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Sample records for tail disease wtd

  1. Scrapie transmits to white-tailed deer by the oral route and has a molecular profile similar to chronic wasting disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this work was to determine susceptibility of white-tailed deer (WTD) to the agent of sheep scrapie and to compare the resultant PrPSc to that of the original inoculum and chronic wasting disease (CWD). We inoculated WTD by a natural route of exposure (concurrent oral and intranasal (I...

  2. Goats are a potential reservoir for the herpesvirus (MCFV-WTD),causing malignant catarrhal fever in deer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the recent investigation of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) in a red brocket deer (Mazama americana) from a Texas zoo, the MCF viral DNA from the newly recognized herpesvirus causing disease in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) (termed MCFV-WTD) was detected. The epidemiology information...

  3. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) infected with Epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Prachi; Stallknech, David E; Quist, Charlotte F; Howerth, Elizabeth W

    2016-09-30

    Epizootic haemorrhagic disease (EHD) is the most important infectious disease of white‑tailed deer (WTD), however little is known about the role of inflammatory mediators in the pathogenesis. We characterized the expression of tumor necrosis factor‑alpha (TNF-α) ex vivo in tissues of WTD experimentally or naturally infected with EHD virus serotype 2 and in WTD peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) infected with EHD virus serotype 2 in vitro. Circulating levels of TNF-α were evaluated in serum from experimentally infected deer via cytotoxicity assay. The expression of TNF-α in tissues was evaluated via immunohistochemistry (IHC) in both experimentally and naturally infected deer. Semi‑quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to assess the level of TNF-α mRNA in tissues from experimentally infected deer and WTD's PBMC. Circulating levels of TNF-α were not increased in infected animals and TNF-α was not detected in tissues of infected deer. Increased transcription of TNF-α was detected neither in infected WTD nor in the PBMC. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha may not play a significant role in the pathogenesis of EHD virus infection in WTD.

  4. White Tail Disease of Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Sahul Hameed, A S; Bonami, Jean-Robert

    2012-09-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii is the most important cultured freshwater prawn in the world and it is now farmed on a large scale in many countries. Generally, freshwater prawn is considered to be tolerant to diseases but a disease of viral origin is responsible for severe mortalities in larval, post-larval and juvenile stages of prawn. This viral infection namely white tail disease (WTD) was reported in the island of Guadeloupe in 1995 and later in Martinique (FrenchWest Indies) in Taiwan, the People's Republic of China, India, Thailand, Australia and Malaysia. Two viruses, Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus-like particle (XSV) have been identified as causative agents of WTD. MrNV is a small icosahedral non-enveloped particle, 26-27 nm in diameter, identified in the cytoplasm of connective cells. XSV is also an icosahedral virus and 15 nm in diameter. Clinical signs observed in the infected animals include lethargy, opaqueness of the abdominal muscle, degeneration of the telson and uropods, and up to 100 % within 4 days. The available diagnostic methods to detect WTD include RT-PCR, dot-blot hybridization, in situ hybridization and ELISA. In experimental infection, these viruses caused 100 % mortality in post-larvae but failed to cause mortality in adult prawns. The reported hosts for these viruses include marine shrimp, Artemia and aquatic insects. Experiments were carried out to determine the possibility of vertical transmission of MrNV and XSV in M. rosenbergii. The results indicate that WTD may be transferred from infected brooders to their offspring during spawning. Replication of MrNV and XSV was investigated in apparently healthy C6/36 Aedes albopictus and SSN-1 cell lines. The results revealed that C6/36 and SSN-1cells were susceptible to these viruses. No work has been carried out on control and prevention of WTD and dsRNA against protein B2 produced RNAi that was able to functionally prevent and reduce mortality in WTD

  5. Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus disease (white tail disease) in Australia.

    PubMed

    Owens, Leigh; La Fauce, Kathy; Juntunen, Karen; Hayakijkosol, Orachun; Zeng, Chaoshu

    2009-07-23

    The index case of white tail disease (WTD) is presented in adult broodstock prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii from the Flinders River in western Queensland, Australia, in mid-2007. Histological examination revealed extensive myonecrosis with massive infiltration of myonuclei and some haemocytes. Juveniles from the same broodstock but not from 3 other families displayed white muscle lesions. Low-grade chronic mortalities approaching 100% over 1 yr occurred. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR) were attempted for both M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) with 2 sets of primers and for the satellite virus, extrasmall virus (XSV). All 3 PCRs generated amplicons of the expected sizes. Basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) analyses of the 3 consensus sequences identified a 91% match with MrNV viral capsid protein gene, 96% match with MrNV RNA-directed RNA polymerase gene, and a 99% match with M. rosenbergii XSV capsid protein gene. The clinical signs, histopathological lesions and RT-PCR amplicons could be reproduced in M. rosenbergii inoculated with cell-free extracts fulfilling River's postulates. We conclude that this is an endemic strain of MrNV as the sequences are dissimilar to strains of MrNV circulating around Asia and the Americas. This case only poorly meets the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) case definition for WTD due to the age of the prawns involved and the nature of the inclusion bodies. Perhaps the OIE case definition needs broadening.

  6. A nonluminescent and highly virulent Vibrio harveyi strain is associated with "bacterial white tail disease" of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Junfang; Fang, Wenhong; Yang, Xianle; Zhou, Shuai; Hu, Linlin; Li, Xincang; Qi, Xinyong; Su, Hang; Xie, Layue

    2012-01-01

    Recurrent outbreaks of a disease in pond-cultured juvenile and subadult Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp in several districts in China remain an important problem in recent years. The disease was characterized by "white tail" and generally accompanied by mass mortalities. Based on data from the microscopical analyses, PCR detection and 16S rRNA sequencing, a new Vibrio harveyi strain (designated as strain HLB0905) was identified as the etiologic pathogen. The bacterial isolation and challenge tests demonstrated that the HLB0905 strain was nonluminescent but highly virulent. It could cause mass mortality in affected shrimp during a short time period with a low dose of infection. Meanwhile, the histopathological and electron microscopical analysis both showed that the HLB0905 strain could cause severe fiber cell damages and striated muscle necrosis by accumulating in the tail muscle of L. vannamei shrimp, which led the affected shrimp to exhibit white or opaque lesions in the tail. The typical sign was closely similar to that caused by infectious myonecrosis (IMN), white tail disease (WTD) or penaeid white tail disease (PWTD). To differentiate from such diseases as with a sign of "white tail" but of non-bacterial origin, the present disease was named as "bacterial white tail disease (BWTD)". Present study revealed that, just like IMN and WTD, BWTD could also cause mass mortalities in pond-cultured shrimp. These results suggested that some bacterial strains are changing themselves from secondary to primary pathogens by enhancing their virulence in current shrimp aquaculture system.

  7. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in captive and free-ranging, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Waters, W Ray; Nonnecke, Brian J; Gibbs, Samantha E J; Yabsley, Michael J; Schmitt, Stephen M; Cosgrove, Melinda K; Palmer, Mitchell V; Thacker, Tyler C; Olsen, Steven C; Horst, Ronald L; Reinhardt, Timothy A

    2009-05-01

    Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] were determined for free-ranging and captive white-tailed deer (WTD). Effects of gender, season, and age on 25(OH)D concentrations were determined as well as comparisons to concentrations in serum from captive reindeer and elk. Seasonal variations in 25(OH)D concentrations were detected for both captive and free-ranging WTD with greatest concentrations detected in August/September (approximately 25 ng/mL) and lowest concentrations in February (approximately 5 - 10 ng/mL). Free-ranging WTD < 1 year of age had lower 25(OH)D concentrations (approximately 6 ng/mL) than did free-ranging WTD > 1 year of age (approximately12 ng/mL). For captive WTD fawns, 25(OH)D concentrations increased from 1 to 9 days of age (exceeding 100 ng/mL) and then steadily declined to approximately 10 ng/mL by 3 months of age. In general, differences in 25(OH)D concentrations based on gender were not detected. 25(OH)D concentrations in captive WTD did not differ from that of captive reindeer; yet, 25(OH)D concentrations were lower in WTD than in captive elk. Additional research is necessary to determine if low serum 25(OH)D concentrations during the winter or pre-weaning period are associated with increased rates of infectious and metabolic disease.

  8. Presence and seeding activity of pathological prion protein (PrP(TSE)) in skeletal muscles of white-tailed deer infected with chronic wasting disease.

    PubMed

    Daus, Martin L; Breyer, Johanna; Wagenfuehr, Katja; Wemheuer, Wiebke M; Thomzig, Achim; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter J; Beekes, Michael

    2011-04-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a contagious, rapidly spreading transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE), or prion disease, occurring in cervids such as white tailed-deer (WTD), mule deer or elk in North America. Despite efficient horizontal transmission of CWD among cervids natural transmission of the disease to other species has not yet been observed. Here, we report for the first time a direct biochemical demonstration of pathological prion protein PrP(TSE) and of PrP(TSE)-associated seeding activity, the static and dynamic biochemical markers for biological prion infectivity, respectively, in skeletal muscles of CWD-infected cervids, i. e. WTD for which no clinical signs of CWD had been recognized. The presence of PrP(TSE) was detected by Western- and postfixed frozen tissue blotting, while the seeding activity of PrP(TSE) was revealed by protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA). Semi-quantitative Western blotting indicated that the concentration of PrP(TSE) in skeletal muscles of CWD-infected WTD was approximately 2000-10,000-fold lower than in brain tissue. Tissue-blot-analyses revealed that PrP(TSE) was located in muscle-associated nerve fascicles but not, in detectable amounts, in myocytes. The presence and seeding activity of PrP(TSE) in skeletal muscle from CWD-infected cervids suggests prevention of such tissue in the human diet as a precautionary measure for food safety, pending on further clarification of whether CWD may be transmissible to humans.

  9. Host and Potential Vector Susceptibility to an Emerging Orbivirus in the United States: Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus Serotype 6

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) viruses (EHDV) are orbiviruses transmitted by Culicoides biting midges to domestic and wild ruminants. EHDV-1 and -2 are enzootic in the U.S., where EHD is the most significant viral disease of white-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus) and reports of EHD in ...

  10. Anatomical distribution of Mycobacterium bovis genotypes in experimentally infected white-tailed deer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) causes tuberculosis in white-tailed deer (WTD). Natural infection of WTD with M. bovis is most closely mimicked by instilling inoculum into palatine tonsilar crypts. One hundred fifty days after intratonsilar inoculation, M. bovis was cultured from 30 tissues originati...

  11. Occurrence, isolation, and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in New Jersey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White tailed deer (WTD) is an important reservoir host for Toxoplasma gondii. Each yr hundreds of thousands WTD are hunted or die in road accidents in the U.S.A. Humans and animals can become infected with T. gondii by eating infected venison. Wild felids that eat infected deer tissues can shed oocy...

  12. Experimental infection of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Northern European bluetongue virus serotype 8.

    PubMed

    Drolet, Barbara S; Reister, Lindsey M; Rigg, Tara D; Nol, Pauline; Podell, Brendan K; Mecham, James O; VerCauteren, Kurt C; van Rijn, Piet A; Wilson, William C; Bowen, Richard A

    2013-10-25

    Bluetongue (BT) is an insect-transmitted, economically important disease of domestic and wild ruminants. Although only five of the 26 reported bluetongue virus (BTV) serotypes are considered endemic to the USA, 10 exotic serotypes have been isolated primarily in the southeastern region of the country since 1999. For an exotic BTV serotype to become endemic there must be susceptible animal species and competent vectors. In the USA, sheep and white-tailed deer (WTD) are the primary sentinel livestock and wildlife species, respectively. In 2006, BTV-8 was introduced into Northern Europe and subsequently overwintered, causing unprecedented livestock disease and mortality during the 2006-2007 vector seasons. To assess the risk of the European strain of BTV-8 to North American WTD, and understand the role they could play after a similar introduction, eight bluetongue-seronegative WTD were inoculated with BTV-8. Body temperatures and clinical signs were recorded daily. Blood samples were analyzed for BTV RNA with quantitative real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), serum analyzed for BTV antibodies by cELISA, and tissues taken for histopathology and qRT-PCR. All eight deer became infected and developed moderate to severe clinical disease from days 8 to 15. Peak viremia was from day 7 to 10 with detectable titers through the end of the study (28 days) in most deer. Serum antibody was detected by day 6, peaked by day 10 and continued through day 28. We conclude that North American WTD are highly susceptible to BTV-8 and would act as clinical disease sentinels and amplifying hosts during an outbreak.

  13. T-cell mRNA Expression in Response to Mycobacterium bovis BCG Vaccination and Mycobacterium bovis Infection of White-tailed deer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding immune responses of white-tailed deer (WTD) to infection with Mycobacterium bovis provides insight into mechanisms of pathogen control and may provide clues to development of effective vaccine strategies. WTD were vaccinated with either BCG strain Pasteur or BCG Danish. Both vaccinates...

  14. Epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): occurrence, congenital transmission, correlates of infection, isolation, and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in white tailed deer (WTD) in the USA is high, but little is known of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in this host. In the present study, we compared T. gondii seroprevalence from 531 WTD collected in 2012 and 2013 from a Metropolitan Park in Ohio, and and 485 W...

  15. Will Culling White-Tailed Deer Prevent Lyme Disease?

    PubMed

    Kugeler, K J; Jordan, R A; Schulze, T L; Griffith, K S; Mead, P S

    2016-08-01

    White-tailed deer play an important role in the ecology of Lyme disease. In the United States, where the incidence and geographic range of Lyme disease continue to increase, reduction of white-tailed deer populations has been proposed as a means of preventing human illness. The effectiveness of this politically sensitive prevention method is poorly understood. We summarize and evaluate available evidence regarding the effect of deer reduction on vector tick abundance and human disease incidence. Elimination of deer from islands and other isolated settings can have a substantial impact on the reproduction of blacklegged ticks, while reduction short of complete elimination has yielded mixed results. To date, most studies have been conducted in ecologic situations that are not representative to the vast majority of areas with high human Lyme disease risk. Robust evidence linking deer control to reduced human Lyme disease risk is lacking. Currently, there is insufficient evidence to recommend deer population reduction as a Lyme disease prevention measure, except in specific ecologic circumstances.

  16. Targeting ADAM12 in human disease: head, body or tail?

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, J; Wewer, U M

    2009-01-01

    ADAM12/meltrin alpha is a type I transmembrane multidomain protein involved in tumor progression and other severe diseases, including osteoarthritis, and as such could be considered as a potential drug target. In addition to protease activity, ADAM12 possesses cell binding and cell signaling properties. This functional trinity is reflected in the structure of ADAM12, which can be divided into head, body, and tail. The head of the protein (consisting of the pro and catalytic domains) mediates processing of growth factors and cytokines and has been implicated in epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling. The body of the protein (consisting of the disintegrin, cysteine-rich, and EGF-like domains) is involved in contacts with the extracellular matrix and other cells through interactions with integrins and syndecans. Finally, the tail of the protein (consisting of the cytoplasmic domain) is engaged in interactions with intracellular signaling molecules. In many studies, ADAM12 overexpression has been correlated with disease, and ADAM12 has been shown to promote tumor growth and progression in cancer. On the other hand, protective effects of ADAM12 in disease have also been reported. Future investigations should address the precise mechanisms of ADAM12 in disease and biology in order to counterbalance the benefits from targeting ADAM12 therapeutically with possible side effects. This review describes the biology of ADAM12, its association with disease, and evaluates the possible approaches to targeting ADAM12 in human disease.

  17. Disease limits populations: plague and black-tailed prairie dogs.

    PubMed

    Cully, Jack F; Johnson, Tammi L; Collinge, Sharon K; Ray, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Plague is an exotic vector-borne disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis that causes mortality rates approaching 100% in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). We mapped the perimeter of the active portions of black-tailed prairie dog colonies annually between 1999 and 2005 at four prairie dog colony complexes in areas with a history of plague, as well as at two complexes that were located outside the distribution of plague at the time of mapping and had therefore never been affected by the disease. We hypothesized that the presence of plague would significantly reduce overall black-tailed prairie dog colony area, reduce the sizes of colonies on these landscapes, and increase nearest-neighbor distances between colonies. Within the region historically affected by plague, individual colonies were smaller, nearest-neighbor distances were greater, and the proportion of potential habitat occupied by active prairie dog colonies was smaller than at plague-free sites. Populations that endured plague were composed of fewer large colonies (>100 ha) than populations that were historically plague free. We suggest that these differences among sites in colony size and isolation may slow recolonization after extirpation. At the same time, greater intercolony distances may also reduce intercolony transmission of pathogens. Reduced transmission among smaller and more distant colonies may ultimately enhance long-term prairie dog population persistence in areas where plague is present.

  18. Disease limits populations: plague and black-tailed prairie dogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cully, Jack F.; Johnson, T.; Collinge, S.K.; Ray, C.

    2010-01-01

    Plague is an exotic vector-borne disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis that causes mortality rates approaching 100% in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). We mapped the perimeter of the active portions of black-tailed prairie dog colonies annually between 1999 and 2005 at four prairie dog colony complexes in areas with a history of plague, as well as at two complexes that were located outside the distribution of plague at the time of mapping and had therefore never been affected by the disease. We hypothesized that the presence of plague would significantly reduce overall black-tailed prairie dog colony area, reduce the sizes of colonies on these landscapes, and increase nearest-neighbor distances between colonies. Within the region historically affected by plague, individual colonies were smaller, nearest-neighbor distances were greater, and the proportion of potential habitat occupied by active prairie dog colonies was smaller than at plague-free sites. Populations that endured plague were composed of fewer large colonies (>100 ha) than populations that were historically plague free. We suggest that these differences among sites in colony size and isolation may slow recolonization after extirpation. At the same time, greater intercolony distances may also reduce intercolony transmission of pathogens. Reduced transmission among smaller and more distant colonies may ultimately enhance long-term prairie dog population persistence in areas where plague is present.

  19. Sea level and ground water table depth (WTD): A biogeochemical pacemaker for glacial-interglacial cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowling, S. A.

    2016-11-01

    The role that changes in sea level have on potential carbon-climate feedbacks are discussed as a potential contributing mechanism for terminating glacial periods. Focus will be on coastal wetlands because these systems can be substantially altered by changing sea level and ground water table depth (WTD); in addition to being important moderators of the exchange of nutrients and energy between terrestrial and marine ecosystems. A hypothesis is outlined that describes how the release of carbon from formerly anaerobic wetland soils and sediments can influence climate when sea levels begin to decline. As ground WTD deepens and eventually recedes from the surface, coastal wetland basins may become isolated from their belowground source of water. With their primary source of base flow removed, coastal wetlands likely dried up, promoting decomposition of the carbon compounds buried in their sediments. Depending on the timing of basin isolation and the timing of decomposition, glacial sea level lows could have triggered a relatively large positive carbon feedback on climate warming, just at the time when a new interglacial period is about to begin.

  20. Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Giardia and Cryptosporidium infecting white-tailed deer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite a white-tailed deer (WTD) population in the United States of approximately 32 million animals extremely little is known of the prevalence and species of the protists that infect these animals. The present study was undertaken to determine the presence of potential human protist pathogens in ...

  1. Chronic wasting disease in free-ranging Wisconsin white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Joly, D.O.; Ribic, C.A.; Langenberg, J.A.; Beheler, K.; Batha, C.A.; Dhuey, B.J.; Rolley, R.E.; Bartelt, G.; VanDeelen, T.R.; Samuel, M.D.

    2003-01-01

    Three White-tailed Deer shot within 5 km during the 2001 hunting season in Wisconsin tested positive for chronic wasting disease, a prion disease of cervids. Subsequent sampling within 18 km showed a 3% prevalence (n=476). This discovery represents an important range extension for chronic wasting disease into the eastern United States.

  2. Deer density and disease prevalence influence transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease in White-tailed Deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, Michael D.; Richards, Bryan J.; Storm, Daniel J.; Rolley, Robert E.; Shelton, Paul; Nicholas S. Keuler,; Timothy R. Van Deelen,

    2013-01-01

    Host-parasite dynamics and strategies for managing infectious diseases of wildlife depend on the functional relationship between disease transmission rates and host density. However, the disease transmission function is rarely known for free-living wildlife, leading to uncertainty regarding the impacts of diseases on host populations and effective control actions. We evaluated the influence of deer density, landscape features, and soil clay content on transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in young (<2-year-old) white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in south-central Wisconsin, USA. We evaluated how frequency-dependent, density-dependent, and intermediate transmission models predicted CWD incidence rates in harvested yearling deer. An intermediate transmission model, incorporating both disease prevalence and density of infected deer, performed better than simple density- and frequency-dependent models. Our results indicate a combination of social structure, non-linear relationships between infectious contact and deer density, and distribution of disease among groups are important factors driving CWD infection in young deer. The landscape covariates % deciduous forest cover and forest edge density also were positively associated with infection rates, but soil clay content had no measurable influences on CWD transmission. Lack of strong density-dependent transmission rates indicates that controlling CWD by reducing deer density will be difficult. The consequences of non-linear disease transmission and aggregation of disease on cervid populations deserves further consideration.

  3. Technical Basis for Radiological Emergency Plan Annex for WTD Emergency Response Plan: West Point Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, Eva E.; Strom, Daniel J.

    2005-08-01

    Staff of the King County Wastewater Treatment Division (WTD) have concern about the aftermath of a radiological dispersion event (RDE) leading to the introduction of significant quantities of radioactive material into the combined sanitary and storm sewer system in King County, Washington. Radioactive material could come from the use of a radiological dispersion device (RDD). RDDs include "dirty bombs" that are not nuclear detonations but are explosives designed to spread radioactive material (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) 2001). Radioactive material also could come from deliberate introduction or dispersion of radioactive material into the environment, including waterways and water supply systems. This document, Volume 3 of PNNL-15163 is the technical basis for the Annex to the West Point Treatment Plant (WPTP) Emergency Response Plan related to responding to a radiological emergency at the WPTP. The plan primarily considers response to radioactive material that has been introduced in the other combined sanitary and storm sewer system from a radiological dispersion device, but is applicable to any accidental or deliberate introduction of materials into the system.

  4. Enterocytozoon bieneusi, giardia, and Cryptosporidium infecting white-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    Santin, Monica; Fayer, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Despite a white-tailed deer (WTD) population in the United States of approximately 32 million animals extremely little is known of the prevalence and species of the protists that infect these animals. This study was undertaken to determine the presence of potential human protist pathogens in culled WTD in central Maryland. Feces from fawns to adults were examined by molecular methods. The prevalence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia was determined by PCR. All PCR-positive specimens were sequenced to determine the species and genotype(s). Of specimens from 80 WTD, 26 (32.5%) contained 17 genotypes of E. bieneusi. Four genotypes were previously reported (I, J, WL4, LW1) and 13 novel genotypes were identified and named DeerEb1-DeerEb13. Genotypes I, J, and LW1 are known to infect humans. Ten (12.5%) specimens contained the Cryptosporidium deer genotype, and one (1.25%) contained Giardia duodenalis Assemblage A. The identification zoonotic G. duodenalis Assemblage A as well as four E. bieneusi genotypes previously identified in humans suggest that WTD could play a role in the transmission of those parasites to humans.

  5. An adenovirus linked to mortality and disease in long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hollmén, Tuula E.; Franson, J.C.; Flint, P.L.; Grand, J.B.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Docherty, D.E.; Wilson, H.M.

    2003-01-01

    An adenovirus was isolated from intestinal samples of two long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) collected during a die-off in the Beaufort Sea off the north coast of Alaska in 2000. The virus was not neutralized by reference antiserum against known group I, II, or III avian adenoviruses and may represent a new serotype. The prevalence of the virus was determined in live-trapped long-tailed ducks at the mortality site and at a reference site 100 km away where no mortality was observed. Prevalence of adenovirus antibodies in serum samples at the mortality site was 86% compared to 10% at the reference site. Furthermore, 50% of cloacal swabs collected at the mortality site and only 7% of swabs from the reference site were positive for adenoviruses. In 2001, no mortality was observed at either of the study areas, and virus prevalence in both serum and cloacal samples was low, providing further evidence that the adenovirus was linked to the mortality event in 2000. The virus was used to infect long-tailed ducks under experimental conditions and resulted in lesions previously described for avian adenovirus infections and similar to those observed in long-tailed duck carcasses from the Beaufort Sea. The status of long-tailed ducks has recently become a concern in Alaska due to precipitous declines in breeding populations there since the mid-1970s. Our findings suggest that the newly isolated adenovirus is a disease agent and source of mortality in long-tailed ducks, and thus could be a contributing factor in population declines.

  6. An adenovirus linked to mortality and disease in long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Hollmén, Tuula E; Franson, J Christian; Flint, Paul L; Grand, James B; Lanctot, Richard B; Docherty, Douglas E; Wilson, Heather M

    2003-01-01

    An adenovirus was isolated from intestinal samples of two long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) collected during a die-off in the Beaufort Sea off the north coast of Alaska in 2000. The virus was not neutralized by reference antiserum against known group I, II, or III avian adenoviruses and may represent a new serotype. The prevalence of the virus was determined in live-trapped long-tailed ducks at the mortality site and at a reference site 100 km away where no mortality was observed. Prevalence of adenovirus antibodies in serum samples at the mortality site was 86% compared to 10% at the reference site. Furthermore, 50% of cloacal swabs collected at the mortality site and only 7% of swabs from the reference site were positive for adenoviruses. In 2001, no mortality was observed at either of the study areas, and virus prevalence in both serum and cloacal samples was low, providing further evidence that the adenovirus was linked to the mortality event in 2000. The virus was used to infect long-tailed ducks under experimental conditions and resulted in lesions previously described for avian adenovirus infections and similar to those observed in long-tailed duck carcasses from the Beaufort Sea. The status of long-tailed ducks has recently become a concern in Alaska due to precipitous declines in breeding populations there since the mid-1970s. Our findings suggest that the newly isolated adenovirus is a disease agent and source of mortality in long-tailed ducks, and thus could be a contributing factor in population declines.

  7. Ocular Lesions in Red-Tailed Hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis) With Naturally Acquired West Nile Disease.

    PubMed

    Wünschmann, A; Armién, A G; Khatri, M; Martinez, L C; Willette, M; Glaser, A; Alvarez, J; Redig, P

    2017-03-01

    Ocular lesions are common in red-tailed hawks with West Nile (WN) disease. These lesions consist of pectenitis, choroidal or retinal inflammation, or retinal necrosis, but detailed investigation of the ocular lesions is lacking. Postmortem examination of the eyes of 16 red-tailed hawks with naturally acquired WN disease and 3 red-tailed hawks without WN disease was performed using histopathology, immunohistochemistry for West Nile virus (WNV) antigen, glial fibrillary acid protein, cleaved caspase-3, and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling method. Retinal lesions were classified as type I or type II lesions. Type I lesions were characterized by lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates in the subjacent choroid with degeneration limited to the outer retina (type Ia lesion) or with degeneration and necrosis of the outer retina or outer and inner retina (type Ib lesion) while retinal collapse, atrophy, and scarring were hallmarks of type II lesions. Type II retinal lesions were associated with a more pronounced choroiditis. Although not statistically significant, WNV antigen tended to be present in larger quantity in type Ib lesions. Type I lesions are considered acute while type II lesions are chronic. The development of retinal lesions was associated with the presence of an inflammatory infiltrate in the choroid. A breakdown of the blood-retina barrier is suspected to be the main route of infection of the retina. Within the retina, virus appeared to spread via both neuronal and Müller cell processes.

  8. Head space analysis to non-invasively distinguish between vaccinated and bovine tuberculosis-infected white-tailed deer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus) can act as a reservoir for bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, and can be a source of infection in cattle. Presently, no method exists to noninvasively monitor the presence of bTB in wildlife. In addition, due to similarities betw...

  9. Chronic Wasting Disease Drives Population Decline of White-Tailed Deer

    PubMed Central

    Kauffman, Matthew J.; Schumaker, Brant A.; Lindzey, Frederick G.; Cook, Walter E.; Kreeger, Terry J.; Grogan, Ronald G.; Cornish, Todd E.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an invariably fatal transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of white-tailed deer, mule deer, elk, and moose. Despite a 100% fatality rate, areas of high prevalence, and increasingly expanding geographic endemic areas, little is known about the population-level effects of CWD in deer. To investigate these effects, we tested the null hypothesis that high prevalence CWD did not negatively impact white-tailed deer population sustainability. The specific objectives of the study were to monitor CWD-positive and CWD-negative white-tailed deer in a high-prevalence CWD area longitudinally via radio-telemetry and global positioning system (GPS) collars. For the two populations, we determined the following: a) demographic and disease indices, b) annual survival, and c) finite rate of population growth (λ). The CWD prevalence was higher in females (42%) than males (28.8%) and hunter harvest and clinical CWD were the most frequent causes of mortality, with CWD-positive deer over-represented in harvest and total mortalities. Survival was significantly lower for CWD-positive deer and separately by sex; CWD-positive deer were 4.5 times more likely to die annually than CWD-negative deer while bucks were 1.7 times more likely to die than does. Population λ was 0.896 (0.859–0.980), which indicated a 10.4% annual decline. We show that a chronic disease that becomes endemic in wildlife populations has the potential to be population-limiting and the strong population-level effects of CWD suggest affected populations are not sustainable at high disease prevalence under current harvest levels. PMID:27575545

  10. Chronic wasting disease drives population decline of white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edmunds, David; Kauffman, Matthew J.; Schumaker, Brant; Lindzey, Frederick G.; Cook, Walter; Kreeger, Terry J.; Grogan, Ronald; Cornish, Todd

    2016-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an invariably fatal transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of white-tailed deer, mule deer, elk, and moose. Despite a 100% fatality rate, areas of high prevalence, and increasingly expanding geographic endemic areas, little is known about the population-level effects of CWD in deer. To investigate these effects, we tested the null hypothesis that high prevalence CWD did not negatively impact white-tailed deer population sustainability. The specific objectives of the study were to monitor CWD-positive and CWD-negative white-tailed deer in a high-prevalence CWD area longitudinally via radio-telemetry and global positioning system (GPS) collars. For the two populations, we determined the following: a) demographic and disease indices, b) annual survival, and c) finite rate of population growth (λ). The CWD prevalence was higher in females (42%) than males (28.8%) and hunter harvest and clinical CWD were the most frequent causes of mortality, with CWD-positive deer over-represented in harvest and total mortalities. Survival was significantly lower for CWD-positive deer and separately by sex; CWD-positive deer were 4.5 times more likely to die annually than CWD-negative deer while bucks were 1.7 times more likely to die than does. Population λ was 0.896 (0.859–0.980), which indicated a 10.4% annual decline. We show that a chronic disease that becomes endemic in wildlife populations has the potential to be population-limiting and the strong population-level effects of CWD suggest affected populations are not sustainable at high disease prevalence under current harvest levels.

  11. Chronic Wasting Disease Drives Population Decline of White-Tailed Deer.

    PubMed

    Edmunds, David R; Kauffman, Matthew J; Schumaker, Brant A; Lindzey, Frederick G; Cook, Walter E; Kreeger, Terry J; Grogan, Ronald G; Cornish, Todd E

    2016-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an invariably fatal transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of white-tailed deer, mule deer, elk, and moose. Despite a 100% fatality rate, areas of high prevalence, and increasingly expanding geographic endemic areas, little is known about the population-level effects of CWD in deer. To investigate these effects, we tested the null hypothesis that high prevalence CWD did not negatively impact white-tailed deer population sustainability. The specific objectives of the study were to monitor CWD-positive and CWD-negative white-tailed deer in a high-prevalence CWD area longitudinally via radio-telemetry and global positioning system (GPS) collars. For the two populations, we determined the following: a) demographic and disease indices, b) annual survival, and c) finite rate of population growth (λ). The CWD prevalence was higher in females (42%) than males (28.8%) and hunter harvest and clinical CWD were the most frequent causes of mortality, with CWD-positive deer over-represented in harvest and total mortalities. Survival was significantly lower for CWD-positive deer and separately by sex; CWD-positive deer were 4.5 times more likely to die annually than CWD-negative deer while bucks were 1.7 times more likely to die than does. Population λ was 0.896 (0.859-0.980), which indicated a 10.4% annual decline. We show that a chronic disease that becomes endemic in wildlife populations has the potential to be population-limiting and the strong population-level effects of CWD suggest affected populations are not sustainable at high disease prevalence under current harvest levels.

  12. Parasites, diseases, and health status of sympatric populations of sika deer and white-tailed deer in Maryland and Virginia.

    PubMed

    Davidson, W R; Crow, C B

    1983-10-01

    In July 1981, investigations on parasites, diseases, and herd health status were conducted on sympatric populations of sika deer (Cervus nippon) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge (Maryland) and Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge (Virginia) on the Delmarva Peninsula. Five adult deer of each species were collected from each location and subjected to thorough necropsy examinations and laboratory tests. White-tailed deer at both locations harbored protozoan, helminth, and arthropod parasites typically associated with this species throughout the southeastern United States. In contrast, sika deer at both locations harbored only light burdens of ticks, chiggers, and sarcocysts. Serologic tests for antibodies to seven infectious disease agents revealed evidence of exposure to bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, and parainfluenza3 virus in white-tailed deer, but only BVD virus in sika deer. At both locations the general health status of sika deer was superior to that of white-tailed deer.

  13. Epizootiology of cranial abscess disease in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) of Georgia, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohen, Bradley S.; Belser, Emily H.; Killmaster, Charlie H.; Bowers, John W.; Irwin, Brian J.; Yabsley, Michael J.; Miller, Karl V.

    2015-01-01

    Intracranial abscess disease is a cause of natural mortality for mature male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Most cases of abscesses are associated with bacterial infection byTrueperella (Arcanobacterium) pyogenes, but a complete understanding of the epidemiology of this disease is lacking. We quantified the effects of individual characteristics, site-specific herd demographics, land cover, and soil variables in estimating the probability of this disease. We examined 7,545 white-tailed deer from 60 sites throughout Georgia US for signs of cranial abscesses, the predecessor of intracranial abscesses, and recorded the presence or absence of cranial abscesses for each individual examined. We detected no cranial abscesses in 2,562 female deer but 91 abscesses in 4,983 male deer examined (1.8%). A generalized linear mixed model, treating site as a random effect, was used to examine several potential explanatory risk factors including site-level landscape and soil characteristics (soil and forest type), demographic factors (deer density and male to female ratio), and individual host factors (deer sex and age). Model results indicated that the probability of a male having a cranial abscess increased with age and that adult sex ratio (male:female) was positively associated with this disease. Site-specific variables for land cover and soil types were not strongly associated with observations of the disease at the scale measured and a large amount of among-site variability remained. Given the demonstrated effect of age, gender, and local sex ratios but the remaining unexplained spatial variability, additional investigation into spatiotemporal variation of the presumed bacterial causative agent of cranial abscesses appears warranted.

  14. EPIZOOTIOLOGY OF CRANIAL ABSCESS DISEASE IN WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) OF GEORGIA, USA.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Bradley S; Belser, Emily H; Killmaster, Charlie H; Bowers, John W; Irwin, Brian J; Yabsley, Michael J; Miller, Karl V

    2015-07-01

    Intracranial abscess disease is a cause of natural mortality for mature male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Most cases of abscesses are associated with bacterial infection by Trueperella (Arcanobacterium) pyogenes, but a complete understanding of the epidemiology of this disease is lacking. We quantified the effects of individual characteristics, site-specific herd demographics, land cover, and soil variables in estimating the probability of this disease. We examined 7,545 white-tailed deer from 60 sites throughout Georgia US for signs of cranial abscesses, the predecessor of intracranial abscesses, and recorded the presence or absence of cranial abscesses for each individual examined. We detected no cranial abscesses in 2,562 female deer but 91 abscesses in 4,983 male deer examined (1.8%). A generalized linear mixed model, treating site as a random effect, was used to examine several potential explanatory risk factors including site-level landscape and soil characteristics (soil and forest type), demographic factors (deer density and male to female ratio), and individual host factors (deer sex and age). Model results indicated that the probability of a male having a cranial abscess increased with age and that adult sex ratio (male:female) was positively associated with this disease. Site-specific variables for land cover and soil types were not strongly associated with observations of the disease at the scale measured and a large amount of among-site variability remained. Given the demonstrated effect of age, gender, and local sex ratios but the remaining unexplained spatial variability, additional investigation into spatiotemporal variation of the presumed bacterial causative agent of cranial abscesses appears warranted.

  15. Seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii in white-tailed deer and free-roaming cats across a suburban to urban gradient in northeastern Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate zoonotic protozoan parasite infecting a variety of animals. White-tailed deer-(WTD, Odocoileus virginianus) serve as both a potential source for human infection as well as indicators of environmental risk factors for exposure to T. gondii. Here we determine the serop...

  16. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and Free-Roaming Cats (Felis catus) Across a Suburban to Urban Gradient in Northeastern Ohio.

    PubMed

    Ballash, Gregory A; Dubey, J P; Kwok, O C H; Shoben, Abigail B; Robison, Terry L; Kraft, Tom J; Dennis, Patricia M

    2015-06-01

    Felids serve as the definitive host of Toxoplasma gondii contaminating environments with oocysts. White-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus) are used as sentinel species for contaminated environments as well as a potential source for human foodborne infection with T. gondii. Here we determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii in a WTD and felid population, and examine those risk factors that increase exposure to the parasite. Serum samples from 444 WTD and 200 free-roaming cats (Felis catus) from urban and suburban reservations were tested for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut-off 1:25). Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 261 (58.8%) of 444 WTD, with 164 (66.1%) of 248 from urban and 97 (49.5%) of 196 from suburban regions. Significant risk factors for seroprevalence included increasing age (P < 0.0001), reservation type (P < 0.0001), and household densities within reservation (P < 0.0001). Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 103 (51.5%) of 200 cats, with seroprevalences of 79 (51%) of 155 and 24 (53.3%) of 45 from areas surrounding urban and suburban reservations, respectively. Seroprevalence did not differ by age, gender, or reservation among the cats' sample. Results indicate WTD are exposed by horizontal transmission, and this occurs more frequently in urban environments. The difference between urban and suburban cat densities is the most likely the reason for an increased seroprevalence in urban WTD. These data have public health implications for individuals living near or visiting urban areas where outdoor cats are abundant as well as those individuals who may consume WTD venison.

  17. Modeling the Impact of Climate and Landscape on the Efficacy of White Tailed Deer Vaccination for Cattle Tick Control in Northeastern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Carreón, Diana; Almazán, Consuelo; de la Fuente, José

    2014-01-01

    Cattle ticks are distributed worldwide and affect animal health and livestock production. White tailed deer (WTD) sustain and spread cattle tick populations. The aim of this study was to model the efficacy of anti-tick vaccination of WTD to control tick infestations in the absence of cattle vaccination in a territory where both host species coexist and sustain cattle tick populations. Agent-based models that included land cover/landscape properties (patch size, distances to patches) and climatic conditions were built in a GIS environment to simulate WTD vaccine effectiveness under conditions where unvaccinated cattle shared the landscape. Published and validated information on tick life cycle was used to build models describing tick mortality and developmental rates. Data from simulations were applied to a large territory in northeastern Mexico where cattle ticks are endemic and WTD and cattle share substantial portions of the habitat. WTD movements were simulated together with tick population dynamics considering the actual landscape and climatic features. The size of the vegetation patches and the distance between patches were critical for the successful control of tick infestations after WTD vaccination. The presence of well-connected, large vegetation patches proved essential for tick control, since the tick could persist in areas of highly fragmented habitat. The continued application of one yearly vaccination on days 1-70 for three years reduced tick abundance/animal/patch by a factor of 40 and 60 for R. annulatus and R. microplus, respectively when compared to non-vaccinated controls. The study showed that vaccination of WTD alone during three consecutive years could result in the reduction of cattle tick populations in northeastern Mexico. Furthermore, the results of the simulations suggested the possibility of using vaccines to prevent the spread and thus the re-introduction of cattle ticks into tick-free areas. PMID:25047078

  18. Alternative feeding strategies and potential disease transmission in Wisconsin white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, A.K.; Samuel, M.D.; VanDeelen, T.R.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted experimental feeding using 3 feeding methods (pile, spread, trough) and 2 quantities (rationed, ad libitum) of shelled corn to compare deer activity and behavior with control sites and evaluate potential direct and indirect transmission of infectious disease in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in central Wisconsin, USA. Deer use was higher at 2 of the feeding sites than at natural feeding areas (P ??? 0.02). Deer spent a higher proportion of time (P < 0.01) feeding at pile (49%) and spread (61%) treatments than at natural feeding areas (36%). We found higher deer use for rationed than ad libitum feeding quantities and feeding intensity was greatest at rationed piles and lowest at ad libitum spreads. We also observed closer pairwise distances (???0.3 m) among deer when corn was provided in a trough relative to spread (P=0.03). Supplemental feeding poses risks for both direct and indirect disease transmission due to higher deer concentration and more intensive use relative to control areas. Concentrated feeding and contact among deer at feeding sites can also increase risk for disease transmission. Our results indicated that restrictions on feeding quantity would not mitigate the potential for disease transmission None of the feeding strategies we evaluated substantially reduced the potential risk for disease transmission and banning supplemental feeding to reduce transmission is warranted.

  19. Habitat influences distribution of chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, Tyler S.; Kirchgessner, Megan S.; Eyler, B.; Ryan, Christopher W.; Walter, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy that was first detected in 1967 in a captive research facility in Colorado. In the northeastern United States, CWD was first confirmed in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in 2005. Because CWD is a new and emerging disease with a spatial distribution that had yet to be assessed in the Northeast, we examined demographic, environmental, and spatial effects to determine how each related to this spatial distribution. The objectives of our study were to identify environmental and spatial effects that best described the spatial distribution of CWD in free-ranging white-tailed deer and identify areas that support deer that are at risk for CWD infection in the Northeast. We used Bayesian hierarchical modeling that incorporated demographic covariates, such as sex and age, along with environmental covariates, which included elevation, slope, riparian corridor, percent clay, and 3 landscapes (i.e., developed, forested, open). The model with the most support contained landscape covariates and spatial effects that represented clustering of CWD in adjacent grid cells. Forested landscapes had the strongest relationship with the distribution of CWD, with increased risk of CWD occurring in areas that had lesser amounts of forest. Our results will assist resource managers in understanding the spatial distribution of CWD within the study area, and in surrounding areas where CWD has yet to be found. Efficiency of disease surveillance and containment efforts can be improved by allocating resources used for surveillance in areas with deer populations that are at greatest risk for infection.

  20. Lesions and transmission of experimental adenovirus hemorrhagic disease in black-tailed deer fawns.

    PubMed

    Woods, L W; Hanley, R S; Chiu, P H; Lehmkuhl, H D; Nordhausen, R W; Stillian, M H; Swift, P K

    1999-03-01

    Adenovirus infection was the cause of an epizootic of hemorrhagic disease that is believed to have killed thousands of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in California during the latter half of 1993. A systemic vasculitis with pulmonary edema and hemorrhagic enteropathy or a localized vasculitis associated with necrotizing stomatitis/pharyngitis/glossitis or osteomyelitis of the jaw were common necropsy findings in animals that died during this epizootic. To study transmission of adenovirus infection in deer and susceptibility of black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) fawns to adenovirus infection, six 3-6-month-old black-tailed fawns were divided into two treatment groups. One group was inoculated intravenously and the other group was inoculated through the mucous membranes of the eyes, nose and mouth with purified adenovirus. Each treatment group also included two additional fawns (four total) that were not inoculated but were exposed to inoculated animals (contact animals). One fawn served as a negative control. Between 4 and 16 days postinoculation, 8/10 fawns developed systemic or localized infection with lesions identical to lesions seen in animals with natural disease that died during the epizootic. Transmission was by direct contact, and the route of inoculation did not affect the incubation period or the distribution of the virus (systemic or the localized infection). Immunohistochemical analysis using polyclonal antiserum against bovine adenovirus type 5 demonstrated staining in endothelial cells of vessels in numerous tissues in animals with systemic infection and endothelial staining only in vessels subtending necrotic foci in the upper alimentary tract in animals with the localized form of the disease. All inoculated or exposed animals had staining in the tonsillar epithelium. Transmission electron microscopic examination of lung and ileum from two fawns with pulmonary edema and hemorrhagic enteropathy demonstrated endothelial necrosis and

  1. Transmission of chronic wasting disease in Wisconsin white-tailed deer: implications for disease spread and management.

    PubMed

    Jennelle, Christopher S; Henaux, Viviane; Wasserberg, Gideon; Thiagarajan, Bala; Rolley, Robert E; Samuel, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the rate of infection or mode of transmission for wildlife diseases, and the implications of alternative management strategies. We used hunter harvest data from 2002 to 2013 to investigate chronic wasting disease (CWD) infection rate and transmission modes, and address how alternative management approaches affect disease dynamics in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer population. Uncertainty regarding demographic impacts of CWD on cervid populations, human and domestic animal health concerns, and potential economic consequences underscore the need for strategies to control CWD distribution and prevalence. Using maximum-likelihood methods to evaluate alternative multi-state deterministic models of CWD transmission, harvest data strongly supports a frequency-dependent transmission structure with sex-specific infection rates that are two times higher in males than females. As transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are an important and difficult-to-study class of diseases with major economic and ecological implications, our work supports the hypothesis of frequency-dependent transmission in wild deer at a broad spatial scale and indicates that effective harvest management can be implemented to control CWD prevalence. Specifically, we show that harvest focused on the greater-affected sex (males) can result in stable population dynamics and control of CWD within the next 50 years, given the constraints of the model. We also provide a quantitative estimate of geographic disease spread in southern Wisconsin, validating qualitative assessments that CWD spreads relatively slowly. Given increased discovery and distribution of CWD throughout North America, insights from our study are valuable to management agencies and to the general public concerned about the impacts of CWD on white-tailed deer populations.

  2. Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease in Wisconsin White-Tailed Deer: Implications for Disease Spread and Management

    PubMed Central

    Jennelle, Christopher S.; Henaux, Viviane; Wasserberg, Gideon; Thiagarajan, Bala; Rolley, Robert E.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the rate of infection or mode of transmission for wildlife diseases, and the implications of alternative management strategies. We used hunter harvest data from 2002 to 2013 to investigate chronic wasting disease (CWD) infection rate and transmission modes, and address how alternative management approaches affect disease dynamics in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer population. Uncertainty regarding demographic impacts of CWD on cervid populations, human and domestic animal health concerns, and potential economic consequences underscore the need for strategies to control CWD distribution and prevalence. Using maximum-likelihood methods to evaluate alternative multi-state deterministic models of CWD transmission, harvest data strongly supports a frequency-dependent transmission structure with sex-specific infection rates that are two times higher in males than females. As transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are an important and difficult-to-study class of diseases with major economic and ecological implications, our work supports the hypothesis of frequency-dependent transmission in wild deer at a broad spatial scale and indicates that effective harvest management can be implemented to control CWD prevalence. Specifically, we show that harvest focused on the greater-affected sex (males) can result in stable population dynamics and control of CWD within the next 50 years, given the constraints of the model. We also provide a quantitative estimate of geographic disease spread in southern Wisconsin, validating qualitative assessments that CWD spreads relatively slowly. Given increased discovery and distribution of CWD throughout North America, insights from our study are valuable to management agencies and to the general public concerned about the impacts of CWD on white-tailed deer populations. PMID:24658535

  3. An epizootic of adenovirus-induced hemorrhagic disease in captive black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus).

    PubMed

    Boyce, W M; Woods, L W; Keel, M K; MacLachlan, N J; Porter, C O; Lehmkuhl, H D

    2000-09-01

    Ten fawns and four adult black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in a captive herd died as a result of adenovirus-induced hemorrhagic disease. Acute, systemic infections were characterized by hemorrhagic enteropathy, pulmonary edema, and occasional ulceration of the upper alimentary tract. Localized infections were limited to the upper alimentary tract and included stomatitis, pharyngitis, mandibular osteomyelitis, and rumenitis. In deer with acute, systemic infections, a diagnosis was made by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. The serum neutralization test was useful for confirming a diagnosis in animals with prolonged, localized infections. Deer originating from herds with a history of adenovirus infection should not be transferred to other captive herds or released into free-ranging populations because they may serve as carriers of adenovirus.

  4. Prion protein gene sequence and chronic wasting disease susceptibility in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Adam L; Kelly, Amy C; Green, Michelle L; Shelton, Paul; Novakofski, Jan; Mateus-Pinilla, Nohra E

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The sequence of the prion protein gene (PRNP) affects susceptibility to spongiform encephalopathies, or prion diseases in many species. In white-tailed deer, both coding and non-coding single nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified in this gene that correlate to chronic wasting disease (CWD) susceptibility. Previous studies examined individual nucleotide or amino acid mutations; here we examine all nucleotide polymorphisms and their combined effects on CWD. A 626 bp region of PRNP was examined from 703 free-ranging white-tailed deer. Deer were sampled between 2002 and 2010 by hunter harvest or government culling in Illinois and Wisconsin. Fourteen variable nucleotide positions were identified (4 new and 10 previously reported). We identified 68 diplotypes comprised of 24 predicted haplotypes, with the most common diplotype occurring in 123 individuals. Diplotypes that were found exclusively among positive or negative animals were rare, each occurring in less than 1% of the deer studied. Only one haplotype (C, odds ratio 0.240) and 2 diplotypes (AC and BC, odds ratios of 0.161 and 0.108 respectively) has significant associations with CWD resistance. Each contains mutations (one synonymous nucleotide 555C/T and one nonsynonymous nucleotide 286G/A) at positions reported to be significantly associated with reduced CWD susceptibility. Results suggest that deer populations with higher frequencies of haplotype C or diplotypes AC and BC might have a reduced risk for CWD infection – while populations with lower frequencies may have higher risk for infection. Understanding the genetic basis of CWD has improved our ability to assess herd susceptibility and direct management efforts within CWD infected areas. PMID:26634768

  5. Prion protein gene sequence and chronic wasting disease susceptibility in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Brandt, Adam L; Kelly, Amy C; Green, Michelle L; Shelton, Paul; Novakofski, Jan; Mateus-Pinilla, Nohra E

    2015-01-01

    The sequence of the prion protein gene (PRNP) affects susceptibility to spongiform encephalopathies, or prion diseases in many species. In white-tailed deer, both coding and non-coding single nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified in this gene that correlate to chronic wasting disease (CWD) susceptibility. Previous studies examined individual nucleotide or amino acid mutations; here we examine all nucleotide polymorphisms and their combined effects on CWD. A 626 bp region of PRNP was examined from 703 free-ranging white-tailed deer. Deer were sampled between 2002 and 2010 by hunter harvest or government culling in Illinois and Wisconsin. Fourteen variable nucleotide positions were identified (4 new and 10 previously reported). We identified 68 diplotypes comprised of 24 predicted haplotypes, with the most common diplotype occurring in 123 individuals. Diplotypes that were found exclusively among positive or negative animals were rare, each occurring in less than 1% of the deer studied. Only one haplotype (C, odds ratio 0.240) and 2 diplotypes (AC and BC, odds ratios of 0.161 and 0.108 respectively) has significant associations with CWD resistance. Each contains mutations (one synonymous nucleotide 555C/T and one nonsynonymous nucleotide 286G/A) at positions reported to be significantly associated with reduced CWD susceptibility. Results suggest that deer populations with higher frequencies of haplotype C or diplotypes AC and BC might have a reduced risk for CWD infection--while populations with lower frequencies may have higher risk for infection. Understanding the genetic basis of CWD has improved our ability to assess herd susceptibility and direct management efforts within CWD infected areas.

  6. Hidden in plain sight: Cryptic and endemic malaria parasites in North American white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Martinsen, Ellen S; McInerney, Nancy; Brightman, Heidi; Ferebee, Ken; Walsh, Tim; McShea, William J; Forrester, Tavis D; Ware, Lisa; Joyner, Priscilla H; Perkins, Susan L; Latch, Emily K; Yabsley, Michael J; Schall, Joseph J; Fleischer, Robert C

    2016-02-01

    Malaria parasites of the genus Plasmodium are diverse in mammal hosts, infecting five mammalian orders in the Old World, but were long considered absent from the diverse deer family (Cervidae) and from New World mammals. There was a description of a Plasmodium parasite infecting a single splenectomized white-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus) in 1967 but none have been reported since, which has proven a challenge to our understanding of malaria parasite biogeography. Using both microscopy and polymerase chain reaction, we screened a large sample of native and captive ungulate species from across the United States for malaria parasites. We found a surprisingly high prevalence (up to 25%) and extremely low parasitemia of Plasmodium parasites in WTD throughout the eastern United States. We did not detect infections in the other ungulate species nor in western WTD. We also isolated the parasites from the mosquito Anopheles punctipennis. Morphologically, the parasites resemble the parasite described in 1967, Plasmodium odocoilei. Our analysis of the cytochrome b gene revealed two divergent Plasmodium clades in WTD representative of species that likely diverged 2.3 to 6 million years ago, concurrent with the arrival of the WTD ancestor into North America across Beringia. Multigene phylogenetic analysis placed these clades within the larger malaria parasite clade. We document Plasmodium parasites to be common in WTD, endemic to the New World, and as the only known malaria parasites from deer (Cervidae). These findings reshape our knowledge of the phylogeography of the malaria parasites and suggest that other mammal taxa may harbor infection by endemic and occult malaria parasites.

  7. Hidden in plain sight: Cryptic and endemic malaria parasites in North American white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    PubMed Central

    Martinsen, Ellen S.; McInerney, Nancy; Brightman, Heidi; Ferebee, Ken; Walsh, Tim; McShea, William J.; Forrester, Tavis D.; Ware, Lisa; Joyner, Priscilla H.; Perkins, Susan L.; Latch, Emily K.; Yabsley, Michael J.; Schall, Joseph J.; Fleischer, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    Malaria parasites of the genus Plasmodium are diverse in mammal hosts, infecting five mammalian orders in the Old World, but were long considered absent from the diverse deer family (Cervidae) and from New World mammals. There was a description of a Plasmodium parasite infecting a single splenectomized white-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus) in 1967 but none have been reported since, which has proven a challenge to our understanding of malaria parasite biogeography. Using both microscopy and polymerase chain reaction, we screened a large sample of native and captive ungulate species from across the United States for malaria parasites. We found a surprisingly high prevalence (up to 25%) and extremely low parasitemia of Plasmodium parasites in WTD throughout the eastern United States. We did not detect infections in the other ungulate species nor in western WTD. We also isolated the parasites from the mosquito Anopheles punctipennis. Morphologically, the parasites resemble the parasite described in 1967, Plasmodium odocoilei. Our analysis of the cytochrome b gene revealed two divergent Plasmodium clades in WTD representative of species that likely diverged 2.3 to 6 million years ago, concurrent with the arrival of the WTD ancestor into North America across Beringia. Multigene phylogenetic analysis placed these clades within the larger malaria parasite clade. We document Plasmodium parasites to be common in WTD, endemic to the New World, and as the only known malaria parasites from deer (Cervidae). These findings reshape our knowledge of the phylogeography of the malaria parasites and suggest that other mammal taxa may harbor infection by endemic and occult malaria parasites. PMID:26989785

  8. Demographic patterns and harvest vulnerability of chronic wasting disease infected white-tailed deer in Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grear, D.A.; Samuel, M.D.; Langenberg, J.A.; Keane, D.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal disease of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) caused by transmissible protease-resistant prions. Since the discovery of CWD in southern Wisconsin in 2001, more than 20,000 deer have been removed from a >2,500-km2 disease eradication zone surrounding the three initial cases. Nearly all deer removed were tested for CWD infection and sex, age, and harvest location were recorded. Our analysis used data from a 310-km2 core study area where disease prevalence was higher than surrounding areas. We found no difference in harvest rates between CWD infected and noninfected deer. Our results show that the probability of infection increased with age and that adult males were more likely to be infected than adult females. Six fawns tested positive for CWD, five fawns from the core study area, including the youngest (5 months) free-ranging cervid to test positive. The increase in male prevalence with age is nearly twice the increase found in females. We concluded that CWD is not randomly distributed among deer and that differential transmission among sex and age classes is likely driving the observed patterns in disease prevalence. We discuss alternative hypotheses for CWD transmission and spread and, in addition, discuss several possible nonlinear relationships between prevalence and age. Understanding CWD transmission in free-ranging cervid populations will be essential to the development of strategies to manage this disease in areas where CWD is found, as well as for surveillance strategies in areas where CWD threatens to spread.

  9. An outbreak of a hemorrhagic disease in white-tailed deer in Kentucky.

    PubMed

    Roughton, R D

    1975-04-01

    In 1971, an outbreak of a hemorrhagic disease occurred in captive and free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky, Clinical signs and gross pathological lesions were consistent with those of epizootic hemorrhagic disease and bluetongue, as were serological and histopathological findings for samples sent to other laboratories. The infection rate among the 104 captive deer was 88-92%, and that among the free-ranging Park deer appeared to be similar. Mortality was negligible in the Park deer, but 65 (62%) of the captive deer died. The deaths were bimodally distributed over a 36-day period, and the mortality rate decreased from 97-100% for deer clinically ill during the first 17 days of the outbreak to 58% for deer first exhibiting clinical signs on day 16 or later. Mortality was equal in males and females, but less in yearlings than among fawns or adults. Winter mortality among survivors of the initial outbreak was associated with low ambient temperatures and sometimes fungal and bacterial abscesses, possibly sequelae or complications of the hemorrhagic disease. The pregnancy and birth rates among surviving does appeared to be normal.

  10. Spatial epidemiology of chronic wasting disease in Wisconsin white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Joly, D.O.; Samuel, M.D.; Langenberg, J.A.; Blanchong, Julie A.; Batha, C.A.; Rolley, R.E.; Keane, D.P.; Ribic, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal, emerging disease of cervids associated with transmissible protease-resistant prion proteins. The potential for CWD to cause dramatic declines in deer and elk populations and perceived human health risks associated with consuming CWD-contaminated venison have led wildlife agencies to embark on extensive CWD control programs, typically involving culling to reduce deer populations. We characterized the spatial distribution of CWD in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Wisconsin to facilitate CWD management. We found that CWD prevalence declined with distance from a central location, was locally correlated at a scale of 3.6 km, and was correlated with deer habitat abundance. The latter result is consistent with patterns expected for a positive relationship between density and prevalence of CWD. We recommend management activities focused on culling in geographic areas with high prevalence to have the greatest probability of removing infected individuals. Further research is needed to elucidate the factors in envolved in CWD spread and infection rates, especially the role of density-dependent transmission. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2006.

  11. Chronic wasting disease in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer farm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keane, D.P.; Barr, D.J.; Bochsler, P.N.; Hall, S.M.; Gidlewski, T.; O'Rourke, K. I.; Spraker, T.R.; Samuel, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    In September 2002, chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disorder of captive and wild cervids, was diagnosed in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from a captive farm in Wisconsin. The facility was subsequently quarantined, and in January 2006 the remaining 76 deer were depopulated. Sixty animals (79%) were found to be positive by immunohistochemical staining for the abnormal prion protein (PrPCWD) in at least one tissue; the prevalence of positive staining was high even in young deer. Although none of the deer displayed clinical signs suggestive of CWD at depopulation, 49 deer had considerable accumulation of the abnormal prion in the medulla at the level of the obex. Extraneural accumulation of the abnormal protein was observed in 59 deer, with accumulation in the retropharyngeal lymph node in 58 of 59 (98%), in the tonsil in 56 of 59 (95%), and in the rectal mucosal lymphoid tissue in 48 of 58 (83%). The retina was positive in 4 deer, all with marked accumulation of prion in the obex. One deer was considered positive for PrPCWD in the brain but not in the extraneural tissue, a novel observation in white-tailed deer. The infection rate in captive deer was 20-fold higher than in wild deer. Although weakly related to infection rates in extraneural tissues, prion genotype was strongly linked to progression of prion accumulation in the obex. Antemortem testing by biopsy of rectoanal mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (or other peripheral lymphoid tissue) may be a useful adjunct to tonsil biopsy for surveillance in captive herds at risk for CWD infection.

  12. The long tail and rare disease research: the impact of next-generation sequencing for rare Mendelian disorders.

    PubMed

    Shen, Tony; Lee, Ariel; Shen, Carol; Lin, C Jimmy

    2015-09-14

    There are an estimated 6000-8000 rare Mendelian diseases that collectively affect 30 million individuals in the United States. The low incidence and prevalence of these diseases present significant challenges to improving diagnostics and treatments. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have revolutionized research of rare diseases. This article will first comment on the effectiveness of NGS through the lens of long-tailed economics. We then provide an overview of recent developments and challenges of NGS-based research on rare diseases. As the quality of NGS studies improve and the cost of sequencing decreases, NGS will continue to make a significant impact on the study of rare diseases moving forward.

  13. An epizootic of hemorrhagic disease in white-tailed deer in Missouri.

    PubMed

    Beringer, J; Hansen, L P; Stallknecht, D E

    2000-07-01

    As part of a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) survival study in Missouri (USA) we were actively monitoring 97 radio-collared deer when 8 (8%) died. This mortality, which occurred from 20 August to 23 September 1996, consisted of five adult females, two yearling females and one yearling male. Based on the seasonality of this mortality and the isolation of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) serotype 2 from one of these animals, we believe that these losses resulted from an epizootic of hemorrhagic disease. The remains of five unmarked deer that may have died from HD also were found on the study area during this same period. During the fall following this mortality, we tested serum from 96 deer taken by hunters in the immediate area. Fifteen (16%) were positive for EHDV or bluetongue virus (BTV) antibodies as determined by agar gel immunodiffusion tests. Serum neutralization test results indicated that previous infections were caused by EHDV virus serotype 2. Based on these data, and assuming that there was no prior exposure to EHDV serotype 2 in this population, the exposure rate for this epizootic was 24% of which 8% died. We noted hoof interruptions in only two of the 96 deer sampled. During this mortality event, the Missouri Department of Conservation received no reports of dead deer, and without the radio-monitored animals the event would have been undetected.

  14. Identification and pathogenicity of Aeromonas sobria on tail-rot disease in juvenile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya; Cai, Shuang-Hu

    2011-02-01

    Thirty-six strains, numbered from PY01 to PY36, were isolated from six moribund Oreochromis niloticus. The biochemical characteristics of all strains conformed to the species description of Aeromonas sobria on the basis of API 20E and Biolog GN system. Furthermore, gyrB sequence of strain PY36 was sequenced and showed high similarity (99.8%) with A. sobria in Genbank. Antibiotic-resistance of strain PY36 was assessed by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method, and the results showed it was susceptible and moderately susceptible to 12 and 3 of the 19 antimicrobials tested. Virulence of strain PY36 to juvenile tilapia was also tested, and we found that LD₅₀ was about 4.17 × 10³ CFU per fish in intraperitoneal injection. This is the first article to report that A. sobria was the pathogenic agent of tail-rot disease in juvenile tilapia. A. sobria was multi-resistant to the most frequently used antimicrobial drugs in China, so the antimicrobial resistance test should be carried out when these bacteria are isolated from biological samples in order to avoid therapeutic failures and spread of the pathogenic organisms in the environment.

  15. Serological diagnosis of Parelaphostrongylus tenuis infection in white-tailed deer and identification of a potentially unique parasite antigen.

    PubMed

    Ogunremi, O; Lankester, M; Kendall, J; Gajadhar, A

    1999-02-01

    Serological diagnosis of Parelaphostrongylus tenuis infection should offer many advantages over the currently used method of fecal analysis that relies on a patent infection. Toward this end, we investigated the presence of P. tenuis-specific antibodies in experimentally infected white-tailed deer (WTD) and of unique P. tenuis antigens that may be exploited for serodiagnosis. WTD infected with 6, 20 or 100-150 P. tenuis third-stage larvae (L3) had anti-parasite antibodies from as early as 21 days postinoculation (dpi) until the end of the experiment (147 dpi). Peak anti-P. tenuis enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) titers in individual animals ranged from 1:70 to 1:5,700. Serum from infected WTD reacted with 5 distinct P. tenuis L3 antigens (105, 45, 37, 32, and 19 kDa) as detected by the immunoblotting technique. Serum from caribou infected with Parelaphostrongylus andersoni or Elaphostrongylus rangiferi reacted with all antigens except the 37-kDa antigen of L3, indicating that it may be unique to P. tenuis and can serve as a serodiagnostic antigen. The 37-kDa antigen appears to be present in the adult P. tenuis but not adult E. rangiferi or E. cervi. The development of an ELISA utilizing the unique antigen of P. tenuis should lead to a reliable diagnostic assay for P. tenuis infection in WTD.

  16. Demodectic Mange, Dermatophilosis, and other parasitic and bacterial dermatologic diseases in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the United States from 1975-2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is a common and widespread North American game species. To evaluate the incidence, clinical manifestations, demography, and pathology of bacterial and parasitic dermatologic diseases in white-tailed deer in the southeastern United States, we retrospecti...

  17. Social affiliation and contact patterns among white-tailed deer in disparate landscapes: implications for disease transmission

    PubMed Central

    Schauber, Eric M.; Nielsen, Clayton K.; Kjær, Lene J.; Anderson, Charles W.; Storm, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    In social species, individuals contact members of the same group much more often than those of other groups, particularly for contacts that could directly transmit disease agents. This disparity in contact rates violates the assumptions of simple disease models, hinders disease spread between groups, and could decouple disease transmission from population density. Social behavior of white-tailed deer has important implications for the long-term dynamics and impact of diseases such as bovine tuberculosis and chronic wasting disease (CWD), so expanding our understanding of their social system is important. White-tailed deer form matrilineal groups, which inhabit stable home ranges that overlap somewhat with others—a pattern intermediate between mass-action and strict territoriality. To quantify how group membership affects their contact rates and document the spectrum of social affiliation, we analyzed location data from global positioning system (GPS) collars on female and juvenile white-tailed deer in 2 study areas: near Carbondale in forest-dominated southern Illinois (2002–2006) and near Lake Shelbyville in agriculture-dominated central Illinois (2006–2009). For each deer dyad (i.e., 2 individual deer with sufficient overlapping GPS data), we measured space-use overlap, correlation of movements, direct contact rate (simultaneous GPS locations < 10 m apart), and indirect contact rate (GPS locations < 10 m apart when offset by 1 or 3 days). Direct contact rates were substantially higher for within-group dyads than between-group dyads, but group membership had little apparent effect on indirect contact rates. The group membership effect on direct contact rates was strongest in winter and weakest in summer, with no apparent difference between study areas. Social affiliations were not dichotomous, with some deer dyads showing loose but positive affiliation. Even for obvious within-group dyads, their strength of affiliation fluctuated between years, seasons, and

  18. Distribution of antibodies reactive to Borrelia lonestari and Borrelia burgdorferi in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations in the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Murdock, Jessica H; Yabsley, Michael J; Little, Susan E; Chandrashekar, Ramaswamy; O'Connor, Thomas P; Caudell, Joe N; Huffman, Jane E; Langenberg, Julia A; Hollamby, Simon

    2009-12-01

    Southern tick-associated rash illness is a Lyme-like syndrome that occurs in the southern states. Borrelia lonestari, which has been suggested as a possible causative agent of southern tick-associated rash illness, naturally infects white-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus) and is transmitted by the lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum). To better understand the prevalence and distribution of Borrelia exposure among WTD, we tested WTD from 21 eastern states for antibodies reactive to B. lonestari using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay and Borrelia burgdorferi using the IDEXX SNAP 4Dx test. A total of 107/714 (15%) had antibodies reactive to B. lonestari, and prevalence of antibodies was higher in deer from southern states (17.5%) than in deer from northern states (9.2%). Using the SNAP 4DX test, we found that 73/723 (10%) were positive for B. burgdorferi, and significantly more northern deer (23.9%) were positive compared with southern deer (3.8%). Our data demonstrate that WTD are exposed to both Borrelia species, but antibody prevalence for exposure to the two species differs regionally and distributions correlate with the presence of Ixodes scapularis and A. americanum ticks.

  19. Detection of arenavirus in a peripheral odontogenic fibromyxoma in a red tail boa (Boa constrictor constrictor) with inclusion body disease.

    PubMed

    Hellebuyck, Tom; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Saey, Veronique; Martel, An

    2015-03-01

    A captive bred red tail boa (Boa constrictor constrictor) was presented with a large intraoral mass originating from the buccal gingiva, attached to the right dentary teeth row. Based on the clinical features and histological examination, the diagnosis of a peripheral odontogenic fibromyxoma was made. Sections of liver biopsies and circulating lymphocytes contained relatively few eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies, indistinguishable from those observed in inclusion body disease-affected snakes. Inclusion bodies were not observed in cells comprising the neoplastic mass. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), arenavirus was detected in the neoplastic tissue. Two years after surgical removal of the mass, recurrence of the neoplastic lesion was observed. Numerous large inclusion body disease inclusions were abundantly present in the neoplastic cells of the recurrent fibromyxoma. Sections of liver biopsies and circulating lymphocytes contained relatively few intracytoplasmic inclusions. The RT-PCR revealed the presence of arenavirus in blood, a liver biopsy, and neoplastic tissue. The present case describes the co-occurrence of an arenavirus infection and an odontogenic fibromyxoma in a red tail boa.

  20. Chronic wasting disease in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer farm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease CWD is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or prion disease of deer and elk in North America. All diseases in this family are characterized by long preclinical incubation periods following by a relatively short clinical course. Endpoint disease is characterized by ext...

  1. Evaluating spatial overlap and relatedness of white-tailed deer in a chronic wasting disease management zone.

    PubMed

    Magle, Seth B; Samuel, Michael D; Van Deelen, Timothy R; Robinson, Stacie J; Mathews, Nancy E

    2013-01-01

    Wildlife disease transmission, at a local scale, can occur from interactions between infected and susceptible conspecifics or from a contaminated environment. Thus, the degree of spatial overlap and rate of contact among deer is likely to impact both direct and indirect transmission of infectious diseases such chronic wasting disease (CWD) or bovine tuberculosis. We identified a strong relationship between degree of spatial overlap (volume of intersection) and genetic relatedness for female white-tailed deer in Wisconsin's area of highest CWD prevalence. We used volume of intersection as a surrogate for contact rates between deer and concluded that related deer are more likely to have contact, which may drive disease transmission dynamics. In addition, we found that age of deer influences overlap, with fawns exhibiting the highest degree of overlap with other deer. Our results further support the finding that female social groups have higher contact among related deer which can result in transmission of infectious diseases. We suggest that control of large social groups comprised of closely related deer may be an effective strategy in slowing the transmission of infectious pathogens, and CWD in particular.

  2. Evaluating spatial overlap and relatedness of white-tailed deer in a chronic wasting disease management zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, Michael D.; Magle, Seth B.; Van Deelen, Timothy R.; Robinson, Stacie J.; Mathews, Nancy E.

    2013-01-01

    Wildlife disease transmission, at a local scale, can occur from interactions between infected and susceptible conspecifics or from a contaminated environment. Thus, the degree of spatial overlap and rate of contact among deer is likely to impact both direct and indirect transmission of infectious diseases such chronic wasting disease (CWD) or bovine tuberculosis. We identified a strong relationship between degree of spatial overlap (volume of intersection) and genetic relatedness for female white-tailed deer in Wisconsin’s area of highest CWD prevalence. We used volume of intersection as a surrogate for contact rates between deer and concluded that related deer are more likely to have contact, which may drive disease transmission dynamics. In addition, we found that age of deer influences overlap, with fawns exhibiting the highest degree of overlap with other deer. Our results further support the finding that female social groups have higher contact among related deer which can result in transmission of infectious diseases. We suggest that control of large social groups comprised of closely related deer may be an effective strategy in slowing the transmission of infectious pathogens, and CWD in particular.

  3. The importance of localized culling in stabilizing chronic wasting disease prevalence in white-tailed deer populations.

    PubMed

    Manjerovic, Mary Beth; Green, Michelle L; Mateus-Pinilla, Nohra; Novakofski, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Strategies to contain the spread of disease often are developed with incomplete knowledge of the possible outcomes but are intended to minimize the risks associated with delaying control. Culling of game species by government agencies is one approach to control disease in wild populations but is unpopular with hunters and wildlife enthusiasts, politically unpalatable, and erodes public support for agencies responsible for wildlife management. We addressed the functional differences between hunting and government culling programs for managing chronic wasting disease (CWD) in white-tailed deer by comparing prevalence over a 10-year period in Illinois and Wisconsin. When both Illinois and Wisconsin were actively culling from 2003 - 2007, there were no statistical differences between state CWD prevalence estimates. Wisconsin government culling concluded in 2007 and average prevalence over the next five years was 3.09 ± 1.13% with an average annual increase of 0.63%. During that same time period, Illinois continued government culling and there was no change in prevalence throughout Illinois. Despite its unpopularity among hunters, localized culling is a disease management strategy that can maintain low disease prevalence while minimizing impacts on recreational deer harvest.

  4. Lymphoblastic lymphoma and leukemic blood profile in a red-tail boa (Boa constrictor constrictor) with concurrent inclusion body disease.

    PubMed

    Schilliger, Lionel; Selleri, Paolo; Frye, Fredric L

    2011-01-01

    An adult male wild-caught true red-tail boa (Boa constrictor constrictor), imported from Surinam, was presented for anorexia, extreme lethargy, and coelomic swelling in the cranial third of the body, in the anatomic location of the thymus. The snake died a few minutes after blood sampling via cardiocentesis. Hematology revealed anemia and extreme leukocytosis (820 × 10(3)/ml) characterized by a predominance (95%) of lymphocytes. Necropsy revealed enlargement of most of the visceral organs. Histology confirmed lymphoblastic lymphoma with a leukemic blood profile and diffuse infiltration of some of the heart, thymus, bone marrow, kidney, spleen, lung, and liver. Several large intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusion bodies surrounded by narrow clear "halos" were identified within gastric mucosal cells, proximal and distal convoluted tubule epithelial cells, and splenic cells. The final diagnosis was lymphoblast lymphoma with a leukemic blood profile and concurrent inclusion body disease.

  5. Effects of chronic wasting disease on reproduction and fawn harvest vulnerability in Wisconsin white-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    Blanchong, Julie A; Grear, Daniel A; Weckworth, Byron V; Keane, Delwyn P; Scribner, Kim T; Samuel, Michael D

    2012-04-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy that affects free-ranging and captive North American cervids. Although the impacts of CWD on cervid survival have been documented, little is known about the disease impacts on reproduction and recruitment. We used genetic methods and harvest data (2002-04) to reconstruct parentage for a cohort of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns born in spring 2002 and evaluate the effects of CWD infection on reproduction and fawn harvest vulnerability. There was no difference between CWD-positive and CWD-negative male deer in the probability of being a parent. However, CWD-positive females were more likely to be parents than CWD-negative females. Because our results are based on harvested animals, we evaluated the hypothesis that higher parentage rates occurred because fawns with CWD-positive mothers were more vulnerable to harvest. Male fawns with CWD-positive mothers were harvested earlier (>1 mo relative to their mother's date of harvest) and farther away from their mothers than male fawns with CWD-negative mothers. Male fawns with CWD-positive mothers were also harvested much earlier and farther away than female fawns from CWD-positive mothers. Most female fawns (86%) with CWD-positive mothers were harvested from the same section as their mothers, while almost half of male and female fawns with CWD-negative mothers were farther away. We conclude that preclinical stages of CWD infection do not prohibit white-tailed deer from successfully reproducing. However, apparently higher harvest vulnerability of male fawns with CWD-positive mothers suggests that CWD infection may make females less capable of providing adequate parental care to ensure the survival and recruitment of their fawns.

  6. Use of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in infectious disease research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Between 1940 and 2004 over 335 emerging infectious disease events were reported. The majority involved zoonoses, most of which were of wildlife origin or had an important wildlife host. There is reason to believe this trend of increasing emerging diseases will continue. For that reason, understandin...

  7. Primary transmission of chronic wasting disease versus scrapie prions from small ruminants to transgenic mice expressing ovine or cervid prion protein

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, David A.; Zhuang, Dongyue; Dassanayake, Rohana P.; Balachandran, Aru; Mitchell, Gordon B.; O'Rourke, Katherine I.

    2016-01-01

    Development of mice expressing either ovine (Tg338) or cervid (TgElk) prion protein (PrP) have aided in characterization of scrapie and chronic wasting disease (CWD), respectively. Experimental inoculation of sheep with CWD prions has demonstrated the potential for interspecies transmission but, infection with CWD versus classical scrapie prions may be difficult to differentiate using validated diagnostic platforms. In this study, mouse bioassay in Tg338 and TgElk was utilized to evaluate transmission of CWD versus scrapie prions from small ruminants. Mice (≥5 per homogenate) were inoculated with brain homogenates from clinically affected sheep or goats with naturally acquired classical scrapie, white-tailed deer with naturally acquired CWD (WTD-CWD) or sheep with experimentally acquired CWD derived from elk (sheep-passaged-CWD). Survival time (time to clinical disease) and attack rates (brain accumulation of protease resistant PrP, PrPres) were determined. Inoculation with classical scrapie prions resulted in clinical disease and 100 % attack rates in Tg338, but no clinical disease at endpoint (>300 days post-inoculation, p.i.) and low attack rates (6.8 %) in TgElk. Inoculation with WTD-CWD prions yielded no clinical disease or brain PrPres accumulation in Tg338 at endpoint (>500 days p.i.), but rapid onset of clinical disease (~121 days p.i.) and 100 % attack rate in TgElk. Sheep-passaged-CWD resulted in transmission to both mouse lines with 100 % attack rates at endpoint in Tg338 and an attack rate of ~73 % in TgElk with some culled due to clinical disease. These primary transmission observations demonstrate the potential of bioassay in Tg338 and TgElk to help differentiate possible infection with CWD versus classical scrapie prions in sheep and goats. PMID:27393736

  8. Intranasal Inoculation of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Lyophilized Chronic Wasting Disease Prion Particulate Complexed to Montmorillonite Clay

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Tracy A.; Spraker, Terry R.; Rigg, Tara D.; Meyerett-Reid, Crystal; Hoover, Clare; Michel, Brady; Bian, Jifeng; Hoover, Edward; Gidlewski, Thomas; Balachandran, Aru; O'Rourke, Katherine; Telling, Glenn C.; Bowen, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), the only known prion disease endemic in wildlife, is a persistent problem in both wild and captive North American cervid populations. This disease continues to spread and cases are found in new areas each year. Indirect transmission can occur via the environment and is thought to occur by the oral and/or intranasal route. Oral transmission has been experimentally demonstrated and although intranasal transmission has been postulated, it has not been tested in a natural host until recently. Prions have been shown to adsorb strongly to clay particles and upon oral inoculation the prion/clay combination exhibits increased infectivity in rodent models. Deer and elk undoubtedly and chronically inhale dust particles routinely while living in the landscape while foraging and rutting. We therefore hypothesized that dust represents a viable vehicle for intranasal CWD prion exposure. To test this hypothesis, CWD-positive brain homogenate was mixed with montmorillonite clay (Mte), lyophilized, pulverized and inoculated intranasally into white-tailed deer once a week for 6 weeks. Deer were euthanized at 95, 105, 120 and 175 days post final inoculation and tissues examined for CWD-associated prion proteins by immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrate that CWD can be efficiently transmitted utilizing Mte particles as a prion carrier and intranasal exposure. PMID:23671598

  9. From the field: Efficacy of detecting Chronic Wasting Disease via sampling hunter-killed white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diefenbach, D.R.; Rosenberry, C.S.; Boyd, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    Surveillance programs for Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) in free-ranging cervids often use a standard of being able to detect 1% prevalence when determining minimum sample sizes. However, 1% prevalence may represent >10,000 infected animals in a population of 1 million, and most wildlife managers would prefer to detect the presence of CWD when far fewer infected animals exist. We wanted to detect the presence of CWD in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Pennsylvania when the disease was present in only 1 of 21 wildlife management units (WMUs) statewide. We used computer simulation to estimate the probability of detecting CWD based on a sampling design to detect the presence of CWD at 0.1% and 1.0% prevalence (23-76 and 225-762 infected deer, respectively) using tissue samples collected from hunter-killed deer. The probability of detection at 0.1% prevalence was <30% with sample sizes of ???6,000 deer, and the probability of detection at 1.0% prevalence was 46-72% with statewide sample sizes of 2,000-6,000 deer. We believe that testing of hunter-killed deer is an essential part of any surveillance program for CWD, but our results demonstrated the importance of a multifaceted surveillance approach for CWD detection rather than sole reliance on testing hunter-killed deer.

  10. White-tailed deer harvest from the chronic wasting disease eradication zone in south-central Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanchong, Julie A.; Joly, D.O.; Samuel, M.D.; Langenberg, J.A.; Rolley, R.E.; Sausen, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) was discovered in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in south-central Wisconsin in 2002. The current control method for CWD in the state is the harvest of deer from affected areas to reduce population density and lower CWD transmission. We used spatial regression methods to identify factors associated with deer harvest across south-central Wisconsin. Harvest of deer by hunters was positively related to deer density (slope=0.003, 95% CI=0.0001-0.006), the number of landowners that requested harvest permits (slope=0.071, 95% CI=0.037-0.105), and proximity to the area of highest CWD infection (slope=-0.041, 95% CI=-0.056- -0.027). Concomitantly, harvest was not impacted in areas where landowners signed a petition protesting intensive deer reduction (slope=-0.00006, 95% CI=-0.0005-0.0003). Our results suggest that the success of programs designed to reduce deer populations for disease control or to reduce overabundance in Wisconsin are dependent on landowner and hunter participation. We recommend that programs or actions implemented to eradicate or mitigate the spread of CWD should monitor and assess deer population reduction and evaluate factors affecting program success to improve methods to meet management goals.

  11. Surveillance and monitoring of white-tailed deer for chronic wasting disease in the northeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, Tyler S.; Schuler, Krysten L.; Walter, William D.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a prion disease that affects both wild and captive cervid populations. In the past 45 y, CWD has spread from northern Colorado to all bordering states, as well as the midwestern United States (Midwest) and northeastern United States (Northeast), Canada, and South Korea. Because CWD is a relatively new issue for wildlife management agencies in the Northeast, we surveyed a representative (e.g., cervid biologist, wildlife veterinarian) from 14 states to gain a better understanding of state-specific surveillance measures. Between 2002 and 2012, New York (37,093) and Pennsylvania (35,324) tested the greatest number of harvested white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus in the Northeast. Additionally, the 14 states surveyed have tested 121,730 harvested deer, or approximately 15,216/y, since CWD was first detected in 2005. The most common tissues used by agencies in the Northeast for testing were retropharyngeal lymph nodes, which have been determined to be the most reliable in detecting CWD in cervids. Understanding CWD surveillance efforts at a regional scale can help to provide guidance for the development of new surveillance plans or the improvement of existing ones. Furthermore, collaborations among state and regional agencies in the Northeast may attempt to identify deficiencies in surveillance by state or subregion.

  12. Mucosal immunization with an attenuated Salmonella vaccine partially protects white-tailed deer from chronic wasting disease.

    PubMed

    Goñi, Fernando; Mathiason, Candace K; Yim, Lucia; Wong, Kinlung; Hayes-Klug, Jeanette; Nalls, Amy; Peyser, Daniel; Estevez, Veronica; Denkers, Nathaniel; Xu, Jinfeng; Osborn, David A; Miller, Karl V; Warren, Robert J; Brown, David R; Chabalgoity, Jose A; Hoover, Edward A; Wisniewski, Thomas

    2015-01-29

    Prion disease is a unique category of illness, affecting both animals and humans, in which the underlying pathogenesis is related to a conformational change of a normal, self-protein called PrP(C) (C for cellular) to a pathological and infectious conformer known as PrP(Sc) (Sc for scrapie). Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), a prion disease believed to have arisen from feeding cattle with prion contaminated meat and bone meal products, crossed the species barrier to infect humans. Chronic wasting disease (CWD) infects large numbers of deer and elk, with the potential to infect humans. Currently no prionosis has an effective treatment. Previously, we have demonstrated we could prevent transmission of prions in a proportion of susceptible mice with a mucosal vaccine. In the current study, white-tailed deer were orally inoculated with attenuated Salmonella expressing PrP, while control deer were orally inoculated with vehicle attenuated Salmonella. Once a mucosal response was established, the vaccinated animals were boosted orally and locally by application of polymerized recombinant PrP onto the tonsils and rectal mucosa. The vaccinated and control animals were then challenged orally with CWD-infected brain homogenate. Three years post CWD oral challenge all control deer developed clinical CWD (median survival 602 days), while among the vaccinated there was a significant prolongation of the incubation period (median survival 909 days; p=0.012 by Weibull regression analysis) and one deer has remained CWD free both clinically and by RAMALT and tonsil biopsies. This negative vaccinate has the highest titers of IgA in saliva and systemic IgG against PrP. Western blots showed that immunoglobulins from this vaccinate react to PrP(CWD). We document the first partially successful vaccination for a prion disease in a species naturally at risk.

  13. Mucosal Immunization with an Attenuated Salmonella Vaccine Partially Protects White-Tailed Deer from Chronic Wasting Disease

    PubMed Central

    Goñi, Fernando; Mathiason, Candace K.; Yim, Lucia; Wong, Kinlung; Hayes-Klug, Jeanette; Nalls, Amy; Peyser, Daniel; Estevez, Veronica; Denkers, Nathaniel; Xu, Jinfeng; Osborn, David A.; Miller, Karl V.; Warren, Robert J.; Brown, David R.; Chabalgoity, Jose A.; Hoover, Edward A.; Wisniewski, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Prion disease is a unique category of illness, affecting both animals and humans, in which the underlying pathogenesis is related to a conformational change of a normal, self-protein called PrPC (C for cellular) to a pathological and infectious conformer known as PrPSc (Sc for scrapie). Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), a prion disease believed to have arisen from feeding cattle with prion contaminated meat and bone meal products, crossed the species barrier to infect humans. Chronic wasting disease (CWD) infects large numbers of deer and elk, with the potential to infect humans. Currently no prionosis has an effective treatment. Previously, we have demonstrated we could prevent transmission of prions in a proportion of susceptible mice with a mucosal vaccine. In the current study, white-tailed deer were orally inoculated with attenuated Salmonella expressing PrP, while control deer were orally inoculated with vehicle attenuated Salmonella. Once a mucosal response was established, the vaccinated animals were boosted orally and locally by application of polymerized recombinant PrP onto the tonsils and rectal mucosa. The vaccinated and control animals were then challenged orally with CWD-infected brain homogenate. Three years post CWD oral challenge all control deer developed clinical CWD (median survival 602 days), while among the vaccinated there was a significant prolongation of the incubation period (median survival 909 days; p=0.012 by Weibull regression analysis) and one deer has remained CWD free both clinically and by RAMALT and tonsil biopsies. This negative vaccinate has the highest titers of IgA in saliva and systemic IgG against PrP. Western blots showed that immunoglobulins from this vaccinate react to PrPCWD. We document the first partially successful vaccination for a prion disease in a species naturally at risk. PMID:25539804

  14. Johne's disease in a free-ranging white-tailed deer from Virginia and subsequent surveillance for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Sleeman, Jonathan M; Manning, Elizabeth J B; Rohm, John H; Sims, Jerry P; Sanchez, Susan; Gerhold, Richard W; Keel, M Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Johne's disease (paratuberculosis) was diagnosed in a 2-yr-old, male, free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from Fauquier County, Virginia, USA, based on histopathology and culture for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. Clinical and pathologic findings included emaciation; loss of body fat; chronic diarrhea; severe, chronic, diffuse granulomatous colitis with intrahistiocytic acid-fast bacilli; moderate, chronic granulomatous lymphadenitis with intrahistiocytic acid-fast bacilli; as well as moderate chronic, multifocal, lymphoplasmacytic hepatitis. These findings are consistent with previous reports of Johne's disease in cervids. Subsequent targeted surveillance of 10 emaciated deer with diarrhea, as well as sampling of 72 asymptomatic deer for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis using culture of multiple tissue types, as well as serology using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) optimized for cervid antibody detection, did not reveal any additional cases of infection in this geographic region. To date, this appears to be an isolated case of Johne's disease in a free-ranging white-tailed deer, and infection with the causative agent for Johne's disease appears to be an infrequent occurrence in deer from this region. The origin of infection was most likely domestic ruminants. This is the first report of clinical Johne's disease in a free-ranging white-tailed deer outside of the Florida Keys, USA. Stressors, such as high deer population density and low selenium levels, may have contributed to the development of clinical disease in this case and warrant further investigation.

  15. Study on thermal properties and crystallization behavior of electron beam irradiated ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)/waste tyre dust (WTD) blends in the presence of polyethylene graft maleic anhydride (PEgMAH)

    SciTech Connect

    Ramli, Syuhada; Ahmad, S. H.; Ratnam, C. T.; Athirah, Nurul

    2013-11-27

    The aim of this article is to show the effects of the electron beam irradiation dose and presence of a compatibiliser on the thermal properties and crystallinity of EVA/WTD blends. The purpose of applying electron beam radiation with doses range 50 to 200 kGy and adding a compatibiliser was to enhance the compatibility of the studied blends and at the same time to investigate the possibility of using this technique in the process of recycling polymeric materials. As the compatibilisers, the polyethylene grafted maleic anhydride (PEgMAH) was utilized, they were added at the amounts of 1-5 phr respectively. The enhancement of thermal properties was accompanied by the following effects, discussed in this article: i) an irradiated EVA/WTD blend at 200kGy was found to improve the thermal properties of EVA, ii) the addition of PEgMAH in EVA/WTD blends and the subsequent irradiation allowed prevention of degradation mechanism. iii) the ΔH{sub f} and crystallinity percentage decrease at higher PEgMAH content.

  16. Study on thermal properties and crystallization behavior of electron beam irradiated ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)/waste tyre dust (WTD) blends in the presence of polyethylene graft maleic anhydride (PEgMAH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, Syuhada; Ratnam, C. T.; Ahmad, S. H.; Athirah, Nurul

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this article is to show the effects of the electron beam irradiation dose and presence of a compatibiliser on the thermal properties and crystallinity of EVA/WTD blends. The purpose of applying electron beam radiation with doses range 50 to 200 kGy and adding a compatibiliser was to enhance the compatibility of the studied blends and at the same time to investigate the possibility of using this technique in the process of recycling polymeric materials. As the compatibilisers, the polyethylene grafted maleic anhydride (PEgMAH) was utilized, they were added at the amounts of 1-5 phr respectively. The enhancement of thermal properties was accompanied by the following effects, discussed in this article: i) an irradiated EVA/WTD blend at 200kGy was found to improve the thermal properties of EVA, ii) the addition of PEgMAH in EVA/WTD blends and the subsequent irradiation allowed prevention of degradation mechanism. iii) the ΔHf and crystallinity percentage decrease at higher PEgMAH content.

  17. Demodectic mange, dermatophilosis, and other parasitic and bacterial dermatologic diseases in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the United States from 1975 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, N M; Ruder, M G; Gerhold, R W; Brown, J D; Munk, B A; Oesterle, P T; Kubiski, S V; Keel, M K

    2014-05-01

    The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is a common and widespread North American game species. To evaluate the incidence, clinical manifestations, demography, and pathology of bacterial and parasitic dermatologic diseases in white-tailed deer in the southeastern United States, we retrospectively evaluated white-tailed deer cases submitted to the Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study from 1975 to 2012. Among 2569 deer examined, bacterial or parasitic dermatologic disease was diagnosed in 88 (3.4%) individuals, with Demodex spp (n = 37; 42.0%) and Dermatophilus congolensis (n = 19; 21.6%) as the most common causes. Demodicosis was significantly more common in deer older than 2 years and was most often detected in the fall; no statistically significant sex predilection was identified. Affected animals had patchy to generalized alopecia, often distributed over the head, neck, limbs, and trunk; microscopic lesions included epidermal crusts and cutaneous nodules with mild perifollicular, lymphoplasmacytic inflammation. Dermatophilosis was most common in males younger than 1 year that were often found dead. Crusting, erythema, and alopecia occurred on the face, ears, and distal extremities. Less commonly, infectious dermatologic diseases were associated with other bacteria (n = 13; 14.8%), fungi (n = 5; 5.7%), ectoparasites (chiggers, lice, mites, and ticks; n = 11; 12.5%), and larval nematodes (n = 7; 8.0%). Population-level effects of these diseases in white-tailed deer are likely minimal; however, due to their dramatic presentation, demodicosis, dermatophilosis, and other infectious skin diseases can be of concern to hunters and, in some cases, may have zoonotic potential.

  18. Tail Buffeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdrashitov, G.

    1943-01-01

    An approximate theory of buffeting is here presented, based on the assumption of harmonic disturbing forces. Two cases of buffeting are considered: namely, for a tail angle of attack greater and less than the stalling angle, respectively. On the basis of the tests conducted and the results of foreign investigators, a general analysis is given of the nature of the forced vibrations the possible load limits on the tail, and the methods of elimination of buffeting.

  19. Epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): occurrence, congenital transmission, correlates of infection, isolation, and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Dennis, P M; Verma, S K; Choudhary, S; Ferreira, L R; Oliveira, S; Kwok, O C H; Butler, E; Carstensen, M; Su, C

    2014-05-28

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in white tailed deer (WTD) in the USA is high but little is known of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in this host. In the present study, we compared T. gondii seroprevalence from 749 WTD collected in 2012 and 2013 from a Metropolitan Park in Ohio and 487 WTD deer shot in Minnesota during 2008, 2009, and 2010. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to T. gondii by the modified agglutination test (cut-off titer, 25). Additionally myocardial samples from 123 seropositive WTD from Ohio were digested in pepsin and the digests were bioassayed for the isolation of T. gondii. Furthermore, to estimate transplacental rate of transmission, brains from 155 fetuses (included twins) from 148 deer from Minnesota were bioassayed in mice for the isolation of viable T. gondii. Seroprevalence of T. gondii varied with the year of collection, geography, and the age of deer. Of the Ohio deer sampled in 2012 and 2013 seroprevalences for the two years were similar (73.4% and 75.7%, respectively); remarkably 150 (66.1%) of 227 deer of <1 year of age were seropositive. Of the Minnesota deer, seroprevalence was lowest for the year 2008 (14.8%, 26/175) versus 2009 (27.7%, 59/213), and 2010 (25.2%, 25/99), thought to be related to environmental temperatures. Viable T. gondii was isolated in mice from the myocardium of four WTD from Ohio, and brain of one WTD fetus from Minnesota. Tachyzoites from infected mouse tissues were further propagated in cell culture. The DNA isolated from culture-derived tachyzoites of these five T. gondii isolates was characterized using 11 PCR-RFLP markers (SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico). Four genotypes were found, including ToxoDB genotype no. 1 (Type II), no. 2 (Type III), no. 3 (Type II variant) and no. 146. Results indicate fluctuating seroprevalence, probably related to weather and warrant further epidemiological studies.

  20. Modeled Impacts of Chronic Wasting Disease on White-Tailed Deer in a Semi-Arid Environment

    PubMed Central

    Hewitt, David G.; DeYoung, Charles A.; DeYoung, Randy W.; Schnupp, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    White-tailed deer are a culturally and economically important game species in North America, especially in South Texas. The recent discovery of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in captive deer facilities in Texas has increased concern about the potential emergence of CWD in free-ranging deer. The concern is exacerbated because much of the South Texas region is a semi-arid environment with variable rainfall, where precipitation is strongly correlated with fawn recruitment. Further, the marginally productive rangelands, in combination with erratic fawn recruitment, results in populations that are frequently density-independent, and thus sensitive to additive mortality. It is unknown how a deer population in semi-arid regions would respond to the presence of CWD. We used long-term empirical datasets from a lightly harvested (2% annual harvest) population in conjunction with 3 prevalence growth rates from CWD afflicted areas (0.26%, 0.83%, and 2.3% increases per year) via a multi-stage partially deterministic model to simulate a deer population for 25 years under four scenarios: 1) without CWD and without harvest, 2) with CWD and without harvest, 3) with CWD and male harvest only, and 4) with CWD and harvest of both sexes. The modeled populations without CWD and without harvest averaged a 1.43% annual increase over 25 years; incorporation of 2% annual harvest of both sexes resulted in a stable population. The model with slowest CWD prevalence rate growth (0.26% annually) without harvest resulted in stable populations but the addition of 1% harvest resulted in population declines. Further, the male age structure in CWD models became skewed to younger age classes. We incorporated fawn:doe ratios from three CWD afflicted areas in Wisconsin and Wyoming into the model with 0.26% annual increase in prevalence and populations did not begin to decline until ~10%, ~16%, and ~26% of deer were harvested annually. Deer populations in variable environments rely on high adult

  1. Diagnostic accuracy of rectal mucosa biopsy testing for chronic wasting disease within white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herds in North America:Effects of age,sex,polymorphism at PRNP codon 96,and disease progression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An effective live animal diagnostic test is needed to assist in the control of chronic wasting disease (CWD), which has spread through captive and wild herds of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Canada and the United States. In the present study, the diagnostic accuracy of rectal mucosa ...

  2. The impact of potential mitigation strategies on the predicted spread of foot and mouth disease in white-tailed deer in south Texas.

    PubMed

    Highfield, Linda D; Ward, Michael P; Laffan, Shawn W; Norby, Bo; Wagner, G Gale

    2010-05-01

    The United States has been free of FMD since the 1920s. Faced with an incursion of FMD virus that might involve wildlife species, it is crucial that appropriate mitigation strategies be applied rapidly to control the disease. Disease spread models can be used to evaluate the design of optimal strategies. Using a previously developed susceptible-infected-recovered geographic automata model (Sirca) to simulate the spread of FMD through white-tailed deer populations in south Texas, we conducted a series of experiments to determine how pre-emptive mitigation strategies applied to white-tailed deer populations might impact the predicted magnitude and distribution of outbreaks following FMD virus incursion. Based on previously derived deer distributions in the two ecoregions found within the study area, simulated outbreaks were evaluated by comparing the median number of deer predicted to be infected and the median area predicted affected for a baseline scenario and 3 mitigation strategies: targeted cull, random cull and targeted depopulation buffer. Substantial differences were observed in the predicted magnitude of outbreaks both by mitigation strategy and by ecoregion: depending on the ecoregion, the creation of a targeted depopulation buffer could reduce the number of deer predicted infected by up to 52%, and the area affected by up to 31%. Results suggest that the outcome of an FMD incursion that involves wildlife species, such as white-tailed deer in south Texas, might depend on both where the incursion occurs and the type of pre-emptive mitigation strategy applied.

  3. Morphologic and Molecular Characterization of a Demodex (Acari: Demodicidae) Species from White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Yabsley, Michael J; Clay, Sarah E; Gibbs, Samantha E J; Cunningham, Mark W; Austel, Michaela G

    2013-01-01

    Demodex mites, although usually nonpathogenic, can cause a wide range of dermatological lesions ranging from mild skin irritation and alopecia to severe furunculosis. Recently, a case of demodicosis from a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) revealed a Demodex species morphologically distinct from Demodex odocoilei. All life cycle stages were considerably larger than D. odocoilei and although similar in size to D. kutzeri and D. acutipes from European cervids, numerous morphometrics distinguished the four species. Adult males and females were 209.1 ± 13.1 and 225.5 ± 13.4 μm in length, respectively. Ova, larva, and nymphs measured 65.1 ± 4.1, 124.9 ± 11.6, and 205.1 ± 19.4 μm in length, respectively. For phylogenetic analyses, a portion of the 18S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced from samples of the WTD Demodex sp., two Demodex samples from domestic dogs, and Demodex ursi from a black bear. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the WTD Demodex was most similar to D. musculi from laboratory mice. A partial sequence from D. ursi was identical to the WTD Demodex sequence; however, these two species can be differentiated morphologically. This paper describes a second Demodex species from white-tailed deer and indicates that 18S rRNA is useful for phylogenetic analysis of most Demodex species, but two morphologically distinct species had identical partial sequences. Additional gene targets should be investigated for phylogenetic and parasite-host association studies.

  4. Transmission of the agent of sheep scrapie to deer results in PrPSc with two distinct molecular profiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this work was to determine susceptibility of white-tailed deer (WTD) to the agent of sheep scrapie and to compare the resultant PrPSc to that of the original inoculum and chronic wasting disease (CWD). We inoculated WTD by a natural route of exposure (concurrent oral and intranasal (I...

  5. Diversity and distribution of white-tailed deer mtdna lineages in chronic wasting disease (cwd) outbreak areas in southern wisconsin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, K.G.; Robinson, S.J.; Samuel, M.D.; Grear, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting North American cervids. Because it is uniformly fatal, the disease is a major concern in the management of white-tailed deer populations. Management programs to control CWD require improved knowledge of deer interaction, movement, and population connectivity that could influence disease transmission and spread. Genetic methods were employed to evaluate connectivity among populations in the CWD management zone of southern Wisconsin. A 576-base-pair region of the mitochondrial DNA of 359 white-tailed deer from 12 sample populations was analyzed. Fifty-eight variable sites were detected within the sequence, defining 43 haplotypes. While most sample populations displayed similar levels of haplotype diversity, individual haplotypes were clustered on the landscape. Spatial clusters of different haplotypes were apparent in distinct ecoregions surrounding CWD outbreak areas. The spatial distribution of mtDNA haplotypes suggests that clustering of the deer matrilineal groups and population connectivity are associated with broad-scale geographic landscape features. These landscape characteristics may also influence the contact rates between groups and therefore the potential spread of CWD; this may be especially true of local disease spread between female social groups. Our results suggest that optimal CWD management needs to be tailored to fit gender-specific dispersal behaviors and regional differences in deer population connectivity. This information will help wildlife managers design surveillance and monitoring efforts based on population interactions and potential deer movement among CWD-affected and unaffected areas. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  6. Diversity and distribution of white-tailed deer mtDNA lineages in chronic wasting disease (CWD) outbreak areas in southern Wisconsin, USA.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Kip G; Robinson, Stacie J; Samuel, Michael D; Grear, Daniel A

    2011-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting North American cervids. Because it is uniformly fatal, the disease is a major concern in the management of white-tailed deer populations. Management programs to control CWD require improved knowledge of deer interaction, movement, and population connectivity that could influence disease transmission and spread. Genetic methods were employed to evaluate connectivity among populations in the CWD management zone of southern Wisconsin. A 576-base-pair region of the mitochondrial DNA of 359 white-tailed deer from 12 sample populations was analyzed. Fifty-eight variable sites were detected within the sequence, defining 43 haplotypes. While most sample populations displayed similar levels of haplotype diversity, individual haplotypes were clustered on the landscape. Spatial clusters of different haplotypes were apparent in distinct ecoregions surrounding CWD outbreak areas. The spatial distribution of mtDNA haplotypes suggests that clustering of the deer matrilineal groups and population connectivity are associated with broad-scale geographic landscape features. These landscape characteristics may also influence the contact rates between groups and therefore the potential spread of CWD; this may be especially true of local disease spread between female social groups. Our results suggest that optimal CWD management needs to be tailored to fit gender-specific dispersal behaviors and regional differences in deer population connectivity. This information will help wildlife managers design surveillance and monitoring efforts based on population interactions and potential deer movement among CWD-affected and unaffected areas.

  7. Evaluation of a wild white-tailed deer population management program for controlling chronic wasting disease in Illinois, 2003-2008.

    PubMed

    Mateus-Pinilla, Nohra; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Ruiz, Marilyn O; Shelton, Paul; Novakofski, Jan

    2013-07-01

    We evaluated population management programs for controlling chronic wasting disease (CWD) in wild white-tailed deer in Illinois between November 2002 and March 2008. The intervention consisted of measures of deer removal from three deer population control programs: Illinois Department of Natural Resources culling, deer population control permits and nuisance deer removal permits. We included in the analysis a total of 14,650 white-tailed deer CWD test results. These data also included location and demographic data collected from both deer harvested in the interventions as well as deer from hunter harvests and deer vehicle collisions. We quantified intervention pressures as the number of years of intervention, the total number of deer removed and the average number of deer removed per year. We accounted for temporal and spatial variations of intervention by using mixed logistic regression to model the association between intervention pressures and CWD prevalence change. The results showed that deer population management intervention as practiced in Illinois during the study period was negatively associated with CWD prevalence and the strength of association varied depending on age of deer and the measure of intervention pressure. The population management programs showed a more consistent association with reduced CWD prevalence in fawn and yearling white-tailed deer than in adult deer. Our results also suggested that frequent and continuing intervention events with at least moderate intensity of culling were needed to reduce CWD prevalence. A longer study period, however, is needed to make a more definite conclusion about the effectiveness of similar population management programs for controlling CWD in wild white-tailed deer.

  8. Epethelial presence of Trueperella pyogenes predicts site-level presence of cranial abscess disease in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Belser, Emily H; Cohen, Bradley S; Keeler, Shamus P; Killmaster, Charles H; Bowers, John W; Miller, Karl V

    2015-01-01

    Cranial/intracranial abscess disease is an emerging source of significant mortality for male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Most cases of cranial/intracranial abscess disease are associated with infection by the opportunistic pathogen Trueperella pyogenes although the relationship between the prevalence of the bacteria and occurrence of disease is speculative. We examined 5,612 hunter-harvested deer from 29 sites across all physiographic provinces in Georgia for evidence of cranial abscess disease and sampled the forehead, lingual, and nasal surfaces from 692 deer. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine presence of T. pyogenes from these samples. We found T. pyogenes prevalence at a site was a predictor for the occurrence of cranial abscess disease. Prevalence of T. pyogenes did not differ between samples from the nose or tongue although prevalence along the forehead was greater for males than females (p = 0.04), particularly at sites with high occurrence of this disease. Socio-sexual behaviors, bacterial prevalence, or physiological characteristics may predispose male deer to intracranial/cranial abscess disease. Determination of factors that affect T. pyogenes prevalence among sites may help explain the occurrence of this disease among populations.

  9. Epethelial Presence of Trueperella pyogenes Predicts Site-Level Presence of Cranial Abscess Disease in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    PubMed Central

    Belser, Emily H.; Cohen, Bradley S.; Keeler, Shamus P.; Killmaster, Charles H.; Bowers, John W.; Miller, Karl V.

    2015-01-01

    Cranial/intracranial abscess disease is an emerging source of significant mortality for male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Most cases of cranial/intracranial abscess disease are associated with infection by the opportunistic pathogen Trueperella pyogenes although the relationship between the prevalence of the bacteria and occurrence of disease is speculative. We examined 5,612 hunter-harvested deer from 29 sites across all physiographic provinces in Georgia for evidence of cranial abscess disease and sampled the forehead, lingual, and nasal surfaces from 692 deer. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine presence of T. pyogenes from these samples. We found T. pyogenes prevalence at a site was a predictor for the occurrence of cranial abscess disease. Prevalence of T. pyogenes did not differ between samples from the nose or tongue although prevalence along the forehead was greater for males than females (p = 0.04), particularly at sites with high occurrence of this disease. Socio-sexual behaviors, bacterial prevalence, or physiological characteristics may predispose male deer to intracranial/cranial abscess disease. Determination of factors that affect T. pyogenes prevalence among sites may help explain the occurrence of this disease among populations. PMID:25803047

  10. Evaluating use of cattle winter feeding areas by elk and white-tailed deer: implications for managing bovine tuberculosis transmission risk from the ground up.

    PubMed

    Brook, Ryan K; Wal, Eric Vander; van Beest, Floris M; McLachlan, Stéphane M

    2013-02-01

    Transmission of bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) among wildlife and livestock has created important risks for conservation and agriculture. Management strategies aimed at controlling TB have typically been top-down, regionally focused, and government-led programs that were at best only partially successful. The purpose of this study was to quantify co-mingling of elk and white-tailed deer (WTD) with cattle at multiple spatial scales (i.e., the regional farm scale and winter cattle feeding area patch) in southwestern Manitoba, Canada, to assess the potential for bovine tuberculosis transmission and identify alternative management strategies. For each spatial scale we quantified use of cattle farms by elk and white-tailed deer. We mailed questionnaires to rural households and then conducted personal interviews with 86 cattle farmers to map the spatial distribution of their cattle winter feeding areas at a fine scale. We deployed Global Positioning System (GPS) collars on 48 wild elk and 16 wild white-tailed deer from 2003 to 2011. Elk were observed on farms by 66% of cattle producers, including 5% and 20% who observed direct and indirect contact, respectively, between elk and cattle. Cattle producers consistently (≈100%) observed white-tailed deer on their farms, including 11% and 47% whom observed direct and indirect contact, respectively, between white-tailed deer and cattle. A higher probability of white-tailed deer-cattle contact at the regional scale occurs on farms that (1) left crop residues specifically for wildlife, (2) had larger cattle herds, (3) used round bale feeders, and (4) were farther away from protected areas. None of the GPS-collared elk locations overlapped with cattle winter feeding areas. In contrast, 21% of GPS-collared white-tailed deer locations overlapped with winter cattle winter feeding areas (22% of these were from male WTD and 78% were from female WTD). White-tailed deer selected cattle winter feeding areas with higher (1

  11. Genetic susceptibility to chronic wasting disease in free-ranging white-tailed deer: complement component C1q and Prnp polymorphisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanchong, Julie A.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Scribner, Kim T.; Libants, Scot V.; Johnson, Chad; Aiken, Judd M.; Langenberg, Julia A.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    The genetic basis of susceptibility to chronic wasting disease (CWD) in free-ranging cervids is of great interest. Association studies of disease susceptibility in free-ranging populations, however, face considerable challenges including: the need for large sample sizes when disease is rare, animals of unknown pedigree create a risk of spurious results due to population admixture, and the inability to control disease exposure or dose. We used an innovative matched case–control design and conditional logistic regression to evaluate associations between polymorphisms of complement C1q and prion protein (Prnp) genes and CWD infection in white-tailed deer from the CWD endemic area in south-central Wisconsin. To reduce problems due to admixture or disease-risk confounding, we used neutral genetic (microsatellite) data to identify closely related CWD-positive (n = 68) and CWD-negative (n = 91) female deer to serve as matched cases and controls. Cases and controls were also matched on factors (sex, location, age) previously demonstrated to affect CWD infection risk. For Prnp, deer with at least one Serine (S) at amino acid 96 were significantly less likely to be CWD-positive relative to deer homozygous for Glycine (G). This is the first characterization of genes associated with the complement system in white-tailed deer. No tests for association between any C1q polymorphism and CWD infection were significant at p < 0.05. After controlling for Prnp, we found weak support for an elevated risk of CWD infection in deer with at least one Glycine (G) at amino acid 56 of the C1qC gene. While we documented numerous amino acid polymorphisms in C1q genes none appear to be strongly associated with CWD susceptibility.

  12. Serologic surveillance for the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, in Minnesota by using white-tailed deer as sentinel animals.

    PubMed Central

    Gill, J S; McLean, R G; Shriner, R B; Johnson, R C

    1994-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of white-tailed deer as sentinel animals in serologic surveillance programs for Borrelia burgdorferi, we performed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western immunoblotting analyses on 467 deer serum samples. The seropositivity rate in the ELISA was 5% for the 150 samples collected at the three sites in which the tick Ixodes scapularis was absent. The three sites with established I. scapularis populations had a seropositivity rate of 80% for 317 samples. Results were similar for two closely situated sites, one with an established I. scapularis population and one without; these sites were only 15 km apart. Rates of seropositivity were significantly higher in yearling and adult deer than in fawns. The mean numbers of bands seen on Western immunoblots were 3.0 for samples negative in the ELISA and 13.8 for samples positive in the ELISA; all of these samples were collected from sites in which I. scapularis was established. At sites in which I. scapularis was absent, the mean numbers of bands seen were 1.6 for samples negative in the ELISA and 8.2 for samples positive in the ELISA. There were 14 different B. burgdorferi antigens that reacted with more than 50% of the ELISA-positive samples from areas with I. scapularis. A 19.5-kDa antigen reacted with 94% of the ELISA-positive samples. Reactivity against OspA and OspB was weak a infrequent (2%). Serologic analysis of white-tailed deer sera appears to be an accurate and sensitive surveillance method for determining whether B. burgdorferi is present in specific geographic locations. Images PMID:8150955

  13. Chronic wasting disease infection patterns in female white-tailed deer related to demographics, genetic relationships, and spatial proximity of infected deer in southern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grear, Daniel A.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal disease of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) caused by transmissible protease resistant prions. Since the discovery of CWD in southern Wisconsin in 2001, more than 20,000 deer have been removed from a >2,500 km2 disease eradication zone surrounding the three initial cases. Nearly all deer removed were tested for CWD infection and sex, age, and harvest location were recorded. Our analysis used data from a 310 kin2 core study area where disease prevalence was higher than surrounding areas. We found no difference in harvest rates between CWD infected and non-infected deer. Ow results show that the probability of infection increased with age and that adult males were more likely to be infected than adult females. Six fawns tested positive for CWD, five fawns from the core study area, including the youngest (5 months) kee-ranging cervid to test positive. The increase in male prevalence with age is nearly twice the increase found in females. We concluded that CWD is not randomly distributed among deer and that differential transmission among sex and age classes is likely driving the observed patterns in disease prevalence. We discuss alternative hypotheses for CWD transmission and spread and, in addition, discuss several possible non-linear relationships between prevalence and age. Understanding CWD transmission in free-ranging cervid populations will be essential to the development of strategies to manage this disease in areas where CWD is found as well as for surveillance strategies in areas where CWD threatens to spread.

  14. Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Outbreak in a Captive Facility Housing White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus), Bison (Bison Bison), Elk (Cervus Elaphus), Cattle (Bos Taurus) and Goats (Capra Hircus) in Colorado

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A captive wildlife research facility in Fort Collins, Colorado experienced mortality in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) due to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) infection in late summer and early fall of 2007. RNA from EHDV was amplified by RT-PCR from the spleen and lung tissues...

  15. Experimental Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) from Elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to Fallow Deer (Dama dama) by Intracerebral Route: Final Report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this communication we report final observations on experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) from elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to fallow deer (Dama dama). The study was terminated 5 years after it was initiated. Thirteen fawns were i...

  16. Intranasal inoculation of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with lyophilized chronic wasting disease prion particulate complexed to montmorillonite clay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or TSE of deer and elk, occurring primarily in North America. The TSEs are fatal neurodegenerative disorders associated with conversion of a normal cell protein to a pathogenic and potentially infectious agent by post trans...

  17. Susceptibility of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to experimental infection with epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 7

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the fall of 2006, in Israel, epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) serotype 7 was the cause of an intense and widespread epizootic in domestic cattle that resulted in significant economic losses for the dairy industry. The susceptibility of potential North American vector and ruminant ho...

  18. Is there a benefit from the concomitant use of immunosupression with anti-TNF in Crohn's disease; heads or tails?

    PubMed

    Lakatos, Peter Laszlo

    2009-09-01

    Over the last some years the increasing knowledge on the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease led to the development of a number of biological agents targeting specific molecules involved in gut inflammation, first of all TNF-alpha and its receptors. Infliximab, adalimumab and certolizumab have been successful in inducing and maintaining remission in Crohn's disease at both short and long term. This was recently confirmed by a Cochrane meta-analysis and also open label extension follow-up and cohort studies. Emerging new data however indicate that combination therapy with infliximab-azathioprine appears to have added benefit in inducing steroid-free remission and mucosal healing than either infliximab or azathioprine alone in azathioprine-naïve patients with early disease. Similarly the combination of steroids induction and infliximab was efficacious in luminal Crohn's disease. In contrast, there seems to be no synergism between methotrexate and infliximab. It is also less clear whether it is beneficial to use short or long-term infliximab-azathioprine combination in patients who previously failed therapy with azathioprine. In contrast, combination may potentially be associated with increased risk for infection and cancer. In case control-studies, especially the combination of steroids and anti-TNF and older age increased the risk for infectious complications, while scattered case reports point to the potentially increased risk of a rare form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (Hepatosplenic T cell lymphoma) with the use of azathioprine-anti-TNF combination. The aim of this review is to summarize the benefits and risks for the use combination therapy with TNF-alpha inhibitors in the treatment of Crohn's disease.

  19. Vitamin D, Cognition and Alzheimer’s Disease: The Therapeutic Benefit is in the D-Tails

    PubMed Central

    Landel, Véréna; Annweiler, Cédric; Millet, Pascal; Morello, Maria; Féron, François

    2016-01-01

    Since its discovery during the epidemic of rickets in the early 1920s, the physiological effects of vitamin D on calcium/phosphorus homeostasis have been thoroughly studied. Along with the understanding of its actions on skeletal diseases and advances in cellular and molecular biology, this misnamed vitamin has gained attention as a potential player in a growing number of physiological processes and a variety of diseases. During the last 25 years, vitamin D has emerged as a serious candidate in nervous system development and function and a therapeutic tool in a number of neurological pathologies. More recently, experimental and pre-clinical data suggest a link between vitamin D status and cognitive function. Human studies strongly support a correlation between low levels of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and cognitive impairment or dementia in aging populations. In parallel, animal studies show that supplementation with vitamin D is protective against biological processes associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and enhances learning and memory performance in various animal models of aging and AD. These experimental observations support multiple mechanisms by which vitamin D can act against neurodegenerative processes. However, clinical interventional studies are disappointing and fail to associate increased 25(OH)D levels with improved cognitive outcomes. This review collects the current available data from both animal and human studies and discusses the considerations that future studies examining the effects of vitamin D status on neurocognitive function might consider. PMID:27176073

  20. Viral diseases of the giant fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: a review.

    PubMed

    Bonami, Jean-Robert; Sri Widada, Joannes

    2011-01-01

    The giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii is cultivated essentially in Southern and South-eastern Asian countries such as continental China, India, Thailand and Taiwan. To date, only two viral agents have been reported from this prawn. The first (HPV-type virus) was observed by chance 25 years ago in hypertrophied nuclei of hepatopancreatic epithelial cells and is closely related to members of the Parvoviridae family. The second, a nodavirus named MrNV, is always associated with a non-autonomous satellite-like virus (XSV), and is the origin of so-called white tail disease (WTD) responsible for mass mortalities and important economic losses in hatcheries and farms for over a decade. After isolation and purification of these two particles, they were physico-chemically characterized and their genome sequenced. The MrNV genome is formed with two single linear ss-RNA molecules, 3202 and 1250 nucleotides long, respectively. Each RNA segment contains only one ORF, ORF1 coding for the RNA-dependant RNA polymerase located on the long segment and ORF2 coding for the structural protein CP-43 located on the small one. The XSV genome (linear ss-RNA), 796 nucleotides long, contains a single ORF coding for the XSV coat protein CP-17. The XSV does not contain any RdRp gene and consequently needs the MrNV polymerase to replicate.

  1. Antemortem detection of chronic wasting disease prions in nasal brush collections and rectal biopsies from white-tailed deer by real time quaking-induced conversion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haley, Nicholas J.; Siepker, Chris; Walter, William D.; Thomsen, Bruce V.; Greenlee, Justin J.; Lehmkuhl, Aaron D.; Richt, Jürgen a.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, was first documented nearly 50 years ago in Colorado and Wyoming and has since spread to cervids in 23 states, two Canadian provinces, and the Republic of Korea. The expansion of this disease makes the development of sensitive diagnostic assays and antemortem sampling techniques crucial for the mitigation of its spread; this is especially true in cases of relocation/reintroduction of farmed or free-ranging deer and elk or surveillance studies of private or protected herds, where depopulation is contraindicated. This study sought to evaluate the sensitivity of the real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assay by using recto-anal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT) biopsy specimens and nasal brush samples collected antemortem from farmed white-tailed deer (n = 409). Antemortem findings were then compared to results from ante- and postmortem samples (RAMALT, brainstem, and medial retropharyngeal lymph nodes) evaluated by using the current gold standard in vitro assay, immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis. We hypothesized that the sensitivity of RT-QuIC would be comparable to IHC analysis in antemortem tissues and would correlate with both the genotype and the stage of clinical disease. Our results showed that RAMALT testing by RT-QuIC assay had the highest sensitivity (69.8%) compared to that of postmortem testing, with a specificity of >93.9%. These data suggest that RT-QuIC, like IHC analysis, is an effective assay for detection of PrPCWD in rectal biopsy specimens and other antemortem samples and, with further research to identify more sensitive tissues, bodily fluids, or experimental conditions, has potential for large-scale and rapid automated testing for CWD diagnosis.

  2. Antemortem Detection of Chronic Wasting Disease Prions in Nasal Brush Collections and Rectal Biopsy Specimens from White-Tailed Deer by Real-Time Quaking-Induced Conversion.

    PubMed

    Haley, Nicholas J; Siepker, Chris; Walter, W David; Thomsen, Bruce V; Greenlee, Justin J; Lehmkuhl, Aaron D; Richt, Jürgen A

    2016-04-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, was first documented nearly 50 years ago in Colorado and Wyoming and has since spread to cervids in 23 states, two Canadian provinces, and the Republic of Korea. The expansion of this disease makes the development of sensitive diagnostic assays and antemortem sampling techniques crucial for the mitigation of its spread; this is especially true in cases of relocation/reintroduction of farmed or free-ranging deer and elk or surveillance studies of private or protected herds, where depopulation is contraindicated. This study sought to evaluate the sensitivity of the real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assay by using recto-anal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT) biopsy specimens and nasal brush samples collected antemortem from farmed white-tailed deer (n= 409). Antemortem findings were then compared to results from ante- and postmortem samples (RAMALT, brainstem, and medial retropharyngeal lymph nodes) evaluated by using the current gold standardin vitroassay, immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis. We hypothesized that the sensitivity of RT-QuIC would be comparable to IHC analysis in antemortem tissues and would correlate with both the genotype and the stage of clinical disease. Our results showed that RAMALT testing by RT-QuIC assay had the highest sensitivity (69.8%) compared to that of postmortem testing, with a specificity of >93.9%. These data suggest that RT-QuIC, like IHC analysis, is an effective assay for detection of PrP(CWD)in rectal biopsy specimens and other antemortem samples and, with further research to identify more sensitive tissues, bodily fluids, or experimental conditions, has potential for large-scale and rapid automated testing for CWD diagnosis.

  3. Temporal and spatial dynamics of trypanosomes infecting the brush-tailed bettong (Bettongia penicillata): a cautionary note of disease-induced population decline

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The brush-tailed bettong or woylie (Bettongia penicillata) is on the brink of extinction. Its numbers have declined by 90% since 1999, with their current distribution occupying less than 1% of their former Australian range. Woylies are known to be infected with three different trypanosomes (Trypanosoma vegrandis, Trypanosoma copemani and Trypanosoma sp. H25) and two different strains of T. copemani that vary in virulence. However, the role that these haemoparasites have played during the recent decline of their host is unclear and is part of ongoing investigation. Methods Woylies were sampled from five locations in southern Western Australia, including two neighbouring indigenous populations, two enclosed (fenced) populations and a captive colony. PCR was used to individually identify the three different trypanosomes from blood and tissues of the host, and to investigate the temporal and spatial dynamics of trypanosome infections. Results The spatial pattern of trypanosome infection varied among the five study sites, with a greater proportion of woylies from the Perup indigenous population being infected with T. copemani than from the neighbouring Kingston indigenous population. For an established infection, T. copemani detection was temporally inconsistent. The more virulent strain of T. copemani appeared to regress at a faster rate than the less virulent strain, with the infection possibly transitioning from the acute to chronic phase. Interspecific competition may also exist between T. copemani and T. vegrandis, where an existing T. vegrandis infection may moderate the sequential establishment of the more virulent T. copemani. Conclusion In this study, we provide a possible temporal connection implicating T. copemani as the disease agent linked with the recent decline of the Kingston indigenous woylie population within the Upper Warren region of Western Australia. The chronic association of trypanosomes with the internal organs of its host may be

  4. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease outbreak in a captive facility housing white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), bison (Bison bison), elk (Cervus elaphus), cattle (Bos taurus), and goats (Capra hircus) in Colorado, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Nol, Pauline; Kato, Cecilia; Reeves, Will K; Rhyan, Jack; Spraker, Terry; Gidlewski, Thomas; VerCauteren, Kurt; Salman, Mo

    2010-09-01

    An ungulate research facility in Fort Collins, Colorado, U.S.A., experienced mortality in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) because of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) infection from 20 August 2007 through 26 September 2007. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) was detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and virus isolation from the spleen and lung tissues of two white-tailed deer. Virus neutralization tests were performed on pre- and postoutbreak sera from other species maintained in the same facility, including bison (Bison bison), elk (Cervus elaphus), domestic cattle (Bos taurus), and domestic goats (Capra hircus), as well as postoutbreak sera from the surviving white-tailed deer. Serum samples that represented all species in the facility neutralized EHDV-1 and EHDV-2 either before or after the outbreak. The animals that neutralized EHDV-1 did not neutralize EHDV-2. No clinical signs attributable to EHDV infection were noted in any of the species other than the deer during the outbreak. Although experimental EHDV infections have been reported in bison and elk, natural exposures have not been previously documented in these species in North America. The roles that elk, bison, cattle, and goats might play in the epidemiology of EHDV in a close-contact multispecies situation remain unknown.

  5. Acaricidal Treatment of White-Tailed Deer to Control Ixodes Scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in a New York Lyme Disease-Endemic Community

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 4-Poster device for the topical treatment of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann) against ticks using the acaricide amitraz was evaluated in a Lyme borreliosis endemic community in Connecticut. As part of a 5-year project from 1997 to 2002, 21–24 of the 4-Posters were distribut...

  6. Work-Centered Technology Development (WTD)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    its status as ’informative’. This is the basis for Gregory Bateson’s elegant definition of information as ’any difference that makes a difference...8217. ( Bateson , 1987) You can be provided all the data relevant to your task, but if it is presented in a foreign language or coding scheme you do not...in Search of a Context, in EC-CSCW 󈨝: Proceedings of the First European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, 358-372. Bateson , G

  7. The Tail of BPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruba, Steve; Meyer, Jim

    Business process management suites (BPMS's) represent one of the fastest growing segments in the software industry as organizations automate their key business processes. As this market matures, it is interesting to compare it to Chris Anderson's 'Long Tail.' Although the 2004 "Long Tail" article in Wired magazine was primarily about the media and entertainment industries, it has since been applied (and perhaps misapplied) to other markets. Analysts describe a "Tail of BPM" market that is, perhaps, several times larger than the traditional BPMS product market. This paper will draw comparisons between the concepts in Anderson's article (and subsequent book) and the BPM solutions market.

  8. Estimating tail probabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, D.B.; Tolley, H.D.

    1982-12-01

    This paper investigates procedures for univariate nonparametric estimation of tail probabilities. Extrapolated values for tail probabilities beyond the data are also obtained based on the shape of the density in the tail. Several estimators which use exponential weighting are described. These are compared in a Monte Carlo study to nonweighted estimators, to the empirical cdf, to an integrated kernel, to a Fourier series estimate, to a penalized likelihood estimate and a maximum likelihood estimate. Selected weighted estimators are shown to compare favorably to many of these standard estimators for the sampling distributions investigated.

  9. Puerariae flos alleviates metabolic diseases in Western diet-loaded, spontaneously obese type 2 diabetic model mice.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Koshi; Shimada, Tsutomu; Onishi, Rei; Tsubata, Masahito; Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Nagamine, Rika; Iizuka, Seiichi; Sai, Yoshimichi; Amagaya, Sakae; Aburada, Masaki; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi

    2012-10-01

    Puerariae flos extract (PFE) has been reported to have many effects, including preventing the development of hangovers, liver protective effects, and an estrogenic effect. In addition, some papers reported that PFE is effective against metabolic diseases, with hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effects. However, the mechanism underlying such effects remains unclear. For the purpose of clarifying the effect of PFE on metabolic diseases related to the accumulation of visceral fat and to determine the mechanism of such action, TSOD mice, a multifactorial genetic disease animal model that spontaneously develops various metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, were given a Western diet (WTD) as an environmental factor to prepare a disease model (TSOD-WTD). When TSOD mice were loaded with WTD, it was confirmed that metabolic diseases such as obesity and abnormal glucose/lipid metabolism are aggravated. In contrast, PFE treatment to TSOD-WTD mice was shown to suppress body weight gain and visceral fat accumulation, alleviated the abnormal glucose tolerance and hyperinsulinemia, as well as causing an increase in blood adiponectin. Furthermore, the suppression of liver enlargement was observed in PFE-treated mice, with suppression of fatty degeneration and anti-inflammatory effect. In addition, to clarify the mechanism of the hyperlipidemia-alleviating effects in the liver, we investigated the effect of PFE on the expression of genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis. PFE was associated with a significant increase in gene expression for cholesterol synthesis rate-limiting enzyme HMG-CoA reductase, cholesterol catabolization enzyme Cyp7A1, bile salt export pump adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter B11, and low-density lipoprotein receptor involved in cholesterol uptake. The above results suggest that PFE acts to alleviate the effects of various metabolic diseases based on the accumulation of visceral adipose tissue, including obesity, diabetes

  10. Wagging tail vibration absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barclay, R. G.; Humphrey, P. W.

    1969-01-01

    A 750-foot cantilever length of extendible-tape boom (very low stiffness) was considered as the main system to be damped. A number of tail lengths were tried from 20 feet to 80 feet after which 40 feet was investigated further as a desirable compromise between performance and practical lengths. A 40-foot damping tail produced a damping effect on the main boom for the first mode equivalent in decay rate to 3.1 percent of critical damping. In this case the spring-hinge and tail were tuned to the main boom first mode frequency and the hinge damping was set at 30 percent of critical based on the tail properties. With this same setting, damping of the second mode was .4 percent and the third mode .1 percent.

  11. The Tail Suspension Test

    PubMed Central

    Terrillion, Chantelle E.; Piantadosi, Sean C.; Bhat, Shambhu; Gould, Todd D.

    2012-01-01

    The tail-suspension test is a mouse behavioral test useful in the screening of potential antidepressant drugs, and assessing of other manipulations that are expected to affect depression related behaviors. Mice are suspended by their tails with tape, in such a position that it cannot escape or hold on to nearby surfaces. During this test, typically six minutes in duration, the resulting escape oriented behaviors are quantified. The tail-suspension test is a valuable tool in drug discovery for high-throughput screening of prospective antidepressant compounds. Here, we describe the details required for implementation of this test with additional emphasis on potential problems that may occur and how to avoid them. We also offer a solution to the tail climbing behavior, a common problem that renders this test useless in some mouse strains, such as the widely used C57BL/6. Specifically, we prevent tail climbing behaviors by passing mouse tails through a small plastic cylinder prior to suspension. Finally, we detail how to manually score the behaviors that are manifested in this test. PMID:22315011

  12. EAR AND TAIL LESIONS ON CAPTIVE WHITE-TAILED DEER FAWNS (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS): A CASE STUDY.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Treena L; Demarais, Stephen; Cooley, Jim; Fleming, Sherrill; Michel, Eric S; Flinn, Emily

    2016-06-01

    During the 2008-2011 time period, undiagnosed lesions were observed in 21 of 150 white-tailed deer fawns (Odocoileus virginianus) that were part of a captive deer herd at Mississippi State University. Clinical findings in healthy and diseased fawns from 0 to 90 days of age included bite and scratch marks followed by moderate to severe ear and tail necrosis. Gross necropsy findings of necrotizing ulcerative dermatitis correlated with histopathologic findings that included focally severe multifocal vasculitis, vascular necrosis, and thrombosis. This article is a clinical description of these previously unreported lesions associated with tissue necrosis in young captive white-tailed deer.

  13. Managing 'tail liability'.

    PubMed

    Frese, Richard C; Weber, Ryan J

    2013-11-01

    To reduce and control their level of tail liability, hospitals should: Utilize a self-insurance vehicle; Consider combined limits between the hospital and physicians; Communicate any program changes to the actuary, underwriter, and auditor; Continue risk management and safety practices; Ensure credit is given to the organization's own medical malpractice program.

  14. REAR PROFILE OF TAIL FROM SECOND LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REAR PROFILE OF TAIL FROM SECOND LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK STAND, SHOWING AIRCRAFT NUMBER (319), HORIZONTAL STABILIZER, TAIL CONE AND COOLING CTS FOR THE AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU), MECHANIC PAUL RIDEOUT IS LOWERING THE BALANCE PANELS ON THE STABILIZERS FOR LUBRICATION AND INSPECTION. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  15. A Mass in the Junction of the Body and Tail of the Pancreas with Negative IgG4 Serology: IgG4-Related Disease with Negative Serology

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Eduardo A.; Williams, Frederick K.

    2015-01-01

    Patient:Female, 55 Final Diagnosis: Autoimmune pancreatitis Symptoms: Abdominal pain • weight loss Medication: Prednisone Clinical Procedure: Admitted to the hospital Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Challenging differential diagnosis Background: Autoimmune pancreatitis is an IgG4-related fibroinflammatory condition often associated with obstructive jaundice, as most lesions are located at the head of the pancreas. IgG4 level can help in the diagnosis, but it is normal in nearly 30% of affected patients. Case Report: A 55-year-old woman presented with a 5-month history of 20-pound unintentional weight loss and intermittent abdominal pain. She had an unremarkable abdominal exam and significant findings included a small, non-mobile rubbery left axillary lymph node. Complete blood count, complete metabolic panel, amylase, anti-smooth muscle antibody, antimitochondrial antibody, carcinoembryonic antigen, Ca 19-9, complement C3 and C4, antinuclear antibody, anti-Smith double-strand antibody, and IgG4 were all within normal limits. CT of the abdomen showed a mass in the junction of the body and tail of the pancreas and endoscopic ultrasound showed it as encasing the splenic artery. Fine-needle aspiration cytology demonstrated follicular hyperplasia, obliterative phlebitis, storiform fibrosis, and negative staining for IgG4 and malignancy. Left axillary lymph node biopsy demonstrated follicular hyperplasia. PET scan revealed hypermetabolic uptake of the pancreas tail, bone marrow, and spleen, as well as diffuse lymphadenopathy. Bone marrow biopsy showed follicular hyperplasia and was negative for malignancy. The patient was started on 40 mg of oral prednisone for possible autoimmune disease. During follow-up, she reported progressive improvement and a repeat PET scan 6 months later showed marked improvement. Conclusions: A normal IgG4 value should not decrease the clinical suspicion of IgG4-related disease. If clinical, histological, and

  16. Faun tail nevus

    PubMed Central

    Yamini, M.; Sridevi, K. S.; Babu, N. Prasanna; Chetty, Nanjappa G.

    2011-01-01

    Faun tail nevus is a posterior midline cutaneous lesion of importance to dermatologists as it could be a cutaneous marker for its underlying spine and spinal cord anomaly. We report a 13-year-old girl with excessive hair growth over the lumbosacral region since birth. There was associated spinal anomaly with no neurological manifestation affecting the lower spinal cord. The diagnosis was made on clinical basis. The patient reported for cosmetic disability. This case is reported for its clinical importance. PMID:23130210

  17. Faun tail nevus.

    PubMed

    Yamini, M; Sridevi, K S; Babu, N Prasanna; Chetty, Nanjappa G

    2011-01-01

    Faun tail nevus is a posterior midline cutaneous lesion of importance to dermatologists as it could be a cutaneous marker for its underlying spine and spinal cord anomaly. We report a 13-year-old girl with excessive hair growth over the lumbosacral region since birth. There was associated spinal anomaly with no neurological manifestation affecting the lower spinal cord. The diagnosis was made on clinical basis. The patient reported for cosmetic disability. This case is reported for its clinical importance.

  18. Validation of Use of Rectoanal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue for Immunohistochemical Diagnosis of Chronic Wasting Disease in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are a family of fatal neurodegenerative diseases characterized by accumulation of abnormal prion proteins in the brain. The abnormal prion protein is the major constituent of the infectious agent and is a reliable marker for disease. The occurrence of ...

  19. Antemortem detection of chronic wasting disease prions in nasal brush collections and rectal biopsies from white-tailed deer by real time quaking-induced conversion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, was first documented nearly fifty years ago in Colorado and Wyoming and has since spread to cervids in 23 states, 2 Canadian provinces, and the Republic of Korea. The increasing expansion of this disease makes the d...

  20. A Tale of Tails: Dissecting the Enhancing Effect of Tailed Primers in Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Vandenbussche, Frank; Mathijs, Elisabeth; Lefebvre, David; De Clercq, Kris; Van Borm, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Non-specific tail sequences are often added to the 5’-terminus of primers to improve the robustness and overall performance of diagnostic assays. Despite the widespread use of tailed primers, the underlying working mechanism is not well understood. To address this problem, we conducted a detailed in vitro and in silico analysis of the enhancing effect of primer tailing on 2 well-established foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) RT-qPCR assays using an FMDV reference panel. Tailing of the panFMDV-5UTR primers mainly affected the shape of the amplification curves. Modelling of the raw fluorescence data suggested a reduction of the amplification efficiency due to the accumulation of inhibitors. In depth analysis of PCR products indeed revealed the rapid accumulation of forward-primer derived artefacts. More importantly, tailing of the forward primer delayed artefacts formation and concomitantly restored the sigmoidal shape of the amplification curves. Our analysis also showed that primer tailing can alter utilisation patterns of degenerate primers and increase the number of primer variants that are able to participate in the reaction. The impact of tailed primers was less pronounced in the panFMDV-3D assay with only 5 out of 50 isolates showing a clear shift in Cq values. Sequence analysis of the target region of these 5 isolates revealed several mutations in the inter-primer region that extend an existing hairpin structure immediately downstream of the forward primer binding site. Stabilisation of the forward primer with either a tail sequence or cationic spermine units restored the sensitivity of the assay, which suggests that the enhancing effect in the panFMDV-3D assay is due to a more efficient extension of the forward primer. ur results show that primer tailing can alter amplification through various mechanisms that are determined by both the assay and target region. These findings expand our understanding of primer tailing and should enable a more targeted and

  1. [A Case of Von Hippel-Lindau Disease with Nonfunctioning Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors Treated by Duodenum-Preserving Resection of the Head of the Pancreas and Spleen-Preserving Resection of the Tail of the Pancreas].

    PubMed

    Umehara, Yutaka; Umehara, Minoru; Tokura, Tomohisa; Yachi, Takafumi; Takahashi, Kenichi; Morita, Takayuki; Hakamada, Kenichi

    2015-10-01

    A 26-year-old woman presented to our department with a diagnosis of multiple nonfunctioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. She had a family history of pheochromocytoma and a medical history of bilateral adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma at the age of 25 years. During follow-up treatment for adrenal insufficiency after the surgery, highly enhanced tumors in the pancreas were detected on contrast-enhanced CT. Other examinations found that the patient did not satisfy the clinical criteria for von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease. Considering her age and risk of developing multiple heterotopic and heterochronous tumors, we performed a duodenum-preserving resection of the head of the pancreas and spleen-preserving resection of the tail of the pancreas with informed consent. The histopathological findings revealed that all of the tumors were NET G1. She underwent genetic testing postoperatively and was diagnosed with VHL disease. This diagnosis meant that we were able to create an optimal treatment plan for the patient. If a tumor predisposition syndrome is suspected, VHL disease should be borne in mind and genetic testing after genetic counseling should be duly considered.

  2. Integrin Cytoplasmic Tail Interactions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric cell surface adhesion receptors essential for multicellular life. They connect cells to the extracellular environment and transduce chemical and mechanical signals to and from the cell. Intracellular proteins that bind the integrin cytoplasmic tail regulate integrin engagement of extracellular ligands as well as integrin localization and trafficking. Cytoplasmic integrin-binding proteins also function downstream of integrins, mediating links to the cytoskeleton and to signaling cascades that impact cell motility, growth, and survival. Here, we review key integrin-interacting proteins and their roles in regulating integrin activity, localization, and signaling. PMID:24467163

  3. Wind Tails Near Chimp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image of the rock 'Chimp' was taken by the Sojourner rover's right front camera on Sol 72 (September 15). Fine-scale texture on Chimp and other rocks is clearly visible. Wind tails, oriented from lower right to upper left, are seen next to small pebbles in the foreground. These were most likely produced by wind action.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  4. The geomagnetic tail

    SciTech Connect

    Birn, J. )

    1991-01-01

    A review is presented of the plasma sheet and lobe regions of the magnetotail, focusing principally on large-scale processes or microprocesses with some large-scale effects. Consideration is given to quiet and average structures, not necessarily related to activity phases, with quasi-steady convection aspects, and with the characteristics of dynamic phases including acceleration mechanisms and single particle aspects. Attention is given to various activity models, average and quiet time properties, properties and effects of magnetospheric convection, dynamics of the magnetotail, and the near tail, substorm current wedge.

  5. Tatum makes a case for the tail-less IUD.

    PubMed

    1981-10-01

    Howard Tatum, M.D. maintains that the tail-less IUD could offer women the benefits of effectiveness, yet decrease the risk of pelvic infection. According to Tatum, bacteria gain access to the uterine cavity via the cervical appendage, or tail. On the basis of recent work in England by Sparks, Tatum reports that very small numbers of bacteria reside in any uterus bearing an IUD that has a transcervical tail. Although the opportunity for a decreased risk of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) could make the tail-less IUD very desirable, several disadvantages that arise from the lack of a tail make the device worthwhile for only selected patients. These disadvantages include the following: the wearer would not be able to detect whether the IUD was in place; a clinician could not remove the IUD without using an invasive method; this type of removal would require careful selection of patients who could wear the IUD as well as careful selection of the IUD itself; and a traumatic removal could present a dilemma in the wearer who became pregnant with the IUD in place. Despite the disadvantages of the tail-less IUD, Tatum and others are proponents of the idea. Some clinicians are currently creating their own makeshift tail-less IUDs by simply snipping off the transcervical tails.

  6. Surveillance for Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy in Scavengers of White-Tailed Deer Carcasses in the Chronic Wasting Disease Area of Wisconsin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a class of neurodegenerative transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) occurring in cervids, is found in a number of states and provinces across North America. Misfolded prions, the infectious agents of CWD, are deposited in the environment via carcass remains an...

  7. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    SciTech Connect

    Hanchey, L A

    1981-01-01

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

  8. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    SciTech Connect

    Hanchey, L A

    1981-04-01

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the United States may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

  9. Tailed bacteriophages: the order caudovirales.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, H W

    1998-01-01

    Tailed bacteriophages have a common origin and constitute an order with three families, named Caudovirales. Their structured tail is unique. Tailed phages share a series of high-level taxonomic properties and show many facultative features that are unique or rare in viruses, for example, tail appendages and unusual bases. They share with other viruses, especially herpesviruses, elements of morphogenesis and life-style that are attributed to convergent evolution. Tailed phages present three types of lysogeny, exemplified by phages lambda, Mu, and P1. Lysogeny appears as a secondary property acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Amino acid sequence alignments (notably of DNA polymerases, integrases, and peptidoglycan hydrolases) indicate frequent events of horizontal gene transfer in tailed phages. Common capsid and tail proteins have not been detected. Tailed phages possibly evolved from small protein shells with a few genes sufficient for some basal level of productive infection. This early stage can no longer be traced. At one point, this precursor phage became perfected. Some of its features were perfect enough to be transmitted until today. It is tempting to list major present-day properties of tailed phages in the past tense to construct a tentative history of these viruses: 1. Tailed phages originated in the early Precambrian, long before eukaryotes and their viruses. 2. The ur-tailed phage, already a quite evolved virus, had an icosahedral head of about 60 nm in diameter and a long non-contractile tail with sixfold symmetry. The capsid contained a single molecule of dsDNA of about 50 kb, and the tail was probably provided with a fixation apparatus. Head and tail were held together by a connector. a. The particle contained no lipids, was heavier than most viruses to come, and had a high DNA content proportional to its capsid size (about 50%). b. Most of its DNA coded for structural proteins. Morphopoietic genes clustered at one end of the genome, with head

  10. Epidemiological, evolutionary, and economic determinants of eradication tails.

    PubMed

    Mazzucco, Rupert; Dieckmann, Ulf; Metz, Johan A J

    2016-09-21

    Despite modern medical interventions, infectious diseases continue to generate huge socio-economic losses. The benefits of eradicating a disease are therefore high. While successful with smallpox and rinderpest, many other eradication attempts have failed. Eradications require huge and costly efforts, which can be sustained only if sufficient progress can be achieved. While initial successes are usually obtained more easily, progress often becomes harder as a disease becomes rare in the eradication endgame. A long eradication tail of slowly decreasing incidence levels can frustrate eradication efforts, as it becomes unclear whether progress toward eradication is still being made and how much more needs to be invested to push the targeted disease beyond its extinction threshold. Realistic disease dynamics are complicated by evolutionary responses to interventions and by interactions among different temporal and spatial scales. Models accounting for these complexities are required for understanding the shapes of eradication tails. In particular, such models allow predicting how hard or costly eradication will be, and may even inform in which manner progress has to be assessed during the eradication endgame. Here we outline a general procedure by analyzing the eradication tails of generic SIS diseases, taking into account two major ingredients of realistic complexity: a group-structured host population in which host contacts within groups are more likely than host contacts between groups, and virulence evolution subject to a trade-off between host infectivity within groups and host mobility among groups. Disentangling the epidemiological, evolutionary, and economic determinants of eradication tails, we show how tails of different shapes arise depending on salient model parameters and on how the extinction threshold is approached. We find that disease evolution generally extends the eradication tail and show how the cost structure of eradication measures plays a key

  11. 3. VIEW OF WEST TAILING DAM, LARGE TANK, AND TAILING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF WEST TAILING DAM, LARGE TANK, AND TAILING, LOOKING NORTHEAST. A SIX-FOOT SCALE IS LOCATED AGAINST WALL ON LEFT. PURPOSE OF TANK IS UNKNOWN, BUT APPEARS TO HAVE FALLEN FROM ITS ORIGINAL LOCATION AT THE MILL SITE, UP AND TO THE RIGHT OF THIS VIEW. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  12. Galactic bridges and tails.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toomre, A.; Toomre, J.

    1972-01-01

    This paper argues that the bridges and tails seen in some multiple galaxies are just tidal relics of close encounters. These consequences of the brief but violent tidal forces are here studied in a deliberately simple-minded fashion. Each encounter is considered to involve only two galaxies and to be roughly parabolic; each galaxy is idealized as just a disk of noninteracting test particles which initially orbit a central mass point. As shown here, the two-sided distortions provoked by gravity alone in such circumstances can indeed evolve kinematically into some remarkably narrow and elongated features. Besides extensive pictorial survey of tidal damage, this paper offers reconstructions of the orbits and outer shapes of four specific interacting pairs: Arp 295, M51 + NGC 5195, NGC 4676, and NGC 4038/9.

  13. Telling tails: selective pressures acting on investment in lizard tails.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Patricia A; Valentine, Leonie E; Bateman, Philip W

    2013-01-01

    Caudal autotomy is a common defense mechanism in lizards, where the animal may lose part or all of its tail to escape entrapment. Lizards show an immense variety in the degree of investment in a tail (i.e., length) across species, with tails of some species up to three or four times body length (snout-vent length [SVL]). Additionally, body size and form also vary dramatically, including variation in leg development and robustness and length of the body and tail. Autotomy is therefore likely to have fundamentally different effects on the overall body form and function in different species, which may be reflected directly in the incidence of lost/regenerating tails within populations or, over a longer period, in terms of relative tail length for different species. We recorded data (literature, museum specimens, field data) for relative tail length (n=350 species) and the incidence of lost/regenerating tails (n=246 species). We compared these (taking phylogeny into account) with intrinsic factors that have been proposed to influence selective pressures acting on caudal autotomy, including body form (robustness, body length, leg development, and tail specialization) and ecology (foraging behavior, physical and temporal niches), in an attempt to identify patterns that might reflect adaptive responses to these different factors. More gracile species have relatively longer tails (all 350 spp., P < 0.001; also significant for five of the six families tested separately), as do longer (all species, P < 0.001; Iguanidae, P < 0.05; Lacertidae, P < 0.001; Scindidae, P < 0.001), climbing (all species, P < 0.05), and diurnal (all species, P < 0.01; Pygopodidae, P < 0.01) species; geckos without specialized tails (P < 0.05); or active-foraging skinks (P < 0.05). We also found some relationships with the data for caudal autotomy, with more lost/regenerating tails for nocturnal lizards (all 246 spp., P < 0.01; Scindidae, P < 0.05), larger skinks (P < 0.05), climbing geckos (P < 0

  14. Runaway tails in magnetized plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moghaddam-Taaheri, E.; Vlahos, L.; Rowland, H. L.; Papadopoulos, K.

    1985-01-01

    The evolution of a runaway tail driven by a dc electric field in a magnetized plasma is analyzed. Depending on the strength of the electric field and the ratio of plasma to gyrofrequency, there are three different regimes in the evolution of the tail. The tail can be (1) stable with electrons accelerated to large parallel velocities, (2) unstable to Cerenkov resonance because of the depletion of the bulk and the formation of a positive slope, (3) unstable to the anomalous Doppler resonance instability driven by the large velocity anisotropy in the tail. Once an instability is triggered (Cerenkov or anomalous Doppler resonance) the tail relaxes into an isotropic distribution. The role of a convection type loss term is also discussed.

  15. Surveillance for transmissible spongiform encephalopathy in scavengers of white-tailed deer carcasses in the chronic wasting disease area of wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jennelle, C.S.; Samuel, M.D.; Nolden, C.A.; Keane, D.P.; Barr, D.J.; Johnson, Chad; Vanderloo, J.P.; Aiken, Judd M.; Hamir, A.N.; Hoover, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a class of neurodegenerative transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) occurring in cervids, is found in a number of states and provinces across North America. Misfolded prions, the infectious agents of CWD, are deposited in the environment via carcass remains and excreta, and pose a threat of cross-species transmission. In this study tissues were tested from 812 representative mammalian scavengers, collected in the CWD-affected area of Wisconsin, for TSE infection using the IDEXX HerdChek enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Only four of the collected mammals tested positive using the ELISA, but these were negative when tested by Western blot. While our sample sizes permitted high probabilities of detecting TSE assuming 1% population prevalence in several common scavengers (93%, 87%, and 87% for raccoons, opossums, and coyotes, respectively), insufficient sample sizes for other species precluded similar conclusions. One cannot rule out successful cross-species TSE transmission to scavengers, but the results suggest that such transmission is not frequent in the CWD-affected area of Wisconsin. The need for further surveillance of scavenger species, especially those known to be susceptible to TSE (e.g., cat, American mink, raccoon), is highlighted in both a field and laboratory setting.

  16. Lift generation by the avian tail.

    PubMed

    Maybury, W J; Rayner, J M; Couldrick, L B

    2001-07-22

    Variation with tail spread of the lift generated by a bird tail was measured on mounted, frozen European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) in a wind tunnel at a typical air speed and body and tail angle of attack in order to test predictions of existing aerodynamic theories modelling tail lift. Measured lift at all but the lowest tail spread angles was significantly lower than the predictions of slender wing, leading edge vortex and lifting line models of lift production. Instead, the tail lift coefficient based on tail area was independent of tail spread, tail aspect ratio and maximum tail span. Theoretical models do not predict bird tail lift reliably and, when applied to tail morphology, may underestimate the aerodynamic optimum tail feather length. Flow visualization experiments reveal that an isolated tail generates leading edge vortices as expected for a low-aspect ratio delta wing, but that in the intact bird body-tail interactions are critical in determining tail aerodynamics: lifting vortices shed from the body interact with the tail and degrade tail lift compared with that of an isolated tail.

  17. [Tail Plane Icing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Program initiated by NASA in 1997 has put greater emphasis in safety related research activities. Ice-contaminated-tailplane stall (ICTS) has been identified by the NASA Lewis Icing Technology Branch as an important activity for aircraft safety related research. The ICTS phenomenon is characterized as a sudden, often uncontrollable aircraft nose- down pitching moment, which occurs due to increased angle-of-attack of the horizontal tailplane resulting in tailplane stall. Typically, this phenomenon occurs when lowering the flaps during final approach while operating in or recently departing from icing conditions. Ice formation on the tailplane leading edge can reduce tailplane angle-of-attack range and cause flow separation resulting in a significant reduction or complete loss of aircraft pitch control. In 1993, the Federal Aviation Authority (FAA) and NASA embarked upon a four-year research program to address the problem of tailplane stall and to quantify the effect of tailplane ice accretion on aircraft performance and handling characteristics. The goals of this program, which was completed in March 1998, were to collect aerodynamic data for an aircraft tail with and without ice contamination and to develop analytical methods for predicting the effects of tailplane ice contamination. Extensive dry air and icing tunnel tests which resulted in a database of the aerodynamic effects associated with tailplane ice contamination. Although the FAA/NASA tailplane icing program generated some answers regarding ice-contaminated-tailplane stall (ICTS) phenomena, NASA researchers have found many open questions that warrant further investigation into ICTS. In addition, several aircraft manufacturers have expressed interest in a second research program to expand the database to other tail configurations and to develop experimental and computational methodologies for evaluating the ICTS phenomenon. In 1998, the icing branch at NASA Lewis initiated a second

  18. Helicopter tail rotor noise analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, A. R.; Chou, S. T.

    1986-01-01

    A study was made of helicopter tail rotor noise, particularly that due to interactions with the main rotor tip vortices, and with the fuselage separation mean wake. The tail rotor blade-main rotor tip vortex interaction is modelled as an airfoil of infinite span cutting through a moving vortex. The vortex and the geometry information required by the analyses are obtained through a free wake geometry analysis of the main rotor. The acoustic pressure-time histories for the tail rotor blade-vortex interactions are then calculated. These acoustic results are compared to tail rotor loading and thickness noise, and are found to be significant to the overall tail rotor noise generation. Under most helicopter operating conditions, large acoustic pressure fluctuations can be generated due to a series of skewed main rotor tip vortices passing through the tail rotor disk. The noise generation depends strongly upon the helicopter operating conditions and the location of the tail rotor relative to the main rotor.

  19. Mercury's Dynamic Magnetic Tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, James A.

    2010-01-01

    The Mariner 10 and MESSENGER flybys of Mercury have revealed a magnetosphere that is likely the most responsive to upstream interplanetary conditions of any in the solar system. The source of the great dynamic variability observed during these brief passages is due to Mercury's proximity to the Sun and the inverse proportionality between reconnection rate and solar wind Alfven Mach number. However, this planet's lack of an ionosphere and its small physical dimensions also contribute to Mercury's very brief Dungey cycle, approx. 2 min, which governs the time scale for internal plasma circulation. Current observations and understanding of the structure and dynamics of Mercury's magnetotail are summarized and discussed. Special emphasis will be placed upon such questions as: 1) How much access does the solar wind have to this small magnetosphere as a function of upstream conditions? 2) What roles do heavy planetary ions play? 3) Do Earth-like substorms take place at Mercury? 4) How does Mercury's tail respond to extreme solar wind events such coronal mass ejections? Prospects for progress due to advances in the global magnetohydrodynamic and hybrid simulation modeling and the measurements to be taken by MESSENGER after it enters Mercury orbit on March 18, 2011 will be discussed.

  20. Sirenomelia apus with vestigial tail.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Tushar B; Nanavati, Ruchi N; Udani, Rekha H

    2005-04-01

    Sirenomelia is an exceptionally rare congenital malformation characterized by complete or near complete fusion of lower limbs. A newborn with clinical features of sirenomelia including fused lower limbs in medial position, absent fibula, anal atresia, complete absence of urogenital system (bilateral renal agenesis, absent ureters, urinary bladder, absent internal and external genitalia), a single umbilical artery and a vestigial tail is reported. Association of vestigial tail with sirenomelia is not described in the literature.

  1. Morphogenesis of the T4 tail and tail fibers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Remarkable progress has been made during the past ten years in elucidating the structure of the bacteriophage T4 tail by a combination of three-dimensional image reconstruction from electron micrographs and X-ray crystallography of the components. Partial and complete structures of nine out of twenty tail structural proteins have been determined by X-ray crystallography and have been fitted into the 3D-reconstituted structure of the "extended" tail. The 3D structure of the "contracted" tail was also determined and interpreted in terms of component proteins. Given the pseudo-atomic tail structures both before and after contraction, it is now possible to understand the gross conformational change of the baseplate in terms of the change in the relative positions of the subunit proteins. These studies have explained how the conformational change of the baseplate and contraction of the tail are related to the tail's host cell recognition and membrane penetration function. On the other hand, the baseplate assembly process has been recently reexamined in detail in a precise system involving recombinant proteins (unlike the earlier studies with phage mutants). These experiments showed that the sequential association of the subunits of the baseplate wedge is based on the induced-fit upon association of each subunit. It was also found that, upon association of gp53 (gene product 53), the penultimate subunit of the wedge, six of the wedge intermediates spontaneously associate to form a baseplate-like structure in the absence of the central hub. Structure determination of the rest of the subunits and intermediate complexes and the assembly of the hub still require further study. PMID:21129200

  2. SUBAQUEOUS DISPOSAL OF MILL TAILINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Neeraj K. Mendiratta; Roe-Hoan Yoon; Paul Richardson

    1999-09-03

    A study of mill tailings and sulfide minerals was carried out in order to understand their behavior under subaqueous conditions. A series of electrochemical experiments, namely, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanic coupling tests were carried out in artificial seawater and in pH 6.8 buffer solutions with chloride and ferric salts. Two mill tailings samples, one from the Kensington Mine, Alaska, and the other from the Holden Mine, Washington, were studied along with pyrite, galena, chalcopyrite and copper-activated sphalerite. SEM analysis of mill tailings revealed absence of sulfide minerals from the Kensington Mine mill tailings, whereas the Holden Mine mill tailings contained approximately 8% pyrite and 1% sphalerite. In order to conduct electrochemical tests, carbon matrix composite (CMC) electrodes of mill tailings, pyrite and galena were prepared and their feasibility was established by conducting a series of cyclic voltammetry tests. The cyclic voltammetry experiments carried out in artificial seawater and pH 6.8 buffer with chloride salts showed that chloride ions play an important role in the redox processes of sulfide minerals. For pyrite and galena, peaks were observed for the formation of chloride complexes, whereas pitting behavior was observed for the CMC electrodes of the Kensington Mine mill tailings. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy conducted in artificial seawater provided with the Nyquist plots of pyrite and galena. The Nyquist plots of pyrite and galena exhibited an inert range of potential indicating a slower rate of leaching of sulfide minerals in marine environments. The galvanic coupling experiments were carried out to study the oxidation of sulfide minerals in the absence of oxygen. It was shown that in the absence of oxygen, ferric (Fe3+) ions might oxidize the sulfide minerals, thereby releasing undesirable oxidation products in the marine environment. The source of Fe{sup 3{minus}} ions may be

  3. Magnetospheric Substorms and Tail Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, W. Jeffrey

    1998-01-01

    This grant funded several studies of magnetospheric substorms and their effect on the dynamics of the earth's geomagnetic tail. We completed an extensive study of plasmoids, plasma/magnetic field structures that travel rapidly down the tail, using data from the ISEE 3 and IMP 8 spacecraft. This study formed the PhD thesis of Mark Moldwin. We found that magnetically plasmoids are better described as flux-ropes (twisted magnetic flux tubes) rather than plasma bubbles, as had been generally regarded up to that point (Moldwin and Hughes, 1990; 1991). We published several examples of plasmoids observed first in the near tail by IMP 8 and later in the distant tail by ISEE 3, confirming their velocities down tail. We showed how the passage of plasmoids distorts the plasma sheet. We completed the first extensive statistical survey of plasmoids that showed how plasmoids evolve as they move down tail from their formation around 30 RE to ISEE 3 apogee at 240 RE. We established a one-to-one correspondence between the observation of plasmoids in the distant tail and substorm onsets at earth or in the near tail. And we showed that there is a class of plasmoid-like structures that move slowly earthward, especially following weak substorms during northward IMF. Collectively this work constituted the most extensive study of plasmoids prior to the work that has now been done with the GEOTAIL spacecraft. Following our work on plasmoids, we turned our attention to signatures of substorm onset observed in the inner magnetosphere near geosynchronous orbit, especially signatures observed by the CRRES satellite. Using data from the magnetometer, electric field probe, plasma wave instrument, and low energy plasma instrument on CRRES we were able to better document substorm onsets in the inner magnetosphere than had been possible previously. Detailed calculation of the Poynting flux showed energy exchange between the magnetosphere and ionosphere, and a short burst of tailward convective

  4. Preventive Effect of Pine Bark Extract (Flavangenol) on Metabolic Disease in Western Diet-Loaded Tsumura Suzuki Obese Diabetes Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Tsutomu; Kosugi, Mitsutaka; Tokuhara, Daisuke; Tsubata, Masahito; Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Sameshima, Mayu; Nagamine, Rika; Takagaki, Kinya; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi; Aburada, Masaki

    2011-01-01

    It is known that the metabolic syndrome has a multi-factorial basis involving both genetic and environmental risk factors. In this study, Tsumura Suzuki Obese Diabetes (TSOD) mice, a mouse model of multi-factorial, hereditary, obese type II diabetes, were given a Western diet (WTD) as an environmental factor to prepare a disease model (TSOD-WTD) and to investigate the preventive effects of Pine bark extract (Flavangenol) against obesity and various features of metabolic disease appearing in this animal model. In contrast to control Tsumura Suzuki Non-obesity (TSNO) mice, TSOD mice were obese and suffered from other metabolic complications. WTD-fed TSOD mice developed additional features such as hyperinsulinemia, abnormal glucose/lipid metabolism and fatty liver. The treatment with Flavangenol had a suppressive effect on increase in body weight and accumulation of visceral and subcutaneous fat, and also showed preventive effects on symptoms related to insulin resistance, abnormal glucose/lipid metabolism and hypertension. Flavangenol also increased the plasma concentration of adiponectin and decreased the plasma concentration of TNF-α. We next investigated the effect of Flavangenol on absorption of meal-derived lipids. Flavangenol suppressed absorption of neutral fat in an olive-oil-loading test (in vivo) and showed an inhibitory effect on pancreatic lipase (in vitro). The above results suggest that Flavangenol has a preventive effect on severe metabolic disease due to multiple causes that involve both genetic and environmental risk factors. The mechanism of action might involve a partial suppressive effect of meal-derived lipids on absorption. PMID:21607011

  5. Lobster Tail Ice Formation on Aerosurface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Glace Ice formation commonly refered to as 'Lobster Tail' by scientists and engineers, is caused to form on the leading edge of a aircraft tail section in the icing research tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio.

  6. Environmentally safe design of tailing dams for the management of iron ore tailings in Indian context.

    PubMed

    Ghose, Mrinal K; Sen, P K

    2005-10-01

    The need for the disposal of iron ore tailings in an enviornmentally firiendly manner is of great concern. This paper investigates the soil engineering properties for the construction of iron ore tailing dam, its foundation, construction materials and design data used for the construction analysis of the tailing dam. Geophysical investigations were carried out to establish the bedrock below the spillway. A computer programme taking into account the Swedish Slip Circle Method of analysis was used in the stability analysis of dam. It also focuses on the charactierstics of the tailings reponsible for the determination of optimum size of tailing pond for the containment of the tailings. The studies on the settling characteristics of tailings indicate much less area in comparison to the area provided in the existing tailing ponds in India. In the proposed scheme, it is suggested to provide an additional unit of sedimentation tank before the disposal of tailings to the tailing pond.

  7. Instanton calculus of Lifshitz tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaida, Sho

    2016-02-01

    Some degree of quenched disorder is present in nearly all solids, and can have a marked impact on their macroscopic properties. A manifestation of this effect is the Lifshitz tail of localized states that then gets attached to the energy spectrum, resulting in the nonzero density of states in the band gap. We present here a systematic approach for deriving the asymptotic behavior of the density of states and of the typical shape of the disorder potentials in the Lifshitz tail. The analysis is carried out first for the well-controlled case of noninteracting particles moving in a Gaussian random potential and then for a broad class of disordered scale-invariant models—pertinent to a variety of systems ranging from semiconductors to semimetals to quantum critical systems. For relevant Gaussian disorder, we obtain the general expression for the density of states deep in the tail, with the rate of exponential suppression governed by the dynamical exponent and spatial dimensions. For marginally relevant disorder, however, we would expect a power-law scaling. We discuss the implications of these results for understanding conduction in disordered materials.

  8. Direct actin binding to A- and B-type lamin tails and actin filament bundling by the lamin A tail

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Dan N; Zastrow, Michael S

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear intermediate filament networks formed by A- and B-type lamins are major components of the nucleoskeleton. Lamins have growing links to human physiology and disease including Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD), lipodystrophy, cardiomyopathy, neuropathy, cerebellar disorders and segmental accelerated ‘aging’ syndromes. How lamins interact with other nucleoskeletal components, and even the identities of these other components, are open questions. Previous studies suggested lamins might bind actin. We report that the recombinant C-terminal tail domain of human A- and B-type lamins binds directly to purified actin in high-speed pelleting assays. This interaction maps to a conserved Actin Binding site (AB-1) comprising lamin A residues 461–536 in the Ig-fold domain, which are 54% identical in lamin B1. Two EDMD-causing missense mutations (R527P and L530P) in lamin A that are predicted to disrupt the Ig-fold, each reduced F-actin binding by ∼66%, whereas the surface-exposed lipodystrophy-causing R482Q mutation had no significant effect. The lamin A tail was unique among lamins in having a second actin-binding site (AB-2). This second site was mapped to lamin A tail residues 564–608, based on actin-binding results for the lamin C tail and internal deletions in the lamin A tail that cause Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (Δ35, Δ50) or restrictive dermopathy (Δ90). Supporting the presence of two actin-binding sites, recombinant precursor (unmodified) and mature lamin A tails (not C or B1 tails) each bundled F-actin in vitro: furthermore F-actin bundling was reduced 25–40% by the R527P, L530P, Δ35 and Δ50 mutations, and was abolished by Δ90. Unexpectedly, the mature lamin A tail bound F-actin significantly more efficiently than did the prelamin A tail; this suggested unmodified residues 647–664, unique to prelamin A, might auto-inhibit binding to actin (and potentially other partners). These biochemical results suggest direct mechanisms

  9. The hydrogeology of a tailings impoundment formed by central discharge of thickened tailings: implications for tailings management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al, Tom A.; Blowes, David W.

    1999-06-01

    The Kidd Creek Cu-Zn sulfide mine is located near Timmins, Ontario. Mill tailings are thickened and deposited as a slurry in a circular impoundment with an area of approximately 1200 ha. Deposition of tailings as a thickened slurry from a central discharge ramp results in a conical-shaped tailings deposit with low perimeter dykes, a uniform grain-size distribution, uniform and low hydraulic conductivity, and a tension-saturated zone above the water table up to 5 to 6 m thick. These characteristics provide benefits over conventionally disposed tailings with respect to tailings management. The thick tension-saturated zone within the tailings limits the thickness of unsaturated tailings that are susceptible to rapid sulfide oxidation. The conical shape of the deposit results in the formation of a recharge area near the centre of the impoundment and discharge in the peripheral areas. In contrast, the elevated nature of many conventional, unthickened tailings impoundments results in recharge over most of the surface of the impoundment, with discharge occurring outside the impoundment through large containment dykes. Three-dimensional pore water flow modelling suggests that approximately 90% of the total discharge from the thickened tailings occurs within the tailings impoundment. When discharge is confined within the impoundment, there is improved control over low-quality effluent, and an opportunity to design passive control measures to reduce treatment costs and minimize environmental impacts.

  10. Uranium mill tailings neutralization: contaminant complexation and tailings leaching studies

    SciTech Connect

    Opitz, B.E.; Dodson, M.E.; Serne, R.J.

    1985-05-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed to compare the effectiveness of limestone (CaCO/sub 3/) and hydrated lime (Ca(OH)/sub 2/) for improving waste water quality through the neutralization of acidic uranium mill tailings liquor. The experiments were designed to also assess the effects of three proposed mechanisms - carbonate complexation, elevated pH, and colloidal particle adsorption - on the solubility of toxic contaminants found in a typical uranium mill waste solution. Of special interest were the effects each of these possible mechanisms had on the solution concentrations of trace metals such as Cd, Co, Mo, Zn, and U after neutralization. Results indicated that the neutralization of acidic tailings to a pH of 7.3 using hydrated lime provided the highest overall waste water quality. Both the presence of a carbonate source or elevating solution pH beyond pH = 7.3 resulted in a lowering of previously achieved water quality, while adsorption of contaminants onto colloidal particles was not found to affect the solution concentration of any constituent investigated. 24 refs., 8 figs., 19 tabs.

  11. Ecotechnological approach for consolidation of uranium tailings.

    PubMed

    Soni, Prafulla; Singh, Lal

    2011-07-01

    Present study has been undertaken to consolidate radioactivity in uranium mill tailings at Jaduguda, Jharkhand, India.Tailings that remain after processing of ore are released in tailing ponds specially designed for the purpose. The degraded tailing ponds have been capped with 30 cm. thick soil cover. For cosolidation of radioactivity in the tailings firstly the selected plant species should not have any socioeconomic relevance in that area and secondly, uptake of uranium by selected plants has to be low to avoid its dissemination in any form in environment. Seven native plant species of forestry origin were used for experimental trials. Above ground growth has been measured for two years under ex- situ and in- situ conditions. Distribution and concentration of uranium have been evaluated in tailing pond soil as well as tailings. Uranium uptake by plants has been evaluated and discussed in this paper. The highest concentration of uranium has been found in the order as: in tailings > soil cover on tailings > roots of selected plant species > shoots of all the selected species. These results show that among seven species tried Jatropha gossypifolia and Furcraea foetida have lowest uptake (below detectable limit), while Saccharum spontaneum and Pogostemon benghalense have comparatively higher uptake among the studied species.

  12. A Tale of Two Tails: Exploring Stellar Populations in the Tidal Tails of NGC 3256

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodruck, Michael; Charlton, Jane C.; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis

    2016-01-01

    Galaxy interactions can inject material into the intergalactic medium via violent gravitational dynamics, often visualized in tidal tails. The composition of these tails has remained a mystery, as previous studies have focused on detecting tidal features, rather than the composite material itself. We have developed an observing program using deep, multiband imaging to probe the chaotic regions of tidal tails in search for an underlying stellar population. NGC 3256's twin tidal tails serve as a case study for this new technique. Our results show color values of u - g = 1.15 and r - i = 0.08 for the Western tail, and u - g = 1.33 and r - i = 0.22 for the Eastern tail, corresponding to discrepant ages between the tails of approximately 320 Myr and 785 Myr, respectively. With the interaction age of the system measured at 400 Myr, we find the stellar light in Western tail to be dominated by disrupted star clusters formed during and after the interaction, whereas the light from the Eastern tail is dominated by a 10 Gyr population originating from the host galaxies. We fit the Eastern tail color to a Mixed Stellar Population (MSP) model comprised 94% by mass of a 10 Gyr stellar population, and 6% of a 309 Myr population. We find 52% of the bolometric flux originating from this 10 Gyr population. We also detect a blue to red color gradient in each tail, running from galactic center to tail tip. In addition to tidal tail light, we detect 29 star cluster candidates (SCCs) in the Western tail and 19 in the Eastern, with mean ages of 282 Myr and 98 Myr respectively. Interestingly, we find an excess of very blue SCCs in the Eastern tail as compared to the Western tail, marking a recent, small episode of star formation.

  13. Plakophilins, desmogleins, and pemphigus: the tail wagging the dog

    PubMed Central

    Ellebrecht, Christoph T.; Payne, Aimee S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The importance of desmosomal cell adhesion to human health is evidenced by the autoimmune disease pemphigus vulgaris (PV), in which autoantibodies against the extracellular domain of the desmosomal cadherin desmoglein 3 cause potentially fatal blistering of the skin and mucous membranes. Tucker et al. describe how enhanced expression of a desmosomal cytoplasmic plaque protein, plakophilin-1, protects keratinocytes from PV IgG-induced loss of cell adhesion by inducing calcium-independent hyperadhesive desmosomes. This study beautifully demonstrates that desmosomal adhesion can be modulated by the molecular interactions of the desmoglein tail and suggests that these novel regulatory pathways may possibly be exploited in treating human disease. PMID:24646797

  14. Plakophilins, desmogleins, and pemphigus: the tail wagging the dog.

    PubMed

    Ellebrecht, Christoph T; Payne, Aimee S

    2014-04-01

    The importance of desmosomal cell adhesion to human health is evidenced by the autoimmune disease pemphigus vulgaris (PV), in which autoantibodies against the extracellular domain of the desmosomal cadherin desmoglein 3 cause potentially fatal blistering of the skin and mucous membranes. Tucker et al. describe how enhanced expression of a desmosomal cytoplasmic plaque protein, plakophilin-1, protects keratinocytes from PV IgG-induced loss of cell adhesion by inducing calcium-independent hyperadhesive desmosomes. This study beautifully demonstrates that desmosomal adhesion can be modulated by the molecular interactions of the desmoglein tail and suggests that these novel regulatory pathways may possibly be exploited in treating human disease.

  15. Integrative biology of tail autotomy in lizards.

    PubMed

    Higham, Timothy E; Russell, Anthony P; Zani, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    Self-amputation (autotomy) of the tail is essential for the survival of many lizards. Accordingly, it has garnered the attention of scientists for more than 200 years. Several factors can influence the release of the tail, such as the size, sex, and age of the lizard; type of predator; ecology; and evolutionary history of the lineage. Once lost, the tail will writhe for seconds to minutes, and these movements likely depend on the size and physiology of the tail, habitat of the lizard, and predation pressure. Loss of the tail will, in turn, have impacts on the lizard, such as modified locomotor performance and mechanics, as well as escape behavior. However, the tail is almost always regenerated, and this involves wound healing, altered investment of resources, and tissue differentiation. The regenerated tail generally differs from the original in several ways, including size, shape, and function. Here we summarize recent findings of research pertaining to tail autotomy, and we propose a framework for future investigations.

  16. Faun tail nevus with aplasia cutis congenita.

    PubMed

    Chander, Ram; Jain, Arpita; Jaykar, Kranti; Garg, Taru; Anand, Rama

    2009-01-01

    Faun tail nevus describes abnormal lumbar hypertrichosis, which may overlie on occult spinal abnormality and be a marker of asymptomatic underlying spinal dysraphism. We report a case of faun tail nevus, with dermal pits along with aplasia cutis congenita and asymptomatic spina bifida occulta, tethered conus, and diastematomyelia, a constellation of findings which to our knowledge has not been previously reported.

  17. TNF is required for the induction but not the maintenance of compression-induced BME signals in murine tail vertebrae: limitations of anti-TNF therapy for degenerative disc disease.

    PubMed

    Papuga, M Owen; Kwok, Edmund; You, Zhigang; Rubery, Paul T; Dougherty, Paul E; Pryhuber, Gloria; Beck, Christopher A; Hilton, Matthew J; Awad, Hani A; Schwarz, Edward M

    2011-09-01

    While bone marrow edema (BME) is diagnostic of spondyloarthropathy, its nature remains poorly understood. In contrast, BME in ankylosing spondylitis is caused by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced vascular and cellular changes. To investigate the relationship between chronic compression and TNF signaling in compression-induced BME we utilized a tail vertebrae compression model with WT, TNF-Tg, and TNFR1&2-/- mice to evaluate: (i) healing following release of chronic compression, (ii) induction of BME in the absence of TNFR, and (iii) efficacy of anti-TNF therapy. Compression-induced normalized marrow contrast enhancement (NMCE) in WT was significantly decreased threefold (p < 0.01) within 2 weeks of release, while the NMCE values in TNF-Tg vertebrae remained elevated, but had a significant decrease (p < 0.05) by 6 weeks after the release of compression. TNFR1&2-/- mice were resistant to compression-induced BME. Anti-TNF therapy did not affect NMCE versus placebo. Histological examination revealed that NMCE values significantly correlated with marrow vascularity and cellularity (p < 0.05), which account for 76% of the variability of NMCE. Collectively, these data demonstrate a critical role for TNF in the induction of chronic compression-induced BME, but not in its maintenance. Amelioration of BME is achieved through biomechanical stability, but is not affected by anti-TNF therapy.

  18. Artificial inoculation-perspectives in tailings phytostabilization.

    PubMed

    Petrisor, Ioana G; Dobrota, Smaranda; Komnitsas, Kostas; Lazar, Ioan; Kuperberg, J Michael; Serban, Mihai

    2004-01-01

    Intensive mining and processing activities worldwide resulted in the generation of huge amounts of waste (tailings), generally characterized as toxic, radioactive, and/or hazardous. The exposure potential and, hence, the risk posed by such wastes is enhanced by a general lack of vegetation. Phytostabilization has proven to be efficient in reducing this risk. However, establishing vegetation on tailing dumps may be expensive due to the intensive use of amendments and chemical fertilizers. In this article, investigations on artificial inoculation of mine tailings with bacterial strains as a means to improve the development of vegetative covers and reduce application cost by eliminating chemical fertilization are presented and discussed. The development of plants and microbial communities from tailings, as well as the impact of inoculation on metal uptake in plants, were studied. Experiments were carried out in greenhouse using two types of mine tailings (phosphogypsum and sulphidic tailings) from the Romanian Black Sea coast. Indigenous herbaceous plants were cultivated on tailings with the addition of chemical fertilizers versus bacterial inoculation. After a 6-month experimental period, excellent plant growth, which is associated with a rich microbial community, was observed in all inoculated treatments, in contrast with poor plant growth and microbiota from the chemical fertilization treatments alone. Additionally, artificial inoculation improved plant resistance to heavy metals by reducing the uptake of some toxic metals. Once a rich microbial community is established, inoculation may be discontinued. Based on these results, efficient and cost-effective phytostabilization schemes can be proposed.

  19. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    The Grand Junction site has been reevaluated in order to revise the October 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Grand Junction, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.9 million tons of tailings at the Grand Junction site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The eight alternative actions presented herein range from millsite and off-site decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through VIII). Cost estimates for the eight options range from about $10,200,000 for stabilization in-place to about $39,500,000 for disposal in the DeBeque area, at a distance of about 35 mi, using transportation by rail. If transportation to DeBeque were by truck, the cost estimated to be about $41,900,000. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Grand Junction tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; (b) treatment at an existing mill; and (c) reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $200/lb by heap leach and $150/lb by conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery appears not to be economically attractive.

  20. Wind-tunnel Investigation of End-plate Effects of Horizontal Tails on a Vertical Tail Compared with Available Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Harry E

    1946-01-01

    A vertical-tail model with stub fuselage was tested in combination with various simulated horizontal tails to determine the effect of horizontal-tail span and location on the aerodynamic characteristics of the vertical tail. Available theoretical data on end-plate effects were collected and presented in the form most suitable for design purposes. Reasonable agreement was obtained between the measured and theoretical end-plate effects of horizontal tails on vertical tails, and the data indicated that the end-plate effect was determined more by the location of the horizontal tail than by the span of the horizontal tail. The horizontal tail gave most end-plate effect when located near either tip of the vertical tail and, when located near the base of the vertical tail, the end-plate effect was increased by moving the horizontal tail rearward.

  1. Tail loss compromises immunity in the many-lined skink, Eutropis multifasciata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Chi-Chien; Yao, Chiou-Ju; Lin, Te-En; Liu, Hsu-Che; Hsu, Yu-Cheng; Hsieh, Ming-Kun; Huang, Wen-San

    2013-04-01

    Tail autotomy incurs energetic costs, and thus, a trade-off in resource allocation may lead to compromised immunity in lizards. We tested the hypothesis that tailless lizards will favor constitutive innate immunity responses over an energetically costly inflammatory response. The influence of fasting and colorful ornamentation was also investigated. We experimentally induced tail autotomy in the lizard Eutropis multifasciata and found that inflammation was suppressed by tail loss, but not further affected by fasting; the suppressive effect of colorful ornamentation was manifested only in males, but not in females. Constitutive innate immunity was not affected by any of these factors. As expected, only costly inflammation was compromised, and a less expensive constitutive innate immunity might be favored as a competent first-line defense during energetically demanding periods. After considering conventional trade-offs among tail regeneration and reproduction, further extending these studies to incorporate disease risk and how this influences escape responses to predators and future reproduction would make worthwhile studies.

  2. Fish 'tails' result from outgrowth and reduction of two separate ancestral tails.

    PubMed

    Sallan, Lauren

    2016-12-05

    The symmetrical, flexible teleost fish 'tail' has been a prime example of recapitulation - evolutionary change (phylogeny) mirrored in development (ontogeny). Paleozoic ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii), relatives of teleosts, exhibited ancestral scale-covered tails curved over their caudal fins. For over 150 years, this arrangement was thought to be retained in teleost larva and overgrown, mirroring an ancestral transformation series. New ontogenetic data for the 350-million-year-old teleost relative Aetheretmon overturns this long-held hypothesis. The ancestral state consists of two outgrowths with distinct organizers and growth trajectories; a lower median fin turned caudal fin, and an upper vertebrae-bearing tail, equivalent to that of tetrapods. These two tails appear at a shared developmental stage in Aetheretmon, teleosts and all living actinopterygians. Ontogeny does not recapitulate phylogeny; instead, differential outgrowth determines final morphology. In Aetheretmon and other Paleozoic fishes, the vertebrae-bearing tail continues to grow beyond the caudal fin. In teleosts, and some others, a stunted tail is eclipsed by the upward-expanding caudal fin, rendering a once ventral body margin as the terminus. The double tail likely reflects the ancestral state for bony fishes. Many tetrapods and non-teleost actinopterygians have undergone body elongation through tail outgrowth extension, by mechanisms likely shared with distal limbs. Teleosts have gone to the other extreme; losing tail outgrowth for functional reasons. Recognition of the tail as a limb-like outgrowth has important implications for the evolution of vertebrate form.

  3. Moulting tail feathers in a juvenile oviraptorisaur.

    PubMed

    Prum, Richard O

    2010-11-04

    Xu et al. describe the extraordinarily preserved feathers from two subadults of the oviraptorisaur Similicaudipteryx from the Yixian Formation of Liaoning, China. The preserved tail feathers of the juvenile specimen (STM4.1) show a morphology not previously observed in any fossil feathers. The tail feathers of an older, immature specimen (STM22-6) show a typical closed pennaceous structure with a prominent, planar vane. I propose that the feathers of the tail of the juvenile specimen are not a specialized feather generation, but fossilized 'pin feathers' or developing feather germs.

  4. Variation in Salamander Tail Regeneration Is Associated with Genetic Factors That Determine Tail Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Gareth J.; Kump, D. Kevin; Walker, John A.; Voss, S. Randal

    2013-01-01

    Very little is known about the factors that cause variation in regenerative potential within and between species. Here, we used a genetic approach to identify heritable genetic factors that explain variation in tail regenerative outgrowth. A hybrid ambystomatid salamander (Ambystoma mexicanum x A. andersoni) was crossed to an A. mexicanum and 217 offspring were induced to undergo metamorphosis and attain terrestrial adult morphology using thyroid hormone. Following metamorphosis, each salamander’s tail tip was amputated and allowed to regenerate, and then amputated a second time and allowed to regenerate. Also, DNA was isolated from all individuals and genotypes were determined for 187 molecular markers distributed throughout the genome. The area of tissue that regenerated after the first and second amputations was highly positively correlated across males and females. Males presented wider tails and regenerated more tail tissue during both episodes of regeneration. Approximately 66–68% of the variation in regenerative outgrowth was explained by tail width, while tail length and genetic sex did not explain a significant amount of variation. A small effect QTL was identified as having a sex-independent effect on tail regeneration, but this QTL was only identified for the first episode of regeneration. Several molecular markers significantly affected regenerative outgrowth during both episodes of regeneration, but the effect sizes were small (<4%) and correlated with tail width. The results show that ambysex and minor effect QTL explain variation in adult tail morphology and importantly, tail width. In turn, tail width at the amputation plane largely determines the rate of regenerative outgrowth. Because amputations in this study were made at approximately the same position of the tail, our results resolve an outstanding question in regenerative biology: regenerative outgrowth positively co-varies as a function of tail width at the amputation site. PMID:23843997

  5. Variation in salamander tail regeneration is associated with genetic factors that determine tail morphology.

    PubMed

    Voss, Gareth J; Kump, D Kevin; Walker, John A; Voss, S Randal

    2013-01-01

    Very little is known about the factors that cause variation in regenerative potential within and between species. Here, we used a genetic approach to identify heritable genetic factors that explain variation in tail regenerative outgrowth. A hybrid ambystomatid salamander (Ambystoma mexicanum x A. andersoni) was crossed to an A. mexicanum and 217 offspring were induced to undergo metamorphosis and attain terrestrial adult morphology using thyroid hormone. Following metamorphosis, each salamander's tail tip was amputated and allowed to regenerate, and then amputated a second time and allowed to regenerate. Also, DNA was isolated from all individuals and genotypes were determined for 187 molecular markers distributed throughout the genome. The area of tissue that regenerated after the first and second amputations was highly positively correlated across males and females. Males presented wider tails and regenerated more tail tissue during both episodes of regeneration. Approximately 66-68% of the variation in regenerative outgrowth was explained by tail width, while tail length and genetic sex did not explain a significant amount of variation. A small effect QTL was identified as having a sex-independent effect on tail regeneration, but this QTL was only identified for the first episode of regeneration. Several molecular markers significantly affected regenerative outgrowth during both episodes of regeneration, but the effect sizes were small (<4%) and correlated with tail width. The results show that ambysex and minor effect QTL explain variation in adult tail morphology and importantly, tail width. In turn, tail width at the amputation plane largely determines the rate of regenerative outgrowth. Because amputations in this study were made at approximately the same position of the tail, our results resolve an outstanding question in regenerative biology: regenerative outgrowth positively co-varies as a function of tail width at the amputation site.

  6. Physical space and long-tail markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, R. Alexander; Madsen, Mark E.; Ormerod, Paul

    2009-03-01

    The Internet is known to have had a powerful impact on on-line retailer strategies in markets characterised by long-tail distribution of sales [C. Anderson, Long Tail: Why the Future of Business is Selling Less of More, Hyperion, New York, 2006]. Such retailers can exploit the long tail of the market, since they are effectively without physical limit on the number of choices on offer. Here we examine two extensions of this phenomenon. First, we introduce turnover into the long-tail distribution of sales. Although over any given period such as a week or a month, the distribution is right-skewed and often power law distributed, over time there is considerable turnover in the rankings of sales of individual products. Second, we establish some initial results on the implications for shelf-space and physical retailers in such markets.

  7. The Distant Sodium Tail of Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.; Morgan, T. H.

    2001-01-01

    Models of the sodium atmosphere of Mercury predict the possible existence of a cornet-like sodium tail. Detection and mapping of the predicted sodium tail would provide quantitative data on the energy of the process that produces sodium atoms from the planetary surface. Previous efforts to detect the sodium tail by means of observations done during daylight hours have been only partially successful because scattered sunlight obscured the weak sodium emissions in the tail. However, at greatest eastern elongation around the March equinox in the northern hemisphere, Mercury can be seen as an evening star in astronomical twilight. At this time, the intensity of scattered sunlight is low enough that sodium emissions as low as 500 Rayleighs can be detected. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  8. Comment on "Tail reconnection triggering substorm onset".

    PubMed

    Lui, A T Y

    2009-06-12

    Angelopoulos et al. (Research Articles, 15 August 2008, p. 931) reported that magnetic reconnection in Earth's magnetotail triggered the onset of a magnetospheric substorm. We provide evidence that (i) near-Earth current disruption, occurring before the conventional tail reconnection signatures, triggered the onset; (ii) the observed auroral intensification and tail reconnection are not causally linked; and (iii) the onset they identified is a continuation of earlier substorm activities.

  9. Shake a Tail Feather: The Evolution of the Theropod Tail into a Stiff Aerodynamic Surface

    PubMed Central

    Pittman, Michael; Gatesy, Stephen M.; Upchurch, Paul; Goswami, Anjali; Hutchinson, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Theropod dinosaurs show striking morphological and functional tail variation; e.g., a long, robust, basal theropod tail used for counterbalance, or a short, modern avian tail used as an aerodynamic surface. We used a quantitative morphological and functional analysis to reconstruct intervertebral joint stiffness in the tail along the theropod lineage to extant birds. This provides new details of the tail’s morphological transformation, and for the first time quantitatively evaluates its biomechanical consequences. We observe that both dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness decreased along the non-avian theropod lineage (between nodes Theropoda and Paraves). Our results show how the tail structure of non-avian theropods was mechanically appropriate for holding itself up against gravity and maintaining passive balance. However, as dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness decreased, the tail may have become more effective for dynamically maintaining balance. This supports our hypothesis of a reduction of dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness in shorter tails. Along the avian theropod lineage (Avialae to crown group birds), dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness increased overall, which appears to contradict our null expectation. We infer that this departure in joint stiffness is specific to the tail’s aerodynamic role and the functional constraints imposed by it. Increased dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness may have facilitated a gradually improved capacity to lift, depress, and swing the tail. The associated morphological changes should have resulted in a tail capable of producing larger muscular forces to utilise larger lift forces in flight. Improved joint mobility in neornithine birds potentially permitted an increase in the range of lift force vector orientations, which might have improved flight proficiency and manoeuvrability. The tail morphology of modern birds with tail fanning capabilities originated in early ornithuromorph birds. Hence

  10. The Sodium Tail of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matta, M.; Smith, S.; Baumgardner, J.; Wilson, J.; Martinis, C.; Mendillo, M.

    2009-01-01

    During the few days centered about new Moon, the lunar surface is optically hidden from Earth-based observers. However, the Moon still offers an observable: an extended sodium tail. The lunar sodium tail is the escaping "hot" component of a coma-like exosphere of sodium generated by photon-stimulated desorption, solar wind sputtering and meteoroid impact. Neutral sodium atoms escaping lunar gravity experience solar radiation pressure that drives them into the anti-solar direction forming a comet-like tail. During new Moon time, the geometry of the Sun, Moon and Earth is such that the anti-sunward sodium flux is perturbed by the terrestrial gravitational field resulting in its focusing into a dense core that extends beyond the Earth. An all-sky camera situated at the El Leoncito Observatory (CASLEO) in Argentina has been successfully imaging this tail through a sodium filter at each lunation since April 2006. This paper reports on the results of the brightness of the lunar sodium tail spanning 31 lunations between April 2006 and September 2008. Brightness variability trends are compared with both sporadic and shower meteor activity, solar wind proton energy flux and solar near ultra violet (NUV) patterns for possible correlations. Results suggest minimal variability in the brightness of the observed lunar sodium tail, generally uncorrelated with any single source, yet consistent with a multi-year period of minimal solar activity and non-intense meteoric fluxes.

  11. Electrodialytic remediation of copper mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Henrik K; Rojo, Adrián; Ottosen, Lisbeth M

    2005-01-31

    Mining activities in Chile have generated large amounts of solid waste, which have been deposited in mine tailing impoundments. These impoundments cause concern to the communities due to dam failures or natural leaching to groundwater and rivers. This work shows the laboratory results of nine electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. The results show that electric current could remove copper from watery tailing if the potential gradient was higher than 2 V/cm during 21 days. With addition of sulphuric acid, the process was enhanced because the pH decreased to around 4, and the copper by this reason was released in the solution. Furthermore, with acidic tailing the potential gradient was less than 2 V/cm. The maximum copper removal reached in the anode side was 53% with addition of sulphuric acid in 21 days experiment at 20 V using approximately 1.8 kg mine tailing on dry basis. In addition, experiments with acidic tailing show that the copper removal is proportional with time.

  12. Four tails problems for dynamical collapse theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQueen, Kelvin J.

    2015-02-01

    The primary quantum mechanical equation of motion entails that measurements typically do not have determinate outcomes, but result in superpositions of all possible outcomes. Dynamical collapse theories (e.g. GRW) supplement this equation with a stochastic Gaussian collapse function, intended to collapse the superposition of outcomes into one outcome. But the Gaussian collapses are imperfect in a way that leaves the superpositions intact. This is the tails problem. There are several ways of making this problem more precise. But many authors dismiss the problem without considering the more severe formulations. Here I distinguish four distinct tails problems. The first (bare tails problem) and second (structured tails problem) exist in the literature. I argue that while the first is a pseudo-problem, the second has not been adequately addressed. The third (multiverse tails problem) reformulates the second to account for recently discovered dynamical consequences of collapse. Finally the fourth (tails problem dilemma) shows that solving the third by replacing the Gaussian with a non-Gaussian collapse function introduces new conflict with relativity theory.

  13. Control of Ticks on White-tailed Deer and Other Ungulate Wildlife - Host-targeted Control of Field Populations of Blacklegged and Lone Star Ticks to Reduce the Risk of Tick-borne Disease Transmission

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the continuing progression of blacklegged ticks and the agents causing Lyme disease from infestations in Maryland southward into Virginia, many citizens living in northern Virginia have asked the Governor for ARS-Patented ‘4-Poster’ Deer Treatment Stations to be deployed as an aid in reducing t...

  14. 14 CFR 23.481 - Tail down landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and tail wheels contact the ground simultaneously. (2) For airplanes with nose wheels, a stalling.... (b) For airplanes with either tail or nose wheels, ground reactions are assumed to be vertical, with... Ground Loads § 23.481 Tail down landing conditions. (a) For a tail down landing, the airplane is...

  15. 14 CFR 23.481 - Tail down landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and tail wheels contact the ground simultaneously. (2) For airplanes with nose wheels, a stalling.... (b) For airplanes with either tail or nose wheels, ground reactions are assumed to be vertical, with... Ground Loads § 23.481 Tail down landing conditions. (a) For a tail down landing, the airplane is...

  16. 14 CFR 23.481 - Tail down landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and tail wheels contact the ground simultaneously. (2) For airplanes with nose wheels, a stalling.... (b) For airplanes with either tail or nose wheels, ground reactions are assumed to be vertical, with... Ground Loads § 23.481 Tail down landing conditions. (a) For a tail down landing, the airplane is...

  17. Phytoremediation of Alberta oil sand tailings using native plants and fungal endophytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repas, T.; Germida, J.; Kaminskyj, S.

    2012-04-01

    Fungal endophytes colonize host plants without causing disease. Some endophytes confer plant tolerance to harsh environments. One such endophyte, Trichoderma harzianum strain TSTh20-1, was isolated from a plant growing on Athabasca oil sand tailings. Tailing sands are a high volume waste product from oil sand extraction that the industry is required to remediate. Tailing sands are low in organic carbon and mineral nutrients, and are hydrophobic due to residual polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Typically, tailing sands are remediated by planting young trees in large quantities of mulch plus mineral fertilizer, which is costly and labour intensive. In greenhouse trials, TSTh20-1 supports growth of tomato seedlings on tailing sands without fertilizer. The potential use of TSTh20-1 in combination with native grasses and forbs to remediate under field conditions is being assessed. Twenty-three commercially available plant species are being screened for seed germination and growth on tailing sands in the presence of TSTh20-1. The best candidates from this group will be used in greenhouse and small scale field trials. Potential mechanisms that contribute to endophyte-induced plant growth promotion, such as plant hormone production, stress tolerance, mineral solubilization, and uptake are also being assessed. As well, TSTh20-1 appears to be remarkably frugal in its nutrient requirements and the possibility that this attribute is characteristic of other plant-fungal endophytes from harsh environments is under study.

  18. 75 FR 62445 - Otter Tail Valley Railroad Company, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-in Otter Tail County, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ... (Sub-No. 4X)] Otter Tail Valley Railroad Company, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-- in Otter Tail County, MN Otter Tail Valley Railroad Company, Inc. (OTVR) filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part... milepost 48.422 near Fergus Falls, and milepost 47.60 near Hoot Lake, in Otter Tail County, Minn.\\1\\...

  19. THE DUST TAIL OF ASTEROID (3200) PHAETHON

    SciTech Connect

    Jewitt, David; Li Jing; Agarwal, Jessica

    2013-07-10

    We report the discovery of a comet-like tail on asteroid (3200) Phaethon when imaged at optical wavelengths near perihelion. In both 2009 and 2012, the tail appears {approx}>350'' (2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} m) in length and extends approximately in the projected anti-solar direction. We interpret the tail as being caused by dust particles accelerated by solar radiation pressure. The sudden appearance and the morphology of the tail indicate that the dust particles are small, with an effective radius {approx}1 {mu}m and a combined mass {approx}3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} kg. These particles are likely products of thermal fracture and/or desiccation cracking under the very high surface temperatures ({approx}1000 K) experienced by Phaethon at perihelion. The existence of the tail confirms earlier inferences about activity in this body based on the detection of anomalous brightening. Phaethon, the presumed source of the Geminid meteoroids, is still active.

  20. Electrodialytic remediation of suspended mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Henrik K; Rojo, Adrian; Pino, Denisse; Ottosen, Lisbeth M; Ribeiro, Alexandra B

    2008-07-01

    This work shows the laboratory results of nine electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. A newly designed remediation cell, where the solids were kept in suspension by airflow, was tested. The results show that electric current could remove copper from suspended tailings applying 40 mA during 7 days. The liquid-to-solid ratios used were 3, 6 and 9 mL g(- 1). With addition of sulfuric acid, the process was enhanced because the pH decreased to either 2 or 4, and copper was therefore dissolved. The maximum copper removal was 80% with addition of sulfuric acid in 7-day experiment at 40 mA, with approximately 137.5 g mine tailings on dry basis. The removal for a static (baseline) experiment only amounted 15% when passing approximately the same amount of charge through 130 g of mine tailings. The use of air bubbling to keep the tailings suspended increased the removal efficiency from 1% to 80% compared to experiments with no stirring but with the same operational conditions. This showed the crucial importance of having the solids in suspension and not settled during the remediation.

  1. On the structure of Titan's tail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bebesi, Z.; Szego, K.; Krupp, N.; Nemeth, Z.; Erdos, G.; Crary, F. J.; Mitchell, D. G.; Krimigis, S. M.

    2012-04-01

    We use measurements of the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer, the Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument and the Magnetometer of the Cassini spacecraft to analyse the structure and composition of the tail section of the induced magnetosphere of Saturn's moon, Titan. The orbital positions of the Titan flybys of Cassini are distributed over various Saturn Local Time regions, so the effects of multiple-source ionization can be studied. We included flybys TA-T78 into the analysis. For many of the encounters the position of the center of the tail differed from that derived from the nominal flow direction, depending on SLT. We compared this with hybrid simulations. We also examined how the different mass particles (m/q=1, 2, 16-19) were distributed in the tail section. During the many tail flybys Titan was close to the plasma sheet of Saturn (for example during T11, T15, T29, T36, T44) hence embedded in a tilted magnetic field and higher density plasma. The possible effects of the Kronian magnetodisk on Titan's tail are discussed.

  2. Mapping eastern equine encephalitis virus risk for white-tailed deer in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Downs, Joni A; Hyzer, Garrett; Marion, Eric; Smith, Zachary J; Kelen, Patrick Vander; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2015-10-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) is a mosquito-borne viral disease that is often fatal to humans and horses. Some species including white-tailed deer and passerine birds can survive infection with the EEE virus (EEEV) and develop antibodies that can be detected using laboratory techniques. In this way, collected serum samples from free ranging white-tailed deer can be used to monitor the presence of the virus in ecosystems. This study developed and tested a risk index model designed to predict EEEV activity in white-tailed deer in a three-county area of Michigan. The model evaluates EEEV risk on a continuous scale from 0.0 (no measurable risk) to 1.0 (highest possible risk). High risk habitats are identified as those preferred by white-tailed deer that are also located in close proximity to an abundance of wetlands and lowland forests, which support disease vectors and hosts. The model was developed based on relevant literature and was tested with known locations of infected deer that showed neurological symptoms. The risk index model accurately predicted the known locations, with the mean value for those sites equal to the 94(th) percentile of values in the study area. The risk map produced by the model could be used refine future EEEV monitoring efforts that use serum samples from free-ranging white-tailed deer to monitor viral activity. Alternatively, it could be used focus educational efforts targeted toward deer hunters that may have elevated risks of infection.

  3. Forest cover influences dispersal distance of white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, E.S.; Diefenbach, D.R.; Rosenberry, C.S.; Wallingford, B.D.; Grund, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    Animal dispersal patterns influence gene flow, disease spread, population dynamics, spread of invasive species, and establishment of rare or endangered species. Although differences in dispersal distances among taxa have been reported, few studies have described plasticity of dispersal distance among populations of a single species. In 2002-2003, we radiomarked 308 juvenile (7- to 10-month-old), male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in 2 study areas in Pennsylvania. By using a meta-analysis approach, we compared dispersal rates and distances from these populations together with published reports of 10 other nonmigratory populations of white-tailed deer. Population density did not influence dispersal rate or dispersal distance, nor did forest cover influence dispersal rate. However, average (r2 = 0.94, P < 0.001, d.f. = 9) and maximum (r2 = 0.86, P = 0.001, d.f. = 7) dispersal distances of juvenile male deer were greater in habitats with less forest cover. Hence, dispersal behavior of this habitat generalist varies, and use of landscape data to predict population-specific dispersal distances may aid efforts to model population spread, gene flow, or disease transmission. ?? 2005 American Society of Mammalogists.

  4. Experimental vertical transmission of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) from brooders to progeny in Macrobrachium rosenbergii and Artemia.

    PubMed

    Sudhakaran, R; Ishaq Ahmed, V P; Haribabu, P; Mukherjee, S C; Sri Widada, J; Bonami, J R; Sahul Hameed, A S

    2007-01-01

    White tail disease (WTD) is a serious problem in hatcheries and nursery ponds of Macrobrachium rosenbergii in India. Experiments were carried out to determine the possibility of vertical transmission of M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) in M. rosenbergii and Artemia. Prawn broodstock inoculated with MrNV and XSV by oral or immersion challenge survived without any clinical signs of WTD. The brooders spawned 5-7 days after inoculation and the eggs hatched. The survival rate of larvae gradually decreased, and 100% mortality was observed at the post-larvae (PL) stage. Whitish muscle, the typical sign of WTD, was seen in advanced larval developmental stages. The ovarian tissue and fertilized eggs were found to be positive for MrNV/XSV by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) whereas the larval stages showed positive by RT nested PCR (nRT-PCR). In Artemia, reproductive cysts and nauplii derived from challenged brooders were normal and survival rates were within the expected range for normal rearing conditions. The reproductive cysts were found to be positive for MrNV/XSV by RT-PCR whereas the nauplii showed MrNV/XSV-positive by nRT-PCR. The PL of M. rosenbergii fed nauplii derived from challenged Artemia brooders died at 9 days post-inoculum with clinical signs of WTD.

  5. Study on the Association between Tail Lesion Score, Cold Carcass Weight, and Viscera Condemnations in Slaughter Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Dayane Lemos; Harley, Sarah; Hanlon, Alison; O’Connell, Niamh Elizabeth; More, Simon John; Manzanilla, Edgar Garcia; Boyle, Laura Ann

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between tail lesions, cold carcass weight, and viscera condemnations in an Irish abattoir. The following data were collected at the evisceration point from every third pig slaughtered over 7 days: farm identification, sex, tail lesion score, viscera inspection outcome, and cold carcass weight. Tail lesions were scored according to a 5-point scale. Disease lesions responsible for lung (pleurisy, pneumonia, and abscess), heart (pericarditis), and liver (ascariasis) condemnation were recorded based on the decision of the veterinary inspector (VI). Data on 3,143 pigs from 61 batches were available. The relationship between disease lesions, tail lesion score, and cold carcass weight was studied at individual carcass level, while the relationship between disease lesions and tail lesion score was studied at both carcass and batch level. Tail lesions (score ≥1) were found in 72% of the study population, with 2.3% affected by severe tail lesions (scores ≥3). Pleurisy (13.7%) followed by pneumonia (10.4%) showed the highest prevalence, whereas the prevalence of ascariasis showed the greatest variation between batches (0–75%). Tail lesion score, pleurisy, pleuropneumonia, and pericarditis were associated with reductions in carcass cold weight (P ≤ 0.05) ranging from 3 to 6.6 kg. Tail lesion score was associated with condemnations for pleurisy, pneumonia, and pleuropneumonia (P ≤ 0.05) at a batch level. VI shift was associated with condemnations for pneumonia, pleuropneumonia, and pericarditis (P ≤ 0.05) at a carcass level and with pneumonia at a batch level. Sex was not associated with viscera condemnations but males were more likely to be affected by tail lesions. The relationship between overall tail lesion score and the lung diseases at batch level supports the relationship between poor health and poor welfare of pigs on farms. The inclusion of tail lesion scores at post-mortem meat inspection

  6. Efficacy of Oral and Parenteral Routes of Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin Vaccination Against Experimental Bovine Tuberculosis in White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): A Feasibility Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the efficacy of oral and parenteral Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin Danish strain 1331 (BCG) in its ability to protect white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) against disease caused by M. bovis infection. Thirty white-tailed deer were divided into four groups. One gr...

  7. Update on vaccination of white-tailed deer with Mycobacterium bovis BCG: Safety and Efficacy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1994, white-tailed deer in northeast Michigan were found to be harboring Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of tuberculosis in most animals including humans. Although deer likely contracted tuberculosis from cattle in the early 20th century, when the disease was present in Michigan cattle, ...

  8. Intra-annual patterns in adult band-tailed pigeon survival estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casazza, Michael L.; Coates, Peter S.; Overton, Cory T.; Howe, Kristy H.

    2015-01-01

    Implications: We present the first inter-seasonal analysis of survival probability of the Pacific coast race of band-tailed pigeons and illustrate important temporal patterns that may influence future species management including harvest strategies and disease monitoring.

  9. Radial tail resolution in the SELEX RICH

    SciTech Connect

    Morelos, A.; Mata, J.; Cooper, P.S.; Engelfried, J.; Aguilera-Servin, J.L.; /San Luis Potosi U. /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    The authors use a 7 Million event data sample of 600 GeV/c single track pion events, where the pion track is reconstructed upstream and downstream of the SELEX RICH. They build the RICH ring radius histogram distribution and count the tail events that fall outside 5{sigma}, giving a fraction of 4 x 10{sup -5} events outside the Gaussian tails. This control of events establishes the ability of using the RICH as velocity spectrometer for high precision searches of the K{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +} {nu}{bar {nu}} decay like it is planned in the CKM experiment.

  10. Pioneer fauna of nepheline-containing tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenkova, I. V.; Kalmykova, V. V.; Liskovaya, A. A.

    2009-08-01

    The zoological analysis of nepheline-containing sands deposited in tailings 10-40 years ago showed that the pioneer colonists of this technogenic substrate are collembolan and mites, whose proportions depend on the succession of the bacterial and fungal components of the microbiota. The pioneer groups of mesofauna on 10- to 30-year-old tailings include carnivorous herpetobiontic arthropods and phytophagous insects. An impoverished version of the fauna of northern-taiga podzols is developed in the sands rehabilitated more than 40 years ago.

  11. Dynamics of Histone Tails within Chromatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernier, Morgan; North, Justin; Page, Michael; Jaroniec, Christopher; Hammel, Christopher; Poirier, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Genetic information in humans is encoded within DNA molecules that is wrapped around histone octamer proteins and compacted into a highly conserved structural polymer, chromatin. The physical and material properties of chromatin appear to influence gene expression by altering the accessibility of proteins to the DNA. The tails of the histones are flexible domains that are thought to play a role in regulating DNA accessibility and compaction; however the molecular mechanisms for these phenomena are not understood. I will present CW-EPR studies on site directed spin labeled nucleosomes that probe the structure and dynamics of these histone tails within nucleosomes.

  12. Tail docking in pigs: acute physiological and behavioural responses.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, M A; Bryer, P J; Krebs, N; McGlone, J J

    2008-02-01

    Tail docking of piglets is a routine procedure on farms to control tail-biting behaviour; however, docking can cause an acute stress response. The objectives of this research were to determine the stress responses to tail docking in piglets and to compare two methods of tail docking; cautery iron (CAUT) and the more commonly used blunt trauma cutters (BT). At approximately 6 days of age, piglets were tail docked using CAUT (n = 20), BT (n = 20) or sham tail docked with their tails remaining intact (CON; n = 40). Blood samples were taken prior to tail docking and at 30, 60 and 90 min after tail docking to evaluate the effect of tail docking on white blood cell (WBC) measures and cortisol concentrations. The above experiment was repeated to observe behaviour without the periodic blood sampling, so as not to confound the effects of blood sampling on piglet behaviour. Piglet behaviour was recorded in the farrowing crate using 1 min scan-samples via live observations for 60 min prior to and 90 min after tail docking. Total WBC counts were reduced (P > 0.05) among BT and CAUT compared with CON piglets 30 min after tail docking. Cortisol concentrations were higher (P < 0.01) among BT compared with CON and CAUT piglets 60 min after tail docking. Cautery and BT-docked piglets spent more (P < 0.05) time posterior scooting compared with CON piglets between 0 and 15 min, and 31 and 45 min after tail docking. Piglets tail docked using CAUT and BT tended to spend more (P < 0.07) time sitting than CON piglets between 0 and 15 min post tail docking. Elevated blood cortisol can be reduced by the use of the CAUT rather than the BT method of tail docking. Although the tail docking-induced rise in cortisol was prevented by using CAUT, the behavioural response to BT and CAUT docking methods was similar.

  13. Prevalence of infectious agents in free-ranging white-tailed deer in northeastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cantu, Antonio; Ortega-S, J Alfonso; Mosqueda, Juan; Garcia-Vazquez, Zeferino; Henke, Scott E; George, John E

    2008-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of antibodies against brucellosis, leptospirosis, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in northeastern Mexico. Deer (n=521) were captured from helicopter using a netgun on 15 ranches covering 62,114 ha in the states of Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, and Tamaulipas during spring 2004. The prevalence of antibodies against Leptospira, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, BVDV, and brucellosis were 5.6, 41.1, 63.5, and 0%, respectively, indicating that white-tailed deer and cattle may share disease agents when cohabiting in northeastern Mexico.

  14. Structural Equation Modeling with Heavy Tailed Distributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Ke-Hai; Bentler, Peter M.; Chan, Wai

    2004-01-01

    Data in social and behavioral sciences typically possess heavy tails. Structural equation modeling is commonly used in analyzing interrelations among variables of such data. Classical methods for structural equation modeling fit a proposed model to the sample covariance matrix, which can lead to very inefficient parameter estimates. By fitting a…

  15. Experiments on a Tail-wheel Shimmy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harling, R; Dietz, O

    1954-01-01

    Model tests on the "running belt" and tests with a full-scale tail wheel were made on a rotating drum as well as on a runway in order to investigate the causes of the undesirable shimmy phenomena frequently occurring on airplane tail wheels, and the means of avoiding them. The small model (scale 1:10) permitted simulation of the mass, moments of inertia, and fuselage stiffness of the airplane and determination of their influence on the shimmy, whereas by means of the larger model with pneumatic tires (scale 1:2) more accurate investigations were made on the tail wheel itself. The results of drum and road tests show good agreement with one another and with model values. Detailed investigations were made regarding the dependence of the shimmy tendency on trail, rolling speed, load, size of tires, ground friction,and inclination of the swivel axis; furthermore, regarding the influence of devices with restoring effect on the tail wheel, and the friction damping required for prevention of shimmy. Finally observations from slow-motion pictures are reported and conclusions drawn concerning the influence of tire deformation.

  16. Mine Waste Technology Program Electrochemical Tailings Cover

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 40, Electrochemical Tailings Cover, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). MSE Technology A...

  17. Review: Observations of recent comets, ion tails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    Photographic plates of the moving structures in the cometary tail are examined. Several divergent explanations for the case of comet Kohoutek are presented. It is suggested that these hypotheses be tested by observing the motion of the material spectroscopically by means of the Doppler effect.

  18. 14 CFR 27.1565 - Tail rotor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tail rotor. 27.1565 Section 27.1565 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... conditions. Rotorcraft Flight Manual and Approved Manual Material...

  19. 14 CFR 27.1565 - Tail rotor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tail rotor. 27.1565 Section 27.1565 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... conditions. Rotorcraft Flight Manual and Approved Manual Material...

  20. 14 CFR 27.1565 - Tail rotor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tail rotor. 27.1565 Section 27.1565 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... conditions. Rotorcraft Flight Manual and Approved Manual Material...

  1. Equilibrium Tail Distribution Due to Touschek Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Nash,B.; Krinsky, S.

    2009-05-04

    Single large angle Coulomb scattering is referred to as Touschek scattering. In addition to causing particle loss when the scattered particles are outside the momentum aperture, the process also results in a non-Gaussian tail, which is an equilibrium between the Touschek scattering and radiation damping. Here we present an analytical calculation for this equilibrium distribution.

  2. Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID) tail camera video

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID) was a joint research project by NASA and the FAA to test a survivable aircraft impact using a remotely piloted Boeing 720 aircraft. The tail camera movie is one shot running 27 seconds. It shows the impact from the perspective of a camera mounted high on the vertical stabilizer, looking forward over the fuselage and wings.

  3. Structure and stability of the lamin A tail domain and HGPS mutant.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zhao; Kalinowski, Agnieszka; Dahl, Kris Noel; Buehler, Markus J

    2011-09-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a premature aging syndrome caused by the expression and accumulation of a mutant form of lamin A, Δ50 lamin A. As a component of the cell's nucleoskeleton, lamin A plays an important role in the mechanical stabilization of the nuclear envelope and in other nuclear functions. It is largely unknown how the characteristic 50 amino acid deletion affects the conformation of the mostly intrinsically disordered tail domain of lamin A. Here we perform replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations of the tail domain and determine an ensemble of semi-stable structures. Based on these structures we show that the ZMPSTE 24 cleavage site on the precursor form of the lamin A tail domain orients itself in such a way as to facilitate cleavage during the maturation process. We confirm our simulated structures by comparing the thermodynamic properties of the ensemble structures to in vitro stability measurements. Using this combination of experimental and computational techniques, we compare the size, heterogeneity of size, thermodynamic stability of the Ig-fold, as well as the mechanisms of force-induced denaturation. Our data shows that the Δ50 lamin A tail domain is more compact and displays less heterogeneity than the mature lamin A tail domain. Altogether these results suggest that the altered structure and stability of the tail domain can explain changed protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions and may represent an etiology of the disease. Also, this study provides the first molecular structure(s) of the lamin A tail domain, which is confirmed by thermodynamic tests in experiment.

  4. Histone H2A mobility is regulated by its tails and acetylation of core histone tails

    SciTech Connect

    Higashi, Tsunehito; Matsunaga, Sachihiro; Isobe, Keisuke; Morimoto, Akihiro; Shimada, Tomoko; Kataoka, Shogo; Watanabe, Wataru; Uchiyama, Susumu; Itoh, Kazuyoshi; Fukui, Kiichi . E-mail: kfukui@bio.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2007-06-08

    Histone tail domains play important roles in cellular processes, such as replication, transcription, and chromosome condensation. Histone H2A has one central and two tail domains, and their functions have mainly been studied from a biochemical perspective. In addition, analyses based on visualization have been employed for functional analysis of some chromatin proteins. In this study, we analyzed histone H2A mobility in vivo by two-photon FRAP, and elucidated that the histone H2A N- and C-terminal tails regulate its mobility. We found that histone H2A mobility was increased following treatment of host cells with a histone deacetylase inhibitor. Our results support a model in which core histone tails directly regulate transcription by interacting with nucleosome DNA via electrostatic interactions.

  5. Cumulative incidence and risk factors for limber tail in the Dogslife labrador retriever cohort

    PubMed Central

    de C. Bronsvoort, B. M.; Handel, I. G.; Rose, E.; Summers, K.; Clements, D. N.

    2016-01-01

    Limber tail is a condition that typically affects larger working breeds causing tail limpness and pain, resolving without veterinary intervention. It is poorly understood and the disease burden has not been well characterised. Data collected from owners of the Dogslife cohort of Labrador Retrievers have been used to describe incidents and a case–control study was undertaken to elucidate risk factors with 38 cases and 86 controls. The cumulative incidence of unexplained tail limpness was 9.7 per cent. Swimming is not a necessary precursor for limber tail, but it is a risk factor (OR=4.7) and working dogs were more susceptible than non-working dogs (OR=5.1). Higher latitudes were shown to be a risk factor for developing the condition and the case dogs were more related to each other than might be expected by chance. This suggests that dogs may have an underlying genetic predisposition to developing the condition. This study is the first, large-scale investigation of limber tail and the findings reveal an unexpectedly high illness burden. Anecdotally, accepted risk factors have been confirmed and the extent of their impact has been quantified. Identifying latitude and a potential underlying genetic predisposition suggests avenues for future work on this painful and distressing condition. PMID:27353875

  6. Tissue fluid shift, forelimb loading, and tail tension in tail-suspended rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, A. R.; Steskal, J.; Johansson, C.; Tipton, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    The tail suspension model (head-down tilt) simulates hypogravity in terms of musculoskeletal loss in the rat. However, little is known of tissue fluid shifts and body weight distribution in this model. Tissue fluid pressures were measured by wick catheters in 12 Munich-Wistar rats before, during, and after 48 hrs of tail suspension (about 30 deg head-down tilt). Subcutaneous tissue fluid pressure in the neck increased from -2.2 + or - 0.4 (normal horizontal position) to +4.0 + or - 1.5 cm H2O during tail suspension, indicating a cephalic fluid shift and significant edema during head-down tilt. In a separate study, six rats were suspended at 30-70 deg, and forelimb load and tail tension were measured by a balance and force transducer, respectively. Approximately 50 percent of body weight (BW) was loaded on forelimbs at a head-down tilt angle of 30 deg and forelimb load declined linearly to 10 percent BW at 70 deg. Furthermore, tail tension increased from 50 percent BW at 30 deg to 85 percent BW at 70 deg. These results indicate that less than normal loads are applied to forelimbs of rats suspended at angles of less than 30 deg and that the tail bears an increasing proportion of the rat's body weight at head-down tilt angles of less than 30 deg.

  7. Tail-assisted pitch control in lizards, robots and dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Libby, Thomas; Moore, Talia Y; Chang-Siu, Evan; Li, Deborah; Cohen, Daniel J; Jusufi, Ardian; Full, Robert J

    2012-01-04

    In 1969, a palaeontologist proposed that theropod dinosaurs used their tails as dynamic stabilizers during rapid or irregular movements, contributing to their depiction as active and agile predators. Since then the inertia of swinging appendages has been implicated in stabilizing human walking, aiding acrobatic manoeuvres by primates and rodents, and enabling cats to balance on branches. Recent studies on geckos suggest that active tail stabilization occurs during climbing, righting and gliding. By contrast, studies on the effect of lizard tail loss show evidence of a decrease, an increase or no change in performance. Application of a control-theoretic framework could advance our general understanding of inertial appendage use in locomotion. Here we report that lizards control the swing of their tails in a measured manner to redirect angular momentum from their bodies to their tails, stabilizing body attitude in the sagittal plane. We video-recorded Red-Headed Agama lizards (Agama agama) leaping towards a vertical surface by first vaulting onto an obstacle with variable traction to induce a range of perturbations in body angular momentum. To examine a known controlled tail response, we built a lizard-sized robot with an active tail that used sensory feedback to stabilize pitch as it drove off a ramp. Our dynamics model revealed that a body swinging its tail experienced less rotation than a body with a rigid tail, a passively compliant tail or no tail. To compare a range of tails, we calculated tail effectiveness as the amount of tailless body rotation a tail could stabilize. A model Velociraptor mongoliensis supported the initial tail stabilization hypothesis, showing as it did a greater tail effectiveness than the Agama lizards. Leaping lizards show that inertial control of body attitude can advance our understanding of appendage evolution and provide biological inspiration for the next generation of manoeuvrable search-and-rescue robots.

  8. 14 CFR 29.411 - Ground clearance: tail rotor guard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ground clearance: tail rotor guard. 29.411 Section 29.411 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... System Loads § 29.411 Ground clearance: tail rotor guard. (a) It must be impossible for the tail rotor...

  9. 14 CFR 29.411 - Ground clearance: tail rotor guard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ground clearance: tail rotor guard. 29.411 Section 29.411 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... System Loads § 29.411 Ground clearance: tail rotor guard. (a) It must be impossible for the tail rotor...

  10. 14 CFR 29.411 - Ground clearance: tail rotor guard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ground clearance: tail rotor guard. 29.411 Section 29.411 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... System Loads § 29.411 Ground clearance: tail rotor guard. (a) It must be impossible for the tail rotor...

  11. 14 CFR 27.411 - Ground clearance: tail rotor guard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ground clearance: tail rotor guard. 27.411 Section 27.411 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... System Loads § 27.411 Ground clearance: tail rotor guard. (a) It must be impossible for the tail rotor...

  12. 14 CFR 27.411 - Ground clearance: tail rotor guard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ground clearance: tail rotor guard. 27.411 Section 27.411 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... System Loads § 27.411 Ground clearance: tail rotor guard. (a) It must be impossible for the tail rotor...

  13. 14 CFR 27.411 - Ground clearance: tail rotor guard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ground clearance: tail rotor guard. 27.411 Section 27.411 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... System Loads § 27.411 Ground clearance: tail rotor guard. (a) It must be impossible for the tail rotor...

  14. 14 CFR 29.411 - Ground clearance: tail rotor guard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ground clearance: tail rotor guard. 29.411 Section 29.411 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... System Loads § 29.411 Ground clearance: tail rotor guard. (a) It must be impossible for the tail rotor...

  15. 14 CFR 27.411 - Ground clearance: tail rotor guard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ground clearance: tail rotor guard. 27.411 Section 27.411 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... System Loads § 27.411 Ground clearance: tail rotor guard. (a) It must be impossible for the tail rotor...

  16. 14 CFR 25.497 - Tail-wheel yawing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.497 Tail-wheel yawing. (a) A vertical ground reaction equal to the static load on the tail wheel, in combination with a side component of equal... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tail-wheel yawing. 25.497 Section...

  17. 14 CFR 25.481 - Tail-down landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... for airplanes with tail wheels, the main and tail wheels are assumed to contact the ground simultaneously, in accordance with figure 3 of appendix A. Ground reaction conditions on the tail wheel are... the ground by each part of the airplane other than the main wheels, in accordance with figure 3...

  18. 14 CFR 25.481 - Tail-down landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... for airplanes with tail wheels, the main and tail wheels are assumed to contact the ground simultaneously, in accordance with figure 3 of appendix A. Ground reaction conditions on the tail wheel are... the ground by each part of the airplane other than the main wheels, in accordance with figure 3...

  19. 14 CFR 25.497 - Tail-wheel yawing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.497 Tail-wheel yawing. (a) A vertical ground reaction equal to the static load on the tail wheel, in combination with a side component of equal... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tail-wheel yawing. 25.497 Section...

  20. 14 CFR 25.481 - Tail-down landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... for airplanes with tail wheels, the main and tail wheels are assumed to contact the ground simultaneously, in accordance with figure 3 of appendix A. Ground reaction conditions on the tail wheel are... the ground by each part of the airplane other than the main wheels, in accordance with figure 3...

  1. 14 CFR 25.497 - Tail-wheel yawing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.497 Tail-wheel yawing. (a) A vertical ground reaction equal to the static load on the tail wheel, in combination with a side component of equal... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tail-wheel yawing. 25.497 Section...

  2. 14 CFR 25.497 - Tail-wheel yawing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.497 Tail-wheel yawing. (a) A vertical ground reaction equal to the static load on the tail wheel, in combination with a side component of equal... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tail-wheel yawing. 25.497 Section...

  3. 14 CFR 25.497 - Tail-wheel yawing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.497 Tail-wheel yawing. (a) A vertical ground reaction equal to the static load on the tail wheel, in combination with a side component of equal... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tail-wheel yawing. 25.497 Section...

  4. 14 CFR 25.481 - Tail-down landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... for airplanes with tail wheels, the main and tail wheels are assumed to contact the ground simultaneously, in accordance with figure 3 of appendix A. Ground reaction conditions on the tail wheel are... the ground by each part of the airplane other than the main wheels, in accordance with figure 3...

  5. 14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nose/tail wheel steering. 23.745 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Landing Gear § 23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering. (a) If nose/tail wheel steering is installed, it must...

  6. 14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nose/tail wheel steering. 23.745 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Landing Gear § 23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering. (a) If nose/tail wheel steering is installed, it must...

  7. 14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nose/tail wheel steering. 23.745 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Landing Gear § 23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering. (a) If nose/tail wheel steering is installed, it must...

  8. 14 CFR 29.411 - Ground clearance: tail rotor guard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground clearance: tail rotor guard. 29.411 Section 29.411 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... System Loads § 29.411 Ground clearance: tail rotor guard. (a) It must be impossible for the tail rotor...

  9. 14. TIP TOP MINE. TAILINGS LOCATED DIRECTLY WEST FROM TIP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. TIP TOP MINE. TAILINGS LOCATED DIRECTLY WEST FROM TIP TOP HOUSE. ID-31-C-12 WOODEN STRUCTURE IS VISIBLE IN TOP LEFT. CABLES VISIBLE LEFT AND CENTER OF TAILINGS. HOUSE IS JUST OVER APEX OF TAILINGS. CAMERA POINTED EAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Tip Top Mine, West face Florida Mountain, approximately 150 feet below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  10. Pareto tails and lognormal body of US cities size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luckstead, Jeff; Devadoss, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    We consider a distribution, which consists of lower tail Pareto, lognormal body, and upper tail Pareto, to estimate the size distribution of all US cities. This distribution fits the data more accurately than a distribution that comprises of only lognormal and the upper tail Pareto.

  11. 14 CFR 23.497 - Supplementary conditions for tail wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Structure Ground Loads § 23.497 Supplementary conditions for tail wheels. In determining the ground loads on the tail wheel and affected supporting structures, the following apply: (a) For the obstruction load... absorption device; and (2) The supporting structure of the tail wheel, bumper, or energy absorption...

  12. 14 CFR 23.497 - Supplementary conditions for tail wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Structure Ground Loads § 23.497 Supplementary conditions for tail wheels. In determining the ground loads on the tail wheel and affected supporting structures, the following apply: (a) For the obstruction load... absorption device; and (2) The supporting structure of the tail wheel, bumper, or energy absorption...

  13. 14 CFR 23.497 - Supplementary conditions for tail wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Structure Ground Loads § 23.497 Supplementary conditions for tail wheels. In determining the ground loads on the tail wheel and affected supporting structures, the following apply: (a) For the obstruction load... absorption device; and (2) The supporting structure of the tail wheel, bumper, or energy absorption...

  14. 14 CFR 23.497 - Supplementary conditions for tail wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Structure Ground Loads § 23.497 Supplementary conditions for tail wheels. In determining the ground loads on the tail wheel and affected supporting structures, the following apply: (a) For the obstruction load... absorption device; and (2) The supporting structure of the tail wheel, bumper, or energy absorption...

  15. 14 CFR 23.497 - Supplementary conditions for tail wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Structure Ground Loads § 23.497 Supplementary conditions for tail wheels. In determining the ground loads on the tail wheel and affected supporting structures, the following apply: (a) For the obstruction load... absorption device; and (2) The supporting structure of the tail wheel, bumper, or energy absorption...

  16. Experimental verification of a simplified vee-tail theory and analysis of available data on complete models with vee tails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purser, Paul E; Campbell, John P

    1945-01-01

    An analysis has been made of available data on vee tail surfaces. Previously published theoretical studies of vee tails have been extended to include the control effectiveness and control forces in addition to the stability. Tests of two isolated tail surfaces with various amounts of dihedral provided a check of the theory. Methods for designing vee tails were also developed and are given in the present paper.

  17. Whale's tail technique: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Mrunal, Deshpande Milind; Jaypal, Jarde Samiksha; Wilson, Rohan Srinivasan; Chatterjee, Anirban

    2016-01-01

    The Whale's tail technique performed to obtain maximum interdental papilla fill in the anterior region after placement of bone grafts. This study aims to assess the clinical efficacy of this new technique. This report describes a series of three cases with a probing depth of 6–7 mm in the maxillary anterior teeth and their treatment with Whale's tail technique to obtain regeneration and maximum papilla preservation. The cases in this report showed a pocket depth reduction of 3-4mm and a clinical attachment gain of 3-4mm. The application of the “Whale's tail” flap leads to clinically significant improvement of hard and soft tissue conditions and allows regeneration of wide intrabony defects involving the maxillary anterior teeth with notable interdental diastemas, maintaining interproximal tissue to recreate a functional attachment with esthetic results. PMID:28298831

  18. Structure of the tail fin in teleosts.

    PubMed

    Becerra, J; Montes, G S; Bexiga, S R; Junqueira, L C

    1983-01-01

    A morphologic study of the structure of the tail fin in eight species of teleosts was performed by aid of the Picrosirius-polarization method, which is a specific histochemical method for the detection of collagen in tissue sections. This structure is composed mainly of skeletal elements, the fin rays, covered by skin. Fin rays are bound to each other and to the surrounding tissues by a series of collagenous ligaments forming a complex, highly pliable and resistant structure. Although the general structural pattern of tail fins was consistent in all species studied, the comparative aspects reported in this paper show that variations in the form and size of their components are responsible for the morphologic diversities which are closely related to specific functional adaptations. Morphometric data on the number and size of actinotrichia in normal adult specimens are presented.

  19. Influence of tail shape on tadpole swimming performance.

    PubMed

    Van Buskirk, J; McCollum, S A

    2000-07-01

    Many tadpoles respond to insect predators by developing deeper, and sometimes longer, tails. It has been assumed that the larger tail enhances aspects of swimming performance, because deep-tailed tadpoles survive well when confronted with hunting predators. We tested this hypothesis using both naturally occurring and surgically created variation in tail morphology of Hyla versicolor tadpoles. We measured swimming performance (maximum speed, time to reach a 2.5 cm radius, and angle of escape) and morphology (size and shape of the body and tail) in 288 tadpoles, of which half possessed the predator-induced morphology and the other half were from predator-free ponds. Large tadpoles swam faster than small ones, and shape was significantly correlated with size-corrected swimming performance. The fastest tadpoles had relatively shallow bodies and tail fins, and short tails; there was no difference in swimming performance between predator-induced and no-predator tadpoles. We performed an experiment to create independent variation in tail depth and length by surgically manipulating tail shape in 270 tadpoles. Three tail-length treatments reduced the length of the tail fin by 21 %, 34 % and 55 %; three tail-depth treatments reduced the maximum depth of the tail fin by 11 %, 34 % and 59 %; two additional treatments controlled for the effects of anaesthesia and surgery. The angle of escape was unaffected by surgery. Maximum speed and minimum escape time were both significantly impaired by the high-removal treatments, but showed no evidence of decline until 30 % of the tail (length or depth) was removed. These results suggest that the relatively deep tails in predator-induced tadpoles (approximately 10 % deeper than in no-predator tadpoles) do not improve performance in burst swimming. Thus, predator-induced tadpoles are less vulnerable to predation for reasons other than enhanced swimming performance.

  20. Exposures from mining and mine tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, Douglas B.; Cassaday, Valerie J.; Lowe, Leo M.

    The mining, milling and tailings management of uranium ores results in environmental radiation exposures. This paper describes the sources of radioactive emissions to the environment associated with these activities, reviews the basic approach used to estimate the resultant radiation exposures and presents examples of typical uranium mind and mill facilities. Similar concepts apply to radiation exposures associated with the mining of non-radioactive ores although the magnitudes of the exposures would normally be smaller than those associated with uranium mining.

  1. Tail Rotor Airfoils Stabilize Helicopters, Reduce Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Founded by former Ames Research Center engineer Jim Van Horn, Van Horn Aviation of Tempe, Arizona, built upon a Langley Research Center airfoil design to create a high performance aftermarket tail rotor for the popular Bell 206 helicopter. The highly durable rotor has a lifetime twice that of the original equipment manufacturer blade, reduces noise by 40 percent, and displays enhanced performance at high altitudes. These improvements benefit helicopter performance for law enforcement, military training, wildfire and pipeline patrols, and emergency medical services.

  2. Active Tails Enhance Arboreal Acrobatics in Geckos

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-18

    SI Movie 6). Discovering that active tails allow arboreal acrobatics in geckos opens the door for future studies of the tail’s neurome- chanical...declare no conflict of interest. This article is a PNAS Direct Submission. Freely available online through the PNAS open access option. *Present...ranging from 2.5 to 8.0 ms1. We mounted transparent Plexiglas sidewalls around the opening of the wind tunnel. This prevented geckos from maneuvering

  3. On the tail problem in cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraoni, Valerio; Sonego, Sebastiano

    1992-11-01

    The tail problem for the propagation of a scalar field is considered in a cosmological background, taking a Robertson-Walker spacetime as a specific example. The explicit radial dependence of the general solution of the Klein-Gordon equation with non-minimal coupling is derived, and the inapplicability of the standard calculation of the reflection and transmission coefficients to the study of scattering of waves by the cosmological curvature is discussed.

  4. mTAIL-seq reveals dynamic poly(A) tail regulation in oocyte-to-embryo development

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jaechul; Lee, Mihye; Son, Ahyeon; Chang, Hyeshik; Kim, V. Narry

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic mRNAs are subject to multiple types of tailing that critically influence mRNA stability and translatability. To investigate RNA tails at the genomic scale, we previously developed TAIL-seq, but its low sensitivity precluded its application to biological materials of minute quantity. In this study, we report a new version of TAIL-seq (mRNA TAIL-seq [mTAIL-seq]) with enhanced sequencing depth for mRNAs (by ∼1000-fold compared with the previous version). The improved method allows us to investigate the regulation of poly(A) tails in Drosophila oocytes and embryos. We found that maternal mRNAs are polyadenylated mainly during late oogenesis, prior to fertilization, and that further modulation occurs upon egg activation. Wispy, a noncanonical poly(A) polymerase, adenylates the vast majority of maternal mRNAs, with a few intriguing exceptions such as ribosomal protein transcripts. By comparing mTAIL-seq data with ribosome profiling data, we found a strong coupling between poly(A) tail length and translational efficiency during egg activation. Our data suggest that regulation of poly(A) tails in oocytes shapes the translatomic landscape of embryos, thereby directing the onset of animal development. By virtue of the high sensitivity, low cost, technical robustness, and broad accessibility, mTAIL-seq will be a potent tool to improve our understanding of mRNA tailing in diverse biological systems. PMID:27445395

  5. Cleanup options: Organic-contaminated tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    Work was performed to evaluate technologies for the treatment of tailings generated from a coal-tar agglomeration process being developed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Alberta Research Council. The tailings represent treated soils from a manufactured gas plant (MGP) site where the majority of hydrocarbon containments have been removed via the coal-oil agglomeration process but with some residual containments (e.g., PAHs and toluene extractables) remaining. Results of this work allowed the screening of thermal desorption, solvent-enhanced aqueous soil washing, dissolved air flotation (DAF) with n-octanol, physical size classification, and the biological processes of composting, biological slurry reactor treatment and prepared bed land treatment. Of these, all but physical size classification and DAF with n-octanol offer some technical feasibility with further work, aimed at more detailed engineering, recommended. In addition to the tailings, thermal desorption was also evaluated for treatment of untreated MGP site soil. Detailed procedures and results of this treatment technology evaluation work are presented in this two-volume report. 3 figs., 19 tabs.

  6. Cleanup options: Organic-contaminated tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    Work was performed to evaluate technologies for the treatment of tailings generated from a coal-tar agglomeration process being developed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Alberta Research Council. The tailings represent treated soils from a manufactured gas plant (MGP) site where the majority of hydrocarbon containments have been removed via the coal-oil agglomeration process but with some residual containments (e.g., PAHs and toluene extractables) remaining. The work performed entailed a combination of laboratory treatability testing and preliminary engineering evaluations. Results of this work allowed the screening of thermal desorption, solvent-enhanced aqueous soil washing, dissolved air flotation (DAF) with n-octanol, physical size classification, and the biological processes of composting, biological slurry reactor treatment and prepared bed land treatment. Of these, all but physical size classification and DAF with n-octanol offer some technical feasibility with further work, aimed at more detailed engineering, recommended. In addition to the tailings, thermal desorption was also evaluated for treatment of untreated MGP site soil. Detailed procedures and results of this treatment technology evaluation work are presented in this two-volume report. 18 refs., 24 figs., 15 tabs.

  7. Path-Integral Derivation of Lifshitz Tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sa-Yakanit, V.

    2008-11-01

    The behavior of the electron density of states (DOS) for the Lifshitz tail states is studied in the limit of low energy using the Feynman path-integral method. This method was used to study the heavily doped semiconductors for the case of a Gaussian random potential. The main results obtained are that the tail states behave as DOS exp (-B(E)), with B(E) = En, n = {1 / 2} for short-range interaction and n = 2 for long-range interaction. In this study it is shown that without the Gaussian approximation, the behavior of the Lifshitz tails for the Poisson distribution is obtained as DOS exp (-B(E)) with B(E) = En, n = {3 / 2} . As in the case of heavily doped semiconductor, the method can be easily generalized to long-range interactions. A comparison with the method developed by Friedberg and Luttinger based on the reformulation of the problem in terms of Brownian motion is given.

  8. Cassini in Titan's tail: CAPS observations of plasma escape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, A. J.; Wellbrock, A.; Lewis, G. R.; Crary, F. J.; Thomsen, M. F.; Reisenfeld, D. B.; Szego, K.; Bebesi, Z.; Arridge, C. S.; Jones, G. H.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Johnson, R. E.

    2012-04-01

    We present observations of CAPS electron and ion spectra during Titan distant tail crossings by the Cassini spacecraft. In common with closer tail encounters, we identify ionospheric plasma in the tail. Some of the electron spectra indicate a direct magnetic connection to Titan's dayside ionosphere due to the presence of ionospheric photoelectrons. Ion observations reveal heavy and light ion populations streaming into the tail. Using the distant tail encounters T9, T75 and T63, we estimate total plasma loss rates from Titan via this process.

  9. Transmission of bacterial agents from lone star ticks to white-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    Varela-Stokes, Andrea S

    2007-05-01

    Amblyomma americanum (L.), the lone star tick, is an aggressive ixodid tick that has been implicated as a vector for several bacteria. Among these bacteria are the disease agents Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia ewingii, and the putative disease agent "Borrelia lonestari." The hypothesis in this study was that wild lone star ticks from northeastern Georgia are capable of transmitting all three agents to white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, a known reservoir host for E. chaffeensis. In this study, transmission of all three agents from wild caught lone star ticks to captive reared white-tailed deer was demonstrated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), culture, or serology. Two of three deer showed evidence of E. chaffeensis and E. ewingii infection by polymerase chain reaction assay; all three deer showed evidence of B. lonestari by PCR assay. E. chaffeensis was isolated in culture from both PCR-positive deer on multiple days. All three deer seroconverted to E. chaffeensis, whereas one deer seroconverted to B. lonestari. This study supports the role of lone star ticks and white-tailed deer as a vector and reservoir host for E. chaffeensis and E. ewingii and suggests for the first time, transmission of B. lonestari from lone star ticks to white-tailed deer.

  10. Casein Kinase 2 Reverses Tail-Independent Inactivation of Kinesin-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jing

    2013-03-01

    Kinesin-1 is a plus-end microtubule-based motor, and defects in kinesin-based transport are linked to diseases including neurodegeneration. Kinesin can auto-inhibit via a head-tail interaction, but is believed to be active otherwise. Here we report a tail-independent inactivation of kinesin, reversible by the disease-relevant signalling protein, casein kinase 2 (CK2). The majority of initially active kinesin (native or tail-less) loses its ability to interact with microtubules in vitro, and CK2 reverses this inactivation (approximately fourfold) without altering kinesin's single motor properties. This activation pathway does not require motor phosphorylation, and is independent of head-tail auto-inhibition. In cultured mammalian cells, reducing CK2 expression, but not its kinase activity, decreases the force required to stall lipid droplet transport, consistent with a decreased number of active kinesin motors. Our results (Nat. Commun., 3:754, 2012) provide the first direct evidence of a protein kinase upregulating kinesin-based transport, and suggest a novel pathway for regulating the activity of cargo-bound kinesin. Work supported by NIGMS grants GM64624 to SPG, GM74830-06A1 to LH, GM76516 to LB, NS048501 to SJK, and AHA grant 825278F to JX.

  11. Casein Kinase 2 Reverses Tail-Independent Inactivation of Kinesin-1

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jing; Reddy, Babu J. N.; Anand, Preetha; Shu, Zhanyong; Cermelli, Silvia; Mattson, Michelle K.; Tripathy, Suvranta K.; Hoss, Matthew T.; James, Nikita S.; King, Stephen J.; Huang, Lan; Bardwell, Lee; Gross, Steven P.

    2013-01-01

    Kinesin-1 is a plus-end microtubule-based motor, and defects in kinesin-based transport are linked to diseases including neurodegeneration. Kinesin can auto-inhibit via a head-tail interaction, but is believed to be active otherwise. Here we report a tail-independent inactivation of kinesin, reversible by the disease-relevant signaling protein, casein kinase 2 (CK2). The majority of initially active kinesin (native or tail-less) loses its ability to interact with microtubules in vitro, and CK2 reverses this inactivation (~ 4-fold) without altering kinesin’s single motor properties. This activation pathway does not require motor phosphorylation, and is independent of head-tail auto-inhibition. In cultured mammalian cells, reducing CK2 expression, but not its kinase activity, decreases the force required to stall lipid droplet transport, consistent with a decreased number of active kinesin motors. Our results provide the first direct evidence of a protein kinase up-regulating kinesin-based transport, and suggest a novel pathway for regulating the activity of cargo-bound kinesin. PMID:22453827

  12. Active Vertical Tail Buffeting Alleviation on a Twin-Tail Fighter Configuration in a Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, Robert W.

    1997-01-01

    A 1/6-scale F-18 wind-tunnel model was tested in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center as part of the Actively Controlled Response Of Buffet-Affected Tails (ACROBAT) program to assess the use of active controls in reducing vertical tail buffeting. The starboard vertical tail was equipped with an active rudder and other aerodynamic devices, and the port vertical tail was equipped with piezoelectric actuators. The tunnel conditions were atmospheric air at a dynamic pressure of 14 psf. By using single-input-single-output control laws at gains well below the physical limits of the control effectors, the power spectral density of the root strains at the frequency of the first bending mode of the vertical tail was reduced by as much as 60 percent up to angles of attack of 37 degrees. Root mean square (RMS) values of root strain were reduced by as much as 19 percent. Stability margins indicate that a constant gain setting in the control law may be used throughout the range of angle of attack tested.

  13. Ecological aspects of microorganisms inhabiting uranium mill tailings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, C.L.; Landa, E.R.; Updegraff, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    Numbers and types of microorganisms in uranium mill tailings were determined using culturing techniques. Arthrobacter were found to be the predominant microorganism inhabiting the sandy tailings, whereas Bacillus and fungi predominated in the slime tailings. Sulfate-reducing bacteria, capable of leaching radium, were isolated in low numbers from tailings samples but were isolated in significantly high numbers from topsoil in contact with the tailings. The results are placed in the context of the magnitude of uranium mill tailings in the United States, the hazards posed by the tailings, and how such hazards could be enhanced or diminished by microbial activities. Patterns in the composition of the microbial population are evaluated with respect to the ecological variables that influence microbial growth. ?? 1987 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  14. Ecological aspects of microorganisms inhabiting uranium mill tailings.

    PubMed

    Miller, C L; Landa, E R; Updegraff, D M

    1987-09-01

    Numbers and types of microorganisms in uranium mill tailings were determined using culturing techniques.Arthrobacter were found to be the predominant microorganism inhabiting the sandy tailings, whereasBacillus and fungi predominated in the slime tailings. Sulfate-reducing bacteria, capable of leaching radium, were isolated in low numbers from tailings samples but were isolated in significantly high numbers from topsoil in contact with the tailings. The results are placed in the context of the magnitude of uranium mill tailings in the United States, the hazards posed by the tailings, and how such hazards could be enhanced or diminished by microbial activities. Patterns in the composition of the microbial population are evaluated with respect to the ecological variables that influence microbial growth.

  15. Asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium mill tailings. 1979 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L.; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.

    1980-06-01

    Uranium mill tailings are a source of low-level radiation and radioactive materials that may be released into the environment. Stabilization or disposal of these tailings in a safe and environmentally sound way is necessary to minimize radon exhalation and other radioactive releases. One of the most promising concepts for stabilizing uranium tailings is being investigated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory: the use of asphalt emulsion to contain radon and other potentially hazardous materials in uranium tailings. Results of these studies indicate that radon flux from uranium tailings can be reduced by greater than 99% by covering the tailings with an asphalt emulsion that is poured on or sprayed on (3.0 to 7.0 mm thick), or mixed with some of the tailings and compacted to form an admixture seal (2.5 to 15.2 cm) containing 18 wt % residual asphalt.

  16. The toxicity of antiprion antibodies is mediated by the flexible tail of the prion protein.

    PubMed

    Sonati, Tiziana; Reimann, Regina R; Falsig, Jeppe; Baral, Pravas Kumar; O'Connor, Tracy; Hornemann, Simone; Yaganoglu, Sine; Li, Bei; Herrmann, Uli S; Wieland, Barbara; Swayampakula, Mridula; Rahman, Muhammad Hafizur; Das, Dipankar; Kav, Nat; Riek, Roland; Liberski, Pawel P; James, Michael N G; Aguzzi, Adriano

    2013-09-05

    Prion infections cause lethal neurodegeneration. This process requires the cellular prion protein (PrP(C); ref. 1), which contains a globular domain hinged to a long amino-proximal flexible tail. Here we describe rapid neurotoxicity in mice and cerebellar organotypic cultured slices exposed to ligands targeting the α1 and α3 helices of the PrP(C) globular domain. Ligands included seven distinct monoclonal antibodies, monovalent Fab1 fragments and recombinant single-chain variable fragment miniantibodies. Similar to prion infections, the toxicity of globular domain ligands required neuronal PrP(C), was exacerbated by PrP(C) overexpression, was associated with calpain activation and was antagonized by calpain inhibitors. Neurodegeneration was accompanied by a burst of reactive oxygen species, and was suppressed by antioxidants. Furthermore, genetic ablation of the superoxide-producing enzyme NOX2 (also known as CYBB) protected mice from globular domain ligand toxicity. We also found that neurotoxicity was prevented by deletions of the octapeptide repeats within the flexible tail. These deletions did not appreciably compromise globular domain antibody binding, suggesting that the flexible tail is required to transmit toxic signals that originate from the globular domain and trigger oxidative stress and calpain activation. Supporting this view, various octapeptide ligands were not only innocuous to both cerebellar organotypic cultured slices and mice, but also prevented the toxicity of globular domain ligands while not interfering with their binding. We conclude that PrP(C) consists of two functionally distinct modules, with the globular domain and the flexible tail exerting regulatory and executive functions, respectively. Octapeptide ligands also prolonged the life of mice expressing the toxic PrP(C) mutant, PrP(Δ94-134), indicating that the flexible tail mediates toxicity in two distinct PrP(C)-related conditions. Flexible tail-mediated toxicity may conceivably

  17. Dwarf Galaxies Swimming in Tidal Tails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This false-color infrared image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows little 'dwarf galaxies' forming in the 'tails' of two larger galaxies that are colliding together. The big galaxies are at the center of the picture, while the dwarfs can be seen as red dots in the red streamers, or tidal tails. The two blue dots above the big galaxies are stars in the foreground.

    Galaxy mergers are common occurrences in the universe; for example, our own Milky Way galaxy will eventually smash into the nearby Andromeda galaxy. When two galaxies meet, they tend to rip each other apart, leaving a trail, called a tidal tail, of gas and dust in their wake. It is out of this galactic debris that new dwarf galaxies are born.

    The new Spitzer picture demonstrates that these particular dwarfs are actively forming stars. The red color indicates the presence of dust produced in star-forming regions, including organic molecules called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. These carbon-containing molecules are also found on Earth, in car exhaust and on burnt toast, among other places. Here, the molecules are being heated up by the young stars, and, as a result, shine in infrared light.

    This image was taken by the infrared array camera on Spitzer. It is a 4-color composite of infrared light, showing emissions from wavelengths of 3.6 microns (blue), 4.5 microns (green), 5.8 microns (orange), and 8.0 microns (red). Starlight has been subtracted from the orange and red channels in order to enhance the dust features.

  18. Mapping eastern equine encephalitis virus risk for white-tailed deer in Michigan

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Joni A.; Hyzer, Garrett; Marion, Eric; Smith, Zachary J.; Kelen, Patrick Vander; Unnasch, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) is a mosquito-borne viral disease that is often fatal to humans and horses. Some species including white-tailed deer and passerine birds can survive infection with the EEE virus (EEEV) and develop antibodies that can be detected using laboratory techniques. In this way, collected serum samples from free ranging white-tailed deer can be used to monitor the presence of the virus in ecosystems. This study developed and tested a risk index model designed to predict EEEV activity in white-tailed deer in a three-county area of Michigan. The model evaluates EEEV risk on a continuous scale from 0.0 (no measurable risk) to 1.0 (highest possible risk). High risk habitats are identified as those preferred by white-tailed deer that are also located in close proximity to an abundance of wetlands and lowland forests, which support disease vectors and hosts. The model was developed based on relevant literature and was tested with known locations of infected deer that showed neurological symptoms. The risk index model accurately predicted the known locations, with the mean value for those sites equal to the 94th percentile of values in the study area. The risk map produced by the model could be used refine future EEEV monitoring efforts that use serum samples from free-ranging white-tailed deer to monitor viral activity. Alternatively, it could be used focus educational efforts targeted toward deer hunters that may have elevated risks of infection. PMID:26494931

  19. Modeling distribution of dispersal distances in male white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diefenbach, D.R.; Long, E.S.; Rosenberry, C.S.; Wallingford, B.D.; Smith, D.R.

    2008-01-01

    Dispersal distances and their distribution pattern are important to understanding such phenomena as disease spread and gene flow, but oftentimes dispersal characteristics are modeled as a fixed trait for a given species. We found that dispersal distributions differ for spring and autumn dispersals of yearling male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) but that combined data can be adequately modeled based on a log-normal distribution. We modeled distribution of dispersal distances from 3 distinct populations in Pennsylvania and Maryland, USA, based on the relationship between percent forest cover and mean dispersal distance and the relationship between mean and variance of dispersal distances. Our results suggest distributions of distances for dispersing yearling male white-tailed deer can be modeled by simply measuring a readily obtained landscape metric, percent forest cover, which could be used to create generalized spatially explicit disease or gene.

  20. Biogeochemistry of metalliferous mine tailings during phytostabilizatio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chorover, J.; Root, R. A.; Hammond, C.; Wang, Y.; Maier, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    In the semi-arid southwest US, legacy mine tailings and the associated metal(loid) contaminants, are prone to wind dispersion and water erosion. Without remediation, tailings can remain barren for decades to centuries, providing a point source of toxic contamination. Successful mitigation of toxins (As, Pb) from fugitive dust is often limited to confinement and stabilization. Capping mine tailings with soil or gravel is an accepted, although expensive, strategy to reduce erosion. Revegetation via assisted direct planting (also known as phytostabilization) has the potential to be a cost-effective and self-sustaining alternative "green-technology" to expensive capping. The impact of phytostabilization, and requisite added organic carbon and irrigation on mechanisms of contaminant mobility is being investigated with concurrent highly-instrumented greenhouse mesocosms and in situ field studies using advanced microbiological tools and synchrotron x-ray based molecular probes. Composted treatments initially neutralized the near surface acid tailings (~2 to ~6.5). However, after 9 mo the mesocosms showed a gradual and eventual decrease back to pH 2. The exception was the root zone of Atriplex lentiformis, which buffered the acidic conditions for 12 months. Rhizosphere microbiota experienced a 5-log increase in the compost-amended compared to control greenhouse mesocosms. Weathering of the primary sulfidic mineral assemblage, indicated by the iron and sulfur speciation, was shown to control the mobility, speciation and bioavailability of both As and Pb via sequestration in (meta)stable neoformed jarosite phases as plumbojarosite and As(V) substituted for sulfate in hydronium jarosite, with important implications for human and environmental health risk management. We conclude that the disequilibrium imposed by phytostabilization results in an increase of heterotrophic biomass that is concurrent with a time series of geochemical transformations, which controls the species

  1. Space Shuttle Tail Service Mast Concept Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uda, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    Design studies and analyses were performed to describe the loads and dynamics of the space shuttle tail service masts (TSMs). Of particular interest are the motion and interaction of the umbilical carrier plate, lanyard system, vacuum jacketed hoses, latches, links, and masthead. A development test rig was designed and fabricated to obtain experimental data. The test program is designed to (1) verify the theoretical dynamics calculations, (2) prove the soundness of design concepts, and (3) elucidate problem areas (if any) in the design of mechanisms and structural components. Design, fabrication, and initiation of TSM development testing at Kennedy Space Center are described.

  2. Intervention to Improve the Quality of Life of a Bottlenose Dolphin That Developed Necrosis on the Tail Flukes

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Keiichi; Murakami, Masahito; Kato, Junichi; Miyahara, Hirokazu; Izumisawa, Yasuharu

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose, Case, and Methods] A female bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) in captivity developed necrosis of the tail flukes. Although the diseased site healed after surgical resection, the loss of approximately 75% of the tail greatly affected her swimming performance. To restore swimming ability, we developed artificial tail flukes as a prosthetic swimming aid and provided physical therapy that included swimming training from postoperative day 1 to day 1427. [Results] The prosthetic enabled the dolphin to recover swimming ability almost to the level prior to disease onset, but even acquire applied movement, and reestablish social relationships, thus greatly improving the animal's quality of life. [Conclusion] The results clearly demonstrate that, as in postoperative rehabilitation in humans, the use of prosthetic devices in physical therapy can be beneficial for marine animals such as dolphins. PMID:24259946

  3. PDE12 removes mitochondrial RNA poly(A) tails and controls translation in human mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Rorbach, Joanna; Nicholls, Thomas J J; Minczuk, Michal

    2011-09-01

    Polyadenylation of mRNA in human mitochondria is crucial for gene expression and perturbation of poly(A) tail length has been linked to a human neurodegenerative disease. Here we show that 2'-phosphodiesterase (2'-PDE), (hereafter PDE12), is a mitochondrial protein that specifically removes poly(A) extensions from mitochondrial mRNAs both in vitro and in mitochondria of cultured cells. In eukaryotes, poly(A) tails generally stabilize mature mRNAs, whereas in bacteria they increase mRNA turnover. In human mitochondria, the effects of increased PDE12 expression were transcript dependent. An excess of PDE12 led to an increase in the level of three mt-mRNAs (ND1, ND2 and CytB) and two (CO1 and CO2) were less abundant than in mitochondria of control cells and there was no appreciable effect on the steady-state level of the remainder of the mitochondrial transcripts. The alterations in poly(A) tail length accompanying elevated PDE12 expression were associated with severe inhibition of mitochondrial protein synthesis, and consequently respiratory incompetence. Therefore, we propose that mRNA poly(A) tails are important in regulating protein synthesis in human mitochondria, as it is the case for nuclear-encoded eukaryotic mRNA.

  4. On the importance of tail ratios for psychological science.

    PubMed

    Voracek, Martin; Mohr, Elisabeth; Hagmann, Michael

    2013-06-01

    Even small group-mean differences (whether combined with variance differences or not) or variance differences alone (absent mean differences) can generate marked and sometimes surprising imbalances in the representation of the respective groups compared in the distributional tail regions. Such imbalances in group representation, quantified as tail ratios, have general importance in the context of any threshold, susceptibility, diathesis-stress, selection, or similar models (including the study of sex differences), as widely conceptualized and applied in the psychological, social, medical, and biological sciences. However, commonly used effect-size measures, such as Cohen's d, largely exploit data information around the center of distributions, rather than from the tails, thereby missing potentially important patterns found in the tail regions. This account reviews the background and history of tail ratios, emphasizes their importance for psychological research, proposes a consensus approach for defining and interpreting them, introduces a tail-ratio calculator, and outlines future research agenda.

  5. Tail regeneration affects the digestive performance of a Mediterranean lizard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagonas, Kostas; Karambotsi, Niki; Bletsa, Aristoula; Reppa, Aikaterini; Pafilis, Panayiotis; Valakos, Efstratios D.

    2017-04-01

    In caudal autotomy, lizards shed their tail to escape from an attacking predator. Since the tail serves multiple functions, caudal regeneration is of pivotal importance. However, it is a demanding procedure that requires substantial energy and nutrients. Therefore, lizards have to increase energy income to fuel the extraordinary requirements of the regenerating tail. We presumed that autotomized lizards would adjust their digestion to acquire this additional energy. To clarify the effects of tail regeneration on digestion, we compared the digestive performance before autotomy, during regeneration, and after its completion. Tail regeneration indeed increased gut passage time but did not affect digestive performance in a uniform pattern: though protein income was maximized, lipid and sugar acquisition remained stable. This divergence in proteins may be attributed to their particular role in tail reconstruction, as they are the main building blocks for tissue formation.

  6. Tail-induced attraction between nucleosome core particles.

    PubMed

    Mühlbacher, F; Schiessel, H; Holm, C

    2006-09-01

    We study a possible electrostatic mechanism underlying the compaction of DNA inside the nuclei of eucaryotes: the tail-bridging effect between nucleosomes, the fundamental DNA packaging units of the chromatin complex. As a simple model of the nucleosome we introduce the eight-tail colloid, a charged sphere with eight oppositely charged, flexible, grafted chains that represent the terminal histone tails. We show that our complexes attract each other via the formation of chain bridges and contrast this to the effect of attraction via charge patches. We demonstrate that the attraction between eight-tail colloids can be tuned by changing the fraction of charged monomers on the tails. This suggests a physical mechanism of chromatin compaction where the degree of DNA condensation is controlled via biochemical means, namely the acetylation and deacetylation of lysines in the histone tails.

  7. Environmental impact analysis of mine tailing reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, J. Z.

    2016-08-01

    Under certain conditions landscape topography which utilizes mine tailing reservoir construction using is likely to increase lateral recharge source regions, resulting in dramatic changes to the local hydrological dynamic field and recharge of downstream areas initiated by runoff, excretion state, elevated groundwater depth, shallow groundwater, rainfall direct communication, and thinning of the vadose zone. Corrosive leaching of topsoil over many years of exposure to chemical fertilizers and pesticides may result in their dissolution into the groundwater system, which may lead to excessive amounts of many harmful chemicals, therby affecting the physical and mental health of human residents and increase environmental vulnerability and risk associated with the water and soil. According to field survey data from Yujiakan, Qian'an City, and Hebei provinces, this paper analyzes the hydrogeological environmental mechanisms of areas adjacent to mine tailing reservoirs and establishes a conceptual model of the local groundwater system and the concentration-response function between NO3 - content in groundwater and the incidence of cancer in local residents.

  8. INTERPRETATION OF (596) SCHEILA'S TRIPLE DUST TAILS

    SciTech Connect

    Ishiguro, Masateru; Hanayama, Hidekazu; Watanabe, Jun-ichi; Miyaji, Takeshi; Fukushima, Hideo; Hasegawa, Sunao; Sarugaku, Yuki; Fujiwara, Hideaki; Terada, Hiroshi; Hsieh, Henry H.; Vaubaillon, Jeremie J.; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Yanagisawa, Kenshi; Kuroda, Daisuke; Ohta, Kouji; Hamanowa, Hiromi; Kim, Junhan; Pyo, Jeonghyun; Nakamura, Akiko M.

    2011-11-15

    Strange-looking dust cloud around asteroid (596) Scheila was discovered on 2010 December 11.44-11.47. Unlike normal cometary tails, it consisted of three tails and faded within two months. We constructed a model to reproduce the morphology of the dust cloud based on the laboratory measurement of high-velocity impacts and the dust dynamics. As a result, we succeeded in reproducing the peculiar dust cloud by an impact-driven ejecta plume consisting of an impact cone and downrange plume. Assuming an impact angle of 45 Degree-Sign , our model suggests that a decameter-sized asteroid collided with (596) Scheila from the direction of ({alpha}{sub im}, {delta}{sub im}) = (60 Degree-Sign , -40 Degree-Sign ) in J2000 coordinates on 2010 December 3. The maximum ejection velocity of the dust particles exceeded 100 m s{sup -1}. Our results suggest that the surface of (596) Scheila consists of materials with low tensile strength.

  9. Measurements of uranium mill tailings consolidation characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Fayer, M J

    1985-02-01

    A series of experiments were conducted on uranium mill tailings from the tailings pile in Grand Junction, Colorado, to determine their consolidation characteristics. Three materials (sand, sand/slimes mix, slimes) were loaded under saturated conditions to determine their saturated consolidated behavior. During a separate experiment, samples of the slimes material were kept under a constant load while the pore pressure was increased to determine the partially saturated consolidation behavior. Results of the saturated tests compared well with published data. Sand consolidated the least, while slimes consolidated the most. As each material consolidated, the measured hydraulic conductivity decreased in a linear fashion with respect to the void ratio. Partially saturated experiments with the slimes indicated that there was little consolidation as the pore pressure was increased progressively above 7 kPa. The small amount of consolidation that did occur was only a fraction of the amount of saturated consolidation. Preliminary measurements between pore pressures of 0 and 7 kPa indicated that measurable consolidation could occur in this range of pore pressure, but only if there was no load. 13 references, 13 figures.

  10. Efficient bootstrap estimates for tail statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breivik, Øyvind; Aarnes, Ole Johan

    2017-03-01

    Bootstrap resamples can be used to investigate the tail of empirical distributions as well as return value estimates from the extremal behaviour of the sample. Specifically, the confidence intervals on return value estimates or bounds on in-sample tail statistics can be obtained using bootstrap techniques. However, non-parametric bootstrapping from the entire sample is expensive. It is shown here that it suffices to bootstrap from a small subset consisting of the highest entries in the sequence to make estimates that are essentially identical to bootstraps from the entire sample. Similarly, bootstrap estimates of confidence intervals of threshold return estimates are found to be well approximated by using a subset consisting of the highest entries. This has practical consequences in fields such as meteorology, oceanography and hydrology where return values are calculated from very large gridded model integrations spanning decades at high temporal resolution or from large ensembles of independent and identically distributed model fields. In such cases the computational savings are substantial.

  11. A red-tailed hawk at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    At KSC, a red-tailed hawk waits on top of a utility pole for the slightest movement in the grass below. It feeds mostly on small rodents. Ranging in height from 18 inches to 25 inches, the species has a stocky build with a whitish breast and rust-colored tail. It has a high-pitched descending scream with a hoarse quality. The hawk inhabits mainly deciduous forest and adjacent open country from Alaska and Nova Scotia south to Panama. KSC shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  12. A red-tailed hawk at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    From the top of a utility pole, a red-tailed hawk launches into flight, perhaps after spotting prey, typically a small rodent. Ranging in height from 18 inches to 25 inches, the species has a stocky build with a whitish breast and rust-colored tail. It has a high-pitched descending scream with a hoarse quality. The hawk inhabits mainly deciduous forest and adjacent open country from Alaska and Nova Scotia south to Panama. KSC shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  13. Luminescent spectroscopy of dry tailings urine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilyi, Olexander; Bordun, Oleg; Yarynovska, Ivanna

    2006-05-01

    In the work the results of research of luminescent spectrums by photo excitation in the interval of waves lengths 250 - 550 nm and ofluminescent spectrums by the nitric laser (337,1 mn) excitation ofdiy tailings urinaryby the temperature of 300 °K are represented. In the spectral interval of 400 - 800 nm a wide bar of luminescence, intensity of which depends on the type of excitation. was observed. It is set, that presence of salts with oxalate, urate and phosphatic compositions in urine results in the move of maximum of luniinescent spectrums in the long-wave region of spectrum and changes the intensity of luminescence. The possible mechanisms of the observed changes in the spectrums of luminescence of dry urine tailings are examined in the work. The model of recombrnational processes which describe the looked luminescent processes is offered. Possible explanations of the looked features in the spectrums of luminescence combine with luminescence of nanobiological complexes, inorganic salts, urea and natural proteins enter in composition of which.

  14. Tail loss and thermoregulation in the common lizard Zootoca vivipara.

    PubMed

    Herczeg, Gábor; Kovács, Tibor; Tóth, Tamás; Török, János; Korsós, Zoltán; Merilä, Juha

    2004-10-01

    Tail autotomy in lizards is an adaptive strategy that has evolved to reduce the risk of predation. Since tail loss reduces body mass and moving ability-which in turn are expected to influence thermal balance-there is potential for a trade-off between tail autotomy and thermoregulation. To test this hypothesis, we studied a common lizard (Zootoca vivipara) population at high latitude, inhabiting a high-cost thermal environment. Z. vivipara is a small, non-territorial lizard known as a very accurate thermoregulator. We made two predictions: (1) the reduced body weight due to tail loss results in faster heating rate (a benefit), and (2) the reduction in locomotor ability after tail loss induces a shift to the use of thermally poorer microhabitats (a cost), thus decreasing the field body temperatures of active lizards. We did not find any effect of tail loss on heating rate in laboratory experiments conducted under different thermal conditions. Likewise, no significant relationship between tail condition and field body temperatures, or between tail condition and thermal microhabitat use, were detected. Thus, our results suggest that tail autotomy does not influence the accuracy of thermoregulation in small-bodied lizards.

  15. Estimating Impact Forces of Tail Club Strikes by Ankylosaurid Dinosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Arbour, Victoria Megan

    2009-01-01

    Background It has been assumed that the unusual tail club of ankylosaurid dinosaurs was used actively as a weapon, but the biological feasibility of this behaviour has not been examined in detail. Ankylosaurid tail clubs are composed of interlocking vertebrae, which form the handle, and large terminal osteoderms, which form the knob. Methodology/Principal Findings Computed tomographic (CT) scans of several ankylosaurid tail clubs referred to Dyoplosaurus and Euoplocephalus, combined with measurements of free caudal vertebrae, provide information used to estimate the impact force of tail clubs of various sizes. Ankylosaurid tails are modeled as a series of segments for which mass, muscle cross-sectional area, torque, and angular acceleration are calculated. Free caudal vertebrae segments had limited vertical flexibility, but the tail could have swung through approximately 100° laterally. Muscle scars on the pelvis record the presence of a large M. longissimus caudae, and ossified tendons alongside the handle represent M. spinalis. CT scans showed that knob osteoderms were predominantly cancellous, which would have lowered the rotational inertia of the tail club and made it easier to wield as a weapon. Conclusions/Significance Large knobs could generate sufficient force to break bone during impacts, but average and small knobs could not. Tail swinging behaviour is feasible in ankylosaurids, but it remains unknown whether the tail was used for interspecific defense, intraspecific combat, or both. PMID:19707581

  16. Ecological restoration alters microbial communities in mine tailings profiles

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Jia, Zhongjun; Sun, Qingye; Zhan, Jing; Yang, Yang; Wang, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Ecological restoration of mine tailings have impact on soil physiochemical properties and microbial communities. The surface soil has been a primary concern in the past decades, however it remains poorly understood about the adaptive response of microbial communities along the profile during ecological restoration of the tailings. In this study, microbial communities along a 60-cm profile were investigated in a mine tailing pond during ecological restoration of the bare waste tailings (BW) with two vegetated soils of Imperata cylindrica (IC) and Chrysopogon zizanioides (CZ) plants. Revegetation of both IC and CZ could retard soil degradation of mine tailing by stimulation of soil pH at 0–30 cm soils and altered the bacterial communities at 0–20 cm depths of the mine tailings. Significant differences existed in the relative abundance of the phyla Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes and Nitrospira. Slight difference of bacterial communities were found at 30–60 cm depths of mine tailings. Abundance and activity analysis of nifH genes also explained the elevated soil nitrogen contents at the surface 0–20 cm of the vegetated soils. These results suggest that microbial succession occurred primarily at surface tailings and vegetation of pioneering plants might have promoted ecological restoration of mine tailings. PMID:27126064

  17. Ecological restoration alters microbial communities in mine tailings profiles.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Jia, Zhongjun; Sun, Qingye; Zhan, Jing; Yang, Yang; Wang, Dan

    2016-04-29

    Ecological restoration of mine tailings have impact on soil physiochemical properties and microbial communities. The surface soil has been a primary concern in the past decades, however it remains poorly understood about the adaptive response of microbial communities along the profile during ecological restoration of the tailings. In this study, microbial communities along a 60-cm profile were investigated in a mine tailing pond during ecological restoration of the bare waste tailings (BW) with two vegetated soils of Imperata cylindrica (IC) and Chrysopogon zizanioides (CZ) plants. Revegetation of both IC and CZ could retard soil degradation of mine tailing by stimulation of soil pH at 0-30 cm soils and altered the bacterial communities at 0-20 cm depths of the mine tailings. Significant differences existed in the relative abundance of the phyla Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes and Nitrospira. Slight difference of bacterial communities were found at 30-60 cm depths of mine tailings. Abundance and activity analysis of nifH genes also explained the elevated soil nitrogen contents at the surface 0-20 cm of the vegetated soils. These results suggest that microbial succession occurred primarily at surface tailings and vegetation of pioneering plants might have promoted ecological restoration of mine tailings.

  18. Ecological restoration alters microbial communities in mine tailings profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang; Jia, Zhongjun; Sun, Qingye; Zhan, Jing; Yang, Yang; Wang, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Ecological restoration of mine tailings have impact on soil physiochemical properties and microbial communities. The surface soil has been a primary concern in the past decades, however it remains poorly understood about the adaptive response of microbial communities along the profile during ecological restoration of the tailings. In this study, microbial communities along a 60-cm profile were investigated in a mine tailing pond during ecological restoration of the bare waste tailings (BW) with two vegetated soils of Imperata cylindrica (IC) and Chrysopogon zizanioides (CZ) plants. Revegetation of both IC and CZ could retard soil degradation of mine tailing by stimulation of soil pH at 0–30 cm soils and altered the bacterial communities at 0–20 cm depths of the mine tailings. Significant differences existed in the relative abundance of the phyla Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes and Nitrospira. Slight difference of bacterial communities were found at 30–60 cm depths of mine tailings. Abundance and activity analysis of nifH genes also explained the elevated soil nitrogen contents at the surface 0–20 cm of the vegetated soils. These results suggest that microbial succession occurred primarily at surface tailings and vegetation of pioneering plants might have promoted ecological restoration of mine tailings.

  19. Review of fugitive dust control for uranium mill tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Li, C.T.; Elmore, M.R.; Hartley, J.N.

    1983-01-01

    An immediate concern associated with the disposal of uranium mill tailings is that wind erosion of the tailings from an impoundment area will subsequently deposit tailings on surrounding areas. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is investigating the current technology for fugitive dust control. Different methods of fugitive dust control, including chemical, physical, and vegetative, have been used or tested on mill tailings piles. This report presents the results of a literature review and discussions with manufacturers and users of available stabilization materials and techniques.

  20. Chromaticity measurement using a continuous head-tail kicking technique

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, C.Y.; Ranjbar, V.H.; /Tech-X, Boulder

    2007-06-01

    In the classical head-tail chromaticity measurement technique, a single large kick is applied transversely to the beam. The resulting phase difference between the head and the tail is measured and the chromaticity extracted. In the continuous head-tail kicking technique, a very small transverse kick is applied to the beam and the asymptotic phase difference between the head and the tail is found to be a function of chromaticity. The advantage of this method is that since the tune tracker PLL already supplies the small transverse kicks, no extra modulation is required.

  1. Recovery of Iron from Copper Tailings by Direct Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jing; Xia, De-Hong; Gu, Jing; Liu, Kai-Qi; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Shou-Zeng; Qi, Zhao-Dong; Ao, Wen-Qing

    2016-05-01

    Direct reduction of copper tailings were performed to recover iron efficiently by carbon-containing pellets, and the metallization rate was gained by chemical analysis method. The results showed that the metallization rate of copper tailings was up to 85.32% and the best reduction parameters are also found. Content of precious metals, such as, gold, silver in copper tailings can be enriched by 1.8~1.9 times through removing iron. The apparent activation energy of direct reduction of iron oxide in copper tailings is calculated to be 125.4 kJ/mol and the restrictive factor of reduction process is solid diffusion.

  2. Exploring Stellar Populations in the Tidal Tails of NGC3256

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodruck, Michael; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis; Charlton, Jane C.

    2015-01-01

    Galaxy interactions can inject material into the intergalactic medium via violent gravitational dynamics, often visualized in tidal tails. The composition of these tails has remained a mystery, as previous studies have focused on detecting tidal features, rather than the composite material itself. With this in mind, we have developed an observing program using deep, multiband imaging to probe the chaotic regions of tidal tails in search for an underlying stellar population. NGC3256's Western and Eastern tidal tails serve as a case study for this new technique. Our results show median color values of u - g = 1.12 and r - i = 0.09 for the Western tail, and u - g = 1.29 and r - i = 0.21 for the Eastern tail, corresponding to ages of approximately 450 Myr and 900 Myr for the tails, respectively. A u - g color gradient is seen in the Western tail as well, running from 1.32 to 1.08 (~2000 Myr to 400 Myr), suggesting ages inside tidal tails can have significant variations.

  3. Effects of Tail Clipping on Larval Performance and Tail Regeneration Rates in the Near Eastern Fire Salamander, Salamandra infraimmaculata

    PubMed Central

    Segev, Ori; Polevikove, Antonina; Blank, Lior; Goedbloed, Daniel; Küpfer, Eliane; Gershberg, Anna; Koplovich, Avi; Blaustein, Leon

    2015-01-01

    Tail-tip clipping is a common technique for collecting tissue samples from amphibian larvae and adults. Surprisingly, studies of this invasive sampling procedure or of natural tail clipping – i.e., bites inflicted by predators including conspecifics - on the performance and fitness of aquatic larval stages of urodeles are scarce. We conducted two studies in which we assessed the effects of posterior tail clipping (~30 percent of tail) on Near Eastern fire salamander (Salamandra infraimmaculata) larvae. In a laboratory study, we checked regeneration rates of posterior tail-tip clipping at different ages. Regeneration rates were hump-shaped, peaking at the age of ~30 days and then decreasing. This variation in tail regeneration rates suggests tradeoffs in resource allocation between regeneration and somatic growth during early and advanced development. In an outdoor artificial pond experiment, under constant larval densities, we assessed how tail clipping of newborn larvae affects survival to, time to, and size at metamorphosis. Repeated measures ANOVA on mean larval survival per pond revealed no effect of tail clipping. Tail clipping had correspondingly no effect on larval growth and development expressed in size (mass and snout-vent length) at, and time to, metamorphosis. We conclude that despite the given variation in tail regeneration rates throughout larval ontogeny, clipping of 30% percent of the posterior tail area seems to have no adverse effects on larval fitness and survival. We suggest that future use of this imperative tool for the study of amphibian should take into account larval developmental stage during the time of application and not just the relative size of the clipped tail sample. PMID:26065683

  4. Effects of Tail Clipping on Larval Performance and Tail Regeneration Rates in the Near Eastern Fire Salamander, Salamandra infraimmaculata.

    PubMed

    Segev, Ori; Polevikove, Antonina; Blank, Lior; Goedbloed, Daniel; Küpfer, Eliane; Gershberg, Anna; Koplovich, Avi; Blaustein, Leon

    2015-01-01

    Tail-tip clipping is a common technique for collecting tissue samples from amphibian larvae and adults. Surprisingly, studies of this invasive sampling procedure or of natural tail clipping--i.e., bites inflicted by predators including conspecifics--on the performance and fitness of aquatic larval stages of urodeles are scarce. We conducted two studies in which we assessed the effects of posterior tail clipping (~30 percent of tail) on Near Eastern fire salamander (Salamandra infraimmaculata) larvae. In a laboratory study, we checked regeneration rates of posterior tail-tip clipping at different ages. Regeneration rates were hump-shaped, peaking at the age of ~30 days and then decreasing. This variation in tail regeneration rates suggests tradeoffs in resource allocation between regeneration and somatic growth during early and advanced development. In an outdoor artificial pond experiment, under constant larval densities, we assessed how tail clipping of newborn larvae affects survival to, time to, and size at metamorphosis. Repeated measures ANOVA on mean larval survival per pond revealed no effect of tail clipping. Tail clipping had correspondingly no effect on larval growth and development expressed in size (mass and snout-vent length) at, and time to, metamorphosis. We conclude that despite the given variation in tail regeneration rates throughout larval ontogeny, clipping of 30% percent of the posterior tail area seems to have no adverse effects on larval fitness and survival. We suggest that future use of this imperative tool for the study of amphibian should take into account larval developmental stage during the time of application and not just the relative size of the clipped tail sample.

  5. A proactive approach to sustainable management of mine tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edraki, Mansour; Baumgartl, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The reactive strategies to manage mine tailings i.e. containment of slurries of tailings in tailings storage facilities (TSF's) and remediation of tailings solids or tailings seepage water after the decommissioning of those facilities, can be technically inefficient to eliminate environmental risks (e.g. prevent dispersion of contaminants and catastrophic dam wall failures), pose a long term economic burden for companies, governments and society after mine closure, and often fail to meet community expectations. Most preventive environmental management practices promote proactive integrated approaches to waste management whereby the source of environmental issues are identified to help make a more informed decisions. They often use life cycle assessment to find the "hot spots" of environmental burdens. This kind of approach is often based on generic data and has rarely been used for tailings. Besides, life cycle assessments are less useful for designing operations or simulating changes in the process and consequent environmental outcomes. It is evident that an integrated approach for tailings research linked to better processing options is needed. A literature review revealed that there are only few examples of integrated approaches. The aim of this project is to develop new tailings management models by streamlining orebody characterization, process optimization and rehabilitation. The approach is based on continuous fingerprinting of geochemical processes from orebody to tailings storage facility, and benchmark the success of such proactive initiatives by evidence of no impacts and no future projected impacts on receiving environments. We present an approach for developing such a framework and preliminary results from a case study where combined grinding and flotation models developed using geometallurgical data from the orebody were constructed to predict the properties of tailings produced under various processing scenarios. The modelling scenarios based on the

  6. Coevolution of caudal skeleton and tail feathers in birds.

    PubMed

    Felice, Ryan N

    2014-12-01

    Birds are capable of a wide range of aerial locomotor behaviors in part because of the derived structure and function of the avian tail. The tail apparatus consists of a several mobile (free) caudal vertebrae, a terminal skeletal element (the pygostyle), and an articulated fan of tail feathers that may be spread or folded, as well as muscular and fibroadipose structures that facilitate tail movements. Morphological variation in both the tail fan and the caudal skeleton that supports it are well documented. The structure of the tail feathers and the pygostyle each evolve in response to functional demands of differing locomotor behaviors. Here, I test whether the integument and skeleton coevolve in this important locomotor module. I quantified feather and skeletal morphology in a diverse sample of waterbirds and shorebirds using a combination of linear and geometric morphometrics. Covariation between tail fan shape and skeletal morphology was then tested using phylogenetic comparative methods. Pygostyle shape is found to be a good predictor of tail fan shape (e.g., forked, graduated), supporting the hypothesis that the tail fan and the tail skeleton have coevolved. This statistical relationship is used to reconstruct feather morphology in an exemplar fossil waterbird, Limnofregata azygosternon. Based on pygostyle morphology, this taxon is likely to have exhibited a forked tail fan similar to that of its extant sister clade Fregata, despite differing in inferred ecology and other aspects of skeletal anatomy. These methods may be useful in reconstructing rectricial morphology in other extinct birds and thus assist in characterizing the evolution of flight control surfaces in birds.

  7. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Pybus, Margo J; Ravi, Madhu; Pollock, Colleen

    2014-07-01

    Epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) virus serotype 2 was identified by reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) found dead in southern Alberta in September 2013. Field observations indicate at least 50 deer, primarily white-tailed deer, and three pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) died during a suspected localized EHD outbreak.

  8. Hollywood blockbusters and long-tailed distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, S.; Raghavendra, S.

    2004-11-01

    Numerical data for all movies released in theaters in the USA during the period 1997-2003 are examined for the distribution of their popularity in terms of (i) the number of weeks they spent in the Top 60 according to the weekend earnings, and (ii) the box-office gross during the opening week, as well as, the total duration for which they were shown in theaters. These distributions show long tails where the most popular movies are located. Like the study of Redner [S. Redner, Eur. Phys. J. B 4, 131 (1998)] on the distribution of citations to individual papers, our results appear to be consistent with a power-law dependence of the rank distribution of gross revenues for the most popular movies with a exponent close to -1/2.

  9. Sulfur Biogeochemistry of Athabasca Oilsands Composite Tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, L. A.; Kendra, K. E.

    2013-12-01

    Oil sands tailings are important, globally relevant, S reservoirs, known to contain active and diverse microbial communities. As evidenced by increasing S emissions from the oil sands, active biogeochemical S cycling within composite tailings (CT, a mixture of tailings, post-processed sand and gypsum, used for dry reclamation), is likely; however the S biogeochemistry of these residues has not been investigated to date. With surface mining of Alberta's oil sands spanning over 142,000 square km and accelerated production, these tailings-based landscapes will become increasingly prevalent with the potential for significant environmental impacts. The objectives here, were thus to characterize depth dependent S biogeochemistry of a 40 meter CT deposit (Fort McMurray, AB, CANADA). Drill samples were collected in December of 2012 from 5 depths spanning 36 m in the CT deposit, for geochemical, metagenomic and functional enrichment analyses. Results establish widespread microbial S biogeochemical cycling within the CT deposit. Porewater H2S was detected extensively throughout the deposit with background levels ranging from 14-23 μM and a concentrated pocket of 300 μM occurring at depth. Porewater Fe(II) (1-40 μM) was detected only within surficial depth samples. Current Fe(II) concentrations are not sufficient to sequester the levels of H2S generated by CT, indicating CT may become a net source of S emissions, as generated H2S at depth migrates to the surface, in untreated CT deposits. Metagenomic (454 pyrosequencing) characterization revealed highly diverse CT microbial communities, with 21 different phyla encountered overall and 1/3 of these presenting as candidate divisions. The cultivation independent identification of several known IRB and sulphate (SRB) reducing bacteria within these communities was consistent with observed positive growth in IRB and SRB functional metabolic enrichments. Furthermore, two depth dependent structurally distinct communities emerged: a

  10. Tiger Tail Distillery alcohol plant starts up

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-05

    Tiger Tail Distillery plans to start construction in Jan. 1981 of an $89.9 million ethanol plant that would produce 50 million gal/yr of alcohol from 19 million bushels of corn. A $66.8 million loan guarantee from the U.S. Farmers Home Administration will aid the construction of the plant, which will be located on the Mississippi River west of Dyersburg, Tenn. The plant is scheduled for completion eight months after the start of construction. The production and marketing of the alcohol would cost an estimated $1.80/gal, and the cost of barging the alcohol to New Orleans and Memphis would be $0.01/gal and $0.0025/gal, respectively.

  11. Stereo Images of Wind Tails Near Chimp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This stereo image pair of the rock 'Chimp' was taken by the Sojourner rover's front cameras on Sol 72 (September 15). Fine-scale texture on Chimp and other rocks is clearly visible. Wind tails, oriented from lower right to upper left, are seen next to small pebbles in the foreground. These were most likely produced by wind action.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  12. How faceted liquid droplets grow tails

    PubMed Central

    Guttman, Shani; Sapir, Zvi; Schultz, Moty; Butenko, Alexander V.; Ocko, Benjamin M.; Deutsch, Moshe; Sloutskin, Eli

    2016-01-01

    Liquid droplets, widely encountered in everyday life, have no flat facets. Here we show that water-dispersed oil droplets can be reversibly temperature-tuned to icosahedral and other faceted shapes, hitherto unreported for liquid droplets. These shape changes are shown to originate in the interplay between interfacial tension and the elasticity of the droplet’s 2-nm-thick interfacial monolayer, which crystallizes at some T = Ts above the oil’s melting point, with the droplet’s bulk remaining liquid. Strikingly, at still-lower temperatures, this interfacial freezing (IF) effect also causes droplets to deform, split, and grow tails. Our findings provide deep insights into molecular-scale elasticity and allow formation of emulsions of tunable stability for directed self-assembly of complex-shaped particles and other future technologies. PMID:26733673

  13. Correlations in quantum plasmas. II. Algebraic tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornu, F.

    1996-05-01

    For a system of point charges that interact through the three-dimensional electrostatic Coulomb potential (without any regularization) and obey the laws of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics with Bose or Fermi statistics, the static correlations between particles are shown to have a 1/r6 tail, at least at distances that are large with respect to the length of exponential screening. After a review of previous work, a term-by-term diagrammatic proof is given by using the formalism of paper I, where the quantum particle-particle correlations are expressed in terms of classical-loop distribution functions. The integrable graphs of the resummed Mayer-like diagrammatics for the loop distributions contain bonds between loops that decay either exponentially or algebraically, with a 1/r3 leading term analogous to a dipole-dipole interaction. This reflects the fact that the charge-charge or multipole-charge interactions between clusters of particles surrounded by their polarization clouds are exponentially screened, as at a classical level, whereas the multipole-multipole interactions are only partially screened. The correlation between loops decays as 1/r3, but the spherical symmetry of the quantum fluctuations makes this power law fall to 1/r5, and the harmonicity of the Coulomb potential eventually enforces the correlations between quantum particles to decay only as 1/r6. The coefficient of the 1/r6 tail at low density is planned to be given in a subsequent paper. Moreover, because of Coulomb screening, the induced charge density, which describes the response to an external infinitesimal charge, is shown to fall off as 1/r8, while the charge-charge correlation in the medium decreases as 1/r10. However, in spite of the departure of the quantum microscopic correlations from the classical exponential clustering, the total induced charge is still essentially determined by the exponentially screened charge-charge interactions, as in classical macroscopic electrostatics.

  14. Thresher Sharks Use Tail-Slaps as a Hunting Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Simon P.; Turner, John R.; Gann, Klemens; Silvosa, Medel; D'Urban Jackson, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The hunting strategies of pelagic thresher sharks (Alopias pelagicus) were investigated at Pescador Island in the Philippines. It has long been suspected that thresher sharks hunt with their scythe-like tails but the kinematics associated with the behaviour in the wild are poorly understood. From 61 observations recorded by handheld underwater video camera between June and October 2010, 25 thresher shark shunting events were analysed. Thresher sharks employed tail-slaps to debilitate sardines at all times of day. Hunting events comprised preparation, strike, wind-down recovery and prey item collection phases, which occurred sequentially. Preparation phases were significantly longer than the others, presumably to enable a shark to windup a tail-slap. Tail-slaps were initiated by an adduction of the pectoral fins, a manoeuvre that changed a thresher shark's pitch promoting its posterior region to lift rapidly, and stall its approach. Tail-slaps occurred with such force that they may have caused dissolved gas to diffuse out of the water column forming bubbles. Thresher sharks were able to consume more than one sardine at a time, suggesting that tail-slapping is an effective foraging strategy for hunting schooling prey. Pelagic thresher sharks appear to pursue sardines opportunistically by day and night, which may make them vulnerable to fisheries. Alopiids possess specialist pectoral and caudal fins that are likely to have evolved, at least in part, for tail-slapping. The evidence is now clear; thresher sharks really do hunt with their tails. PMID:23874415

  15. VIEW OF BOEING 737200 FUSELAGE FROM TOP LEVEL OF TAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BOEING 737-200 FUSELAGE FROM TOP LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK AND. A NEW SAFETY CABLE FROM THE TAIL DOCK WILL ALLOW INSPECTORS TO WALK UP AND DOWN THE FUSELAGE TO CHECK FOR CRACKS OR MISSING FASTENERS. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  16. An expeditious synthesis of tailed tren-capped porphyrins.

    PubMed

    Even, Pascale; Ruzié, Christian; Ricard, David; Boitrel, Bernard

    2005-09-29

    [structure: see text] A one-pot two-step versatile synthesis of tailed tren-capped porphyrins has been achieved. The two resulting ligands demonstrate that this expeditious method can be applied to various axial bases to obtain highly functionalized macromolecules attractive for heme modeling purposes. Dioxygen binding of the pyridine-tailed iron complex is reported as a direct application.

  17. Thresher sharks use tail-slaps as a hunting strategy.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Simon P; Turner, John R; Gann, Klemens; Silvosa, Medel; D'Urban Jackson, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The hunting strategies of pelagic thresher sharks (Alopias pelagicus) were investigated at Pescador Island in the Philippines. It has long been suspected that thresher sharks hunt with their scythe-like tails but the kinematics associated with the behaviour in the wild are poorly understood. From 61 observations recorded by handheld underwater video camera between June and October 2010, 25 thresher shark shunting events were analysed. Thresher sharks employed tail-slaps to debilitate sardines at all times of day. Hunting events comprised preparation, strike, wind-down recovery and prey item collection phases, which occurred sequentially. Preparation phases were significantly longer than the others, presumably to enable a shark to windup a tail-slap. Tail-slaps were initiated by an adduction of the pectoral fins, a manoeuvre that changed a thresher shark's pitch promoting its posterior region to lift rapidly, and stall its approach. Tail-slaps occurred with such force that they may have caused dissolved gas to diffuse out of the water column forming bubbles. Thresher sharks were able to consume more than one sardine at a time, suggesting that tail-slapping is an effective foraging strategy for hunting schooling prey. Pelagic thresher sharks appear to pursue sardines opportunistically by day and night, which may make them vulnerable to fisheries. Alopiids possess specialist pectoral and caudal fins that are likely to have evolved, at least in part, for tail-slapping. The evidence is now clear; thresher sharks really do hunt with their tails.

  18. NONINVASIVE, CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT OF RAT TAIL SKIN TEMPERATURE BY RADIOTELEMETRY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tail skin temperature (Tsk) can provide a wealth of information on the thermoregulatory status of the rat. Drug- and toxic-induced changes in body temperature are often mediated by vasodilation or constriction of blood flow to the tail and Tsk can generally be used as an indica...

  19. 106. Photocopied August 1978. EXTENSION OF TAIL PIT WALLS, APRIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    106. Photocopied August 1978. EXTENSION OF TAIL PIT WALLS, APRIL 28, 1917. THE TIMBERWORK IN THE FOREGROUND WAS USED AS A COMBINATION COFFER DAM AND FORM FOR POURING THE CONCRETE TAIL RACE WALL EXTENSION. IN THE BACKGROUND ALONG THE POWER HOUSE SEVERAL COMPLETED WALL EXTENSIONS CAN BE SEEN DIMLY. (787) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  20. 3. VIEW OF EMPIRE STATE MINE WITH TAILING PILE IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF EMPIRE STATE MINE WITH TAILING PILE IN BOTTOM LEFT AND COLLAPSED ADIT LOCATED BELOW DARK SHADOWS IN FAR RIGHT/LOWER THIRD. COLLAPSED BUILDING AND PARTIAL VIEW OF ORE CHUTE/BIN IS VISIBLE ON HILLSIDE ABOVE TAILINGS. CAMERA POINTED NORTH/NORTHWEST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Empire State Mine, West side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  1. 6. UPPER NOTTINGHAM TAILING PILE LOOKING DOWN STREAM BED TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. UPPER NOTTINGHAM TAILING PILE LOOKING DOWN STREAM BED TO LOWER NOTTINGHAM. COLLAPSED BUILDINGS, 'B' AND 'C' AND TOP EDGE OF TAILING PILES ARE VISIBLE IN CENTRAL ARE OF PRINT. CAMERA POINTED SOUTHWEST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Upper Nottingham Mine, West face of Florida Mountain, head of Jacobs Gulch, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  2. Structural Conservation of the Myoviridae Phage Tail Sheath Protein Fold

    SciTech Connect

    Aksyuk, Anastasia A.; Kurochkina, Lidia P.; Fokine, Andrei; Forouhar, Farhad; Mesyanzhinov, Vadim V.; Tong, Liang; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2012-02-21

    Bacteriophage phiKZ is a giant phage that infects Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a human pathogen. The phiKZ virion consists of a 1450 {angstrom} diameter icosahedral head and a 2000 {angstrom}-long contractile tail. The structure of the whole virus was previously reported, showing that its tail organization in the extended state is similar to the well-studied Myovirus bacteriophage T4 tail. The crystal structure of a tail sheath protein fragment of phiKZ was determined to 2.4 {angstrom} resolution. Furthermore, crystal structures of two prophage tail sheath proteins were determined to 1.9 and 3.3 {angstrom} resolution. Despite low sequence identity between these proteins, all of these structures have a similar fold. The crystal structure of the phiKZ tail sheath protein has been fitted into cryo-electron-microscopy reconstructions of the extended tail sheath and of a polysheath. The structural rearrangement of the phiKZ tail sheath contraction was found to be similar to that of phage T4.

  3. 14 CFR 29.481 - Tail-down landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tail-down landing conditions. 29.481 Section 29.481 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Tail-down landing conditions. (a) The rotorcraft is assumed to be in the maximum nose-up...

  4. 14 CFR 29.481 - Tail-down landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tail-down landing conditions. 29.481 Section 29.481 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Tail-down landing conditions. (a) The rotorcraft is assumed to be in the maximum nose-up...

  5. 14 CFR 27.481 - Tail-down landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tail-down landing conditions. 27.481 Section 27.481 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Tail-down landing conditions. (a) The rotorcraft is assumed to be in the maximum nose-up...

  6. 14 CFR 29.481 - Tail-down landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tail-down landing conditions. 29.481 Section 29.481 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Tail-down landing conditions. (a) The rotorcraft is assumed to be in the maximum nose-up...

  7. 14 CFR 27.481 - Tail-down landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tail-down landing conditions. 27.481 Section 27.481 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Tail-down landing conditions. (a) The rotorcraft is assumed to be in the maximum nose-up...

  8. 14 CFR 27.481 - Tail-down landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tail-down landing conditions. 27.481 Section 27.481 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Tail-down landing conditions. (a) The rotorcraft is assumed to be in the maximum nose-up...

  9. Progress in our understanding of cometary dust tails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekanina, Z.

    1976-01-01

    Various analytical techniques are employed to analyze observations on the character, composition, and size distribution of solid particles in cometary dust tails. Emphasized is the mechanical theory that includes solar gravitational attraction and solar radiation pressure to explain dust particle motions in cometary tails, as well as interactions between dust and plasma.

  10. 14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Landing Gear § 23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering. (a) If nose/tail wheel steering is installed, it must be demonstrated that its use does not require exceptional pilot skill during takeoff and landing, in crosswinds...) Movement of the pilot's steering control must not interfere with the retraction or extension of the...

  11. 14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Landing Gear § 23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering. (a) If nose/tail wheel steering is installed, it must be demonstrated that its use does not require exceptional pilot skill during takeoff and landing, in crosswinds...) Movement of the pilot's steering control must not interfere with the retraction or extension of the...

  12. Moth tails divert bat attack: Evolution of acoustic deflection

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Jesse R.; Leavell, Brian C.; Keener, Adam L.; Breinholt, Jesse W.; Chadwell, Brad A.; McClure, Christopher J. W.; Hill, Geena M.; Kawahara, Akito Y.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptations to divert the attacks of visually guided predators have evolved repeatedly in animals. Using high-speed infrared videography, we show that luna moths (Actias luna) generate an acoustic diversion with spinning hindwing tails to deflect echolocating bat attacks away from their body and toward these nonessential appendages. We pit luna moths against big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) and demonstrate a survival advantage of ∼47% for moths with tails versus those that had their tails removed. The benefit of hindwing tails is equivalent to the advantage conferred to moths by bat-detecting ears. Moth tails lured bat attacks to these wing regions during 55% of interactions between bats and intact luna moths. We analyzed flight kinematics of moths with and without hindwing tails and suggest that tails have a minimal role in flight performance. Using a robust phylogeny, we find that long spatulate tails have independently evolved four times in saturniid moths, further supporting the selective advantage of this anti-bat strategy. Diversionary tactics are perhaps more common than appreciated in predator–prey interactions. Our finding suggests that focusing on the sensory ecologies of key predators will reveal such countermeasures in prey. PMID:25730869

  13. Moth tails divert bat attack: evolution of acoustic deflection.

    PubMed

    Barber, Jesse R; Leavell, Brian C; Keener, Adam L; Breinholt, Jesse W; Chadwell, Brad A; McClure, Christopher J W; Hill, Geena M; Kawahara, Akito Y

    2015-03-03

    Adaptations to divert the attacks of visually guided predators have evolved repeatedly in animals. Using high-speed infrared videography, we show that luna moths (Actias luna) generate an acoustic diversion with spinning hindwing tails to deflect echolocating bat attacks away from their body and toward these nonessential appendages. We pit luna moths against big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) and demonstrate a survival advantage of ∼ 47% for moths with tails versus those that had their tails removed. The benefit of hindwing tails is equivalent to the advantage conferred to moths by bat-detecting ears. Moth tails lured bat attacks to these wing regions during 55% of interactions between bats and intact luna moths. We analyzed flight kinematics of moths with and without hindwing tails and suggest that tails have a minimal role in flight performance. Using a robust phylogeny, we find that long spatulate tails have independently evolved four times in saturniid moths, further supporting the selective advantage of this anti-bat strategy. Diversionary tactics are perhaps more common than appreciated in predator-prey interactions. Our finding suggests that focusing on the sensory ecologies of key predators will reveal such countermeasures in prey.

  14. A tale of two tails: exploring stellar populations in the tidal tails of NGC 3256

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodruck, Michael; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis; Knierman, Karen; Fedotov, Konstantin; Mullan, Brendan; Gallagher, Sarah; Durrell, Patrick; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; Charlton, Jane

    2016-09-01

    We have developed an observing programme using deep, multiband imaging to probe the chaotic regions of tidal tails in search of an underlying stellar population, using NGC 3256's 400 Myr twin tidal tails as a case study. These tails have different colours of u - g = 1.05 ± 0.07 and r - i = 0.13 ± 0.07 for NGC 3256W, and u - g = 1.26 ± 0.07 and r - i = 0.26 ± 0.07 for NGC 3256E, indicating different stellar populations. These colours correspond to simple stellar population ages of 288^{+11}_{-54} and 841^{+125}_{-157} Myr for NGC 3256W and NGC 3256E, respectively, suggesting that NGC 3256W's diffuse light is dominated by stars formed after the interaction, while light in NGC 3256E is primarily from stars that originated in the host galaxy. Using a mixed stellar population model, we break our diffuse light into two populations: one at 10 Gyr, representing stars pulled from the host galaxies, and a younger component, whose age is determined by fitting the model to the data. We find similar ages for the young populations of both tails (195^{-13}_{+0} and 170^{-70}_{+44} Myr for NGC 3256W and NGC 3256E, respectively), but a larger percentage of mass in the 10 Gyr population for NGC 3256E (98^{+1}_{-3} per cent versus 90^{+5}_{-6} per cent). Additionally, we detect 31 star cluster candidates in NGC 3256W and 19 in NGC 2356E, with median ages of 141 and 91 Myr, respectively. NGC 3256E contains several young (<10 Myr), low-mass objects with strong nebular emission, indicating a small, recent burst of star formation.

  15. Physiologic reference ranges for captive black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus).

    PubMed

    Keckler, M Shannon; Gallardo-Romero, Nadia F; Langham, Gregory L; Damon, Inger K; Karem, Kevin L; Carroll, Darin S

    2010-05-01

    The black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) is a member of the order Rodentia and the family Sciuridae. Ecologically, prairie dogs are a keystone species in prairie ecology. This species is used as an animal model for human gallbladder disease and diseases caused by infection with Clostridium difficile, Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, and most recently, Orthopoxvirus. Despite increasing numbers of prairie dogs used in research and kept as pets, few data are available on their baseline physiology in animal facility housing conditions. To establish baseline physiologic reference ranges, we designed a study using 18 wild-caught black-tailed prairie dogs. Telemetry data were analyzed to establish circadian rhythms for activity and temperature. In addition, hematologic and serum chemistry analyses were performed. Baseline measurements were used to establish the mean for each animal, which then were compiled and analyzed to determine the reference ranges. Here we present physiologic data on serum chemistry and hematology profiles, as well as weight, core body temperature, and daily activity patterns for black-tailed prairie dogs. These results reflect the use of multiple measurements from species- and age-matched prairie dogs and likely will be useful to ecologists, scientists interested in using this animal model in research, and veterinarians caring for pet prairie dogs.

  16. Growth and respiration of regenerating tissues of the axolotl tail.

    PubMed

    Vladimirova, I G

    1975-01-01

    Changes in the weight and oxygen consumption were studied during regeneration of the tail in adult axolotls and larvae. The curve of the increase in weight of the regenerating tail in both age groups is S-shaped. The intensity of respiration of the regenerating tail increases in adult axolotls and in larvae at the blastema stage; in adult axolotls there is also a second increase in the intensity of respiration of the regenerating tail during differentiation of the muscles. The relationship between weight and the rate of respiration was compared during regeneration of the tail in axolotl and the normal growth of the animals. Whereas growth of the animals was characterized by the relationship QO2 equals aPk with a constant value of k, during regeneration the various stages of this process have their own corresponding values of k.

  17. Studies on tail length of Rambouillet and Mouflon sheep.

    PubMed

    Shelton, M

    1977-01-01

    Data are presented on tail length of various breeds or crosses of sheep and various combinations of Mouflon X Rambouillet breeding. Mouflons sheep had 11 coccygeal vertebrae, and Rambouillet had 18-24. Others were intermediate between these types. Finewool sheep (Merino or Rambouillet) had longer tails than medium wool (Dorset, Suffolk or Hampshire), crossed, or Rambouillet breeds. Heritability estimates for tail length of Rambouillet were 0.387 (intra-sire regression), 0.344 (half-sib method), and 0.706 for inter se matings in a population containing some Mouflon breeding. In the Rambouillet breed, tail length was shown to be correlated with various measures of wool production. However, this relationship was low and only wool covering and staple length were significant. The significance of this to the development of long tails in animals under domestication is discussed.

  18. Novel hemotropic Mycoplasma species in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Maggi, Ricardo G; Chitwood, M Colter; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne; DePerno, Christopher S

    2013-12-01

    Globally, hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. are emerging or re-emerging zoonotic pathogens that affect livestock, wildlife, companion animals, and humans, potentially causing serious and economically important disease problems. Little is known about hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. prevalence, host-specificity, or route of transmission in most species, including wildlife. DNA amplification by PCR targeting the 16SrRNA and the RNaseP genes was used to establish the presence and prevalence of hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. in a white-tailed deer (O. virginianus) population in eastern North Carolina. Sixty-five deer (89%) tested positive for hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. where sequence analysis of the 16SsRNA and the RNaseP genes indicated the presence of at least three distinct species. This study represents the first detection of three distinct hemotropic Mycoplasma species in white-tailed deer and the first report of two novel hemotropic Mycoplasma species.

  19. Radon emanation from backfilled mill tailings in underground uranium mine.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Patitapaban; Mishra, Devi Prasad; Panigrahi, Durga Charan; Jha, Vivekananda; Patnaik, R Lokeswara; Sethy, Narendra Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Coarser mill tailings used as backfill to stabilize the stoped out areas in underground uranium mines is a potential source of radon contamination. This paper presents the quantitative assessment of radon emanation from the backfilled tailings in Jaduguda mine, India using a cylindrical accumulator. Some of the important parameters such as (226)Ra activity concentration, bulk density, bulk porosity, moisture content and radon emanation factor of the tailings affecting radon emanation were determined in the laboratory. The study revealed that the radon emanation rate of the tailings varied in the range of 0.12-7.03 Bq m(-2) s(-1) with geometric mean of 1.01 Bq m(-2) s(-1) and geometric standard deviation of 3.39. An increase in radon emanation rate was noticed up to a moisture saturation of 0.09 in the tailings, after which the emanation rate gradually started declining with saturation due to low diffusion coefficient of radon in the saturated tailings. Radon emanation factor of the tailings varied in the range of 0.08-0.23 with the mean value of 0.21. The emanation factor of the tailings with moisture saturation level over 0.09 was found to be about three times higher than that of the absolutely dry tailings. The empirical relationship obtained between (222)Rn emanation rate and (226)Ra activity concentration of the tailings indicated a significant positive linear correlation (r = 0.95, p < 0.001). This relationship may be useful for quick prediction of radon emanation rate from the backfill material of similar nature.

  20. White-tailed deer are susceptible to the agent of sheep scrapie by intracerebral inoculation.

    PubMed

    Greenlee, Justin J; Smith, Jodi D; Kunkle, Robert A

    2011-10-11

    Interspecies transmission studies afford the opportunity to better understand the potential host range and origins of prion diseases. The purpose of this experiment was to determine susceptibility of white-tailed deer to the agent of scrapie after intracerebral inoculation and to compare clinical signs and lesions to those reported for chronic wasting disease (CWD). Deer (n = 5) were inoculated with 1 mL of a 10% (wt/vol) brain homogenate derived from a sheep clinically affected with scrapie. A non-inoculated deer was maintained as a negative control. Deer were observed daily for clinical signs of disease and euthanized and necropsied when unequivocal signs of scrapie were noted. One animal died 7 months post inoculation (pi) due to intercurrent disease. Examinations of brain tissue for the presence of the disease-associated abnormal prion protein (PrP(Sc)) by western blot (WB) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were negative whereas IHC of lymphoid tissues was positive. Deer necropsied at 15-22 months pi were positive for scrapie by IHC and WB. Deer necropsied after 20 months pi had clinical signs of depression and progressive weight loss. Tissues with PrP(Sc) immunoreactivity included brain (at levels of cerebrum, hippocampus, colliculus, cerebellum, and brainstem), trigeminal ganglion, neurohypophysis, retina, spinal cord, and various lymphoid tissues including tonsil, retropharyngeal and mesenteric lymph nodes, Peyer's patches, and spleen. This work demonstrates for the first time that white-tailed deer are susceptible to sheep scrapie by intracerebral inoculation. To further test the susceptibility of white-tailed deer to scrapie these experiments will be repeated with a more natural route of inoculation.

  1. The ticking tail: daily oscillations in mRNA poly(A) tail length drive circadian cycles in protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Gotic, Ivana; Schibler, Ueli

    2012-12-15

    In this issue of Genes & Development, Kojima and colleagues (pp. 2724-2736) examined the impact of mRNA poly(A) tail length on circadian gene expression. Their study demonstrates how dynamic changes in transcript poly(A) tail length can lead to rhythmic protein expression, irrespective of whether mRNA accumulation is circadian or constitutive.

  2. RADIOGRAPHIC AND ULTRASONOGRAPHIC ABDOMINAL ANATOMY IN CAPTIVE RING-TAILED LEMURS (LEMUR CATTA).

    PubMed

    Makungu, Modesta; du Plessis, Wencke M; Barrows, Michelle; Groenewald, Hermanus B; Koeppel, Katja N

    2016-06-01

    The ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) is primarily distributed in south and southwestern Madagascar. It is classified as an endangered species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Various abdominal diseases, such as hepatic lipidosis, intestinal ulcers, cystitis, urinary tract obstruction, and neoplasia (e.g., colonic adenocarcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma), have been reported in this species. The aim of this study was to describe the normal radiographic and ultrasonographic abdominal anatomy in captive ring-tailed lemurs to provide guidance for clinical use. Radiography of the abdomen and ultrasonography of the liver, spleen, kidneys, and urinary bladder were performed in 13 and 9 healthy captive ring-tailed lemurs, respectively, during their annual health examinations. Normal radiographic and ultrasonographic reference ranges for abdominal organs were established and ratios were calculated. The majority (12/13) of animals had seven lumbar vertebrae. The sacrum had mainly (12/13) three segments. Abdominal serosal detail was excellent in all animals, and hypaxial muscles were conspicuous in the majority (11/13) of animals. The spleen was frequently (12/13) seen on the ventrodorsal (VD) view and rarely (3/13) on the right lateral (RL) view. The liver was less prominent and well contained within the ribcage. The pylorus was mostly (11/13) located to the right of the midline. The right and left kidneys were visible on the RL and VD views, with the right kidney positioned more cranial and dorsal to the left kidney. On ultrasonography, the kidneys appeared ovoid on transverse and longitudinal views. The medulla was hypoechoic to the renal cortex. The renal cortex was frequently (8/9) isoechoic and rarely (1/9) hyperechoic to the splenic parenchyma. The liver parenchyma was hypoechoic (5/5) to the renal cortex. Knowledge of the normal radiographic and ultrasonographic abdominal anatomy of ring-tailed lemurs may be useful in the diagnosis of diseases and in

  3. Nesting habitat relationships of sympatric Crested Caracaras, Red-tailed Hawks, and White-tailed Hawks in South Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Actkinson, M.A.; Kuvlesky, W.P.; Boal, C.W.; Brennan, L.A.; Hernandez, F.

    2007-01-01

    We quantified nesting-site habitats for sympatric White-tailed Hawks (Buteo albicaudatus) (n = 40), Red-tailed Hawks (B. jamaicensis) (n = 39), and Crested Caracaras (Caracara cheriway) (n = 24) in the Coastal Sand Plain of south Texas. White-tailed Hawks and Crested Caracara nest sites occurred in savannas, whereas Red-tailed Hawk nest sites occurred in woodlands on the edge of savannas. White-tailed Hawk nest sites were in shrubs and trees that were shorter (3.5 ?? 1.0 m) and had smaller canopy diameters (5.5 ?? 2.1 m) than those of Red-tailed Hawks (10.1 ?? 2.0 m, 13.7 ?? 5.8 m) and Crested Caracaras (5.6 ?? 1.7 m, 8.5 ?? 3.5 m). Red-tailed Hawk nest sites had higher woody densities (15.7 ?? 9.6 plants) and more woody cover (84 ?? 19%) than those of White-tailed Hawks (5.6 ?? 5.8 plants, 20 ?? 21%) and Crested Caracaras (9.9 ?? 6.7 plants, 55 ?? 34%). Crested Caracara nest sites were in dense, multi-branched shrubs composed of more living material (97 ?? 3%) than those of White-tailed (88 ?? 18%) and Red-tailed hawks (88 ?? 18%). Nest sites of White-tailed Hawks, Red-tailed Hawks, and Crested Caracaras were similar to random samples from the surrounding habitat indicating that preferred nesting habitat was available for each of these species at least within 60 m of active nest sites. Nest tree height, along with woody plant and native grass cover best discriminated nest sites among the three raptor species. There was no overlap at Red-tailed and White-tailed hawk nest sites in vegetation structure, while Crested Caracara nests were in habitat intermediate between the two other species. Partitioning of nesting habitat may be how these raptor species co-exist at the broader landscape scale of our study area in the Coastal Sand Plain of Texas.

  4. Effects of tail docking on behavior of confined feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Kroll, L K; Grooms, D L; Siegford, J M; Schweihofer, J P; Daigle, C L; Metz, K; Ladoni, M

    2014-10-01

    Tail tip injuries occur in some feedlot cattle housed in slatted-floor facilities typically found in the midwestern United States. The practice of tail docking cattle on entry into these feedlot facilities was initiated to prevent tail injuries. Tail docking is a welfare concern from the standpoint that an important method of fly avoidance is removed and the tail docking procedure is painful and often excludes local anesthesia or extended analgesia. The primary objective of this study was to describe the behavioral responses of feedlot cattle following tail docking. Thirty-six heifers were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups: docked (DK) or control (CN). All calves received an epidural following surgical preparation of the sacrococcygeal area and postoperative intravenous flunixin meglumine. A portion of the tail of DK calves was removed using pruning shears. An elastrator band was placed near the tail tip for hemostasis and tail tips were sprayed with fly spray. IceQube accelerometers collected step counts, motion index, lying time, lying bouts, and lying bout duration during d -4 through 13. Direct observations of cattle behavior were performed on d 0, 1, and 2. Step counts of DK calves were increased (P < 0.05) on d 0, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 10, and 13, and motion index of DK calves was also increased (P < 0.05) on d 0, 3, 4, 9, 10, 11, and 13. Docked cattle performed rear foot stomp behavior more (P < 0.001) than CN on d 0, 1, and 2. Forty-eight hours after tail docking, DK calves had increased lying bouts per hour (1.7 vs. 0.9 on d 0; P < 0.001; 1.1 vs. 0.8 on d 1; P < 0.01) but reduced lying bout durations (12.6 vs. 47.1 min on d 0; P < 0.001; 22.6 vs. 44.7 min on d 1; P < 0.001). On d 0, DK calves twitched tails more (P < 0.05) and ruminated less (P < 0.001). Despite provision of perioperative and postoperative analgesia, we identified altered behavior in DK cattle that may reflect a compromised welfare state for tail-docked feedlot cattle. We recommend

  5. Resistance to plague among black-tailed prairie dog populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, T.E.; Williamson, J.; Cobble, K.R.; Busch, J.D.; Antolin, M.F.; Wagner, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    In some rodent species frequently exposed to plague outbreaks caused by Yersinia pestis, resistance to the disease has evolved as a population trait. As a first step in determining if plague resistance has developed in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), animals captured from colonies in a plague-free region (South Dakota) and two plague-endemic regions (Colorado and Texas) were challenged with Y. pestis at one of three doses (2.5, 250, or 2500 mouse LD50s). South Dakota prairie dogs were far more susceptible to plague than Colorado and Texas prairie dogs (p<0.001), with a mortality rate of nearly 100% over all doses. Colorado and Texas prairie dogs were quite similar in their response, with overall survival rates of 50% and 60%, respectively. Prairie dogs from these states were heterogenous in their response, with some animals dying at the lowest dose (37% and 20%, respectively) and some surviving even at the highest dose (29% and 40%, respectively). Microsatellite analysis revealed that all three groups were distinct genetically, but further studies are needed to establish a genetic basis for the observed differences in plague resistance. ?? 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  6. Resistance to plague among black-tailed prairie dog populations.

    PubMed

    Rocke, Tonie E; Williamson, Judy; Cobble, Kacy R; Busch, Joseph D; Antolin, Michael F; Wagner, David M

    2012-02-01

    In some rodent species frequently exposed to plague outbreaks caused by Yersinia pestis, resistance to the disease has evolved as a population trait. As a first step in determining if plague resistance has developed in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), animals captured from colonies in a plague-free region (South Dakota) and two plague-endemic regions (Colorado and Texas) were challenged with Y. pestis at one of three doses (2.5, 250, or 2500 mouse LD50s). South Dakota prairie dogs were far more susceptible to plague than Colorado and Texas prairie dogs (p<0.001), with a mortality rate of nearly 100% over all doses. Colorado and Texas prairie dogs were quite similar in their response, with overall survival rates of 50% and 60%, respectively. Prairie dogs from these states were heterogeneous in their response, with some animals dying at the lowest dose (37% and 20%, respectively) and some surviving even at the highest dose (29% and 40%, respectively). Microsatellite analysis revealed that all three groups were distinct genetically, but further studies are needed to establish a genetic basis for the observed differences in plague resistance.

  7. Resistance to plague among black-tailed prairie dog populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Williamson, Judy; Cobble, Kacy R.; Busch, Joseph D.; Antolin, Michael F.; Wagner, David M.

    2012-01-01

    In some rodent species frequently exposed to plague outbreaks caused by Yersinia pestis, resistance to the disease has evolved as a population trait. As a first step in determining if plague resistance has developed in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), animals captured from colonies in a plague-free region (South Dakota) and two plague-endemic regions (Colorado and Texas) were challenged with Y. pestis at one of three doses (2.5, 250, or 2500 mouse LD50s). South Dakota prairie dogs were far more susceptible to plague than Colorado and Texas prairie dogs (p<0.001), with a mortality rate of nearly 100% over all doses. Colorado and Texas prairie dogs were quite similar in their response, with overall survival rates of 50% and 60%, respectively. Prairie dogs from these states were heterogenous in their response, with some animals dying at the lowest dose (37% and 20%, respectively) and some surviving even at the highest dose (29% and 40%, respectively). Microsatellite analysis revealed that all three groups were distinct genetically, but further studies are needed to establish a genetic basis for the observed differences in plague resistance.

  8. Dust tail striae: Lessons from recent comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, G.; Battams, K.

    2014-07-01

    Striae are features rarely observed in cometary dust tails. These are near-linear structures that, unlike synchronic bands, are not aligned with the nucleus position, and have only been clearly observed in a few high-production-rate comets, including C/1957 P1 (Mrkos), C/1962 C1 (Seki-Lines), C/1975 V1 (West), and C/1996 O1 (Hale-Bopp). The formation of striae is difficult to explain, but several scenarios for their creation have been proposed [1]. These include that of Sekanina & Farrell [2], who proposed that striae are the result of a two-step fragmentation process, where parent particles are released from the nucleus which, after a delay, all fragment over a very short period of time. The fragmentation products then separate according to their β parameter, i.e., the degree to which the particles are influenced by radiation pressure force compared to gravitational force, to form the linear structures we observe as striae. Although there are issues with identifying a process through which many particles will collectively delay their break-up and then fragment within a short period, this scenario does fit many observations well [3]. Other proposed scenarios are more complex, including the formation of striae through a continuous cascade of fragmentation to ever smaller particle sizes [4]. As these formation scenarios result in different distributions of dust-particle sizes within individual striae, the processes occurring may therefore be identifiable if these distributions can be inferred. If the fragmentation processes taking place can be identified, then, in turn, more could be learnt about the structure of the original dust grains that go on to form these sometimes beautiful tail structures. Here, we present the analysis of striae in several comets observed from space by the SOHO LASCO coronagraph [5] and SECCHI heliospheric imagers aboard the twin STEREO spacecraft [6]. The comets studied are C/2002 V1 (NEAT) in January 2002, C/2006 P1 (McNaught) during its

  9. Atomistic Simulation of Stacked Nucleosome Core Particles: Tail Bridging, the H4 Tail, and Effect of Hydrophobic Forces.

    PubMed

    Saurabh, Suman; Glaser, Matthew A; Lansac, Yves; Maiti, Prabal K

    2016-03-31

    We report the first atomistic simulation of two stacked nucleosome core particles (NCPs), with an aim to understand, in molecular detail, how they interact, the effect of salt concentration, and how different histone tails contribute to their interaction, with a special emphasis on the H4 tail, known to have the largest stabilizing effect on the NCP-NCP interaction. We do not observe specific K16-mediated interaction between the H4 tail and the H2A-H2B acidic patch, in contrast with the findings from crystallographic studies, but find that the stacking was stable even in the absence of this interaction. We perform simulations with the H4 tail (partially/completely) removed and find that the region between LYS-16 and LYS-20 of the H4 tail holds special importance in mediating the inter-NCP interaction. Performing similar tail-clipped simulations with the H3 tail removed, we compare the roles of the H3 and H4 tails in maintaining the stacking. We discuss the relevance of our simulation results to the bilayer and other liquid-crystalline phases exhibited by NCPs in vitro and, through an analysis of the histone-histone interface, identify the interactions that could possibly stabilize the inter-NCP interaction in these columnar mesophases. Through the mechanical disruption of the stacked nucleosome system using steered molecular dynamics, we quantify the strength of inter-NCP stacking in the presence and absence of salt. We disrupt the stacking at some specific sites of internucleosomal tail-DNA contact and perform a comparative quantification of the binding strengths of various tails in stabilizing the stacking. We also examine how hydrophobic interactions may contribute to the overall stability of the stacking and find a marked difference in the role of hydrophobic forces as compared with electrostatic forces in determining the stability of the stacked nucleosome system.

  10. Wu-tou decoction inhibits chronic inflammatory pain in mice: participation of TRPV1 and TRPA1 ion channels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Liu, Chunfang; Wan, Hongye; Wang, Danhua; Sun, Danni; Xu, Tengfei; Yang, Yue; Qu, Yakun; Xu, Ying; Jing, Xianghong; Liu, Junling; Chen, Shuping; Liu, Zhiqiang; Lin, Na

    2015-01-01

    Wu-tou decoction (WTD) is a classic traditional Chinese medicine formula and has been used effectively to treat joint diseases clinically. Previous reports indicated that WTD possesses anti-inflammatory activity; however, its actions on pain have not been clarified. Here, we investigated the antinociceptive activity of WTD in CFA-induced mice, and its possible mechanism of the action associated with transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels was also explored. Our results showed that 1.58, 3.15, and 6.30 g/kg WTD significantly attenuated mechanical, cold, and heat hypersensitivities. Moreover, WTD effectively inhibited spontaneous nociceptive responses to intraplantar injections of capsaicin and cinnamaldehyde, respectively. WTD also effectively suppressed jumping and wet-dog-shake behaviors to intraperitoneal injection of icilin. Additionally, WTD significantly reduced protein expression of TRPV1 and TRPA1 in dorsal root ganglia and skins of injured paw. Collectively, our data demonstrate firstly that WTD exerts antinociceptive activity in inflammatory conditions by attenuating mechanical, cold, and heat hypersensitivities. This antinociceptive effect may result in part from inhibiting the activities of TRPV1, TRPA1, and TRPM8, and the suppression of TRPV1 and TRPA1 protein by WTD was also highly effective. These findings suggest that WTD might be an attractive and suitable therapeutic agent for the management of chronic inflammatory pain.

  11. Predicting arsenic concentrations in porewaters of buried uranium mill tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Langmuir, D.; Mahoney, J.; MacDonald, A.; Rowson, J.

    1999-10-01

    The proposed JEB Tailings Management Facility (TMF) to be emplaced below the groundwater table in northern Saskatchewan, Canada, will contain uranium mill tailings from McClean Lake, Midwest and Cigar Lake ore bodies, which are high in arsenic (up to 10%) and nickel (up to 5%). A serious concern is the possibility that high arsenic and nickel concentrations may be released from the buried tailings, contaminating adjacent groundwaters and a nearby lake. Laboratory tests and geochemical modeling were performed to examine ways to reduce the arsenic and nickel concentrations in TMF porewaters so as to minimize such contamination from tailings buried for 50 years and longer. The tests were designed to mimic conditions in the mill neutralization circuit (3 hr tests at 25 C), and in the TMF after burial (5--49 day aging tests). The aging tests were run at 50, 25 and 4 C (the temperature in the TMF). In order to optimize the removal of arsenic by adsorption and precipitation, ferric sulfate was added to tailings raffinates having Fe/As ratios of less than 3--5. The acid raffinates were then neutralized by addition of slaked lime to nominal pH values of 7, 8, or 9. Analysis and modeling of the test results showed that with slaked lime addition to acid tailings raffinates, relatively amorphous scorodite (ferric arsenate) precipitates near pH 1, and is the dominant form of arsenate in slake limed tailings solids except those high in Ni and As and low in Fe, in which cabrerite-annabergite (Ni, Mg, Fe(II) arsenate) may also precipitate near pH 5--6. In addition to the arsenate precipitates, smaller amounts of arsenate are also adsorbed onto tailings solids. The aging tests showed that after burial of the tailings, arsenic concentrations may increase with time from the breakdown of the arsenate phases (chiefly scorodite). However, the tests indicate that the rate of change decreases and approaches zero after 72 hrs at 25 C, and may equal zero at all times in the TMF at 4 C

  12. Quasi-steady state aerodynamics of the cheetah tail.

    PubMed

    Patel, Amir; Boje, Edward; Fisher, Callen; Louis, Leeann; Lane, Emily

    2016-08-15

    During high-speed pursuit of prey, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) has been observed to swing its tail while manoeuvring (e.g. turning or braking) but the effect of these complex motions is not well understood. This study demonstrates the potential of the cheetah's long, furry tail to impart torques and forces on the body as a result of aerodynamic effects, in addition to the well-known inertial effects. The first-order aerodynamic forces on the tail are quantified through wind tunnel testing and it is observed that the fur nearly doubles the effective frontal area of the tail without much mass penalty. Simple dynamic models provide insight into manoeuvrability via simulation of pitch, roll and yaw tail motion primitives. The inertial and quasi-steady state aerodynamic effects of tail actuation are quantified and compared by calculating the angular impulse imparted onto the cheetah's body and its shown aerodynamic effects contribute to the tail's angular impulse, especially at the highest forward velocities.

  13. Quasi-steady state aerodynamics of the cheetah tail

    PubMed Central

    Boje, Edward; Fisher, Callen; Louis, Leeann; Lane, Emily

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT During high-speed pursuit of prey, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) has been observed to swing its tail while manoeuvring (e.g. turning or braking) but the effect of these complex motions is not well understood. This study demonstrates the potential of the cheetah's long, furry tail to impart torques and forces on the body as a result of aerodynamic effects, in addition to the well-known inertial effects. The first-order aerodynamic forces on the tail are quantified through wind tunnel testing and it is observed that the fur nearly doubles the effective frontal area of the tail without much mass penalty. Simple dynamic models provide insight into manoeuvrability via simulation of pitch, roll and yaw tail motion primitives. The inertial and quasi-steady state aerodynamic effects of tail actuation are quantified and compared by calculating the angular impulse imparted onto the cheetah's body and its shown aerodynamic effects contribute to the tail's angular impulse, especially at the highest forward velocities. PMID:27412267

  14. Speract induces calcium oscillations in the sperm tail.

    PubMed

    Wood, Chris D; Darszon, Alberto; Whitaker, Michael

    2003-04-14

    Sea urchin sperm motility is modulated by sperm-activating peptides. One such peptide, speract, induces changes in intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). High resolution imaging of single sperm reveals that speract-induced changes in [Ca2+]i have a complex spatiotemporal structure. [Ca2+]i increases arise in the tail as periodic oscillations; [Ca2+]i increases in the sperm head lag those in the tail and appear to result from the summation of the tail signal transduction events. The period depends on speract concentration. Infrequent spontaneous [Ca2+]i transients were also seen in the tail of unstimulated sperm, again with the head lagging the tail. Speract-induced fluctuations were sensitive to membrane potential and calcium channel blockers, and were potentiated by niflumic acid, an anion channel blocker. 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, which potentiates the cGMP/cAMP-signaling pathways, abolished the [Ca2+]i fluctuations in the tail, leading to a very delayed and sustained [Ca2+]i increase in the head. These data point to a model in which a messenger generated periodically in the tail diffuses to the head. Sperm are highly polarized cells. Our results indicate that a clear understanding of the link between [Ca2+]i and sperm motility will only be gained by analysis of [Ca2+]i signals at the level of the single sperm.

  15. The effect of natrojarosite addition to mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Jurjovec, Jasna; Ptacek, Carol J; Blowes, David W; Jambor, John L

    2003-01-01

    An increasingly common practice for metallurgical plants is to discard their wastes by combining them with mine tailings prior to disposing the blended material to a containment facility. This practice has occurred since 1985 at the Kidd Creek tailings impoundment where natrojarosite, a waste produced from the adjacent Zn refinery, is combined with mine tailings and is deposited in a single impoundment. To assess the environmental impact of the co-disposal, a laboratory column experiment was conducted. The column material was flotation tailings from the Kidd Creek site containing 3 wt % natrojarosite residue. Dilute sulfuric acid was passed through the column to simulate the acid generated in the unsaturated zone of the tailings impoundment. The results of this experiment were compared to the results of a previous experiment conducted on unamended flotation tailings. The results showed that the effluent from the column containing the natrojarosite-bearing mixture had a faster decrease in pH, earlier increases in the concentrations of dissolved metals such as Pb and Cd, and a greater persistence in effluent metal concentrations such as Pb, Zn and Ni. To prevent the observed enhanced release of dissolved metals from mine waste disposal areas, natrojarosite should not be co-disposed with tailings.

  16. Cassini in Titan's tail: CAPS observations of plasma escape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, A. J.; Wellbrock, A.; Lewis, G. R.; Arridge, C. S.; Crary, F. J.; Young, D. T.; Thomsen, M. F.; Reisenfeld, D. B.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Johnson, R. E.; Szego, K.; Bebesi, Z.; Jones, G. H.

    2012-05-01

    We present observations of CAPS electron and ion spectra during Titan distant tail crossings at 5,000-10,000 km altitude by the Cassini spacecraft. In common with closer tail encounters, we identify ionospheric plasma in the tail. Some of the electron spectra indicate a direct magnetic connection to Titan's dayside ionosphere due to the presence of ionospheric photoelectrons. Ion observations reveal heavy (m/q˜ 16 and 28) and light (m/q = 1-2) ion populations streaming into the tail. Using the distant tail encounters T9, T75 and T63, we estimate total plasma loss rates from Titan via this process of (4.2, 0.96 and 2.3) × 1024 ions s-1 respectively for the three encounters, values which are in agreement with some simulations but slightly lower than earlier estimates based on non-differential techniques. Using the mass-separated data, this corresponds to mass loss rates of (8.9, 1.6, 4.0) × 1025 amu s-1 for T9, T75 and T63 respectively, an average loss rate of ˜7 tonnes per Earth day. Remarkably, all of the tail encounters studied here indicate a split tail feature, indicating that this may be a common feature in Titan's interaction with Saturn's magnetosphere.

  17. Star formation in shocked cluster spirals and their tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roediger, E.; Brüggen, M.; Owers, M. S.; Ebeling, H.; Sun, M.

    2014-09-01

    Recent observations of ram pressure stripped spiral galaxies in clusters revealed details of the stripping process, i.e. the truncation of all interstellar medium phases and of star formation (SF) in the disc, and multiphase star-forming tails. Some stripped galaxies, in particular in merging clusters, develop spectacular star-forming tails, giving them a jellyfish-like appearance. In merging clusters, merger shocks in the intracluster medium (ICM) are thought to have overrun these galaxies, enhancing the ambient ICM pressure and thus triggering SF, gas stripping, and tail formation. We present idealized hydrodynamical simulations of this scenario, including standard descriptions for SF and stellar feedback. To aid the interpretation of recent and upcoming observations, we focus on particular structures and dynamics in SF patterns in the remaining gas disc and in the near tails, which are easiest to observe. The observed jellyfish morphology is qualitatively reproduced for, both, face-on and edge-on stripping. In edge-on stripping, the interplay between the ICM wind and the disc rotation leads to asymmetries along the ICM wind direction and perpendicular to it. The apparent tail is still part of a highly deformed gaseous and young stellar disc. In both geometries, SF takes place in knots throughout the tail, such that the stars in the tails show no ordered age gradients. Significant SF enhancement in the disc occurs only at radii where the gas will be stripped in due course.

  18. Microbial biogeochemistry of uranium mill tailings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, Edward R.

    2005-01-01

    Uranium mill tailings (UMT) are the crushed ore residues from the extraction of uranium (U) from ores. Among the radioactive wastes associated with the nuclear fuel cycle, UMT are unique in terms of their volume and their limited isolation from the surficial environment. For this latter reason, their management and long-term fate has many interfaces with environmental microbial communities and processes. The interactions of microorganisms with UMT have been shown to be diverse and with significant consequences for radionuclide mobility and bioremediation. These radionuclides are associated with the U-decay series. The addition of organic carbon and phosphate is required to initiate the reduction of the U present in the groundwater down gradient of the mills. Investigations on sediment and water from the U-contaminated aquifer, indicates that the addition of a carbon source stimulates the rate of U removal by microbial reduction. Moreover, most attention with respect to passive or engineered removal of U from groundwaters focuses on iron-reducing and sulfate-reducing bacteria.

  19. High-order tail in Schwarzschild spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casals, Marc; Ottewill, Adrian

    2015-12-01

    We present an analysis of the behavior at late times of linear field perturbations of a Schwarzschild black hole spacetime. In particular, we give explicit analytic expressions for the field perturbations (for a specific ℓ-multipole) of general spin up to the first four orders at late times. These expressions are valid at arbitrary radius and include, apart from the well-known power-law tail decay at leading order (˜t-2 ℓ-3), a new logarithmic behavior at third leading order (˜t-2 ℓ-5ln t ). We obtain these late-time results by developing an analytical formalism initially formulated by Mano, Suzuki and Takasugi (MST) [Prog. Theor. Phys. 95, 1079 (1996); 96, 549 (1996)] formalism and by expanding the various MST Fourier-mode quantities for small frequency. While we give explicit expansions up to the first four leading orders (for small frequency for the Fourier modes, for late time for the field perturbation), we give a prescription for obtaining expressions to arbitrary order within a "perturbative regime."

  20. Periodic substorm activity in the geomagnetic tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, C. Y.; Eastman, T. E.; Frank, L. A.; Williams, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    On 19 May 1978 an anusual series of events is observed with the Quadrispherical LEPEDEA on board the ISEE-1 satellite in the Earth's geomagnetic tail. For 13 hours periodic bursts of both ions and electrons are seen in all the particle detectors on the spacecraft. On this day periodic activity is also seen on the ground, where multiple intensifications of the electrojets are observed. At the same time the latitudinal component of the interplanetary magnetic field shows a number of strong southward deflections. It is concluded that an extended period of substorm activity is occurring, which causes repeated thinnings and recoveries of the plasma sheet. These are detected by ISEE, which is situated in the plasma sheet boundary layer, as periodic dropouts and reappearances of the plasma. Comparisons of the observations at ISEE with those at IMP-8, which for a time is engulfed by the plasma sheet, indicate that the activity is relatively localized in spatial extent. For this series of events it is clear that a global approach to magnetospheric dynamics, e.g., reconnection, is inappropriate.

  1. Particle motion in the tail current sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Speiser, T. W.

    1991-01-01

    Theory of particle motion in current sheets is reviewed. For small, approximately constant normal magnetic field, Bz, particles oscillate about the current sheet and 'live' within the sheet for one-half gyroperiod based on Bz. This lifetime replaces the mean collision time in the Lorentzian conductivity and thus gives rise to the concept of an inertial (or gyro-) conductivity. A substorm model by Coroniti utilizes this conductivity to allow reconnection to proceed without anomalous processes, due to wave-particle interactions. Chaotic particle orbits may at times be important to the dynamics, depending on parameters such as particle energy, current sheet thickness, and field line curvature. A current sheet model with neutral line predicts a ridge structure and asymmetries in the distribution function. Ion distributions near the plasma sheet boundary layer, during the CDAW 6 interval, are consistent with the model predictions. In recent studies by Mitchell et al. and Williams et al., the major current carriers during the growth phase of a substorm were found to be adiabatic electrons not more than 1 keV, but just before a current disruption event, the tail current was mainly carried by energetic ions undergoing current sheet oscillation.

  2. From dinosaurs to birds: a tail of evolution

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A particularly critical event in avian evolution was the transition from long- to short-tailed birds. Primitive bird tails underwent significant alteration, most notably reduction of the number of caudal vertebrae and fusion of the distal caudal vertebrae into an ossified pygostyle. These changes, among others, occurred over a very short evolutionary interval, which brings into focus the underlying mechanisms behind those changes. Despite the wealth of studies delving into avian evolution, virtually nothing is understood about the genetic and developmental events responsible for the emergence of short, fused tails. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the signaling pathways and morphological events that contribute to tail extension and termination and examine how mutations affecting the genes that control these pathways might influence the evolution of the avian tail. To generate a list of candidate genes that may have been modulated in the transition to short-tailed birds, we analyzed a comprehensive set of mouse mutants. Interestingly, a prevalent pleiotropic effect of mutations that cause fused caudal vertebral bodies (as in the pygostyles of birds) is tail truncation. We identified 23 mutations in this class, and these were primarily restricted to genes involved in axial extension. At least half of the mutations that cause short, fused tails lie in the Notch/Wnt pathway of somite boundary formation or differentiation, leading to changes in somite number or size. Several of the mutations also cause additional bone fusions in the trunk skeleton, reminiscent of those observed in primitive and modern birds. All of our findings were correlated to the fossil record. An open question is whether the relatively sudden appearance of short-tailed birds in the fossil record could be accounted for, at least in part, by the pleiotropic effects generated by a relatively small number of mutational events. PMID:25621146

  3. Mycobacteriosis in a black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) caused by Mycobacterium kansasii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, P.B.; Bender, L.C.; Garner, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    An eviscerated hunter-harvested female black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) was submitted to the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife. The deer was emaciated, devoid of adipose tissue, and the parietal surface of the thoracic cavity contained multiple granulomas. Acid-fast bacteria were detected histologically from the granulomas and were isolated and identified as Mycobacterium kansasii, a nontuberculous mycobacterium sporadically reported to cause tuberculosis-like disease in a variety of vertebrates. This was the first report of symptomatic disease caused by M. kansasii in free-ranging deer. This case indicates that atypical mycobacteria can cause tuberculosis-like disease in free-ranging deer and illustrates the importance of identifying causative agents of tuberculosis-like disease in wildlife. Copyright 2005 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.

  4. Statics and dynamics of Giacobini-Zinner magnetic tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siscoe, G. L.; Slavin, J. A.; Smith, E. J.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Jones, D. E.

    1986-01-01

    The data gathered by the International Cometary Explorer during its traversal of Comet Giacobini-Zinner's tail are subjected to stress balance requirements, yielding estimates of unmeasured quantities. It is noted that the comet's tail is embedded in an ionosheath whose static pressure is nearly equal to the solar wind stagnation pressure, leading to a large lobe field strength. A systematic variation is found in the ion temperature across the tail, implying the variation of the pickup velocity of new ions. Axial stress balance yields an expression for the strength of the lobe field which reveals weak variation with axial distance.

  5. Acetylation of LYS-16 of H4 Histone Tail May Sequester the Tail and Inhibit its Interactions with Neighboring Nucleosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potoyan, Davit; Papoian, Garegin

    2012-02-01

    Histone tails are highly flexible N terminal protrusions of histone proteins, which help to fold DNA into dense superstructures known as chromatin. On a molecular scale histone tails are poly-electrolites with high degree of conformational disorder, allowing them to function as bio-molecular ``switches,'' regulating various genetic regulatory processes via diverse types of covalent modifications. Because of being intrinsically disordered, the structural and dynamical aspects of histone tails are still poorly understood. Using multiple explicit solvent and coarse-grained MD simulations we have investigated the impact of the acetylation of LYS-16 residue on the conformational and DNA-binding propensities of H4 histone tail. The potential of mean force computed as a function of distance between a model DNA and histone tail center of mass showed a dramatic enhancement of binding affinity upon mono-acetylation of the H4 tail. The estimated binding free energy gain for the wild type is 2kT, while for the acetylated it reaches 4-5 kT. Additionally our structural analysis shows that acetylation is driving the chain into collapsed states, which get enriched in secondary structural elements upon binding to the DNA. We suggest a non-electrostatic mechanism that explains the enhanced binding affinity of the acetylated H4 tail. At last our findings lead us to propose a hypothesis that can potentially account for the celebrated chromatin ``fiber loosening effects'' observed in many experiments.

  6. Comparison between availability of heavy metals in dry and wetland tailing of an abandoned copper tailing pond.

    PubMed

    Das, Manab; Maiti, S K

    2008-02-01

    Wetland sediments are generally considered as a sink for metals and, in the anoxic zone, may contain very high concentrations of heavy metals in reduced state. A comprehensive study was carried out to compare the differences of total, environmentally available (Env-Av), HOAC, EDTA and DTPA available heavy metal fraction in tailing of the marshy area of a copper tailing pond and the dry tailing. The average concentrations of all the seven metals in the wetland tailing were found higher than dry tailing. Regarding pH, organic carbon, available (correction of availailable) N, P and K also found higher in marshy wetland tailing compare to the dry tailing. This information is needed in order to understand wetland system and to assure that wetlands do not themselves eventually become sources of metal contamination to surrounding areas. But as levels of pollutants increases, the ability of a wetland system to incorporate waste can be impaired and the wetland can become a source of toxicity.

  7. Establishment of adult Parelaphostrongylus tenuis, patent infections, and acquired immunity after experimental infection of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus).

    PubMed

    Duffy, Michael S; Greaves, Trent A; Burt, Michael D B

    2004-04-01

    Experimental Parelaphostrongylus tenuis infections were established in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and an atypical host, red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus). Groups of deer were fed 10, 25, or 100 third-stage larvae (L3) of P. tenuis and received a single equivalent challenge exposure at varying intervals. Infections were monitored up to 6 yr in white-tailed deer and up to 2.8 yr in red deer. The prepatent period in white-tailed deer varied from 91 to 1,072 days (381 +/- 374) and in red deer from 105 to 358 days (167 +/- 77). Adult worms lived for up to 6 yr in white-tailed deer. Although most had patent infections until necropsy, latent periods were observed regardless of season. Adult worms lived for up to 2.8 yr in red deer, and patent infections persisted for 20-363 days (152 +/- 106). Patent infections were correlated with the presence of adult worms in blood vessels and sinuses of both deer species. Worms were restricted to the subdural space in all deer with latent and occult infections. Adult worm recovery in white-tailed deer fed 10 or 25 L3 corresponded to the mean intensities reported in natural infections of white-tailed deer Recovery from deer fed 100 L3 was not typical of natural infection intensities. Adult P. tenuis established in all groups of red deer, but neurologic disease was restricted to animals fed 100 L3. Acute neurologic disease was associated with subdural hemorrhage and occurred at 11 mo postinfection in 2 red deer. The absence of postchallenge patent periods and the persistence of occult infections indicated that challenge exposures did not establish. These data indicate that acquired immunity to P. tenuis was established by 6 mo postinfection in both white-tailed and red deer. Latent periods in white-tailed deer and latent infections in red deer reinforce the need for a reliable diagnostic assay.

  8. Evaluation of host preferences by helminths and ectoparasites among black-tailed jackrabbits in northern California.

    PubMed

    Clemons, C; Rickard, L G; Keirans, J E; Botzler, R G

    2000-07-01

    Fifty-four black-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus californicus) (five juvenile males, 22 adult males, five juvenile females, and 22 adult females) from Humboldt County, California (USA) were evaluated for sex and age-specific differences in parasite prevalences and intensities, 26 February through 30 October 1996. Nematodes found included Biogastranema leporis in 42 hares (78% prevalence), Rauschia triangularis in 26 hares (48%), Trichostrongylus calcaratus in 14 hares (26%), and Trichuris sylvilagi in two hares (4%). Cestodes found included Taenia sp. cysticerci in five hares (9%) and Taenia sp. coenurus found in one hare (2%). Ectoparasites found included the ticks Dermacentor variabilis on 10 hares (19%) and Ixodes spinipalpis (= Ixodes neotomae) on nine hares (17%), as well as the anoplurid louse Haemodipsus setoni on 12 hares (22%). No significant differences in the parasite prevalences or intensities were found between male and female jackrabbits; this was for all males and females collectively, juvenile males and females only, as well as adult males and females only. Combining male and female hosts, adult jackrabbits had a significantly higher prevalence of B. leporis and R. triangularis compared to juveniles. This is the first known report of Trichostrongylus calcaratus, Rauschia triangularis, Trichuris sylvilagi, and Dermacentor variabilis among black-tailed jackrabbits and the first known report of T. calcaratus and T. sylvilagi in the western USA. This is the first published report of I. spinipalpis, the vector for Lyme disease in California, on black-tailed jackrabbits.

  9. Flea abundance on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) increases during plague epizootics.

    PubMed

    Tripp, Daniel W; Gage, Kenneth L; Montenieri, John A; Antolin, Michael F

    2009-06-01

    Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) on the Great Plains of the United States are highly susceptible to plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, with mortality on towns during plague epizootics often approaching 100%. The ability of flea-borne transmission to sustain disease spread has been questioned because of inefficiency of flea vectors. However, even with low individual efficiency, overall transmission can be increased if flea abundance (the number of fleas on hosts) increases. Changes in flea abundance on hosts during plague outbreaks were recorded during a large-scale study of plague outbreaks in prairie dogs in north central Colorado during 3 years (2004-2007). Fleas were collected from live-trapped black-tailed prairie dogs before and during plague epizootics and tested by PCR for the presence of Y. pestis. The predominant fleas were two prairie dog specialists (Oropsylla hirsuta and Oropsylla tuberculata cynomuris), and a generalist flea species (Pulex simulans) was also recorded from numerous mammals in the area. The three species differ in seasonal abundance, with greatest abundance in spring (February and March) and fall (September and October). Flea abundance and infestation intensity increased during epizootics and were highest on prairie dogs with Y. pestis-infected fleas. Seasonal occurrence of epizootics among black-tailed prairie dogs was found to coincide with seasonal peaks in flea abundance. Concentration of infected fleas on surviving animals may account for rapid spread of plague during epizootics. In particular, the role of the generalist flea P. simulans was previously underappreciated.

  10. Reduced West Nile Virus Transmission Around Communal Roosts of Great-Tailed Grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus)

    PubMed Central

    Komar, Nicholas; Colborn, James M.; Horiuchi, Kalanthe; Delorey, Mark; Biggerstaff, Brad; Damian, Dan; Smith, Kirk; Townsend, John

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus has caused several outbreaks among humans in the Phoenix metropolitan area (Arizona, southwest USA) within the last decade. Recent ecologic studies have implicated Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex tarsalis as the mosquito vectors and identified three abundant passerine birds—great-tailed grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus), house sparrow (Passer domesticus), and house finch (Haemorhous mexicanus)—as key amplifiers among vertebrates. Nocturnal congregations of certain species have been suggested as critical for late summer West Nile virus amplification. We evaluated the hypothesis that house sparrow (P. domesticus) and/or great-tailed grackle (Q. mexicanus) communal roost sites (n = 22 and n = 5, respectively) in a primarily suburban environment were spatially associated with West Nile virus transmission indices during the 2010 outbreak of human neurological disease in metropolitan Phoenix. Spatial associations between human case residences and communal roosts were non-significant for house sparrows, and were negative for great-tailed grackle. Several theories that explain these observations are discussed, including the possibility that grackle communal roosts are protective. PMID:25480320

  11. [Congenital atrioventricular block and maternal autoimmune diseases].

    PubMed

    Herreman, G; Sauvaget, F; Généreau, T; Galezowski, N

    1990-01-01

    Congenital heart block is rare; it is acquired in utero, definitive and, more often than not, complete. It can be diagnosed by the appearance of fetal bradycardia around the 23rd week of gestation, during ultrasonographic monitoring of pregnancy. Heart block is usually associated with the presence of anti-Ro and/or anti-La antibodies in the mother's serum. These maternal immunological abnormalities can be isolated or associated with an autoimmune disease, usually systemic lupus erythematosus, but also Sjögren's syndrome, or more rarely still, an as yet unclassified connective tissue disease. Anti-Ro and anti-La antibodies cross the placental barrier and react with a fetal heart, leading to acute fetal myocarditis by the 17th week of gestation. When severe, it is lethal, otherwise it can result in degeneration and endocardial fibroelastosis, disrupting conduction and leading to congenital heart block. The ideal treatment would be prevention with corticosteroids. When the mother is Ro or La antibody-positive before pregnancy, elimination of these circulating antibodies can be attempted by treatment with 0.5 mg/kg body wt/d of prednisolone for 3 months. If the treatment is successful, corticotherapy can be prescribed early in the pregnancy to try to protect the fetus. However, there is not always a relationship between maternal anti-Ro antibodies and fetal heart block. If the Ro/La antibody-positive woman is already pregnant, but before her 17th week, it is possible to prescribe dexamethasone, which crosses the placenta and remains active, sometimes in association with plasmapheresis.

  12. Tail structure is formed when blastocoel roof contacts blastocoel floor in Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Nishihara, Akiha; Hashimoto, Chikara

    2014-04-01

    The tail organizer has been assessed by such transplantation methods as the Einsteck procedure. However, we found that simple wounding of blastocoel roof (BCR) made it possible to form secondary tails without any transplantation in Xenopus laevis. We revealed that the ectopic expression of Xbra was blocked by inhibiting the contact between BCR and blastocoel floor (BCF), and wounding per se seemed to be not directly related to the secondary tail formation. Therefore, the secondary tail might be induced by the contact between BCR and BCF due to the leak of blastocoel fluid from the wound. This secondary tail was similar to the original tail in the expression pattern of tail genes, and in the fact that the inhibition of fibroblast growth factor signaling prevented the secondary tail induction. Our results imply that the secondary tail formation reflects the developmental processes of the original tail, indicating that simple wounding of BCR is useful for the analysis of tail formation in normal development.

  13. Structure and function of tuna tail tendons.

    PubMed

    Shadwick, Robert E; Rapoport, H Scott; Fenger, Joelle M

    2002-12-01

    The caudal tendons in tunas and other scombrid fish link myotomal muscle directly to the caudal fin rays, and thus serve to transfer muscle power to the hydrofoil-like tail during swimming. These robust collagenous tendons have structural and mechanical similarity to tendons found in other vertebrates, notably the leg tendons of terrestrial mammals. Biochemical studies indicate that tuna tendon collagen is composed of the (alpha1)(2),alpha2 heterotrimer that is typical of vertebrate Type I collagen, while tuna skin collagen has the unusual alpha1,alpha2,alpha3 trimer previously described in the skin of some other teleost species. Tuna collagen, like that of other fish, has high solubility due to the presence of an acid-labile intermolecular cross-link. Unlike collagen in mammalian tendons, no differences related to cross-link maturation were detected among tendons in tuna ranging from 0.05 to 72 kg (approx. 0.25-6 years). Tendons excised post-mortem were subjected to load cycling to determine the modulus of elasticity and resilience (mean of 1.3 GPa and 90%, respectively). These material properties compare closely to those of leg tendons from adult mammals that can function as effective biological springs in terrestrial locomotion, but the breaking strength is substantially lower. Peak tendon forces recorded during steady swimming appear to impose strains of much less than 1% of tendon length, and no more than 1.5% during bursts. Thus, the caudal tendons in tunas do not appear to function as elastic storage elements, even at maximal swimming effort.

  14. circTAIL-seq, a targeted method for deep analysis of RNA 3′ tails, reveals transcript-specific differences by multiple metrics

    PubMed Central

    Gazestani, Vahid H.; Hampton, Marshall; Abrahante, Juan E.; Salavati, Reza; Zimmer, Sara L.

    2016-01-01

    Post-transcriptionally added RNA 3′ nucleotide extensions, or tails, impose numerous regulatory effects on RNAs, including effects on RNA turnover and translation. However, efficient methods for in-depth tail profiling of a transcript of interest are still lacking, hindering available knowledge particularly of tail populations that are highly heterogeneous. Here, we developed a targeted approach, termed circTAIL-seq, to quantify both major and subtle differences of heterogeneous tail populations. As proof-of-principle, we show that circTAIL-seq quantifies the differences in tail qualities between two selected Trypanosoma brucei mitochondrial transcripts. The results demonstrate the power of the developed method in identification, discrimination, and quantification of different tail states that the population of one transcript can possess. We further show that circTAIL-seq can detect the tail characteristics for variants of transcripts that are not easily detectable by conventional approaches, such as degradation intermediates. Our findings are not only well supported by previous knowledge, but they also expand this knowledge and provide experimental evidence for previous hypotheses. In the future, this approach can be used to determine changes in tail qualities in response to environmental or internal stimuli, or upon silencing of genes of interest in mRNA-processing pathways. In summary, circTAIL-seq is an effective tool for comparing nonencoded RNA tails, especially when the tails are extremely variable or transcript of interest is low abundance. PMID:26759453

  15. A note on trans-Planckian tail effects

    SciTech Connect

    Graef, L.L.; Brandenberger, R.

    2015-09-09

    We study the proposal by Mersini et al. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.64.043508 that the observed dark energy might be explained by the back-reaction of the set of tail modes in a theory with a dispersion relation in which the mode frequency decays exponentially in the trans-Planckian regime. The matter tail modes are frozen out, however they induce metric fluctuations. The energy-momentum tensor with which the tail modes effect the background geometry obtains contributions from both metric and matter fluctuations. We calculate the equation of state induced by the tail modes taking into account the gravitational contribution. We find that, in contrast to the case of frozen super-Hubble cosmological fluctuations, in this case the matter perturbations dominate, and they yield an equation of state which to leading order takes the form of a positive cosmological constant.

  16. Sandia's activities in uranium mill tailings remedial action

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, S.

    1980-01-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 requires that remedial action be taken at over 20 inactive uranium mill tailings sites in the United States. Standards promulgated by the EPA under this act are to be the operative standards for this activity. Proposed standards must still undergo internal review, public comment, and receive Nuclear Regulatory Commission concurrence before being finalized. Briefly reviewed, the standards deal separately with new disposal sites (Part A) and cleanup of soil and contaminated structures at existing locations (Part B). In several cases, the present sites are felt to be too close to human habitations or to be otherwise unacceptably located. These tailings will probably be relocated. New disposal sites for relocated tailings must satisfy certain standards. The salient features of these standards are summarized.

  17. 14 CFR 29.481 - Tail-down landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Tail-down landing conditions. (a) The rotorcraft is assumed to be in the maximum nose-up attitude allowing ground clearance by each part of the rotorcraft. (b) In this attitude, ground loads are assumed...

  18. 14 CFR 25.481 - Tail-down landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... landing conditions. (a) In the tail-down attitude, the airplane is assumed to contact the ground at... an attitude corresponding to either the stalling angle or the maximum angle allowing clearance...

  19. 14 CFR 27.481 - Tail-down landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Tail-down landing conditions. (a) The rotorcraft is assumed to be in the maximum nose-up attitude allowing ground clearance by each part of the rotorcraft. (b) In this attitude, ground loads are assumed...

  20. 14 CFR 23.481 - Tail down landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to be in the following attitudes: (1) For airplanes with tail wheels, an attitude in which the main... attitude, or the maximum angle allowing ground clearance by each part of the airplane, whichever is...

  1. 1. VIEW NORTH OF PARADISE MILL FOUNDATION AND TAILINGS (FEATURE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW NORTH OF PARADISE MILL FOUNDATION AND TAILINGS (FEATURE P-7). PHOTO TAKEN FROM MERCURY RETORT. (OCTOBER, 1995) - McCormick Group Mine, Paradise Mill, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  2. Hyaluronic acid synthesis is required for zebrafish tail fin regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Xiaohu; Panetta, Nicholas J.; Talbott, Maya D.; Payumo, Alexander Y.; Halluin, Caroline; Longaker, Michael T.

    2017-01-01

    Using genome-wide transcriptional profiling and whole-mount expression analyses of zebrafish larvae, we have identified hyaluronan synthase 3 (has3) as an upregulated gene during caudal fin regeneration. has3 expression is induced in the wound epithelium within hours after tail amputation, and its onset and maintenance requires fibroblast growth factor, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, and transforming growth factor-ß signaling. Inhibition of hyaluronic acid (HA) synthesis by the small molecule 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) impairs tail regeneration in zebrafish larvae by preventing injury-induced cell proliferation. In addition, 4-MU reduces the expression of genes associated with wound epithelium and blastema function. Treatment with glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitors rescues 4-MU-induced defects in cell proliferation and tail regeneration, while restoring a subset of wound epithelium and blastema markers. Our findings demonstrate a role for HA biosynthesis in zebrafish tail regeneration and delineate its epistatic relationships with other regenerative processes. PMID:28207787

  3. Anisotropic Electron Tail Generation during Tearing Mode Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DuBois, Ami M.; Almagri, Abdulgader F.; Anderson, Jay K.; Den Hartog, Daniel J.; Lee, John David; Sarff, John S.

    2017-02-01

    The first experimental evidence of anisotropic electron energization during magnetic reconnection that favors a direction perpendicular to the guide magnetic field in a toroidal, magnetically confined plasma is reported in this Letter. Magnetic reconnection plays an important role in particle heating, energization, and transport in space and laboratory plasmas. In toroidal devices like the Madison Symmetric Torus, discrete magnetic reconnection events release large amounts of energy from the equilibrium magnetic field. Fast x-ray measurements imply a non-Maxwellian, anisotropic energetic electron tail is formed at the time of reconnection. The tail is well described by a power-law energy dependence. The expected bremsstrahlung from an electron distribution with an anisotropic energetic tail (v⊥>v∥ ) spatially localized in the core region is consistent with x-ray emission measurements. A turbulent process related to tearing fluctuations is the most likely cause for the energetic electron tail formation.

  4. Genome Sequence of Escherichia coli Tailed Phage Utah

    PubMed Central

    Leavitt, Justin C.; Heitkamp, Alexandra J.; Bhattacharjee, Ananda S.; Gilcrease, Eddie B.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Escherichia coli bacteriophage Utah is a member of the chi-like tailed phage cluster in the Siphoviridae family. We report here the complete 59,024-bp sequence of the genome of phage Utah. PMID:28360173

  5. 3. ELLIS WORKS PARTIALLY OBSCURED BY SUBSEQUENT MARISCAL ERA TAILINGS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. ELLIS WORKS PARTIALLY OBSCURED BY SUBSEQUENT MARISCAL ERA TAILINGS, LOOKING SOUTH, SOUTHWEST. SAME VIEW AS HISTORICAL PHOTOGRAPH, BUREAU OF MINES BULLETIN 222. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

  6. VIEW OF TWO ROOM STONE STRUCTURES BELOW ELLIS WORKS TAILINGS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF TWO ROOM STONE STRUCTURES BELOW ELLIS WORKS TAILINGS, ALONG ACCESS ROAD TO SITE LOOKING NORTHWEST. NOTICE OTHER STONE HOUSES ALONG RIDGE TO THE RIGHT. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

  7. ELLIS WORKS PARTIALLY OBSCURED BY SUBSEQUENT MARISCAL ERA TAILINGS, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ELLIS WORKS PARTIALLY OBSCURED BY SUBSEQUENT MARISCAL ERA TAILINGS, LOOKING SOUTH, SOUTHWEST. SAME VIEW AS HISTORICAL PHOTOGRAPH, BUREAU OF MINES BULLETIN 222. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

  8. Elucidating Internucleosome Interactions and the Roles of Histone Tails

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Steven C.; Andresen, Kurt; Jimenez-Useche, Isabel; Yuan, Chongli; Qiu, Xiangyun

    2013-01-01

    The nucleosome is the first level of genome organization and regulation in eukaryotes where negatively charged DNA is wrapped around largely positively charged histone proteins. Interaction between nucleosomes is dominated by electrostatics at long range and guided by specific contacts at short range, particularly involving their flexible histone tails. We have thus quantified how internucleosome interactions are modulated by salts (KCl, MgCl2) and histone tail deletions (H3, H4 N-terminal), using small-angle x-ray scattering and theoretical modeling. We found that measured effective charges at low salts are ∼1/5th of the theoretically predicted renormalized charges and that H4 tail deletion suppresses the attraction at high salts to a larger extent than H3 tail deletion. PMID:23823239

  9. A note on trans-Planckian tail effects

    SciTech Connect

    Graef, L.L.; Brandenberger, R. E-mail: rhb@physics.mcgill.ca

    2015-09-01

    We study the proposal by Mersini et al. [1] that the observed dark energy might be explained by the back-reaction of the set of tail modes in a theory with a dispersion relation in which the mode frequency decays exponentially in the trans-Planckian regime. The matter tail modes are frozen out, however they induce metric fluctuations. The energy-momentum tensor with which the tail modes effect the background geometry obtains contributions from both metric and matter fluctuations. We calculate the equation of state induced by the tail modes taking into account the gravitational contribution. We find that, in contrast to the case of frozen super-Hubble cosmological fluctuations, in this case the matter perturbations dominate, and they yield an equation of state which to leading order takes the form of a positive cosmological constant.

  10. A comparison of tail probability estimators for flood frequency analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Young-Il; Lall, Upmanu; Bosworth, Ken

    1993-11-01

    Selected techniques for estimating exceedance frequencies of annual maximum flood events at a gaged site are compared in this paper. Four tail probability estimators proposed by Hill (PT1), Hosking and Wallis (PT2) and by Breiman and Stone (ET and QT), and a variable kernel distribution function estimator (VK-C-AC) were compared for three situations — Gaussian data, skewed data (three-parameter gamma) and Gaussian mixture data. The performance of these estimators was compared with method of moment estimates of tail probabilities, using the Gaussian, Pearson Type III, and extreme value distributions. Since the results of the tail probability estimators (PT1, PT2, ET, QT) varied according to the situation, it is not easy to say which tail probability estimator is the best. However, the performance of the variable kernel estimator was relatively consistent across the estimation situations considered in terms of bias and r.m.s.e.

  11. 3. VIEW EAST OF TAILINGS OF MERCURY RETORT. SCOOP FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW EAST OF TAILINGS OF MERCURY RETORT. SCOOP FOR EXTRACTING MERCURY VISIBLE IN CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH. (OCTOBER, 1995) - McCormick Group Mine, Mercury Retort, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  12. Thyroxine Induced Resorption of Xenopus Laevis Tail Tissue in Vitro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scadding, Steven R.

    1984-01-01

    A simple method of studying thyroxine-induced resorption of tadpole tails in vitro is described. This procedure demonstrates that resorption is dependent on thyroxine and requires protein synthesis. It introduces students to the use of tissue culture methods. (Author)

  13. STEREO Watches as Comet Encke Loses Its Tail

    NASA Video Gallery

    As comet Encke dipped inside the orbit of Mercury, STEREO A recorded its tail getting ripped off by a solar eruption on April 20, 2007. The eruption that hit Encke was a coronal mass ejection (CME)...

  14. Design and Development of the Space Shuttle Tail Service Masts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dandage, S. R.; Herman, N. A.; Godfrey, S. E.; Uda, R. T.

    1977-01-01

    The results of the tail service masts (TSM) concept verification test are presented along with the resulting impact on prototype design. The design criteria are outlined, and the proposed prototype TSM tests are described.

  15. Western Red-tailed Skink Distribution in Southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, D. B. and Gergor, P. D.

    2011-11-01

    This slide show reports a study to: determine Western Red-tailed Skink (WRTS) distribution on Nevada National Security Site (NNSS); identify habitat where WRTS occur; learn more about WRTS natural history; and document distribution of other species.

  16. J SERIES MAGAZINE. J 106 INTERIOR. BOMB TAILS ON LEFT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    J SERIES MAGAZINE. J 106 INTERIOR. BOMB TAILS ON LEFT. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Inert Storehouse Type, Twelfth Street between Kwajulein & New Mexico Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  17. 14 CFR 23.481 - Tail down landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to be in the following attitudes: (1) For airplanes with tail wheels, an attitude in which the main... attitude, or the maximum angle allowing ground clearance by each part of the airplane, whichever is...

  18. 14 CFR 27.481 - Tail-down landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Tail-down landing conditions. (a) The rotorcraft is assumed to be in the maximum nose-up attitude allowing ground clearance by each part of the rotorcraft. (b) In this attitude, ground loads are assumed...

  19. 14 CFR 29.481 - Tail-down landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Tail-down landing conditions. (a) The rotorcraft is assumed to be in the maximum nose-up attitude allowing ground clearance by each part of the rotorcraft. (b) In this attitude, ground loads are assumed...

  20. Characteristics of F/A-18 vertical tail buffeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheta, E. F.; Huttsell, L. J.

    2003-03-01

    A time-accurate computational analysis of vertical tail buffeting of full F/A-18 aircraft is conducted at typical flight conditions to identify the buffet characteristics of fighter aircraft. The F/A-18 aircraft is pitched at wide range of high angles of attack at Mach number of 0.243 and Reynolds number of 11 millions. Strong coupling between the fluid and structure is considered in this investigation. Strong coupling occurs when the inertial effect of the motion of the vertical tail is fed back into the flow field. The aerodynamic flow field around the F/A-18 aircraft is computed using the Reynolds-averaged full Navier-Stokes equations. The dynamical structural response of the vertical tail is predicted using direct finite-element analysis. The interface between the fluid and structure is applied using conservative and consistent interfacing methodology. The motion of the computational grid due to the deflection of the vertical tail is computed using transfinite interpolation module. The investigation revealed that the vertical tail is subject to bending and torsional responses, mainly in the first modes of vibrations. The buffet loads increase significantly as the onset of vortex breakdown moves upstream of the vertical tails. The inboard surface of the vertical tail has more significant contribution in the buffet excitation than the outboard surface. In addition, the pressure on the outboard surface of the vertical tail is less sensitive to the angle of attack than the pressure on the inboard surface. The buffet excitation peaks shift to lower frequency as the angle of attack increases. The computational results are compared, and they are in close agreement, with several flight and experimental data.

  1. Formation and evolution of clumpy tidal tails in globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Matteo, P.; Miocchi, P.; Capuzzo Dolcetta, R.

    2004-05-01

    Numerical simulations of a globular cluster orbiting in the central region of a triaxial galaxy have been performed, in order to study the formation and subsequent evolution of tidal tails and their main features. Tails begin to form after about a quarter of the cluster orbital period and tend to lie along its orbit, with a leading tail that precedes the cluster and an outer tail that trails behind it. Tails show clumpy substructures; the most prominent ones (for a globular cluster moving on a quasi-circular orbit around the galaxy) are located at a distance from the cluster center between 50 pc and 80 pc and, after 3 orbital periods, contain about 10% of the cluster mass at that epoch. The morphology of tails and clumps will be compared with available observational data, in particular with that concerning Palomar 5, for which evident clumps in the tails have been detected. Kinematical properties of stars in the tails (line-of-sight velocities and velocity dispersion profiles) will be presented and compared to kinematical data of M15 and ω Centauri, two galactic globular clusters for which there is evidence that the velocity dispersion remains constant at large radii. All the simulations have been performed with our own implementation of a tree-code, that uses a multipolar expansion of the potential truncated at the quadrupole moment and that ran on high performance computers employing an original parallelization approach implemented via MPI routines. The time-integration of the `particles' trajectories is performed by a 2nd order leap-frog algorithm, using individual and variable time-steps. Part of this work has been done using the IBM SP4 platform located at CINECA (Bologna, Italy) thanks to the grant inarm007 obtained in the framework of INAF-CINECA agreements.

  2. Source modification special study. [Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project

    SciTech Connect

    1989-04-01

    One of the major issues that must be addressed during the evaluation of the efficiency of tailings embankment designs for compliance with groundwater standards is the estimation of source concentrations and the change in these concentrations with time. Because any effort to predict concentrations of contaminants in the uppermost aquifer requires a source concentration, data from these analyses are essential. Thetechnical approach of this study was twofold. The first approach was to investigate the rates of natural flushing of contaminants. Two sets of tailings samples were collected at two sites on the Old Rifle tailings pile at the Rifle UMTRA Project site in Colorado. One set of samples was collected at a site where the lower portion of the profile is continuously inundated with water and the other set was collected in anarea that only receives water from precipitation. The tailings samples were refluxed in strong acid (nitric acid) and the leachate was analyzed for hazardous constituents. The results of this investigation indicate that many of the hazardous constituents have been leached from the tailings at the wet site and that there has been little redistribution of elemental hazardous constituents at the dry site. The second approach involved a laboratory investigation of contaminant removal from tailings by doubly distilled water and two lixiviants. Tailings samples from the Gunnison, Colorado, UMTRA Project site were subjected to leaching by doubly distilled water, and by the lixiviants sodium bicarbonate and disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. The resulting data were tabulated and plotted with concentration as a function of pore volume. Evaluation of the data indicates that pore fluids should show a decrease in concentration after very few pore volumes of liquid have eluted through the tailings. It is also demonstrated that lixiviants significantly increase the solubility and rate of elution of all of the hazardous constituents.

  3. DETAIL VIEW OF CLASSIFIER, TAILINGS LAUNDER TROUGH, LINE SHAFTS, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF CLASSIFIER, TAILINGS LAUNDER TROUGH, LINE SHAFTS, AND CONCENTRATION TABLES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. SLURRY EXITING THE BALL MILL WAS COLLECTED IN AN AMALGAMATION BOX (MISSING) FROM THE END OF THE MILL, AND INTRODUCED INTO THE CLASSIFIER. THE TAILINGS LAUDER IS ON THE GROUND AT LOWER RIGHT. THE LINE SHAFTING ABOVE PROVIDED POWER TO THE CONCENTRATION TABLES BELOW AT CENTER RIGHT. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  4. Vegetation successfully prevents oxidization of sulfide minerals in mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Sun, Qingye; Zhan, Jing; Yang, Yang; Wang, Dan

    2016-07-15

    The oxidization of metal sulfide in tailings causes acid mine drainage. However, it remains unclear whether vegetation prevents the oxidization of metal sulfides. The oxidization characteristics and microbial indices of the tailings in the presence of various plant species were investigated to explore the effects of vegetation on the oxidization of sulfide minerals in tailings. The pH, reducing sulfur, free iron oxides (Fed), chemical oxygen consumption (COC) and biological oxygen consumption (BOC) were measured. Key iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (Acidithiobacillus spp., Leptospirillum spp. and Thiobacillus spp.) were quantified using real-time PCR. The results indicate that vegetation growing on tailings can effectively prevent the oxidization of sulfide minerals in tailings. A higher pH and reducing-sulfur content and lower Fed were observed in the 0-30 cm depth interval in the presence of vegetation compared to bare tailings (BT). The COC gradually decreased with depth in all of the soil profiles; specifically, the COC rapidly decreased in the 10-20 cm interval in the presence of vegetation but gradually decreased in the BT profiles. Imperata cylindrica (IC) and Chrysopogon zizanoides (CZ) profiles contained the highest BOC in the 10-20 cm interval. The abundance of key iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in the vegetated tailings were significantly lower than in the BT; in particular, IC was associated with the lowest iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacterial abundance. In conclusion, vegetation successfully prevented the oxidization of sulfide minerals in the tailings, and Imperata cylindrica is the most effective in reducing the number of iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and helped to prevent the oxidization of sulfide minerals in the long term.

  5. Merging Galaxies with Tidal Tails in COSMOS to z = 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Zhang Zheng; Zheng, Xian Zhong

    2016-11-01

    Tidal tails are created in major mergers involving disk galaxies. It remains to be explored how the tidal tails trace the assembly history of massive galaxies. We identify a sample of 461 merging galaxies with long tidal tails, from 35,076 galaxies mass-complete at {M}\\star ≥slant {10}9.5 {M}⊙ and 0.2≤slant z≤slant 1, based on Hubble Space Telescope/ACS F814W imaging data and public catalogs of the COSMOS field. The long tails refer to those with length equal to or greater than the diameter of their host galaxies. The mergers with tidal tails are selected using our novel {A}{{O}}-{D}{{O}} technique for strong asymmetric features, along with visual examination. Our results show that the fraction of tidal-tailed mergers evolves mildly with redshift, as ˜ {(1+z)}2.0+/- 0.4, and becomes relatively higher in less-massive galaxies, out to z = 1. With a timescale of 0.5 Gyr for the tidal-tailed mergers, we obtain that the occurrence rate of such mergers follows 0.01+/- 0.007{(1+z)}2.3+/- 1.4 Gyr-1, and corresponds to ˜0.3 events since z = 1, as well as roughly one-third of the total budget of major mergers from the literature. For disk-involved major mergers, nearly half of them have undergone a phase with long tidal tails.

  6. [The metaphoric image of the "tail of a comet"].

    PubMed

    Wackenheim, A

    1994-01-01

    The author places the metaphoric image of "comet tail" in the semiotic structural and triadic system of Peirce. This metaphoric image utilises the iconic quality of "resemblance". The discussion of the image of "comet tail" gives the author the opportunity to distinguish three varieties. One variety is static (example: round atelectasia), the other is dynamic (example: cancer of the breast) and the third is artificial (sonographic artifact).

  7. Assessment of Phytostabilization Success in Metalliferous Acid Mine Tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Root, R. A.; Hammond, C.; Amistadi, M. K.; Maier, R. M.; Chorover, J.

    2014-12-01

    Legacy mine tailings are a significant source of metal(loid)s due to wind and water erosion, especially in the arid southwest, and exposure to fugative dusts presents a health risk to surrounding populations. Compost assisted phytostabilization has been implemented to reduce off site emissions at the Iron King Mine U.S. Superfund Site in central Arizona, concurrent with a greenhouse mesocosm study for detailed study of subsurface mechanisms. Quantification of plant available toxic metal(loid)s in the amended tailings was accessed with a targeted single extraction of diethylenetriaminepentaactic acid (DTPA). Greenhouse mesocosms (1m dia, 0.4 m deep), run in triplicate, mimicked field treatments with: i) tailings only control (TO), ii) tailings plus 15 wt% compost (TC), iii) TC + quailbush seeds (TCA), and iv) TC + buffalo grass seeds (TCB). Core samples collected at 3-month intervals for 1 year were dissected by depth (10 cm each) for analysis. DTPA results indicated that compost treated samples decreased plant availability of Al, As, Cd, Cu, Fe, and Pb but increased Mn and Zn compared with TO. TCB decreased plant available metal(loid)s at all depths, whereas TCA plant available Al, As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn increased in the deeper 20-30cm and 30-40 cm relative to TCB. Samples from the greenhouse were compared to tailings from both the field site and tailings impacted soils used to grow vegetables. Mineral transformations and metal complexation, in the pre- and post-extracted tailings were analyzed by synchrotron transmission XRD and FTIR spectroscopy. The temporal change in plant available metal(loid)s in response to phytostabilization indicates mineralogical alteration that improves soil quality by reducing plant available metal(loid)s. These results will aid in the understanding and efficacy of phytostabilization as a means of remediating and reducing toxicity on mine tailings as well as providing information on health risk management in the region.

  8. A Yurok Story: How the Animals Got Their Tails.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tripp, Maria

    This story was told to the author by her grandmother, a Yurok born at Pecwan in 1898. Long ago, at a council meeting, the animals decided to ask the Great Creator for tails. He agreed and promised to give each animal a tail the next morning. The first animal to get up would have first choice. Coyote built a big fire and tried hard to stay awake…

  9. PSR J0357+3205: THE TAIL OF THE TURTLE

    SciTech Connect

    Marelli, M.; De Luca, A.; Salvetti, D.; Sartore, N.; Sartori, A.; Caraveo, P.; Pizzolato, F.; Belfiore, A.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.

    2013-03-01

    Using a new XMM-Newton observation, we have characterized the X-ray properties of the middle-aged radio-quiet {gamma}-ray pulsar J0357+3205 (named Morla) and its tail. The X-ray emission from the pulsar is consistent with a magnetospheric non-thermal origin plus a thermal emission from a hot spot (or hot spots). The lack of a thermal component from the whole surface makes Morla the coldest neutron star in its age range. We found marginal evidence for a double-peaked modulation of the X-ray emission. The study of the 9' long tail confirmed the lack of extended emission near the pulsar itself. The tail shows a very asymmetric brightness profile and its spectrum lacks any spatial variation. We found the nebular emission to be inconsistent with a classical bow shock, ram-pressure-dominated pulsar wind nebula. We propose thermal bremsstrahlung as an alternative mechanism for Morla's tail emission. In this scenario, the tail emission comes from the shocked interstellar medium (ISM) material heated up to X-ray temperatures. This can fully explain the peculiar features of the tail, assuming a hot, moderately dense ISM around the pulsar. For a bremsstrahlung-emitting tail, we can estimate the pulsar distance to be between 300 and 900 pc. A pulsar velocity of {approx}1900 km s{sup -1} is required, which would make Morla the pulsar with the largest velocity, and high inclination angles (>70 Degree-Sign ) are preferred. We propose Morla's nebula as the first example of a new 'turtle's tail' class of thermally emitting nebulae associated with high-velocity pulsars.

  10. PSR J0357+3205: The Tail of the Turtle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marelli, M.; De Luca, A.; Salvetti, D.; Sartore, N.; Sartori, A.; Caraveo, P.; Pizzolato, F.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Belfiore, A.

    2013-03-01

    Using a new XMM-Newton observation, we have characterized the X-ray properties of the middle-aged radio-quiet γ-ray pulsar J0357+3205 (named Morla) and its tail. The X-ray emission from the pulsar is consistent with a magnetospheric non-thermal origin plus a thermal emission from a hot spot (or hot spots). The lack of a thermal component from the whole surface makes Morla the coldest neutron star in its age range. We found marginal evidence for a double-peaked modulation of the X-ray emission. The study of the 9' long tail confirmed the lack of extended emission near the pulsar itself. The tail shows a very asymmetric brightness profile and its spectrum lacks any spatial variation. We found the nebular emission to be inconsistent with a classical bow shock, ram-pressure-dominated pulsar wind nebula. We propose thermal bremsstrahlung as an alternative mechanism for Morla's tail emission. In this scenario, the tail emission comes from the shocked interstellar medium (ISM) material heated up to X-ray temperatures. This can fully explain the peculiar features of the tail, assuming a hot, moderately dense ISM around the pulsar. For a bremsstrahlung-emitting tail, we can estimate the pulsar distance to be between 300 and 900 pc. A pulsar velocity of ~1900 km s-1 is required, which would make Morla the pulsar with the largest velocity, and high inclination angles (>70°) are preferred. We propose Morla's nebula as the first example of a new "turtle's tail" class of thermally emitting nebulae associated with high-velocity pulsars.

  11. Testing tail-mounted transmitters with Myocastor coypus (nutria)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merino, S.; Carter, J.; Thibodeaux, G.

    2007-01-01

    We developed a tail-mounted radio-transmitter for Myocastor coypus (nutria) that offers a practical and efficient alternative to collar or implant methods. The mean retention time was 96 d (range 57-147 d, n = 7), making this a practical method for short-term studies. The tail-mounts were less injurious to animals than collars and easier for field researchers to implement than either collars or surgically implanted transmitters.

  12. Distal pancreatectomy with celiac axis resection for pancreatic body and tail cancer invading celiac axis

    PubMed Central

    Ham, Hyemin; Kim, Sang Geol; Ha, Heontak; Choi, Young Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Pancreatic body/tail cancer often involves the celiac axis (CA) and it is regarded as an unresectable disease. To treat the disease, we employed distal pancreatectomy with en bloc celiac axis resection (DP-CAR) and reviewed our experiences. Methods We performed DP-CAR for seven patients with pancreatic body/tail cancer involving the CA. The indications of DP-CAR initially included tumors with definite invasion of CA and were later expanded to include borderline resectable disease. To determine the efficacy of DP-CAR, the clinico-pathological data of patients who underwent DP-CAR were compared to both distal pancreatectomy (DP) group and no resection (NR) group. Results The R0 resection rate was 71.4% and was not statistically different compared to DP group. The operative time (P = 0.018) and length of hospital stay (P = 0.022) were significantly longer in DP-CAR group but no significant difference was found in incidence of the postoperative pancreatic fistula compared to DP group. In DP-CAR group, focal hepatic infarction and transient hepatopathy occurred in 1 patient and 3 patients, respectively. No mortality occurred in DP-CAR group. The median survival time (MST) was not statistically different compared to DP group. However, the MST of DP-CAR group was significantly longer than that of NR group (P < 0.001). Conclusion In our experience, DP-CAR was safe and offered high R0 resection rate for patients with pancreatic body/tail cancer with involvement of CA. The effect on survival of DP-CAR is comparable to DP and better than that of NR. However, the benefits need to be verified by further studies in the future. PMID:26446424

  13. Long-term stabilization of uranium mill tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Voorhees, L.D.; Sale, M.J.; Webb, J.W.; Mulholland, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    The primary hazard associated with uranium mill tailings is exposure to a radioactive gas, radon-222, the concentration of which has been correlated with the occurrence of lung cancer. Previous studies on radon attenuation conclude that the placement of earthen cover materials over the tailings is the most effective technique for reducing radioactive emissions and dispersal of tailings. The success of such a plan, however, is dependent on ensuring the long-term integrity of these cover materials. Soil erosion from water and wind is the major natural cause of destabilizing earthen cover materials. Field data related to the control of soil loss are limited and only indirectly apply to the problem of isolation of uranium mill tailings over very long time periods (up to 80,000 a). However, sufficient information is available to determine benefits that will result from the changes in specific design variables and to evaluate the need for different design strategies among potential disposal sites. The three major options available for stabilization of uranium mill tailings are: rock cover, soil and revegetation, or a combination of both on different portions of the tailings cover. The optimal choice among these alternatives depends on site-specific characteristics such as climate and local geomorphology and soils, and on design variables such as embankment, heights and slopes, modification of upstream drainage, and revegetation practices. Generally, geomorphic evidence suggests that use of soil and vegetation alone will not be adequate to reduce erosion on slopes greater than about 5 to 9%.

  14. Arsenic bioaccessibility in gold mine tailings of Delita, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Toujaguez, R; Ono, F B; Martins, V; Cabrera, P P; Blanco, A V; Bundschuh, J; Guilherme, L R G

    2013-11-15

    A bioaccessibility test was carried out in four tailings collected at a former mining area in Delita, Cuba. A previous risk assessment study identified arsenic (As) as the main critical contaminant in this area and showed that the tailings had high As concentrations (up to 3.5%). This study aimed at: (i) evaluating As bioaccessibility in four tailings (R1, R2, R3 and R4) from a gold mining area to obtain a better health risk estimate; and, (ii) identifying the mineral phases responsible for most of the bioaccessible As using XRD, SEM-EDS, and XAS. The results showed that bioaccessible As in the tailings ranged from 0.65 to 40.5%. The main factors influencing As bioaccessibility were a high occurrence of amorphous iron arsenate; occurrence, even at low content, of iron oxyhydroxides and stability of mineral phases in the environment of the gastrointestinal tract. Although arsenopyrite, arsenates and goethite were confirmed by mineralogical methods such as optical microscopy, XRD, and SEM-EDS, XAS showed that scorodite-oxidation state As(+V)-was dominant in most of the tailings. This confirms that the low bioaccessibility of As in most of the tailings is due to the slow kinetics of As release from scorodite.

  15. A Review of Current Models of Cometary Tail Disconnection Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boice, Daniel

    The plasma tail of a comet is susceptible to influences from the solar wind and its embedded magnetic field. The ion tail can show fluctuations, kinks , and moving structures. In addition, it is possible that a disconnection event (DE) might occur, when the ion tail separates from the comet and reforms a few hours later as recently observed in the tail of comet Encke by A. Vourlidas et al. [Ap.J.Lett. 668, L79-82 (2007)] using the Heliospheric Imager onboard NASA's STEREO Mission. The solar wind has a permanent abrupt, and well-known change in magnetic field direction located close to the solar equator, which the comet will intersect. The Sun also releases a large amount of ionized gases from fast-moving disturbances, such as Coronal Mass Ejections as observed by the LASCO instrument onboard ESA's SOHO Mission. In addition, highspeed streams and interplanetary shocks in the solar wind are plausible mechanisms for causing cometary tail disturbances. These types of solar phenomenon can dramatically alter the comet's tail and, on rare occasions, cause a disconnection event. In this paper, we will review the relevant observations and models of disconnection events and summarize our current state of knowledge, highlighting outstanding problems for future research. Acknowledgements. We acknowledge funding and support from the NSF Planetary Astronomy Program and the NASA Discovery Data Analysis Program.

  16. Postautotomy tail activity in the Balearic lizard, Podarcis lilfordi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pafilis, Panayiotis; Pérez-Mellado, Valentín; Valakos, Efstratios

    2008-03-01

    Caudal autotomy is an effective antipredator strategy widespread among lizards. The shed tail thrashes vigorously for long periods to distract the predator and facilitate the lizard’s escape. This movement is maintained by energy supplied by the anaerobic conversion of glycogen into lactate. It has been suggested that lactate accumulation serves as an index for the vigor of tail thrashing. We made three predictions: (1) tail loss frequency should be higher under heavier predation regime, (2) the duration of postautotomy tail movement should be extended in populations under heavy predation pressure as an adaptation to the higher risk and the increased need for defense, and (3) as result, lactate in these tail tissues should be concentrated at higher levels. To eliminate the impact of phylogeny and environmental factors on the interpretation of our result, we focused exclusively on one species, the Balearic lizard ( Podarcis lilfordi). We studied three populations under different predation pressure but sharing the same climatic conditions. We found no differences among the studied populations either in postautotomy duration of tail movement or in levels of final lactate accumulation while autotomy frequency was higher where predation pressure was more intense. Τail loss effectiveness is directly influenced by the level of predation, while secondary features of the trait appear to remain independent from the impact of environment.

  17. Helicopter tail rotor blade-vortex interaction noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Albert R.; Chou, S.-T.

    1987-01-01

    A study is made of helicopter tail rotor noise, particularly that due to the interactions with main rotor tip vortices. Summarized here are present analysis, the computer codes, and the results of several test cases. Amiet's unsteady thin airfoil theory is used to calculate the acoustics of blade-vortex interaction. The noise source is modelled as a force dipole resulting from an airfoil of infinite span chopping through a skewed line vortex. To analyze the interactions between helicopter tail rotor and main rotor tip vortices, we developed a two-step approach: (1) the main rotor tip vortex system is obtained through a free wake geometry calculation of the main rotor using CAMRAD code; (2) acoustic analysis takes the results from the aerodynamic interaction analysis and calculates the farfield pressure signatures for the interactions. It is found that under a wide range of helicopter flight conditions, acoustic pressure fluctuations of significant magnitude can be generated by tail rotors due to a series of interactions with main rotor tip vortices. This noise mechanism depends strongly on the helicopter flight conditions and the relative location and phasing of the main and tail rotors. fluctuations of significant magnitude can be generated by tail rotors due to a series of interactions with main rotor tip vortices. This noise mechanism depends strongly upon the helicopter flight conditions and the relative location and phasing of the main and tail rotors.

  18. Native plant restoration of biosolids-amended copper mine tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, P.A.; Zabowski, D.; Everett, R.L.; Scherer, G.

    1998-12-31

    Copper mine tailings are difficult to revegetate due to nutrient deficiencies, high levels of acidity, and potential metal toxicities. An amendment of biosolids could ameliorate these harsh growing conditions through the addition of available nutrients, improvement of physical soil properties (e.g., increased water holding capacity), and possible lowering of toxic metal availability through complexation with organic matter. A study was conducted on mine tailings at Holden, WA to evaluate the effect of an amendment of biosolids on the survival and growth of five native plant species (Sitka alder, big leaf maple, fireweed, w. yarrow, and pearly everlasting). Plots were established in tailings, gravel over tailings (G/T), and biosolids plus gravel over tailings. Each of the native plant species, except maple, had their highest survival in the biosolids-amended plot with 3 species at 100% survival. The biosolids amendment was shown to improve the growth of all species except maple. Fireweed produced 62 times more biomass in the biosolids-amended plot compared to the unamended plot (G/T). Plant analysis revealed a dramatic increase in nutrient content with the amendment of biosolids. Biosolids improved the survival, growth, and nutritional status of native plant species on the copper mine tailings.

  19. Beneficiation of flotation tailing from Polish copper sulfide ores

    SciTech Connect

    Luszczkiewicz, A.; Sztaba, K.S.

    1995-12-31

    Flotation tailing of Polish copper sulfide ores represents more than 90% of the mass of run-of-mine ore. The tailing contains mainly quartz, dolomite, clay minerals, traces of sulfides, and some accessory minerals. Almost all minerals of the tailing are well liberated and, therefore, any further beneficiation process applied to the tailing is expected to be inexpensive. In this work, results of investigations on utilization of flotation tailing using classification and gravity concentration are presented. It is shown that due to classification of flotation tailing in hydrocyclones, the coarse fraction becomes suitable material for gravity separation providing backfill material for underground mines as well as heavy minerals, a source of valuable rare elements. It was also found that heavy minerals separated by gravity methods contain a significant amount of rare elements such as zirconium, titanium, silver, rare earth metals, and uranium. The light fraction of the gravity separation contains well deslimed quartz particles and meets strict requirements for hydraulic filling material used for structural support in underground mines. Evaluation of the cost of the proposed technology indicated that investment to implement the method would provide a return within 2--4 years.

  20. Rare-earth occurrences in the Pea Ridge tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Vierrether, C.W.; Cornell, W.I.

    1993-01-01

    Tailings from the Pea Ridge iron mine contain significant amounts of apatite, which has rare-earth element values associated with it. In association with the recovery of rare-earth minerals as a secondary resource, the US Bureau of Mines conducted an investigation on the recoverability of the rare-earth minerals from the tailings. The mill tailings were subjected to a phosphate flotation to separate the apatite from other constituents. More than 70-pct recovery of the rare-earth values was achieved. Based on mineralogical characterization and prior analysis of rare-earth-bearing breccia pipe material at Pea Ridge, it is proposed that processing this phosphate concentrate on a vanner table would yield up to a 95-pct recovery of the rare earths in the concentrate, with the apatite reporting to the tailings. Intensive ore microscopy studies of the original tailings to the flotation products led to the identification of monazite, xenotime, and rare-earth-enriched apatite as the major rare-earth-bearing minerals in the tailings.

  1. Synthesis process of forsterite refractory by iron ore tailings.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Wang, Qi; Liu, Jihui; Li, Peng

    2009-01-01

    With mineral resources becoming gradually more deficient, as well as the issue of mine tailings causing environmental pollution, more and more people have realized the great significance of tailings utilization. Iron ore tailings, as a kind of secondary resource, have been developed in recycling industries. The feasibility to produce forsterite refractory from high-silicon iron tailings and high-magnesium raw materials were discussed. Also, the synthesis reaction processes were studied from the results of the laboratory experiments. The experiments showed that the synthesis processes can be separated into three steps when using iron tailings to synthesize forsterite: (1) produce magnesium iron sosoloid (Mg(1-X)Fe(X)O) and magnesium metasilicate (MgSiO3), (2) form the fayalite, and (3) create the forsterite. The synthetic productions are primarily forsterite, hortonolite, and small amounts of magnesium metasilicate (MgSiO3). The hortonolite is wrapped around the surface of the forsterite particles and formed the cementing phase. In addition, the method to produce forsterite refractory and lightweight forsterite refractory from iron tailings were offered.

  2. Tail-scope: Using friends to estimate heavy tails of degree distributions in large-scale complex networks.

    PubMed

    Eom, Young-Ho; Jo, Hang-Hyun

    2015-05-11

    Many complex networks in natural and social phenomena have often been characterized by heavy-tailed degree distributions. However, due to rapidly growing size of network data and concerns on privacy issues about using these data, it becomes more difficult to analyze complete data sets. Thus, it is crucial to devise effective and efficient estimation methods for heavy tails of degree distributions in large-scale networks only using local information of a small fraction of sampled nodes. Here we propose a tail-scope method based on local observational bias of the friendship paradox. We show that the tail-scope method outperforms the uniform node sampling for estimating heavy tails of degree distributions, while the opposite tendency is observed in the range of small degrees. In order to take advantages of both sampling methods, we devise the hybrid method that successfully recovers the whole range of degree distributions. Our tail-scope method shows how structural heterogeneities of large-scale complex networks can be used to effectively reveal the network structure only with limited local information.

  3. Tail-scope: Using friends to estimate heavy tails of degree distributions in large-scale complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eom, Young-Ho; Jo, Hang-Hyun

    2015-05-01

    Many complex networks in natural and social phenomena have often been characterized by heavy-tailed degree distributions. However, due to rapidly growing size of network data and concerns on privacy issues about using these data, it becomes more difficult to analyze complete data sets. Thus, it is crucial to devise effective and efficient estimation methods for heavy tails of degree distributions in large-scale networks only using local information of a small fraction of sampled nodes. Here we propose a tail-scope method based on local observational bias of the friendship paradox. We show that the tail-scope method outperforms the uniform node sampling for estimating heavy tails of degree distributions, while the opposite tendency is observed in the range of small degrees. In order to take advantages of both sampling methods, we devise the hybrid method that successfully recovers the whole range of degree distributions. Our tail-scope method shows how structural heterogeneities of large-scale complex networks can be used to effectively reveal the network structure only with limited local information.

  4. Tail-scope: Using friends to estimate heavy tails of degree distributions in large-scale complex networks

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Young-Ho; Jo, Hang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Many complex networks in natural and social phenomena have often been characterized by heavy-tailed degree distributions. However, due to rapidly growing size of network data and concerns on privacy issues about using these data, it becomes more difficult to analyze complete data sets. Thus, it is crucial to devise effective and efficient estimation methods for heavy tails of degree distributions in large-scale networks only using local information of a small fraction of sampled nodes. Here we propose a tail-scope method based on local observational bias of the friendship paradox. We show that the tail-scope method outperforms the uniform node sampling for estimating heavy tails of degree distributions, while the opposite tendency is observed in the range of small degrees. In order to take advantages of both sampling methods, we devise the hybrid method that successfully recovers the whole range of degree distributions. Our tail-scope method shows how structural heterogeneities of large-scale complex networks can be used to effectively reveal the network structure only with limited local information. PMID:25959097

  5. Autotrophic biofilm development on superficial samples of the gold-silver mine tailings, Valenciana (Mexico): pioneers in tailings remediation?

    PubMed

    García-Meza, Jessica Viridiana

    2008-01-01

    We report the results of long term bio-assays on microorganism colonization of mine tailings samples, taken from the Valenciana mine tailings (Guanajuato, Mexico), under stable laboratory conditions (humidity, temperature, light exposure). In order to identify the main metabolic groups of the potentially colonizing microorganisms and the implications of their growth on the main tailing's characteristics related to biological succession, organic matter (OM) content, cationic exchange capacity (CEC), and pH values were measured as the colonization took place. We observe that photosynthetic biofilms (cyanobacteria, green algae, and diatoms) successfully colonize the mine tailings samples as pioneers; moreover, bacteria, yeast and fungi were also identified. Biofilm colonization significantly improved the OM contents, whereas the pH value is not modified during the entire observed colonization process. The results suggest that biofilms are useful during the first steps of the mine tailings remediation. This is the first report of microalgae and cyanobacteria grown of on tailings samples obtained from a semiarid region.

  6. A cis-prenyltransferase from Methanosarcina acetivorans catalyzes both head-to-tail and nonhead-to-tail prenyl condensation.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Takuya; Emi, Koh-Ichi; Koga, Kazushi; Yoshimura, Tohru; Hemmi, Hisashi

    2016-06-01

    Cis-prenyltransferase usually consecutively catalyzes the head-to-tail condensation reactions of isopentenyl diphosphate to allylic prenyl diphosphate in the production of (E,Z-mixed) polyprenyl diphosphate, which is the precursor of glycosyl carrier lipids. Some recently discovered homologs of the enzyme, however, catalyze the nonhead-to-tail condensation reactions between allylic prenyl diphosphates. In this study, we characterize a cis-prenyltransferase homolog from a methanogenic archaeon, Methanosarcina acetivorans, to obtain information on the biosynthesis of the glycosyl carrier lipids within it. This enzyme catalyzes both head-to-tail and nonhead-to-tail condensation reactions. The kinetic analysis shows that the main reaction of the enzyme is consecutive head-to-tail prenyl condensation reactions yielding polyprenyl diphosphates, while the chain lengths of the major products seem shorter than expected for the precursor of glycosyl carrier lipids. On the other hand, a subsidiary reaction of the enzyme, i.e., nonhead-to-tail condensation between dimethylallyl diphosphate and farnesyl diphosphate, gives a novel diterpenoid compound, geranyllavandulyl diphosphate.

  7. Survival of Columbian white-tailed deer in western Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ricca, Mark A.; Anthony, Robert G.; Jackson, Dewaine H.; Wolfe, Scott A.

    2002-01-01

    Columbian white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus leucurus; CWTD) are an endangered subspecies on which little demographic information exists. We determined survival rates and causes of mortality for 64 radiocol- lared adults from 1996 to 1998, and for 63 radiocollared neonatal fawns during the summer and fall months of 1996-2001 in Douglas County, Oregon, USA. Annual adult survival rates averaged 0.74 over 3 years, and most mor- tality (73%) occurred between fall and winter. Seasonal survival was lowest (0.75) for the fall-winter 1997-1998, and was 20.90 during all spring-summer periods. Annual and seasonal survival rates did not differ by gender. Average annual survival was 0.77 for deer in wildland areas compared with 0.66 for deer in suburban areas, but these dif- ferences were not consistent between years and seasons. Survival over the entire 3-year study was low (0.38). Eight deer died from a combination of emaciation and disease, and almost all (92%) necropsied deer were in poor body condition. Fawn survival to 7 months was low (0.14, 95% CI = 0.02-0.26) and declined most rapidly during the first 1.5 months of life. Predation (n = 21) and abandonment (n = 6) were the most frequent known causes of death for fawns. Our results suggest that CWTD may have responded to density-dependent factors during this short-term study, although the effects of other environmental or intrinsic factors cannot be ignored. Fawn survival may be insufficient to produce enough recruits for population growth and eventual range expansion.

  8. Analysis of the histone protein tail and DNA in nucleosome using molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimori, R.; Komatsu, Y.; Fukuda, M.; Miyakawa, T.; Morikawa, R.; Takasu, M.

    2013-02-01

    We study the effect of the tails of H3 and H4 histones in the nucleosomes, where DNA and histones are packed in the form of chromatin. We perform molecular dynamics simulations of the complex of DNA and histones and calculate the mean square displacement and the gyration radius of the complex of DNA and histones for the cases with tails intact and the cases with tails missing. Our results show that the H3 tails are important for the motion of the histones. We also find that the motion of one tail is affected by other tails, although the tails are distanced apart, suggesting the correlated motion in biological systems.

  9. Linking Bovine Tuberculosis on Cattle Farms to White-Tailed Deer and Environmental Variables Using Bayesian Hierarchical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Walter, W. David; Smith, Rick; Vanderklok, Mike; VerCauteren, Kurt C.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is a bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis in livestock and wildlife with hosts that include Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Risk-assessment efforts in Michigan have been initiated on farms to minimize interactions of cattle with wildlife hosts but research on M. bovis on cattle farms has not investigated the spatial context of disease epidemiology. To incorporate spatially explicit data, initial likelihood of infection probabilities for cattle farms tested for M. bovis, prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer, deer density, and environmental variables for each farm were modeled in a Bayesian hierarchical framework. We used geo-referenced locations of 762 cattle farms that have been tested for M. bovis, white-tailed deer prevalence, and several environmental variables that may lead to long-term survival and viability of M. bovis on farms and surrounding habitats (i.e., soil type, habitat type). Bayesian hierarchical analyses identified deer prevalence and proportion of sandy soil within our sampling grid as the most supported model. Analysis of cattle farms tested for M. bovis identified that for every 1% increase in sandy soil resulted in an increase in odds of infection by 4%. Our analysis revealed that the influence of prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer was still a concern even after considerable efforts to prevent cattle interactions with white-tailed deer through on-farm mitigation and reduction in the deer population. Cattle farms test positive for M. bovis annually in our study area suggesting that the potential for an environmental source either on farms or in the surrounding landscape may contributing to new or re-infections with M. bovis. Our research provides an initial assessment of potential environmental factors that could be incorporated into additional modeling efforts as more knowledge of deer herd factors and cattle

  10. Linking bovine tuberculosis on cattle farms to white-tailed deer and environmental variables using Bayesian hierarchical analysis.

    PubMed

    Walter, W David; Smith, Rick; Vanderklok, Mike; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2014-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is a bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis in livestock and wildlife with hosts that include Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Risk-assessment efforts in Michigan have been initiated on farms to minimize interactions of cattle with wildlife hosts but research on M. bovis on cattle farms has not investigated the spatial context of disease epidemiology. To incorporate spatially explicit data, initial likelihood of infection probabilities for cattle farms tested for M. bovis, prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer, deer density, and environmental variables for each farm were modeled in a Bayesian hierarchical framework. We used geo-referenced locations of 762 cattle farms that have been tested for M. bovis, white-tailed deer prevalence, and several environmental variables that may lead to long-term survival and viability of M. bovis on farms and surrounding habitats (i.e., soil type, habitat type). Bayesian hierarchical analyses identified deer prevalence and proportion of sandy soil within our sampling grid as the most supported model. Analysis of cattle farms tested for M. bovis identified that for every 1% increase in sandy soil resulted in an increase in odds of infection by 4%. Our analysis revealed that the influence of prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer was still a concern even after considerable efforts to prevent cattle interactions with white-tailed deer through on-farm mitigation and reduction in the deer population. Cattle farms test positive for M. bovis annually in our study area suggesting that the potential for an environmental source either on farms or in the surrounding landscape may contributing to new or re-infections with M. bovis. Our research provides an initial assessment of potential environmental factors that could be incorporated into additional modeling efforts as more knowledge of deer herd factors and cattle

  11. The Tail-Elicited Tail Withdrawal Reflex of "Aplysia" Is Mediated Centrally at Tail Sensory-Motor Synapses and Exhibits Sensitization across Multiple Temporal Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philips, Gary T.; Sherff, Carolyn M.; Menges, Steven A.; Carew, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    The defensive withdrawal reflexes of "Aplysia californica" have provided powerful behavioral systems for studying the cellular and molecular basis of memory formation. Among these reflexes the (T-TWR) has been especially useful. In vitro studies examining the monosynaptic circuit for the T-TWR, the tail sensory-motor (SN-MN) synapses, have…

  12. Effects of aerodynamic interaction between main and tail rotors on helicopter hover performance and noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menger, R. P.; Wood, T. L.; Brieger, J. T.

    1983-01-01

    A model test was conducted to determine the effects of aerodynamic interaction between main rotor, tail rotor, and vertical fin on helicopter performance and noise in hover out of ground effect. The experimental data were obtained from hover tests performed with a .151 scale Model 222 main rotor, tail rotor and vertical fin. Of primary interest was the effect of location of the tail rotor with respect to the main rotor. Penalties on main rotor power due to interaction with the tail rotor ranged up to 3% depending upon tail rotor location and orientation. Penalties on tail rotor power due to fin blockage alone ranged up to 10% for pusher tail rotors and up to 50% for tractor tail rotors. The main rotor wake had only a second order effect on these tail rotor/fin interactions. Design charts are presented showing the penalties on main rotor power as a function of the relative location of the tail rotor.

  13. Is rhizosphere remediation sufficient for sustainable revegetation of mine tailings?

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Longbin; Baumgartl, Thomas; Mulligan, David

    2012-01-01

    Background Revegetation of mine tailings (fine-grained waste material) starts with the reconstruction of root zones, consisting of a rhizosphere horizon (mostly topsoil and/or amended tailings) and the support horizon beneath (i.e. equivalent to subsoil – mostly tailings), which must be physically and hydro-geochemically stable. This review aims to discuss key processes involved in the development of functional root zones within the context of direct revegetation of tailings and introduces a conceptual process of rehabilitating structure and function in the root zones based on a state transition model. Scope Field studies on the revegetation of tailings (from processing base metal ore and bauxite residues) are reviewed. Particular focus is given to tailings' properties that limit remediation effectiveness. Aspects of root zone reconstruction and vegetation responses are also discussed. Conclusions When reconstructing a root zone system, it is critical to restore physical structure and hydraulic functions across the whole root zone system. Only effective and holistically restored systems can control hydro-geochemical mobility of acutely and chronically toxic factors from the underlying horizon and maintain hydro-geochemical stability in the rhizosphere. Thereafter, soil biological capacity and ecological linkages (i.e. carbon and nutrient cycling) may be rehabilitated to integrate the root zones with revegetated plant communities into sustainable plant ecosystems. A conceptual framework of system transitions between the critical states of root zone development has been proposed. This will illustrate the rehabilitation process in root zone reconstruction and development for direct revegetation with sustainable plant communities. Sustainable phytostabilization of tailings requires the systematic consideration of hydro-geochemical interactions between the rhizosphere and the underlying supporting horizon. It further requires effective remediation strategies to

  14. Structural cooperativity in histone H3 tail modifications.

    PubMed

    Sanli, Deniz; Keskin, Ozlem; Gursoy, Attila; Erman, Burak

    2011-12-01

    Post-translational modifications of histone H3 tails have crucial roles in regulation of cellular processes. There is cross-regulation between the modifications of K4, K9, and K14 residues. The modifications on these residues drastically promote or inhibit each other. In this work, we studied the structural changes of the histone H3 tail originating from the three most important modifications; tri-methylation of K4 and K9, and acetylation of K14. We performed extensive molecular dynamics simulations of four types of H3 tails: (i) the unmodified H3 tail having no chemical modification on the residues, (ii) the tri-methylated lysine 4 and lysine 9 H3 tail (K4me3K9me3), (iii) the tri-methylated lysine 4 and acetylated lysine 14 H3 tail (K4me3K14ace), and (iv) tri-methylated lysine 9 and acetylated lysine 14 H3 tail (K9me3K14ace). Here, we report the effects of K4, K9, and K14 modifications on the backbone torsion angles and relate these changes to the recognition and binding of histone modifying enzymes. According to the Ramachandran plot analysis; (i) the dihedral angles of K4 residue are significantly affected by the addition of three methyl groups on this residue regardless of the second modification, (ii) the dihedral angle values of K9 residue are similarly altered majorly by the tri-methylation of K4 residue, (iii) different combinations of modifications (tri-methylation of K4 and K9, and acetylation of K14) have different influences on phi and psi values of K14 residue. Finally, we discuss the consequences of these results on the binding modes and specificity of the histone modifying enzymes such as DIM-5, GCN5, and JMJD2A.

  15. Tail Docking and Ear Cropping Dogs: Public Awareness and Perceptions.

    PubMed

    Mills, Katelyn E; Robbins, Jesse; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G

    2016-01-01

    Tail docking and ear cropping are two surgical procedures commonly performed on many dog breeds. These procedures are classified as medically unnecessary surgeries whose purpose is primarily cosmetic. Available attitude research surrounding these controversial practices has been limited to surveys of veterinarians and dog breeders familiar with both practices. The aim of this project was to: 1) assess public awareness of tail docking and ear cropping, 2) determine whether physical alteration of a dog affects how the dog, and 3) owner are perceived. In Experiment 1 awareness was measured using a combination of both explicit and implicit measures. We found that 42% of participants (n = 810) were unable to correctly explain the reason why tail docked and ear cropped dogs had short ears and tails. Similarly, an implicit measure of awareness ('nature vs nurture task'), found that the majority of participants believed short tails and erect ears were a consequence of genetics rather than something the owner or breeder had done. The results obtained in Experiment 2 (n = 392) provide evidence that ear cropped and tail docked dogs are perceived differently than an identical dog in its 'natural' state. Modified dogs were perceived as being more aggressive, more dominant, less playful and less attractive than natural dogs. Experiment 3 (n = 410) is the first evidence that owners of modified dogs are perceived as being more aggressive, more narcissistic, less playful, less talkative and less warm compared to owners of natural dogs. Taken together, these results suggest that although a significant proportion of subjects appear unaware of the practices of tail docking and ear cropping in dogs, these procedures have significant impacts on how modified dogs and their owners are perceived by others.

  16. Tail Docking and Ear Cropping Dogs: Public Awareness and Perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Katelyn E.; Robbins, Jesse; von Keyserlingk, Marina A. G.

    2016-01-01

    Tail docking and ear cropping are two surgical procedures commonly performed on many dog breeds. These procedures are classified as medically unnecessary surgeries whose purpose is primarily cosmetic. Available attitude research surrounding these controversial practices has been limited to surveys of veterinarians and dog breeders familiar with both practices. The aim of this project was to: 1) assess public awareness of tail docking and ear cropping, 2) determine whether physical alteration of a dog affects how the dog, and 3) owner are perceived. In Experiment 1 awareness was measured using a combination of both explicit and implicit measures. We found that 42% of participants (n = 810) were unable to correctly explain the reason why tail docked and ear cropped dogs had short ears and tails. Similarly, an implicit measure of awareness (‘nature vs nurture task’), found that the majority of participants believed short tails and erect ears were a consequence of genetics rather than something the owner or breeder had done. The results obtained in Experiment 2 (n = 392) provide evidence that ear cropped and tail docked dogs are perceived differently than an identical dog in its ‘natural’ state. Modified dogs were perceived as being more aggressive, more dominant, less playful and less attractive than natural dogs. Experiment 3 (n = 410) is the first evidence that owners of modified dogs are perceived as being more aggressive, more narcissistic, less playful, less talkative and less warm compared to owners of natural dogs. Taken together, these results suggest that although a significant proportion of subjects appear unaware of the practices of tail docking and ear cropping in dogs, these procedures have significant impacts on how modified dogs and their owners are perceived by others. PMID:27348817

  17. Black-tailed and white-tailed jackrabbits in the American West: History, ecology, ecological significance, and survey methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simes, Matthew; Longshore, Kathleen; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Beatty, Greg L.; Brown, David E.; Esque, Todd C.

    2015-01-01

    Across the western United States, Leporidae are the most important prey item in the diet of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). Leporids inhabiting the western United States include black-tailed (Lepus californicus) and white-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus townsendii) and various species of cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus spp.). Jackrabbits (Lepus spp.) are particularly important components of the ecological and economic landscape of western North America because their abundance influences the reproductive success and population trends of predators such as coyotes (Canis latrans), bobcats (Lynx rufus), and a number of raptor species. Here, we review literature pertaining to black-tailed and white-tailed jackrabbits comprising over 170 published journal articles, notes, technical reports, conference proceedings, academic theses and dissertations, and other sources dating from the late 19th century to the present. Our goal is to present information to assist those in research and management, particularly with regard to protected raptor species (e.g., Golden Eagles), mammalian predators, and ecological monitoring. We classified literature sources as (1) general information on jackrabbit species, (2) black-tailed or (3) white-tailed jackrabbit ecology and natural history, or (4) survey methods. These categories, especially 2, 3, and 4, were further subdivided as appropriate. The review also produced several tables on population trends, food habits, densities within various habitats, and jackrabbit growth and development. Black-tailed and white-tailed jackrabbits are ecologically similar in general behaviors, use of forms, parasites, and food habits, and they are prey to similar predators; but they differ in their preferred habitats. While the black-tailed jackrabbit inhabits agricultural land, deserts, and shrublands, the white-tailed jackrabbit is associated with prairies, alpine tundra, and sagebrush-steppe. Frequently considered abundant, jackrabbit numbers in western North

  18. Evaluating a strategy to deliver vaccine to white-tailed deer at a landscape level

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, Justin W.; Blass, Chad R.; Walter, William D.; Anderson, Charles W.; Lavelle, Michael J.; Hall, Wayne H.; VerCauterren, Kurt C.

    2016-01-01

    Effective delivery of vaccines and other pharmaceuticals to wildlife populations is needed when zoonotic diseases pose a risk to public health and natural resources or have considerable economic consequences. The objective of our study was to develop a bait-distribution strategy for potential delivery of oral bovine tuberculosis (bTB) vaccine to white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) where deer are reservoirs for the disease. During 17 February and 2 March 2011, we created a grid of experimental bait stations (n = 64) on Sandhill Wildlife Management Area, Wisconsin, USA, to assess station densities needed to attract and deliver placebo baits to free-ranging white-tailed deer and look for associations among deer density, number of bait stations per deer, and bait consumption. We placed 1 L of commercially available alfalfa cubes at bait stations 652 m apart, and monitored stations with motion-activated cameras for 5 days to document visitation and consumption by deer and nontarget species. Deer discovered 38% of all bait stations within 37 hr, on average (SE = 3.91 hr), and consumed variable amounts of bait at each station. Deer were documented in 94% of all photographs of wildlife at bait stations. We found no correlation between bait consumption and deer density or the number of bait stations per deer. We provide the first information on use of baits by free-ranging deer and nontarget wildlife to eventually vaccinate deer against bTB at a landscape level. The results of this study can further the development of strategies in delivery of pharmaceuticals to free-ranging white-tailed deer.

  19. Mutations in the tail domain of DYNC1H1 cause dominant spinal muscular atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Harms, M.B.; Ori-McKenney, K.M.; Scoto, M.; Tuck, E.P.; Bell, S.; Ma, D.; Masi, S.; Allred, P.; Al-Lozi, M.; Reilly, M.M.; Miller, L.J.; Jani-Acsadi, A.; Pestronk, A.; Shy, M.E.; Muntoni, F.; Vallee, R.B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify the gene responsible for 14q32-linked dominant spinal muscular atrophy with lower extremity predominance (SMA-LED, OMIM 158600). Methods: Target exon capture and next generation sequencing was used to analyze the 73 genes in the 14q32 linkage interval in 3 SMA-LED family members. Candidate gene sequencing in additional dominant SMA families used PCR and pooled target capture methods. Patient fibroblasts were biochemically analyzed. Results: Regional exome sequencing of all candidate genes in the 14q32 interval in the original SMA-LED family identified only one missense mutation that segregated with disease state—a mutation in the tail domain of DYNC1H1 (I584L). Sequencing of DYNC1H1 in 32 additional probands with lower extremity predominant SMA found 2 additional heterozygous tail domain mutations (K671E and Y970C), confirming that multiple different mutations in the same domain can cause a similar phenotype. Biochemical analysis of dynein purified from patient-derived fibroblasts demonstrated that the I584L mutation dominantly disrupted dynein complex stability and function. Conclusions: We demonstrate that mutations in the tail domain of the heavy chain of cytoplasmic dynein (DYNC1H1) cause spinal muscular atrophy and provide experimental evidence that a human DYNC1H1 mutation disrupts dynein complex assembly and function. DYNC1H1 mutations were recently found in a family with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (type 2O) and in a child with mental retardation. Both of these phenotypes show partial overlap with the spinal muscular atrophy patients described here, indicating that dynein dysfunction is associated with a range of phenotypes in humans involving neuronal development and maintenance. PMID:22459677

  20. Long-Term Performance of Uranium Tailings Disposal Cells - 13340

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, Kent; Daniel, Anamary; Pill, Ken; Tachiev, Georgio; Noosai, Nantaporn; Villamizar, Viviana

    2013-07-01

    Recently, there has been interest in the performance and evolution of Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal cell covers because some sites are not compliant with groundwater standards. Field observations of UMTRA disposal cells indicate that rock covers tend to become vegetated and that saturated conductivities in the upper portion of radon barriers may increase due to freeze/thaw cycles and biointrusion. This paper describes the results of modeling that addresses whether these potential changes and transient drainage of moisture in the tailings affect overall performance of the disposal cells. A numerical unsaturated/saturated 3-dimensional flow model was used to simulate whether increases in saturated conductivities in radon barriers with rock covers affect the overall performance of the disposal cells using field data from the Shiprock, NM, UMTRA site. A unique modeling approach allowed simulation with daily climatic conditions to determine changes in moisture and moisture flux from the disposal cell. Modeling results indicated that increases in the saturated conductivity at the top of radon barrier do not influence flux from the tailings with time because the tailings behave similar hydraulically to the radon barrier. The presence of a thin layer of low conductivity material anywhere in the cover or tailings restricts flux in the worst case to the saturated conductivity of that material. Where materials are unsaturated at depth within the radon barrier of tailings slimes, conductivities are typically less than 10{sup -8} centimeters per second. If the low conductivity layer is deep within the disposal cell, its saturated properties are less likely to change with time. The significance of this modeling is that operation and maintenance of the disposal cells can be minimized if they are allowed to progress to a natural condition with some vegetation and soil genesis. Because the covers and underlying tailings have a very low saturated

  1. Use of cemented paste backfill in arsenic-rich tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamberg, Roger; Maurice, Christian; Alakangas, Lena

    2015-04-01

    Gold is extracted by cyanide leaching from inclusions in arsenopyrite from a mine in the north of Sweden. The major ore mineral assemblage consists of pyrrhotite and arsenopyrite-loellingite. Effluents from the gold extraction were treated with Fe2(SO4)3, with the aim to form stable As-bearing Fe-precipitates (FEP). The use of the method called cemented paste backfill (CPB) is sometimes suggested for the management of tailings. In CPB, tailings are commonly mixed with low proportions (3 - 7 %) of cement and backfilled into underground excavated area. To reduce costs, amendments such as granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS), biofuel fly ash (BFA) and cement kiln dust (CKD) are used for partial replacement of cement in CPB due to their pozzolanic and alkaline properties. The objective for this study was to evaluate the leaching behaviour of As in CPB-mixtures with low proportions (1 - 3 %) of BFA and ordinary cement and unmodified tailings. The selection of CPB-recipies was made based on technical and economical criterias to adress the demands deriving from the mining operations. Speciation of the As in ore and tailings samples revealed that mining processes have dissolved the majority of the arsenopyrite in the ore, causing secondary As phases to co-precipitate with newly formed FEP:s. Tank leaching tests (TLT) and weathering cells (WCT) were used to compare leaching behaviour in a monolithic mass contra a crushed material. Quantification of the presumed benefit of CPB was made by calculation of the cumulative leaching of As. Results from the leaching tests (TLT and WCT) showed that the inclusion of As-rich tailings into a cementitious matrix increased leaching of As. This behaviour could partially be explained by an increase of pH. The addition of alkaline binder materials to tailings increased As leaching due to the relocation of desorbed As from FEPs into less acid-tolerant species such as Ca-arsenates and cementitious As-phases. Unmodified tailings generated an

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Arcanobacterium pyogenes isolated from the lungs of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Tell, Lisa A; Brooks, Jason W; Lintner, Valerie; Matthews, Tammy; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie

    2011-09-01

    In vitro susceptibilities of 29 strains of Arcanobacterium pyogenes isolated from lung lesions of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with pneumonia were determined using the broth microdilution method to ascertain efficacious treatment options for pneumonic white-tailed deer. All 29 A. pyogenes strains tested were susceptible to ceftiofur, spectinomycin, tiamulin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole but were resistant to both danofloxacin and sulfadimethoxine. Likewise, all 29 isolates were either fully susceptible or intermediately susceptible to gentamicin (25 susceptible; 4 intermediate) and tulathromycin (25 susceptible; 4 intermediate). At least one isolate of A. pyogenes tested was resistant to ampicillin, chlortetracycline, clindamycin, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, oxytetracycline, penicillin, and tilmicosin suggesting their ineffectiveness in treating A. pyogenes-associated lung infections in white-tailed deer. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) data for tylosin and neomycin could not be interpreted due to unavailability of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI)-approved breakpoints for these 2 agents. In summary, based on MIC values, ceftiofur, spectinomycin, tiamulin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole are more efficacious than other antimicrobial agents for treating A. pyogenes-related pneumonia in white-tailed deer. However, ceftiofur may be preferred over the other 4 drugs as it is being widely used to treat respiratory disease in cattle and other animal species, as well as is available for single dose parenteral administration.

  3. Preparation and combustion of high ash coal tailing slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Ziping; Zhang Wenfu; Fu Xiaoheng; Wang Zuna; Li Hui

    1998-12-31

    Flotation tailings from a coal preparation plant are known for their high ash, low heating value, high moisture content even after thickening and filtration, and difficult handability. However, they can be easily converted into a slurry fuel for boilers. Two flotation tailings, containing ash of 31.89% and 41.87% respectively, have been converted into slurry fuel with the following properties: solid content being 70.4% and 74.4% respectively; low heating value, 13,694kj/kg and 10,970kj/kg; and viscosity, 379 mPa.s and 180 mPa.s at a shear rate of 100s{sup {minus}1}. An eccentric slant jet coal slurry burner was installed at the boiler. Slurry atomizing nozzle operated at low pressure. Both slurries gave stable combustion without supporting fuel under the condition of cool air supply. A new way of flotation tailing utilization was demonstrated. China has more than 200 coal preparation plants washing more than 300 million tons of coal annually. These preparation plants generate more than 10 million tons of tailing annually, most of which is not currently being used, causing great environmental pollution and waste management difficulties for the enterprises. Comprehensive utilization of coal washer tailings is one of the key issues of environmental protection and energy saving in China.

  4. Design Plans for an Inexpensive Tail Flick Analgesia Meter

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Aaron; Butcher, Greg Q.; Messina, Troy C.

    2011-01-01

    While the pedagogical benefits of incorporating inquiry driven labs into an undergraduate curriculum are well established, often the prohibitive costs of providing equipment for such labs limits the types of experiences that can be offered. For example, the lab portion of Advanced Neuroscience at Centenary College of Louisiana consists of a semester-long research project developed by the students. Frequently, these junior- and senior-level students generate interesting research questions that must be culled or scaled back simply due to a lack of appropriate equipment. In the most recent iteration of the class, the students wanted to examine analgesia using the tail flick test, a measure of spinal nociception. In this test a rodent subject is restrained; its tail is exposed to a heat source; and the latency to flick its tail away from the noxious stimuli is recorded. As commercial devices were far beyond the lab budget, we sought to develop an inexpensive tail flick analgesia meter that was easy to use and generated reliable data. The prototype device was tested by students in the above-mentioned class and was found to consistently produce reliable data in agreement with the literature. Here we present plans for a tail flick analgesia meter that can be constructed for $50–75, roughly 100 times cheaper than commercial devices. PMID:23626497

  5. On tail formation during gravure printing of sessile drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceyhan, Umut; Morris, S. J. S.

    2014-11-01

    Kitsomboonloha et al. (2012) study the deposition of femtolitre drops by the gravure method. The substrate (gravure plate) passes under a stationary blade; liquid placed on the substrate upstream of the blade fills the engraved wells as they enter the blade-substrate gap. Motion of the substrate beneath the blade removes the excess, leaving liquid-filled wells. The resulting pattern can then be printed. As a well leaves the blade, some liquid is, however, subtracted from it and left as a tail between the well and blade. Tails are undesirable because they reduce the sharpness of printed features. It was proposed that tails form by a 3-dimensional mechanism involving lateral wicking of liquid from the wells along the blade-substrate intersection. Here, lubrication theory is used to show that the effect can be understood within the context of plane flow. As a well passes under the trailing edge of the blade, capillary suction causes the meniscus to rise on the blade, but once the well has left, the increased drag exerted by the substrate pulls the meniscus down. Liquid dragged from the meniscus forms the tail. We conclude that tail formation is a problem in plane Stokes flow.

  6. On the statistical properties and tail risk of violent conflicts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirillo, Pasquale; Taleb, Nassim Nicholas

    2016-06-01

    We examine statistical pictures of violent conflicts over the last 2000 years, providing techniques for dealing with the unreliability of historical data. We make use of a novel approach to deal with fat-tailed random variables with a remote but nonetheless finite upper bound, by defining a corresponding unbounded dual distribution (given that potential war casualties are bounded by the world population). This approach can also be applied to other fields of science where power laws play a role in modeling, like geology, hydrology, statistical physics and finance. We apply methods from extreme value theory on the dual distribution and derive its tail properties. The dual method allows us to calculate the real tail mean of war casualties, which proves to be considerably larger than the corresponding sample mean for large thresholds, meaning severe underestimation of the tail risks of conflicts from naive observation. We analyze the robustness of our results to errors in historical reports. We study inter-arrival times between tail events and find that no particular trend can be asserted. All the statistical pictures obtained are at variance with the prevailing claims about "long peace", namely that violence has been declining over time.

  7. Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria for Phytostabilization of Mine Tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Grandlic, C.J.; Mendez, M.O.; Chorover, J.; Machado, B.; Maier, R.M.

    2009-05-19

    Eolian dispersion of mine tailings in arid and semiarid environments is an emerging global issue for which economical remediation alternatives are needed. Phytostabilization, the revegetation of these sites with native plants, is one such alternative. Revegetation often requires the addition of bulky amendments such as compost which greatly increases cost. We report the use of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) to enhance the revegetation of mine tailings and minimize the need for compost amendment. Twenty promising PGPB isolates were used as seed inoculants in a series of greenhouse studies to examine revegetation of an extremely acidic, high metal content tailings sample previously shown to require 15% compost amendment for normal plant growth. Several isolates significantly enhanced growth of two native species, quailbush and buffalo grass, in tailings. In this study, PGPB/compost outcomes were plant specific; for quailbush, PGPB were most effective in combination with 10% compost addition while for buffalo grass, PGPB enhanced growth in the complete absence of compost. Results indicate that selected PGPB can improve plant establishment and reduce the need for compost amendment. Further, PGPB activities necessary for aiding plant growth in mine tailings likely include tolerance to acidic pH and metals.

  8. The Microbiology of Oil Sands Tailings: Past, Present, Future.

    PubMed

    Foght, Julia M; Gieg, Lisa M; Siddique, Tariq

    2017-03-09

    Surface mining of enormous oil sands deposits in northeastern Alberta, Canada since 1967 has contributed greatly to Canada's economy but has also received negative international attention due largely to environmental concerns and challenges. Not only have microbes profoundly affected the composition and behaviour of this petroleum resource over geological time, they currently influence the management of semi-solid tailings in oil sands tailing ponds (OSTP) and tailings reclamation. Historically, microbial impacts on OSTP were generally discounted but next-generation sequencing and biogeochemical studies have revealed unexpectedly diverse indigenous communities and expanded our fundamental understanding of anaerobic microbial functions. OSTP that experienced different processing and management histories have developed distinct microbial communities that influence the behaviour and reclamation of the tailings stored therein. In particular, the interactions of Deltaproteobacteria and Firmicutes with methanogenic archaea impact greenhouse gas emissions, sulfur cycling, pore water toxicity, sediment biogeochemistry and densification, water usage and the trajectory of long-term mine waste reclamation. This review summarizes historical data; synthesizes current understanding of microbial diversity and activities in situ and in vitro; predicts microbial effects on tailings remediation and reclamation; and highlights knowledge gaps for future research.

  9. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. [UMTRA project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    The mission of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is explicitly stated and directed in the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978, hereinafter referred to as the Act.'' Title I of the Act authorizes the Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake remedial action at designated inactive uranium processing sites (Attachment 1 and 2) and associated vicinity properties containing uranium mill tailings and other residual radioactive materials derived from the processing site. The purpose of the remedial actions is to stabilize and control such uranium mill tailings and other residual radioactive materials in a safe and environmentally sound manner to minimize radiation health hazards to the public. The principal health hazards and environmental concerns are: the inhalation of air particulates contaminated as a result of the emanation of radon from the tailings piles and the subsequent decay of radon daughters; and the contamination of surface and groundwaters with radionuclides or other chemically toxic materials. This UMTRA Project Plan identifies the mission and objectives of the project, outlines the technical and managerial approach for achieving them, and summarizes the performance, cost, and schedule baselines which have been established to guide operational activity. Estimated cost increases by 15 percent, or if the schedule slips by six months. 4 refs.

  10. Liner evaluation for uranium mill tailings. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Buelt, J.L.

    1983-09-01

    The Liner Evaluation for Uranium Mill Tailings Program was conducted to evaluate the need for and performance of prospective lining materials for the long-term management of inactive uranium mill tailings piles. On the basis of program results, two materials have been identified: natural foundation soil amended with 10% sodium bentonite; catalytic airblown asphalt membrane. The study showed that, for most situations, calcareous soils typical of Western US sites adequately buffer tailings leachates and prevent groundwater contamination without additional liner materials or amendments. Although mathematical modeling of disposal sites is recommended on a site-specific basis, there appears to be no reason to expect significant infiltration through the cover for most Western sites. The major water source through the tailings would be groundwater movement at sites with shallow groundwater tables. Even so column leaching studies showed that contaminant source terms were reduced to near maximum contaminant levels (MCL's) for drinking water within one or two pore volumes; thus, a limited source term for groundwater contamination exists. At sites where significant groundwater movement or infiltration is expected and the tailings leachates are alkaline, however, the sodium bentonite or asphalt membrane may be necessary.

  11. Oxidation of sulphide in abandoned mine tailings by ferrate.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Hoon; Yu, Mok-Ryun; Chang, Yoon-Young; Kang, Seon-Hong; Yang, Jae-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, Fe(VI) was applied to treat three mine tailings containing different amounts of sulphides and heavy metals. Oxidation of sulphides by Fe(VI) was studied at pH 9.2 with variation of solid to solution ratio, Fe(VI) concentration and injection number of Fe(VI) solution. The major dissolved products from the treatment of mine tailings with Fe(VI) solution were sulphate and arsenic. Oxidation efficiency of sulphides was evaluated by reduction efficiency of Fe(VI) as well as by measurement of dissolved sulphate concentration. Even though inorganic composition of three mine tailings was different, reduction fraction of Fe(VI) was quite similar. This result can suggest that Fe(VI) was involved in several other reactions in addition to oxidation of sulphides. Oxidation of sulphides in mine tailing was greatly dependent on the total amount of sulphides as well as kinds of sulphides complexed with metals. Over the five consecutive injections of Fe(VI) solution, dissolved sulphate concentration was greatly decreased by each injection and no more dissolved sulphate was observed at the fifth injection. While dissolved arsenic was decreased lineally up to the fifth injection. Sulphate generation was slightly increased for all mine tailings as Fe(VI) concentration was increased; however, enhancement of oxidation efficiency of sulphides was not directly proportional to the initial Fe(VI) concentration.

  12. OVERVIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT REMAINS, TAILINGS PILES, PARKING LOT, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT REMAINS, TAILINGS PILES, PARKING LOT, AND MINE MANAGER'S HOME, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST. RIGHT, TAILINGS PILES ARE AT CENTER WITH CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS TO THE LEFT OF THE PILES. PARKING LOT IS AT UPPER LEFT. THE AREA BETWEEN THE COLLAPSED TANK AT CENTER LEFT AND THE REMAINS OF THE MANAGER'S HOUSE AT LOWER RIGHT IS A TAILINGS HOLDING AREA. TAILINGS FROM THE MILL WERE HELD HERE. THE LARGE SETTLING TANKS WERE CHARGED FROM THIS HOLDING AREA BY A TRAM ON RAILS AND BY A SLUICEWAY SEEN AS THE DARK SPOT ON THE CENTER LEFT EDGE OF THE FRAME. AFTER THE TAILINGS WERE LEACHED, THEY WERE DEPOSITED ON THE LARGE WASTE PILE AT CENTER RIGHT. THE TANK AT CENTER RIGHT EDGE IS WHERE THE WATER PIPELINE ENTERED THE WORKS. A STRAIGHT LINE OF POSTS IN THE GROUND GO ACROSS THE CENTER FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, WHICH ORIGINALLY SUSPENDED THE WATER PIPELINE GOING FROM THE WATER HOLDING TANK AT RIGHT UP TO THE SECONDARY WATER TANKS ABOVE THE MILL. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  13. The Anatomy of the Long Tail of Consumer Demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broder, Andrei

    The long tail of consumer demand is consistent with two fundamentally different theories. The first, and more popular hypothesis, is that a majority of consumers have similar tastes and only few have any interest in niche content; the second, is that everyone is a bit eccentric, consuming both popular and niche products. By examining extensive data on user preferences for movies, music, web search, and web browsing, we found overwhelming support for the latter theory. Our investigation suggests an additional factor in the success of "infinite-inventory" retailers such as Netflix and Amazon: besides the significant revenue obtained from tail sales, tail availability may boost head sales by offering consumers the convenience of "one-stop shopping" for both their mainstream and niche interests.

  14. Radon diffusion in candidate soils for covering uranium mill tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Silker, W.B.; Kalkwarf, D.R.

    1983-04-01

    Diffusion coefficients were measured for radon in 34 soils that had been identified by mill personnel as candidate covers for their tailings piles in order to reduce radon emission. These coefficients referred to diffusion in the total pore space of the soils. They were measured in the laboratory by a steady-state method using soil columns compacted to greater than 80% of their Proctor maximum packing densities but with moisture contents generally less than would be expected at a tailings site. An empirical equation was used to extrapolate measured coefficients to value expected at soil-moisture contents representative of tailings sites in the western United States. Extrapolated values for silty sands and clayey sands ranged from 0.004 to 0.06 cm/sup 2//s. Values for inorganic silts and clays ranged from 0.001 to 0.02 cm/sup 2//s.

  15. Application of asphalt emulsion seals to uranium mill tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L.; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.; Clark, R.L.

    1980-11-01

    Studies of asphalt emulsion sealants have demonstrated that the sealants are effective in containing radon and other potentially hazardous material within uranium tailings. The laboratory and field studies have further demonstrated that radon exhalation from uranium tailings piles can be reduced by greater than 99% to less than background levels. Field tests at the tailings pile in Grand Junction, Colorado confirmed that an 8-cm admix seal containing 22 wt % asphalt could be effectively applied with a cold-mix paver. Other techniques were successfully tested, including a soil stabilizer and a hot, rubberized asphalt seal that was applied with a distributor truck. After the seals were applied and conpacted, overburden was applied over the seal to protect the seal from ultraviolet degradation. 14 figures.

  16. Asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium mill tailings. 1980 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.; Buelt, J.L.; Nelson, D.A.; Elmore, M.R.

    1981-05-01

    Studies of asphalt emulsion sealants conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory have demonstrated that the sealants are effective in containing radon and other potentially hazardous material within uranium tailings. The laboratory and field studies have further demonstrated that radon exhalation from uranium tailings piles can be reduced by greater than 99% to near background levels. Field tests at the tailings pile in Grand Junction, Colorado, confirmed that an 8-cm admix seal containing 22 wt% asphalt could be effectively applied with a cold-mix paver. Other techniques were successfully tested, including a soil stabilizer and a hot, rubberized asphalt seal that was applied with a distributor truck. After the seals were applied and compacted, overburden was applied over the seal to protect the seal from ultraviolet degradation.

  17. Environmental risk assessment system for phosphogypsum tailing dams.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xin; Ning, Ping; Tang, Xiaolong; Yi, Honghong; Li, Kai; Zhou, Lianbi; Xu, Xianmang

    2013-01-01

    This paper may be of particular interest to the readers as it provides a new environmental risk assessment system for phosphogypsum tailing dams. In this paper, we studied the phosphogypsum tailing dams which include characteristics of the pollution source, environmental risk characteristics and evaluation requirements to identify the applicable environmental risk assessment methods. Two analytical methods, that is, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy logic, were used to handle the complexity of the environmental and nonquantitative data. Using our assessment method, different risk factors can be ranked according to their contributions to the environmental risk, thereby allowing the calculation of their relative priorities during decision making. Thus, environmental decision-makers can use this approach to develop alternative management strategies for proposed, ongoing, and completed PG tailing dams.

  18. Environmental Risk Assessment System for Phosphogypsum Tailing Dams

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xin; Tang, Xiaolong; Yi, Honghong; Li, Kai; Zhou, Lianbi; Xu, Xianmang

    2013-01-01

    This paper may be of particular interest to the readers as it provides a new environmental risk assessment system for phosphogypsum tailing dams. In this paper, we studied the phosphogypsum tailing dams which include characteristics of the pollution source, environmental risk characteristics and evaluation requirements to identify the applicable environmental risk assessment methods. Two analytical methods, that is, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy logic, were used to handle the complexity of the environmental and nonquantitative data. Using our assessment method, different risk factors can be ranked according to their contributions to the environmental risk, thereby allowing the calculation of their relative priorities during decision making. Thus, environmental decision-makers can use this approach to develop alternative management strategies for proposed, ongoing, and completed PG tailing dams. PMID:24382947

  19. Plasma waves in the distant geomagnetic tail - ISEE 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coroniti, F. V.; Greenstadt, E. W.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Smith, E. J.; Zwickl, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    The plasma wave measurements obtained during ISEE 3's deep passes through the geomagnetic tail found that moderate to intense electric field turbulence occurred in association with the major plasma and magnetic field regions and flow phenomena. In the magnetopause boundary layer the electric field spectral amplitudes are typically sharply peaked at 316 Hz to 562 Hz. The tail lobe region which is upstream of slow shocks and is magnetically connected to the plasma sheet is characterized by wave spectras that peak in the 100- to 316-Hz range and at the electron plasma frequency. Within the plasma sheet, broadband electrostatic noise occurs in regions where the magnetic field strength exceeds 2 nT; this noise can also be found in the plasma sheet boundary layer in association with strong field-aligned plasma flows. As ISEE 3 moved between the different distant tail regions, distinct but often subtle changes occurred in the plasma wave spectra.

  20. Curved tails in polymerization-based bacterial motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutenberg, Andrew D.; Grant, Martin

    2001-08-01

    The curved actin ``comet-tail'' of the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes is a visually striking signature of actin polymerization-based motility. Similar actin tails are associated with Shigella flexneri, spotted-fever Rickettsiae, the Vaccinia virus, and vesicles and microspheres in related in vitro systems. We show that the torque required to produce the curvature in the tail can arise from randomly placed actin filaments pushing the bacterium or particle. We find that the curvature magnitude determines the number of actively pushing filaments, independent of viscosity and of the molecular details of force generation. The variation of the curvature with time can be used to infer the dynamics of actin filaments at the bacterial surface.

  1. Measurements of atmospheric turbulence effects on tail rotor acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagen, Martin J.; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Signor, David B.; Mosher, Marianne

    1994-01-01

    Results from an outdoor hover test of a full-scale Lynx tail rotor are presented. The investigation was designed to further the understanding of the acoustics of an isolated tail rotor hovering out-of-ground effect in atmospheric turbulence, without the effects of the main rotor wake or other helicopter components. Measurements include simultaneous rotor performance, noise, inflow, and far-field atmospheric turbulence. Results with grid-generated inflow turbulence are also presented. The effects of atmospheric turbulence ingestion on rotor noise are quantified. In contradiction to current theories, increasing rotor inflow and rotor thrust were found to increase turbulence ingestion noise. This is the final report of Task 13A--Helicopter Tail Rotor Noise, of the NASA/United Kingdom Defense Research Agency cooperative Aeronautics Research Program.

  2. Movements of flightless long-tailed ducks during wing molt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, P.L.; Lacroix, D.L.; Reed, J.A.; Lanctot, Richard B.

    2004-01-01

    We examined the movements of flightless Long-tailed Ducks (Clangula hyemalis) during the wing molt in the near-shore lagoons of the Beaufort Sea in Alaska. Estimates of site fidelity during the 21-day flightless period ranged from 1-100%, with considerable variation among locations and within locations among years. There was no effect of low-level experimental disturbance or an underwater seismic survey on site fidelity of molting Long-tailed Ducks. Birds molting along a relatively consistent habitat gradient were more likely to move than those molting in a fragmented habitat. While flocks of birds are consistently observed in the same locations, these data suggest considerable turnover within these aggregations. These results, in conjunction with other studies, suggest that forage is relatively uniformly distributed within lagoons. We conclude that habitat selection by molting Long-tailed Ducks is likely influenced by protection from wind and associated waves.

  3. Hot tail runaway electron generation in tokamak disruptions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H. M.; Verwichte, E.

    2008-07-15

    Hot tail runaway electron generation is caused by incomplete thermalization of the electron velocity distribution during rapid plasma cooling. It is an important runaway electron mechanism in tokamak disruptions if the thermal quench phase is sufficiently fast. Analytical estimates of the density of produced runaway electrons are derived for cases of exponential-like temperature decay with a cooling rate lower than the collision frequency. Numerical simulations, aided by the analytical results, are used to compare the strength of the hot tail runaway generation with the Dreicer mechanism for different disruption parameters (cooling rate, post-thermal quench temperature, and electron density) assuming that no losses of runaway electrons occur. It is seen that the hot tail runaway production is going to be the dominant of these two primary runaway mechanisms in ITER [R. Aymar et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 44, 519 (2002)].

  4. Geological impact of some tailings dams in Sardinia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Gregorio, Felice; Massoli-Novelli, Raniero

    1992-05-01

    This article deals with the results of a survey carried out in Sardinia on both active and abandoned tailings dams, and we also discuss the geological impact of tailings dams of two mines: the Masua mine, a large syngenetic Pb-Zn deposit located in Cambrian limestones, and the Montevecchio mine, a Pb-Zn vein deposit near a Hercynian granite intrusion. The characteristics and metal content of material in the dams were analyzed. A high contamination of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu) was found both in the soils and water of Rio Montevecchio, a stream draining the tailings dams and other mining operations in the area. The study indicates that a control plan to minimize heavy metal pollution must be drawn up for all mines of the area, whether active or abandoned.

  5. Empirical study of the tails of mutual fund size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzkopf, Yonathan; Farmer, J. Doyne

    2010-06-01

    The mutual fund industry manages about a quarter of the assets in the U.S. stock market and thus plays an important role in the U.S. economy. The question of how much control is concentrated in the hands of the largest players is best quantitatively discussed in terms of the tail behavior of the mutual fund size distribution. We study the distribution empirically and show that the tail is much better described by a log-normal than a power law, indicating less concentration than, for example, personal income. The results are highly statistically significant and are consistent across fifteen years. This contradicts a recent theory concerning the origin of the power law tails of the trading volume distribution. Based on the analysis in a companion paper, the log-normality is to be expected, and indicates that the distribution of mutual funds remains perpetually out of equilibrium.

  6. The fish tail motion forms an attached leading edge vortex.

    PubMed

    Borazjani, Iman; Daghooghi, Mohsen

    2013-04-07

    The tail (caudal fin) is one of the most prominent characteristics of fishes, and the analysis of the flow pattern it creates is fundamental to understanding how its motion generates locomotor forces. A mechanism that is known to greatly enhance locomotor forces in insect and bird flight is the leading edge vortex (LEV) reattachment, i.e. a vortex (separation bubble) that stays attached at the leading edge of a wing. However, this mechanism has not been reported in fish-like swimming probably owing to the overemphasis on the trailing wake, and the fact that the flow does not separate along the body of undulating swimmers. We provide, to our knowledge, the first evidence of the vortex reattachment at the leading edge of the fish tail using three-dimensional high-resolution numerical simulations of self-propelled virtual swimmers with different tail shapes. We show that at Strouhal numbers (a measure of lateral velocity to the axial velocity) at which most fish swim in nature (approx. 0.25) an attached LEV is formed, whereas at a higher Strouhal number of approximately 0.6 the LEV does not reattach. We show that the evolution of the LEV drastically alters the pressure distribution on the tail and the force it generates. We also show that the tail's delta shape is not necessary for the LEV reattachment and fish-like kinematics is capable of stabilising the LEV. Our results suggest the need for a paradigm shift in fish-like swimming research to turn the focus from the trailing edge to the leading edge of the tail.

  7. Spectral induced polarization (SIP) response of mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Placencia-Gómez, Edmundo; Parviainen, Annika; Slater, Lee; Leveinen, Jussi

    2015-02-01

    Mine tailings impoundments are a source of leachates known as acid mine drainage (AMD) which can pose a contamination risk for surrounding surface and groundwater. Methodologies which can help management of this environmental issue are needed. We carried out a laboratory study of the spectral induced polarization (SIP) response of tailings from the Haveri Au-Cu mine, SW Finland. The primary objectives were, (1) to determine possible correlations between SIP parameters and textural properties associated with oxidative-weathering mechanisms, mineralogical composition and metallic content, and (2) to evaluate the effects of the pore water chemistry on SIP parameters associated with redox-inactive and redox-active electrolytes varying in molar concentration, conductivity and pH. The Haveri tailings exhibit well defined relaxation spectra between 100 and 10,000Hz. The relaxation magnitudes are governed by the in-situ oxidative-weathering conditions on sulphide mineral surfaces contained in the tailings, and decrease with the oxidation degree. The oxidation-driven textural variation in the tailings results in changes to the frequency peak of the phase angle, the imaginary conductivity and chargeability, when plotted versus the pore water conductivity. In contrast, the real and the formation electrical conductivity components show a single linear dependence on the pore water conductivity. The increase of the pore water conductivity (dominated by the increase of ions concentration in solution) along with a transition to acidic conditions shifts the polarization peak towards higher frequencies. These findings show the unique sensitivity of the SIP method to potentially discriminate AMD discharges from reactive oxidation zones in tailings, suggesting a significant advantage for monitoring threatened aquifers.

  8. Grasping convergent evolution in syngnathids: a unique tale of tails

    PubMed Central

    Neutens, C; Adriaens, D; Christiaens, J; De Kegel, B; Dierick, M; Boistel, R; Van Hoorebeke, L

    2014-01-01

    Seahorses and pipehorses both possess a prehensile tail, a unique characteristic among teleost fishes, allowing them to grasp and hold onto substrates such as sea grasses. Although studies have focused on tail grasping, the pattern of evolutionary transformations that made this possible is poorly understood. Recent phylogenetic studies show that the prehensile tail evolved independently in different syngnathid lineages, including seahorses, Haliichthys taeniophorus and several types of so-called pipehorses. This study explores the pattern that characterizes this convergent evolution towards a prehensile tail, by comparing the caudal musculoskeletal organization, as well as passive bending capacities in pipefish (representing the ancestral state), pipehorse, seahorse and H. taeniophorus. To study the complex musculoskeletal morphology, histological sectioning, μCT-scanning and phase contrast synchrotron scanning were combined with virtual 3D-reconstructions. Results suggest that the independent evolution towards tail grasping in syngnathids reflects at least two quite different strategies in which the ancestral condition of a heavy plated and rigid system became modified into a highly flexible one. Intermediate skeletal morphologies (between the ancestral condition and seahorses) could be found in the pygmy pipehorses and H. taeniophorus, which are phylogenetically closely affiliated with seahorses. This study suggests that the characteristic parallel myoseptal organization as already described in seahorse (compared with a conical organization in pipefish and pipehorse) may not be a necessity for grasping, but represents an apomorphy for seahorses, as this pattern is not found in other syngnathid species possessing a prehensile tail. One could suggest that the functionality of grasping evolved before the specialized, parallel myoseptal organization seen in seahorses. However, as the grasping system in pipehorses is a totally different one, this cannot be

  9. Immune responses to HTLV-I(ACH) during acute infection of pig-tailed macaques.

    PubMed

    McGinn, Therese M; Wei, Qing; Stallworth, Jackie; Fultz, Patricia N

    2004-04-01

    Human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I) is causally linked to adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and a chronic progressive neurological disease, HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). A nonhuman primate model that reproduces disease symptoms seen in HTLV-I-infected humans might facilitate identification of initial immune responses to the virus and an understanding of pathogenic mechanisms in HTLV-I-related disease. Previously, we showed that infection of pig-tailed macaques with HTLV-I(ACH) is associated with multiple signs of disease characteristic of both HAM/TSP and ATL. We report here that within the first few weeks after HTLV-I(ACH) infection of pig-tailed macaques, serum concentrations of interferon (IFN)-alpha increased and interleukin-12 decreased transiently, levels of nitric oxide were elevated, and activation of CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes and CD16(+) natural killer cells in peripheral blood were observed. HTLV-I(ACH) infection elicited virus-specific antibodies in all four animals within 4 to 6 weeks; however, Tax-specific lymphoproliferative responses were not detected until 25-29 weeks after infection in all four macaques. IFN-gamma production by peripheral blood cells stimulated with a Tax or Gag peptide was detected to varying degrees in all four animals by ELISPOT assay. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from one animal that developed only a marginal antigen-specific cellular response were unresponsive to mitogen stimulation during the last few weeks preceding its death from a rapidly progressive disease syndrome associated with HTLV-I(ACH) infection of pig-tailed macaques. The results show that during the first few months after HTLV-I(ACH) infection, activation of both innate and adaptive immunity, limited virus-specific cellular responses, sustained immune system activation, and, in some cases, immunodeficiency were evident. Thus, this animal model might be valuable for understanding early stages of infection

  10. Enhanced window breakdown dynamics in a nanosecond microwave tail pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Chao; Zhu, Meng; Li, Shuang; Xie, Jialing; Yan, Kai; Luo, Tongding; Zhu, Xiaoxin; Verboncoeur, John

    2014-06-23

    The mechanisms of nanosecond microwave-driven discharges near a dielectric/vacuum interface were studied by measuring the time- and space-dependent optical emissions and pulse waveforms. The experimental observations indicate multipactor and plasma developing in a thin layer of several millimeters above interface. The emission brightness increases significantly after main pulse, but emission region widens little. The mechanisms are studied by analysis and simulation, revealing intense ionization concentrated in a desorbed high-pressure layer, leading to a bright light layer above surface; the lower-voltage tail after main pulse contributes to heat electron energy tails closer to excitation cross section peaks, resulting in brighter emission.

  11. Adoption in rock and white-tailed ptarmigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, M.M.L.; Fedy, B.C.; Wilson, S.; Martin, K.M.

    2009-01-01

    Reports of adoption in birds are widespread, but few studies report rates of adoption or possible mechanisms for this phenomenon, particularly in the Order Galliformes. We report incidents of adoption in Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus muta) and White-tailed Ptarmigan (L. leucura) from two sites in western Canada. Adoption rates for White-tailed Ptarmigan on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, and the Ruby Ranges, Yukon Territory were 13% (n = 16 broods) and 4% (n = 27), respectively, while rates for Rock Ptarmigan were 14% (n = 29) in the Ruby Ranges. Low brood densities may result in lower rates of adoption for ptarmigan. ?? 2009 The Wilson Ornithological Society.

  12. Wake patterns of the wings and tail of hovering hummingbirds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altshuler, Douglas L.; Princevac, Marko; Pan, Hansheng; Lozano, Jesse

    The flow fields of slowly flying bats and fasterflying birds differ in that bats produce two vortex loops during each stroke, one per wing, and birds produce a single vortex loop per stroke. In addition, the circulation at stroke transition approaches zero in bats but remains strong in birds. It is unknown if these difference derive from fundamental differences in wing morphology or are a consequence of flight speed. Here, we present an analysis of the horizontal flow field underneath hovering Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) to describe the wake of a bird flying at zero forward velocity. We also consider how the hummingbird tail interacts with the wake generated by the wings. High-speed image recording and analysis from three orthogonal perspectives revealed that the wing tips reach peak velocities in the middle of each stroke and approach zero velocity at stroke transition. Hummingbirds use complex tail kinematic patterns ranging from in phase to antiphase cycling with respect to the wings, covering several phase shifted patterns. We employed particle image velocimetry to attain detailed horizontal flow measurements at three levels with respect to the tail: in the tail, at the tail tip, and just below the tail. The velocity patterns underneath the wings indicate that flow oscillates along the ventral-dorsal axis in response to the down- and up-strokes and that the sideways flows with respect to the bird are consistently from the lateral to medial. The region around the tail is dominated by axial flows in dorsal to ventral direction. We propose that these flows are generated by interaction between the wakes of the two wings at the end of the upstroke, and that the tail actively defects flows to generate moments that contribute to pitch stability. The flow fields images also revealed distinct vortex loops underneath each wing, which were generated during each stroke. From these data, we propose a model for the primary flow structures of hummingbirds that more

  13. Wake patterns of the wings and tail of hovering hummingbirds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altshuler, Douglas L.; Princevac, Marko; Pan, Hansheng; Lozano, Jesse

    2009-05-01

    The flow fields of slowly flying bats and faster-flying birds differ in that bats produce two vortex loops during each stroke, one per wing, and birds produce a single vortex loop per stroke. In addition, the circulation at stroke transition approaches zero in bats but remains strong in birds. It is unknown if these difference derive from fundamental differences in wing morphology or are a consequence of flight speed. Here, we present an analysis of the horizontal flow field underneath hovering Anna’s hummingbirds ( Calypte anna) to describe the wake of a bird flying at zero forward velocity. We also consider how the hummingbird tail interacts with the wake generated by the wings. High-speed image recording and analysis from three orthogonal perspectives revealed that the wing tips reach peak velocities in the middle of each stroke and approach zero velocity at stroke transition. Hummingbirds use complex tail kinematic patterns ranging from in phase to antiphase cycling with respect to the wings, covering several phase shifted patterns. We employed particle image velocimetry to attain detailed horizontal flow measurements at three levels with respect to the tail: in the tail, at the tail tip, and just below the tail. The velocity patterns underneath the wings indicate that flow oscillates along the ventral-dorsal axis in response to the down- and up-strokes and that the sideways flows with respect to the bird are consistently from the lateral to medial. The region around the tail is dominated by axial flows in dorsal to ventral direction. We propose that these flows are generated by interaction between the wakes of the two wings at the end of the upstroke, and that the tail actively defects flows to generate moments that contribute to pitch stability. The flow fields images also revealed distinct vortex loops underneath each wing, which were generated during each stroke. From these data, we propose a model for the primary flow structures of hummingbirds that more

  14. Weighted Kolmogorov-Smirnov test: accounting for the tails.

    PubMed

    Chicheportiche, Rémy; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe

    2012-10-01

    Accurate goodness-of-fit tests for the extreme tails of empirical distributions is a very important issue, relevant in many contexts, including geophysics, insurance, and finance. We have derived exact asymptotic results for a generalization of the large-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, well suited to testing these extreme tails. In passing, we have rederived and made more precise the approximate limit solutions found originally in unrelated fields, first in [L. Turban, J. Phys. A 25, 127 (1992)] and later in [P. L. Krapivsky and S. Redner, Am. J. Phys. 64, 546 (1996)].

  15. Tailings dam-break flow - Analysis of sediment transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleixo, Rui; Altinakar, Mustafa

    2015-04-01

    A common solution to store mining debris is to build tailings dams near the mining site. These dams are usually built with local materials such as mining debris and are more vulnerable than concrete dams (Rico et al. 2008). of The tailings and the pond water generally contain heavy metals and various toxic chemicals used in ore extraction. Thus, the release of tailings due to a dam-break can have severe ecological consequences in the environment. A tailings dam-break has many similarities with a common dam-break flow. It is highly transient and can be severely descructive. However, a significant difference is that the released sediment-water mixture will behave as a non-Newtonian flow. Existing numerical models used to simulate dam-break flows do not represent correctly the non-Newtonian behavior of tailings under a dam-break flow and may lead to unrealistic and incorrect results. The need for experiments to extract both qualitative and quantitative information regarding these flows is therefore real and actual. The present paper explores an existing experimental data base presented in Aleixo et al. (2014a,b) to further characterize the sediment transport under conditions of a severe transient flow and to extract quantitative information regarding sediment flow rate, sediment velocity, sediment-sediment interactions a among others. Different features of the flow are also described and analyzed in detail. The analysis is made by means of imaging techniques such as Particle Image Velocimetry and Particle Tracking Velocimetry that allow extracting not only the velocity field but the Lagrangian description of the sediments as well. An analysis of the results is presented and the limitations of the presented experimental approach are discussed. References Rico, M., Benito, G., Salgueiro, AR, Diez-Herrero, A. and Pereira, H.G. (2008) Reported tailings dam failures: A review of the European incidents in the worldwide context , Journal of Hazardous Materials, 152, 846

  16. The taxonomic status of the white-tailed kite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, W.S.; Banks, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    The White-tailed Kite (Elanus leucurus) of the Americas has been merged with the Black-shouldered (or Black-winged) Kite (E. caeruleus) of the Old World and the Australian Black-shouldered Kite (E. axillaris) by North American authorities (but not elsewhere), primarily because of similarity in plumage. However, American kites differ from Old World kites in greater size and weight, in proportions (relatively longer tail and smaller bill and feet), plumage pattern (particularly of juveniles), and in behavior. Here we argue that these characters are sufficiently distinctive to warrant recognition of E. leucurus at the species level.

  17. Genetic linkage analysis using pooled DNA and infrared detection of tailed STRP primer patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oetting, William S.; Wildenberg, Scott C.; King, Richard A.

    1996-04-01

    The mapping of a disease locus to a specific chromosomal region is an important step in the eventual isolation and analysis of a disease causing gene. Conventional mapping methods analyze large multiplex families and/or smaller nuclear families to find linkage between the disease and a chromosome marker that maps to a known chromosomal region. This analysis is time consuming and tedious, typically requiring the determination of 30,000 genotypes or more. For appropriate populations, we have instead utilized pooled DNA samples for gene mapping which greatly reduces the amount of time necessary for an initial chromosomal screen. This technique assumes a common founder for the disease locus of interest and searches for a region of a chromosome shared between affected individuals. Our analysis involves the PCR amplification of short tandem repeat polymorphisms (STRP) to detect these shared regions. In order to reduce the cost of genotyping, we have designed unlabeled tailed PCR primers which, when combined with a labeled universal primer, provides for an alternative to synthesizing custom labeled primers. The STRP pattern is visualized with an infrared fluorescence based automated DNA sequencer and the patterns quantitated by densitometric analysis of the allele pattern. Differences in the distribution of alleles between pools of affected and unaffected individuals, including a reduction in the number of alleles in the affected pool, indicate the sharing of a region of a chromosome. We have found this method effective for markers 10 - 15 cM away from the disease locus for a recessive genetic disease.

  18. Remote control canard missile with a free-rolling tail brake torque system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, A. B., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental wind-tunnel investigation has been conducted at supersonic Mach numbers to determine the static aerodynamic characteristics of a cruciform canard-controlled missile with fixed and free-rolling tail-fin afterbodies. Mechanical coupling effects of the free-rolling tail afterbody were investigated using an electronic/electromagnetic brake system that provides arbitrary tail-fin brake torques with continuous measurements of tail-to-mainframe torque and tail-roll rate. Results are summarized to show the effects of fixed and free-rolling tail-fin afterbodies that include simulated measured bearing friction torques on the longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics.

  19. Public health assessment for Richardson Flat Tailings, Park City, Summit County, Utah, Region 8. Cerclis No. UTD980952840. Addendum. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-03

    The document is an addendum to the preliminary public health assessment prepared for the Richardson Flat Tailings site by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) in July 1990 (PB90-260092). ATSDR's Health Activities Recommendation Panel (HARP) has evaluated the data and information developed in the Richardson Flat Tailings Public Health Assessment. The panel determined that, because of the apparent lack of past and present public health hazards and community health concerns, no follow-up health activities are indicated at this time.

  20. Female white-tailed deer survival across ecoregions in Minnesota and South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grovenburg, T.W.; Swanson, C.C.; Jacques, C.N.; Deperno, C.S.; Klaver, R.W.; Jenks, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Survival and cause-specific mortality of female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been well documented in forested and agricultural landscapes, but limited information has been collected in grassland habitats typical of the Northern Great Plains. Our objectives were to document and compare survival and cause-specific mortality of adult female white-tailed deer in four distinct ecoregions. We captured and radiocollared 190 (159 adult, 31 yearling) female white-tailed deer and monitored (including deer from a previous study) a total of 246 (215 adult, 31 yearling) deer from Jan. 2000 to Dec. 2007. We documented 113 mortalities; hunting (including wounding loss) accounted for 69.9% of all mortalities and vehicle collisions accounted for an additional 15.0%. Natural causes (e.g., disease, predation) of mortality were minor compared to human-related causes (e.g., hunting, vehicle collisions). We used known fate modeling in program MARK to estimate survival rates and compare ecoregions and seasons. Model {Sseason (winter = summer)} had the lowest AICc value suggesting that survival differed only between seasons where winter and summer survival was equal and differed with fall season. Annual and seasonal (summer, fall, winter) survival rates using the top model {Sseason (summer = winter)} were 0.76 (95% ci  =  0.70–0.80), 0.97 (95% ci  =  0.96–0.98), 0.80 (95% ci  =  0.76–0.83) and 0.97 (95% ci  =  0.96–0.98), respectively. High human-related mortality was likely associated with limited permanent cover, extensive road networks and high hunter density. Deer management in four distinct ecoregions relies on hunter harvest to maintain deer populations within state management goals.

  1. Chronic Wasting Disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richards, Bryan

    2007-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an always-fatal, neurological illness occurring in North American cervids (members of the deer family), including white-tailed deer, mule deer, elk and moose. Since its discovery in 1967, CWD has spread geographically and increased in prevalence locally. CWD is contagious; it can be transmitted freely within and among free-ranging populations. It is likely that diseased animals can transmit CWD to healthy animals long before they become clinically ill. Managing CWD in free-ranging populations is extremely difficult, therefore preventative measures designed to reduce the chance for disease spread are critically important.

  2. Does Gray-Tailed Vole Activity Affect Soil Quality?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Voles are well-known crop pests, especially when peak populations are present, but their role in soil fertility and impacts on agricultural sustainability are not well understood. Five months after the abrupt disappearance of a peak in a gray-tailed vole (Microtus canicaudus) population, we examined...

  3. Active vertical tail buffeting suppression based on macro fiber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Chengzhe; Li, Bin; Liang, Li; Wang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Aerodynamic buffet is unsteady airflow exerting forces onto a surface, which can lead to premature fatigue damage of aircraft vertical tail structures, especially for aircrafts with twin vertical tails at high angles of attack. In this work, Macro Fiber Composite (MFC), which can provide strain actuation, was used as the actuator for the buffet-induced vibration control, and the positioning of the MFC patches was led by the strain energy distribution on the vertical tail. Positive Position Feedback (PPF) control algorithm has been widely used for its robustness and simplicity in practice, and consequently it was developed to suppress the buffet responses of first bending and torsional mode of vertical tail. However, its performance is usually attenuated by the phase contributions from non-collocated sensor/actuator configuration and plants. The phase lag between the input and output signals of the control system was identified experimentally, and the phase compensation was considered in the PPF control algorithm. The simulation results of the amplitude frequency of the closed-loop system showed that the buffet response was alleviated notably around the concerned bandwidth. Then the wind tunnel experiment was conducted to verify the effectiveness of MFC actuators and compensated PPF, and the Root Mean Square (RMS) of the acceleration response was reduced 43.4%, 28.4% and 39.5%, respectively, under three different buffeting conditions.

  4. Power-law cross-correlations estimation under heavy tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristoufek, Ladislav

    2016-11-01

    We examine the performance of six estimators of the power-law cross-correlations-the detrended cross-correlation analysis, the detrending moving-average cross-correlation analysis, the height cross-correlation analysis, the averaged periodogram estimator, the cross-periodogram estimator and the local cross-Whittle estimator-under heavy-tailed distributions. The selection of estimators allows to separate these into the time and frequency domain estimators. By varying the characteristic exponent of the α-stable distributions which controls the tails behavior, we report several interesting findings. First, the frequency domain estimators are practically unaffected by heavy tails bias-wise. Second, the time domain estimators are upward biased for heavy tails but they have lower estimator variance than the other group for short series. Third, specific estimators are more appropriate depending on distributional properties and length of the analyzed series. In addition, we provide a discussion of implications of these results for empirical applications as well as theoretical explanations.

  5. Trajectories of Artificial Microswimmers with Helical Tails Inside Circular Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesilyurt, Serhat; Caldag, Hakan

    2016-11-01

    Trajectories are obtained for millimeter-scale artificial microswimmers inside circular channels filled with glycerol. Rotating magnetic field is applied to propel 3D-printed swimmers with helical tails and permanent magnetic heads. Experiments are recorded with a high-speed camera and processed with contrast-based image processing tools to extract 3D trajectories and orientations of the swimmers. Swimmers pushed by the tail exhibit a helical trajectory at all times while straight trajectories are observed when the length to diameter ratio is very high for pulled ones. Long tails are pointed towards the channel's centerline and short ones are pointed towards the wall. Weak Poiseuille flow is found to alter the swimming speed and suppress the step-out behavior. Flow from tail side increases the instability of swimmers. Experimental observations are validated with snapshot and dynamic models that use CFD to obtain average and time-dependent velocities and trajectories of the swimmer. Lastly, modulation of the rotating magnetic field tilts the swimmer in desired directions or halts the swimmer propulsion without stopping the rotation of the swimmer.

  6. 1. Southwest front, dock no. 491. Aircraft tail extends through ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Southwest front, dock no. 491. Aircraft tail extends through gasket in center hangar doors. View to east. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  7. 3. Detail of airplane tail protruding out of hangar doors, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Detail of airplane tail protruding out of hangar doors, dock no. 491. Detail of canvas gasket allowing doors to close tightly around fuselage. View to north. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  8. 1. OVERALL VIEW OF SPILLWAY SHOWING BAFFLE WALL AND TAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERALL VIEW OF SPILLWAY SHOWING BAFFLE WALL AND TAIL WATERS, WITH POWERHOUSE (MI-98-C) AND SUBSTATION (MI-98-D) AT LEFT. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Cooke Hydroelectric Plant, Spillway, Cook Dam Road at Au Sable River, Oscoda, Iosco County, MI

  9. Kinetic aspects of tail dynamics - Theory and simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Speiser, T. W.

    1987-01-01

    Kinetic theories relevant to the geomagnetic tail are reviewed. The topics discussed include kinetic instabilities, simulations, and current-sheet particle acceleration. Tearing mode and reconnection theories are emphasized. Kinetic treatment is appropriate for these topics since the tail plasma is collisionless. Fluid calculations are appropriate when stochastic processes dominate and for studies where long wavelengths are important. However, fluid treatments of tearing modes and reconnection require a finite resistivity in the diffusion region. Thus, although 'anomalous resistivity' can be guessed or in some cases calculated, ideally the kinetic treatment is often to be preferred. Particle motion and acceleration in the current sheet can give rise to beam-like distributions in the plasma-sheet boundary layer. Studies of current-sheet particle motion have also been used as the basis for 'kinetic' tail equilibrium models. Furthermore, quite recently current-sheet particle motion is used directly in Coroniti's explosive tail reconnection model. The 'inertial conductivity' from the equilibrium models provides the 'dissipation' necessary for reconnection.

  10. Computational modelling of final covers for uranium mill tailings impoundments.

    PubMed

    Leoni, Guilherme Luís Menegassi; Almeida, Márcio de Souza Soares; Fernandes, Horst Monken

    2004-07-05

    To properly design a final cover for uranium mill tailings impoundments the designer must attempt to find an effective geotechnical solution which addresses the radiological and non-radiological potential impact and prevents geochemical processes from occurring within the tailings. This paper presents a computer-based method for evaluating the performance of engineered final covers for the remediation of uranium mill tailings impoundments. Three hypothetical final covers were taken from scientific literature to investigate the proposed method: (i) a compacted clay liner (CCL); (ii) a composite liner (CL) and (iii) a capillary barrier (CB). The processes investigated: (i) the saturated hydraulic flux; (ii) the unsaturated hydraulic flux (exclusively for the capillary barrier) and (iii) the radon exhalation to the atmosphere. The computer programs utilised for the analyses are: (i) Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP); (ii) SEEP/W and (iii) RADON. The site considered for the development of the research presented herein was the uranium mill tailings impoundment located at the Brazilian city of Poços de Caldas, in the Minas Gerais State.

  11. Electrodialytic remediation of copper mine tailings using bipolar electrodes.

    PubMed

    Rojo, Adrián; Cubillos, Luis

    2009-09-15

    In this work an electrodialytic remediation (EDR) cell for copper mine tailings with bipolar stainless steel plates was analyzed. The bipolar plates were inserted inside the tailings, dividing it into independent electrochemical cells or sections, in order to increase the copper removal efficiency from mine tailings. The bipolar plates design was tested on acidic copper mine tailings with a fixed: applied electric field, liquid content, initial pH, and remediation time. The laboratory results showed that inserting bipolar plates in EDR cells improves the remediation action, even though the applied electric field is reduced by the electrochemical reactions on the plates. Basically three aspects favor the process: reduction of the ionic migration pathways, increase of the electrode surface, and in-situ generation of protons (H(+)) and hydroxyls (OH(-)). Furthermore, the laboratory results with citric acid addition significantly improve the remediation actions, reaching copper removal of up to nine times better, compared to conventional EDR experiments without any plates or citric acid addition.

  12. Muscle Responses to Stimulation of the Tadpole Tail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funkhouser, Anne

    1976-01-01

    Describes use of tail muscles and spinal cord in the tadpole as an alternative source for muscle-and-nerve experiments. Includes explanation of simple dissection and preparation of tadpole; instructions for experiments such as threshold, strength of stimulus, frequency of stimulus, single twitch, tetanus, fatigue, effects of temperature on…

  13. The thymus and tail regenerative capacity in Xenopus laevis tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Antonella; Bertolotti, Evelina

    2012-07-01

    A morphofunctional analysis of the thymus from differently aged Xenopus laevis tadpoles during regeneration of the tail is reported. In stage 50 larvae, competent to regenerate, the appendage cut provoked thymic structural modifications that affected the medullary microenvironment cells and changes in TNF-α immunoreactivity. Mucocyte-like cells, multicellular epithelial cysts, myoid cells and cells immunoreactive to TNF-α increased in number. Increased numbers of lymphocytes were also found in regenerating areas and, at the end of regeneration, thymic structural and immunocytochemical patterns were restored to control levels. The observed cellular responses and the induction of molecules critical for thymus constitutive processes suggest a stimulation of thymic function after tail amputation. In older larvae, whose capacity to form a new complete and correctly patterned tail was reduced, thymic morphological changes were more severe and may persist throughout the regeneration process with a significant reduction in organ size. In these larvae the histological patterns and the marked thymic decrease may be related to the events occurring during regeneration, i.e. the higher inflammatory response and the reduced tail regenerative potential.

  14. 1. VIEW OF EMPIRE MINE AREA WITH TAILINGS, ORE CHUTE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF EMPIRE MINE AREA WITH TAILINGS, ORE CHUTE, AND COLLAPSED BUILDINGS VISIBLE, AND BARE SWITCHBACK HILLSIDE FROM WHICH #4, #5 AND #6 WERE MADE. CAMERA IS POINTED NORTHWEST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Empire State Mine, West side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  15. 5. VIEW OF UPPER NOTTINGHAM TAILING PILES LOOKING TOWARDS ROCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF UPPER NOTTINGHAM TAILING PILES LOOKING TOWARDS ROCK WALL VISIBLE ON SLOPE JUST RIGHT OF CENTER. CAMERA POINTED SOUTHEAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Upper Nottingham Mine, West face of Florida Mountain, head of Jacobs Gulch, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  16. 25. VIEW OF MILL FROM UPPER TAILINGS POND. SHOWS ROASTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. VIEW OF MILL FROM UPPER TAILINGS POND. SHOWS ROASTER ON LEFT EDGE OF VIEW. THE SECONDARY THICKENER No. 7 IS OFF VIEW TO THE RIGHT. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  17. Power tails of index distributions in chinese stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, Y.; Kleinert, H.

    2007-04-01

    The power α of the Lévy tails of stock market fluctuations discovered in recent years are generally believed to be universal. We show that for the Chinese stock market this is not true, the powers depending strongly on anomalous daily index changes short before market closure, and weakly on the opening data.

  18. AFC-Enabled Vertical Tail System Integration Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mooney, Helen P.; Brandt, John B.; Lacy, Douglas S.; Whalen, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    This document serves as the final report for the SMAAART AFC-Enabled Vertical Tail System Integration Study. Included are the ground rule assumptions which have gone into the study, layouts of the baseline and AFC-enabled configurations, critical sizing information, system requirements and architectures, and assumed system properties that result in an NPV assessment of the two candidate AFC technologies.

  19. CD59 mediates cartilage patterning during spontaneous tail regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xue; Wang, Yingjie; Man, Lili; Zhang, Qing; Sun, Cheng; Hu, Wen; Liu, Yan; Liu, Mei; Gu, Xiaosong; Wang, Yongjun

    2015-01-01

    The regeneration-competent adult animals have ability to regenerate their lost complex appendages with a near-perfect replica, owing to the positional identity acquired by the progenitor cells in the blastema, i.e. the blastemal cells. CD59, a CD59/Ly6 family member, has been identified as a regulator of positional identity in the tail blastemal cells of Gekko japonicus. To determine whether this function of CD59 is unique to the regenerative amniote(s) and how CD59 mediates PD axis patterning during tail regeneration, we examined its protective role on the complement-mediated cell lysis and intervened CD59 expression in the tail blastemal cells using an in vivo model of adenovirus transfection. Our data revealed that gecko CD59 was able to inhibit complement-mediated cell lysis. Meanwhile, CD59 functioned on positional identity through expression in cartilage precursor cells. Intervening positional identity by overexpression or siRNA knockdown of CD59 resulted in abnormal cartilaginous cone patterning due to the decreased differentiation of blastemal cells to cartilage precursor cells. The cartilage formation-related genes were found to be under the regulation of CD59. These results indicate that CD59, an evolutionarily transitional molecule linking immune and regenerative regulation, affects tail regeneration by mediating cartilage patterning. PMID:26238652

  20. Effect of surface treatment of tailings on effluent quality

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Successful reclamation treatment, in preparation for long range abandonment of mining wastes, involves both surface treatment and water quality control containment of waste solids and liquid contaminants. This paper describes use of lysimeters containing 125 tonnes of tailings to determine the impact of gravel, sawdust, and vegetation as surface treatments on the quality and quantity of effluent produced from sulphide-containing uranium mill tailings. Over a five-year period these treatments were observed and compared with bare tailings where no surface addition was made. The treatments did not alter the effluent quality to a level acceptable to regulatory requirements. Surface treatments did not appear to affect the leaching of Ra-226, NH/sub 4/ and NO/sub 3/. The concentration of Fe, SO/sub 4/, Cu, Pb, and Al increased with the rise of acidity as the pH changed from pH 9.5 to pH 2 in four and one-half years. However the rate and extent of changes of some of these parameters vary with the treatment. The experimental results for the observed trends are presented with limited explanation. Original design problems and unexpected delays in tailing reactions have made firm conclusions impossible at this stage. These data, however, provide a base for further investigation and development of explanations and firm conclusions, as to the role of surface treatment in long-term waste abandonment.

  1. Design and Development of the Space Shuttle Tail Service Masts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dandage, S. R.; Herman, N. A.; Godfrey, S. E.; Uda, R. T.

    1977-01-01

    The successful launch of a space shuttle vehicle depends on the proper operation of two tail service masts (TSMs). Reliable TSM operation is assured through a comprehensive design, development, and testing program. The results of the concept verification test (CVT) and the resulting impact on prototype TSM design are presented. The design criteria are outlined, and the proposed prototype TSM tests are described.

  2. The long X-ray tail in Zwicky 8338

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schellenberger, G.; Reiprich, T. H.

    2015-11-01

    The interaction processes in galaxy clusters between the hot ionized gas (ICM) and the member galaxies are of crucial importance to understand the dynamics in galaxy clusters, the chemical enrichment processes, and the validity of their hydrostatic mass estimates. Recently, several X-ray tails associated with gas that was partly stripped of galaxies have been discovered. We report on the X-ray tail in the 3 keV galaxy cluster Zwicky 8338, which might be the longest galaxy-scale stripping process ever observed. We derive the properties of the galaxy cluster environment and give hints on the substructure present in this X-ray tail, which is very likely associated with the galaxy CGCG254-021. The X-ray tail is extraordinarily luminous (2 × 1042 erg s-1), the thermal emission has a temperature of 0.8 keV, and the X-ray luminous gas might be stripped off completely from the galaxy. From assumptions about the 3D geometry, we estimate the gas mass fraction (<0.1%) and conclude that the gas has been compressed and/or heated.

  3. MIDDLE GORGE POWER PLANT, OWENS RIVER STREAM FLOWING OVER TAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MIDDLE GORGE POWER PLANT, OWENS RIVER STREAM FLOWING OVER TAIL RACE OF POWER PLANT AND PENSTOCK HEADGATE TO LOWER GORGE CONTROL PLANT. A MINIMAL FLOW OF RIVER WATER IS REQUIRED TO MAINTAIN FISH LIFE - Los Angeles Aqueduct, Middle Gorge Power Plant, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. The utilization of forward osmosis for coal tailings dewatering

    EPA Science Inventory

    The feasibility of dewatering coal tailings slurry by forward osmosis (FO) membrane process was investigated in this research. A prototype cell was designed and used for the dewatering tests. A cellulosic FO membrane (Hydration Technology Innovations, LLC, Albany, OR) was used fo...

  5. Degeneracy, degree, and heavy tails in quantum annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Andrew D.; Hoskinson, Emile; Lanting, Trevor; Andriyash, Evgeny; Amin, Mohammad H.

    2016-05-01

    Both simulated quantum annealing and physical quantum annealing have shown the emergence of "heavy tails" in their performance as optimizers: The total time needed to solve a set of random input instances is dominated by a small number of very hard instances. Classical simulated annealing, in contrast, does not show such heavy tails. Here we explore the origin of these heavy tails, which appear for inputs with high local degeneracy—large isoenergetic clusters of states in Hamming space. This category includes the low-precision Chimera-structured problems studied in recent benchmarking work comparing the D-Wave Two quantum annealing processor with simulated annealing. On similar inputs designed to suppress local degeneracy, performance of a quantum annealing processor on hard instances improves by orders of magnitude at the 512-qubit scale, while classical performance remains relatively unchanged. Simulations indicate that perturbative crossings are the primary factor contributing to these heavy tails, while sensitivity to Hamiltonian misspecification error plays a less significant role in this particular setting.

  6. Process Improvements for the AH-64 Tail Rotor Vibration Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    Free vortex wake (Scully) ! 7. Wind turbine induction flow (rotors only) a 1...Scissor Tail Rotor Variant 7 Figure 4. RPM Sensor Installation (17) 12 Figure 5. Accelerometer and Tachometer Installation locations. (17) 13 Figure...weight adjusted made to the aft pocket. (17) An accelerometer is used to measure the accelerations in vertical direction. An optical tachometer is

  7. BVDV infection of pregnant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aim: Serological, experimental and individual case studies have explored the presence and pathogenesis of the virus in wild ungulates; however there remain large gaps in knowledge regarding BVDV infection in non-bovine species. Previously we have shown that inoculation of white-tailed deer (Odoco...

  8. Moisture content analysis of covered uranium mill tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, D.W.; Beedlow, P.A.; Cadwell, L.L.

    1981-12-01

    The use of vegetation and rock covers to stabilize uranium mill tailings cover systems is being investigated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. A modeling study of moisture movement through the tailings and cover layers was initiated to determine the effect of the stabilizing techniques. The cover system was simulated under climatic conditions occurring at Grand Junction, Colorado. The cover consisted of a layer of wet clay/gravel mix followed by a capillary barrier of washed rock and a surface layer of fill soil. Vegetation and rock were used to stabilize the surface layer. The simulation yielded moisture content and moisture storage values for the tailings and cover system along with information about moisture losses due to evaporation, transpiration, and drainage. The study demonstrates that different surface stabilization treatments lead to different degrees of moisture retention in the covered tailings pile. The evapotranspiration from vegetation can result in a relatively stable moisture content. Rock covers, however, may cause drainage to occur because they reduce evaporation and lead to a subsequent increase in moisture content. It is important to consider these effects when designing a surface stabilization treatment. Drainage may contribute to a groundwater pollution problem. A surface treatment that allows the cover system to dry out can increase the risk of atmospheric contamination through elevated radon emission rates.

  9. 1. VIEW OF THE MILL TAILINGS FACING NORTHWEST. SEDIMENT DAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF THE MILL TAILINGS FACING NORTHWEST. SEDIMENT DAM AND POND IN THE FOREGROUND, AND WATER PUMP (FEATURE B-25) ON THE LOWER RIGHT SIDE OF PHOTO. - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  10. 40. NORTH ELEVATION OF SKIDOO MILL, LOOKING SOUTH. TAILINGS IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. NORTH ELEVATION OF SKIDOO MILL, LOOKING SOUTH. TAILINGS IN FOREGOUND, DOWN SLOPE FROM CYANIDE PROCESSING TANKS. SEE CA-290-5 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  11. Spinal cord regeneration in a tail autotomizing urodele.

    PubMed

    Dawley, Ellen M; O Samson, Shoji; Woodard, Kenton T; Matthias, Kathryn A

    2012-02-01

    Adult urodele amphibians possess extensive regenerative abilities, including lens, jaws, limbs, and tails. In this study, we examined the cellular events and time course of spinal cord regeneration in a species, Plethodon cinereus, that has the ability to autotomize its tail as an antipredator strategy. We propose that this species may have enhanced regenerative abilities as further coadaptations with this antipredator strategy. We examined the expression of nestin, vimentin, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) after autotomy as markers of neural precursor cells and astroglia; we also traced the appearance of new neurons using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine/neuronal nuclei (BrdU/NeuN) double labeling. As expected, the regenerating ependymal tube was a major source of new neurons; however, the spinal cord cranial to the plane of autotomy showed significant mitotic activity, more extensive than what is reported for other urodeles that cannot autotomize their tails. In addition, this species shows upregulation of nestin, vimentin, and GFAP within days after tail autotomy; further, this expression is upregulated within the spinal cord cranial to the plane of autotomy, not just within the extending ependymal tube, as reported in other urodeles. We suggest that enhanced survival of the spinal cord cranial to autotomy allows this portion to participate in the enhanced recovery and regeneration of the spinal cord.

  12. Faun tail: a rare cutaneous sign of spinal dysraphism.

    PubMed

    Kurtipek, Gülcan Saylam; Cihan, Fatma Göksin; Öner, Vefa; Ataseven, Arzu; Özer, İlkay; Akman, Zahide

    2015-01-01

    Faun tail is a triangle-shaped hypertrichosis of the lumbosacral region. It is a rare condition and it can be a cutaneous marker of underlying spinal cord anomaly. We report on a 17-year-old female patient with hypertrichosis on the lumbosacral area since birth that was later diagnosed with tethered cord in magnetic resonance imaging.

  13. The localization of protein carboxyl-methylase in sperm tails

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    Protein carboxyl-methylase (PCM), an enzyme known to be involved in exocytotic secretion and chemotaxis, has been studied in rat and rabbit spermatozoa. PCM activity and its substrate methyl acceptor protein(s) (MAP) were demonstrated in the supernate after solubilization of the sperm cell membrane by detergent (Triton X-100). A protein methylesterase that hydrolyzes methyl ester bonds created by PCM was demonstrated in rabbit but not in rat spermatozoa. This enzyme was not solubilized by nonionic detergent. The specific activities of PCM in rat spermatozoa from caput and cauda epididymis were similar and lower than that found in testis. By contrast, MAP substrates were low in testis and increased in parallel with sperm maturation in the epididymis. Multiple MAP were demonstrated in spermatozoa by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The pattern of these proteins was similar in spermatozoa from different portions of the reproductive tract. Fractionation of heads and tails of rat spermatozoa on sucrose gradients indicated that PCM was found exclusively in the tail fraction, whereas MAP was detected both in head and tail fractions. The presence of all the components of the protein carboxyl-methylation system in spermatozoa and the localization of PCM and some of its substrates in the sperm tail are consistent with their involvement in sperm cell motility. PMID:7400214

  14. Head-Tail Modes for Strong Space Charge

    SciTech Connect

    Burov, Alexey

    2008-12-01

    Head-tail modes are described here for the space charge tune shift significantly exceeding the synchrotron tune. General equation for the modes is derived. Spatial shapes of the modes, their frequencies, and coherent growth rates are explored. The Landau damping rates are also found. Suppression of the transverse mode coupling instability by the space charge is explained.

  15. 14 CFR 27.411 - Ground clearance: tail rotor guard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground clearance: tail rotor guard. 27.411 Section 27.411 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Control Surface...

  16. VIEW OF TAIL SERVICE MASTS, PORT TSM IN THE FOREGROUND, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF TAIL SERVICE MASTS, PORT TSM IN THE FOREGROUND, FROM THE CORNER WHERE SIDES 1 AND 2 MEET - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Mobile Launcher Platforms, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  17. Plant and soil reactions to nickel ore processed tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Sheets, P.J.; Volk, V.V.; Gardner, E.H.

    1982-07-01

    Greenhouse and laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the effect that tailings, produced during the processing of nickeliferous laterite ores by a proposed U.S. Bureau of Mines Process, would have on plant growth and soil properties. The tailings contained soluble salts (7.6 mmhos/cm), NH/sub 4/-N (877 ..mu..g/g), Ni (0.28%), Mn (82 ..mu..g/g DTPA-extractable), Cr (0.44%), P (2 and 6 ..mu..g/g acid F- and NaHCO/sub 3/-extractable, respectively), and Ca and Mg (1.0 and 20.7 meq/100 g NH/sub 4/Ac-extractable, respectively). Water leaching decreased the NH/sub 4/-N concentration to 53 ..mu..g/g and the EC to 0.4 mmhos/cm by removal of (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and MgSO/sub 4/ salts. Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) was grown on Eightlar clay soil (skeletal, serpentinitic, mesic Typic Xerochrept) amended with 0, 223, 446, and 669 g tailings/kg soil and pure, unleached tailings for 32 weeks in the greenhouse. Seedling establishment of plants grown on soil amended at the highest tailings rate and the pure tailings was initially slow, but plants grown on soil amended at lower rates established readily and grew well. Plant P was <0.24%, while plant Ca concentrations were <0.45% throughout the growth period even though Ca(H/sub 2/PO/sub 2/)/sub 2/ and gypsum had been added. Ammonium acetate-extractable Ca at the end of the growth period was <5.0 meq/100 g on all amended soils.The Mn, Ni, and Cr concentrations of plants grown on treated soils were within normal ranges, although soil-analysis values were higher than commonly found. It is recommended that the tailings be washed to reduce NH/sub 4/-N and soluble salts prior to revegetation, and that native soil be added to the surface to reduce crusting.

  18. Use of gold mill tailings in making bricks: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Roy, Surendra; Adhikari, Govind R; Gupta, Rama N

    2007-10-01

    Mill tailings dumps at Kolar Gold Fields, Karnataka, are creating environmental problems. One of the solutions to these problems is to use the mill tailings for some useful purpose. This study examined the possibility of making bricks from the mill tailings with some additives in laboratory experiments. Samples of the mill tailings and the additives were analysed for particle size distribution, Atterberg limits and specific gravity. The plasticity index of the mill tailings being zero, they could not be used directly for making bricks. Therefore some additives that had plasticity or binding properties were mixed with the mill tailings. Ordinary Portland cement, black cotton soils and red soils were selected as additives. Each of the additives was mixed separately with the mill tailings in different proportions by weight and a large number of bricks were prepared using metallic moulds. The bricks were termed as cement-tailings bricks or soil-tailings bricks, depending on the additives used. The cement-tailings bricks were cured for different periods and their corresponding compressive strengths were determined. The bricks with 20% of cement and 14 days of curing were found to be suitable. The soil-tailings bricks were sun-dried and then fired in a furnace at different temperatures. The quality of bricks was assessed in terms of linear shrinkage, water absorption and compressive strength. The cost analysis revealed that cement-tailings bricks would be uneconomical whereas the soil-tailings bricks would be very economical.

  19. Plant selection for dewatering and reclamation of tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, M.J.; Naeth, M.A.; Biggar, K.W.; Chanasyk, D.S.; Sego, D.C.

    1998-12-31

    A two-phase greenhouse experiment was conducted to identify the most suitable species for dewatering and reclamation of Composite Tailings (CT) from Alberta oil sands operated by Syncrude Canada Ltd. and Copper Mine Tailings (CMT) from the Kennecott site in Utah. A total of 15 and 9 plant species were selected for testing in CT and CMT, respectively. In Phase 1, distilled water was added weekly to simulate local precipitation. The initial solids content were 80% and 76% and the electrical conductivities were 1.1 dS/m and 3.2 dS/m for CT and CMT, respectively. All plants survived after a ten-week period. In Phase 2 only process water was added weekly to provide a worst case scenario of no precipitation and water recharge due only to process water being released from within the tailings. The initial solids contents were 65% and 76% for CT and CMT, respectively. Surface (0--3 in.) salinity increased dramatically due to the application of process water only; at the end of Phase 2 it had reached toxic levels of approximately 18.9 dS/m and 35.0 dS/m in CT and CMT, respectively. Many plants showed signs of stress due to the high salinity level. The plants which performed the best under both phases in Composite Tailings were creeping foxtail (Alopecurus arundinaceus), reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea), Altai wildrye (Elymus angustus), and red top (Agrostis stolonifera); and in Copper Mine Tailings were Altai wildrye, smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis) and creeping foxtail.

  20. Aerodynamics of a Flapping Airfoil with a Flexible Tail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Alan Kai San

    This dissertation presents computational solutions to an airfoil in a oscillatory heaving motion with a aeroelastically flexible tail attachment. An unsteady potential flow solver is coupled to a structural solver to obtain the aeroelastic flow solution over an inviscid fluid to investigate the propulsive performance of such a configuration. The simulation is then extended to a two-dimensional viscous solver by coupling NASA's CFL3D solver to the structural solver to study how the flow is altered by the presence of viscosity. Finally, additional simulations are done in three dimensions over wings with varying aspect ratio to study the three-dimensional effects on the propulsive performance of an airfoil with an aeroelastic tail. The computation reveals that the addition of the aeroelastic trailing edge improved the thrust generated by a heaving airfoil significantly. As the frequency of the heaving motion increases, the thrust generated by the airfoil with the tail increases exponentially. In an inviscid fluid, the increase in thrust is insufficient to overcome the increase in power required to maintain the motion and as a result the overall propulsive efficiency is reduced. When the airfoil is heaving in a viscous fluid, the presence of a suction boundary layer and the appearance of leading edge vortex increase the thrust generated to such an extent that the propulsive efficiency is increased by about 3% when compared to the same airfoil with a rigid tail. The three-dimensional computations shows that the presence of the tip vorticies suppress some of the increase in thrust observed in the two-dimensional viscous computations for short span wings. For large span wings, the overall thrust enhancing capabilities of the aeroelastic tail is preserved.