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Sample records for tail biopsy collection

  1. Antemortem detection of chronic wasting disease prions in nasal brush collections and rectal biopsies from white-tailed deer by real time quaking-induced conversion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haley, Nicholas J.; Siepker, Chris; Walter, William D.; Thomsen, Bruce V.; Greenlee, Justin J.; Lehmkuhl, Aaron D.; Richt, Jürgen a.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, was first documented nearly 50 years ago in Colorado and Wyoming and has since spread to cervids in 23 states, two Canadian provinces, and the Republic of Korea. The expansion of this disease makes the development of sensitive diagnostic assays and antemortem sampling techniques crucial for the mitigation of its spread; this is especially true in cases of relocation/reintroduction of farmed or free-ranging deer and elk or surveillance studies of private or protected herds, where depopulation is contraindicated. This study sought to evaluate the sensitivity of the real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assay by using recto-anal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT) biopsy specimens and nasal brush samples collected antemortem from farmed white-tailed deer (n = 409). Antemortem findings were then compared to results from ante- and postmortem samples (RAMALT, brainstem, and medial retropharyngeal lymph nodes) evaluated by using the current gold standard in vitro assay, immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis. We hypothesized that the sensitivity of RT-QuIC would be comparable to IHC analysis in antemortem tissues and would correlate with both the genotype and the stage of clinical disease. Our results showed that RAMALT testing by RT-QuIC assay had the highest sensitivity (69.8%) compared to that of postmortem testing, with a specificity of >93.9%. These data suggest that RT-QuIC, like IHC analysis, is an effective assay for detection of PrPCWD in rectal biopsy specimens and other antemortem samples and, with further research to identify more sensitive tissues, bodily fluids, or experimental conditions, has potential for large-scale and rapid automated testing for CWD diagnosis.

  2. Antemortem Detection of Chronic Wasting Disease Prions in Nasal Brush Collections and Rectal Biopsy Specimens from White-Tailed Deer by Real-Time Quaking-Induced Conversion

    PubMed Central

    Siepker, Chris; Walter, W. David; Thomsen, Bruce V.; Greenlee, Justin J.; Lehmkuhl, Aaron D.; Richt, Jürgen A.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, was first documented nearly 50 years ago in Colorado and Wyoming and has since spread to cervids in 23 states, two Canadian provinces, and the Republic of Korea. The expansion of this disease makes the development of sensitive diagnostic assays and antemortem sampling techniques crucial for the mitigation of its spread; this is especially true in cases of relocation/reintroduction of farmed or free-ranging deer and elk or surveillance studies of private or protected herds, where depopulation is contraindicated. This study sought to evaluate the sensitivity of the real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assay by using recto-anal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT) biopsy specimens and nasal brush samples collected antemortem from farmed white-tailed deer (n = 409). Antemortem findings were then compared to results from ante- and postmortem samples (RAMALT, brainstem, and medial retropharyngeal lymph nodes) evaluated by using the current gold standard in vitro assay, immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis. We hypothesized that the sensitivity of RT-QuIC would be comparable to IHC analysis in antemortem tissues and would correlate with both the genotype and the stage of clinical disease. Our results showed that RAMALT testing by RT-QuIC assay had the highest sensitivity (69.8%) compared to that of postmortem testing, with a specificity of >93.9%. These data suggest that RT-QuIC, like IHC analysis, is an effective assay for detection of PrPCWD in rectal biopsy specimens and other antemortem samples and, with further research to identify more sensitive tissues, bodily fluids, or experimental conditions, has potential for large-scale and rapid automated testing for CWD diagnosis. PMID:26865693

  3. Antemortem Detection of Chronic Wasting Disease Prions in Nasal Brush Collections and Rectal Biopsy Specimens from White-Tailed Deer by Real-Time Quaking-Induced Conversion.

    PubMed

    Haley, Nicholas J; Siepker, Chris; Walter, W David; Thomsen, Bruce V; Greenlee, Justin J; Lehmkuhl, Aaron D; Richt, Jürgen A

    2016-04-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, was first documented nearly 50 years ago in Colorado and Wyoming and has since spread to cervids in 23 states, two Canadian provinces, and the Republic of Korea. The expansion of this disease makes the development of sensitive diagnostic assays and antemortem sampling techniques crucial for the mitigation of its spread; this is especially true in cases of relocation/reintroduction of farmed or free-ranging deer and elk or surveillance studies of private or protected herds, where depopulation is contraindicated. This study sought to evaluate the sensitivity of the real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assay by using recto-anal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT) biopsy specimens and nasal brush samples collected antemortem from farmed white-tailed deer (n= 409). Antemortem findings were then compared to results from ante- and postmortem samples (RAMALT, brainstem, and medial retropharyngeal lymph nodes) evaluated by using the current gold standardin vitroassay, immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis. We hypothesized that the sensitivity of RT-QuIC would be comparable to IHC analysis in antemortem tissues and would correlate with both the genotype and the stage of clinical disease. Our results showed that RAMALT testing by RT-QuIC assay had the highest sensitivity (69.8%) compared to that of postmortem testing, with a specificity of >93.9%. These data suggest that RT-QuIC, like IHC analysis, is an effective assay for detection of PrP(CWD)in rectal biopsy specimens and other antemortem samples and, with further research to identify more sensitive tissues, bodily fluids, or experimental conditions, has potential for large-scale and rapid automated testing for CWD diagnosis.

  4. Antemortem Detection of Chronic Wasting Disease Prions in Nasal Brush Collections and Rectal Biopsy Specimens from White-Tailed Deer by Real-Time Quaking-Induced Conversion.

    PubMed

    Haley, Nicholas J; Siepker, Chris; Walter, W David; Thomsen, Bruce V; Greenlee, Justin J; Lehmkuhl, Aaron D; Richt, Jürgen A

    2016-04-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, was first documented nearly 50 years ago in Colorado and Wyoming and has since spread to cervids in 23 states, two Canadian provinces, and the Republic of Korea. The expansion of this disease makes the development of sensitive diagnostic assays and antemortem sampling techniques crucial for the mitigation of its spread; this is especially true in cases of relocation/reintroduction of farmed or free-ranging deer and elk or surveillance studies of private or protected herds, where depopulation is contraindicated. This study sought to evaluate the sensitivity of the real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assay by using recto-anal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT) biopsy specimens and nasal brush samples collected antemortem from farmed white-tailed deer (n= 409). Antemortem findings were then compared to results from ante- and postmortem samples (RAMALT, brainstem, and medial retropharyngeal lymph nodes) evaluated by using the current gold standardin vitroassay, immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis. We hypothesized that the sensitivity of RT-QuIC would be comparable to IHC analysis in antemortem tissues and would correlate with both the genotype and the stage of clinical disease. Our results showed that RAMALT testing by RT-QuIC assay had the highest sensitivity (69.8%) compared to that of postmortem testing, with a specificity of >93.9%. These data suggest that RT-QuIC, like IHC analysis, is an effective assay for detection of PrP(CWD)in rectal biopsy specimens and other antemortem samples and, with further research to identify more sensitive tissues, bodily fluids, or experimental conditions, has potential for large-scale and rapid automated testing for CWD diagnosis. PMID:26865693

  5. Evaluation of Common Anesthetic and Analgesic Techniques for Tail Biopsy in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Carissa P; Carver, Scott; Kendall, Lon V

    2012-01-01

    Tail biopsy in mice is a common procedure in genetically modified mouse colonies. We evaluated the anesthetic and analgesic effects of various agents commonly used to mitigate pain after tail biopsy. We used a hot-water immersion assay to evaluate the analgesic effects of isoflurane, ice-cold ethanol, ethyl chloride, buprenorphine, and 2-point local nerve blocks before studying their effects on mice receiving tail biopsies. Mice treated with ethyl chloride spray, isoflurane and buprenorphine, and 2-point local nerve blocks demonstrated increased tail-flick latency compared with that of untreated mice. When we evaluated the behavior of adult and preweanling mice after tail biopsy, untreated mice demonstrated behavioral changes immediately after tail biopsy that lasted 30 to 60 min before returning to normal. The use of isoflurane, isoflurane and buprenorphine, buprenorphine, 2-point nerve block, or ethyl chloride spray in adult mice did not significantly improve their behavioral response to tail biopsy. Similarly, the use of buprenorphine and ethyl chloride spray in preweanling mice did not improve their behavioral response to tail biopsy compared with that of the untreated group. However, immersion in bupivacaine for 30 s after tail biopsy decreased tail grooming behavior during the first 30 min after tail biopsy. The anesthetic and analgesic regimens tested provide little benefit in adult and preweanling mice. Given that tail biopsy results in pain that lasts 30 to 60 min, investigators should carefully consider the appropriate anesthetic or analgesic regimen to incorporate into tail-biopsy procedures for mice. PMID:23294888

  6. Evaluation of common anesthetic and analgesic techniques for tail biopsy in mice.

    PubMed

    Jones, Carissa P; Carver, Scott; Kendall, Lon V

    2012-11-01

    Tail biopsy in mice is a common procedure in genetically modified mouse colonies. We evaluated the anesthetic and analgesic effects of various agents commonly used to mitigate pain after tail biopsy. We used a hot-water immersion assay to evaluate the analgesic effects of isoflurane, ice-cold ethanol, ethyl chloride, buprenorphine, and 2-point local nerve blocks before studying their effects on mice receiving tail biopsies. Mice treated with ethyl chloride spray, isoflurane and buprenorphine, and 2-point local nerve blocks demonstrated increased tail-flick latency compared with that of untreated mice. When we evaluated the behavior of adult and preweanling mice after tail biopsy, untreated mice demonstrated behavioral changes immediately after tail biopsy that lasted 30 to 60 min before returning to normal. The use of isoflurane, isoflurane and buprenorphine, buprenorphine, 2-point nerve block, or ethyl chloride spray in adult mice did not significantly improve their behavioral response to tail biopsy. Similarly, the use of buprenorphine and ethyl chloride spray in preweanling mice did not improve their behavioral response to tail biopsy compared with that of the untreated group. However, immersion in bupivacaine for 30 s after tail biopsy decreased tail grooming behavior during the first 30 min after tail biopsy. The anesthetic and analgesic regimens tested provide little benefit in adult and preweanling mice. Given that tail biopsy results in pain that lasts 30 to 60 min, investigators should carefully consider the appropriate anesthetic or analgesic regimen to incorporate into tail-biopsy procedures for mice.

  7. Adverse Effects of Vapocoolant and Topical Anesthesia for Tail Biopsy of Preweanling Mice

    PubMed Central

    Braden, Gillian C; Brice, Angela K; Hankenson, F Claire

    2015-01-01

    Tail biopsy of laboratory mice for genotyping purposes has been studied extensively to develop refinements for this common procedure. Our prior work assessed tail vertebral development in different mouse strains (age, 3 to 42 d) and analyzed behavior and activity in mice (age, 21 to 45 d) biopsied under isoflurane anesthesia. To assess the effects of biopsy on preweanling mice, we here evaluated BALB/cAnNCrl mice (n = 80; age, 18 to 21 d) that received topical vapocoolant (ethyl chloride), topical anesthetic (Cetacaine), or isoflurane anesthesia before undergoing a 5-mm or sham biopsy. Control mice did not receive any anesthetic intervention. Regardless of the anesthetic used, acute observation scores indicative of distress were increased at 10 min after biopsy, and locomotor activity was decreased, in biopsied compared with control mice. Acute observation scores at 10 min after biopsy were higher in mice that received ethyl chloride compared with isoflurane or no anesthesia. Microscopic analysis revealed that inflammatory changes in the distal tail remained elevated until 7 d after biopsy and were higher in tails exposed to ethyl chloride. Our findings indicate that vapocoolant, topical anesthesia, and inhaled isoflurane do not enhance the wellbeing of preweanling mice undergoing tail biopsy. Due to the lack of appreciable benefits and the presence of notable adverse effects, using vapocoolants or Cetacaine for this tail biopsy procedure in laboratory mice is unadvisable and we encourage the removal of these agents from institutional tail biopsy guidelines. PMID:26045455

  8. Adverse effects of vapocoolant and topical anesthesia for tail biopsy of preweanling mice.

    PubMed

    Braden, Gillian C; Brice, Angela K; Hankenson, F Claire

    2015-05-01

    Tail biopsy of laboratory mice for genotyping purposes has been studied extensively to develop refinements for this common procedure. Our prior work assessed tail vertebral development in different mouse strains (age, 3 to 42 d) and analyzed behavior and activity in mice (age, 21 to 45 d) biopsied under isoflurane anesthesia. To assess the effects of biopsy on preweanling mice, we here evaluated BALB/cAnNCrl mice (n = 80; age, 18 to 21 d) that received topical vapocoolant (ethyl chloride), topical anesthetic (Cetacaine), or isoflurane anesthesia before undergoing a 5-mm or sham biopsy. Control mice did not receive any anesthetic intervention. Regardless of the anesthetic used, acute observation scores indicative of distress were increased at 10 min after biopsy, and locomotor activity was decreased, in biopsied compared with control mice. Acute observation scores at 10 min after biopsy were higher in mice that received ethyl chloride compared with isoflurane or no anesthesia. Microscopic analysis revealed that inflammatory changes in the distal tail remained elevated until 7 d after biopsy and were higher in tails exposed to ethyl chloride. Our findings indicate that vapocoolant, topical anesthesia, and inhaled isoflurane do not enhance the wellbeing of preweanling mice undergoing tail biopsy. Due to the lack of appreciable benefits and the presence of notable adverse effects, using vapocoolants or Cetacaine for this tail biopsy procedure in laboratory mice is unadvisable and we encourage the removal of these agents from institutional tail biopsy guidelines.

  9. Local cryoanalgesia is effective for tail-tip biopsy in mice.

    PubMed

    Matthias, Nadine; Robinson, Mary A; Crook, Robyn; Lockworth, Cynthia R; Goodwin, Bradford S

    2013-03-01

    Tail-tip biopsy for genotyping of genetically modified mice older than 21 d typically is performed by using isoflurane anesthesia. Isoflurane-induced changes in behavior and metabolism can result in unexpected complications and death. We investigated whether cryoanalgesia by using ethylene chloride spray would be an effective local anesthetic for tail-tip biopsies in mice. C57BL/6J mice were allocated randomly into 4 groups (n = 10 each) to receive isoflurane anesthesia with tail biopsy, ethylene chloride spray on the tip of the tail before biopsy, ethylene chloride spray without biopsy, or no treatment. Blood glucose was measured periodically in both groups undergoing tail biopsy, and the tail-pinch assay was performed in all mice that received ethylene chloride spray. Body weight, water, and food intake were measured daily for 2 wk. In both groups undergoing tail biopsy, blood glucose levels at 15 min were significantly higher than those after 2 min. This elevation was greater and more prolonged after 30 min in mice that received isoflurane compared with ethylene chloride spray. Tail-pinch latency at 20 min was greater than that after 2 min in all mice that received ethylene chloride spray. All mice gained weight, and there was no difference in food and water intake among groups. We conclude that ethylene chloride spray is an effective local anesthetic and a valuable alternative to isoflurane. PMID:23562100

  10. Local Cryoanalgesia Is Effective for Tail-Tip Biopsy in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Matthias, Nadine; Robinson, Mary A; Crook, Robyn; Lockworth, Cynthia R; Goodwin, Bradford S

    2013-01-01

    Tail-tip biopsy for genotyping of genetically modified mice older than 21 d typically is performed by using isoflurane anesthesia. Isoflurane-induced changes in behavior and metabolism can result in unexpected complications and death. We investigated whether cryoanalgesia by using ethylene chloride spray would be an effective local anesthetic for tail-tip biopsies in mice. C57BL/6J mice were allocated randomly into 4 groups (n = 10 each) to receive isoflurane anesthesia with tail biopsy, ethylene chloride spray on the tip of the tail before biopsy, ethylene chloride spray without biopsy, or no treatment. Blood glucose was measured periodically in both groups undergoing tail biopsy, and the tail-pinch assay was performed in all mice that received ethylene chloride spray. Body weight, water, and food intake were measured daily for 2 wk. In both groups undergoing tail biopsy, blood glucose levels at 15 min were significantly higher than those after 2 min. This elevation was greater and more prolonged after 30 min in mice that received isoflurane compared with ethylene chloride spray. Tail-pinch latency at 20 min was greater than that after 2 min in all mice that received ethylene chloride spray. All mice gained weight, and there was no difference in food and water intake among groups. We conclude that ethylene chloride spray is an effective local anesthetic and a valuable alternative to isoflurane. PMID:23562100

  11. Behavioral and Activity Assessment of Laboratory Mice (Mus musculus) after Tail Biopsy under Isoflurane Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Hankenson, F Claire; Braden-Weiss, Gillian C; Blendy, Julie A

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary laboratory animal guidance suggests that tail biopsy of laboratory mice can be performed before 21 d of age without anesthesia, whereas older mice must receive anesthesia before biopsy. Our objective was to determine whether administration of isoflurane anesthesia before tail biopsy produced a measurable effect on the behavior of mice (n = 196). We evaluated C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice at 21 to 24 (weaning), 28 to 31 (delayed weaning), and 42 to 45 (adult) d of age. Mice were observed at the time of biopsy and then twice within the first hour after a sham or tail biopsy. Anxiety-like responses were assessed by using an elevated plus-maze. Activity was evaluated remotely for 120 min. Isoflurane did not diminish acute responses to tail biopsy in mice 31 d or younger compared with sham-biopsied animals but had a significant effect in C57BL/6 biopsied adult mice. In addition, mice of all ages and strains that received anesthesia, regardless of biopsy, spent more time in the enclosed maze arms and had decreased activity up to 5 h after isoflurane exposure. Although tail biopsy should be performed in young mice to avoid transection of distal mature vertebrae, our experimental paradigm indicates that isoflurane anesthesia does not appreciably enhance wellbeing over that of mice biopsied without anesthesia at weaning ages. The influence of inhaled isoflurane was demonstrable and indicated that acute and prolonged alterations in anxiety and activity must be considered when interpreting the impact of anesthesia on tail biopsy across various ages and strains of laboratory mice. PMID:22330716

  12. Preclinical diagnosis of chronic wasting disease in captive mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) using tonsillar biopsy.

    PubMed

    Wild, Margaret A; Spraker, Terry R; Sigurdson, Christina J; O'Rourke, Katherine I; Miller, Michael W

    2002-10-01

    The usefulness of tonsillar biopsy on live deer for preclinical diagnosis of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy chronic wasting disease (CWD) was evaluated. Disease was tracked in a CWD-endemic herd using serial tonsillar biopsies collected at 6 to 9 month intervals from 34 captive mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and five white-tailed deer (O. virginianus). Tonsillar biopsies were examined for accumulation of PrP(CWD), the protein marker for infection, using immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. 26/34 (76%) mule deer and 4/5 (80%) white-tailed deer had PrP(CWD) accumulation in tonsillar biopsies; CWD was subsequently confirmed by post-mortem examination in all 30 of these tonsillar-positive deer. Six mule deer with IHC-negative tonsillar biopsies had positive brain and tonsillar IHC staining upon death 12 to 40 months following the last biopsy. PrP(CWD) accumulation in tonsillar biopsy was observed 2 to 20 months before CWD-related death and up to 14 months before onset of clinical signs of CWD. Tonsillar biopsies from 3-month-old mule deer (n=6) were IHC negative, but PrP(CWD) accumulation was detected in tonsillar biopsies from 7/10 mule deer by 19 months of age. Tonsillar biopsy evaluated with IHC staining is a useful technique for the preclinical diagnosis of CWD in live mule deer and white-tailed deer when intensive management approaches are possible.

  13. Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Tissue sampling ... biopsy is called a percutaneous biopsy. It removes tissue using a needle attached to a hollow tube ... The needle is passed several times through the tissue being examined. The doctor uses the needle to ...

  14. Effects of Topical Anesthetics on Behavior, Plasma Corticosterone, and Blood Glucose Levels after Tail Biopsy of C57BL/6NHSD Mice (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    Dudley, Emily S; Johnson, Robert A; French, DeAnne C; Boivin, Gregory P

    2016-01-01

    Tail biopsy is a common procedure that is performed to obtain genetic material for determining genotype of transgenic mice. The use of anesthetics or analgesics is recommended, although identifying safe and effective drugs for this purpose has been challenging. We evaluated the effects of topical 2.5% lidocaine-2.5% prilocaine cream applied to the distal tail tip at 5 or 60 min before biopsy, immersion of the tail tip for 10 seconds in ice-cold 70% ethanol just prior to biopsy, and immersion of the tail tip in 0.5% bupivacaine for 30 s after biopsy. Mice were 7, 11, or 15 d old at the time of tail biopsy. Acute behavioral responses, plasma corticosterone, and blood glucose were measured after biopsy, and body weight and performance in elevated plus maze and open-field tests after weaning. Ice-cold ethanol prior to biopsy prevented acute behavioral responses to biopsy, and both ice-cold ethanol and bupivacaine prevented elevations in corticosterone and blood glucose after biopsy. Tail biopsy with or without anesthesia did not affect body weight or performance on elevated plus maze or open-field tests. We recommend the use of ice-cold ethanol for topical anesthesia prior to tail biopsy in mice 7 to 15 d old. PMID:27423152

  15. Emergent Data-Networks from Long-Tail Collections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elag, M.; Kumar, P.; Marini, L.; Hedstrom, M.; Myers, J. D.; Plale, B. A.

    2014-12-01

    Synthesis of scientific data coming from individuals and small research group activities, known as long-tail data, with the existing resources elucidates useful scientific knowledge. In general, long-tail data are irreplaceable, expensive to reproduce, infrequently reused, follow no predefined data model, and they are often bounded in different information systems. The contextual relationships across the many attributes among such data in a data collection are herewith defined as data-network. These relationships have the potential to provide deep insights for the scientific challenges that require multidisciplinary interaction by identifying a new data object in the broader context of other data objects, and characterizing its spatial and temporal dependencies with others. Despite the advancement that has been achieved in various geoscience information models, it is not always straightforward to identify and characterize the contextual relationships among long-tail data because information models focus on profiling data attributes more than exploring data tie-ins. To address this need, we have designed the Long Tail Data Networks (LTDN) engine, which depends on a context-based approach to analyze the data attributes, predict data contextual relationships, and publish these relationships as a RDF graph. The engine groups data using their geographic location in spatial collections, and applies binary logic predicates to analyze the spatial, temporal, and variable attributes associated with data entities of each spatial collection to infer their relationships. Here we present the design of the LTDN engine and demonstrate its application for predicting the latent connectivity among long-tail data collections. To demonstrate the capabilities of the engine, we implemented this approach within the Sustainable Environment Actionable Data (SEAD) environment, an open-source semantic content repository that supports long-tail data curation and preservation, and show how

  16. Prostate biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... prostate biopsy; Fine needle biopsy of the prostate; Core biopsy of the prostate; Targeted prostate biopsy; Prostate biopsy - transrectal ultrasound (TRUS); Stereotactic transperineal prostate biopsy (STPB)

  17. Diagnostic accuracy of rectal mucosa biopsy testing for chronic wasting disease within white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herds in North America: effects of age, sex, polymorphism at PRNP codon 96, and disease progression.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Bruce V; Schneider, David A; O'Rourke, Katherine I; Gidlewski, Thomas; McLane, James; Allen, Robert W; McIsaac, Alex A; Mitchell, Gordon B; Keane, Delwyn P; Spraker, Terry R; Balachandran, Aru

    2012-09-01

    An effective live animal diagnostic test is needed to assist in the control of chronic wasting disease (CWD), which has spread through captive and wild herds of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Canada and the United States. In the present study, the diagnostic accuracy of rectal mucosa biopsy sample testing was determined in white-tailed deer from 4 CWD-infected captive herds. Specifically, the current study compared the immunohistochemical detection of disease-associated prion protein in postmortem rectal mucosa biopsy samples to the CWD status of each deer as determined by immunodiagnostic evaluations of the brainstem at the obex, the medial retropharyngeal lymph node, and the palatine tonsil. The effects of age, sex, genotype, and disease progression were also evaluated. Diagnostic sensitivity on rectal biopsy samples for CWD in white-tailed deer ranged from 63% to 100%; the pooled estimate of sensitivity was 68% with 95% confidence limits (95% CLs) of 49% and 82%. However, diagnostic sensitivity was dependent on genotype at prion protein gene (PRNP) codon 96 and on disease progression as assessed by obex grade. Diagnostic sensitivity was 76% (95% CLs: 49%, 91%) for 96GG deer but only 42% (95% CLs: 13%, 79%) for 96GS deer. Furthermore, diagnostic sensitivity was only 36% for deer in the earliest stage of disease (obex grade 0) but was 100% for deer in the last 2 stages of preclinical disease (obex grades 3 and 4). The overall diagnostic specificity was 99.8%. Selective use of antemortem rectal biopsy sample testing would provide valuable information during disease investigations of CWD-suspect deer herds.

  18. Kidney biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Renal biopsy; Biopsy - kidney ... Barisoni L, Arend LJ, Thomas DB. Introduction to renal biopsy. In: Zhou M, Mari-Galluzzi C, eds. ... Saunders; 2015:chap 7. Topham PS, Chen Y. Renal biopsy. In: Johnson RJ, Feehally J, Floege J, ...

  19. Gum biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - gingiva (gums) ... used to close the opening created for the biopsy. ... to eat for a few hours before the biopsy. ... Risks for this procedure include: Bleeding from the biopsy site Infection of the gums Soreness

  20. Liver biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - liver; Percutaneous biopsy ... the biopsy needle to be inserted into the liver. This is often done by using ultrasound. The ... the chance of damage to the lung or liver. The needle is removed quickly. Pressure will be ...

  1. Biopsy - polyps

    MedlinePlus

    Polyp biopsy ... are treated is the colon. How a polyp biopsy is done depends on the location: Colonoscopy or flexible sigmoidoscopy explores the large bowel Colposcopy-directed biopsy examines the vagina and cervix Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) or ...

  2. The importance of band tail recombination on current collection and open-circuit voltage in CZTSSe solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, James E.; Hages, Charles J.; Agrawal, Rakesh; Lundstrom, Mark S.; Gray, Jeffery L.

    2016-07-01

    Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe) solar cells typically exhibit high short-circuit current density (Jsc), but have reduced cell efficiencies relative to other thin film technologies due to a deficit in the open-circuit voltage (Voc), which prevent these devices from becoming commercially competitive. Recent research has attributed the low Voc in CZTSSe devices to small scale disorder that creates band tail states within the absorber band gap, but the physical processes responsible for this Voc reduction have not been elucidated. In this paper, we show that carrier recombination through non-mobile band tail states has a strong voltage dependence and is a significant performance-limiting factor, and including these effects in simulation allows us to simultaneously explain the Voc deficit, reduced fill factor, and voltage-dependent quantum efficiency with a self-consistent set of material parameters. Comparisons of numerical simulations to measured data show that reasonable values for the band tail parameters (characteristic energy, capture rate) can account for the observed low Voc, high Jsc, and voltage dependent collection efficiency. These results provide additional evidence that the presence of band tail states accounts for the low efficiencies of CZTSSe solar cells and further demonstrates that recombination through non-mobile band tail states is the dominant efficiency limiting mechanism.

  3. Collection Efficiency and Ice Accretion Characteristics of Two Full Scale and One 1/4 Scale Business Jet Horizontal Tails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bidwell, Colin S.; Papadakis, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Collection efficiency and ice accretion calculations have been made for a series of business jet horizontal tail configurations using a three-dimensional panel code, an adaptive grid code, and the NASA Glenn LEWICE3D grid based ice accretion code. The horizontal tail models included two full scale wing tips and a 25 percent scale model. Flow solutions for the horizontal tails were generated using the PMARC panel code. Grids used in the ice accretion calculations were generated using the adaptive grid code ICEGRID. The LEWICE3D grid based ice accretion program was used to calculate impingement efficiency and ice shapes. Ice shapes typifying rime and mixed icing conditions were generated for a 30 minute hold condition. All calculations were performed on an SGI Octane computer. The results have been compared to experimental flow and impingement data. In general, the calculated flow and collection efficiencies compared well with experiment, and the ice shapes appeared representative of the rime and mixed icing conditions for which they were calculated.

  4. Kidney Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... right diagnosis. [ Top ] What should a person do days before a kidney biopsy? Days before the procedure, ... Top ] What can a person expect on the day of the kidney biopsy? A person should arrive ...

  5. Tongue biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - tongue ... A tongue biopsy can be done using a needle. You will get numbing medicine at the place where the ... provider will gently stick the needle into the tongue and remove a tiny piece of tissue. Some ...

  6. Liver Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... PDF, 341 KB)​​​​. Alternate Language URL Español Liver Biopsy Page Content On this page: What is a ... to Remember Clinical Trials What is a liver biopsy? A liver biopsy is a procedure that involves ...

  7. Endoscopic evaluation and biopsy collection of the gastrointestinal tract in the green moray eel (Gymnothorax funebris): application in a case of chronic regurgitation with gastric mucus gland hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Meegan, Jenny; Sidor, Inga F; Field, Cara; Roddy, Nicole; Sirpenski, Gayle; Dunn, J Lawrence

    2012-09-01

    A green moray eel (Gymnothorax funebris) was evaluated for chronic regurgitation. By using flexible endoscopy, the gastrointestinal tract was evaluated and revealed multifocal proliferative gastric masses and an intestinal ulcer. Biopsy specimens revealed gastric mucus gland hyperplasia, intestinal nematodiasis, and mild enteritis. Esophagoscopy and gastroscopy were performed by using a larger endoscope (length, 200 cm). A smaller endoscope (length, 100 cm) facilitated entering the intestinal tract in normograde or retrograde directions. A control eel was also evaluated, and no gross or histologic abnormalities were detected. The case eel was treated with metoclopramide and fenbendazole, responded well to therapy, and regurgitation decreased. A year later, the animal died of unrelated causes. Necropsy revealed coelomic gastric adhesions. The gastric proliferative lesions were associated with degeneration and necrosis of gastric pit mucosa without significant inflammation; etiology was unknown. Gastrointestinal endoscopy proved a useful diagnostic tool for evaluation and biopsy collection in this eel species.

  8. Synovial biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... small incision. After anesthesia, an instrument called a trocar is inserted into the joint space. This tool ... area. A biopsy grasper is inserted through the trocar and turned to cut out a tissue segment. ...

  9. Lymph node biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - lymph nodes; Open lymph node biopsy; Fine needle aspiration biopsy; Sentinel lymph node biopsy ... then sent to the laboratory for examination. A needle biopsy involves inserting a needle into a lymph ...

  10. Testicular biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... egg in the lab. This process is called in vitro fertilization. Testicular biopsy may also be done if you have found a lump during testicular self-examination . If tests ... the lump may be in the testicle, surgery may be needed to look ...

  11. Nasal mucosal biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - nasal mucosa; Nose biopsy ... to fast for a few hours before the biopsy. ... Nasal mucosal biopsy is usually done when abnormal tissue is seen during examination of the nose. It may also be done ...

  12. Biopsy - biliary tract

    MedlinePlus

    Cytology analysis - biliary tract; Biliary tract biopsy ... A sample for a biliary tract biopsy can be obtained in different ways. A needle biopsy can be done if you have a well-defined tumor. The biopsy site ...

  13. Total and methylmercury in soft tissues of white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) and Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) collected in Poland.

    PubMed

    Kalisinska, Elzbieta; Gorecki, Jerzy; Lanocha, Natalia; Okonska, Anna; Melgarejo, Javier B; Budis, Halina; Rzad, Izabella; Golas, Jerzy

    2014-11-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination in piscivorous birds, especially methylmercury (MeHg), has been drawing much attention worldwide in regard to its bioaccumulation and biomagnification in food chains. In this study on Hg in the soft tissues of white-tailed eagles (n = 22) and ospreys (n = 2) from Poland, total Hg (THg) range was 0.15-47.6 while MeHg range was 0.11-8.05 mg kg⁻¹ dry weight. In both species, median THg and MeHg concentrations were lower in the muscle and brain than in the liver and kidney. Median nephric residues were just under 3 and 5 mgTHg kg⁻¹ or 0.9 and 3.7 mgMeHg kg⁻¹ for white-tailed eagle and osprey, respectively. In Norwegian data from the 1970s and in our results, MeHg in the muscle of white-tailed eagle was ~60 % THg (%MeHg = MeHg/THg × 100), lower than in other piscivorous birds. A clear similarity in THg tissue levels was found between Polish and German populations of white-tailed eagles.

  14. Total and methylmercury in soft tissues of white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) and Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) collected in Poland.

    PubMed

    Kalisinska, Elzbieta; Gorecki, Jerzy; Lanocha, Natalia; Okonska, Anna; Melgarejo, Javier B; Budis, Halina; Rzad, Izabella; Golas, Jerzy

    2014-11-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination in piscivorous birds, especially methylmercury (MeHg), has been drawing much attention worldwide in regard to its bioaccumulation and biomagnification in food chains. In this study on Hg in the soft tissues of white-tailed eagles (n = 22) and ospreys (n = 2) from Poland, total Hg (THg) range was 0.15-47.6 while MeHg range was 0.11-8.05 mg kg⁻¹ dry weight. In both species, median THg and MeHg concentrations were lower in the muscle and brain than in the liver and kidney. Median nephric residues were just under 3 and 5 mgTHg kg⁻¹ or 0.9 and 3.7 mgMeHg kg⁻¹ for white-tailed eagle and osprey, respectively. In Norwegian data from the 1970s and in our results, MeHg in the muscle of white-tailed eagle was ~60 % THg (%MeHg = MeHg/THg × 100), lower than in other piscivorous birds. A clear similarity in THg tissue levels was found between Polish and German populations of white-tailed eagles. PMID:24870933

  15. Antemortem detection of chronic wasting disease prions in nasal brush collections and rectal biopsies from white-tailed deer by real time quaking-induced conversion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, was first documented nearly fifty years ago in Colorado and Wyoming and has since spread to cervids in 23 states, 2 Canadian provinces, and the Republic of Korea. The increasing expansion of this disease makes the d...

  16. Open lung biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - open lung ... An open lung biopsy is done in the hospital using general anesthesia , which means you are asleep and pain- ... The open lung biopsy is done to evaluate lung problems seen on x-ray or CT scan .

  17. Bone biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A bone biopsy is performed by making a small incision into the skin. A biopsy needle retrieves a sample of bone and it ... examination. The most common reasons for bone lesion biopsy are to distinguish between benign and malignant bone ...

  18. Muscle biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A muscle biopsy involves removal of a plug of tissue usually by a needle to be later used for examination. Sometimes ... there is a patchy condition expected an open biopsy may be used. Open biopsy involves a small ...

  19. Diagnostic accuracy of rectal mucosa biopsy testing for chronic wasting disease within white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herds in North America:Effects of age,sex,polymorphism at PRNP codon 96,and disease progression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An effective live animal diagnostic test is needed to assist in the control of chronic wasting disease (CWD), which has spread through captive and wild herds of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Canada and the United States. In the present study, the diagnostic accuracy of rectal mucosa ...

  20. Skin biopsy: Biopsy issues in specific diseases.

    PubMed

    Elston, Dirk M; Stratman, Erik J; Miller, Stanley J

    2016-01-01

    Misdiagnosis may result from biopsy site selection, technique, or choice of transport media. Important potential sources of error include false-negative direct immunofluorescence results based on poor site selection, uninformative biopsy specimens based on both site selection and technique, and spurious interpretations of pigmented lesions and nonmelanoma skin cancer based on biopsy technique. Part I of this 2-part continuing medical education article addresses common pitfalls involving site selection and biopsy technique in the diagnosis of bullous diseases, vasculitis, panniculitis, connective tissue diseases, drug eruptions, graft-versus-host disease, staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome, hair disorders, and neoplastic disorders. Understanding these potential pitfalls can result in improved diagnostic yield and patient outcomes.

  1. Design of collective Thomson scattering system using 77 GHz gyrotron for bulk and tail ion diagnostics in the large helical device

    SciTech Connect

    Nishiura, M.; Tanaka, K.; Kubo, S.; Kawahata, K.; Shimozuma, T.; Mutoh, T.; Saito, T.; Tatematsu, Y.; Notake, T.

    2008-10-15

    Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) system is expected to be a strong diagnostic tool for measuring thermal and fast ion distribution function at a local point inside plasmas. The electron cyclotron resonance heating system using a gyrotron at the frequency range of 77 GHz has been installed at the large helical device (LHD). The feasibility of CTS system using the 77 GHz gyrotron is assessed in terms of scattering spectrum and a background noise of the electron cyclotron emission, which affect the signal to noise ratio, with the realistic plasma parameters and incident port locations of LHD. Based on the calculated scattering spectra for bulk and tail fast ion diagnostics, the scattering radiation receiver system with gyrotron frequency feedback circuit is proposed to avoid the frequency chirping.

  2. Optimization of prostate biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, John J.; Zeng, Jianchao; Weir, James; Zhang, Wei; Sesterhenn, Isabell A.; Connelly, Roger R.; Moul, Judd W.; Mun, Seong K.

    1999-05-01

    Urologists routinely use the systematic sextant needle biopsy technique to detect prostate cancer. However, recent evidence suggests that this technique has a significant sampling error. We have developed a novel 3D computer assisted prostate biopsy simulator based upon 201 whole- mounted step-sectioned radical prostatectomy specimens to compare the diagnostic accuracy of various prostate needle biopsy protocols. Computerized prostate models have been developed to accurately depict the anatomy of the prostate and all individual tumor foci. We obtained 18-biopsies of each prostate model to determine the detection rates of various biopsy protocols. As a result, the 10- and 12- pattern biopsy protocols had a 99.0 percent detection rate, while the traditional sextant biopsy protocol rate was only 72.6 percent. The 5-region biopsy protocol had a 90.5 percent detection rate. the lateral sextant pattern revealed a detection rate of 95.5 percent, whereas the 4-pattern lateral biopsy protocol had a 93.5 percent detection rate. Our results suggest that all the biopsy protocols that use laterally placed biopsies based upon the five region anatomical model are superior to the routinely used sextant prostate biopsy pattern. Lateral biopsies in the mid and apical zones of the gland are the most important.

  3. Cold knife cone biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003910.htm Cold knife cone biopsy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A cold knife cone biopsy (conization) is surgery to remove ...

  4. Nerve biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Nerve biopsy is the removal of a small piece of nerve for examination. Through a small incision, a sample ... is removed and examined under a microscope. Nerve biopsy may be performed to identify nerve degeneration, identify ...

  5. Percutaneous liver biopsy.

    PubMed

    Rustagi, Tarun; Newton, Eric; Kar, Premashish

    2010-01-01

    Percutaneous liver biopsy has been performed for more than 120 years, and remains an important diagnostic procedure for the management of hepatobiliary disorders. Modern biochemical, immunologic, and radiographic techniques have facilitated the diagnosis and management of liver diseases but have not made liver biopsy obsolete. This comprehensive review article will discuss the history of development of percutaneous liver biopsy, its indications, contraindications, complications and the various aspects of the biopsy procedure in detail.

  6. Tail Buffeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdrashitov, G.

    1943-01-01

    An approximate theory of buffeting is here presented, based on the assumption of harmonic disturbing forces. Two cases of buffeting are considered: namely, for a tail angle of attack greater and less than the stalling angle, respectively. On the basis of the tests conducted and the results of foreign investigators, a general analysis is given of the nature of the forced vibrations the possible load limits on the tail, and the methods of elimination of buffeting.

  7. PanMetaDocs - A tool for collecting and managing the long tail of "small science data"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klump, J.; Ulbricht, D.

    2011-12-01

    In the early days of thinking about cyberinfrastructure the focus was on "big science data". Today, the challenge is not anymore to store several terabytes of data, but to manage data objects in a way that facilitates their re-use. Key to re-use by a user as a data consumer is proper documentation of the data. Also, data consumers need discovery metadata to find the data they need and they need descriptive metadata to be able to use the data they retrieved. Thus, data documentation faces the challenge to extensively and completely describe these objects, hold the items easily accessible at a sustainable cost level. However, data curation and documentation do not rank high in the everyday work of a scientist as a data producer. Data producers are often frustrated by being asked to provide metadata on their data over and over again, information that seemed very obvious from the context of their work. A challenge to data archives is the wide variety of metadata schemata in use, which creates a number of maintenance and design challenges of its own. PanMetaDocs addresses these issues by allowing an uploaded files to be described by more than one metadata object. PanMetaDocs, which was developed from PanMetaWorks, is a PHP based web application that allow to describe data with any xml-based metadata schema. Its user interface is browser based and was developed to collect metadata and data in collaborative scientific projects situated at one or more institutions. The metadata fields can be filled with static or dynamic content to reduce the number of fields that require manual entries to a minimum and make use of contextual information in a project setting. In the development of PanMetaDocs the business logic of panMetaWorks is reused, except for the authentication and data management functions of PanMetaWorks, which are delegated to the eSciDoc framework. The eSciDoc repository framework is designed as a service oriented architecture that can be controlled through a

  8. Biopsy techniques for intraocular tumors

    PubMed Central

    Rishi, Pukhraj; Dhami, Abhinav; Biswas, Jyotirmay

    2016-01-01

    Biopsy involves the surgical removal of a tissue specimen for histopathologic evaluation. Most intraocular tumors are reliably diagnosed based on the clinical evaluation or with noninvasive diagnostic techniques. However, accurately diagnosing a small percentage of tumors can be challenging. A tissue biopsy is thus needed to establish a definitive diagnosis and plan the requisite treatment. From fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) to surgical excision, all tissue collection techniques have been studied in the literature. Each technique has its indications and limitations. FNAB has been reported to provide for 88–95% reliable and safe ophthalmic tumor diagnosis and has gained popularity for prognostic purposes and providing eye conserving treatment surgeries. The technique and instrumentation for biopsy vary depending upon the tissue involved (retina, choroid, subretinal space, vitreous, and aqueous), suspected diagnosis, size, location, associated retinal detachment, and clarity of the media. The cytopathologist confers a very important role in diagnosis and their assistance plays a key role in managing and planning the treatment for malignancies. PMID:27488148

  9. Delayed culture of Leishmania in skin biopsies.

    PubMed

    Dedet, J P; Pratlong, F; Pradinaud, R; Moreau, B

    1999-01-01

    Between January 1997 and October 1998, 16 skin biopsies collected from 13 patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in French Guiana were inoculated in culture medium after travel for 3-17 days from the place of biopsy to the culture laboratory in France. Each biopsy fragment was introduced near the flame of a Bunsen burner into the transport medium (RPMI medium supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum) which was maintained at ambient temperature during postal delivery to France. In France the biopsies were ground in sterile saline before being inoculated into NNN culture tubes. The cultures were incubated at 25 degrees C and subcultured every week until the 5th week. The cultures were positive in 9 cases, remained negative in 4, and were contaminated in 3 cases. Positive results were obtained at all seasons and for 3 different Leishmania species. The study indicates that delayed culture can yield useful results from biopsies taken in field conditions.

  10. Utilization trends and positive biopsy rates for prostate biopsies in the United States: 2005 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Deepak A; Bostwick, David G; Mendrinos, Savvas E; Anderson, Ann E; Olsson, Carl A

    2013-01-01

    This article assesses the positive biopsy rate and core sampling pattern in patients undergoing needle biopsy of the prostate in the United States at a national reference laboratory (NRL) and anatomic pathology laboratories integrated into urology group practices, and analyzes the relationship between positive biopsy rates and the number of specimen vials per biopsy. For the years 2005 to 2011 we collected pathology data from an NRL, including number of urologists and urology practices referring samples, total specimen vials submitted for prostate biopsies, and final pathologic diagnosis for each case. The diagnoses were categorized as benign, malignant, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, or atypical small acinar proliferation. Over the same period, similar data were gathered from urology practices with in-house laboratories performing global pathology services (urology practice laboratories; UPLs) as identified by a survey of members of the Large Urology Group Practice Association. For each year studied, positive biopsy rate and number of specimen vials per biopsy were calculated in aggregate and separately for each site of service. From 2005 to 2011, 437,937 biopsies were submitted in > 4.23 million vials (9.4 specimen vials/biopsy); overall positive biopsy rate was 40.3%-this was identical at both the NRL and UPL (P = .97). Nationally, the number of specimen vials per biopsy increased sharply from a mean of 8.8 during 2005 to 2008 to a mean of 10.3 from 2009 to 2011 (difference, 1.5 specimen vials/biopsy; P = .03). For the most recent 3-year period (2009-2011), the difference of 0.6 specimen vials per biopsy between the NRL (10.0) and UPL (10.6) was not significant (P = 0.08). Positive biopsy rate correlated strongly (P < .01) with number of specimen vials per biopsy. The positive prostate biopsy rate is 40.3% and is identical across sites of service. Although there was a national trend toward increased specimen vials per biopsy from 2005 to 2011, from 2009 to

  11. Utilization Trends and Positive Biopsy Rates for Prostate Biopsies in the United States: 2005 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Deepak A; Bostwick, David G; Mendrinos, Savvas E; Anderson, Ann E; Olsson, Carl A

    2013-01-01

    This article assesses the positive biopsy rate and core sampling pattern in patients undergoing needle biopsy of the prostate in the United States at a national reference laboratory (NRL) and anatomic pathology laboratories integrated into urology group practices, and analyzes the relationship between positive biopsy rates and the number of specimen vials per biopsy. For the years 2005 to 2011 we collected pathology data from an NRL, including number of urologists and urology practices referring samples, total specimen vials submitted for prostate biopsies, and final pathologic diagnosis for each case. The diagnoses were categorized as benign, malignant, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, or atypical small acinar proliferation. Over the same period, similar data were gathered from urology practices with in-house laboratories performing global pathology services (urology practice laboratories; UPLs) as identified by a survey of members of the Large Urology Group Practice Association. For each year studied, positive biopsy rate and number of specimen vials per biopsy were calculated in aggregate and separately for each site of service. From 2005 to 2011, 437,937 biopsies were submitted in > 4.23 million vials (9.4 specimen vials/biopsy); overall positive biopsy rate was 40.3%-this was identical at both the NRL and UPL (P = .97). Nationally, the number of specimen vials per biopsy increased sharply from a mean of 8.8 during 2005 to 2008 to a mean of 10.3 from 2009 to 2011 (difference, 1.5 specimen vials/biopsy; P = .03). For the most recent 3-year period (2009–2011), the difference of 0.6 specimen vials per biopsy between the NRL (10.0) and UPL (10.6) was not significant (P = 0.08). Positive biopsy rate correlated strongly (P < .01) with number of specimen vials per biopsy. The positive prostate biopsy rate is 40.3% and is identical across sites of service. Although there was a national trend toward increased specimen vials per biopsy from 2005 to 2011, from 2009

  12. Bone marrow biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - bone marrow ... A bone marrow biopsy may be done in the health care provider's office or in a hospital. The sample may ... This captures a tiny sample, or core, of bone marrow within the needle. The sample and needle are ...

  13. Multiple Biopsies and Detection of Cervical Cancer Precursors at Colposcopy

    PubMed Central

    Wentzensen, Nicolas; Walker, Joan L.; Gold, Michael A.; Smith, Katie M.; Zuna, Rosemary E.; Mathews, Cara; Dunn, S. Terence; Zhang, Roy; Moxley, Katherine; Bishop, Erin; Tenney, Meaghan; Nugent, Elizabeth; Graubard, Barry I.; Wacholder, Sholom; Schiffman, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Women with abnormal cervical cancer screening results are referred to colposcopy and biopsy for diagnosis of cervical cancer precursors (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions [HSILs]). Colposcopy with a single biopsy can miss identification of HSILs. No systematic study has quantified the improved detection of HSIL by taking multiple lesion-directed biopsies. Methods The Biopsy Study was an observational study of 690 women referred to colposcopy after abnormal cervical cancer screening results. Up to four directed biopsies were taken from distinct acetowhite lesions and ranked by colposcopic impression. A nondirected biopsy of a normal-appearing area was added if fewer than four directed biopsies were taken. HSIL identified by any biopsy was the reference standard of disease used to evaluate the incremental yield and sensitivity of multiple biopsies. Results In the overall population, sensitivities for detecting HSIL increased from 60.6% (95% CI, 54.8% to 66.6%) from a single biopsy to 85.6% (95% CI, 80.3% to 90.2%) after two biopsies and to 95.6% (95% CI, 91.3% to 99.2%) after three biopsies. A significant increase in sensitivity of multiple biopsies was observed in all subgroups. The highest increase in yield of HSIL was observed for women with a high-grade colposcopic impression, HSIL cytology, and human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 positivity. Only 2% of all HSILs diagnosed in the participants were detected by biopsies of normal-appearing transformation zone. Conclusion Collection of additional lesion-directed biopsies during colposcopy increased detection of histologic HSIL, regardless of patient characteristics. Taking additional biopsies when multiple lesions are present should become the standard practice of colposcopic biopsy. PMID:25422481

  14. Salivary gland biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - salivary gland ... You have several pairs of salivary glands that drain into your mouth: A major pair in front of the ears (parotid glands) Another major pair beneath your jaw (submandibular ...

  15. Colposcopy - directed biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... squamous cells - colposcopy; Pap smear - colposcopy; HPV - colposcopy; Human papilloma virus - colposcopy; Cervix - colposcopy; Colposcopy ... also called cervical dysplasia) Cervical warts (infection with human papilloma virus , or HPV) If the biopsy does not determine ...

  16. Mediastinoscopy with biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... procedure is also done for certain infections (tuberculosis, sarcoidosis) and autoimmune disorders . Normal Results Biopsies of lymph ... findings may indicate: Hodgkin disease Lung cancer Lymphoma Sarcoidosis The spread of disease from one body part ...

  17. Biopsy catheter (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... examination, a heart biopsy can be performed. A catheter is carefully threaded into an artery or vein to gain access into the heart. A bioptome (catheter with jaws in its tip) is then introduced. ...

  18. Wind-tunnel Investigation of End-plate Effects of Horizontal Tails on a Vertical Tail Compared with Available Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Harry E

    1946-01-01

    A vertical-tail model with stub fuselage was tested in combination with various simulated horizontal tails to determine the effect of horizontal-tail span and location on the aerodynamic characteristics of the vertical tail. Available theoretical data on end-plate effects were collected and presented in the form most suitable for design purposes. Reasonable agreement was obtained between the measured and theoretical end-plate effects of horizontal tails on vertical tails, and the data indicated that the end-plate effect was determined more by the location of the horizontal tail than by the span of the horizontal tail. The horizontal tail gave most end-plate effect when located near either tip of the vertical tail and, when located near the base of the vertical tail, the end-plate effect was increased by moving the horizontal tail rearward.

  19. Computed tomography-guided percutaneous core needle biopsy in pancreatic tumor diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Tyng, Chiang J; Almeida, Maria Fernanda A; Barbosa, Paula NV; Bitencourt, Almir GV; Berg, José Augusto AG; Maciel, Macello S; Coimbra, Felipe JF; Schiavon, Luiz Henrique O; Begnami, Maria Dirlei; Guimarães, Marcos D; Zurstrassen, Charles E; Chojniak, Rubens

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the techniques, results, and complications related to computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous core needle biopsies of solid pancreatic lesions. METHODS: CT-guided percutaneous biopsies of solid pancreatic lesions performed at a cancer reference center between January 2012 and September 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Biopsy material was collected with a 16-20 G Tru-Core needle (10-15 cm; Angiotech, Vancouver, CA) using a coaxial system and automatic biopsy gun. When direct access to the lesion was not possible, indirect (transgastric or transhepatic) access or hydrodissection and/or pneumodissection maneuvers were used. Characteristics of the patients, lesions, procedures, and histologic results were recorded using a standardized form. RESULTS: A total of 103 procedures included in the study were performed on patients with a mean age of 64.8 year (range: 39-94 year). The mean size of the pancreatic lesions was 45.5 mm (range: 15-195 mm). Most (75/103, 72.8%) procedures were performed via direct access, though hydrodissection and/or pneumodissection were used in 22.2% (23/103) of cases and indirect transhepatic or transgastric access was used in 4.8% (5/103) of cases. Histologic analysis was performed on all biopsies, and diagnoses were conclusive in 98.1% (101/103) of cases, confirming 3.9% (4/103) of tumors were benign and 94.2% (97/103) were malignant; results were atypical in 1.9% (2/103) of cases, requiring a repeat biopsy to diagnose a neuroendocrine tumor, and surgical resection to confirm a primary adenocarcinoma. Only mild/moderate complications were observed in 9/103 patients (8.7%), and they were more commonly associated with biopsies of lesions located in the head/uncinate process (n = 8), than of those located in the body/tail (n = 1) of the pancreas, but this difference was not significant. CONCLUSION: CT-guided biopsy of a pancreatic lesion is a safe procedure with a high success rate, and is an excellent option for minimally

  20. Breast Biopsy System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs) are high technology silicon chips that connect light directly into electronic or digital images, which can be manipulated or enhanced by computers. When Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) scientists realized that existing CCD technology could not meet scientific requirements for the Hubble Space Telescope Imagining Spectrograph, GSFC contracted with Scientific Imaging Technologies, Inc. (SITe) to develop an advanced CCD. SITe then applied many of the NASA-driven enhancements to the manufacture of CCDs for digital mammography. The resulting device images breast tissue more clearly and efficiently. The LORAD Stereo Guide Breast Biopsy system incorporates SITe's CCD as part of a digital camera system that is replacing surgical biopsy in many cases. Known as stereotactic needle biopsy, it is performed under local anesthesia with a needle and saves women time, pain, scarring, radiation exposure and money.

  1. Thyroid gland biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The thyroid is a gland located in the neck. It is a part of the endocrine (hormone) system, and plays a major role in regulating ... sample of cells is needed from the thyroid gland a fine needle biopsy can be performed. During ...

  2. Stereotactic (Mammographically Guided) Breast Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Z Stereotactic Breast Biopsy Stereotactic breast biopsy uses mammography – a specific type of breast imaging that uses ... the breast are often detected by physical examination, mammography, or other imaging studies. However, it is not ...

  3. Celiac Disease Diagnosis: Endoscopic Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... This is done in a procedure called a biopsy: the physician eases a long, thin tube called ... the tissue using instruments passed through the endoscope. Biopsy of the small intestine is the only way ...

  4. Tail gut cyst.

    PubMed

    Rao, G Mallikarjuna; Haricharan, P; Ramanujacharyulu, S; Reddy, K Lakshmi

    2002-01-01

    The tail gut is a blind extension of the hindgut into the tail fold just distal to the cloacal membrane. Remnants of this structure may form tail gut cyst. We report a 14-year-old girl with tail gut cyst that presented as acute abdomen. The patient recovered after cyst excision.

  5. Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow KidsHealth > For Teens > Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow Print A A A Text Size What's in ... Risks If You Have Questions What It Is Bone marrow aspirations and biopsies are performed to examine bone ...

  6. Tail biting in pigs.

    PubMed

    Schrøder-Petersen, D L; Simonsen, H B

    2001-11-01

    One of the costly and welfare-reducing problems in modern pig production is tail biting. Tail biting is an abnormal behaviour, characterized by one pig's dental manipulation of another pig's tail. Tail biting can be classified into two groups: the pre-injury stage, before any wound on the tail is present, and the injury stage, where the tail is wounded and bleeding. Tail biting in the injury stage will reduce welfare of the bitten pig and the possible spread of infection is a health as well as welfare problem. The pigs that become tail biters may also suffer, because they are frustrated due to living in a stressful environment. This frustration may result in an excessive motivation for biting the tails of pen mates. This review aims to summarize recent research and theories in relation to tail biting. PMID:11681870

  7. Common Data Elements for Muscle Biopsy Reporting

    PubMed Central

    Dastgir, Jahannaz; Rutkowski, Anne; Alvarez, Rachel; Cossette, Stacy A.; Yan, Ke; Hoffmann, Raymond G.; Sewry, Caroline; Hayashi, Yukiko K.; Goebel, Hans-Hilmar; Bonnemann, Carsten; Lawlor, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    Context There is no current standard among myopathologists for reporting muscle biopsy findings. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke has recently launched a common data element (CDE) project to standardize neuromuscular data collected in clinical reports and to facilitate their use in research. Objective To develop a more-uniform, prospective reporting tool for muscle biopsies, incorporating the elements identified by the CDE project, in an effort to improve reporting and educational resources. Design The variation in current biopsy reporting practice was evaluated through a study of 51 muscle biopsy reports from self-reported diagnoses of genetically confirmed or undiagnosed muscle disease from the Congenital Muscle Disease International Registry. Two reviewers independently extracted data from deidentified reports and entered them into the revised CDE format to identify what was missing and whether or not information provided on the revised CDE report (complete/incomplete) could be successfully interpreted by a neuropathologist. Results Analysis of the data highlighted showed (1) inconsistent reporting of key clinical features from referring physicians, and (2) considerable variability in the reporting of pertinent positive and negative histologic findings by pathologists. Conclusions We propose a format for muscle-biopsy reporting that includes the elements in the CDE checklist and a brief narrative comment that interprets the data in support of a final interpretation. Such a format standardizes cataloging of pathologic findings across the spectrum of muscle diseases and serves emerging clinical care and research needs with the expansion of genetic-testing therapeutic trials. PMID:26132600

  8. The endomyocardial biopsy.

    PubMed

    Schneiderman, H; Hager, W D; Gondos, B

    1986-01-01

    Endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) provides a safe, simple method of gathering unique information. Although the role of EMB continues to evolve rapidly, present consensus includes the following indications, based on the ability of EMB to provide diagnoses unobtainable by other means: assessment of early rejection following cardiac transplantation; determination of myocarditis as etiology of clinically obscure cardiac dysfunction; quantification of chemotherapeutic (especially anthracycline) cardiotoxicity; and distinction between constrictive and restrictive heart disease. Each of these indications carries major therapeutic as well as prognostic implications. Methods of processing EMB are presented, complications listed, artifacts described, findings and uses illustrated, and suggestions for future development addressed briefly.

  9. Telepathology and Optical Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer-Roca, Olga

    2009-01-01

    The ability to obtain information about the structure of tissue without taking a sample for pathology has opened the way for new diagnostic techniques. The present paper reviews all currently available techniques capable of producing an optical biopsy, with or without morphological images. Most of these techniques are carried out by physicians who are not specialized in pathology and therefore not trained to interpret the results as a pathologist would. In these cases, the use of telepathology or distant consultation techniques is essential. PMID:20339507

  10. Methodology of stereotactic biopsy.

    PubMed

    Carapella, C M; Mastrostefano, R; Raus, L; Riccio, A

    1989-01-01

    The great technological improvement in the neurosurgical tools and in the neuroradiological imaging has brought about the diffusion of the stereotactic techniques. They are crucial for the diagnosis and treatment of intracranial expanding lesions of small dimensions or located in sites inaccessible to conventional techniques. The Authors describe the most common systems and methodologies for the stereotactic biopsy. They stress the importance of performing serial explorations which can provide evidence of the heterogeneity of the neoplastic lesion and of the infiltration of the brain adjacent to the tumor.

  11. Evaluation of PCA3 and multiparametric MRI’s: collective benefits before deciding initial prostate biopsy for patients with PSA level between 3-10ng/mL

    PubMed Central

    Okcelik, Sezgin; Soydan, Hasan; Ates, Ferhat; Berber, Ufuk; Saygin, Hasan; Sönmez, Güner; Karademir, Kenan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To analyze the contribution of multiparametric MRI and PCA3 assay, pre- decision of initial biopsy in PSA level between 3-10 ng/mL patients with normal digital rectal examination(DRE). Materials and Methods PSA level 3-10 ng/mL ,patients, with normal DRE results and no previous prostate biopsy history, were included in this study. Each patient underwent multiparametric MRI one week before biopsy. Urine sample taking for PCA3 examination preceded the biopsy. Systematic and targeted biopsies were conducted. Patients with high PSA levels were seperated into two groups as: high PCA3 scored and low PCA3 scored. Then each group was divided into two sub-groups as: MRI lesion positive and negative. Tumor incidence, positive predictive values(PPV) and negative predictive values(NPV) were calculated. Results 53 patients were included between February 2013 and March 2014.Mean age 61.22 ± 1.06. Mean PSA value 5.13 ± 0.19 ng / mL. Mean PCA3 score 98.01 ± 23.13 and mean prostate size was 48.96 ± 2.67 grams. Fourty nine patients had both PCA3 score and multiparametric MRI. The PCA3’s PPV value was 58.33%. If multiparametric MRI lesions are added to high PCA3 scores , the PPV appears to elevate to 91.66%. NPV of PCA3 was 96%. NPV was 95% when there was no lesion in the multiparametric MRI with low PCA3 scores. Sensitivity was 91.66% , specificity was 95% respectively. Conclusion Adding multimetric MRI can also support biopsy decision for patients with high PCA3 value. When PCA3 value is low, patients can be survailled without any need to take a MRI. PMID:27286106

  12. Mira's Tail There All Along

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer discovered an exceptionally long comet-like tail of material trailing behind Mira -- a star that has been studied thoroughly for about 400 years. So, why had this tail gone unnoticed for so long? The answer is that nobody had scanned the extended region around Mira in ultraviolet light until now.

    As this composite demonstrates, the tail is only visible in ultraviolet light (top), and does not show up in visible light (bottom). Incidentally, Mira is much brighter in visible than ultraviolet light due to its low surface temperature of about 3,000 kelvin (about 5,000 degrees Fahrenheit).

    The Galaxy Evolution Explorer, one of NASA's Small Explorer class missions, is the first all-sky survey in ultraviolet light. It found Mira's tail by chance during a routine scan. Since the mission's launch more than four years ago, it has surveyed millions of galaxies and stars. Such vast collections of data often bring welcome surprises, such as Mira's unusual tail.

    The visible-light image is from the United Kingdom Schmidt Telescope in Australia, via the Digitized Sky Survey, a program affiliated with the Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Md.

  13. The renal biopsy in the genomic era.

    PubMed

    Liapis, Helen; Gaut, Joseph P

    2013-08-01

    Renal biopsy was introduced in the 1950s. By 1980 the pathologic diagnostic criteria for the majority of medical kidney diseases known today, including pediatric diseases, were established using light, electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. However, it has become clear that there are limitations in the morphologic evaluation, mainly because a given pattern of injury can be caused by different aetiologies and, conversely, a single aetiology may present with more than one histological pattern. An explosion in kidney disease research in the last 20-30 years has brought new knowledge from bench to bedside rapidly and resulted in new molecular and genetic tools that enhance the diagnostic and prognostic power of the renal biopsy. Genomic technologies such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), in situ hybridization and oligonucleotide microarrays, collectively known as genomics, detect single or multiple genes underscoring the pathologic changes and revealing specific causes of injury that may require different treatment. The aims of this review are to (1) summarize current recommendations for diagnostic renal biopsies encompassing light microscopy, immunofluorescence or immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy; (2) address the limitations of morphology; (3) show current contributions of genomic technologies adjunct to the renal biopsy, and provide examples of how these may transform pathologic interpretation into molecular disease phenotypes.

  14. Renal biopsy: methods and interpretation.

    PubMed

    Vaden, Shelly L

    2004-07-01

    Renal biopsy most often is indicated in the management of dogs and cats with glomerular disease or acute renal failure. Renal biopsy can readily be performed in dogs and cats via either percutaneous or surgical methods. Care should be taken to ensure that proper technique is used. When proper technique is employed and patient factors are properly addressed, renal biopsy is a relatively safe procedure that minimally affects renal function. Patients should be monitored during the post biopsy period for severe hemorrhage, the most common complication. Accurate diagnosis of glomerular disease, and therefore, accurate treatment planning,requires that the biopsy specimens not only be evaluated by light microscopy using special stains but by electron and immunofluorescent microscopy. PMID:15223207

  15. Pleural needle biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... lungs and chest wall (pleural membrane). A larger, hollow needle is then placed gently through the skin ... the needle. A smaller cutting needle inside the hollow one is used to collect tissue samples. During ...

  16. Remote biopsy darting and marking of polar bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pagano, Anthony M.; Peacock, Elizabeth; McKinney, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Remote biopsy darting of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) is less invasive and time intensive than physical capture and is therefore useful when capture is challenging or unsafe. We worked with two manufacturers to develop a combination biopsy and marking dart for use on polar bears. We had an 80% success rate of collecting a tissue sample with a single biopsy dart and collected tissue samples from 143 polar bears on land, in water, and on sea ice. Dye marks ensured that 96% of the bears were not resampled during the same sampling period, and we recovered 96% of the darts fired. Biopsy heads with 5 mm diameters collected an average of 0.12 g of fur, tissue, and subcutaneous adipose tissue, while biopsy heads with 7 mm diameters collected an average of 0.32 g. Tissue samples were 99.3% successful (142 of 143 samples) in providing a genetic and sex identification of individuals. We had a 64% success rate collecting adipose tissue and we successfully examined fatty acid signatures in all adipose samples. Adipose lipid content values were lower compared to values from immobilized or harvested polar bears, indicating that our method was not suitable for quantifying adipose lipid content.

  17. Bone biopsy in haematological disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Burkhardt, R; Frisch, B; Bartl, R

    1982-01-01

    Bone marrow biopsies are now widely used in the investigation and follow-up of many diseases. Semi-thin sections of 8216 undecalcified biopsies of patients with haematological disorders were studied. Observations were made on the cytopenias and the myelodysplastic syndromes, the acute leukaemias the myeloproliferative disorders, Hodgkin's disease and the malignant lymphomas including multiple myeloma, hairy cell leukaemia and angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy. Bone marrow biopsies are essential for the differential diagnosis of most cytopenias and for the early recognition of fibrosis which most frequently occurred as a consequence of megakaryocytic proliferation in the myeloproliferative disorders. Different patterns of bone marrow involvement were found in the lymphoproliferative disorders and both their type and extent constituted factors of prognostic significance. A survey of the literature is given and the conclusion is drawn that bone marrow biopsies provide indispensible information for the diagnostic evaluation and the follow-up of patients with haematological disorders. Images PMID:7040489

  18. Gram stain of tissue biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... stain of tissue biopsy test involves using crystal violet stain to test a sample of tissue taken ... microscope slide. The specimen is stained with crystal violet stain and goes through more processing before it ...

  19. Experience with transjugular liver biopsy.

    PubMed Central

    Bull, H J; Gilmore, I T; Bradley, R D; Marigold, J H; Thompson, R P

    1983-01-01

    The results of 193 transjugular liver biopsies performed with a modified needle are described. An adequate specimen was obtained in 97%, and complications were rare, although puncture of the liver capsule does occur and caused bleeding in two patients. Fever after the procedure was reduced by ultrasonic cleaning of the needle. Although not easy, this technique is safe and preferable in the management of selected patients, but in most patients percutaneous biopsy is to be preferred. PMID:6629116

  20. Variation in the Attitudes of Medical Oncologists Toward Research Biopsies in Patients With Metastatic Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Seah, Davinia S.; Scott, Sarah; Guo, Hao; Najita, Julie; Lederman, Ruth; Frank, Elizabeth; Sohl, Jessica; Stadler, Zsofia; Silverman, Stuart; Peppercorn, Jeffrey; Winer, Eric; Come, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Background. Tissue from research biopsies provides access to insights into tumor biology. We aimed to determine medical oncologists’ (MOs’) attitudes toward research biopsies in patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Materials and Methods. A total of 309 breast MOs from National Cancer Institute (NCI)-designated cancer centers were invited to complete a self-administered survey about their attitudes toward approaching patients for research purpose-only biopsies (RPOBs), performed as a standalone procedure, or additional biopsies, performed with a clinically indicated biopsy. The MOs were asked to predict what proportion of their MBC patients would consider undergoing research biopsies. Results. Of the 309 MOs, 221 (72%) responded. Of these 221 MOs, 30 were ineligible, leaving 191 eligible responders. Nearly all the MOs reported they were comfortable approaching patients regarding research biopsies of blood or skin. One fifth of MOs were uncomfortable approaching patients for RPOBs of the breast. One half of MOs were uncomfortable approaching patients for RPOBs of the liver. A significant variation was found in the perceptions by MOs of their patients’ willingness to undergo research biopsies. The factors associated with increased comfort in approaching patients for research biopsies included fewer years in practice, caring for patients who had undergone recent research biopsies, and the predicted willingness of patients to consent to biopsies. The risk of a biopsy and biopsy-related pain were the most common reasons for reluctance to refer patients for research biopsies. Conclusion. Significant variation exists, even at NCI centers, in the comfort level of MOs in approaching MBC patients for research biopsies. MOs’ attitudes toward research biopsies might be a modifiable factor in increasing tissue collection for research. Implications for Practice: Tissue-based research is critical in advancing our understanding of cancer biology, and obtaining

  1. Needle aspiration biopsy in salivary gland lesions.

    PubMed

    Shaha, A R; Webber, C; DiMaio, T; Jaffe, B M

    1990-10-01

    The value of needle aspiration biopsy in the evaluation and management of salivary gland pathology is controversial. The major reasons for this controversy are the difficulty in cytologic evaluation and the fact that the extent of surgery can be easily defined based on clinical judgement. However, a preoperative diagnosis is helpful in discussions with patients regarding the extent and type of surgery. Apart from the fact that needle biopsy can distinguish benign from malignant conditions, it is also very useful in distinguishing between salivary and other nonsalivary pathology. Over the past 7 1/2 years, we have performed 160 needle aspirations of parotid, submandibular, and submucosal lesions. Adequate specimens for cytologic evaluation were obtained in 155 patients (97%). A total of 84 parotid lesions, 70 submandibular lumps, and 6 submucosal abnormalities were detected. A cytologic diagnosis of benign pathology was made in 120 patients. Twelve patients had lymphoma and the diagnosis was suspected based on needle aspiration. There were 10 patients with tuberculosis and 30 patients with hyperplastic lymph nodes or benign lymphoepithelial disease of the parotid. There were three false-positive and two false-negative reports. No complications such as hematoma, nerve injury, or infection developed. The major difficulty was in distinguishing between malignancy and obstructive sialadenitis in the submandibular region. Needle aspiration was helpful in evaluating lesions in the tail of the parotid and submandibular area. The cytologic distinction between salivary and nonsalivary pathology was useful in planning the appropriate surgery and the extent of surgical resection. From a clinical standpoint, the distinction between benign and malignant salivary and nonsalivary pathology was very helpful. Preoperative diagnosis of Warthin's tumor, lymphoma, or benign lymphoepithelial disease was essential to the correct management of these patients.

  2. [Tail Plane Icing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Program initiated by NASA in 1997 has put greater emphasis in safety related research activities. Ice-contaminated-tailplane stall (ICTS) has been identified by the NASA Lewis Icing Technology Branch as an important activity for aircraft safety related research. The ICTS phenomenon is characterized as a sudden, often uncontrollable aircraft nose- down pitching moment, which occurs due to increased angle-of-attack of the horizontal tailplane resulting in tailplane stall. Typically, this phenomenon occurs when lowering the flaps during final approach while operating in or recently departing from icing conditions. Ice formation on the tailplane leading edge can reduce tailplane angle-of-attack range and cause flow separation resulting in a significant reduction or complete loss of aircraft pitch control. In 1993, the Federal Aviation Authority (FAA) and NASA embarked upon a four-year research program to address the problem of tailplane stall and to quantify the effect of tailplane ice accretion on aircraft performance and handling characteristics. The goals of this program, which was completed in March 1998, were to collect aerodynamic data for an aircraft tail with and without ice contamination and to develop analytical methods for predicting the effects of tailplane ice contamination. Extensive dry air and icing tunnel tests which resulted in a database of the aerodynamic effects associated with tailplane ice contamination. Although the FAA/NASA tailplane icing program generated some answers regarding ice-contaminated-tailplane stall (ICTS) phenomena, NASA researchers have found many open questions that warrant further investigation into ICTS. In addition, several aircraft manufacturers have expressed interest in a second research program to expand the database to other tail configurations and to develop experimental and computational methodologies for evaluating the ICTS phenomenon. In 1998, the icing branch at NASA Lewis initiated a second

  3. [Flexible bronchoscopy techniques: bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial biopsy and transbronchial biopsy].

    PubMed

    Escribano Montaner, A; Moreno Galdó, A

    2005-04-01

    This article completes previous recommendations of the Techniques Group of the Spanish Society of Pediatric Pulmonologists on the practice of flexible bronchoscopy in children. We review the most frequently performed diagnostic and therapeutic procedures applied through the flexible bronchoscope: bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial biopsy and transbronchial biopsy. Recommendations are also provided on the practice of nonbronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage. We review the indications and contraindications of these techniques, the equipment required, and the preparation and monitoring of the patient before, during and after the procedure. The complications of these techniques are also discussed. These recommendations may be adopted, modified or rejected according to clinical needs and constraints.

  4. Clean tailing reclamation: Tailing reprocessing for sulfide removal and vegetation establishment

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, S.R.; Kruegar, J.

    1997-12-31

    Mine wastes exhibiting elevated heavy metal concentrations are widespread causes of resource degradation in the western US and elsewhere. This problem is further exacerbated by the presence of pyrite that oxidizes upon exposure to the atmosphere resulting in acid generation. Since pyrite was not recovered as a mineral of economic value during mining, it was disposed of in waste piles and tailing ponds that are now a source of acid generation and release of metals to the environment. Tailing cleaning, or sulfide mineral recovery through reprocessing, was evaluated as an innovative reclamation technology. Tailing materials, from both operational and abandoned mines, were collected to evaluate the feasibility of sulfide mineral recovery. Successful mineral separation was performed resulting in a low volume metal sulfide concentrate and a high volume cleaned silicate media. Total metal concentrations were decreased in the cleaned tailing material and elevated in the sulfide concentrate compared with the original tailing chemistry. In greenhouse trials, vegetation establishment in cleaned tailing material was compared with plant growth in topsoil and lime-amended tailings. While vegetation performance was best in the topsoil control, both lime-amended and cleaned tailings displayed adequate plant growth.

  5. Validation of use of rectoanal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue for immunohistochemical diagnosis of chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Keane, Delwyn; Barr, Daniel; Osborn, Rebecca; Langenberg, Julie; O'Rourke, Katherine; Schneider, David; Bochsler, Philip

    2009-05-01

    The examination of rectoanal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT) biopsy specimens for the diagnosis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies has been described in sheep, elk, and small numbers of mule and white-tailed deer. Previous sample numbers have been too small to validate examination of this type of tissue as a viable antemortem diagnostic test. In this study, we examined RAMALT collected postmortem from 76 white-tailed deer removed from a farm in Wisconsin known to be affected by chronic wasting disease (CWD) and from 210 free-ranging white-tailed deer harvested from an area in Wisconsin where the overall prevalence of CWD among the deer was approximately 4 to 6%. The results of immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of the RAMALT sections were compared to the results of IHC staining of sections from the brain stem at the convergence of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve, sections of the medial retropharyngeal lymph nodes (RLNs), and sections of tonsil (sections of tonsil only from captive animals were tested). The sensitivities of the IHC staining test with RAMALT sections were 81% for the captive animals and 91% for the free-ranging animals. False-negative results were usually associated with early infection, indicated by a low intensity of immunostaining in the obex and/or a polymorphism at PRNP codon 96. While the RLN remains the tissue of choice for use for the diagnosis of CWD in white-tailed deer, the results of the present study further support the use of RAMALTs collected antemortem as an adjunct to testing of tonsil biopsy specimens and surveillance by necropsy for the screening of farmed deer which have been put at risk through environmental exposure or exposure to deer with CWD.

  6. The Tail of BPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruba, Steve; Meyer, Jim

    Business process management suites (BPMS's) represent one of the fastest growing segments in the software industry as organizations automate their key business processes. As this market matures, it is interesting to compare it to Chris Anderson's 'Long Tail.' Although the 2004 "Long Tail" article in Wired magazine was primarily about the media and entertainment industries, it has since been applied (and perhaps misapplied) to other markets. Analysts describe a "Tail of BPM" market that is, perhaps, several times larger than the traditional BPMS product market. This paper will draw comparisons between the concepts in Anderson's article (and subsequent book) and the BPM solutions market.

  7. Jupiter's magnetic tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ness, N. F.; Acuna, M. H.; Lepping, R. P.; Behannon, K. W.; Burlaga, L. F.; Neubauer, F. M.

    1979-01-01

    Voyager 1 observations of the Jovian magnetosphere are discussed which are most naturally interpreted in terms of a well-developed magnetic tail on the nightside of the planet. It is shown that this tail, with a 'neutral sheet' separating the upper and lower lobes of opposite field polarity, is formed and controlled by external forces associated with the solar wind. The inner magnetosphere's current tail is found to merge with the magnetotail's neutral sheet. It is concluded that this configuration leads to a strong local-time control of the outer Jovian magnetosphere rather than planetary control.

  8. Oral biopsy: oral pathologist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Kumaraswamy, K L; Vidhya, M; Rao, Prasanna Kumar; Mukunda, Archana

    2012-01-01

    Many oral lesions may need to be diagnosed by removing a sample of tissue from the oral cavity. Biopsy is widely used in the medical field, but the practice is not quite widespread in dental practice. As oral pathologists, we have found many artifacts in the tissue specimen because of poor biopsy technique or handling, which has led to diagnostic pitfalls and misery to both the patient and the clinician. This article aims at alerting the clinicians about the clinical faults arising preoperatively, intraoperatively and postoperatively while dealing with oral biopsy that may affect the histological assessment of the tissue and, therefore, the diagnosis. It also reviews the different techniques, precautions and special considerations necessary for specific lesions.

  9. An approach to duodenal biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Serra, S; Jani, P A

    2006-01-01

    The introduction of endoscopy of the upper digestive tract as a routine diagnostic procedure has increased the number of duodenal biopsy specimens. Consequently, the pathologist is often asked to evaluate them. In this review, a practical approach to the evaluation of a duodenal biopsy specimen is discussed. An overview of the handling of specimens is given and the normal histology and commonly encountered diseases are discussed. Finally, a description of commonly seen infections is provided, together with an algorithmic approach for diagnosis. PMID:16679353

  10. Pericardial Tamponade: a Rare Complication of Sternal Bone Marrow Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Santavy, Petr; Troubil, Martin; Lonsky, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Injury of the heart with concomitant pericardial tamponade as a result of sternal bone marrow biopsy is rare. An 80-year-old man was admitted with dehydration and non-specified abdominal pain to the regional hospital. Sternal aspiration biopsy was performed because of anemia and thrombocytopenia. Later on, because of the back pain, general weakness and blood pressure drop, an echocardiography examination was indicated. Pericardial fluid collection was found. Anticipated ascending aortic dissection was excluded on computed tomography scan, but pericardial fluid collection was confirmed. Transfer to our cardiac surgical facility ensued. Limited heart tamponade was affirmed on echocardiography and surgery was immediately indicated. Blood effusion was found in upper mediastinal fat tissue and 300 mL of blood were evacuated from opened pericardial space. Stab wound by sternal biopsy needle at the upper part of ascending aorta was repaired by pledgeted suture. Postoperative course was uneventful. PMID:24179668

  11. The Tail Suspension Test

    PubMed Central

    Terrillion, Chantelle E.; Piantadosi, Sean C.; Bhat, Shambhu; Gould, Todd D.

    2012-01-01

    The tail-suspension test is a mouse behavioral test useful in the screening of potential antidepressant drugs, and assessing of other manipulations that are expected to affect depression related behaviors. Mice are suspended by their tails with tape, in such a position that it cannot escape or hold on to nearby surfaces. During this test, typically six minutes in duration, the resulting escape oriented behaviors are quantified. The tail-suspension test is a valuable tool in drug discovery for high-throughput screening of prospective antidepressant compounds. Here, we describe the details required for implementation of this test with additional emphasis on potential problems that may occur and how to avoid them. We also offer a solution to the tail climbing behavior, a common problem that renders this test useless in some mouse strains, such as the widely used C57BL/6. Specifically, we prevent tail climbing behaviors by passing mouse tails through a small plastic cylinder prior to suspension. Finally, we detail how to manually score the behaviors that are manifested in this test. PMID:22315011

  12. Comparison of detection of Bovine virus diarrhea virus antigen in various types of tissue and fluid samples collected from persistently infected cattle.

    PubMed

    VanderLey, Brian; Ridpath, Julia; Sweiger, Shaun

    2011-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses are economically important pathogens of cattle. Most infections in susceptible animals are acquired from animals persistently infected with the virus. Surveillance programs rely on skin biopsies of persistently infected (PI) cattle to detect the infection. The purpose of this study was to compare antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ACE) testing results using different types of samples from PI animals. The intent was to determine comparative detection rates in types of samples that are frequently submitted to diagnostic laboratories for evaluation of cases of unknown etiology or samples that could be easily collected for Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) screening. Eight types of samples were collected from 40 PI animals. The sample types were ear notches, serum, nasal swabs, conjunctival swabs, oral swabs, rectal swabs, vaginal/preputial swabs, and a tail skin fold biopsy. Each type of sample (n  =  8) for each animal (n  =  40) was evaluated with a commercial ACE kit. When using ACE, tail-skin fold and nasal swab samples were 100% sensitive compared with results using ear notches. Sensitivity using other samples was as follows: serum and vaginal/preputial swabs, 92%; conjunctival swabs, 64%; rectal swabs, 10%; oral swabs, 8%. Testing of tail skin fold biopsies, nasal swabs, and ear notch samples resulted in reliable results. In contrast, other sample types were unreliable for diagnosis of persistent infection in calves.

  13. Vacuum enhanced cutaneous biopsy instrument

    DOEpatents

    Collins, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    A syringe-like disposable cutaneous biopsy instrument equipped with a tubular blade at its lower end, and designed so that a vacuum is created during use, said vacuum serving to retain undeformed a plug of tissue cut from a patient's skin.

  14. Vacuum Enhanced Cutaneous Biopsy Instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Joseph

    1999-06-25

    A syringe-like disposable cutaneous biopsy instrument equipped with a tubular blade at its lower end, and designed so that a vacuum is created during use, said vacuum serving to retain undeformed a plug of tissue cut from a patient's skin.

  15. Geochemistry of Metals from mine tailing in Taxco Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton-Bermea, O.; ARMIENTA, A.; BARRERA, M.; TALAVERA, O.; HERNANDEZ, E.

    2001-12-01

    The mining district of Taxco in Central Mexico has been exploited since prehispanic times. The processing of metals produced tailings with high heavy metal concentrations. Those tailings constitute a potential risk to the environment. To assess the effects of the mine tailing on water quality, tailing samples and water samples from rivers, wells and tailing effluents were collected and analyzed for Cu, Zn, As and Pb. Metals were analyzed with by ICP-MS. Tailing samples were leached with water to determine pH and sulfate concentration. The highest metal contents were found in the samples with a pH acid. As, Pb and Zn are over the drinking water standards in some of the water samples.

  16. Dynamin at actin tails.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunkyung; De Camilli, Pietro

    2002-01-01

    Dynamin, the product of the shibire gene of Drosophila, is a GTPase critically required for endocytosis. Some studies have suggested a functional link between dynamin and the actin cytoskeleton. This link is of special interest, because there is evidence implicating actin dynamics in endocytosis. Here we show that endogenous dynamin 2, as well as green fluorescence protein fusion proteins of both dynamin 1 and 2, is present in actin comets generated by Listeria or by type I PIP kinase (PIPK) overexpression. In PIPK-induced tails, dynamin is further enriched at the interface between the tails and the moving organelles. Dynamin mutants harboring mutations in the GTPase domain inhibited nucleation of actin tails induced by PIPK and moderately reduced their speed. Although dynamin localization to the tails required its proline-rich domain, expression of a dynamin mutant lacking this domain also diminished tail formation. In addition, this mutant disrupted a membrane-associated actin scaffold (podosome rosette) previously shown to include dynamin. These findings suggest that dynamin is part of a protein network that controls nucleation of actin from membranes. At endocytic sites, dynamin may couple the fission reaction to the polymerization of an actin pool that functions in the separation of the endocytic vesicles from the plasma membrane. PMID:11782545

  17. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Alsaif, Abdulaziz A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To report our experience in sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in early breast cancer. Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 2005 and December 2014. There were 120 patients who underwent SLNB with frozen section examination. Data collected included the characteristics of patients, index tumor, and sentinel node (SN), SLNB results, axillary recurrence rate and SLNB morbidity. Results: There were 120 patients who had 123 cancers. Sentinel node was identified in 117 patients having 120 tumors (97.6% success rate). No SN was found intraoperatively in 3 patients. Frozen section results showed that 95 patients were SN negative, those patients had no immediate axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), whereas 25 patients were SN positive and subsequently had immediate ALND. Upon further examination of the 95 negative SN’s by hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) and immunohistochemical staining for doubtful H&E cases, 10 turned out to have micrometastases (6 had delayed ALND and 4 had no further axillary surgery). Median follow up of patients was 35.5 months and the mean was 38.8 months. There was one axillary recurrence observed in the SN negative group. The morbidity of SLNB was minimal. Conclusion: The obtainable results from our local experience in SLNB in breast cancer, concur with that seen in published similar literature in particular the axillary failure rate. Sentinel lymph node biopsy resulted in minimal morbidity. PMID:26318461

  18. Biopsies

    MedlinePlus

    ... computed tomography (CT) , fluoroscopy , ultrasound , or MRI . A mammography unit is a rectangular box that houses the ... seen. Some lesions, such as clustered calcifications on mammography are not as clearly shown with ultrasound as ...

  19. Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sections of the JAOCD JAOCD Archive Published Members Online Dermatology Journals Edit This Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes ... 2/2017 2017 AOCD Spring Current Concepts in Dermatology Meeting more Latest News ... Surveys About AOCD The AOCD was recognized in ...

  20. Liquid biopsy in liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Labgaa, Ismail; Villanueva, Augusto

    2015-04-01

    Liver cancer has become the second cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Most patients are still diagnosed at intermediate or advanced stage, where potentially curative treatment options are not recommended. Unlike other solid tumors, there are no validated oncogenic addiction loops and the only systemic agent to improve survival in advanced disease is sorafenib. All phase 3 clinical trials testing molecular therapies after sorafenib have been negative, none of which selected patients based on predictive biomarkers of response. Theoretically, analysis of circulating cancer byproducts (e.g., circulating tumor cells, cell-free nucleic acids), namely "liquid biopsy," could provide easy access to molecular tumor information, improve patients' stratification and allow to assess tumor dynamics over time. Recent technical developments and preliminary data from other malignancies indicate that liquid biopsy might have a role in the future management of cancer patients. PMID:25977189

  1. 20 CFR 718.106 - Autopsy; biopsy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Criteria for the Development of Medical Evidence § 718.106 Autopsy; biopsy. (a... does not have pneumoconiosis. However, where positive findings are obtained on biopsy, the results will constitute evidence of the presence of pneumoconiosis....

  2. 20 CFR 718.106 - Autopsy; biopsy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Criteria for the Development of Medical Evidence § 718.106 Autopsy; biopsy. (a... does not have pneumoconiosis. However, where positive findings are obtained on biopsy, the results will constitute evidence of the presence of pneumoconiosis....

  3. Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer Download Printable Version [ ... on the topics below to get started. Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer How is cancer ...

  4. REAR PROFILE OF TAIL FROM SECOND LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REAR PROFILE OF TAIL FROM SECOND LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK STAND, SHOWING AIRCRAFT NUMBER (319), HORIZONTAL STABILIZER, TAIL CONE AND COOLING CTS FOR THE AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU), MECHANIC PAUL RIDEOUT IS LOWERING THE BALANCE PANELS ON THE STABILIZERS FOR LUBRICATION AND INSPECTION. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  5. Diagnostic value of transcervical endometrial biopsies in domestic dogs compared with full-thickness uterine sections.

    PubMed

    Christensen, B W; Schlafer, D H; Agnew, D W; Wang, C; Kozlowski, C; Asa, C S

    2012-12-01

    Transcervical endometrial biopsy is a useful tool for obtaining information about uterine health in some species. The clinical application of information gained from histopathological interpretations of endometrial biopsies in the bitch has not been validated. We hypothesized that transcervical endometrial biopsy samples would be as diagnostic as full-thickness uterine sections in identifying cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH), inflammation and periglandular fibrosis. Endometrial biopsies were obtained from 20 female adult dogs. Vaginal swabs, gross appearance of the vulva and vaginal tract, and serum progesterone values were used to determine the stage of the oestrous cycle at the time of sampling. The uteri were removed between 1 and 6 days after the biopsy procedure, and full-thickness sections were collected from each uterine horn and ovary and processed for histopathology. Two pathologists, blinded to the origin of each sample, compared full-thickness sections from the excised uteri to the biopsy samples collected via the transcervical technique. Pathologic features noted included: CEH, inflammation and periglandular fibrosis. Pathological diagnoses obtained from the biopsy sections were compared with those obtained from the full-thickness sections, as well as comparing diagnoses between the two pathologists, using McNemar's test. Of the 59 total biopsy samples obtained, 54 were considered diagnostic. All stages of the canine oestrous cycle were represented (anoestrus, proestrus, oestrus and dioestrus). Pyometra was not noted in any of the transcervical biopsy sections, but was noted in many of the full-thickness sections collected from dogs in dioestrus, suggesting either that biopsy is not a sensitive indicator of pyometra or that the procedure may induce pyometra in dioestrous dogs. Transcervical endometrial biopsy showed similar sensitivity as full-thickness sections in detecting CEH, inflammation and fibrosis. No differences in describing lesions were

  6. Effects of Tail Clipping on Larval Performance and Tail Regeneration Rates in the Near Eastern Fire Salamander, Salamandra infraimmaculata.

    PubMed

    Segev, Ori; Polevikove, Antonina; Blank, Lior; Goedbloed, Daniel; Küpfer, Eliane; Gershberg, Anna; Koplovich, Avi; Blaustein, Leon

    2015-01-01

    Tail-tip clipping is a common technique for collecting tissue samples from amphibian larvae and adults. Surprisingly, studies of this invasive sampling procedure or of natural tail clipping--i.e., bites inflicted by predators including conspecifics--on the performance and fitness of aquatic larval stages of urodeles are scarce. We conducted two studies in which we assessed the effects of posterior tail clipping (~30 percent of tail) on Near Eastern fire salamander (Salamandra infraimmaculata) larvae. In a laboratory study, we checked regeneration rates of posterior tail-tip clipping at different ages. Regeneration rates were hump-shaped, peaking at the age of ~30 days and then decreasing. This variation in tail regeneration rates suggests tradeoffs in resource allocation between regeneration and somatic growth during early and advanced development. In an outdoor artificial pond experiment, under constant larval densities, we assessed how tail clipping of newborn larvae affects survival to, time to, and size at metamorphosis. Repeated measures ANOVA on mean larval survival per pond revealed no effect of tail clipping. Tail clipping had correspondingly no effect on larval growth and development expressed in size (mass and snout-vent length) at, and time to, metamorphosis. We conclude that despite the given variation in tail regeneration rates throughout larval ontogeny, clipping of 30% percent of the posterior tail area seems to have no adverse effects on larval fitness and survival. We suggest that future use of this imperative tool for the study of amphibian should take into account larval developmental stage during the time of application and not just the relative size of the clipped tail sample. PMID:26065683

  7. Effects of Tail Clipping on Larval Performance and Tail Regeneration Rates in the Near Eastern Fire Salamander, Salamandra infraimmaculata

    PubMed Central

    Segev, Ori; Polevikove, Antonina; Blank, Lior; Goedbloed, Daniel; Küpfer, Eliane; Gershberg, Anna; Koplovich, Avi; Blaustein, Leon

    2015-01-01

    Tail-tip clipping is a common technique for collecting tissue samples from amphibian larvae and adults. Surprisingly, studies of this invasive sampling procedure or of natural tail clipping – i.e., bites inflicted by predators including conspecifics - on the performance and fitness of aquatic larval stages of urodeles are scarce. We conducted two studies in which we assessed the effects of posterior tail clipping (~30 percent of tail) on Near Eastern fire salamander (Salamandra infraimmaculata) larvae. In a laboratory study, we checked regeneration rates of posterior tail-tip clipping at different ages. Regeneration rates were hump-shaped, peaking at the age of ~30 days and then decreasing. This variation in tail regeneration rates suggests tradeoffs in resource allocation between regeneration and somatic growth during early and advanced development. In an outdoor artificial pond experiment, under constant larval densities, we assessed how tail clipping of newborn larvae affects survival to, time to, and size at metamorphosis. Repeated measures ANOVA on mean larval survival per pond revealed no effect of tail clipping. Tail clipping had correspondingly no effect on larval growth and development expressed in size (mass and snout-vent length) at, and time to, metamorphosis. We conclude that despite the given variation in tail regeneration rates throughout larval ontogeny, clipping of 30% percent of the posterior tail area seems to have no adverse effects on larval fitness and survival. We suggest that future use of this imperative tool for the study of amphibian should take into account larval developmental stage during the time of application and not just the relative size of the clipped tail sample. PMID:26065683

  8. Effects of Tail Clipping on Larval Performance and Tail Regeneration Rates in the Near Eastern Fire Salamander, Salamandra infraimmaculata.

    PubMed

    Segev, Ori; Polevikove, Antonina; Blank, Lior; Goedbloed, Daniel; Küpfer, Eliane; Gershberg, Anna; Koplovich, Avi; Blaustein, Leon

    2015-01-01

    Tail-tip clipping is a common technique for collecting tissue samples from amphibian larvae and adults. Surprisingly, studies of this invasive sampling procedure or of natural tail clipping--i.e., bites inflicted by predators including conspecifics--on the performance and fitness of aquatic larval stages of urodeles are scarce. We conducted two studies in which we assessed the effects of posterior tail clipping (~30 percent of tail) on Near Eastern fire salamander (Salamandra infraimmaculata) larvae. In a laboratory study, we checked regeneration rates of posterior tail-tip clipping at different ages. Regeneration rates were hump-shaped, peaking at the age of ~30 days and then decreasing. This variation in tail regeneration rates suggests tradeoffs in resource allocation between regeneration and somatic growth during early and advanced development. In an outdoor artificial pond experiment, under constant larval densities, we assessed how tail clipping of newborn larvae affects survival to, time to, and size at metamorphosis. Repeated measures ANOVA on mean larval survival per pond revealed no effect of tail clipping. Tail clipping had correspondingly no effect on larval growth and development expressed in size (mass and snout-vent length) at, and time to, metamorphosis. We conclude that despite the given variation in tail regeneration rates throughout larval ontogeny, clipping of 30% percent of the posterior tail area seems to have no adverse effects on larval fitness and survival. We suggest that future use of this imperative tool for the study of amphibian should take into account larval developmental stage during the time of application and not just the relative size of the clipped tail sample.

  9. Transjugular Renal Biopsy: Our Experience and Technical Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    See, Teik Choon; Thompson, Barbara C.; Howie, Alexander J.; Karamshi, M.; Papadopoulou, Anthie M.; Davies, Neil; Tibballs, Jonathan

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to describe the indications for and technique of transjugular renal biopsy (TJRB) and evaluate the efficacy and complications of this method. We performed a retrospective review of 59 patients who underwent TJRB using the Quick-core needle biopsy system (Cook, Letchworth, UK) over a 4-year period. The indications for obtaining renal biopsy included acute renal failure, chronic renal failure, nephrotic syndrome, and proteinuria with or without other associated disease. Indications for the transjugular approach included coagulopathy, biopsy of a solitary kidney or essentially single functioning kidney, simultaneous renal and hepatic biopsy, morbid obesity, and failed percutaneous biopsy. All but four cases were performed via the right internal jugular vein. The right, left, or both renal veins were cannulated in 41, 14, and 4 cases, respectively. Combined liver and renal biopsies were obtained in seven cases. Diagnostic biopsy specimens were obtained in 56 of 59 patients (95%). The number and size of tissue cores ranged from 1 to 9 mm and from 1 to 20 mm, respectively. The mean numbers of glomeruli per procedure on light microscopy and electron microscopy were 10.3 and 2.6, respectively. Specimens for immunohistology were acquired in 49 cases, of which 40 were adequate. Of the 56 successful TJRB procedures, 34 (61%) were associated with isolated capsular perforation (19), contained subcapsular leak (10), isolated collecting system puncture (1), and concurrent collecting system and capsular perforation (4). There was a significant increase in capsular perforation with six or more needle passes, although no significant correlation was seen between number of needle passes and complication. Six patients had minor complications defined as hematuria or loin pain. Seven patients developed major complications, of whom five received blood transfusion alone. Two required intervention: in one an arteriocalyceal fistula was embolized and the patient

  10. Fluorescence guidance during stereotactic biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepp, Herbert; Beyer, Wolfgang; Brucker, David; Ehrhardt, Andre; Fischer, Stefan; Goebel, Werner; Goetz, Marcus; Guenther, Bettina; Hennig, Georg; Herms, Jochen; Irion, Klaus-Martin; Johansson, Ann; Kienast, Yvonne; Kniebuehler, Gesa; Li, Pan; Ruehm, Adrian; Sandner, Sabine

    2012-02-01

    Objective: When a stereotactic biopsy is taken to enable histopathological diagnosis of a suspected brain tumor, it is essential to i) do this safely, that is not injure a major blood vessel and ii) to obtain relevant vital material from the tumor. We are investigating the suitability of Indocyanine Green (ICG) fluorescence for blood vessel recognition and 5- Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) induced Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence for identification of proliferative brain tumor tissue. Methods: A fiber-optic endoscopic approach was studied to generate and detect both fluorescence signals. PpIX concentrations in brain tumors have been measured by chemical extraction. Preliminary equipment was studied in a mouse model. Results: PpIX-concentrations in glioblastoma tissue showed high inner- and inter-patient variability, but each patient out of 15 with interpretable data showed at least one sample with a PpIX-concentration exceeding 2.4 μmol/l, which is easily detectable by state-of-the-art fiberoptic fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging. The imaging fluoroscope with 30,000 pixels resolution could be introduced through a position controlled stereotactic needle. ICG-fluorescence from vessels with diameters >= 0.1 mm can be detected with a contrast of 2-2.5 against surrounding tissue. Conclusion: Fluorescence detection during stereotactic biopsy might increase safety and precision of the procedure significantly.

  11. DNA adducts in bronchial biopsies.

    PubMed

    Dunn, B P; Vedal, S; San, R H; Kwan, W F; Nelems, B; Enarson, D A; Stich, H F

    1991-06-19

    To investigate the feasibility of measuring DNA-carcinogen adducts in the lungs of non-surgical patients, endobronchial biopsies were obtained from 78 patients undergoing routine diagnostic bronchoscopy. Lung cancer was present in 37 (47%) of the patients. DNA was isolated from the tissues and analyzed by HPLC- or nuclease-PI-enriched 32P-postlabelling, using procedures selective for aromatic adducts. Chromatograms from all 28 current smokers showed a distinctive diagonal adduct zone which was present in only 24 of 40 ex-smokers and 4 of 10 lifetime non-smokers. Adduct levels and chromatographic patterns were similar in bronchial tissue from different lobes of the lung, in bronchial and alveolar tissue, and in tumor and non-tumor bronchial tissue taken from the same subject. Bronchial DNA adduct levels were strongly associated with cigarette smoking status and dropped rapidly after smoking ceased. Higher levels of DNA adducts seen in the lung-cancer patients were mainly due to cigarette smoking. Frequent alcohol intake was the only dietary factor associated with higher levels of bronchial DNA adducts. We conclude that the level of bronchial DNA adducts is strongly associated with cigarette-smoking history and with alcohol intake, but is not associated with lung cancer independently from its relation to smoking. The results indicate the feasibility of using 32P-postlabelling to detect and quantitate genetic damage in bronchial biopsy specimens.

  12. Basics of kidney biopsy: A nephrologist's perspective

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, S. K.; Sethi, S.; Dinda, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of the kidney biopsy is one of the major events in the history of nephrology. Primary indications of kidney biopsy are glomerular hematuria/proteinuria with or without renal dysfunction and unexplained renal failure. Kidney biopsy is usually performed in prone position but in certain situations, supine and lateral positions may be required. Biopsy needles have changed with times from Vim–Silverman needle to Tru-cut needle to spring-loaded automatic gun. The procedure has also changed from blind bedside kidney biopsy to ultrasound marking to real-time ultrasound guidance to rarely computerized tomography guidance and laparoscopic and open biopsy. In very specific situations, transjugular kidney biopsy may be required. Most of the centers do kidney biopsy on short 1-day admission, whereas some take it as an outdoor procedure. For critical interpretation of kidney biopsy, adequate sample and clinical information are mandatory. Tissue needs to be stained with multiple stains for delineation of various components of kidney tissue. Many consider that electron microscopy (EM) is a must for all kidney biopsies, but facilities for EM are limited even in big centers. Sophisticated tests such as immunohistochemistry and in-situ hybridization are useful adjuncts for definitive diagnosis in certain situations. PMID:23960337

  13. Collective instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    K.Y. Ng

    2003-08-25

    The lecture covers mainly Sections 2.VIII and 3.VII of the book ''Accelerator Physics'' by S.Y. Lee, plus mode-coupling instabilities and chromaticity-driven head-tail instability. Besides giving more detailed derivation of many equations, simple interpretations of many collective instabilities are included with the intention that the phenomena can be understood more easily without going into too much mathematics. The notations of Lee's book as well as the e{sup jwt} convention are followed.

  14. Modelling Cometary Sodium Tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkett, K. S.; Jones, G. H.; Coates, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Neutral sodium is readily observed in cometary spectra and can be seen to form its own distinct tail at high activity comets. Solar radiation pressure accelerates the sodium atoms antisunward and, as strong sodium absorption lines are present in the solar spectrum, the magnitude of this force is dependent upon the Doppler shift of the incident solar radiation. Therefore the heliocentric velocity of the sodium atom directly determines its acceleration. This can produce unique effects, such as a stagnation region. Sodium is relatively easy to detect and so can potentially be used to trace mechanisms in the coma that are otherwise difficult to observe. The source of neutral sodium in the tail currently remains unknown. We have therefore developed a new, three dimensional Monte-Carlo model of neutral cometary sodium in order to facilitate testing of different source production functions. It includes weightings due to neutral sodium lifetime, variation of cometary sodium emission due to Fraunhofer absorption lines and solar flux variation with heliocentric distance. The Swings and Greenstein effects, which can have particularly dramatic effects in near-Sun comets, are also considered comprehensively. Preliminary results from this model are presented, focusing on a comparison of predictions of the neutral sodium tail of Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) with initial observations.

  15. Preservative solution for skeletal muscle biopsy samples

    PubMed Central

    Kurt, Yasemin Gulcan; Kurt, Bulent; Ozcan, Omer; Topal, Turgut; Kilic, Abdullah; Muftuoglu, Tuba; Acikel, Cengizhan; Sener, Kenan; Sahiner, Fatih; Yigit, Nuri; Aydin, Ibrahim; Alay, Semih; Ekinci, Safak

    2015-01-01

    Context: Muscle biopsy samples must be frozen with liquid nitrogen immediately after excision and maintained at -80°C until analysis. Because of this requirement for tissue processing, patients with neuromuscular diseases often have to travel to centers with on-site muscle pathology laboratories for muscle biopsy sample excision to ensure that samples are properly preserved. Aim: Here, we developed a preservative solution and examined its protectiveness on striated muscle tissues for a minimum of the length of time that would be required to reach a specific muscle pathology laboratory. Materials and Methods: A preservative solution called Kurt-Ozcan (KO) solution was prepared. Eight healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were sacrificed; striated muscle tissue samples were collected and divided into six different groups. Muscle tissue samples were separated into groups for morphological, enzyme histochemical, molecular, and biochemical analysis. Statistical method used: Chi-square and Kruskal Wallis tests. Results: Samples kept in the KO and University of Wisconsin (UW) solutions exhibited very good morphological scores at 3, 6, and 18 hours, but artificial changes were observed at 24 hours. Similar findings were observed for the evaluated enzyme activities. There were no differences between the control group and the samples kept in the KO or UW solution at 3, 6, and 18 hours for morphological, enzyme histochemical, and biochemical features. The messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) of β-actin gene was protected up to 6 hours in the KO and UW solutions. Conclusion: The KO solution protects the morphological, enzyme histochemical, and biochemical features of striated muscle tissue of healthy rats for 18 hours and preserves the mRNA for 6 hours. PMID:26019417

  16. Brain astrocytomas: biopsy, then irradiation.

    PubMed

    Lunsford, L D; Somaza, S; Kondziolka, D; Flickinger, J C

    1995-01-01

    We believe that every patient who has clinical symptoms and neurodiagnostic imaging signs suggesting a low-grade glial neoplasm should undergo early diagnosis and treatment. Observation is not warranted for a tumor that has a median survival of 5 years. The value of cytoreductive surgery for many patients has yet to be proven. It is incumbent on neurosurgeons who advocate this approach to show that this more aggressive treatment strategy is preferable to minimally invasive techniques, such as stereotactic biopsy followed by radiation therapy. Clearly, some patients who have a glial tumor require early cytoreductive surgery: those with mass effect and significant neurologic deficits. Otherwise, they will not be able to tolerate fractionated radiation therapy. Because the long-term survival rate is very poor, observation is not warranted in patients with suspected glial neoplasm. Early stereotactic biopsy immediately identifies those patients who, in fact, have more anaplastic tumors and a much worse prognosis. Such patients may benefit from early, aggressive treatments such as cytoreductive surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. Applying this philosophy, we have achieved a median survival of more than 10 years in patients with astrocytoma. Most patients maintain a high KPS rating, and most do not require delayed cytoreductive surgery. Although we believe that the outcomes of future patients with astrocytomas will improve, we must establish whether such improvement is related to better therapeutic options, earlier recognition enabled by advanced neuroimaging, or the availability of corticosteroids (28, 30). We also believe that neurosurgeons and neuro-oncologists should stop arguing over whether cytoreductive surgery is warranted. For some patients it is, and for others it is not. This prolonged controversy indicates the basic impotence with which neurosurgeons approach glial tumors. Our energy and efforts should be devoted toward more concrete and positive goals in

  17. Image-Guided Adrenal and Renal Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Karun V.; Venkatesan, Aradhana M.; Swerdlow, Daniel; DaSilva, Daniel; Beck, Avi; Jain, Nidhi; Wood, Bradford J.

    2010-01-01

    Image-guided biopsy is a safe and well-established technique that is familiar to most interventional radiologists (IRs). Improvements in image-guidance, biopsy tools and biopsy techniques now routinely allow for safe biopsy of renal and adrenal lesions which traditionally were considered difficult to reach or technically challenging. Image-guided biopsy is used to establish the definitive tissue diagnosis in adrenal mass lesions that can not be fully characterized with imaging or laboratory tests alone. It is also used to establish definitive diagnosis in some cases of renal parenchymal disease and has an expanding role in diagnosis and characterization of renal masses prior to treatment. Although basic principles and techniques for image-guided needle biopsy are similar regardless of organ, this paper will highlight some technical considerations, indications and complications which are unique to the adrenal gland and kidney because of their anatomic location and physiologic features. PMID:20540919

  18. Evaluation of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio prior to prostate biopsy to predict biopsy histology: Results of 1836 patients

    PubMed Central

    Gokce, Mehmet Ilker; Hamidi, Nurullah; Suer, Evren; Tangal, Semih; Huseynov, Adil; Ibiş, Arif

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We evaluate the role of NLR prior to prostate biopsy to predict biopsy histology and Gleason score in patients with prostate cancer. Methods: In this retrospective study, we evaluated data of patients underwent prostate biopsy between May 2005 and March 2015. We collected the following data: age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), biopsy histology, Gleason score (GS) in prostate cancer patients, neutrophil counts, and lymphocyte counts. Patients were grouped as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostate cancer, and prostatitis. The Chi square test was used to compare categorical variables and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied for continuous variables. Results: Data of 1836 patients were investigated. The mean age, total PSA and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) of the population were 66.8 ± 8.17 years, 9.38 ± 4.7 ng/dL, and 3.11 ± 1.71, respectively. Patients were divided as follows: 625 in the group with BPH history, 600 in the prostatitis group, and 611 in the prostate cancer histology group. The mean NLR of the prostatitis group was higher compared to the prostate cancer and BPH groups (p = 0.0001). The mean NLR of the prostate cancer group was significantly higher compared to the BPH group (p = 0.002). The GS 8–10 group had a significantly higher mean NLR compared to GS 5–6 (3.64 vs. 2.54, p = 0.0001) and GS 7 (3.64 vs. 2.58, p = 0.0001) patients. Conclusions: NLR was found to differ with regard to histology of prostate biopsy and higher GS was associated with higher NLR in patients with prostate cancer. However prostatitis prevents the use of NLR in predicting prostate cancer before a prostate biopsy. Also, the retrospective nature and lack of multivariate analysis in this study somewhat limits the relevance of these results. PMID:26600880

  19. Parotid gland biopsy for investigation of xerostomia.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, J W; Edwards, J L; Christmas, P I; Ferguson, M M

    1990-08-01

    A technique is described for biopsy of the parotid salivary gland under local anaesthesia, which has been undertaken for a series of 59 patients who presented with suspected inflammatory exocrinopathy. The procedure is reliable and is associated with negligible postoperative discomfort. The advantages of the technique suggest that parotid gland biopsy is an acceptable alternative to conventional lower lip biopsy of minor salivary glands in the investigation of xerostomia.

  20. Thresher sharks use tail-slaps as a hunting strategy.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Simon P; Turner, John R; Gann, Klemens; Silvosa, Medel; D'Urban Jackson, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The hunting strategies of pelagic thresher sharks (Alopias pelagicus) were investigated at Pescador Island in the Philippines. It has long been suspected that thresher sharks hunt with their scythe-like tails but the kinematics associated with the behaviour in the wild are poorly understood. From 61 observations recorded by handheld underwater video camera between June and October 2010, 25 thresher shark shunting events were analysed. Thresher sharks employed tail-slaps to debilitate sardines at all times of day. Hunting events comprised preparation, strike, wind-down recovery and prey item collection phases, which occurred sequentially. Preparation phases were significantly longer than the others, presumably to enable a shark to windup a tail-slap. Tail-slaps were initiated by an adduction of the pectoral fins, a manoeuvre that changed a thresher shark's pitch promoting its posterior region to lift rapidly, and stall its approach. Tail-slaps occurred with such force that they may have caused dissolved gas to diffuse out of the water column forming bubbles. Thresher sharks were able to consume more than one sardine at a time, suggesting that tail-slapping is an effective foraging strategy for hunting schooling prey. Pelagic thresher sharks appear to pursue sardines opportunistically by day and night, which may make them vulnerable to fisheries. Alopiids possess specialist pectoral and caudal fins that are likely to have evolved, at least in part, for tail-slapping. The evidence is now clear; thresher sharks really do hunt with their tails.

  1. Thresher Sharks Use Tail-Slaps as a Hunting Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Simon P.; Turner, John R.; Gann, Klemens; Silvosa, Medel; D'Urban Jackson, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The hunting strategies of pelagic thresher sharks (Alopias pelagicus) were investigated at Pescador Island in the Philippines. It has long been suspected that thresher sharks hunt with their scythe-like tails but the kinematics associated with the behaviour in the wild are poorly understood. From 61 observations recorded by handheld underwater video camera between June and October 2010, 25 thresher shark shunting events were analysed. Thresher sharks employed tail-slaps to debilitate sardines at all times of day. Hunting events comprised preparation, strike, wind-down recovery and prey item collection phases, which occurred sequentially. Preparation phases were significantly longer than the others, presumably to enable a shark to windup a tail-slap. Tail-slaps were initiated by an adduction of the pectoral fins, a manoeuvre that changed a thresher shark's pitch promoting its posterior region to lift rapidly, and stall its approach. Tail-slaps occurred with such force that they may have caused dissolved gas to diffuse out of the water column forming bubbles. Thresher sharks were able to consume more than one sardine at a time, suggesting that tail-slapping is an effective foraging strategy for hunting schooling prey. Pelagic thresher sharks appear to pursue sardines opportunistically by day and night, which may make them vulnerable to fisheries. Alopiids possess specialist pectoral and caudal fins that are likely to have evolved, at least in part, for tail-slapping. The evidence is now clear; thresher sharks really do hunt with their tails. PMID:23874415

  2. Photoacoustic biopsy: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guan; Tomlins, Scott A.; Siddiqui, Javed; Davis, Mandy A.; Kunju, Lakshmi P.; Wei, John T.; Wang, Xueding

    2015-03-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) measurements encode the information associated with both physical microstructures and chemical contents in biological tissues. A two-dimensional physio-chemical spectrogram (PCS) can be formulated by combining the power spectra of PA signals acquired at a series of optical wavelengths. The analysis of PCS, or namely PA physio-chemical analysis (PAPCA), enables the quantification of the concentrations and the spatial distributions of a variety of chemical components in the tissue. The chemical components and their distribution are the two major features observed in the biopsy procedures which have been regarded as the gold standard of the diagnosis of many diseases. Taking non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and prostate cancer for example, this study investigates the feasibility of PAPCA in characterizing the histopathological changes in the diseased conditions in biological tissue. A catheter based setup facilitating measurement in deep tissues was also proposed and tested.

  3. Floods from tailings dam failures.

    PubMed

    Rico, M; Benito, G; Díez-Herrero, A

    2008-06-15

    This paper compiles the available information on historic tailings dam failures with the purpose to establish simple correlations between tailings ponds geometric parameters (e.g., dam height, tailings volume) and the hydraulic characteristics of floods resulting from released tailings. Following the collapse of a mining waste dam, only a part of tailings and polluted water stored at the dam is released, and this outflow volume is difficult to estimate prior the incident. In this study, tailings' volume stored at the time of failure was shown to have a good correlation (r2=0.86) with the tailings outflow volume, and the volume of spilled tailings was correlated with its run-out distance (r2=0.57). An envelope curve was drawn encompassing the majority of data points indicating the potential maximum downstream distance affected by a tailings' spill. The application of the described regression equations for prediction purposes needs to be treated with caution and with support of on-site measurement and observations. However, they may provide a universal baseline approximation on tailing outflow characteristics (even if detailed dam information is unavailable), which is of a great importance for risk analysis purposes.

  4. Utility of ovarian biopsy in pancreatic metastasis of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    NAKAMURA, KOHEI; NAKAYAMA, KENTARO; ISHIKAWA, MASAKO; ISHIKAWA, NORIYOSHI; NAGASE, MAMIKO; KATAGIRI, HIROSHI; ISHIBASHI, TOMOKA; SATO, EMI; IIDA, KOHJI; SULTANA, RAZIA; KYO, SATORU

    2016-01-01

    It is very rare that ovarian carcinoma metastasizes to the pancreas, and pathological diagnosis is required to confirm the primary site. The present study reported a 73-year-old woman with serous carcinoma of the ovary that metastasized to the tail of the pancreas. Metastasis was confirmed by pathological and immunohistochemical examination of a biopsy of the ovarian tumor, an endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the pancreatic tumor and computerized tomography-guided paraaortic lymph node biopsy. A biopsy of the ovarian tumor is useful to make a precise diagnosis and to determine proper treatment when ovarian and pancreatic tumors are identified at the same time and the primary neoplasm is uncertain. PMID:27330762

  5. Adequate histologic sectioning of prostate needle biopsies.

    PubMed

    Bostwick, David G; Kahane, Hillel

    2013-08-01

    No standard method exists for sampling prostate needle biopsies, although most reports claim to embed 3 cores per block and obtain 3 slices from each block. This study was undertaken to determine the extent of histologic sectioning necessary for optimal examination of prostate biopsies. We prospectively compared the impact on cancer yield of submitting 1 biopsy core per cassette (biopsies from January 2010) with 3 cores per cassette (biopsies from August 2010) from a large national reference laboratory. Between 6 and 12 slices were obtained with the former 1-core method, resulting in 3 to 6 slices being placed on each of 2 slides; for the latter 3-core method, a limit of 6 slices was obtained, resulting in 3 slices being place on each of 2 slides. A total of 6708 sets of 12 to 18 core biopsies were studied, including 3509 biopsy sets from the 1-biopsy-core-per-cassette group (January 2010) and 3199 biopsy sets from the 3-biopsy-cores-percassette group (August 2010). The yield of diagnoses was classified as benign, atypical small acinar proliferation, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and cancer and was similar with the 2 methods: 46.2%, 8.2%, 4.5%, and 41.1% and 46.7%, 6.3%, 4.4%, and 42.6%, respectively (P = .02). Submission of 1 core or 3 cores per cassette had no effect on the yield of atypical small acinar proliferation, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, or cancer in prostate needle biopsies. Consequently, we recommend submission of 3 cores per cassette to minimize labor and cost of processing. PMID:23764163

  6. The geomagnetic tail

    SciTech Connect

    Birn, J. )

    1991-01-01

    A review is presented of the plasma sheet and lobe regions of the magnetotail, focusing principally on large-scale processes or microprocesses with some large-scale effects. Consideration is given to quiet and average structures, not necessarily related to activity phases, with quasi-steady convection aspects, and with the characteristics of dynamic phases including acceleration mechanisms and single particle aspects. Attention is given to various activity models, average and quiet time properties, properties and effects of magnetospheric convection, dynamics of the magnetotail, and the near tail, substorm current wedge.

  7. Current Safety of Renal Allograft Biopsy With Indication in Adult Recipients: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shang-Feng; Chen, Cheng-Hsu; Shu, Kuo-Hsiung; Cheng, Chi-Hung; Yu, Tung-Min; Chuang, Ya-Wen; Huang, Shih-Ting; Tsai, Jun-Li; Wu, Ming-Ju

    2016-02-01

    Renal biopsy remains the golden standard diagnosis of renal function deterioration. The safety in native kidney biopsy is well defined. However, it is a different story in allograft kidney biopsy. We conduct this retrospective study to clarify the safety of allograft kidney biopsy with indication.All variables were grouped by the year of biopsy and they were compared by Mann-Whitney U test (for continuous variables) or Chi-square test (for categorical variables). We collected possible factors associated with complications, including age, gender, body weight, renal function, cause of uremia, status of coagulation, hepatitis, size of needle, and immunosuppressants.We recruited all renal transplant recipients undergoing allograft biopsy between January of 2009 and December of 2014. This is the largest database for allograft kidney biopsy with indication. Of all the 269 biopsies, there was no difference in occurrence among the total 14 complications (5.2%) over these 6 years. There were only 3 cases of hematomas (1.11%), 6 gross hematuria (2.23%), 1 hydronephrosis (0.37%), and 2 hemoglobin decline (0.74%). The outcome of this cohort is the best compared to all other studies, and it is even better than the allograft protocol kidney biopsy. Among all possible factors, patients with pathological report containing "medullary tissue only" were susceptible to complications (P < 0.001, 1.8 of relative risk).In modern era, this study demonstrates the safety of allograft kidney biopsy with indication. Identifying the renal capsule before biopsy to avoid puncture into medulla is the most important element to prevent complications. PMID:26871853

  8. DETAIL VIEW OF CLASSIFIER, TAILINGS LAUNDER TROUGH, LINE SHAFTS, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF CLASSIFIER, TAILINGS LAUNDER TROUGH, LINE SHAFTS, AND CONCENTRATION TABLES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. SLURRY EXITING THE BALL MILL WAS COLLECTED IN AN AMALGAMATION BOX (MISSING) FROM THE END OF THE MILL, AND INTRODUCED INTO THE CLASSIFIER. THE TAILINGS LAUDER IS ON THE GROUND AT LOWER RIGHT. THE LINE SHAFTING ABOVE PROVIDED POWER TO THE CONCENTRATION TABLES BELOW AT CENTER RIGHT. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  9. PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF SPIROTOME® DEVICE FOR LIVER BIOPSY IN GREEN IGUANAS (IGUANA IGUANA): A PILOT STUDY.

    PubMed

    Nardini, Giordano; Origgi, Francesco C; Leopardi, Stefania; Zaghini, Anna; Saunders, Jimmy H; Vignoli, Massimo

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a large-core manual biopsy device (Spirotome(®), Medinvents, 3500 Hasselt, Belgium) for liver sampling and histologic diagnosis in green iguanas (Iguana iguana). The study included eight green iguanas, and two ultrasound-guided biopsies were collected for each lizard, for 16 biopsies in total. The procedure was carried out under general anesthesia induced by intravenous injection of propofol (10 mg/kg) maintained with a mixture of 2.0% isoflurane and 0.8-1.2 L/min oxygen after tracheal intubation. Fourteen (87.5%) of the 16 biopsies were considered diagnostic. Liver biopsy quality was assessed according to sample size and tissue preservation. In particular, mean length (16.2 ± 4.5 mm), width (2.2 ± 0.5 mm), area (34.8 ± 6.9 mm(2)), and number of portal areas (9.4 ± 3.9) of each biopsy were recorded for all green iguanas. The total available surface of the sections obtained from the biopsies and their grade of preservation enabled a satisfactory evaluation of the parenchymal architecture. One of the green iguanas in the study died the day after the procedure due to severe hemocoeloma. Risk assessment evaluation suggested that small green iguanas may not be suitable for this biopsy procedure. PMID:27468023

  10. PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF SPIROTOME® DEVICE FOR LIVER BIOPSY IN GREEN IGUANAS (IGUANA IGUANA): A PILOT STUDY.

    PubMed

    Nardini, Giordano; Origgi, Francesco C; Leopardi, Stefania; Zaghini, Anna; Saunders, Jimmy H; Vignoli, Massimo

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a large-core manual biopsy device (Spirotome(®), Medinvents, 3500 Hasselt, Belgium) for liver sampling and histologic diagnosis in green iguanas (Iguana iguana). The study included eight green iguanas, and two ultrasound-guided biopsies were collected for each lizard, for 16 biopsies in total. The procedure was carried out under general anesthesia induced by intravenous injection of propofol (10 mg/kg) maintained with a mixture of 2.0% isoflurane and 0.8-1.2 L/min oxygen after tracheal intubation. Fourteen (87.5%) of the 16 biopsies were considered diagnostic. Liver biopsy quality was assessed according to sample size and tissue preservation. In particular, mean length (16.2 ± 4.5 mm), width (2.2 ± 0.5 mm), area (34.8 ± 6.9 mm(2)), and number of portal areas (9.4 ± 3.9) of each biopsy were recorded for all green iguanas. The total available surface of the sections obtained from the biopsies and their grade of preservation enabled a satisfactory evaluation of the parenchymal architecture. One of the green iguanas in the study died the day after the procedure due to severe hemocoeloma. Risk assessment evaluation suggested that small green iguanas may not be suitable for this biopsy procedure.

  11. 20 CFR 718.106 - Autopsy; biopsy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Autopsy; biopsy. 718.106 Section 718.106 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND... pneumoconiosis. However, where positive findings are obtained on biopsy, the results will constitute evidence...

  12. Long tail kinetics in biophysics?

    PubMed Central

    Nagle, J F

    1992-01-01

    Long tail kinetics describe a variety of data from complex, disordered materials that cannot be described by conventional kinetics. It is suggested that the kinetics of diffusive motion in complex biological media, such as cytoplasm or biomembranes, might also have long tails. The effects of long tail kinetics are investigated for two standard biophysical measurements, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). It is shown that long tail kinetic data would yield significantly distorted and misleading results when analyzed assuming conventional kinetics. PMID:1420883

  13. Tail contribution to the directional aerodynamic characteristics of a 1/6-scale model of the rotor systems research aircraft with a tail rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mineck, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    The results are presented of a wind tunnel investigation to determine the tail contribution to the directional aerodynamic characteristics of a 1/6-scale model of the rotor systems research aircraft (RSRA) with a tail rotor. No main rotor was used during the investigation. Data were obtained with and without the tail rotor over a range of sideslip angle and over a range of rotor collective pitch angle. The model with the tail rotor was tested at several advance ratios with and without thrust from the auxiliary thrust engines on the RSRA fuselage. Increasing the space between the tail-rotor hub and the vertical tail reduced the tail-rotor torque required at moderate to high rotor thrust. Increasing the exit dynamic pressure of the auxiliary thrust engines decreases the tail contribution to the static directional stability. The tail-rotor thrust and its interference provide a positive increment to the static directional stability. The tail contribution increases with forward speed. The adverse yawing moment of the airframe would strongly affect the thrust required of the tail rotor when the helicopter is hovering in a crosswind.

  14. Transjugular liver biopsy: indications, technique and results.

    PubMed

    Dohan, A; Guerrache, Y; Boudiaf, M; Gavini, J-P; Kaci, R; Soyer, P

    2014-01-01

    Transjugular liver biopsy is a safe, effective and well-tolerated technique to obtain liver tissue specimens in patients with diffuse liver disease associated with severe coagulopathies or massive ascites. Transjugular liver biopsy is almost always feasible. The use of ultrasonographic guidance for percutaneous puncture of the right internal jugular vein is recommended to decrease the incidence of local cervical minor complications. Semiautomated biopsy devices are very effective in obtaining optimal tissue samples for a precise and definite histological diagnosis with a very low rate of complication. The relative limitations of transjugular liver biopsy are the cost, the radiation dose given to the patient, the increased procedure time by comparison with the more common percutaneous liver biopsy, and the need of a well-trained interventional radiologist. PMID:24007769

  15. Biopsy needle detection in transrectal ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Ayvaci, Alper; Yan, Pingkun; Xu, Sheng; Soatto, Stefano; Kruecker, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Using the fusion of pre-operative MRI and real time intra-procedural transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) to guide prostate biopsy has been shown as a very promising approach to yield better clinical outcome than the routinely performed TRUS only guided biopsy. In several situations of the MRI/TRUS fusion guided biopsy, it is important to know the exact location of the deployed biopsy needle, which is imaged in the TRUS video. In this paper, we present a method to automatically detect and segment the biopsy needle in TRUS. To achieve this goal, we propose to combine information from multiple resources, including ultrasound probe stability, TRUS video background model, and the prior knowledge of needle orientation and position. The proposed algorithm was tested on TRUS video sequences which have in total more than 25,000 frames. The needle deployments were successfully detected and segmented in the sequences with high accuracy and low false-positive detection rate.

  16. Open lung biopsy in immunocompromised patients.

    PubMed

    McKenna, R J; Mountain, C F; McMurtrey, M J

    1984-11-01

    Increased use of open lung biopsy in the search for a treatable etiology of acute interstitial pneumonitis (AIP) in immunocompromised patients is based on the assumption that examination and cultures from biopsy specimens will yield significant information leading to beneficial treatment of the condition. To assess the true impact of the results of open lung biopsy on the subsequent treatment and outcome in such patients, a retrospective study was done of 64 consecutive patients undergoing the procedure in a recent five-year period. When open lung biopsy was performed for the diagnosis of AIP in immunocompromised patients after empiric broad spectrum treatment failed, it rarely missed a specific, treatable etiology, if present. However, the results from open lung biopsy infrequently lead to a change in the treatment that improves the patient's clinical course.

  17. Transplant biopsy beyond light microscopy.

    PubMed

    Adam, Benjamin; Mengel, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Despite its long-standing status as the diagnostic "gold standard", the renal transplant biopsy is limited by a fundamental dependence on descriptive, empirically-derived consensus classification. The recent shift towards personalized medicine has resulted in an increased demand for precise, mechanism-based diagnoses, which is not fully met by the contemporary transplantation pathology standard of care. The expectation is that molecular techniques will provide novel pathogenetic insights that will allow for the identification of more accurate diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic targets. Here we review the current state of molecular renal transplantation pathology. Despite significant research activity and progress within the field, routine adoption of clinical molecular testing has not yet been achieved. The recent development of novel molecular platforms suitable for use with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue will offer potential solution for the major barriers to implementation. The recent incorporation of molecular diagnostic criteria into the 2013 Banff classification is a reflection of progress made and future directions in the area of molecular transplantation pathology. Transcripts related to endothelial injury and NK cell activation have consistently been shown to be associated with antibody-mediated rejection. Prospective multicenter validation and implementation of molecular diagnostics for major entities remains an unmet clinical need in transplantation. It is expected that an integrated system of transplantation pathology diagnosis comprising molecular, morphological, serological, and clinical variables will ultimately provide the greatest diagnostic precision. PMID:26249165

  18. 3. VIEW OF WEST TAILING DAM, LARGE TANK, AND TAILING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF WEST TAILING DAM, LARGE TANK, AND TAILING, LOOKING NORTHEAST. A SIX-FOOT SCALE IS LOCATED AGAINST WALL ON LEFT. PURPOSE OF TANK IS UNKNOWN, BUT APPEARS TO HAVE FALLEN FROM ITS ORIGINAL LOCATION AT THE MILL SITE, UP AND TO THE RIGHT OF THIS VIEW. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  19. Profile of Lesions in Cystoscopic Bladder Biopsies: A Histopathological Study

    PubMed Central

    Srikousthubha; Sukesh; C.V, Raghuveer; Hingle, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Aim and Introduction: Urinary bladder lesions, non-neoplastic and neoplastic, are collectively responsible for significant morbidity and mortality throughout the world. The present study aimed to study the histopathology of various lesions of the bladder through cystoscopic biopsies. Material and Methods: The present prospective study aimed to study the histopathology of various lesions of the urinary bladder through cystoscopic biopsies. All patients who visited Urology Outpatients Department for haematuria and dysuria were subjected to cystoscopy. Results: Histopathological examinations revealed an equal share of non neoplastic lesions and neoplastic lesions. Amongst the non neoplastic lesions, 84% were inflammatory lesions. Urothelial tumours (96%) formed the bulk amongst neoplastic lesions. Conclusion: This article has stressed upon the importance of histopathological examinations in evaluating bladder pathologies. PMID:24086853

  20. Bronchoscopic procedures and lung biopsies in pediatric lung transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jackson Y; Westall, Glen P; Snell, Gregory I

    2015-12-01

    Bronchoscopy remains a pivotal diagnostic and therapeutic intervention in pediatric patients undergoing lung transplantation (LTx). Whether performed as part of a surveillance protocol or if clinically indicated, fibre-optic bronchoscopy allows direct visualization of the transplanted allograft, and in particular, an assessment of the patency of the bronchial anastomosis (or tracheal anastomosis following heart-lung transplantation). Additionally, bronchoscopy facilitates differentiation of infective processes from rejection episodes through collection and subsequent assessment of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and transbronchial biopsy (TBBx) samples. Indeed, the diagnostic criteria for the grading of acute cellular rejection is dependent upon the histopathological assessment of biopsy samples collected at the time of bronchoscopy. Typically, performed in an out-patient setting, bronchoscopy is generally a safe procedure, although complications related to hemorrhage and pneumothorax are occasionally seen. Airway complications, including stenosis, malacia, and dehiscence are diagnosed at bronchoscopy, and subsequent management including balloon dilatation, laser therapy and stent insertion can also be performed bronchoscopically. Finally, bronchoscopy has been and continues to be an important research tool allowing a better understanding of the immuno-biology of the lung allograft through the collection and analysis of collected BAL and TBBx samples. Whilst new investigational tools continue to evolve, the simple visualization and collection of samples within the lung allograft by bronchoscopy remains the gold standard in the evaluation of the lung allograft. This review describes the use and experience of bronchoscopy following lung transplantation in the pediatric setting.

  1. Prevention of sepsis prior to prostate biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Toner, Liam; Bolton, Damien M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Urosepsis is the most feared complication of transrectal prostate biopsy. The incidence may be increasing from <1% to 2%–3% in contemporary series. Historically, fluoroquinolones have been effective antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent infective complications but antibiotic resistance is increasing. The increase in antibiotic resistance may contribute to reported increases in urosepsis and hospitalization after transrectal biopsy. This article will review other methods clinicians may employ to reduce the incidence of infective complications after prostate biopsy. Materials and Methods A systematic review of the literature was conducted using literature databases PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE in August 2015 in accordance with the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) criteria. Results Effective strategies to reduce infective complications after transrectal prostate biopsy include augmented prophylaxis with other antibiotics, rectal swab culture directed antibiotic prophylaxis or a transperineal biopsy approach. Needle disinfection, minimizing the number of biopsy needles and rectal disinfectants may also be of use. These methods may be of particular utility in patients with risk factors for developing urosepsis such as recent antibiotic use and overseas travel. Conclusions The scientific literature describes various techniques designed to reduce infective complications caused by prostate biopsy. Clinicians should consider incorporating these novel techniques into their contemporary practice. PMID:26981590

  2. PET-Based Percutaneous Needle Biopsy.

    PubMed

    El-Haddad, Ghassan

    2016-07-01

    PET can be used to guide percutaneous needle biopsy to the most metabolic lesion, improving diagnostic yield. PET biopsy guidance can be performed using visual or software coregistration, electromagnetic needle tracking, cone-beam computed tomography (CT), and intraprocedural PET/CT guidance. PET/CT-guided biopsies allow the sampling of lesions that may not be clearly visible on anatomic imaging, or of lesions that are morphologically normal. PET can identify suspicious locations within complex tumors that are most likely to contain important diagnostic and prognostic information. PMID:27321036

  3. Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index A-Z Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid An ultrasound-guided thyroid biopsy ... Thyroid? What is Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid? During a fine needle aspiration ...

  4. Magnetic Resonance (MR)-Guided Breast Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the breast are often detected by physical examination, mammography, or other imaging studies. However, it is not ... considered if the lesion can be seen on mammography or on ultrasound , where the biopsy can be ...

  5. Blind aspiration biopsy versus a guided hysteroscopic technique for investigation of the endometrium in infertile women.

    PubMed

    Ejzenberg, Dani; Simões, Manuel de Jesus; Pinheiro, Walter; Soares, José Maria; Serafini, Paulo Cesar; Baracat, Edmund Chada

    2016-09-01

    Embryo implantation failure and recurrent abortion are common indications for endometrial evaluation to determine the implantation window and diagnose endometrial anomalies. There are few research studies comparing the efficacy of different techniques used for endometrial sampling in infertile females during the luteal phase. Likewise, morphometric studies of the endometrium through aspiration biopsy are scant. A cross-sectional study of 30 infertile and 10 fertile females was carried out. The study participants underwent hysteroscopic and aspiration biopsies (pipelle) at the midluteal phase. Computer-assisted morphometric and pathological anatomy analyses were conducted independently by two pathologists blinded to the study. The two endometrial sampling biopsy techniques were compared through morphometric and pathological anatomy analyses using three parameters: a) the amount of material collected for the endometrial studies; b) the scope and origin of sampled materials; and c) the quality of the sample. Both biopsy techniques produced sufficient material for analysis. The directed biopsies yielded higher quality samples from targeted segments of the uterine cavity because samples were homogeneous and had no architectural distortion (p<0.05). Blood was present only in the samples obtained through a Pipelle. Endometritis was detected in 10% of the infertile women. Our findings suggest that hysteroscopic biopsies are superior to blinded aspiration biopsies. PMID:26806353

  6. Effects of bovine mammary gland biopsy and increased milking frequency on post-procedure udder health, histology, and milk yield.

    PubMed

    Lima, J A M; Ruas, J R M; Vasconcelos, A C; Silper, B F; Lana, A M Q; Gheller, V A; Saturnino, H M; Reis, R B; Coelho, S G

    2016-05-01

    Sixteen cows in early lactation were randomly distributed into two groups in order to evaluate the effects of mammary biopsies and increased milking frequency on tissue characteristics, post-biopsy udder health and histology. One group was milked twice a day (2×) starting on the 2nd day after calving, until 28 days in milk (DIM). The other group was milked four times a day (4×) from two to 21 DIM, and twice a day (2×) from 22 to 28 DIM. On days 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28 postpartum, one fragment of secretory tissue was collected from one mammary quarter at a time. Collections were alternated between the four mammary quarters per collection day. A total of 80 mammary tissue samples were collected. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the tissues were conducted by histologic examination. Animal health was assessed by observation of feed intake behavior immediately after biopsy, and weight and body condition score before and one week after biopsy. Udder health was assessed daily from calving to 60 DIM with California Mastitis Test (CMT) and by noting alterations in the milk such as blood, milk clots, blood clots, clinical signs of mastitis. Milk composition and somatic cell count (SCC) were analyzed before and after the biopsies. Milk production was evaluated before biopsy, on the day of biopsy, and after the biopsy. An average of 10 fields at 40× magnification was obtained from each sample. There were no evident changes in mammary morphology as a result of milking two or four times/day at any of the evaluated time points. Biopsy wounds healed rapidly without infection. Intramammary bleeding and CMT alterations were observed in 96% and 75% of the biopsied mammary quarters, respectively. Clinical mastitis was diagnosed in 12% of the biopsied quarters. Different milking frequencies had no effect on the frequency and duration of post-biopsy alterations. Milk production decreased after biopsies done on days 2 for 2× and 4× groups, but it returned to pre-biopsy values

  7. Mercury's Dynamic Magnetic Tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, James A.

    2010-01-01

    The Mariner 10 and MESSENGER flybys of Mercury have revealed a magnetosphere that is likely the most responsive to upstream interplanetary conditions of any in the solar system. The source of the great dynamic variability observed during these brief passages is due to Mercury's proximity to the Sun and the inverse proportionality between reconnection rate and solar wind Alfven Mach number. However, this planet's lack of an ionosphere and its small physical dimensions also contribute to Mercury's very brief Dungey cycle, approx. 2 min, which governs the time scale for internal plasma circulation. Current observations and understanding of the structure and dynamics of Mercury's magnetotail are summarized and discussed. Special emphasis will be placed upon such questions as: 1) How much access does the solar wind have to this small magnetosphere as a function of upstream conditions? 2) What roles do heavy planetary ions play? 3) Do Earth-like substorms take place at Mercury? 4) How does Mercury's tail respond to extreme solar wind events such coronal mass ejections? Prospects for progress due to advances in the global magnetohydrodynamic and hybrid simulation modeling and the measurements to be taken by MESSENGER after it enters Mercury orbit on March 18, 2011 will be discussed.

  8. Renal evaluation in the healthy green iguana (Iguana iguana): assessment of plasma biochemistry, glomerular filtration rate, and endoscopic biopsy.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Divers, Stephen J; Stahl, Scott J; Stedman, Nancy L; Hernandez-Divers, Sonia M; Schumacher, Juergen; Hanley, Christopher S; Wilson, Heather; Vidyashankar, Anand N; Zhao, Ying; Rumbeiha, Wilson K

    2005-06-01

    Plasma biochemistry, iohexol clearance, endoscopic renal evaluation, and biopsy were performed in 23 clinically healthy 2-yr-old green iguanas (Iguana iguana). Mean (+/- SD) values for packed cell volume (30 +/- 3%), total protein (62 +/- 7 g/L, 6.2 +/- 0.7 g/dl), albumin (25 +/- 2 g/L, 2.5 +/- 0.2 g/dl), globulin (37 +/- 6 g/L, 3.7 +/- 0.6 g/ dl), total calcium (3.0 +/- 0.2 mmol/L, 12.0 +/- 0.7 mg/dl), ionized calcium (1.38 +/- 0.1 mmol/L), phosphorus (1.32 +/- 0.28 mmol/L, 4.1 +/- 0.9 mg/dl), uric acid (222 +/- 100 micromol/L, 3.8 +/- 1.7 mg/dl), sodium (148 +/- 3 mmol/L or mEq/ L), and potassium (2.6 +/- 0.4 mmol/L or mEq/L) were considered within normal limits. Values for urea were low (< 1.4 mmol/L, < 4 mg/dl) with 70% of samples below the detectable analyzer range. After the i.v. injection of 75 mg/ kg iohexol into the caudal (ventral coccygeal or tail) vein, serial blood collections were performed over 32 hr. Iohexol assays by high-performance liquid chromatography produced plasma iohexol clearance graphs for each lizard. A three-compartment model was used to fit area under the curve values and to obtain the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using regression analysis. The mean GFR (SD) was 16.56 +/- 3.90 ml/kg/hr, with a 95% confidence interval of 14.78-18.34 ml/kg/hr. Bilateral endoscopic renal evaluation and biopsy provided tissue samples of excellent diagnostic quality, which correlated with tissue harvested at necropsy and evaluated histologically. None of the 23 animals demonstrated any adverse effects of iohexol clearance or endoscopy. Recommended diagnostics for the evaluation of renal function and disease in the green iguana include plasma biochemical profiles, iohexol clearance, endoscopic examination, and renal biopsy.

  9. Neoadjuvant Therapy in Rectal Cancer - Biobanking of Preoperative Tumor Biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Peter; Nietert, Manuel; Gusky, Linda; Kitz, Julia; Conradi, Lena C.; Müller-Dornieden, Annegret; Schüler, Philipp; Wolff, Hendrik A.; Rüschoff, Josef; Ströbel, Philipp; Grade, Marian; Liersch, Torsten; Beißbarth, Tim; Ghadimi, Michael B.; Sax, Ulrich; Gaedcke, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    Translational research relies on high-quality biospecimens. In patients with rectal cancer treated preoperatively with radiochemotherapy tissue based analyses are challenging. To assess quality challenges we analyzed tissue samples taken over the last years in a multicenter setting. We retrospectively evaluated overall 197 patients of the CAO/ARO/AIO-94- and 04-trial with locally advanced rectal cancer that were biopsied preoperatively at the University Medical Center Goettingen as well as in 10 cooperating hospitals in Germany. The cellular content of tumor, mucosa, stroma, necrosis and the amount of isolated DNA and RNA as well as the RNA integrity number (RIN) as quality parameters were evaluated. A high RNA yield (p = 2.75e–07) and the content of tumor (p = 0.004) is significantly associated to high RIN-values, whereas a high content of mucosa (p = 0.07) shows a trend and a high amount of necrosis (p = 0.01) is significantly associated with RNA of poor quality. Correlating biopsies from Goettingen and the cooperating centers showed comparable tumor content results. By taking small sized biopsies we could assess a clear correlation between a good RNA quality and a high amount of RNA and tumor cells. These results also indicate that specimens collected at different centers are of comparable quality. PMID:27752113

  10. Maximizing the diagnostic utility of endoscopic biopsy in dogs and cats with gastrointestinal disease.

    PubMed

    Jergens, Albert E; Willard, Michael D; Allenspach, Karin

    2016-08-01

    Flexible endoscopy has become a valuable tool for the diagnosis of many small animal gastrointestinal (GI) diseases, but the techniques must be performed carefully so that the results are meaningful. This article reviews the current diagnostic utility of flexible endoscopy, including practical/technical considerations for endoscopic biopsy, optimal instrumentation for mucosal specimen collection, the correlation of endoscopic indices to clinical activity and to histopathologic findings, and new developments in the endoscopic diagnosis of GI disease. Recent studies have defined endoscopic biopsy guidelines for the optimal number and quality of diagnostic specimens from different regions of the gut. They also have shown the value of ileal biopsy in the diagnosis of canine and feline chronic enteropathies, and have demonstrated the utility of endoscopic biopsy specimens beyond routine hematoxylin and eosin histopathological analysis, including their use in immunohistochemical, microbiological, and molecular studies. PMID:27387727

  11. Raman spectroscopy: a real-time tool for identifying microcalcifications during stereotactic breast core needle biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Saha, A.; Barman, I.; Dingari, N. C.; McGee, S.; Volynskaya, Z.; Galindo, L. H.; Liu, W.; Plecha, D.; Klein, N.; Dasari, R. R.; Fitzmaurice, M.

    2011-01-01

    Microcalcifications are an early mammographic sign of breast cancer and a target for stereotactic breast needle biopsy. We present here a Raman spectroscopic tool for detecting microcalcifications in breast tissue based on their chemical composition. We collected ex vivo Raman spectra from 159 tissue sites in fresh stereotactic breast needle biopsies from 33 patients, including 54 normal sites, 75 lesions with microcalcifications and 30 lesions without microcalcifications. Application of our Raman technique resulted in a positive predictive value of 97% for detecting microcalcifications. This study shows that Raman spectroscopy has the potential to detect microcalcifications during stereotactic breast core biopsies and provide real-time feedback to radiologists, thus reducing non-diagnostic and false negative biopsies. PMID:22025985

  12. The structure of comet tails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, J. C.; Niedner, M. B., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Present models of the plasma tails of comets are described. The interaction of the solar wind with ions from the cometary atmosphere is discussed, and the phenomenon of magnetic reconnection observed in plasma tails is explained. The accomplishments of the ICE mission to the Comet Giacobini-Zinner are summarized, and the tasks and expected contributions from upcoming Soviet, European, and Japanese missions to Comet Halley are addressed.

  13. Tail phenomena. [of Halley's comet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, J. C.; Niedner, M. B., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    An overview of tail phenomena is presented based on worldwide submissions to the Large-Scale Phenomena Discipline Specialist Team of the International Halley Watch. Examples of tail phenomena and science are presented along with estimates of total expected yield from the Network. The archive of this material will clearly be very valuable for studying the solar-wind/comet interaction during the 1985-1986 apparition of Halley's Comet.

  14. Arsenic bioaccessibility in gold mine tailings of Delita, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Toujaguez, R; Ono, F B; Martins, V; Cabrera, P P; Blanco, A V; Bundschuh, J; Guilherme, L R G

    2013-11-15

    A bioaccessibility test was carried out in four tailings collected at a former mining area in Delita, Cuba. A previous risk assessment study identified arsenic (As) as the main critical contaminant in this area and showed that the tailings had high As concentrations (up to 3.5%). This study aimed at: (i) evaluating As bioaccessibility in four tailings (R1, R2, R3 and R4) from a gold mining area to obtain a better health risk estimate; and, (ii) identifying the mineral phases responsible for most of the bioaccessible As using XRD, SEM-EDS, and XAS. The results showed that bioaccessible As in the tailings ranged from 0.65 to 40.5%. The main factors influencing As bioaccessibility were a high occurrence of amorphous iron arsenate; occurrence, even at low content, of iron oxyhydroxides and stability of mineral phases in the environment of the gastrointestinal tract. Although arsenopyrite, arsenates and goethite were confirmed by mineralogical methods such as optical microscopy, XRD, and SEM-EDS, XAS showed that scorodite-oxidation state As(+V)-was dominant in most of the tailings. This confirms that the low bioaccessibility of As in most of the tailings is due to the slow kinetics of As release from scorodite. PMID:23428178

  15. Theseus Tail Being Unloaded

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The tail of the Theseus prototype research aircraft is seen here being unloaded at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in May of 1996. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft. Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able to validate satellite-based global environmental change measurements

  16. A snail in the long tail: a new Plekocheilus species collected by the ‘Comisión Científica del Pacífico’ (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Amphibulimidae)

    PubMed Central

    Breure, Abraham S. H.; Araujo, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Among the historical collection gathered by the ‘Comisión Científica del Pacífico’ during 1862–1865, type material was found of one of the species described on the basis of the material collected shortly afterwards. Inspection of the types revealed that only one specimen may be considered as type material of Bulimus aristaceus Crosse, 1869; this specimen is now designated as the lectotype. The other specimens are described as a new species, Plekocheilus (Plekocheilus) cecepeus. PMID:26312021

  17. Postsacral vertebral morphology in relation to tail length among primates and other mammals.

    PubMed

    Russo, Gabrielle A

    2015-02-01

    Tail reduction/loss independently evolved in a number of mammalian lineages, including hominoid primates. One prerequisite to appropriately contextualizing its occurrence and understanding its significance is the ability to track evolutionary changes in tail length throughout the fossil record. However, to date, the bony correlates of tail length variation among living taxa have not been comprehensively examined. This study quantifies postsacral vertebral morphology among living primates and other mammals known to differ in relative tail length (RTL). Linear and angular measurements with known biomechanical significance were collected on the first, mid-, and transition proximal postsacral vertebrae, and their relationship with RTL was assessed using phylogenetic generalized least-squares regression methods. Compared to shorter-tailed primates, longer-tailed primates possess a greater number of postsacral vertebral features associated with increased proximal tail flexibility (e.g., craniocaudally longer vertebral bodies), increased intervertebral body joint range of motion (e.g., more circularly shaped cranial articular surfaces), and increased leverage of tail musculature (e.g., longer spinous processes). These observations are corroborated by the comparative mammalian sample, which shows that distantly related short-tailed (e.g., Phascolarctos, Lynx) and long-tailed (e.g., Dendrolagus, Acinonyx) nonprimate mammals morphologically converge with short-tailed (e.g., Macaca tonkeana) and long-tailed (e.g., Macaca fascicularis) primates, respectively. Multivariate models demonstrate that the variables examined account for 70% (all mammals) to 94% (only primates) of the variance in RTL. Results of this study may be used to infer the tail lengths of extinct primates and other mammals, thereby improving our understanding about the evolution of tail reduction/loss.

  18. Morphogenesis of the T4 tail and tail fibers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Remarkable progress has been made during the past ten years in elucidating the structure of the bacteriophage T4 tail by a combination of three-dimensional image reconstruction from electron micrographs and X-ray crystallography of the components. Partial and complete structures of nine out of twenty tail structural proteins have been determined by X-ray crystallography and have been fitted into the 3D-reconstituted structure of the "extended" tail. The 3D structure of the "contracted" tail was also determined and interpreted in terms of component proteins. Given the pseudo-atomic tail structures both before and after contraction, it is now possible to understand the gross conformational change of the baseplate in terms of the change in the relative positions of the subunit proteins. These studies have explained how the conformational change of the baseplate and contraction of the tail are related to the tail's host cell recognition and membrane penetration function. On the other hand, the baseplate assembly process has been recently reexamined in detail in a precise system involving recombinant proteins (unlike the earlier studies with phage mutants). These experiments showed that the sequential association of the subunits of the baseplate wedge is based on the induced-fit upon association of each subunit. It was also found that, upon association of gp53 (gene product 53), the penultimate subunit of the wedge, six of the wedge intermediates spontaneously associate to form a baseplate-like structure in the absence of the central hub. Structure determination of the rest of the subunits and intermediate complexes and the assembly of the hub still require further study. PMID:21129200

  19. Assessment of Phytostabilization Success in Metalliferous Acid Mine Tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Root, R. A.; Hammond, C.; Amistadi, M. K.; Maier, R. M.; Chorover, J.

    2014-12-01

    Legacy mine tailings are a significant source of metal(loid)s due to wind and water erosion, especially in the arid southwest, and exposure to fugative dusts presents a health risk to surrounding populations. Compost assisted phytostabilization has been implemented to reduce off site emissions at the Iron King Mine U.S. Superfund Site in central Arizona, concurrent with a greenhouse mesocosm study for detailed study of subsurface mechanisms. Quantification of plant available toxic metal(loid)s in the amended tailings was accessed with a targeted single extraction of diethylenetriaminepentaactic acid (DTPA). Greenhouse mesocosms (1m dia, 0.4 m deep), run in triplicate, mimicked field treatments with: i) tailings only control (TO), ii) tailings plus 15 wt% compost (TC), iii) TC + quailbush seeds (TCA), and iv) TC + buffalo grass seeds (TCB). Core samples collected at 3-month intervals for 1 year were dissected by depth (10 cm each) for analysis. DTPA results indicated that compost treated samples decreased plant availability of Al, As, Cd, Cu, Fe, and Pb but increased Mn and Zn compared with TO. TCB decreased plant available metal(loid)s at all depths, whereas TCA plant available Al, As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn increased in the deeper 20-30cm and 30-40 cm relative to TCB. Samples from the greenhouse were compared to tailings from both the field site and tailings impacted soils used to grow vegetables. Mineral transformations and metal complexation, in the pre- and post-extracted tailings were analyzed by synchrotron transmission XRD and FTIR spectroscopy. The temporal change in plant available metal(loid)s in response to phytostabilization indicates mineralogical alteration that improves soil quality by reducing plant available metal(loid)s. These results will aid in the understanding and efficacy of phytostabilization as a means of remediating and reducing toxicity on mine tailings as well as providing information on health risk management in the region.

  20. [Prostate biopsy: Procedure in the clinical routine].

    PubMed

    Enzmann, T; Tokas, T; Korte, K; Ritter, M; Hammerer, P; Franzaring, L; Heynemann, H; Gottfried, H-W; Bertermann, H; Meyer-Schwickerath, M; Wirth, B; Pelzer, A; Loch, T

    2015-12-01

    Over the last decade there has been a 25% decrease in the mortality rates for prostate cancer. The reasons for this significant decrease are most likely associated with the application of urological screening tests. The main tools for early detection are currently increased public awareness of the disease, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided topographically assignable biopsy sampling. Together with the histopathological results these features provide essential information for risk stratification, diagnostics and therapy decisions. The evolution of prostate biopsy techniques as well as the use of PSA testing has led to an increased identification of asymptomatic men, where further clarification is necessary. Significant efforts and increased clinical research focus on determining the appropriate indications for a prostate biopsy and the optimal technique to achieve better detection rates. The most widely used imaging modality for the prostate is TRUS; however, there are no clearly defined standards for the clinical approach for each individual biopsy procedure, dealing with continuous technical optimization and in particular the developments in imaging. In this review the current principles, techniques, new approaches and instrumentation of prostate biopsy imaging control are presented within the framework of the structured educational approach. PMID:26704284

  1. Percutaneous Biopsy of Osteoid Osteomas Prior to Percutaneous Treatment Using Two Different Biopsy Needles

    SciTech Connect

    Laredo, Jean-Denis Hamze, Bassam; Jeribi, Riadh

    2009-09-15

    Biopsy is usually performed as the first step in percutaneous treatment of osteoid osteomas prior to laser photocoagulation. At our institution, 117 patients with a presumed diagnosis of osteoid osteoma had a trephine biopsy before a percutaneous laser photocoagulation. Biopsies were made using two different types of needles. A Bonopty biopsy needle (14-gauge cannula, 16-gauge trephine needle; Radi Medical Systems, Uppsala, Sweden) was used in 65 patients, and a Laurane biopsy needle (11-gauge cannula, 12.5-gauge trephine needle; Laurane Medical, Saint-Arnoult, France) in 43 patients. Overall biopsy results were positive for osteoid osteoma in 83 (70.9%) of the 117 cases. The Laurane needle provided a significantly higher positive rate (81.4%) than the Bonopty needle (66.1%; p < 0.05). This difference was not due to the size of the nidus, which was similar in the two groups (p < 0.05) and may be an effect of differences in needle caliber (12.5 vs. 14 gauge) as well as differences in needle design. The rate of positive biopsy results obtained in the present series with the Laurane biopsy needle is, to our knowledge, the highest rate reported in series dealing with percutaneous radiofrequency ablation and laser photocoagulation of osteoid osteomas.

  2. SUBAQUEOUS DISPOSAL OF MILL TAILINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Neeraj K. Mendiratta; Roe-Hoan Yoon; Paul Richardson

    1999-09-03

    A study of mill tailings and sulfide minerals was carried out in order to understand their behavior under subaqueous conditions. A series of electrochemical experiments, namely, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanic coupling tests were carried out in artificial seawater and in pH 6.8 buffer solutions with chloride and ferric salts. Two mill tailings samples, one from the Kensington Mine, Alaska, and the other from the Holden Mine, Washington, were studied along with pyrite, galena, chalcopyrite and copper-activated sphalerite. SEM analysis of mill tailings revealed absence of sulfide minerals from the Kensington Mine mill tailings, whereas the Holden Mine mill tailings contained approximately 8% pyrite and 1% sphalerite. In order to conduct electrochemical tests, carbon matrix composite (CMC) electrodes of mill tailings, pyrite and galena were prepared and their feasibility was established by conducting a series of cyclic voltammetry tests. The cyclic voltammetry experiments carried out in artificial seawater and pH 6.8 buffer with chloride salts showed that chloride ions play an important role in the redox processes of sulfide minerals. For pyrite and galena, peaks were observed for the formation of chloride complexes, whereas pitting behavior was observed for the CMC electrodes of the Kensington Mine mill tailings. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy conducted in artificial seawater provided with the Nyquist plots of pyrite and galena. The Nyquist plots of pyrite and galena exhibited an inert range of potential indicating a slower rate of leaching of sulfide minerals in marine environments. The galvanic coupling experiments were carried out to study the oxidation of sulfide minerals in the absence of oxygen. It was shown that in the absence of oxygen, ferric (Fe3+) ions might oxidize the sulfide minerals, thereby releasing undesirable oxidation products in the marine environment. The source of Fe{sup 3{minus}} ions may be

  3. Renal Biopsy in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Espinel, Eugenia; Agraz, Irene; Ibernon, Meritxell; Ramos, Natalia; Fort, Joan; Serón, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The majority of diabetic patients with renal involvement are not biopsied. Studies evaluating histological findings in renal biopsies performed in diabetic patients have shown that approximately one third of the cases will show pure diabetic nephropathy, one third a non-diabetic condition and another third will show diabetic nephropathy with a superimposed disease. Early diagnosis of treatable non-diabetic diseases in diabetic patients is important to ameliorate renal prognosis. The publication of the International Consensus Document for the classification of type 1 and type 2 diabetes has provided common criteria for the classification of diabetic nephropathy and its utility to stratify risk for renal failure has already been demonstrated in different retrospective studies. The availability of new drugs with the potential to modify the natural history of diabetic nephropathy has raised the question whether renal biopsies may allow a better design of clinical trials aimed to delay the progression of chronic kidney disease in diabetic patients. PMID:26239461

  4. Simulation of punch biopsies: a case study.

    PubMed

    Sessanna, Dennis; Stredney, Don; Hittle, Brad; Lambert, David

    2008-01-01

    As the incidence of skin cancer continues to rise, there is an increasing need for skilled practitioners that are proficient in identifying suspicious lesions and competent in acquiring biopsies that provide for optimal determination of malignancy and staging. We report on the development of a prototype simulation that emulates the basic procedures necessary to acquire a punch biopsy. The objective of this effort is to produce a low-cost, effective method to teach non-specialists, i.e., nurse practitioners, internists, etc., the optimal placement of the punch to obtain a biopsy for pathological analysis. The simulation can be utilized for synchronous sessions with remote experts, as well as asynchronous sessions for deliberate practice. The simulation is designed to allow for easy import of digital images of various lesions to promote use and present the wide pathological variance experienced in the clinic.

  5. Muscle biopsy findings in inflammatory myopathies.

    PubMed

    Dalakas, Marinos C

    2002-11-01

    The inflammatory myopathies encompass a heterogeneous group of acquired muscle diseases characterized clinically, by muscle weakness, and histologically, by inflammatory infiltrates within the skeletal muscles. The group of these myopathies comprise three major and discrete subsets: polymyositis (PM), dermatomyositis (DM), and inclusion body myositis (IBM). Each subset retains its characteristic clinical, immunopathologic, and morphologic features regardless of whether it occurs separately or in connection with other systemic diseases. Although the diagnosis of these disorders is based on the combination of clinical examination, electromyographic data, serum muscle enzyme levels, various autoantibodies, and the muscle biopsy findings, the muscle biopsy offers the most definitive diagnostic information in the majority of the cases. This article summarizes the main histologic features that characterize PM, DM, or IBM and emphasizes the main pitfalls associated with interpretation of the biopsies.

  6. Does climate have heavy tails?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermejo, Miguel; Mudelsee, Manfred

    2013-04-01

    When we speak about a distribution with heavy tails, we are referring to the probability of the existence of extreme values will be relatively large. Several heavy-tail models are constructed from Poisson processes, which are the most tractable models. Among such processes, one of the most important are the Lévy processes, which are those process with independent, stationary increments and stochastic continuity. If the random component of a climate process that generates the data exhibits a heavy-tail distribution, and if that fact is ignored by assuming a finite-variance distribution, then there would be serious consequences (in the form, e.g., of bias) for the analysis of extreme values. Yet, it appears that it is an open question to what extent and degree climate data exhibit heavy-tail phenomena. We present a study about the statistical inference in the presence of heavy-tail distribution. In particular, we explore (1) the estimation of tail index of the marginal distribution using several estimation techniques (e.g., Hill estimator, Pickands estimator) and (2) the power of hypothesis tests. The performance of the different methods are compared using artificial time-series by means of Monte Carlo experiments. We systematically apply the heavy tail inference to observed climate data, in particular we focus on time series data. We study several proxy and directly observed climate variables from the instrumental period, the Holocene and the Pleistocene. This work receives financial support from the European Commission (Marie Curie Initial Training Network LINC, No. 289447, within the 7th Framework Programme).

  7. Chest Wall Dissemination of Nocardiosis after Percutaneous Transthoracic Needle Biopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Shimamoto, Hiroshi Inaba, Yoshitaka; Yamaura, Hidekazu; Sato, Yozo; Kamiya, Mika; Miyazaki, Masaya; Arai, Yasuaki; Horio, Yoshitsugu

    2007-07-15

    We described a case of chest wall dissemination after percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy. A 65-year-old man had a lung nodule which was suspected to be lung carcinoma. He underwent percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy using an 18G semiautomated biopsy needle and pathologic diagnosis showed organizing pneumonia. Two months after the biopsy, chest wall dissemination occurred. Implantation of carcinoma along the biopsy route was suspected, but the mass was actually due to pulmonary nocardiosis.

  8. Best way to perform a punch biopsy.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Cherit, Judith; Gutiérrez Mendoza, Daniela

    2015-04-01

    Nail punch biopsy is used to obtain a tissue sample for the diagnosis and treatment of nail diseases. The best results will be possible if the surgeon is familiar with the anatomy and physiology of the nail apparatus. A punch biopsy can be used in all regions of the nail apparatus in the presence or absence of nail plate. When the procedure is performed with a careful handling of the anatomic site and specimen, in most cases a successful diagnosis can be achieved. PMID:25828717

  9. Retroperitoneoscopic renal biopsy: still a good indication!

    PubMed

    Micali, Salvatore; Dandrea, Matteo; De Carne, Cosimo; Martorana, Eugenio; De Stefani, Stefano; Cappelli, Gianni; Bianchi, Giampaolo

    2014-01-01

    The histological evaluation of the renal parenchyma is often essential in cases of several renal diseases and provides useful information in determining the prognosis and guiding treatment. In patients with contraindications to percutaneous kidney biopsy, retroperitoneal laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) is to be preferred as a minimally invasive technique. However, there are cases in which the LESS technique is difficult to perform, especially given that the learning curve is not optimal. We present a case of a Jehovah's Witness patient with severe obesity, in whom conventional retroperitoneal laparoscopic renal biopsy was preferred to the LESS technique. PMID:25198939

  10. Aspiration biopsy cytology of the salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Kline, T S; Merriam, J M; Shapshay, S M

    1981-09-01

    Aspiration biopsy by fine needle from the major salivary glands has been an under-utilized technic in the United States. To evaluate this form of biopsy, 69 patients with salivary gland enlargement were examined by this technic; 47 had confirmative histology. Characteristic ABC patterns were seen in the benign mixed tumor, the papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum, the mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and malignancy metastatic to the salivary gland. These findings are described. The method proved complication-free and accurate and is recommended for all tumors of the salivary gland.

  11. Case Report: Ischaemic appendicitis post mesenteric biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Zukiwskyj, Marianna; Tun, June; Desai, Shashank

    2016-01-01

    A common indication for laparoscopic mesenteric lymph node biopsy is to provide a tissue diagnosis in the absence of palpable peripheral nodes via a minimally invasive approach.  There are no reports to date of ischaemia to the appendix as a complication of this procedure.   We report the case of a 34-year-old lady who underwent a mesenteric biopsy for a lesion found incidentally on CT to investigate longstanding abdominal pain, and 2 days later required an appendicectomy for ischaemic appendicitis. PMID:26937277

  12. Simulated prostate biopsy: prostate cancer distribution and clinical correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, John J.; Zeng, Jianchao; Zhang, Wei; Sesterhenn, Isabell A.; Dean, Robert; Moul, Judd W.; Mun, Seong K.

    2000-04-01

    Our group has recently obtained data based upon whole- mounted step-sectioned radical prostatectomy specimens using a 3D computer assisted prostate biopsy simulator that suggests an increased detection rate is possible using laterally placed biopsies. A new 10-core biopsy pattern was demonstrated to be superior to the traditional sextant biopsy. This patter includes the traditional sextant biopsy cores and four laterally placed biopsies in the right and left apex and mid portion of the prostate gland. The objective of this study is to confirm the higher prostate cancer defection rate obtained using our simulated 10-core biopsy pattern in a small clinical trial. We retrospectively reviewed 35 consecutive patients with a pathologic diagnosis of prostate cancer biopsied by a single urologist using the 10-core prostate biopsy patterns were compared with respect to prostate cancer detection rate. Of the 35 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer, 54.3 percent were diagnosed when reviewing the sextant biopsy data only. Review of the 10-core pattern revealed that an additional 45.7 percent were diagnosed when reviewing the sextant biopsy data only. Review of the 10-core pattern revealed that an additional 45.7 percent of patients were diagnosed solely with the laterally placed biopsies. Our results suggest that biopsy protocols that use laterally placed biopsies based upon a five region anatomical model are superior to the routinely used sextant prostate biopsy pattern.

  13. Feasibility of near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopy on patients undergoing image-guided core-needle biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Bing; Burnside, Elizabeth S.; Sisney, Gale A.; Harter, Josephine M.; Zhu, Changfang; Dhalla, Al-Hafeez; Ramanujam, Nirmala

    2009-01-01

    We describe a side-firing fiber optic sensor based on near-infrared spectroscopy for guiding core needle biopsy diagnosis of breast cancer. The sensor is composed of three side firing optical fibers (two source fibers and one detection fiber), providing two source-detector separations. The entire assembly is inserted into a core biopsy needle, allowing for sampling to occur at the biopsy site. A multi-wavelength frequency-domain near-infrared instrument is used to collect diffuse reflectance in the breast tissue through an aperture on the biopsy needle before the tissue is removed for histology. Preliminary in vivo measurements performed on 10 normal or benign breast tissues from 5 women undergoing stereo- or ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy show the ability of the system to determine tissue optical properties and constituent concentrations, which are correlated with breast tissue composition derived from histopathology. PMID:19547057

  14. Fine-needle biopsy of pediatric lesions: a three-year study in an outpatient biopsy clinic.

    PubMed

    Eisenhut, C C; King, D E; Nelson, W A; Olson, L C; Wall, R W; Glant, M D

    1996-02-01

    Diagnostic Cytology Laboratory, Inc., has an outpatient Fine Needle Biopsy Clinic, which evaluated 7,487 fine-needle biopsies (FNB) from January 1989 to February 1992. Two hundred eighty-eight (3.8%) of these specimens were collected from patients 19 years old or younger and this represents the largest study of this population in the scientific literature. The majority of these specimens were obtained from palpable masses in the head and neck region [lymph nodes (58.3%), thyroid (7.6%), and salivary gland (5.2%)] while a smaller number were collected from miscellaneous soft tissue (18.8%) and breast masses (10.1%). Thirteen (4.5%) (from 12 patients) were diagnosed as malignant by FNB and 275 (95.5%) (264 patients) were benign by FNB. This benign:malignant ratio (22:1) is significantly higher than has been reported from tertiary care institutions and is a reflection of the difference of this outpatient population. Two hundred nine of 276 patients (75.7%) had adequate follow-up, including 137 (49.6%) patients followed by observation, 48 (17.4%) patients followed by surgical biopsy, and 24 (8.7%) patients followed by some other modality: imaging studies, flow cytometry, or treatment. There was a single false positive diagnosis (a pilomatrixoma) and one (1) false negative interpretation (a cystic acinic cell carcinoma) resulting in a diagnostic sensitivity of 92.3% and a specificity of 99.6%. The positive predictive value was 92.3%, the negative predictive value was 99.6%, and the test efficiency was 99.3%. The utility, cost-effectiveness and uniqueness of the clinic population is discussed.

  15. Clinical role of the renal transplant biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Winfred W.; Taheri, Diana; Tolkoff-Rubin, Nina; Colvin, Robert B.

    2013-01-01

    Percutaneous needle core biopsy is the definitive procedure by which essential diagnostic and prognostic information on acute and chronic renal allograft dysfunction is obtained. The diagnostic value of the information so obtained has endured for over three decades and has proven crucially important in shaping strategies for therapeutic intervention. This Review provides a broad outline of the utility of performing kidney graft biopsies after transplantation, highlighting the relevance of biopsy findings in the immediate and early post-transplant period (from days to weeks after implantation), the first post-transplant year, and the late period (beyond the first year). We focus on how biopsy findings change over time, and the wide variety of pathological features that characterize the major clinical diagnoses facing the clinician. This article also includes a discussion of acute cellular and humoral rejection, the toxic effects of calcineurin inhibitors, and the widely varying etiologies and characteristics of chronic lesions. Emerging technologies based on gene expression analyses and proteomics, the in situ detection of functionally relevant molecules, and new bioinformatic approaches that hold the promise of improving diagnostic precision and developing new, refined molecular pathways for therapeutic intervention are also presented. PMID:22231130

  16. Frictional insertion kinetics of bone biopsy needles.

    PubMed

    Heiner, A D; Brown, T D; Rossin, V; Buckwalter, J A

    2001-12-01

    Patients undergoing a percutaneous bone biopsy often complain of pain during needle insertion, despite local anesthesia. Bone biopsy needles are typically inserted with combined axial and twisting motions. These motions could cause pain through frictional heating or direct mechanical irritation. The hypothesis of this study is that the insertion energy of bone biopsy needles can be reduced by modifying the insertion kinetics or by adding a friction-lowering coating to the needles. Jamshidi bone biopsy needles were driven into a bone analog model by an MTS materials testing machine operating under axial and rotational displacement control. The load/torque recordings showed that, to significantly decrease insertion energy and peak resistance to needle insertion, axial velocity and angular frequency had to be decreased to one quarter of the baseline, typical-usage parameters. However the increased insertion time may not be acceptable clinically. The majority of the insertion energy was associated with the needle axial thrust rather than with needle twisting. Overcoming friction against the side of the needle consumed much more of the insertion energy than did the process of cutting per se. None of five needle coatings tested succeeded in appreciably lowering the insertion energy, and none achieved a substantial decrease in peak resisting force.

  17. Visual loss and presumed pseudoxanthoma elasticum confirmed with genetic analysis but not with skin examination and biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Aerts, Carolien; De Keyser, Christophe; Leys, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Case report of a patient with angioid streaks, peau d’orange, comet tail lesions, choroidal neovascularisation and presumed pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE). PXE was confirmed by gene analysis but not by skin biopsies. Methods: Case report of a patient with angioid streaks identified at age 21 and follow-up till age 43 with repeated fluorescein angiography (FA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Dermatologic examination, skin biopsies and genetical analysis performed to confirm suspected diagnosis of PXE. Results: At age 43, no specific skin lesions were identified and 3 biopsies could not confirm PXE. Genetic analysis showed a homozygous mutation in the ABCC6 gene and confirmed the diagnosis of PXE. Conclusions: This case illustrates that in patients with angioid streaks having strong ocular indicators of PXE, confirmation of PXE can be obtained not only with dermatologic examination and skin biopsies, but also with genetic analysis. PXE associated mutations can be detected occasionally in biopsy negative patients and for this reason are extremely helpful in confirming a suspected diagnosis.

  18. Black-tailed and white-tailed jackrabbits in the American West: History, ecology, ecological significance, and survey methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simes, Matthew; Longshore, Kathleen; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Beatty, Greg L.; Brown, David E.; Esque, Todd C.

    2015-01-01

    Across the western United States, Leporidae are the most important prey item in the diet of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). Leporids inhabiting the western United States include black-tailed (Lepus californicus) and white-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus townsendii) and various species of cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus spp.). Jackrabbits (Lepus spp.) are particularly important components of the ecological and economic landscape of western North America because their abundance influences the reproductive success and population trends of predators such as coyotes (Canis latrans), bobcats (Lynx rufus), and a number of raptor species. Here, we review literature pertaining to black-tailed and white-tailed jackrabbits comprising over 170 published journal articles, notes, technical reports, conference proceedings, academic theses and dissertations, and other sources dating from the late 19th century to the present. Our goal is to present information to assist those in research and management, particularly with regard to protected raptor species (e.g., Golden Eagles), mammalian predators, and ecological monitoring. We classified literature sources as (1) general information on jackrabbit species, (2) black-tailed or (3) white-tailed jackrabbit ecology and natural history, or (4) survey methods. These categories, especially 2, 3, and 4, were further subdivided as appropriate. The review also produced several tables on population trends, food habits, densities within various habitats, and jackrabbit growth and development. Black-tailed and white-tailed jackrabbits are ecologically similar in general behaviors, use of forms, parasites, and food habits, and they are prey to similar predators; but they differ in their preferred habitats. While the black-tailed jackrabbit inhabits agricultural land, deserts, and shrublands, the white-tailed jackrabbit is associated with prairies, alpine tundra, and sagebrush-steppe. Frequently considered abundant, jackrabbit numbers in western North

  19. Molecular image-directed biopsies: improving clinical biopsy selection in patients with multiple tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, Stephanie A.; Tuite, Michael J.; Jeraj, Robert

    2016-10-01

    Site selection for image-guided biopsies in patients with multiple lesions is typically based on clinical feasibility and physician preference. This study outlines the development of a selection algorithm that, in addition to clinical requirements, incorporates quantitative imaging data for automatic identification of candidate lesions for biopsy. The algorithm is designed to rank potential targets by maximizing a lesion-specific score, incorporating various criteria separated into two categories: (1) physician-feasibility category including physician-preferred lesion location and absolute volume scores, and (2) imaging-based category including various modality and application-specific metrics. This platform was benchmarked in two clinical scenarios, a pre-treatment setting and response-based setting using imaging from metastatic prostate cancer patients with high disease burden (multiple lesions) undergoing conventional treatment and receiving whole-body [18F]NaF PET/CT scans pre- and mid-treatment. Targeting of metastatic lesions was robust to different weighting ratios and candidacy for biopsy was physician confirmed. Lesion ranked as top targets for biopsy remained so for all patients in pre-treatment and post-treatment biopsy selection after sensitivity testing was completed for physician-biased or imaging-biased scenarios. After identifying candidates, biopsy feasibility was evaluated by a physician and confirmed for 90% (32/36) of high-ranking lesions, of which all top choices were confirmed. The remaining cases represented lesions with high anatomical difficulty for targeting, such as proximity to sciatic nerve. This newly developed selection method was successfully used to quantitatively identify candidate lesions for biopsies in patients with multiple lesions. In a prospective study, we were able to successfully plan, develop, and implement this technique for the selection of a pre-treatment biopsy location.

  20. Performance and Cost of Disposable Biopsy Forceps in Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy: Comparison with Reusable Biopsy Forceps

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chul-Hyun; Kim, Won Chul; Kim, Jin Soo; Cho, Yu Kyung; Park, Jae Myung; Lee, In Seok; Kim, Sang Woo; Choi, Kyu Yong; Chung, In-Sik

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims It is believed that disposable biopsy forceps are more costly than reusable biopsy forceps. In this study, we evaluated performance and cost of disposable forceps versus reusable forceps in esophagogastroduodenoscopic biopsy. Methods Between October 2009 and July 2010, we enrolled 200 patients undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopic biopsy at Seoul St. Mary's Hospital. Biopsies were performed with 100 disposable or 5 reusable forceps by random assignment. Seventy-five additional patients were studied to estimate durability of reusable forceps. The assisting nurses estimated the performance of the forceps. The evaluation of costs included purchase prices and reprocessing costs. The adequacy of the sample was estimated according to the diameter of the obtained tissue. Results Performance of disposable forceps was estimated as excellent in 97.0%, good in 2.0% and adequate in 1.0%. Reusable forceps were estimated as excellent in 36.0%, good in 36.0%, adequate in 25.1% and inadequate in 2.9%. The performance of reusable forceps declined with the number of uses. The reprocessing cost of reusable forceps for one biopsy session was calculated as ₩8,021. The adequacy of the sample was excellent for both forceps. Conclusions Disposable forceps showed excellent performance. Considering the reprocessing costs of reusable forceps, usage of disposable forceps with a low price should be considered. PMID:22741133

  1. Evaluation for malignant hyperthermia susceptibility in black-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    Antognini, J F; Eisele, P H; Gronert, G A

    1996-10-01

    To investigate a possible link of malignant hyperthermia to capture myopathy, between June 1990 and July 1993 we anesthetized four black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) and challenged them with halothane and succinylcholine. Halothane had no significant effect on oxygen consumption. Succinylcholine significantly (P < 0.05) increased cardiac output (mean +/- SD), from 2.94 +/- 1.05 l/min to 5.26 +/- 1.79 l/min, and oxygen consumption, from 5.5 +/- 2.1 ml/kg/min to 10.1 +/- 2.9 ml/kg/min. Muscle biopsy specimens tested for malignant hyperthermia susceptibility responded normally to halothane and caffeine. We conclude that these deer did not experience malignant hyperthermia; suggesting no link to capture myopathy.

  2. Parotid tail pleomorphic adenoma extending to the parapharyngeal space.

    PubMed

    Polat, Kerem; Doğan, Mansur; Yüce, Salim; Uysal, Ismail Önder; Müderris, Suphi

    2013-03-01

    Parapharyngeal space tumors are rare, accounting for 0.5% of head and neck neoplasms. Most of them are benign and originate in the salivary glands, especially the pleomorphic adenoma. We presented a 47-year-old man with parotid tail pleomorphic adenoma extending to the parapharyngeal space. The patient applied to our clinic with the complaints of a painless mass on his neck and in his mouth for 3 months. After fine needle aspiration biopsy, the mass was diagnosed as pleomorphic adenoma. The patient was hospitalized and operated in our clinic. As we see in literature review, parapharyngeal space tumors are rare, and most of them are pleomorphic adenomas arising from the deep lobe of the parotid gland and extend into the PPS.

  3. The ionospheres and plasma tails of comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendis, D. A.; Ip, W.-H.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reviews the current state of knowledge about cometary plasma (type I) tails and ionospheres. Observational statistics for type I tails are examined along with spectroscopic observations of plasma tails, identified ion species in such tails, and the morphology of cometary plasma tails and ionospheres. Evidence for a strong interaction between comets and the solar wind is evaluated on the basis of observations of plasma-tail orientations, large accelerations of tail structures, and correlations between disturbances in type I tails and solar-wind or geomagnetic disturbances. The use of comets as solar-wind probes is discussed, the nature of comet-solar-wind interactions is investigated, and ionization sources for cometary gases are considered. Hydrodynamic models of comet-solar-wind interaction are summarized, and the structure and ion chemistry of cometary ionospheres are studied. Observations suggesting that significant magnetic fields are associated with comets are briefly reviewed and interpreted.

  4. Lobster Tail Ice Formation on Aerosurface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Glace Ice formation commonly refered to as 'Lobster Tail' by scientists and engineers, is caused to form on the leading edge of a aircraft tail section in the icing research tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio.

  5. Multimodal optical biopsy probe to improve the safety and diagnostic yield of brain needle biopsies (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desroches, Joannie; Pichette, Julien; Goyette, Andréanne; Tremblay, Marie-Andrée.; Jermyn, Michael; Petrecca, Kevin; Leblond, Frédéric

    2016-03-01

    Brain needle biopsy (BNB) is performed to collect tissue when precise neuropathological diagnosis is required to provide information about tumor type, grade, and growth patterns. The principal risks associated with this procedure are intracranial hemorrhage (due to clipping blood vessels during tissue extraction), incorrect tumor typing/grading due to non-representative or non-diagnostic samples (e.g. necrotic tissue), and missing the lesion. We present an innovative device using sub-diffuse optical tomography to detect blood vessels and Raman spectroscopy to detect molecular differences between tissue types, in order to reduce the risks of misdiagnosis, incorrect tumour grading, and non-diagnostic samples. The needle probe integrates optical fibers directly onto the external cannula of a commercial BNB needle, and can perform measurements for both optical techniques through the same fibers. This integrated optical spectroscopy system uses diffuse reflectance signals to perform a 360-degree reconstruction of the tissue adjacent to the biopsy needle, based on the optical contrast associated with hemoglobin light absorption, thereby localizing blood vessels. Raman spectra measurements are also performed interstitially for tissue characterization. A detailed sensitivity of the system is presented to demonstrate that it can detect absorbers with diameters <300 µm located up to ˜2 mm from the biopsy needle core, for bulk optical properties consistent with brain tissue. Results from animal experiments are presented to validate blood vessel detection and Raman spectrum measurement without disruption of the surgical workflow. We also present phantom measurements of Raman spectra with the needle probe and a comparison with a clinically validated Raman spectroscopy probe.

  6. Achromatized endomicroscope objective for optical biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Kyrish, Matthew; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2013-01-01

    Currently, researchers and clinicians lack achromatized endomicroscope objectives that are as narrow as biopsy needles. We present a proof-of-concept prototype that validates the optical design of an NA0.4 objective. The objective, built with plastic lenses, has a 0.9 mm clear aperture and is achromatized from 452 nm to 623 nm. The objective’s measured Strehl ratio is 0.74 ± 0.05 across a 250 μm FOV. We perform optical sectioning via structured illumination through the objective while capturing fluorescence images of breast carcinoma cells stained with proflavine and cresyl violet. This technology has the potential to improve optical biopsies and provide the next step forward in cancer diagnostics. PMID:23412009

  7. Cerebral Whipple's disease. Diagnosis by brain biopsy.

    PubMed

    Johnson, L; Diamond, I

    1980-10-01

    Whipple's disease, a multisystem chronic granulomatous disease treatable by antibiotics, usually presents clinically with gastrointestinal or joint symptoms. Usually, the diagnosis is substantiated by small intestinal biopsy. This shows diastase-resistant periodic-acid-Schiff-(PAS)-positive inclusions in the cytoplasm of macrophages within the lamina propria. By electron microscopy, this PAS-positive material consists of 1.5 X 0.2-mum bacilli and fine fibrillar material within macrophage phagolysosomes. Rarely, Whipple's disease presents clinically as a primary neurologic disease without gastrointestinal symptoms. Because untreated cerebral Whipple's disease usually progresses rapidly to death, it is imperative to establish the diagnosis promptly. This report describes a case of cerebral Whipple's disease without gastrointestinal symptoms that was diagnosed early by light-and electron-microscopic study of brain biopsy material. PMID:6158859

  8. Computer assisted biopsy of breast tumors.

    PubMed

    Arambula Cosio, Fernando; Lira Berra, Eric; Hevia Montiel, Nidiyare; Garcia Segundo, Cresencio; Garduno, Edgar; Alvarado Gonzalez, Montserrat; Quispe Siccha, Rosa Ma; Reyes Ramirez, Bartolome; Hazan Lasri, Eric

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we report our preliminary results of the development of a computer assisted system for breast biopsy. The system is based on tracked ultrasound images of the breast. A three dimensional ultrasound volume is constructed from a set of tracked B-scan images acquired with a calibrated probe. The system has been designed to assist a radiologist during breast biopsy, and also as a training system for radiology residents. A semiautomatic classification algorithm was implemented to assist the user with the annotation of the tumor on an ultrasound volume. We report the development of the system prototype, tested on a physical phantom of a breast with a tumor, made of polivinil alcohol. PMID:21097108

  9. Accessing Genetic Information with Liquid Biopsies.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xuyu; Janku, Filip; Zhan, Qimin; Fan, Jian-Bing

    2015-10-01

    Recent scientific advances in understanding circulating tumor cells, cell-free DNA/RNA, and exosomes in blood have laid a solid foundation for the development of routine molecular 'liquid biopsies'. This approach provides non-invasive access to genetic information--somatic mutations, epigenetic changes, and differential expression--about the physiological conditions of our body and diseases. It opens a valuable avenue for future genetic studies and human disease diagnosis, including prenatal and neurodegenerative disease diagnosis, as well as for cancer screening and monitoring. With the rapid development of highly sensitive and accurate technologies such as next-generation sequencing, molecular 'liquid biopsies' will quickly become a central piece in the future of precision medicine.

  10. Factors that can minimize bleeding complications after renal biopsy.

    PubMed

    Zhu, M S; Chen, J Z; Xu, A P

    2014-10-01

    Renal biopsy is a very important diagnostic tool in the evaluation of renal diseases. However, bleeding remains to be one of the most serious complications in this procedure. Many new techniques have been improved to make it safer. The risk factors and predictors of bleeding after percutaneous renal biopsy have been extensively reported in many literatures, and generally speaking, the common risk factors for renal biopsy complications focus on hypertension, high serum creatinine, bleeding diatheses, amyloidosis, advanced age, gender and so on. Our primary purpose of this review is to summarize current measures in recent years literature aiming at minimizing the bleeding complication after the renal biopsy, including the drug application before and after renal biopsy, operation details in percutaneous renal biopsies, nursing and close monitoring after the biopsy and other kinds of biopsy methods.

  11. A Prospective Randomized Trial of Two Different Prostate Biopsy Schemes

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-03

    Prostate Cancer; Local Anesthesia; Prostate-Specific Antigen/Blood; Biopsy/Methods; Image-guided Biopsy/Methods; Prostatic Neoplasms/Diagnosis; Prostate/Pathology; Prospective Studies; Humans; Male; Ultrasonography, Interventional/Methods

  12. Preliminary study of tendon biopsy in the horse.

    PubMed

    Webbon, P M

    1986-09-01

    A series of experimental tendon biopsies is described. Three biopsies were taken from the lateral digital extensor tendon (LDET) and three from the superficial flexor tendon (SFT). The LDET biopsies resulted in little discomfort whereas the SFT biopsies led to temporary lameness. The tendons were examined histologically up to 99 days after the biopsies were removed. In all of the tendons the defect filled with granulation tissue which subsequently became organised as a longitudinally orientated collagenous scar tissue. In this small series of biopsies the histological effects of the biopsy persisted longer in the SFT than in the LDET. It is concluded that tendon biopsy cannot be advocated for safe routine use in the horse.

  13. Salivary Gland Biopsy Shows Promise to Helping to Diagnose Parkinson's

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parkinson's HelpLine Learn More Science News Salivary Gland Biopsy Shows Promise to Helping to Diagnose Parkinson’s - Mar ... team performed a procedure called a needle core biopsy of the submandibular glands in 15 people who ...

  14. Conjunctival biopsy in adult form galactosialidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Usui, T; Sawaguchi, S; Abe, H; Iwata, K; Oyanagi, K

    1993-01-01

    Conjunctival biopsy was performed in two siblings with adult-form galactosialidosis. Electron microscopically, several types of intracytoplasmic inclusion were observed in the fibroblasts in conjunctival stroma, lymphatic capillary endothelial cells, Schwann cells, and epithelial cells. Membrane-bound vesicles with fibrillogranular content were frequently observed, and occasional lamellar structures were noted in these inclusions. Dense granular inclusions and oil droplets were also seen. Dense granular inclusions have not been reported in this disease previously. Images PMID:8384473

  15. [Is undirected liver biopsy a safe procedure?].

    PubMed

    Oliva, L; Hirt, M

    1993-09-01

    In the authors' group of 976 umaimed liver biopsies (ULB) 10 complications were recorded. The authors described them and compared them with reports from the world literature. Two patients from the group died after ULB. One as a result of biopsy from haemoperitoneum, the other patient died with delirium tremens after surgery called for by persisting peritoneal syndrome. In eight patients mild complications were involved. In five patients complications receded spontaneously, in three after administration of an analgetic. From the submitted paper ensues that ULB is not quite safe, even when used by an experienced physician and when all contraindications are respected. A smooth course is not ensured by a risk-free diagnosis, previous uncomplicated biopsies normal prebioptic haemocoagulation tests. It is essential to realize this with regard to every patient where we indicate ULB. It is better to omit it unless we are unequivocally convinced of its asset. The question thus is: What will be the benefit of ULB for the patient?

  16. 21 CFR 878.4755 - Absorbable lung biopsy plug.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Absorbable lung biopsy plug. 878.4755 Section 878...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4755 Absorbable lung biopsy plug. (a) Identification. A preformed (polymerized) absorbable lung biopsy plug is intended to...

  17. A new apparatus for standardized rat kidney biopsy.

    PubMed

    Schirutschke, Holger; Gladrow, Lars; Norkus, Christian; Parmentier, Simon Paul; Hohenstein, Bernd; Hugo, Christian P M

    2014-01-01

    Survival biopsies are frequently applied in rat kidney disease models, but several drawbacks such as surgical kidney trauma, bleeding risk and variable loss of kidney tissue are still unsolved. Therefore, we developed an easy-to-use core biopsy instrument and evaluated whether two consecutive kidney biopsies within the same kidney can be carried out in a standardized manner. On day 0, 18 Lewis rats underwent a right nephrectomy and 9 of these rats a subsequent first biopsy of the left kidney (Bx group). 9 control rats had a sham biopsy of the left kidney (Ctrl group). On day 7, a second kidney biopsy/sham biopsy was performed. On day 42, all animals were sacrificed and their kidneys were removed for histology. Biopsy cylinders contained 57±28 glomeruli per transversal section, representing an adequate sample size. PAS staining showed that the biopsy depth was limited to the renal cortex whereas surgical tissue damage was limited to the area immediately adjacent to the taken biopsy cylinder. On day 42, the reduction of functional renal mass after two biopsies was only 5.2% and no differences of body weight, blood pressure, proteinuria, serum creatinine, glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis or number of ED-1 positive macrophages were found between both groups. In summary, our apparatus offers a safe method to perform repetitive kidney biopsies with minimal trauma and sufficient sample size and quality even in experimental disease models restricted to one single kidney.

  18. 21 CFR 876.1075 - Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument. 876... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1075 Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument. (a) Identification. A gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument is...

  19. 21 CFR 876.1075 - Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument. 876... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1075 Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument. (a) Identification. A gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument is...

  20. 21 CFR 876.1075 - Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument. 876... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1075 Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument. (a) Identification. A gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument is...

  1. 21 CFR 876.1075 - Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument. 876... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1075 Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument. (a) Identification. A gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument is...

  2. A New Apparatus for Standardized Rat Kidney Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Schirutschke, Holger; Gladrow, Lars; Norkus, Christian; Parmentier, Simon Paul; Hohenstein, Bernd; Hugo, Christian P. M.

    2014-01-01

    Survival biopsies are frequently applied in rat kidney disease models, but several drawbacks such as surgical kidney trauma, bleeding risk and variable loss of kidney tissue are still unsolved. Therefore, we developed an easy-to-use core biopsy instrument and evaluated whether two consecutive kidney biopsies within the same kidney can be carried out in a standardized manner. On day 0, 18 Lewis rats underwent a right nephrectomy and 9 of these rats a subsequent first biopsy of the left kidney (Bx group). 9 control rats had a sham biopsy of the left kidney (Ctrl group). On day 7, a second kidney biopsy/sham biopsy was performed. On day 42, all animals were sacrificed and their kidneys were removed for histology. Biopsy cylinders contained 57±28 glomeruli per transversal section, representing an adequate sample size. PAS staining showed that the biopsy depth was limited to the renal cortex whereas surgical tissue damage was limited to the area immediately adjacent to the taken biopsy cylinder. On day 42, the reduction of functional renal mass after two biopsies was only 5.2% and no differences of body weight, blood pressure, proteinuria, serum creatinine, glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis or number of ED-1 positive macrophages were found between both groups. In summary, our apparatus offers a safe method to perform repetitive kidney biopsies with minimal trauma and sufficient sample size and quality even in experimental disease models restricted to one single kidney. PMID:25506931

  3. 21 CFR 876.1075 - Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument. 876... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1075 Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument. (a) Identification. A gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument is...

  4. Uranium mill tailings quarterly report, January-March 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Latkovich, J.M.

    1982-05-01

    Progress is reported on: radon barrier systems for uranium mill tailings; liner evaluation for uranium mill tailings; revegetation/rock cover for stabilization of inactive U-tailings sites; and application of long-term chemical biobarriers for uranium tailings.

  5. Solitary Osteochondroma in a Ring-Tailed Lemur (Lemur catta).

    PubMed

    Hope, Katharine L; Boedeker, Nancy C; Gordon, Sebastian S; Walsh, Timothy F

    2015-08-01

    A 20-y-old, male, ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) presented with a large, firm mass on the proximal caudolateral left femur. The animal displayed no clinical signs associated with the mass. Radiographs revealed a mineralized mass protruding from the femur, with an intact femoral cortex. Histopathology diagnosed osteochondroma in view of the presence of a peripheral layer of cartilage with progressive endochondral ossification and typical remodeling of bony trabeculae. The mass grew quickly after the initial biopsy, and a second surgery to debulk 95% of the tumor was performed. Histopathologic features of the larger samples were similar to those of the initial biopsies, with the cartilage layer being discontinuous and development of bone from some borders progressing directly from a periost-like layer. Nineteen months after the second surgery, the mass had regrown and extended further proximally on the femur toward the epiphysis, but the animal remained asymptomatic, and additional debulking was not attempted. This report is the first description of an osteochondroma in a prosimian and describes unique behavior of the tumor compared with osteochondromas found in humans, dogs, and cats.

  6. Solitary Osteochondroma in a Ring-Tailed Lemur (Lemur catta)

    PubMed Central

    Hope, Katharine L; Boedeker, Nancy C; Gordon, Sebastian S; Walsh, Timothy F

    2015-01-01

    A 20-y-old, male, ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) presented with a large, firm mass on the proximal caudolateral left femur. The animal displayed no clinical signs associated with the mass. Radiographs revealed a mineralized mass protruding from the femur, with an intact femoral cortex. Histopathology diagnosed osteochondroma in view of the presence of a peripheral layer of cartilage with progressive endochondral ossification and typical remodeling of bony trabeculae. The mass grew quickly after the initial biopsy, and a second surgery to debulk 95% of the tumor was performed. Histopathologic features of the larger samples were similar to those of the initial biopsies, with the cartilage layer being discontinuous and development of bone from some borders progressing directly from a periost-like layer. Nineteen months after the second surgery, the mass had regrown and extended further proximally on the femur toward the epiphysis, but the animal remained asymptomatic, and additional debulking was not attempted. This report is the first description of an osteochondroma in a prosimian and describes unique behavior of the tumor compared with osteochondromas found in humans, dogs, and cats. PMID:26310465

  7. Solitary Osteochondroma in a Ring-Tailed Lemur (Lemur catta).

    PubMed

    Hope, Katharine L; Boedeker, Nancy C; Gordon, Sebastian S; Walsh, Timothy F

    2015-08-01

    A 20-y-old, male, ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) presented with a large, firm mass on the proximal caudolateral left femur. The animal displayed no clinical signs associated with the mass. Radiographs revealed a mineralized mass protruding from the femur, with an intact femoral cortex. Histopathology diagnosed osteochondroma in view of the presence of a peripheral layer of cartilage with progressive endochondral ossification and typical remodeling of bony trabeculae. The mass grew quickly after the initial biopsy, and a second surgery to debulk 95% of the tumor was performed. Histopathologic features of the larger samples were similar to those of the initial biopsies, with the cartilage layer being discontinuous and development of bone from some borders progressing directly from a periost-like layer. Nineteen months after the second surgery, the mass had regrown and extended further proximally on the femur toward the epiphysis, but the animal remained asymptomatic, and additional debulking was not attempted. This report is the first description of an osteochondroma in a prosimian and describes unique behavior of the tumor compared with osteochondromas found in humans, dogs, and cats. PMID:26310465

  8. [3D computer-assisted ENT biopsies of the Iceman].

    PubMed

    Thumfart, W F; Freysinger, W; Gunkel, A R; Truppe, M J; Platzer, W

    1997-02-01

    The University of Innsbruck possesses a unique prehistoric, completely conserved 5300-year-old human cadaver. We report our experiences during which ENT specialists collected samples from various cavities inside the Iceman. Guidance of biopsy instruments was accomplished with computer-assisted navigation based on Interventional Video Tomography. This technology allows surgical guidance by interlinking currently available imaging modalities with live endoscopic video. The system operates without patient fixation and is practically free of external contact. Apart from sterility, special precautionary measures were necessary to avoid contamination with heavy metals or microorganisms. Visual inspection of the samples of mucosa from the nose, maxillary sinus and larynx revealed the typical patterns of a human cadaver without overt pathology.

  9. What Makes a Tidal Tail?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodruck, Michael; Konstantopoulos, I.; Charlton, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Galaxy interactions are famous for creating some of the most visually stunning scenes in astronomy, particularly in the cases of tidal tails. These chaotic regions are known to house breeding grounds for young stellar clusters, as shown through past imaging and spectroscopic studies, but the underlying material remains a mystery. While we know that gas is easily stripped from the parent galaxies, what about the stars? The presence of an older stellar population is crucial to dynamical simulations of tidal tails, but has not yet been confirmed by observation. We use the twin tidal tails of NGC3256 as a case study for determining the presence of an old, underlying stellar population. Newly acquired ugriz Gemini data allows us to distinguish between young and old stars, while previous HST data pinpoints the locations of these objects. Deep imaging surveys have often been used to detect tidal features, including these ancient relics, but our survey will be the first to measure the colors of such objects. This will lead us to place constraints on the original composition of the material that was ejected from the interacting/merging galaxies, and the star formation history.

  10. Comet Tails of Type 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Probstein, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    A summary is presented of a theory for the head and tail regions of Type 2 (dust) comets, wherein dust particles having a wide distribution of sizes are assumed to be released from the comet nucleus in an essentially continuous manner in time during the period of distinctive cometary phenomena. The dust particles are assumed to be accelerated radially outward from the nucleus as a result of a drag interaction with the expanding gas in the comet head. In the tail region the only significant forces assumed to act on the dust particles are solar gravity and the force of solar radiation pressure. It is shown how results describing the surface density in the tail are obtained and how by matching calculated distributions with measured ones it is possible to determine the dust and head-gas emission rates as a function of time, the distribution of dust particle sizes, and the emission velocity from the inner head region as a function of particle size and time. The results of matching calculated density distributions with light intensity measurements from Comet Arend-Roland 1956h are summarized.

  11. Instanton calculus of Lifshitz tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaida, Sho

    2016-02-01

    Some degree of quenched disorder is present in nearly all solids, and can have a marked impact on their macroscopic properties. A manifestation of this effect is the Lifshitz tail of localized states that then gets attached to the energy spectrum, resulting in the nonzero density of states in the band gap. We present here a systematic approach for deriving the asymptotic behavior of the density of states and of the typical shape of the disorder potentials in the Lifshitz tail. The analysis is carried out first for the well-controlled case of noninteracting particles moving in a Gaussian random potential and then for a broad class of disordered scale-invariant models—pertinent to a variety of systems ranging from semiconductors to semimetals to quantum critical systems. For relevant Gaussian disorder, we obtain the general expression for the density of states deep in the tail, with the rate of exponential suppression governed by the dynamical exponent and spatial dimensions. For marginally relevant disorder, however, we would expect a power-law scaling. We discuss the implications of these results for understanding conduction in disordered materials.

  12. Fatal haemorrhage following liver biopsy in patients with HIV infection.

    PubMed Central

    Churchill, D R; Mann, D; Coker, R J; Miller, R F; Glazer, G; Goldin, R D; Lucas, S B; Weber, J N; De Cock, K M

    1996-01-01

    A retrospective review of all 248 liver biopsies performed in patients with HIV infection at two referral centres in London over a 12 year period revealed five cases of major bleeding following biopsy, with four deaths. The risk of major bleeding was 2.0%, and mortality was 1.6% following liver biopsy. The risk of bleeding as much higher than in published series of biopsies done in patients without HIV infection, owing in part to the high prevalence of thrombocytopaenia and clotting abnormalities in patients with HIV infection. HIV infection per se may also increase the risk of bleeding following liver biopsy. PMID:8655172

  13. Correlation between Gleason Scores in Needle Biopsy and Corresponding Radical Prostatectomy Specimens: A Twelve-Year Review

    PubMed Central

    Khoddami, Maliheh; Khademi, Yassaman; Kazemi Aghdam, Maryam; Soltanghoraee, Haleh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Presence of discordance between the Gleason score on needle biopsy and the score of radical prostatectomy specimen is common and universal. In this study, we determined the accuracy of Gleason grading of biopsies in predicting histological grading of radical prostatectomy specimens and the degree of overgrading and undergrading of prostatic adenocarcinoma in our center, which is one of the referral centers in Tehran. Methods: In this retrospective study, we analyzed the results of prostate needle biopsies and subsequent prostatectomies diagnosed at the Pathobiology Laboratory Center, Tehran, Iran in 45 patients between 2002 and 2013. Preoperative clinical data and the information from biopsy and prostatectomy specimens were collected. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of different grades and groups were assessed. Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficient were used to determine the relation of different variables. Results: The biopsy Gleason score was identical to the scores in prostatectomy specimens in 68.2% cases, while 31.8% were discrepant by 1 or 2 Gleason score. We had 9.1% downgrading and 22.7% cases upgraded after prostatectomy. The sensitivity and positive predictive value was 86% and 79% for low grade, 67% and 75% for moderate grade, and 80% and 80% for high-grade tumors, respectively. Conclusion: Overall, the reliability of Gleason grading of needle biopsies in predicting final pathology was satisfavory. Moderate grade group was the most difficult to diagnose in needle biopsy. PMID:27499772

  14. Parelaphostrongylus odocoilei in Columbian black-tailed deer from Oregon.

    PubMed

    Mortenson, Jack A; Abrams, Arthur; Rosenthal, Benjamin M; Dunams, Detiger; Hoberg, Eric P; Bildfell, Robert J; Green, Richard L

    2006-07-01

    Documenting the occurrence of Parelaphostrongylus odocoilei has historically relied on the morphological examination of adult worms collected from the skeletal muscle of definitive hosts, including deer. Recent advances in the knowledge of protostrongylid genetic sequences now permit larvae to be identified. Dorsal-spined larvae (DSLs) collected in 2003-2004 from the lung and feces of six Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) from Oregon were characterized genetically. The sequences from unknown DSLs were compared to those from morphologically validated adults and larvae of P. odocoilei at both the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) of ribosomal DNA and the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II gene. We provide the first unequivocal identification of P. odocoilei in Columbian black-tailed deer from Oregon. The broader geographic distribution, prevalence, and pathology of P. odocoilei are not known in populations of Oregon deer.

  15. Value of repeat biopsy in lupus nephritis flares

    PubMed Central

    Greloni, G; Scolnik, M; Marin, J; Lancioni, E; Quiroz, C; Zacariaz, J; De la Iglesia Niveyro, P; Christiansen, S; Pierangelo, M A; Varela, C F; Rosa-Diez, G J; Catoggio, L J; Soriano, E R

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Renal flares are common in lupus nephritis (LN), and class switch is thought to be characteristic. There is no agreement on indications for performing a repeat renal biopsy. Our objective was to retrospectively review patients who had more than one renal biopsy performed on clinical indications, and analyse clinical, pathological and treatment changes after successive biopsies. Methods Forty-five patients with LN and one or more repeat renal biopsies were included, with a total of 116 biopsies. Results Of the 71 repeat biopsies, pathological transition occurred in 39 (54.9%). When having a previous biopsy with a proliferative lesion, class switch occurred in 55.6%, with 24.4% evolving into non-proliferative classes. When previous biopsy was class V, transition to other classes occurred in 58.3% and changes were all into proliferative classes. Conversion from one pure proliferative form to another (class III to class IV or vice versa) happened in 11.3% of the rebiopsies, with 62 rebiopsies (87.3%) leading to a change in the treatment regimen. Conclusions Histological transformations were common, and they occurred when the previous biopsy had non-proliferative lesions as well as when lesions were proliferative. Treatments were modified after repeat renal biopsy in the majority of patients. In this experience, kidney repeat biopsies were useful in guiding treatment of LN flares. PMID:25396056

  16. Transthoracic needle biopsy of the lung

    PubMed Central

    DiBardino, David M.; Yarmus, Lonny B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Image guided transthoracic needle aspiration (TTNA) is a valuable tool used for the diagnosis of countless thoracic diseases. Computed tomography (CT) is the most common imaging modality used for guidance followed by ultrasound (US) for lesions abutting the pleural surface. Novel approaches using virtual CT guidance have recently been introduced. The objective of this review is to examine the current literature for TTNA biopsy of the lung focusing on diagnostic accuracy and safety. Methods MEDLINE was searched from inception to October 2015 for all case series examining image guided TTNA. Articles focusing on fluoroscopic guidance as well as influence of rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) on yield were excluded. The diagnostic accuracy, defined as the number of true positives divided by the number of biopsies done, as well as the complication rate [pneumothorax (PTX), bleeding] was examined for CT guided TTNA, US guided TTNA as well as CT guided electromagnetic navigational-TTNA (E-TTNA). Of the 490 articles recovered 75 were included in our analysis. Results The overall pooled diagnostic accuracy for CT guided TTNA using 48 articles that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria was 92.1% (9,567/10,383). A similar yield was obtained examining ten articles using US guided TTNA of 88.7% (446/503). E-TTNA, being a new modality, only had one pilot study citing a diagnostic accuracy of 83% (19/23). Pooled PTX and hemorrhage rates were 20.5% and 2.8% respectively for CT guided TTNA. The PTX rate was lower in US guided TTNA at a pooled rate of 4.4%. E-TTNA showed a similar rate of PTX at 20% with no incidence of bleeding in a single pilot study available. Conclusions Image guided TTNA is a safe and accurate modality for the biopsy of lung pathology. This study found similar yield and safety profiles with the three imaging modalities examined. PMID:26807279

  17. Critical assessment of diagnostic value of endomyocardial biopsy. Assessment of cardiac biopsy.

    PubMed Central

    MacKay, E H; Littler, W A; Sleight, P

    1978-01-01

    Right or left ventricular endomyocardial biopsy with the Konno or the Olympus bioptome was attempted in 73 patients aged 5 months to 61 years, with 82 per cent success. Light and electron microscopy showed non-specific features in over half the biopsies with new or diagnostically useful information in only 10 per cent of cases, usually as a result of electron microscopy. The method is safe but is of strictly limited diagnostic value and is likely to be of most help as a research tool in the biochemical study of cardiomyopathies. Images PMID:626666

  18. Dermal vacuoles in two biopsies of psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Ayva, Sebnem; Erkek, Emel; Atasoy, Pinar

    2008-11-01

    Two patients presented with cutaneous lesions clinically typical of psoriasis. The first case was a 38-year-old man and the second was a 51-year-old woman. To confirm the diagnosis, 4-mm punch biopsy samples were obtained from both patients from the lesions on the knees. Histology in both cases was in favour of psoriasis and also revealed empty vacuoles in the papillary dermis, concentrated at sites of intense lymphocyte infiltration. The empty vacuoles resembled true fat cells or fat globules. They did not reveal positive immunostaining with CD34 antigen, suggesting that they were not lined by endothelial cells. Final histological diagnosis was psoriasis associated with dermal vacuolization.

  19. Endobronchial biopsies on aspirin and prasugrel.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kassem; Kebbe, Jad

    2015-06-01

    Patients are generally required to stop antiplatelet therapy prior to elective invasive procedures. Some patients receive dual antiplatelet therapy for recent vascular procedures such as drug-eluting coronary stenting, and early discontinuation of antiplatelet agents could lead to a significant risk of stent thrombosis. Most bronchoscopic procedures are performed on patients using Aspirin but not on those using Clopidogrel or Prasugrel. In this report, we describe a unique case of a patient with a recent placement of drug-eluting stents, who required endobronchial biopsies for evaluation of lung cancer recurrence. The procedure was performed successfully and safely with no complications. PMID:25697386

  20. Survival patterns in white-tailed and mule deer after oral inoculation with a standardized, conspecific prion dose.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michael W; Wolfe, Lisa L; Sirochman, Tracey M; Sirochman, Michael A; Jewell, Jean E; Williams, Elizabeth S

    2012-04-01

    We orally inoculated white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) with a standardized, conspecific prion dose and collected biologic samples throughout the disease course. Mule deer (PRNP genotype 225SS) and PRNP genotype 96GG white-tailed deer succumbed along similar trajectories, but 96GS- and 96SS-genotype individuals tended to survive longer.

  1. Vertical tail buffeting of fighter aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, B. H. K.

    2000-04-01

    Vertical tail buffeting at high angles of attack is a phenomenon associated with the impact of vortical flows generated by the aircraft on the fins. This poses a serious problem for both single- and twin-tail fighter aircraft from the point of view of combat maneuverability and structural integrity. The research activities to understand the flow physics with an aim to alleviate buffet loads were quite intense during the period from the late 1970s to the early 1990s. Most of the investigations were carried out on the F/A-18 mainly because of two international programs involving countries that operate the F/A-18 in their air force. This review begins with a description of the water tunnel experiments showing some flow visualization results of the leading-edge extension (LEX) burst vortical flows. Wind tunnel studies on a 1/9 scale F/A-18 model in Australia, a 1/6.65 scale model in the United Kingdom, a 6% scale model in Canada, 12%, 16% and full-scale models in the United States are summarized. Scale effects can be deduced from the various sub- and full-scale models tested. Flight test results conducted on the High Alpha Research Vehicle in the United States and on an instrumented CF-18 test aircraft in Canada are presented. The accuracy of analytical methods utilizing wind tunnel data to predict buffet loads at flight conditions is discussed. The use of CFD to compute vertical fin buffeting is challenging and requires a large amount of computing power. A brief exposure to the methodology is given and results from the only available computational case study carried out by NASA Ames are compared with wind tunnel and flight test data. A short introduction to statistical non-stationary effects is given. Hysteresis effect of the LEX vortex burst on the buffet loads is discussed, and a statistical non-stationary buffet prediction method is outlined. This review provides a useful reference to the results collected from the High Alpha Technology Program, The Technical

  2. Ovine rumen papillae biopsy via oral endoscopy; a rapid and repeatable method for serial sampling

    PubMed Central

    McRae, KM; Schultz, M; Mackintosh, CG; Shackell, GH; Martinez, MF; Knowler, KJ; Williams, M; Ho, C; Elmes, SN; McEwan, JC

    2016-01-01

    Abstract AIMS: To explore and validate the utility of rumen endoscopy for collection of rumen papillae for gene expression measurement. METHODS: Four adult Coopworth ewes were fasted for either 4 or 24 hours. Animals were sedated, placed in a dorsally recumbent position at 45 degrees with the head upright, and an endoscope inserted via a tube inserted into the mouth. Biopsies of rumen papillae were taken from the ventral surface of the rumen atrium under visual guidance. Two biopsies were collected from one of the animals that had been fasted for 4 hours, and three from one of the animals that had been fasted for 24 hours. Video of the rumen atrium and reticulum was also collected. The animals recovered uneventfully. Biopsies were subsequently used for extraction and sequencing of mRNA. RESULTS: The ventral surface of the rumen atrium was accessible after 4 hours off pasture, but a larger region was accessible after 24 hours of fasting. Sedation allowed access for endoscope use for around 5 to 10 minutes after which increased saliva flow was noted. Rumen papillae biopsies were easily collected, with samples from a variety of sites collected in the ∼10 minute time window. High quality RNA was obtained for stranded mRNA sequencing. Of the resulting reads, 69–70% mapped uniquely to version 3.1 of the ovine genome, and 48–49% to a known gene. The rumen mRNA profiles were consistent with a previously reported study. CONCLUSIONS: This method for obtaining rumenal tissue was found to be rapid and resulted in no apparent short or long term effects on the animal. High quality RNA was successfully extracted and amplified from the rumen papillae biopsies, indicating that this technique could be used for future gene expression studies. The use of rumen endoscopy could be extended to collection of a variety of rumen and reticulum anatomical measurements and deposition and retrieval of small sensors from the rumen. Rumen endoscopy offers an attractive and cost effective

  3. Core needle biopsies and surgical excision biopsies in the diagnosis of lymphoma-experience at the Lymph Node Registry Kiel.

    PubMed

    Johl, Alice; Lengfelder, Eva; Hiddemann, Wolfgang; Klapper, Wolfram

    2016-08-01

    Current guidelines of the European Society of Medical Oncology recommend surgical excision biopsies of lymph nodes for the diagnosis of lymphoma whenever possible. However, core needle biopsies are increasingly used. We aimed to understand the common practice to choose the method of biopsy in Germany. Furthermore, we wanted to understand performance of surgical excision and core needle biopsies of lymph nodes in the diagnosis of lymphoma. The files of 1510 unselected, consecutive lymph node specimens from a consultation center for lymphoma diagnosis were analyzed. Core needle biopsies were obtained frequently from lymph nodes localized in mediastinal, abdominal, retroperitoneal, or thoracic regions. Patients undergoing core needle biopsies were significantly older and suffered significantly more often from lymphoma than patients undergoing surgical excision biopsies. Although more immunohistochemical tests were ordered by the pathologist for core needle biopsies specimens than for surgical excision biopsies specimens, core needle biopsies did not yield a definite diagnosis in 8.3 % of cases, compared to 2.8 % for SEB (p = 0.0003). Restricting the analysis to cases with a final diagnosis of follicular lymphoma or diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, core needle biopsies identified a simultaneous low- and high-grade lymphoma (transformation) in 3.3 % of cases, compared to 7.6 % for surgical excision biopsies (p = 0.2317). In Germany, core needle biopsies are preferentially used in elderly patients with a high likelihood of suffering from lymphoma. Core needle appeared inferior to surgical excision biopsies at providing a definite diagnosis and at identifying multiple lymphoma differentiations and transformation. PMID:27236576

  4. Core needle biopsies and surgical excision biopsies in the diagnosis of lymphoma-experience at the Lymph Node Registry Kiel.

    PubMed

    Johl, Alice; Lengfelder, Eva; Hiddemann, Wolfgang; Klapper, Wolfram

    2016-08-01

    Current guidelines of the European Society of Medical Oncology recommend surgical excision biopsies of lymph nodes for the diagnosis of lymphoma whenever possible. However, core needle biopsies are increasingly used. We aimed to understand the common practice to choose the method of biopsy in Germany. Furthermore, we wanted to understand performance of surgical excision and core needle biopsies of lymph nodes in the diagnosis of lymphoma. The files of 1510 unselected, consecutive lymph node specimens from a consultation center for lymphoma diagnosis were analyzed. Core needle biopsies were obtained frequently from lymph nodes localized in mediastinal, abdominal, retroperitoneal, or thoracic regions. Patients undergoing core needle biopsies were significantly older and suffered significantly more often from lymphoma than patients undergoing surgical excision biopsies. Although more immunohistochemical tests were ordered by the pathologist for core needle biopsies specimens than for surgical excision biopsies specimens, core needle biopsies did not yield a definite diagnosis in 8.3 % of cases, compared to 2.8 % for SEB (p = 0.0003). Restricting the analysis to cases with a final diagnosis of follicular lymphoma or diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, core needle biopsies identified a simultaneous low- and high-grade lymphoma (transformation) in 3.3 % of cases, compared to 7.6 % for surgical excision biopsies (p = 0.2317). In Germany, core needle biopsies are preferentially used in elderly patients with a high likelihood of suffering from lymphoma. Core needle appeared inferior to surgical excision biopsies at providing a definite diagnosis and at identifying multiple lymphoma differentiations and transformation.

  5. Uranium mill tailings neutralization: contaminant complexation and tailings leaching studies

    SciTech Connect

    Opitz, B.E.; Dodson, M.E.; Serne, R.J.

    1985-05-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed to compare the effectiveness of limestone (CaCO/sub 3/) and hydrated lime (Ca(OH)/sub 2/) for improving waste water quality through the neutralization of acidic uranium mill tailings liquor. The experiments were designed to also assess the effects of three proposed mechanisms - carbonate complexation, elevated pH, and colloidal particle adsorption - on the solubility of toxic contaminants found in a typical uranium mill waste solution. Of special interest were the effects each of these possible mechanisms had on the solution concentrations of trace metals such as Cd, Co, Mo, Zn, and U after neutralization. Results indicated that the neutralization of acidic tailings to a pH of 7.3 using hydrated lime provided the highest overall waste water quality. Both the presence of a carbonate source or elevating solution pH beyond pH = 7.3 resulted in a lowering of previously achieved water quality, while adsorption of contaminants onto colloidal particles was not found to affect the solution concentration of any constituent investigated. 24 refs., 8 figs., 19 tabs.

  6. Combination of needle aspiration and core needle biopsy: A new technique of stereotactic biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Abrar Ahad; Wani, M. Afzal; Ramzan, Altaf U.; Nizami, Furqan A.; Malik, Nayil K.; Shafiq, S.; Ahmad, Rais; Kumar, Ashish; Lone, Iqbal; Makhdoomi, Rumana

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study aims at describing the results of using a new technique to acquire the tissue sample in stereotactic biopsy of brain lesions. Materials and Methods: The study was performed in 19 patients over a period of 5 years in which we used the new technique, i.e., Abrar and Afzal technique (AT) of obtaining tissue biopsy. It is a combination of core tissue biopsy and needle aspiration techniques. The technique was devised to acquire greater amount of tissue for pathologic study. Results: While we could give pathologic diagnosis in 18 patients out of 19 (94.7%), in one patient, the tissue sample revealed only inflammatory cells and definitive diagnosis could not be reached. There was no significant morbidity or any mortality in the series. Conclusion: Abrar and Afzal technique is a reasonably accurate technique of acquiring larger tissue sample in stereotactic brain biopsy without any additional risks. It can be done with little modification of the conventional equipment available with the stereotactic system. PMID:27057212

  7. Ultrasound-guided versus computed tomography-scan guided biopsy of pleural-based lung lesions

    PubMed Central

    Khosla, Rahul; McLean, Anna W; Smith, Jessica A

    2016-01-01

    Background: Computed tomography (CT) guided biopsies have long been the standard technique to obtain tissue from the thoracic cavity and is traditionally performed by interventional radiologists. Ultrasound (US) guided biopsy of pleural-based lesions, performed by pulmonologists is gaining popularity and has the advantage of multi-planar imaging, real-time technique, and the absence of radiation exposure to patients. In this study, we aim to determine the diagnostic accuracy, the time to diagnosis after the initial consult placement, and the complications rates between the two different modalities. Methods: A retrospective study of electronic medical records was done of patients who underwent CT-guided biopsies and US-guided biopsies for pleural-based lesions between 2005 and 2014 and the data collected were analyzed for comparing the two groups. Results: A total of 158 patients underwent 162 procedures during the study period. 86 patients underwent 89 procedures in the US group, and 72 patients underwent 73 procedures in the CT group. The overall yield in the US group was 82/89 (92.1%) versus 67/73 (91.8%) in the CT group (P = 1.0). Average days to the procedure was 7.2 versus 17.5 (P = 0.00001) in the US and CT group, respectively. Complication rate was higher in CT group 17/73 (23.3%) versus 1/89 (1.1%) in the US group (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: For pleural-based lesions the diagnostic accuracy of US guided biopsy is similar to that of CT-guided biopsy, with a lower complication rate and a significantly reduced time to the procedure. PMID:27625440

  8. Ultrasound-guided versus computed tomography-scan guided biopsy of pleural-based lung lesions

    PubMed Central

    Khosla, Rahul; McLean, Anna W; Smith, Jessica A

    2016-01-01

    Background: Computed tomography (CT) guided biopsies have long been the standard technique to obtain tissue from the thoracic cavity and is traditionally performed by interventional radiologists. Ultrasound (US) guided biopsy of pleural-based lesions, performed by pulmonologists is gaining popularity and has the advantage of multi-planar imaging, real-time technique, and the absence of radiation exposure to patients. In this study, we aim to determine the diagnostic accuracy, the time to diagnosis after the initial consult placement, and the complications rates between the two different modalities. Methods: A retrospective study of electronic medical records was done of patients who underwent CT-guided biopsies and US-guided biopsies for pleural-based lesions between 2005 and 2014 and the data collected were analyzed for comparing the two groups. Results: A total of 158 patients underwent 162 procedures during the study period. 86 patients underwent 89 procedures in the US group, and 72 patients underwent 73 procedures in the CT group. The overall yield in the US group was 82/89 (92.1%) versus 67/73 (91.8%) in the CT group (P = 1.0). Average days to the procedure was 7.2 versus 17.5 (P = 0.00001) in the US and CT group, respectively. Complication rate was higher in CT group 17/73 (23.3%) versus 1/89 (1.1%) in the US group (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: For pleural-based lesions the diagnostic accuracy of US guided biopsy is similar to that of CT-guided biopsy, with a lower complication rate and a significantly reduced time to the procedure.

  9. Ion populations in the tail of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaisberg, O.; Fedorov, A.; Dunjushkin, F.; Kozhukhovsky, A.; Smirnov, V.; Avanov, L.; Russell, C. T.; Luhmann, J. G.

    1995-01-01

    Plasma measurements in the tails of Venus showed the existence of several ion populations. Measurements performed on Venera and Pioneer Venus spacecraft at different planetocentric distances showed the evolution of the plasma parameters along the tail. Low-energy ion fluxes measured in the tail at close downstream distances, are also observed farther downstream, and show low acceleration from 0.5 R(sub V) to 12 R(sub V). High energy ions (energetic O(+) ions) reported from Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) observations in the tail at 10-12 R(sub V) seem to be the same ion component that was observed as energetic ions at the tail boundary close to the planet on Venera spacecraft. We give evidence that these ions are accelerated in the narrow shear layer near the tail boundary.

  10. Temporal artery biopsy: is there any value in examining biopsies at multiple levels?

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarty, A; Franks, A

    2000-01-01

    Aims—To analyse the cost-effectiveness of three strategies for examining temporal artery biopsies based on data from cases examined over the past 10 years. Methods—Of a total of 172 temporal artery biopsies, five were unsuitable for further analysis, 47 had already had levels cut, and 120 had levels cut as part of the study. All the biopsies were examined blind before and after levels. A tree with eventual diagnostic outcomes for different strategies was constructed and economic and sensitivity analyses performed. Welcan units were used to assess technical workload. Results—Only one of the 132 initially normal cases and two of 14 diagnosed with periarterial lymphocytic infiltration (PALI) revealed giant cell arteritis after examining the tissue at multiple levels. Fifteen cases (8.9%) showed PALI not previously observed. The marginal cost for each extra case of giant cell arteritis detected was 83.5 Welcan units for a strategy of routine levels on all sections, and 21 Welcan units for a strategy of only cutting levels if PALI was present on the initial section. These costs were sensitive to the frequency of giant cell arteritis in cases with PALI and to the relative extra cost of moving from cutting single section to routine levels. Conclusions—Routinely examining a temporal artery biopsy at multiple levels does not increase the diagnostic yield of the test, although selective further examination may be indicated in some cases. The significance of PALI is uncertain. The cost-benefit of the different strategies in terms of clinical decision making revolve around the perceived risk inherent in not making a diagnosis of giant cell arteritis. Key Words: temporal artery biopsy • economic analysis • decision analysis PMID:10767829

  11. Direct MRI-guided biopsy of the prostate: use of post-biopsy needle track imaging to confirm targeting

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Alexander J.; Pettersson, David R.; Korngold, Elena K.; Foster, Bryan R.; Hung, Arthur Y.; Amling, Christopher L.; Coakley, Fergus V.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report the observation that in-plane post-biopsy T2-weighted MRI often demonstrates the needle track as a transient visible linear tissue distortion during direct MRI-guided biopsy. Materials and methods We retrospectively identified 11 prostatic lesions in 9 men that underwent direct MRI-guided biopsy and in which post-biopsy images were obtained in the plane of the biopsy needle. Results In 9 of 11 targets, a post-biopsy needle track was visible as a linear tissue distortion on in-plane T2-weighted images obtained at a mean interval of 6 min (range 3–15). In these nine cases, the needle track traversed the intended target, and the biopsy was positive for malignancy in six. Biopsy was positive in one of two cases where the needle track was not visible. In five targets, one or more delayed series were obtained after a mean interval of 21 min (range 8–33), showing the track was no longer visible (n = 3) or was of progressively decreased conspicuity (n = 2). Conclusion Accurate targeting during direct MRI-guided biopsy of the prostate can be confirmed by obtaining post-biopsy in-plane images, since the needle track is usually visible as a transient linear tissue distortion. PMID:25687631

  12. Active tails enhance arboreal acrobatics in geckos

    PubMed Central

    Jusufi, Ardian; Goldman, Daniel I.; Revzen, Shai; Full, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Geckos are nature's elite climbers. Their remarkable climbing feats have been attributed to specialized feet with hairy toes that uncurl and peel in milliseconds. Here, we report that the secret to the gecko's arboreal acrobatics includes an active tail. We examine the tail's role during rapid climbing, aerial descent, and gliding. We show that a gecko's tail functions as an emergency fifth leg to prevent falling during rapid climbing. A response initiated by slipping causes the tail tip to push against the vertical surface, thereby preventing pitch-back of the head and upper body. When pitch-back cannot be prevented, geckos avoid falling by placing their tail in a posture similar to a bicycle's kickstand. Should a gecko fall with its back to the ground, a swing of its tail induces the most rapid, zero-angular momentum air-righting response yet measured. Once righted to a sprawled gliding posture, circular tail movements control yaw and pitch as the gecko descends. Our results suggest that large, active tails can function as effective control appendages. These results have provided biological inspiration for the design of an active tail on a climbing robot, and we anticipate their use in small, unmanned gliding vehicles and multisegment spacecraft. PMID:18347344

  13. Accuracy validation for MRI-guided robotic prostate biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Helen; Lasso, Andras; Vikal, Siddharth; Guion, Peter; Krieger, Axel; Kaushal, Aradhana; Whitcomb, Louis L.; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2010-02-01

    We report a quantitative evaluation of the clinical accuracy of a MRI-guided robotic prostate biopsy system that has been in use for over five years at the U.S. National Cancer Institute. A two-step rigid volume registration using mutual information between the pre and post needle insertion images was performed. Contour overlays of the prostate before and after registration were used to validate the registration. A total of 20 biopsies from 5 patients were evaluated. The maximum registration error was 2 mm. The mean biopsy target displacement, needle placement error, and biopsy error was 5.4 mm, 2.2 mm, and 5.1 mm respectively. The results show that the pre-planned biopsy target did dislocate during the procedure and therefore causing biopsy errors.

  14. Sulfur Biogeochemistry of Athabasca Oilsands Composite Tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, L. A.; Kendra, K. E.

    2013-12-01

    Oil sands tailings are important, globally relevant, S reservoirs, known to contain active and diverse microbial communities. As evidenced by increasing S emissions from the oil sands, active biogeochemical S cycling within composite tailings (CT, a mixture of tailings, post-processed sand and gypsum, used for dry reclamation), is likely; however the S biogeochemistry of these residues has not been investigated to date. With surface mining of Alberta's oil sands spanning over 142,000 square km and accelerated production, these tailings-based landscapes will become increasingly prevalent with the potential for significant environmental impacts. The objectives here, were thus to characterize depth dependent S biogeochemistry of a 40 meter CT deposit (Fort McMurray, AB, CANADA). Drill samples were collected in December of 2012 from 5 depths spanning 36 m in the CT deposit, for geochemical, metagenomic and functional enrichment analyses. Results establish widespread microbial S biogeochemical cycling within the CT deposit. Porewater H2S was detected extensively throughout the deposit with background levels ranging from 14-23 μM and a concentrated pocket of 300 μM occurring at depth. Porewater Fe(II) (1-40 μM) was detected only within surficial depth samples. Current Fe(II) concentrations are not sufficient to sequester the levels of H2S generated by CT, indicating CT may become a net source of S emissions, as generated H2S at depth migrates to the surface, in untreated CT deposits. Metagenomic (454 pyrosequencing) characterization revealed highly diverse CT microbial communities, with 21 different phyla encountered overall and 1/3 of these presenting as candidate divisions. The cultivation independent identification of several known IRB and sulphate (SRB) reducing bacteria within these communities was consistent with observed positive growth in IRB and SRB functional metabolic enrichments. Furthermore, two depth dependent structurally distinct communities emerged: a

  15. Patient Outcomes in Canceled MRI-Guided Breast Biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Niell, Bethany L.; Lee, Janie M.; Johansen, Christopher; Halpern, Elkan F.; Rafferty, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The reported frequency of aborted MRI-guided breast biopsies ranges from 8% to 17%, usually secondary to nonvisualization at attempted biopsy. Our study examines the frequency of MRI-guided breast biopsies aborted because of lesion nonvisualization and the subsequent risk of malignancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS. We identified 350 patients and 445 lesions scheduled for MRI-guided biopsy between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2009. Medical records and imaging studies were reviewed to ascertain patient demographics, lesion and imaging characteristics, and subsequent pathology results. Chi-square statistics were calculated for patient level analyses. RESULTS. MRI-guided biopsies were aborted in 13% (56/445) of lesions and 15% (53/350; 95% CI, 11.6–19.3%) of patients because of nonvisualization of the biopsy target at the time of attempted biopsy. Of these 53 patients, 50 patients had follow-up data available. Malignancy was subsequently diagnosed in five of those 50 patients (10%; 95% CI, 3.3–21.8%) patients, three with invasive ductal carcinomas and two with ductal carcinoma in situ. The mean time to malignant diagnosis from the date of aborted biopsy was 2.6 months (range, 1.1–6.9 months). CONCLUSION. Informed consent for MRI-guided breast biopsies should include discussion of biopsy cancellation because of nonvisualization of the target lesion. The low yet significant risk of malignancy in patients subsequent to an aborted MRI-guided breast biopsy warrants short-term follow-up MRI after a canceled biopsy. PMID:24370148

  16. Diagnostic yield of brain biopsies in children presenting to neurology.

    PubMed

    Venkateswaran, Sunita; Hawkins, Cynthia; Wassmer, Evangeline

    2008-03-01

    The role of brain biopsy is well established in patients with neoplastic lesions, with a diagnostic yield approaching 95%. The diagnostic yield of brain biopsy in adults with neurological decline varies from 20% to 43%. Only a few studies have examined the diagnostic yield of brain biopsy in children with idiopathic neurological decline. A retrospective analysis was conducted on all open and closed pediatric brain biopsies performed between January 1988 and May 2003. Biopsies were performed for diagnostic purposes in patients showing a progressively deteriorating neurologic course in whom less-invasive modalities such as neuroimaging, electroencephalography (EEG), and molecular genetic studies were either negative or inconclusive. Immunocompromised patients were included. Patients were excluded if the preoperative diagnosis was a neoplasm or if the patient was undergoing a resection as part of a work-up for intractable epilepsy. Each patient underwent numerous investigations before brain biopsy. The utility of each biopsy was analyzed. Sixty-six children had brain biopsies performed for diagnostic purposes during the study period. Patient ages ranged from 2 months to 16 years and 9 months at the time of biopsy. The diagnostic yield was 48.5% overall, with a yield of 68.8% between 1996 and 2003. Of the total, 26 (39.4%) biopsies were both diagnostic and useful. Patients most frequently presented with seizures (56.1%) and encephalopathy (33%). The most frequently diagnosed disease was vasculitis (18.2%). A total of 71.9% of patients with diagnostic biopsies improved with appropriate treatment. Brain biopsy in children had a diagnostic yield of 48.5% in our series. A specific diagnosis may help in management and outcome, especially with a diagnosis of vasculitis. PMID:18192645

  17. Percutaneous renal biopsy of native kidneys: efficiency, safety and risk factors associated with major complications

    PubMed Central

    Torres Muñoz, Abel; Valdez-Ortiz, Rafael; González-Parra, Carlos; Espinoza-Dávila, Elvy; Morales-Buenrostro, Luis E.; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The use of an automated biopsy device and real-time ultrasound (current technology) for percutaneous renal biopsies (PRBs) has improved the likelihood of obtaining adequate tissue for diagnosis and has reduced the complications associated with renal biopsies. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the current PRB procedure and identify possible risk factors for the development of major complications. Material and methods We collected all native kidney PRBs performed with current technology in our institute from January 1998 to April 2008. Studied variables were collected from the patient's chart at the time of the biopsy. Results We analyzed 623 (96.4%) of 646 renal biopsies performed with the current automated procedure guided by real-time ultrasound. Although the effectiveness was 97.6%, there were 110 complications. Fourteen (2.24%) of these complications were major: 9 cases of renal hematoma, 2 cases with macroscopic hematuria (which needed blood transfusion), 1 case of intestinal perforation (which required exploratory laparotomy), 1 nephrectomy and 1 case of a dissecting hematoma. The logistic regression analysis demonstrated the following risk factors for developing major complications: diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg, RR 7.6 (95% CI 1.35-43); platelet count ≤ 120×103/µl; RR 7.0 (95% CI 1.9-26.2); and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) ≥ 60 mg/dl, RR 9.27 (95% CI 2.8-30.7). Conclusions The observed efficacy and safety of the current technique in the present study were similar to observations in previous studies. Diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg, platelets ≤ 120×103/µl and BUN ≥ 60 mg/dl were independent risk factors for the development of major complications following PRB. PMID:22291827

  18. A Tale of Two Tails: Exploring Stellar Populations in the Tidal Tails of NGC 3256

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodruck, Michael; Charlton, Jane C.; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis

    2016-01-01

    Galaxy interactions can inject material into the intergalactic medium via violent gravitational dynamics, often visualized in tidal tails. The composition of these tails has remained a mystery, as previous studies have focused on detecting tidal features, rather than the composite material itself. We have developed an observing program using deep, multiband imaging to probe the chaotic regions of tidal tails in search for an underlying stellar population. NGC 3256's twin tidal tails serve as a case study for this new technique. Our results show color values of u - g = 1.15 and r - i = 0.08 for the Western tail, and u - g = 1.33 and r - i = 0.22 for the Eastern tail, corresponding to discrepant ages between the tails of approximately 320 Myr and 785 Myr, respectively. With the interaction age of the system measured at 400 Myr, we find the stellar light in Western tail to be dominated by disrupted star clusters formed during and after the interaction, whereas the light from the Eastern tail is dominated by a 10 Gyr population originating from the host galaxies. We fit the Eastern tail color to a Mixed Stellar Population (MSP) model comprised 94% by mass of a 10 Gyr stellar population, and 6% of a 309 Myr population. We find 52% of the bolometric flux originating from this 10 Gyr population. We also detect a blue to red color gradient in each tail, running from galactic center to tail tip. In addition to tidal tail light, we detect 29 star cluster candidates (SCCs) in the Western tail and 19 in the Eastern, with mean ages of 282 Myr and 98 Myr respectively. Interestingly, we find an excess of very blue SCCs in the Eastern tail as compared to the Western tail, marking a recent, small episode of star formation.

  19. Microfabricated instrument for tissue biopsy and analysis

    DOEpatents

    Krulevitch, Peter A.; Lee, Abraham P.; Northrup, M. Allen; Benett, William J.

    2001-01-01

    A microfabricated biopsy/histology instrument which has several advantages over the conventional procedures, including minimal specimen handling, smooth cutting edges with atomic sharpness capable of slicing very thin specimens (approximately 2 .mu.m or greater), micro-liter volumes of chemicals for treating the specimens, low cost, disposable, fabrication process which renders sterile parts, and ease of use. The cutter is a "cheese-grater" style design comprising a block or substrate of silicon and which uses anisotropic etching of the silicon to form extremely sharp and precise cutting edges. As a specimen is cut, it passes through the silicon cutter and lies flat on a piece of glass which is bonded to the cutter. Microchannels are etched into the glass or silicon substrates for delivering small volumes of chemicals for treating the specimen. After treatment, the specimens can be examined through the glass substrate.

  20. Intrinsic Frequency and the Single Wave Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Petrasek, Danny; Pahlevan, Niema M.; Tavallali, Peyman; Rinderknecht, Derek G.; Gharib, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance is the hallmark of classical type II diabetes. In addition, insulin resistance plays a central role in metabolic syndrome, which astonishingly affects 1 out of 3 adults in North America. The insulin resistance state can precede the manifestation of diabetes and hypertension by years. Insulin resistance is correlated with a low-grade inflammatory condition, thought to be induced by obesity as well as other conditions. Currently, the methods to measure and monitor insulin resistance, such as the homeostatic model assessment and the euglycemic insulin clamp, can be impractical, expensive, and invasive. Abundant evidence exists that relates increased pulse pressure, pulse wave velocity (PWV), and vascular dysfunction with insulin resistance. We introduce a potential method of assessing insulin resistance that relies on a novel signal-processing algorithm, the intrinsic frequency method (IFM). The method requires a single pulse pressure wave, thus the term “ wave biopsy.” PMID:26183600

  1. Automated quantitative muscle biopsy analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castleman, Kenneth R. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An automated system to aid the diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases by producing fiber size histograms utilizing histochemically stained muscle biopsy tissue. Televised images of the microscopic fibers are processed electronically by a multi-microprocessor computer, which isolates, measures, and classifies the fibers and displays the fiber size distribution. The architecture of the multi-microprocessor computer, which is iterated to any required degree of complexity, features a series of individual microprocessors P.sub.n each receiving data from a shared memory M.sub.n-1 and outputing processed data to a separate shared memory M.sub.n+1 under control of a program stored in dedicated memory M.sub.n.

  2. [Conjunctival rhinosporidiois diagnosed in a biopsy specimen].

    PubMed

    Zoroquiain, Pablo; Moreno, Alberto; Oddó, David

    2014-04-01

    11 years old girl, from south region of Chile, without history of travels outside Chile nor the province, complaints of red eye with blepharitis and blood-tingued epiphora. Eye exam revealed a pseudomembrane. Clinical diagnosis was folicular conjunctivitis. A surgical removal was performed and the lesion sent to biopsy analysis. On microscopic examination numerous 50-150 microm cysts with keratinous wall and numerous endospores were found. Rinosporidiosis is an infection caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi that frecuently affects nasal cavity but could infect eye, urogenital tract and airways. This infections is considered endemic in Asia and Africa, but it is very important to have the suspicious among polyps in these areas because travel to endemic areas is become more frecuently. PMID:24878912

  3. Percutaneous renal biopsy as an outpatient procedure.

    PubMed Central

    Alebiosu, Christopher O.; Kadiri, Solomon

    2004-01-01

    Percutaneous renal biopsy (PRB) is a safe and effective tool in the diagnosis and management of renal disease. It is the gold standard for evaluating renal parenchymal disease. It is both useful for diagnosis and monitoring progress of renal diseases. Where facilities and personnel are available to carry out the procedure in developing countries, it has become increasingly difficult for patients to pay for hospital admission fees, the procedure, and processing of the samples obtained. Information on the success rate and safety of the procedure is of interest to nephrologists for cost-benefit considerations and medicolegal purposes. This paper reports the outcome of outpatient PRB done among patients of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. With the use of ultrasound guidance, PRB remains a safe procedure and can be done on an outpatient basis. PMID:15481751

  4. Percutaneous real-time ultrasound-guided renal biopsy performed solely by nephrologists: A case series.

    PubMed

    Yesudas, S S; Georgy, N K; Manickam, S; Raheena, A; Monai, R C; Noble, B A; Pillai, A

    2010-07-01

    Renal biopsy is an integral part of the nephrologists' diagnostic armamentarium. Usually it is performed by radiologists or nephrologists with radiologist's assistance. Our aim was to assess the efficacy and safety of percutaneous ultrasound-guided renal biopsy performed solely by nephrologists. We performed real-time ultrasound-guided renal biopsy on 37 patients (N group). The results were then compared with those of a similar number of biopsies done with radiologist's support (NR group) immediately prior to these. In the N group, 36 biopsies (97.3%) were successful and were histopathologically adequate, whereas in the NR group, all biopsies were successful but only 28 were adequate (75.68%). Eighteen patients required only a single attempt in the N group, whereas majority (34 patients) in the NR group required two or more attempts. The average attempt per bit of renal tissue was 1.22 in both the groups. The average number of passes per patient was 1.77 in the N group and 2.32 in the NR group. The mean size of renal tissue obtained was 1.41 ± 0.47 cm in the N group and 1.19 ± 0.42 cm in the NR group. The average number of glomeruli was 15.62 ± 5.26 and 13.7 ± 7.38 in the N and NR groups, respectively (P<0.05). In the N group, there were no complications except two cases of post procedural hematuria that was managed conservatively. There was no need for blood transfusion and both of them were discharged after 48 hours. No patient had peri-renal collection or hematoma on repeat ultrasonography of the abdomen at 24 hours. However, in the NR group, five patients developed complications and one patient required laparotomy. Our study shows that percutaneous ultrasound-guided renal biopsy can be safely and successfully performed entirely by nephrologists without outside assistance. In our series, nephrologists who performed solely took fewer attempts, had better yield and fewer complications when compared to biopsies performed with radiologist's assistance. More and

  5. Comparison of MR/Ultrasound Fusion–Guided Biopsy With Ultrasound-Guided Biopsy for the Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, M. Minhaj; Rais-Bahrami, Soroush; Turkbey, Baris; George, Arvin K.; Rothwax, Jason; Shakir, Nabeel; Okoro, Chinonyerem; Raskolnikov, Dima; Parnes, Howard L.; Linehan, W. Marston; Merino, Maria J.; Simon, Richard M.; Choyke, Peter L.; Wood, Bradford J.; Pinto, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Targeted magnetic resonance (MR)/ultrasound fusion prostate biopsy has been shown to detect prostate cancer. The implications of targeted biopsy alone vs standard extended-sextant biopsy or the 2 modalities combined are not well understood. Objective To assess targeted vs standard biopsy and the 2 approaches combined for the diagnosis of intermediate- to high-risk prostate cancer. Design, Setting, And Participants Prospective cohort study of 1003 men undergoing both targeted and standard biopsy concurrently from 2007 through 2014 at the National Cancer Institute in the United States. Patients were referred for elevated level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or abnormal digital rectal examination results, often with prior negative biopsy results. Risk categorization was compared among targeted and standard biopsy and, when available, whole-gland pathology after prostatectomy as the “gold standard.” Interventions Patients underwent multiparametric prostate magnetic resonance imaging to identify regions of prostate cancer suspicion followed by targeted MR/ultrasound fusion biopsy and concurrent standard biopsy. Main Outcomes And Measures The primary objective was to compare targeted and standard biopsy approaches for detection of high-risk prostate cancer (Gleason score ≥4 + 3); secondary end points focused on detection of low-risk prostate cancer (Gleason score 3 + 3 or low-volume 3 + 4) and the biopsy ability to predict whole-gland pathology at prostatectomy. Results Targeted MR/ultrasound fusion biopsy diagnosed 461 prostate cancer cases, and standard biopsy diagnosed 469 cases. There was exact agreement between targeted and standard biopsy in 690 men (69%) undergoing biopsy. Targeted biopsy diagnosed 30% more high-risk cancers vs standard biopsy (173 vs 122 cases, P < .001) and 17% fewer low-risk cancers (213 vs 258 cases, P < .001). When standard biopsy cores were combined with the targeted approach, an additional 103 cases (22%) of mostly low

  6. Trends in breast biopsies for abnormalities detected at screening mammography: a population-based study in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    van Breest Smallenburg, V; Nederend, J; Voogd, A C; Coebergh, J W W; van Beek, M; Jansen, F H; Louwman, W J; Duijm, L E M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Diagnostic surgical breast biopsies have several disadvantages, therefore, they should be used with hesitation. We determined time trends in types of breast biopsies for the workup of abnormalities detected at screening mammography. We also examined diagnostic delays. Methods: In a Dutch breast cancer screening region 6230 women were referred for an abnormal screening mammogram between 1 January 1997 and 1 January 2011. During two year follow-up clinical data, breast imaging-, biopsy-, surgery- and pathology-reports were collected of these women. Furthermore, breast cancers diagnosed >3 months after referral (delays) were examined, this included review of mammograms and pathology specimens to determine the cause of the delays. Results: In 41.1% (1997–1998) and in 44.8% (2009–2010) of referred women imaging was sufficient for making the diagnosis (P<0.0001). Fine-needle aspiration cytology decreased from 12.7% (1997–1998) to 4.7% (2009–2010) (P<0.0001), percutaneous core-needle biopsies (CBs) increased from 8.0 to 49.1% (P<0.0001) and surgical biopsies decreased from 37.8 to 1.4% (P<0.0001). Delays in breast cancer diagnosis decreased from 6.7 to 1.8% (P=0.003). Conclusion: The use of diagnostic surgical breast biopsies has decreased substantially. They have mostly been replaced by percutaneous CBs and this replacement did not result in an increase of diagnostic delays. PMID:23695018

  7. Adequacy and complication rates with 14- vs. 16-gauge automated needles in percutaneous renal biopsy of native kidneys.

    PubMed

    Chunduri, Svetha; Whittier, William L; Korbet, Stephen M

    2015-01-01

    In performing percutaneous renal biopsy (PRB) of native kidneys, an increasing use of 16-gauge automated biopsy needles has been observed. We compare the adequacy and safety of PRBs in adults performed with a 14-gauge (n = 82) vs. 16-gauge (n = 55) automated needle using real-time ultrasound (US) from 1/2010 to 12/2013. Baseline clinical and laboratory data along with outcome data (renal US 1-hour postbiopsy, biopsy adequacy, and safety) were collected prospectively. There was no difference in age, gender, blood pressure, serum creatinine, or pre-PRB hemoglobin at baseline for PRBs performed with a 14- vs. 16-gauge needle. The number of glomeruli obtained per biopsy was similar (29 ± 11 vs. 31 ± 14, p = 0.6) and adequate tissue for diagnosis was obtained in 99% and 100% of biopsies. The clinical complication (8.5% vs. 9.1%, p = 1.0), transfusion (7.3% vs. 7.2%, p = 1.0), and embolization (3.7% vs. 1.8%, p = 0.6) rates were not significantly different for 14- vs. 16-gauge needles, but by routine renal US 1-hour post-PRB, a perinephric hematoma was demonstrated more often in biopsies done with the 14-gauge needle (39% vs. 22%, P 0.04). Thus, while the success of PRB of native kidneys is similar for both needle gauges, the potential for complication may be less using a 16-gauge automated needle.

  8. Optical biopsy of pre-malignant or degenerative lesions: the role of the inflammatory process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Martinho, Herculano

    2011-03-01

    Recent technological advances in fiber optics, light sources, detectors, and molecular biology have stimulated unprecedented development of optical methods to detect pathological changes in tissues. These methods, collectively termed "optical biopsy," are nondestructive in situ and real-time assays. Optical biopsy techniques as fluorescence spectroscopy, polarized light scattering spectroscopy, optical coherence tomography, confocal reflectance microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy had been extensively used to characterize several pathological tissues. In special, Raman spectroscopy technique had been able to probe several biochemical alterations due to pathology development as change in the DNA, glycogen, phospholipid, non-collagenous proteins. All studies claimed that the optical biopsy methods were able to discriminate normal and malignant tissues. However, few studies had been devoted to the discrimination of very common subtle or early pathological states as inflammatory process, which are always present on, e.g., cancer lesion border. In this work we present a systematic comparison of optical biopsy data on several kinds of lesions were inflammatory infiltrates play the role (breast, cervical, and oral lesion). It will be discussed the essential conditions for the optimization of discrimination among normal and alterated states based on statistical analysis.

  9. Predictive factors of a successful testicular biopsy and subsequent clinical pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Botelho, F; Figueiredo, L; Leite, R; Carvalho, A; Tomada, N; Vendeira, P

    2012-08-01

    Forecast of success with testicular sperm extraction and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) remains unknown, as predictive factors have rarely been studied. We evaluated the association among possible predictive factors and a successful biopsy and clinical pregnancy. A consecutive sample of men submitted to a testicular open biopsy in S. João Hospital was used. Patient's age, medical history, testicular volume, spermogram, genetic testing, endocrinologic results, biopsy results and clinical pregnancy information were collected. From the 113 men included, it was possible to retrieve spermatozoa in 79.6% of the cases, which resulted in 58 fertilisations and 22 clinical pregnancies. Retrieving viable spermatozoa on biopsy was associated with the identification of spermatozoa in the spermogram (100.0% versus 74.4%; P = 0.010), diseases causing obstructive infertility (100.0% versus 79.2%; P = 0.036) and no genetic causes detected (82.4% versus 54.5%; P = 0.030). Successful clinical pregnancy was only associated with lower female partner age (31.7 versus 36.0 year; P = 0.001) but not the quality of the spermatozoa or the time until the reproduction cycle. Identification of spermatozoa in the spermogram, diseases causing obstructive infertility and lack of genetic causes for infertility were associated with higher probability of viable spermatozoa retrieval but the female partner age remained the principal determinant of a successful pregnancy.

  10. Rare complication after a transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy: a giant retroperitoneal hematoma.

    PubMed

    Chiancone, Francesco; Mirone, Vincenzo; Fedelini, Maurizio; Meccariello, Clemente; Pucci, Luigi; Carrino, Maurizio; Fedelini, Paolo

    2016-05-24

    Common complications related to transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided prostatic needle biopsy are hematuria, hematospermia, and hematochezia. To the best of our knowledge, we report the second case of a very large hematoma extending from the pelvis into the retroperitoneal space in literature.A 66-year-old man with a serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) of 5.4 ng/ml was admitted to our department for a TRUS-guided prostatic needle biopsy. Laboratory values on the day before biopsy, including coagulation studies, were all normal. The patients did not take any anticoagulant drugs. No immediate complications were encountered. Nevertheless, 7 hours after the biopsy, the patient reached our emergency department with severe diffuse abdominal pain, hypotension, tachycardia, and confusional state. He underwent an ultrasonography and then a computed tomography (CT) scan that showed "a blood collection in the pelvis that extending to the lower pole of left kidney associated with a focus of active contrast extravasation, indicating active ongoing prostate bleeding." Consequently, he underwent a diagnostic angiography that showed no more contrast extravasation, without the need of embolization. Management of hematoma has been conservative and hematoma was completely reabsorbed 4 months later.

  11. The Advantages of an Attenuated Total Internal Reflection Infrared Microspectroscopic Imaging Approach for Kidney Biopsy Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gulley-Stahl, Heather J.; Bledsoe, Sharon B.; Evan, Andrew P.; Sommer, André J.

    2011-01-01

    The benefits of an ATR-FTIR imaging approach for kidney biopsy analysis are described. Biopsy sections collected from kidney stone formers are analyzed at the initial stages of stone development to provide insights into stone growth and formation. The majority of tissue analysis currently conducted with IR microspectroscopy is performed with a transflection method. The research presented in this manuscript demonstrates that ATR overcomes many of the disadvantages of transflection or transmission measurements for tissue analysis including an elimination of spectral artifacts. When kidney biopsies with small mineral inclusions are analyzed with a transflection approach, specular reflection, and the Christiansen effect (anomalous dispersion) can occur leading to spectral artifacts. Another effect specific to the analysis of mineral inclusions present in kidney biopsies is known as the reststrahlen effect where the inclusions become strong reflectors near an absorption band. ATR eliminates these effects by immersing the sample in a high index medium. Additionally, the focused beam size for ATR is decreased by a factor of four when a germanium internal reflection element is used, allowing the acquisition of spectra from small mineral inclusions several micrometers in diameter. If quantitative analysis of small mineral inclusions is ultimately desired, ATR provides the photometrically accurate spectra necessary for quantification. PMID:20132593

  12. Pleural effusion: Role of pleural fluid cytology, adenosine deaminase level, and pleural biopsy in diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Biswajit; Sharma, Sudershan Kumar; Negi, Rameshwar Singh; Gupta, Neelam; Jaswal, Virender Mohan Singh; Niranjan, Narsimhalu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The present study is designed to evaluate the role of pleural fluid analysis in diagnosing pleural diseases and to study the advantages and disadvantages of thoracocentasis and pleural biopsy. Materials and Methods: We prospectively included 66 consecutive indoor patients over a duration of 1 year. Pleural fluid was collected and cytological smears were made from the fluid. Plural biopsy was done in the same patient by Cope needle. Adequate pleural biopsy tissue yielding specific diagnosis was obtained in 47 (71.2%) cases. Results: Tuberculosis was the commonest nonneoplastic lesion followed by chronic nonspecific pleuritis comprising 60% and 33.3% of the nonneoplastic cases respectively and tuberculosis was predominantly diagnosed in the younger age group. Majority (70.8%) of malignancy cases were in the age group of >50-70. Adenocarcinoma was found to be the commonest (66.7%) malignant neoplasm in the pleurae followed by small-cell carcinoma (20.8%). Conclusion: Pleural biopsy is a useful and minimally invasive procedure. It is more sensitive and specific than pleural fluid smears.

  13. Real-time ultrasound-guided percutaneous renal biopsy with needle guide by nephrologists decreases post-biopsy complications

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Narayan; Kumar, Shashi; Manjunath, Revanasiddappa; Bhadauria, Dharmendra; Kaul, Anupama; Sharma, Raj K; Gupta, Amit; Lal, Hira; Jain, Manoj; Agrawal, Vinita

    2015-01-01

    Background Percutaneous renal biopsy (PRB) can result in serious complications. The study is aimed to compare the biopsy yield and complications rate of the real-time ultrasonagram (USG)-guided PRB and needle tracking with and without needle guide in two different study periods. Methods We compared the yield and complications of 2138 kidney biopsies performed in two different periods, 1510 biopsies during the first period from April 2004–December 2010 and 628 biopsies during second period from January 2011–March 2013. All biopsies in both periods were performed by nephrologists. Radiologists provided the real-time image without needle guide during the first period while nephrologists performed both imaging and biopsy with needle guide during the second period. Results Of all the 2138 patients, 226 (10.5%) patients developed 118 minor and 108 major complications. Only 13 (2.1%) major complications occurred in the second period and 95 (6.7%) in the first period (P < 0.001). The relative risk of developing a major complication without guide was 3.04 times greater than that of the biopsies performed with use of the guide. The mean number of glomeruli per biopsy obtained during the second period (17.98 ± 6.75) was significantly greater than that of the first period (14.14 ± 6.01) (P = 0.004). The number of passes to acquire adequate tissue (P = 0.001) and percentage of cortex on biopsy (P = 0.001) were also significantly better in the second period. The optimal observation period post biopsy is 24 h. Conclusions Real-time USG imaging supported by needle guide device is associated with better biopsy yield and fewer complications. PMID:25815170

  14. Bacterial and chemical oxidation of pyritic mine tailings at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elberling, Bo; Schippers, Axel; Sand, Wolfgang

    2000-02-01

    Microbial and chemical sulfide oxidation activity and oxygen consumption was investigated in the active layer of pyritic mine tailings at Nanisivik Mine, located in a permafrost area on Baffin Island in northern Canada. Samples of tailings were collected up to a depth of 60 cm in mid-August 1998 at 4 sites, for which the metabolic activity of sulfur- and iron-oxidizing leaching bacteria besides the chemical pyrite oxidation activity were measured on 39 tailings samples and 7 samples from a natural pyritic site by calorimetry. The tailings of varying age and water content were deposited under alkaline conditions. In situ oxygen uptake rates were measured at the tailings surface every third day, prior to sampling. In addition, cell counts of iron(II), sulfur, and thiosulfate oxidizing, lithotrophic bacteria and chemoorganotrophic microorganisms were determined quantitatively by the most-probable-number technique or by agar-plating. Results show consistent pyrite oxidation rates based on in situ oxygen uptake rates, and laboratory heat output measurements. Litho- and organotrophic bacteria were found in the tailings. Calorimetric measurements revealed that the present bacterial activity is responsible for approximately one third of the ongoing oxidation. Although leaching bacteria have previously been found in the Arctic, this study is the first to prove the significance of bacterial activity in the overall pollution resulting from tailings deposited in the Arctic.

  15. Tail suspension increases energy expenditure independently of the melanocortin system in mice.

    PubMed

    Lew, Pei San; Wong, Davie; Yamaguchi, Takafumi; Leckstrom, Arnold; Schwartz, Jacquie; Dodd, Janice G; Mizuno, Tooru M

    2009-10-01

    Space travelers experience anorexia and body weight loss in a microgravity environment, and microgravity-like situations cause changes in hypothalamic activity. Hypothalamic melanocortins play a critical role in the regulation of metabolism. Therefore, we hypothesized that microgravity affects metabolism through alterations in specific hypothalamic signaling pathways, including melanocortin signaling. To address this hypothesis, the microgravity-like situation was produced by an antiorthostatic tail suspension in wild-type and agouti mice, and the effect of tail suspension on energy expenditure and hypothalamic gene expression was examined. Energy expenditure was measured using indirect calorimetry before and during the tail suspension protocol. Hypothalamic tissues were collected for gene expression analysis at the end of the 3 h tail suspension period. Tail suspension significantly increased oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and heat production in wild-type mice. Tail suspension-induced increases in energy expenditure were not attenuated in agouti mice. Although tail suspension did not alter hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and agouti-related protein (AGRP) mRNA levels, it significantly increased hypothalamic interleukin 6 (Il-6) mRNA levels. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that microgravity increases energy expenditure and suggest that these effects are mediated through hypothalamic signaling pathways that are independent of melanocortins, but possibly used by Il-6.

  16. Tail suspension increases energy expenditure independently of the melanocortin system in mice.

    PubMed

    Lew, Pei San; Wong, Davie; Yamaguchi, Takafumi; Leckstrom, Arnold; Schwartz, Jacquie; Dodd, Janice G; Mizuno, Tooru M

    2009-10-01

    Space travelers experience anorexia and body weight loss in a microgravity environment, and microgravity-like situations cause changes in hypothalamic activity. Hypothalamic melanocortins play a critical role in the regulation of metabolism. Therefore, we hypothesized that microgravity affects metabolism through alterations in specific hypothalamic signaling pathways, including melanocortin signaling. To address this hypothesis, the microgravity-like situation was produced by an antiorthostatic tail suspension in wild-type and agouti mice, and the effect of tail suspension on energy expenditure and hypothalamic gene expression was examined. Energy expenditure was measured using indirect calorimetry before and during the tail suspension protocol. Hypothalamic tissues were collected for gene expression analysis at the end of the 3 h tail suspension period. Tail suspension significantly increased oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and heat production in wild-type mice. Tail suspension-induced increases in energy expenditure were not attenuated in agouti mice. Although tail suspension did not alter hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and agouti-related protein (AGRP) mRNA levels, it significantly increased hypothalamic interleukin 6 (Il-6) mRNA levels. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that microgravity increases energy expenditure and suggest that these effects are mediated through hypothalamic signaling pathways that are independent of melanocortins, but possibly used by Il-6. PMID:20052010

  17. Automatic biopsy instruments used through a coaxial bone biopsy system with an eccentric drill tip.

    PubMed

    Aström, K G; Sundström, J C; Lindgren, P G; Ahlström, K H

    1995-05-01

    Twenty-eight consecutive CT (n = 23) or ultrasonographically (n = 5) guided biopsy procedures were performed on musculoskeletal lytic lesions covered (n = 13) or not covered (n = 15) with intact bone. Specimens were obtained by means of Biopty techniques (n = 27), i.e. Biopty and Monopty instruments, through different cannulas with normal or shortened needle-throws. Four out of 5 bone penetrations were successful with an Ostycut needle, and all 8 bone penetrations by a coaxial bone biopsy system with an eccentric drill. The eccentric drill makes a hole in the cortical bone larger than the diameter of the outer cannula of this system, making it easy to anchor the cannula and then coaxially insert a Biopty-Gun needle for example. The overall histopathological diagnostic accuracy of the Biopty techniques was 25/27 (92.6%).

  18. Satellite tagging and biopsy sampling of killer whales at subantarctic Marion Island: effectiveness, immediate reactions and long-term responses.

    PubMed

    Reisinger, Ryan R; Oosthuizen, W Chris; Péron, Guillaume; Cory Toussaint, Dawn; Andrews, Russel D; de Bruyn, P J Nico

    2014-01-01

    Remote tissue biopsy sampling and satellite tagging are becoming widely used in large marine vertebrate studies because they allow the collection of a diverse suite of otherwise difficult-to-obtain data which are critical in understanding the ecology of these species and to their conservation and management. Researchers must carefully consider their methods not only from an animal welfare perspective, but also to ensure the scientific rigour and validity of their results. We report methods for shore-based, remote biopsy sampling and satellite tagging of killer whales Orcinus orca at Subantarctic Marion Island. The performance of these methods is critically assessed using 1) the attachment duration of low-impact minimally percutaneous satellite tags; 2) the immediate behavioural reactions of animals to biopsy sampling and satellite tagging; 3) the effect of researcher experience on biopsy sampling and satellite tagging; and 4) the mid- (1 month) and long- (24 month) term behavioural consequences. To study mid- and long-term behavioural changes we used multievent capture-recapture models that accommodate imperfect detection and individual heterogeneity. We made 72 biopsy sampling attempts (resulting in 32 tissue samples) and 37 satellite tagging attempts (deploying 19 tags). Biopsy sampling success rates were low (43%), but tagging rates were high with improved tag designs (86%). The improved tags remained attached for 26±14 days (mean ± SD). Individuals most often showed no reaction when attempts missed (66%) and a slight reaction-defined as a slight flinch, slight shake, short acceleration, or immediate dive-when hit (54%). Severe immediate reactions were never observed. Hit or miss and age-sex class were important predictors of the reaction, but the method (tag or biopsy) was unimportant. Multievent trap-dependence modelling revealed considerable variation in individual sighting patterns; however, there were no significant mid- or long-term changes following

  19. Incidence of sepsis following transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy at a tertiary-care medical center in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Shahait, Mohammed; Degheili, Jad; El-Merhi, Fadi; Tamim, Hani; Nasr, Rami

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Urosepsis is a rare but life-threatening complication following transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided needle prostate biopsy. Despite the technological and pharmacological improvements, the problem of bacterial urosepsis after prostate biopsy remains. A strategy for preventing urosepsis following TRUS prostate biopsy in areas with high prevalence of resistant strains or patients presenting risk factors is lacking. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of urosepsis, as well its predictors, following TRUS guided needle biopsy of the prostate in a tertiary care medical center in Lebanon. Materials and Methods We carried out a retrospective study on all patients who underwent TRUS prostate biopsy at the American University of Beirut Medical Center between January 1, 2011 and June 31, 2013. Patients’ hospital charts were reviewed. Data collected included demographic information, pre-procedure disease specific information, as well as post-procedure information. Predictors of urosepsis following TRUS were assessed. Results In total, 265 patients were included in this study, where the prevalence of urosepsis following TRUS prostate biopsy was found to be 9.4%. The significant independent predictors of urosepsis were found to be: age with an OR=0.93 (95% CI: 0.88–1.00, p-value=0.03), and hypertension comorbidity with an OR=3.25 (95% CI: 1.19–8.85, p-value=0.02). Conclusion We found a high prevalence of urosepsis among patients who have undergone TRUS prostate biopsy, and identified two significant risk factors. The results of this study highlight the importance of implementing strategies for prevention of urosepsis following TRUS prostate biopsy. PMID:27136468

  20. Satellite tagging and biopsy sampling of killer whales at subantarctic Marion Island: effectiveness, immediate reactions and long-term responses.

    PubMed

    Reisinger, Ryan R; Oosthuizen, W Chris; Péron, Guillaume; Cory Toussaint, Dawn; Andrews, Russel D; de Bruyn, P J Nico

    2014-01-01

    Remote tissue biopsy sampling and satellite tagging are becoming widely used in large marine vertebrate studies because they allow the collection of a diverse suite of otherwise difficult-to-obtain data which are critical in understanding the ecology of these species and to their conservation and management. Researchers must carefully consider their methods not only from an animal welfare perspective, but also to ensure the scientific rigour and validity of their results. We report methods for shore-based, remote biopsy sampling and satellite tagging of killer whales Orcinus orca at Subantarctic Marion Island. The performance of these methods is critically assessed using 1) the attachment duration of low-impact minimally percutaneous satellite tags; 2) the immediate behavioural reactions of animals to biopsy sampling and satellite tagging; 3) the effect of researcher experience on biopsy sampling and satellite tagging; and 4) the mid- (1 month) and long- (24 month) term behavioural consequences. To study mid- and long-term behavioural changes we used multievent capture-recapture models that accommodate imperfect detection and individual heterogeneity. We made 72 biopsy sampling attempts (resulting in 32 tissue samples) and 37 satellite tagging attempts (deploying 19 tags). Biopsy sampling success rates were low (43%), but tagging rates were high with improved tag designs (86%). The improved tags remained attached for 26±14 days (mean ± SD). Individuals most often showed no reaction when attempts missed (66%) and a slight reaction-defined as a slight flinch, slight shake, short acceleration, or immediate dive-when hit (54%). Severe immediate reactions were never observed. Hit or miss and age-sex class were important predictors of the reaction, but the method (tag or biopsy) was unimportant. Multievent trap-dependence modelling revealed considerable variation in individual sighting patterns; however, there were no significant mid- or long-term changes following

  1. Satellite Tagging and Biopsy Sampling of Killer Whales at Subantarctic Marion Island: Effectiveness, Immediate Reactions and Long-Term Responses

    PubMed Central

    Reisinger, Ryan R.; Oosthuizen, W. Chris; Péron, Guillaume; Cory Toussaint, Dawn; Andrews, Russel D.; de Bruyn, P. J. Nico

    2014-01-01

    Remote tissue biopsy sampling and satellite tagging are becoming widely used in large marine vertebrate studies because they allow the collection of a diverse suite of otherwise difficult-to-obtain data which are critical in understanding the ecology of these species and to their conservation and management. Researchers must carefully consider their methods not only from an animal welfare perspective, but also to ensure the scientific rigour and validity of their results. We report methods for shore-based, remote biopsy sampling and satellite tagging of killer whales Orcinus orca at Subantarctic Marion Island. The performance of these methods is critically assessed using 1) the attachment duration of low-impact minimally percutaneous satellite tags; 2) the immediate behavioural reactions of animals to biopsy sampling and satellite tagging; 3) the effect of researcher experience on biopsy sampling and satellite tagging; and 4) the mid- (1 month) and long- (24 month) term behavioural consequences. To study mid- and long-term behavioural changes we used multievent capture-recapture models that accommodate imperfect detection and individual heterogeneity. We made 72 biopsy sampling attempts (resulting in 32 tissue samples) and 37 satellite tagging attempts (deploying 19 tags). Biopsy sampling success rates were low (43%), but tagging rates were high with improved tag designs (86%). The improved tags remained attached for 26±14 days (mean ± SD). Individuals most often showed no reaction when attempts missed (66%) and a slight reaction–defined as a slight flinch, slight shake, short acceleration, or immediate dive–when hit (54%). Severe immediate reactions were never observed. Hit or miss and age-sex class were important predictors of the reaction, but the method (tag or biopsy) was unimportant. Multievent trap-dependence modelling revealed considerable variation in individual sighting patterns; however, there were no significant mid- or long-term changes following

  2. Comet tail formation: Giotto observations

    SciTech Connect

    Wilken, B.; Jockers, K.; Johnstone, A.; Coates, A.; Heath, J.; Formisano, V.; Amata, E.; Winningham, J.D.; Thomsen, M.; Bryant, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The process of mass loading of the solar wind by cometary ions, which forms comet tails, has been observed throughout the coma of comet Halley. Three distinct regimes were found where the nature of the energy and momentum coupling between solar wind and cometary ions is different. Outside the bow shock, where there is little angular scattering of the freshly ionized particles, the coupling is described by the simple pickup trajectory and the energy is controlled by the angle between the flow and the magnetic field. Just inside the bow shock, there is considerable scattering accompanied by another acceleration process which raises some particle energies well above the straightforward pickup value. Finally, closer to the nucleus, the amount of scattering decreases and the coupling is once more controlled by the magnetic field direction. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Tail reconnection triggering substorm onset.

    PubMed

    Angelopoulos, Vassilis; McFadden, James P; Larson, Davin; Carlson, Charles W; Mende, Stephen B; Frey, Harald; Phan, Tai; Sibeck, David G; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz; Auster, Uli; Donovan, Eric; Mann, Ian R; Rae, I Jonathan; Russell, Christopher T; Runov, Andrei; Zhou, Xu-Zhi; Kepko, Larry

    2008-08-15

    Magnetospheric substorms explosively release solar wind energy previously stored in Earth's magnetotail, encompassing the entire magnetosphere and producing spectacular auroral displays. It has been unclear whether a substorm is triggered by a disruption of the electrical current flowing across the near-Earth magnetotail, at approximately 10 R(E) (R(E): Earth radius, or 6374 kilometers), or by the process of magnetic reconnection typically seen farther out in the magnetotail, at approximately 20 to 30 R(E). We report on simultaneous measurements in the magnetotail at multiple distances, at the time of substorm onset. Reconnection was observed at 20 R(E), at least 1.5 minutes before auroral intensification, at least 2 minutes before substorm expansion, and about 3 minutes before near-Earth current disruption. These results demonstrate that substorms are likely initiated by tail reconnection. PMID:18653845

  4. Is magnetic resonance/ultrasound fusion prostate biopsy better than systematic prostate biopsy? an updated meta- and trial sequential analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Bo; Wang, Xiao; Zhu, Yi; Wang, Junyuan; Yu, Yasai; Zheng, Xiangyi; Liu, Ben; Xie, Liping

    2015-01-01

    We systematically reviewed the literature to determine whether Magnetic Resonance/Ultrasound (MR/US) fusion prostate biopsy is better than systematic biopsy for making a definitive diagnosis of prostate cancer. The two strategies were also compared for their ability to detect lesions with different degrees of suspicion on MRI and clinically significant prostate cancer, and the number of cores needed for diagnosis. The Cochrane Library, Embase, Web of Knowledge, and Medline were searched from inception until May 1, 2015. Meta-analysis was conducted via RevMan 5.2 software. Data was expressed as risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval. Trial sequential analysis was used to assess risk of random errors. Fourteen trials were included, encompassing a total of 3105 participants. We found that MR/US fusion biopsy detected more prostate cancers than systematic biopsy (46.9% vs. 44.2%, p=0.03). In men with moderate/high MRI suspicion, MR/US fusion biopsy did better than systematic biopsy (RR = 1.46; p < 0.05) for making a diagnosis. Moreover, MR/US fusion biopsy detected more clinically significant cancers than systematic biopsy (RR = 1.19; p < 0.05). We recommend that MR/US fusion prostate biopsy be used to better detect prostate cancer, particularly in patients with moderate/high suspicion lesions on MRI. PMID:26498362

  5. Integrative biology of tail autotomy in lizards.

    PubMed

    Higham, Timothy E; Russell, Anthony P; Zani, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    Self-amputation (autotomy) of the tail is essential for the survival of many lizards. Accordingly, it has garnered the attention of scientists for more than 200 years. Several factors can influence the release of the tail, such as the size, sex, and age of the lizard; type of predator; ecology; and evolutionary history of the lineage. Once lost, the tail will writhe for seconds to minutes, and these movements likely depend on the size and physiology of the tail, habitat of the lizard, and predation pressure. Loss of the tail will, in turn, have impacts on the lizard, such as modified locomotor performance and mechanics, as well as escape behavior. However, the tail is almost always regenerated, and this involves wound healing, altered investment of resources, and tissue differentiation. The regenerated tail generally differs from the original in several ways, including size, shape, and function. Here we summarize recent findings of research pertaining to tail autotomy, and we propose a framework for future investigations.

  6. Renal biopsy in the management of lupus nephritis during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Chen, T K; Gelber, A C; Witter, F R; Petri, M; Fine, D M

    2015-02-01

    The differential diagnosis of proteinuria and hematuria in pregnancy is broad and includes active lupus nephritis. Identification of the correct diagnosis often has a profound therapeutic impact on not only the mother but also the fetus. To date, relatively few reports exist on the role of renal biopsy during pregnancy among women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We present a case series of 11 pregnant women with SLE who underwent a renal biopsy to evaluate a presumptive flare of lupus nephritis. The electronic medical record was retrospectively analyzed for pre-biopsy serum creatinine, proteinuria, hematuria, antinuclear antibodies (ANA), and antibodies to double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA); histologic findings on renal biopsy; and the clinical course of each mother and fetus. From 2001 to 2012, 11 pregnant women with SLE flares during pregnancy underwent a renal biopsy at an academic tertiary medical center. At the time of biopsy, median gestational age was 16 weeks (range 9 to 27), median serum creatinine was 0.6 mg/dl (interquartile range 0.5 to 0.9), six (55%) had hematuria, and all had proteinuria >500 mg/24 hours. Proliferative lupus nephritis was found in 10 (91%) of 11 biopsies (five with ISN/RPS Class III; five with ISN/RPS Class IV). All but one individual underwent a change in management guided by information gleaned from renal biopsy. No apparent biopsy-related complications occurred to mother or fetus. Three women elected to terminate their pregnancy; although many factors were involved, the findings on renal biopsy informed the decision-making process. Among the remaining cases, there were three pre-term deliveries, one fetus with complete heart block, one in utero demise, and one maternal death. Renal biopsy is helpful at informing the management of patients with lupus nephritis during pregnancy.

  7. Limitations of stereotactic biopsy in the initial management of gliomas.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, R. J.; Fuller, G. N.; Abi-Said, D.; Lang, F. F.; Gokaslan, Z. L.; Shi, W. M.; Wildrick, D. M.; Sawaya, R.

    2001-01-01

    Stereotactic biopsy is often performed for diagnostic purposes before treating patients whose imaging studies highly suggest glioma. Indications cited for biopsy include diagnosis and/or the "inoperability" of the tumor. This study questions the routine use of stereotactic biopsy in the initial management of gliomas. At The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, we retrospectively reviewed a consecutive series of 81 patients whose imaging studies suggested glioma and who underwent stereotactic biopsy followed by craniotomy/resection (within 60 days) between 1993 and 1998. All relevant clinical and imaging information was reviewed, including computerized volumetric analysis of the tumors based on pre- and postoperative MRI. Stereotactic biopsy was performed at institutions other than M. D. Anderson in 78 (96%) of 81 patients. The majority of tumors were located either in eloquent brain (36 of 81 = 44%) or near-eloquent brain (41 of 81 = 51%), and this frequently was the rationale cited for performing stereotactic biopsy. Gross total resection (>95%) was achieved in 46 (57%) of 81 patients, with a median extent of resection of 96% for this series. Diagnoses based on biopsy or resection in the same patient differed in 40 (49%) of 82 cases. This discrepancy was reduced to 30 (38%) of 80 cases when the biopsy slides were reviewed preoperatively by each of three neuropathologists at M. D. Anderson. Major neurologic complications occurred in 10 (12.3%) of 81 surgical patients and 3 (3.7%) of 81 patients undergoing biopsy. Surgical morbidity was probably higher in our series than it would be for glioma patients in general because our patients represent a highly selected subset of glioma patients whose tumors present a technical challenge to remove. Stereotactic biopsy is frequently inaccurate in providing a correct diagnosis and is associated with additional risk and cost. If stereotactic biopsy is performed, expert neuropathology consultation should be sought

  8. Injurious tail biting in pigs: how can it be controlled in existing systems without tail docking?

    PubMed

    D'Eath, R B; Arnott, G; Turner, S P; Jensen, T; Lahrmann, H P; Busch, M E; Niemi, J K; Lawrence, A B; Sandøe, P

    2014-09-01

    Tail biting is a serious animal welfare and economic problem in pig production. Tail docking, which reduces but does not eliminate tail biting, remains widespread. However, in the EU tail docking may not be used routinely, and some 'alternative' forms of pig production and certain countries do not allow tail docking at all. Against this background, using a novel approach focusing on research where tail injuries were quantified, we review the measures that can be used to control tail biting in pigs without tail docking. Using this strict criterion, there was good evidence that manipulable substrates and feeder space affect damaging tail biting. Only epidemiological evidence was available for effects of temperature and season, and the effect of stocking density was unclear. Studies suggest that group size has little effect, and the effects of nutrition, disease and breed require further investigation. The review identifies a number of knowledge gaps and promising avenues for future research into prevention and mitigation. We illustrate the diversity of hypotheses concerning how different proposed risk factors might increase tail biting through their effect on each other or on the proposed underlying processes of tail biting. A quantitative comparison of the efficacy of different methods of provision of manipulable materials, and a review of current practices in countries and assurance schemes where tail docking is banned, both suggest that daily provision of small quantities of destructible, manipulable natural materials can be of considerable benefit. Further comparative research is needed into materials, such as ropes, which are compatible with slatted floors. Also, materials which double as fuel for anaerobic digesters could be utilised. As well as optimising housing and management to reduce risk, it is important to detect and treat tail biting as soon as it occurs. Early warning signs before the first bloody tails appear, such as pigs holding their tails tucked

  9. Injurious tail biting in pigs: how can it be controlled in existing systems without tail docking?

    PubMed

    D'Eath, R B; Arnott, G; Turner, S P; Jensen, T; Lahrmann, H P; Busch, M E; Niemi, J K; Lawrence, A B; Sandøe, P

    2014-09-01

    Tail biting is a serious animal welfare and economic problem in pig production. Tail docking, which reduces but does not eliminate tail biting, remains widespread. However, in the EU tail docking may not be used routinely, and some 'alternative' forms of pig production and certain countries do not allow tail docking at all. Against this background, using a novel approach focusing on research where tail injuries were quantified, we review the measures that can be used to control tail biting in pigs without tail docking. Using this strict criterion, there was good evidence that manipulable substrates and feeder space affect damaging tail biting. Only epidemiological evidence was available for effects of temperature and season, and the effect of stocking density was unclear. Studies suggest that group size has little effect, and the effects of nutrition, disease and breed require further investigation. The review identifies a number of knowledge gaps and promising avenues for future research into prevention and mitigation. We illustrate the diversity of hypotheses concerning how different proposed risk factors might increase tail biting through their effect on each other or on the proposed underlying processes of tail biting. A quantitative comparison of the efficacy of different methods of provision of manipulable materials, and a review of current practices in countries and assurance schemes where tail docking is banned, both suggest that daily provision of small quantities of destructible, manipulable natural materials can be of considerable benefit. Further comparative research is needed into materials, such as ropes, which are compatible with slatted floors. Also, materials which double as fuel for anaerobic digesters could be utilised. As well as optimising housing and management to reduce risk, it is important to detect and treat tail biting as soon as it occurs. Early warning signs before the first bloody tails appear, such as pigs holding their tails tucked

  10. Vortex Breakdown-Aircraft Tail Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Younjong; Rockwell, Donald

    2003-11-01

    The interaction of vortex breakdown with the tail of an aircraft can lead to severe unsteady loading and vibration. A technique of high-image-density particle image velocimetry is employed to characterize the instantaneous and averaged structure of a broken-down vortex with a generic tail configuration. Interaction of the primary (incident) vortex with the tail results in formation of a relatively large-scale cluster of secondary vorticity. The coexistence of these primary and secondary vortical structures is intimately associated with the unsteadiness of the vortex system, and thereby the near-surface fluctuations associated with buffet loading. Instantaneous and averaged representations of the vortex-tail interaction provide insight into the complex physics. Furthermore, a low order POD model is employed to characterize the most energetic modes of the vortex-tail interaction.

  11. Plasma dynamics in type-1 comet tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podgornyi, I. M.; Dubinin, E. M.; Israelevich, P. L.; Skolnikova, S. I.

    The comparison of experimental data on artificial solar wind interaction with a body having a plasma shell and observations of type I cometary tails shows that in these cases the formation of an induced magnetosphere with extended magnetic tail takes place. This magnetosphere is caused by unipolar induction currents. The distribution of electrodynamical forces connected with the induced magnetosphere allows to explain the dynamics of the filamentary structure observed in type I tails. The analysis of a small plasma cloud's motion in comet Halley allows to determine the value of the magnetic field in its tail. The mean value of this field is 30 - 50 G. On the basis of the induced magnetosphere model a mechanism of comet tail disconnections due to reconnection of magnetic force lines is proposed.

  12. Vortex control for tail buffet alleviation on a twin-tail fighter configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Dhanvada M.; Puram, C. K.; Shah, Gautam H.

    1989-01-01

    Two aerodynamic concepts proposed for alleviating high-alpha tail buffet characteristics of a LEX (Leading Edge Extension) vortex dominated twin-tail fighter configuration were explored in low-speed tunnel tests on generic models via flow visualizations, 6-component balance measurements and monitoring of tail dynamics. Passive dorsal-fin extensions of the vertical tails, and an active LEX arrangement with up-deflected edge sections were evaluated as independent means of re-structuring the adverse vortical flow environment in the tail region. Each of these techniques successfully reduced the buffet as measured by the root-mean-square of tail accelerometer output, particularly at post-stall angles of attack when the baseline configuration was characterized by high buffet intensity. Used in combination, the two concepts indicated significant tail buffet relief with relatively minor impact on the high-alpha configuration aerodynamics.

  13. PET-directed, 3D Ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Baowei; Nieh, Peter T; Schuster, David M; Master, Viraj A

    2013-01-01

    Multimodatity imaging is a promising approach for improving prostate cancer detection and diagnosis. This article describes various concepts in PET-directed, ultrasound-guided biopsies and highlights a new PET/ultrasound fusion targeted biopsy system for prostate cancer detection. PMID:25392702

  14. Diagnosis of sarcoidosis by lip biopsy of minor salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Tannenbaum, Hyman; Anderson, Larry G.; Rosenberg, Earle H.; Sheffer, Albert L.

    1974-01-01

    In two patients with bilateral parotid gland swelling of unknown etiology the diagnosis of sarcoidosis was established by lip biopsy of the minor salivary glands. This simple, innocuous biopsy procedure may prove useful in tissue documentation of sarcoidosis. ImagesFIG. 1 PMID:4442017

  15. Diffuse reflectance imaging: a tool for guided biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayanthi, Jayaraj L.; Subhash, Narayanan; Manju, Stephen; Nisha, Unni G.; Beena, Valappil T.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of premalignant or malignant oral lesions depends on the quality of the biopsy, adequate clinical information and correct interpretation of the biopsy results. The major clinical challenge is to precisely locate the biopsy site in a clinically suspicious lesion. Dips due to oxygenated hemoglobin absorption have been noticed at 545 and 575 nm in the diffusely reflected white light spectra of oral mucosa and the intensity ratio R545/R575 has been found suited for early detection of oral pre-cancers. A multi-spectral diffuse reflectance (DR) imaging system has been developed consisting of an electron multiplying charge coupled device (EMCCD) camera and a liquid crystal tunable filter for guiding the clinician to an optimal biopsy site. Towards this DR images were recorded from 27 patients with potentially malignant lesions on their tongue (dorsal, lateral and ventral sides) and from 44 healthy controls at 545 and 575 nm with the DR imaging system. False colored ratio image R545/R575 of the lesion provides a visual discerning capability that helps in locating the most malignant site for biopsy. Histopathological report of guided biopsy showed that out of the 27 patients 16 were cancers, 9 pre-cancers and 2 lichen planus. In this clinical trial DR imaging has correctly guided 25 biopsy sites, yielding a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 98%, thereby establishing the potential of DR imaging as a tool for guided biopsy.

  16. Biopsy of the right adrenal gland by the transhepatic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R.B.; Bernardino, M.E.; Berkman, W.A.; Sones, P.J. Jr.; Torres, W.E.

    1983-08-01

    A transhepatic computed-tomographic-guided biopsy of a right adrenal mass is described. This method is simpler to perform than the usual posterior biopsy carried out with the patient prone and is less likely to cause a complicating pneumothorax. In seven of eight patients with right adrenal masses, adrenal tissue was obtained and an accurate diagnosis was possible. No complications resulted.

  17. My approach to the interpretation of endometrial biopsies and curettings

    PubMed Central

    McCluggage, W G

    2006-01-01

    A major proportion of the workload in many histopathology laboratories is accounted for by endometrial biopsies, either curettage specimens or outpatient biopsy specimens. The increasing use of pipelle and other methods of biopsy not necessitating general anaesthesia has resulted in greater numbers of specimens with scant tissue, resulting in problems in assessing adequacy and in interpreting artefactual changes, some of which appear more common with outpatient biopsies. In this review, the criteria for adequacy and common artefacts in endometrial biopsies, as well as the interpretation of endometrial biopsies in general, are discussed, concentrating on areas that cause problems for pathologists. An adequate clinical history, including knowledge of the age, menstrual history and menopausal status, and information on the use of exogenous hormones and tamoxifen, is necessary for the pathologist to critically evaluate endometrial biopsies. Topics such as endometritis, endometrial polyps, changes that are induced by hormones and tamoxifen within the endometrium, endometrial metaplasias and hyperplasias, atypical polypoid adenomyoma, adenofibroma, adenosarcoma, histological types of endometrial carcinoma and grading of endometrial carcinomas are discussed with regard to endometrial biopsy specimens rather than hysterectomy specimens. The value of ancillary techniques, especially immunohistochemistry, is discussed where appropriate. PMID:16873562

  18. Percutaneous lung biopsy in the horse: comparison of two instruments and repeated biopsy in horses with induced acute interstitial pneumopathy.

    PubMed

    Venner, M; Schmidbauer, S; Drommer, W; Deegen, E

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study reported here was to compare complications of lung biopsy in horses and the quality of the lung specimens after biopsy using the manual Tru-Cut biopsy needle (TC) and an automated biopsy needle (ABN). For experiment 1, lung biopsy was performed in 50 horses with one instrument on one side of the thorax, and then with the other instrument on the other side. Postmortem examination was performed in 20 of the 50 horses. Coughing was detected in 10 of 50 horses and epistaxis was observed in 6 of the 50 horses. Endoscopy revealed bleeding into the airways in 16 of 49 horses and in 5 of 49 horses after biopsy with the TC or the ABN, respectively. Use of the ABN induced a significantly smaller amount of bleeding. Pneumothorax was detected by radiography in 1 of 50 horses. Hematoma diameter determined in 7 of 20 horses at postmortem examination, was significantly larger after biopsy with the TC than with the ABN. The quality of the lung specimen was good. In experiment 2, complications after repeated and multiple lung biopsies in 6 horses were evaluated. Moderate epistaxis was observed on 13 of 104 occasions. Bleeding into the airways was detected at endoscopy on 41 of 104 occasions, and pneumothorax was detected during 4 of 104 occasions. Complications such as hematoma at the biopsy site and bleeding into the airways were greater after biopsy with the TC than after use of the ABN. Lung biopsy specimens obtained with the ABN were fairly safe for the animal.

  19. Shake a tail feather: the evolution of the theropod tail into a stiff aerodynamic surface.

    PubMed

    Pittman, Michael; Gatesy, Stephen M; Upchurch, Paul; Goswami, Anjali; Hutchinson, John R

    2013-01-01

    Theropod dinosaurs show striking morphological and functional tail variation; e.g., a long, robust, basal theropod tail used for counterbalance, or a short, modern avian tail used as an aerodynamic surface. We used a quantitative morphological and functional analysis to reconstruct intervertebral joint stiffness in the tail along the theropod lineage to extant birds. This provides new details of the tail's morphological transformation, and for the first time quantitatively evaluates its biomechanical consequences. We observe that both dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness decreased along the non-avian theropod lineage (between nodes Theropoda and Paraves). Our results show how the tail structure of non-avian theropods was mechanically appropriate for holding itself up against gravity and maintaining passive balance. However, as dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness decreased, the tail may have become more effective for dynamically maintaining balance. This supports our hypothesis of a reduction of dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness in shorter tails. Along the avian theropod lineage (Avialae to crown group birds), dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness increased overall, which appears to contradict our null expectation. We infer that this departure in joint stiffness is specific to the tail's aerodynamic role and the functional constraints imposed by it. Increased dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness may have facilitated a gradually improved capacity to lift, depress, and swing the tail. The associated morphological changes should have resulted in a tail capable of producing larger muscular forces to utilise larger lift forces in flight. Improved joint mobility in neornithine birds potentially permitted an increase in the range of lift force vector orientations, which might have improved flight proficiency and manoeuvrability. The tail morphology of modern birds with tail fanning capabilities originated in early ornithuromorph birds. Hence, these

  20. Recent advances in image-guided targeted prostate biopsy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Anna M; Elbuluk, Osama; Mertan, Francesca; Sankineni, Sandeep; Margolis, Daniel J; Wood, Bradford J; Pinto, Peter A; Choyke, Peter L; Turkbey, Baris

    2015-08-01

    Prostate cancer is a common malignancy in the United States that results in over 30,000 deaths per year. The current state of prostate cancer diagnosis, based on PSA screening and sextant biopsy, has been criticized for both overdiagnosis of low-grade tumors and underdiagnosis of clinically significant prostate cancers (Gleason score ≥7). Recently, image guidance has been added to perform targeted biopsies of lesions detected on multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) scans. These methods have improved the ability to detect clinically significant cancer, while reducing the diagnosis of low-grade tumors. Several approaches have been explored to improve the accuracy of image-guided targeted prostate biopsy, including in-bore MRI-guided, cognitive fusion, and MRI/transrectal ultrasound fusion-guided biopsy. This review will examine recent advances in these image-guided targeted prostate biopsy techniques. PMID:25596716

  1. The global burden of major infectious complications following prostate biopsy.

    PubMed

    Bennett, H Y; Roberts, M J; Doi, S A R; Gardiner, R A

    2016-06-01

    We present a systematic review providing estimates of the overall and regional burden of infectious complications following prostate biopsy. A directly standardized prevalence estimate was used because it reflects the burden of disease more explicitly. Complications included sepsis, hospitalization, bacteraemia, bacteriuria, and acute urinary retention after biopsy. There were 165 articles, comprising 162 577 patients, included in the final analysis. Our findings demonstrate that transrectal biopsy was associated with a higher burden of hospitalization (1·1% vs. 0·9%) and sepsis (0·8% vs. 0·1%) compared to transperineal biopsy, while acute urinary retention was more prevalent after transperineal than transrectal biopsy (4·2% vs. 0·9%). The differences were statistically non-significant because of large heterogeneity across countries. We also demonstrate and discuss regional variations in complication rates, with Asian studies reporting higher rates of sepsis and hospitalization.

  2. Aspiration biopsy of testis: another method for histologic examination

    SciTech Connect

    Nseyo, U.O.; Englander, L.S.; Huben, R.P.; Pontes, J.E.

    1984-08-01

    The most important method for evaluating the pathogenesis of male infertility is open testicular biopsy. Herein the authors describe a method of aspiration biopsy of testis for histologic examination. Sexually mature dogs and rats treated with chemotherapeutic agents and ionizing radiation were followed with periodic testicular aspiration biopsy during and after treatment. The histologic findings from the aspiration biopsy compare with the results of routine histologic examination in assessing spermatogenetic activity and delineating pathologic changes. The puncture in the experimental animals was performed under general anesthesia. In human patients testicular biopsy could be done under local anesthesia in an outpatient clinic. The procedure would be less painful, minimally invasive, and more cost-effective.

  3. CT-directed robotic biopsy testbed: motivation and concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleary, Kevin R.; Stoianovici, Dan S.; Glossop, Neil D.; Gary, Kevin A.; Onda, Sumiyo; Cody, Richard; Lindisch, David; Stanimir, Alexandru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Patriciu, Alexandru; Watson, Vance; Levy, Elliot

    2001-05-01

    As a demonstration platform, we are developing a robotic biopsy testbed incorporating a mobile CT scanner, a small needle driver robot, and an optical localizer. This testbed will be used to compare robotically assisted biopsy to the current manual technique, and allow us to investigate software architectures for integrating multiple medical devices. This is a collaboration between engineers and physicians from three universities and a commercial vendor. In this paper we describe the CT-directed biopsy technique, review some other biopsy systems including passive and semi- autonomous devices, describe our testbed components, and present our software architecture. This testbed is a first step in developing the image-guided, robotically assisted, physician directed, biopsy systems of the future.

  4. Patient information preferences and behaviour in relation to oral biopsies.

    PubMed

    López-Jornet, P; Camacho-Alonso, F; Sanchez-Siles, M

    2012-12-01

    Our aim was to study the impact of information on the behaviour of patients who were to have an oral biopsy specimen taken. Patients were randomly assigned either to be given the basic information about oral biopsy or a more extensive amount of information. The Krantz Health Opinion Survey was used as a measure of preferences in decisions made about oral biopsy, and we used a questionnaire to assess anxiety. A total of 260 patients were studied. The participants were satisfied with the information provided (both form and content), but significantly more of those given basic information would have liked to know more (p=0.02). We conclude that information exerts a clear effect on patients' attitude to oral biopsy. Provision of preoperative information leads to significantly less anxiety in all patients having a procedure under local anaesthesia. The results emphasise that patients need to be adequately informed about oral biopsy.

  5. The global burden of major infectious complications following prostate biopsy.

    PubMed

    Bennett, H Y; Roberts, M J; Doi, S A R; Gardiner, R A

    2016-06-01

    We present a systematic review providing estimates of the overall and regional burden of infectious complications following prostate biopsy. A directly standardized prevalence estimate was used because it reflects the burden of disease more explicitly. Complications included sepsis, hospitalization, bacteraemia, bacteriuria, and acute urinary retention after biopsy. There were 165 articles, comprising 162 577 patients, included in the final analysis. Our findings demonstrate that transrectal biopsy was associated with a higher burden of hospitalization (1·1% vs. 0·9%) and sepsis (0·8% vs. 0·1%) compared to transperineal biopsy, while acute urinary retention was more prevalent after transperineal than transrectal biopsy (4·2% vs. 0·9%). The differences were statistically non-significant because of large heterogeneity across countries. We also demonstrate and discuss regional variations in complication rates, with Asian studies reporting higher rates of sepsis and hospitalization. PMID:26645476

  6. Spontaneous atopic dermatitis-like symptoms in a/a ma ft/ma ft/J flaky tail mice appear early after birth.

    PubMed

    Kypriotou, Magdalini; Boéchat, Cloé; Huber, Marcel; Hohl, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in human profilaggrin gene have been identified as the cause of ichthyosis vulgaris (IV), and as a major predisposition factor for atopic dermatitis (AD). Similarly, flaky tail (a/a ma ft/ma ft/J) mice were described as a model for IV, and shown to be predisposed to eczema. The aim of this study was to correlate the flaky tail mouse phenotype with human IV and AD, in order to dissect early molecular events leading to atopic dermatitis in mice and men, suffering from filaggrin deficiency. Thus, 5-days old flaky tail pups were analyzed histologically, expression of cytokines was measured in skin and signaling pathways were investigated by protein analysis. Human biopsies of IV and AD patients were analyzed histologically and by real time PCR assays. Our data show acanthosis and hyperproliferation in flaky tail epidermis, associated with increased IL1β and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) expression, and Th2-polarization. Consequently, NFκB and Stat pathways were activated, and IL6 mRNA levels were increased. Further, quantitative analysis of late epidermal differentiation markers revealed increased Small proline-rich protein 2A (Sprr2a) synthesis. Th2-polarization and Sprr2a increase may result from high TSLP expression, as shown after analysis of 5-days old K14-TSLP tg mouse skin biopsies. Our findings in the flaky tail mouse correlate with data obtained from patient biopsies of AD, but not IV. We propose that proinflammatory cytokines are responsible for acanthosis in flaky tail epidermis, and together with the Th2-derived cytokines lead to morphological changes. Accordingly, the a/a ma ft/ma ft/J mouse model can be used as an appropriate model to study early AD onset associated with profilaggrin deficiency.

  7. Microfabricated instrument for tissue biopsy and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Krulevitch, P.A.; Lee, A.P.; Northrup, M.A.; Benett, W.J.

    1999-11-16

    This invention relates to a microfabricated biopsy/histology instrument which has several advantages over the conventional procedures. The advantages include: minimal specimen handling; smooth cutting edges with atomic sharpness capable of slicing very thin specimens (approximately 2 {mu}m or greater); micro-liter volumes of chemicals for treating the specimens; low cost; disposable; fabrication process which renders sterile parts; and ease of use. The cutter is a cheese-grater style design comprising a block or substrate of silicon and which uses anisotropic etching of the silicon to form extremely sharp and precise cutting edges. As a specimen is cut, it passes through the silicon cutter and lies flat on a piece of glass which is bonded to the cutter. Microchannels are etched into the glass or silicon substrates for delivering small volumes of chemicals for treating the specimen. After treatment, the specimens can be examined through the glass substrate. For automation purposes, microvalves and micropumps may be incorporated. Also, specimens in parallel may be cut and treated with identical or varied chemicals. The instrument is disposable due to its low cost and thus could replace current expensive microtome and histology equipment.

  8. Uncompacted myelin lamellae in peripheral nerve biopsy.

    PubMed

    Vital, Claude; Vital, Anne; Bouillot, Sandrine; Favereaux, Alexandre; Lagueny, Alain; Ferrer, Xavier; Brechenmacher, Christiane; Petry, Klaus G

    2003-01-01

    Since 1979, the authors have studied 49 peripheral nerve biopsies presenting uncompacted myelin lamellae (UML). Based on the ultrastructural pattern of UML they propose a 3-category classification. The first category includes cases displaying regular UML, which was observed in 43 cases; it was more frequent in 9 cases with polyneuropathy organomegaly endocrinopathy m-protein skin changes (POEMS) syndrome as well as in 1 case of Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1B with a novel point mutation in the P0 gene. The second category consists of cases showing irregular UML, observed in 4 cases with IgM monoclonal gammopathy and anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) activity. This group included 1 benign case and 3 B-cell malignant lymphomas. The third category is complex UML, which was present in 2 unrelated patients with an Arg 98 His missense mutation in the P0 protein gene. Irregular and complex UML are respectively related to MAG and P0, which play a crucial role in myelin lamellae compaction and adhesion.

  9. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of thyroid nodules

    PubMed Central

    Arda, I; Yildirim, S; Demirhan, B; Firat, S

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA) is a routine diagnostic technique for evaluating thyroid nodules. Many reports in adults consider that FNA is superior to thyroid ultrasonography (USG) and radionuclide scanning (RS). Only five studies have been published on FNA of childhood thyroid nodules.
AIMS—To investigate the reliability of FNA in the evaluation and management of thyroid nodules, and compare the results of FNA, USG, and RS with regard to final histopathological diagnosis.
METHODS—FNA was performed in 46 children with thyroid nodules after USG and RS examination. We investigated the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values of USG, RS, and FNA in their management.
RESULTS—Six patients who had malignant or suspicious cells on FNA examination underwent immediate surgery. The other 40 patients received medical treatment according to their hormonal status. Fifteen of these nodules either disappeared or decreased in number and/or size. Surgery was performed in 25 patients who did not respond to therapy. Statistical analysis revealed sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values respectively as follows: 60%, 59%, 59%, 15%, and 92% for USG; 30%, 42%, 39%, 12%, and 68% for SC; 100%, 95%, 95%, 67%, and 100% for FNAB.
CONCLUSION—FNAB is as reliable in children as in adults for definitive diagnosis of thyroid nodules. Using this technique avoids unnecessary thyroid surgery in children.

 PMID:11567941

  10. Microfabricated instrument for tissue biopsy and analysis

    DOEpatents

    Krulevitch, Peter A.; Lee, Abraham P.; Northrup, M. Allen; Benett, William J.

    1999-01-01

    A microfabricated biopsy/histology instrument which has several advantages over the conventional procedures, including minimal specimen handling, smooth cutting edges with atomic sharpness capable of slicing very thin specimens (approximately 2 .mu.m or greater), micro-liter volumes of chemicals for treating the specimens, low cost, disposable, fabrication process which renders sterile parts, and ease of use. The cutter is a "cheese-grater" style design comprising a block or substrate of silicon and which uses anisotropic etching of the silicon to form extremely sharp and precise cutting edges. As a specimen is cut, it passes through the silicon cutter and lies flat on a piece of glass which is bonded to the cutter. Microchannels are etched into the glass or silicon substrates for delivering small volumes of chemicals for treating the specimen. After treatment, the specimens can be examined through the glass substrate. For automation purposes, microvalves and micropumps may be incorporated. Also, specimens in parallel may be cut and treated with identical or varied chemicals. The instrument is disposable due to its low cost and thus could replace current expensive microtome and histology equipment.

  11. The role of biopsy in incidental renal tumours☆

    PubMed Central

    Al-Marhoon, Mohammed S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Historically, the biopsy of renal masses was not advocated, and to date there remains some controversy on the role of biopsy for renal masses in making treatment decisions. With the widespread use of imaging methods, the incidental diagnosis of renal masses has increased, necessitating renal biopsies to better plan the management of these tumours. Here I review previous reports to define the role of biopsy in incidental renal tumours. Methods Data were obtained from English-language studies listed in PubMed on the use of renal biopsy for evaluating incidental solid small renal tumours. Results The biopsy of small renal tumours is increasingly accepted due to: the increase in the incidence of small renal tumours; the finding that a significant number of these tumours are benign; the availability of new management options, such as ablative therapy and surveillance strategies; that imaging alone is unable to predict the biological behaviour of these tumours; and advances in the pathological evaluation of the biopsies. The biopsy procedure has an acceptable complication rate but is not free of limitations. The current recommendations for the use of renal biopsy in small renal tumours are: to help in differentiating benign from malignant renal tumours; before or during ablative therapies and during the follow-up after ablative therapies, for defining treatment success or failure; and to exclude nonrenal cell primary tumours (metastasis and lymphoma) or benign conditions (abscess), which may not require surgery. Conclusions The biopsy of small renal tumours is a safe and accurate procedure, and can help in the planning of definitive patient management. PMID:26579260

  12. Dust tail striae: Lessons from recent comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, G.; Battams, K.

    2014-07-01

    Striae are features rarely observed in cometary dust tails. These are near-linear structures that, unlike synchronic bands, are not aligned with the nucleus position, and have only been clearly observed in a few high-production-rate comets, including C/1957 P1 (Mrkos), C/1962 C1 (Seki-Lines), C/1975 V1 (West), and C/1996 O1 (Hale-Bopp). The formation of striae is difficult to explain, but several scenarios for their creation have been proposed [1]. These include that of Sekanina & Farrell [2], who proposed that striae are the result of a two-step fragmentation process, where parent particles are released from the nucleus which, after a delay, all fragment over a very short period of time. The fragmentation products then separate according to their β parameter, i.e., the degree to which the particles are influenced by radiation pressure force compared to gravitational force, to form the linear structures we observe as striae. Although there are issues with identifying a process through which many particles will collectively delay their break-up and then fragment within a short period, this scenario does fit many observations well [3]. Other proposed scenarios are more complex, including the formation of striae through a continuous cascade of fragmentation to ever smaller particle sizes [4]. As these formation scenarios result in different distributions of dust-particle sizes within individual striae, the processes occurring may therefore be identifiable if these distributions can be inferred. If the fragmentation processes taking place can be identified, then, in turn, more could be learnt about the structure of the original dust grains that go on to form these sometimes beautiful tail structures. Here, we present the analysis of striae in several comets observed from space by the SOHO LASCO coronagraph [5] and SECCHI heliospheric imagers aboard the twin STEREO spacecraft [6]. The comets studied are C/2002 V1 (NEAT) in January 2002, C/2006 P1 (McNaught) during its

  13. Mercury's Tail Current Sheet from MESSENGER Magnetic Field Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Asad, M.; Johnson, C. L.; Philpott, L. C.; Anderson, B. J.; Korth, H.; Slavin, J. A.; Solomon, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    We have estimated the spatial variations in the position and average thickness of Mercury's magnetospheric tail current sheet from orbital magnetic field data collected by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft. We have investigated the changes in these average properties with varying solar wind conditions and magnetospheric activity. The time-averaged thickness of the current sheet was obtained from superposed epoch analysis (SEA) of the 1-s-averaged vector magnetic field data within ± 10 min of the identified magnetic equator position at different down-tail distances. The average thickness was then estimated from a given SEA by identifying the time interval during which the field completed a rotation from the sunward to the anti-sunward direction, or vice versa, accompanied by a depression in the field magnitude. We have found that the current sheet has a thickness of ~0.8 RM (where RM is Mercury's radius, or 2440 km) close to the planet (~ 1.1 RM) and thins to ~0.2 RM in the far tail region (~2.8 RM). We examined individual orbits to catalogue the existence and number of current sheet crossings encountered on each orbit. These data allow us to (1) determine whether the thickness obtained from the SEA is an actual thickness or an apparent thickness controlled by rapid motions of the current sheet, and (2) estimate the statistical likelihood of observing the current sheet as a function of down-tail distance. For example, some magnetically quiet orbits that cross the magnetic equator at down-tail distances greater than 2 RM do not record a current sheet crossing and appear to cross closed field lines in the vicinity of the magnetic equator, even though they lie in a region in which the tail current sheet is usually observed. This result suggests that the inner (near-planet) edge of the current sheet is not stationary but may move anti-sunward (or sunward) under quiet (or active) magnetospheric conditions.

  14. Thermal stabilization of uranium mill tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Dreesen, D.R.; Williams, J.M.; Cokal, E.J.

    1981-01-01

    The sintering of tailings at high temperatures (1200/sup 0/C) has shown promise as a conditioning approach that greatly reduces the /sup 222/Rn emanation of uranium mill tailings. The structure of thermally stabilized tailings has been appreciably altered producing a material that will have minimal management requirements and will be applicable to on-site processing and disposal. The mineralogy of untreated tailings is presented to define the structure of the original materials. Quartz predominates in most tailings samples; however, appreciable quantities of gypsum, clay, illite, or albites are found in some tailings. Samples from the Durango and Shiprock sites have plagioclase-type aluminosilicates and non-aluminum silicates as major components. The iron-rich vanadium tailings from the Salt Lake City site contain appreciable quantities of ..cap alpha..-hematite and chloroapatite. The reduction in radon emanation power and changes in mineralogy as a function of sintering temperature (500 to 1200(NiAsS) are considered possible species for consideraed. The calculated activity data of the various carbonate, sulfate and hydroxide species in the Li/sup +/Na/sup +/K/sup +//CO/sub 3/ = SO/sub 4/ = OH/sup -/ system have been combined f liquidus surfaces, and estimated error limits are given for each system. A comng payback period, but as the initial cost of the SAHPS is reduced and fuel prices increase, the payback period of a SAHPS will be shorter and could be competitive with other conventional heating/cooling systems.

  15. Comparative plasma tails of Venus and comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perezdetejada, H.

    1987-01-01

    A review of current models of solar wind flow in the plasma tails of weakly magnetized bodies is presented. Measurements conducted by the Mariner 5 spacecraft, the Veneras 9 and 10, and the PVO orbiters, in the Venus tail, and with the ICE spacecraft in the tail of Comet Giacobini-Zinner, reveal common plasma properties which suggest that similar physical processes are operative. Most notable is the observation of decreased flow velocities and enhanced plasma temperatures in the vicinity of their plasma tails. In Venus, the measured velocity and temperature fields are consistent with the effects of frictional forces between the mass-loaded ionosheath flow and the ionosphere along the (magnetic) polar regions of the ionopause. It is argued that similar conditions exist at a cometary ionopause and that the distribution of magnetic fluxes in a cometary tail is controlled by the entry of plasma fluxes from the (magnetic) polar regions of the comet's ionospheric obstacle. This question is further addressed in connection with the two-step shape of the magnetic profile measured across the tail of the comet. It is suggested that the low intensity outer increases of the magnetic lobes are associated with the draping of the interplanetary magnetic field lines around the comet's ionospheric obstacle, and that the higher intensity increases seen in the inner regions of the magnetic lobes are due to an additional compression of magnetic fluxes produced by the entry of plasma particles into the tail.

  16. Tail-biting: a new perspective.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Nina R; Main, David C J; Mendl, Mike; Edwards, Sandra A

    2010-11-01

    Tail-biting data from different studies are difficult to compare because a range of definitions of tail-biting behaviour and tail-biting lesions are used. Although records from abattoirs provide a large database, their usefulness is restricted as tail-biting is under-recorded and environmental and husbandry factors associated with the behaviour are unlikely to be known. Both farm and abattoir data provide no information on the number of pigs biting, only those bitten. Studying individual animals that tail-bite should give a better understanding of the pig's motivation to tail-bite and which of the components of its environment should be adjusted to improve welfare. This review examines the existing literature on tail-biting in pigs but considered from a new perspective using three different descriptive behavioural types, namely, 'two-stage', 'sudden-forceful' and 'obsessive', each of which may have different motivational bases. The article also considers the different environmental and husbandry factors which may affect each type of behaviour and discusses why this is such a complicated field and why it is often difficult to draw conclusions from available research. PMID:19804997

  17. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    The Grand Junction site has been reevaluated in order to revise the October 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Grand Junction, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.9 million tons of tailings at the Grand Junction site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The eight alternative actions presented herein range from millsite and off-site decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through VIII). Cost estimates for the eight options range from about $10,200,000 for stabilization in-place to about $39,500,000 for disposal in the DeBeque area, at a distance of about 35 mi, using transportation by rail. If transportation to DeBeque were by truck, the cost estimated to be about $41,900,000. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Grand Junction tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; (b) treatment at an existing mill; and (c) reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $200/lb by heap leach and $150/lb by conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery appears not to be economically attractive.

  18. Computed tomography-guided percutaneous biopsy of bone lesions: rate of diagnostic success and complications*

    PubMed Central

    Maciel, Macello Jose Sampaio; Tyng, Chiang Jeng; Barbosa, Paula Nicole Vieira Pinto; Bitencourt, Almir Galvão Vieira; Matushita Junior, João Paulo Kawaoka; Zurstrassen, Charles Edouard; Chung, Wu Tu; Chojniak, Rubens

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the rates of diagnostic success and complications of computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous biopsy of bone lesions suspected for malignancy. Materials and Methods Retrospective study including 186 cases of CT-guided percutaneous biopsies of bone lesions in the period from January, 2010 to December, 2012. All the specimens were obtained with 8-10 gauge needles. The following data were collected: demographics, previous history of malignancy, data related to the lesion, to the procedure, and to histological results. Results Most patients were women (57%), and the mean age was 53.0 ± 16.4 years. In 139 cases (74.6%), there was diagnostic suspicion of metastasis and the most common primary tumors were breast (32.1%) and prostate (11.8%). The bones most commonly involved were spine (36.0%), hip (32.8%) and long bones (18.3%). Complications occurred in only three cases (1.6%) including bone fracture, paresthesia with functional impairment, and needle breakage requiring surgical removal. The specimens collected from 183 lesions (98.4%) were considered appropriate for diagnosis. Malignant results were more frequently found in patients who had a suspected secondary lesion and history of known malignancy (p < 0.001), and in patients who underwent PET/CT-guided procedures (p = 0.011). Conclusion CT-guided percutaneous biopsy is a safe and effective procedure for the diagnosis of suspicious bone lesions. PMID:25741100

  19. [The repeated biopsy in patients with lupus nephritis].

    PubMed

    Subils, Gisella; Alba, Paula; Gobbi, Carla; Astesana, Pablo; Babini, Alejandra; Albiero, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    We retrospectively studied patients with SLE according to ACR criteria, with NL who underwent a repeat renal biopsy from 2005 to 2012. We analyzed the main indications of renal biopsies, the histopathological Class and activity and chronicity changes. RESULTS The total number of patients with NL was 120, of which 18 (15%) patients underwent repeat renal biopsy, 18 had 2 renal biopsies and 6 had 3 biopsies. 3 (16.7%) patients were smokers; 1 (5.6%) had a history of previous DBT, 2 (11.1%) had a history of hypertension; and 3 (16.7%) patients had previous obesity. The duration of SLE was 15 ± 96 months; the time between the 1st and the 2nd biopsy was 45 ± 11 months and the time between the 2nd and 3rd biopsy was 56 ± 12 months. Indications for repeat biopsy were proteinuria in 10 biopsies (41.6%); proteinuria with impaired renal function in 2 biopsies (8.3%); proteinuria with pathological urine sediment in 8 (33.3%); . and pathological proteinuria with pathological urine sediment and impaired renal function in 4 biopsies (16.6%) The most frequent histological changes found between first and repeat biopsies were class IV to class III: 2 (8.2%) ; Class IV to Class IV: 8 (33.3%), class IV to class III + V: 2 (8.2%); class IV to class IV + V 3 (12.5%); class IV to class V: 2 (8.2%). Changes in NL biopsies with proliferative activity and chronicity indices (A / C) were: A to A / C: 7 (29.1%), A / C to A / C: 7 (29.1%). The immunosuppressive therapy was increased in 79.1% and 16.6% remained without changes. 20% patients received cyclophosphamide 1 g every 30 days, 26% Cyclophosphamide 500 mg every 15 days, 23% induction therapy with mycophenolate mofetil; 23% with Rituximab; 8% Cyclosporin A. Maintenance therapy with mycophenolate mofetil was performed in 87.5%; azathioprine in 1 case. Hydroxychloroquine was used in all cases.

  20. Histopathological Characterization of Tail Injury and Traumatic Neuroma Development after Tail Docking in Piglets.

    PubMed

    Sandercock, D A; Smith, S H; Di Giminiani, P; Edwards, S A

    2016-07-01

    Tail docking of neonatal pigs is widely used as a measure to reduce the incidence of tail biting, a complex management problem in the pig industry. Concerns exist over the long-term consequences of tail docking for possible tail stump pain sensitivity due to the development of traumatic neuromas in injured peripheral nerves. Tail stumps were obtained post mortem from four female pigs at each of 1, 4, 8 and 16 weeks following tail amputation (approximately two-thirds removed) by a gas-heated docking iron on post natal day 3. Tissues were processed routinely for histopathological examination. Non-neural inflammatory and reparative epidermal and dermal changes associated with tissue thickening and healing were observed 1 to 4 months after docking. Mild neutrophilic inflammation was present in some cases, although this and other degenerative and non-neural reparative changes are not likely to have caused pain. Traumatic neuroma and neuromatous tissue development was not observed 1 week after tail docking, but was evident 1 month after tail docking. Over time there was marked nerve sheath and axonal proliferation leading to the formation of neuromata, which were either localized and circumscribed or comprised of multiple axons dispersed within granulation tissue. Four months after tail resection, neuroma formation was still incomplete, with possible implications for sensitivity of the tail stump. PMID:27302763

  1. Variation in salamander tail regeneration is associated with genetic factors that determine tail morphology.

    PubMed

    Voss, Gareth J; Kump, D Kevin; Walker, John A; Voss, S Randal

    2013-01-01

    Very little is known about the factors that cause variation in regenerative potential within and between species. Here, we used a genetic approach to identify heritable genetic factors that explain variation in tail regenerative outgrowth. A hybrid ambystomatid salamander (Ambystoma mexicanum x A. andersoni) was crossed to an A. mexicanum and 217 offspring were induced to undergo metamorphosis and attain terrestrial adult morphology using thyroid hormone. Following metamorphosis, each salamander's tail tip was amputated and allowed to regenerate, and then amputated a second time and allowed to regenerate. Also, DNA was isolated from all individuals and genotypes were determined for 187 molecular markers distributed throughout the genome. The area of tissue that regenerated after the first and second amputations was highly positively correlated across males and females. Males presented wider tails and regenerated more tail tissue during both episodes of regeneration. Approximately 66-68% of the variation in regenerative outgrowth was explained by tail width, while tail length and genetic sex did not explain a significant amount of variation. A small effect QTL was identified as having a sex-independent effect on tail regeneration, but this QTL was only identified for the first episode of regeneration. Several molecular markers significantly affected regenerative outgrowth during both episodes of regeneration, but the effect sizes were small (<4%) and correlated with tail width. The results show that ambysex and minor effect QTL explain variation in adult tail morphology and importantly, tail width. In turn, tail width at the amputation plane largely determines the rate of regenerative outgrowth. Because amputations in this study were made at approximately the same position of the tail, our results resolve an outstanding question in regenerative biology: regenerative outgrowth positively co-varies as a function of tail width at the amputation site.

  2. Stability properties of a cometary plasma tail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malara, Francesco; Einaudi, Giorgio; Mangeney, Andre

    1989-09-01

    The linear stability of the plasma tail of a comet is numerically investigated. Effects both of finite resistivity and of velocity shear are taken into account. The tail appears to be unstable against Kelvin-Helmholtz-like modes in which a certain amount of reconnection occurs. Because of the velocity flow shear the perturbation extends far beyond the singular layer and affects in depth the magnetic lobes. The relative importance of the Kelvin-Helmoltz turbulence in the lobes and the level of reconnection, the typical wavelengths, and the growth time of the mode depend on the particular cometary tail considered.

  3. Tamarind tree seed dispersal by ring-tailed lemurs.

    PubMed

    Mertl-Millhollen, Anne S; Blumenfeld-Jones, Kathryn; Raharison, Sahoby Marin; Tsaramanana, Donald Raymond; Rasamimanana, Hantanirina

    2011-10-01

    In Madagascar, the gallery forests of the south are among the most endangered. Tamarind trees (Tamarindus indica) dominate these riverine forests and are a keystone food resource for ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). At Berenty Reserve, the presence of tamarind trees is declining, and there is little recruitment of young trees. Because mature tamarinds inhibit growth under their crowns, seeds must be dispersed away from adult trees if tree recruitment is to occur. Ring-tailed lemurs are likely seed dispersers; however, because they spend much of their feeding, siesta, and sleeping time in tamarinds, they may defecate a majority of the tamarind seeds under tamarind trees. To determine whether they disperse tamarind seeds away from overhanging tamarind tree crowns, we observed two troops for 10 days each, noted the locations of feeding and defecation, and collected seeds from feces and fruit for germination. We also collected additional data on tamarind seedling recruitment under natural conditions, in which seedling germination was abundant after extensive rain, including under the canopy. However, seedling survival to 1 year was lower when growing under mature tamarind tree crowns than when growing away from an overhanging crown. Despite low fruit abundance averaging two fruits/m(3) in tamarind crowns, lemurs fed on tamarind fruit for 32% of their feeding samples. Daily path lengths averaged 1,266 m, and lemurs deposited seeds throughout their ranges. Fifty-eight percent of the 417 recorded lemur defecations were on the ground away from overhanging tamarind tree crowns. Tamarind seeds collected from both fruit and feces germinated. Because lemurs deposited viable seeds on the ground away from overhanging mature tamarind tree crowns, we conclude that ring-tailed lemurs provide tamarind tree seed dispersal services.

  4. Tamarind tree seed dispersal by ring-tailed lemurs.

    PubMed

    Mertl-Millhollen, Anne S; Blumenfeld-Jones, Kathryn; Raharison, Sahoby Marin; Tsaramanana, Donald Raymond; Rasamimanana, Hantanirina

    2011-10-01

    In Madagascar, the gallery forests of the south are among the most endangered. Tamarind trees (Tamarindus indica) dominate these riverine forests and are a keystone food resource for ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). At Berenty Reserve, the presence of tamarind trees is declining, and there is little recruitment of young trees. Because mature tamarinds inhibit growth under their crowns, seeds must be dispersed away from adult trees if tree recruitment is to occur. Ring-tailed lemurs are likely seed dispersers; however, because they spend much of their feeding, siesta, and sleeping time in tamarinds, they may defecate a majority of the tamarind seeds under tamarind trees. To determine whether they disperse tamarind seeds away from overhanging tamarind tree crowns, we observed two troops for 10 days each, noted the locations of feeding and defecation, and collected seeds from feces and fruit for germination. We also collected additional data on tamarind seedling recruitment under natural conditions, in which seedling germination was abundant after extensive rain, including under the canopy. However, seedling survival to 1 year was lower when growing under mature tamarind tree crowns than when growing away from an overhanging crown. Despite low fruit abundance averaging two fruits/m(3) in tamarind crowns, lemurs fed on tamarind fruit for 32% of their feeding samples. Daily path lengths averaged 1,266 m, and lemurs deposited seeds throughout their ranges. Fifty-eight percent of the 417 recorded lemur defecations were on the ground away from overhanging tamarind tree crowns. Tamarind seeds collected from both fruit and feces germinated. Because lemurs deposited viable seeds on the ground away from overhanging mature tamarind tree crowns, we conclude that ring-tailed lemurs provide tamarind tree seed dispersal services. PMID:21629992

  5. Microbiological diagnosis of vertebral osteomyelitis: relevance of second percutaneous biopsy following initial negative biopsy and limited yield of post-biopsy blood cultures.

    PubMed

    Gras, G; Buzele, R; Parienti, J J; Debiais, F; Dinh, A; Dupon, M; Roblot, F; Mulleman, D; Marcelli, C; Michon, J; Bernard, L

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the microbiological diagnosis yield of post-biopsy blood cultures (PBBCs) and second percutaneous needle biopsy (PNB) following an initial negative biopsy in vertebral osteomyelitis (VO) without bacteremia. A retrospective multicenter study was performed. Patients with VO, pre-biopsy negative blood culture(s), ≥1 PNB, and ≥1 PBBC (0-4 h) were included. One hundred and sixty-nine PNBs (136 first and 33 following initial negative biopsy) were performed for 136 patients (median age = 58 years, sex ratio M/F = 1.9). First and second PNBs had a similar yield: 43.4 % (59/136) versus 39.4 % (13/33), respectively. Only two PBBCs (1.1 %) led to a microbiological diagnosis. The strategy with positive first PNB and second PNB following an initial negative result led to microbiological diagnosis in 79.6 % (74/93) of cases versus 44.1 % (60/136) for the strategy with only one biopsy. In the multivariate analysis, young age (odds ratio, OR [95 % confidence interval (CI)] = 0.98 [0.97; 0.99] per 1 year increase, p = 0.02) and >1 sample (OR = 2.4 ([1.3; 4.4], p = 0.007)) were independently associated with positive PNB. To optimize microbiological diagnosis in vertebral osteomyelitis, performing a second PNB (after an initial negative biopsy) could lead to a microbiological diagnosis in nearly 80 % of patients. PBBC appears to be limited in microbiological diagnosis.

  6. EUS - Fine- Needle Aspiration Biopsy (FNAB) in the Diagnosis of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: A Review.

    PubMed

    Kalogeraki, Alexandra; Papadakis, Georgios Z; Tamiolakis, Dimitrios; Karvela-Kalogeraki, Iliana; Karvelas-Kalogerakis, Mihailos; Segredakis, John; Papadakis, Michael; Moustou, Eleni; Datseri, Galateia; Tzardi, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Solid masses of the pancreas represent a variety of benign and malignant neoplasms of the exocrine and endocrine tissues of the pancreas. A tissue diagnosis is often required to direct therapy in the face of uncertain diagnosis or if the patient is not a surgical candidate either due to advanced disease or comorbidities. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is a relatively new technology that employs endoscopy and high-frequency ultrasound (US). EUS involves imaging of the pancreatic head and the uncinate from the duodenum and imaging of the body and tail from the stomach. It has been shown to be a highly sensitive method for the detection of pancreatic masses. It is superior to extracorporeal US and computed tomographic (CT) scans, especially when the pancreatic tumor is smaller than 2-3 cm. Although EUS is highly sensitive in detecting pancreatic solid masses, its ability to differentiate between inflammatory masses and malignant disease is limited. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) brushing, CT-guided biopsies, and transabdominal ultrasound (US) have been the standard nonsurgical methods for obtaining a tissue diagnosis of pancreatic lesions, but a substantial false-negative rate has been reported. Transabdominal US-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (US-FNAB) has been used for tissue diagnosis in patients with suspected pancreatic carcinoma. It has been shown to be highly specific, with no false-positive diagnoses. With the advent of curvilinear echoendoscopes, transgastric and transduodenal EUS-FNAB of the pancreas have become a reality EUS with FNAB has revolutionized the ability to diagnose and stage cancers of the gastrointestinal tract and assess the pancreas. Gastrointestinal cancers can be looked at with EUS and their depth of penetration into the intestinal wall can be determined. Any suspicious appearing lymph nodes can be biopsied using EUS/FNAB. The pancreas is another organ that is well visualized with EUS. Abnormalities such as tumors

  7. Renal biopsy practice: What is the gold standard?

    PubMed

    Brachemi, Soumeya; Bollée, Guillaume

    2014-11-01

    Renal biopsy (RB) is useful for diagnosis and therapy guidance of renal diseases but incurs a risk of bleeding complications of variable severity, from transitory haematuria or asymptomatic hematoma to life-threatening hemorrhage. Several risk factors for complications after RB have been identified, including high blood pressure, age, decreased renal function, obesity, anemia, low platelet count and hemostasis disorders. These should be carefully assessed and, whenever possible, corrected before the procedure. The incidence of serious complications has become low with the use of automated biopsy devices and ultrasound guidance, which is currently the "gold standard" procedure for percutaneous RB. An outpatient biopsy may be considered in a carefully selected population with no risk factor for bleeding. However, controversies persist on the duration of observation after biopsy, especially for native kidney biopsy. Transjugular RB and laparoscopic RB represent reliable alternatives to conventional percutaneous biopsy in patients at high risk of bleeding, although some factors limit their use. This aim of this review is to summarize the issues of complications after RB, assessment of hemorrhagic risk factors, optimal biopsy procedure and strategies aimed to minimize the risk of bleeding.

  8. Brain biopsy in neurologic decline of unknown etiology.

    PubMed

    Magaki, Shino; Gardner, Tracie; Khanlou, Negar; Yong, William H; Salamon, Noriko; Vinters, Harry V

    2015-04-01

    Brain biopsies have an uncertain role in the diagnosis of patients with dementia or neurologic decline of unknown etiology. They are often performed only after an exhaustive panel of less invasive tests and procedures have failed to provide a definitive diagnosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of brain biopsies in this patient group through the retrospective analysis of 53 brain biopsies performed for neurologic disease of unknown etiology at a single tertiary care institution between December 2001 and December 2011. Patients with known nonlymphomatous neoplasms thought to be associated with the neurologic symptoms or with immunodeficiency were excluded from the study. Furthermore, the clinical presentation, imaging and laboratory tests were compared between diagnostic groups to identify factors more likely to yield a diagnosis. Sixty percent of the biopsies were diagnostic (32 of 53), with the most common histologic diagnosis of central nervous system lymphoma in 14 of 53 patients (26% of total) followed by infarct in four subjects (7.5%). A few patients were found to have rare and unsuspected diseases such as lymphomatosis cerebri, neurosarcoidosis and neuroaxonal leukodystrophy. Complications from biopsy were uncommon and included hemorrhage and infection with abscess formation at the biopsy site. These results suggest that brain biopsies may be useful in difficult cases in which less invasive measures have been unable to yield a definitive diagnosis.

  9. Strategies for prevention of ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy infections

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Diane D; Raman, Jay D

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in male patients and the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in males. To confirm the diagnosis of prostate cancer, an ultrasound-guided needle biopsy is necessary to obtain prostate tissue sufficient for histologic analysis by pathologists. Ultrasound-guided prostate needle biopsy can be accomplished via a transperineal or transrectal approach. The latter biopsy technique involves placing an ultrasound probe into the rectum, visualizing the prostate located just anterior to it, and then obtaining 12–14 biopsies. Each biopsy core requires piercing of the rectal mucosa which can inherently contribute to infection. The increasing infectious risk of prostate needle biopsy requires refinement and re-evaluation of the process in which the technique is performed. Such processes include (but are not limited to) prebiopsy risk stratification, antibiotic prophylaxis, use of rectal preparations, and equipment processing. In the subsequent review, we highlight the current available information on different strategies to reduce the risk of infection following prostate needle biopsy. PMID:27468242

  10. High-frequency ultrasound imaging for breast cancer biopsy guidance.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Thomas; Yoon, Changhan; Choi, Hojong; Eliahoo, Payam; Kim, Hyung Ham; Yamashita, Mary W; Hovanessian-Larsen, Linda J; Lang, Julie E; Sener, Stephen F; Vallone, John; Martin, Sue E; Kirk Shung, K

    2015-10-01

    Image-guided core needle biopsy is the current gold standard for breast cancer diagnosis. Microcalcifications, an important radiographic finding on mammography suggestive of early breast cancer such as ductal carcinoma in situ, are usually biopsied under stereotactic guidance. This procedure, however, is uncomfortable for patients and requires the use of ionizing radiation. It would be preferable to biopsy microcalcifications under ultrasound guidance since it is a faster procedure, more comfortable for the patient, and requires no radiation. However, microcalcifications cannot reliably be detected with the current standard ultrasound imaging systems. This study is motivated by the clinical need for real-time high-resolution ultrasound imaging of microcalcifications, so that biopsies can be accurately performed under ultrasound guidance. We have investigated how high-frequency ultrasound imaging can enable visualization of microstructures in ex vivo breast tissue biopsy samples. We generated B-mode images of breast tissue and applied the Nakagami filtering technique to help refine image output so that microcalcifications could be better assessed during ultrasound-guided core biopsies. We describe the preliminary clinical results of high-frequency ultrasound imaging of ex vivo breast biopsy tissue with microcalcifications and without Nakagami filtering and the correlation of these images with the pathology examination by hematoxylin and eosin stain and whole slide digital scanning. PMID:26693167

  11. Neuropathological alterations in diabetic truncal neuropathy: evaluation by skin biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Lauria, G.; McArthur, J.; Hauer, P.; Griffin, J.; Cornblath, D.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To describe the neuropathological features in skin biopsies from patients with diabetic truncal neuropathy.
METHODS—Three patients with diabetic truncal neuropathy underwent skin biopsies from both symptomatic and asymptomatic regions of the chest and trunk. After local anaesthesia, biopsies were performed using a 3 mm diameter punch device (Acupunch). Intraepidermal nerve fibres (IENFs), the most distal processes of small myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibres, were identified after staining with PGP 9.5 as previously described.
RESULTS—Diabetes was diagnosed at the time of the neurological presentation in two, and one was a known diabetic patient. All three had associated sensory-motor polyneuropathy. In all, skin biopsies showed a marked reduction of both epidermal and dermal nerve fibres in the symptomatic dermatomes, compared with skin from asymptomatic truncal areas. In one patient, a follow up skin biopsy when symptoms had improved showed a return of IENFs.
CONCLUSIONS—In diabetic truncal neuropathy, skin biopsies from symptomatic regions show a loss of IENFs. After clinical recovery, there is a return of the IENF population, suggesting that improvement occurs by nerve regeneration. These findings suggest that sensory nerve fibre injury in diabetic truncal neuropathy is distal to or within the sensory ganglia. Skin biopsy provides a possible tool for understanding the pathophysiology of the disease.

 PMID:9810952

  12. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bembenek, Andreas E.; Rosenberg, Robert; Wagler, Elke; Gretschel, Stephan; Sendler, Andreas; Siewert, Joerg-Ruediger; Nährig, Jörg; Witzigmann, Helmut; Hauss, Johann; Knorr, Christian; Dimmler, Arno; Gröne, Jörn; Buhr, Heinz-Johannes; Haier, Jörg; Herbst, Hermann; Tepel, Juergen; Siphos, Bence; Kleespies, Axel; Koenigsrainer, Alfred; Stoecklein, Nikolas H.; Horstmann, Olaf; Grützmann, Robert; Imdahl, Andreas; Svoboda, Daniel; Wittekind, Christian; Schneider, Wolfgang; Wernecke, Klaus-Dieter; Schlag, Peter M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The clinical impact of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in colon cancer is still controversial. The purpose of this prospective multicenter trial was to evaluate its clinical value to predict the nodal status and identify factors that influence these results. Methods: Colon cancer patients without prior colorectal surgery or irradiation were eligible. The sentinel lymph node (SLN) was identified intraoperatively by subserosal blue dye injection around the tumor. The SLN underwent step sections and immunohistochemistry (IHC), if classified free of metastases after routine hematoxylin and eosin examination. Results: At least one SLN (median, n = 2) was identified in 268 of 315 enrolled patients (detection rate, 85%). Center experience, lymphovascular invasion, body mass index (BMI), and learning curve were positively associated with the detection rate. The false-negative rate to identify pN+ patients by SLNB was 46% (38 of 82). BMI showed a significant association to the false-negative rate (P < 0.0001), the number of tumor-involved lymph nodes was inversely associated. If only slim patients (BMI ≤24) were investigated in experienced centers (>22 patients enrolled), the sensitivity increased to 88% (14 of 16). Moreover, 21% (30 of 141) of the patients, classified as pN0 by routine histopathology, revealed micrometastases or isolated tumor cells (MM/ITC) in the SLN. Conclusions: The contribution of SLNB to conventional nodal staging of colon cancer patients is still unspecified. Technical problems have to be resolved before a definite conclusion can be drawn in this regard. However, SLNB identifies about one fourth of stage II patients to reveal MM/ITC in lymph nodes. Further studies must clarify the clinical impact of these findings in terms of prognosis and the indication of adjuvant therapy. PMID:17522509

  13. Towards the mid-infrared optical biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seddon, Angela B.; Benson, Trevor M.; Sujecki, Slawomir; Abdel-Moneim, Nabil; Tang, Zhuoqi; Furniss, David; Sojka, Lukasz; Stone, Nick; Jayakrupakar, Nallala; Lloyd, Gavin R.; Lindsay, Ian; Ward, Jon; Farries, Mark; Moselund, Peter M.; Napier, Bruce; Lamrini, Samir; Møller, Uffe; Kubat, Irnis; Petersen, Christian R.; Bang, Ole

    2016-03-01

    We are establishing a new paradigm in mid-infrared molecular sensing, mapping and imaging to open up the midinfrared spectral region for in vivo (i.e. in person) medical diagnostics and surgery. Thus, we are working towards the mid-infrared optical biopsy (`opsy' look at, bio the biology) in situ in the body for real-time diagnosis. This new paradigm will be enabled through focused development of devices and systems which are robust, functionally designed, safe, compact and cost effective and are based on active and passive mid-infrared optical fibers. In particular, this will enable early diagnosis of external cancers, mid-infrared detection of cancer-margins during external surgery for precise removal of diseased tissue, in one go during the surgery, and mid-infrared endoscopy for early diagnosis of internal cancers and their precision removal. The mid-infrared spectral region has previously lacked portable, bright sources. We set a record in demonstrating extreme broad-band supercontinuum generated light 1.4 to 13.3 microns in a specially engineered, high numerical aperture mid-infrared optical fiber. The active mid-infrared fiber broadband supercontinuum for the first time offers the possibility of a bright mid-infrared wideband source in a portable package as a first step for medical fiber-based systems operating in the mid-infrared. Moreover, mid-infrared molecular mapping and imaging is potentially a disruptive technology to give improved monitoring of the environment, energy efficiency, security, agriculture and in manufacturing and chemical processing. This work is in part supported by the European Commission: Framework Seven (FP7) Large-Scale Integrated Project MINERVA: MId-to-NEaR- infrared spectroscopy for improVed medical diAgnostics (317803; www.minerva-project.eu).

  14. Does Prebiopsy, Nonsterile Ultrasonography Gel Affect Biopsy-Site Asepsis?

    SciTech Connect

    Gurel, Kamil Karabay, Oguz; Gurel, Safiye; Hildebolt, Charles

    2008-01-15

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which the use of nonsterile gel, prior to antiseptic procedures in ultrasonography (US)-guided percutaneous biopsies, results in contamination of the biopsy site. Materials and Methods. Patients referred for US-guided percutaneous biopsies were included in this study. Transmission material used for US evaluation before biopsy-site antiseptic procedures were performed was either nonsterile gel or sterile saline. Patients were randomly assigned to two groups: nonsterile gel (n = 30) and sterile saline (n = 30). Before the transmission material was used and after antiseptic procedures were performed, microbial swabs of a 10-cm{sup 2}-diameter area were obtained at the biopsy site. Swabs were also obtained from the gel, saline, and povidine-iodine. Inoculated specimen plates were incubated at 37{sup o}C under aerobic conditions, and the numbers of colony-forming units recorded. Nominal logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the odds of postantisepsis bacterial growth (after antiseptic procedures were performed) based on group, gender, coincidental disease (diabetes, chronic renal failure, and malignancy), biopsy-site location (head and neck or breast and abdomen), and local factors (skin fold, skin tag, and hair). Results. The following odds ratios (adjusted for the other variables) and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated: (1) group (2.9 [0.8-11.1]; p = 0.10); (2) gender (1.2 [0.3-5.2]; p = 0.78); (3) coincidental disease (7.6 [0.9-166.7]; p = 0.09); (4) biopsy site location (6.2 [1.4-31.3]; p = 0.02); and (5) local factors (7.0 [1.6-36.0]; p = 0.01). No bacterial growth occurred with swabs obtained from gel, povidine-iodine, or saline. Conclusion. We conclude that nonsterile gel used prior to percutaneous biopsy does not affect biopsy-site asepsis.

  15. Current indications for renal biopsy: a questionnaire-based survey.

    PubMed

    Fuiano, G; Mazza, G; Comi, N; Caglioti, A; De Nicola, L; Iodice, C; Andreucci, M; Andreucci, V E

    2000-03-01

    Indications for renal biopsy are still ill defined. We recently sent a detailed questionnaire to 360 nephrologists in different areas of the world with the aim of providing information on this critical issue by evaluating the replies. The questionnaire was organized in four sections that included questions on renal biopsy indications in patients with normal renal function, renal insufficiency, and a transplanted kidney. In addition, the questions included methods applied to each renal biopsy procedure and to specimen processing. We received 166 replies; North Europe (50 replies), South Europe (47 replies), North America (31 replies), Australia and New Zealand (24 replies), and other countries (14 replies). In patients with normal renal function, primary indications for renal biopsy were microhematuria associated with proteinuria, particularly greater than 1 g/d of protein. In chronic renal insufficiency, kidney dimension was the major parameter considered before renal biopsy, whereas the presence of diabetes or serological abnormalities was not considered critical. In the course of acute renal failure (ARF) of unknown origin, 20% of the respondents would perform renal biopsy in the early stages, 26% after 1 week of nonrecovery, and 40% after 4 weeks. In a transplanted kidney, the majority of nephrologists would perform a renal biopsy in the case of graft failure after surgery, ARF after initial good function, slow progressive deterioration of renal function, and onset of nephrotic proteinuria. The last section provided comprehensive information on the technical aspects of renal biopsy. This survey represents the first attempt to provide a reliable consensus that can be used in developing guidelines on the use of kidney biopsy. PMID:10692270

  16. Comparison of a new aspiration needle device and the Quick-Core biopsy needle for transjugular liver biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Toru; Kamimura, Hiroteru; Tsuchiya, Atsunori; Togashi, Tadayuki; Watanabe, Kouji; Seki, Kei-ichi; Ohta, Hironobu; Yoshida, Toshiaki; Ishihara, Noriko; Kamimura, Tomoteru

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate sample adequacy, safety, and needle passes of a new biopsy needle device compared to the Quick-Core biopsy needle for transjugular liver biopsy in patients affected by liver disease. METHODS: Thirty consecutive liver-disease patients who had major coagulation abnormalities and/or relevant ascites underwent transjugular liver biopsy using either a new needle device (18 patients) or the Quick-Core biopsy needle (12 patients). The length of the specimens was measured before fixation. A pathologist reviewed the histological slides for sample adequacy and pathologic diagnoses. The two methods’ specimen adequacy and complication rates were assessed. RESULTS: Liver biopsies were technically successful in all 30 (100%) patients, with diagnostic histological core specimens obtained in 30 of 30 (100%) patients, for an overall success rate of 100%. With the new device, 18 specimens were obtained, with an average of 1.1 passes per patient. Using the Quick-Core biopsy needle, 12 specimens were obtained, with an average of 1.8 passes per patient. Specimen length was significantly longer with the new needle device than with the Quick-Core biopsy needle (P < 0.05). The biopsy tissue was not fragmented in any of the specimens with the new aspiration needle device, but tissue was fragmented in 3 of 12 (25.0%) specimens obtained using the Quick-Core biopsy needle. Complications included cardiac arrhythmia in 3 (10.0%) patients, and transient abdominal pain in 4 (13.3%) patients. There were no cases of subcapsular hematoma, hemoperitoneum, or sepsis, and there was no death secondary to the procedure. In particular, no early or delayed major procedure-related complications were observed in any patient. CONCLUSION: Transjugular liver biopsy is a safe and effective procedure, and there was significant difference in the adequacy of the specimens obtained using the new needle device compared to the Quick-Core biopsy needle. Using the new biopsy needle device, the

  17. How do birds' tails work? Delta-wing theory fails to predict tail shape during flight.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Matthew R; Rosén, Mikael; Park, Kirsty J; Hedenström, Anders

    2002-01-01

    Birds appear to use their tails during flight, but until recently the aerodynamic role that tails fulfil was largely unknown. In recent years delta-wing theory, devised to predict the aerodynamics of high-performance aircraft, has been applied to the tails of birds and has been successful in providing a model for the aerodynamics of a bird's tail. This theory now provides the conventional explanation for how birds' tails work. A delta-wing theory (slender-wing theory) has been used, as part of a variable-geometry model to predict how tail and wing shape should vary during flight at different airspeeds. We tested these predictions using barn swallows flying in a wind tunnel. We show that the predictions are not quantitatively well supported. This suggests that a new theory or a modified version of delta-wing theory is needed to adequately explain the way in which morphology varies during flight. PMID:12028763

  18. High-resolution rapid diagnostic imaging of whole prostate biopsies using video-rate fluorescence structured illumination microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mei; Kimbrell, Hillary Z.; Sholl, Andrew B.; Tulman, David B.; Elfer, Katherine N.; Schlichenmeyer, Tyler C.; Lee, Benjamin R.; Lacey, Michelle; Brown, J. Quincy

    2015-01-01

    Rapid assessment of prostate core biopsy pathology at the point-of-procedure could provide benefit in a variety of clinical situations. Even with advanced trans-rectal ultrasound guidance and saturation biopsy protocols, prostate cancer can be missed in up to half of all initial biopsy procedures. In addition, collection of tumor specimens for downstream histological, molecular, and genetic analysis is hindered by low tumor yield due to inability to identify prostate cancer grossly. However, current point-of-procedure pathology protocols such as frozen section analysis (FSA) are destructive, and too time- and labor-intensive to be practical or economical. Ex vivo microscopy of the excised specimens, stained with fast-acting fluorescent histology dyes, could be an attractive non-destructive alternative to FSA. In this work, we report the first demonstration of video-rate structured illumination microscopy (VR-SIM) for rapid high-resolution diagnostic imaging of prostate biopsies in realistic point-of-procedure timeframes. Large mosaic images of prostate biopsies stained with acridine orange are rendered in seconds, and contain excellent contrast and detail, exhibiting close correlation with corresponding H&E histology. A clinically-relevant review of VR-SIM images of 34 unfixed and uncut prostate core biopsies by two independent pathologists resulted in an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.82–0.88, with a sensitivity ranging from 63–88% and a specificity ranging from 78–89%. When biopsies contained more than 5% tumor content, the sensitivity improved to 75–92%. The image quality, speed, minimal complexity, and ease of use of VR-SIM could prove to be features in favor of adoption as an alternative to destructive pathology at the point-of-procedure. PMID:26282168

  19. ALK positivity on pleuroscopic pleural biopsy in lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Preyas J; Kate, Arvind H; Mehta, Deval; Dhabar, Boman N; Chhajed, Prashant N

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide, and around 75% to 80% of lung cancers are detected in advanced stage. Multiple genetic mutations are identified and reported in adenocarcinoma of the lung. Various pulmonary samples can be tested for molecular mutations in lung cancer. However, feasibility of molecular profiling of pleuroscopic pleural biopsies in lung adenocarcinoma is not reported. We describe a case of advanced adenocarcinoma of lung with positive anaplastic lymphoma tyrosine kinase mutation on pleuroscopic pleural biopsy and improved with oral crizotinib. The current case highlights the feasibility of pleuroscopy.-guided pleural biopsies in molecular profiling of lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:27461706

  20. Frequency of tail lesions and risk factors for tail biting in heavy pig production from weaning to 170 kg live weight.

    PubMed

    Scollo, A; Contiero, B; Gottardo, F

    2016-01-01

    Tail biting lesions have a negative effect on both the welfare of pigs and on the revenue of the pig farm. Due to the multifactorial nature of this abnormal behaviour and its sporadic onset, an epidemiological approach was adopted to identify the management and housing factors influencing the occurrence of tail biting and the frequency of bitten pigs in the weaning and fattening phases up to 170 kg live weight in heavy pig production. Data were collected from a sample of 67 commercial pig farms via an on-farm visit and a questionnaire to the farmer. Data collected included general farm information, hygiene and herd health, prevention, management, climate control, feeding and production traits. In the weaning phase, the occurrence of tail biting was increased by a factor of 16.64 for tipped vs. short-docked tails, by a factor of 68.09 when the observer detected poor air quality, and by a factor of 14.44 when the feeding time was variable. In fattening pigs, a high stocking density increased the risk of tail biting by a factor of 18.00. The frequency of lesions in weaners was greater in pigs with tipped tails (0.29 vs. 0.03%; P = 0.034), whereas in fatteners the frequency of lesions was greater when drinkers were not present in the lying area (0.71 vs. 0.05%; P = 0.009) and when air turnover was not detected in the barn (0.70 vs. 0.07%; P = 0.005). There was also a trend for increased tail biting when the stocking density was high (1.06 vs. 0.33%; P = 0.057). Many of the risk factors that emerged for heavy pigs in the present study could be easily managed to reduce the risk of tail biting and the frequency of tail lesions through the systematic evaluation and control of stocking density, climate, and feed and water management. PMID:26626091

  1. The Distant Sodium Tail of Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.; Morgan, T. H.

    2001-01-01

    Models of the sodium atmosphere of Mercury predict the possible existence of a cornet-like sodium tail. Detection and mapping of the predicted sodium tail would provide quantitative data on the energy of the process that produces sodium atoms from the planetary surface. Previous efforts to detect the sodium tail by means of observations done during daylight hours have been only partially successful because scattered sunlight obscured the weak sodium emissions in the tail. However, at greatest eastern elongation around the March equinox in the northern hemisphere, Mercury can be seen as an evening star in astronomical twilight. At this time, the intensity of scattered sunlight is low enough that sodium emissions as low as 500 Rayleighs can be detected. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  2. BIOMECHANICS. Why the seahorse tail is square.

    PubMed

    Porter, Michael M; Adriaens, Dominique; Hatton, Ross L; Meyers, Marc A; McKittrick, Joanna

    2015-07-01

    Whereas the predominant shapes of most animal tails are cylindrical, seahorse tails are square prisms. Seahorses use their tails as flexible grasping appendages, in spite of a rigid bony armor that fully encases their bodies. We explore the mechanics of two three-dimensional-printed models that mimic either the natural (square prism) or hypothetical (cylindrical) architecture of a seahorse tail to uncover whether or not the square geometry provides any functional advantages. Our results show that the square prism is more resilient when crushed and provides a mechanism for preserving articulatory organization upon extensive bending and twisting, as compared with its cylindrical counterpart. Thus, the square architecture is better than the circular one in the context of two integrated functions: grasping ability and crushing resistance.

  3. Detection of arenavirus in a peripheral odontogenic fibromyxoma in a red tail boa (Boa constrictor constrictor) with inclusion body disease.

    PubMed

    Hellebuyck, Tom; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Saey, Veronique; Martel, An

    2015-03-01

    A captive bred red tail boa (Boa constrictor constrictor) was presented with a large intraoral mass originating from the buccal gingiva, attached to the right dentary teeth row. Based on the clinical features and histological examination, the diagnosis of a peripheral odontogenic fibromyxoma was made. Sections of liver biopsies and circulating lymphocytes contained relatively few eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies, indistinguishable from those observed in inclusion body disease-affected snakes. Inclusion bodies were not observed in cells comprising the neoplastic mass. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), arenavirus was detected in the neoplastic tissue. Two years after surgical removal of the mass, recurrence of the neoplastic lesion was observed. Numerous large inclusion body disease inclusions were abundantly present in the neoplastic cells of the recurrent fibromyxoma. Sections of liver biopsies and circulating lymphocytes contained relatively few intracytoplasmic inclusions. The RT-PCR revealed the presence of arenavirus in blood, a liver biopsy, and neoplastic tissue. The present case describes the co-occurrence of an arenavirus infection and an odontogenic fibromyxoma in a red tail boa.

  4. The diagnosis of cancer in thyroid fine needle aspiration biopsy. Surgery, repeat biopsy or specimen consultation?

    PubMed

    Stanek-Widera, A; Biskup-Frużyńska, M; Zembala-Nożyńska, E; Śnietura, M; Lange, D

    2016-03-01

    Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA) is the only diagnostic method that allows a preoperative diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma. An unequivocal diagnosis of a malignant change is achievable only in cases in which all cytological criteria of carcinoma are met. The aim of the study was to evaluate the necessity of repeat thyroid FNA in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma verified on consultative examination (CE). We analyzed cytology reports of thyroid FNA and CE that resulted in the diagnosis of papillary carcinoma. Evaluation of the correlation of the cytological diagnosis with the histopathology report was based on data obtained after the surgery. Between 2010 and 2015 in the Institute of Oncology (IO) there were 184 cancers diagnosed on CE or in thyroid FNA performed primarily in IO. Additionally, 74 patients were subjected to repeat biopsy after confirmation of cancer in CE. Histopathological diagnosis of cancer was obtained in 62 (100%) cases that were doubly confirmed with cytological examination. The remaining 12 patients were operated on outside the institute. From 110 FNA primarily performed in the IO, histopathological verification was achievable in 92 cases, from which 92 (100%) provided a confirmation of cancer, and the remaining 18 patients were operated on outside the institute. High (100%) specificity of cancer diagnosis in FNA established primarily and verified on CE (second independent assessment) indicates that repeat FNA in order to confirm the diagnosis is unnecessary. PMID:27179270

  5. Effects of tail docking and docking length on neuroanatomical changes in healed tail tips of pigs.

    PubMed

    Herskin, M S; Thodberg, K; Jensen, H E

    2015-04-01

    In pig production, piglets are tail docked at birth in order to prevent tail biting later in life. In order to examine the effects of tail docking and docking length on the formation of neuromas, we used 65 pigs and the following four treatments: intact tails (n=18); leaving 75% (n=17); leaving 50% (n=19); or leaving 25% (n=11) of the tail length on the pigs. The piglets were docked between day 2 and 4 after birth using a gas-heated apparatus, and were kept under conventional conditions until slaughter at 22 weeks of age, where tails were removed and examined macroscopically and histologically. The tail lengths and diameters differed at slaughter (lengths: 30.6±0.6; 24.9±0.4; 19.8±0.6; 8.7±0.6 cm; P<0.001; tail diameter: 0.5±0.03; 0.8±0.02; 1.0±0.03; 1.4±0.04 cm; P<0.001, respectively). Docking resulted in a higher proportion of tails with neuromas (64 v. 0%; P<0.001), number of neuromas per tail (1.0±0.2 v. 0; P<0.001) and size of neuromas (1023±592 v. 0 μm; P<0.001). The results show that tail docking piglets using hot-iron cautery causes formation of neuromas in the outermost part of the tail tip. The presence of neuromas might lead to altered nociceptive thresholds, which need to be confirmed in future studies. PMID:25482535

  6. Shake a Tail Feather: The Evolution of the Theropod Tail into a Stiff Aerodynamic Surface

    PubMed Central

    Pittman, Michael; Gatesy, Stephen M.; Upchurch, Paul; Goswami, Anjali; Hutchinson, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Theropod dinosaurs show striking morphological and functional tail variation; e.g., a long, robust, basal theropod tail used for counterbalance, or a short, modern avian tail used as an aerodynamic surface. We used a quantitative morphological and functional analysis to reconstruct intervertebral joint stiffness in the tail along the theropod lineage to extant birds. This provides new details of the tail’s morphological transformation, and for the first time quantitatively evaluates its biomechanical consequences. We observe that both dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness decreased along the non-avian theropod lineage (between nodes Theropoda and Paraves). Our results show how the tail structure of non-avian theropods was mechanically appropriate for holding itself up against gravity and maintaining passive balance. However, as dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness decreased, the tail may have become more effective for dynamically maintaining balance. This supports our hypothesis of a reduction of dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness in shorter tails. Along the avian theropod lineage (Avialae to crown group birds), dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness increased overall, which appears to contradict our null expectation. We infer that this departure in joint stiffness is specific to the tail’s aerodynamic role and the functional constraints imposed by it. Increased dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness may have facilitated a gradually improved capacity to lift, depress, and swing the tail. The associated morphological changes should have resulted in a tail capable of producing larger muscular forces to utilise larger lift forces in flight. Improved joint mobility in neornithine birds potentially permitted an increase in the range of lift force vector orientations, which might have improved flight proficiency and manoeuvrability. The tail morphology of modern birds with tail fanning capabilities originated in early ornithuromorph birds. Hence

  7. Key programmatic steps and activities for implementing the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project. [UMTRA Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-07-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA) was enacted based upon findings by Congress that uranium mill tailings located at active and inactive hazard to the public, and that protection of the public health, safety and welfare, and the regulations of interstate commerce, require that every reasonable effort be made to provide for the stabilization, disposal, and control in a safe and environmentally sound manner of such tailings in order to prevent or minimize radon diffusion into the environment and to prevent or minimize other environmental hazards from such tailings.'' A general understanding of the steps leading to elimination of the hazards associated with designated uranium mill tailings sites, and the parties involved in that effort, are presented in this document. A representative schedule is also presented in this document to show both program sequence and activity interdependence. Those activities that have the most potential to influence program duration, because of the significant amount of additional time that may be required, include identification and selection of a suitable site, field data collection delays due to weather, actual acquisition of the designated or alternate disposal site, construction delays due to weather, and site licensing. This document provides an understanding of the steps, the sequence, the parties involved, and a representative duration of activities leading to remedial action and cleanup at the designated inactive uranium mill tailings sites. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. The Sodium Tail of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matta, M.; Smith, S.; Baumgardner, J.; Wilson, J.; Martinis, C.; Mendillo, M.

    2009-01-01

    During the few days centered about new Moon, the lunar surface is optically hidden from Earth-based observers. However, the Moon still offers an observable: an extended sodium tail. The lunar sodium tail is the escaping "hot" component of a coma-like exosphere of sodium generated by photon-stimulated desorption, solar wind sputtering and meteoroid impact. Neutral sodium atoms escaping lunar gravity experience solar radiation pressure that drives them into the anti-solar direction forming a comet-like tail. During new Moon time, the geometry of the Sun, Moon and Earth is such that the anti-sunward sodium flux is perturbed by the terrestrial gravitational field resulting in its focusing into a dense core that extends beyond the Earth. An all-sky camera situated at the El Leoncito Observatory (CASLEO) in Argentina has been successfully imaging this tail through a sodium filter at each lunation since April 2006. This paper reports on the results of the brightness of the lunar sodium tail spanning 31 lunations between April 2006 and September 2008. Brightness variability trends are compared with both sporadic and shower meteor activity, solar wind proton energy flux and solar near ultra violet (NUV) patterns for possible correlations. Results suggest minimal variability in the brightness of the observed lunar sodium tail, generally uncorrelated with any single source, yet consistent with a multi-year period of minimal solar activity and non-intense meteoric fluxes.

  9. Four tails problems for dynamical collapse theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQueen, Kelvin J.

    2015-02-01

    The primary quantum mechanical equation of motion entails that measurements typically do not have determinate outcomes, but result in superpositions of all possible outcomes. Dynamical collapse theories (e.g. GRW) supplement this equation with a stochastic Gaussian collapse function, intended to collapse the superposition of outcomes into one outcome. But the Gaussian collapses are imperfect in a way that leaves the superpositions intact. This is the tails problem. There are several ways of making this problem more precise. But many authors dismiss the problem without considering the more severe formulations. Here I distinguish four distinct tails problems. The first (bare tails problem) and second (structured tails problem) exist in the literature. I argue that while the first is a pseudo-problem, the second has not been adequately addressed. The third (multiverse tails problem) reformulates the second to account for recently discovered dynamical consequences of collapse. Finally the fourth (tails problem dilemma) shows that solving the third by replacing the Gaussian with a non-Gaussian collapse function introduces new conflict with relativity theory.

  10. The sodium tail of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matta, M.; Smith, S.; Baumgardner, J.; Wilson, J.; Martinis, C.; Mendillo, M.

    2009-12-01

    During the few days centered about new Moon, the lunar surface is optically hidden from Earth-based observers. However, the Moon still offers an observable: an extended sodium tail. The lunar sodium tail is the escaping "hot" component of a coma-like exosphere of sodium generated by photon-stimulated desorption, solar wind sputtering and meteoroid impact. Neutral sodium atoms escaping lunar gravity experience solar radiation pressure that drives them into the anti-solar direction forming a comet-like tail. During new Moon time, the geometry of the Sun, Moon and Earth is such that the anti-sunward sodium flux is perturbed by the terrestrial gravitational field resulting in its focusing into a dense core that extends beyond the Earth. An all-sky camera situated at the El Leoncito Observatory (CASLEO) in Argentina has been successfully imaging this tail through a sodium filter at each lunation since April 2006. This paper reports on the results of the brightness of the lunar sodium tail spanning 31 lunations between April 2006 and September 2008. Brightness variability trends are compared with both sporadic and shower meteor activity, solar wind proton energy flux and solar near ultra violet (NUV) patterns for possible correlations. Results suggest minimal variability in the brightness of the observed lunar sodium tail, generally uncorrelated with any single source, yet consistent with a multi-year period of minimal solar activity and non-intense meteoric fluxes.

  11. Electrodialytic remediation of copper mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Henrik K; Rojo, Adrián; Ottosen, Lisbeth M

    2005-01-31

    Mining activities in Chile have generated large amounts of solid waste, which have been deposited in mine tailing impoundments. These impoundments cause concern to the communities due to dam failures or natural leaching to groundwater and rivers. This work shows the laboratory results of nine electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. The results show that electric current could remove copper from watery tailing if the potential gradient was higher than 2 V/cm during 21 days. With addition of sulphuric acid, the process was enhanced because the pH decreased to around 4, and the copper by this reason was released in the solution. Furthermore, with acidic tailing the potential gradient was less than 2 V/cm. The maximum copper removal reached in the anode side was 53% with addition of sulphuric acid in 21 days experiment at 20 V using approximately 1.8 kg mine tailing on dry basis. In addition, experiments with acidic tailing show that the copper removal is proportional with time.

  12. Transfemoral liver biopsy using a Quick-Core biopsy needle system in living donor liver transplantation recipients.

    PubMed

    Li, Fen Qiang; Ko, Gi-Young; Sung, Kyu-Bo; Gwon, Dong-Il; Ko, Heung Kyu; Kim, Jong Woo; Yu, Eunsil

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of transfemoral liver biopsy with a Quick-Core biopsy needle in select living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) recipients. Eight LDLT recipients underwent 9 transfemoral liver biopsy sessions. Six patients had undergone modified right lobe (mRL) LDLT, and 2 patients had undergone dual-left lobe LDLT. The indications for transfemoral liver biopsy were a hepatic vein (HV) at an acute angle to the inferior vena cava (IVC) on the coronal plane and a thin (<10-mm) liver parenchyma surrounding the HV to be biopsied on enhanced computed tomography. Under fluoroscopic guidance, the right inferior HV in the mRL or the left HV in the right-sided left lobe with a cranial orientation was negotiated with a 5-Fr catheter via the common femoral vein. Then, a stiffening cannula was introduced into the HV over a stiff guide wire. Needle passage was then performed with an 18- or 19-gauge Quick-Core biopsy needle. Technical success was achieved in all sessions without major complications. The median number of needle passages was 4 (range = 2-6). The median total length of obtained liver specimens in each session was 44 mm (range = 24-75 mm). The median number of portal tracts was 18 (range = 10-29), and the obtained liver specimens were adequate for histological diagnosis in all sessions. In conclusion, transfemoral liver biopsy with a Quick-Core biopsy needle is an effective and safe alternative for obtaining a liver specimen when standard transjugular liver biopsy is not feasible because of an unfavorable HV angle with respect to the IVC and/or a thin liver parenchyma surrounding the HV. PMID:24916429

  13. Testing for the recurrent HOXB13 G84E germline mutation in men with clinical indications for prostate biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Schroeck, Florian R.; Zuhlke, Kimberly A.; Siddiqui, Javed; Siddiqui, Rabia; Cooney, Kathleen A.; Wei, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The G84E variant of HOXB13 was recently found to be associated with a significantly increased risk of prostate cancer in a case control study. We estimated the prevalence of this mutation in a clinical population of men at risk for prostate cancer scheduled to undergo prostate biopsy. Materials and Methods We prospectively collected clinical information and DNA samples from men undergoing diagnostic prostate biopsy between June 2005 and October 2011. We genotyped samples for HOXB13 G84E using the MassARRAY system. We determined the prevalence of the G84E variant in the overall cohort, among patients with positive family history (FH), and among men age 55 years or younger. Results 1175 subjects underwent biopsy, of which 948 had a DNA sample for analysis. Four patients had the G84E variant detected [prevalence 0.42%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.12% - 1.12%], of which three had prostate cancer on biopsy. None of 301 patients with a positive FH (prevalence 0.00%, 95% CI 0.00% – 1.52%) and one of 226 subjects age 55 years or younger tested positive (prevalence 0.44%, 95% CI 0.01% – 2.44%). Conclusion The HOXB13 G84E variant is rare in this cohort, even in those with a positive family history. Our findings question the utility of testing for this variant among unselected men presenting for a diagnostic prostate biopsy. PMID:23036981

  14. Historic mills and mill tailings as potential sources of contamination in and near the Humboldt River basin, northern Nevada. Chapter D.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nash, J. Thomas; Stillings, Lisa L.

    2003-01-01

    Reconnaissance field studies of 40 mining districts in and near the Humboldt River basin have identified 83 mills and associated tailings impoundments and several other kinds of mineral-processing facilities (smelters, mercury retorts, heap-leach pads) related to historic mining. The majority of the mills and tailings sites are not recorded in the literature. All tailings impoundments show evidence of substantial amounts of erosion. At least 11 tailings dams were breached by flood waters, carrying fluvial tailings 1 to 15 km down canyons and across alluvial fans. Most of the tailings sites are dry most of the year, but some are near streams. Tailings that are wet for part of the year do not appear to be reacting significantly with those waters because physical factors such as clay layers and hard-pan cement appear to limit permeability and release of metals to surface waters. The major impact of mill tailings on surface- water quality may be brief flushes of runoff during storm events that carry acid and metals released from soluble mineral crusts. Small ephemeral ponds and puddles that tend to collect in trenches and low areas on tailings impoundments tend to be acidic and extremely enriched in metals, in part through cycles of evaporation. Ponded water that is rich in salts and metals could be acutely toxic to unsuspecting animals. Rare extreme storms have the potential to cause catastrophic failure of tailings impoundments, carry away metals in stormwaters, and transport tailings as debris flows for 1 to 15 km. In most situations these stormwaters and transported tailings could impact wildlife but probably would impact few or no people or domes-tic water wells. Because all identified historic tailings sites are several kilometers or more from the Humboldt River and major tributaries, tailings probably have no measurable impact on water quality in the main stem of the Humboldt River.

  15. Breast Biopsy: The Effects of Hypnosis and Music.

    PubMed

    Téllez, Arnoldo; Sánchez-Jáuregui, Teresa; Juárez-García, Dehisy M; García-Solís, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The authors evaluated the efficacies of audio-recorded hypnosis with background music and music without hypnosis in the reduction of emotional and physical disturbances in patients scheduled for breast biopsy in comparison with a control group. A total of 75 patients were randomly assigned to 3 different groups and evaluated at baseline and before and after breast biopsy using visual analog scales of stress, pain, depression, anxiety, fatigue, optimism, and general well-being. The results showed that, before breast biopsy, the music group presented less stress and anxiety, whereas the hypnosis with music group presented reduced stress, anxiety, and depression and increased optimism and general well-being. After the biopsy, the music group presented less anxiety and pain, whereas the hypnosis group showed less anxiety and increased optimism. PMID:27585728

  16. [Stereotaxic brain biopsy in AIDS patients with neurological manifestations].

    PubMed

    Nasser, J A; Confort, C I; Ferraz, A; Esperança, J C; Duarte, F

    1998-06-01

    Prospective series showing the importance of computerized stereotactic brain biopsy in the management of AIDS patients neurologically symptomatic and confirmed by images. Patients undergone an algorithm step by step done by their own doctors and referred to us for stereotactic biopsy. Our protocol was opened in August 1995 and closed in December 1996. Twenty patients were biopsied. This protocol is similar to the Levy's one (Chicago IL, USA). We have got diagnosis in all cases. Lymphoma was predominant and followed by toxoplasmosis, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and HIV encephalopathy. We included one patient with diploic giant cells lymphoma. Our mortality and morbidity was zero. By these results we conclude that stereotactic biopsy in AIDS patients is safe and effective.

  17. Drill biopsy in the diagnosis of lung lesions.

    PubMed

    Shatapathy, P; Sahoo, R C; Rao, K M; Krishnan, K V; Rau, P V; Padhee, A

    1987-11-01

    A high speed pneumatic drill was used to perform 190 percutaneous transthoracic biopsies in 161 patients. The resultant cores of tissue provided a definite diagnosis in 146 patients, giving a success rate of 90.7%. Complications occurred in 58 patients, subcutaneous emphysema being the most common, though only seven patients required active treatment, giving a rate of 3.7% for important complications. One patient died within 24 hours of the biopsy procedure owing to asphyxia resulting from aspiration of the contents of an acutely dilated stomach. Our experience clearly establishes that the drill biopsy as used by us is simple and safe and can be carried out in an outpatient department, yielding better overall results than any other procedure for closed biopsy of the lung currently practised.

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided Prostate Biopsy: Present and Future

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Systemic transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy (TRUSBx) is the standard procedure for diagnosing prostate cancer (PCa), but reveals a limited accuracy for the detection of cancer. Currently, multiparametric MR imaging (mp-MRI) is increasingly regarded as a promising method to detect PCa with an excellent positive predictive value. The use of mp-MRI during a MRI-guided biopsy (MRGB) procedure improves the quality of a targeted biopsy. The aim of this article is to provide an overview about the MRGB technique for PCa detection, to review the accuracy and clinical indications of MRGB and discuss its current issues and further directions. A MRGB seems accurate and efficient for the detection of clinically significant PCa in men with previous negative TRUSBx. Moreover, it may decrease the detection of clinically insignificant cancers with fewer biopsy cores. PMID:25598677

  19. [Stereotaxic brain biopsy in AIDS patients with neurological manifestations].

    PubMed

    Nasser, J A; Confort, C I; Ferraz, A; Esperança, J C; Duarte, F

    1998-06-01

    Prospective series showing the importance of computerized stereotactic brain biopsy in the management of AIDS patients neurologically symptomatic and confirmed by images. Patients undergone an algorithm step by step done by their own doctors and referred to us for stereotactic biopsy. Our protocol was opened in August 1995 and closed in December 1996. Twenty patients were biopsied. This protocol is similar to the Levy's one (Chicago IL, USA). We have got diagnosis in all cases. Lymphoma was predominant and followed by toxoplasmosis, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and HIV encephalopathy. We included one patient with diploic giant cells lymphoma. Our mortality and morbidity was zero. By these results we conclude that stereotactic biopsy in AIDS patients is safe and effective. PMID:9698730

  20. Effects of tail docking on health and performance of beef cattle in confined, slatted-floor feedlots.

    PubMed

    Kroll, L K; Grooms, D L; Siegford, J M; Schweihofer, J P; Metz, K; Rust, S R

    2014-09-01

    Tail docking of feedlot cattle is a management practice used in some confined, slatted-floor feedlots of the midwestern United States. Justification for tail docking in these management systems is to reduce tail injuries and their sequelae and improve performance, but limited evidence exists to support these claims. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of tail docking on performance, carcass traits, and health parameters after tail docking in feedlot cattle raised in slatted-floor feedlots. Three separate trials were performed. Trial 1 consisted of 140 Angus-cross (370-kg) yearling steers that spent 144 to 160 days on feed (DOF). Trial 2 consisted of 137 Angus-cross (255-kg) weaned steers that spent 232 DOF. Trial 3 consisted of 102 Holstein steers (370 kg) that spent 185 to 232 DOF. Cattle were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups: docked (DK) or control (CN). All steers received an epidural following surgical preparation of the sacrococcygeal area and postoperative intravenous flunixin meglumine. Approximately two-thirds of the tail of DK calves was removed and an elastrator band was placed near the tail tip for hemostasis. Performance parameters collected included daily gain, final weight, feed intake, and feed efficiency. Carcass data included HCW, subcutaneous fat thickness, LM area, KPH percent, marbling, USDA yield grade, and USDA quality grade. Morbidity, mortality, incidence of lameness, and incidence of tail lesions were recorded. Across all 3 trials, there was no significant effect (P < 0.05) of treatment on performance parameters, carcass traits, or health parameters. In all 3 trials, tail tip injuries occurred in 60 to 76% of undocked (CN) calves, developed while living in the slatted-floor environment, compared to 100% of DK calves, whose injuries were a result of the tail docking procedure. We were unable to identify a performance or significant health advantage to tail docking. However, tail tip injuries still

  1. Preliminary findings of a molecular survey for the presence of B. bovis and B. bigemina in cattle fever ticks and white-tailed deer from south Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White-tailed deer are an alternative host for Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. (B.) annulatus, collectively referred to as cattle fever ticks. Dense white-tailed deer populations in south Texas complicate efforts by the National Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program to keep the U.S. free o...

  2. Direct Characterization of Airborne Particles Associated with Arsenic-rich Mine Tailings: Particle Size Mineralogy and Texture

    SciTech Connect

    M Corriveau; H Jamieson; M Parsons; J Campbell; A Lanzirotti

    2011-12-31

    Windblown and vehicle-raised dust from unvegetated mine tailings can be a human health risk. Airborne particles from As-rich abandoned Au mine tailings from Nova Scotia, Canada have been characterized in terms of particle size, As concentration, As oxidation state, mineral species and texture. Samples were collected in seven aerodynamically fractionated size ranges (0.5-16 {micro}m) using a cascade impactor deployed at three tailings fields. All three sites are used for recreational activities and off-road vehicles were racing on the tailings at two mines during sample collection. Total concentrations of As in the <8 {micro}m fraction varied from 65 to 1040 ng/m{sup 3} of air as measured by proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. The same samples were analysed by synchrotron-based microfocused X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy ({micro}XANES) and X-ray diffraction ({micro}XRD) and found to contain multiple As-bearing mineral species, including Fe-As weathering products. The As species present in the dust were similar to those observed in the near-surface tailings. The action of vehicles on the tailings surface may disaggregate material cemented with Fe arsenate and contribute additional fine-grained As-rich particles to airborne dust. Results from this study can be used to help assess the potential human health risks associated with exposure to airborne particles from mine tailings.

  3. The disappearing clip: an unusual complication in MRI biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Bourke, Anita Geraldine; Peter, Prasant; Jose, Chaitra Lesli

    2014-01-01

    MRI-guided biopsies are being increasingly used for otherwise occult breast lesions. Clip migration has been reported however, to the best of our knowledge, there have been no documented cases of entire disappearance of a marker clip. Absence of the postbiopsy marker clip was noted when our patient returned for preoperative hook-wire localisation even though accurate clip placement had been confirmed on the post-MRI biopsy mammogram. PMID:25139917

  4. Pericardial Tamponade Following CT-Guided Lung Biopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Michael J.; Montgomery, Mark; Reiter, Charles G.; Culp, William C.

    2008-07-15

    While not free from hazards, CT-guided biopsy of the lung is a safe procedure, with few major complications. Despite its safety record, however, potentially fatal complications do rarely occur. We report a case of pericardial tamponade following CT-guided lung biopsy. Rapid diagnosis and therapy allowed for complete patient recovery. Physicians who perform this procedure should be aware of the known complications and be prepared to treat them appropriately.

  5. Low coherence interferometry approach for aiding fine needle aspiration biopsies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ernest W.; Gardecki, Joseph; Pitman, Martha; Wilsterman, Eric J.; Patel, Ankit; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Iftimia, Nicusor

    2014-11-01

    We present portable preclinical low-coherence interference (LCI) instrumentation for aiding fine needle aspiration biopsies featuring the second-generation LCI-based biopsy probe and an improved scoring algorithm for tissue differentiation. Our instrument and algorithm were tested on 38 mice with cultured tumor mass and we show the specificity, sensitivity, and positive predictive value of tumor detection of over 0.89, 0.88, and 0.96, respectively.

  6. Advanced Imaging for Biopsy Guidance in Primary Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Tsiouris, Apostolos J; Ramakrishna, Rohan

    2016-01-01

    Accurate glioma sampling is required for diagnosis and establishing eligibility for relevant clinical trials. MR-based perfusion and spectroscopy sequences supplement conventional MR in noninvasively predicting the areas of highest tumor grade for biopsy. We report the case of a patient with gliomatosis cerebri and multifocal patchy enhancement in whom the combination of advanced and conventional imaging attributes successfully guided a diagnostic biopsy. PMID:27014538

  7. Emergency right hepatectomy after laparoscopic tru-cut liver biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Quezada, Nicolás; León, Felipe; Martínez, Jorge; Jarufe, Nicolás; Guerra, Juan Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Background Liver biopsy is a common procedure usually required for final pathologic diagnosis of different liver diseases. Morbidity following tru-cut biopsy is uncommon, with bleeding complications generally self-limited. Few cases of major hemorrhage after liver biopsies have been reported, but to our knowledge, no cases of emergency hepatectomy following a tru-cut liver biopsy have been reported previously. Presentation of case We report the case of a 38 years-old woman who presented with an intrahepatic arterial bleeding after a tru-cut liver biopsy under direct laparoscopic visualization, initially controlled by ligation of the right hepatic artery and temporary liver packing. On tenth postoperative day, she developed a pseudo-aneurysm of the anterior branch of the right hepatic artery, evolving with massive bleeding that was not amenable to control by endovascular therapy. Therefore, an emergency right hepatectomy had to be performed in order to stop the bleeding. The patient achieved hemodynamic stabilization, but developed a biliary fistula from the liver surface, refractory to non-operative treatment. In consequence, a Roux-Y hepatico-jejunostomy was performed at third month, with no further complications. Discussion Bleeding following tru-cut biopsy is a rare event. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an emergency hepatectomy due to hemorrhage following liver biopsy. Risks and complications of liver biopsy are revised. Conclusion Care must be taken when performing this kind of procedures and a high level of suspicion regarding this complication should be taken in count when clinical/hemodynamic deterioration occurs after these procedures. PMID:25618399

  8. Low coherence interferometry approach for aiding fine needle aspiration biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ernest W.; Gardecki, Joseph; Pitman, Martha; Wilsterman, Eric J.; Patel, Ankit; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Iftimia, Nicusor

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. We present portable preclinical low-coherence interference (LCI) instrumentation for aiding fine needle aspiration biopsies featuring the second-generation LCI-based biopsy probe and an improved scoring algorithm for tissue differentiation. Our instrument and algorithm were tested on 38 mice with cultured tumor mass and we show the specificity, sensitivity, and positive predictive value of tumor detection of over 0.89, 0.88, and 0.96, respectively. PMID:25375634

  9. Evaluation of electronic biopsy for clinical diagnosis in virtual colonoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, Joseph; Du, Wei; Barish, Matthew; Li, Ellen; Zhu, Wei; Kaufman, Arie

    2011-03-01

    Virtual colonoscopy provides techniques not available in optical colonoscopy, an exciting one being the ability to perform an electronic biopsy. An electronic biopsy image is created using ray-casting volume rendering of the CT data with a translucent transfer function mapping higher densities to red and lower densities to blue. The resulting image allows the physician to gain insight into the internal structure of polyps. Benign tissue and adenomas can be differentiated; the former will appear as homogeneously blue and the latter as irregular red structures. Although this technique is now common, is included with clinical systems, and has been used successfully for computer aided detection, there has so far been no study to evaluate the effectiveness of a physician using electronic biopsy in determining the pathological state of a polyp. We present here such a study, wherein an experienced radiologist ranked polyps based on electronic biopsy alone per scan (supine and prone), as well as both combined. Our results show a correct identification 77% of the time using prone or supine images alone, and 80% accuracy using both. Using ROC analysis based on this study with one reader and a modest sample size, the combined score is not significantly higher than using a single electronic biopsy image alone. However, our analysis indicates a trend of superiority for the combined ranking that deserves a follow-up confirmatory study with a larger sample and more readers. This study yields hope that an improved electronic biopsy technique could become a primary clinical diagnosis method.

  10. 75 FR 62445 - Otter Tail Valley Railroad Company, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-in Otter Tail County, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ... Surface Transportation Board Otter Tail Valley Railroad Company, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-- in Otter Tail County, MN Otter Tail Valley Railroad Company, Inc. (OTVR) filed a verified notice of exemption... milepost 48.422 near Fergus Falls, and milepost 47.60 near Hoot Lake, in Otter Tail County, Minn.\\1\\...

  11. Modelling the Neutral Sodium Tails of Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkett, K. S.; Jones, G. H.; Coates, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    Neutral sodium is typically easy to detect in active comets around perihelion, due to the very high efficiency of the sodium D transition, and at some comets a distinct neutral sodium tail is observed. The first distinct neutral sodium tail images were apparent in comet Hale-Bopp (C/1995 O1) data taken using CoCam [Cremonese et al, 1997], but since this initial detection similar features have been observed at a number of near-Sun comets using the SOHO/LASCO coronagraph. An understanding of the distribution and evolution of neutral cometary sodium may best be developed using a combination of spectra and images in different filters at multiple times throughout a comet's orbit. At present the source of neutral sodium in comets is unknown, primarily because the evolution of neutral cometary sodium is difficult to intuitively predict due to the Swings and Greenstein effects. Several authors [review presented in Cremonese et al, 1999] have suggested various combinations of sources of neutral sodium in the nuclear region, near-nuclear region, dust tail and ion tail. In order to understand the wide variety of cometary observations of neutral sodium available we have developed the first fully three dimensional, heliocentric distance dependent, versatile Monte Carlo neutral sodium tail model (initially based on a model developed by [Brown et al, 1998]). Our model is known as COMPASS (Cometary Orbital Motion at Perihelion: an Adaptable Sodium Simulation), and incorporates the unintuitive variation in radiation pressure influences on sodium atoms with different heliocentric velocities. We present the initial results of a comparison between COMPASS and observational data. We have found good agreement between the overall morphology of the neutral sodium tail imaged at comet Hale-Bopp and COMPASS, and have begun to extend the study to other comets of interest. We also present a comparison between simulated COMPASS spectra and observations. The versatility of COMPASS allows it to

  12. CT Fluoroscopy-Guided Lung Biopsy with Novel Steerable Biopsy Canula: Ex-Vivo Evaluation in Ventilated Porcine Lung Explants

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, Philipp J. Fabel, Michael; Bolte, Hendrik; Schaefer, Fritz K. W.; Jahnke, Thomas; Heller, Martin; Lammer, Johannes; Biederer, Juergen

    2010-08-15

    The purpose was to evaluate ex-vivo a prototype of a novel biopsy canula under CT fluoroscopy-guidance in ventilated porcine lung explants in respiratory motion simulations. Using an established chest phantom for porcine lung explants, n = 24 artificial lesions consisting of a fat-wax-Lipiodol mixture (approx. 70HU) were placed adjacent to sensible structures such as aorta, pericardium, diaphragm, bronchus and pulmonary artery. A piston pump connected to a reservoir beneath a flexible silicone reconstruction of a diaphragm simulated respiratory motion by rhythmic inflation and deflation of 1.5 L water. As biopsy device an 18-gauge prototype biopsy canula with a lancet-like, helically bended cutting edge was used. The artificial lesions were punctured under CT fluoroscopy-guidance (SOMATOM Sensation 64, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany; 30mAs/120 kV/5 mm slice thickness) implementing a dedicated protocol for CT fluoroscopy-guided lung biopsy. The mean-diameter of the artificial lesions was 8.3 {+-} 2.6 mm, and the mean-distance of the phantom wall to the lesions was 54.1 {+-} 13.5 mm. The mean-displacement of the lesions by respiratory motion was 14.1 {+-} 4.0 mm. The mean-duration of CT fluoroscopy was 9.6 {+-} 5.1 s. On a 4-point scale (1 = central; 2 = peripheral; 3 = marginal; 4 = off target), the mean-targeted precision was 1.9 {+-} 0.9. No misplacement of the biopsy canula affecting adjacent structures could be detected. The novel steerable biopsy canula proved to be efficient in the ex-vivo set-up. The chest phantom enabling respiratory motion and the steerable biopsy canula offer a feasible ex-vivo system for evaluating and training CT fluoroscopy-guided lung biopsy adapted to respiratory motion.

  13. Single-Tailed Lipidoids Enhance the Transfection Activity of Their Double-Tailed Counterparts.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yihang; Li, Linxian; Chen, Qing; Su, Yi; Levkin, Pavel A; Davidson, Gary

    2016-01-11

    Cationic lipid-like molecules (lipidoids) are widely used for in vitro and in vivo gene delivery. Nearly all lipidoids developed to date employ double-tail or multiple-tail structures for transfection. Single-tail lipidoids are seldom considered for transfection as they have low efficiency in gene delivery. So far, there is no detailed study on the contribution to transfection efficiency of single-tail lipidoids when combined with standard double-tail lipidoids. Here, we use combinatorial chemistry to synthesize 17 double-tail and 17 single-tail lipidoids using thiol-yne and thiol-ene click chemistry, respectively. HEK 293T cells were used to analyze transfection efficiency by fluorescence microscopy and calculated based on the percentage of cells transfected. The size and zeta potential of liposomes and lipoplexes were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Intracellular DNA delivery and trafficking was further examined using confocal microscopy. Our study shows that combining single with double-tail lipidoids increases uptake of lipoplexes, as well as cellular transfection efficiency.

  14. Diffuse Lung Disease in Biopsied Children 2 to 18 Years of Age. Application of the chILD Classification Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Leland L.; Dishop, Megan K.; Galambos, Csaba; Askin, Frederic B.; White, Frances V.; Langston, Claire; Liptzin, Deborah R.; Kroehl, Miranda E.; Deutsch, Gail H.; Young, Lisa R.; Kurland, Geoffrey; Hagood, James; Dell, Sharon; Trapnell, Bruce C.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Children’s Interstitial and Diffuse Lung Disease (chILD) is a heterogeneous group of disorders that is challenging to categorize. In previous study, a classification scheme was successfully applied to children 0 to 2 years of age who underwent lung biopsies for chILD. This classification scheme has not been evaluated in children 2 to 18 years of age. Objectives: This multicenter interdisciplinary study sought to describe the spectrum of biopsy-proven chILD in North America and to apply a previously reported classification scheme in children 2 to 18 years of age. Mortality and risk factors for mortality were also assessed. Methods: Patients 2 to 18 years of age who underwent lung biopsies for diffuse lung disease from 12 North American institutions were included. Demographic and clinical data were collected and described. The lung biopsies were reviewed by pediatric lung pathologists with expertise in diffuse lung disease and were classified by the chILD classification scheme. Logistic regression was used to determine risk factors for mortality. Measurements and Main Results: A total of 191 cases were included in the final analysis. Number of biopsies varied by center (5–49 biopsies; mean, 15.8) and by age (2–18 yr; mean, 10.6 yr). The most common classification category in this cohort was Disorders of the Immunocompromised Host (40.8%), and the least common was Disorders of Infancy (4.7%). Immunocompromised patients suffered the highest mortality (52.8%). Additional associations with mortality included mechanical ventilation, worse clinical status at time of biopsy, tachypnea, hemoptysis, and crackles. Pulmonary hypertension was found to be a risk factor for mortality but only in the immunocompetent patients. Conclusions: In patients 2 to 18 years of age who underwent lung biopsies for diffuse lung disease, there were far fewer diagnoses prevalent in infancy and more overlap with adult diagnoses. Immunocompromised patients with diffuse lung disease

  15. Optimizing prostate needle biopsy through 3D simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Jianchao; Kaplan, Charles; Xuan, Jian Hua; Sesterhenn, Isabell A.; Lynch, John H.; Freedman, Matthew T.; Mun, Seong K.

    1998-06-01

    Prostate needle biopsy is used for the detection of prostate cancer. The protocol of needle biopsy that is currently routinely used in the clinical environment is the systematic sextant technique, which defines six symmetric locations on the prostate surface for needle insertion. However, this protocol has been developed based on the long-term observation and experience of urologists. Little quantitative or scientific evidence supports the use of this biopsy technique. In this research, we aim at developing a statistically optimized new prostate needle biopsy protocol to improve the quality of diagnosis of prostate cancer. This new protocol will be developed by using a three-dimensional (3-D) computer- based probability map of prostate cancer. For this purpose, we have developed a computer-based 3-D visualization and simulation system with prostate models constructed from the digitized prostate specimens, in which the process of prostate needle biopsy can be simulated automatically by the computer. In this paper, we first develop an interactive biopsy simulation mode in the system, and evaluate the performance of the automatic biopsy simulation with the sextant biopsy protocol by comparing the results by the urologist using the interactive simulation mode with respect to 53 prostate models. This is required to confirm that the automatic simulation is accurate and reliable enough for the simulation with respect to a large number of prostate models. Then we compare the performance of the existing protocols using the automatic biopsy simulation system with respect to 107 prostate models, which will statistically identify if one protocol is better than another. Since the estimation of tumor volume is extremely important in determining the significance of a tumor and in deciding appropriate treatment methods, we further investigate correlation between the tumor volume and the positive core volume with 89 prostate models. This is done in order to develop a method to

  16. Identification of chromosomal locations associated with tail biting and being a victim of tail-biting behaviour in the domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus).

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kaitlin; Zanella, Ricardo; Ventura, Carlos; Johansen, Hanne Lind; Framstad, Tore; Janczak, Andrew; Zanella, Adroaldo J; Neibergs, Holly Louise

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to identify loci associated with tail biting or being a victim of tail biting in Norwegian crossbred pigs using a genome-wide association study with PLINK case-control analysis. DNA was extracted from hair or blood samples collected from 98 trios of crossbred pigs located across Norway. Each trio came from the same pen and consisted of one pig observed to initiate tail biting, one pig which was the victim of tail biting and a control pig which was not involved in either behaviour. DNA was genotyped using the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay. After quality assurance filtering, 53,952 SNPs remained comprising 74 animals (37 pairs) for the tail biter versus control comparison and 53,419 SNPs remained comprising 80 animals (40 pairs) for the victim of tail biting versus control comparison. An association with being a tail biter was observed on Sus scrofa chromosome 16 (SSC16; p = 1.6 × 10(-5)) and an unassigned chromosome (p = 3.9 × 10(-5)). An association with being the victim of tail biting was observed on Sus scrofa chromosomes 1 (SSC1; p = 4.7 × 10(-5)), 9 (SSC9; p = 3.9 × 10(-5)), 18 (SSC18; p = 7 × 10(-5) for 9,602,511 bp, p = 3.4 × 10(-5) for 9,653,881 bp and p = 5.3 × 10(-5) for 29,577,783 bp) and an unassigned chromosome (p = 6.1 × 10(-5)). An r(2) = 0.96 and a D' = 1 between the two SNPs at 9 Mb on SSC18 indicated extremely high linkage disequilibrium, suggesting that these two markers represent a single locus. These results provide evidence of a moderate genetic association between the propensity to participate in tail-biting behaviour and the likelihood of becoming a victim of this behaviour. PMID:22941514

  17. Wall or machine suction rectal biopsy for Hirschsprung's disease: a simple modified technique can improve the adequacy of biopsy.

    PubMed

    Ali, A E; Morecroft, J A; Bowen, J C; Bruce, J; Morabito, A

    2006-08-01

    Suction rectal biopsy (SRB) may not include sufficient submucosa for histological diagnosis of Hirschsprung's disease (HD) and a repeat biopsy is required. Substitution of the conventional syringe for sustained suction from a machine or wall suction unit could provide a more consistently adequate tissue biopsy. This study was conducted to compare the adequacy of SRB specimens using a conventional method of syringe suction (SSRB) with those taken by wall or machine suction (WSRB). Hospital records of patients who had a SRB between 2002 and 2004 were studied retrospectively. The biopsy was considered inadequate if there was insufficient submucosa and a repeat specimen was requested. SSRB were taken using the conventional SSRB technique. WSRB were taken with the same Noblett forceps but with suction from wall suction or from a portable suction machine. Ninety-five infants had 103 SRB, 24 had WSRB and all (100%) were adequate for histopathological diagnosis or exclusion of HD. Seventy nine conventional SSRB were undertaken in 71 infants of which 64 (81.02%) were adequate. The difference in adequacy between WSRB and SSRB was statistically significant (P = 0.02). There were no instances of haemorrhage or bowel perforation in either subgroup. WSRB with the Noblett biopsy forceps is more likely to produce an adequate specimen and to reduce the incidence of repeat biopsies.

  18. Transrectal-ultrasound prostatic biopsy preparation: rectal enema vs. mechanical bowel preparation

    PubMed Central

    Lombardo, Riccardo; Presicce, Fabrizio; Bellangino, Mariangela; Agro, Enrico Finazzi; Gambrosier, Matteo Bonetto; Trucchi, Alberto; Petta, Stefano; Tubaro, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Transrectal prostate biopsy (TRUSbx) is the standard for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Different bowel preparations are used for patients undergoing TRUSbx. The aim of our study was to compare two different bowel preparations for TRUSbx. Material and methods From May 2012 and onwards, a selected group of men undergoing TRUS 12-core prostate biopsy were enrolled into a prospective database. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive a rectal enema (Group A) the night before the procedure or polyethylene glycol 34.8 grams/4 liters of water the day before the procedure (Group B). A VAS scale to evaluate the patients’ discomfort according to the two preparations was collected. The same antibiotic prophylaxis was performed in both groups. All complications were prospectively recorded and graded according to the Clavien Classification System (CCS). Results A total of 198 patients were consecutively enrolled. Mean age was 67.5 ±7.9 years, mean body mass index (BMI) was 27.1 ±4.2 Kg/m2, mean PSA value was 9.3 ±12.6 ng/ml and the mean prostatic volume was 60.6 ±29 ml. 97 patients were enrolled in Group A and 101 in Group B. Overall post-biopsy morbidity rate was 60%. No significant differences for low-grade and high-grade complications was observed between the two groups. Patients receiving the rectal enema presented with a significantly lower VAS score (3.1 ±1.1 vs. 5.9 ±1.7; p = 0.02). Conclusions Our study confirmed that a rectal enema should be considered as the standard bowel preparation in patients undergoing a TRUS biopsy; it is as effective as PEG and associated with less discomfort. PMID:26251750

  19. Biopsy of Different Oral Soft Tissues Lesions by KTP and Diode Laser: Histological Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Romeo, Umberto; Russo, Claudia; Lo Giudice, Rossella; Visca, Paolo; Migliau, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Oral biopsy aims to obtain clear and safe diagnosis; it can be performed by scalpel or laser. The controversy in this latter application is the thermal alteration due to tissue heating. The aim of this study is the histological evaluation of margins of “in vivo” biopsies collected by diode and KTP lasers. Material and Methods. 17 oral benign lesions biopsies were made by diode 808 nm (SOL, DenMatItalia, Italy) and KTP 532 nm (SmartLite, DEKA, Italy). Samples were observed at OM LEICA DM 2000; margin alterations were evaluated through Leica Application Suite 3.4. Results. Epithelial and connective damages were assessed for each pathology with an average of 0.245 mm and a standard deviation of ±0.162 mm in mucoceles, 0.382 mm ± 0.149 mm in fibromas, 0.336 mm ± 0.106 mm in hyperkeratosis, 0.473 mm ± 0.105 mm in squamous hyperplasia, 0.182 mm in giant cell granuloma, and 0.149 mm in melanotic macula. Discussion. The histologic aspect of lesions influenced the response to laser, whereas the greater inflammation and cellularity were linked with the higher thermal signs. Many artifacts were also associated to histologic procedures. Conclusion. Both tested lasers permitted sure histologic diagnosis. However, it is suggested to enlarge biopsies of about 0.5 mm, to avoid thermal alterations, especially in inflammatory lesions like oral lichen planus. PMID:25405233

  20. Fiber bundle based endomicroscopy prototype with two collection channels for simultaneous coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and second harmonic generation imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhengfan; Satira, Zachary A.; Wang, Xi; Xu, Xiaoyun; Chen, Xu; Wong, Kelvin; Chen, Shufen; Xin, Jianguo; Wong, Stephen T. C.

    2014-02-01

    Label-free multiphoton imaging is promising for replacing biopsy and could offer new strategies for intraoperative or surgical applications. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging could provide lipid-band contrast, and second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging is useful for imaging collagen, tendon and muscle fibers. A combination of these two imaging modalities could provide rich information and this combination has been studied by researchers to investigate diseases through microscopy imaging. The combination of these two imaging modalities in endomicroscopy imaging has been rarely investigated. In this research, a fiber bundle consisted of one excitation fiber and 18 collection fibers was developed in our endomicroscopy prototype. The 18 collection fibers were divided into two collection channels with 9 fibers in each channel. These two channels could be used together as one channel for effective signal collection or used separately for simplifying detection part of the system. Differences of collection pattern of these two channels were investigated. Collection difference of central excitation fiber and surrounding 18 fibers was also investigated, which reveals the potential ability of this system to measure forward to backward (F/B) ratio in SHG imaging. CARS imaging of mouse adipocyte and SHG imaging of mouse tail tendon were performed to demonstrate the CARS and SHG tissue imaging performance of this system. Simultaneous CARS and SHG imaging ability of this system was demonstrated by mouse tail imaging. This fiber bundle based endomicroscopy imaging prototype, offers a promising platform for constructing efficient fiber-based CARS and SHG multimodal endomicroscopes for label free intraoperative imaging applications.

  1. Cognition in ring-tailed lemurs.

    PubMed

    Kittler, Klara; Schnoell, Anna Viktoria; Fichtel, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    In order to better understand the evolution of cognitive abilities in primates, information on cognitive traits of the most basal living primates can provide important comparative baseline data. Compared to haplorhine primates, lemurs have relatively smaller brains and reduced abilities to solve problems in the technical and social domain. However, recent studies have suggested that some cognitive abilities of lemurs are qualitatively equal to those of haplorhines. Here, we review studies investigating cognitive abilities in the technical and social domain of ring-tailed lemur cognition. In the physical domain, ring-tailed lemurs exhibit similar qualitative cognitive skills as other lemurs but also haplorhine primates. In the social domain, ring-tailed lemurs appear to be more skilled in visual perspective taking than other lemurs. Compared to other lemurs, they also have highly elaborated communicative skills. Moreover, within-group coalitions have been observed in female ring-tailed lemurs during rare events of female evictions but not in other lemur species. However, in several other aspects of social cognition, such as reconciliation and social learning, ring-tailed lemurs' cognitive abilities are equal to those of other lemurs. Thus, additional systematic comparative studies in physical and social cognition are required for a more comprehensive understanding of the processes of cognitive evolution among primates. PMID:26022306

  2. THE DUST TAIL OF ASTEROID (3200) PHAETHON

    SciTech Connect

    Jewitt, David; Li Jing; Agarwal, Jessica

    2013-07-10

    We report the discovery of a comet-like tail on asteroid (3200) Phaethon when imaged at optical wavelengths near perihelion. In both 2009 and 2012, the tail appears {approx}>350'' (2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} m) in length and extends approximately in the projected anti-solar direction. We interpret the tail as being caused by dust particles accelerated by solar radiation pressure. The sudden appearance and the morphology of the tail indicate that the dust particles are small, with an effective radius {approx}1 {mu}m and a combined mass {approx}3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} kg. These particles are likely products of thermal fracture and/or desiccation cracking under the very high surface temperatures ({approx}1000 K) experienced by Phaethon at perihelion. The existence of the tail confirms earlier inferences about activity in this body based on the detection of anomalous brightening. Phaethon, the presumed source of the Geminid meteoroids, is still active.

  3. Grouting of uranium mill tailings piles

    SciTech Connect

    Boegly, W.J. Jr.; Tamura, T.; Williams, J.D.

    1984-03-01

    A program of remedial action was initiated for a number of inactive uranium mill tailings piles. These piles result from mining and processing of uranium ores to meet the nation's defense and nuclear power needs and represent a potential hazard to health and the environment. Possible remedial actions include the application of covers to reduce radon emissions and airborne transport of the tailings, liners to prevent groundwater contamination by leachates from the piles, physical or chemical stabilization of the tailings, or moving the piles to remote locations. Conventional installation of liners would require excavation of the piles to emplace the liner; however, utilization of grouting techniques, such as those used in civil engineering to stabilize soils, might be a potential method of producing a liner without excavation. Laboratory studies on groutability of uranium mill tailings were conducted using samples from three abandoned piles and employing a number of particulate and chemical grouts. These studies indicate that it is possible to alter the permeability of the tailings from ambient values of 10/sup -3/ cm/s to values approaching 10/sup -7/ cm/s using silicate grouts and to 10/sup -8/ cm/s using acrylamide and acrylate grouts. An evaluation of grouting techniques, equipment required, and costs associated with grouting were also conducted and are presented. 10 references, 1 table.

  4. Indications, methods, and outcomes of percutaneous liver biopsy in England and Wales: an audit by the British Society of Gastroenterology and the Royal College of Physicians of London.

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, I T; Burroughs, A; Murray-Lyon, I M; Williams, R; Jenkins, D; Hopkins, A

    1995-01-01

    The liver section of the British Society of Gastroenterology and the research unit of the Royal College of Physicians collaborated to set up a nationwide audit to investigate the practice of percutaneous liver biopsy in England and Wales. Each of 189 health districts in England and Wales was approached to provide a list of 10 consecutive percutaneous biopsies performed during 1991, and details of demographic data, indications, suspected diagnosis, investigations, biopsy technique, outcome, and influence on patient management were collected. Data were retrieved on 1500 (79%). The age distribution showed 6% of biopsies were done in those over 80 years of age and as many over 90 as under 10 years of age. Suspected malignancy and chronic liver disease each contributed one third of the indications. In 34% the procedure was carried out by radiologists under ultrasound image control. The remainder were done by general physicians and gastroenterologists, with the operator in the second group being more senior and experienced. The Trucut biopsy needle accounted for two thirds of biopsies, the remainder being the Menghini type. For both needles the samples were recorded as excellent or satisfactory in 83% and inadequate in only 5%. Bleeding complicated 26 procedures (1.7%), requiring transfusion in 11, and was commoner when clotting was impaired or serum bilirubin raised. There were two definite and three possible procedure related, given an overall mortality of 0.13-0.33%. The diagnosis made before biopsy was confirmed in 63% of patients, and the clinician found the biopsy helpful in treatment in 75%. Day case biopsy and techniques to reduce the risk of bleeding were surprisingly rare in this series, which has given a unique opportunity to examine everyday practice across a wide range of hospitals. PMID:7698705

  5. Percutaneous ultrasound-guided renal biopsy: A Libyan experience

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, A.; Tarsin, R.; ElHabbash, B.; Zagan, N.; Markus, R.; Drebeka, S.; AbdElmola, K.; Shawish, T.; Shebani, A.; AbdElmola, T.; ElUsta, A.; Ehtuish, E. F.

    2010-01-01

    This study was done to assess the safety and efficacy of ultrasound-guided percutaneous renal biopsy (PRB), to ascertain the risk factors for complications and determine the optimal period of observation. The radiologist (A.M.) at the National Organ Transplant Centre, Central Hospital, Tripoli, Libya, performed 86 PRBs between February 1, 2006, and January 31, 2008, using an automated biopsy gun with 16-gauge needle. Coagulation profile was done in all the patients. All patients were kept on strict bed rest for six hours post-procedure. Eighty six renal biopsies were performed on 78 patients referred from rheumatology department and eight post-kidney transplant recipients; 23 were males with age range 15 – 56 years and 63 females with age range 16 – 66 years. A mean of 17.5 glomeruli were present in each specimen. A glomerular yield of less than five glomeruli was seen in four biopsies. Class I lupus nephritis (LN) was seen in 1 patient, class II lupus nephritis in 7 patients, class III LN in 13 patients and class IV LN in 29 patients. All the eight renal allografts were diagnosed as acute tubular necrosis or acute interstitial rejection. The risk of post-biopsy bleeding was higher in women, older patients and higher PTT. The overall complication rate was 5.8%. Three complications were observed within six hours of biopsy. No late complication was seen. PRB under real-time ultrasound-guidance is a safe and efficacious procedure to establish the histological diagnosis and should be done as out-patient procedure. Observation time of six hours post-biopsy is optimal. PMID:20835320

  6. Real time video processing software for the analysis of endoscopic guided-biopsies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordoñez, C.; Bouchet, A.; Pastore, J.; Blotta, E.

    2011-12-01

    The severity in Barrett esophagus disease is, undoubtedly, the possibility of its malignization. To make an early diagnosis in order to avoid possible complications, it is absolutely necessary collect biopsies to make a histological analysis. This should be done under endoscopic control to avoid mucus areas that may co-exist within the columnar epithelial, which could lead to a false diagnosis. This paper presents a video processing software in real-time in order to delineate and enhance areas of interest to facilitate the work of the expert.

  7. Plasma irregularities in the comet's tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, L. C.

    1976-01-01

    Scintillation theory is invoked to explain fluctuations in radio intensity observed during occultation of the extragalactic radio source PKS 2025-15 by the plasma tail of comet 1973 XII on Jan. 5, 1975. Plasma irregularities and turbulence in the tail of the comet (Kohoutek 1973f) are fitted to a Gaussian spectrum and to a Kolmogorov power-law spectrum in analyzing the scintillation data. The rms fluctuation of electron density in the cometary tail is reported at 80 electrons per cu mm, the inner scale of the fluctuation at 800 km, and the largest scale of fluctuation at possibly 400,000 km. A hump in the comet power-law spectrum is noted. Use of the power spectrum of electron density fluctuations to predict the power spectrum of magnetic field fluctuations for irregularities associated with hydromagnetic turbulence is recommended.

  8. Helicopter tail rotor orthogonal blade vortex interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coton, F. N.; Marshall, J. S.; Galbraith, R. A. McD.; Green, R. B.

    2004-10-01

    The aerodynamic operating environment of the helicopter is particularly complex and, to some extent, dominated by the vortices trailed from the main and tail rotors. These vortices not only determine the form of the induced flow field but also interact with each other and with elements of the physical structure of the flight vehicle. Such interactions can have implications in terms of structural vibration, noise generation and flight performance. In this paper, the interaction of main rotor vortices with the helicopter tail rotor is considered and, in particular, the limiting case of the orthogonal interaction. The significance of the topic is introduced by highlighting the operational issues for helicopters arising from tail rotor interactions. The basic phenomenon is then described before experimental studies of the interaction are presented. Progress in numerical modelling is then considered and, finally, the prospects for future research in the area are discussed.

  9. A protocol to correct for intra- and interspecific variation in tail hair growth to align isotope signatures of segmentally cut tail hair to a common time line

    PubMed Central

    Burnik Šturm, Martina; Pukazhenthi, Budhan; Reed, Dolores; Ganbaatar, Oyunsaikhan; Sušnik, Stane; Haymerle, Agnes; Voigt, Christian C; Kaczensky, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Rationale In recent years, segmental stable isotope analysis of hair has been a focus of research in animal dietary ecology and migration. To correctly assign tail hair segments to seasons or even Julian dates, information on tail hair growth rates is a key parameter, but is lacking for most species. Methods We (a) reviewed the literature on tail hair growth rates in mammals; b) made own measurements of three captive equid species; (c) measured δ2H, δ13C and δ15N values in sequentially cut tail hairs of three sympatric, free-ranging equids from the Mongolian Gobi, using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS); and (d) collected environmental background data on seasonal variation by measuring δ2H values in precipitation by IRMS and by compiling pasture productivity measured by remote sensing via the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Results Tail hair growth rates showed significant inter- and intra-specific variation making temporal alignment problematic. In the Mongolian Gobi, high seasonal variation of δ2H values in precipitation results in winter lows and summer highs of δ2H values of available water sources. In water-dependent equids, this seasonality is reflected in the isotope signatures of sequentially cut tails hairs. Conclusions In regions which are subject to strong seasonal patterns we suggest identifying key isotopes which show strong seasonal variation in the environment and can be expected to be reflected in the animal tissue. The known interval between the maxima and minima of these isotope values can then be used to correctly temporally align the segmental stable isotope signature for each individual animal. © 2015 The Authors. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26044272

  10. Predicting Prostate Biopsy Results Using a Panel of Plasma and Urine Biomarkers Combined in a Scoring System

    PubMed Central

    Albitar, Maher; Ma, Wanlong; Lund, Lars; Albitar, Ferras; Diep, Kevin; Fritsche, Herbert A.; Shore, Neal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Determining the need for prostate biopsy is frequently difficult and more objective criteria are needed to predict the presence of high grade prostate cancer (PCa). To reduce the rate of unnecessary biopsies, we explored the potential of using biomarkers in urine and plasma to develop a scoring system to predict prostate biopsy results and the presence of high grade PCa. Methods: Urine and plasma specimens were collected from 319 patients recommended for prostate biopsies. We measured the gene expression levels of UAP1, PDLIM5, IMPDH2, HSPD1, PCA3, PSA, TMPRSS2, ERG, GAPDH, B2M, AR, and PTEN in plasma and urine. Patient age, serum prostate-specific antigen (sPSA) level, and biomarkers data were used to develop two independent algorithms, one for predicting the presence of PCa and the other for predicting high-grade PCa (Gleason score [GS] ≥7). Results: Using training and validation data sets, a model for predicting the outcome of PCa biopsy was developed with an area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.87. The positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) were 87% and 63%, respectively. We then developed a second algorithm to identify patients with high-grade PCa (GS ≥7). This algorithm's AUROC was 0.80, and had a PPV and NPV of 56% and 77%, respectively. Patients who demonstrated concordant results using both algorithms showed a sensitivity of 84% and specificity of 93% for predicting high-grade aggressive PCa. Thus, the use of both algorithms resulted in a PPV of 90% and NPV of 89% for predicting high-grade PCa with toleration of some low-grade PCa (GS <7) being detected. Conclusions: This model of a biomarker panel with algorithmic interpretation can be used as a “liquid biopsy” to reduce the need for unnecessary tissue biopsies, and help to guide appropriate treatment decisions. PMID:26918043

  11. Endoscopic and biopsy diagnoses of superficial, nonampullary, duodenal adenocarcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Kakushima, Naomi; Kanemoto, Hideyuki; Sasaki, Keiko; Kawata, Noboru; Tanaka, Masaki; Takizawa, Kohei; Imai, Kenichiro; Hotta, Kinichi; Matsubayashi, Hiroyuki; Ono, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the accuracy of endoscopic or biopsy diagnoses of superficial nonampullary duodenal epithelial tumors (NADETs). METHODS: Clinicopathological data were reviewed for 84 superficial NADETs from 74 patients who underwent surgery or endoscopic resection between September 2002 and August 2014 at a single prefectural cancer center. Superficial NADETs were defined as lesions confined to the mucosa or submucosa. Demographic and clinicopathological data were retrieved from charts, endoscopic and pathologic reports. Endoscopic reports included endoscopic diagnosis, location, gross type, diameter, color, and presence or absence of biopsy. Endoscopic diagnoses were made by an endoscopist in charge of the examination before biopsy specimens were obtained. Endoscopic images were obtained using routine, front-view, high-resolution video endoscopy, and chromoendoscopy with indigocarmine was performed for all lesions. Endoscopic images were reviewed by at least two endoscopists to assess endoscopic findings indicative of carcinoma. Preoperative diagnoses based on endoscopy and biopsy findings were compared with histological diagnoses of resected specimens. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were assessed for endoscopic diagnosis and biopsy diagnosis. RESULTS: The majority (81%) of the lesions were located in the second portion of the duodenum. The median lesion diameter was 14.5 mm according to final histology. Surgery was performed for 49 lesions from 39 patients, and 35 lesions from 35 patients were endoscopically resected. Final histology confirmed 65 carcinomas, 15 adenomas, and 3 hyperplasias. A final diagnosis of duodenal carcinoma was made for 91% (52/57) of the lesions diagnosed as carcinoma by endoscopy and 93% (42/45) of the lesions diagnosed as carcinoma by biopsy. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of endoscopic diagnoses were 80%, 72%, and 78%, respectively, whereas those of biopsy diagnoses were 72%, 80%, and 74%, respectively

  12. Nose biopsy: a comparison between two sampling techniques.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nili; Osyntsov, Lidia; Olchowski, Judith; Kordeluk, Sofia; Plakht, Ygal

    2016-06-01

    Pre operative biopsy is important in obtaining preliminary information that may help in tailoring the optimal treatment. The aim of this study was to compare two sampling techniques of obtaining nasal biopsy-nasal forceps and nasal scissors in terms of pathological results. Biopsies of nasal lesions were taken from patients undergoing nasal surgery by two techniques- with nasal forceps and with nasal scissors. Each sample was examined by a senior pathologist that was blinded to the sampling method. A grading system was used to rate the crush artifact in every sample (none, mild, moderate, severe). A comparison was made between the severity of the crush artifact and the pathological results of the two techniques. One hundred and forty-four samples were taken from 46 patients. Thirty-one were males and the mean age was 49.6 years. Samples taken by forceps had significantly higher grades of crush artifacts compared to those taken by scissors. The degree of crush artifacts had a significant influence on the accuracy of the pre operative biopsy. Forceps cause significant amount of crush artifacts compared to scissors. The degree of crush artifact in the tissue sample influences the accuracy of the biopsy.

  13. Renal biopsy: Still a landmark for the nephrologist.

    PubMed

    Visconti, Luca; Cernaro, Valeria; Ricciardi, Carlo Alberto; Lacava, Viviana; Pellicanò, Vincenzo; Lacquaniti, Antonio; Buemi, Michele; Santoro, Domenico

    2016-07-01

    Renal biopsy was performed for the first time more than one century ago, but its clinical use was routinely introduced in the 1950s. It is still an essential tool for diagnosis and choice of treatment of several primary or secondary kidney diseases. Moreover, it may help to know the expected time of end stage renal disease. The indications are represented by nephritic and/or nephrotic syndrome and rapidly progressive acute renal failure of unknown origin. Nowadays, it is performed mainly by nephrologists and radiologists using a 14-18 gauges needle with automated spring-loaded biopsy device, under real-time ultrasound guidance. Bleeding is the major primary complication that in rare cases may lead to retroperitoneal haemorrhage and need for surgical intervention and/or death. For this reason, careful evaluation of risks and benefits must be taken into account, and all procedures to minimize the risk of complications must be observed. After biopsy, an observation time of 12-24 h is necessary, whilst a prolonged observation may be needed rarely. In some cases it could be safer to use different techniques to reduce the risk of complications, such as laparoscopic or transjugular renal biopsy in patients with coagulopathy or alternative approaches in obese patients. Despite progress in medicine over the years with the introduction of more advanced molecular biology techniques, renal biopsy is still an irreplaceable tool for nephrologists.

  14. Liquid Biopsy of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Circulating Tumor-Derived Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Yin, Chang-Qing; Yuan, Chun-Hui; Qu, Zhen; Guan, Qing; Chen, Hao; Wang, Fu-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide due to latent liver disease, late diagnosis, and nonresponse to systemic treatments. Till now, surgical and/or biopsy specimens are still generally used as a gold standard by the clinicians for clinical decision-making. However, apart from their invasive characteristics, tumor biopsy only mirrors a single spot of the tumor, failing to reflect current cancer dynamics and progression. Therefore, it is imperative to develop new diagnostic strategies with significant effectiveness and reliability to monitor high-risk populations and detect HCC at an early stage. In the past decade, the potent utilities of "liquid biopsy" have attracted intense concern and were developed to evaluate cancer progression in several clinical trials. "Liquid biopsies" represent a series of noninvasive tests that detect cancer byproducts easily accessible in peripheral blood, mainly including circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and cell-free nucleic acids (cfNAs) that are shed into the blood from the tumor sites. In this review, we focus on the recent developments in the field of "liquid biopsy" as well as the diagnostic and prognostic significance of CTCs and cfNAs in HCC patients. PMID:27403030

  15. Renal biopsy and pathologic evaluation of glomerular disease.

    PubMed

    Lees, George E; Cianciolo, Rachel E; Clubb, Fred J

    2011-08-01

    Presence of suspected primary glomerular disease is the most common and compelling reason to consider renal biopsy. Pathologic findings in samples from animals with nephritic or nephrotic glomerulopathies, as well as from animals with persistent subclinical glomerular proteinuria that is not associated with advanced chronic kidney disease, frequently guide treatment decisions and inform prognosis when suitable specimens are obtained and examined appropriately. Ultrasound-guided needle biopsy techniques generally are satisfactory; however, other methods of locating or approaching the kidney, such as manual palpation (e.g., in cats), laparoscopy, or open surgery, also can be used. Visual assessment of the tissue content of needle biopsy samples to verify that they are renal cortex (i.e., contain glomeruli) as they are obtained is a key step that minimizes the submission of uninformative samples for examination. Adequate planning for a renal biopsy also requires prior procurement of the fixatives and preservatives needed to process and submit samples that will be suitable for electron microscopic examination and immunostaining, as well as for light microscopic evaluation. Finally, to be optimally informative, renal biopsy specimens must be processed by laboratories that routinely perform the required specialized examinations and then be evaluated by experienced veterinary nephropathologists. The pathologic findings must be carefully integrated with one another and with information derived from the clinical investigation of the patient's illness to formulate the correct diagnosis and most informative guidance for therapeutic management of the animal's glomerular disease. PMID:21782145

  16. Surveillance biopsies after paediatric kidney transplantation: A review.

    PubMed

    Rose, Edward M; Kennedy, Sean E; Mackie, Fiona E

    2016-09-01

    Kidney transplantation is the most effective means of treating children with end-stage kidney disease, and yet, there continues to be a limited "life span" of transplanted kidneys in paediatric recipients. Early graft monitoring, using the surveillance biopsy, has the potential to extend renal allograft survival in paediatric recipients. The surveillance biopsy provides important and timely information about acute and chronic graft pathology, particularly SCR and calcineurin inhibitor-induced nephrotoxicity, which can subsequently guide management decisions and improve long-term graft survival. The ostensible value of the surveillance biopsy is furthered by the limitations of conventional renal functional studies. However, there is still much debate surrounding the surveillance biopsy in paediatric recipients, particularly in regard to its overall utility, safety and timing. This review discusses the current literature regarding the utility, safety, and potential predictive value of surveillance biopsies for guiding post-transplant management in paediatric renal allograft recipients, as well as the viability of other potentially newer non-invasive strategies for renal allograft monitoring. PMID:27306873

  17. CT Guided Bone Biopsy Using a Battery Powered Intraosseous Device

    SciTech Connect

    Schnapauff, Dirk Marnitz, Tim Freyhardt, Patrick Collettini, Federico; Hartwig, Kerstin; Joehrens, Korinna; Hamm, Bernd Kroencke, Thomas Gebauer, Bernhard

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of a battery powered intraosseous device to perform CT-fluoroscopy guided bone biopsy. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 12 patients in whom bone specimen were acquired from different locations under CT-fluoroscopy guidance using the OnControl bone marrow biopsy system (OBM, Vidacare, Shavano Park, TX, USA). Data of the 12 were compared to a historic cohort in whom the specimen were acquired using the classic Jamshidi Needle, as reference needle using manual force for biopsy. Results: Technical success was reached in 11 of 12 cases, indicated by central localisation of the needle within the target lesion. All specimen sampled were sufficient for histopathological workup. Compared to the historical cohort the time needed for biopsy decreased significantly from 13 {+-} 6 to 6 {+-} 4 min (P = 0.0001). Due to the shortened intervention time the radiation dose (CTDI) during CT-fluoroscopy was lowered significantly from 169 {+-} 87 to 111 {+-} 54 mGy Multiplication-Sign cm (P = 0.0001). Interventional radiologists were confident with the performance of the needle especially when using in sclerotic or osteoblastic lesions. Conclusion: The OBM is an attractive support for CT-fluoroscopy guided bone biopsy which is safe tool and compared to the classical approach using the Jamshidi needle leading to significantly reduced intervention time and radiation exposure.

  18. Laryngeal chondrosarcoma diagnosed by core-needle biopsy.

    PubMed

    Miyamaru, Satoru; Haba, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of chondrosarcoma of the larynx, diagnosed by a percutaneous core-needle biopsy (CNB). Cartilaginous tumors of the larynx are usually diagnosed by biopsy with direct laryngomicroscopy under general anesthesia. However, patients find it difficult to undergo a biopsy under general anesthesia, for physical, economic, and social reasons. Instead, we can readily detect and sample tumors of the larynx using ultrasound under local anesthesia with reduced stress. Concerning needle-puncture biopsies, including fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and CNB, some studies have reported needle track dissemination, a possible complication in patients with malignant tumors. Thus, in the head and neck region, we generally use FNAC for biopsies, not CNB. However, it can be difficult to diagnose bone tumors by cytology alone. Regarding primary bone tumors, only one study has reported needle track dissemination by CNB, in osteosarcoma of the femur. Additionally, this complication has not been reported before with chondrosarcoma anywhere in the body. To our knowledge, this is the first report concerning chondrosarcoma of the larynx diagnosed by percutaneous CNB. We recommend CNB as a useful and safe diagnostic technique for primary bone tumors in the head and neck region.

  19. Renal biopsy: Still a landmark for the nephrologist.

    PubMed

    Visconti, Luca; Cernaro, Valeria; Ricciardi, Carlo Alberto; Lacava, Viviana; Pellicanò, Vincenzo; Lacquaniti, Antonio; Buemi, Michele; Santoro, Domenico

    2016-07-01

    Renal biopsy was performed for the first time more than one century ago, but its clinical use was routinely introduced in the 1950s. It is still an essential tool for diagnosis and choice of treatment of several primary or secondary kidney diseases. Moreover, it may help to know the expected time of end stage renal disease. The indications are represented by nephritic and/or nephrotic syndrome and rapidly progressive acute renal failure of unknown origin. Nowadays, it is performed mainly by nephrologists and radiologists using a 14-18 gauges needle with automated spring-loaded biopsy device, under real-time ultrasound guidance. Bleeding is the major primary complication that in rare cases may lead to retroperitoneal haemorrhage and need for surgical intervention and/or death. For this reason, careful evaluation of risks and benefits must be taken into account, and all procedures to minimize the risk of complications must be observed. After biopsy, an observation time of 12-24 h is necessary, whilst a prolonged observation may be needed rarely. In some cases it could be safer to use different techniques to reduce the risk of complications, such as laparoscopic or transjugular renal biopsy in patients with coagulopathy or alternative approaches in obese patients. Despite progress in medicine over the years with the introduction of more advanced molecular biology techniques, renal biopsy is still an irreplaceable tool for nephrologists. PMID:27458561

  20. Renal biopsy: Still a landmark for the nephrologist

    PubMed Central

    Visconti, Luca; Cernaro, Valeria; Ricciardi, Carlo Alberto; Lacava, Viviana; Pellicanò, Vincenzo; Lacquaniti, Antonio; Buemi, Michele; Santoro, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Renal biopsy was performed for the first time more than one century ago, but its clinical use was routinely introduced in the 1950s. It is still an essential tool for diagnosis and choice of treatment of several primary or secondary kidney diseases. Moreover, it may help to know the expected time of end stage renal disease. The indications are represented by nephritic and/or nephrotic syndrome and rapidly progressive acute renal failure of unknown origin. Nowadays, it is performed mainly by nephrologists and radiologists using a 14-18 gauges needle with automated spring-loaded biopsy device, under real-time ultrasound guidance. Bleeding is the major primary complication that in rare cases may lead to retroperitoneal haemorrhage and need for surgical intervention and/or death. For this reason, careful evaluation of risks and benefits must be taken into account, and all procedures to minimize the risk of complications must be observed. After biopsy, an observation time of 12-24 h is necessary, whilst a prolonged observation may be needed rarely. In some cases it could be safer to use different techniques to reduce the risk of complications, such as laparoscopic or transjugular renal biopsy in patients with coagulopathy or alternative approaches in obese patients. Despite progress in medicine over the years with the introduction of more advanced molecular biology techniques, renal biopsy is still an irreplaceable tool for nephrologists. PMID:27458561

  1. Geophysical delineation of acidity and salinity in the Central Manitoba gold mine tailings pile, Manitoba, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tycholiz, C.; Ferguson, I. J.; Sherriff, B. L.; Cordeiro, M.; Sri Ranjan, R.; Pérez-Flores, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    Surface electrical and electromagnetic geophysical methods can map enhanced electrical conductivity caused by acid mine drainage in mine tailings piles. In this case study, we investigate quantitative relationships between geophysical responses and the electrical conductivity, acidity and salinity of tailing samples at the Central Manitoba Mine tailings in Manitoba, Canada. Previous electromagnetic surveys at the site identified zones of enhanced conductivity that were hypothesized to be caused by acid mine drainage. In the present study, high-resolution EM31 and DC-resistivity measurements were made on a profile through a zone of enhanced conductivity and laboratory measurements of salinity and pH were made on saturation paste extracts from an array of tailing samples collected from the upper 2 m of tailings along the profile. Observed spatial correlation of pH and pore-fluid salinity in the tailings samples confirms that the enhanced conductivity in the Central Manitoba Mine tailings is due to acid mine drainage. Contoured cross-sections of the data indicate that the acid mine drainage is concentrated near the base of the oxidized zone in the thicker parts of the tailings pile. The zone of increased acidity extends to the surface on sloping margins causing an increase in apparent conductivity in shallow penetrating geophysical responses. The quantitative relationship between measured pH and salinity shows that the conductivity increase associated with the acid mine drainage is due only in part to conduction by ions produced from dissociation of sulfuric acid. Comparison of the observations with fluid conductivity estimates based on statistical relationships of pH and ion concentrations in water samples from across the tailings pile shows that Ca2 + and Mg2 + ions also make significant contributions to the conductivity at all values of pH and Cu2 +, Al3 + and Fe3 + ions make additional contributions at low pH. Variability in the measured conductivity at constant

  2. The potential for metal release by reductive dissolution of weathered mine tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeta, I.; Ptacek, C. J.; Blowes, D. W.; Jambor, J. L.

    1995-01-01

    Remediation programs proposed for decommissioned sulphide tailings may include the addition of a cover layer rich in organic-carbon material such as sewage sludge or composted municipal waste. These covers are designed to consume oxygen and prevent the oxidation of underlying sulphide minerals. The aerobic and anaerobic degradation of such organic-carbon-rich waste can release soluble organic compounds to infiltrating precipitation water. In laboratory experiments, and in natural settings, biotic and abiotic interactions between similar dissolved organic compounds and ferric-bearing secondary minerals have been observed to result in the reductive dissolution of ferric (oxy)hydroxides and the release of ferrous iron to pore waters. In weathered tailings, oxidation of sulphide minerals typically results in the formation of abundant ferric-bearing secondary precipitates near the tailings surface. These secondary precipitates may contain high concentrations of potentially toxic metals, either coprecipitated with or adsorbed onto ferric (oxy)hydroxides. Reductive dissolution reactions, resulting from the addition of the organic-carbon covers, may remobilize metals previously attenuated near the tailings surface. To assess the potential for metal release to tailings pore water by reductive dissolution reactions, a laboratory study was conducted on weathered tailings collected from the Nickel Rim mine tailings impoundment near Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. This site was selected for study because it is representative of many tailings sites. Mineralogical study indicates that sulphide minerals originally present in the vadose zone at the time of tailings deposition have been replaced by a series of secondary precipitates. The most abundant secondary minerals are goethite, gypsum and jarosite. Scanning electron microscopy, coupled with elemental analyses by X-ray energy dispersion analysis, and electron microprobe analysis indicate that trace metals including Ni, Cr and Cu are

  3. Tail docking in pigs: acute physiological and behavioural responses.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, M A; Bryer, P J; Krebs, N; McGlone, J J

    2008-02-01

    Tail docking of piglets is a routine procedure on farms to control tail-biting behaviour; however, docking can cause an acute stress response. The objectives of this research were to determine the stress responses to tail docking in piglets and to compare two methods of tail docking; cautery iron (CAUT) and the more commonly used blunt trauma cutters (BT). At approximately 6 days of age, piglets were tail docked using CAUT (n = 20), BT (n = 20) or sham tail docked with their tails remaining intact (CON; n = 40). Blood samples were taken prior to tail docking and at 30, 60 and 90 min after tail docking to evaluate the effect of tail docking on white blood cell (WBC) measures and cortisol concentrations. The above experiment was repeated to observe behaviour without the periodic blood sampling, so as not to confound the effects of blood sampling on piglet behaviour. Piglet behaviour was recorded in the farrowing crate using 1 min scan-samples via live observations for 60 min prior to and 90 min after tail docking. Total WBC counts were reduced (P > 0.05) among BT and CAUT compared with CON piglets 30 min after tail docking. Cortisol concentrations were higher (P < 0.01) among BT compared with CON and CAUT piglets 60 min after tail docking. Cautery and BT-docked piglets spent more (P < 0.05) time posterior scooting compared with CON piglets between 0 and 15 min, and 31 and 45 min after tail docking. Piglets tail docked using CAUT and BT tended to spend more (P < 0.07) time sitting than CON piglets between 0 and 15 min post tail docking. Elevated blood cortisol can be reduced by the use of the CAUT rather than the BT method of tail docking. Although the tail docking-induced rise in cortisol was prevented by using CAUT, the behavioural response to BT and CAUT docking methods was similar. PMID:22445023

  4. Plasma irregularities in the Comet's tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, L. C.

    1976-01-01

    The fluctuations in the intensity of radio source PKS 2025-15 during its occultation by Comet Kohoutek (1973f) on January 5, 1974, can be interpreted as scintillations due to the turbulent plasma in the Comet's tail. It was found that the rms fluctuation of the electron density in the Comet's tail is about 200 electrons/cu cm, the inner scale of the fluctuation is about 8 x 10 to the 7th power cm and the largest scale of fluctuation may reach 6 x 10 to the 10th power cm.

  5. Through the tail of a comet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaughlin, W. I.

    1984-01-01

    The instrumentation, trajectory, and missions of the ISEE-3 spacecraft being sent to observe Comet Giacobini-Zimmer (GZ) are described. Originally parked at a libration point to observe the solar wind, ISEE-3 was directed to perform a complex series of flybys of the earth and the moon to move to a trajectory that will intersect the GZ tail in 1985. Renamed ICE, the spacecraft will record magnetic field and charged particle data on the interaction of the cometary tail with the solar wind.

  6. Pioneer fauna of nepheline-containing tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenkova, I. V.; Kalmykova, V. V.; Liskovaya, A. A.

    2009-08-01

    The zoological analysis of nepheline-containing sands deposited in tailings 10-40 years ago showed that the pioneer colonists of this technogenic substrate are collembolan and mites, whose proportions depend on the succession of the bacterial and fungal components of the microbiota. The pioneer groups of mesofauna on 10- to 30-year-old tailings include carnivorous herpetobiontic arthropods and phytophagous insects. An impoverished version of the fauna of northern-taiga podzols is developed in the sands rehabilitated more than 40 years ago.

  7. Radial tail resolution in the SELEX RICH

    SciTech Connect

    Morelos, A.; Mata, J.; Cooper, P.S.; Engelfried, J.; Aguilera-Servin, J.L.; /San Luis Potosi U. /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    The authors use a 7 Million event data sample of 600 GeV/c single track pion events, where the pion track is reconstructed upstream and downstream of the SELEX RICH. They build the RICH ring radius histogram distribution and count the tail events that fall outside 5{sigma}, giving a fraction of 4 x 10{sup -5} events outside the Gaussian tails. This control of events establishes the ability of using the RICH as velocity spectrometer for high precision searches of the K{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +} {nu}{bar {nu}} decay like it is planned in the CKM experiment.

  8. Modeling the neutral sodium tails of comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkett, K.; Jones, G.; Coates, A.

    2014-07-01

    Neutral sodium is typically easy to detect in active comets around perihelion, due to the very high efficiency of the sodium D transition, and, at some comets, a distinct neutral sodium tail is observed. The first distinct neutral sodium tail images were apparent in C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) data taken using CoCam [1], but, since this initial detection, similar features have been observed at near-Sun comets using the LASCO coronagraph on SOHO. A full picture of the distribution and evolution of neutral cometary sodium may best be established using a combination of spectra and images in different filters at multiple times throughout the orbit. The high efficiency of the sodium D transition has allowed it to be detected in systems, even if the column density of sodium is extremely low. In these instances it is sometimes possible to determine some of the system's characteristics from the sodium emission detection, such as in Io's plasma torus [2] and Enceladus's plume [3,4]. It is hoped that a similar approach may be applied to the active cometary environment, but, at present, the production of neutral sodium is unknown. Various authors [5--9, thorough review presented in 10] have suggested various combinations of sources of neutral sodium in the nuclear region, near-nuclear region, dust tail, and ion tail. The morphology and evolution of the neutral cometary sodium tail are difficult to intuitively predict due to the Swings and Greenstein effects. In order to understand the wide variety of cometary observations of neutral sodium available we have developed the first fully three-dimensional, heliocentric-distance-dependent, versatile Monte Carlo neutral sodium tail model, which incorporates the unintuitive variation in radiation pressure influences on sodium atoms with different heliocentric velocities. Our model was initially based on that of Brown et al [7]. We present preliminary results from this model. We have found initial agreement with the overall morphology and

  9. Heavy-tailed chiral random matrix theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanazawa, Takuya

    2016-05-01

    We study an unconventional chiral random matrix model with a heavy-tailed probabilistic weight. The model is shown to exhibit chiral symmetry breaking with no bilinear condensate, in analogy to the Stern phase of QCD. We solve the model analytically and obtain the microscopic spectral density and the smallest eigenvalue distribution for an arbitrary number of flavors and arbitrary quark masses. Exotic behaviors such as non-decoupling of heavy flavors and a power-law tail of the smallest eigenvalue distribution are illustrated.

  10. Multiple mutant T alleles cause haploinsufficiency of Brachyury and short tails in Manx cats

    PubMed Central

    Buckingham, Kati J.; McMillin, Margaret J.; Brassil, Margaret M.; Shively, Kathryn M.; Magnaye, Kevin M.; Cortes, Alejandro; Weinmann, Amy S.; Lyons, Leslie A.; Bamshad, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Most mammals possess a tail, humans and the Great Apes being notable exceptions. One approach to understanding the mechanisms and evolutionary forces influencing development of a tail is to identify the genetic factors that influence extreme tail length variation within a species. In mice, the Tailless locus has proven to be complex, with evidence of multiple different genes and mutations with pleiotropic effects on tail length, fertility, embryogenesis, male transmission ratio, and meiotic recombination. Five cat breeds have abnormal tail length phenotypes: the American Bobtail, the Manx, the Pixie-Bob, the Kurilian Bobtail, and the Japanese Bobtail. We sequenced the T gene in several independent lineages of Manx cats from both the US and the Isle of Man and identified three 1-bp deletions and one duplication/deletion, each predicted to cause a frameshift that leads to premature termination and truncation of the carboxy terminal end of the Brachyury protein. Ninety-five percent of Manx cats with short-tail phenotypes were heterozygous for T mutations, mutant alleles appeared to be largely lineage-specific, and a maximum LOD score of 6.21 with T was obtained at a recombination fraction (Θ) of 0.00. One mutant T allele was shared with American Bobtails and Pixie-Bobs; both breeds developed more recently in the US. The ability of mutant Brachyury protein to activate transcription of a downstream target was substantially lower than wild-type protein. Collectively, these results suggest that haploinsufficiency of Brachyury is one mechanism underlying variable tail length in domesticated cats. PMID:23949773

  11. Revegetation and rock cover for stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings disposal sites. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Beedlow, P.A.

    1984-05-01

    Guidelines for using vegetation and rock to protect inactive uranium mill tailings from erosion were developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) Technology Development program. Information on soils, climate, and vegetation were collected for 20 inactive tailings sites in the western United States. Sites were grouped according to similarities in climate and vegetation. Soil loss for those sites was characterized using the Universal Soil Loss Equation. Test plots were used to evaluate (1) the interaction between vegetation and sealant barrier systems and (2) the effects of surface rock on soil water and vegetation. Lysimeter and simulation studies were used to direct and support field experiments. 49 references, 17 figures, 16 tables.

  12. Foraging behavior of Long-tailed Ducks in a ferry wake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Matthew C.

    2012-01-01

    Clangula hyemalis (Long-tailed Ducks) were observed diving in the wake of the Nantucket Island ferry during December over a 5-year period (2005–2009). The unusual diving behavior appeared to be related to foraging, but could not be confirmed. Long-tailed Ducks typically feed on more mobile prey than most other diving ducks, and it is speculated that the propeller wash in shallow water dislodged or disturbed prey and provided an enhanced feeding opportunity. Long-tailed Ducks collected while feeding in a disturbed area near a clamming boat not far from the ferry channel were feeding predominantly on Crangon septemspinosa (Sand Shrimp) that apparently had been dislodged by the clamming operation.

  13. EAR AND TAIL LESIONS ON CAPTIVE WHITE-TAILED DEER FAWNS (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS): A CASE STUDY.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Treena L; Demarais, Stephen; Cooley, Jim; Fleming, Sherrill; Michel, Eric S; Flinn, Emily

    2016-06-01

    During the 2008-2011 time period, undiagnosed lesions were observed in 21 of 150 white-tailed deer fawns (Odocoileus virginianus) that were part of a captive deer herd at Mississippi State University. Clinical findings in healthy and diseased fawns from 0 to 90 days of age included bite and scratch marks followed by moderate to severe ear and tail necrosis. Gross necropsy findings of necrotizing ulcerative dermatitis correlated with histopathologic findings that included focally severe multifocal vasculitis, vascular necrosis, and thrombosis. This article is a clinical description of these previously unreported lesions associated with tissue necrosis in young captive white-tailed deer.

  14. EAR AND TAIL LESIONS ON CAPTIVE WHITE-TAILED DEER FAWNS (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS): A CASE STUDY.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Treena L; Demarais, Stephen; Cooley, Jim; Fleming, Sherrill; Michel, Eric S; Flinn, Emily

    2016-06-01

    During the 2008-2011 time period, undiagnosed lesions were observed in 21 of 150 white-tailed deer fawns (Odocoileus virginianus) that were part of a captive deer herd at Mississippi State University. Clinical findings in healthy and diseased fawns from 0 to 90 days of age included bite and scratch marks followed by moderate to severe ear and tail necrosis. Gross necropsy findings of necrotizing ulcerative dermatitis correlated with histopathologic findings that included focally severe multifocal vasculitis, vascular necrosis, and thrombosis. This article is a clinical description of these previously unreported lesions associated with tissue necrosis in young captive white-tailed deer. PMID:27468041

  15. Myocarditis confirmed by biopsy presenting as acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Costanzo-Nordin, M R; O'Connell, J B; Subramanian, R; Robinson, J A; Scanlon, P J

    1985-01-01

    Two cases of acute myocardial infarction occurred in association with myocarditis, which was confirmed by biopsy. The first patient suffered an anteroseptal and the second patient an inferior wall myocardial infarction shortly after an acute viral illness. In both patients, coronary angiography showed normal coronary arteries, and right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy confirmed myocarditis. Histological abnormalities attributable to ischaemic heart disease were absent. The first patient's condition became stable after immunosuppressive treatment. Myocarditis resolved spontaneously within three months in the second patient. Coronary artery spasm and myocardial involvement with a systemic disease were unlikely. Endomyocardial biopsy in patients with acute myocardial infarction and normal coronary arteries may be useful in identifying myocarditis associated with myocardial necrosis. Myocarditis in acute myocardial infarction in the absence of coronary artery obstruction has not previously been documented during life. Images PMID:3966948

  16. The role of renal biopsy in small renal masses.

    PubMed

    Burruni, Rodolfo; Lhermitte, Benoit; Cerantola, Yannick; Tawadros, Thomas; Meuwly, Jean-Yves; Berthold, Dominik; Jichlinski, Patrice; Valerio, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Renal biopsy is being increasingly proposed as a diagnostic tool to characterize small renal masses (SRM). Indeed, the wide adoption of imaging in the diagnostic workup of many diseases had led to a substantial increased incidence of SRM (diameter ≤4 cm). While modern ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have high sensitivity for detecting SRM, none is able to accurately and reliably characterize them in terms of histological features. This is currently of key importance in guiding clinical decision-making in some situations, and in these cases renal biopsy should be considered. In this review, we aim to summarize the technique, diagnostic performance, and predicting factors of nondiagnostic biopsy, as well as the future perspectives.

  17. Percutaneous needle biopsy of the transplanted kidney: technique and complications.

    PubMed

    Huraib, S; Goldberg, H; Katz, A; Cardella, C J; deVeber, G A; Cook, G T; Uldall, P R

    1989-07-01

    Over 11 1/2 years, 420 percutaneous needle biopsies were obtained from the transplanted kidneys of 205 patients at one institution. The procedure was performed by one nephrologist and 55 nephrology trainees. No limit was placed on the number of biopsies performed on one kidney, and the highest number was seven. The complications were macroscopic hematuria in 28 biopsies, prolonged hematuria (greater than 24 hours) in eight, transient anuria in five, and prolonged anuria requiring surgical intervention in one. Perinephric hematoma occurred in three patients; retroperitoneal hematoma led to compression of the iliac vein in one. None of these complications led to loss of the transplant. It is suggested that the freedom from serious complication is related to the safety of the technique and the precautions applied to preparation of the patient. These are described in detail.

  18. Smooth muscle pseudotumours: a potentially confusing artefact of rectal biopsy.

    PubMed Central

    Dankwa, E K; Davies, J D

    1988-01-01

    An artefactual smooth muscle lesion was found in seven of 500 consecutive rectal biopsy specimens. The lesions had the deceptive appearance of a genuine tumour although none of the patients with the lesion had presented with a rectal mucosal swelling. The morphology of the lesion and its poor reproducibility under experimental conditions suggested that it was an artefact of the biopsy procedure: it was easily reproduced in resected specimens of large bowel using punch or basket forceps but not when using flat forceps. The presence of the lesion seems to depend on the type of forceps used rather than on differences in deployment and seems to be caused by avulsion of the superficial part of the muscularis propria and its incorporation into the tissues included in rectal biopsy specimens. Images Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 1 Fig 4 PMID:3045159

  19. Sequential muscle biopsy changes in a case of congenital myopathy.

    SciTech Connect

    Danon, M. J.; Giometti, C. S.; Manaligod, J. R.; Swisher, C.; Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology; New York Medical Coll.; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago; Children's Memorial Hospital

    1997-05-01

    Muscle biopsies at age 7 months in a set of dizygotic male twins born floppy showed typical features of congenital fiber-type disproportion (CFTD). One of the twins died at age 1 year due to respiratory complications. The second one subsequently developed facial diplegia and external ophthalmoplegia. He never walked, remained wheelchair bound, and required continuous ventilatory support. He underwent repeat biopsies at ages 2 and 4, which showed many atrophic type 1 muscle fibers containing central nuclei and severe type 2 fiber deficiency compatible with centronuclear myopathy (CNM). Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of muscle showed decreases of type II myosin light chains 2 and 3, suggestive of histochemical type I fiber deficiency. The progressive nature of morphological changes in one of our patients cannot be explained by maturational arrest. Repeat biopsies in cases of CFTD with rapid clinical deterioration may very well show CNM.

  20. Splitting and biopsy for bovine embryo sexing under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Lopes, R F; Forell, F; Oliveira, A T; Rodrigues, J L

    2001-12-01

    Improvements on embryo micromanipulation techniques led to the use of embryo bisection technology in commercial embryo transfer programs, and made possible the direct genetic analysis of preimplantation bovine embryos by biopsy. For example, aspiration and microsection, allow bovine embryos sexing by detection of male-specific Y-chromosome in a sample of embryonic cells. We report on the application of the methodologies of splitting and biopsy of bovine embryos in field conditions, and on the results of embryo sex determination by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Pregnancy rates achieved with fresh bisected or biopsied embryos (50 to 60%) were similar to the fresh intact embryos (55 to 61%). The PCR protocol used for embryo sexing showed 92% to 94% of efficiency and 90 to 100% of accuracy. These results demonstrate these procedures are suitable for use in field conditions.

  1. The role of renal biopsy in small renal masses

    PubMed Central

    Burruni, Rodolfo; Lhermitte, Benoit; Cerantola, Yannick; Tawadros, Thomas; Meuwly, Jean-Yves; Berthold, Dominik; Jichlinski, Patrice; Valerio, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Renal biopsy is being increasingly proposed as a diagnostic tool to characterize small renal masses (SRM). Indeed, the wide adoption of imaging in the diagnostic workup of many diseases had led to a substantial increased incidence of SRM (diameter ≤4 cm). While modern ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have high sensitivity for detecting SRM, none is able to accurately and reliably characterize them in terms of histological features. This is currently of key importance in guiding clinical decision-making in some situations, and in these cases renal biopsy should be considered. In this review, we aim to summarize the technique, diagnostic performance, and predicting factors of nondiagnostic biopsy, as well as the future perspectives. PMID:26858784

  2. Fine needle aspiration biopsy in salivary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Lau, T; Balle, V H; Bretlau, P

    1986-04-01

    Of 105 tumours of the major salivary glands, 90 were benign and 15 malignant. In benign tumours a correct preoperative diagnosis was made by fine needle aspiration biopsy in 84%, and none were falsely classed as malignant. In the malignant tumours, only 8 out of 15 (53%) were correctly diagnosed as malignant while 7 were misdiagnosed as benign. It is concluded that in benign salivary gland tumours there is good accordance between fine needle aspiration biopsy and the final histological report, in contrast to the malignant tumours where this is less convincing. Fine needle aspiration biopsy is a valuable diagnostic tool, but the result should be carefully evaluated, regarded as only part of the clinical picture and not solely relied on.

  3. Male-specific use of the purr in the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta).

    PubMed

    Bolt, Laura M

    2014-01-01

    In mammals, purring has been described in mostly affiliative contexts. In the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta), both males and females purr, but only males were observed purring in agonistic contexts. In order to determine whether male ring-tailed lemurs purr as aggressive displays during intrasexual agonistic encounters, 480 h of focal data were collected on 25 adult males from Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar, from March to July 2010. The male purring rate increased during periods of male-male agonism when compared to times without intrasexual agonism, and the purring rate was positively correlated with male dominance rank. However, the purring rate was not significantly higher during winning agonistic interactions when compared with losing encounters. My results indicate that the male ring-tailed lemur purr is used most frequently as an agonistic vocalization in male-male encounters, in addition to being used less frequently in other social contexts, including during tail-waving at females, resting, scent-marking, feeding and copulation. Dominant males have higher purring rates across social situations, suggesting that the purring rate may be driven by intrinsic male qualities rather than functioning as a meaningful signal in each disparate social context. Male purring in intrasexual agonistic encounters can be added to previously described social contexts for ring-tailed lemur purring.

  4. Geochemical fractions of rare earth elements in soil around a mine tailing in Baotou, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lingqing; Liang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth mine tailing dumps are environmental hazards because tailing easily leaches and erodes by water and wind. To assess the influence of mine tailing on the geochemical behavior of rare earth elements (REEs) in soil, sixty-seven surface soil samples and three soil profile samples were collected from different locations near China’s largest rare earth mine tailing. The total concentration of REEs in surface soils ranged from 156 to 5.65 × 104 mg·kg−1 with an average value of 4.67 × 103 mg·kg−1, which was significantly higher than the average value in China (181 mg·kg−1). We found obvious fractionation of both light and heavy REEs, which was supported by the North American Shale Composite (NASC) and the Post-Archean Average Australian Shale (PAAS) normalized concentration ratios calculated for selected elements (LaN/YbN, LaN/SmN and GdN/YbN). A slightly positive Ce anomaly and a negative Eu anomaly were also found. For all 14 REEs in soils, enrichment was intensified by the mine tailing sources and influenced by the prevailing wind. PMID:26198417

  5. Male-specific use of the purr in the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta).

    PubMed

    Bolt, Laura M

    2014-01-01

    In mammals, purring has been described in mostly affiliative contexts. In the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta), both males and females purr, but only males were observed purring in agonistic contexts. In order to determine whether male ring-tailed lemurs purr as aggressive displays during intrasexual agonistic encounters, 480 h of focal data were collected on 25 adult males from Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar, from March to July 2010. The male purring rate increased during periods of male-male agonism when compared to times without intrasexual agonism, and the purring rate was positively correlated with male dominance rank. However, the purring rate was not significantly higher during winning agonistic interactions when compared with losing encounters. My results indicate that the male ring-tailed lemur purr is used most frequently as an agonistic vocalization in male-male encounters, in addition to being used less frequently in other social contexts, including during tail-waving at females, resting, scent-marking, feeding and copulation. Dominant males have higher purring rates across social situations, suggesting that the purring rate may be driven by intrinsic male qualities rather than functioning as a meaningful signal in each disparate social context. Male purring in intrasexual agonistic encounters can be added to previously described social contexts for ring-tailed lemur purring. PMID:25139722

  6. Cumulative incidence and risk factors for limber tail in the Dogslife labrador retriever cohort

    PubMed Central

    de C. Bronsvoort, B. M.; Handel, I. G.; Rose, E.; Summers, K.; Clements, D. N.

    2016-01-01

    Limber tail is a condition that typically affects larger working breeds causing tail limpness and pain, resolving without veterinary intervention. It is poorly understood and the disease burden has not been well characterised. Data collected from owners of the Dogslife cohort of Labrador Retrievers have been used to describe incidents and a case–control study was undertaken to elucidate risk factors with 38 cases and 86 controls. The cumulative incidence of unexplained tail limpness was 9.7 per cent. Swimming is not a necessary precursor for limber tail, but it is a risk factor (OR=4.7) and working dogs were more susceptible than non-working dogs (OR=5.1). Higher latitudes were shown to be a risk factor for developing the condition and the case dogs were more related to each other than might be expected by chance. This suggests that dogs may have an underlying genetic predisposition to developing the condition. This study is the first, large-scale investigation of limber tail and the findings reveal an unexpectedly high illness burden. Anecdotally, accepted risk factors have been confirmed and the extent of their impact has been quantified. Identifying latitude and a potential underlying genetic predisposition suggests avenues for future work on this painful and distressing condition. PMID:27353875

  7. Geochemical fractions of rare earth elements in soil around a mine tailing in Baotou, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingqing; Liang, Tao

    2015-07-22

    Rare earth mine tailing dumps are environmental hazards because tailing easily leaches and erodes by water and wind. To assess the influence of mine tailing on the geochemical behavior of rare earth elements (REEs) in soil, sixty-seven surface soil samples and three soil profile samples were collected from different locations near China's largest rare earth mine tailing. The total concentration of REEs in surface soils ranged from 156 to 5.65 × 10(4) mg·kg(-1) with an average value of 4.67 × 10(3) mg·kg(-1), which was significantly higher than the average value in China (181 mg·kg(-1)). We found obvious fractionation of both light and heavy REEs, which was supported by the North American Shale Composite (NASC) and the Post-Archean Average Australian Shale (PAAS) normalized concentration ratios calculated for selected elements (La(N)/Yb(N), La(N)/Sm(N) and Gd(N)/Yb(N)). A slightly positive Ce anomaly and a negative Eu anomaly were also found. For all 14 REEs in soils, enrichment was intensified by the mine tailing sources and influenced by the prevailing wind.

  8. Entropy-based heavy tailed distribution transformation and visual analytics for monitoring massive network traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Keesook J.; Hodge, Matthew; Ross, Virginia W.

    2011-06-01

    For monitoring network traffic, there is an enormous cost in collecting, storing, and analyzing network traffic datasets. Data mining based network traffic analysis has a growing interest in the cyber security community, but is computationally expensive for finding correlations between attributes in massive network traffic datasets. To lower the cost and reduce computational complexity, it is desirable to perform feasible statistical processing on effective reduced datasets instead of on the original full datasets. Because of the dynamic behavior of network traffic, traffic traces exhibit mixtures of heavy tailed statistical distributions or overdispersion. Heavy tailed network traffic characterization and visualization are important and essential tasks to measure network performance for the Quality of Services. However, heavy tailed distributions are limited in their ability to characterize real-time network traffic due to the difficulty of parameter estimation. The Entropy-Based Heavy Tailed Distribution Transformation (EHTDT) was developed to convert the heavy tailed distribution into a transformed distribution to find the linear approximation. The EHTDT linearization has the advantage of being amenable to characterize and aggregate overdispersion of network traffic in realtime. Results of applying the EHTDT for innovative visual analytics to real network traffic data are presented.

  9. Geochemical fractions of rare earth elements in soil around a mine tailing in Baotou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lingqing; Liang, Tao

    2015-07-01

    Rare earth mine tailing dumps are environmental hazards because tailing easily leaches and erodes by water and wind. To assess the influence of mine tailing on the geochemical behavior of rare earth elements (REEs) in soil, sixty-seven surface soil samples and three soil profile samples were collected from different locations near China’s largest rare earth mine tailing. The total concentration of REEs in surface soils ranged from 156 to 5.65 × 104 mg·kg-1 with an average value of 4.67 × 103 mg·kg-1, which was significantly higher than the average value in China (181 mg·kg-1). We found obvious fractionation of both light and heavy REEs, which was supported by the North American Shale Composite (NASC) and the Post-Archean Average Australian Shale (PAAS) normalized concentration ratios calculated for selected elements (LaN/YbN, LaN/SmN and GdN/YbN). A slightly positive Ce anomaly and a negative Eu anomaly were also found. For all 14 REEs in soils, enrichment was intensified by the mine tailing sources and influenced by the prevailing wind.

  10. Construction and preliminary evaluation of copper tailings reclamation test plots at Cyprus Miami Mining Corporation

    SciTech Connect

    Chammas, G.A.; McCaulou, D.R.; Jones, G.L.

    1999-07-01

    Twenty pilot-scale test plots were constructed in mid-1998 at the Cyprus Miami mine to investigate the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of various reclamation strategies for establishment of self-sustaining native vegetation on acidic copper tailings. Four reclamation strategies are being tested: (1) directly covering acidic tailings with varying thicknesses f cover soil; (2) removing and/or neutralizing particularly acidic surgical tailings before soil cover placement, (3) chemically and/or physically inhibiting upward water and solute movement using neutralizing and neutral capillary barriers, and (4) constructing a subgrade of neutral tailings beneath cover soil. Preliminary results suggest that thicker soil covers and capillary barrier test plots initially support vegetation to a greater extent than other test plots, probably because of their increased moisture storage capacity. Results also suggest that salts are beginning to migrate upward from underlying tailings into cover soil. Data collected from ongoing vegetation surveys and soil testing will be used to evaluate the effect of various reclamation strategies on vegetation establishment and the potential impact of upward salt migration.

  11. An adenovirus linked to mortality and disease in long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hollmén, Tuula E.; Franson, J.C.; Flint, P.L.; Grand, J.B.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Docherty, D.E.; Wilson, H.M.

    2003-01-01

    An adenovirus was isolated from intestinal samples of two long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) collected during a die-off in the Beaufort Sea off the north coast of Alaska in 2000. The virus was not neutralized by reference antiserum against known group I, II, or III avian adenoviruses and may represent a new serotype. The prevalence of the virus was determined in live-trapped long-tailed ducks at the mortality site and at a reference site 100 km away where no mortality was observed. Prevalence of adenovirus antibodies in serum samples at the mortality site was 86% compared to 10% at the reference site. Furthermore, 50% of cloacal swabs collected at the mortality site and only 7% of swabs from the reference site were positive for adenoviruses. In 2001, no mortality was observed at either of the study areas, and virus prevalence in both serum and cloacal samples was low, providing further evidence that the adenovirus was linked to the mortality event in 2000. The virus was used to infect long-tailed ducks under experimental conditions and resulted in lesions previously described for avian adenovirus infections and similar to those observed in long-tailed duck carcasses from the Beaufort Sea. The status of long-tailed ducks has recently become a concern in Alaska due to precipitous declines in breeding populations there since the mid-1970s. Our findings suggest that the newly isolated adenovirus is a disease agent and source of mortality in long-tailed ducks, and thus could be a contributing factor in population declines.

  12. IgG Subclass Staining in Routine Renal Biopsy Material.

    PubMed

    Hemminger, Jessica; Nadasdy, Gyongyi; Satoskar, Anjali; Brodsky, Sergey V; Nadasdy, Tibor

    2016-05-01

    Immunofluorescence staining plays a vital role in nephropathology, but the panel of antibodies used has not changed for decades. Further classification of immunoglobulin (Ig)G-containing immune-type deposits with IgG subclass staining (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) has been shown to be of diagnostic utility in glomerular diseases, but their value in the evaluation of renal biopsies has not been addressed systematically in large renal biopsy material. Between January 2007 and June 2014, using direct immunofluorescence, we stained every renal biopsy for the IgG subclasses if there was moderate to prominent glomerular IgG staining and/or IgG-predominant or IgG-codominant glomerular staining. The total number of biopsies stained was 1084, which included 367 cases of membranous glomerulonephritis, 307 cases of lupus nephritis, 74 cases of fibrillary glomerulonephritis, 53 cases of proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal IgG deposits, and 25 cases of antiglomerular basement membrane disease, among others. We found that monoclonality of IgG deposits cannot always be reliably determined on the basis of kappa and lambda light chain staining alone, particularly if concomitant (frequently nonspecific) IgM staining is present. In IgG heavy and heavy and light chain deposition disease (3 cases), subclass staining is very helpful, and in proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal IgG deposits subclass staining is necessary. IgG subclass staining is useful in differentiating primary from secondary membranous glomerulonephritis. In proliferative glomerulonephritis with polyclonal IgG deposition, IgG1 dominance/codominance with concomitant IgG3 and IgG2 but weak or absent IgG4 staining favors an underlying autoimmune disease. IgG subclass staining is a very useful diagnostic method in a selected cohort of renal biopsies, particularly in biopsies with glomerulonephritis with monoclonal IgG deposits.

  13. [Hepatic puncture biopsy in ambulatory care. Advantages and disadvantages].

    PubMed

    Nouel, O

    1997-03-01

    There is a clear trend towards favoring outpatient care in an attempt to control health care costs. Despite widespread acceptance in some countries, many teams in France still prefer to hospitalize patients requiring percutaneous liver biopsy because the outpatient setting has not been encouraged in French text books on hepatology, many gastroenterologists do not have access to outpatient facilities, and the lack of French references which has raised questions as to the legal responsibilities involved. The series of 231 outpatient percutaneous liver biopsies reported by Bourgaux in this issue of La Presse Médicale will remove the doubt in many minds. There are many advantages for the generally young population with early stage liver disease, frequently hepatitis C, requiring percutaneous liver biopsy. Lower cost is probably the primary advantage, but improved patient comfort, especially if repeated procedures are needed, is also greatly appreciated. The outpatient procedure is safe when all the selection criteria are met including: normal coagulation, ultrasonographically homogeneous liver, patient compliance and availability of a structured outpatient clinic, and absence of a severe concomitent disease. These apparently restrictive criteria actually include the majority of the indications for liver biopsy. There is another debate on whether echo-guided biopsy would be even safer but as emphasized by Bourgaux et al. this would require a reorganization of most of the hepatogastroenterology departments. One other point cannot be overlooked. Some operators (and patients) may also feel that the impressive nature of the procedure merits a more impressive setting, i.e. full hospitalization. Consequently, while it is quite reasonable to propose outpatient liver biopsy as a classical procedure, there are situations when personal preference may still dictate hospitalization.

  14. Trans-rectal interventional MRI: initial prostate biopsy experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, Bernadette M.; Behluli, Meliha R.; Feller, John F.; May, Stuart T.; Princenthal, Robert; Winkel, Alex; Kaminsky, David B.

    2010-02-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the prostate gland when evaluated along with T2-weighted images, diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and their corresponding apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps can yield valuable information in patients with rising or elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels1. In some cases, patients present with multiple negative trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) biopsies, often placing the patient into a cycle of active surveillance. Recently, more patients are undergoing TRIM for targeted biopsy of suspicious findings with a cancer yield of ~59% compared to 15% for second TRUS biopsy2 to solve this diagnostic dilemma and plan treatment. Patients were imaged in two separate sessions on a 1.5T magnet using a cardiac phased array parallel imaging coil. Automated CAD software was used to identify areas of wash-out. If a suspicious finding was identified on all sequences it was followed by a second imaging session. Under MRI-guidance, cores were acquired from each target region3. In one case the microscopic diagnosis was prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), in the other it was invasive adenocarcinoma. Patient 1 had two negative TRUS biopsies and a PSA level of 9ng/mL. Patient 2 had a PSA of 7.2ng/mL. He underwent TRUS biopsy which was negative for malignancy. He was able to go on to treatment for his prostate carcinoma (PCa)4. MRI may have an important role in a subset of patients with multiple negative TRUS biopsies and elevated or rising PSA.

  15. Analysis of three-dimensional kinematics of carp tail fin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ming; Zhang, Shu; He, Xiaoyuan

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, a test based on the wavelet transform for instantaneous three dimensional (3D) Carp tail fin profile measurements and analysis the kinematics of Carp tail fin method was proposed to understand the function of the tail fin. This experiment method is used in cruising carp. Projecting a moiré fringes onto a tail fin, the deformed fringe pattern containing 3D information was produced and varied with the movement of tail fin. The time-sequence deformed fringe pattern images were captured by a high speed camera. By wavelet transform profilometry, the tail fin movements were really reconstructed. On this basis, the kinematics parameter of tail fin was analyses. Experimental results indicate that the 3D profile of tail fin was varied during the tail-beat cycle. Analysis of tail kinematics suggests that, at a swimming speed 0.5Ls-1, the tail beat frequency is 1.42Hz and the dorsal lobe of the tail undergoes a 15.6% greater lateral excursion than does the ventral lobe. The timing of maximal lateral excursion was different at different location of tail fin.

  16. Analysis of three-dimensional kinematics of carp tail fin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ming; Zhang, Shu; He, Xiaoyuan

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, a test based on the wavelet transform for instantaneous three dimensional (3D) Carp tail fin profile measurements and analysis the kinematics of Carp tail fin method was proposed to understand the function of the tail fin. This experiment method is used in cruising carp. Projecting a moiré fringes onto a tail fin, the deformed fringe pattern containing 3D information was produced and varied with the movement of tail fin. The time-sequence deformed fringe pattern images were captured by a high speed camera. By wavelet transform profilometry, the tail fin movements were really reconstructed. On this basis, the kinematics parameter of tail fin was analyses. Experimental results indicate that the 3D profile of tail fin was varied during the tail-beat cycle. Analysis of tail kinematics suggests that, at a swimming speed 0.5Ls-1, the tail beat frequency is 1.42Hz and the dorsal lobe of the tail undergoes a 15.6% greater lateral excursion than does the ventral lobe. The timing of maximal lateral excursion was different at different location of tail fin.

  17. Flight costs of long, sexually selected tails in hummingbirds

    PubMed Central

    James Clark, Christopher; Dudley, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The elongated tails adorning many male birds have traditionally been thought to degrade flight performance by increasing body drag. However, aerodynamic interactions between the body and tail can be substantial in some contexts, and a short tail may actually reduce rather than increase overall drag. To test how tail length affects flight performance, we manipulated the tails of Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) by increasing their length with the greatly elongated tail streamers of the red-billed streamertail (Trochilus polytmus) and reducing their length by removing first the rectrices and then the entire tail (i.e. all rectrices and tail covert feathers). Flight performance was measured in a wind tunnel by measuring (i) the maximum forward speed at which the birds could fly and (ii) the metabolic cost of flight while flying at airspeeds from 0 to 14 m s−1. We found a significant interaction effect between tail treatment and airspeed: an elongated tail increased the metabolic cost of flight by up to 11 per cent, and this effect was strongest at higher flight speeds. Maximum flight speed was concomitantly reduced by 3.4 per cent. Also, removing the entire tail decreased maximum flight speed by 2 per cent, suggesting beneficial aerodynamic effects for tails of normal length. The effects of elongation are thus subtle and airspeed-specific, suggesting that diversity in avian tail morphology is associated with only modest flight costs. PMID:19324747

  18. Flight costs of long, sexually selected tails in hummingbirds.

    PubMed

    Clark, Christopher James; Dudley, Robert

    2009-06-01

    The elongated tails adorning many male birds have traditionally been thought to degrade flight performance by increasing body drag. However, aerodynamic interactions between the body and tail can be substantial in some contexts, and a short tail may actually reduce rather than increase overall drag. To test how tail length affects flight performance, we manipulated the tails of Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) by increasing their length with the greatly elongated tail streamers of the red-billed streamertail (Trochilus polytmus) and reducing their length by removing first the rectrices and then the entire tail (i.e. all rectrices and tail covert feathers). Flight performance was measured in a wind tunnel by measuring (i) the maximum forward speed at which the birds could fly and (ii) the metabolic cost of flight while flying at airspeeds from 0 to 14 m s(-1). We found a significant interaction effect between tail treatment and airspeed: an elongated tail increased the metabolic cost of flight by up to 11 per cent, and this effect was strongest at higher flight speeds. Maximum flight speed was concomitantly reduced by 3.4 per cent. Also, removing the entire tail decreased maximum flight speed by 2 per cent, suggesting beneficial aerodynamic effects for tails of normal length. The effects of elongation are thus subtle and airspeed-specific, suggesting that diversity in avian tail morphology is associated with only modest flight costs.

  19. Renal biopsy findings in Belgium: a retrospective single center analysis.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, M; Fosso, C; Bakoto Sol, E; Libertalis, M; Corazza, F; Vanden Houte, K; Dratwa, M

    2011-01-01

    Renal biopsy is the definitive diagnostic test in patients with renal parenchymal disease. Renal biopsy registry is an important tool which can provide valuable data concerning early and correct epidemiological description and clinical correlations of renal diseases. Records of 326 adult renal biopsies performed at our hospital from January 1991 till the end of December 2006 were retrospectively examined. Overall, secondary glomerular diseases (SGD) were predominant (39.9%), followed by primary glomerular diseases (PGD) (30.4%), vascular diseases (13.2%) and TIN (6.7%). Total sclerosis of the kidney did not allow histopathological diagnosis in 5.8% of all biopsied kidneys. Focal and Segmental Glomerular Sclerosis (FSGS), IgA Nephropathy (IgAGN) and Minimal Change Disease (MCD) and Membranous Glomerulopathy (MGN) were the most common PGD, altogether representing 75.7% of all PGD. FSGS was the most frequent (30.3%), followed by IgAGN (21.2%), MCD (19.1%) and MGN in 15.1%. Vasculitis, HIVAN, diabetic nephropathy and amyloidosis were the most common SGD, altogether representing 90% of all SGD. Immune Mediated Glomerulonephritis (IMGN) were the most frequent (32.3%), followed by HIVAN (16.9%), diabetic nephropathy (14.6%) and amyloidosis (10%). Nephroangiosclerosis (benign and malignant nephroangiosclerosis) was the most frequent vascular nephropathy responsible for 79% of all vascular diseases. Thrombotic microangiopathy was seen in 9.3% and atherothrombotic disease in 7% of all vascular diseases. Concerning tubular diseases, chronic TIN accounted for 63.6% of all tubular diseases, followed by light chain-cast nephropathy (22.7%) and acute TIN (13.6%). Because of lack of material, 3.4% of all biopsies could not be analyzed. These data demonstrate that the distribution of biopsy-proved renal diseases in a Belgian population of the Brussels area is strongly influenced by the indications of renal biopsy. Harmonization of these indications might reflect with more accuracy

  20. Do we still need renal biopsy in lupus nephritis?

    PubMed

    Haładyj, Ewa; Cervera, Ricard

    2016-01-01

    The natural course of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by periods of disease activity and remissions. Prolonged disease activity results in cumulative organ damage. Lupus nephritis is one of the most common and devastating manifestations of SLE. In the era of changing therapy to less toxic regimens, some authors have stated that if mycophenolate mofetil can be used for the induction and maintenance treatment in all histological classes of lupus nephritis, renal biopsy can be omitted. This article aims to answer the question of what brings the bigger risk: renal biopsy or its abandonment.

  1. Two cases of uterine malignant lymphoma diagnosed by needle biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Ichimura, Tomoyuki; Murakami, Makoto; Matsuda, Makiko; Kawamura, Naoki; Sumi, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The incidence of primary malignant lymphoma arising in the female genital tract is extremely rare and constitutes approximately 0.05% of malignant tumors. Uterine malignant lymphoma develops in the endometrial stroma, causing minimal necrosis. It is therefore difficult to diagnose malignant lymphoma, as it does not involve genital bleeding or epithelial defects. We have performed transcervical needle biopsies from deep in the myometrium, with the purpose of diagnosing uterine muscle layer lesions, such as leiomyosarcoma, but this is an unusual method. In this report, we suggest that transcervical needle biopsy is useful in the diagnosis of uterine malignant lymphoma. PMID:26370331

  2. Altered coagulability: an aid to selective breast biopsy.

    PubMed Central

    Spillert, C. R.; Passannante, M. R.; Salzer-Pagan, J. E.; Lazaro, E. J.

    1993-01-01

    Difficulty in discriminating nonadvanced breast cancer from benign breast disease results in many cancer negative biopsies. Development of a test to better differentiate between these two entities to reduce the number of cancer negative biopsies was the purpose of this blind study. The clue that prompted the development of this test resides in the state of hypercoagulability in cancer. Hypercoagulability can be measured by assessing tissue factor-mediated altered coagulability. The amount of tissue factor release is contingent on prior activation of the monocyte (the only blood cell that generates tissue factor) in vivo. PMID:8478968

  3. MR guided breast interventions: role in biopsy targeting and lumpectomies

    PubMed Central

    Jagadeesan, Jayender; Richman, Danielle M; Kacher, Daniel F

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Contrast enhanced breast MRI is increasingly being used to diagnose breast cancer and to perform biopsy procedures. The American Cancer Society has advised women at high risk for breast cancer to have breast MRI screening as an adjunct to screening mammography. This article places special emphasis on biopsy and operative planning involving MRI and reviews utility of breast MRI in monitoring response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We describe peer-reviewed data on currently accepted MR-guided therapeutic methods for addressing benign and malignant breast diseases, including intraoperative imaging. PMID:26499274

  4. Ileal Pouch Biopsy Triggers Investigation and Diagnosis of Systemic Mastocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Mannan, Abul Ala Syed Rifat; Shen, Bo; Hsieh, Fred; Patil, Deepa T.

    2016-01-01

    We report a unique case of systemic mastocytosis (SM) diagnosed in an ileal pouch biopsy obtained from a 44-year-old woman with ulcerative colitis. She presented with intermittent abdominal pain and watery diarrhea that did not respond to antibiotic therapy. The pouch biopsy showed expansion of the lamina propria by aggregates of CD117 and CD25-positive abnormal mast cells. A subsequent bone marrow analysis showed an increase in abnormal mast cells. Based on World Health Organization criteria, she was diagnosed with SM and responded to cromolyn sodium therapy. Systemic mastocytosis can mimic pouchitis, and thus recognition of this condition is important for appropriate clinical management. PMID:27807556

  5. A survey of oral biopsies in Brazilian pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Maia, D M; Merly, F; Castro, W H; Gomez, R S

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a review of 1018 oral biopsies in pediatric patients from the Oral Pathology Service, Minas Gerais Federal University, Brazil. The lesions were divided into ten main categories. The most common oral lesions in this study were follicular cyst in the maxillary anterior region, followed by inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia in the same region, and mucocele in the lower lip. Cysts of the jaws and oral soft tissues comprised 26.1 percent of total oral biopsies. The importance of these findings in oral diagnosis is discussed. PMID:10826049

  6. Do we still need renal biopsy in lupus nephritis?

    PubMed Central

    Cervera, Ricard

    2016-01-01

    The natural course of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by periods of disease activity and remissions. Prolonged disease activity results in cumulative organ damage. Lupus nephritis is one of the most common and devastating manifestations of SLE. In the era of changing therapy to less toxic regimens, some authors have stated that if mycophenolate mofetil can be used for the induction and maintenance treatment in all histological classes of lupus nephritis, renal biopsy can be omitted. This article aims to answer the question of what brings the bigger risk: renal biopsy or its abandonment. PMID:27407281

  7. Internal mammary lymph node biopsy guided by computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Irving, Henry C.; Hardy, Graham J.

    1982-01-01

    Internal mammary lymph node enlargement may be demonstrated using computed tomography (CT), and a confirmatory tissue diagnosis of metastatic involvement may be obtained using fine needle aspiration biopsy with needle tip placement guided by the CT scanner. A case history is described to illustrate how a patient presented 9 years after mastectomy with an internal mammary lymph node metastasis and how cytopathological diagnosis of this metastasis was achieved by CT guided biopsy. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:7145793

  8. Diagnosis of salivary gland tumors by fine needle aspiration biopsy.

    PubMed

    Sismanis, A; Merriam, J M; Kline, T S; Davis, R K; Shapshay, S M; Strong, M S

    1981-01-01

    The cytologic findings of 51 smears obtained by fine needle aspiration biopsy from salivary gland masses were compared with the histologic findings of permanent sections. The overall concurrence rate between cytologic and histologic findings for being and malignant lesions was 91%. The diagnostic accuracy (exact histologic diagnosis) for the benign lesions was 87% and for the malignant tumors 60%. One case showed false-positive results and 1 case false-negative results. Fine needle aspiration biopsy has been found to be safe, free of complications, and helpful in the planning of treatment.

  9. [Biopsy of suspicious lesions in patients with breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Colin, P-E; Schroeder, H; Gonne, E; Hanocq, F; André, C; Rorive, A; Jerusalem, G; Collignon, J

    2015-11-01

    Discordances between hormone receptors and HER2 status in primary and metastatic breast cancer have been reported by several studies. In this context, systematic biopsies could be clinically relevant in breast cancer to confirm the biological characteristics of a suspicious lesion. In this article, illustrated by 2 case reports and based on a recent review on this topic, we discuss the clinical significance of receptor discordances and possible diagnosis of a secondary primary tumor. The role of these biopsies for the identification of new therapeutic targets is also envisaged as well as underlying mechanisms for receptors' modification like tumoral heterogeneity, clonal selection and technical artifacts. PMID:26738268

  10. The pros and cons of outpatient breast biopsy.

    PubMed

    Lou, M A; Mandal, A K; Alexander, J L

    1976-06-01

    A review of the 130 breast biopsies performed on women during the past three years at the Martin Luther King, Jr, General Hospital showed that 90 were performed on outpatients and 40 on inpatients. Of the 90 outpatient procedures, 61 were under local anesthesia and 29 under general. Only three outpatient biopsy specimens were malignant and required subsequent patient admission to the hospital for mastectomy at an interval of 9 to 14 days. In all three, the axillary nodes were uninvolved. In two, no residual tumor was found in the mastectomy specimen.

  11. Ascidian tail formation requires caudal function.

    PubMed

    Katsuyama, Y; Sato, Y; Wada, S; Saiga, H

    1999-09-15

    Although the tail is one of the major characteristics of animals of the phylum Chordata, evolutionary aspects of the molecular mechanisms involved in its formation are not clear. To obtain insights into these issues, we have isolated and investigated the caudal gene of an ascidian, one of the lower animal groups among chordates. Ascidian caudal is expressed from the midgastrula stage onward in the lateral walls of the posterior neural tube cell lineage and also in the posterior epidermal cells from the neurula stage. Thus, ascidian caudal expression is restricted to the ectoderm of a tail-forming region throughout embryogenesis. Suppression of caudal function by an antisense oligonucleotide or a dominant negative construct caused inhibition of the cell movement required for tail formation. Overexpression of wild-type caudal mRNA in an ascidian animal cap, an animal half explant prepared at the eight-cell stage, caused elongation of the cap. Furthermore, Xenopus embryos injected with dominant negative ascidian caudal exhibited defects in elongation, suggesting a conserved caudal function among chordates. These results indicate that caudal function is required for chordate tail formation and may play a key role in its evolution. PMID:10479446

  12. Study Of Helicopter-Tail-Rotor Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmadi, Ali R.; Beranek, Bolt

    1988-01-01

    Report describes findings of experiment in generation of impulsive noise and fluctuating blade loads by helicopter tail rotor interacting with vortexes from main rotor. Experiment used model rotor and isolated vortex and designed to isolate blade/vortex interaction noise from other types of rotor noise.

  13. Review: Observations of recent comets, ion tails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    Photographic plates of the moving structures in the cometary tail are examined. Several divergent explanations for the case of comet Kohoutek are presented. It is suggested that these hypotheses be tested by observing the motion of the material spectroscopically by means of the Doppler effect.

  14. Mine Waste Technology Program Electrochemical Tailings Cover

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 40, Electrochemical Tailings Cover, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). MSE Technology A...

  15. Tail-biting in outdoor pig production.

    PubMed

    Walker, P K; Bilkei, G

    2006-03-01

    A study was performed in five identical outdoor production units in the same geographic area using growing-finishing pigs of similar genetic makeup, age, diet and feed management. The severity of tail-biting (TS) was scored 1-4. The average group prevalence of bitten tails at slaughter on different farms was between 14.1+/-2.1% and 20.1+/-3.0% (P<0.05). The odds of a barrow being bitten were 2.9 times higher than those for a gilt. The most frequently recorded score of bitten tails was TS3, indicating moderate wounds with low grade infection. The prevalence of bitten barrows was positively correlated with the percentage of gilts in a group (r = 0.54, P<0.001). Pigs with zero TS score had no significantly higher weights at slaughter compared to pigs with a score of TS1. As the TS increased from 1 to 4, weights decreased (TS 1 to TS 2 to 4, P<0.05). TS 3 and 4 were positively (P<0.001) associated with subsequent carcass condemnation. We concluded that outdoor rearing does not prevent tail-biting. PMID:15951210

  16. Dispersal in female white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

    1992-01-01

    Seven of 35 yearling female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a migratory herd in northeastern Minnesota dispersed 18-168 km from natal ranges during late May through June. Dispersal as a proximate event appears voluntary and independent of deer density.

  17. Of flaky tails and itchy skin.

    PubMed

    Vercelli, Donata

    2009-05-01

    A new study defines the flaky tail mouse as a model for human atopic dermatitis caused by a null mutation in the gene encoding filaggrin, a key component of the epidermal barrier. Research in these mice will help explain how a disrupted barrier contributes to the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis and to asthma arising in the context of atopic skin disease. PMID:19399034

  18. Vascularized tail bone grafts in rats.

    PubMed

    Sempuku, T; Tamai, S; Mizumoto, S; Yajima, H

    1993-03-01

    A new experimental model for vascularized corticocancellous bone grafts was established by investigation of vascular anatomy of the tail in 15 adult Fischer 344 rats and determination of the viability of vascularized tail bone grafts into the abdominal wall in 22 7-week-old rats. The tail bones of 40 rats were then raised on the pedicle of the caudal artery and its venae comitantes, transferred to a resected portion in the femur, and observed for 16 weeks. The vascularized graft showed marked reactive periosteal bone formation during the first and second weeks following transfer, and thereafter, the graft continued to show active bone formation. In transverse section, the sharp processes became rounded. In the cancellous bone, both bone resorption and bone formation were noticeably activated early after transfer, although resorption predominated and the amount of the cancellous bone consequently diminished. The nonvascularized grafts showed "creeping substitution." The results suggest that morphologic adaptation occurs if living (i.e., vascularized) tail bones are transferred to long-bone femurs.

  19. Fluorosis in black-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    Newman, J P; Yu, M H

    1976-01-01

    Marked dental disfigurement and abnormal tooth wear patterns were observed in black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) taken from an area near an industrial fluoride source in northwestern Washington. Fluoride levels in the bones of these deer were from 10 to 35 times higher than levels in the bones of normal animals. These levels are similar to those associated with fluorosis of cattle.

  20. Functional morphology of the aardvark tail.

    PubMed

    Endo, H; Mori, K; Koyabu, D; Kawada, S; Komiya, T; Itou, T; Koie, H; Kitagawa, M; Sakai, T

    2013-04-01

    The musculoskeletal system of the aardvark (Orycteropus afer) tail was morphologically examined in two adult specimens. The tail musculature comprised three muscular groups, viz. a dorsal sacrocaudal system that consisted of the irregularly oriented Musculus sacrocaudalis dorsalis medialis and M. sacrocaudalis dorsalis lateralis, a lateral inter-vertebral connecting system, and a ventral sacrocaudal system characterized by the thick M. sacrocaudalis ventralis lateralis and M. sacrocaudalis ventralis medialis. Both the dorsal and ventral systems possessed large tendon groups that strengthened the tail structure. Computed tomography (CT) examination showed the presence of large but homogeneous cartilaginous inter-vertebral discs, whereas V-shaped bones were situated at the ventral aspect of the caudal vertebrae at the level of the inter-vertebral discs. CT visualization of the tendons and V-shaped bones in various tail positions suggested that these structures contribute to the tunnel digging action by bearing the trunk weight and lending force when the aardvark are displacing the soil by means of the forelimbs.

  1. Nonlinear dynamics of C-terminal tails in cellular microtubules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekulic, Dalibor L.; Sataric, Bogdan M.; Zdravkovic, Slobodan; Bugay, Aleksandr N.; Sataric, Miljko V.

    2016-07-01

    The mechanical and electrical properties, and information processing capabilities of microtubules are the permanent subject of interest for carrying out experiments in vitro and in silico, as well as for theoretical attempts to elucidate the underlying processes. In this paper, we developed a new model of the mechano-electrical waves elicited in the rows of very flexible C-terminal tails which decorate the outer surface of each microtubule. The fact that C-terminal tails play very diverse roles in many cellular functions, such as recruitment of motor proteins and microtubule-associated proteins, motivated us to consider their collective dynamics as the source of localized waves aimed for communication between microtubule and associated proteins. Our approach is based on the ferroelectric liquid crystal model and it leads to the effective asymmetric double-well potential which brings about the conditions for the appearance of kink-waves conducted by intrinsic electric fields embedded in microtubules. These kinks can serve as the signals for control and regulation of intracellular traffic along microtubules performed by processive motions of motor proteins, primarly from kinesin and dynein families. On the other hand, they can be precursors for initiation of dynamical instability of microtubules by recruiting the proper proteins responsible for the depolymerization process.

  2. Hybridization between Dusky Grouse and Sharp-tailed Grouse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Donnell, Ryan P.

    2015-01-01

    Cache County, Utah, 7 April 2013: rare hybrid combination of grouse noted. Hybridization between Dusky Grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) and Sharp-tailed Grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus) has been rarely documented in the wild. The only published record was of one collected from Osoyoos, British Columbia, in 1906 (Brooks 1907, Lincoln 1950). There is also one record of this hybrid in captivity (McCarthy 2006)...Although hybridization within genera is more common than between genera, it is perhaps not all too remarkable that these species would hybridize, given that Dendragapus and Tympanuchus are each other’s closest relatives (Drovetski 2002). The ranges of these two species overlap over a broad area ranging roughly from parts of northern Utah and Colorado to Yukon and the Northwest Territories. Given the close relatedness and extent of overlap of their ranges, it is perhaps surprising that there have not been more reports of this hybrid combination in the over-100 years since Brooks (1907) first described one. The species may be segregated by habitat use, as Sharp-tailed prefer open grassland sites for lekking and shrub areas for nesting, and Dusky are often found in more densely forested conifer stands—although Dusky often use more open habitats in the spring.

  3. The C-terminal tail of protein kinase D2 and protein kinase D3 regulates their intracellular distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Papazyan, Romeo; Rozengurt, Enrique; Rey, Osvaldo . E-mail: orey@mednet.ucla.edu

    2006-04-14

    We generated a set of GFP-tagged chimeras between protein kinase D2 (PKD2) and protein kinase D3 (PKD3) to examine in live cells the contribution of their C-terminal region to their intracellular localization. We found that the catalytic domain of PKD2 and PKD3 can localize to the nucleus when expressed without other kinase domains. However, when the C-terminal tail of PKD2 was added to its catalytic domain, the nuclear localization of the resulting protein was inhibited. In contrast, the nuclear localization of the CD of PKD3 was not inhibited by its C-terminal tail. Furthermore, the exchange of the C-terminal tail of PKD2 and PKD3 in the full-length proteins was sufficient to exchange their intracellular localization. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the short C-terminal tail of these kinases plays a critical role in determining their cytoplasmic/nuclear localization.

  4. 14 CFR 23.497 - Supplementary conditions for tail wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... tail wheel, bumper, or an energy absorption device is provided to show compliance with § 23.925(b), the... absorption device; and (2) The supporting structure of the tail wheel, bumper, or energy absorption...

  5. 14. Credit PED. Downstream elevation, near completion, showing tail race ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Credit PED. Downstream elevation, near completion, showing tail race and trestle used to carry excavated rock and construction materials across tail race. Photo c. 1909. - Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Plant, Potomac River, Martinsburg, Berkeley County, WV

  6. A Tale of Tails: Dissecting the Enhancing Effect of Tailed Primers in Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Vandenbussche, Frank; Mathijs, Elisabeth; Lefebvre, David; De Clercq, Kris; Van Borm, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Non-specific tail sequences are often added to the 5’-terminus of primers to improve the robustness and overall performance of diagnostic assays. Despite the widespread use of tailed primers, the underlying working mechanism is not well understood. To address this problem, we conducted a detailed in vitro and in silico analysis of the enhancing effect of primer tailing on 2 well-established foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) RT-qPCR assays using an FMDV reference panel. Tailing of the panFMDV-5UTR primers mainly affected the shape of the amplification curves. Modelling of the raw fluorescence data suggested a reduction of the amplification efficiency due to the accumulation of inhibitors. In depth analysis of PCR products indeed revealed the rapid accumulation of forward-primer derived artefacts. More importantly, tailing of the forward primer delayed artefacts formation and concomitantly restored the sigmoidal shape of the amplification curves. Our analysis also showed that primer tailing can alter utilisation patterns of degenerate primers and increase the number of primer variants that are able to participate in the reaction. The impact of tailed primers was less pronounced in the panFMDV-3D assay with only 5 out of 50 isolates showing a clear shift in Cq values. Sequence analysis of the target region of these 5 isolates revealed several mutations in the inter-primer region that extend an existing hairpin structure immediately downstream of the forward primer binding site. Stabilisation of the forward primer with either a tail sequence or cationic spermine units restored the sensitivity of the assay, which suggests that the enhancing effect in the panFMDV-3D assay is due to a more efficient extension of the forward primer. ur results show that primer tailing can alter amplification through various mechanisms that are determined by both the assay and target region. These findings expand our understanding of primer tailing and should enable a more targeted and

  7. A Randomized Trial of Sheathed vs. Standard Forceps for Obtaining Uncontaminated Biopsy Specimens of Microbiota from the Terminal Ileum

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Maneesh; Johnson, Laura A.; Walk, Seth; Young, Vincent B.; Stidham, Ryan W.; Chaudhary, Meghana N.; FunNell, Jessica; Higgins, Peter D.R.

    2014-01-01

    Background The study of intestinal microbiota has been revolutionized by the use of molecular methods, including terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis. A number of microbiota studies of Crohn’s disease patients have examined samples from stool or from the neoterminal ileum with a standard biopsy forceps, which could be contaminated by colonic bacteria when the forceps passes through the colonoscope channel. Objective To determine whether sheathed biopsy forceps are able to obtain terminal ileal microbiota samples with less colonic bacterial contamination compared to unsheathed (standard) biopsy forceps. Design Prospective randomized single center-study. Patients and Methods We obtained four (paired) biopsy specimens from adjacent locations in the terminal ileum using the sheathed and standard forceps of 27 consecutive subjects undergoing colonoscopy and characterized the microbiota using T-RFLP. We calculated the Bray Curtis similarity index (BCI) between samples (sheathed vs. unsheathed forceps) within patients and tested for significant differences across all patients. Results There was not a significant difference in the microbial diversity of samples obtained using sheathed vs. unsheathed forceps. The difference in microbial diversity between patients was much greater than the variability within patients by proximal vs. distal site or by forceps type. Limitations T-RFLP is based on PCR amplification, so it is not always sensitive to rare bacterial species. Conclusion Standard unsheathed forceps appear to be sufficient for microbiota sample collection from the terminal ileum. PMID:21317176

  8. Use of Core Needle Biopsy rather than Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology in the Diagnostic Approach of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pagni, Paola; Spunticchia, Flaminia; Barberi, Simona; Caprio, Giuliana; Paglicci, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims In the following study case, we reviewed breast ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy (CNB), using Mammotome (vacuum-assisted breast biopsy) and Tru-cut, carried out on palpable and nonpalpable uncertain breast lumps or malignant large lesions to be submitted to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Material and Methods Examinations were conducted during a 4-year period of clinical activity in a highly specialized center, from December 2009 to December 2013, in 712 patients previously subjected to fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Results The results demonstrated that among the 712 breast biopsies, in many cases FNAC was not conclusive, and therefore we proceeded with the echo-guided biopsy, through which we were able to collect sufficient material for the histological examination in order to direct patients to surgery or follow-up. Conclusions CNB is far superior to FNAC, especially in cases of uncertainty, where it is preferable to proceed directly with CNB, which may also determine additional prognostic and predictive markers. Initially FNAC is less expensive, but the actual costs involved tend to be higher for FNAC as it is less accurate and a CNB is often required. In accordance with recent publications, we can confirm the full validity of CNB in the diagnostic approach of breast lesions. PMID:25120471

  9. Underestimation of cancer in case of diagnosis of atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) by vacuum assisted core needle biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Polom, Karol; Murawa, Dawid; Kurzawa, Paweł; Michalak, Michał; Murawa, Paweł

    2012-01-01

    Background With the introduction of mammography screening, we are more often dealing with the diagnosis of precancerous and preinvasive breast lesions. An increasing number of patients are observed to show a premalignant change of ADH (atypical ductal hyperplasia). It also involves a wider use of the vacuum assisted core biopsy as a tool for verifying nonpalpable changes identified by mammography. Aim This paper describes our experience of 134 cases of ADH diagnosed at Mammotome® vacuum core needle biopsy. Material and methods Of 4326 mammotomic biopsies performed at our institution in 2000–2006, ADH was diagnosed in 134 patients (3.1%). Patients underwent surgery to remove the suspected lesion. All histopathological blocks were again reviewed by one pathologist. Clinical, radiological and pathological data were collected for statistical evaluation. Results Underestimation of invasive changes occurred in 12 patients (9%). The only clinicopathologic feature of statistical significance radiologically and pathologically was the presence of radial scar in the mammography. Conclusions More frequent diagnosis of precancerous changes in the mammotomic breast biopsy forces us to establish a clear clinical practice. The problem is the underestimation of invasive changes. The occurrence of radial scar on mammography for diagnosis of the presence of ADH increases the risk of invasive changes. PMID:24377013

  10. Evaluating The PCPT Risk Calculator in Ten International Biopsy Cohorts: Results from the Prostate Biopsy Collaborative Group

    PubMed Central

    Ankerst, Donna P.; Boeck, Andreas; Freedland, Stephen J.; Thompson, Ian M.; Cronin, Angel M.; Roobol, Monique J.; Hugosson, Jonas; Jones, J. Stephen; Kattan, Michael W.; Klein, Eric A.; Hamdy, Freddie; Neal, David; Donovan, Jenny; Parekh, Dipen J.; Klocker, Helmut; Horninger, Wolfgang; Benchikh, Amine; Salama, Gilles; Villers, Arnauld; Moreira, Daniel M.; Schröder, Fritz H.; Lilja, Hans; Vickers, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the discrimination, calibration and net benefit performance of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial Risk Calculator (PCPTRC) across five European Randomized study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC), 1 United Kingdom, 1 Austrian and 3 US biopsy cohorts. Methods PCPTRC risks were calculated for 25,733 biopsies using prostate-specific antigen (PSA), digital rectal examination, family history and history of prior biopsy, and single imputation for missing covariates. Predictions were evaluated using the areas underneath the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC), discrimination slopes, chi-square tests of goodness of fit, and net benefit decision curves. Results AUCs of the PCPTRC ranged from a low of 56% in the ERSPC Goeteborg Rounds 2-6 cohort to a high of 72% in the ERSPC Goeteborg Round 1 cohort, and were statistically significantly higher than that of PSA in 6 out of the 10 cohorts. The PCPTRC was well-calibrated in the SABOR, Tyrol and Durham cohorts. There was limited to no net benefit to using the PCPTRC for biopsy referral compared to biopsying all or no men in all five ERSPC cohorts and benefit within a limited range of risk thresholds in all other cohorts. Conclusions External validation of the PCPTRC across ten cohorts revealed varying degree of success highly dependent on the cohort, most likely due to different criteria for and work-up before biopsy. Future validation studies of new calculators for prostate cancer should acknowledge the potential impact of the specific cohort studied when reporting successful versus failed validation. PMID:22210512

  11. Comparison of prostate MRI-3D transrectal ultrasound fusion biopsy for first-time and repeat biopsy patients with previous atypical small acinar proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Cool, Derek W.; Romagnoli, Cesare; Izawa, Jonathan I.; Chin, Joseph; Gardi, Lori; Tessier, David; Mercado, Ashley; Mandel, Jonathan; Ward, Aaron D.; Fenster, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study evaluates the clinical benefit of magnetic resonance-transrectal ultrasound (MR-TRUS) fusion biopsy over systematic biopsy between first-time and repeat prostate biopsy patients with prior atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP). Materials: 100 patients were enrolled in a single-centre prospective cohort study: 50 for first biopsy, 50 for repeat biopsy with prior ASAP. Multiparameteric magnetic resonance imaging (MP-MRI) and standard 12-core ultrasound biopsy (Std-Bx) were performed on all patients. Targeted biopsy using MRI-TRUS fusion (Fn-Bx) was performed f suspicious lesions were identified on the pre-biopsy MP-MRI. Classification of clinically significant disease was assessed independently for the Std-Bx vs. Fn-Bx cores to compare the two approaches. Results: Adenocarcinoma was detected in 49/100 patients (26 first biopsy, 23 ASAP biopsy), with 25 having significant disease (17 first, 8 ASAP). Fn-Bx demonstrated significantly higher per-core cancer detection rates, cancer involvement, and Gleason scores for first-time and ASAP patients. However, Fn-Bx was significantly more likely to detect significant cancer missed on Std-Bx for ASAP patients than first-time biopsy patients. The addition of Fn-Bx to Std-Bx for ASAP patients had a 166.7% relative risk reduction for missing Gleason ≥ 3 + 4 disease (number needed to image with MP-MRI=10 patients) compared to 6.3% for first biopsy (number to image=50 patients). Negative predictive value of MP-MRI for negative biopsy was 79% for first-time and 100% for ASAP patients, with median followup of 32.1 ± 15.5 months. Conclusions: MR-TRUS Fn-Bx has a greater clinical impact for repeat biopsy patients with prior ASAP than biopsy-naïve patients by detecting more significant cancers that are missed on Std-Bx. PMID:27800057

  12. Image guided versus palpation guided core needle biopsy of palpable breast masses: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Hari, Smriti; Kumari, Swati; Srivastava, Anurag; Thulkar, Sanjay; Mathur, Sandeep; Veedu, Prasad Thotton

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Biopsy of palpable breast masses can be performed manually by palpation guidance or under imaging guidance. Based on retrospective studies, image guided biopsy is considered more accurate than palpation guided breast biopsy; however, these techniques have not been compared prospectively. We conducted this prospective study to verify the superiority and determine the size of beneficial effect of image guided biopsy over palpation guided biopsy. Methods: Over a period of 18 months, 36 patients each with palpable breast masses were randomized into palpation guided and image guided breast biopsy arms. Ultrasound was used for image guidance in 33 patients and mammographic (stereotactic) guidance in three patients. All biopsies were performed using 14 gauge automated core biopsy needles. Inconclusive, suspicious or imaging-histologic discordant biopsies were repeated. Results: Malignancy was found in 30 of 36 women in palpation guided biopsy arm and 27 of 36 women in image guided biopsy arm. Palpation guided biopsy had sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of 46.7, 100, 100, 27.3 per cent, respectively, for diagnosing breast cancer. Nineteen of 36 women (52.8%) required repeat biopsy because of inadequate samples (7 of 19), suspicious findings (2 of 19) or imaging-histologic discordance (10 of 19). On repeat biopsy, malignancy was found in all cases of imaging-histologic discordance. Image guided biopsy had 96.3 per cent sensitivity and 100 per cent specificity. There was no case of inadequate sample or imaging-histologic discordance with image guided biopsy. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that in palpable breast masses, image guided biopsy was superior to palpation guided biopsy in terms of sensitivity, false negative rate and repeat biopsy rates. PMID:27488003

  13. The wind-sock theory of comet tails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, J. C.; Rothe, E. D.

    1976-01-01

    A method is reported for calculating the shapes of ionic comet tails that use the magnetic field along the tail to channel the tail plasma. The local momentum field in the solar wind determines magnetic field line locations along the tail. Thus, the magnetic field acts as a transparent wind sock in trapping field lines in the cometary plasma around the nucleus long enough to be effectively fastened to the comet's head.

  14. Tail-assisted pitch control in lizards, robots and dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Libby, Thomas; Moore, Talia Y; Chang-Siu, Evan; Li, Deborah; Cohen, Daniel J; Jusufi, Ardian; Full, Robert J

    2012-01-04

    In 1969, a palaeontologist proposed that theropod dinosaurs used their tails as dynamic stabilizers during rapid or irregular movements, contributing to their depiction as active and agile predators. Since then the inertia of swinging appendages has been implicated in stabilizing human walking, aiding acrobatic manoeuvres by primates and rodents, and enabling cats to balance on branches. Recent studies on geckos suggest that active tail stabilization occurs during climbing, righting and gliding. By contrast, studies on the effect of lizard tail loss show evidence of a decrease, an increase or no change in performance. Application of a control-theoretic framework could advance our general understanding of inertial appendage use in locomotion. Here we report that lizards control the swing of their tails in a measured manner to redirect angular momentum from their bodies to their tails, stabilizing body attitude in the sagittal plane. We video-recorded Red-Headed Agama lizards (Agama agama) leaping towards a vertical surface by first vaulting onto an obstacle with variable traction to induce a range of perturbations in body angular momentum. To examine a known controlled tail response, we built a lizard-sized robot with an active tail that used sensory feedback to stabilize pitch as it drove off a ramp. Our dynamics model revealed that a body swinging its tail experienced less rotation than a body with a rigid tail, a passively compliant tail or no tail. To compare a range of tails, we calculated tail effectiveness as the amount of tailless body rotation a tail could stabilize. A model Velociraptor mongoliensis supported the initial tail stabilization hypothesis, showing as it did a greater tail effectiveness than the Agama lizards. Leaping lizards show that inertial control of body attitude can advance our understanding of appendage evolution and provide biological inspiration for the next generation of manoeuvrable search-and-rescue robots.

  15. Tissue fluid shift, forelimb loading, and tail tension in tail-suspended rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, A. R.; Steskal, J.; Johansson, C.; Tipton, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    The tail suspension model (head-down tilt) simulates hypogravity in terms of musculoskeletal loss in the rat. However, little is known of tissue fluid shifts and body weight distribution in this model. Tissue fluid pressures were measured by wick catheters in 12 Munich-Wistar rats before, during, and after 48 hrs of tail suspension (about 30 deg head-down tilt). Subcutaneous tissue fluid pressure in the neck increased from -2.2 + or - 0.4 (normal horizontal position) to +4.0 + or - 1.5 cm H2O during tail suspension, indicating a cephalic fluid shift and significant edema during head-down tilt. In a separate study, six rats were suspended at 30-70 deg, and forelimb load and tail tension were measured by a balance and force transducer, respectively. Approximately 50 percent of body weight (BW) was loaded on forelimbs at a head-down tilt angle of 30 deg and forelimb load declined linearly to 10 percent BW at 70 deg. Furthermore, tail tension increased from 50 percent BW at 30 deg to 85 percent BW at 70 deg. These results indicate that less than normal loads are applied to forelimbs of rats suspended at angles of less than 30 deg and that the tail bears an increasing proportion of the rat's body weight at head-down tilt angles of less than 30 deg.

  16. Chronic wasting disease in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer farm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keane, D.P.; Barr, D.J.; Bochsler, P.N.; Hall, S.M.; Gidlewski, T.; O'Rourke, K. I.; Spraker, T.R.; Samuel, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    In September 2002, chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disorder of captive and wild cervids, was diagnosed in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from a captive farm in Wisconsin. The facility was subsequently quarantined, and in January 2006 the remaining 76 deer were depopulated. Sixty animals (79%) were found to be positive by immunohistochemical staining for the abnormal prion protein (PrPCWD) in at least one tissue; the prevalence of positive staining was high even in young deer. Although none of the deer displayed clinical signs suggestive of CWD at depopulation, 49 deer had considerable accumulation of the abnormal prion in the medulla at the level of the obex. Extraneural accumulation of the abnormal protein was observed in 59 deer, with accumulation in the retropharyngeal lymph node in 58 of 59 (98%), in the tonsil in 56 of 59 (95%), and in the rectal mucosal lymphoid tissue in 48 of 58 (83%). The retina was positive in 4 deer, all with marked accumulation of prion in the obex. One deer was considered positive for PrPCWD in the brain but not in the extraneural tissue, a novel observation in white-tailed deer. The infection rate in captive deer was 20-fold higher than in wild deer. Although weakly related to infection rates in extraneural tissues, prion genotype was strongly linked to progression of prion accumulation in the obex. Antemortem testing by biopsy of rectoanal mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (or other peripheral lymphoid tissue) may be a useful adjunct to tonsil biopsy for surveillance in captive herds at risk for CWD infection.

  17. Chronic wasting disease in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer farm.

    PubMed

    Keane, Delwyn P; Barr, Daniel J; Bochsler, Philip N; Hall, S Mark; Gidlewski, Thomas; O'Rourke, Katherine I; Spraker, Terry R; Samuel, Michael D

    2008-09-01

    In September 2002, chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disorder of captive and wild cervids, was diagnosed in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from a captive farm in Wisconsin. The facility was subsequently quarantined, and in January 2006 the remaining 76 deer were depopulated. Sixty animals (79%) were found to be positive by immunohistochemical staining for the abnormal prion protein (PrP(CWD)) in at least one tissue; the prevalence of positive staining was high even in young deer. Although none of the deer displayed clinical signs suggestive of CWD at depopulation, 49 deer had considerable accumulation of the abnormal prion in the medulla at the level of the obex. Extraneural accumulation of the abnormal protein was observed in 59 deer, with accumulation in the retropharyngeal lymph node in 58 of 59 (98%), in the tonsil in 56 of 59 (95%), and in the rectal mucosal lymphoid tissue in 48 of 58 (83%). The retina was positive in 4 deer, all with marked accumulation of prion in the obex. One deer was considered positive for PrP(CWD) in the brain but not in the extraneural tissue, a novel observation in white-tailed deer. The infection rate in captive deer was 20-fold higher than in wild deer. Although weakly related to infection rates in extraneural tissues, prion genotype was strongly linked to progression of prion accumulation in the obex. Antemortem testing by biopsy of recto-anal mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (or other peripheral lymphoid tissue) may be a useful adjunct to tonsil biopsy for surveillance in captive herds at risk for CWD infection.

  18. Mobility of heavy metals from tailings to stream waters in a mining activity contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Concas, A; Ardau, C; Cristini, A; Zuddas, P; Cao, G

    2006-04-01

    In this paper the results of a recent characterization of Rio Piscinas (SW of Sardinia, Italy) hydrological basin are reported. In such area (about 50 km2), previous mining activities caused a serious heavy metal contamination of surface waters, groundwater, soils and biota. Acid mine drainage phenomena were observed in the area. The main sources of contamination are the tailings stored in mine tunnels and abandoned along fluvial banks. A methodological approach was adopted in order to identify relations between tailings and water contamination. Representative samples of tailings and stream sediments samples were collected. XRD analyses were performed for mineralogical characterization, while acid digestion was carried out for determining metal contents. Batch sequential leaching tests were performed in order to assess metal mobility. Also groundwater and stream water were sampled in specific locations and suitably characterized. All information collected allowed the understanding of the effect of tailings on water contamination, thus contributing to the qualitative prediction of pollution evolution on the basis of metal mobility. Finally, a potential remediation strategy of stream water is proposed.

  19. Percutaneous biopsy for risk stratification of renal masses.

    PubMed

    Blute, Michael L; Drewry, Anna; Abel, Edwin Jason

    2015-10-01

    The increased use of abdominal imaging has led to identification of more patients with incidental renal masses, and renal mass biopsy (RMB) has become a popular method to evaluate unknown renal masses prior to definitive treatment. Pathologic data obtained from biopsy may be used to guide decisions for treatment and may include the presence or absence of malignant tumor, renal cell cancer subtype, tumor grade and the presence of other aggressive pathologic features. However, prior to using RMB for risk stratification, it is important to understand whether RMB findings are equivalent to pathologic analysis of surgical specimens and to identify any potential limitations of this approach. This review outlines the advantages and limitations of the current studies that evaluate RMB as a guide for treatment decision in patients with unknown renal masses. In multiple series, RMB has demonstrated low morbidity and a theoretical reduction in cost, if patients with benign tumors are identified from biopsy and can avoid subsequent treatment. However, when considering the routine use of RMB for risk stratification, it is important to note that biopsy may underestimate risk in some patients by undergrading, understaging or failing to identify aggressive tumor features. Future studies should focus on developing treatment algorithms that integrate RMB to identify the optimal use in risk stratification of patients with unknown renal masses.

  20. Optical spectroscopy for stereotactic biopsy of brain tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markwardt, Niklas; von Berg, Anna; Fiedler, Sebastian; Goetz, Marcus; Haj-Hosseini, Neda; Polzer, Christoph; Stepp, Herbert; Zelenkov, Petr; Rühm, Adrian

    2015-07-01

    Stereotactic biopsy procedure is performed to obtain a tissue sample for diagnosis purposes. Currently, a fiber-based mechano-optical device for stereotactic biopsies of brain tumors is developed. Two different fluorophores are employed to improve the safety and reliability of this procedure: The fluorescence of intravenously applied indocyanine green (ICG) facilitates the recognition of blood vessels and thus helps minimize the risk of cerebral hemorrhages. 5- aminolevulinic-acid-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence is used to localize vital tumor tissue. ICG fluorescence detection using a 2-fiber probe turned out to be an applicable method to recognize blood vessels about 1.5 mm ahead of the fiber tip during a brain tumor biopsy. Moreover, the suitability of two different PpIX excitation wavelengths regarding practical aspects was investigated: While PpIX excitation in the violet region (at 405 nm) allows for higher sensitivity, red excitation (at 633 nm) is noticeably superior with regard to blood layers obscuring the fluorescence signal. Contact measurements on brain simulating agar phantoms demonstrated that a typical blood coverage of the tumor reduces the PpIX signal to about 75% and nearly 0% for 633 nm and 405 nm excitation, respectively. As a result, 633 nm seems to be the wavelength of choice for PpIX-assisted detection of high-grade gliomas in stereotactic biopsy.

  1. [Sentinel lymph node biopsy in pregnancy-associated breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Mátrai, Zoltán; Bánhidy, Ferenc; Téglás, Melinda; Kovács, Eszter; Sávolt, Akos; Udvarhelyi, Nóra; Bartal, Alexandra; Kásler, Miklós

    2013-12-01

    The incidence of pregnancy-associated breast cancer is rising. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is the method of choice in clinically node negative cases as the indicated minimally invasive regional staging procedure. Some reports have linked radioisotope and blue dye required for lymphatic mapping to teratogenic effects, the idea of which has become a generalized statement and, until recently, contraindication for these agents was considered during pregnancy. Today, there are many published reports of successful interventions with low-dose 99mTc-labeled human albumin nanocolloid, based on dosimetric modeling demonstrating a negligible radiation exposure of the fetus. These results contributed to the seemingly safe and successful use of sentinel lymph node biopsy during pregnancy, though generally it can not replace axillary lymphadenectomy in the absence of high-quality evidence. The possibility of sentinel lymph node biopsy should be offered to pregnancy-associated early breast cancer patients with clinically negative axilla, and patients should be involved in the decision making following extensive counselling. This paper presents the successful use of sentinel lymph node biopsy with low-dose tracer during two pregnancies (in the first and third trimesters) and, for the first time in Hungarian language, it offers a comprehensive literature review on this topic. Orv. Hetil., 154(50), 1991-1997. PMID:24317358

  2. 21 CFR 870.4075 - Endomyocardial biopsy device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Endomyocardial biopsy device. 870.4075 Section 870.4075 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... procedure to remove samples of tissue from the inner wall of the heart. (b) Classification. Class...

  3. 21 CFR 870.4075 - Endomyocardial biopsy device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Endomyocardial biopsy device. 870.4075 Section 870.4075 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... procedure to remove samples of tissue from the inner wall of the heart. (b) Classification. Class...

  4. 21 CFR 870.4075 - Endomyocardial biopsy device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Endomyocardial biopsy device. 870.4075 Section 870.4075 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... procedure to remove samples of tissue from the inner wall of the heart. (b) Classification. Class...

  5. 21 CFR 870.4075 - Endomyocardial biopsy device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Endomyocardial biopsy device. 870.4075 Section 870.4075 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... procedure to remove samples of tissue from the inner wall of the heart. (b) Classification. Class...

  6. 21 CFR 870.4075 - Endomyocardial biopsy device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endomyocardial biopsy device. 870.4075 Section 870.4075 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... procedure to remove samples of tissue from the inner wall of the heart. (b) Classification. Class...

  7. Biopsy of parotid masses: Review of current techniques

    PubMed Central

    Haldar, Sananda; Sinnott, Joseph D; Tekeli, Kemal M; Turner, Samuel S; Howlett, David C

    2016-01-01

    Definitive diagnosis of parotid gland masses is required optimal management planning and for prognosis. There is controversy over whether fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) or ultrasound guided core biopsy (USCB) should be the standard for obtaining a biopsy. The aim of this review is to assess the current evidence available to assess the benefits of each technique and also to assess the use of intra-operative frozen section (IOFS). Literature searches were performed using pubmed and google scholar. The literature has been reviewed and the evidence is presented. FNAC is an accepted and widely used technique. It has been shown to have variable diagnostic capabilities depending on centres and experience of staff. USCB has a highly consistent diagnostic accuracy and can help with tumour grading and staging. However, the technique is more invasive and there is a question regarding potential for seeding. Furthermore, USCB is less likely to be offered as part of a one-stop clinic. IOFS has no role as a first line diagnostic technique but may be reserved as an adjunct or for lesions not amenable to percutaneous biopsy. On balance, USCB seems to be the method of choice. The current evidence suggests it has superior diagnostic potential and is safe. With time, USCB is likely to supplant FNAC as the biopsy technique of choice, replicating that which has occurred already in other areas of medicine such a breast practice. PMID:27247715

  8. Radial Scar at Image-guided Needle Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Conlon, Niamh; D’Arcy, Clare; Kaplan, Jennifer B.; Bowser, Zenica L.; Cordero, Anibal; Brogi, Edi; Corben, Adriana D.

    2016-01-01

    Optimal management of a lesion yielding radial scar (RS) without epithelial atypia on breast biopsy is controversial. In this single-institution study spanning 17 years, 53 patients with this biopsy diagnosis were evaluated in terms of clinical, radiologic, and pathologic features and outcomes. RSs were categorized as either “incidental” or as the “targeted” lesion according to defined criteria. Of 48 patients who underwent surgical excision after a diagnosis of RS on biopsy, only 1 had an “upgrade” diagnosis of malignancy (2%). No “incidental” RS was associated with the presence of malignancy on surgical excision. Meta-analysis of 20 RS excision studies demonstrated an overall upgrade rate of 10.4%, with a higher rate in patients with a diagnosis of RS with atypia (26%). The upgrade rate for RS without atypia was 7.5% overall. The lower rate of upgrade to malignancy in this study (2%) is likely related to the thorough radiologic-pathologic review undertaken. In the setting of multidisciplinary agreement and careful radiologic-pathologic correlation, it may be appropriate for patients with a biopsy diagnosis of RS without atypia to forego surgical excision in favor of imaging follow-up. PMID:25634748

  9. [Experience in teaching a biopsy-section course in Belarus].

    PubMed

    Krylov, Yu V; Malashenko, S V; Lesnichaya, O V; Krylov, A Yu

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with the improvement of teaching a biopsy-section course (BSC). The authors have analyzed the most frequent errors in the interaction of clinicians with a pathology service and summed up the experience of the Pathological Anatomy Department in practical work and teaching the BSC. The differentiated approach to teaching the BSC to resident students of different specialties is proposed.

  10. [Recurrent breast haematoma after fine needle aspiration biopsy of angiosarcoma].

    PubMed

    Ortiz Mendoza, Carlos Manuel

    2007-03-01

    It is reported a rare complication after a fine needle aspiration biopsy of a breast angiosarcoma. A 30-years-old female presented with a right breast lump. An ovoid, hypoecoic lesion of 39 x 13 mm was detect by ultrasonography. A fine needle aspiration biopsy was carried out for diagnosis, but only blood was report. After the biopsy the skin showed a violaceous color, the lump was tender, reappeared in three instances and increased its size (15 cm). In spite of conservative management the pain and the mass did not disappear, then surgical management was decided. A soft, violaceous mass of 13 x 6 x 4 cm, with well demarcated boundaries was removed. A capillary and cavernous breast hemangioma was diagnosed. Four months later a recurrence presented, and a new excision was carried out with a resulting moderately differentiated angiosarcoma, then a simple mastectomy was performed for definitive treatment. On a literature search only one similar case was found. A recurrent haematoma after a fine needle aspiration biopsy of a breast tumor mandates to rule out an angiosarcoma.

  11. 14 CFR 23.481 - Tail down landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tail down landing conditions. 23.481 Section 23.481 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Ground Loads § 23.481 Tail down landing conditions. (a) For a tail down landing, the airplane is...

  12. 14 CFR 25.481 - Tail-down landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tail-down landing conditions. 25.481... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.481 Tail-down landing conditions. (a) In the tail-down attitude, the airplane is assumed to contact the ground...

  13. 14 CFR 23.481 - Tail down landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tail down landing conditions. 23.481 Section 23.481 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Ground Loads § 23.481 Tail down landing conditions. (a) For a tail down landing, the airplane is...

  14. 14 CFR 23.481 - Tail down landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tail down landing conditions. 23.481 Section 23.481 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Ground Loads § 23.481 Tail down landing conditions. (a) For a tail down landing, the airplane is...

  15. 14 CFR 23.481 - Tail down landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tail down landing conditions. 23.481 Section 23.481 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Ground Loads § 23.481 Tail down landing conditions. (a) For a tail down landing, the airplane is...

  16. 14 CFR 25.481 - Tail-down landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tail-down landing conditions. 25.481... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.481 Tail-down landing conditions. (a) In the tail-down attitude, the airplane is assumed to contact the ground...

  17. 14 CFR 25.481 - Tail-down landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tail-down landing conditions. 25.481... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.481 Tail-down landing conditions. (a) In the tail-down attitude, the airplane is assumed to contact the ground...

  18. 14 CFR 23.481 - Tail down landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tail down landing conditions. 23.481 Section 23.481 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Ground Loads § 23.481 Tail down landing conditions. (a) For a tail down landing, the airplane is...

  19. 14 CFR 25.481 - Tail-down landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tail-down landing conditions. 25.481... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.481 Tail-down landing conditions. (a) In the tail-down attitude, the airplane is assumed to contact the ground...

  20. 14 CFR 25.481 - Tail-down landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tail-down landing conditions. 25.481... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.481 Tail-down landing conditions. (a) In the tail-down attitude, the airplane is assumed to contact the ground...

  1. Observations and dynamics of plasma tails. [of comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    Observations of plasma tails of comets are reviewed. The basic morphology of plasma tails is examined. It is shown that two features, viz., the ray-folding phenomenon and disconnection events, are essential to a general understanding of plasma tail phenomena. A qualitative model of disconnection events is proposed that is based on the cyclic occurrence of magnetic reversals in the solar wind.

  2. 14. TIP TOP MINE. TAILINGS LOCATED DIRECTLY WEST FROM TIP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. TIP TOP MINE. TAILINGS LOCATED DIRECTLY WEST FROM TIP TOP HOUSE. ID-31-C-12 WOODEN STRUCTURE IS VISIBLE IN TOP LEFT. CABLES VISIBLE LEFT AND CENTER OF TAILINGS. HOUSE IS JUST OVER APEX OF TAILINGS. CAMERA POINTED EAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Tip Top Mine, West face Florida Mountain, approximately 150 feet below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  3. The Tail-less Cat in Free-Fall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredrickson, J. E.

    1989-01-01

    Describes four kinds of movement by a cat with or without angular momentum and tail or tail-less during free falling. Presents many pictures illustrating the movement. Supports the position that the angular momentum of the tail plays an important role in free fall. (YP)

  4. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project surface project management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This Project Management Plan describes the planning, systems, and organization that shall be used to manage the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRA). US DOE is authorized to stabilize and control surface tailings and ground water contamination at 24 inactive uranium processing sites and associated vicinity properties containing uranium mill tailings and related residual radioactive materials.

  5. 14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nose/tail wheel steering. 23.745 Section 23.745 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Landing Gear § 23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering. (a) If nose/tail wheel steering is installed, it must...

  6. 14 CFR 25.497 - Tail-wheel yawing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tail-wheel yawing. 25.497 Section 25.497... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.497 Tail-wheel yawing. (a) A vertical ground reaction equal to the static load on the tail wheel, in combination with a side component of...

  7. 14 CFR 25.497 - Tail-wheel yawing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tail-wheel yawing. 25.497 Section 25.497... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.497 Tail-wheel yawing. (a) A vertical ground reaction equal to the static load on the tail wheel, in combination with a side component of...

  8. 14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nose/tail wheel steering. 23.745 Section 23.745 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Landing Gear § 23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering. (a) If nose/tail wheel steering is installed, it must...

  9. 14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nose/tail wheel steering. 23.745 Section 23.745 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Landing Gear § 23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering. (a) If nose/tail wheel steering is installed, it must...

  10. 14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nose/tail wheel steering. 23.745 Section 23.745 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Landing Gear § 23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering. (a) If nose/tail wheel steering is installed, it must...

  11. 14 CFR 25.497 - Tail-wheel yawing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tail-wheel yawing. 25.497 Section 25.497... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.497 Tail-wheel yawing. (a) A vertical ground reaction equal to the static load on the tail wheel, in combination with a side component of...

  12. 14 CFR 25.497 - Tail-wheel yawing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tail-wheel yawing. 25.497 Section 25.497... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.497 Tail-wheel yawing. (a) A vertical ground reaction equal to the static load on the tail wheel, in combination with a side component of...

  13. 14 CFR 25.497 - Tail-wheel yawing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tail-wheel yawing. 25.497 Section 25.497... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.497 Tail-wheel yawing. (a) A vertical ground reaction equal to the static load on the tail wheel, in combination with a side component of...

  14. 14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nose/tail wheel steering. 23.745 Section 23.745 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Landing Gear § 23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering. (a) If nose/tail wheel steering is installed, it must...

  15. The value of forceps biopsy and core needle biopsy in prediction of pathologic complete remission in locally advanced rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jing-Hua; An, Xin; Lin, Xi; Gao, Yuan-Hong; Liu, Guo-Chen; Kong, Ling-Heng; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Ding, Pei-Rong

    2015-10-20

    Patients with pathological complete remission (pCR) after treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) have better long-term outcome and may receive conservative treatments in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). The study aimed to evaluate the value of forceps biopsy and core needle biopsy in prediction of pCR in LARC treated with nCRT. In total, 120 patients entered this study. Sixty-one consecutive patients received preoperative forceps biopsy during endoscopic examination. Ex vivo core needle biopsy was performed in resected specimens of another 43 consecutive patients. The accuracy for ex vivo core needle biopsy was significantly higher than forceps biopsy (76.7% vs. 36.1%; p < 0.001). The sensitivity for ex vivo core needle biopsy was significantly lower in good responder (TRG 3) than poor responder (TRG ≤ 2) (52.9% vs. 94.1%; p = 0.017). In vivo core needle biopsy was further performed in 16 patients with good response. Eleven patients had residual cancer cells in final resected specimens, among whom 4 (36.4%) patients were biopsy positive. In conclusion, routine forceps biopsy was of limited value in identifying pCR after nCRT. Although core needle biopsy might further identify a subset of patients with residual cancer cells, the accuracy was not substantially increased in good responders.

  16. Single-Institution Results of Image-Guided Nonplugged Percutaneous Versus Transjugular Liver Biopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Hardman, Rulon L.; Perrich, Kiley D.; Silas, Anne M.

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively review patients who underwent transjugular and image-guided percutaneous biopsy and compare the relative risk of ascites, thrombocytopenia, and coagulopathy. Materials and Methods: From August 2001 through February 2006, a total of 238 liver biopsies were performed. The radiologist reviewed all patient referrals for transjugular biopsy. These patients either underwent transjugular biopsy or were reassigned to percutaneous biopsy (crossover group). Patients referred to percutaneous image-guided liver biopsy underwent this same procedure. Biopsies were considered successful if a tissue diagnosis could be made from the samples obtained. Results: A total of 36 transjugular biopsies were performed with 3 total (8.3%) and 1 major (2.8%) complications. A total of 171 percutaneous biopsies were performed with 10 (5.8%) total and 3 (1.8%) major complications. The crossover group showed a total of 4 (12.9%) complications with 1 (3.2%) major complication. Sample adequacy was 91.9% for transjugular and 99.5% for percutaneous biopsy. Conclusion: Both transjugular and percutaneous liver biopsy techniques are efficacious and safe. Contraindications such as thrombocytopenia, coagulopathy, and ascites are indicators of greater complications but are not necessarily prevented by transjugular biopsy. Percutaneous biopsy more frequently yields a diagnostic specimen than transjugular biopsy.

  17. Diabetic nephropathy: Is it time yet for routine kidney biopsy?

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez Suarez, Maria L; Thomas, David B; Barisoni, Laura; Fornoni, Alessia

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most important long-term complications of diabetes. Patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease have an increased risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and kidney failure. The clinical diagnosis of DN depends on the detection of microalbuminuria. This usually occurs after the first five years from the onset of diabetes, and predictors of DN development and progression are being studied but are not yet implemented into clinical practice. Diagnostic tests are useful tools to recognize onset, progression and response to therapeutic interventions. Microalbuminuria is an indicator of DN, and it is considered the only noninvasive marker of early onset. However, up to now there is no diagnostic tool that can predict which patients will develop DN before any damage is present. Pathological renal injury is hard to predict only with clinical and laboratory findings. An accurate estimate of damage in DN can only be achieved by the histological analysis of tissue samples. At the present time, renal biopsy is indicated on patients with diabetes under the suspicion of the presence of nephropathies other than DN. Results from renal biopsies in patients with diabetes had made possible the classification of renal biopsies in three major groups associated with different prognostic features: diabetic nephropathy, non-diabetic renal disease (NDRD), and a superimposed non-diabetic condition on underlying diabetic nephropathy. In patients with type 2 diabetes with a higher degree of suspicion for NDRD, it is granted the need of a renal biopsy. It is important to identify and differentiate these pathologies at an early stage in order to prevent progression and potential complications. Therefore, a more extensive use of biopsy is advisable. PMID:24379914

  18. Kidney biopsy in west of Iran: Complications and histopathological findings

    PubMed Central

    Rahbar, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this retrospective study, we reviewed the medical records and histopathology findings of 135 patients who underwent renal biopsies at two special hospitals affiliated to Kermanshah medical university during a six-year period (2003-2007). All were performed using Tru-Cut needle under ultrasound guidance. Twenty four specimens were unsatisfactory. There were 38 males (34.2%) and 73 females (65.7%) in 111 patients with adequate specimens (each specimen has more than 5 glomeruli); the mean age was 16.5 years (range 2-64 years). Side effects of the renal biopsies included pain at the site of biopsy in 2 (2.7%), gross hematuria in 1 (0.9%). Nephrotic syndrome was the most common indication for biopsy followed by acute renal failure of unknown etiology and nephritic syndrome. Primary glomerular disease was reported in 78 patients (70.2%) and also secondary glomerular disease in 33 patients (29.7%). Among the primary glomerulonephritis disease, minimal change disease and membranous glomerulonephritis were the commonest findings in children below the age of 16 years. Minimal change disease ranked first in adults whole membranous glomerular disease and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis were more common in the elderly. In all patients lupus glomerular disease was the commonest secondary glomerular disease. We conclude that study on renal biopsy makes final diagnosis which is associated with an acceptably low rate of complications in our practice, and in all, the patterns of renal histology in our study vary slightly from those reported from other countries. PMID:20368927

  19. Bone biopsy in the diagnosis of renal osteodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Spasovski, Goce B

    2004-01-01

    When renal disease develops, mineral and vitamin D homeostasis is disrupted, resulting in diverse manifestations in bone cells and structure as well as the rate of bone turnover. In ESRF when patients require chronic maintenance dialysis, nearly all of them have abnormal bone histology named renal osteodystrophy (ROD). On the other hand, survival rates of patients on dialysis have increased with improved dialytic therapy and the resultant increased duration of dialysis has led to a rise in renal osteodystrophy. Because this metabolic bone disease can produce fractures, bone pain, and deformities late in the course of the disease, prevention and early treatment are essential. Serum PTH levels are commonly used to assess bone turnover in dialyzed patients. However, it is found that serum PTH levels between 65 and 450 pg/ml seen in the majority of dialysis patients are not predictive of the underlying bone disease. To date, bone biopsy is the most powerful and informative diagnostic tool to provide important information on precisely the type of renal osteodystrophy affecting patients, the degree of severity of the lesions, and the presence and amount of aluminum and strontium deposition in bone. Bone biopsy is not only useful in clinical settings but also in research to assess the effects of therapies on bone. Although considered as an invasive procedure, bone biopsy has been proven as safe and free from major complications besides pain, haematoma or wound infections, but the operator's experience and skill is important in minimizing morbidity. Alternatives to bone biopsy continue to be pursued, but the non-invasive bone markers have not been proven to hold sufficient diagnostic performance related to the bone turnover, mineralization process and bone cell abnormality. At present however, the transiliac bone biopsy remains the golden standard in the diagnosis of renal osteodystrophy. PMID:15735537

  20. Mechanically assisted 3D ultrasound guided prostate biopsy system.

    PubMed

    Bax, Jeffrey; Cool, Derek; Gardi, Lori; Knight, Kerry; Smith, David; Montreuil, Jacques; Sherebrin, Shi; Romagnoli, Cesare; Fenster, Aaron

    2008-12-01

    There are currently limitations associated with the prostate biopsy procedure, which is the most commonly used method for a definitive diagnosis of prostate cancer. With the use of two-dimensional (2D) transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) for needle-guidance in this procedure, the physician has restricted anatomical reference points for guiding the needle to target sites. Further, any motion of the physician's hand during the procedure may cause the prostate to move or deform to a prohibitive extent. These variations make it difficult to establish a consistent reference frame for guiding a needle. We have developed a 3D navigation system for prostate biopsy, which addresses these shortcomings. This system is composed of a 3D US imaging subsystem and a passive mechanical arm to minimize prostate motion. To validate our prototype, a series of experiments were performed on prostate phantoms. The 3D scan of the string phantom produced minimal geometric distortions, and the geometric error of the 3D imaging subsystem was 0.37 mm. The accuracy of 3D prostate segmentation was determined by comparing the known volume in a certified phantom to a reconstructed volume generated by our system and was shown to estimate the volume with less then 5% error. Biopsy needle guidance accuracy tests in agar prostate phantoms showed that the mean error was 2.1 mm and the 3D location of the biopsy core was recorded with a mean error of 1.8 mm. In this paper, we describe the mechanical design and validation of the prototype system using an in vitro prostate phantom. Preliminary results from an ongoing clinical trial show that prostate motion is small with an in-plane displacement of less than 1 mm during the biopsy procedure.