adults are not exercising enough to enjoy better health and may, therefore, need an alternative to vigorous physical exercise. Qigong offers a gentle way to exercise the body. A questionnaire sample of 253 participants was collected and correlations with the variable health-now were analyzed. Results showed that health-now was positively correlated with number of completed qigong courses (p < 0.05), with level of concentration (p < 0.01), session-time (p < 0.01), and years of practice (p < 0.05). Among these variables, concentration predicts an increased feeling of health (R(2) = 0.092). Qigong exercise thereby seems to offer a viable alternative to other more vigorous physical activities when wellness is the primary goal. When interpreted using self-determination theory, qigong seems to satisfy needs related to autonomy, competence and relatedness, thereby, primarily attracting individuals who are intrinsically motivated.

  5. Qigong Exercises for the Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Close, Jacqueline R.; Lilly, Harold Ryan; Guillaume, Nathalie; Sun, Guan-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this article is to clarify and define medical qigong and to identify an appropriate study design and methodology for a large-scale study looking at the effects of qigong in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), specifically subject enrollment criteria, selection of the control group and study duration. Methods: A comprehensive literature review of English databases was used to locate articles from 1980–May 2017 involving qigong and T2DM. Control groups, subject criteria and the results of major diabetic markers were reviewed and compared within each study. Definitions of qigong and its differentiation from physical exercise were also considered. Results: After a thorough review, it was found that qigong shows positive effects on T2DM; however, there were inconsistencies in control groups, research subjects and diabetic markers analyzed. It was also discovered that there is a large variation in styles and definitions of qigong. Conclusions: Qigong exercise has shown promising results in clinical experience and in randomized, controlled pilot studies for affecting aspects of T2DM including blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, weight, BMI and insulin resistance. Due to the inconsistencies in study design and methods and the lack of large-scale studies, further well-designed randomized control trials (RCT) are needed to evaluate the ‘vital energy’ or qi aspect of internal medical qigong in people who have been diagnosed with T2DM. PMID:28930273

  6. Effects of Tai Chi Training on Antioxidant Capacity in Pre- and Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Palasuwan, Attakorn; Suksom, Daroonwan; Margaritis, Irène; Soogarun, Suphan; Rousseau, Anne-Sophie

    2011-01-01

    The risk of oxidative stress-related metabolic diseases increases with menopause and physical inactivity. We hypothesized that an 8-week Tai Chi (TC) training program (2 sessions in class; 2 sessions at home; 1-1:15/session) would improve antioxidant capacity and reduce cardiovascular risks in both pre- (n = 8) and postmenopausal (n = 7) sedentary women. Selected measures of physical fitness and blood parameters were analyzed before and after the program. Besides the well-known effects of TC on balance, flexibility, and maximum leg extensor strength, TC (1) increased erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity—an aerobic training-responsive antioxidant enzyme—and plasma total antioxidant status and (2) decreased plasma total homocysteine, a cardiovascular risk marker. In addition to being a low-velocity, low-impact, and relatively safe, TC is a suitable physical activity design for pre- and postmenopausal women to increase antioxidant defenses. Investigating breathing effects during TC movements would be an interesting area for further research in diseases prevention. PMID:21584229

  7. Effects of tai chi training on antioxidant capacity in pre- and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Palasuwan, Attakorn; Suksom, Daroonwan; Margaritis, Irène; Soogarun, Suphan; Rousseau, Anne-Sophie

    2011-04-11

    The risk of oxidative stress-related metabolic diseases increases with menopause and physical inactivity. We hypothesized that an 8-week Tai Chi (TC) training program (2 sessions in class; 2 sessions at home; 1-1:15/session) would improve antioxidant capacity and reduce cardiovascular risks in both pre- (n = 8) and postmenopausal (n = 7) sedentary women. Selected measures of physical fitness and blood parameters were analyzed before and after the program. Besides the well-known effects of TC on balance, flexibility, and maximum leg extensor strength, TC (1) increased erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity-an aerobic training-responsive antioxidant enzyme-and plasma total antioxidant status and (2) decreased plasma total homocysteine, a cardiovascular risk marker. In addition to being a low-velocity, low-impact, and relatively safe, TC is a suitable physical activity design for pre- and postmenopausal women to increase antioxidant defenses. Investigating breathing effects during TC movements would be an interesting area for further research in diseases prevention.

  8. Tai Chi and vestibular rehabilitation improve vestibulopathic gait via different neuromuscular mechanisms: Preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    McGibbon, Chris A; Krebs, David E; Parker, Stephen W; Scarborough, Donna M; Wayne, Peter M; Wolf, Steven L

    2005-01-01

    Background Vestibular rehabilitation (VR) is a well-accepted exercise program intended to remedy balance impairment caused by damage to the peripheral vestibular system. Alternative therapies, such as Tai Chi (TC), have recently gained popularity as a treatment for balance impairment. Although VR and TC can benefit people with vestibulopathy, the degree to which gait improvements may be related to neuromuscular adaptations of the lower extremities for the two different therapies are unknown. Methods We examined the relationship between lower extremity neuromuscular function and trunk control in 36 older adults with vestibulopathy, randomized to 10 weeks of either VR or TC exercise. Time-distance measures (gait speed, step length, stance duration and step width), lower extremity sagittal plane mechanical energy expenditures (MEE), and trunk sagittal and frontal plane kinematics (peak and range of linear and angular velocity), were measured. Results Although gait time-distance measures were improved in both groups following treatment, no significant between-groups differences were observed for the MEE and trunk kinematic measures. Significant within groups changes, however, were observed. The TC group significantly increased ankle MEE contribution and decreased hip MEE contribution to total leg MEE, while no significant changes were found within the VR group. The TC group exhibited a positive relationship between change in leg MEE and change in trunk velocity peak and range, while the VR group exhibited a negative relationship. Conclusion Gait function improved in both groups consistent with expectations of the interventions. Differences in each group's response to therapy appear to suggest that improved gait function may be due to different neuromuscular adaptations resulting from the different interventions. The TC group's improvements were associated with reorganized lower extremity neuromuscular patterns, which appear to promote a faster gait and reduced

  9. The Mind Body-Wellness in Supportive Housing (Mi-WiSH) study: Design and rationale of a cluster randomized controlled trial of Tai Chi in senior housing.

    PubMed

    Wayne, Peter M; Gagnon, Margaret M; Macklin, Eric A; Travison, Thomas G; Manor, Bradley; Lachman, Margie; Thomas, Cindy P; Lipsitz, Lewis A

    2017-09-01

    Supporting the health of growing numbers of frail older adults living in subsidized housing requires interventions that can combat frailty, improve residents' functional abilities, and reduce their health care costs. Tai Chi is an increasingly popular multimodal mind-body exercise that incorporates physical, cognitive, social, and meditative components in the same activity and offers a promising intervention for ameliorating many of the conditions that lead to poor health and excessive health care utilization. The Mind Body-Wellness in Supportive Housing (Mi-WiSH) study is an ongoing two-arm cluster randomized, attention-controlled trial designed to examine the impact of Tai Chi on functional indicators of health and health care utilization. We are enrolling participants from 16 urban subsidized housing facilities (n=320 participants), conducting the Tai Chi intervention or education classes and social calls (attention control) in consenting subjects within the facilities for one year, and assessing these subjects at baseline, 6months, and 1year. Physical function (quantified by the Short Physical Performance Battery), and health care utilization (emergency visits, hospitalizations, skilled nursing and nursing home admissions), assessed at 12months are co-primary outcomes. Our discussion highlights our strategy to balance pragmatic and explanatory features into the study design, describes efforts to enhance site recruitment and participant adherence, and summarizes our broader goal of post study dissemination if effectiveness and cost-effectiveness are demonstrated, by preparing training and protocol manuals for use in housing facilities across the U.S. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of tai chi on cognition and instrumental activities of daily living in community dwelling older people with mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Siu, Mei-Yi; Lee, Diana T F

    2018-02-02

    Cognitive impairment places older adults at high risk of functional disability in their daily-life activities, and thus affecting their quality of life. This study aimed to examine the effects of Tai Chi on general cognitive functions and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) in community-dwelling older people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Hong Kong. The study adopted a multi-site nonequivalent control-group pretest-posttest design. 160 community-dwelling older people, aged ≥60, with MCI, from four community elderly centers participated in the study. The intervention group (IG, n = 80) received training in the Yang-style simple form of Tai Chi, at a frequency of two lessons per week for 16 weeks. Each lesson lasted for one hour. The control group (CG, n = 80) had no treatment regime and joined different recreational activity groups in community centers as usual within the study period. Outcome measures included measures of global cognitive status and IADL. The Chinese version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (CMMSE) was used for global cognitive assessment. The Hong Kong Chinese version of Lawton's Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL-CV) was used to assess the participants' IADL levels. General Estimating Equations (GEE) was used to examine each of the outcome variables for the two groups at the two study time points (the baseline and at the end of the study). Meanwhile, minimum detectable change (MDC) was calculated to estimate the magnitude of changes required to eradicate the possibility of measurement error of outcome measures. Seventy four participants in the IG and 71 participants in the CG completed the study. With adjustments for differences in age, education, marital status and living conditions, the findings revealed that the participants in the IG scored significantly better on the CMMSE test (P = 0.001), and the instrumental ADL questionnaire (P = 0.004). However, those scores changes did not exceed the

  11. Effects of wheelchair Tai Chi on physical and mental health among elderly with disability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong Tai; Li, Zhanghua; Yang, Yi; Zhong, Yaping; Lee, Shih-Yu; Chen, Shihui; Chen, Yu-Ping

    2016-01-01

    A 12-week Wheelchair Tai Chi 10 Form (WTC10) intervention was conducted among elderly with disability to examine the effect of this WTC10 intervention on selected physical and mental health variables. Thirteen (age 87.23 ± 6.71) in the WTC10 intervention group and 15 (age 89.73 ± 6.31) in the control group completed the study. Independent t-tests and paired t-tests were employed to examine the differences between groups and within groups, respectively, at pretest and post-test. The WTC10 intervention group showed significant improvements in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, shoulder external rotation, left trunk rotation and total trunk rotation after the intervention. A 12-week WTC10 intervention had positive effects on blood pressure, range of motion at the shoulder and trunk, physical activity, and mental health among the elderly with disability. WTC10 is a feasible and safe exercise for the elderly with disability.

  12. Impact of psychosocial factors on functional improvement in Latino older adults after Tai Chi exercise.

    PubMed

    Siu, Ka-Chun; Rajaram, Shireen S; Padilla, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence underscores the health benefits of Tai Chi (TC), although there is limited evidence of benefits among racial and ethnic minorities. This study investigated the impact of psychosocial status on balance among 23 Latino seniors after a twice-a-week, 12-week TC exercise program. Functional status was measured at baseline, immediately after, and three months following the TC exercise program, using the Timed Up and Go Test and Tinetti Falls Efficacy Scale. Psychosocial status was measured at baseline by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire. Both measures of functional status improved and were sustained after three months of TC. Greater improvement was significantly related to a higher level of baseline social support. More depressed seniors reported less fear of falling after TC. Depression and social support are important moderators of functional improvement after TC among Latino seniors.

  13. The efficacy of Tai Chi Chuan in older adults: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Verhagen, Arianne P; Immink, Monique; van der Meulen, Annemieke; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) on fall prevention, balance and cardiorespiratory functions in the elderly. A systematic review was carried out according to the Cochrane standards. A computerized literature search was carried out. Studies were selected when they had an experimental design; the age of the study population was >50; one of the interventions was a form of TCC; and when falls, balance or cardiorespiratory functions were used as an outcome measure. A total of seven studies were included, with in total 505 participants, of whom all but 27 were healthy seniors, age between 53 and 96 years. In most studies, the intervention of TCC is a modified Yang style, varying from 10 to 24 forms. The intensity of TCC varies from 1 h weekly for 10 weeks to 1 h every morning for 1 year. One study used falls as outcome measure and reported a beneficial effect of 47% in the TCC group. All studies mention a beneficial effect of TCC, but in most studies this conclusion was based on a pre-post analysis. There is limited evidence that TCC is effective in reducing falls and blood pressure in the elderly.

  14. Tai Chi with mental imagery theory improves soleus H-reflex and nerve conduction velocity in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Alsubiheen, Abdulrahman; Petrofsky, Jerrold; Daher, Noha; Lohman, Everett; Balbas, Edward; Lee, Haneul

    2017-04-01

    Diabetes is a disease that leads to damage to the peripheral nerves which may eventually cause balance instability. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 8 weeks of Tai Chi (TC) training combined with mental imagery (MI) on soleus H-reflex and nerve conduction velocity (NCV) of the sural and superficial peroneal nerves in people with diabetes. Quasi-experimental, one group pretest-posttest design. Human Research Laboratory. A series of Yang style of Tai Chi classes with mental imagery, one hour, two sessions per week for 8 weeks was done. The Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale, Functional Reach Test (FRT), and One Leg Standing Test (OLS) were measured as functional data. Hoffman reflex (H-reflex), and sural and superficial peroneal NCV were measured as main outcomes. All functional outcomes measures were significantly improved after the intervention (p<0.01). In the H-reflex, there was a significant increase in amplitude (μV) after completing 8 weeks of TC exercise (p=0.02). In the sural nerve, the velocity (p=0.01), amplitude (p=0.01), and latency (p=0.01) were significantly improved between pre and post-test. In the superficial peroneal nerve, significant improvements were observed in (p=0.02) and latency (p=0.01), but not in amplitude (μV) (p>0.05). Combining TC intervention with MI theory showed an improvement in the H-reflex and NCV tests, which suggests improved balance and walking stability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of scheduled qigong exercise on pupils' well-being, self-image, distress, and stress.

    PubMed

    Terjestam, Yvonne; Jouper, John; Johansson, Caroline

    2010-09-01

    Psychologic problems is increasing among pupils and has become a major problem in Sweden as well as in other Western countries. The aim of this study was to explore whether scheduled qigong exercise could have an effect on well-being at school, psychologic distress, self-image, and general stress. Pupils, 13-14 years, were assigned to either a qigong group or a control group. The qigong group had scheduled qigong 2 times a week for 8 weeks. Self-reported well-being at school, psychologic distress, self-image, and stress were measured pre- and postintervention. The control group had reduced well-being at school during the semester and the qigong group was stable. The qigong group reduced psychologic distress and stress, and had a tendency to improved self-image, whereas no changes were found in the control group. Self-image explains 47% (R(2) = 0.47) of well-being at school, and stress explains 29% (R(2) = 0.29) of psychologic distress. Scheduled qigong, meditative movement, is a possible way to improve well-being at school.

  16. Qigong Ameliorates Symptoms of Chronic Fatigue: A Pilot Uncontrolled Study

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Warren; Zammit-Maempe, Joseph; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2009-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine practitioners consider that chronic fatigue reflects a disharmony and depletion in the supply of qi in the body. Qigong is one of the traditional complementary interventions used to strengthen qi through self-practice, and to manage the state of qi to prevent and cure disease. The aim of this study is to assess whether qigong could be used to manage the symptoms of chronic fatigue. Eighteen Caucasian, British female participants were recruited, taught a qigong routine during weekly classes over 6 months, and asked to practice it daily for 15 min. Participants completed the core set of the RAND Medical Outcomes Study questionnaire (RAND MOS) and a sleep diary during the 2-week baseline control period, and at 3 and 6 months following the start of the trial. The qigong intervention resulted in significant changes in sleep rate score and in the following subscales of the RAND MOS: SF36 Vitality, Sleep Problems, Social Activity, Social Activity Limitation due to Health, Health Distress, Mental Health Index and Psychological Well-being. Qigong seems to improve factors related to chronic fatigue such as sleep, pain, mental attitude and general mobility after 3 and 6 months. Qigong's positive effects indicate that it represents a potentially safe method of treatment for chronic fatigued patients. However, we cannot completely discount the possible influence of placebo effects, and more objective clinical measures are needed to reproduce our findings with long-term follow-up in a randomized, controlled study involving a larger number of subjects. PMID:18955297

  17. A qualitative review of the role of qigong in the management of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Xin, Liu; Miller, Yvette D; Brown, Wendy J

    2007-05-01

    To review the evidence relating to the effectiveness of qigong in the management of diabetes. We performed a systematic literature review of qigong intervention studies published in English or Chinese since 1980, retrieved from English-language databases and Chinese journals. Qigong intervention studies conducted with adults with diabetes, which reported both preintervention and postintervention measures of fasting blood glucose and/or hemoglobin A(1c)(HbA(1c)) were included. Sample characteristics, intervention frequency/duration, and metabolic outcomes were reviewed. Sixty-nine intervention studies were located. Of these, only 11 met the criteria for inclusion. There were consistent and statistically significant positive associations between participation in qigong and fasting and 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test results, blood glucose, and triglycerides and total cholesterol. Effects on insulin and HbA(1c) were inconsistent. There was no evidence of any effect of qigong on weight. Most of the studies were of short duration, involved small samples, and did not include a control group. Although qigong has beneficial effects on some of the metabolic risk factors for type 2 diabetes, methodologic limitations make it difficult to draw firm conclusions about the benefits reported. Randomized controlled trials are required to confirm the potential beneficial effects of qigong on the management of type 2 diabetes.

  18. International Expert Panel Consensus Guidelines for Structure and Delivery of Qigong Exercise for Cancer Care Programming

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Penelope; Picard, George; Schneider, Roger; Oh, Byeongsang

    2017-01-01

    Integrative oncology, including Qigong, is a relatively new concept in modern healthcare. Evidence of benefits of Qigong in cancer survivors is emerging. As such, several cancer centers, world-wide, have introduced Qigong as part of integrative medicine within supportive cancer care programming. Qigong exercise programming content and quality varies among institutions due to lack of standard guidelines and, at present, relies solely on the instructor’s skills, knowledge, personal preferences and clinical experience. Development of consensus guidelines recommending the basic structure and delivery of Qigong programming in cancer care can potentiate quality assurance and reduce risk of harm. This applied qualitative research utilized a modified Delphi approach to formulate consensus guidelines. Guidelines were developed through discussions among an international expert panel (N = 13) with representation from Australia, Canada, Ireland, and the United States. Panel communication was predominantly conducted by email and occurred from November 2016 through February 2017. Expert panel work resulted in the generation of a work product: Qigong in Cancer Care Guidelines: A Working Paper including: (a) Consensus Guidelines for structure and delivery of Qigong exercise for Cancer care programming; (b) Consensus guidelines for instructor competence for teaching Qigong exercise for cancer care classes; (c) Screening tool for safe participation in Qigong exercise; (d) Class participant instructions for maintaining safety during Qigong exercise; and (e) Advice from the field. Generation of these resources is the first step in establishing recommendations for ‘best practice’ in the area of Qigong for cancer care programming.

  19. Adoption of a Tai Chi Intervention, Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance, for Fall Prevention by Rural Faith-Based Organizations, 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Jones, Dina L; Starcher, Rachael W; Eicher, Jennifer L; Wilcox, Sara

    2016-07-14

    Translating evidence-based, community-delivered, fall-prevention exercise programs into new settings is a public health priority. Older adults (aged ≥65 y) are at high risk for falls. We conducted a community engagement project in West Virginia to evaluate the adoption of a tai chi exercise program, Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance, by rural faith-based organizations (FBOs) and exercise instructors by recruiting 20 FBOs and 20 or more exercise instructors and by obtaining input from key stakeholders (representatives of FBOs, community representatives, exercise instructors) regarding potential barriers and facilitators to program adoption. We used both multistage, purposeful random sampling and snowball sampling to recruit FBOs and exercise instructors in 7 West Virginia counties. Two forums were held with stakeholders to identify barriers and facilitators to program adoption. We calculated separate adoption rates for organizations and exercise instructors. It took up to 3 months to recruit each FBO with an adoption rate of 94%. We made 289 telephone calls, sent 193 emails and 215 letters, distributed brochures and flyers to 69 FBOs, held 118 meetings, and made 20 trips over a period of 31 days (8,933 miles traveled). Nineteen of 22 trained exercise instructors started classes, an instructor adoption rate of 86%. Key issues regarding adoption were the age requirement for participants, trust, education, and competing priorities. Although we had recruitment challenges, our adoption rates were similar to or higher than those reported in other studies, and the objectives of the community engagement project were met. Clustering the FBOs and having them located closer geographically to our location may have reduced our resource use, and using a recruitment coordinator from the local community may have enabled us to gain the trust of congregants and clergy support.

  20. The Effects of Tai Chi on Cardiovascular Risk in Women.

    PubMed

    Robins, Jo Lynne; Elswick, R K; Sturgill, Jamie; McCain, Nancy L

    2016-11-01

    This study examined the effects of tai chi (TC) on biobehavioral factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in women. A randomized trial used a wait-list control group, pretest-posttest design. Data were collected immediately before, immediately after, and 2 months following the intervention. The study was community based in central Virginia. Women aged 35 to 50 years at increased risk for CVD. The 8-week intervention built on prior work and was designed to impact biobehavioral factors associated with CVD risk in women. Biological measures included fasting glucose, insulin, and lipids as well as C-reactive protein and cytokines. Behavioral measures included fatigue, perceived stress, depressive symptoms, social support, mindfulness, self-compassion, and spiritual thoughts and behaviors. A mixed effects linear model was used to test for differences between groups across time. In 63 women, TC was shown to decrease fatigue (∂ [difference in group means] = 9.38, p = .001) and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (∂ = 12.61, p = .052). Consistent with the study model and intervention design, significant changes observed 2 months post intervention indicated that TC may help down-regulate proinflammatory cytokines associated with underlying CVD risk, including interferon gamma (∂ = 149.90, p = .002), tumor necrosis factor (∂ = 16.78, p = .002), interleukin (IL) 8 (∂ = 6.47, p = .026), and IL-4 (∂ = 2.13, p = .001), and may increase mindfulness (∂ = .54, p = .021), spiritual thoughts and behaviors (∂ = 8.30, p = .009), and self-compassion (∂ = .44, p = .045). This study contributes important insights into the potential benefits and mechanisms of TC and, with further research, may ultimately lead to effective strategies for reducing CVD risk in women earlier in the CVD trajectory. © 2016 by American Journal of Health Promotion, Inc.

  1. Qigong in Injured Military Service Members.

    PubMed

    Reb, Anne Marie; Saum, Nancy Seaby; Murphy, Deborah Ann; Breckenridge-Sproat, Sara Todd; Su, Xiaogang; Bormann, Jill Ellen

    2017-03-01

    Wounded, ill, and injured (WII) Military Service members experience significant stress and are at risk for developing chronic conditions including posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. Qigong, a meditative movement practice, may positively affect their ability to engage in successful rehabilitation. We assessed the feasibility of Qigong practice in WII Service members returning from combat; effects on stress, sleep, and somatic symptoms; satisfaction; and participants' experience with the practice. Single-group, pre- and posttest, mixed methods approach. Twenty-six WII were enrolled. The program was designed to include 20 classes over 10 weeks. Participants completed self-report questionnaires, practice logs, and an exit interview. Average attendance was 8.14 classes ( SD = 4.9); mean engagement was 5.7 ( SD = 3.5) weeks. Participants endorsed a high level of satisfaction with the practice. Qualitative themes included coping with stress; feeling more resilient and empowered; improvement in symptoms including sleep and physical function; and factors affecting practice. Participant-reported facilitators included accessibility and portability of the practice; barriers included scheduling conflicts and personal challenges. Participants recommended offering shorter programs with flexible scheduling options, increasing program awareness, and including significant others in future classes. Qigong was safe, portable, and easily adapted for WII Service members.

  2. Effect of Tai Chi for the prevention or treatment of osteoporosis in elderly adults: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mu, Wei-Qiang; Huang, Xia-Yu; Zhang, Jiang; Liu, Xiao-Cong; Huang, Mao-Mao

    2018-04-09

    Osteoporosis (OP) has been defined as a degenerative bone disease characterised by low bone mass and microstructural deterioration of bone tissue, leading to fragility and an increased risk of fractures, especially of the hip, spine and wrist. Exercise has been shown to benefit the maintenance of bone health and improvement of muscle strength, balance and coordination, thereby reducing the risk of falls and fractures. However, prior findings regarding the optimal types and regimens of exercise for treating low bone mineral density (BMD) in elderly people are not consistent. As an important component of traditional Chinese Qigong exercises, Tai Chi (TC) is an ancient art and science of healthcare derived from the martial arts. The objective of this study is to attempt to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the existing studies on TC exercise as an intervention for the prevention or treatment of OP in elderly adults and to draw more useful conclusions regarding the safety and the effectiveness of TC in preventing or treating OP. Eight electronic databases (Science Citation Index, PubMed Database, Embase (Ovid) Database, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Chinese databases, including Chinese BioMedical Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang database and the Chongqing VIP Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database) will be searched from the beginning of each database to 1 April 2018. Potential outcomes of interest will include rates of fractures or falls, BMD at the total hip and the total spine, bone formation biomarkers, bone resorption biomarkers, bone biomarkers, health-related quality of life and adverse events. Only randomised controlled trials comparing TC exercise against each other or non-intervention will be included. The Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool will be used for quality assessment. Ethical approval is not required as the study will be a review of existing studies. This review may help

  3. Group Qigong for Adolescent Inpatients with Anorexia Nervosa: Incentives and Barriers

    PubMed Central

    Gueguen, Juliette; Piot, Marie-Aude; Orri, Massimiliano; Gutierre, Andrea; Le Moan, Jocelyne; Berthoz, Sylvie; Falissard, Bruno; Godart, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    Background Qigong is a mind-body intervention focusing on interoceptive awareness that appears to be a promising approach in anorexia nervosa (AN). In 2008, as part of our multidimensional treatment program for adolescent inpatients with AN, we began a weekly qigong workshop that turned out to be popular among our adolescent patients. Moreover psychiatrists perceived clinical benefits that deserved further exploration. Methods and findings A qualitative study therefore sought to obtain a deeper understanding of how young patients with severe AN experience qigong and to determine the incentives and barriers to adherence to qigong, to understanding its meaning, and to applying it in other contexts. Data were collected through 16 individual semi-structured face-to-face interviews and analyzed with the interpretative phenomenological analysis method. Eleven themes emerged from the analysis, categorized in 3 superordinate themes describing the incentives and barriers related to the patients themselves (individual dimension), to others (relational dimension), and to the setting (organizational dimension). Individual dimensions associated with AN (such as excessive exercise and mind-body cleavage) may curb adherence, whereas relational and organizational dimensions appear to provide incentives to join the activity in the first place but may also limit its post-discharge continuation. Once barriers are overcome, patients reported positive effects: satisfaction associated with relaxation and with the experience of mind-body integration. Conclusions Qigong appears to be an interesting therapeutic tool that may potentiate psychotherapy and contribute to the recovery process of patients with AN. Further analysis of the best time window for initiating qigong and of its place in overall management might help to overcome some of the barriers, limit the risks, and maximize its benefits. PMID:28152083

  4. The benefits of endurance exercise and Tai Chi Chuan for the task-switching aspect of executive function in older adults: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Fong, Dong-Yang; Chi, Li-Kang; Li, Fuzhong; Chang, Yu-Kai

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the relationship between physical activity and the task-switching aspect of executive function by investigating the modulating roles of age, modality of physical activity, and type of cognitive function using behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) assessments. Sixty-four participants were assigned to one of four groups based on age and history of physical activity: older adults performing endurance exercise (OEE), older adults practicing Tai Chi Chuan (OTC), older adults with a sedentary lifestyle (OSL), and young adults (YA). Study participants completed a task-switching task under homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions while ERPs were recorded. The results revealed that YA had shortest reaction times compared with the three older adults groups, with OSL exhibiting the longest reaction time. YA also exhibited shorter P3 latency than OSL. No differences were observed in P3 amplitude between YA, OEE, and OTC; however, all three groups had significantly larger P3 amplitude compared with OSL in both task conditions. In conclusion, age and participation in physical activity influence the relationship between physical activity and task-switching, and a positive relationship was observed regardless of the modality of physical activity and type of cognitive function. Our ERP findings support the model of the scaffolding theory of aging and cognition (STAC) and suggest that regular participation in endurance exercise and Tai Chi Chuan may have equivalent beneficial effects on cognition at the behavioral and neuroelectric levels.

  5. The benefits of endurance exercise and Tai Chi Chuan for the task-switching aspect of executive function in older adults: an ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Dong-Yang; Chi, Li-Kang; Li, Fuzhong; Chang, Yu-Kai

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the relationship between physical activity and the task-switching aspect of executive function by investigating the modulating roles of age, modality of physical activity, and type of cognitive function using behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) assessments. Sixty-four participants were assigned to one of four groups based on age and history of physical activity: older adults performing endurance exercise (OEE), older adults practicing Tai Chi Chuan (OTC), older adults with a sedentary lifestyle (OSL), and young adults (YA). Study participants completed a task-switching task under homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions while ERPs were recorded. The results revealed that YA had shortest reaction times compared with the three older adults groups, with OSL exhibiting the longest reaction time. YA also exhibited shorter P3 latency than OSL. No differences were observed in P3 amplitude between YA, OEE, and OTC; however, all three groups had significantly larger P3 amplitude compared with OSL in both task conditions. In conclusion, age and participation in physical activity influence the relationship between physical activity and task-switching, and a positive relationship was observed regardless of the modality of physical activity and type of cognitive function. Our ERP findings support the model of the scaffolding theory of aging and cognition (STAC) and suggest that regular participation in endurance exercise and Tai Chi Chuan may have equivalent beneficial effects on cognition at the behavioral and neuroelectric levels. PMID:25389403

  6. Breathing frequency-independent effect of Tai Chi Chuan on autonomic modulation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wan-An; Kuo, Cheng-Deng

    2014-04-01

    This study investigates the breathing frequency (BF)-independent effect of Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) on autonomic nervous modulation in TCC practitioners. Twenty-five TCC practitioners and 25 sedentary normal controls were recruited. The stationary heart rate variability (HRV) measures of TCC practitioners and controls were compared. The same HRV measures in TCC practitioners and among the controls, TCC practitioners before TCC and TCC practitioners 30 min after TCC were compared. In TCC practitioners, the BF, normalized high-frequency power (nHFP), and normalized very low-frequency power were significantly increased, while the normalized low-frequency power (nLFP) was significantly decreased 30 min after TCC. The BF correlated significantly and negatively with heart rate (HR), nHFP and nLFP, and correlated significantly and positively with mean RR interval (MnRR) before TCC in TCC practitioners. A slower BF is associated with a higher HR, a greater vagal modulation, and a greater combined sympatho-vagal modulation before TCC. To remove the effect of BF on HRV measures, new indices such as HR*BF, nHFP*BF, nLFP*BF, and MnRR/BF were introduced for comparison among the controls, TCC practitioners before TCC, and TCC practitioners 30 min after TCC. Thirty minutes after TCC, the MnRR/BF of TCC practitioner was smaller whereas HR*BF and nHFP*BF were greater than those before TCC. The BF-independent effects of TCC on the autonomic nervous modulation of TCC practitioners are an increase in vagal modulation and HR, and a decrease in mean RR interval. The mechanism underlying the parallel increase in HR and vagal modulation in TCC practitioners is not understood yet at present.

  7. A randomized controlled trial of qigong for fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Fibromyalgia is difficult to treat and requires the use of multiple approaches. This study is a randomized controlled trial of qigong compared with a wait-list control group in fibromyalgia. Methods One hundred participants were randomly assigned to immediate or delayed practice groups, with the delayed group receiving training at the end of the control period. Qigong training (level 1 Chaoyi Fanhuan Qigong, CFQ), given over three half-days, was followed by weekly review/practice sessions for eight weeks; participants were also asked to practice at home for 45 to 60 minutes per day for this interval. Outcomes were pain, impact, sleep, physical function and mental function, and these were recorded at baseline, eight weeks, four months and six months. Immediate and delayed practice groups were analyzed individually compared to the control group, and as a combination group. Results In both the immediate and delayed treatment groups, CFQ demonstrated significant improvements in pain, impact, sleep, physical function and mental function when compared to the wait-list/usual care control group at eight weeks, with benefits extending beyond this time. Analysis of combined data indicated significant changes for all measures at all times for six months, with only one exception. Post-hoc analysis based on self-reported practice times indicated greater benefit with the per protocol group compared to minimal practice. Conclusions This study demonstrates that CFQ, a particular form of qigong, provides long-term benefits in several core domains in fibromyalgia. CFQ may be a useful adjuvant self-care treatment for fibromyalgia. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT00938834. PMID:22863206

  8. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy vs. Tai Chi for Late Life Insomnia and Inflammatory Risk: A Randomized Controlled Comparative Efficacy Trial

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, Michael R.; Olmstead, Richard; Carrillo, Carmen; Sadeghi, Nina; Breen, Elizabeth C.; Witarama, Tuff; Yokomizo, Megumi; Lavretsky, Helen; Carroll, Judith E.; Motivala, Sarosh J.; Bootzin, Richard; Nicassio, Perry

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the comparative efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), Tai Chi Chih (TCC), and sleep seminar education control (SS) on the primary outcome of insomnia diagnosis, and secondary outcomes of sleep quality, fatigue, depressive symptoms, and inflammation in older adults with insomnia. Design: Randomized controlled, comparative efficacy trial. Setting: Los Angeles community. Patients: 123 older adults with chronic and primary insomnia. Interventions: Random assignment to CBT, TCC, or SS for 2-hour group sessions weekly over 4 months with follow-up at 7 and 16 months. Measurements: Insomnia diagnosis, patient-reported outcomes, polysomnography (PSG), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Results: CBT performed better than TCC and SS in remission of clinical insomnia as ascertained by a clinician (P < 0.01), and also showed greater and more sustained improvement in sleep quality, sleep parameters, fatigue, and depressive symptoms than TCC and SS (all P values < 0.01). As compared to SS, CBT was associated with a reduced risk of high CRP levels (> 3.0 mg/L) at 16 months (odds ratio [OR], 0.26 [95% CI, 0.07–0.97] P < 0.05). Remission of insomnia was associated with lower levels of CRP (P < 0.05) at 16 months. TCC was associated with improvements in sleep quality, fatigue, and depressive symptoms as compared to SS (all P's < 0.05), but not insomnia remission. PSG measures did not change. Conclusions: Treatment of late-life insomnia is better achieved and sustained by cognitive behavioral therapies. Insomnia treatment and remission reduces a marker of inflammatory risk, which has implications for cardiovascular morbidity and diabetes observed with sleep disturbance in epidemiologic surveys. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00280020 Citation: Irwin MR, Olmstead R, Carrillo C, Sadeghi N, Breen EC, Witarama T, Yokomizo M, Lavretsky H, Carroll JE, Motivala SJ, Bootzin R, Nicassio P. Cognitive behavioral

  9. EEG Brain Activity in Dynamic Health Qigong Training: Same Effects for Mental Practice and Physical Training?

    PubMed

    Henz, Diana; Schöllhorn, Wolfgang I

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, there has been significant uptake of meditation and related relaxation techniques, as a means of alleviating stress and fostering an attentive mind. Several electroencephalogram (EEG) studies have reported changes in spectral band frequencies during Qigong meditation indicating a relaxed state. Much less is reported on effects of brain activation patterns induced by Qigong techniques involving bodily movement. In this study, we tested whether (1) physical Qigong training alters EEG theta and alpha activation, and (2) mental practice induces the same effect as a physical Qigong training. Subjects performed the dynamic Health Qigong technique Wu Qin Xi (five animals) physically and by mental practice in a within-subjects design. Experimental conditions were randomized. Two 2-min (eyes-open, eyes-closed) EEG sequences under resting conditions were recorded before and immediately after each 15-min exercise. Analyses of variance were performed for spectral power density data. Increased alpha power was found in posterior regions in mental practice and physical training for eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions. Theta power was increased after mental practice in central areas in eyes-open conditions, decreased in fronto-central areas in eyes-closed conditions. Results suggest that mental, as well as physical Qigong training, increases alpha activity and therefore induces a relaxed state of mind. The observed differences in theta activity indicate different attentional processes in physical and mental Qigong training. No difference in theta activity was obtained in physical and mental Qigong training for eyes-open and eyes-closed resting state. In contrast, mental practice of Qigong entails a high degree of internalized attention that correlates with theta activity, and that is dependent on eyes-open and eyes-closed resting state.

  10. Increased first and second pulse harmonics in Tai Chi Chuan practitioners.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wan-An; Chen, Yung-Sheng; Kuo, Cheng-Deng

    2016-02-29

    Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) is known to be a good calisthenics for people. This study examined the relationship between pulse harmonics and autonomic nervous modulation in TCC practitioners. Power spectral measures of right pulse wave and heart rate variability (HRV) measures were compared between TCC practitioners and control subjects. Correlation analyses between pulse harmonics and HRV measures were performed using linear regression analysis. At baseline, the total power of pulse (TPp), powers of all individual pulse harmonics, normalized power of the 1(st) harmonics (nPh1) of TCC practitioners were greater, while the normalized power of the 4(th) pulse harmonics (nPh4) of TCC practitioners was smaller, than those of the controls. Similarly, the baseline standard deviation (SD(RR)), coefficient of variation (CV(RR)), and normalized high-frequency power (nHFP) of RR intervals were smaller, while the normalized very low-frequency power (nVLFP) and low-/high- frequency power ratio (LHR) were larger in the TCC practitioners. The TCC age correlated significantly and negatively with nPh1, and nearly significantly and negatively with nPh2 in the TCC practitioners. Thirty min after TCC exercise, the percentage changes in mRRI, SDRR, TP, VLFP were decreased, while the percentage changes in HR, ULFP, nLFP, and Ph2 were increased, relative to the controls. Correlation analysis shows that the %Ph2 correlates significantly and negatively with %mRRI and significantly and positively with %HR. The TCC practitioners had increased baseline total power of pulse and the 1(st) and 2(nd) pulse harmonics, and decreased power of the 4(th) pulse harmonics, along with decreased vagal modulation and increased sympathetic modulation. After TCC exercise, the power of the 2(nd) harmonics of TCC practitioners was increased which might be related to the increase in HR due to decreased vascular resistance after TCC exercise.

  11. Coordination exercise and postural stability in elderly people: Effect of Tai Chi Chuan.

    PubMed

    Wong, A M; Lin, Y C; Chou, S W; Tang, F T; Wong, P Y

    2001-05-01

    To evaluate the effects of coordination exercise on postural stability in older individuals by Chinese shadow boxing, Tai Chi Chuan (TCC). Cross-sectional study. Research project in a hospital-based biomechanical laboratory. The TCC group (n = 25) had been practicing TCC regularly for 2 to 35 years. The control group (n = 14) included healthy and active older subjects. Static postural stability test: progressively harder sequential tests with 6 combinations of vision (eyes open, eyes closed, sway-referenced) and support (fixed, sway-referenced); and dynamic balance test: 3 tests of weight shifting (left to right, forward-backward, multidirectional) at 3 speeds. Static and dynamic balance of Sensory Organization Testing (SOT) of the Smart Balance Master System. In static postural control, the results showed no differences between the TCC or control group in the more simple conditions, but in the more complicated SOT (eyes closed with sway surface, sway vision with sway surface), the TCC group had significantly better results than the control group. The TCC group also had significantly better results in the rhythmic forward-backward weight-shifting test. Duration of practice did not seem to affect the stability of elder people. The elderly people who regularly practiced TCC showed better postural stability in the more challenged conditions than those who do not (eg, the condition with simultaneous disturbance of vision and proprioception). TCC as a coordination exercise may reduce the risk of a fall through maintaining the ability of posture control.

  12. The Impact of Tai Chi Exercise on Self-Efficacy, Social Support, and Empowerment in Heart Failure: Insights from a Qualitative Sub-Study from a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Gloria Y; Chan, Caroline W; Wayne, Peter M; Conboy, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    To qualitatively explore perceived physical and psychosocial effects and overall patient experience associated with a 12-week tai chi (TC) intervention and an education group in a clinical trial of patients with chronic heart failure (HF). We randomized 100 patients with chronic systolic HF (NYHA Class 1-3, ejection fraction≤40%) to a 12-week group TC program or an education control. At 12-weeks, semi-structured interviews were conducted on a random subset (n = 32; n = 17 in TC, n = 15 in control), audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim. Two independent reviewers extracted information using grounded-theory methods for emergent themes. We explored similarities and differences in themes/sub-themes between the groups, and examined qualitative association with changes from baseline to post-intervention in previously reported quantitative measures (e.g., Minnesota Living with HF, Cardiac Exercise Self Efficacy and Profile of Mood States). The mean age (±SD) of participants was 68±9 years, baseline ejection fraction 29±7%, and median New York Heart Association class 2 HF. We idenitifed themes related to the patient's experience of illness, perceptions of self, and relationship to others. Specific psychosocial and physical benefits were described. Common themes emerged from both groups including: social support and self-efficacy related to activity/exercise and diet. The tai chi group, however, also exhibited a more global empowerment and perceived control. Additional themes in TC included mindfulness/self-awareness, decreased stress reactivity, and renewed social role. These themes mirrored improvements in previously reported quantitative measures (quality-of-life, self-efficacy, and mood) in TC compared to control. Patients in TC also reported physical benefits (e.g., decreased pain, improved energy, endurance, flexibility). Positive themes emerged from both groups, although there were qualitative differences in concepts of self-efficacy and perceived control

  13. Effectiveness of Tai Chi on Cardiac Autonomic Function and Symptomatology in Women With Fibromyalgia: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Wong, Alexei; Figueroa, Arturo; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos A; Son, Won-Mok; Chernykh, Oksana; Park, Song-Young

    2018-04-01

    The present study examined the effects of a 12-week Tai Chi (TC) training regimen on heart rate variability (HRV), symptomatology, muscle fitness and body composition in women with fibromyalgia. Participants were randomly assigned to either a TC training group (n = 18) or a control group (n = 19). HRV, symptomatology, muscle fitness and body composition were measured before and after 12 weeks. There were significant decreases (p < 0.05) in sympathovagal balance (LnLF/LnHF), sympathetic tone (LnLF, nLF), pain, and fatigue, and significant increases (p < 0.05) in parasympathetic tone (LnHF, nHF), strength and flexibility following TC compared with no changes after control. The changes in LnLF and LnLF/LnHF were correlated with changes in pain. There were no significant changes in HR, sleep quality and body composition after TC or control. TC may be an effective therapeutic intervention for improving sympathovagal balance, pain, fatigue, strength and flexibility in women with fibromyalgia.

  14. Meditative Movement, Energetic, and Physical Analyses of Three Qigong Exercises: Unification of Eastern and Western Mechanistic Exercise Theory.

    PubMed

    Klein, Penelope; Picard, George; Baumgarden, Joseph; Schneider, Roger

    2017-09-23

    Abstract : Qigong is the meditative movement and therapeutic exercise of Eastern medicine. A growing body of evidence is validating its health benefits leading to mechanistic questions of how it works. The purpose of this article is to explore mechanisms of action related to Qigong, with the intent of unifying Eastern and Western exercise theory and to present a model for Qigong exercise analysis. Three exercises from a standardized Qigong form: 'Plucking the Stars', 'Lotus Leaves Rustle in the Wind', and 'Pacing Forwards and Backwards' were selected for meditative, energetic, and physical analyses. Meditative aspects include relaxation response, interoception and exteroception. Energetic aspects include stimulation of meridians through mental intent, acupressure, and self-massage. Physical aspects include flexibility, strength, articular stimulation, neuro-integration, respiratory effect, fascial stretch, visceral massage, balance challenge CranioSacral pump, lymphatic and venous return and glandular stimulation, and physiologic response to relaxation. Knowledge of mechanisms of action for specific Qigong exercises can guide operational definition of Qigong, selection of outcomes assessment in future research, inform prescriptive practice addressing clinical health issues, and advance adoption of Qigong practice within integrative health care. The model of analysis demonstrated in this discussion may assist in these endeavors.

  15. Tai chi chuan exercise for patients with breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuanqing; Yang, Kehu; Shi, Xiue; Liang, Haiqian; Zhang, Fengwa; Lv, Qingfang

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) is a form of aerobic exercise that may be an effective therapy for improving psychosomatic capacity among breast cancer survivors. This meta-analysis analyzed the available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effects of TCC in relieving treatment-related side effects and quality of life in women with breast cancer. Methods. RCTs were searched in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library through April 2014. Data were analyzed on pathology (pain, interleukin-6, and insulin-like growth factor 1), physical capacity (handgrip, limb physical fitness, and BMI), and well-being (physical, social, emotional, and general quality of life). Results. Nine RCTs, including a total of 322 breast cancer patients, were examined. Compared with control therapies, the pooled results suggested that TCC showed significant effects in improving handgrip dynamometer strength, limb elbow flexion (elbow extension, abduction, and horizontal adduction). No significant differences were observed in pain, interleukin-6, insulin-like growth factor, BMI, physical well-being, social or emotional well-being, or general health-related quality of life. Conclusion. The short-term effects of TCC may have potential benefits in upper limb functional mobility in patients with breast cancer. Additional randomized controlled trials with longer follow-up are needed to provide more reliable evidence.

  16. Tai Chi Chuan optimizes the functional organization of the intrinsic human brain architecture in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Gao-Xia; Dong, Hao-Ming; Yang, Zhi; Luo, Jing; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2014-01-01

    Whether Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) can influence the intrinsic functional architecture of the human brain remains unclear. To examine TCC-associated changes in functional connectomes, resting-state functional magnetic resonance images were acquired from 40 older individuals including 22 experienced TCC practitioners (experts) and 18 demographically matched TCC-naïve healthy controls, and their local functional homogeneities across the cortical mantle were compared. Compared to the controls, the TCC experts had significantly greater and more experience-dependent functional homogeneity in the right post-central gyrus (PosCG) and less functional homogeneity in the left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the right dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex. Increased functional homogeneity in the PosCG was correlated with TCC experience. Intriguingly, decreases in functional homogeneity (improved functional specialization) in the left ACC and increases in functional homogeneity (improved functional integration) in the right PosCG both predicted performance gains on attention network behavior tests. These findings provide evidence for the functional plasticity of the brain’s intrinsic architecture toward optimizing locally functional organization, with great implications for understanding the effects of TCC on cognition, behavior and health in aging population. PMID:24860494

  17. Effects of a 12-week Tai Chi Chuan program versus a balance training program on postural control and walking ability in older people.

    PubMed

    Lelard, Thierry; Doutrellot, Pierre-Louis; David, Pascal; Ahmaidi, Said

    2010-01-01

    Lelard T, Doutrellot P-L, David P, Ahmaidi S. Effects of a 12-week Tai Chi Chuan program versus a balance training program on postural control and walking ability in older people. To compare the respective effects of 2 balance training programs: a Tai Chi (TC) program and a balance training program on static postural control and walking ability. Randomized controlled trial. General community. Older subjects (N=28) participated in the study. The TC group (n=14; mean age +/- SD, 76.8+/-5.1y) and the balance training group (n=14; 77.0+/-4.5y) were both trained for 12 weeks. Static postural control was assessed via measurement of center of pressure sway under eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) conditions. Walking speed over a 10-meter course was also assessed. After the 12-week training period, there were no significant differences in walking speed or postural parameters in either the EO or EC conditions for the TC and balance training groups. Performance in the EC condition was lower than in the EO condition in pretest and posttest for the balance training and TC groups. The Romberg quotient (EO/EC ratio) was significantly higher after the balance training program than the TC program (P<.05). We cannot conclude that the balance training program has better effects than the TC program on postural control or walking ability. None of the outcome measures showed significant change posttraining in either the TC or the balance training groups. However, the differences described in the Romberg quotient after the training period between the TC and the balance training groups suggest that TC should be helpful to limit the deleterious effects of eye closure on postural balance. Copyright (c) 2010 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Thermography applied acupuncture and qi-gong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yuwen; Ji, Hong-Wei; Chen, Jin-Long; Li, Hong-Qi

    1997-04-01

    Thermographic technique can be used to measure temperature distribution of body surface in real-time, non-contact and full-field, which has been successfully used in medical diagnosis, remote sensing, and NDT, etc. The authors have developed a thermographic experiment that can be applied to inspect the effect of action of acupuncture and qi-gong (a system of deep breathing exercises) by measuring the temperature of hand and arm. The observation is performed respectively by thermography for the dynamic changes of temperature of the arm and hand after acupuncture therapy and qi-gong therapy. Thermographic results show that the temperature on the collateral channels increases markedly. In the meantime, it can be seen that the above therapies of Chinese medicine can stimulate the channel collateral system. This also contributes a new basis to the effect of action of the therapies of Chinese medicine. The work shows that thermographic technique is a powerful tool for research in Chinese medicine. In this paper, some thermal images are obtained from the persons treated with acupuncture and qi- gong.

  19. Effectiveness of Tai Chi on Physical and Psychological Health of College Students: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Li, Moyi; Ling, Kun; Lin, Hui; Chen, Lidian; Tao, Jing; Li, Junzhe; Zheng, Xin; Chen, Bai; Fang, Qianying

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effectiveness and safety of Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) on physical and psychological health of college students. Methods Two hundred six college students were recruited and randomly allocated to a control group or a TCC exercise group in an equal ratio. Participants in the control group were instructed to maintain their original activity level and those in the TCC exercise group received 12 weeks of TCC exercise training based on their original activity level. Physical and psychological outcomes were evaluated at baseline, 13 weeks and 25 weeks. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed for the above outcomes. Results Compared with the control group, the TCC exercise group showed significant improvements at the end of the 12-week intervention period for flexibility (length of Sit and Reach (cm): TCC group 14.09±7.40 versus control 12.88±6.57, P = 0.039 adjusted for its baseline measures using a general linear model) and balance ability (open eyes perimeter: TCC group 235.6(191~314) versus control 261(216~300); closed eyes perimeter: TCC group 370.5 (284~454) versus control 367 (293~483); P = 0.0414, 0.008, respectively, adjusted for corresponding baseline measures using a general linear model). No significant changes in other physical and mental outcomes were found between the two groups. No adverse events were reported during the study period. Conclusion TCC exercise was beneficial in college students for improving flexibility and balance capability to some extent, compared with usual exercise. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-TRC-13003328 PMID:26147842

  20. Effects of Tai Chi and Western Exercise on Physical and Cognitive Functioning in Healthy Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Taylor-Piliae, Ruth E.; Newell, Kathryn A.; Cherin, Rise; Lee, Martin J.; King, Abby C.; Haskell, William L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of Tai Chi (TC, n = 37) and Western exercise (WE, n = 39) with an attention-control group (C, n = 56) on physical and cognitive functioning in healthy adults age 69 ± 5.8 yr, in a 2-phase randomized trial. Methods TC and WE involved combined class and home-based protocols. Physical functioning included balance, strength, flexibility, and cardiorespiratory endurance. Cognitive functioning included semantic fluency and digit-span tests. Data were analyzed using intention-to-treat analysis. Results At 6 mo, WE had greater improvements in upper body flexibility (F = 4.67, p = .01) than TC and C. TC had greater improvements in balance (F = 3.36, p = .04) and a cognitive-function measure (F = 7.75, p < .001) than WE and C. The differential cognitive-function improvements observed in TC were maintained through 12 mo. Conclusion The TC and WE interventions resulted in differential improvements in physical functioning among generally healthy older adults. TC led to improvement in an indicator of cognitive functioning that was maintained through 12 mo. PMID:20651414

  1. Effectiveness of Qigong in promoting the health of wheelchair-bound older adults in long-term care facilities.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Shu-Chien; Chen, Kuei-Min; Wang, Chi

    2012-04-01

    Institutional wheelchair-bound older adults often do not get regular exercise and are prone to health problems. The aim of this study was to test the effects of a 12-week qigong exercise program on the physiological and psychological health of wheelchair-bound older adults in long-term care facilities. Study design was quasi-experimental, pre-post test, nonequivalent control group. Participants comprised a convenience sample of 72 wheelchair-bound older adults (qigong = 34; control = 38). The qigong group exercised 35 min/day, 5 days/week for 12 weeks. Measures for physical health (blood pressure, heart rate variability, and distal skin temperature) and psychological health (Brief Symptom Rating Scale-5) were collected before and during study Weeks 4, 8, and 12. The qigong group participants' blood pressure, distal skin temperature, and psychological health were significantly improved (all p < .001). These findings suggest that qigong exercise is a suitable daily activity for elderly residents in long-term care facilities and may help in the control of blood pressure among older adults.

  2. Managing stress and anxiety through qigong exercise in healthy adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An increasing number of studies have documented the effectiveness of qigong exercise in helping people reduce psychological stress and anxiety, but there is a scarcity of systematic reviews evaluating evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted among healthy subjects. Methods Thirteen databases were searched for RCTs from their inception through June 2013. Effects of qigong exercise were pooled across trials. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) were calculated for the pooled effects. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I 2 test. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane criteria. Results Seven RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Two RCTs suggested that qigong exercise immediately relieved anxiety among healthy adults, compared to lecture attendance and structured movements only. Four RCTs suggested qigong exercise relieved anxiety (pooled SMD = -0.75; 95% CI, -1.11 to -0.40), and three RCTs suggested that qigong exercise reduced stress (pooled SMD = -0.88; 95% CI, -1.22 to -0.55) among healthy subjects following one to three months of qigong practice, compared to wait-list controls. Conclusions The available evidence suggests that qigong exercise reduces stress and anxiety in healthy adults. However, given the limited number of RCTs and their methodological flaws, further rigorously designed RCTs are needed. PMID:24400778

  3. Complementary and alternative exercise for fibromyalgia: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mist, Scott David; Firestone, Kari A; Jones, Kim Dupree

    2013-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine includes a number of exercise modalities, such as tai chi, qigong, yoga, and a variety of lesser-known movement therapies. A meta-analysis of the current literature was conducted estimating the effect size of the different modalities, study quality and bias, and adverse events. The level of research has been moderately weak to date, but most studies report a medium-to-high effect size in pain reduction. Given the lack of adverse events, there is little risk in recommending these modalities as a critical component in a multimodal treatment plan, which is often required for fibromyalgia management. PMID:23569397

  4. Complementary and alternative exercise for fibromyalgia: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mist, Scott David; Firestone, Kari A; Jones, Kim Dupree

    2013-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine includes a number of exercise modalities, such as tai chi, qigong, yoga, and a variety of lesser-known movement therapies. A meta-analysis of the current literature was conducted estimating the effect size of the different modalities, study quality and bias, and adverse events. The level of research has been moderately weak to date, but most studies report a medium-to-high effect size in pain reduction. Given the lack of adverse events, there is little risk in recommending these modalities as a critical component in a multimodal treatment plan, which is often required for fibromyalgia management.

  5. Is Beauty in the Eyes of the Beholder? Aesthetic Quality versus Technical Skill in Movement Evaluation of Tai Chi.

    PubMed

    Zamparo, Paola; Zorzi, Elena; Marcantoni, Sara; Cesari, Paola

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare experts to naïve practitioners in rating the beauty and the technical quality of a Tai Chi sequence observed in video-clips (of high and middle level performances). Our hypothesis are: i) movement evaluation will correlate with the level of skill expressed in the kinematics of the observed action but ii) only experts will be able to unravel the technical component from the aesthetic component of the observed action. The judgments delivered indicate that both expert and non-expert observers are able to discern a good from a mediocre performance; however, as expected, only experts discriminate the technical from the aesthetic component of the action evaluated and do this independently of the level of skill shown by the model (high or middle level performances). Furthermore, the judgments delivered were strongly related to the kinematic variables measured in the observed model, indicating that observers rely on specific movement kinematics (e.g. movement amplitude, jerk and duration) for action evaluation. These results provide evidence of the complementary functional role of visual and motor action representation in movement evaluation and underline the role of expertise in judging the aesthetic quality of movements.

  6. Qigong or Yoga Versus No Intervention in Older Adults With Chronic Low Back Pain-A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Teut, Michael; Knilli, Judith; Daus, Dorothea; Roll, Stephanie; Witt, Claudia M

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the reduction of chronic lower back pain in older adults using either yoga classes or qigong classes compared with no intervention. Older adults (65 years of age and older) with chronic low back pain were enrolled in and randomly allocated to: 1) yoga (24 classes, 45 minutes each, during 3 months), 2) qigong (12 classes, 90 minutes each, during 3 months), or 3) a control group who received no additional intervention. The pain intensity item of the Functional Rating Index after 3 months was used as primary outcome parameter. A total of 176 patients were randomized (n = 61 yoga, n = 58 qigong, n = 57 control; mean age 73 ± 5.6 years, 89% female). The mean adjusted pain intensity after 3 months was 1.71 for the yoga group (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.54-1.89), 1.67 for the qigong group (95% CI, 1.45-1.89), and 1.89 for no intervention (95% CI, 1.67-2.11). No statistically significant group differences were observed. Possible explanations for this lack of pain relief might include the ineffectiveness of interventions, inappropriate outcomes, or differences in pain perception and processing in older adults. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the reduction of chronic lower back pain in older adults using either yoga classes or qigong classes compared with no intervention. This 3-armed randomized trial with 176 older adults showed that yoga and qigong were not superior to no treatment in reducing pain and increasing quality of life. Copyright © 2016 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Dynamic balance and stepping versus tai chi training to improve balance and stepping in at-risk older adults.

    PubMed

    Nnodim, Joseph O; Strasburg, Debra; Nabozny, Martina; Nyquist, Linda; Galecki, Andrzej; Chen, Shu; Alexander, Neil B

    2006-12-01

    To compare the effect of two 10-week balance training programs, Combined Balance and Step Training (CBST) versus tai chi (TC), on balance and stepping measures. Prospective intervention trial. Local senior centers and congregate housing facilities. Aged 65 and older with at least mild impairment in the ability to perform unipedal stance and tandem walk. Participants were allocated to TC (n = 107, mean age 78) or CBST, an intervention focused on improving dynamic balance and stepping (n = 106, mean age 78). At baseline and 10 weeks, participants were tested in their static balance (Unipedal Stance and Tandem Stance (TS)), stepping (Maximum Step Length, Rapid Step Test), and Timed Up and Go (TUG). Performance improved more with CBST than TC, ranging from 5% to 10% for the stepping tests (Maximum Step Length and Rapid Step Test) and 9% for TUG. The improvement in TUG represented an improvement of more than 1 second. Greater improvements were also seen in static balance ability (in TS) with CBST than TC. Of the two training programs, in which variants of each program have been proven to reduce falls, CBST results in modest improvements in balance, stepping, and functional mobility versus TC over a 10-week period. Future research should include a prospective comparison of fall rates in response to these two balance training programs.

  8. Effects of long term Tai Chi practice and jogging exercise on muscle strength and endurance in older people.

    PubMed

    Xu, D Q; Li, J X; Hong, Y

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the influence of regular Tai Chi (TC) practice and jogging on muscle strength and endurance in the lower extremities of older people. Twenty one long term older TC practitioners were compared with 18 regular older joggers and 22 sedentary counterparts. Maximum concentric strength of knee flexors and extensors was tested at angular velocities of 30 degrees/s and 120 degrees/s. Ankle dorsiflexors and plantar flexors were tested at 30 degrees/s and the dynamic endurance of the knee flexors and extensors was assessed at a speed of 180 degrees/s. The differences in the muscle strength of the knee joint amongst the three experimental groups were significant at the higher velocity. The strengths of knee extensors and flexors in the control group were significantly lower than those in the jogging group and marginally lower than those in the TC group. For the ankle joint, the subjects in both the TC and jogging groups generated more torque in their ankle dorsiflexors. In addition, the muscle endurance of knee extensors was more pronounced in TC practitioners than in controls. Regular older TC practitioners and joggers showed better scores than the sedentary controls on most muscle strength and endurance measures. However, the magnitude of the exercise effects on muscles might depend on the characteristics of different types of exercise.

  9. Is Beauty in the Eyes of the Beholder? Aesthetic Quality versus Technical Skill in Movement Evaluation of Tai Chi

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare experts to naïve practitioners in rating the beauty and the technical quality of a Tai Chi sequence observed in video-clips (of high and middle level performances). Our hypothesis are: i) movement evaluation will correlate with the level of skill expressed in the kinematics of the observed action but ii) only experts will be able to unravel the technical component from the aesthetic component of the observed action. The judgments delivered indicate that both expert and non-expert observers are able to discern a good from a mediocre performance; however, as expected, only experts discriminate the technical from the aesthetic component of the action evaluated and do this independently of the level of skill shown by the model (high or middle level performances). Furthermore, the judgments delivered were strongly related to the kinematic variables measured in the observed model, indicating that observers rely on specific movement kinematics (e.g. movement amplitude, jerk and duration) for action evaluation. These results provide evidence of the complementary functional role of visual and motor action representation in movement evaluation and underline the role of expertise in judging the aesthetic quality of movements. PMID:26047473

  10. Effects of Health Qigong Exercises on Relieving Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao Lei; Chen, Shihui; Wang, Yongtai

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Health Qigong on the treatment and releasing symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Fifty-four moderate PD patients ( N = 54) were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. Twenty-eight PD patients were placed in the experimental group in which the prescribed medication plus Health Qigong exercise will be used as intervention. The other 26 PD patients as the control group were treated only with regular medication. Ten-week intervention had been conducted for the study, and participants completed the scheduled exercises 5 times per week for 60 minutes each time (10 minutes for warm-up, 40 minutes for the exercise, and 10 minutes for cooldown). Data which included the muscle hardness, one-legged blind balance, physical coordination, and stability was collected before, during, and after the intervention. Comparisons were made between the experimental and control groups through the Repeated Measures ANOVA. The results showed that PD patients demonstrate a significant improvement in muscle hardness, the timed "up and go," balance, and hand-eye coordination (the turn-over-jars test). There were no significant differences between the two groups in gender, age, and course of differences ( P < 0.05). The study concluded that Health Qigong exercises could reduce the symptoms of Parkinson's disease and improve the body functions of PD patients in both the mild and moderate stages. It can be added as an effective treatment of rehabilitation therapy for PD.

  11. Effects of Health Qigong Exercises on Relieving Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao Lei; Wang, Yongtai

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Health Qigong on the treatment and releasing symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Fifty-four moderate PD patients (N = 54) were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. Twenty-eight PD patients were placed in the experimental group in which the prescribed medication plus Health Qigong exercise will be used as intervention. The other 26 PD patients as the control group were treated only with regular medication. Ten-week intervention had been conducted for the study, and participants completed the scheduled exercises 5 times per week for 60 minutes each time (10 minutes for warm-up, 40 minutes for the exercise, and 10 minutes for cooldown). Data which included the muscle hardness, one-legged blind balance, physical coordination, and stability was collected before, during, and after the intervention. Comparisons were made between the experimental and control groups through the Repeated Measures ANOVA. The results showed that PD patients demonstrate a significant improvement in muscle hardness, the timed “up and go,” balance, and hand-eye coordination (the turn-over-jars test). There were no significant differences between the two groups in gender, age, and course of differences (P < 0.05). The study concluded that Health Qigong exercises could reduce the symptoms of Parkinson's disease and improve the body functions of PD patients in both the mild and moderate stages. It can be added as an effective treatment of rehabilitation therapy for PD. PMID:27891159

  12. The Ottawa panel clinical practice guidelines for the management of knee osteoarthritis. Part one: introduction, and mind-body exercise programs.

    PubMed

    Brosseau, Lucie; Taki, Jade; Desjardins, Brigit; Thevenot, Odette; Fransen, Marlene; Wells, George A; Imoto, Aline Mizusaki; Toupin-April, Karine; Westby, Marie; Gallardo, Inmaculada C Álvarez; Gifford, Wendy; Laferrière, Lucie; Rahman, Prinon; Loew, Laurianne; Angelis, Gino De; Cavallo, Sabrina; Shallwani, Shirin Mehdi; Aburub, Ala'; Bennell, Kim L; Van der Esch, Martin; Simic, Milena; McConnell, Sara; Harmer, Alison; Kenny, Glen P; Paterson, Gail; Regnaux, Jean-Philippe; Lefevre-Colau, Marie-Martine; McLean, Linda

    2017-05-01

    To identify effective mind-body exercise programs and provide clinicians and patients with updated, high-quality recommendations concerning non-traditional land-based exercises for knee osteoarthritis. A systematic search and adapted selection criteria included comparative controlled trials with mind-body exercise programs for patients with knee osteoarthritis. A panel of experts reached consensus on the recommendations using a Delphi survey. A hierarchical alphabetical grading system (A, B, C+, C, D, D+, D-) was used, based on statistical significance ( P < 0.5) and clinical importance (⩾15% improvement). The four high-quality studies identified demonstrated that various mind-body exercise programs are promising for improving the management of knee osteoarthritis. Hatha Yoga demonstrated significant improvement for pain relief (Grade B) and physical function (Grade C+). Tai Chi Qigong demonstrated significant improvement for quality of life (Grade B), pain relief (Grade C+) and physical function (Grade C+). Sun style Tai Chi gave significant improvement for pain relief (Grade B) and physical function (Grade B). Mind-body exercises are promising approaches to reduce pain, as well as to improve physical function and quality of life for individuals with knee osteoarthritis.

  13. Is Tai Chi Chuan effective in improving lower limb response time to prevent backward falls in the elderly?

    PubMed

    Wong, Alice M K; Pei, Yu-Cheng; Lan, Ching; Huang, Shu-Chun; Lin, Yin-Chou; Chou, Shih-Wei

    2009-06-01

    To evaluate the training effect of Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) in postural control and backward fall prevention in the elderly, balance assessment and visually guided lower limb response time were analyzed in a case-control study conducted in a community setting. Thirty-one elderly subjects (mean age: 68.2 +/- 6.8 years) participated in the TCC group, 30 community-dwelling elderly subjects with matched age and body composition served as the elderly control group, with 13 young adults (mean age: 27.5 +/- 3.8 years) serving as young controls. The TCC group had practiced TCC regularly five times per week, for over 30 min per day for at least 4 years. Lower limb response time were measured using a computerized dance machine that we developed, which contains two blocks during testing: single and dual feet. The motor planning of the latter is more complex than the former. Postural control was assessed by computerized posturography (Smart Balance Master). Compared to the elderly controls, the TCC group demonstrated significantly better balance performance in sway-referenced support, which is more challenging. Moreover, the TCC group had better dual feet response than the elderly controls in the forward-backward, forward-right and forward-left directions. Practicing TCC may improve motor responses and postural control in the elderly, particularly in more challenging situations. Subjects showed better postural responses to unexpected perturbation in the forward-backward and forward-sideways direction than sideways or backward-sideways directions, which may have clinical relevance.

  14. Acute Effects of Tai Chi Training on Cognitive and Cardiovascular Responses in Late Middle-Aged Adults: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Tiffany C Y; Liu, Karen P Y; Wong, Janet Y H; Bae, Young-Hyeon; Hui, Stanley Sai-Chuen; Tsang, William W N; Cheng, Yoyo T Y; Fong, Shirley S M

    2018-01-01

    This study explored the immediate effects of Tai Chi (TC) training on attention and meditation, perceived stress level, heart rate, oxygen saturation level in blood, and palmar skin temperature in late middle-aged adults. Twenty TC practitioners and 20 nonpractitioners volunteered to join the study. After baseline measurements were taken, the TC group performed TC for 10 minutes while their cognitive states and cardiovascular responses were concurrently monitored. The control group rested for the same duration in a standing position. Both groups were then reassessed. The participants' attention and meditation levels were measured using electroencephalography; stress levels were measured using Perceived Stress Scale; heart rate and blood oxygenation were measured using an oximeter; and palmar skin temperature was measured using an infrared thermometer. Attention level tended to increase during TC and dropped immediately thereafter ( p < 0.001). Perceived stress level decreased from baseline to posttest in exclusively the TC group ( p = 0.005). Heart rate increased during TC ( p < 0.001) and decreased thereafter ( p = 0.001). No significant group, time, or group-by-time interaction effects were found in the meditation level, palmar skin temperature, and blood oxygenation outcomes. While a 10-minute TC training could temporarily improve attention and decrease perceived stress levels, it could not improve meditation, palmar skin temperature, or blood oxygenation among late middle-aged adults.

  15. Acute Effects of Tai Chi Training on Cognitive and Cardiovascular Responses in Late Middle-Aged Adults: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Tiffany C. Y.; Bae, Young-Hyeon; Hui, Stanley Sai-Chuen; Cheng, Yoyo T. Y.

    2018-01-01

    This study explored the immediate effects of Tai Chi (TC) training on attention and meditation, perceived stress level, heart rate, oxygen saturation level in blood, and palmar skin temperature in late middle-aged adults. Twenty TC practitioners and 20 nonpractitioners volunteered to join the study. After baseline measurements were taken, the TC group performed TC for 10 minutes while their cognitive states and cardiovascular responses were concurrently monitored. The control group rested for the same duration in a standing position. Both groups were then reassessed. The participants' attention and meditation levels were measured using electroencephalography; stress levels were measured using Perceived Stress Scale; heart rate and blood oxygenation were measured using an oximeter; and palmar skin temperature was measured using an infrared thermometer. Attention level tended to increase during TC and dropped immediately thereafter (p < 0.001). Perceived stress level decreased from baseline to posttest in exclusively the TC group (p = 0.005). Heart rate increased during TC (p < 0.001) and decreased thereafter (p = 0.001). No significant group, time, or group-by-time interaction effects were found in the meditation level, palmar skin temperature, and blood oxygenation outcomes. While a 10-minute TC training could temporarily improve attention and decrease perceived stress levels, it could not improve meditation, palmar skin temperature, or blood oxygenation among late middle-aged adults. PMID:29636784

  16. The qigong of 18 Luohan Hands and yoga for prevention of low back pain: A conceptual synthesis.

    PubMed

    Posadzki, Paul

    2011-04-26

    The practice of hathayoga is based on the following assumptions: complexity and multidimensionality of various positive influences on an individual's wholeness through the mind, body and their conscious control. On the other hand, the practice of the qigong of 18 Luohan Hands is based on slow movements designed to mobilise qi within the body. This article presents a conceptual integration of yoga and qigong when considering the congruence of beneficial effects for various systems of the body and prevention of low back pain (LBP). The author emphasizes the usefulness of qigong and yoga practice in clinical units and explains how the essence of these practices relates to each other. The justification of this fusion as well as differences between these two modalities are also described and explained. Within the scope of this article the existence of several similarities between these two practices has been suggested for both practitioners and researchers. They can obtain valuable and additional arguments through cross-fertilization of ideas across presented studies united by shared, underlying biomechanical concepts and physiological effects. Such conceptual enrichment may be a useful source of inspiration for qigong and yoga practitioners who tend to prevent LBP and therapists (physiotherapists, occupational therapists, rehabilitants, nurses, bodywork and movement therapists or massage therapists) intended to manage their patients' back pains and overall health on a daily basis.

  17. Teaching Tai Chi with mindfulness-based stress reduction to middle school children in the inner city: a review of the literature and approaches.

    PubMed

    Wall, Robert B

    2008-01-01

    Tai Chi (TC) is the focus of a growing body of literature both qualitative and empirical. Yet there is a paucity of literature on teaching TC to either adolescents or children ages 10-13 presumably because of the level of attention and concentration TC requires. In the pediatric setting, TC appears best combined with other practice activities like mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) that complement the practice of TC, sustain interest and synergistically enhance the benefits TC has been shown to produce in older populations. The literature on the effects of (MBSR) practices with children and teens are also limited. However, the corpus of TC studies suggests significant benefits could be transgenerational if presented in novel ways and taught in developmentally appropriate approaches to children. This chapter explores combining MBSR exercises with TC as one practice that can potentially accomplish this synergy. The chapter includes recommendations for a course design based on two projects created by the author integrating TC and MBSR for ages 11-14 in the inner city of Boston, Mass., USA.

  18. Hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect of Tai chi exercise training in older adults with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel; Arista-Ugalde, Taide Laurita; Rosado-Pérez, Juana; Ruiz-Ramos, Mirna; Santiago-Osorio, Edelmiro

    2018-01-01

    Introduction The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Tai chi (TC) exercise training in healthy older adults has been demonstrated. However, there are no studies on this effect in older adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the effect of TC exercise on oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in older adults with MetS. Methods A quasi-experimental study was carried out with a sample of 110 older sedentary volunteers with clinical diagnoses of MetS: (i) a control group, n = 50, of individuals who do not participate in physical exercise, of which 37 fulfilled the entire study protocol, and (ii) an experimental group, n = 60, of subjects enrolled in a TC exercise training program (eight-form easy), 5 days a week for 6 months, in sessions of 50 min, under the supervision of a qualified instructor, of which 48 fulfilled the entire study protocol. We measured in both groups (pre- and post-intervention) the following cardiovascular parameters: resting heart rate (RHR), diastolic and systolic blood pressure (DBP and SBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), RHR-SBP product, RHR-MAP product; glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c); oxidative stress markers (superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant status, thiobarbituric acid reacting substances, and oxidative stress score); and inflammation markers (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10). Results A statistically significant decrease in HbA1c concentration was observed in the TC group compared with the control group (p < 0.05). This group also showed a statistically significant increase in TAS and a decrease in the oxidative stress score (p < 0.05). We did not observe changes in the cardiovascular parameters (RHR, DBP, SBP, MAP, RHR-SBP product, and RHR-MAP product) in the TC experimental group compared to the control group. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the practice of TC exercise has an antioxidative and hypoglycemic effect in the elderly with MetS. PMID:29662308

  19. Comparison of the effects of swimming and Tai Chi Chuan on body fat composition in elderly people.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tung-Yang; Pei, Yu-Cheng; Lau, Yiu-Chung; Chen, Chih-Kuang; Hsu, Hung-Chih; Wong, Alice M K

    2007-01-01

    Accumulation of fat and substantial loss of muscle mass are common phenomena in the elderly. In this study, we observed the effects of Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) and swimming, two exercises suitable for elderly people, on the percentage body fat and fat distribution by measuring subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness and body composition. Subjects were divided into three groups: regular swimmers (n = 20), regular TCC practitioners (n = 32), and age-matched control subjects (n = 31). Subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness was taken using a Lange skinfold caliper at the chests, abdomens, and thighs in the men, and the triceps, suprailium, and thighs in the women. Mid-arm circumference (MAC) was measured on the non-dominant upper arm using fiberglass tape. Body composition was analyzed using the Inbody 3.0 logo, a bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) system. No significant differences were found between the three test groups in relation to total body adiposity and arm muscle circumference in the men and women. There was significantly less subcutaneous adipose tissue at the abdomen (p = 0.011) and thigh (p < 0.001) of TCC-group men and at the thighs (p < 0.001) of the swimming group compared with the control group. In women, only the thigh skinfold (p = 0.002) showed a decrease in the TCC group compared with the control group. Swimming and TCC may not decrease total fat adiposity in elderly men and women, however, they may change body fat distribution due to certain muscle group usage. The differences observed in the effects of exercise on body fat distribution between elderly women and men may be gender-related.

  20. A randomized controlled trial of qigong exercise on fatigue symptoms, functioning, and telomerase activity in persons with chronic fatigue or chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ho, Rainbow T H; Chan, Jessie S M; Wang, Chong-Wen; Lau, Benson W M; So, Kwok Fai; Yuen, Li Ping; Sham, Jonathan S T; Chan, Cecilia L W

    2012-10-01

    Chronic fatigue is common in the general population. Complementary therapies are often used by patients with chronic fatigue or chronic fatigue syndrome to manage their symptoms. This study aimed to assess the effect of a 4-month qigong intervention program among patients with chronic fatigue or chronic fatigue syndrome. Sixty-four participants were randomly assigned to either an intervention group or a wait list control group. Outcome measures included fatigue symptoms, physical functioning, mental functioning, and telomerase activity. Fatigue symptoms and mental functioning were significantly improved in the qigong group compared to controls. Telomerase activity increased in the qigong group from 0.102 to 0.178 arbitrary units (p < 0.05). The change was statistically significant when compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Qigong exercise may be used as an alternative and complementary therapy or rehabilitative program for chronic fatigue and chronic fatigue syndrome.

  1. Comparison of higher order spectra in heart rate signals during two techniques of meditation: Chi and Kundalini meditation.

    PubMed

    Goshvarpour, Ateke; Goshvarpour, Atefeh

    2013-02-01

    The human heartbeat is one of the important examples of complex physiologic fluctuations. For the first time in this study higher order spectra of heart rate signals during meditation have explored. Specifically, the aim of this study was to analysis and compares the contribution of quadratic phase coupling of human heart rate variability during two forms of meditation: (1) Chinese Chi (or Qigong) meditation and (2) Kundalini Yoga meditation. For this purpose, Bispectrum was estimated by using biased, parametric and the direct (FFT) method. The results show that the mean Bispectrum magnitude of heart rate signals increased during Kundalini Yoga meditation, but it decreased significantly during Chi meditation. However, in both meditation techniques phase-coupled harmonics are shifted to the higher frequencies during meditation. In addition, it has shown that not only there are significant differences between rest and meditation states, but also heart rate patterns appear to be influenced by different types of meditation.

  2. Positive impact of Tai Chi Chuan participation on biopsychosocial quality of life compared to exercise and sedentary controls: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Alex; J P Francis, Andrew

    2013-05-24

    Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) is a traditional Chinese medicine practice and martial art with biopsychosocial aspects. This study aimed to examine the impact of participation in TCC on multiple domains of Quality of Life (QoL) and to assess the involvement of the psychological factors of self-efficacy, Locus of Control (LoC) and Hope in these effects. A total of 68 participants from the general community (13 males and 55 females) aged between 18 and 68 (M=43.55 years) and not currently suffering from a mental or physical illness took part in the study. It was found that TCC participants, as a group, scored significantly better than those in sedentary (book club) and active (gym exercise) control conditions on Psychological and Physical QoL, and that the Physical QoL benefits of TCC continue to accrue with years of practice. The three psychological factors were shown to variously mediate (self-efficacy) and moderate (internal LoC and Hope) this latter relationship. Whilst the results bear limitations (in particular small sample sizes), it is hoped that these findings will encourage further research into TCC, and consideration of TCC as part of the range of treatment options available in community-based mental and physical health management.

  3. Effect of Tai Chi Exercise Combined with Mental Imagery Theory in Improving Balance in a Diabetic and Elderly Population

    PubMed Central

    Alsubiheen, Abdulrahman; Petrofsky, Jerrold; Daher, Noha; Lohman, Everett; Balbas, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Background One of the effects of diabetes mellitus (DM), peripheral neuropathy, affects the sensation in the feet and can increase the chance of falling. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of 8 weeks of Tai Chi (TC) training combined with mental imagery (MI) on improving balance in people with diabetes and an age matched control group. Material/Methods Seventeen healthy subjects and 12 diabetic sedentary subjects ranging from 40–80 years of age were recruited. All subjects in both groups attended a Yang style of TC class using MI strategies, 2 sessions a week for 8 weeks. Each session was one hour long. Measures were taken using a balance platform test, an Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale, a one leg standing test (OLS), functional reach test (FRT) and hemoglobin A1C. These measures were taken twice, pre and post-study, for both groups. Results Both groups experienced significant improvements in ABC, OLS, FRT (P<0.01) after completing 8 weeks of TC exercise with no significant improvement between groups. Subjects using the balance platform test demonstrated improvement in balance in all different tasks with no significant change between groups. There was no significant change in HbA1C for the diabetic group. Conclusions All results showed an improvement in balance in the diabetic and the control groups; however, no significant difference between the groups was observed. Since the DM group had more problems with balance impairment at baseline than the control, the diabetic group showed the most benefit from the TC exercise. PMID:26454826

  4. Effect of Tai Chi Exercise Combined with Mental Imagery Theory in Improving Balance in a Diabetic and Elderly Population.

    PubMed

    Alsubiheen, Abdulrahman; Petrofsky, Jerrold; Daher, Noha; Lohman, Everett; Balbas, Edward

    2015-10-10

    One of the effects of diabetes mellitus (DM), peripheral neuropathy, affects the sensation in the feet and can increase the chance of falling. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of 8 weeks of Tai Chi (TC) training combined with mental imagery (MI) on improving balance in people with diabetes and an age matched control group. Seventeen healthy subjects and 12 diabetic sedentary subjects ranging from 40-80 years of age were recruited. All subjects in both groups attended a Yang style of TC class using MI strategies, 2 sessions a week for 8 weeks. Each session was one hour long. Measures were taken using a balance platform test, an Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale, a one leg standing test (OLS), functional reach test (FRT) and hemoglobin A1C. These measures were taken twice, pre and post-study, for both groups. Both groups experienced significant improvements in ABC, OLS, FRT (P<0.01) after completing 8 weeks of TC exercise with no significant improvement between groups. Subjects using the balance platform test demonstrated improvement in balance in all different tasks with no significant change between groups. There was no significant change in HbA1C for the diabetic group. All results showed an improvement in balance in the diabetic and the control groups; however, no significant difference between the groups was observed. Since the DM group had more problems with balance impairment at baseline than the control, the diabetic group showed the most benefit from the TC exercise.

  5. An evaluation of two behavioral rehabilitation programs, qigong versus progressive relaxation, in improving the quality of life in cardiac patients.

    PubMed

    Hui, Peggy Ngor; Wan, Maurice; Chan, Wai Kwong; Yung, Paul Man Bun

    2006-05-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate and compare two different behavioral rehabilitation programs in improving the quality of life in cardiac patients in Hong Kong. The current study was carried out in the outpatient unit of Occupational Therapy Department in the United Christian Hospital, Hong Kong. Convenience sampling with referral from the cardiac specialty was used in the present study. A total of 65 subjects, with a mean age 65 (range, 42 to 76), were recruited in the study. The cardiac diseases included myocardial infarct, postcoronary intervention, valve replacement, and also ischemic heart disease. Patients were alternately allocated to the two groups. The first group of patients received instructions and practiced on progressive relaxation. The second group of patients underwent training in qigong. A total of eight sessions were conducted and each session lasted 20 minutes. Demographic and clinical data such as gender, age, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were recorded. The psychological and Quality of Life assessment was performed using the Chinese versions of Short Form 36 (C-SF36), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (C-STAI), and General Health Questionnaire (C-GHQ-12). Fifty-nine (59) subjects (44 men and 15 women) completed all eight rehabilitation sessions in the study. Patients allocated to the two treatment groups had comparable baseline characteristics. Progressive relaxation was more effective in reducing blood pressures compared to qigong. Relaxation appeared to be particularly beneficial in somatic domains. qigong group demonstrated greater improvement in psychologic measures in addition to reduction in systolic blood pressure. Progressive relaxation and qigong exercise improved the quality of life for cardiac patients with reference to certain physiologic and psychologic measures. The result was supported by previous studies and literature reviews on qigong in terms of its effect on the psychologic dimension.

  6. The Effects of Twelve Weeks of Tai Chi Practice on Anxiety in Stressed But Healthy People Compared to Exercise and Wait-List Groups-A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shuai; Kim, Christine; Lal, Sara; Meier, Peter; Sibbritt, David; Zaslawski, Chris

    2018-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial was undertaken to determine whether 12 weeks of Tai Chi (TC) practice can reduce anxiety in healthy but stressed people. Fifty participants were randomized into TC (n=17), exercise (n=17), and wait-list (WL) groups (n=16). Outcome measures used were State Trait Anxiety Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale 14 (PSS14), blood pressure and heart rate variability, visual analogue scale (VAS), and Short Form 36. Significant improvements were observed from baseline for both TC and exercise groups for both state (p <0.01) and trait (p <0.01) anxiety, PSS14 (p <0.01), VAS (p <0.01), mental health domain (p <0.01), and vitality domain (p <0.01). Superior outcomes were also observed for TC when compared with WL for state and trait anxiety (p <0.01) and mental health domain (p <0.05). TC reduces stress levels in healthy individuals and provides a safer, cost effective, and less physically vigorous alternative to exercise. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Effects of Qigong Exercise on Biomarkers and Mental and Physical Health in Adults With at Least One Risk Factor for Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Hung, Hsuan-Man; Yeh, Shu-Hui; Chen, Chung-Hey

    2016-05-01

    Current medical technology permits the early detection of risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) in adults, and interventions are available to prevent CAD-related morbidity and mortality. The goal of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a Qigong exercise intervention in improving biomarker levels and mental and physical health outcomes in community-dwelling adults diagnosed with CAD risk factors, in a southern Taiwanese city. Participants were randomly assigned to an experimental (n= 84) group that participated in a 60-min Qigong group session 3 times per week for 3 months or a control (n= 61) group that did not receive the intervention. Self-perceived mental and physical health assessed with the Chinese Health Questionnaire-12, and body fat percentage were measured at baseline and 6, 12, and 16 weeks. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 12 weeks for analysis of lipid profiles, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and fasting plasma sugar. Linear mixed model analyses revealed that experimental participants had significantly improved perceived mental and physical health and body fat percentage compared to the control group at 6 and 12 weeks but not 16 weeks. The lipid profiles were significantly more improved in the Qigong group than in the control group at 12 weeks. Qigong exercise, however, had no significant effects on hs-CRP, HbA1c, or fasting plasma sugar. Findings suggest that Qigong exercise improves a limited number of CAD risk factors in community-dwelling adults aged 40 years and over. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Effect of Tai Chi on physical function, fall rates and quality of life among older stroke survivors.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Piliae, Ruth E; Hoke, Tiffany M; Hepworth, Joseph T; Latt, L Daniel; Najafi, Bijan; Coull, Bruce M

    2014-05-01

    To examine the effect of a 12-week Tai Chi (TC) intervention on physical function and quality of life. Single-blind, randomized controlled trial. General community. Community-dwelling survivors of stroke (N=145; 47% women; mean age, 70y; time poststroke: 3y; ischemic stroke: 66%; hemiparesis: 73%) who were aged ≥50 years and were ≥3 months poststroke. Yang style 24-posture short-form TC (n=53), strength and range of movement exercises (SS) (n=44), or usual care (UC) (n=48) for 12 weeks. The TC and SS groups attended a 1-hour class 3 times per week, whereas the UC group had weekly phone calls. Physical function: Short Physical Performance Battery, fall rates, and 2-minute step test; quality of life: Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. During the intervention, TC participants had two thirds fewer falls (5 falls) than the SS (14 falls) and UC (15 falls) groups (χ(2)=5.6, P=.06). There was a significant group by time interaction for the 2-minute step test (F2,142=4.69, P<.01). Post hoc tests indicated that the TC (t53=2.45, P=.02) and SS (t44=4.63, P<.01) groups had significantly better aerobic endurance over time, though not in the UC group (t48=1.58, P=.12). Intervention adherence rates were 85%. TC and SS led to improved aerobic endurance, and both are suitable community-based programs that may aid in stroke recovery and community reintegration. Our data suggest that a 12-week TC intervention was more effective in reducing fall rates than SS or UC interventions. Future studies examining the effectiveness of TC as a fall prevention strategy for community-dwelling survivors of stroke are recommended. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of 2 Different Exercise Approaches: Tai Chi Versus Otago, in Community-Dwelling Older Women.

    PubMed

    Son, Nam-Kuk; Ryu, Young Uk; Jeong, Hye-Won; Jang, Young-Hwan; Kim, Hyeong-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Regular exercise can delay age-related risk factors and can maintain or improve physical health and activity in older adults leading to a decrease in fall risk. The purpose of this study was to compare 2 different interventions for fall prevention, tai chi (TC) and Otago, by examining lower extremity strength, balance, and spatiotemporal gait parameters in community-dwelling older women. We performed a randomized trial in which subjects were assigned to 1 of 2 groups: the TC group (n = 21; age, 72.8 ± 4.7 years, range: 65-83 years), which participated in a modified Sun-style TC exercise program; and the Otago group (n = 24; age, 71.5 ± 3.6 years, range: 65-79 years), which participated in the Otago exercise program. The Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, functional reach (FR) test, one-leg standing (OLS) test, 5 times sit-to-stand test (5×STS), 30-second sit-to-stand (30s STS) test, and gait parameters (gait velocity, step length, step width, stride time, and cadence) were measured before and after the intervention. Both groups showed statistically significant improvements in balance (TUG and OLS tests), lower extremity strength (5×STS and 30s STS tests), and spatiotemporal gait parameters, except for step width and step length (P < .05). The Otago group showed a significantly improved FR, whereas the TC group showed a significantly improved step length after the intervention (P < .05). Furthermore, the Otago group exhibited greater improvements in the TUG (P < .001), FR (P < .001), 5×CST (P < .01), and 30-second CST (P < .01) tests: a faster cadence (P < .001) and shorter stride time (P < .001) when compared with the TC group. The TC group showed greater improvements in the OLS test, step length, and step width (P < .01) and faster gait velocity (P < .05) than the Otago group. The findings from this study support the efficacy of the TC and Otago exercise programs in improving mobility in this sample of subjects. Furthermore, the Otago group showed greater

  10. Effects of non-sporting and sporting qigong on frailty and quality of life among breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sheng-Miauh; Tseng, Ling-Ming; Chien, Li-Yin; Tai, Chen-Jei; Chen, Ping-Ho; Hung, Chia Tai; Hsiung, Yvonne

    2016-04-01

    To explore the effects of non-sporting qigong (NSQG) and sporting qigong (SQG) on frailty and quality of life (QOL) of breast cancer patients during chemotherapy. A time series (three-group, pre-test-post-test) quasi-experimental design was applied in the study. Ninety-five participants were assigned to three groups: controls (n = 31), NSQG (n = 33), or SQG (n = 31). All patients performed the qigong interventions three times per week for at least 30 min per session. Data were collected in face-to-face interviews before chemotherapy and at 1 and 3 months after chemotherapy. Frailty was assessed using the Edmonton Frail Scale. The Medical Outcomes Survey Short-Form 36-Taiwanese version was used to evaluate the physical and mental component scores of QOL. In the 1st and 3rd months after practicing qigong, patients in the SQG group had lower frailty scores than those in the control group. In the 3rd month after the intervention, patients in the NSQG group also had lower frailty scores and higher mental component scores for QOL than those in the control group. Patients with higher frailty scores had worse physical and mental component scores for QOL than those with lower frailty scores. The Sobel test showed that the frailty score mediated SQG and physical component scores for QOL. SQG and NSQG appeared to be beneficial for improving frailty and QOL among the breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy in the study. The results are preliminary and larger, well-constructed clinical studies are needed to verify the findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Tai Chi-based exercise program provided via telerehabilitation compared to home visits in a post-stroke population who have returned home without intensive rehabilitation: study protocol for a randomized, non-inferiority clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The incidence of strokes in industrialized nations is on the rise, particularly in the older population. In Canada, a minority of individuals who have had a stroke actually receive intensive rehabilitation because most stroke patients do not have access to services or because their motor recovery was judged adequate to return home. Thus, there is a considerable need to organize home-based rehabilitation services for everyone who has had a stroke. To meet this demand, telerehabilitation, particularly from a service center to the patient’s home, is a promising alternative approach that can help improve access to rehabilitation services once patients are discharged home. Methods/Design This non-inferiority study will include patients who have returned home post-stroke without requiring intensive rehabilitation. To be included in the study, participants will: 1) not be referred to an Intensive Functional Rehabilitation Unit, 2) have a Rankin score of 2 or 3, and 3) have a balance problem (Berg Balance Scale score between 46 and 54). Participants will be randomly assigned to either the teletreatment group or the home visits group. Except for the delivery mode, the intervention will be the same for both groups, that is, a personalized Tai Chi-based exercise program conducted by a trained physiotherapist (45-minute session twice a week for eight consecutive weeks). The main objective of this research is to test the non-inferiority of a Tai Chi-based exercise program provided via telerehabilitation compared to the same program provided in person at home in terms of effectiveness for retraining balance in individuals who have had a stroke but do not require intensive functional rehabilitation. The main outcome of this study is balance and mobility measured with the Community Balance and Mobility Scale. Secondary outcomes include physical and psychological capacities related to balance and mobility, participants’ quality of life, satisfaction with services

  12. Tai Chi-based exercise program provided via telerehabilitation compared to home visits in a post-stroke population who have returned home without intensive rehabilitation: study protocol for a randomized, non-inferiority clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Tousignant, Michel; Corriveau, Hélène; Kairy, Dahlia; Berg, Katherine; Dubois, Marie-France; Gosselin, Sylvie; Swartz, Richard H; Boulanger, Jean-Martin; Danells, Cynthia

    2014-01-30

    The incidence of strokes in industrialized nations is on the rise, particularly in the older population. In Canada, a minority of individuals who have had a stroke actually receive intensive rehabilitation because most stroke patients do not have access to services or because their motor recovery was judged adequate to return home. Thus, there is a considerable need to organize home-based rehabilitation services for everyone who has had a stroke. To meet this demand, telerehabilitation, particularly from a service center to the patient's home, is a promising alternative approach that can help improve access to rehabilitation services once patients are discharged home. This non-inferiority study will include patients who have returned home post-stroke without requiring intensive rehabilitation. To be included in the study, participants will: 1) not be referred to an Intensive Functional Rehabilitation Unit, 2) have a Rankin score of 2 or 3, and 3) have a balance problem (Berg Balance Scale score between 46 and 54). Participants will be randomly assigned to either the teletreatment group or the home visits group. Except for the delivery mode, the intervention will be the same for both groups, that is, a personalized Tai Chi-based exercise program conducted by a trained physiotherapist (45-minute session twice a week for eight consecutive weeks). The main objective of this research is to test the non-inferiority of a Tai Chi-based exercise program provided via telerehabilitation compared to the same program provided in person at home in terms of effectiveness for retraining balance in individuals who have had a stroke but do not require intensive functional rehabilitation. The main outcome of this study is balance and mobility measured with the Community Balance and Mobility Scale. Secondary outcomes include physical and psychological capacities related to balance and mobility, participants' quality of life, satisfaction with services received, and cost

  13. Green tea polyphenols supplementation and Tai Chi exercise for postmenopausal osteopenic women: safety and quality of life report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that both green tea polyphenols (GTP) and Tai Chi (TC) exercise may benefit bone health in osteopenic women. However, their safety in this population has never been systematically investigated. In particular, there have been hepatotoxicity concerns related to green tea extract. This study was to evaluate the safety of 24 weeks of GTP supplementation combined with TC exercise in postmenopausal osteopenic women, along with effects on quality of life in this population. Methods 171 postmenopausal women with osteopenia were randomly assigned to 4 treatment arms for 24 weeks: (1) Placebo (500 mg starch/day), (2) GTP (500 mg GTP/day), (3) Placebo + TC (placebo plus TC training at 60 min/session, 3 sessions/week), and (4) GTP + TC (GTP plus TC training). Safety was examined by assessing liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase), alkaline phosphatase, and total bilirubin at baseline and every 4 weeks. Kidney function (urea nitrogen and creatinine), calcium, and inorganic phosphorus were also assessed at the same times. Qualify of life using SF-36 questionnaire was evaluated at baseline, 12, and 24 weeks. A mixed model of repeated measures ANOVA was applied for analysis. Results 150 subjects completed the study (12% attrition rate). The compliance rates for study agents and TC exercise were 89% and 83%, respectively. Neither GTP supplementation nor TC exercise affected liver or kidney function parameters throughout the study. No adverse event due to study treatment was reported by the participants. TC exercise significantly improved the scores for role-emotional and mental health of subjects, while no effect on quality of life was observed due to GTP supplementation. Conclusions GTP at a dose of 500 mg/day and/or TC exercise at 3 hr/week for 24 weeks appear to be safe in postmenopausal osteopenic women, particularly in terms of liver and kidney functions. TC exercise for 24 weeks (3 hr/wk) significantly improved

  14. Obituary: Chi Yuan (1937-2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Paul

    2011-12-01

    is flourishing in Taiwan, in no small measure because of his efforts. Chi Yuan was also a scholar in Chinese history, well known for his calligraphy, and a passionate leader of the Tiao Yu Tai Islands movement in the early 1970s on the territorial integrity of China. He was a gourmand and a gourmet. He was a man of principle and integrity. He is greatly missed by his many friends and colleagues, both inside and outside of astronomy and physics.

  15. [Effects of tai chi on health-related quality of life in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Romero Zurita, Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    Thai Chi is increasingly used in the field of medicine and rehabilitation as an alternative therapy. The results of this review show that older persons obtain physical and psychological benefits from this activity. These benefits are reflected in improved physical functions, reduced fear and fewer falls, which also reduce levels of depression. Furthermore, symptoms are considerably reduced in distinct groups with various diseases, thus improving health-related quality of life. Copyright 2009 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. A randomised controlled cross-over trial of aerobic training versus Qigong in advanced Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Burini, D; Farabollini, B; Iacucci, S; Rimatori, C; Riccardi, G; Capecci, M; Provinciali, L; Ceravolo, M G

    2006-09-01

    To investigate the effects of an aerobic training in subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) as compared to a medical Chinese exercise (Qigong). randomized controlled trial with a cross over design. PD out-patients referred to a Neurorehabilitation facility for the management of motor disability. 26 PD patients in Hoehn and Yahr stage II to III under stable medication were randomly allocated to either Group AT1+QG2 (receiving 20 aerobic training sessions followed by 20 ''Qigong'' group sessions with 2 month interval between the interventions), or Group QG1+AT2 (performing the same treatments with an inverted sequence). clinical effects of treatment were sought through the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), Brown's Disability Scale (B'DS), six-Minute Walking Test (6MWT), Borg scale for breathlessness, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39 items (PDQ-39). A spirometry test and maximum cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) were also performed to determine the pulmonary function, the metabolic and cardio-respiratory requests at rest and under exercise. All measures were taken immediately before and at the completion of each treatment phase. The statistical analysis focusing on the evolution of motor disability and quality of life revealed a significant interaction effect between group and time for the 6MWT (time x group effect: F: 5.4 P=0.002) and the Borg scale (time x group effect: F: 4.2 P=0.009). Post hoc analysis showed a significant increase in 6MWT and a larger decrease in Borg score after aerobic training within each subgroup, whereas no significant changes were observed during Qigong. No significant changes over time were detected through the analysis of UPDRS, B'DS, BDI and PDQ-39 scores. The analysis of cardiorespiratory parameters showed significant interaction effects between group and time for the Double Productpeak (time x group effect: F: 7.7 P=0.0003), the VO(2peak) (time x group effect: F: 4.8 P=0

  17. The Effects of Tai Chi Practice With Asynchronous Music on Compliance and Fall-Related Risk Factors in Middle-Aged and Older Women: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Du, Yan; Roberts, Penny; Xu, Qingwen

    2016-03-07

    This study examined whether practicing Tai Chi (TC) along with music can maximize the effects of TC on compliance and fall-related risk factors (Dynamic Gait Index and fear of falling). A convenient sample was recruited in a community senior center. Eighteen women aged 50 to 84 years (9 White, 9 Black) were block randomly assigned to a TC in silence (TC + S; n = 6) or a TC with music (TC + M; n = 12) class. Thirteen participants (4 in TC + S group, 9 in TC + M group) with completed pre- and posttests were included in the final analysis. Paired t tests were conducted to examine changes within groups over time and analysis of covariance was used to assess group differences. After 15 weeks of intervention, balance increased in both groups with significantly higher benefits in the TC + M group (p < .05). Fear of falling scores improved in TC + M group and compliance rate was higher in this group. Practicing TC + M may help increase adherence in White and Black middle-aged and older women, and maximize the effects of TC on fall-related risk factors. Studies with more rigorous study design, including musical considerations, are warranted. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Effectiveness of a Tai Chi intervention for improving functional fitness and general health among ethnically diverse older adults with self-reported arthritis living in low-income neighborhoods: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Dogra, Shilpa; Shah, Suhayb; Patel, Meghavi; Tamim, Hala

    2015-01-01

    Tai Chi (TC) is a form of low to moderate physical activity that has been shown to significantly impact health and functional fitness among older adults; the impact of TC on the health and functional fitness of older adults with arthritis is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 16-week TC intervention for improving functional fitness and self-reported general health among older adults with arthritis who were born outside Canada and were residing in low-income neighborhoods. A 16-week intervention was conducted among older adults residing in 1 of 2 specified low-income neighborhoods in Canada. The analysis was limited to those who self-reported having arthritis (n = 102). Participants were encouraged to attend 2 moderate-intensity TC sessions per week for a total of 120 minutes. Functional fitness and health were assessed at baseline and at 16 weeks. Average attendance was 1.1 sessions per week. Functional fitness assessment results indicated that right-hand grip strength (25.6 ± 8.2 to 26.7 ± 7.8 kg), left-hand grip strength (24.9 ± 7.3 to 26.8 ± 7.1 kg), 30-second arm curl (15.6 ± 5.0 to 18.6 ± 5.7 repetitions/30 s), Timed Up-and-Go (7.4 ± 2.6 to 6.9 ± 2.6 s), and 30-second chair stand (12.0 ± 3.9 to 15.4 ± 5.8 s) improved significantly (P < 0.05) from baseline to 16 weeks. Results from the Short Form-36 indicate that physical functioning (73.1 ± 19.9 to 80.3 ± 19.4; P = 0.001), general health (61.5 ± 20.9 to 66.0 ± 20.4; P = 0.03), vitality (61.5 ± 18.9 to 67.5 ± 20.2; P = 0.008), and mental health (74.3 ± 16.5 to 78.5 ± 17.7; P = 0.04) also improved significantly over the intervention period. Improvements in physical health and physical function scores were clinically meaningful. Participating in TC for 16 weeks led to significant improvements in functional fitness and components of physical and mental health among older adults with self-reported arthritis. Tai Chi seems to be a valuable mode of

  19. Effects of Tai Chi training on exercise capacity and quality of life in patients with chronic heart failure: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Lei; Yan, JunHong; Guo, YongZhong; Yan, JunHe

    2013-03-01

    Whether Tai Chi (TC) is effective in the cardiac rehabilitation of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) remains controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to examine the effects of TC on exercise capacity and quality of life (QoL) in CHF patients. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched (up to May 2012) for relevant studies. Studies including participants with reduced left ventricular systolic function (ejection fraction ≤ 45%) were selected. Interventions considered were TC with or without comparisons (education or usual care). Weighted mean differences (WMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated, and heterogeneity was assessed using the I(2) test. Four randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (n = 242) met the inclusion criteria. TC significantly improved QoL (WMD -14.54 points; 95% CI -23.45 to -5.63). TC was not associated with a significant reduction in N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide (WMD -61.16 pg/mL; 95% CI -179.27 to 56.95), systolic blood pressure (WMD -1.06 mmHg; 95% CI -13.76 to 11.63), diastolic blood pressure (WMD -0.08 mmHg; 95% CI -3.88 to 3.73), improved 6 min walking distance (WMD 46.73 m; 95% CI -1.62 to 95.09), or peak oxygen uptake (WMD 0.19 mL/kg/min; 95% CI -0.74 to 1.13). TC may improve QoL in patients with CHF and could be considered for inclusion in cardiac rehabilitation programmes. However, there is currently a lack of evidence to support TC altering other important clinical outcomes. Further larger RCTs are urgently needed to investigate the effects of TC.

  20. Menopause, the metabolic syndrome, and mind-body therapies

    PubMed Central

    Innes, Kim E.; Selfe, Terry Kit; Taylor, Ann Gill

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease risk rises sharply with menopause, likely due to the coincident increase in insulin resistance and related atherogenic changes that together comprise the metabolic or insulin resistance syndrome, a cluster of metabolic and hemodynamic abnormalities strongly implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of cardiovascular disease. A growing body of research suggests that traditional mind-body practices such as yoga, tai chi, and qigong may offer safe and cost-effective strategies for reducing insulin resistance syndrome-related risk factors for cardiovascular disease in older populations, including postmenopausal women. Current evidence suggests that these practices may reduce insulin resistance and related physiological risk factors for cardiovascular disease; improve mood, well-being, and sleep; decrease sympathetic activation; and enhance cardiovagal function. However, additional rigorous studies are needed to confirm existing findings and to examine long-term effects on cardiovascular health. PMID:18779682

  1. Qigong Sensory Training Pilot Study: A Tactile Home Program for Children with or At-Risk for Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tal-Atzili, Orit; Salls, Joyce

    2017-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the efficacy of Qigong Sensory Training, a parent-implemented tactile intervention, in improving sensory processing and self-regulation in children with or at-risk for autism who were enrolled in early intervention. A pretest-posttest, single-subject design was implemented with three families. After 5 months, atypical…

  2. [Effect of qigong exercise on the blood level of monoamine neuro-transmitters in patients with chronic diseases].

    PubMed

    Liu, B; Jiao, J; Li, Y

    1990-04-01

    In this study, the authors, by means of fluorescence spectrophotometry, observed the variations of blood contents of monoamine neuro-transmitters (5-hydroxytamine 5-HT; norepinephrine NE; dopamine DA) in 68 subjects before and after adoption of Qigong exercises. A comparison of pre- and post-exercise showed a general reduction in 5-HT, varying from 0.43 +/- 0.21 to 0.21 +/- 0.13 microgram/ml (P less than 0.001). Variations in NE and DA tended to go up, NE being from 0.27 +/- 0.13 to 0.35 +/- 0.27 microgram/ml, DA from 0.86 +/- 0.69 to 1.19 +/- 0.81 micrograms/ml (P less than 0.02). Effects of Qigong exercises on different diseases: Subjects in each group showed reduction in blood 5-HT content after they had practised Qigong exercise. (1) Cardiovascular disease: 0.47 +/- 0.34 to 0.16 +/- 0.11 microgram/ml (n = 13); (2) gastric diseases: 0.37 +/- 0.19 to 0.22 +/- 0.13 microgram/ml (n = 20); (3) joint system diseases: 0.44 +/- 0.21 to 0.18 +/- 0.13 microgram/ml (n = 10); (4) respiratory system diseases: 0.40 +/- 0.22 to 0.22 +/- 0.12 microgram/ml (n = 8); (5) other diseases (neuroasthenia, neurosis, etc.): 0.46 +/- 0.22 to 0.25 +/- 0.14 microgram/ml (n = 13). In all these groups except the fourth group, variations in 5-HT content in comparison with the pre-exercise values were respectively P less than 0.01, less than 0.01, less than 0.05, less than 0.05. The difference was obvious. The post-exercise blood content of DA in various groups rose up remarkably.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Transforming traditional Tai Ji Quan techniques into integrative movement therapy-Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance.

    PubMed

    Li, Fuzhong

    2014-03-01

    Tai Ji Quan, developed as a martial art, has traditionally served multiple purposes, including self-defense, competition/performance, and health promotion. With respect to health, the benefits historically and anecdotally associated with Tai Ji Quan are now being supported by scientific and clinical research, with mounting evidence indicating its potential value in preventing and managing various diseases and improving well-being and quality of life in middle-aged and older adults. The research findings produced to date have both public health significance and clinical relevance. However, because of its roots in the martial arts, transforming traditional Tai Ji Quan movements and training approaches into contemporary therapeutic programs and functional applications is needed to maximize its ultimate utility. This paper addresses this issue by introducing Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance , a functional therapy that involves the use of Tai Ji Quan principles and Yang-style-based movements to form an innovative, contemporary therapeutic approach that integrates motor, sensory, and cognitive components to improve postural control, gait, and mobility for older adults and those who have neurodegenerative movement impairments. It provides a synergy of traditional and contemporary Tai Ji Quan practice with the ultimate goal of improving balance and gait, enhancing performance of daily functional tasks, and reducing incidence of falls among older adults.

  4. Complexity-Based Measures Inform Effects of Tai Chi Training on Standing Postural Control: Cross-Sectional and Randomized Trial Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wayne, Peter M.; Gow, Brian J.; Costa, Madalena D.; Peng, C.-K.; Lipsitz, Lewis A.; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.; Davis, Roger B.; Walsh, Jacquelyn N.; Lough, Matthew; Novak, Vera; Yeh, Gloria Y.; Ahn, Andrew C.; Macklin, Eric A.; Manor, Brad

    2014-01-01

    Background Diminished control of standing balance, traditionally indicated by greater postural sway magnitude and speed, is associated with falls in older adults. Tai Chi (TC) is a multisystem intervention that reduces fall risk, yet its impact on sway measures vary considerably. We hypothesized that TC improves the integrated function of multiple control systems influencing balance, quantifiable by the multi-scale “complexity” of postural sway fluctuations. Objectives To evaluate both traditional and complexity-based measures of sway to characterize the short- and potential long-term effects of TC training on postural control and the relationships between sway measures and physical function in healthy older adults. Methods A cross-sectional comparison of standing postural sway in healthy TC-naïve and TC-expert (24.5±12 yrs experience) adults. TC-naïve participants then completed a 6-month, two-arm, wait-list randomized clinical trial of TC training. Postural sway was assessed before and after the training during standing on a force-plate with eyes-open (EO) and eyes-closed (EC). Anterior-posterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) sway speed, magnitude, and complexity (quantified by multiscale entropy) were calculated. Single-legged standing time and Timed-Up–and-Go tests characterized physical function. Results At baseline, compared to TC-naïve adults (n = 60, age 64.5±7.5 yrs), TC-experts (n = 27, age 62.8±7.5 yrs) exhibited greater complexity of sway in the AP EC (P = 0.023), ML EO (P<0.001), and ML EC (P<0.001) conditions. Traditional measures of sway speed and magnitude were not significantly lower among TC-experts. Intention-to-treat analyses indicated no significant effects of short-term TC training; however, increases in AP EC and ML EC complexity amongst those randomized to TC were positively correlated with practice hours (P = 0.044, P = 0.018). Long- and short-term TC training were positively associated with physical function

  5. Complexity-Based Measures Inform Effects of Tai Chi Training on Standing Postural Control: Cross-Sectional and Randomized Trial Studies.

    PubMed

    Wayne, Peter M; Gow, Brian J; Costa, Madalena D; Peng, C-K; Lipsitz, Lewis A; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Davis, Roger B; Walsh, Jacquelyn N; Lough, Matthew; Novak, Vera; Yeh, Gloria Y; Ahn, Andrew C; Macklin, Eric A; Manor, Brad

    2014-01-01

    Diminished control of standing balance, traditionally indicated by greater postural sway magnitude and speed, is associated with falls in older adults. Tai Chi (TC) is a multisystem intervention that reduces fall risk, yet its impact on sway measures vary considerably. We hypothesized that TC improves the integrated function of multiple control systems influencing balance, quantifiable by the multi-scale "complexity" of postural sway fluctuations. To evaluate both traditional and complexity-based measures of sway to characterize the short- and potential long-term effects of TC training on postural control and the relationships between sway measures and physical function in healthy older adults. A cross-sectional comparison of standing postural sway in healthy TC-naïve and TC-expert (24.5±12 yrs experience) adults. TC-naïve participants then completed a 6-month, two-arm, wait-list randomized clinical trial of TC training. Postural sway was assessed before and after the training during standing on a force-plate with eyes-open (EO) and eyes-closed (EC). Anterior-posterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) sway speed, magnitude, and complexity (quantified by multiscale entropy) were calculated. Single-legged standing time and Timed-Up-and-Go tests characterized physical function. At baseline, compared to TC-naïve adults (n = 60, age 64.5±7.5 yrs), TC-experts (n = 27, age 62.8±7.5 yrs) exhibited greater complexity of sway in the AP EC (P = 0.023), ML EO (P<0.001), and ML EC (P<0.001) conditions. Traditional measures of sway speed and magnitude were not significantly lower among TC-experts. Intention-to-treat analyses indicated no significant effects of short-term TC training; however, increases in AP EC and ML EC complexity amongst those randomized to TC were positively correlated with practice hours (P = 0.044, P = 0.018). Long- and short-term TC training were positively associated with physical function. Multiscale entropy offers a complementary

  6. Blood pressure, salivary cortisol, and inflammatory cytokine outcomes in senior female cancer survivors enrolled in a tai chi chih randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Campo, Rebecca A; Light, Kathleen C; O'Connor, Kathleen; Nakamura, Yoshio; Lipschitz, David; LaStayo, Paul C; Pappas, Lisa M; Boucher, Kenneth M; Irwin, Michael R; Hill, Harry R; Martins, Thomas B; Agarwal, Neeraj; Kinney, Anita Y

    2015-03-01

    Older cancer survivors are a vulnerable population due to an increased risk for chronic diseases (e.g., cardiovascular disease) compounded with treatment late-effects and declines in physical functioning. Therefore, interventions that reduce chronic disease risk factors (i.e., blood pressure, chronic inflammation, and cortisol) are important in this population. Tai chi chih (TCC) is a mind-body exercise associated with reductions in chronic disease risk factors, but has not been examined with older cancer survivors. In a feasibility randomized controlled trial of TCC, we examined secondary outcomes of blood pressure, salivary cortisol, and inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-10, IL-4) due to their implications in chronic diseases. Sixty-three senior female cancer survivors (M age = 67 years, SD = 7.15) with physical functioning limitations (SF-12 physical functioning ≤80 or role-physical ≤72) were randomized to 12-weeks (60-min, three times a week) of TCC or Health Education control (HEC) classes. Resting blood pressure, 1-day salivary cortisol samples, and fasting plasma samples for cytokine multiplex assays were collected at baseline and 1-week post-intervention. Controlling for baseline values, the TCC group had significantly lower systolic blood pressure (SBP, p = 0.002) and cortisol area-under-curve (AUC, p = 0.02) at post-intervention than the HEC group. There was no intervention effect on inflammatory cytokines (p's > 0.05). This TCC feasibility trial was associated with significant reductions in SBP and cortisol AUC in senior female cancer survivors. Larger, definitive trials are needed to confirm these findings. Senior survivors' have an increased risk for chronic diseases; however, TCC interventions may help reduce associated risk factors.

  7. Comparing individual preferences for four meditation techniques: Zen, Vipassana (Mindfulness), Qigong, and Mantra.

    PubMed

    Burke, Adam

    2012-01-01

    A significant number of studies have been published examining the mind-body effects of meditation and its clinical efficacy. There are very few studies, however, which directly compare different meditation methods with each other to explore potentially distinct mechanisms and effects, and no studies comparing individual preferences for different methods. As preference is seen as an important factor in consumer healthcare decision making, greater understanding of this aspect is needed as meditation becomes a more widely used therapeutic modality. For this reason a pilot study was conducted to compare four meditation techniques for personal preference. A within-subjects comparison design was employed. A convenience sample of 247 undergraduate university students participated in the study. Participants learned two open observing meditation techniques-Vipassana (Mindfulness) and Zen, and two focused attention techniques-Mantra and Qigong Visualization, practicing one method per week. At the end of a six-week training period participants ranked the four meditation methods in order of personal preference. Ranking of subjective preference of meditations practiced. A within subjects comparison revealed that significantly more participants chose Vipassana or Mantra meditation as their preferred techniques compared with Qigong Visualization and Zen. This study provides information on differences in preference for type of meditation. As the benefits of meditation accrue over time, selecting a method that motivates sustained practice is a critical objective if therapeutic effects are to be achieved. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mind-Body Medicine and the Art of Self-Care: Teaching Mindfulness to Counseling Students through Yoga, Meditation, and Qigong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schure, Marc B.; Christopher, John; Christopher, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    A 4-year qualitative study examined the influence of teaching hatha yoga, meditation, and qigong to counseling graduate students. Participants in the 15-week, 3-credit mindfulness-based stress reduction course reported positive physical, emotional, mental, spiritual, and interpersonal changes and substantial effects on their counseling skills and…

  9. Improved Speech Following Parent-Delivered Qigong Massage in Young Children with Down Syndrome: A Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Louisa M. T.; Schalock, Mark; Williams, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Qigong massage is an eastern form of massage that can be delivered by western parents to their children with appropriate training and support. It has been shown to improve developmental measures in young children with autism when given daily for five months. A recent trial evaluating its effect on motor development in young children with Down…

  10. Hemodynamic responses to a community-based Tai Chi exercise intervention in ethnic Chinese adults with cardiovascular disease risk factors.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Piliae, Ruth E; Haskell, William L; Froelicher, Erika Sivarajan

    2006-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death among older adults worldwide, including Europe, Asia, and North America. In the United States (US), CVD is also the leading cause of death among Asian-Americans. Physical activity has been shown to reduce CVD risk factors. Reduction in blood pressure (BP) in response to Tai Chi (TC) exercise in persons with CVD risk factors have been reported, though not in ethnic Chinese living in the US. Hemodynamic responses to a 12-week community-based TC exercise intervention among ethnic Chinese with CVD risk factors were examined. Quasi-experimental design. Ethnic Chinese > 45 years old with at least 1 major CVD risk factor, living in the San Francisco Bay Area, attended a TC intervention three times a week for 12 weeks. A 2-min step-in-place test assessed aerobic endurance. BP and heart rate were measured at rest, and within 1-min after the step-test. Data were collected at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. A total of 39 subjects (69% women), 66 +/- 8.3 years old, with hypertension (92%), hypercholesteremia (49%), and/or diabetes (21%), and 1 current smoker participated. Adherence to the intervention was high (87%). Subjects were sedentary at baseline, though had a statistically significant improvement in aerobic endurance over-time (eta2 = 0.39). At baseline, the average BP at rest was 150/86, while BP in response to the step-test was 178/99. Clinically and statistically significant reductions in BP at rest (131/77), and in response to the step-test (164/82) were found over 12 weeks of TC (p < 0.01). No significant change in heart rate was observed. This innovative, culturally relevant, community-based 12-week TC exercise intervention, appealed to Chinese adults with CVD risk factors, with significant reductions in BP and improvement in aerobic endurance. Given the number of persons estimated to have HTN and other CVD risk factors, the identification of new approaches to improve health, combined with risk factor reduction

  11. Tai Chi for Reducing Dual-task Gait Variability, a Potential Mediator of Fall Risk in Parkinson's Disease: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Diaz, Gloria; Osypiuk, Kamila; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Bonato, Paolo; Gow, Brian J; Miranda, Jose Gv; Sudarsky, Lewis R; Tarsy, Daniel; Fox, Michael D; Gardiner, Paula; Thomas, Cathi A; Macklin, Eric A; Wayne, Peter M

    2018-01-01

    To assess the feasibility and inform design features of a fully powered randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluating the effects of Tai Chi (TC) in Parkinson's disease (PD) and to select outcomes most responsive to TC assessed during off-medication states. Two-arm, wait-list controlled RCT. Tertiary care hospital. Thirty-two subjects aged 40-75 diagnosed with idiopathic PD within 10 years. Six-month TC intervention added to usual care (UC) versus UC alone. Primary outcomes were feasibility-related (recruitment rate, adherence, and compliance). Change in dual-task (DT) gait stride-time variability (STV) from baseline to 6 months was defined, a priori, as the clinical outcome measure of primary interest. Other outcomes included: PD motor symptom progression (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale [UPDRS]), PD-related quality of life (PDQ-39), executive function (Trail Making Test), balance confidence (Activity-Specific Balance Confidence Scale, ABC), and Timed Up and Go test (TUG). All clinical assessments were made in the off-state for PD medications. Thirty-two subjects were enrolled into 3 sequential cohorts over 417 days at an average rate of 0.08 subjects per day. Seventy-five percent (12/16) in the TC group vs 94% (15/16) in the UC group completed the primary 6-month follow-up assessment. Mean TC exposure hours overall: 52. No AEs occurred during or as a direct result of TC exercise. Statistically nonsignificant improvements were observed in the TC group at 6 months in DT gait STV (TC [20.1%] vs UC [-0.1%] group [effect size 0.49; P = .47]), ABC, TUG, and PDQ-39. UPDRS progression was modest and very similar in TC and UC groups. Conducting an RCT of TC for PD is feasible, though measures to improve recruitment and adherence rates are needed. DT gait STV is a sensitive and logical outcome for evaluating the combined cognitive-motor effects of TC in PD.

  12. Tai Chi for Reducing Dual-task Gait Variability, a Potential Mediator of Fall Risk in Parkinson’s Disease: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Vergara-Diaz, Gloria; Osypiuk, Kamila; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Bonato, Paolo; Gow, Brian J; Miranda, Jose GV; Sudarsky, Lewis R; Tarsy, Daniel; Fox, Michael D; Gardiner, Paula; Thomas, Cathi A; Macklin, Eric A; Wayne, Peter M

    2018-01-01

    Objectives To assess the feasibility and inform design features of a fully powered randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluating the effects of Tai Chi (TC) in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and to select outcomes most responsive to TC assessed during off-medication states. Design Two-arm, wait-list controlled RCT. Settings Tertiary care hospital. Subjects Thirty-two subjects aged 40–75 diagnosed with idiopathic PD within 10 years. Interventions Six-month TC intervention added to usual care (UC) versus UC alone. Outcome Measures Primary outcomes were feasibility-related (recruitment rate, adherence, and compliance). Change in dual-task (DT) gait stride-time variability (STV) from baseline to 6 months was defined, a priori, as the clinical outcome measure of primary interest. Other outcomes included: PD motor symptom progression (Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale [UPDRS]), PD-related quality of life (PDQ-39), executive function (Trail Making Test), balance confidence (Activity-Specific Balance Confidence Scale, ABC), and Timed Up and Go test (TUG). All clinical assessments were made in the off-state for PD medications. Results Thirty-two subjects were enrolled into 3 sequential cohorts over 417 days at an average rate of 0.08 subjects per day. Seventy-five percent (12/16) in the TC group vs 94% (15/16) in the UC group completed the primary 6-month follow-up assessment. Mean TC exposure hours overall: 52. No AEs occurred during or as a direct result of TC exercise. Statistically nonsignificant improvements were observed in the TC group at 6 months in DT gait STV (TC [20.1%] vs UC [−0.1%] group [effect size 0.49; P = .47]), ABC, TUG, and PDQ-39. UPDRS progression was modest and very similar in TC and UC groups. Conclusions Conducting an RCT of TC for PD is feasible, though measures to improve recruitment and adherence rates are needed. DT gait STV is a sensitive and logical outcome for evaluating the combined cognitive-motor effects of TC in PD.

  13. Turo (qi dance) Program for Parkinson's Disease Patients: Randomized, Assessor Blind, Waiting-List Control, Partial Crossover Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwa-Jin; Kim, Song-Yi; Chae, Younbyoung; Kim, Mi-Young; Yin, Changshik; Jung, Woo-Sang; Cho, Ki-Ho; Kim, Seung-Nam; Park, Hi-Joon; Lee, Hyejung

    2018-03-01

    Qigong, Tai-chi and dancing have all been proven effective for Parkinson's disease (PD); however, no study has yet assessed the efficacy of Turo, a hybrid qigong dancing program developed to relieve symptoms in PD patients. To determine whether Turo may provide benefit in addressing the symptoms of PD patients. Randomized, assessor blind, waiting-list control, partial crossover study. Kyung Hee University Korean Medicine Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea. A total of 32 PD patients (mean age 65.7 ± 6.8). Participants were assigned to the Turo group or the waiting-list control group. The Turo group participated in an 8-week Turo training program (60-minute sessions twice a week). The waiting-list control group received no additional treatment during the same period; then underwent the same 8-week Turo training. The primary outcome was a score on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), and the secondary outcomes included the perceived health status assessed using the Parkinson's disease Quality of Life questionnaire (PDQL), balance function as assessed by the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and the results of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The Turo group showed statistically significant improvements in the UPDRS (P < 0.01) and PDQL (P < 0.05) as compared to the control group. The changes in BBS scores displayed a tendency toward improvement, but was not statistically significant (P = 0.051). These findings suggest that Turo PD training might improve the symptoms of PD patients. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Effect of Tai Ji Quan training on self-reported sleep quality in elderly Chinese women with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trail.

    PubMed

    Lü, Jiaojiao; Huang, Lingyan; Wu, Xie; Fu, Weijie; Liu, Yu

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of a 24-week Tai Ji Quan training program on sleep quality, quality of life, and physical performance among elderly Chinese women with knee osteoarthritis (OA). A 24-week randomized, controlled trial of 46 elderly women with knee OA. Participants were randomly assigned to either a Tai Ji Quan group (n = 23) or a control group (n = 23). Participants in the Tai Ji Quan group completed training sessions three times per week, while those in the control group had bi-weekly educational classes. The primary outcome was total score of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality of Index (PSQI). Secondary outcomes were: seven subscales of the PSQI; sleep latency; total sleep time; sleep efficiency; physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) of the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36); Berg Balance Scale (BBS); and Timed Up and Go (TUG). Compared with the control group, participants in the Tai Ji Quan group had significantly improved primary outcome (global PSQI score, p = 0.006) and secondary outcomes, including three PSQI sub-scores (sleep latency, p = 0.031; sleep duration, p = 0.043; daytime dysfunction, p = 0.007), total sleep time (p = 0.033), and SF-36 PCS (p = 0.006). The Tai Ji Quan group also had significant improvements compared with baseline in three PSQI sub-scores (sleep latency, p = 0.031; habitual sleep efficiency, p = 0.049; sleep disturbance, p = 0.016), sleep latency (p = 0.003), BBS (p = 0.001), and TUG (p = 0.006). Tai Ji Quan training is an effective treatment approach to improve sleep quality and quality of life in elderly Chinese women with knee OA. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (June 16, 2013): ChiCTR-TRC-13003264. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. How Do Patients with Chronic Neck Pain Experience the Effects of Qigong and Exercise Therapy? A Qualitative Interview Study.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Christine; Farahani, Zubin; Witt, Claudia M

    2016-01-01

    Background. The high prevalence of chronic neck pain in high income countries impacts quality of life and the social and work-related activities of those afflicted. We aimed to understand how mind-body therapies and exercise therapy may influence the experience of pain among patients with chronic neck pain. Methods. This qualitative interview study investigated how patients with chronic neck pain experienced the effects of exercise or qigong therapy at two time points: during an intervention at three months and after the intervention at six months. Interviews were analysed thematically across interviews and within person-cases. Based on other qualitative studies, a sample size of 20 participants was deemed appropriate. Results. The sample (n = 20) consisted of 16 women and four men (age range: 29 to 59). Patients' experiences differed according to the therapies' philosophies. Exercise therapy group interviewees described a focus on correct posture and muscle tension release. Qigong group interviewees discussed calming and relaxing effects. Maintaining regular exercise was easier to achieve with exercise therapy. Conclusions. The findings of this study may help health care providers when counselling chronic pain patients on self-help interventions by informing them of different bodily and emotional experiences of mind-body interventions compared to exercise therapy.

  16. How Do Patients with Chronic Neck Pain Experience the Effects of Qigong and Exercise Therapy? A Qualitative Interview Study

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg, Christine; Farahani, Zubin; Witt, Claudia M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The high prevalence of chronic neck pain in high income countries impacts quality of life and the social and work-related activities of those afflicted. We aimed to understand how mind-body therapies and exercise therapy may influence the experience of pain among patients with chronic neck pain. Methods. This qualitative interview study investigated how patients with chronic neck pain experienced the effects of exercise or qigong therapy at two time points: during an intervention at three months and after the intervention at six months. Interviews were analysed thematically across interviews and within person-cases. Based on other qualitative studies, a sample size of 20 participants was deemed appropriate. Results. The sample (n = 20) consisted of 16 women and four men (age range: 29 to 59). Patients' experiences differed according to the therapies' philosophies. Exercise therapy group interviewees described a focus on correct posture and muscle tension release. Qigong group interviewees discussed calming and relaxing effects. Maintaining regular exercise was easier to achieve with exercise therapy. Conclusions. The findings of this study may help health care providers when counselling chronic pain patients on self-help interventions by informing them of different bodily and emotional experiences of mind-body interventions compared to exercise therapy. PMID:27418938

  17. Tai Chi Chih Compared With Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for the Treatment of Insomnia in Survivors of Breast Cancer: A Randomized, Partially Blinded, Noninferiority Trial

    PubMed Central

    Olmstead, Richard; Carrillo, Carmen; Sadeghi, Nina; Nicassio, Perry; Ganz, Patricia A.; Bower, Julienne E.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) and Tai Chi Chih (TCC), a movement meditation, improve insomnia symptoms. Here, we evaluated whether TCC is noninferior to CBT-I for the treatment of insomnia in survivors of breast cancer. Patients and Methods This was a randomized, partially blinded, noninferiority trial that involved survivors of breast cancer with insomnia who were recruited from the Los Angeles community from April 2008 to July 2012. After a 2-month phase-in period with repeated baseline assessment, participants were randomly assigned to 3 months of CBT-I or TCC and evaluated at months 2, 3 (post-treatment), 6, and 15 (follow-up). Primary outcome was insomnia treatment response—that is, marked clinical improvement of symptoms by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index—at 15 months. Secondary outcomes were clinician-assessed remission of insomnia; sleep quality; total sleep time, sleep onset latency, sleep efficiency, and awake after sleep onset, derived from sleep diaries; polysomnography; and symptoms of fatigue, sleepiness, and depression. Results Of 145 participants who were screened, 90 were randomly assigned (CBT-I: n = 45; TCC: n = 45). The proportion of participants who showed insomnia treatment response at 15 months was 43.7% and 46.7% in CBT-I and TCC, respectively. Tests of noninferiority showed that TCC was noninferior to CBT-I at 15 months (P = .02) and at months 3 (P = .02) and 6 (P < .01). For secondary outcomes, insomnia remission was 46.2% and 37.9% in CBT-I and TCC, respectively. CBT-I and TCC groups showed robust improvements in sleep quality, sleep diary measures, and related symptoms (all P < .01), but not polysomnography, with similar improvements in both groups. Conclusion CBT-I and TCC produce clinically meaningful improvements in insomnia. TCC, a mindful movement meditation, was found to be statistically noninferior to CBT-I, the gold standard for behavioral treatment of insomnia. PMID:28489508

  18. Mind–body interventions

    PubMed Central

    Wahbeh, Helané; Elsas, Siegward-M.; Oken, Barry S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Half of the adults in the United States use complementary and alternative medicine with mind–body therapy being the most commonly used form. Neurology patients often turn to their physicians for insight into the effectiveness of the therapies and resources to integrate them into their care. The objective of this article is to give a clinical overview of mind–body interventions and their applications in neurology. Methods Medline and PsychInfo were searched on mind–body therapies and neurologic disease search terms for clinical trials and reviews and published evidence was graded. Results Meditation, relaxation, and breathing techniques, yoga, tai chi, and qigong, hypnosis, and biofeedback are described. Mind–body therapy application to general pain, back and neck pain, carpal tunnel syndrome, headaches, fibromyalgia, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, muscular dysfunction, stroke, aging, Parkinson disease, stroke, and attention deficit–hyperactivity disorder are reviewed. Conclusions There are several conditions where the evidence for mind–body therapies is quite strong such as migraine headache. Mind–body therapies for other neurology applications have limited evidence due mostly to small clinical trials and inadequate control groups. PMID:18541886

  19. Mind-body interventions: applications in neurology.

    PubMed

    Wahbeh, Helané; Elsas, Siegward-M; Oken, Barry S

    2008-06-10

    Half of the adults in the United States use complementary and alternative medicine with mind-body therapy being the most commonly used form. Neurology patients often turn to their physicians for insight into the effectiveness of the therapies and resources to integrate them into their care. The objective of this article is to give a clinical overview of mind-body interventions and their applications in neurology. Medline and PsychInfo were searched on mind-body therapies and neurologic disease search terms for clinical trials and reviews and published evidence was graded. Meditation, relaxation, and breathing techniques, yoga, tai chi, and qigong, hypnosis, and biofeedback are described. Mind-body therapy application to general pain, back and neck pain, carpal tunnel syndrome, headaches, fibromyalgia, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, muscular dysfunction, stroke, aging, Parkinson disease, stroke, and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder are reviewed. There are several conditions where the evidence for mind-body therapies is quite strong such as migraine headache. Mind-body therapies for other neurology applications have limited evidence due mostly to small clinical trials and inadequate control groups.

  20. Traditional Chinese rehabilitative therapy in the process of modernization.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, D H

    1988-01-01

    In the past few years modalities of traditional Chinese rehabilitative therapy have changed from an experimental approach towards the shaping of a modernized and scientific system. The landmark of this process is characterized by adoption of scientific methods in the appraisal of efficacy, provision of experimental evidence to unveil the mechanisms for the treatments and development of new modalities by innovation with modern technology. Recent advances in clinical and experimental studies on acupuncture, Chinese massage and manipulation, qigong, and Tai Ji exercise are reviewed, with a focus on new findings in physiological mechanisms and effects on anti-senility. Comments are made on new modalities such as 'physical therapy on acupoints'. Progress in the use of qigong (meditation therapy) in tapping mental potentials and remediating mental deficiency is also reported.

  1. Impact of Short- and Long-term Tai Chi Mind-Body Exercise Training on Cognitive Function in Healthy Adults: Results From a Hybrid Observational Study and Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Jacquelyn N; Manor, Brad; Hausdorff, Jeffrey; Novak, Vera; Lipsitz, Lewis; Gow, Brian; Macklin, Eric A; Peng, Chung-Kang; Wayne, Peter M

    2015-07-01

    Cognitive decline amongst older adults is a significant public health concern. There is growing interest in behavioral interventions, including exercise, for improving cognition. Studies to date suggest tai chi (TC) may be a safe and potentially effective exercise for preserving cognitive function with aging; however, its short-term and potential long-term impact on physically active, healthy adults is unclear. To compare differences in cognitive function among long-term TC expert practitioners and age-matched and gender-matched TC-naïve adults and to determine the effects of short-term TC training on measures of cognitive function in healthy, nonsedentary adults. A hybrid design including an observational comparison and a 2-arm randomized clinical trial (RCT). Healthy, nonsedentary, TC-naive adults (50 y-79 y) and age-matched and gender-matched long-term TC experts. A cross-sectional comparison of cognitive function in healthy TC-naïve (n=60) and TC expert (24.5 y ÷ 12 y experience; n=27) adults: TC-naïve adults then completed a 6-month, 2-arm, wait-list randomized clinical trial of TC training. Six measures of cognitive function were assessed for both cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons. TC experts exhibited trends towards better scores on all cognitive measures, significantly so for category fluency (P=.01), as well as a composite z score summarizing all 6 cognitive assessments (P=.03). In contrast, random assignment to 6 months of TC training in TC-naïve adults did not significantly improve any measures of cognitive function. In healthy nonsedentary adults, long-term TC training may help preserve cognitive function; however, the effect of short-term TC training in healthy adults remains unclear. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01340365.

  2. Journal of the Chinese Institute of Engineers. Special Issue: Commemoration of Chi-Chi Earthquake (II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-09-01

    Contents include the following: Deep Electromagnetic Images of Seismogenic Zone of the Chi-Chi (Taiwan) Earthquake; New Techniques for Stress-Forecasting Earthquakes; Aspects of Characteristics of Near-Fault Ground Motions of the 1999 Chi-Chi (Taiwan) Earthquake; Liquefaction Damage and Related Remediation in Wufeng after the Chi-Chi Earthquake; Fines Content Effects on Liquefaction Potential Evaluation for Sites Liquefied during Chi-Chi Earthquake 1999; Damage Investigation and Liquefaction Potential Analysis of Gravelly Soil; Dynamic Characteristics of Soils in Yuan-Lin Liquefaction Area; A Preliminary Study of Earthquake Building Damage and Life Loss Due to the Chi-Chi Earthquake; Statistical Analyses of Relation between Mortality and Building Type in the 1999 Chi-Chi Earthquake; Development of an After Earthquake Disaster Shelter Evaluation Model; Posttraumatic Stress Reactions in Children and Adolescents One Year after the 1999 Taiwan Chi-Chi Earthquake; Changes or Not is the Question: the Meaning of Posttraumatic Stress Reactions One Year after the Taiwan Chi-Chi Earthquake.

  3. Upper Limit of Weights in TAI Computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Claudine; Azoubib, Jacques

    1996-01-01

    The international reference time scale International Atomic Time (TAI) computed by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) relies on a weighted average of data from a large number of atomic clocks. In it, the weight attributed to a given clock depends on its long-term stability. In this paper the TAI algorithm is used as the basis for a discussion of how to implement an upper limit of weight for clocks contributing to the ensemble time. This problem is approached through the comparison of two different techniques. In one case, a maximum relative weight is fixed: no individual clock can contribute more than a given fraction to the resulting time scale. The weight of each clock is then adjusted according to the qualities of the whole set of contributing elements. In the other case, a parameter characteristic of frequency stability is chosen: no individual clock can appear more stable than the stated limit. This is equivalent to choosing an absolute limit of weight and attributing this to to the most stable clocks independently of the other elements of the ensemble. The first technique is more robust than the second and automatically optimizes the stability of the resulting time scale, but leads to a more complicated computatio. The second technique has been used in the TAI algorithm since the very beginning. Careful analysis of tests on real clock data shows that improvement of the stability of the time scale requires revision from time to time of the fixed value chosen for the upper limit of absolute weight. In particular, we present results which confirm the decision of the CCDS Working Group on TAI to increase the absolute upper limit by a factor of 2.5. We also show that the use of an upper relative contribution further helps to improve the stability and may be a useful step towards better use of the massive ensemble of HP 507IA clocks now contributing to TAI.

  4. Stability and accuracy of International Atomic Time TAI.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, C.

    Since the end of 1992, the quality of the timing data received at the BIPM has rapidly evolved dues to the extensive replacement of older designs of commercial Cs clocks. Consequently, the stability of the reference time scales has improved significantly. This was tested by running modified algorithms over the real clock data collected at the BIPM. Results of different studies are shown here; in particular the implementation of an upper relative contribution, chosen equal to 1.37% for any contributing clock, leads to σy(τ=40 d) = 1.8×10-15. The accuracy of TAI is estimated by the difference between the duration of the TAI scale interval and the SI second as produced on the rotating geoid by primary frequency standards. In this paper, TAI accuracy is evaluated from six primary frequency standards LPTF-FO1, PTB CS1, PTB CS2, PTB CS3, NIST-7 and SU MCsR 102 all corrected in a consistent manner for the gravitational shift and the black-body radiation shift. This led to a mean departure of the TAI scale interval of 1.8×10-14 s over 1995, known with a relative uncertainty of 0.5×10-14 (1σ).

  5. Time Transfer Methodologies for International Atomic Time (TAI)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    International Atomic Time (TAI) and Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) involve either GPS or Two Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer ( TWSTFT ). This paper...NRCan, provide real-time carrier-phase based time transfer as well [3,4] Beginning in 2000, time-transfer links using TWSTFT replaced some GPS...links as the primary operational link, and currently over half the clocks used for TAI-generation are linked to other sites via a direct TWSTFT link

  6. Effects of a Brief Qigong-based Stress Reduction Program (BQSRP) in a distressed Korean population: a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Distressed individuals in Korea may benefit from the practice of mind–body exercises such as Qigong. However, the effectiveness of such techniques needs to be investigated. Methods Fifty participants who were eligible to this study were randomized into a group receiving a 4-week intervention of a brief Qigong-based stress reduction program (BQSRP) or a wait-list control group. Before and after the intervention period, saliva samples were collected and questionnaires were completed on perceived stress, anxiety, “Hwa-Byung” (anger syndrome), and quality of life. Salivary cortisol has emerged in mind-body therapy research as an easy-to-collect, relatively inexpensive, biologic marker of stress. Salivary corisol were collected to evaluate physiological effect of BQSRP. Between-group comparisons of change from baseline to study completion were analyzed by analysis of covariance for the Perceived Stress Scale and independent two sample t-tests for other measures. Results Compared with the control group, the BQSRP intervention group displayed significantly larger decreases in Perceived Stress Scale scores (p = 0.0006), State Anxiety scores (p = 0.0028), Trait Anxiety scores (p < 0.0001), personality subscale scores of the Hwa-Byung Scale (p = 0.0321), symptoms scores of the Hwa-Byung Scale (p = 0.0196), and a significantly larger increase in World Health Organization Quality of Life Abbreviated version scores (ps < .05). Salivary cortisol levels were not changed. Conclusions The BQSRP appears to be effective in reducing stress perception, anxiety, anger, and improving quality of life (KCT0000056). PMID:23705963

  7. [Effects of long-term Tai Ji Quan exercise on automatic nervous modulation in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Guo, Feng

    2015-03-01

    To examine the effects of long-term Tai Ji Quan (Chinnese Traditional Exercise) on automatic nervous modulation in the elders. The 18 subjects from Tai Ji Quan exercise class in Liaoning University of Retired Veteran Cadres were assigned into long-term Tai Ji Quan exercise group including 10 subjects and novice group including 8 subjects. Electrocardiography, respiratory and blood pressure data were collected on the following time points: at rest before Tai Ji Qhuan exercise and 30 min or 60 min after Tai Ji Quan exercise. The subjects at rest state in the long-term Tai Ji Quan exercise group showed higher than the subjects in the novice group in resperitory rate (RR), standard deviations of normal to normal intervals (SDNN), total power (TP), low frequency power (LFP), high frequency power (HFP), normalized high frequency power (nHFP), but lower in LFP/HFP, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate. At rest state the respiratory rate of subjects in long-term Tai Ji Quan exercise group was significantly lower than the novices. After Tai Ji Quan exercise, TP, nHFP, LFP/HFP, heart rate and systolic pressure showed significantly changes, and the change level of Tai Ji Quan on these indices was larger in Tai Ji Quan exercise group than that in the novice group. Long-term Tai Ji Quan exercise can improve vagal modulations, and tend to reduce the sympathetic modulations.

  8. Application of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yan; Yao, Kuiwu; Jiang, Wenrui

    2017-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia, which is related to many cardiac and cerebral vascular diseases, especially stroke. It can therefore increase cardiovascular mortality and all-cause death. The current treatments of AF remain to be western drugs and radiofrequency ablation which are limited by the tolerance of patients, adverse side effects, and high recurrence rate, especially for the elderly. On the contrary, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with long history of use involves various treatment methods, including Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) or bioactive ingredients, Chinese patent medicines, acupuncture, Qigong, and Tai Chi Chuan. With more and more researches reported, the active roles of TCM in AF management have been discovered. Then it is likely that TCM would be effective preventive means and valuable additional remedy for AF. The potential mechanisms further found by numerous experimental studies showed the distinct characteristics of TCM. Some CHMs or bioactive ingredients are atrial-selective, while others are multichannel and multifunctional. Therefore, in this review we summarized the treatment strategies reported in TCM, with the purpose of providing novel ideas and directions for AF management. PMID:28243308

  9. Prevalence of Mindfulness Practices in the US Workforce: National Health Interview Survey.

    PubMed

    Kachan, Diana; Olano, Henry; Tannenbaum, Stacey L; Annane, Debra W; Mehta, Ashwin; Arheart, Kristopher L; Fleming, Lora E; Yang, Xuan; McClure, Laura A; Lee, David J

    2017-01-05

    Mindfulness-based practices can improve workers' health and reduce employers' costs by ameliorating the negative effect of stress on workers' health. We examined the prevalence of engagement in 4 mindfulness-based practices in the US workforce. We used 2002, 2007, and 2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data for adults (aged ≥18 y, n = 85,004) to examine 12-month engagement in meditation, yoga, tai chi, and qigong among different groups of workers. Reported yoga practice prevalence nearly doubled from 6.0% in 2002 to 11.0% in 2012 (P < .001); meditation rates increased from 8.0% in 2002 to 9.9% in 2007 (P < .001). In multivariable models, mindfulness practice was significantly lower among farm workers (odds ratio [OR] = 0.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.21-0.83]) and blue-collar workers (OR = 0.63; 95% CI, 0.54-0.74) than among white-collar workers. Worker groups with low rates of engagement in mindfulness practices could most benefit from workplace mindfulness interventions. Improving institutional factors limiting access to mindfulness-based wellness programs and addressing existing beliefs about mindfulness practices among underrepresented worker groups could help eliminate barriers to these programs.

  10. Comparative studies of differential expression of chitinolytic enzymes encoded by chiA, chiB, chiC and nagA genes in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Pusztahelyi, T; Molnár, Z; Emri, T; Klement, E; Miskei, M; Kerékgyárto, J; Balla, J; Pócsi, I

    2006-01-01

    N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine, chito-oligomers and carbon starvation regulated chiA, chiB, and nagA gene expressions in Aspergillus nidulans cultures. The gene expression patterns of the main extracellular endochitinase ChiB and the N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase NagA were similar, and the ChiB-NagA enzyme system may play a morphological and/or nutritional role during autolysis. Alterations in the levels of reactive oxygen species or in the glutathione-glutathione disulfide redox balance, characteristic physiological changes developing in ageing and autolyzing fungal cultures, did not affect the regulation of either the growth-related chiA or the autolysis-coupled chiB genes although both of them were down-regulated under diamide stress. The transcription of the chiC gene with unknown physiological function was repressed by increased intracellular superoxide concentration.

  11. Characterization of the biological activity of a potent small molecule Hec1 inhibitor TAI-1

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hec1 (NDC80) is an integral part of the kinetochore and is overexpressed in a variety of human cancers, making it an attractive molecular target for the design of novel anticancer therapeutics. A highly potent first-in-class compound targeting Hec1, TAI-1, was identified and is characterized in this study to determine its potential as an anticancer agent for clinical utility. Methods The in vitro potency, cancer cell specificity, synergy activity, and markers for response of TAI-1 were evaluated with cell lines. Mechanism of action was confirmed with western blotting and immunofluorescent staining. The in vivo potency of TAI-1 was evaluated in three xenograft models in mice. Preliminary toxicity was evaluated in mice. Specificity to the target was tested with a kinase panel. Cardiac safety was evaluated with hERG assay. Clinical correlation was performed with human gene database. Results TAI-1 showed strong potency across a broad spectrum of tumor cells. TAI-1 disrupted Hec1-Nek2 protein interaction, led to Nek2 degradation, induced significant chromosomal misalignment in metaphase, and induced apoptotic cell death. TAI-1 was effective orally in in vivo animal models of triple negative breast cancer, colon cancer and liver cancer. Preliminary toxicity shows no effect on the body weights, organ weights, and blood indices at efficacious doses. TAI-1 shows high specificity to cancer cells and to target and had no effect on the cardiac channel hERG. TAI-1 is synergistic with doxorubicin, topotecan and paclitaxel in leukemia, breast and liver cancer cells. Sensitivity to TAI-1 was associated with the status of RB and P53 gene. Knockdown of RB and P53 in cancer cells increased sensitivity to TAI-1. Hec1-overexpressing molecular subtypes of human lung cancer were identified. Conclusions The excellent potency, safety and synergistic profiles of this potent first-in-class Hec1-targeted small molecule TAI-1 show its potential for clinically utility in anti

  12. Slip distribution and tectonic implication of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ji, C.; Helmberger, D.V.; Song, T.-R.A.; Ma, K.-F.; Wald, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    We report on the fault complexity of the large (Mw = 7.6) Chi-Chi earthquake obtained by inverting densely and well-distributed static measurements consisting of 119 GPS and 23 doubly integrated strong motion records. We show that the slip of the Chi-Chi earthquake was concentrated on the surface of a "wedge shaped" block. The inferred geometric complexity explains the difference between the strike of the fault plane determined by long period seismic data and surface break observations. When combined with other geophysical and geological observations, the result provides a unique snapshot of tectonic deformation taking place in the form of very large (>10m) displacements of a massive wedge-shaped crustal block which may relate to the changeover from over-thrusting to subducting motion between the Philippine Sea and the Eurasian plates.

  13. Observations of changes in waveform character induced by the 1999 Mw7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, K.H.; Furumura, T.; Rubinstein, J.; Rau, R.-J.

    2011-01-01

    We observe changes in the waveforms of repeating earthquakes in eastern Taiwan following the 1999 Mw7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake, while their recurrence intervals appear to be unaffected. There is a clear reduction in waveform similarity and velocity changes indicated by delayed phases at the time of the Chi-Chi event. These changes are limited to stations in and paths that cross the 70 × 100 km region surrounding the Chi-Chi source area, the area where seismic intensity and co-seismic surface displacements were largest. This suggests that damage at the near-surface is responsible for the observed waveform changes. Delays are largest in the late S-wave coda, reaching approximately 120 ms. This corresponds to a path averaged Swave velocity reduction of approximately 1%. There is also evidence that damage in the fault-zone caused changes in waveform character at sites in the footwall, where source-receiver paths propagate either along or across the rupture. The reduction in waveform similarity persists through the most recent repeating event in our study (November 15, 2007), indicating that the subsurface damage induced by the Chi-Chi earthquake did not fully heal within the first 8 years following the Chi-Chi earthquake.

  14. Measurement of sigma chi c2 B(chi c2-->J/psi gamma)/sigma chi c1 B(chi c1 -->J/psi gamma) in pp collisions at square root s=1.96 TeV.

    PubMed

    Abulencia, A; Adelman, J; Affolder, T; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Ambrose, D; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Anikeev, K; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Arguin, J-F; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Belforte, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Budroni, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carillo, S; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carron, S; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciljak, M; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Coca, M; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Cyr, D; DaRonco, S; Datta, M; D'Auria, S; Davies, T; D'Onofrio, M; Dagenhart, D; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; Dell'Orso, M; Delli Paoli, F; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; DiTuro, P; Dörr, C; Donati, S; Donega, M; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Foland, A; Forrester, S; Foster, G W; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garberson, F; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gibson, A; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, J; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Griffiths, M; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ishizawa, Y; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jensen, H; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kemp, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kovalev, A; Kraan, A C; Kraus, J; Kravchenko, I; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhlmann, S E; Kuhr, T; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; LeCompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, Y J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Loverre, P; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Manca, G; Margaroli, F; Marginean, R; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M E; Mazini, R; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moore, R; Morello, M; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Nachtman, J; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ranjan, N; Rappoccio, S; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Sabik, S; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Saltó, O; Saltzberg, D; Sánchez, C; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfyrla, A; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Sjolin, J; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spinella, F; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; Staveris-Polykalas, A; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sun, H; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Takikawa, K; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tsuchiya, R; Tsuno, S; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Unverhau, T; Uozumi, S; Usynin, D; Vallecorsa, S; van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Veramendi, G; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vollrath, I; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, J; Wagner, W; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waschke, S; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, T; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zhang, X; Zhou, J; Zucchelli, S

    2007-06-08

    We measure the ratio of cross section times branching fraction, Rp=sigma chi c2 B(chi c2-->J/psi gamma)/sigma chi c1 B(chi c1-->J/psi gamma), in 1.1 fb(-1) of pp collisions at square root s=1.96 TeV. This measurement covers the kinematic range pT(J/psi)>4.0 GeV/c, |eta(J/psi)<1.0, and pT(gamma)>1.0 GeV/c. For events due to prompt processes, we find Rp=0.395+/-0.016(stat)+/-0.015(syst). This result represents a significant improvement in precision over previous measurements of prompt chi c1,2 hadro production.

  15. Observations of changes in waveform character induced by the 1999 M w7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, K.H.; Furumura, T.; Rubinstein, J.; Rau, R.-J.

    2011-01-01

    We observe changes in the waveforms of repeating earthquakes in eastern Taiwan following the 1999 Mw7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake, while their recurrence intervals appear to be unaffected. There is a clear reduction in waveform similarity and velocity changes indicated by delayed phases at the time of the Chi-Chi event. These changes are limited to stations in and paths that cross the 70 ?? 100 km region surrounding the Chi-Chi source area, the area where seismic intensity and co-seismic surface displacements were largest. This suggests that damage at the near-surface is responsible for the observed waveform changes. Delays are largest in the late S-wave coda, reaching approximately 120 ms. This corresponds to a path averaged S wave velocity reduction of approximately 1%. There is also evidence that damage in the fault-zone caused changes in waveform character at sites in the footwall, where source-receiver paths propagate either along or across the rupture. The reduction in waveform similarity persists through the most recent repeating event in our study (November 15, 2007), indicating that the subsurface damage induced by the Chi-Chi earthquake did not fully heal within the first 8 years following the Chi-Chi earthquake. ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. A review of current timed-AI (TAI) programs for beef and dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Colazo, Marcos G; Mapletoft, Reuben J

    2014-08-01

    This is a review of the physiology and endocrinology of the estrous cycle and how ovarian physiology can be manipulated and controlled for timed artificial insemination (TAI) in beef and dairy cattle. Estrus detection is required for artificial insemination (AI), but it is done poorly in dairy cattle and it is difficult in beef cattle. Protocols that synchronize follicle growth, corpus luteum regression and ovulation, allowing for TAI, result in improved reproductive performance, because all animals are inseminated whether they show estrus or not. As result, TAI programs have become an integral part of reproductive management in many dairy herds and offer beef producers the opportunity to incorporate AI into their herds. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone-based protocols are commonly used in North America for estrus synchronization as part of a TAI program. Protocols that increase pregnancy rates in lactating dairy cows and suckling beef cows have been developed. Protocols that improve pregnancy rates in heifers, acyclic beef cows, and resynchronized lactating dairy cows are also discussed.

  17. Spatial and temporal ecological risk assessment of unionized ammonia nitrogen in Tai Lake, China (2004-2015).

    PubMed

    Li, Yabing; Xu, Elvis Genbo; Liu, Wei; Chen, Yi; Liu, Hongling; Li, Di; Liu, Zhengtao; Giesy, John P; Yu, Hongxia

    2017-06-01

    Ammonia toxicity varies largely due to its pH- and temperature-dependent speciation (unionized ammonia nitrogen, NH 3 -N). The seasonal and long-term trend of ammonia risk in ecologically significant sections of Tai Lake, China was unknown. In this study, a two-level (deterministic and quantitative) method was developed to assess the special ecological risks posed by NH 3 -N at 37 sites during two seasons (February and September) of 2014 in Tai Lake. The long-term temporal (2004-2015) risk posed by NH 3 -N was also assessed by comparing annual quantitative risk values (probability of exceeding acute or chronic threshold values) in three key sections of Tai Lake. The results indicated the species living in the Tai Lake were at a 0.04% and 32.45% chance of risk due to acute exposure, and a 1.97% and 92.05% chance of risk due to chronic exposure in February and September of 2014, respectively. Alarmingly, the chronic ecological risks of NH 3 -N in the Lanshanzui section of the Tai Lake remained >30% from 2004 to 2011. The chronic risk of NH 3 -N in all three key sections of Tai Lake started to decrease in 2011. This was likely the consequence of the control practice of eutrophication implemented in the Tai Lake. A significant decline in diversity of the benthic invertebrate community of the Tai Lake could be associated with continuous exposure to ammonia over decades given different sensitivity of taxa to ammonia. The results laid a scientific foundation for risk assessment and management of ammonia in Tai Lake, China, and the developed two-level risk assessment approach can also be applied to other similar aquatic regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence of Mindfulness Practices in the US Workforce: National Health Interview Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kachan, Diana; Olano, Henry; Tannenbaum, Stacey L.; Annane, Debra W.; Mehta, Ashwin; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Fleming, Lora E.; McClure, Laura A.; Lee, David J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Mindfulness-based practices can improve workers’ health and reduce employers’ costs by ameliorating the negative effect of stress on workers’ health. We examined the prevalence of engagement in 4 mindfulness-based practices in the US workforce. Methods We used 2002, 2007, and 2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data for adults (aged ≥18 y, n = 85,004) to examine 12-month engagement in meditation, yoga, tai chi, and qigong among different groups of workers. Results Reported yoga practice prevalence nearly doubled from 6.0% in 2002 to 11.0% in 2012 (P < .001); meditation rates increased from 8.0% in 2002 to 9.9% in 2007 (P < .001). In multivariable models, mindfulness practice was significantly lower among farm workers (odds ratio [OR] = 0.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.21–0.83]) and blue-collar workers (OR = 0.63; 95% CI, 0.54–0.74) than among white-collar workers. Conclusion Worker groups with low rates of engagement in mindfulness practices could most benefit from workplace mindfulness interventions. Improving institutional factors limiting access to mindfulness-based wellness programs and addressing existing beliefs about mindfulness practices among underrepresented worker groups could help eliminate barriers to these programs. PMID:28055821

  19. A Systematic Overview of Reviews for Complementary and Alternative Therapies in the Treatment of the Fibromyalgia Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Häuser, Winfried; Dobos, Gustav; Langhorst, Jost

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This systematic overview of reviews aimed to summarize evidence and methodological quality from systematic reviews of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for the fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Methods. The PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Scopus databases were screened from their inception to Sept 2013 to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses of CAM interventions for FMS. Methodological quality of reviews was rated using the AMSTAR instrument. Results. Altogether 25 systematic reviews were found; they investigated the evidence of CAM in general, exercised-based CAM therapies, manipulative therapies, Mind/Body therapies, acupuncture, hydrotherapy, phytotherapy, and homeopathy. Methodological quality of reviews ranged from lowest to highest possible quality. Consistently positive results were found for tai chi, yoga, meditation and mindfulness-based interventions, hypnosis or guided imagery, electromyogram (EMG) biofeedback, and balneotherapy/hydrotherapy. Inconsistent results concerned qigong, acupuncture, chiropractic interventions, electroencephalogram (EEG) biofeedback, and nutritional supplements. Inconclusive results were found for homeopathy and phytotherapy. Major methodological flaws included missing details on data extraction process, included or excluded studies, study details, and adaption of conclusions based on quality assessment. Conclusions. Despite a growing body of scientific evidence of CAM therapies for the management of FMS systematic reviews still show methodological flaws limiting definite conclusions about their efficacy and safety. PMID:26246841

  20. A Systematic Overview of Reviews for Complementary and Alternative Therapies in the Treatment of the Fibromyalgia Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lauche, Romy; Cramer, Holger; Häuser, Winfried; Dobos, Gustav; Langhorst, Jost

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This systematic overview of reviews aimed to summarize evidence and methodological quality from systematic reviews of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for the fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Methods. The PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Scopus databases were screened from their inception to Sept 2013 to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses of CAM interventions for FMS. Methodological quality of reviews was rated using the AMSTAR instrument. Results. Altogether 25 systematic reviews were found; they investigated the evidence of CAM in general, exercised-based CAM therapies, manipulative therapies, Mind/Body therapies, acupuncture, hydrotherapy, phytotherapy, and homeopathy. Methodological quality of reviews ranged from lowest to highest possible quality. Consistently positive results were found for tai chi, yoga, meditation and mindfulness-based interventions, hypnosis or guided imagery, electromyogram (EMG) biofeedback, and balneotherapy/hydrotherapy. Inconsistent results concerned qigong, acupuncture, chiropractic interventions, electroencephalogram (EEG) biofeedback, and nutritional supplements. Inconclusive results were found for homeopathy and phytotherapy. Major methodological flaws included missing details on data extraction process, included or excluded studies, study details, and adaption of conclusions based on quality assessment. Conclusions. Despite a growing body of scientific evidence of CAM therapies for the management of FMS systematic reviews still show methodological flaws limiting definite conclusions about their efficacy and safety.

  1. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by Tai Yai in Northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Khuankaew, Sunee; Srithi, Kamonnate; Tiansawat, Pimonrat; Jampeetong, Arunothai; Inta, Angkhana; Wangpakapattanawong, Prasit

    2014-02-03

    We studied traditional knowledge of medicinal plants used by Tai Yai people in Northern Thailand. We documented traditional medical practices and determined importance among the Tai Yai. This paper reports on knowledge in usage of medicinal plants of the Tai Yai people in Northern Thailand. Interviews were conducted in 4 Tai Yai villages in Mae Hong Son and Chiang Mai provinces whose inhabitants immigrated from Myanmar at different times. Discussions and interviews were held with 126 key-informants (56 males and 70 females) ranging in age from 16 to 80 years in three age groups (age 16-40, 41-60, and 61-80). We calculated the informant consensus factor (ICF) for use category, use value index (UV) for use report of plant. We tested differences between the knowledge of different age groups and locations using principal component analysis (PCA). These Tai Yai people used of 141 medicinal plants belonging to 59 families. Of the medicinal plant species, the highest percentage was in the family Euphorbiaceae: Croton acutifolius and Croton roxburghii. The highest number of Informant consensus factor was for metabolic system disorders. Overall, Tai Yai people use medicinal plants to cure many sicknesses such as hypertension, lumbago, wounds, puerperium, kidney disorders, kidney stones, coughs, fevers, hemorrhoids, flatulence and malaria. There were no significant differences in knowledge of plants usage among villages of different ages. In addition, the knowledge of the plants was not significantly different between men and women. However, we found that the younger had less experience with and knowledge of medicinal plants than older people. The result indicates loss of accumulated knowledge of medicinal plants and traditional use. Although, the medicinal plant knowledge was passed from one generation to the next by word of mouth, the detailed documentation of medicinal plants and their use may effectively prevent the knowledge-loss through time. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland

  2. {sigma}({chi}{sub c1})/{sigma}({chi}{sub c2}) ratio in the k{sub t}-factorization approach

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Baranov, S. P.

    2011-02-01

    We address the puzzle of {sigma}({chi}{sub c1})/{sigma}({chi}{sub c2}) ratio at the collider and fixed-target experiments. We consider several factors that can affect the predicted ratio of the production rates. In particular, we discuss the effect of {chi}{sub cJ} polarization, the effect of including next-to-leading order contributions, and the effect of probably different {chi}{sub c1} and {chi}{sub c2} wave functions.

  3. Impact of new clock technologies on the stability and accuracy of the International Atomic Time TAI.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, C.

    1997-05-01

    The BIPM Time Section is in charge of the generation of the reference time scales TAI and UTC. Both time scales are obtained in deferred-time by combining the data front a number of atomic clocks spread worldwide. The accuracy of TAI is estimated by the departure between the duration of the TAI scale interval and the SI second as produced on the rotating geoid by primary frequency standards. It is now possible to estimate TAI accuracy through the combination of results obtained from six different primary standards: LPTF-FO1, PTB CS1, PTB CS2, PTB CS3, NIST-7, and SU MCsR 102, all corrected for the black-body radiation shift. This led to a mean departure of the TAI scale interval of +2.0×10-14s over 1995, known with a relative uncertainty of 0.5×10-14(1σ).

  4. Validation of the 'Test of the Adherence to Inhalers' (TAI) for Asthma and COPD Patients.

    PubMed

    Plaza, Vicente; Fernández-Rodríguez, Concepción; Melero, Carlos; Cosío, Borja G; Entrenas, Luís Manuel; de Llano, Luis Pérez; Gutiérrez-Pereyra, Fernando; Tarragona, Eduard; Palomino, Rosa; López-Viña, Antolín

    2016-04-01

    To validate the 'Test of Adherence to Inhalers' (TAI), a 12-item questionnaire designed to assess the adherence to inhalers in patients with COPD or asthma. A total of 1009 patients with asthma or COPD participated in a cross-sectional multicenter study. Patients with electronic adherence ≥80% were defined as adherents. Construct validity, internal validity, and criterion validity were evaluated. Self-reported adherence was compared with the Morisky-Green questionnaire. Factor analysis study demonstrated two factors, factor 1 was coincident with TAI patient domain (items 1 to 10) and factor 2 with TAI health-care professional domain (items 11 and 12). The Cronbach's alpha was 0.860 and the test-retest reliability 0.883. TAI scores correlated with electronic adherence (ρ=0.293, p=0.01). According to the best cut-off for 10 items (score 50, area under the ROC curve 0.7), 569 (62.5%) patients were classified as non-adherents. The non-adherence behavior pattern was: erratic 527 (57.9%), deliberate 375 (41.2%), and unwitting 242 (26.6%) patients. As compared to Morisky-Green test, TAI showed better psychometric properties. The TAI is a reliable and homogeneous questionnaire to identify easily non-adherence and to classify from a clinical perspective the barriers related to the use of inhalers in asthma and COPD.

  5. A review of current timed-AI (TAI) programs for beef and dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    Colazo, Marcos G.; Mapletoft, Reuben J.

    2014-01-01

    This is a review of the physiology and endocrinology of the estrous cycle and how ovarian physiology can be manipulated and controlled for timed artificial insemination (TAI) in beef and dairy cattle. Estrus detection is required for artificial insemination (AI), but it is done poorly in dairy cattle and it is difficult in beef cattle. Protocols that synchronize follicle growth, corpus luteum regression and ovulation, allowing for TAI, result in improved reproductive performance, because all animals are inseminated whether they show estrus or not. As result, TAI programs have become an integral part of reproductive management in many dairy herds and offer beef producers the opportunity to incorporate AI into their herds. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone-based protocols are commonly used in North America for estrus synchronization as part of a TAI program. Protocols that increase pregnancy rates in lactating dairy cows and suckling beef cows have been developed. Protocols that improve pregnancy rates in heifers, acyclic beef cows, and resynchronized lactating dairy cows are also discussed. PMID:25082993

  6. Epidemic characteristics and spatio-temporal patterns of scrub typhus during 2006-2013 in Tai'an, Northern China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, L; Yang, H-L; Bi, Z-W; Kou, Z-Q; Zhang, L-Y; Zhang, A-H; Yang, L; Zhao, Z-T

    2015-08-01

    Tai'an, a famous cultural tourist district, is a new endemic foci of scrub typhus in northern China. Frequent reports of travel-acquired cases and absence of effective vaccine indicated a significant health problem of scrub typhus in Tai'an. Thus, descriptive epidemiological methods and spatial-temporal scan statistics were used to describe the epidemic characteristics and detect the significant clusters of the high incidence of scrub typhus at the town level in Tai'an. Results of descriptive epidemiological analysis showed a total of 490 cases were reported in Tai'an with the annual average incidence ranging from 0·48 to 2·27/100 000 during 2006-2013. Females, the elderly and farmers are the high-risk groups. Monthly changes of scrub typhus cases indicated an obvious epidemic period in autumn. Spatial-temporal distribution analysis, showed significant clusters of high incidence mainly located in eastern and northern Tai'an. Our study suggests that more effective, targeted measures for local residents should be implemented in the eastern and northern areas of Tai'an in autumn. Meanwhile, it may prove beneficial for health policy makers to advise travellers to take preventive measures in order to minimize the risk of infection of scrub typhus in Tai'an.

  7. CHI Research on NSTX-U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lay, W.-S.; Raman, R.; Jarboe, T. R.; Nelson, B. A.; Mueller, D.; Ebrahimi, F.; Ono, M.; Jardin, S. C.; Taylor, G.

    2017-10-01

    At present about 20% of the total plasma current required for sustained operation has been generated by transient CHI. The present understanding suggests that it may be possible to generate all of the needed current in a ST / tokamak using transient CHI. In such a scenario, one could transition directly from a CHI produced plasma to a non-inductively sustained plasma, without the difficult intermediate step that involves non-inductive current ramp-up. STs based on this new configuration would take advantage of evolving developments in high-temperature superconductor technology to develop a simpler design ST that relies primarily on CHI for plasma current generation. Motivated by the very good results from NSTX and HIT-II, we are examining the potential application of transient CHI for reactor configurations through these studies. (1) Study of the maximum levels of start-up currents that could be generated on NSTX-U, (2) application of a single biased electrode configuration on QUEST to protect the insulator from neutron damage in a CHI reactor installation, and (3) QUEST-like, but a double biased electrode configuration for PEGASUS and NSTX-U. Results from these on-going studies will be described. This work is supported by U.S. DOE Contracts: DE-AC02-09CH11466, DE-FG02-99ER54519 AM08, and DE-SC0006757.

  8. On Optimizing the Configuration of Time-Transfer Links Used to Generate TAI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    TAI be generated through combinations of Two Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer ( TWSTFT ) links and GPS links. It is assumed that Study Group I...the lack of low-noise connectivity between the Asian and American-European TWSTFT links may require two pivot sites instead of one. We recommend...band Two Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer ( TWSTFT ), and X-band TWSTFT [1]. In order to improve TAI-generation, the BIPM Time Section asked

  9. Correlates of Exercise Self-Efficacy in a Randomized Trial of Mind-Body Exercise in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Gloria Y.; Mu, Lin; Davis, Roger B.; Wayne, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Exercise self-efficacy is one of the strongest predictors of physical activity behavior. Prior literature suggests that tai chi, a mind-body exercise, may increase self-efficacy, however this is not well-studied. Little is known about the factors associated with development of exercise self-efficacy in a heart failure population. Methods We utilized data from a randomized controlled trial of 12 weeks group tai chi classes vs. education in patients with chronic heart failure (N=100). We used multivariable linear regression to explore possible correlates of change in exercise self-efficacy in the entire sample, and in the subgroup who received tai chi (N=50). Covariates included baseline quality-of-life, social support, functional parameters, physical activity, serum biomarkers, sociodemographics, and clinical HF parameters. Results Baseline 6-minute walk (β= −0.0003;SE 0.0001;p=0.02) and fatigue score (β= 0.03;SE 0.01;p=0.004) were significantly associated with change in self-efficacy, with those in the lowest tertile for 6-minute walk and higher tertiles for fatigue score having the greatest change. Intervention group was highly significant, with self-efficacy significantly improved in the tai chi group compared to the education control over 12 weeks (β= 0.39;SE: 0.11;p< 0.001). In the tai chi group alone, lower baseline oxygen consumption (β= −0.05;SE 0.01;p=0.001), decreased mood (β= −0.01;SE 0.003;p=0.004), and higher catecholamine level (epinephrine β= 0.003;SE 0.001;p=0.005) were significantly associated with improvements in self-efficacy. Conclusions In this exploratory analysis, our initial findings support the concept that interventions like tai chi may be beneficial in improving exercise self-efficacy, especially in patients with heart failure who are deconditioned, with lower functional status and mood. PMID:26959498

  10. Correlates of Exercise Self-efficacy in a Randomized Trial of Mind-Body Exercise in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Gloria Y; Mu, Lin; Davis, Roger B; Wayne, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    Exercise self-efficacy is one of the strongest predictors of physical activity behavior. Prior literature suggests that tai chi, a mind-body exercise, may increase self-efficacy; however, this is not extensively studied. Little is known about the factors associated with development of exercise self-efficacy in a population with heart failure. We utilized data from a randomized controlled trial of 12 weeks of group tai chi classes versus education in patients with chronic heart failure (n = 100). Multivariable linear regression was used to explore possible correlates of change in exercise self-efficacy in the entire sample and in the subgroup who received tai chi (n = 50). Covariates included baseline quality of life, social support, functional parameters, physical activity, serum biomarkers, sociodemographics, and clinical heart failure parameters. Baseline 6-minute walk (β=-0.0003, SE = 0.0001, P = .02) and fatigue score (β= 0.03, SE = 0.01, P = .004) were significantly associated with change in self-efficacy, with those in the lowest tertile for 6-minute walk and higher tertiles for fatigue score experiencing the greatest change. Intervention group assignment was highly significant, with self-efficacy significantly improved in the tai chi group compared to the education control over 12 weeks (β= 0.39, SE = 0.11, P < .001). In the tai chi group alone, lower baseline oxygen uptake (β=-0.05, SE = 0.01, P = .001), decreased mood (β=-0.01, SE = 0.003, P = .004), and higher catecholamine level (epinephrine β= 0.003, SE = 0.001, P = .005) were significantly associated with improvements in self-efficacy. In this exploratory analysis, our initial findings support the concept that interventions like tai chi may be beneficial in improving exercise self-efficacy, especially in patients with heart failure who are deconditioned, with lower functional status and mood.

  11. An Ai Chi-based aquatic group improves balance and reduces falls in community-dwelling adults: A pilot observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Elizabeth H; Dinh, Tammy; Hewitt, Melissa; Piper, Ross; Thwaites, Claire

    2016-11-01

    Falls are associated with morbidity, loss of independence, and mortality. While land-based group exercise and Tai Chi programs reduce the risk of falls, aquatic therapy may allow patients to complete balance exercises with less pain and fear of falling; however, limited data exist. The objective of the study was to pilot the implementation of an aquatic group based on Ai Chi principles (Aquabalance) and to evaluate the safety, intervention acceptability, and intervention effect sizes. Pilot observational cohort study. Forty-two outpatients underwent a single 45-minute weekly group aquatic Ai Chi-based session for eight weeks (Aquabalance). Safety was monitored using organizational reporting systems. Patient attendance, satisfaction, and self-reported falls were also recorded. Balance measures included the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, the Four Square Step Test (FSST), and the unilateral Step Tests. Forty-two patients completed the program. It was feasible to deliver Aquabalance, as evidenced by the median (IQR) attendance rate of 8.0 (7.8, 8.0) out of 8. No adverse events occurred and participants reported high satisfaction levels. Improvements were noted on the TUG, 10-meter walk test, the Functional Reach Test, the FSST, and the unilateral step tests (p < 0.05). The proportion of patients defined as high falls risk reduced from 38% to 21%. The study was limited by its small sample size, single-center nature, and the absence of a control group. Aquabalance was safe, well-attended, and acceptable to participants. A randomized controlled assessor-blinded trial is required.

  12. Study protocol on comparative effectiveness of mindfulness meditation and qigong on psychophysiological outcomes for patients with colorectal cancer: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ho, Rainbow T H; Wan, Adrian H Y; Chan, Jessie S M; Ng, S M; Chung, K F; Chan, Cecilia L W

    2017-08-08

    Colorectal cancer imposes threats to patients' well-being. Although most physical symptoms can be managed by medication, psychosocial stressors may complicate survival and hamper quality of life. Mindfulness and Qigong, two kinds of mind-body exercise rooted in Eastern health philosophy, has been found effective in symptoms management, improving mental health, and reducing stress. With these potential benefits, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) is planned to investigate the comparative effectiveness of mindfulness and Baduanjin intervention on the bio-psychosocial wellbeing of people with colorectal cancer. A 3-arm RCT with waitlist control design will be used in this study. One hundred eighty-nine participants will be randomized into (i) Mindfulness, (ii) Baduanjin, or (iii) waitlist control groups. Participants in both the Baduanjin and mindfulness groups will receive 8-weeks of specific intervention. All three groups will undergo four assessment phases: (i) at baseline, (ii) at 4-week, (iii) at 8-week (post-intervention), and 6-month post-intervention (maintenance). All participants will be assessed in terms of cancer-related symptoms and symptom distress, mental health status, quality of life, stress level based on physiological marker. Based on prior research studies, participants in both the mindfulness and Baduanjn intervention group are expected to have better symptoms management, lower stress level, better mental health, and higher level of quality of life than the control group. This study contributes to better understanding on the common and unique effectiveness of mindfulness and Baduanjin qigong, as such patients and qualified healthcare professionals can select or provide practices which will produce maximum benefits, satisfaction, adherence, and sustainability. The trial has been registered in the Clinical Trials Centre of the University of Hong Kong ( HKCTR-2198 ) on 08 March 2017.

  13. Near-surface versus fault zone damage following the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake: Observation and simulation of repeating earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Kate Huihsuan; Furumura, Takashi; Rubinstein, Justin L.

    2015-01-01

    We observe crustal damage and its subsequent recovery caused by the 1999 M7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake in central Taiwan. Analysis of repeating earthquakes in Hualien region, ~70 km east of the Chi-Chi earthquake, shows a remarkable change in wave propagation beginning in the year 2000, revealing damage within the fault zone and distributed across the near surface. We use moving window cross correlation to identify a dramatic decrease in the waveform similarity and delays in the S wave coda. The maximum delay is up to 59 ms, corresponding to a 7.6% velocity decrease averaged over the wave propagation path. The waveform changes on either side of the fault are distinct. They occur in different parts of the waveforms, affect different frequencies, and the size of the velocity reductions is different. Using a finite difference method, we simulate the effect of postseismic changes in the wavefield by introducing S wave velocity anomaly in the fault zone and near the surface. The models that best fit the observations point to pervasive damage in the near surface and deep, along-fault damage at the time of the Chi-Chi earthquake. The footwall stations show the combined effect of near-surface and the fault zone damage, where the velocity reduction (2–7%) is twofold to threefold greater than the fault zone damage observed in the hanging wall stations. The physical models obtained here allow us to monitor the temporal evolution and recovering process of the Chi-Chi fault zone damage.

  14. Autosomal STRs provide genetic evidence for the hypothesis that Tai people originate from southern China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hao; Zhou, Chi; Huang, Xiaoqin; Lin, Keqin; Shi, Lei; Yu, Liang; Liu, Shuyuan; Chu, Jiayou; Yang, Zhaoqing

    2013-01-01

    Tai people are widely distributed in Thailand, Laos and southwestern China and are a large population of Southeast Asia. Although most anthropologists and historians agree that modern Tai people are from southwestern China and northern Thailand, the place from which they historically migrated remains controversial. Three popular hypotheses have been proposed: northern origin hypothesis, southern origin hypothesis or an indigenous origin. We compared the genetic relationships between the Tai in China and their "siblings" to test different hypotheses by analyzing 10 autosomal microsatellites. The genetic data of 916 samples from 19 populations were analyzed in this survey. The autosomal STR data from 15 of the 19 populations came from our previous study (Lin et al., 2010). 194 samples from four additional populations were genotyped in this study: Han (Yunnan), Dai (Dehong), Dai (Yuxi) and Mongolian. The results of genetic distance comparisons, genetic structure analyses and admixture analyses all indicate that populations from northern origin hypothesis have large genetic distances and are clearly differentiated from the Tai. The simulation-based ABC analysis also indicates this. The posterior probability of the northern origin hypothesis is just 0.04 [95%CI: (0.01-0.06)]. Conversely, genetic relationships were very close between the Tai and populations from southern origin or an indigenous origin hypothesis. Simulation-based ABC analyses were also used to distinguish the southern origin hypothesis from the indigenous origin hypothesis. The results indicate that the posterior probability of the southern origin hypothesis [0.640, 95%CI: (0.524-0.757)] is greater than that of the indigenous origin hypothesis [0.324, 95%CI: (0.211-0.438)]. Therefore, we propose that the genetic evidence does not support the hypothesis of northern origin. Our genetic data indicate that the southern origin hypothesis has higher probability than the other two hypotheses statistically

  15. Practice of traditional Chinese medicine for psycho-behavioral intervention improves quality of life in cancer patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Tao, Weiwei; Luo, Xi; Cui, Bai; Liang, Dapeng; Wang, Chunli; Duan, Yangyang; Li, Xiaofen; Zhou, Shiyu; Zhao, Mingjie; Li, Yi; He, Yumin; Wang, Shaowu; Kelley, Keith W; Jiang, Ping; Liu, Quentin

    2015-11-24

    Cancer patients suffer from diverse symptoms, including depression, anxiety, pain, and fatigue and lower quality of life (QoL) during disease progression. This study aimed to evaluate the benefits of Traditional Chinese Medicine psycho-behavioral interventions (TCM PBIs) on improving QoL by meta-analysis. The six TCM PBIs analyzed were acupuncture, Chinese massage, Traditional Chinese Medicine five elements musical intervention (TCM FEMI), Traditional Chinese Medicine dietary supplement (TCM DS), Qigong and Tai Chi. Although both TCM PBIs and non-TCM PBIs reduced functional impairments in cancer patients and led to pain relief, depression remission, reduced time to flatulence following surgery and sleep improvement, TCM PBIs showed more beneficial effects as assessed by reducing both fatigue and gastrointestinal distress. In particular, acupuncture relieved fatigue, reduced diarrhea and decreased time to flatulence after surgery in cancer patients, while therapeutic Chinese massage reduced time to flatulence and time to peristaltic sound. Electronic literature databases (PubMed, CNKI, VIP, and Wanfang) were searched for randomized, controlled trials conducted in China. The primary intervention was TCM PBIs. The main outcome was health-related QoL (HR QoL) post-treatment. We applied standard meta analytic techniques to analyze data from papers that reached acceptable criteria. These findings demonstrate the efficacy of TCM PBIs in improving QoL in cancer patients and establish that TCM PBIs represent beneficial adjunctive therapies for cancer patients.

  16. Exercise for adults with fibromyalgia: an umbrella systematic review with synthesis of best evidence.

    PubMed

    Bidonde, Julia; Busch, Angela Jean; Bath, Brenna; Milosavljevic, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this umbrella systematic review was to identify, evaluate, and synthesize systematic reviews of physical activity interventions for adults with fibromyalgia (FM) focussing on four outcomes: pain, multidimensional function (wellness or quality of life), physical function (self-reported physical function or measured physical fitness) and adverse effects. A further objective was to link these outcomes with details of the interventions so as to guide and shape future practice and research. Electronic databases including Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, the Cochrane Library, and DARE, were searched for the January 1(st) 2007 to March 31(st) 2013 period. Nine systematic reviews (60 RCTs with 3816 participants) were included. Meta-analysis was not conducted due to the heterogeneity of the sample. We found positive results of diverse exercise interventions on pain, multidimensional function, and self-reported physical function, and no supporting evidence for new (to FM) interventions (i.e., qigong, tai chi). There were no serious adverse effects reported. The variability of the interventions in the reviews prevented us from answering important clinical questions to guide practical decisions about optimal modes or dosages (i.e., frequency, intensity, duration). Finally, the number of review articles is proliferating, leading researchers and reviewers to consider the rigor and quality of the information being reviewed. As well, consumers of these reviews (i.e., clinicians, individuals with FM) should not rely on them without careful consideration.

  17. What Is the Molecular Signature of Mind-Body Interventions? A Systematic Review of Gene Expression Changes Induced by Meditation and Related Practices.

    PubMed

    Buric, Ivana; Farias, Miguel; Jong, Jonathan; Mee, Christopher; Brazil, Inti A

    2017-01-01

    There is considerable evidence for the effectiveness of mind-body interventions (MBIs) in improving mental and physical health, but the molecular mechanisms of these benefits remain poorly understood. One hypothesis is that MBIs reverse expression of genes involved in inflammatory reactions that are induced by stress. This systematic review was conducted to examine changes in gene expression that occur after MBIs and to explore how these molecular changes are related to health. We searched PubMed throughout September 2016 to look for studies that have used gene expression analysis in MBIs (i.e., mindfulness, yoga, Tai Chi, Qigong, relaxation response, and breath regulation). Due to the limited quantity of studies, we included both clinical and non-clinical samples with any type of research design. Eighteen relevant studies were retrieved and analyzed. Overall, the studies indicate that these practices are associated with a downregulation of nuclear factor kappa B pathway; this is the opposite of the effects of chronic stress on gene expression and suggests that MBI practices may lead to a reduced risk of inflammation-related diseases. However, it is unclear how the effects of MBIs compare to other healthy interventions such as exercise or nutrition due to the small number of available studies. More research is required to be able to understand the effects of MBIs at the molecular level.

  18. [A randomized, double-blind, controlled study: Ji-Tai tablet for the treatment of acute withdrawl syndrome of mild heroin dependence].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuhong; Tang, Cuiqing; Cheng, Shuang; Cui, Guimei; Zhang, Ruiling; Zhang, Zhiyong; Xie, Lingyin; Lin, Yongxiong; Hao, Wei

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the efficacy and safety of Ji-Tai tablet and Ji-Tai tablet combined with buprenorphine in the treatment of patients with acute withdrawal syndrome of mild heroin dependence. A total of 150 patients with mild heroin dependence were recruited, and were randomly assigned to a Ji-Tai tablet group (n=50), a Ji-Tai tablet combined with buprenorphine group (n=50) and a control group (n=50) during a 10-day clinical trial. Opiate withdrawal scale (OWS) was used to measure the severity of withdrawal symptoms. Anxiety symptoms assessments were made at 0 day (baseline), the day 5 (middle), and the day 10 (end) by the Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA). Symptoms were assessed before and 1 h or 2 h after medication each day. The total withdrawal symptoms scores and the daily reduction rate were used to measure the effect of Ji-Tai tablet vs Ji- Tai tablet plus buprenorphine. Safety evaluation was carried out by the following measures: baseline of treatment, drug side effects after the treatment, vital signs (blood pressure, heart rate, and respiration rate), laboratory examination (routine blood and urine tests and the liver and kidney function tests), and electrocardiograms. A total of 142 mild heroin dependence patients performed the experiments (including 48 in the Ji-Tai tablet group, 48 in the Ji-Tai tablet with buprenorphine group and 46 in the control group). The scores of baseline withdrawal symptoms were 43.520±19.786, 42.640±17.648 and 47.100±24.450, respectively, with no significant differences among the 3 groups (all P>0.05 ). During the 10-day treatment, the reduction rate of acute withdrawal symptoms scores increased daily, the acute withdrawal syndrome scores and the anxiety symptoms scores declined from day 0 to day 10, there was also no significant difference among the 3 groups (all P>0.05). Ji-Tai tablet did not affect vital signs such as blood pressure, heart rate, and respiration rate. Ji-Tai tablet or Ji-Tai tablet combined with buprenorphine

  19. mRNA expression of EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 in oil palm leaves (Elaeis guineesis Jacq.) after treatment with Ganoderma boninense pat. and Trichoderma harzianum Rifai.

    PubMed

    Naher, Laila; Tan, Soon Guan; Ho, Chai Ling; Yusuf, Umi Kalsom; Ahmad, Siti Hazar; Abdullah, Faridah

    2012-01-01

    Basal stem rot (BSR) disease caused by the fungus Ganoderma boninense is the most serious disease affecting the oil palm; this is because the disease escapes the early disease detection. The biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum can protect the disease only at the early stage of the disease. In the present study, the expression levels of three oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) chitinases encoding EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 at 2, 5, and 8 weeks inoculation were measured in oil palm leaves from plants treated with G. boninense or T. harzianum alone or both. The five-month-old oil palm seedlings were treated with Gano-wood blocks inoculum and trichomulch. Expression of EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 in treated leaves tissue was determined by real-time PCR. Oil palm chitinases were not strongly expressed in oil palm leaves of plants treated with G. boninense alone compared to other treatments. Throughout the 8-week experiment, expression of EgCHI1 increased more than 3-fold in leaves of plants treated with T. harzianum and G. boninense when compared to those of control and other treated plants. The data illustrated that chitinase cDNA expression varied depending on tissue and the type of treatment.

  20. What Next After Ho Chi Minh?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-04-08

    Propagands Department; Nguyen Chi Thanh, protege of Truong Chinh ; Nguyen Duy Trinh; and Le Duc Thoo The pro-Soviet faction consists of Pham Van Dong...Communist" "Pro-Soviet" Ho Chi Minh Le Duan Truong Chinh Pham Van Dong Pham Hung General Giap Le Duc Tho Nguyen Chi Thanh Nguyen Duy Trinh Le Thanh Nghi...0 o . 15 The contenders. 0 . . . .0.0 28 4a THE LINE-UP 0 * a 0 * * 0 0 31 The lessor three - Hoang Van Hoan, Le Duc Tho, Le Thanh Nghi o .* 0 * * 0

  1. Slip history and dynamic implications of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ji, C.; Helmberger, D.V.; Wald, D.J.; Ma, K.-F.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the rupture process of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake using extensive near-source observations, including three-component velocity waveforms at 36 strong motion stations and 119 GPS measurements. A three-plane fault geometry derived from our previous inversion using only static data [Ji et al., 2001] is applied. The slip amplitude, rake angle, rupture initiation time, and risetime function are inverted simultaneously with a recently developed finite fault inverse method that combines a wavelet transform approach with a simulated annealing algorithm [Ji et al., 2002b]. The inversion results are validated by the forward prediction of an independent data set, the teleseismic P and SH ground velocities, with notable agreement. The results show that the total seismic moment release of this earthquake is 2.7 ?? 1020 N m and that most of the slip occured in a triangular-shaped asperity involving two fault segments, which is consistent with our previous static inversion. The rupture front propagates with an average rupture velocity of ???2.0 km s-1, and the average slip duration (risetime) is 7.2 s. Several interesting observations related to the temporal evolution of the Chi-Chi earthquake are also investigated, including (1) the strong effect of the sinuous fault plane of the Chelungpu fault on spatial and temporal variations in slip history, (2) the intersection of fault 1 and fault 2 not being a strong impediment to the rupture propagation, and (3 the observation that the peak slip velocity near the surface is, in general, higher than on the deeper portion of the fault plane, as predicted by dynamic modeling.

  2. mRNA Expression of EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 in Oil Palm Leaves (Elaeis guineesis Jacq.) after Treatment with Ganoderma boninense Pat. and Trichoderma harzianum Rifai

    PubMed Central

    Naher, Laila; Tan, Soon Guan; Ho, Chai Ling; Yusuf, Umi Kalsom; Ahmad, Siti Hazar; Abdullah, Faridah

    2012-01-01

    Background. Basal stem rot (BSR) disease caused by the fungus Ganoderma boninense is the most serious disease affecting the oil palm; this is because the disease escapes the early disease detection. The biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum can protect the disease only at the early stage of the disease. In the present study, the expression levels of three oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) chitinases encoding EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 at 2, 5, and 8 weeks inoculation were measured in oil palm leaves from plants treated with G. boninense or T. harzianum alone or both. Methods. The five-month-old oil palm seedlings were treated with Gano-wood blocks inoculum and trichomulch. Expression of EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 in treated leaves tissue was determined by real-time PCR. Results. Oil palm chitinases were not strongly expressed in oil palm leaves of plants treated with G. boninense alone compared to other treatments. Throughout the 8-week experiment, expression of EgCHI1 increased more than 3-fold in leaves of plants treated with T. harzianum and G. boninense when compared to those of control and other treated plants. Conclusion. The data illustrated that chitinase cDNA expression varied depending on tissue and the type of treatment. PMID:22919345

  3. The chi-square test of independence.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Mary L

    2013-01-01

    The Chi-square statistic is a non-parametric (distribution free) tool designed to analyze group differences when the dependent variable is measured at a nominal level. Like all non-parametric statistics, the Chi-square is robust with respect to the distribution of the data. Specifically, it does not require equality of variances among the study groups or homoscedasticity in the data. It permits evaluation of both dichotomous independent variables, and of multiple group studies. Unlike many other non-parametric and some parametric statistics, the calculations needed to compute the Chi-square provide considerable information about how each of the groups performed in the study. This richness of detail allows the researcher to understand the results and thus to derive more detailed information from this statistic than from many others. The Chi-square is a significance statistic, and should be followed with a strength statistic. The Cramer's V is the most common strength test used to test the data when a significant Chi-square result has been obtained. Advantages of the Chi-square include its robustness with respect to distribution of the data, its ease of computation, the detailed information that can be derived from the test, its use in studies for which parametric assumptions cannot be met, and its flexibility in handling data from both two group and multiple group studies. Limitations include its sample size requirements, difficulty of interpretation when there are large numbers of categories (20 or more) in the independent or dependent variables, and tendency of the Cramer's V to produce relative low correlation measures, even for highly significant results.

  4. Response of seismicity to Coulomb stress triggers and shadows of the 1999 Mw=7.6 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ma, K.-F.; Chan, C.-H.; Stein, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    The correlation between static Coulomb stress increases and aftershocks has thus far provided the strongest evidence that stress changes promote seismicity, a correlation that the Chi-Chi earthquake well exhibits. Several studies have deepened the argument by resolving stress changes on aftershock focal mechanisms, which removes the assumption that the aftershocks are optimally oriented for failure. Here one compares the percentage of planes on which failure is promoted after the main shock relative to the percentage beforehand. For Chi-Chi we find a 28% increase for thrust and an 18% increase for strike-slip mechanisms, commensurate with increases reported for other large main shocks. However, perhaps the chief criticism of static stress triggering is the difficulty in observing predicted seismicity rate decreases in the stress shadows, or sites of Coulomb stress decrease. Detection of sustained drops in seismicity rate demands a long catalog with a low magnitude of completeness and a high seismicity rate, conditions that are met at Chi-Chi. We find four lobes with statistically significant seismicity rate declines of 40-90% for 50 months, and they coincide with the stress shadows calculated for strike-slip faults, the dominant faulting mechanism. The rate drops are evident in uniform cell calculations, 100-month time series, and by visual inspection of the M ??? 3 seismicity. An additional reason why detection of such declines has proven so rare emerges from this study: there is a widespread increase in seismicity rate during the first 3 months after Chi-Chi, and perhaps many other main shocks, that might be associated with a different mechanism. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Branching fraction measurements of {chi}{sub c0} and {chi}{sub c2} to {pi}{sup 0{pi}0} and {eta}{eta}

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ablikim, M.; An, Z. H.; Bai, J. Z.

    2010-03-01

    Using a sample of 1.06x10{sup 8} {psi}{sup '} decays collected by the BESIII detector, {chi}{sub c0} and {chi}{sub c2} decays into {pi}{sup 0{pi}0} and {eta}{eta} are studied. The branching fraction results are Br({chi}{sub c0{yields}{pi}}{sup 0{pi}0})=(3.23{+-}0.03{+-}0.23{+-}0.14)x10{sup -3}, Br({chi}{sub c2{yields}{pi}}{sup 0{pi}0})=(8.8{+-}0.2{+-}0.6{+-}0.4)x10{sup -4}, Br({chi}{sub c0{yields}{eta}{eta}})=(3.44{+-}0.10{+-}0.24{+-}0.2)x10{sup -3}, and Br({chi}{sub c2{yields}{eta}{eta}})=(6.5{+-}0.4{+-}0.5{+-}0.3)x10{sup -4}, where the uncertainties are statistical, systematic due to this measurement, and systematic due to the branching fractions of {psi}{sup '{yields}{gamma}{chi}}{sub cJ}. The results provide information on the decay mechanism of {chi}{sub c} states into pseudoscalars.

  6. Mind-Body Exercises for Nurses with Chronic Low Back Pain: An Evidence-Based Review.

    PubMed

    Budhrani-Shani, Pinky; Berry, Donna L; Arcari, Patricia; Langevin, Helene; Wayne, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    Background. Chronic low back pain (CLBP) among nurses is a growing health concern. The multimodal nature of mind-body exercises has potential to impact physiological and psychological processes associated with chronic pain, affording possible advantages over conventional unimodal therapies. This paper summarizes the prevalence of and risk factors for CLBP among nurses, reviews the effectiveness in treating pain and disability of mind-body exercises (yoga and tai chi) for CLBP among the general and nursing population, and describes implications. Methods. Articles, published during or prior to 2015, were systematically identified through the PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, and ScienceDirect databases using the following search terms: nurses, mind-body, integrative, biopsychosocial, yoga, tai chi, back pain, and/or risk factors. Results. Prevalence estimates of CLBP among nurses ranged from 50% to 80%. Associated risk factors for CLBP included lifestyle and physical, psychological, psychosocial, and occupational factors. No published studies were identified that evaluated yoga or tai chi for nurses with CLBP. Studies in the general population suggested that these interventions are effective in reducing pain and disability and may improve factors/processes predictive of CLBP. Conclusion. This review suggests that evaluating the impact of multimodal interventions such as yoga and tai chi for nurses with CLBP warrants investigation.

  7. Sediment heavy metals and benthic diversities in Hun-Tai River, northeast of China.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xiaodong; Ren, Ze; Zhang, Min; Liu, Xiaobo; Peng, Wenqi

    2017-04-01

    In aquatic ecosystems, metal contamination in sediments has become a ubiquitous environmental problem, causing serious issues. Hun-Tai River, located in northeast of China, flows through an important heavy industry region and metropolitan area. This study examined the heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Ni, and Zn) of sediments and diversities (taxa richness, Shannon diversity, and evenness) of benthic assemblages (benthic algae and macroinvertebrate) in Hun-Tai River. The results clearly described the spatial patterns of metal contamination in terms of geo-accumulation index and contamination factor, as well as the spatial patterns of benthic diversities in terms of taxa richness, Shannon index, and evenness by kriging interpolation. The sediments were largely contaminated by Cd, followed by Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn, and Ni. Cd and Zn had similar spatial patterns and similar sources. Cu, Fe, Mn, and Ni showed similar spatial patterns and similar sources. The surface sediments were unpolluted by Cr and Pb. The metal mines and the heavy industry in the major cities were the potential pollution sources. Benthic algae and macroinvertebrate responded similarly to the heterogeneous environment and metal contamination, with high taxa richness and Shannon index in middle-upper reaches of Hun-Tai River. Evenness showed complex spatial patterns. Under low contamination, both taxa richness, Shannon diversity, and evenness had a large variation range. However, under the moderate and high contamination, the taxa richness and Shannon diversity kept to a low level but the evenness had a high level. This study provided insights into the sediment heavy metal contamination in Hun-Tai River.

  8. Psychological, immunological and physiological effects of a Laughing Qigong Program (LQP) on adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chueh; Tsai, Grace; Hsieh, Chia-Jung

    2013-12-01

    One objective of this study was to assess the effects of laughter on the psychological, immunological and physiological systems of the body. Another objective was to introduce the Laughing Qigong Program (LQP), as a method of standardization for simulated laughter interventions. A randomized, prospective, experimental study of the LQP was conducted in a group of adolescents (n=67) in Taiwan. During study-hall sessions, experimental subjects (n=34) attended the LQP for eight-weeks. Simultaneously, control subjects (n=33) read or did their homework. All subjects were tested before and after the intervention on the following: Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale (RSE), Chinese Humor Scale (CHS) and Face Scale (FS) as psychological markers; saliva cortisol (CS) as an immunological marker; blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV) as physiological markers of the body's response to stress. Mood states (FS) were measured before/after each LQP session. Mood states (p=.00) and humor (p=.004; p=.003) improved in the experimental group; no significant changes were found in the controls (p=69; p=60). The immunological marker of stress, cortisol levels, decreased significantly for those who participated in the LQP (p=.001), suggesting lower levels of stress after completion of the program. The LQP is a non-pharmacological and cost-effective means to help adolescents mitigate stresses in their everyday life. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. CD11c(hi) Dendritic Cells Regulate Ly-6C(hi) Monocyte Differentiation to Preserve Immune-privileged CNS in Lethal Neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Hyoung; Choi, Jin Young; Kim, Seong Bum; Uyangaa, Erdenebelig; Patil, Ajit Mahadev; Han, Young Woo; Park, Sang-Youel; Lee, John Hwa; Kim, Koanhoi; Eo, Seong Kug

    2015-12-02

    Although the roles of dendritic cells (DCs) in adaptive defense have been defined well, the contribution of DCs to T cell-independent innate defense and subsequent neuroimmunopathology in immune-privileged CNS upon infection with neurotropic viruses has not been completely defined. Notably, DC roles in regulating innate CD11b(+)Ly-6C(hi) monocyte functions during neuroinflammation have not yet been addressed. Using selective ablation of CD11c(hi)PDCA-1(int/lo) DCs without alteration in CD11c(int)PDCA-1(hi) plasmacytoid DC number, we found that CD11c(hi) DCs are essential to control neuroinflammation caused by infection with neurotropic Japanese encephalitis virus, through early and increased infiltration of CD11b(+)Ly-6C(hi) monocytes and higher expression of CC chemokines. More interestingly, selective CD11c(hi) DC ablation provided altered differentiation and function of infiltrated CD11b(+)Ly-6C(hi) monocytes in the CNS through Flt3-L and GM-CSF, which was closely associated with severely enhanced neuroinflammation. Furthermore, CD11b(+)Ly-6C(hi) monocytes generated in CD11c(hi) DC-ablated environment had a deleterious rather than protective role during neuroinflammation, and were more quickly recruited into inflamed CNS, depending on CCR2, thereby exacerbating neuroinflammation via enhanced supply of virus from the periphery. Therefore, our data demonstrate that CD11c(hi) DCs provide a critical and unexpected role to preserve the immune-privileged CNS in lethal neuroinflammation via regulating the differentiation, function, and trafficking of CD11b(+)Ly-6C(hi) monocytes.

  10. Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award.

    PubMed

    2016-11-01

    The Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award is sponsored jointly by Psi Chi, the national honor society in psychology, and the APA. The award is presented annually to the psychology graduate student who submits the best research paper that was published or presented at a national, regional, or state psychological association conference during the past calendar year. The Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award is given jointly by Psi Chi and APA. Members of the 2016 Edwin B. Newman Award Committee were Shawn Carlton, PhD, Psi Chi representative; Christina Frederick-Recascino, PhD; John Norcross, PhD, APA representative; Karenna Malavanti, PhD, Psi Chi representative; Steven Kohn, PhD, Psi Chi representative; Warren Fass, PhD, Psi Chi representative; Chris Lovelace, PhD, Psi Chi representative; and Cathy Epkins, PhD, APA representative. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Recent results of {chi}{sub cJ} decays from BESIII

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Yan Liang

    2011-05-23

    Using (106{+-}4)x10{sup 6} {psi}{sup '} events collected with BESIII/BEPCII in March and April 2009, some {chi}{sub cJ} decay modes are studied, such as {chi}{sub cJ}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}, {chi}{sub cJ}{yields}{eta}{eta}, {chi}{sub cJ}{yields}VV, {chi}{sub cJ}{yields}{gamma}V, and so on. The precisions of these branching fraction measurements are improved, which is helpful to understand {chi}{sub cJ} decay mechanism.

  12. Study of the hadronic decays of {chi}{sub c} states

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bai, J.Z.; Bian, J.G.; Chen, G.P.

    1999-10-01

    Hadronic decays of the {ital P}-wave spin-triplet charmonium states {chi}{sub cJ}(J=0,1,2) are studied using a sample of {psi}(2S) decays collected by the BES detector operating at the BEPC storage ring. Branching fractions for the decays {chi}{sub c1}{r_arrow}K{sub S}{sup 0}K{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}}+c.c., {chi}{sub c0}{r_arrow}K{sub S}{sup 0}K{sub S}{sup 0}, {chi}{sub c2}{r_arrow}K{sub S}{sup 0}K{sub S}{sup 0}, {chi}{sub c0}{r_arrow}{phi}{phi}, {chi}{sub c2}{r_arrow}{phi}{phi} and {chi}{sub cJ}{r_arrow}K{sup +}K{sup {minus}}K{sup +}K{sup {minus}} are measured for the first time, and those for {chi}{sub cJ}{r_arrow}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}}, {chi}{sub cJ}{r_arrow}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}}K{sup +}K{sup {minus}}, {chi}{sub cJ}{r_arrow}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}}p{bar p} and {chi}{sub cJ}{r_arrow}3({pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}}) are measured with improved precision.more » In addition, we determine the masses of the {chi}{sub c0} and {eta}{sub c} to be M{sub {chi}{sub c0}}=3414.1{plus_minus}0.6(stat){plus_minus}0.8(syst) MeV and M{sub {eta}{sub c}}=2975.8{plus_minus}3.9(stat){plus_minus}1.2(syst) MeV. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}« less

  13. Relating Trp-Glu dipeptide fluorescence to molecular conformation: the role of the discrete Chi 1 and Chi 2 angles.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Azaria Solomon; Juszczak, Laura J

    2013-07-05

    Molecular dynamics (MD), coupled with fluorescence data for charged dipeptides of tryptophanyl glutamic acid (Trp-Glu), reveal a detailed picture of how specific conformation affects fluorescence. Fluorescence emission spectra and time-resolved emission measurements have been collected for all four charged species. MD simulations 20 to 30 ns in length have also been carried out for the Trp-Glu species, as simulation provides aqueous phase conformational data that can be correlated with the fluorescence data. The calculations show that each dipeptide species is characterized by a similar set of six, discrete Chi 1, Chi 2 dihedral angle pairs. The preferred Chi 1 angles--60°, 180°, and 300°--play the significant role in positioning the terminal amine relative to the indole ring. A Chi 1 angle of 60° results in the arching of the backbone over the indole ring and no interaction of the ring with the terminal amine. Chi 1 values of 180° and 300° result in an extension of the backbone away from the indole ring and a NH3 cation-π interaction with indole. This interaction is believed responsible for charge transfer quenching. Two fluorescence lifetimes and their corresponding amplitudes correlate with the Chi 1 angle probability distribution for all four charged Trp-Glu dipeptides. Fluorescence emission band maxima are also consistent with the proposed pattern of terminal amine cation quenching of fluorescence. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award.

    PubMed

    2017-12-01

    The Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award is sponsored jointly by Psi Chi, the national honor society in psychology, and the APA. The award is presented annually to the psychology graduate student who submits the best research paper that was published or presented at a national, regional, or state psychological association conference during the past calendar year. The Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award was established in 1979. The award was established to recognize young researchers at the beginning of their professional lives and to commemorate both the 50th anniversary of Psi Chi and the 100th anniversary of psychology as a science (dating from the founding of Wundt's laboratory). It was named for Dr. Edwin B. Newman, the first national president of Psi Chi (1929) and one of its founders. He was a prolific researcher and a long-time chair of the Department of Psychology at Harvard University. Newman was a member of APA's Board of Directors, served as recording secretary of the board from 1962 to 1967, and was parliamentarian for the APA Council of Representatives for many years. He served both Psi Chi and APA in a distinguished manner for half a century. The Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award is given jointly by Psi Chi and APA. Members of the 2017 Edwin B. Newman Award Committee were Shawn Carlton, PhD, Psi Chi representative; Christina Frederick-Recascino, PhD; John Norcross, PhD, APA representative; Karenna Malavanti, PhD, Psi Chi representative; Steven Kohn, PhD, Psi Chi representative; Warren Fass, PhD, Psi Chi representative; Chris Lovelace, PhD, Psi Chi representative; and Cathy Epkins, PhD, APA representative. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Detection of Outliers in TWSTFT Data Used in TAI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    41st Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Meeting 421 DETECTION OF OUTLIERS IN TWSTFT DATA USED IN TAI A...data in two-way satellite time and frequency transfer ( TWSTFT ) time links. In the case of TWSTFT data used to calculate International Atomic Time...data; that TWSTFT links can show an underlying slope which renders the standard treatment more difficult. Using phase and frequency filtering

  16. [Comparative study of theoretical literature on cold pathogenic disease in Wai tai mi yao fang (Arcane Essentials from the Imperial Library) and Tai ping sheng hui fang (Taiping Holy Prescriptions for Universal Relief)].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huirui; Liang, Yongxuan

    2014-09-01

    In the Wai tai mi yao fang (Arcane Essentials from the Imperial Library) compiled in 752, its portion on cold pathogenic disorders embodies the achievements before the mid Tang Dynasty, whereas that in the Tai ping sheng hui fang (Taiping Holy Prescriptions for Universal Relief), compiled in 992 embodies those before the early Song Dynasty. Comparison on the theory of cold disorders in both books reveal that, during the 2 centuries period from mid Tang to early Song Dynasties, the texts as a carrier for the transmission of such theory in both show no distinct changes, but only with minor revisions and improvements.

  17. New measurement of exclusive decays of the {chi}{sub c0} and {chi}{sub c2} to two-meson final states

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Asner, D. M.; Edwards, K. W.; Reed, J.

    2009-04-01

    Using a sample of 2.59x10{sup 7} {psi}(2S) decays collected by the CLEO-c detector, we present results of a study of {chi}{sub c0} and {chi}{sub c2} decays into two-meson final states. We present the world's most precise measurements of the {chi}{sub cJ,(J=0,2)}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}, K{sup +}K{sup -}, K{sub S}{sup 0}K{sub S}{sup 0}, {eta}{eta}, and {eta}{sup '}{eta}{sup '} branching fractions, and a search for {chi}{sub c} decays into {eta}{eta}{sup '}. These results shed light on the mechanism of charmonium decays into pseudoscalar mesons.

  18. Nonpharmacologic, nonherbal management of menopause-associated vasomotor symptoms: an umbrella systematic review (protocol).

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Karen M; McDuffie, Jennifer R; Shepherd-Banigan, Megan; Befus, Deanna; Coeytaux, Remy R; Van Noord, Megan G; Goode, Adam P; Masilamani, Varsha; Adam, Soheir; Nagi, Avishek; Williams, John W

    2016-04-07

    Vasomotor symptoms such as hot flashes and night sweats are a common concern of perimenopausal and postmenopausal women and are associated with a decreased quality of life. These symptoms can be effectively managed with hormone therapy, but safety concerns limit its use. Thus, understanding the effectiveness of nonpharmacologic therapies such as acupuncture or yoga is critical to managing these common symptoms in older women. Our review seeks to address the following question: In women with menopause-associated vasomotor symptoms, what are the effects on health-related quality of life, vasomotor symptoms, and adverse events of the following nonpharmacologic, nonherbal interventions as compared with any inactive control or active comparator: (a) acupuncture, (b) yoga, tai chi, and qigong, (c) structured exercise, and (d) meditation, mindfulness-based practices, and relaxation? We describe a protocol for an umbrella review approach, supplemented by evaluating randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published after the most recent good-quality systematic review for each of the eligible interventions. Specific interventions were chosen based on current literature and with input from a technical expert panel and organizational stakeholders. We will conduct a thorough literature search and perform a quality assessment of potentially included systematic reviews and RCTs. Our umbrella review, supplemented by an additional search for eligible RCTs, aims to synthesize existing evidence on the use of nonpharmacologic, nonherbal interventions to manage bothersome vasomotor symptoms in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. PROSPERO CRD42016029335.

  19. A review of mind-body therapies in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Part 1: Implications for the elderly.

    PubMed

    Luskin, F M; Newell, K A; Griffith, M; Holmes, M; Telles, S; Marvasti, F F; Pelletier, K R; Haskell, W L

    1998-05-01

    A review of research on complementary and alternative treatments, specifically mind-body techniques, was conducted at Stanford University. The goals of the review were to establish a comprehensive literature review and to provide a rationale for future research concerning successful aging. Computerized searches were conducted using MEDLINE, PsychInfo, Stanford Library, Dissertation Abstracts, Lexus-Nexus, the Internet, and interviews conducted with practitioners. All studies since 1990 that examined mind-body treatments of cardiovascular disorders in the elderly were included. Mind-body practices evaluated were social support, cognitive-behavioral treatment, meditation, the placebo effect, hope, faith, imagery, spiritual healing, music therapy, hypnosis, yoga, t'ai chi, qigong and aikido. Studies conducted after 1990 were a priority, but when more recent literature was scarce, other studies using randomized, controlled trials were included. Mind-body techniques were found to be efficacious primarily as complementary and sometimes as stand-alone alternative treatments for cardiovascular disease-related conditions. Studies provided evidence for treatment efficacy, but the need for further controlled research was evident. Reviewers found only a handful of randomized, controlled research studies conducted in the United States. As a result, there is a lack of replicated studies with which to determine appropriate treatment dosage and the mechanisms by which many of the practices work. Compelling anecdotal evidence, the presence of some controlled research, overall cost effectiveness, and the lack of side effects resulting from mind-body treatments make further investigation a high priority.

  20. Practice of traditional Chinese medicine for psycho-behavioral intervention improves quality of life in cancer patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Dapeng; Wang, Chunli; Duan, Yangyang; Li, Xiaofen; Zhou, Shiyu; Zhao, Mingjie; Li, Yi; He, Yumin; Wang, Shaowu; Kelley, Keith W.; Jiang, Ping; Liu, Quentin

    2015-01-01

    Background Cancer patients suffer from diverse symptoms, including depression, anxiety, pain, and fatigue and lower quality of life (QoL) during disease progression. This study aimed to evaluate the benefits of Traditional Chinese Medicine psycho-behavioral interventions (TCM PBIs) on improving QoL by meta-analysis. Methods Electronic literature databases (PubMed, CNKI, VIP, and Wanfang) were searched for randomized, controlled trials conducted in China. The primary intervention was TCM PBIs. The main outcome was health-related QoL (HR QoL) post-treatment. We applied standard meta analytic techniques to analyze data from papers that reached acceptable criteria. Results The six TCM PBIs analyzed were acupuncture, Chinese massage, Traditional Chinese Medicine five elements musical intervention (TCM FEMI), Traditional Chinese Medicine dietary supplement (TCM DS), Qigong and Tai Chi. Although both TCM PBIs and non-TCM PBIs reduced functional impairments in cancer patients and led to pain relief, depression remission, reduced time to flatulence following surgery and sleep improvement, TCM PBIs showed more beneficial effects as assessed by reducing both fatigue and gastrointestinal distress. In particular, acupuncture relieved fatigue, reduced diarrhea and decreased time to flatulence after surgery in cancer patients, while therapeutic Chinese massage reduced time to flatulence and time to peristaltic sound. Conclusion These findings demonstrate the efficacy of TCM PBIs in improving QoL in cancer patients and establish that TCM PBIs represent beneficial adjunctive therapies for cancer patients. PMID:26498685

  1. Study of {chi}{sub cj} Decays at BES III

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Zhong, J.

    2010-08-05

    In spring 2009 BES III has taken its first large data sample on the {psi}(2S) resonance. More than 1{center_dot}10{sup 8} {psi}(2S) decays have been recorded. First results on the analyses {chi}{sub cJ{yields}{pi}}{sup 0{pi}0}, {chi}{sub cj{yields}{eta}{eta}} and {chi}{sub cj{yields}{phi}{phi}} are presented. The decay mode {chi}{sub c1{yields}{phi}{phi}} has been observed for the first time. The results presented in this document are preliminary.

  2. Tai Chi and Qi Gong for Health and Well-Being

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... What Is Complementary, Alternative or Integrative Health? Safety Information Know the Science For Health Care Professionals Clinical Practice Guidelines Literature Reviews All Health Information Research Research Results Results by Date Sponsored by ...

  3. Statistical analysis of earthquakes after the 1999 MW 7.7 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake based on a modified Reasenberg-Jones model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuh-Ing; Huang, Chi-Shen; Liu, Jann-Yenq

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the temporal-spatial hazard of the earthquakes after the 1999 September 21 MW = 7.7 Chi-Chi shock in a continental region of Taiwan. The Reasenberg-Jones (RJ) model (Reasenberg and Jones, 1989, 1994) that combines the frequency-magnitude distribution (Gutenberg and Richter, 1944) and time-decaying occurrence rate (Utsu et al., 1995) is conventionally employed for assessing the earthquake hazard after a large shock. However, it is found that the b values in the frequency-magnitude distribution of the earthquakes in the study region dramatically decreased from background values after the Chi-Chi shock, and then gradually increased up. The observation of a time-dependent frequency-magnitude distribution motivated us to propose a modified RJ model (MRJ) to assess the earthquake hazard. To see how the models perform on assessing short-term earthquake hazard, the RJ and MRJ models were separately used to sequentially forecast earthquakes in the study region. To depict the potential rupture area for future earthquakes, we further constructed relative hazard (RH) maps based on the two models. The Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves (Swets, 1988) finally demonstrated that the RH map based on the MRJ model was, in general, superior to the one based on the original RJ model for exploring the spatial hazard of earthquakes in a short time after the Chi-Chi shock.

  4. In Defense of Chi's Ontological Incompatibility Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slotta, James D.

    2011-01-01

    This article responds to an article by A. Gupta, D. Hammer, and E. F. Redish (2010) that asserts that M. T. H. Chi's (1992, 2005) hypothesis of an "ontological commitment" in conceptual development is fundamentally flawed. In this article, I argue that Chi's theoretical perspective is still very much intact and that the critique offered by Gupta…

  5. Measurement of the resonance parameters of the chi(1)(1**3P(1)) and chi(2)(1**3P(2)) states of charmonium formed in antiproton-proton annihilations

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Andreotti, M.; Bagnasco, S.; Baldini, W.

    2005-03-01

    The authors have studied the {sup 3}P{sub J} ({chi}{sub e}) states of charmonium in formation by antiproton-proton annihilations in experiment E835 at the Fermilab Antiproton Source. The authors report new measurements of the mass, width, and B({chi}{sub cJ} {yields} {bar p}p) x {Lambda}({chi}{sub eJ} {yields} J/{psi} + anything) for the {chi}{sub c1} and {chi}{sub c2} by means of the inclusive reaction {bar p}p {yields} {chi}{sub cJ} {yields} J/{psi} + anything {yields} (e{sup +}e{sup -}) + anything. Using the subsample of events where {chi}{sub cJ} {yields} {gamma} + J/{psi} {yields} {gamma} + (e{sup +}e{sup -}) is fully reconstructed, we derive B({chi}{submore » cJ} {yields} {bar p}p) x {Lambda}({chi}{sub cJ} {yields} J/{psi} + {gamma}). They summarize the results of the E760 (updated) and E835 measurements of mass, width and B({chi}{sub cJ} {yields} {bar p}p){Lambda}({chi}{sub cJ} {yields} J/{psi} + {gamma}) (J = 0,1,2) and discuss the significance of these measurements.« less

  6. Two-photon widths of the {chi}{sub cJ} states of charmonium

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ecklund, K. M.; Love, W.; Savinov, V.

    2008-11-01

    Using a data sample of 24.5x10{sup 6} {psi}(2S) the reactions {psi}(2S){yields}{gamma}{chi}{sub cJ}, {chi}{sub cJ}{yields}{gamma}{gamma} have been studied for the first time to determine the two-photon widths of the {chi}{sub cJ} states of charmonium in their decay into two photons. The measured quantities are B({psi}(2S){yields}{gamma}{chi}{sub c0})xB({chi}{sub c0}{yields}{gamma}{gamma})=(2.17{+-}0.32{+-}0.10)x10{sup -5} and B({psi}(2S){yields}{gamma}{chi}{sub c2})xB({chi}{sub c2}{yields}{gamma}{gamma})=(2.68{+-}0.28{+-}0.15)x10{sup -5}. Using values for B({psi}(2S){yields}{gamma}{chi}{sub c0,c2}) and {gamma}({chi}{sub c0,c2}) from the literature the two-photon widths are derived to be {gamma}{sub {gamma}}{sub {gamma}}({chi}{sub c0})=(2.36{+-}0.35{+-}0.22) keV, {gamma}{sub {gamma}}{sub {gamma}}({chi}{sub c2})=(0.66{+-}0.07{+-}0.06) keV, and R{identical_to}{gamma}{sub {gamma}}{sub {gamma}}({chi}{sub c2})/{gamma}{sub {gamma}}{sub {gamma}}({chi}{sub c0})=0.278{+-}0.050{+-}0.036. The importance of the measurement of R is emphasized. For the forbiddenmore » transition, {chi}{sub c1}{yields}{gamma}{gamma}, an upper limit of {gamma}{sub {gamma}}{sub {gamma}}({chi}{sub c1})<0.03 keV is established.« less

  7. Economic Evaluation of a Tai Ji Quan Intervention to Reduce Falls in People With Parkinson Disease, Oregon, 2008-2011.

    PubMed

    Li, Fuzhong; Harmer, Peter

    2015-07-30

    Exercise is effective in reducing falls in people with Parkinson disease. However, information on the cost effectiveness of this approach is lacking. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of Tai Ji Quan for reducing falls among patients with mild-to-moderate Parkinson disease. We used data from a previous intervention trial to analyze resource use costs related to intervention delivery and number of falls observed during a 9-month study period. Cost effectiveness was estimated via incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) in which Tai Ji Quan was compared with 2 alternative interventions (Resistance training and Stretching) on the primary outcome of per fall prevented and the secondary outcome of per participant quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained. We also conducted subgroup and sensitivity analyses. Tai Ji Quan was more effective than either Resistance training or Stretching; it had the lowest cost and was the most effective in improving primary and secondary outcomes. Compared with Stretching, Tai Ji Quan cost an average of $175 less for each additional fall prevented and produced a substantial improvement in QALY gained at a lower cost. Results from subgroup and sensitivity analyses showed no variation in cost-effectiveness estimates. However, sensitivity analyses demonstrated a much lower ICER ($27) when only intervention costs were considered. Tai Ji Quan represents a cost-effective strategy for optimizing spending to prevent falls and maximize health gains in people with Parkinson disease. While these results are promising, they warrant further validation.

  8. Absorber arc mitigation during CHI on NSTX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, D.; Bell, M. G.; Roquemore, A. L.; Raman, R.; Nelson, B. A.; Jarboe, T. R.

    2009-11-01

    A method of non-inductive startup, referred to as transient coaxial helicity injection (CHI), was successfully developed on the Helicity Injected Torus (HIT-II) experiment and employed on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). This technique has produced 160 kA of plasma current on closed flux surfaces. Over 100 kA of the CHI current has been coupled to inductively driven current ramp-up. In transient CHI, a voltage is applied across the insulating gap separating the inner and outer vacuum vessel and gas is introduced at the lower gap (the injector). The resulting current in the injector follows the helical magnetic field connecting the electrodes, forms a toroidal current and expands into the vacuum vessel. At higher CHI current, the poloidal field due to the plasma can connect the inner and outer vessels at the insulating gap at the top (called the absorber) of NSTX and lower the impedance there. This results in arcs in the absorber which are a source of impurities and which reduce the desired current in the injector. Two coils installed in the absorber will be used to reduce the magnetic field across the absorber gap and mitigate the absorber arcs.

  9. Is a yoga-based program with potential to decrease falls perceived to be acceptable to community-dwelling people older than 60?

    PubMed

    Tiedemann, Anne; O'Rourke, Sandra; Sherrington, Catherine

    2018-06-14

    Objectives and importance of study: Yoga improves balance and mobility, and therefore has potential as a fall prevention strategy, yet its validity for preventing falls has not been established. The Otago Exercise Programme (OEP) and tai chi are proven to prevent falls. This study aimed to evaluate the perceptions and preferences of older people towards a yoga-based program with potential to decrease falls, to compare these perceptions to the views expressed about the OEP and tai chi, and to identify participant characteristics associated with a preference for the yoga program. Survey. Participants were 235 community-dwellers aged 60 years or older who were not participating or had not previously participated (within the past 10 years) in yoga-based exercise. Participants completed a self-report survey measuring demographics, physical activity level and attitude. They then viewed explanations of the yoga-based program, the OEP and tai chi. Participants completed the Attitudes to Falls-Related Interventions Scale (AFRIS) to measure program acceptability and identified their preferred program. Acceptability scores and preference were compared between the programs, and factors associated with yoga preference were identified with analysis of variance. The mean age of participants (69% female) was 69.4 years (standard deviation 7.4). All programs were rated as equally acceptable (p = 0.17), with AFRIS scores ranging from 28.1 to 29.4. Eighty-two people (35%) preferred yoga, 32% chose the OEP and 33% chose tai chi. Overall, people who preferred yoga were significantly younger, healthier, less fearful of falling, and perceived exercise more positively than people who preferred the OEP (p values ranged from 0.03 to <0.001). The characteristics of people who preferred yoga and those who preferred tai chi did not vary significantly. Yoga was perceived to be appropriate and was as popular as two validated fall prevention programs. Yoga warrants further investigation as a fall

  10. [About da tai - abortion in old Chinese folk medicine handwritten manuscripts].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jinsheng

    2013-01-01

    Of 881 Chinese handwritten volumes with medical texts of the 17th through mid-20th century held by Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin and Ethnologisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem, 48 volumes include prescriptions for induced abortion. A comparison shows that these records are significantly different from references to abortion in Chinese printed medical texts of pre-modern times. For example, the percentage of recipes recommended for artificial abortions in handwritten texts is significantly higher than those in printed medical books. Authors of handwritten texts used 25 terms to designate artificial abortion, with the term da tai [see text], lit.: "to strike the fetus", occurring most frequently. Its meaning is well defined, in contrast to other terms used, such as duo tai [see text], lit: "to make a fetus fall", xia tai [see text], lit. "to bring a fetus down", und duan chan [see text], lit., to interrupt birthing", which is mostly used to indicate a temporary or permanent sterilization. Pre-modern Chinese medicine has not generally abstained from inducing abortions; physicians showed a differentiating attitude. While abortions were descibed as "things a [physician with an attitude of] humaneness will not do", in case a pregnancy was seen as too risky for a woman she was offered medication to terminate this pregnancy. The commercial application of abortifacients has been recorded in China since ancient times. A request for such services has continued over time for various reasons, including so-called illegitimate pregnancies, and those by nuns, widows and prostitutes. In general, recipes to induce abortions documented in printed medical literature have mild effects and are to be ingested orally. In comparison, those recommended in handwritten texts are rather toxic. Possibly to minimize the negative side-effects of such medication, practitioners of folk medicine developed mechanical devices to perform "external", i.e., vaginal approaches.

  11. Filter Tuning Using the Chi-Squared Statistic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilly-Salkowski, Tyler B.

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the use of the Chi-square statistic as a means of evaluating filter performance. The goal of the process is to characterize the filter performance in the metric of covariance realism. The Chi-squared statistic is the value calculated to determine the realism of a covariance based on the prediction accuracy and the covariance values at a given point in time. Once calculated, it is the distribution of this statistic that provides insight on the accuracy of the covariance. The process of tuning an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) for Aqua and Aura support is described, including examination of the measurement errors of available observation types, and methods of dealing with potentially volatile atmospheric drag modeling. Predictive accuracy and the distribution of the Chi-squared statistic, calculated from EKF solutions, are assessed.

  12. From Tornadoes to Earthquakes: Forecast Verification for Binary Events Applied to the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.; Rundle, J. B.; Holliday, J. R.; Nanjo, K.; Turcotte, D. L.; Li, S.; Tiampo, K. F.

    2005-12-01

    Forecast verification procedures for statistical events with binary outcomes typically rely on the use of contingency tables and Relative Operating Characteristic (ROC) diagrams. Originally developed for the statistical evaluation of tornado forecasts on a county-by-county basis, these methods can be adapted to the evaluation of competing earthquake forecasts. Here we apply these methods retrospectively to two forecasts for the m = 7.3 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake. These forecasts are based on a method, Pattern Informatics (PI), that locates likely sites for future large earthquakes based on large change in activity of the smallest earthquakes. A competing null hypothesis, Relative Intensity (RI), is based on the idea that future large earthquake locations are correlated with sites having the greatest frequency of small earthquakes. We show that for Taiwan, the PI forecast method is superior to the RI forecast null hypothesis. Inspection of the two maps indicates that their forecast locations are indeed quite different. Our results confirm an earlier result suggesting that the earthquake preparation process for events such as the Chi-Chi earthquake involves anomalous changes in activation or quiescence, and that signatures of these processes can be detected in precursory seismicity data. Furthermore, we find that our methods can accurately forecast the locations of aftershocks from precursory seismicity changes alone, implying that the main shock together with its aftershocks represent a single manifestation of the formation of a high-stress region nucleating prior to the main shock.

  13. CHI during an ohmic discharge in HIT-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Dennis; Nelson, Brian A.; Redd, Aaron J.; Hamp, William T.

    2004-11-01

    Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) has been used on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX), the Helicity Injected Torus (HIT) and HIT-II to initiate plasma and to drive up to 400 kA of toroidal current. The primary goal of the CHI systems is to provide a start-up plasma with substantial toroidal current that can be heated and sustained with other methods. We have investigated the use of CHI systems to add current to an established, inductively driven plasma. This may be an attractive method to add edge current that may modify the stability characteristics of the discharge or modify the particle and energy transport in a spherical torus. For example, divertor biasing experiments have been successful in modifying particle and energy transport in the scrape-off layer of tokamaks. Use of IGBT power supplies to modulate the injector current makes analysis of current penetration feasible by comparisons of before and after CHI using EFIT analysis of the data.

  14. How-To-Do-It: Snails, Pill Bugs, Mealworms, and Chi-Square? Using Invertebrate Behavior to Illustrate Hypothesis Testing with Chi-Square.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biermann, Carol

    1988-01-01

    Described is a study designed to introduce students to the behavior of common invertebrate animals, and to use of the chi-square statistical technique. Discusses activities with snails, pill bugs, and mealworms. Provides an abbreviated chi-square table and instructions for performing the experiments and statistical tests. (CW)

  15. PSGL-1 is highly expressed on Ly-6Chi monocytes and a major determinant for Ly-6Chi monocyte recruitment to sites of atherosclerosis in mice

    PubMed Central

    An, Guangyu; Wang, Huan; Tang, Rong; Yago, Tadayuki; McDaniel, J. Michael; McGee, Samuel; Huo, Yuqing; Xia, Lijun

    2008-01-01

    Background Ly-6Chi monocytes are key contributors to atherosclerosis in mice. However, how Ly-6Chi monocytes selectively accumulate in atherosclerotic lesions is largely unknown. Monocyte homing to sites of atherosclerosis is primarily initiated by rolling on P- and E-selectin expressed on endothelium. We hypothesize that P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1), the common ligand of P- and E-selectin on leukocytes, contributes to the preferential homing of Ly-6Chi monocytes to atherosclerotic lesions. Methods and Results To test this hypothesis, we examined the expression and function of PSGL-1 on Ly-6Chi and Ly-6Clo monocytes from wild-type mice, ApoE-/- mice, and mice lacking both ApoE and PSGL-1 genes (ApoE-/-/PSGL-1-/-). We found that Ly-6Chi monocytes expressed a higher level of PSGL-1, and had enhanced binding to fluid-phase P- and E-selectin, compared to Ly-6Clo monocytes. Under in vitro flow conditions, more Ly-6Chi monocytes rolled on P-, E-, and L-selectin at slower velocities than Ly-6Clo cells. In an ex vivo perfused carotid artery model, Ly-6Chi monocytes interacted preferentially with atherosclerotic endothelium compared with Ly-6Clo monocytes in a PSGL-1-dependent manner. In vivo, ApoE-/- mice lacking PSGL-1 had impaired Ly-6Chi monocyte recruitment to atherosclerotic lesions. Moreover, ApoE-/-/PSGL-1-/- mice exhibited significantly reduced monocyte infiltration in wire injury-induced neointima and in atherosclerotic lesions. ApoE-/-/PSGL-1-/- mice also developed smaller neointima and atherosclerotic plaques. Conclusions These data indicate that PSGL-1 is a new marker for Ly-6Chi monocytes and a major determinant for Ly-6Chi cell recruitment to sites of atherosclerosis in mice. PMID:18519846

  16. In Defense of the Chi-Square Continuity Correction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veldman, Donald J.; McNemar, Quinn

    Published studies of the sampling distribution of chi-square with and without Yates' correction for continuity have been interpreted as discrediting the correction. Yates' correction actually produces a biased chi-square value which in turn yields a better estimate of the exact probability of the discrete event concerned when used in conjunction…

  17. Structure and spatial patterns of macrobenthic community in Tai Lake, a large shallow lake, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Di Li,; Erickson, Richard A.; Song Tang,; Xuwen Li,; Niu, Zhichun; Xia Wang,; Hongling Liu,; Hongxia Yu,

    2016-01-01

    Tai Lake (Chinese: Taihu), the third-largest freshwater lake in China, suffers from harmful cyanobacteria blooms that are caused by economic development and population growth near the lake. Several studies have focused on phytoplankton in Tai Lake after a drinking water crisis in 2007; however, these studies primarily focused on microcystin bioaccumulation and toxicity to individual species without examining the effects of microcystin on macrobenthic community diversity. In this study, we conducted a survey of the lake to examine the effects of microcystine and other pollutants on marcobenthic community diversity. A totally of forty-nine species of macroinvertebrates were found in Tai Lake. Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri and Corbicula fluminea were the most abundant species. Cluster-analysis and one-way analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) identified three significantly different macrobenthic communities among the sample sites. More specifically, sites in the eastern bays, where aquatic macrophytes were abundant, had the highest diversity of macrobenthic communities, which were dominated by Bellamya aeruginosa, Bellamya purificata, L. hoffmeisteri, and Alocinma longicornis. Sites in Zhushan Bay contained relatively diverse communities, mainly composed of L. hoffmeisteri, C. fluminea, L. claparederanus, R. sinicus, and Cythura sp. Sites in the western region, Meiliang Bay and Wuli Bay had the lowest diversity, mainly composed ofL. hoffmeisteri, C. fluminea, Branchiura sowerbyi, and Rhyacodrilus sinicus. In addition, the relationships between macrobenthic metrics (Shannon–Wiener, Margalef, and Pielou) and environmental variables showed that community structure and spatial patterns of macrobenthos in Tai Lake were significantly influenced by chemical oxygen demand (CODCr), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), lead (Pb), and microcystin-LR (L for leucine and R for arginine). Our findings provide critical information that could help managers and policymakers

  18. Precise measurement of spin-averaged {chi}{sub cJ}(1P) mass using photon conversions in {psi}(2S){yields}{gamma}{chi}{sub cJ}

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ablikim, M.; Bai, J.Z.; Bian, J.G.

    2005-05-01

    Using photon conversions to e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs, the energy spectrum of inclusive photons from {psi}(2S) radiative decays is measured with photon energy resolution ({sigma}{sub E{sub {gamma}}}) in the range from 2.3 to 3.8 MeV by BESII at the Beijing Electron-Positron Collider. The {chi}{sub cJ}(1P) states (J=0,1,2) are clearly observed, and their masses and the spin-averaged {chi}{sub cJ} mass are determined to be M{sub {chi}{sub c}{sub 0}}=3414.21{+-}0.39{+-}0.27, M{sub {chi}{sub c}{sub 1}}=3510.30{+-}0.14{+-}0.16, M{sub {chi}{sub c}{sub 2}}=3555.70{+-}0.59{+-}0.39, and M({sup 3}P{sub cog})=3524.85{+-}0.32{+-}0.30 MeV/c{sup 2}, respectively.

  19. Observation of {chi}{sub cJ} Radiative Decays to Light Vector Mesons

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bennett, J. V.; Mitchell, R. E.; Shepherd, M. R.

    2008-10-10

    Using a total of 2.74x10{sup 7} decays of the {psi}(2S) collected with the CLEO-c detector, we present a study of {chi}{sub cJ}{yields}{gamma}V, where V={rho}{sup 0}, {omega}, {phi}. The transitions {chi}{sub c1}{yields}{gamma}{rho}{sup 0} and {chi}{sub c1}{yields}{gamma}{omega} are observed with B({chi}{sub c1}{yields}{gamma}{rho}{sup 0})=(2.43{+-}0.19{+-}0.22)x10{sup -4} and B({chi}{sub c1}{yields}{gamma}{omega})=(8.3{+-}1.5{+-}1.2)x10{sup -5}. In the {chi}{sub c1}{yields}{gamma}{rho}{sup 0} transition, the final state meson is dominantly longitudinally polarized. Upper limits on the branching fractions of other {chi}{sub cJ} states to light vector mesons are presented.

  20. Tai Ji Quan and global cognitive function in older adults with cognitive impairment: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Li, Fuzhong; Harmer, Peter; Liu, Yu; Chou, Li-Shan

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated whether Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance (TJQMBB) could improve global cognitive function in older adults with cognitive impairment. Using a nonrandomized control group pretest-posttest design, participants aged ≥65 years who scored between 20 and 25 on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were allocated into either a 14-week TJQMBB program (n=22) or a control group (n=24). The primary outcome was MMSE as a measure of global cognitive function with secondary outcomes of 50-ft speed walk, Timed Up&Go, and Activities-Specific Balance Confidence (ABC) scale. At 14 weeks, Tai Ji Quan participants showed significant improvement on MMSE (mean=2.26, p<0.001) compared to controls (mean=0.63, p=0.08). Similarly, Tai Ji Quan participants performed significantly better compared to the controls in both physical performance and balance efficacy measures (p<0.05). Improvement in cognition as measured by MMSE was related to improved physical performance and balance efficacy. These results provide preliminary evidence of the utility of the TJQMBB program to promote cognitive function in older adults in addition to physical benefits. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Tobacco-expressed Brassica juncea chitinase BjCHI1 shows antifungal activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fung, King-Leung; Zhao, Kai-Jun; He, Zhu-Mei; Chye, Mee-Len

    2002-09-01

    We have previously isolated a Brassica juncea cDNA encoding BjCHI1, a novel chitinase with two chitin-binding domains, and have shown that its mRNA is induced by wounding and methyl jasmonate treatment (K.-J. Zhao and M.-L. Chye, Plant Mol. Biol. 40 (1999) 1009-1018). By the presence of two chitin-binding domains, BjCHI1 resembles the precursor of UDA (Urtica dioica agglutinin) but, unlike UDA, BjCHI1 retains its chitinase catalytic domain after post-translational processing. Here, we indicate the role of BjCHI1 in plant defense by demonstrating its mRNA induction upon Aspergillus niger infection or caterpillar Pieris rapae (L.) feeding. To further investigate the biological properties of BjCHI1, we transformed tobacco with a construct expressing the BjCHI1 cDNA from the CaMV 35S promoter. Subsequently, we purified BjCHI1 from the resultant transgenic Ro plants using a regenerated chitin column followed by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC). Also, the significance of the second chitin-binding domain in BjCHI1 was investigated by raising transgenic tobacco plants expressing BjCHI2, a deletion derivative of BjCHI1 lacking one chitin-binding domain. Colorimetric chitinase assays at 25 degrees C, pH 5, showed no significant differences between the activities of BjCHI1 and BjCHI2, suggesting that chitinase activity, due to the catalytic domain, is not enhanced by the presence of a second chitin-binding domain. Both BjCHI1 and BjCHI2 show in vitro anti-fungal activity toward Trichoderma viride, causing reductions in hyphal diameter, hyphal branching and conidia size.

  2. Measurement of exclusive baryon-antibaryon decays of {chi}{sub cJ} mesons

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Naik, P.; Rademacker, J.; Asner, D. M.

    2008-08-01

    Using a sample of 2.59x10{sup 7} {psi}(2S) decays collected by the CLEO-c detector, we present results of a study of {chi}{sub cJ} (J=0, 1, 2) decays into baryon-antibaryon final states. We present the world's most precise measurements of the {chi}{sub cJ}{yields}pp and {chi}{sub cJ}{yields}{lambda}{lambda} branching fractions, and the first measurements of {chi}{sub c0} decays to other hyperons. These results illuminate the decay mechanism of the {chi}{sub c} states.

  3. How do we extract the three chi's that describe a compressible blend from SANS ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gujrati, P. D.; Rane, Sagar

    2000-03-01

    We demonstrate that a lattice model of a compressible blend is characterized by three bare chi parameters; chi-01 (between void and polymer1), chi-02 (between void and polymer2) and chi-12 (between polymer1 and polymer2). We propose a methodology to extract the corresponding three effective chi's from the scattering intensity and additional information on the compressibility and partial molar volumes. We have also defined and obtained a single effective chi for the blend (without RPA) and compared this single effective chi with the other three effective chi's. In all calculations, the athermal part was removed exactly resulting in an interaction part which remains finite over the entire composition regime. From thermodynamics, we know that this single chi is not the same as chi-12, and we shall determine when the two are close or similar. We have also obtained the values of the three chi's at the critical point for different systems to display their utility. We have carried out the calculations in different ensembles and find that the value of chi's depend on the ensemble chosen.

  4. Complementary Therapies for Symptom Management in Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Satija, Aanchal; Bhatnagar, Sushma

    2017-01-01

    Cancer patients are often poly-symptomatic which distressingly affects their quality of lives (QOLs). Alhough, conventional management provides adequate symptom control, yet is coupled with some limitations. Complementary therapies (CTs) have shown beneficial effects in cancer patients for symptomatic relief. The aim of this article is to provide evidence-based review of commonly used CTs for symptom management in cancer care. Hypnosis has promising evidence to be used for managing symptoms such as pain, chemotherapy-induced nausea/vomiting, distress, fatigue, and hot flashes. Guided imagery increases comfort and can be used as a psycho-supportive therapy. Meditation substantially improves psychological function, mental health, and QOL. Cognitive behavioral therapies effectively reduce pain, distress, fatigue, anxiety, and depression; and improve subjective sleep outcomes along with mood and QOL. Yoga has short term beneficial effects for anxiety, depression, fatigue, perceived stress, QOL, and well-being. T'ai Chi and qigong are beneficial adjunctive therapies for supportive cancer care, but their role in reducing cancer pain is not well proven. Acupuncture is effective for reducing treatment related side-effects, pain and fatigue. Other therapies such as massage techniques, energy therapies, and spiritual interventions have also demonstrated positive role in managing cancer-related symptoms and improve overall well-being. However, the clinical effectiveness of these therapies for symptom management in cancer patients cannot be concluded due to poor strength of evidence. Nonetheless, these are relatively free from risks and hence can be given along with conventional treatments. Only by tailoring these therapies as per patient's beliefs and preferences, optimal patient-centered holistic care can be provided. PMID:29123357

  5. Improved line parameters for the Chi 2Pi-Chi 2Pi (1-0) bands of (35)ClO and (37)ClO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, Aaron; Gillis, James R.; Rinsland, Curtis P.; Burkholder, James B.

    1994-01-01

    Improved line parameters at 296 K for the Chi 2Pi-Chi 2Pi (1-0) bands of (35)ClO and (37)ClO have been calculated with J up to 43.5. The integrated intensity for the 2048 lines in the main and satellite bands has been normalized to 9.68-sq cm/atm at 296K.

  6. Using volcano plots and regularized-chi statistics in genetic association studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Wentian; Freudenberg, Jan; Suh, Young Ju; Yang, Yaning

    2014-02-01

    Labor intensive experiments are typically required to identify the causal disease variants from a list of disease associated variants in the genome. For designing such experiments, candidate variants are ranked by their strength of genetic association with the disease. However, the two commonly used measures of genetic association, the odds-ratio (OR) and p-value may rank variants in different order. To integrate these two measures into a single analysis, here we transfer the volcano plot methodology from gene expression analysis to genetic association studies. In its original setting, volcano plots are scatter plots of fold-change and t-test statistic (or -log of the p-value), with the latter being more sensitive to sample size. In genetic association studies, the OR and Pearson's chi-square statistic (or equivalently its square root, chi; or the standardized log(OR)) can be analogously used in a volcano plot, allowing for their visual inspection. Moreover, the geometric interpretation of these plots leads to an intuitive method for filtering results by a combination of both OR and chi-square statistic, which we term "regularized-chi". This method selects associated markers by a smooth curve in the volcano plot instead of the right-angled lines which corresponds to independent cutoffs for OR and chi-square statistic. The regularized-chi incorporates relatively more signals from variants with lower minor-allele-frequencies than chi-square test statistic. As rare variants tend to have stronger functional effects, regularized-chi is better suited to the task of prioritization of candidate genes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Your Chi-Square Test Is Statistically Significant: Now What?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Donald

    2015-01-01

    Applied researchers have employed chi-square tests for more than one hundred years. This paper addresses the question of how one should follow a statistically significant chi-square test result in order to determine the source of that result. Four approaches were evaluated: calculating residuals, comparing cells, ransacking, and partitioning. Data…

  8. Changes in Brain Volume and Cognition in a Randomized Trial of Exercise and Social Interaction in a Community-Based Sample of Non-Demented Chinese Elders

    PubMed Central

    Mortimer, James A.; Ding, Ding; Borenstein, Amy R.; DeCarli, Charles; Guo, Qihao; Wu, Yougui; Zhao, Qianhua; Chu, Shugang

    2013-01-01

    Physical exercise has been shown to increase brain volume and improve cognition in randomized trials of non-demented elderly. Although greater social engagement was found to reduce dementia risk in observational studies, randomized trials of social interventions have not been reported. A representative sample of 120 elderly from Shanghai, China was randomized to four groups (Tai Chi, Walking, Social Interaction, No Intervention) for 40 weeks. Two MRIs were obtained, one before the intervention period, the other after. A neuropsychological battery was administered at baseline, 20 weeks, and 40 weeks. Comparison of changes in brain volumes in intervention groups with the No Intervention group were assessed by t-tests. Time-intervention group interactions for neuropsychological measures were evaluated with repeated-measures mixed models. Compared to the No Intervention group, significant increases in brain volume were seen in the Tai Chi and Social Intervention groups (p < 0.05). Improvements also were observed in several neuropsychological measures in the Tai Chi group, including the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale score (p = 0.004), the Trailmaking Test A (p = 0.002) and B (p = 0.0002), the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (p = 0.009), and verbal fluency for animals (p = 0.01). The Social Interaction group showed improvement on some, but fewer neuropsychological indices. No differences were observed between the Walking and No Intervention groups. The findings differ from previous clinical trials in showing increases in brain volume and improvements in cognition with a largely non-aerobic exercise (Tai Chi). In addition, intellectual stimulation through social interaction was associated with increases in brain volume as well as with some cognitive improvements. PMID:22451320

  9. Changes in brain volume and cognition in a randomized trial of exercise and social interaction in a community-based sample of non-demented Chinese elders.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, James A; Ding, Ding; Borenstein, Amy R; DeCarli, Charles; Guo, Qihao; Wu, Yougui; Zhao, Qianhua; Chu, Shugang

    2012-01-01

    Physical exercise has been shown to increase brain volume and improve cognition in randomized trials of non-demented elderly. Although greater social engagement was found to reduce dementia risk in observational studies, randomized trials of social interventions have not been reported. A representative sample of 120 elderly from Shanghai, China was randomized to four groups (Tai Chi, Walking, Social Interaction, No Intervention) for 40 weeks. Two MRIs were obtained, one before the intervention period, the other after. A neuropsychological battery was administered at baseline, 20 weeks, and 40 weeks. Comparison of changes in brain volumes in intervention groups with the No Intervention group were assessed by t-tests. Time-intervention group interactions for neuropsychological measures were evaluated with repeated-measures mixed models. Compared to the No Intervention group, significant increases in brain volume were seen in the Tai Chi and Social Intervention groups (p < 0.05). Improvements also were observed in several neuropsychological measures in the Tai Chi group, including the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale score (p = 0.004), the Trailmaking Test A (p = 0.002) and B (p = 0.0002), the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (p = 0.009), and verbal fluency for animals (p = 0.01). The Social Interaction group showed improvement on some, but fewer neuropsychological indices. No differences were observed between the Walking and No Intervention groups. The findings differ from previous clinical trials in showing increases in brain volume and improvements in cognition with a largely non-aerobic exercise (Tai Chi). In addition, intellectual stimulation through social interaction was associated with increases in brain volume as well as with some cognitive improvements.

  10. Instrumental intensity distribution for the Hector Mine, California, and the Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquakes: Comparison of two methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sokolov, V.; Wald, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    We compare two methods of seismic-intensity estimation from ground-motion records for the two recent strong earthquakes: the 1999 (M 7.1) Hector Mine, California, and the 1999 (M 7.6) Chi-Chi, Taiwan. The first technique utilizes the peak ground acceleration (PGA) and velocity (PGV), and it is used for rapid generation of the instrumental intensity map in California. The other method is based on the revised relationships between intensity and Fourier amplitude spectrum (FAS). The results of using the methods are compared with independently observed data and between the estimations from the records. For the case of the Hector Mine earthquake, the calculated intensities in general agree with the observed values. For the case of the Chi-Chi earthquake, the areas of maximum calculated intensity correspond to the areas of the greatest damage and highest number of fatalities. However, the FAS method producees higher-intensity values than those of the peak amplitude method. The specific features of ground-motion excitation during the large, shallow, thrust earthquake may be considered a reason for the discrepancy. The use of PGA and PGV is simple; however, the use of FAS provides a natural consideration of site amplification by means of generalized or site-specific spectral ratios. Because the calculation of seismic-intensity maps requires rapid processing of data from a large network, it is very practical to generate a "first-order" map from the recorded peak motions. Then, a "second-order" map may be compiled using an amplitude-spectra method on the basis of available records and numerical modeling of the site-dependent spectra for the regions of sparse station spacing.

  11. Two-color holography concept (T-CHI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vikram, C. S.; Caulfield, H. J.; Workman, G. L.; Trolinger, J. D.; Wood, C. P.; Clark, R. L.; Kathman, A. D.; Ruggiero, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    The Material Processing in the Space Program of NASA-MSFC was active in developing numerous optical techniques for the characterization of fluids in the vicinity of various materials during crystallization and/or solidification. Two-color holographic interferometry demonstrates that temperature and concentration separation in transparent (T-CHI) model systems is possible. The experiments were performed for particular (succinonitrile) systems. Several solutions are possible in Microgravity Sciences and Applications (MSA) experiments on future Shuttle missions. The theory of the T-CHI concept is evaluated. Although particular cases are used for explanations, the concepts developed will be universal. A breadboard system design is also presented for ultimate fabrication and testing of theoretical findings. New developments in holography involving optical fibers and diode lasers are also incorporated.

  12. Complementary and Alternative Medicine and Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenchen

    2013-01-01

    Patients with osteoarthritis experience high levels of pain, psychological distress and have limited therapeutic options. Emerging evidence from clinical trials suggests that both acupuncture and Tai Chi mind-body therapies are safe and effective treatments for osteoarthritis. Acupuncture has effects over and above those of 'sham acupuncture' and the most robust evidence to date demonstrates that acupuncture does have short-term benefits and is a reasonable referral option for patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis. Tai Chi is a mind-body exercise that enhances cardiovascular fitness, muscular strength, balance, and physical function. It also appears to be associated with reduced stress and anxiety and depression, as well as improved quality of life. Thus, Tai Chi may be safely recommended to patients with osteoarthritis as a complementary and alternative medical approach to affect patient well-being. Integrative approaches combine the best of conventional medicine and complementary and alternative medicine to ultimately improve patient care. These modalities may lead to the development of better disease modifying strategies that could improve symptoms and decrease the progression of osteoarthritis. This overview synthesizes the current body of knowledge about Chinese mind-body medicine to better inform clinical decision-making for our rheumatic patients.

  13. Martial Arts and Metabolic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Hamasaki, Hidetaka

    2016-05-09

    Different forms of martial arts are practiced worldwide, each with various intensities of physical activity. These disciplines are potentially an effective exercise therapy for metabolic diseases. Tai chi is the most well-studied style of martial arts and has shown evidence of its effect on metabolic diseases; however, little evidence is available regarding the association between other styles of martial arts and metabolic health. To summarize and evaluate the effects of martial arts on metabolic diseases, eligible articles were searched by using Pubmed. To date, systematic reviews provide no definite conclusion on the effectiveness of tai chi for treating metabolic diseases because of a small numbers of subjects, short durations of clinical trials, and some biases involved in testing. However, there are several clinical studies on subjects with metabolic diseases, which show that tai chi improves obesity, glycemic control, blood pressure control, and lipid profiles. Currently, some limited evidence suggests that other martial arts, such as kung fu and karate, may be beneficial for body composition, glycemic control, and arterial stiffness. To clarify the effectiveness of martial arts for treating metabolic diseases, well-designed prospective studies, preferably with a larger number of subjects and of longer duration, are warranted.

  14. 59. The right hand portion of the Wah Chong Tai ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. The right hand portion of the Wah Chong Tai Co. was built by a Chinese immigrant in the late 1890s as a noodle factory and store for Chinese imported goods. The left portion was constructed in 1909 and a noodle parlor was opened on the upper story. This building has a distinctive oriental design around the windows. Both buildings are substantially intact, and retain basement level storefronts. - Butte Historic District, Bounded by Copper, Arizona, Mercury & Continental Streets, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

  15. Structure, Catalysis, and Inhibition of OfChi-h, the Lepidoptera-exclusive Insect Chitinase*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tian; Chen, Lei; Zhou, Yong; Jiang, Xi; Duan, Yanwei; Yang, Qing

    2017-01-01

    Chitinase-h (Chi-h) is of special interest among insect chitinases due to its exclusive distribution in lepidopteran insects and high sequence identity with bacterial and baculovirus homologs. Here OfChi-h, a Chi-h from Ostrinia furnacalis, was investigated. Crystal structures of both OfChi-h and its complex with chitoheptaose ((GlcN)7) reveal that OfChi-h possesses a long and asymmetric substrate binding cleft, which is a typical characteristics of a processive exo-chitinase. The structural comparison between OfChi-h and its bacterial homolog SmChiA uncovered two phenylalanine-to-tryptophan site variants in OfChi-h at subsites +2 and possibly −7. The F232W/F396W double mutant endowed SmChiA with higher hydrolytic activities toward insoluble substrates, such as insect cuticle, α-chitin, and chitin nanowhisker. An enzymatic assay demonstrated that OfChi-h outperformed OfChtI, an insect endo-chitinase, toward the insoluble substrates, but showed lower activity toward the soluble substrate ethylene glycol chitin. Furthermore, OfChi-h was found to be inhibited by N,N′,N″-trimethylglucosamine-N,N′,N″,N″′-tetraacetylchitotetraose (TMG-(GlcNAc)4), a substrate analog which can be degraded into TMG-(GlcNAc)1–2. Injection of TMG-(GlcNAc)4 into 5th-instar O. furnacalis larvae led to severe defects in pupation. This work provides insights into a molting-indispensable insect chitinase that is phylogenetically closer to bacterial chitinases than insect chitinases. PMID:28053084

  16. Chi-Squared Test of Fit and Sample Size-A Comparison between a Random Sample Approach and a Chi-Square Value Adjustment Method.

    PubMed

    Bergh, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Chi-square statistics are commonly used for tests of fit of measurement models. Chi-square is also sensitive to sample size, which is why several approaches to handle large samples in test of fit analysis have been developed. One strategy to handle the sample size problem may be to adjust the sample size in the analysis of fit. An alternative is to adopt a random sample approach. The purpose of this study was to analyze and to compare these two strategies using simulated data. Given an original sample size of 21,000, for reductions of sample sizes down to the order of 5,000 the adjusted sample size function works as good as the random sample approach. In contrast, when applying adjustments to sample sizes of lower order the adjustment function is less effective at approximating the chi-square value for an actual random sample of the relevant size. Hence, the fit is exaggerated and misfit under-estimated using the adjusted sample size function. Although there are big differences in chi-square values between the two approaches at lower sample sizes, the inferences based on the p-values may be the same.

  17. Streamflow Changes Induced by the 1999 MW 7.6 Chi-Chi Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chia, Yeeping; Liu, Ching-Yi; Chuang, Po-Yu

    2016-04-01

    Anomalous streamflow changes have often been observed after strong earthquakes. These changes have been used to study crustal deformation induced by earthquakes. Previous studies indicated that co-seismic groundwater-level changes, ranging from a fall of 11.1 m to a rise of 7.42 m, were recorded in 152 monitoring wells near the seismogenic fault during the 1999 MW 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake. Here we report anomalous streamflow changes due to the earthquake in central Taiwan. There are 32 stream gauges in the vicinity of the fault, mostly in the mountainous hanging wall area. Of those, 22 recorded anomalous streamflow increases, ranging from 60% to 732%, one to four days after the earthquake. Unlike a rapid decrease in discharge after heavy rainfall, the post-seismic increase is followed by a slow decline which may last for several months. Only one gauge recorded a sudden decrease in discharge immediately after the earthquake. Besides, the decrease was preceded by a large and abrupt streamflow increase over the four days before the earthquake. We attribute the post-seismic increase to fracturing in the mountainous area due to seismic shaking, while the decrease to co-seismic pore pressure drop induced by crustal extension. However, more evidence is needed to consider the pre-seismic streamflow changes as a potential precursory indicator of earthquakes.

  18. Comparisons of ground motions from five aftershocks of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake with empirical predictions largely based on data from California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, G.-Q.; Boore, D.M.; Igel, H.; Zhou, X.-Y.

    2004-01-01

    The observed ground motions from five large aftershocks of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake are compared with predictions from four equations based primarily on data from California. The four equations for active tectonic regions are those developed by Abrahamson and Silva (1997), Boore et al. (1997), Campbell (1997, 2001), and Sadigh et al. (1997). Comparisons are made for horizontal-component peak ground accelerations and 5%-damped pseudoacceleration response spectra at periods between 0.02 sec and 5 sec. The observed motions are in reasonable agreement with the predictions, particularly for distances from 10 to 30 km. This is in marked contrast to the motions from the Chi-Chi mainshock, which are much lower than the predicted motions for periods less than about 1 sec. The results indicate that the low motions in the mainshock are not due to unusual, localized absorption of seismic energy, because waves from the mainshock and the aftershocks generally traverse the same section of the crust and are recorded at the same stations. The aftershock motions at distances of 30-60 km are somewhat lower than the predictions (but not nearly by as small a factor as those for the mainshock), suggesting that the ground motion attenuates more rapidly in this region of Taiwan than it does in the areas we compare with it. We provide equations for the regional attenuation of response spectra, which show increasing decay of motion with distance for decreasing oscillator periods. This observational study also demonstrates that ground motions have large earthquake-location-dependent variability for a specific site. This variability reduces the accuracy with which an earthquake-specific prediction of site response can be predicted. Online Material: PGAs and PSAs from the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake and five aftershocks.

  19. Genetic structure of the Mon-Khmer speaking groups and their affinity to the neighbouring Tai populations in Northern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Mon-Khmer speaking peoples inhabited northern Thailand before the arrival of the Tai speaking people from southern China in the thirteenth century A.D. Historical and anthropological evidence suggests a close relationship between the Mon-Khmer groups and the present day majority northern Thai groups. In this study, mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal DNA polymorphisms in more than 800 volunteers from eight Mon-Khmer and ten Tai speaking populations were investigated to estimate the degree of genetic divergence between these major linguistic groups and their internal structure. Results A large fraction of genetic variation is observed within populations (about 80% and 90% for mtDNA and the Y-chromosome, respectively). The genetic divergence between populations is much higher in Mon-Khmer than in Tai speaking groups, especially at the paternally inherited markers. The two major linguistic groups are genetically distinct, but only for a marginal fraction (1 to 2%) of the total genetic variation. Genetic distances between populations correlate with their linguistic differences, whereas the geographic distance does not explain the genetic divergence pattern. Conclusions The Mon-Khmer speaking populations in northern Thailand exhibited the genetic divergence among each other and also when compared to Tai speaking peoples. The different drift effects and the post-marital residence patterns between the two linguistic groups are the explanation for a small but significant fraction of the genetic variation pattern within and between them. PMID:21672265

  20. Genetic structure of the Mon-Khmer speaking groups and their affinity to the neighbouring Tai populations in Northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kutanan, Wibhu; Kampuansai, Jatupol; Fuselli, Silvia; Nakbunlung, Supaporn; Seielstad, Mark; Bertorelle, Giorgio; Kangwanpong, Daoroong

    2011-06-15

    The Mon-Khmer speaking peoples inhabited northern Thailand before the arrival of the Tai speaking people from southern China in the thirteenth century A.D. Historical and anthropological evidence suggests a close relationship between the Mon-Khmer groups and the present day majority northern Thai groups. In this study, mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal DNA polymorphisms in more than 800 volunteers from eight Mon-Khmer and ten Tai speaking populations were investigated to estimate the degree of genetic divergence between these major linguistic groups and their internal structure. A large fraction of genetic variation is observed within populations (about 80% and 90% for mtDNA and the Y-chromosome, respectively). The genetic divergence between populations is much higher in Mon-Khmer than in Tai speaking groups, especially at the paternally inherited markers. The two major linguistic groups are genetically distinct, but only for a marginal fraction (1 to 2%) of the total genetic variation. Genetic distances between populations correlate with their linguistic differences, whereas the geographic distance does not explain the genetic divergence pattern. The Mon-Khmer speaking populations in northern Thailand exhibited the genetic divergence among each other and also when compared to Tai speaking peoples. The different drift effects and the post-marital residence patterns between the two linguistic groups are the explanation for a small but significant fraction of the genetic variation pattern within and between them. © 2011 Kutanan et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  1. Dietary risk ranking for residual antibiotics in cultured aquatic products around Tai Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Song, Chao; Li, Le; Zhang, Cong; Qiu, Liping; Fan, Limin; Wu, Wei; Meng, Shunlong; Hu, Gengdong; Chen, Jiazhang; Liu, Ying; Mao, Aimin

    2017-10-01

    Antibiotics are widely used in aquaculture and therefore may be present as a dietary risk in cultured aquatic products. Using the Tai Lake Basin as a study area, we assessed the presence of 15 antibiotics in 5 widely cultured aquatic species using a newly developed dietary risk ranking approach. By assigning scores to each factor involved in the ranking matrices, the scores of dietary risks per antibiotic and per aquatic species were calculated. The results indicated that fluoroquinolone antibiotics posed the highest dietary risk in all aquatic species. Then, the total scores per aquatic species were summed by all 15 antibiotic scores of antibiotics, it was found that Crab (Eriocheir sinensis) had the highest dietary risks. Finally, the most concerned antibiotic category and aquatic species were selected. This study highlighted the importance of dietary risk ranking in the production and consumption of cultured aquatic products around Tai Lake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparisons of ground motions from the 1999 Chi-Chi, earthquake with empirical predictions largely based on data from California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, D.M.

    2001-01-01

    This article has the modest goal of comparing the ground motions recorded during the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, mainshock with predictions from four empirical-based equations commonly used for western North America; these empirical predictions are largely based on data from California. Comparisons are made for peak acceleration and 5%-damped response spectra at periods between 0.1 and 4 sec. The general finding is that the Chi-Chi ground motions are smaller than those predicted from the empirically based equations for periods less than about 1 sec by factors averaging about 0.4 but as small as 0.26 (depending on period, on which equation is used, and on whether the sites are assumed to be rock or soil). There is a trend for the observed motions to approach or even exceed the predicted motions for longer periods. Motions at similar distances (30-60 km) to the east and to the west of the fault differ dramatically at periods between about 2 and 20 sec: Long-duration wave trains are present on the motions to the west, and when normalized to similar amplitudes at short periods, the response spectra of the motions at the western stations are as much as five times larger than those of motions from eastern stations. The explanation for the difference is probably related to site and propagation effects; the western stations are on the Coastal Plain, whereas the eastern stations are at the foot of young and steep mountains, either in the relatively narrow Longitudinal Valley or along the eastern coast-the sediments underlying the eastern stations are probably shallower and have higher velocity than those under the western stations.

  3. Improvements to CHI Plasma Start-up and Ramp-up in NSTX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarboe, T. R.; Raman, R.; Nelson, B. A.; Mueller, D.; Bell, M. G.; Roquemore, L.; Kugel, H. W.; Soukhanovskii, V.

    2009-11-01

    Experiments in NSTX have now demonstrated the savings of central solenoid inductive flux after coupling of toroidal plasmas produced by the technique of Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) to inductive sustainment and ramp-up of the toroidal plasma current. In these discharges, the central solenoid with zero pre-charge was used to apply an inductive loop voltage to the decaying CHI started discharges. The coupled discharges ramped up to 800kA without the benefit of auxiliary heating. Inductive flux savings was realized as a result of an effort to reduce the influx of low-Z impurities during the plasma start-up phase. This was achieved through the use of 400ms long CHI discharges produced using a DC rectifier power supply to ablate low-Z surface impurities from the lower divertor electrodes, followed by the use of Lithium evaporative coatings and an effort to reduce spurious arcs in the upper divertor region by controlling the extent of CHI plasma growth in the vessel. Previous work on NSTX has shown that CHI started discharges after coupling to neutral beam heated discharges can transition to an H-mode. These important new results from NSTX demonstrate that CHI is a viable solenoid-free plasma startup method for future STs and Tokamaks. This work supported by U.S. DOE Contracts # DE-AC02-09CH11466 and DE-FG02-99ER54519 AM08.

  4. Effects of fault dip and slip rake angles on near-source ground motions: Why rupture directivity was minimal in the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aagaard, Brad T.; Hall, J.F.; Heaton, T.H.

    2004-01-01

    We study how the fault dip and slip rake angles affect near-source ground velocities and displacements as faulting transitions from strike-slip motion on a vertical fault to thrust motion on a shallow-dipping fault. Ground motions are computed for five fault geometries with different combinations of fault dip and rake angles and common values for the fault area and the average slip. The nature of the shear-wave directivity is the key factor in determining the size and distribution of the peak velocities and displacements. Strong shear-wave directivity requires that (1) the observer is located in the direction of rupture propagation and (2) the rupture propagates parallel to the direction of the fault slip vector. We show that predominantly along-strike rupture of a thrust fault (geometry similar in the Chi-Chi earthquake) minimizes the area subjected to large-amplitude velocity pulses associated with rupture directivity, because the rupture propagates perpendicular to the slip vector; that is, the rupture propagates in the direction of a node in the shear-wave radiation pattern. In our simulations with a shallow hypocenter, the maximum peak-to-peak horizontal velocities exceed 1.5 m/sec over an area of only 200 km2 for the 30??-dipping fault (geometry similar to the Chi-Chi earthquake), whereas for the 60??- and 75??-dipping faults this velocity is exceeded over an area of 2700 km2 . These simulations indicate that the area subjected to large-amplitude long-period ground motions would be larger for events of the same size as Chi-Chi that have different styles of faulting or a deeper hypocenter.

  5. Martial Arts and Metabolic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hamasaki, Hidetaka

    2016-01-01

    Different forms of martial arts are practiced worldwide, each with various intensities of physical activity. These disciplines are potentially an effective exercise therapy for metabolic diseases. Tai chi is the most well-studied style of martial arts and has shown evidence of its effect on metabolic diseases; however, little evidence is available regarding the association between other styles of martial arts and metabolic health. To summarize and evaluate the effects of martial arts on metabolic diseases, eligible articles were searched by using Pubmed. To date, systematic reviews provide no definite conclusion on the effectiveness of tai chi for treating metabolic diseases because of a small numbers of subjects, short durations of clinical trials, and some biases involved in testing. However, there are several clinical studies on subjects with metabolic diseases, which show that tai chi improves obesity, glycemic control, blood pressure control, and lipid profiles. Currently, some limited evidence suggests that other martial arts, such as kung fu and karate, may be beneficial for body composition, glycemic control, and arterial stiffness. To clarify the effectiveness of martial arts for treating metabolic diseases, well-designed prospective studies, preferably with a larger number of subjects and of longer duration, are warranted. PMID:29910276

  6. Demonstration of Inductive Flux Saving by Transient CHI on NSTX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Roger

    2010-11-01

    Experiments in NSTX have now demonstrated the saving of central solenoid flux equivalent to 200kA of toroidal plasma current after coupling plasmas produced by Transient Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) to inductive sustainment and ramp-up of the toroidal plasma current [R. Raman, et al., PRL 104, 095003 (2010)]. This is a record for non-inductive plasma startup, and an important step for developing the spherical torus concept. With an injector current of only 4kA and total power supply energy of only 21 kJ, CHI initiated a toroidal current of 250 kA that when coupled to 0.11 Vs of induction ramped up to 525 kA without using any auxiliary heating, whereas an otherwise identical inductive-only discharge ramped to only 325 kA. This flux saving was realized by reducing the influx of low-Z impurities during the start-up phase through the use of electrode conditioning discharges, followed by lithium evaporative coating of the plasma-facing surfaces and reducing parasitic arcs in the upper divertor region through use of additional shaping-field coils. As a result of these improvements, and for the first time in NSTX, the electron temperature during the CHI phase continually increased with input energy, indicating that the additional injected energy was contributing to heating the plasma instead of being lost through impurity line radiation. Simulations with the Tokamak Simulation Code (TSC) show that the observed scaling of CHI start-up current with toroidal field in NSTX is consistent with theory, suggesting that use of CHI on larger machines is quite attractive. These exciting results from NSTX demonstrate that CHI is a viable solenoid-free plasma startup method for future STs and tokamaks. This work supported by U.S. DOE Contracts DE-AC02-09CH11466 and DE-FG02-99ER54519 AM08.

  7. [Study on the first translated obstetrics book Tai chan ju yao (Essentials in Obstetrics)].

    PubMed

    Wu, M

    2018-01-28

    In 1893, Wan Tsun-mo translated and published Tai chan ju yao ( Essentials in Obstetrics ), the first monograph of western obstetrics in modern China, symbolizing the independence of obstetrics from such maternal and child books as Fu ying xin shuo and Fu ke jing yun tu shuo , which occupies an important position in the history of the development of modern Chinese obstetrics. The book introduced anatomy, physiology, pathology, embryology, diagnostics, surgery, pharmacology and other knowledge of obstetrics in a catechismal form, and had a detailed discussion of such advanced obstetrical technologies as antiseptic, anesthesia, forceps and cesarean section for the first time.Judging from the content and translation of Tai chan ju yao , this book has already possessed the basic knowledge system of modern obstetrics, though the translation appeared to be somewhat jerky and not elegant and the terminology needing to be further improved, it was not only used as an important medium for the introduction of obstetrical knowledge, but also of great clinical value.However, its influence was so weak that later researchers seldom mentioned this book.

  8. Investigation of new particle formation at the summit of Mt. Tai, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Ganglin; Sui, Xiao; Chen, Jianmin; Jayaratne, Rohan; Mellouki, Abdelwahid

    2018-02-01

    To date, few comprehensive field observations of new particle formation (NPF) have been carried out at mountaintop sites in China. In this study, simultaneous measurements of particle size distribution, trace gases, meteorological parameters, and mass concentration and chemical composition of PM2.5 were performed at the summit of Mt. Tai (1534 m a.s.l.) from 25 July to 24 August 2014 (Phase I), 21 September to 9 December 2014 (Phase II), and 16 June to 7 August 2015 (Phase III) to investigate characteristics and favorable conditions of NPF in a relatively clean mountaintop environment. The NPF events were identified based on particle size distribution measured by the neutral cluster and air ion spectrometer (NAIS), and 66 such events were observed during a period of 164 days - corresponding to an occurrence frequency of 40 %. The formation rates of 3 nm particles (J3) and growth rates were in the ranges of 0.82-25.04 cm-3 s-1 and 0.58-7.76 nm h-1, respectively. On average, the condensation sink (CS), O3 concentration, air temperature, and relative humidity were lower, whereas the SO2 concentration was higher on NPF days than that on non-NPF days. The CS on Mt. Tai was at a low level and lower CS was critical for NPF. NPF events were common when wind came from the east-southeast and west-southwest, which was probably associated with relatively lower CS in the east-southeast and higher SO2 concentration in the west-southwest. O3 was not a governing factor for NPF in this study, and a high level of NOx concentration might be responsible for the decreased O3 concentration on NPF days. Three categories of backward trajectories were classified, among which the continental air mass was the majority. The continental air mass passing through more polluted areas (denoted as Type I) favored NPF because of enhanced SO2 concentration and potential ammonia with it. An in-depth analysis of SO2 indicated that sulfuric acid was a dominant precursor on Mt. Tai; meanwhile, biogenic

  9. Gender, symptom experience, and use of complementary and alternative medicine practices among cancer survivors in the U.S. cancer population.

    PubMed

    Fouladbakhsh, Judith M; Stommel, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    To identify relationships among gender, physical and psychological symptoms (pain, insomnia, fatigue, and depression), and use of specific complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practices among survivors in the U.S. cancer population. Secondary analysis of the 2002 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The CAM Healthcare Model, an extension of the Behavioral Model for Health Services Use, guided the study. United States. 2,262 adults (aged 18 years and older) diagnosed with cancer representing more than 14.3 million cancer survivors in the United States . NHIS interview data on use of CAM practices (diet, yoga, tai chi, qigong, meditation, guided imagery, relaxation, and deep breathing) were examined in relationship to gender and symptoms. Analysis was conducted using Stata 9.2 software for population estimation. Binary logistic regression, the primary statistical model employed in the analysis, focused on between-subject differences in practice use. Dichotomous outcome variables included use of at least one CAM practice and use of specific individual CAM practices. Independent variables included gender, age, education, race, provider contact, cancer diagnosis, pain, insomnia, fatigue, depression, and health status. CAM practice use was more prevalent among female, middle-aged, Caucasian, and well-educated subjects. Pain, depression, and insomnia were strong predictors of practice use, with differences noted by gender and practice type. CAM practices are widely used in the U.S. cancer population, especially among women. Symptom experience influences likelihood of use, with increased odds when men report symptoms. Study findings inform oncology nurses on the benefits of integrating self-care CAM practices in relationship to gender into the symptom management care plan for cancer survivors. Findings reported in this study will help guide future CAM practice intervention studies.

  10. [The effect of Ai Chi method in fibromyalgic patients].

    PubMed

    Santana, Jacqueline Soares de; Almeida, Ana Paula Gonçalves de; Brandão, Patrícia Martins Carvalho

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this article is to show the effect of the Ai Chi method, as an alternative form of hydrotherapeutic approach in fibromyalgia syndrome patients. Ten patients were studied, four were part of the experiment group and five of the control group, with one desistance. The patients were evaluated through the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (QIF) and Scale of Intensity and Index of pain in Sensible Points. Two evaluations were performed, before and after the treatment. The patients were submitted to ten sessions of the Ai Chi method during 40 minutes. The scale of intensity of pain in sensible points presented an improvement in the intensity of pain after the intervention, while quality of life remained without alteration. Regarding the quality of life, it was observed that the groups had similar results, because of the fact that patients had not presented improvement at depressive state. It was also verified a difference in the index of the sensible points between the groups; the explanation for this difference might be because of the benefits of the immersion in warm water and the effect of the Ai Chi method. There was no significant difference between the groups, which can be attributed to its limitations. In this way, new studies referring to the application of the Ai Chi method in patients carrying fibromyalgia syndrome become relevant.

  11. Study of the hadronic decays of [chi][sub c] states

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bai, J.Z.; Bian, J.G.; Chen, G.P.

    1999-10-01

    Hadronic decays of the [ital P]-wave spin-triplet charmonium states [chi][sub cJ](J=0,1,2) are studied using a sample of [psi](2S) decays collected by the BES detector operating at the BEPC storage ring. Branching fractions for the decays [chi][sub c1][r arrow]K[sub S][sup 0]K[sup +][pi][sup [minus

  12. Solenoid-free plasma startup in NSTX using transient CHI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, R.; Jarboe, T. R.; Mueller, D.; Nelson, B. A.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R.; Gates, D.; Gerhardt, S.; Hosea, J.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.; LeBlanc, B.; Maingi, R.; Maqueda, R.; Menard, J.; Nagata, M.; Ono, M.; Paul, S.; Roquemore, L.; Sabbagh, S.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Taylor, G.

    2009-06-01

    Experiments in NSTX have now demonstrated the coupling of toroidal plasmas produced by the technique of coaxial helicity injection (CHI) to inductive sustainment and ramp-up of the toroidal plasma current. In these discharges, the central Ohmic transformer was used to apply an inductive loop voltage to discharges with a toroidal current of about 100 kA created by CHI. The coupled discharges have ramped up to >700 kA and transitioned into an H-mode demonstrating compatibility of this startup method with conventional operation. The electron temperature in the coupled discharges reached over 800 eV and the resulting plasma had low inductance, which is preferred for long-pulse high-performance discharges. These results from NSTX in combination with the previously obtained record 160 kA non-inductively generated startup currents in an ST or tokamak in NSTX demonstrate that CHI is a viable solenoid-free plasma startup method for future STs and tokamaks.

  13. Progress with MGI and CHI Research on NSTX-U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, R.; Lay, W.-S.; Jarboe, T. R.; Nelson, B. A.; Mueller, D.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Ebrahimi, F.; Jardin, S. C.; Taylor, G.

    2016-10-01

    NSTX-U experiments on Massive Gas Injection (MGI) will offer new insight to the MGI database by studying gas assimilation efficiencies for MGI gas injection from different poloidal locations. In support of this research, two ITER-type MGI valves have been successfully commissioned on NSTX-U. Results from the planned experiment `Comparison of Private Flux Region with Conventional Mid-plane MGI on NSTX-U', will be reported. In support of planned Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) research on NSTX-U, a new high-resolution grid has been generated for TSC simulations of CHI. This improves the resolution of the CHI injector region, and better models the closely-spaced divertor coils on NSTX-U. These new simulations support previous analysis that suggests a solenoid-free plasma current initiation capability of more than 400kA on NSTX-U. This work is supported by U.S. DOE Contracts: DE-AC02-09CH11466, DE-FG02-99ER54519 AM08, and DE-SC0006757.

  14. Stress evolution following the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake: Consequences for afterslip, relaxation, aftershocks and departures from Omori decay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chan, C.-H.; Stein, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    We explore how Coulomb stress transfer and viscoelastic relaxation control afterslip and aftershocks in a continental thrust fault system. The 1999 September 21 Mw = 7.6 Chi-Chi shock is typical of continental ramp-d??collement systems throughout the world, and so inferences drawn from this uniquely well-recorded event may be widely applicable. First, we find that the spatial and depth distribution of aftershocks and their focal mechanisms are consistent with the calculated Coulomb stress changes imparted by the coseismic rupture. Some 61 per cent of the M ??? 2 aftershocks and 83 per cent of the M ??? 4 aftershocks lie in regions for which the Coulomb stress increased by ???0.1 bars, and there is a 11-12 per cent gain in the percentage of aftershocks nodal planes on which the shear stress increased over the pre-Chi Chi control period. Second, we find that afterslip occurred where the calculated coseismic stress increased on the fault ramp and d??collement, subject to the condition that friction is high on the ramp and low on the d??collement. Third, viscoelastic relaxation is evident from the fit of the post-seismic GPS data on the footwall. Fourth, we find that the rate of seismicity began to increase during the post-seismic period in an annulus extending east of the main rupture. The spatial extent of the seismicity annulus resembles the calculated ???0.05-bar Coulomb stress increase caused by viscoelastic relaxation and afterslip, and we find a 9-12 per cent gain in the percentage of focal mechanisms with >0.01-bar shear stress increases imparted by the post-seismic afterslip and relaxation in comparison to the control period. Thus, we argue that post-seismic stress changes can for the first time be shown to alter the production of aftershocks, as judged by their rate, spatial distribution, and focal mechanisms. ?? Journal compilation ?? 2009 RAS.

  15. Fibromyalgia: A Puzzling and Painful Condition | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... your doctor. Exercise. Research has shown that regular exercise is one of the most effective treatments for fibromyalgia. Try a complementary health approach. Practices such as tai chi, qi gong, ...

  16. An Application of Project-Based Learning on the Development of Young Local Tour Guides on Tai Phuan's Culture and Tourist Attractions in Sisatchanalai District, Sukhothai Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerdpol, Sakon

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of a research entitled, " An Application of Project-based Learning on the Development of Young Local Tour Guides on Tai Phuan's Culture and Tourist Attractions in Sisatchanalai District, Sukhothai Province. It was intended to develop young local tour guides on Tai Phuan's culture and tourist attractions in…

  17. CHI3L1 polymorphisms associate with asthma in a Taiwanese population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A genome-wide association study uncovered Chitinase 3 like 1 (CHI3L1) as a candidate gene for asthma susceptibility. CHI3L1, which encodes the YKL-40 protein, is associated with asthma in Western European and American populations and with atopy in a Korean population. However, asthma-associated polymorphisms remain unknown for a Taiwanese population. Methods We enrolled 628 adult asthmatic patients and 1:1 age-sex matched community-based controls in southern Taiwan and performed a combined effect sizes analysis to test if CHI3L1 polymorphisms were related to genetic risks for asthma in the Asian population. Ten tagSNP polymorphisms for the CHI3L1 gene were selected from the HapMap database and genotyped using a TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. Results Adjusted odds ratios of the CHI3L1 rs1538372 CC genotype (aOR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.23–3.14) and the rs10399931 GG genotype (aOR = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.13–2.77) were significantly associated with asthma in the Taiwanese populations. Predictive values of forced expiratory volume in the first second of the forced vital capacity (12.37%, P = 0.03) and of forced vital capacity (12.10%, P = 0.036) decreased in conjunction with an increase in YKL-40 levels among CHI3L1 rs1538372 CC carriers; these values were 16.1% (P = 0.004) and 14.5% (P = 0.011), respectively, among CHI3L1 rs10399931 GG carriers. Furthermore, steroid use by asthma patients did not affect serum YKL-40 levels, but both polymorphisms had significant effects on YKL-40 levels in asthma patients who used steroids. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the CHI3L1 polymorphisms rs1538372 and rs10399931 can be used as genetic markers for predicting asthma risk in the Taiwanese population. PMID:25056157

  18. Neural Mechanisms of Qigong Sensory Training Massage for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Jerger, Kristin K; Lundegard, Laura; Piepmeier, Aaron; Faurot, Keturah; Ruffino, Amanda; Jerger, Margaret A; Belger, Aysenil

    2018-01-01

    Despite the enormous prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), its global impact has yet to be realized. Millions of families worldwide need effective treatments to help them get through everyday challenges like eating, sleeping, digestion, and social interaction. Qigong Sensory Training (QST) is a nonverbal, parent-delivered intervention recently shown to be effective at reducing these everyday challenges in children with ASD. This study tested the feasibility of a protocol for investigating QST's neural mechanism. During a single visit, 20 children, 4- to 7-year-old, with ASD viewed images of emotional faces before and after receiving QST or watching a video (controls). Heart rate variability was recorded throughout the visit, and power in the high frequency band (0.15-0.4 Hz) was calculated to estimate parasympathetic tone in 5-s nonoverlapping windows. Cerebral oximetry of prefrontal cortex was recorded during rest and while viewing emotional faces. 95% completion rate and 7.6% missing data met a priori standards confirming protocol feasibility for future studies. Preliminary data suggest: (1) during the intervention, parasympathetic tone increased more in children receiving massage (M = 2.9, SD = 0.3) versus controls (M = 2.5, SD = 0.5); (2) while viewing emotional faces post-intervention, parasympathetic tone was more affected (reduced) in the massage group ( p  = 0.036); and (3) prefrontal cortex response to emotional faces was greater after massage compared to controls. These results did not reach statistical significance in this small study powered to test feasibility. This study demonstrates solid protocol feasibility. If replicated in a larger sample, these findings would provide important clues to the neural mechanism of action underlying QST's efficacy for improving sensory, social, and communication difficulties in children with autism.

  19. Reconnaissance On Chi-Square Test Procedure For Determining Two Species Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marisa, Hanifa

    2008-01-01

    Determining the assosiation of two species by using chi-square test has been published. Utility of this procedure to plants species at certain location, shows that the procedure could not find "ecologically" association. Tens sampling units have been made to record some weeds species in Indralaya, South Sumatera. Chi square test; Xt2 = N[|(ad)-(bc)|-(N/2)]2/mnrs (Eq:1) on two species (Cleome sp and Eleusine indica) of the weeds shows positive assosiation; while ecologically in nature, there is no relationship between them. Some alternatives are proposed to this problem; simplified chi-square test steps, make further study to find out ecologically association, or at last, ignore it.

  20. A Graphic Chi-Square Test For Two-Class Genetic Segregation Ratios

    Treesearch

    A.E. Squillace; D.J. Squillace

    1970-01-01

    A chart is presented for testing the goodness of fit of observed two-class genetic segregation ratios against hypothetical ratios, eliminating the need of computing chi-square. Although designed mainly for genetic studies, the chart can also be used for other types of studies involving two-class chi-square tests.

  1. Estimation of lifetime of carbonaceous aerosol from open crop residue burning during Mount Tai Experiment 2006 (MTX2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, X. L.; Kanaya, Y.; Wang, Z. F.; Komazaki, Y.; Taketani, F.; Akimoto, H.; Pochanart, P.; Liu, Y.

    2012-06-01

    Studying the emission ratios of carbonaceous aerosols (element carbon, EC, and organic carbon, OC) from open biomass burning helps to reduce uncertainties in emission inventories and provides necessary constraints for model simulations. We measured apparent elemental carbon (ECa) and OC concentrations at the summit of Mount Tai (Mt. Tai) during intensive open crop residue burning (OCRB) episodes using a Sunset OCEC analyzer. Equivalent black carbon (BCe) concentrations were determined using a Multiple Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP). In the fine particle mode, OC and EC showed strong correlations (r > 0.9) with carbon monoxide (CO). Footprint analysis using the FLEXPART_WRF model indicated that OCRB in central east China (CEC) had a significant influence on ambient carbonaceous aerosol loadings at the summit of Mt. Tai. ΔECa/ΔCO ratios resulting from OCRB plumes were 14.3 ± 1.0 ng m-3 ppbv-1 at Mt. Tai. This ratio was more than three times those resulting from urban pollution in CEC, demonstrating that significant concentrations of soot particles were released from OCRB. ΔOC/ΔCO ratio from fresh OCRB plumes was found to be 41.9 ± 2.6 ng m-3 ppbv-1 in PM1. The transport time of smoke particles was estimated using the FLEXPART_WRF tracer model by releasing inert particles from the ground layer inside geographical regions where large numbers of hotspots were detected by a MODIS satellite sensor. Fitting regressions using the e-folding exponential function indicated that the removal efficiency of OC (normalized to CO) was much larger than that of ECa mass, with mean lifetimes of 27 h (1.1 days) for OC and 105 h (4.3 days) for ECa, respectively. The lifetime of black carbon estimated for the OCRB events in east China was comparably lower than the values normally adopted in the transport models. Short lifetime of organic carbon highlighted the vulnerability of OC to cloud scavenging in the presence of water-soluble organic species from biomass combustion.

  2. Integrative Medicine and Complementary and Alternative Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... and tai chi. Questions to Ask Your Healthcare Team Use the following questions as a guide to discuss complementary therapies with your healthcare team: Are there complementary therapies that you would recommend? ...

  3. Chi 3 dispersion in planar tantalum pentoxide waveguides in the telecommunications window.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ruiqi Y; Charlton, Martin D B; Lagoudakis, Pavlos G

    2009-04-01

    We report on the dispersion of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility (chi(3) or "Chi 3") in planar Ta2O5 waveguides in the telecommunications spectral window. We utilize the observation of third-harmonic generation under ultrashort pulsed excitation as a reference-free characterization method of chi(3) and obtain a large nonlinear coefficient, 2x10(-13) esu, at 1550 nm. Our observation of efficient third-harmonic generation in Ta2O5 waveguides in the telecoms window reveals the potential of this material system in high-speed integrated nonlinear optical switches.

  4. Observation of the $$\\chi_\\mathrm{b1}$$(3P) and $$\\chi_\\mathrm{b2}$$(3P) and measurement of their masses

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Sirunyan, Albert M; et al.

    Themore » $$\\chi_\\mathrm{b1}$$(3P) and $$\\chi_\\mathrm{b3}$$(3P) states are observed through their $$\\Upsilon$$(3S) $$\\gamma$$ decays, using an event sample of proton-proton collisions collected by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC. data were collected at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 80.0 fb$$^{-1}$$. $$\\Upsilon$$(3S) mesons are identified through their dimuon decay channel, while the low-energy photons are detected after converting to e$^+$e$^-$ pairs in the silicon tracker, leading to a $$\\chi_\\mathrm{b}$$(3P) mass resolution of 2.2 MeV. This is the first time that the $J =$ 1 and 2 states are well resolved and their masses individually measured: 10$$\\,$$513.42 $$\\pm$$ 0.41 (stat) $$\\pm$$ 0.18 (syst) MeV and 10$$\\,$$524.02 $$\\pm$$ 0.57 (stat) $$\\pm$$ 0.18 (syst) MeV; they are determined with respect to the world-average value of the $$\\Upsilon$$(3S) mass, which has an uncertainty of 0.5 MeV. mass splitting is measured to be 10.60 $$\\pm$$ 0.64 (stat) $$\\pm$$ 0.17 (syst) MeV.« less

  5. The Listeria monocytogenes ChiA Chitinase Enhances Virulence through Suppression of Host Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Swarnava; Gantner, Benjamin N.; Ye, Richard D.; Cianciotto, Nicholas P.; Freitag, Nancy E.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Environmental pathogens survive and replicate within the outside environment while maintaining the capacity to infect mammalian hosts. For some microorganisms, mammalian infection may be a relatively rare event. Understanding how environmental pathogens retain their ability to cause disease may provide insight into environmental reservoirs of disease and emerging infections. Listeria monocytogenes survives as a saprophyte in soil but is capable of causing serious invasive disease in susceptible individuals. The bacterium secretes virulence factors that promote cell invasion, bacterial replication, and cell-to-cell spread. Recently, an L. monocytogenes chitinase (ChiA) was shown to enhance bacterial infection in mice. Given that mammals do not synthesize chitin, the function of ChiA within infected animals was not clear. Here we have demonstrated that ChiA enhances L. monocytogenes survival in vivo through the suppression of host innate immunity. L. monocytogenes ΔchiA mutants were fully capable of establishing bacterial replication within target organs during the first 48 h of infection. By 72 to 96 h postinfection, however, numbers of ΔchiA bacteria diminished, indicative of an effective immune response to contain infection. The ΔchiA-associated virulence defect could be complemented in trans by wild-type L. monocytogenes, suggesting that secreted ChiA altered a target that resulted in a more permissive host environment for bacterial replication. ChiA secretion resulted in a dramatic decrease in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and ΔchiA mutant virulence was restored in NOS2−/− mice lacking iNOS. This work is the first to demonstrate modulation of a specific host innate immune response by a bacterial chitinase. PMID:23512964

  6. Two-dimensional Co-Seismic Surface Displacements Field of the Chi-Chi Earthquake Inferred from SAR Image Matching.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jun; Li, Zhi-Wei; Ding, Xiao-Li; Zhu, Jian-Jun

    2008-10-21

    The M w =7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan occurred in 1999 over the Chelungpu fault and caused a great surface rupture and severe damage. Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) has been applied previously to study the co-seismic ground displacements. There have however been significant limitations in the studies. First, only one-dimensional displacements along the Line-of-Sight (LOS) direction have been measured. The large horizontal displacements along the Chelungpu fault are largely missing from the measurements as the fault is nearly perpendicular to the LOS direction. Second, due to severe signal decorrelation on the hangling wall of the fault, the displacements in that area are un-measurable by differential InSAR method. We estimate the co-seismic displacements in both the azimuth and range directions with the method of SAR amplitude image matching. GPS observations at the 10 GPS stations are used to correct for the orbital ramp in the amplitude matching and to create the two-dimensional (2D) co-seismic surface displacements field using the descending ERS-2 SAR image pair. The results show that the co-seismic displacements range from about -2.0 m to 0.7 m in the azimuth direction (with the positive direction pointing to the flight direction), with the footwall side of the fault moving mainly southwards and the hanging wall side northwards. The displacements in the LOS direction range from about -0.5 m to 1.0 m, with the largest displacement occuring in the northeastern part of the hanging wall (the positive direction points to the satellite from ground). Comparing the results from amplitude matching with those from DInSAR, we can see that while only a very small fraction of the LOS displacement has been recovered by the DInSAR mehtod, the azimuth displacements cannot be well detected with the DInSAR measurements as they are almost perpendicular to the LOS. Therefore, the amplitude matching method is obviously more advantageous than the

  7. Testing subleading multiple soft graviton theorem for CHY prescription

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Subhroneel; Kashyap, Sitender Pratap; Sahoo, Biswajit; Sen, Ashoke; Verma, Mritunjay

    2018-01-01

    In arXiv:1707.06803 we derived the subleading multiple soft graviton theorem in a generic quantum theory of gravity for arbitrary number of soft external gravitons and arbitrary number of finite energy external states carrying arbitrary mass and spin. In this paper we verify this explicitly using the CHY formula for tree level scattering amplitudes of arbitrary number of gravitons in Einstein gravity. We pay special care to fix the signs of the amplitudes and resolve an apparent discrepancy between our general results in arXiv:1707.06803 and previous results on soft graviton theorem from CHY formula.

  8. Gain Shift Corrections at Chi-Nu

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Brown, Tristan Brooks; Devlin, Matthew James

    Ambient conditions have the potential to cause changes in liquid scintillator detector gain that vary with time and temperature. These gain shifts can lead to poor resolution in both energy as well as pulse shape discrimination. In order to correct for these shifts in the Chi-Nu high energy array, a laser system has been developed for calibration of the pulse height signals.

  9. Physical therapies for improving balance and reducing falls risk in osteoarthritis of the knee: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mat, Sumaiyah; Tan, Maw Pin; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul Bahyah; Ng, Chin Teck

    2015-01-01

    osteoarthritis (OA) of knee has been reported as a risk factor for falls and reduced balance in the elderly. This systematic review evaluated the effectiveness of physical therapies in improving balance and reducing falls risk among patients with knee OA. a computerised search was performed to identify relevant studies up to November 2013. Two investigators identified eligible studies and extracted data independently. The quality of the included studies was assessed by the PeDro score. a total of 15 randomised controlled trials involving 1482 patients were identified. The mean PeDro score was 7. The pooled standardised mean difference in balance outcome for strength training = 0.3346 (95% CI: 0.3207-0.60, P = 0.01 < 0.00001, P for heterogeneity = 0.85, I(2) = 0%). Tai Chi = 0.7597 (95% CI: 0.5130-1.2043, P<=0.0014, P for heterogeneity = 0.26, I(2) = 0%) and aerobic exercises = 0.6880 (95% CI: 0.5704-1.302, P < 0.00001, P for heterogeneity = 0.71, I(2) = 0%). While pooled results for falls risk outcomes in, strength training, Tai chi and aerobics also showed a significant reduction in reduced risk of falls significantly with pooled result 0.55 (95% CI: 0.41-0.68, P < 0.00001, P for heterogeneity = 0.39, I(2) = 6%). strength training, Tai Chi and aerobics exercises improved balance and falls risk in older individuals with knee OA, while water-based exercises and light treatment did not significantly improve balance outcomes. Strength training, Tai Chi and aerobics exercises can therefore be recommended as falls prevention strategies for individuals with OA. However, a large randomised controlled study using actual falls outcomes is recommended to determine the appropriate dosage and to measure the potential benefits in falls reduction. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Occurrence of additive brominated flame retardants in aquatic organisms from Tai Lake and Yangtze River in Eastern China, 2009-2012.

    PubMed

    Su, Guanyong; Saunders, David; Yu, Yijun; Yu, Hongxia; Zhang, Xiaowei; Liu, Hongling; Giesy, John P

    2014-11-01

    Since the phase-out of PBDEs, reports regarding occurrences of these compounds in the environment have become less frequent. To characterize potential influences of the phase-out of PBDEs' on concentrations in the environment, trends in concentrations as a function of time were investigated for two additive brominated flame retardants, PBDEs and HBCDs. Three aquatic species, including shrimp, common carp, and yellow catfish, were collected from Meiliang Bay of Tai Lake, 2009-2012. The analysis of PBDEs in three aquatic organisms has shown a downward-trend in the first three years but a significant upward-trend in the final year. Concentrations of HBCDs have not shown temporal increases in the investigated environments. Concentrations of both PBDEs and HBCDs in the three studied organisms increased as a function of trophic level, which suggested that these additive flame retardants can be biomagnified through the food web of Tai Lake. In accordance with previous publications, PBDE-47 contributed the greatest proportion of ∑PBDEs and had a detection frequency of 100%. α-HBCD was the predominate isomer that contributed to ∑HBCDs. Both β-HBCD and γ-HBCD were likely detected at lesser concentrations than the α-isomer due to differences in bioavailability. Concentrations of ∑PBDEs in the three aquatic organisms from Tai Lake ranged from 1.13 to 97.59 ng g(-1) lipid. These concentrations were generally less than those in biota from other countries, but equal to those found at other locations in China. Specimens from the Yangtze River had greater concentrations of ∑HBCDs (169.6-316.5 ng g(-1) lipid) than those collected at Tai Lake, which were comparatively greater than many reported concentrations in freshwater organisms from other countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Time to Talk: 4 Things to Know about Menopausal Symptoms and Complementary Health Practices

    MedlinePlus

    ... menopausal symptoms: Mind and body practices such as hypnosis, mindfulness meditation, and tai chi may help improve ... joint pain. There is also some evidence that hypnotherapy may help women manage hot flashes. Many natural ...

  12. Double asymptotics for the chi-square statistic.

    PubMed

    Rempała, Grzegorz A; Wesołowski, Jacek

    2016-12-01

    Consider distributional limit of the Pearson chi-square statistic when the number of classes m n increases with the sample size n and [Formula: see text]. Under mild moment conditions, the limit is Gaussian for λ = ∞, Poisson for finite λ > 0, and degenerate for λ = 0.

  13. Emerging therapies to treat frailty syndrome in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Cherniack, E Paul; Florez, Hermes J; Troen, Bruce R

    2007-09-01

    Frailty syndrome (FS) has become increasingly recognized as a major predictor of co-morbidities and mortality in older individuals. Interventions with the potential to benefit frail elders include nutritional supplementation (vitamins D, carotenoids, creatine, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate) and exercise modalities (tai chi and cobblestone walking). While these have not been explicitly tested for their impact on FS, vitamin D supplementation appears to offer significant promise in enhancing long-term health of the elderly. Exercise modalities such as tai chi and cobblestone walking, because of probable low risk and ease of participation, may also confer benefit. Additional studies are needed to investigate interventions that directly prevent, delay, and/or ameliorate frailty. Successful therapies may well involve multi-component approaches utilizing a combination of medication, nutritional supplementation, and exercise.

  14. Focusing on Fibromyalgia : A Puzzling and Painful Condition

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorder. Researchers have found several genes Stretches of DNA, a substance you inherit from your parents, that ... therapies such as tai chi, yoga, and cognitive behavior therapy can also help to reduce symptoms.” People ...

  15. Parameter Estimation in Astronomy with Poisson-Distributed Data. 1; The (CHI)2(gamma) Statistic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mighell, Kenneth J.

    1999-01-01

    Applying the standard weighted mean formula, [Sigma (sub i)n(sub i)ssigma(sub i, sup -2)], to determine the weighted mean of data, n(sub i), drawn from a Poisson distribution, will, on average, underestimate the true mean by approx. 1 for all true mean values larger than approx.3 when the common assumption is made that the error of the i th observation is sigma(sub i) = max square root of n(sub i), 1).This small, but statistically significant offset, explains the long-known observation that chi-square minimization techniques which use the modified Neyman'chi(sub 2) statistic, chi(sup 2, sub N) equivalent Sigma(sub i)((n(sub i) - y(sub i)(exp 2)) / max(n(sub i), 1), to compare Poisson - distributed data with model values, y(sub i), will typically predict a total number of counts that underestimates the true total by about 1 count per bin. Based on my finding that weighted mean of data drawn from a Poisson distribution can be determined using the formula [Sigma(sub i)[n(sub i) + min(n(sub i), 1)](n(sub i) + 1)(exp -1)] / [Sigma(sub i)(n(sub i) + 1)(exp -1))], I propose that a new chi(sub 2) statistic, chi(sup 2, sub gamma) equivalent, should always be used to analyze Poisson- distributed data in preference to the modified Neyman's chi(exp 2) statistic. I demonstrated the power and usefulness of,chi(sub gamma, sup 2) minimization by using two statistical fitting techniques and five chi(exp 2) statistics to analyze simulated X-ray power - low 15 - channel spectra with large and small counts per bin. I show that chi(sub gamma, sup 2) minimization with the Levenberg - Marquardt or Powell's method can produce excellent results (mean slope errors approx. less than 3%) with spectra having as few as 25 total counts.

  16. Measurements of dynamo effect on double-CHI pulse ST plasmas on HIST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, K.; Hanao, T.; Ishihara, M.; Matsumoto, K.; Higashi, T.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

    2011-10-01

    Coaxial Helicity injection (CHI) is an efficient current-drive method used in spheromak and spherical torus (ST) experiments. An anticipated issue for CHI is achieving good energy confinement, since it relies on the magnetic relaxation and dynamo. This is essentially because CHI cannot drive a dynamo directly inside a closed magnetic flux surface. Thus, it is an important issue to investigate dynamo effect to explore CHI current drive mechanisms in a new approach such as Multi-pulsing CHI method. To study the dynamo model with two-fluid Hall effects, we have started from the generalized Ohm law. We have measured each MHD dynamo term and Hall dynamo term separately by using Mach probe and Hall probe involving 3-axis magnetic pick-up coils. The result shows that the induced electric field due to MHD dynamo is large enough to sustain the mean toroidal current against resistive decay in the core region. In the other hand, the anti-dynamo effect in the MHD dynamo term is observed in the central open flux column (OFC) region. From the viewpoint of two-fluid theory, ion diamagnetic drift is opposite to the electron diamagnetic drift, maybe resulting in the anti-dynamo effect. Hall dynamo may arise from the fluctuating electron diamagnetic current due to high electron density gradient which is large in the OFC region.

  17. Robust Satellite Techniques (RST) for monitoring earthquake prone areas by satellite TIR observations: The case of 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (Taiwan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genzano, N.; Filizzola, C.; Paciello, R.; Pergola, N.; Tramutoli, V.

    2015-12-01

    different years (from 1995 to 2002). In this dataset the Chi-Chi earthquake (MW = 7.6) which occurred on September 20, 1999 represents the major, but not unique, event. The analysis shows that all identified SSTAs occur in the pre-fixed space-time window around (in terms of time and location) earthquakes with M > 4. The false positive rate remains zero even if only earthquakes with M > 4.5 are considered. In the case of the Chi-Chi earthquake, 3 SSTAs were identified (all within the established space-time correlation window), one of them appearing about 2 weeks before and very close to the epicentre of the earthquake just along the associated tectonic lineaments. The wide considered space-time window, together with the high seismicity of the considered area, surely positively conditioned the achieved results, so that further analyses should be carried out by using longer datasets and different geographic areas. However, also considering the coincidence with other (possible) precursor phenomena, independently reported (particularly within the iSTEP project) at the time of the Chi Chi earthquake, achieved results seem already sufficient (at least) to qualify TIR anomalies (identified by RST) among the parameters to be considered in the framework of a multi-parametric approach to a time-Dependent Assessment of Seismic Hazard (t-DASH).

  18. Resilience of aging populations after devastating earthquake event and its determinants - A case study of the Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Chih-Hsuan; Hung, Hung-Chih

    2016-04-01

    1.Background Major portions of urban areas in Asia are highly exposed and vulnerable to devastating earthquakes. Many studies identify ways to reduce earthquake risk by concentrating more on building resilience for the particularly vulnerable populations. By 2020, as the United Nations' warning, many Asian countries would become 'super-aged societies', such as Taiwan. However, local authorities rarely use resilience approach to frame earthquake disaster risk management and land use strategies. The empirically-based research about the resilience of aging populations has also received relatively little attention. Thus, a challenge arisen for decision-makers is how to enhance resilience of aging populations within the context of risk reduction. This study aims to improve the understanding of the resilience of aging populations and its changes over time in the aftermath of a destructive earthquake at the local level. A novel methodology is proposed to assess the resilience of aging populations and to characterize their changes of spatial distribution patterns, as well as to examine their determinants. 2.Methods and data An indicator-based assessment framework is constructed with the goal of identifying composite indicators (including before, during and after a disaster) that could serve as proxies for attributes of the resilience of aging populations. Using the recovery process of the Chi-Chi earthquake struck central Taiwan in 1999 as a case study, we applied a method combined a geographical information system (GIS)-based spatial statistics technique and cluster analysis to test the extent of which the resilience of aging populations is spatially autocorrelated throughout the central Taiwan, and to explain why clustering of resilient areas occurs in specific locations. Furthermore, to scrutinize the affecting factors of resilience, we develop an aging population resilience model (APRM) based on existing resilience theory. Using the APRM, we applied a multivariate

  19. Two-fluid equilibrium transition during multi-pulsing CHI in spherical torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanki, T.; Nagata, M.

    2015-11-01

    Two-fluid dynamo current drive has been studied to achieve a quasi-steady sustainment and good confinement of spherical torus (ST) plasmas by multi-pulsing CHI (M-CHI) in the HIST device. The density gradient, poloidal flow shear, and radial electric shear enhanced by applying the second CHI pulse is observed around the separatrix in the high field side to cause not only the ExB drift but also the ion diamagnetic drift, leading the two-fluid dynamo. The two-fluid equilibrium transition during the M-CHI in the ST is investigated by modelling the M-CHI in the two-fluid equilibrium calculations. The toroidal magnetic field becomes from a diamagnetic to a paramagnetic profile in the closed flux region due to the increase of the poloidal electron flow velocity in the central open flux column (OFC) region, while the diamagnetic profile is kept in the OFC region. The toroidal ion flow velocity is increased from negative to positive values in the closed flux region due to the increase in the drift velocity and the Hall effect. As the ion diamagnetic drift velocity is changed in the same direction as the ExB drift velocity around the separatrix in the high field side through the negative ion pressure gradient there, the poloidal ion flow velocity is increased in the OFC region, enhancing the flow shear. The radial electric field shear around the separatrix is enhanced due to the strong dependence on the magnetic force through the interaction of toroidal ion flow velocity and axial magnetic field. The density is decreased in the closed flux region according to the generalized Bernoulli law and its negative gradient around the separatrix steepens.

  20. Chitin-induced T6SS in Vibrio cholerae is dependent on ChiS activation.

    PubMed

    Chourashi, Rhishita; Das, Suman; Dhar, Debarpan; Okamoto, Keinosuke; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K; Chatterjee, Nabendu Sekhar

    2018-05-01

    Vibrio cholerae regularly colonizes the chitinous exoskeleton of crustacean shells in the aquatic region. The type 6 secretion system (T6SS) in V. cholerae is an interbacterial killing device. This system is thought to provide a competitive advantage to V. cholerae in a polymicrobial community of the aquatic region under nutrient-poor conditions. V. cholerae chitin sensing is known to be initiated by the activation of a two-component sensor histidine kinase ChiS in the presence of GlcNAc2 (N,N'-diacetylchitobiose) residues generated by the action of chitinases on chitin. It is known that T6SS in V. cholerae is generally induced by chitin. However, the effect of ChiS activation on T6SS is unknown. Here, we found that ChiS inactivation resulted in impaired bacterial killing and reduced expression of T6SS genes. Active ChiS positively affected T6SS-mediated natural transformation in V. cholerae. ChiS depletion or inactivation also resulted in reduced colonization on insoluble chitin surfaces. Therefore, we have shown that V. cholerae colonization on chitinous surfaces activates ChiS, which promotes T6SS-dependent bacterial killing and horizontal gene transfer. We also highlight the importance of chitinases in T6SS upregulation.

  1. Effect of migration patterns on maternal genetic structure: a case of Tai-Kadai migration from China to Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kampuansai, Jatupol; Kutanan, Wibhu; Tassi, Francesca; Kaewgahya, Massupa; Ghirotto, Silvia; Kangwanpong, Daoroong

    2017-02-01

    The migration of the Tai-Kadai speaking people from southern China to northern Thailand over the past hundreds of years has revealed numerous patterns that have likely been influenced by routes, purposes and periods of time. To study the effects of different migration patterns on Tai-Kadai maternal genetic structure, mitochondrial DNA hypervariable region I sequences from the Yong and the Lue people having well-documented histories in northern Thailand were analyzed. Although the Yong and Lue people were historically close relatives who shared Xishuangbanna Dai ancestors, significant genetic differences have been observed among them. The Yong people who have been known to practice mass migration have exhibited a closer genetic affinity to their Dai ancestors than have the Lue people. Genetic heterogeneity and a sudden reduced effective population size within the Lue group is likely a direct result of the circumstances of the founder effect.

  2. Chitinase Chi1 from Myceliophthora thermophila C1, a Thermostable Enzyme for Chitin and Chitosan Depolymerization

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    A thermostable Chitinase Chi1 from Myceliophthora thermophila C1 was homologously produced and characterized. Chitinase Chi1 shows high thermostability at 40 °C (>140 h 90% activity), 50 °C (>168 h 90% activity), and 55 °C (half-life 48 h). Chitinase Chi1 has broad substrate specificity and converts chitin, chitosan, modified chitosan, and chitin oligosaccharides. The activity of Chitinase Chi1 is strongly affected by the degree of deacetylation (DDA), molecular weight (Mw), and side chain modification of chitosan. Chitinase Chi1 releases mainly (GlcNAc)2 from insoluble chitin and chito-oligosaccharides with a polymerization degree (DP) ranging from 2 to 12 from chitosan, in a processive way. Chitinase Chi1 shows higher activity toward chitin oligosaccharides (GlcNAc)4–6 than toward (GlcNAc)3 and is inactive for (GlcNAc)2. During hydrolysis, oligosaccharides bind at subsites −2 to +2 in the enzyme’s active site. Chitinase Chi1 can be used for chitin valorisation and for production of chitin- and chito-oligosaccharides at industrial scale. PMID:29359934

  3. Chitinase Chi1 from Myceliophthora thermophila C1, a Thermostable Enzyme for Chitin and Chitosan Depolymerization.

    PubMed

    Krolicka, Malgorzata; Hinz, Sandra W A; Koetsier, Martijn J; Joosten, Rob; Eggink, Gerrit; van den Broek, Lambertus A M; Boeriu, Carmen G

    2018-02-21

    A thermostable Chitinase Chi1 from Myceliophthora thermophila C1 was homologously produced and characterized. Chitinase Chi1 shows high thermostability at 40 °C (>140 h 90% activity), 50 °C (>168 h 90% activity), and 55 °C (half-life 48 h). Chitinase Chi1 has broad substrate specificity and converts chitin, chitosan, modified chitosan, and chitin oligosaccharides. The activity of Chitinase Chi1 is strongly affected by the degree of deacetylation (DDA), molecular weight (Mw), and side chain modification of chitosan. Chitinase Chi1 releases mainly (GlcNAc) 2 from insoluble chitin and chito-oligosaccharides with a polymerization degree (DP) ranging from 2 to 12 from chitosan, in a processive way. Chitinase Chi1 shows higher activity toward chitin oligosaccharides (GlcNAc) 4-6 than toward (GlcNAc) 3 and is inactive for (GlcNAc) 2 . During hydrolysis, oligosaccharides bind at subsites -2 to +2 in the enzyme's active site. Chitinase Chi1 can be used for chitin valorisation and for production of chitin- and chito-oligosaccharides at industrial scale.

  4. 77 FR 44310 - Quarterly Publication of Individuals, Who Have Chosen To Expatriate, as Required by Section 6039G

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ... JACINTA YEUNG CHEONG CHANG MICHAEL YIO-HOW CHENG NICOLAS VINCENT CHI TELLY TAI HSUAN CHINOY SAMIR MUSTAPHA... TONJA YVONNE SU JIN CHIN SU XIAOBO SARA SHAO SUEN SAMSON C. L. SY KEVIN NEIL TAN LAI HING THARALDSEN...

  5. Mind-Body Medicine Practices in Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... interactions among the brain, the rest of the body, the mind, and behavior The ways in which emotional, mental, ... alternative medicine (CAM). Within CAM, some examples of mind-body medicine practices are meditation, hypnosis, tai chi, and ...

  6. {chi}{sub cJ} decays to h{sup +}h{sup -}h{sup 0}

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Athar, S. B.; Patel, R.; Potlia, V.

    2007-02-01

    Using a sample of 3x10{sup 6} {psi}(2S) decays recorded by the CLEO detector, we study three-body decays of the {chi}{sub c0}, {chi}{sub c1}, and {chi}{sub c2} produced in radiative decays of the {psi}(2S). We consider the final states {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{eta}, K{sup +}K{sup -}{eta}, pp{eta}, {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{eta}{sup '}, K{sup +}K{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}, pp{pi}{sup 0}, {pi}{sup +}K{sup -}K{sub S}{sup 0}, and K{sup +}p{lambda}, measuring branching fractions or placing upper limits. For {chi}{sub c1}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{eta}, K{sup +}K{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}, and {pi}{sup +}K{sup -}K{sub S}{sup 0} our observed samples are large enough to indicate the largest contributions to the substructure.

  7. Complementary and alternative medicine for patients with chronic fatigue syndrome: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Throughout the world, patients with chronic diseases/illnesses use complementary and alternative medicines (CAM). The use of CAM is also substantial among patients with diseases/illnesses of unknown aetiology. Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), also termed myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), is no exception. Hence, a systematic review of randomised controlled trials of CAM treatments in patients with CFS/ME was undertaken to summarise the existing evidence from RCTs of CAM treatments in this patient population. Methods Seventeen data sources were searched up to 13th August 2011. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of any type of CAM therapy used for treating CFS were included, with the exception of acupuncture and complex herbal medicines; studies were included regardless of blinding. Controlled clinical trials, uncontrolled observational studies, and case studies were excluded. Results A total of 26 RCTs, which included 3,273 participants, met our inclusion criteria. The CAM therapy from the RCTs included the following: mind-body medicine, distant healing, massage, tuina and tai chi, homeopathy, ginseng, and dietary supplementation. Studies of qigong, massage and tuina were demonstrated to have positive effects, whereas distant healing failed to do so. Compared with placebo, homeopathy also had insufficient evidence of symptom improvement in CFS. Seventeen studies tested supplements for CFS. Most of the supplements failed to show beneficial effects for CFS, with the exception of NADH and magnesium. Conclusions The results of our systematic review provide limited evidence for the effectiveness of CAM therapy in relieving symptoms of CFS. However, we are not able to draw firm conclusions concerning CAM therapy for CFS due to the limited number of RCTs for each therapy, the small sample size of each study and the high risk of bias in these trials. Further rigorous RCTs that focus on promising CAM therapies are warranted. PMID:21982120

  8. Efficacy and safety of meditative movement therapies in fibromyalgia syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Langhorst, Jost; Klose, Petra; Dobos, Gustav J; Bernardy, Kathrin; Häuser, Winfried

    2013-01-01

    A systematic review with meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of meditative movement therapies (Qigong, Tai Chi and Yoga) in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) was carried out. We screened Clinicaltrials.Gov, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, PubMed and Scopus (through December 2010) and the reference sections of original studies for meditative movement therapies (MMT) in FMS. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) comparing MMT to controls were analysed. Outcomes of efficacy were pain, sleep, fatigue, depression and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Effects were summarized using standardized mean differences (SMD [95% confidence interval]). Outcomes of safety were drop out because of adverse events and serious adverse events. A total of 7 out of 117 studies with 362 subjects and a median of 12 sessions (range 8-24) were included. MMT reduced sleep disturbances (-0.61 [-0.95, -0.27]; 0.0004), fatigue (-0.66 [-0.99, -0.34]; <0.0001), depression (-0.49 [-0.76, -0.22]; 0.0004) and limitations of HRQOL (-0.59 [-0.93, -0.24]; 0.0009), but not pain (-0.35 [-0.80, 0.11]; 0.14) compared to controls at final treatment. The significant effects on sleep disturbances (-0.52 [-0.97, -0.07]; 0.02) and HRQOL (-0.66 [-1.31, -0.01]; 0.05) could be maintained after a median of 4.5 (range 3-6) months. In subgroup analyses, only Yoga yielded significant effects on pain, fatigue, depression and HRQOL at final treatment. Drop out rate because of adverse events was 3.1%. No serious adverse events were reported. MMT are safe. Yoga had short-term beneficial effects on some key domains of FMS. There is a need for high-quality studies with larger sample sizes to confirm the results.

  9. Alternative Exercise Traditions in Cancer Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Ruddy, Kathryn J; Stan, Daniela L; Bhagra, Anjali; Jurisson, Mary; Cheville, Andrea L

    2017-02-01

    Alternative exercise traditions (AETs) such as Pilates, yoga, Tai Chi Chuan, Qigong, and various forms of dance offer the potential to improve diverse outcomes among cancer survivors by reducing adverse symptoms and mood disorders, and by enhancing function. Additionally AETs have emerged as a potential means to address deficits in current disease-focused care delivery models which are marked by prevalent under-treatment of symptoms and physical impairments. Relative to therapeutic exercise in allopathic models, many AETs are comparatively affordable and accessible. AETs have the further potential to simultaneously address needs spanning multiple domains including social, physical, and psycho-emotional. AETs additionally offer the salient benefits of promoting integrated whole body movement and concurrently enhancing strength, coordination, balance, posture, flexibility, and kinesthetic awareness. Despite AETs' benefits, compelling concerns leave many clinicians ambivalent and reluctant to endorse or even discuss them. One issue is the extensive heterogeneity across and even within specific AETs. An additional concern is that the one-size-fits-many nature of AET group classes undermines an instructor's capacity to individualize dose, type, frequency, and intensity, which are cornerstones of effective therapeutic exercise. Inconsistencies in AET practitioner expertise and certification, as well as the extent of practitioner familiarity with vulnerabilities unique to cancer populations, may also be problematic. At this juncture, an extensive literature of inconsistent quality that spans diverse cancer populations frustrates efforts to precisely determine the effect size of any specific AET in improving a specific outcome; Although systematic reviews and meta-analyses have concluded that AETs have beneficial effects, they consistently identify a high risk of bias in a majority of trials related to a lack of blinding, poor allocation concealment, small sample sizes

  10. The experiment of cooperative learning model type team assisted individualization (TAI) on three-dimensional space subject viewed from spatial intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manapa, I. Y. H.; Budiyono; Subanti, S.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the effect of TAI or direct learning (DL) on student’s mathematics achievement viewed from spatial intelligence. This research was quasi experiment. The population was 10th grade senior high school students in Alor Regency on academic year of 2015/2016 chosen by stratified cluster random sampling. The data were collected through achievement and spatial intelligence test. The data were analyzed by two ways, ANOVA with unequal cell and scheffe test. This research showed that student’s mathematics achievement used in TAI had better results than DL models one. In spatial intelligence category, student’s mathematics achievement with high spatial intelligence has better result than the other spatial intelligence category and students with high spatial intelligence have better results than those with middle spatial intelligence category. At TAI, student’s mathematics achievement with high spatial intelligence has better result than those with the other spatial intelligence category and students with middle spatial intelligence have better results than students with low spatial intelligence. In DL model, student’s mathematics achievement with high and middle spatial intelligence has better result than those with low spatial intelligence, but students with high spatial intelligence and middle spatial intelligence have no significant difference. In each category of spatial intelligence and learning model, mathematics achievement has no significant difference.

  11. Study about the effects of different fitness sports on cognitive function and emotion of the aged.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinan; Ni, Xiaomei; Chen, Peijie

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the effects of different fitness sports on cognitive function and emotion of the aged people. A total of 150 subjects aged between 60 and 70 were recruited from Shenyang Aged University and elderly activity center. All subjects reported no fitness before this study. The aged subjects were divided into five groups, included swimming group (A group), running group (B group), square dancing group (C group), Tai Chi group (D group) and control group (E group) with 30 people in each group. Subjects in each group received exercise intervention continued for 18 months. At baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months after intervention, the P300 test, SECF, HAMD and HAMA scale evaluations were performed. Compared to E group, the P2, N2 and P3 latency and response time in the D group after intervention for 6 months, and in the A-C groups after intervention for 12 months were significantly prolonged. The anxiety symptom and depression levels in the A-D groups after intervention for 12 months were significantly decreased when compared to E group (P < 0. 01), where significantly improved compared with the E group (P < 0. 01). The effect of exercise intervention for Tai Chi group was the most significant. Different fitness sports have marked beneficial effect on cognitive function and emotion of the aged people, especially the Tai Chi exercise.

  12. Methods to optimize recruitment and retention to an exercise study in Chinese immigrants.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Piliae, Ruth E; Froelicher, Erika Sivarajan

    2007-01-01

    To counter pervasive disparities in healthcare and guide public health prevention programs, culturally sensitive recruitment and retention strategies for Chinese immigrants participating in health-related research studies are needed. The aim of this study was to develop and implement recruitment and retention strategies with Chinese immigrants in a Tai Chi exercise study. After substantial project planning and incorporating community-based research principles, a multidimensional approach was used to ensure minimal loss to follow-up. Recruitment strategies included partnering with a community-based agency, distributing study information using a multimedia approach, communicating in the native language, and demonstrating cultural sensitivity. Retention strategies included establishing a tracking method during recruitment, providing personalized feedback, maintaining the same location for all aspects of the study, eliminating potential linguistic barriers, providing personal attention and encouragement, monitoring attendance, utilizing a charismatic Tai Chi instructor, respecting Chinese culture, providing appropriate incentives, and maintaining good communication. Sixty persons showed interest in the study, 52 persons were screened, and 39 persons were enrolled. Recruitment was completed within 3 weeks. An advertisement in the Chinese newspaper was the most fruitful recruitment source, yielding approximately 60% of the study participants. Retention in the study was also very high (97%, n = 38). The successful recruitment and retention of Chinese immigrants in this Tai Chi exercise study are due to a variety of factors on many levels, including the participants, study investigator, and community-based agency.

  13. Effect of baseline corrections on response spectra for two recordings of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, David M.

    1999-01-01

    Displacements derived from the accelerogram recordings of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan earthquake at stations TCU078 and TCU129 show drifts when only a simple baseline derived from the pre-event portion of the record is removed from the records. The appearance of the velocity and displacement records suggests that changes in the zero-level of the acceleration are responsible for these drifts. The source of the shifts in zero-level are unknown, but might include tilts in the instruments or the response of the instruments to strong shaking. This note illustrates the effect on the velocity, displacement, and response spectra of several schemes for accounting for these baseline shifts. The most important conclusion for earthquake engineering purposes is that the response spectra for periods less than about 20 sec are unaffected by the baseline correction. The results suggest, however, that staticdisplac ements estimated from the instruments should be used with caution. Although limited to the analysis of only two recordings, the results may have more general significance both for the many other recordings of this earthquake and for data that will be obtained in the future from similar high-quality accelerograph networks now being installed or soon to be installed in many parts of the world.

  14. Chi-square-based scoring function for categorization of MEDLINE citations.

    PubMed

    Kastrin, A; Peterlin, B; Hristovski, D

    2010-01-01

    Text categorization has been used in biomedical informatics for identifying documents containing relevant topics of interest. We developed a simple method that uses a chi-square-based scoring function to determine the likelihood of MEDLINE citations containing genetic relevant topic. Our procedure requires construction of a genetic and a nongenetic domain document corpus. We used MeSH descriptors assigned to MEDLINE citations for this categorization task. We compared frequencies of MeSH descriptors between two corpora applying chi-square test. A MeSH descriptor was considered to be a positive indicator if its relative observed frequency in the genetic domain corpus was greater than its relative observed frequency in the nongenetic domain corpus. The output of the proposed method is a list of scores for all the citations, with the highest score given to those citations containing MeSH descriptors typical for the genetic domain. Validation was done on a set of 734 manually annotated MEDLINE citations. It achieved predictive accuracy of 0.87 with 0.69 recall and 0.64 precision. We evaluated the method by comparing it to three machine-learning algorithms (support vector machines, decision trees, naïve Bayes). Although the differences were not statistically significantly different, results showed that our chi-square scoring performs as good as compared machine-learning algorithms. We suggest that the chi-square scoring is an effective solution to help categorize MEDLINE citations. The algorithm is implemented in the BITOLA literature-based discovery support system as a preprocessor for gene symbol disambiguation process.

  15. Wheelchair Tai Chi as a Therapeutic Exercise for Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yong Tai; Chang, Li-Shan; Chen, Shihui; Zhong, Yaping; Yang, Yi; Li, Zhanghua; Madison, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with spinal cord injuries (SCI) rarely participate in health-promotion programs or wellness screenings due to the lack of accessibility, adaptations, and tertiary healthcare providers. An unconditioned body is more prone to suffer injury and is at risk for more severe health problems than a conditioned one. As is common in individuals…

  16. BCL2 oncogene translocation is mediated by a chi-like consensus

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Examination of 64 translocations involving the major breakpoint region (mbr) of the BCL2 oncogene and the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus identified three short (14, 16, and 18 bp) segments within the mbr at which translocations occurred with very high frequency. Each of these clusters was associated with a 15-bp region of sequence homology, the principal one containing an octamer related to chi, the procaryotic activator of recombination. The presence of short deletions and N nucleotide additions at the breakpoints, as well as involvement of JH and DH coding regions, suggested that these sequences served as signals capable of interacting with the VDJ recombinase complex, even though no homology with the traditional heptamer/spacer/nonamer (IgRSS) existed. Furthermore, the BCL2 signal sequences were employed in a bidirectional fashion and could mediate recombination of one mbr region with another. Segments homologous to the BCL2 signal sequences flanked individual members of the XP family of diversity gene segments, which were themselves highly overrepresented in the reciprocal products (18q-) of BCL2 translocation. We propose that the chi-like signal sequences of BCL2 represent a distinct class of recognition sites for the recombinase complex, responsible for initiating interactions between regions of DNA separated by great distances, and that BCL2 translocation begins by a recombination event between mbr and DXP chi signals. Since recombinant joints containing chi, not IgRSS, occur in brain cells expressing RAG-1 (Matsuoka, M., F. Nagawa, K. Okazaki, L. Kingsbury, K. Yoshida, U. Muller, D. T. Larue, J. A. Winer, and H. Sakano. 1991. Science [Wash. DC]. 254:81; reference 1), we further suggest that the product of this gene could mediate both BCL2 translocation and the first step of normal DJ assembly through the creation of chi joints, rather than signal or coding joints. PMID:1588282

  17. Role of the C-terminal and chitin insertion domains on enzymatic activity of endochitinase ChiA74 of Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Juárez-Hernández, Estefania O; Casados-Vázquez, Luz E; Bideshi, Dennis K; Salcedo-Hernández, R; Barboza-Corona, José E

    2017-09-01

    ChiA74 has modular structure that includes a secretion signal peptide (sp) sequence, and catalytic (CD), chitin insertion (CID), fibronectin type-III (FnIII) and chitin binding (CBD) domains. We described for the first time the existence of a putative CID in ChiA74. Mature ChiA74 lacking its sp sequence (rChiA74Δsp, ∼70kDa) and two truncated versions, rChiA74Δsp-60, rChiA74Δsp-50 lacking, respectively, CBD and CDB-FnIII were produced. rChiA74Δsp and rChiA74Δsp-60 are unstable and were processed to generate stable proteins of ∼50kDa. With colloidal chitin, rChiA74Δsp and rChiA74Δsp-50 had higher activity than rChiA74Δsp-60. rChiA74Δsp showed similar ability to bind chitin than rChiA74Δsp-50. The catalytic efficiencies (kcat/Km) of rChiA74Δsp and rChiA74Δsp-50 were higher, ∼ 21-fold than rChiA74Δsp-60, using chitin as the substrate. Optimal activity was detected at pH 7 and 40°C. Data suggest that the CBD in ChiA74 is important for binding to chitin, but not necessary as the presence of a CID together with the CD in a stable truncated version (i.e. ChiA74Δsp-50) has similar affinity and hydrolytic activity as the mature enzyme. The CID of ChiA74 showed identities of ∼ 55% with CIDs of other chitinases such as those from B. circulans and B. licheniformis, respectively, and conserved residues important for interacting with chitin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Observation of {psi}(3770){yields}{gamma}{chi}{sub c0}

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Briere, R. A.; Brock, I.; Chen, J.

    2006-08-01

    From e{sup +}e{sup -} collision data acquired with the CLEO-c detector at CESR, we search for the non-DD decays {psi}(3770){yields}{gamma}{chi}{sub cJ}, with {chi}{sub cJ} reconstructed in four exclusive decays modes containing charged pions and kaons. We report the first observation of such decays for J=0 with a branching ratio of (0.73{+-}0.07{+-}0.06)%. The rates for different J are consistent with the expectations assuming {psi}(3770) is predominantly a 1{sup 3}D{sub 1} state of charmonium, but only if relativistic corrections are applied.

  19. Differential Roles of the ChiB Chitinase in Autolysis and Cell Death of Aspergillus nidulans▿

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Kwang-Soo; Kwon, Nak-Jung; Kim, Young Hwan; Park, Hee-Soo; Kwon, Gi-Seok; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2009-01-01

    Autolysis is a natural event that occurs in most filamentous fungi. Such self-degradation of fungal cells becomes a predominant phenomenon in the absence of the regulator of G protein signaling FlbA in Aspergillus nidulans. Among a number of potential hydrolytic enzymes in the A. nidulans genome, the secreted endochitinase ChiB was shown to play a major role in autolysis. In this report, we investigate the roles of ChiB in fungal autolysis and cell death processes through genetic, biochemical, and cellular analyses using a set of critical mutants. Determination of mycelial mass revealed that, while the flbA deletion (ΔflbA) mutant autolyzed completely after a 3-day incubation, the ΔflbA ΔchiB double mutant escaped from hyphal disintegration. These results indicate that ChiB is necessary for the ΔflbA-induced autolysis. However, importantly, both ΔflbA and ΔflbA ΔchiB strains displayed dramatically reduced cell viability compared to the wild type. These imply that ChiB is dispensable for cell death and that autolysis and cell death are separate processes. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analyses of the proteins that accumulate at high levels in the ΔflbA and ΔflbA ΔchiB mutants identify chitinase (ChiB), dipeptidyl peptidase V (DppV), O-glycosyl compound hydrolase, β-N-acetylhexosaminidase (NagA), and myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase (InoB). Functional characterization of these four genes reveals that the deletion of nagA results in reduced cell death. A working model bridging G protein signaling and players in autolysis/cell death is proposed. PMID:19286987

  20. The effect of Ai Chi aquatic therapy on individuals with knee osteoarthritis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    So, Billy C L; Kong, Iris S Y; Lee, Roy K L; Man, Ryan W F; Tse, William H K; Fong, Adalade K W; Tsang, William W N

    2017-05-01

    [Purpose] To examine the efficacy of Ai Chi in relieving the pain and stiffness of knee osteoarthritis and improving, physical functioning, proprioception and quality of life. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-five persons with knee osteoarthritis completed 5 weeks Ai Chi practice (60 minutes per session, twice per week, 10 sessions in total). Knee pain and stiffness were measured before and after the intervention program. [Results] Significant improvements in pain, self-perceived physical fu