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Sample records for tailings dam failure

  1. Velocity field measurements in tailings dam failure experiments using a combined PIV-PTV approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tailings dams are built to impound mining waste, also called tailings, which consists of a mixture of fine-sized sediments and water contaminated with some hazardous chemicals used for extracting the ore by leaching. Non-Newtonian flow of sediment-water mixture resulting from a failure of tailings d...

  2. The tailings dam failure of 5 November 2015 in SE Brazil and its preceding seismic sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agurto-Detzel, H.; Bianchi, M.; Assumpção, M.; Schimmel, M.; Collaço, B.; Ciardelli, C.; Barbosa, J. R.; Calhau, J.

    2016-05-01

    The collapse of a mine tailings dam and subsequent flood in SE Brazil on 5 November 2015 was preceded by a small-magnitude seismic sequence. In this report, we explore the spatiotemporal associations between the seismic events and the accident and discuss their possible connection. We also analyze the signals generated by the turbulent mudflow, as recorded by the Brazilian Seismographic Network (RSBR). In light of our observations, we propose as possible contributing factor for the dam collapse either ground shaking and/or soil liquefaction triggered by the earthquakes. The possibility of such a small-magnitude earthquake contributing to the collapse of a tailings dam raises important concerns regarding safety and related legislation of dams in Brazil and the world.

  3. Detecting dam failures

    SciTech Connect

    Knarr, C.M.; Barker, T.J.; McKenery, S.F. )

    1994-06-01

    This article describes efforts by Southern California Edison to meet Federal Energy Regulatory Commission requirements for unattended dam monitoring against failure. The topics include a description of the two dam systems, monitoring system design and operation including warning sirens for remote camping areas, and installation of the systems.

  4. Tailings dam-break flow - Analysis of sediment transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleixo, Rui; Altinakar, Mustafa

    2015-04-01

    A common solution to store mining debris is to build tailings dams near the mining site. These dams are usually built with local materials such as mining debris and are more vulnerable than concrete dams (Rico et al. 2008). of The tailings and the pond water generally contain heavy metals and various toxic chemicals used in ore extraction. Thus, the release of tailings due to a dam-break can have severe ecological consequences in the environment. A tailings dam-break has many similarities with a common dam-break flow. It is highly transient and can be severely descructive. However, a significant difference is that the released sediment-water mixture will behave as a non-Newtonian flow. Existing numerical models used to simulate dam-break flows do not represent correctly the non-Newtonian behavior of tailings under a dam-break flow and may lead to unrealistic and incorrect results. The need for experiments to extract both qualitative and quantitative information regarding these flows is therefore real and actual. The present paper explores an existing experimental data base presented in Aleixo et al. (2014a,b) to further characterize the sediment transport under conditions of a severe transient flow and to extract quantitative information regarding sediment flow rate, sediment velocity, sediment-sediment interactions a among others. Different features of the flow are also described and analyzed in detail. The analysis is made by means of imaging techniques such as Particle Image Velocimetry and Particle Tracking Velocimetry that allow extracting not only the velocity field but the Lagrangian description of the sediments as well. An analysis of the results is presented and the limitations of the presented experimental approach are discussed. References Rico, M., Benito, G., Salgueiro, AR, Diez-Herrero, A. and Pereira, H.G. (2008) Reported tailings dam failures: A review of the European incidents in the worldwide context , Journal of Hazardous Materials, 152, 846

  5. 3. VIEW OF WEST TAILING DAM, LARGE TANK, AND TAILING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF WEST TAILING DAM, LARGE TANK, AND TAILING, LOOKING NORTHEAST. A SIX-FOOT SCALE IS LOCATED AGAINST WALL ON LEFT. PURPOSE OF TANK IS UNKNOWN, BUT APPEARS TO HAVE FALLEN FROM ITS ORIGINAL LOCATION AT THE MILL SITE, UP AND TO THE RIGHT OF THIS VIEW. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  6. FORMATION AND FAILURE OF NATURAL DAMS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Costa, John E.; Schuster, Robert L.

    1988-01-01

    Of the numerous kinds of dams that form by natural processes, dams formed from landslides, glacial ice, and late-neoglacial moraines present the greatest threat to people and property. Landslide dams form a wide range of physiographic settings. The most common types of mass movements that form landslide dams are rock and debris avalanches; rock and soil slumps and slides; and mud, debris, and earth flows. The most common initiation mechanisms for dam-forming landslides are excessive rainfall and snowmelt and earthquakes. Natural dams may cause upstream flooding as the lake rises and downstream flooding as a result of failure of the dam. Although data are few, for the same potential energy at the dam site, downstream flood peaks from the failure of glacier-ice dams are smaller than those from landslide, moraine, and constructed earth-fill and rock-fill dam failures.

  7. The formation and failure of natural dams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Costa, J.E.; Schuster, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Of the numerous kinds of dams that form by natural processes, dams formed from landslides, glacial ice, and neoglacial moraines present the greatest threat to people and property. The most common types of mass movements that form landslide dams are rock and debris avalanches, rock and soil slumps and slides, and mud, debris, and earth flows. The most common initiation mechanisms for dam-forming landslides are excessive rainfall and snowmelt and earthquakes. Landslide dams can be classified into six categories based on their relation with the valley floor. Type I dams (11%) of the 81 landslide dams around the world that were classifed do not reach from one valley side to the other. Type II dams (44%) span the entire valley flood, occasionally depositing material high up on opposite valley sides. Type III dams (41%) move considerable distances both upstream and downstream from the landslide failure. Type IV dams (1%) are rare and involve the contemporaneous failure of material from both sides of a valley. Type V dams (1%) are also rare, and are created when a single landslide sends multiple tongues of debris into a valley forming two or more landslide dams in the same surfaces, that extend under the stream or valley and emerge on the opposite valley side. Many landslide dams fail shortly after formation. Overtopping is by far the most common cause of failure. Glacial ice dams can produce at least nine kinds of ice-dammed lakes. The most dangerous are lakes formed in main valleys dammed by tributary glaciers. Failure can occur by erosion of a drainage tunnel under or through the ice dam or by a channel over the ice dam. Cold polar ice dams generally drain supraglacially or marginally by downmelting of an outlet channel. Warmer temperate-ice dams tend to fail by sudden englacial or subglacial breaching and drainage. Late neoglacial moraine-dammed lakes are located in steep mountain areas affected by the advances and retreats of valley glaciers in the last several

  8. Environmentally safe design of tailing dams for the management of iron ore tailings in Indian context.

    PubMed

    Ghose, Mrinal K; Sen, P K

    2005-10-01

    The need for the disposal of iron ore tailings in an enviornmentally firiendly manner is of great concern. This paper investigates the soil engineering properties for the construction of iron ore tailing dam, its foundation, construction materials and design data used for the construction analysis of the tailing dam. Geophysical investigations were carried out to establish the bedrock below the spillway. A computer programme taking into account the Swedish Slip Circle Method of analysis was used in the stability analysis of dam. It also focuses on the charactierstics of the tailings reponsible for the determination of optimum size of tailing pond for the containment of the tailings. The studies on the settling characteristics of tailings indicate much less area in comparison to the area provided in the existing tailing ponds in India. In the proposed scheme, it is suggested to provide an additional unit of sedimentation tank before the disposal of tailings to the tailing pond.

  9. Geological impact of some tailings dams in Sardinia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Gregorio, Felice; Massoli-Novelli, Raniero

    1992-05-01

    This article deals with the results of a survey carried out in Sardinia on both active and abandoned tailings dams, and we also discuss the geological impact of tailings dams of two mines: the Masua mine, a large syngenetic Pb-Zn deposit located in Cambrian limestones, and the Montevecchio mine, a Pb-Zn vein deposit near a Hercynian granite intrusion. The characteristics and metal content of material in the dams were analyzed. A high contamination of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu) was found both in the soils and water of Rio Montevecchio, a stream draining the tailings dams and other mining operations in the area. The study indicates that a control plan to minimize heavy metal pollution must be drawn up for all mines of the area, whether active or abandoned.

  10. Environmental risk assessment system for phosphogypsum tailing dams.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xin; Ning, Ping; Tang, Xiaolong; Yi, Honghong; Li, Kai; Zhou, Lianbi; Xu, Xianmang

    2013-01-01

    This paper may be of particular interest to the readers as it provides a new environmental risk assessment system for phosphogypsum tailing dams. In this paper, we studied the phosphogypsum tailing dams which include characteristics of the pollution source, environmental risk characteristics and evaluation requirements to identify the applicable environmental risk assessment methods. Two analytical methods, that is, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy logic, were used to handle the complexity of the environmental and nonquantitative data. Using our assessment method, different risk factors can be ranked according to their contributions to the environmental risk, thereby allowing the calculation of their relative priorities during decision making. Thus, environmental decision-makers can use this approach to develop alternative management strategies for proposed, ongoing, and completed PG tailing dams.

  11. Environmental Risk Assessment System for Phosphogypsum Tailing Dams

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xin; Tang, Xiaolong; Yi, Honghong; Li, Kai; Zhou, Lianbi; Xu, Xianmang

    2013-01-01

    This paper may be of particular interest to the readers as it provides a new environmental risk assessment system for phosphogypsum tailing dams. In this paper, we studied the phosphogypsum tailing dams which include characteristics of the pollution source, environmental risk characteristics and evaluation requirements to identify the applicable environmental risk assessment methods. Two analytical methods, that is, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy logic, were used to handle the complexity of the environmental and nonquantitative data. Using our assessment method, different risk factors can be ranked according to their contributions to the environmental risk, thereby allowing the calculation of their relative priorities during decision making. Thus, environmental decision-makers can use this approach to develop alternative management strategies for proposed, ongoing, and completed PG tailing dams. PMID:24382947

  12. National Dam Safety Program. Brushy Creek Tailings Dam (MO 30951), White Basin, Reynolds County, Missouri. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    a crushed rock underdrainage system and earth starter dam . The configuration of the dam , reservoir, and appurtenant structures are best described by...AO-AI06 458 ARMY ENGINEER DISTRICT ST LOUIS MO F/6 13/13 NATIONAL DAM SAFETY PROGRAM. BRUSHY CREEK TAILINGS DAM (MO 3095--ETC(U) AUG 79 W ft...CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (ind Subtitle) 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Phase I Dam Inspection Report National Dam Safety Program Final F’eprt . Brushy

  13. 1. VIEW OF THE MILL TAILINGS FACING NORTHWEST. SEDIMENT DAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF THE MILL TAILINGS FACING NORTHWEST. SEDIMENT DAM AND POND IN THE FOREGROUND, AND WATER PUMP (FEATURE B-25) ON THE LOWER RIGHT SIDE OF PHOTO. - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  14. Dam Failure Inundation Map Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Carl; Iokepa, Judy; Dahlman, Jill; Michaud, Jene; Paylor, Earnest (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    At the end of the first year, we remain on schedule. Property owners were identified and contacted for land access purposes. A prototype software package has been completed and was demonstrated to the Division of Land and Natural Resources (DLNR), National Weather Service (NWS) and Pacific Disaster Center (PDC). A field crew gathered data and surveyed the areas surrounding two dams in Waimea. (A field report is included in the annual report.) Data sensitivity analysis was initiated and completed. A user's manual has been completed. Beta testing of the software was initiated, but not completed. The initial TNK and property owner data collection for the additional test sites on Oahu and Kauai have been initiated.

  15. Geochemical modeling of cyanide in tailing dam gold processing plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodadadi, Ahmad; Monjezi, M.; Mehrpouya, H.; Dehghani, H.

    2009-09-01

    This research is aimed at investigating possible neutralization of cyanide in tailing dam of Muteh gold processing plant in Isfahan, Iran at various conditions such as pH and temperature using USEPA Visual MINTEQ geochemical model simulation. The model is based on geochemical equilibrium which uses the simultaneous solution of the non-linear mass action expressions and linear mass balance relationships to formulate and solve the multiple-component chemical equilibrium problems. In this study the concentration of aqueous species in tailing dam as an aqueous, solid and gaseous were used as input in the model. Temperature and pH variation were simulated. The results of the model indicated that cyanide may be complexes in 10 < pH < 5. In other pH values complexation is not important. The results also indicated that cyanide reduction mechanism in acidic pH and temperature above 30°C is due to cyanide acid formation which is vaporized.

  16. Dam failure analysis for the Lago de Matrullas Dam, Orocovis, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torres-Sierra, Heriberto; Gómez-Fragoso, Julieta

    2015-01-01

    Results from the simulated dam failure of the Lago de Matrullas Dam using the HEC–RAS model for the 6- and 24-hour PMP events showed peak discharges at the dam of 3,149.33 and 3,604.70 m3/s, respectively. Dam failure during the 100-year-recurrence, 24-hour rainfall event resulted in a peak discharge of 2,103.12 m3/s directly downstream from the dam. Dam failure under sunny day conditions produced a peak discharge of 1,695.91 m3/s at the dam assuming the antecedent lake level was at the morning-glory spillway invert elevation. Flood-inundation maps prepared as part of the study depict the flood extent and provide valuable information for preparing an Emergency Action Plan. Results of the failure analysis indicate that a failure of the Lago de Matrullas Dam could cause flooding to many of the inhabited areas along stream banks from the Lago de Matrullas Dam to the mouth of the Río Grande de Manatí. Among the areas most affected are the low-lying regions in the vicinity of the towns of Ciales, Manatí, and Barceloneta. The delineation of the flood boundaries near the town of Barceloneta considered the effects of a levee constructed during 2000 at Barceloneta in the flood plain of the Río Grande de Manatí to provide protection against flooding to the near-by low-lying populated areas. The results showed overtopping can be expected in the aforementioned levee during 6- and 24-hour probable-maximum-precipitation dam failure scenarios. No overtopping of the levee was simulated, however, during dam failure scenarios under the 100-year recurrence, 24-hour rainfall event or sunny day conditions.

  17. Analysis of seismic disaster failure mechanism and dam-break simulation of high arch dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingkui; Zhang, Liaojun

    2014-06-01

    Based on a Chinese national high arch dam located in a meizoseismal region, a nonlinear numerical analysis model of the damage and failure process of a dam-foundation system is established by employing a 3-D deformable distinct element code (3DEC) and its re-development functions. The proposed analysis model considers the dam-foundation-reservoir coupling effect, influence of nonlinear contact in the opening and closing of the dam seam surface and abutment rock joints during strong earthquakes, and radiation damping of far field energy dissipation according to the actual workability state of an arch dam. A safety assessment method and safety evaluation criteria is developed to better understand the arch dam system disaster process from local damage to ultimate failure. The dynamic characteristics, disaster mechanism, limit bearing capacity and the entire failure process of a high arch dam under a strong earthquake are then analyzed. Further, the seismic safety of the arch dam is evaluated according to the proposed evaluation criteria and safety assessment method. As a result, some useful conclusions are obtained for some aspects of the disaster mechanism and failure process of an arch dam. The analysis method and conclusions may be useful in engineering practice.

  18. Tailings dams stability analysis using numerical modelling of geotechnical and geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihai, S.; Zlagnean, M.; Oancea, I.; Petrescu, A.

    2009-04-01

    Methods for monitoring seepage and detecting internal erosion are essential for the safety evaluation of embankment dams. Internal erosion is one of the major reasons for embankment dam failures, and there are thousands of large tailings dams and waste-rock dumps in the world that may pe considered as hotspots for environmental impact. In this research the geophysical survey works were performed on Cetatuia 2 tailings dam. Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) method was able to detect spatially anomalous zones inside the embankment dam. These anomalies are the results of internal erosion phenomena which may progressing inside the dam and is difficult to detect by conventional methods. Data aquired by geophysical survey together with their interpretations were used in the numerical model for slope stability assessment. The final results show us the structural weakness induced by the presence of internal erosion elements especially for seismic loading case. This research methodology may be also available for tailings dam monitoring purposes. Electrical Rezistivity Imaging (ERI) was performed on Cetatuia 2 dam at the Uranium Milling Plant Feldioara, in order to map areas with lateral and vertical changes in resistivity. The electrodes are connected to an automated computer operated switch box that selects the 4 electrodes to be used. A computer controls the switch box and the measuring device, and runs a program that selects the electrodes, makes the measurement, and stores the measurement. For inversion processing procedures was used Res2Din software. The measured resistivity were plotted by the pseudo section contouring method. There are five resistivity pseudosections obtained from the Cetatuia 2 tailings dam during the october 2007 measurements. Four transversal profiles trans1 to trans4 are perpendicular to the berms and the longitudinal one long1 is placed along dam's crest. The high resistivities near the berms surfaces corresponds to unsaturated fill materials

  19. International small dam safety assurance policy benchmarks to avoid dam failure flood disasters in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisaniello, John D.; Dam, Tuyet Thi; Tingey-Holyoak, Joanne L.

    2015-12-01

    In developing countries small dam failure disasters are common yet research on their dam safety management is lacking. This paper reviews available small dam safety assurance policy benchmarks from international literature, synthesises them for applicability in developing countries, and provides example application through a case study of Vietnam. Generic models from 'minimum' to 'best' practice (Pisaniello, 1997) are synthesised with the World Bank's 'essential' and 'desirable' elements (Bradlow et al., 2002) leading to novel policy analysis and design criteria for developing countries. The case study involved 22 on-site dam surveys finding micro level physical and management inadequacies that indicates macro dam safety management policy performs far below the minimum benchmark in Vietnam. Moving assurance policy towards 'best practice' is necessary to improve the safety of Vietnam's considerable number of hazardous dams to acceptable community standards, but firstly achieving 'minimum practice' per the developed guidance is essential. The policy analysis/design process provides an exemplar for other developing countries to follow for avoiding dam failure flood disasters.

  20. Dam failure analysis for the Lago El Guineo Dam, Orocovis, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gómez-Fragoso, Julieta; Heriberto Torres-Sierra,

    2016-08-09

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, completed hydrologic and hydraulic analyses to assess the potential hazard to human life and property associated with the hypothetical failure of the Lago El Guineo Dam. The Lago El Guineo Dam is within the headwaters of the Río Grande de Manatí and impounds a drainage area of about 4.25 square kilometers.The hydrologic assessment was designed to determine the outflow hydrographs and peak discharges for Lago El Guineo and other subbasins in the Río Grande de Manatí hydrographic basin for three extreme rainfall events: (1) a 6-hour probable maximum precipitation event, (2) a 24-hour probable maximum precipitation event, and (3) a 24-hour, 100-year recurrence rainfall event. The hydraulic study simulated a dam failure of Lago El Guineo Dam using flood hydrographs generated from the hydrologic study. The simulated dam failure generated a hydrograph that was routed downstream from Lago El Guineo Dam through the lower reaches of the Río Toro Negro and the Río Grande de Manatí to determine water-surface profiles developed from the event-based hydrologic scenarios and “sunny day” conditions. The Hydrologic Engineering Center’s Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC–HMS) and Hydrologic Engineering Center’s River Analysis System (HEC–RAS) computer programs, developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, were used for the hydrologic and hydraulic modeling, respectively. The flow routing in the hydraulic analyses was completed using the unsteady flow module available in the HEC–RAS model.Above the Lago El Guineo Dam, the simulated inflow peak discharges from HEC–HMS resulted in about 550 and 414 cubic meters per second for the 6- and 24-hour probable maximum precipitation events, respectively. The 24-hour, 100-year recurrence storm simulation resulted in a peak discharge of about 216 cubic meters per second. For the hydrologic analysis, no dam failure conditions are

  1. The geomorphic influences of beaver dams and failures of beaver dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, David R.; Malanson, George P.

    2005-10-01

    Uncounted millions of beaver ponds and dams existed in North America prior to European contact and colonization. These ponds acted as sediment traps that contained tens to hundreds of billions of cubic meters of sediment that would otherwise have passed through the fluvial system. Removal of beavers by overtrapping in the 16th-19th centuries severely reduced their number and the number of ponds and dams. Dam removal altered the fluvial landscape of North America, inducing sediment evacuation and entrenchment in concert with widespread reduction in the wetlands environments. Partial recovery of beaver populations in the 20th century has allowed reoccupation of the entirety of the pre-contact range, but at densities of only one-tenth the numbers. Nevertheless, modern beaver ponds also trap large volumes of sediment in the high hundred millions to low billions of cubic meters range. Failure of beaver dams is a more common phenomenon than often assumed in the literature. During the past 20 years, numerous cases of dam failure have been documented that resulted in outburst floods. These floods have been responsible for 13 deaths and numerous injuries, including significant impacts on railway lines.

  2. Design, construction and management of tailings storage facilities for surface disposal in China: case studies of failures.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zuoan; Yin, Guangzhi; Wang, J G; Wan, Ling; Li, Guangzhi

    2013-01-01

    Rapid development of China's economy demands for more mineral resources. At the same time, a vast quantity of mine tailings, as the waste byproduct of mining and mineral processing, is being produced in huge proportions. Tailings impoundments play an important role in the practical surface disposal of these large quantities of mining waste. Historically, tailings were relatively small in quantity and had no commercial value, thus little attention was paid to their disposal. The tailings were preferably discharged near the mines and few tailings storage facilities were constructed in mainland China. This situation has significantly changed since 2000, because the Chinese economy is growing rapidly and Chinese regulations and legislation require that tailings disposal systems must be ready before the mining operation begins. Consequently, data up to 2008 shows that more than 12 000 tailings storage facilities have been built in China. This paper reviews the history of tailings disposal in China, discusses three cases of tailings dam failures and explores failure mechanisms, and the procedures commonly used in China for planning, design, construction and management of tailings impoundments. This paper also discusses the current situation, shortcomings and key weaknesses, as well as future development trends for tailings storage facilities in China.

  3. On the liquefaction failure of an earth dam

    SciTech Connect

    Simos, N.; Reich, M.; Costantino, C.J.

    1993-12-01

    In an effort to better assess the potential for sliding and liquefaction failure of earthen dams when subjected to earthquake loadings, a dynamic finite element approach focusing on these two failure mechanisms as well as on the vital role of the pore water pressure was undertaken. The constitutive response of the granular soil skeleton and its coupling with the fluid phase is formulated based on the Blot dynamic equations of motion. The constitutive model for the soil material was assumed to be linear with nonlinear terms included in the hysteretic damping terms. Despite the linear character of this theoretical model, one can still draw important conclusions regarding the stability and the liquefaction resistance of the cross-section. As an example, a hypothetical earth dam constructed over a saturated soil layer was considered. The steady state conditions of in-situ stress and pore pressure distributions in both the embankment and the foundation are evaluated and implemented in the stability and liquefaction criteria in conjunction with the dynamic analysis. The latter is carried out in the frequency domain and it reflects the response of the dam-foundation system to a seismic excitation. The computational aspect of the study is performed with finite element analysis. A transmitting boundary formulation for the two phase material was used to treat the infinite space problem. It is anticipated that the intensity of the earthquake input and certain soil properties have a profound effect on the failure susceptibility of the dam section. To address the uncertainties regarding the true values of such parameters, the analysis considered them parametrically.

  4. A New Method for System Reliability Analysis of Tailings Dam Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Tang, H.; Xiong, C.; Ni, W.

    2012-12-01

    For the purpose of stability evaluation, a tailings dam can be considered as an artificial slope made of special soil materials which mainly come from mine tailings. As a particular engineering project, a tailings dam generally has experienced multi-loop hydraulic sediments as well as a long-term consolidation in the process of construction. The characteristics of sediment and consolidation result in a unique distribution of the soil layers with significant uncertainties, which come from both nature development and various human activities, and thus cause the discrete and the variability of the physical-mechanical properties dramatically greater than the natural geo-materials. Therefore, the location of critical slip surface (CSS) of the dam usually presents a notable drift. So, it means that the reliability evaluation task for a tailings dam is a system reliability problem indeed. Unfortunately, the previous research of reliability of tailings dam was mainly confined to the limit equilibrium method (LEM), which has three obvious drawbacks. First, it just focused on the variability along the slip surface rather than the whole space of the dam. Second, a fixed CSS, instead of variable one, was concerned in most cases. Third, the shape of the CSS was usually simplified to a circular. The present paper tried to construct a new reliability analysis model combined with several advanced techniques involving finite difference method (FDM), Monte Carlo simulation (MCS), support vector machine (SVM) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). The new framework was consisted of four modules. The first one is the limit equilibrium finite difference mode, which employed the FLAC3D code to generate stress fields and then used PSO algorithm to search the location of CSS and corresponding minimum factor of safety (FOS). The most value of this module was that each realization of stress field would lead to a particular CSS and its FOS. In other words, the consideration of the drift of

  5. Flood Water Level Mapping and Prediction Due to Dam Failures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musa, S.; Adnan, M. S.; Ahmad, N. A.; Ayob, S.

    2016-07-01

    Sembrong dam has undergone overflow failure. Flooding has been reported to hit the town, covering an area of up to Parit Raja, located in the district of Batu Pahat. This study aims to identify the areas that will be affected by flood in the event of a dam failure in Sembrong Dam, Kluang, Johor at a maximum level. To grasp the extent, the flood inundation maps have been generated by using the InfoWorks ICM and GIS software. By using these maps, information such as the depth and extent of floods can be identified the main ares flooded. The flood map was created starting with the collection of relevant data such as measuring the depth of the river and a maximum flow rate for Sembrong Dam. The data were obtained from the Drainage and Irrigation Department Malaysia and the Department of Survey and Mapping and HLA Associates Sdn. Bhd. Then, the data were analyzed according to the established Info Works ICM method. The results found that the flooded area were listed at Sri Lalang, Parit Sagil, Parit Sonto, Sri Paya, Parit Raja, Parit Sempadan, Talang Bunut, Asam Bubok, Tanjung Sembrong, Sungai Rambut and Parit Haji Talib. Flood depth obtained for the related area started from 0.5 m up to 1.2 m. As a conclusion, the flood emanating from this study include the area around the town of Ayer Hitam up to Parit Raja approximately of more than 20 km distance. This may give bad implication to residents around these areas. In future studies, other rivers such as Sungai Batu Pahat should be considered for this study to predict and reduce the yearly flood victims for this area.

  6. Data collection and documentation of flooding downstream of a dam failure in Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Wilson, Jr.; ,

    2005-01-01

    On March 12, 2004, the Big Bay Lake dam failed, releasing water and affecting lives and property downstream in southern Mississippi. The dam is located near Purvis, Mississippi, on Bay Creek, which flows into Lower Little Creek about 1.9 miles downstream from the dam. Lower Little Creek flows into Pearl River about 16.9 miles downstream from the dam. Knowledge of the hydrology and hydraulics of floods caused by dam breaks is essential to the design of dams. A better understanding of the risks associated with possible dam failures may help limit the loss of life and property that often occurs downstream of a dam failure. The USGS recovered flood marks at the one crossing of Bay Creek and eight crossings of Lower Little Creek. Additional flood marks were also flagged at three other bridges crossing tributaries where backwater occurred. Flood marks were recovered throughout the stream reach of about 3/4 to 15 miles downstream of the dam. Flood marks that were flagged will be surveyed so that a flood profile can be documented downstream of the Big Bay Lake dam failure. Peak discharges are also to be estimated where possible. News reports stated that the peak discharge at the dam was about 67,000 cubic feet per second. Preliminary data suggest the peak discharge from the dam failure attenuated to about 13,000 cubic feet per second at Lower Little Creek at State Highway 43, about 15 miles downstream of the dam.

  7. Groundwater Flow and Salt Transport at a Sand Tailings Dam: Field Observations and Modelling Results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, A. C.; Mendoza, C. A.

    2004-05-01

    Large volumes of sand tailings are produced during the extraction of bitumen from the oil sands of Northeastern Alberta. The long-term groundwater response and subsequent movement of water and solutes within the large permeable sand tailings storage areas is uncertain. At the Southwest Sand Storage (SWSS) Facility, located at Syncrude's Mildred Lake operations near Ft. McMurray, there is concern that salts from the tailings water may discharge to newly placed reclamation material that covers the sand tailings. This saline discharge water could destroy the reclamation soil structure and negatively impact vegetation. The steady-state groundwater flow and transient movement of salts at the local (bench and slope) and intermediate (pile) scales in the SWSS are investigated. Water levels, seepage and groundwater quality (including TDS) have been measured for over a year along two transects of piezometers installed in the SWSS. The field data have been used to complete traditional hydrogeological interpretations of the site, and to develop a conceptual model of flow and transport. The local and intermediate flow systems and salt transport in the dam are being evaluated with numerical models. The models will allow possible future hydrogeological behaviour of the structure to be tested. Preliminary results show differences in flow systems and salinity distribution that depend on the deposition of the SWSS. This research will facilitate better long-term environmental management of this and similar sites.

  8. Computational hydraulics of a cascade of experimental-scale landside dam failures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, N.; Guan, M.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract: Landslide dams typically comprise unconsolidated and poorly sorted material, and are vulnerable to rapid failure and breaching, particularly in mountainous areas during high intense rainfalls. A large flash flood with high-concentrated sediment can be formed in a short period, and the magnitude is likely to be amplified along the flow direction due to the inclusion of a large amount of sediment. This can result in significant and sudden flood risk downstream for human life and property. Numerous field evidence has indicated the various risks of landslide dam failures. In general, cascading landslide dams can be formed along the sloping channel due to the randomness and unpredictability of landslides, which complexes the hydraulics of landslide dam failures. The failure process of a single dam and subsequent floods has attracted attention in multidisciplinary studies. However, the dynamic failure process of cascading landslide dams has been poorly understood. From a viewpoint of simulation, this study evaluates the formation and development of rapid sediment-charged floods due to cascading failure of landslide dams through detailed hydro-morphodynamic modelling. The model used is based on shallow water theory and it has been successful in predicting the flow and morphological process during sudden dam-break, as well as full and partial dyke-breach. Various experimental-scale scenarios are modelled, including: (1) failure of a single full dam in a sloping channel, (2) failure of two dams in a sloping channel, (3) failure of multiple landslide dams (four) in a sloping channel. For each scenario, different failure modes (sudden/gradual) and bed boundary (fixed /mobile) are assumed and simulated. The study systematically explores the tempo-spatial evolution of landslide-induced floods (discharge, flow velocity, and flow concentration) and geomorphic properties along the sloping channel. The effects of in-channel erosion and flow-driven sediment from dams on

  9. Failure of a massive earthquake-induced landslide dam in Papua New Guinea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, J. P.; Loveday, I. C.; Schuster, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    This article discusses the recent occurrence of a large earthquake-induced landslide that dammed the Bairaman River in the interior of hte island of New Britian, Papua New Guinea, and the subsequent overtopping and failure of this landslide dam

  10. National Dam Safety Program. Unimin Tailings Dam (Inventory Number VA 06918), Potomac River Basin, Frederick County, Commonwealth of Virginia. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    Hill Book Company, New York, 1963. 7. Soil Conservation Service , " National Engineering Handbook - Section 4, Hydrology," U.S. Department of...Agriculture, 1964. 8. Soil Conservation Service , " National Engineering Handbook - Section 5, Hydraulics," U.S. Department of Agriculture. 9. U.S. Army...AD-A103 52 BAKER (MICHAEL) JR INC BEAVER PA F/6 13/13 NATIONAL DAM SAFETY PROGRAM. UNIMIN TAILINGS DAM (INVFNTORY NUM--ETC(U) JAN 81 J A WALSH OACW65

  11. Comparison of two process based earthen dam failure computation models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dams are an important part of this nation's infrastructure providing flood control, water supply, irrigation, hydropower, navigation, and recreation. Despite their many beneficial uses, dams present a risk to property and life due to their potential to fail. They are also a part of the nation's ag...

  12. Failure mode analysis of a post-tension anchored dam using linear finite element analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corn, Aimee

    There are currently over 84,000 dams in the United States, and the average age of those dams is 52 years. Concrete gravity dams are the second most common dam type, with more than 3,000 in the United States. Current engineering technology and technical understanding of hydrologic and seismic events has resulted in significant increases to the required design loads for most dams; therefore, many older dams do not have adequate safety for extreme loading events. Concrete gravity dams designed and constructed in the early 20th century did not consider uplift pressures beneath the dam, which reduces the effective weight of the structure. One method that has been used to enhance the stability of older concrete gravity dams includes the post-tension anchor (PTA) system. Post-tensioning infers modifying cured concrete and using self-equilibrating elements to increase the weight of the section, which provides added stability. There is a lack of historical evidence regarding the potential failure mechanisms for PTA concrete gravity dams. Of particular interest, is how these systems behave during large seismic events. The objective of this thesis is to develop a method by which the potential failure modes during a seismic event for a PTA dam can be evaluated using the linear elastic finite element method of analysis. The most likely potential failure modes (PFM) for PTA designs are due to tensile failure and shear failure. A numerical model of a hypothetical project was developed to simulate PTAs in the dam. The model was subjected to acceleration time-history motions that simulated the seismic loads. The results were used to evaluate the likelihood of tendon failure due to both tension and shear. The results from the analysis indicated that the PTA load increased during the seismic event; however, the peak load in the tendons was less than the gross ultimate tensile strength (GUTS) and would not be expected to result in tensile failure at the assumed project. The analysis

  13. Spirit Lake dam-failure flood routing assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresch, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    Potential clear-water floodflows resulting from uncontrolled breaching by Spirit Lake of a debris dam deposited by the May 18 , 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington, were evaluated. U.S. Geological Survey dam-break model K-634 was utilized, first to compute clear-water flood hydrographs for various hypothetical breach scenarios, and then to hydraulically route them downstream to the mouth of the Toutle River. Dam-break computations were obtained for 12 breach-development scenarios. Eight of the scenarios modeled breaches caused by overtopping of the June 1982 crest of the debris dam, while the other four modeled breaches resulting from overtopping of the debris dam at a possible future crest altitude of 3,490 feet. Equal numbers of scenarios, six each, were modeled for breach development durations of 0.25 hour and 1.0 hour. Peak discharges and times of arrival at selected locations for scenarios with breach development durations of 1.0 hour are presented in tables. Peak discharges computed for dam-break scenarios with breach crest widths of 400 feet are almost twice the magnitude of those computed for scenarios identical in all other respects, but with widths of 200 feet. Peak discharges computed for breaches caused by overtopping of the debris dam at an altitude of 3,531.8 feet were generally found to be roughly five times greater than those caused by overtopping at an altitude of 3,490 feet, if the breaches had identical crest elevations and crest widths. Decreases in peak discharge from Spirit Lake to the mouth of the Toutle River ranged from 16 to 26 percent for the scenarios modeled. This lack of significant attenuation is primarily due to the large volume and surface area of Spirit lake (in excess of 360,000 acre-feet and 3,000 acres, respectively, for all scenarios modeled), which result in the continued discharge of high flows long after breach development is complete. The degree of attenuation is also minimized by the generally steep narrow

  14. The 27 May 1937 catastrophic flow failure of gold tailings at Tlalpujahua, Michoacan, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macias, J. L.; Corona-Chavez, P.; Sanchez-Nunez, J. M.; Martinez-Medina, M.; Garduno-Monroy, V. H.; Capra, L.; Garcia-Tenorio, F.; Cisneros-Maximo, G.

    2015-05-01

    On 27 May 1937, after one week of sustained heavy rainfall, a voluminous flood caused the death of at least 300 people and the destruction of the historic El Carmen church and several neighborhoods in the mining region of Tlalpujahua, Michoacan, central Mexico. This destructive flood was triggered by the breaching of the impoundment of the Los Cedros tailings and the sudden release of circa 16 Mt of water-saturated waste materials. The muddy silty flood, moving at estimated speeds of 20-25 m s-1, was channelized along the Dos Estrellas and Tlalpujahua drainages and devastated everything along its flow path. After advancing 2.5 km downstream, the flood slammed into El Carmen church and surrounding houses at estimated speeds of ~ 7 m s-1, destroying many construction walls and covering the church floor with ~ 2 m of mud and debris. Revision of eyewitness accounts and newspaper articles, together with analysis of archived photographic materials, indicated that the flood consisted of three muddy pulses. Stratigraphic relations and granulometric data for selected proximal and distal samples show that the flood behaved as a hyperconcentrated flow along most of its trajectory. A total volume of the Lamas flood deposit was estimated as 1.5 x 106 m3. The physically based bidimensional (2-D) hydraulic model FLO-2D was implemented to reproduce the breached flow (0.5 sediment concentration) with a maximum flow discharge of 8000 m3 s-1 for a total outflow volume (sediment + water) of 2.5 x 106 m3, similar to the calculations obtained using field measurements. Even though premonitory signs of possible impoundment failure were reported days before the flood, and people living downstream were alerted, authorities ordered no evacuations or other mitigative actions. The catastrophic flood at Tlalpujahua provides a well-documented, though tragic, example of impoundment breaching of a tailings dam caused by the combined effects of intense rainfall, dam weakness, and inadequate

  15. The potential for catastrophic dam failure at Lake Nyos maar, Cameroon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lockwood, J.P.; Costa, J.E.; Tuttle, M.L.; Nni, J.; Tebor, S.G.

    1988-01-01

    The upper 40 m of Lake Nyos is bounded on the north by a narrow dam of poorly consolidated pyroclastic rocks, emplaced during the eruptive formation of the Lake Nyos maar a few hundred years ago. This 50-m-wide natural dam is structurally weak and is being eroded at an uncertain, but geologically alarming, rate. The eventual failure of the dam could cause a major flood (estimated peak discharge, 17000 m3/s) that would have a tragic impact on downstream areas as far as Nigeria, 108 km away. This serious hazard could be eliminated by lowering the lake level, either by controlled removal of the dam or by construction of a 680-m-long drainage tunnel about 65 m below the present lake surface. Either strategy would also lessen the lethal effects of future massive CO2 gas releases, such as the one that occurred in August 1986. ?? 1988 Springer-Verlag.

  16. DAM Safety and Deformation Monitoring in Dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkan, Y.; Bilgi, S.; Potts, L.; Miiama, J.; Mahgoub, M.; Rahman, S.

    2013-12-01

    Water is the life and necessity to water is increasing day by day with respect to the World population, rising of living standards and destruction of nature. Thus, the importance of water and water structures have been increasing gradually. Dams are among the most important engineering structures used for water supplies, flood controls, agricultural purposes as well as drinking and hydroelectric power. There are about 150.000 large size dams in the World. Especially after the Second World War, higher and larger capacity dams have been constructed. Dams create certain risks like the other manmade structures. No one knows precisely how many dam failures have occurred in the World, whereas hundreds of dam failures have occurred throughout the U.S. history. Some basic physical data are very important for assessing the safety and performance of dams. These are movement, water pressure, seepage, reservoir and tail-water elevations, local seismic activities, total pressure, stress and strain, internal concrete temperature, ambient temperature and precipitation. These physical data are measured and monitored by the instruments and equipment. Dams and their surroundings have to be monitored by using essential methods at periodic time intervals in order to determine the possible changes that may occur over the time. Monitoring programs typically consist of; surveillance or visual observation. These programs on dams provide information for evaluating the dam's performance related to the design intent and expected changes that could affect the safety performance of the dam. Additionally, these programs are used for investigating and evaluating the abnormal or degrading performance where any remedial action is necessary. Geodetic and non-geodetic methods are used for monitoring. Monitoring the performance of the dams is critical for producing and maintaining the safe dams. This study provides some information, safety and the techniques about the deformation monitoring of the

  17. Seismic analysis of the Par Pond Dam: Study of slope failure and liquefaction. Technical evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Simos, N.; Reich, M.

    1994-07-01

    Stability concerns of the Par Pond Dam, an embankment structure in the Savannah River Site complex, resulted in a comprehensive evaluation of the state of its integrity. Specifically, excessive seepage through the embankment, slope failure due to an earthquake event as well as liquefaction potential of the embankment and the foundation are addressed and the potential of failure is evaluated. Lastly, remedial benefits of the addition of a berm structure are also assessed.

  18. The formation and failure of debris flow-dams, background, key factors and model tests: case studies from China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Chao; Cui, Peng; Cheng, Zun-Lan

    2009-06-01

    Temporary dams can be formed by the sudden injection of debris flow into main streams by some favorable geomorphologic and hydraulic conditions, resulting in extensive inundations upstream and catastrophic floods downstream due to dam breaches and consequently dramatic changes of channels and valleys. Expeditious means of assessing dam-forming potential are necessary, particularly in geologically active regions. Complete blockages or dam formations are significantly related to the discharge ratio and velocity ratio between the tributary and the main stream, the bulk density of the debris flow, confluent angles and the degree of unevenness of grain sizes. In order to set up a critical index/ C for dam formation, 19 groups of flume tests were conducted. The results showed that there were three types of blockage in the intersections, and dam-forming processes were mainly controlled by the product of the dimensionless momentum ratio and the degree of unevenness of grain sizes in the debris flow. Complete blockages or dam formations occurred when C > 83.4, whereas semi-blockages were formed or no dams were formed when C < 71.5, which had been judged to be feasible by historical instances of dam formation in China. Dam failures commonly resulted from overtopping. No piping was observed in the course of dam failure, and the time elapsed between dams can be denoted by a linear relation with the momentum ratio.

  19. Statistical source identification of major and trace elements in groundwater downward the tailings dam of Miduk Copper Complex, Kerman, Iran.

    PubMed

    Kargar, Maryam; Khorasani, Neamatolah; Karami, Mahmoud; Rafiee, Gholamreza; Naseh, Reza

    2012-10-01

    Identifying the possible sources of potential harmful metals in groundwater systems plays a crucial role in evaluating the potential risks to residents and local plant cover. An attempt was made to define the origin of Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, and Pb in groundwater using multivariate statistic approaches [principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis], and tailings sequential extraction by the method of Tessier et al. The concentrations of studied elements were measured in 42 samples collected from 15 stations surrounding and downward the tailings dam of Miduk Copper Complex, central province of Kerman, Iran. According to the PCA results, confirmed by cluster dendrogram and metal content measurement of tailings sequential extracts, two components accounting for nearly 73% of the total variance, controlled the heavy metal variability and classified the possible source of groundwater contamination into two categories: (1) upper seepage which controls the variability of Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, and Pb and (2) toe seepage of tailings dump affecting on Mo and Al concentration in downstream groundwater.

  20. The 27 May 1937 catastrophic flow failure of gold tailings at Tlalpujahua, Michoacán, México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macías, J. L.; Corona-Chávez, P.; Sanchéz-Núñez, J. M.; Martínez-Medina, M.; Garduño-Monroy, V. H.; García-Tenorio, F.; Cisneros-Máximo, G.

    2014-08-01

    On 27 May 1937, after one week of sustained heavy rainfall, a voluminous flood caused the death of at least 300 people and the destruction of the historic El Carmen church and several neighborhoods in the mining region of Tlalpujahua, Michoacán, central Mexico. This destructive flood was triggered by the breaching of the impoundment of the Los Cedros tailings and the sudden release of 16 Mt of water-saturated waste materials. The muddy silty flood, moving at estimated speeds of 20-25 m s-1, was channelized along the Dos Estrellas and Tlalpujahua drainages and devastated everything along its flow path. After advancing 2.5 km downstream, the flood slammed into El Carmen church and surrounding houses at estimated speeds of ~7 m s-1, destroying many of construction walls and covering the church floor with ~2 m of mud and debris. Eyewitness accounts and newspaper articles, together with analysis of archived photographic materials, indicated that the flood consisted of three muddy pulses. This interpretation is confirmed and extended by the results of our geological investigations during 2013 and 2014. Stratigraphic relations and granulometric data for selected proximal and distal samples show that the flood behaved as a hyperconcentrated flow along most of its trajectory. Even though premonitory signs of possible impoundment failure were reported days before the flood, and people living downstream were alerted, authorities ordered no evacuations or other mitigative actions. The catastrophic flood at Tlalpujahua provides a well-documented, though tragic, example of impoundment breaching of a tailings dam caused by the combined effects of intense rainfall, dam weakness, and inadequate emergency-management protocols - unfortunately an all too common case-scenario for most of the world's mining regions.

  1. Laboratory experiments on dam-break flow of water-sediment mixtures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dams induce sedimentation and store significant amounts of sediment as they age; therefore, dam failures often involve the release of sediment-laden water to the downstream floodplain. In particular, tailings dams, which are constructed to impound mining wastes, can cause devastating damage when the...

  2. In-situ gamma-ray survey of rare-earth tailings dams--A case study in Baotou and Bayan Obo Districts, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Baochuan; Wang, Nanping; Wan, Jianhua; Xiong, Shengqing; Liu, Hongtao; Li, Shijun; Zhao, Rong

    2016-01-01

    An in-situ gamma-ray spectrometer survey with a scintillation detector of NaI(Tl) (Φ75 mm × 75 mm) was carried out in the Baotou and Bayan Obo Districts in order to estimate the levels of natural radionuclides near rare-earth (RE) tailings dams. In the RE tailings dam of Baotou, the mean concentrations of (238)U and (232)Th were 3.0 ± 1.0 mg/kg (range: 1.9-4.6 mg/kg) and 321 ± 31 mg/kg (range: 294-355 mg/kg), respectively. In the Bayan Obo tailings dam, the mean concentrations of (238)U and (232)Th were 5.7 ± 0.5 mg/kg (range: 5.3-6.1 mg/kg) and 276 ± 0.5 mg/kg (range: 275.5-276.3 mg/kg), respectively. The average (232)Th concentrations in the mining areas of the Bayan Obo Mine and the living areas of the Bayan Obo Town were 18.7 ± 7.5 and 26.2 ± 9.1 mg/kg, respectively. The (232)Th concentration recorded in the tailings dams was much higher than the global average (7.44 mg/kg). Our investigation shows that the (232)Th concentration in the tailings in the Baotou dam was 34.6 times greater than that in the local soil (in Guyang County); the average concentrations of (232)Th in the soil in the Baotou District and Bayan Obo Districts were about 1.35 and 2.82 times greater, respectively, than that in the soil in Guyang County. Based on our results, the highest estimated effective dose due to gamma irradiation was 1.15 mSv per year, estimated from the data observed in the Baotou tailings dams. The results of this preliminary study indicate the potential importance of radioactivity in RE tailings dams and that remedial measures may be required.

  3. Endophytic fungi and soil microbial community characteristics over different years of phytoremediation in a copper tailings dam of Shanxi, China.

    PubMed

    Tong, Jia; Miaowen, Cao; Juhui, Jing; Jinxian, Liu; Baofeng, Chai

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a survey of native grass species infected by endophytic fungi in a copper tailings dam over progressive years of phytoremediation. We investigated how endophytic fungi, soil microbial community structure and soil physiochemical properties and enzymatic activity varied in responses to heavy metal pollution over different stages of phytoremediation. endophyte infection frequency increased with years of phytoremediation. Rates of endophyte infection varied among different natural grass species in each sub-dam. Soil carbon content and soil enzymatic activity gradually increased through the years of phytoremediation. endophyte infection rates of Bothriochloa ischaemum and Festuca rubra were positively related to levels of cadmium (Cd) pollution levels, and fungal endophytes associated with Imperata cylindrical and Elymus dahuricus developed tolerance to lead (Pb). The structure and relative abundance of bacterial communities varied little over years of phytoremediation, but there was a pronounced variation in soil fungi types. Leotiomycetes were the dominant class of resident fungi during the initial phytoremediation period, but Pezizomycetes gradually became dominant as the phytoremediation period progressed. Fungal endophytes in native grasses as well as soil fungi and soil bacteria play different ecological roles during phytoremediation processes.

  4. Atrophy and growth failure of rat hindlimb muscles in tail-cast suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaspers, S. R.; Tischler, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    The primary objective of the present study is related to an evaluation of a modified tail-cast suspension model as a means of identifying metabolic factors which control or are associated with muscle atrophy and growth failure. Two different control conditions (normal and tail-casted weight bearing) were studied to determine the appropriate control for tail-cast suspension. A description is presented of a model which is most useful for studying atrophy of hindlimb muscles under certain conditions. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were employed in the experiments. Attention is given to growth rate and urinary excretion of urea and ammonia in different types of rats, the relationship between body weight and skeletal muscle weight, and the relationship between animal body weight and rates of protein synthesis and protein degradation.

  5. Mineralogical characterization of tailing dams: incidence of abandoned mining works on soil pollution (Linares, Jaén)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Torre, M. J.; Hidalgo, C.; Rey, J.; Martínez, J.

    2012-04-01

    The metallogenic district of Linares-La Carolina (Jaén, Spain) consists of dyke mineralizations mainly of galena, accompanied by blende, chalcopyrite and barite. Associated to these abandoned mines, relatively extensive areas occupied by spoil heaps and tailing impoundments exist and constitute potential sources of soil pollution by metals and semimetals. In order to analyze the pollution potential of these mining wastes, we have carried out a mineralogical and geochemical study of seven tailing dams and surrounding soils in the area. The mineralogy of the samples was studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). In addition, the total metal content of samples was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. Samples were taken from the first 30 cm of the waste piles and soil deposits and white efflorescences were also obtained from the surface of the tailings. In all analyzed heaps, high to very high total contents in Pb (1220-22890 mg/kg), Zn (150-51280 mg/kg), Mn (2658-4160 mg/kg), Ba (1026-19610 mg/kg) and Fe (19400-138000 mg/kg) were observed. The concentrations for these same elements in the studied soils range from 527-9900 mg/kg for Pb, 27-1700 mg/kg for Zn, 506-2464 mg/kg for Mn, 2832-4306 for Ba and 8642-29753 mg/kg for Fe, and these figures indicate a contamination of the soils, according to the guidelines established by the Spanish law. The XRD and SEM results indicate that the tailings are primarily constituted by gangue of the exploited mineralization: quartz, calcite, ankerite, feldspars and phyllosilicates. They are inherited, primary mineral phases. Galena, also primary, appears in low proportion, as well as lepidocrocite, melanterite and cerussite, being these three last secondary minerals and indicating a certain remobilization of metal cations, especially lead and iron. On the other hand, quartz and phyllosilicates predominate in the soils, in which, in addition, is identified a

  6. Hydrology, geomorphology, and dam-break modeling of the July 15, 1982, Lawn Lake Dam and Cascade Lake Dam failures, Larimer County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarrett, R.D.; Costa, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    On July 15, 1982, Lawn Lake Dam, a 26-foot-high earthfill irrigation dam built in 1903 in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, failed, due to piping, releasing 674 acre-feet of water with a peak discharge of 18,000 cubic feet per second down the Roaring River. Three people were killed, and damages were estimated at $31 million. Cascade Lake Dam, downstream from Lawn Lake Dam, subsequently failed as a result of the flood, increasing the peak flow at this point from 7,210 cubic feet per second to 16,000 cubic feet per second. The flood wave took 3.28 hours to travel 12.5 miles to Lake Estes, where all the floodwater was stored. The channel of the Roaring River was scoured as much as 50 feet and widened 300 feet. An alluvial fan of 42.3 acres, containing 10 million cubic feet of material, was deposited at the mouth of the Roaring River, damming the Fall River and forming a 17-acre lake. Various methods were used to indirectly compute peak discharge, attenuation of flow, and flood traveltime. A version of the National Weather Service dam-break flood model was used to evaluate its performance on high-gradient streams, to provide supplemental hydrologic information, and to evaluate various scenarios of dam-break development. (USGS)

  7. Geochemistry of Mercury and other trace elements in fluvial tailings upstream of Daguerre Point Dam, Yuba River, California, August 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunerlach, Michael P.; Alpers, Charles N.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark; Taylor, Howard E.; DeWild, John F.

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to characterize the particle-size distribution and the concentrations of total mercury (HgT), methylmercury (MeHg), and other constituents in sediments trapped behind Daguerre Point Dam, a 28-foot-high structure on the lower Yuba River in California. The results of the study will assist other agencies in evaluating potential environmental impacts from mobilization of sediments if Daguerre Point Dam is modified or removed to improve the passage of anadromous fish. Methylmercury is of particular concern owing to its toxicity and propensity to bioaccumulate. A limited amount of recent work on hydraulic and dredge tailings in other watersheds has indicated that mercury and MeHg concentrations may be elevated in the fine-grained fractions of placer mining debris, particularly clay and silt. Mercury associated with tailings from placer gold mines is a source of continued contamination in Sierra Nevada watersheds and downstream water bodies, including the Sacramento?San Joaquin Delta and the San Francisco Bay of northern California. Churn drilling was used to recover sediments and heavy minerals at 5-foot intervals from six locations upstream of Daguerre Point Dam. Maximum depth of penetration ranged from 17.5 to 35 feet below land surface, resulting in 31 discreet drilled intervals. Drilling in permeable, unconsolidated sediments below the streambed of the Yuba River released a significant volume of water along with the sediment, which complicated the sampling and characterization effort. Overflow of a silty fraction sampled at the drill site contained suspended sediment consisting predominantly of silt and clay, with HgT concentration ranging from 33 to 1,100 ng/g (nanogram per gram) dry weight. A sandy fraction, collected after sieving sediment through a 2-millimeter vibratory screen, contained from 14 to 82 percent sand and 1 to 29 percent silt plus clay, and had HgT concentrations ranging from 6.8 to 81 ng/g dry weight. A clay-silt fraction

  8. Assessment of Vegetation Establishment on Tailings Dam at an Iron Ore Mining Site of Suburban Beijing, China, 7 Years After Reclamation with Contrasting Site Treatment Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Demin; Zhao, Fangying; Sun, Osbert Jianxin

    2013-09-01

    Strip-mining operations greatly disturb soil, vegetation and landscape elements, causing many ecological and environmental problems. Establishment of vegetation is a critical step in achieving the goal of ecosystem restoration in mining areas. At the Shouyun Iron Ore Mine in suburban Beijing, China, we investigated selective vegetation and soil traits on a tailings dam 7 years after site treatments with three contrasting approaches: (1) soil covering (designated as SC), (2) application of a straw mat, known as "vegetation carpet", which contains prescribed plant seed mix and water retaining agent (designated as VC), on top of sand piles, and (3) combination of soil covering and application of vegetation carpet (designated as SC+VC). We found that after 7 years of reclamation, the SC+VC site had twice the number of plant species and greater biomass than the SC and VC sites, and that the VC site had a comparable plant abundance with the SC+VC site but much less biodiversity and plant coverage. The VC site did not differ with the SC site in the vegetation traits, albeit low soil fertility. It is suggested that application of vegetation carpet can be an alternative to introduction of topsoil for treatment of tailings dam with fine-structured substrate of ore sands. However, combination of topsoil treatment and application of vegetation carpet greatly increases vegetation coverage and plant biodiversity, and is therefore a much better approach for assisting vegetation establishment on the tailings dam of strip-mining operations. While application of vegetation carpet helps to stabilize the loose surface of fine-structured mine wastes and to introduce seed bank, introduction of fertile soil is necessary for supplying nutrients to plant growth in the efforts of ecosystem restoration of mining areas.

  9. Combination of sequential chemical extraction and modelling of dam-break wave propagation to aid assessment of risk related to the possible collapse of a roasted sulphide tailings dam.

    PubMed

    Pérez-López, Rafael; Sáez, Reinaldo; Alvarez-Valero, Antonio M; Miguel Nieto, José; Pace, Gaetano

    2009-10-15

    The Sotiel-Coronada abandoned mining district (Iberian Pyrite Belt) produced complex massive sulphide ores which were processed by flotation to obtain Cu, Zn and Pb concentrates. The crude pyrite refuses were roasted for sulphuric acid production in a plant located close to the flotation site, and waste stored in a tailing dam. The present study was focused on the measurements of flow properties, chemical characterization and mineralogical determination of the roasted pyrite refuses with the aim of assessing the potential environmental impact in case of dam collapse. Chemical studies include the determination of the total contaminant content and information about their bio-availability or mobility using sequential extraction techniques. In the hypothetical case of the tailing dam breaking up and waste spilling (ca. 4.54Mt), a high density mud flow would flood the Odiel river valley and reach both Estuary of Huelva (Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO, 1983) and Atlantic Ocean in matter of a couple of days, as it was predicted by numerical simulations of dam-break waves propagation through the river valley based on quasi-2D Saint-Venant equations. The total amount of mobile pollutants that would be released into the surrounding environment is approximately of 7.1.10(4)t of S, 1.6.10(4)t of Fe, 1.4.10(4)t of As, 1.2.10(4)t of Zn, 1.0.10(4)t of Pb, 7.4.10(3)t of Mn, 2.2.10(3)t of Cu, 1.5.10(2)t of Co, 36t of Cd and 17t of Ni. Around 90-100% of S, Zn, Co and Ni, 60-70% of Mn and Cd, 30-40% of Fe and Cu, and 5% of As and Pb of the mobile fraction would be easily in the most labile fraction (water-soluble pollutants), and therefore, the most dangerous and bio-available for the environment. This gives an idea of the extreme potential risk of roasted pyrite ashes to the environment, until now little-described in the scientific literature.

  10. Formation and failure of volcanic debris dams in the Chakachatna River valley associated with eruptions of the Spurr volcanic complex, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waythomas, C.F.

    2001-01-01

    The formation of lahars and a debris avalanche during Holocene eruptions of the Spurr volcanic complex in south-central Alaska have led to the development of volcanic debris dams in the Chakachatna River valley. Debris dams composed of lahar and debris-avalanche deposits formed at least five times in the last 8000-10,000 years and most recently during eruptions of Crater Peak vent in 1953 and 1992. Water impounded by a large debris avalanche of early Holocene (?) age may have destabilized an upstream glacier-dammed lake causing a catastrophic flood on the Chakachatna River. A large alluvial fan just downstream of the debris-avalanche deposit is strewn with boulders and blocks and is probably the deposit generated by this flood. Application of a physically based dam-break model yields estimates of peak discharge (Qp) attained during failure of the debris-avalanche dam in the range 104 < Qp < 106 m3 s-1 for plausible breach erosion rates of 10-100 m h-1. Smaller, short-lived, lahar dams that formed during historical eruptions in 1953, and 1992, impounded smaller lakes in the upper Chakachatna River valley and peak flows attained during failure of these volcanic debris dams were in the range 103 < Qp < 104 m3 s-1 for plausible breach erosion rates. Volcanic debris dams have formed at other volcanoes in the Cook Inlet region, Aleutian arc, and Wrangell Mountains but apparently did not fail rapidly or result in large or catastrophic outflows. Steep valley topography and frequent eruptions at volcanoes in this region make for significant hazards associated with the formation and failure of volcanic debris dams. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  11. Application of electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) to a tailings dam project for artisanal and small-scale gold mining in Zaruma-Portovelo, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarroca, Mario; Linares, Rogelio; Velásquez-López, Patricio C.; Roqué, Carles; Rodríguez, Roberto

    2015-02-01

    Thanks to advances in geoelectrical resistivity method over the past two decades, researchers can now gather massive geophysical data sets encompassing long distances and depths, at reasonable cost. The enhanced resolution and spatial coverage of these techniques make them, now, very attractive for use in geological engineering applications, an area for which they were previously charged to be unsuitable. The study shows the capability of electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) to identify key subsoil features that might affect a future tailings dam slated for construction at the Zaruma-Portovelo Mining District, Ecuador. The ERI profiles were gathered and processed with the aim of obtaining resistivity images of a sufficiently resolution for geotechnical use. A geophysical model was created based on these images. The resistivity images were calibrated according to geomorphological, hydrogeological and geotechnical data in order to translate geophysical information into rational geological information. The ERI results, supported by the geomorphological and geotechnical work, suggested that the rock massif is composed of weathering horizons of different rock qualities, slopes are affected by sliding surfaces and these features exert a control on the groundwater flow. These results indicated that the original site selected to construct the dam dike was susceptible to land sliding and an alternative construction site was suggested. Based on the same results, a geomorphological-hydrogeological conceptual model for layered weathered granitic massif in mountainous areas was also proposed.

  12. A physically-based method for predicting peak discharge of floods caused by failure of natural and constructed earthen dams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walder, J.S.; O'Connor, J. E.; Costa, J.E.; ,

    1997-01-01

    We analyse a simple, physically-based model of breach formation in natural and constructed earthen dams to elucidate the principal factors controlling the flood hydrograph at the breach. Formation of the breach, which is assumed trapezoidal in cross-section, is parameterized by the mean rate of downcutting, k, the value of which is constrained by observations. A dimensionless formulation of the model leads to the prediction that the breach hydrograph depends upon lake shape, the ratio r of breach width to depth, the side slope ?? of the breach, and the parameter ?? = (V.D3)(k/???gD), where V = lake volume, D = lake depth, and g is the acceleration due to gravity. Calculations show that peak discharge Qp depends weakly on lake shape r and ??, but strongly on ??, which is the product of a dimensionless lake volume and a dimensionless erosion rate. Qp(??) takes asymptotically distinct forms depending on whether < ??? 1 or < ??? 1. Theoretical predictions agree well with data from dam failures for which k could be reasonably estimated. The analysis provides a rapid and in many cases graphical way to estimate plausible values of Qp at the breach.We analyze a simple, physically-based model of breach formation in natural and constructed earthen dams to elucidate the principal factors controlling the flood hydrograph at the breach. Formation of the breach, which is assumed trapezoidal in cross-section, is parameterized by the mean rate of downcutting, k, the value of which is constrained by observations. A dimensionless formulation of the model leads to the prediction that the breach hydrograph depends upon lake shape, the ratio r of breach width to depth, the side slope ?? of the breach, and the parameter ?? = (V/D3)(k/???gD), where V = lake volume, D = lake depth, and g is the acceleration due to gravity. Calculations show that peak discharge Qp depends weakly on lake shape r and ??, but strongly on ??, which is the product of a dimensionless lake volume and a

  13. Deformation Monitoring and Bathymetry Analyses in Rock-Fill Dams, a Case Study at Ataturk Dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkan, Y.; Bilgi, S.

    2014-12-01

    Turkey has 595 dams constructed between 1936 and 2013 for the purposes of irrigation, flood control, hydroelectric energy and drinking water. A major portion of the dam basins in Turkey are deprived of vegetation and have slope topography on near surrounding area. However, landscaping covered with forest around the dam basin is desirable for erosion control. In fact; the dams, have basins deprived of vegetation, fill up quickly due to sediment transport. Erosion control and forestation are important factors, reducing the sediment, to protect the water basins of the dams and increase the functioning life of the dams. The functioning life of dams is as important as the investment and construction. Nevertheless, in order to provide safety of human life living around, well planned monitoring is essential for dams. Dams are very large and critical structures and they demand the use or application of precise measuring systems. Some basic physical data are very important for assessing the safety and performance of dams. These are movement, water pressure, seepage, reservoir and tail-water elevations, local seismic activities, total pressure, stress and strain, internal concrete temperature, ambient temperature and precipitation. Monitoring is an essential component of the dam after construction and during operation and must en­able the timely detection of any behavior that could deteriorate the dam, potentially result in its shutdown or failure. Considering the time and labor consumed by long-term measurements, processing and analysis of measured data, importance of the small structural motions at regular intervals could be comprehended. This study provides some information, safety and the techniques about the deformation monitoring of the dams, dam safety and related analysis. The case study is the deformation measurements of Atatürk Dam in Turkey which is the 6th largest dam of world considering the filling volume of embankment. Brief information is given about the

  14. A physically-based method for predicting peak discharge of floods caused by failure of natural and constructed earthen dams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walder, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    We analyse a simple, physically-based model of breach formation in natural and constructed earthen dams to elucidate the principal factors controlling the flood hydrograph at the breach. Formation of the breach, which is assumed trapezoidal in cross-section, is parameterized by the mean rate of downcutting, k, the value of which is constrained by observations. A dimensionless formulation of the model leads to the prediction that the breach hydrograph depends upon lake shape, the ratio r of breach width to depth, the side slope ?? of the breach, and the parameter ?? = (V/ D3)(k/???gD), where V = lake volume, D = lake depth, and g is the acceleration due to gravity. Calculations show that peak discharge Qp depends weakly on lake shape r and ??, but strongly on ??, which is the product of a dimensionless lake volume and a dimensionless erosion rate. Qp(??) takes asymptotically distinct forms depending on whether ?? > 1. Theoretical predictions agree well with data from dam failures for which k could be reasonably estimated. The analysis provides a rapid and in many cases graphical way to estimate plausible values of Qp at the breach.

  15. Northwest Montana Libby/Hungry Horse Dams Wildlife Mitigation; Columbian Sharp-Tailed Grouse, 1990-1991 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cope, Michael G. |

    1992-07-01

    Distribution, habitat use and survival of transplanted Columbian sharp-tailed grouse in the Tobacco Plains, Montana were studied from April, 1990 to August, 1991. For transplant purposes, 12 grouse (5 female and 7 male) were trapped on dancing grounds near Douglas Lake, British Columbia, Canada during spring, 1990. In April, 1991, trapping of 4 female and 2 male grouse for transplant occurred on the Sand Creek Wildlife Management Area in southeast Idaho while 3 additional males were transplanted from Douglas Lake. Minimum annual survival of transplanted grouse in the Tobacco Plains is relatively high (47%). High survival is possibly due to 2 factors: (1) topography and habitat characteristics that discourage dispersal and (2) the presence of limited but relatively good habitat. Two of 18 radio-equipped grouse dispersed out of the study area, while 2 others survived in the area for over 590 days. A negative correlation in distances moved between consecutive relocations and length of survival was seen in radio-equipped grouse in this study. Data collected during this study showed the importance of habitat associated with the Dancing Prairie Preserve. Three of 5 females transplanted in 1990 attempted to nest after being released. Nesting and brood rearing sites were characterized by dense grass cover with an average effective height {ge}20 cm. Shrub cover was associated only with brood rearing sites. Overall habitat use by transplanted Columbian Sharp-tailed grouse showed an apparent avoidance of agricultural land and use of other habitat types in proportion to their availability.

  16. Probable hydrologic effects of a hypothetical failure of Mackay Dam on the Big Lost River Valley from Mackay, Idaho to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Druffel, Leroy; Stiltner, Gloria J.; Keefer, Thomas N.

    1979-01-01

    Mackay Dam is an irrigation reservoir on the Big Lost River, Idaho, approximately 7.2 kilometers northwest of Mackay, Idaho. Consequences of possible rupture of the dam have long concerned the residents of the river valley. The presence of reactors and of a management complex for nuclear wastes on the reservation of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), near the river , give additional cause for concern over the consequences of a rupture of Mackay Dam. The objective of this report is to calculate and route the flood wave resulting from the hypothetical failure of Mackay Dam downstream to the INEL. Both a full and a 50 percent partial breach of this dam are investigated. Two techniques are used to develop the dam-break model. The method of characteristics is used to propagate the shock wave after the dam fails. The linear implicit finite-difference solution is used to route the flood wave after the shock wave has dissipated. The time of travel of the flood wave, duration of flooding, and magnitude of the flood are determined for eight selected sites from Mackay Dam, Idaho, through the INEL diversion. At 4.2 kilometers above the INEL diversion, peak discharges of 1,550.2 and 1,275 cubic meters per second and peak flood elevations of 1,550.3 and 1,550.2 meters were calculated for the full and partial breach, respectively. Flood discharges and flood peaks were not compared for the area downstream of the diversion because of the lack of detailed flood plain geometry. (Kosco-USGS)

  17. Zipingpu Concrete Face Rockfill Dam Failures caused by the 8.0R Earthquake on the 12th May 2008 (Chengdu, China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekkas, E.

    2009-04-01

    The 8.0R earthquake that struck Sichuan on the 12th of May 2008, in the district of Chengdu of Southern China resulted in tenths of thousands casualties, the complete destruction of many towns and extended damages to public works. The earthquake was triggered by a reverse fault of NE-SW trend, more than 100 km long, that divides morphologically the affected area in two sections, the eastern one with mild low topography and the western one with intense relief representing the boundary of Tibet Mountains. This mountainous section is characterized by a rich drainage network that drains the greater region of the Tibet plateau. Along the trace of this high-stand for thousands of years numerous hydraulic works have been attempted in order to manage the water supply. Especially during the past decades, 400 small and large dams have been constructed. The main dam is the Zipingpu dam. It is a Concrete Face Rockfill Dam (CFRD) that has a height of 150m, a capacity of 1.2 billion m3 and includes a hydroelectric plant of 3.4 billion Kwh power. The Zipingpu dam is located 10km east of the earthquake epicenter and after the earthquake of 8.0R, the following failures were recorded: (i) Subsidence of the crown in the central part of the dam, of the order of 50cm in relation to the side survey control points, (ii) Deformation of the lower face of the dam, an area of approximately 1000 m2, (iii) Deviations and deformations of the construction elements throughout the face of the dam, (iv) Widening of construction joints (approximately 15 cm on the upper face), (v) Extended massive landslides throughout the reservoir, and (vi) Landslides on both left and right abutments of the dam causing further damages to secondary constructions. After the evaluation of the dam damages, the discharge of the reservoir was ordered through the emergency spillway in order to minimize the risk of a potential disaster for the nearby towns and especially Dujiangyan. Finally, the causes of the failures are

  18. TAIL SECTION TEST STAND, SUSTAINER HYDRAULIC SYSTEM, DECAY CHARACTERISTICS AND FAILURE INVESTIGATION. BOOK III.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ENGINEERING DRAWINGS, STAGING , CONTROL SYSTEMS, MATHEMATICAL MODELS, PRESSURE, ATTENUATION....LEAKAGE(FLUID), * SUSTAINER ENGINES, HYDRAULIC EQUIPMENT, SURFACE TO SURFACE MISSILES, PERFORMANCE(ENGINEERING), FAILURE(MECHANICS), CAPTIVE TESTS

  19. PERSPECTIVE ON LANDSLIDE DAMS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuster, Robert L.; Costa, John E.; ,

    1986-01-01

    The most common types of mass movements that form landslide dams are rock and soil slumps and slides; mud, debris, and earth flows: and rock and debris avalanches. The most common initiation mechanisms for dam-forming landslides are excessive rainfall and snow melt, and earthquakes. Most landslide dams are remarkable short-lived. In a sample of 63 documented cases, 22 percent of the landslide dams failed in less than 1 day after formation, and half failed within 10 days. Overtopping was by far the most frequent cause of landslide-dam failure. Backwater flooding behind landslide dams can inundate communities and valuable agricultural land. Floods from the failure of landslide dams are smaller than floods from constructed dams impounding bodies of water with the same potential energy, but larger than floods from failure of ice dams. Secondary effects of landslide-dam failures include additional landslides as reservoir levels drop rapidly, aggradation of valleys upstream and downstream of the dams, and avulsive channel changes downstream.

  20. Accidental Water Pollution Risk Analysis of Mine Tailings Ponds in Guanting Reservoir Watershed, Zhangjiakou City, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Renzhi; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Zhijiao; Borthwick, Alistair; Zhang, Ke

    2015-01-01

    Over the past half century, a surprising number of major pollution incidents occurred due to tailings dam failures. Most previous studies of such incidents comprised forensic analyses of environmental impacts after a tailings dam failure, with few considering the combined pollution risk before incidents occur at a watershed-scale. We therefore propose Watershed-scale Tailings-pond Pollution Risk Analysis (WTPRA), designed for multiple mine tailings ponds, stemming from previous watershed-scale accidental pollution risk assessments. Transferred and combined risk is embedded using risk rankings of multiple routes of the “source-pathway-target” in the WTPRA. The previous approach is modified using multi-criteria analysis, dam failure models, and instantaneous water quality models, which are modified for application to multiple tailings ponds. The study area covers the basin of Gutanting Reservoir (the largest backup drinking water source for Beijing) in Zhangjiakou City, where many mine tailings ponds are located. The resultant map shows that risk is higher downstream of Gutanting Reservoir and in its two tributary basins (i.e., Qingshui River and Longyang River). Conversely, risk is lower in the midstream and upstream reaches. The analysis also indicates that the most hazardous mine tailings ponds are located in Chongli and Xuanhua, and that Guanting Reservoir is the most vulnerable receptor. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses are performed to validate the robustness of the WTPRA method. PMID:26633450

  1. Accidental Water Pollution Risk Analysis of Mine Tailings Ponds in Guanting Reservoir Watershed, Zhangjiakou City, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Renzhi; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Zhijiao; Borthwick, Alistair; Zhang, Ke

    2015-12-02

    Over the past half century, a surprising number of major pollution incidents occurred due to tailings dam failures. Most previous studies of such incidents comprised forensic analyses of environmental impacts after a tailings dam failure, with few considering the combined pollution risk before incidents occur at a watershed-scale. We therefore propose Watershed-scale Tailings-pond Pollution Risk Analysis (WTPRA), designed for multiple mine tailings ponds, stemming from previous watershed-scale accidental pollution risk assessments. Transferred and combined risk is embedded using risk rankings of multiple routes of the "source-pathway-target" in the WTPRA. The previous approach is modified using multi-criteria analysis, dam failure models, and instantaneous water quality models, which are modified for application to multiple tailings ponds. The study area covers the basin of Gutanting Reservoir (the largest backup drinking water source for Beijing) in Zhangjiakou City, where many mine tailings ponds are located. The resultant map shows that risk is higher downstream of Gutanting Reservoir and in its two tributary basins (i.e., Qingshui River and Longyang River). Conversely, risk is lower in the midstream and upstream reaches. The analysis also indicates that the most hazardous mine tailings ponds are located in Chongli and Xuanhua, and that Guanting Reservoir is the most vulnerable receptor. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses are performed to validate the robustness of the WTPRA method.

  2. Characteristics of chemical weathering and water-rock interaction in Lake Nyos dam (Cameroon): Implications for vulnerability to failure and re-enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantong, Wilson Y.; Kamtchueng, Brice T.; Yamaguchi, Kohei; Ueda, Akira; Issa; Ntchantcho, Romaric; Wirmvem, Mengnjo J.; Kusakabe, Minoru; Ohba, Takeshi; Zhang, Jing; Aka, Festus T.; Tanyileke, Gregory; Hell, Joseph V.

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, comprehensive study of hydrogeochemistry of water seeps, role of chemical weathering on dam failure, estimation of minimum width of dam to resist failure and simulation of changes in dissolved ions and secondary mineral was conducted on the Lake Nyos dam. The salient results and conclusions were; the dam spring water represented a mixture of 60-70% rainwater and 30-40% Lake water (from 0 to -40 m). The chemistry of the observed waters was Ca-HCO3 for rainwater, Ca-Mg-HCO3 in boreholes, and Mg-Ca-HCO3- for spring water. The relative rate at which ions dissolved in water was HCO3- > Mg2+ > Ca2+ > Na+ > SiO2 > K+ > NO3- > SO42- > Cl-. Weathering of rocks resulted in the formation of clay minerals such as kaolinite and smectite. Relative mobility of elements compared to Alumina (Al2O3) indicated that in monzonites there was a loss of CaO, Na2O, K2O, P2O5 and gain of SiO2, Fe2O3, TiO2, MnO and MgO, while in basalts there was a loss of SiO2, Fe2O3, Ca2O, NaO, MgO and gain of TiO2, K2O and P2O5. Values of chemical alteration index that ranged from 49 to 82 suggest a weak to intermediate categories of chemical weathering that occurred at a rate of 5.7 mm/year. Paired to that rate, which suggests that the dam is not vulnerable to failure at the previously thought time scale, some other processes (physical weathering, secondary mineral formation and lake overflow) can cause instant failure. Hydrostatic pressure of 1.6 GN generated by Lake water can be supported only when the width of the dam is greater than 19 m. PHREEQC-based simulation for 10 years indicates decoupling of Ca and Mg, and Na and Mg. Multidisciplinary monitoring of the dam is advocated.

  3. Modelling The Run-out of Mine Tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogg, A. J.; Pritchard, D.

    The flow which results from the failure of a mine tailings dam has been modelled experimentally by the sub-aerial release from behind a lock gate of a highly concen- trated monodisperse suspension of silicon carbide particles in water. The experimen- tal results suggest that in the initial stages of these flows, fluid inertia is significant; however, as the current advances and becomes shallower, the propagation is increas- ingly controlled by viscous forces, and the flow rapidly arrests, leaving a thick layer of sediment with a well-defined front. The run-out distance is controlled both by the particle-dependent rheology of the suspension and by the initial inertial flow. We describe a dynamical model in which the suspension is treated as a single-phase non-Newtonian fluid with a yield stress. The problem of a tailings dam failure is con- sidered as an analogue of the classic shallow-water dam-break problem. We inves- tigate analytically and numerically how this model may be used to characterise the inertial-viscous transition and the eventual run-out distance of the current. We discuss how simple dynamical models may help to predict the run-out of tailings following dam breaches.

  4. WinDAM C earthen embankment internal erosion analysis software

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two primary causes of dam failure are overtopping and internal erosion. For the purpose of evaluating dam safety for existing earthen embankment dams and proposed earthen embankment dams, Windows Dam Analysis Modules C (WinDAM C) software will simulate either internal erosion or erosion resulting f...

  5. Electrodialytic remediation of copper mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Henrik K; Rojo, Adrián; Ottosen, Lisbeth M

    2005-01-31

    Mining activities in Chile have generated large amounts of solid waste, which have been deposited in mine tailing impoundments. These impoundments cause concern to the communities due to dam failures or natural leaching to groundwater and rivers. This work shows the laboratory results of nine electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. The results show that electric current could remove copper from watery tailing if the potential gradient was higher than 2 V/cm during 21 days. With addition of sulphuric acid, the process was enhanced because the pH decreased to around 4, and the copper by this reason was released in the solution. Furthermore, with acidic tailing the potential gradient was less than 2 V/cm. The maximum copper removal reached in the anode side was 53% with addition of sulphuric acid in 21 days experiment at 20 V using approximately 1.8 kg mine tailing on dry basis. In addition, experiments with acidic tailing show that the copper removal is proportional with time.

  6. Debris flow from 2012 failure of moraine-dammed lake, Three Fingered Jack volcano, Mount Jefferson Wilderness, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrod, David R.; Wills, Barton B.

    2014-01-01

    The Three Fingered Jack debris flow is one of several that have issued from moraine-dammed lakes in the Oregon Cascade Range. A thorough summary of those lakes and the hazards associated with them was published in 2001, based largely on fieldwork by Jim O’Connor and Jasper Hardison in the early 1990s. Described here are details of the 2012 event, an update to the O’Connor story begun earlier.

  7. Debris flows from failures Neoglacial-age moraine dams in the Three Sisters and Mount Jefferson wilderness areas, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connor, J. E.; Hardison, J.H.; Costa, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    The highest concentration of lakes dammed by Neoglacial moraines in the conterminous United States is in the Mount Jefferson and Three Sisters Wilderness Areas in central Oregon. Between 1930 and 1980, breakouts of these lakes have resulted in 11 debris flows. The settings and sequences of events leading to breaching and the downstream flow behavior of the resulting debris flows provide guidance on the likelihood and magnitude of future lake breakouts and debris flows.

  8. The 1916 catastrophic flood following the Bílá Desná dam failure: The role of historical data sources in the reconstruction of its geomorphologic and landscape effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raška, Pavel; Emmer, Adam

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes the reconstruction of the geomorphologic and landscape effects of the most catastrophic flood owing to dam failure within the territory of today's Czech Republic, namely, the Bílá Desná dam failure of 1916. Because of the realisation of the significant later transformation of the Bílá Desná river catchment almost 100 years after the flood event, the field research performed during the summer and fall of 2013 had to be supported by extensive research in regional archives for documentary data. Various data types and sources (such as court investigation notes, investigation reports for insurance companies, old maps, and old photos, as well as video and recorded testimonies of survivors) were used to reconstruct the magnitude (discharge, flood wave extent) of the flood and its effects on the channel morphology and landscape. According to the reconstruction of the dam failure, which was caused by the internal erosion of the dam, the calculated peak discharge ranged between 418.2 and 1491.7 m3s- 1 and therefore exceeded the mean flow rate of the Bílá Desná River by more than 850 times. The river channel immediately upstream and downstream of the dam reclaimed its former meandering pattern with higher sinuosity, and new gravel point bars and irregular bars have been formed. Moreover, the river channel immediately below the dam shifted by up to 30 m following the flood wave. The most significant flood impacts were apparent in the village of Desná, where the flood wave, together with transported boulders (up to 2 m in diametre) and logs from sawmills situated upstream, killed 62 inhabitants and damaged or destroyed 101 buildings. The reconstructed flood wave in the towns of Desná and Tanvald exceeded the bankfull water level twice, with a width ranging between ~ 50 and 250 m in contrast to the average channel width of a few metres.

  9. 30 CFR 57.20010 - Retaining dams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Retaining dams. 57.20010 Section 57.20010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE....20010 Retaining dams. If failure of a water or silt retaining dam will create a hazard, it shall be...

  10. 30 CFR 57.20010 - Retaining dams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Retaining dams. 57.20010 Section 57.20010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE....20010 Retaining dams. If failure of a water or silt retaining dam will create a hazard, it shall be...

  11. 30 CFR 56.20010 - Retaining dams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Retaining dams. 56.20010 Section 56.20010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Retaining dams. If failure of a water or silt retaining dam will create a hazard, it shall be of...

  12. 30 CFR 56.20010 - Retaining dams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Retaining dams. 56.20010 Section 56.20010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Retaining dams. If failure of a water or silt retaining dam will create a hazard, it shall be of...

  13. 30 CFR 56.20010 - Retaining dams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Retaining dams. 56.20010 Section 56.20010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Retaining dams. If failure of a water or silt retaining dam will create a hazard, it shall be of...

  14. 30 CFR 57.20010 - Retaining dams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Retaining dams. 57.20010 Section 57.20010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE....20010 Retaining dams. If failure of a water or silt retaining dam will create a hazard, it shall be...

  15. 30 CFR 56.20010 - Retaining dams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Retaining dams. 56.20010 Section 56.20010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Retaining dams. If failure of a water or silt retaining dam will create a hazard, it shall be of...

  16. 30 CFR 57.20010 - Retaining dams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Retaining dams. 57.20010 Section 57.20010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE....20010 Retaining dams. If failure of a water or silt retaining dam will create a hazard, it shall be...

  17. 30 CFR 57.20010 - Retaining dams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Retaining dams. 57.20010 Section 57.20010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE....20010 Retaining dams. If failure of a water or silt retaining dam will create a hazard, it shall be...

  18. 30 CFR 56.20010 - Retaining dams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Retaining dams. 56.20010 Section 56.20010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Retaining dams. If failure of a water or silt retaining dam will create a hazard, it shall be of...

  19. A proactive approach to sustainable management of mine tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edraki, Mansour; Baumgartl, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The reactive strategies to manage mine tailings i.e. containment of slurries of tailings in tailings storage facilities (TSF's) and remediation of tailings solids or tailings seepage water after the decommissioning of those facilities, can be technically inefficient to eliminate environmental risks (e.g. prevent dispersion of contaminants and catastrophic dam wall failures), pose a long term economic burden for companies, governments and society after mine closure, and often fail to meet community expectations. Most preventive environmental management practices promote proactive integrated approaches to waste management whereby the source of environmental issues are identified to help make a more informed decisions. They often use life cycle assessment to find the "hot spots" of environmental burdens. This kind of approach is often based on generic data and has rarely been used for tailings. Besides, life cycle assessments are less useful for designing operations or simulating changes in the process and consequent environmental outcomes. It is evident that an integrated approach for tailings research linked to better processing options is needed. A literature review revealed that there are only few examples of integrated approaches. The aim of this project is to develop new tailings management models by streamlining orebody characterization, process optimization and rehabilitation. The approach is based on continuous fingerprinting of geochemical processes from orebody to tailings storage facility, and benchmark the success of such proactive initiatives by evidence of no impacts and no future projected impacts on receiving environments. We present an approach for developing such a framework and preliminary results from a case study where combined grinding and flotation models developed using geometallurgical data from the orebody were constructed to predict the properties of tailings produced under various processing scenarios. The modelling scenarios based on the

  20. Twin-tailed fail-over for fileservers maintaining full performance in the presence of a failure

    DOEpatents

    Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.

    2008-02-12

    A method for maintaining full performance of a file system in the presence of a failure is provided. The file system having N storage devices, where N is an integer greater than zero and N primary file servers where each file server is operatively connected to a corresponding storage device for accessing files therein. The file system further having a secondary file server operatively connected to at least one of the N storage devices. The method including: switching the connection of one of the N storage devices to the secondary file server upon a failure of one of the N primary file servers; and switching the connections of one or more of the remaining storage devices to a primary file server other than the failed file server as necessary so as to prevent a loss in performance and to provide each storage device with an operating file server.

  1. 106. DAM EARTH DIKE SUBMERSIBLE DAMS & DIKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    106. DAM - EARTH DIKE - SUBMERSIBLE DAMS & DIKE CONN. AT MOVABLE DAM (ML-8-52/2-FS) March 1940 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 8, On Mississippi River near Houston County, MN, Genoa, Vernon County, WI

  2. Reliablity analysis of gravity dams by response surface method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humar, Nina; Kryžanowski, Andrej; Brilly, Mitja; Schnabl, Simon

    2013-04-01

    A dam failure is one of the most important problems in dam industry. Since the mechanical behavior of dams is usually a complex phenomenon existing classical mathematical models are generally insufficient to adequately predict the dam failure and thus the safety of dams. Therefore, numerical reliability methods are often used to model such a complex mechanical phenomena. Thus, the main purpose of the present paper is to present the response surface method as a powerful mathematical tool used to study and foresee the dam safety considering a set of collected monitoring data. The derived mathematical model is applied to a case study, the Moste dam, which is the highest concrete gravity dam in Slovenia. Based on the derived model, the ambient/state variables are correlated with the dam deformation in order to gain a forecasting tool able to define the critical thresholds for dam management.

  3. Submarine and deep-sea mine tailing placements: A review of current practices, environmental issues, natural analogs and knowledge gaps in Norway and internationally.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Trannum, Hilde C; Evenset, Anita; Levin, Lisa A; Andersson, Malin; Finne, Tor Erik; Hilario, Ana; Flem, Belinda; Christensen, Guttorm; Schaanning, Morten; Vanreusel, Ann

    2015-08-15

    The mining sector is growing in parallel with societal demands for minerals. One of the most important environmental issues and economic burdens of industrial mining on land is the safe storage of the vast amounts of waste produced. Traditionally, tailings have been stored in land dams, but the lack of land availability, potential risk of dam failure and topography in coastal areas in certain countries results in increasing disposal of tailings into marine systems. This review describes the different submarine tailing disposal methods used in the world in general and in Norway in particular, their impact on the environment (e.g. hyper-sedimentation, toxicity, processes related to changes in grain shape and size, turbidity), current legislation and need for future research. Understanding these impacts on the habitat and biota is essential to assess potential ecosystem changes and to develop best available techniques and robust management plans.

  4. Preliminary estimate of possible flood elevations in the Columbia River at Trojan Nuclear Power Plant due to failure of debris dam blocking Spirit Lake, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresch, D.L.; Laenen, Antonius

    1984-01-01

    Failure of the debris dam, blocking the outflow of Spirit Lake near Mount St. Helens, could result in a mudflow down the Toutle and Cowlitz Rivers into the Columbia River. Flood elevations at the Trojan Nuclear Power Plant on the Columbia River, 5 mi upstream from the Cowlitz River, were simulated with a hydraulic routing model. The simulations are made for four Columbia River discharges in each of two scenarios, one in which Columbia River floods coincide with a mudflow and the other in which Columbia River floods follow a mudflow sediment deposit upstream from the Cowlitz River. In the first scenario, Manning 's roughness coefficients for clear water and for mudflow in the Columbia River are used; in the second scenario only clear water coefficients are used. The grade elevation at the power plant is 45 ft above sea level. The simulated elevations exceed 44 ft if the mudflow coincides with a Columbia River discharge that has a recurrence interval greater than 10 years (610,000 cu ft/sec); the mudflow is assumed to extend downstream from the Cowlitz River to the mouth of the Columbia River, and Manning 's roughness coefficients for a mudflow are used. The simulated elevation is 32 ft if the mudflow coincides with a 100-yr flood (820,000 cu ft/sec) and clear-water Manning 's coefficients are used throughout the entire reach of the Columbia River. The elevations exceed 45 ft if a flow exceeding the 2-yr peak discharge in the Columbia River (410,000 cu ft/sec) follows the deposit of 0.5 billion cu yd of mudflow sediment upstream of the Cowlitz River before there has been any appreciable scour or dredging of the deposit. In this simulation it is assumed that: (1) the top of the sediment deposited in the Columbia River is at an elevation of 30 ft at the mouth of the Cowlitz River, (2) the surface elevation of the sediment deposit decreases in an upstream direction at a rate of 2.5 ft/mi, and (3) clear water Manning 's coefficients apply to the entire modeled reach of

  5. National Dam Safety Program. Little Choconut Watershed Site 2B Dam (Inventory Number 721), Susquehanna River Basin, Broome County, New York. Phase I Inspection Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-30

    District is in the process of preparing an emergency action plan and warning system for the dam to be implemented in the event of dam failure . 4.4...Dam is considered to be in good condiicn. There were no signs of impending structural failure or other conditions which would warrant urgent remedial...within the dam failure flood hazard area as well as Airport Road and Stella Ireland Road b. Seepage, Unusual Growth None observed c. Evidence of Movement

  6. Potential for seepage erosion of landslide dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, W.; Schuster, R.L.; Sabol, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    The failure potential of the debris-avalanche dam at Castle Lake near Mount St. Helens, Washington, by three processes of seepage erosion (1) Heave; (2) piping; and (3) internal erosion, is examined. Results indicated that the dam is stable against piping but potentially locally unstable against heave. -from Authors

  7. 75 FR 49429 - Metal and Nonmetal Dams

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... Safety and Health Administration 30 CFR Parts 56 and 57 RIN 1219-AB70 Metal and Nonmetal Dams AGENCY...). SUMMARY: Dam failures at metal and nonmetal mines have exposed miners to life-threatening hazards. The Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) is reviewing its existing metal and nonmetal standards...

  8. 107. DAM EARTH DIKE SUBMERSIBLE DAMS PLANS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    107. DAM - EARTH DIKE - SUBMERSIBLE DAMS - PLANS & SECTIONS (ML-8-52/3-FS) March 1940 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 8, On Mississippi River near Houston County, MN, Genoa, Vernon County, WI

  9. WinDAM C earthern embankment internal erosion analysis software

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA has partnered with landowners to build rural flood control dams. Overtopping and internal erosion are the causes of most dam failures. To estimate the peak discharge associated with a dam incident, the USDA-NRCS, -ARS, and Kansas State University have collaboratively developed software. ...

  10. 11. VIEW OF THE ROAD TO SEDIMENT DAM LOOKING FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF THE ROAD TO SEDIMENT DAM LOOKING FROM EDGE OF TAILINGS. WATER PUMP (FEATURE B-25) IS VISIBLE IN CENTER LEFT OF FRAME. - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  11. Historic mills and mill tailings as potential sources of contamination in and near the Humboldt River basin, northern Nevada. Chapter D.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nash, J. Thomas; Stillings, Lisa L.

    2003-01-01

    Reconnaissance field studies of 40 mining districts in and near the Humboldt River basin have identified 83 mills and associated tailings impoundments and several other kinds of mineral-processing facilities (smelters, mercury retorts, heap-leach pads) related to historic mining. The majority of the mills and tailings sites are not recorded in the literature. All tailings impoundments show evidence of substantial amounts of erosion. At least 11 tailings dams were breached by flood waters, carrying fluvial tailings 1 to 15 km down canyons and across alluvial fans. Most of the tailings sites are dry most of the year, but some are near streams. Tailings that are wet for part of the year do not appear to be reacting significantly with those waters because physical factors such as clay layers and hard-pan cement appear to limit permeability and release of metals to surface waters. The major impact of mill tailings on surface- water quality may be brief flushes of runoff during storm events that carry acid and metals released from soluble mineral crusts. Small ephemeral ponds and puddles that tend to collect in trenches and low areas on tailings impoundments tend to be acidic and extremely enriched in metals, in part through cycles of evaporation. Ponded water that is rich in salts and metals could be acutely toxic to unsuspecting animals. Rare extreme storms have the potential to cause catastrophic failure of tailings impoundments, carry away metals in stormwaters, and transport tailings as debris flows for 1 to 15 km. In most situations these stormwaters and transported tailings could impact wildlife but probably would impact few or no people or domes-tic water wells. Because all identified historic tailings sites are several kilometers or more from the Humboldt River and major tributaries, tailings probably have no measurable impact on water quality in the main stem of the Humboldt River.

  12. The 26 May 1982 breakout flows derived from failure of a volcanic dam at El Chichón, Chiapas, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macias, J.L.; Capra, L.; Scott, K.M.; Espindola, J.M.; Garcia-Palomo, A.; Costa, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    The eruptions of El Chicho??n between 28 March and 4 April 1982 produced a variety of pyroclastic deposits. The climactic phase, on 3 April at 07:35 (4 April at 01:35 GMT), destroyed the central andesitic dome and fed pyroclastic surges and flows that dammed nearby drainages, including the Magdalena River. By late April, a lake had formed, 4 km long and 300-400 m wide, containing a volume of 26 ?? 106 m3 of hot water. At 01:30 on 26 May, the pyroclastic dam was breached and surges of sediment and hot water soon inundated the town of Ostuaca??n, 10 km downstream. This hot flood was finally contained at Pen??itas Hydroelectric Dam, 35 km downstream, where one fatality occurred and three workers were badly scalded. Stratigraphic and sedimentologic evidence indicates that the rapidly draining lake initially discharged two debris flows, followed by five smaller debris flows and water surges. The main debris flows became diluted with distance, and by the time they reached Ostuaca??n, they merged into a single hyperconcentrated flow with a sediment concentration of ???30 vol%. Deposits from this hyperconcentrated flow were emplaced for 15 km, as far as the confluence with another river, the Mas-Pac, below which the flow was diluted to sediment-laden streamflow. The minimum volume of the breakout-flow deposits is estimated at 17 ?? 106 m3. From high-water marks, flow profiles, and simulations utilizing the DAMBRK code from the National Weather Service, we calculated a maximum peak discharge of 11,000 m3/s at the breach; this maximum peak discharge occurred 1 h after initial breaching. The calculations indicated that ???2 h were required to drain the lake.

  13. National Dam Inspection Program. Bronson Pond Dam (NDI ID Number PA 00143, DER ID Number 64-42),Delaware River Basin, Middle Creek, Wayne County, Pennsylvania. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    r Bronson Pond Dam is an earth and rockfill structure approxi- mately 8 feet high and 100 feet in length. The dam was...near top of dam . Inflow occurring when the lake is at or above top of dam passes over and through the rockfill embankment. 1.3 Pertinent Data. a...the dam could cause a gradual, progressive failure. The flow rate does not appear to be an excessive amount for a dam of rockfill construction, but

  14. Tail Buffeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdrashitov, G.

    1943-01-01

    An approximate theory of buffeting is here presented, based on the assumption of harmonic disturbing forces. Two cases of buffeting are considered: namely, for a tail angle of attack greater and less than the stalling angle, respectively. On the basis of the tests conducted and the results of foreign investigators, a general analysis is given of the nature of the forced vibrations the possible load limits on the tail, and the methods of elimination of buffeting.

  15. 106. Photocopied August 1978. EXTENSION OF TAIL PIT WALLS, APRIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    106. Photocopied August 1978. EXTENSION OF TAIL PIT WALLS, APRIL 28, 1917. THE TIMBERWORK IN THE FOREGROUND WAS USED AS A COMBINATION COFFER DAM AND FORM FOR POURING THE CONCRETE TAIL RACE WALL EXTENSION. IN THE BACKGROUND ALONG THE POWER HOUSE SEVERAL COMPLETED WALL EXTENSIONS CAN BE SEEN DIMLY. (787) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  16. Correlation of serum IgG concentration in foals and refractometry index of the dam's pre- and post-parturient colostrums: an assessment for failure of passive transfer in foals.

    PubMed

    Korosue, Kenji; Murase, Harutaka; Sato, Fumio; Ishimaru, Mutsuki; Kotoyori, Yasumitsu; Nambo, Yasuo

    2012-11-01

    The object of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of measuring the differences in the values of the serum total protein (DVSTP) concentration of foals and the refractometry index (DVRI) of the milk of dams before and after nursing of the colostrum for assessing failure of passive transfer (FPT) in foals. Serum samples from 31 foals were collected before the first nursing and other 1 to 6 times between 4 and 24 hr after birth. Paired colostrum and milk samples were collected from 14 of their dams at the same time. Serum samples were analyzed for IgG concentration using a single radial immunodiffusion (SRID) test (98 samples) and total protein concentration using a temperature-compensating refractometer (98 samples). Colostrum and milk samples were analyzed for refractometry index (RI) using a Brix refractometer (71 samples). DVSTP concentration and DVRI were significantly correlated with serum IgG concentration. The negative predictive values (NPVs) of DVSTP concentration for detecting serum IgG concentrations<400 mg/dl and<800 mg/dl were 98.2% and 91.3% when the cutoff value is set to 0.4 mg/dl and 0.8 mg/dl, respectively. Furthermore, the NPVs of DVRI for detecting serum IgG concentrations<400 mg/dl and<800 mg/dl were 97.3% and 96.3% when the cutoff value is set to 6% and 10%, respectively. The results suggest that measurement of DVRI is useful in assessing FPT as an initial "stall-side" screening test, because it is easy, inexpensive to perform and allows for rapid interpretation.

  17. Experimental research on the dam-break mechanisms of the Jiadanwan landslide dam triggered by the Wenchuan earthquake in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fu-gang; Yang, Xing-guo; Zhou, Jia-wen; Hao, Ming-hui

    2013-01-01

    Dam breaks of landslide dams are always accompanied by large numbers of casualties, a large loss of property, and negative influences on the downstream ecology and environment. This study uses the Jiadanwan landslide dam, created by the Wenchuan earthquake, as a case study example. Several laboratory experiments are carried out to analyse the dam-break mechanism of the landslide dam. The different factors that impact the dam-break process include upstream flow, the boulder effect, dam size, and channel discharge. The development of the discharge channel and the failure of the landslide dam are monitored by digital video and still cameras. Experimental results show that the upstream inflow and the dam size are the main factors that impact the dam-break process. An excavated discharge channel, especially a trapezoidal discharge channel, has a positive effect on reducing peak flow. The depth of the discharge channel also has a significant impact on the dam-break process. The experimental results are significant for landslide dam management and flood disaster prevention and mitigation.

  18. CRIB DAM, LOOKING ALONG DAM FROM WEST ABUTMENT, SHOWING PLANK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CRIB DAM, LOOKING ALONG DAM FROM WEST ABUTMENT, SHOWING PLANK SHEATHING IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO EAST - Kachess Dam, 1904 Cascade Canal Company Crib Dam, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  19. 50. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). FIRST STAGE DAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). FIRST STAGE DAM -- DAM CONCRETE -- GENERAL ARRANGEMENT -- SECTION AND ELEVATIONS. M-L 26(R) 40/3 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

  20. 49. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). FIRST STAGE DAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). FIRST STAGE DAM -- DAM CONCRETE -- TYPICAL PIER ISOMETRIC. M-L 26(R) 40/1 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

  1. Geophysical methods for the assessment of earthen dams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dams and levees are an integral part of the fluvial system in watersheds. Their stability is of utmost concern to the Nation and to those directly impacted should failure occur. There are some 88,000 dams and 110,000 miles of levees in the USA. Many of those are earthen embankments and structures su...

  2. Focusing on dam safety

    SciTech Connect

    Lagassa, G.

    1993-01-01

    With increased relicensing activity and a federal emphasis on safety, dam repair and refurbishment is a growing business. Providers of goods and services are gearing up to meet the dam repair and rehabilitation needs that result.

  3. Hoover Dam Learning Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Reclamation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This learning packet provides background information about Hoover Dam (Nevada) and the surrounding area. Since the dam was built at the height of the Depression in 1931, people came from all over the country to work on it. Because of Hoover Dam, the Colorado River was controlled for the first time in history and farmers in Nevada, California, and…

  4. Stability analysis of White Oak Dam

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-11

    White Oak Dam is located in the White Oak Creek watershed which provides the primary surface drainage for Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A stability analysis was made on the dam by Syed Ahmed in January 1994 which included an evaluation of the liquefaction potential of the embankment and foundation. This report evaluates the stability of the dam and includes comments on the report prepared by Ahmed. Slope stability analyses were performed on the dam and included cases for sudden drawdown, steady seepage, partial pool and earthquake. Results of the stability analyses indicate that the dam is stable and failure of the structure would not occur for the cases considered. The report prepared by Ahmed leads to the same conclusions as stated above. Review of the report finds that it is complete, well documented and conservative in its selection of soil parameters. The evaluation of the liquefaction potential is also complete and this report is in agreement with the findings that the dam and foundation are not susceptible to liquefaction.

  5. 16. Parker Dam, only top fourth of dam visible, at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Parker Dam, only top fourth of dam visible, at 320' high, Parker Dam is one of the highest in the world. Much of this height is because dam penetrates well below river bottom to fasten to bedrock. - Parker Dam, Spanning Colorado River between AZ & CA, Parker, La Paz County, AZ

  6. National Dam Safety Program. Moore Creek Dam (Inventory Number VA 16304) , James River Basin, Rockbridge County, Virginia. Phase I Inspection Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    Moore Creek Dam is an earthfill structure about 950 feet long and 88.9 feet high. The dam is owned and maintained by the City of Lexington, Virginia. The...has nothing to do with their szability or probability of failure. 1.2.5 Ownership: City of Lexington, Virginia 1.2.6 Purpose: The dam was used as a...permit from the City . 1.2.7 Design and Construction History: Records do not show when the original dam was constructed. The dam was raised 10 feet in

  7. Using historic aerial photography and paleohydrologic techniques to assess long-term ecological response to two Montana dam removals.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Denine; Blank, Matt; Ammondt, Selita; Patten, Duncan T

    2009-07-01

    The restorative potential of dam removal on ecosystem function depends on the reversibility of dam effects and its operations. While dam removal is an established engineering practice, the need for an understanding of the ecological response remains. We used paleoflood hydrology, hydrologic modeling, and aerial photo interpretation to investigate the long-term ecologic responses to dam failure and breach. We investigated downstream geomorphic and vegetation responses to a dam failure (Pattengail Dam in 1927) and a controlled dam breach, which used natural sediment removal (Mystic Lake Dam in 1985). Our data showed vegetation responses indicative of channel and floodplain evolution at Pattengail. The size of the flood following the Pattengail dam failure initiated a series of channel adjustments and reworked over 19ha of floodplain downstream of the dam. In Mystic, we observed few flood stage indicators and a slight response in floodplain vegetation. We made several findings. (1) Dam removal effects on channel evolution and floodplain development depend on reach types and their responsiveness to flow regime change. (2) Ecologic response to dam removal depends on the sizes and timing of high flow events during and following removal. (3) Paleohydrology can be used to assess historic floods (>20 years). We see the utility of assessing the ecological responsiveness of a system to previous fluvial events or changes in flow regime. Informed about the character of a system based on its history, dam removal scientists can use these tools to set realistic restoration goals for removing a dam.

  8. 9. Excavation work at Pleasant Dam (now called Waddell Dam). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Excavation work at Pleasant Dam (now called Waddell Dam). Photographer unknown, July, 22, 1926. Source: Maricopa County Municipal Water Conservation District Number One (MWD). - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  9. Fish Assemblage Response to a Small Dam Removal in the Eightmile River System, Connecticut, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulos, Helen M.; Miller, Kate E.; Kraczkowski, Michelle L.; Welchel, Adam W.; Heineman, Ross; Chernoff, Barry

    2014-11-01

    We examined the effects of the Zemko Dam removal on the Eightmile River system in Salem, Connecticut, USA. The objective of this research was to quantify spatiotemporal variation in fish community composition in response to small dam removal. We sampled fish abundance over a 6-year period (2005-2010) to quantify changes in fish assemblages prior to dam removal, during drawdown, and for three years following dam removal. Fish population dynamics were examined above the dam, below the dam, and at two reference sites by indicator species analysis, mixed models, non-metric multidimensional scaling, and analysis of similarity. We observed significant shifts in fish relative abundance over time in response to dam removal. Changes in fish species composition were variable, and they occurred within 1 year of drawdown. A complete shift from lentic to lotic fishes failed to occur within 3 years after the dam was removed. However, we did observe increases in fluvial and transition (i.e., pool head, pool tail, or run) specialist fishes both upstream and downstream from the former dam site. Our results demonstrate the importance of dam removal for restoring river connectivity for fish movement. While the long-term effects of dam removal remain uncertain, we conclude that dam removals can have positive benefits on fish assemblages by enhancing river connectivity and fluvial habitat availability.

  10. Fish assemblage response to a small dam removal in the Eightmile River system, Connecticut, USA.

    PubMed

    Poulos, Helen M; Miller, Kate E; Kraczkowski, Michelle L; Welchel, Adam W; Heineman, Ross; Chernoff, Barry

    2014-11-01

    We examined the effects of the Zemko Dam removal on the Eightmile River system in Salem, Connecticut, USA. The objective of this research was to quantify spatiotemporal variation in fish community composition in response to small dam removal. We sampled fish abundance over a 6-year period (2005-2010) to quantify changes in fish assemblages prior to dam removal, during drawdown, and for three years following dam removal. Fish population dynamics were examined above the dam, below the dam, and at two reference sites by indicator species analysis, mixed models, non-metric multidimensional scaling, and analysis of similarity. We observed significant shifts in fish relative abundance over time in response to dam removal. Changes in fish species composition were variable, and they occurred within 1 year of drawdown. A complete shift from lentic to lotic fishes failed to occur within 3 years after the dam was removed. However, we did observe increases in fluvial and transition (i.e., pool head, pool tail, or run) specialist fishes both upstream and downstream from the former dam site. Our results demonstrate the importance of dam removal for restoring river connectivity for fish movement. While the long-term effects of dam removal remain uncertain, we conclude that dam removals can have positive benefits on fish assemblages by enhancing river connectivity and fluvial habitat availability.

  11. Dammed or Damned?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Philip

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes issues raised at a workshop on "People and Dams" organized by the Society for Participatory Research in Asia. Objectives were to (1) understand problems created by dams for people, (2) consider forces affecting displaced populations and rehabilitation efforts, and (3) gain a perspective on popular education efforts among…

  12. 1. OVERALL VIEW OF SPILLWAY SHOWING BAFFLE WALL AND TAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERALL VIEW OF SPILLWAY SHOWING BAFFLE WALL AND TAIL WATERS, WITH POWERHOUSE (MI-98-C) AND SUBSTATION (MI-98-D) AT LEFT. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Cooke Hydroelectric Plant, Spillway, Cook Dam Road at Au Sable River, Oscoda, Iosco County, MI

  13. Hydraulics of embankment-dam breaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walder, J. S.; Iverson, R. M.; Logan, M.; Godt, J. W.; Solovitz, S.

    2012-12-01

    Constructed or natural earthen dams can pose hazards to downstream communities. Experiments to date on earthen-dam breaching have focused on dam geometries relevant to engineering practice. We have begun experiments with dam geometries more like those of natural dams. Water was impounded behind dams constructed at the downstream end of the USGS debris-flow flume. Dams were made of compacted, well-sorted, moist beach sand (D50=0.21 mm), 3.5 m from toe to toe, but varying in height from 0.5 to 1 m; the lower the dam, the smaller the reservoir volume and the broader the initially flat crest. Breaching was started by cutting a slot 30-40 mm wide and deep in the dam crest after filling the reservoir. Water level and pore pressure within the dam were monitored. Experiments were also recorded by an array of still- and video cameras above the flume and a submerged video camera pointed at the upstream dam face. Photogrammetric software was used to create DEMs from stereo pairs, and particle-image velocimetry was used to compute the surface-velocity field from the motion of tracers scattered on the water surface. As noted by others, breaching involves formation and migration of a knickpoint (or several). Once the knickpoint reaches the upstream dam face, it takes on an arcuate form whose continued migration we determined by measuring the onset of motion of colored markers on the dam face. The arcuate feature, which can be considered the head of the "breach channel", is nearly coincident with the transition from subcritical to supercritical flow; that is, it acts as a weir that hydraulically controls reservoir emptying. Photogenic slope failures farther downstream, although the morphologically dominant process at work, play no role at all in hydraulic control aside from rare instances in which they extend upstream so far as to perturb the weir, where the flow cross section is nearly self-similar through time. The domain downstream of the critical-flow section does influence

  14. Revegetation Study of Adobe Dam, Phoenix, Arizona. Task 6. Evaluation of Three Watering and Mulching Techniques on Transplanted Trees at Adobe Dam.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-18

    describes the site characteristics of the Adobe Dam Study Area. Task No. 5 & 7 Seeding Success on Topsoiled and Hard Topspoles Slopes at Ddobe Dam". This...report presents statisfied analysis of the relative success of several seeding methods used at the Adobe Dam site. Task No.6 "Evaluation of three...8217,- ,_ _ .. _. ,’ .’ .’.- .. .. . . .’ .’. -" ". INTRODUCTION On denuded lands, harsh site conditions may render revegetation by seeding risky and the probability of seeding failure high

  15. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Dolloff Dam NH 00134 State Number 184.02, Piscataqua River Basin, Nottingham, New Hampshire. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-06-01

    overtop the dam by 3.5 ft. at the lowest point of the crest. DD OR 1473 ILOITION OF INOV *S IS OBSOLE E -DD- ..A ., OW DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY...Estimating Downstream Dam Failure Hydro - graphs issued by the Corps of Engineers. The analysis covered the reach extending from the dam to the village...Ownership passed onto the Lamprey S• River Improvement Company, a subsidiary of New Hampshire Gas and Electric Company, sometime prior to 1917. The New

  16. National Dam Safety Program. Mud Lock C&S Canal Dam (Inventory Number N.Y. 416) Oswego River Basin, Cayuga County, New York. Phase I Inspection Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-14

    overtopping is not likely to result in failure of the dam. In any case, spillway dis- charges occurring during large storm events will cause flooding in...spillway capacity to the top of the wall is 34,392 cfs. This is assuming no tailwater effect caused by flooding streams down- stream of the dam. 5.4...the dam. In any case, spillway discharge during the peak fle%. will cause flooding in downstream areas regardless of an overtopping filure. Therefore

  17. Plugs or flood-makers? the unstable landslide dams of eastern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Safran, Elizabeth B.; O'connor, James; Ely, Lisa L.; House, Kyle; Grant, Gordon E.; Harrity, Kelsey; Croall, Kelsey; Jones, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Landslides into valley bottoms can affect longitudinal profiles of rivers, thereby influencing landscape evolution through base-level changes. Large landslides can hinder river incision by temporarily damming rivers, but catastrophic failure of landslide dams may generate large floods that could promote incision. Dam stability therefore strongly modulates the effects of landslide dams and might be expected to vary among geologic settings. Here, we investigate the morphometry, stability, and effects on adjacent channel profiles of 17 former and current landslide dams in eastern Oregon. Data on landslide dam dimensions, former impoundment size, and longitudinal profile form were obtained from digital elevation data constrained by field observations and aerial imagery; while evidence for catastrophic dam breaching was assessed in the field. The dry, primarily extensional terrain of low-gradient volcanic tablelands and basins contrasts with the tectonically active, mountainous landscapes more commonly associated with large landslides. All but one of the eastern Oregon landslide dams are ancient (likely of order 103 to 104 years old), and all but one has been breached. The portions of the Oregon landslide dams blocking channels are small relative to the area of their source landslide complexes (0.4–33.6 km2). The multipronged landslides in eastern Oregon produce marginally smaller volume dams but affect much larger channels and impound more water than do landslide dams in mountainous settings. As a result, at least 14 of the 17 (82%) large landslide dams in our study area appear to have failed cataclysmically, producing large downstream floods now marked by boulder outwash, compared to a 40–70% failure rate for landslide dams in steep mountain environments. Morphometric indices of landslide dam stability calibrated in other environments were applied to the Oregon dams. Threshold values of the Blockage and Dimensionless Blockage Indices calibrated to worldwide

  18. 1. GORGE HIGH DAM. THIS THIN ARCH DAM WITH A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GORGE HIGH DAM. THIS THIN ARCH DAM WITH A GRAVITY SECTION IS THE THIRD DAM BUILT BY SEATTLE CITY LIGHT TO PROVIDE WATER FOR GORGE POWERHOUSE AND WAS COMPLETED IN 1961, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Gorge High Dam, On Skagit River, 2.9 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  19. Gypsum-karst problems in constructing dams in the USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Kenneth S.

    2008-01-01

    Gypsum is a highly soluble rock and is dissolved readily to form caves, sinkholes, disappearing streams, and other karst features that typically are also present in limestones and dolomites. Gypsum karst is widespread in the USA and has caused problems at several sites where dams were built, or where dam construction was considered. Gypsum karst is present (at least locally) in most areas where gypsum crops out, or is less than 30-60 m below the land surface. These karst features can compromise on the ability of a dam to hold water in a reservoir, and can even cause collapse of a dam. Gypsum karst in the abutments or foundation of a dam can allow water to pass through, around, or under a dam, and solution channels can enlarge quickly, once water starts flowing through such a karst system. The common procedure for controlling gypsum karst beneath the dam is a deep cut-off trench, backfilled with impermeable material, or a close-spaced grout curtain that hopefully will fill all cavities. In Oklahoma, the proposed Upper Mangum Dam was abandoned before construction, because of extensive gypsum karst in the abutments and impoundment area. Catastrophic failure of the Quail Creek Dike in southwest Utah in 1989 was due to flow of water through an undetected karstified gypsum unit beneath the earth-fill embankment. The dike was rebuilt, at a cost of US 12 million, with construction of a cut-off trench 600 m long and 25 m deep. Other dams in the USA with severe gypsum-karst leakage problems in recent years are Horsetooth and Carter Lake Dams, in Colorado, and Anchor Dam, in Wyoming.

  20. Gypsum-karst problems in constructing dams in the USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, K.S.

    2008-01-01

    Gypsum is a highly soluble rock and is dissolved readily to form caves, sinkholes, disappearing streams, and other karst features that typically are also present in limestones and dolomites. Gypsum karst is widespread in the USA and has caused problems at several sites where dams were built, or where dam construction was considered. Gypsum karst is present (at least locally) in most areas where gypsum crops out, or is less than 30-60 m below the land surface. These karst features can compromise on the ability of a dam to hold water in a reservoir, and can even cause collapse of a dam. Gypsum karst in the abutments or foundation of a dam can allow water to pass through, around, or under a dam, and solution channels can enlarge quickly, once water starts flowing through such a karst system. The common procedure for controlling gypsum karst beneath the dam is a deep cut-off trench, backfilled with impermeable material, or a close-spaced grout curtain that hopefully will fill all cavities. In Oklahoma, the proposed Upper Mangum Dam was abandoned before construction, because of extensive gypsum karst in the abutments and impoundment area. Catastrophic failure of the Quail Creek Dike in southwest Utah in 1989 was due to flow of water through an undetected karstified gypsum unit beneath the earth-fill embankment. The dike was rebuilt, at a cost of US $12 million, with construction of a cut-off trench 600 m long and 25 m deep. Other dams in the USA with severe gypsum-karst leakage problems in recent years are Horsetooth and Carter Lake Dams, in Colorado, and Anchor Dam, in Wyoming. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.

  1. A review of catastrophic drainage of moraine-dammed lakes in British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clague, John J.; Evans, Stephen G.

    2000-12-01

    Moraine-dammed lakes are common in the high mountains of British Columbia. Most of these lakes formed when valley and cirque glaciers retreated from advanced positions achieved during the Little Ice Age. Many moraine dams in British Columbia are susceptible to failure because they are steep-sided, have relatively low width-to-height ratios, comprise loose, poorly sorted sediment, and may contain ice cores or interstitial ice. In addition, the lakes commonly are bordered by steep slopes that are prone to snow and ice avalanches and rockfalls. Moraine dams generally fail by overtopping and incision. The triggering event may be a heavy rainstorm, or an avalanche or rockfall that generates waves that overtop the dam. The dam can also be overtopped by an influx of water caused by sudden drainage of an upstream ice-dammed lake (jökulhlaup). Melting of moraine ice cores and piping are other possible failure mechanisms. Failures of moraine dams in British Columbia produce destructive floods orders of magnitude larger than normal streamflows. Most outburst floods are characterized by an exponential increase in discharge, followed by an abrupt drop to background levels when the water supply is exhausted. Peak discharges are controlled by dam characteristics, the volume of water in the reservoir, failure mechanisms, and downstream topography and sediment availability. For the same potential energy at the dam site, floods from moraine-dammed lakes have higher peak discharges than floods from glacier-dammed lakes. The floodwaters may mobilize large amounts of sediment as they travel down steep valleys, producing highly mobile debris flows. Such flows have larger discharges and greater destructive impact than the floods from which they form. Moraine dam failures in British Columbia and elsewhere are most frequent following extended periods of cool climate when large lateral and end moraines are built. A period of protracted warming is required to trap lakes behind moraines and

  2. Wynoochee Dam Foundation Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    metamorphosed tholeiitic basalt, diabase , volcaniclastic, and associated sediments. From 8 miles upstream to 10 miles downstream from the dam the rocks are...clay and fine sandy interbeds are occasion- ally present at flow contacts. locally, the basalt is cut by dark gray, moderately jointed diabase dike...rock. 3.03.2 All of the concrete dam is founded on bedrock (figure 3-3). Basalt forms the right abutment, diabase forms the left, and a contact zone

  3. DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF CONCRETE GRAVITY DAM ON JOINTED ROCK FOUNDATION DURING LARGE-SCALE EARTHQUAKE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimata, Hiroyuki; Fujita, Yutaka; Horii, Hideyuki; Yazdani, Mahmoud

    Dynamic cracking analysis of concrete gravity dam has been carried out during large-scale earthquake, considering the progressive failure of jointed rock foundation. Firstly, in order to take into account the progressive failure of rock foundation, the constitutive law of jointed rock is assumed and its validity is evaluated by simulation analysis based on the past experimental model. Finally, dynamic cracking analysis of 100-m high dam model is performed, using the previously proposed approach with tangent stiffness-proportional damping to express the propagation behavior of crack and the constitutive law of jointed rock. The crack propagation behavior of dam body and the progressive failure of jointed rock foundation are investigated.

  4. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Westfield Reservoir Dam (MA 00734) Connecticut River Basin, Montgomery, Massachusetts. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    could develop into a more extensive seepage and lead to a piping failure of the dam . i e. A sinkhole in the earth berm on the right side of ,6 the...seepage from the reservoir, it could develop into a more extensive seepage and lead to a piping failure of the dam . (6) A sinkhole in the earth berm on...is the initial istrict inspection of the dam . The earth embanIment appears to be in good condition. It has a good turf cover and there are no signs of

  5. Dams and Intergovernmental Transfers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, X.

    2012-12-01

    Gainers and Losers are always associated with large scale hydrological infrastructure construction, such as dams, canals and water treatment facilities. Since most of these projects are public services and public goods, Some of these uneven impacts cannot fully be solved by markets. This paper tried to explore whether the governments are paying any effort to balance the uneven distributional impacts caused by dam construction or not. It showed that dam construction brought an average 2% decrease in per capita tax revenue in the upstream counties, a 30% increase in the dam-location counties and an insignificant increase in downstream counties. Similar distributional impacts were observed for other outcome variables. like rural income and agricultural crop yields, though the impacts differ across different crops. The paper also found some balancing efforts from inter-governmental transfers to reduce the unevenly distributed impacts caused by dam construction. However, overall the inter-governmental fiscal transfer efforts were not large enough to fully correct those uneven distributions, reflected from a 2% decrease of per capita GDP in upstream counties and increase of per capita GDP in local and downstream counties. This paper may shed some lights on the governmental considerations in the decision making process for large hydrological infrastructures.

  6. Documented historical landslide dams from around the world

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Costa, John E.; Schuster, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    This data compilation consists of dBase IV1 data files of the location, date, triggering mechanism, kind, size, failure time and mechanism, breach dimensions, subsequent controls, materials, and references for 463 historical landslide dams and associated natural reservoirs that have been recorded throughout the World. The data base presented in this report is a compilation of information on the characteristics of 463 landslide dams from around the World. It forms a basis on which to assess potential threats from existing landslide dams, or newly-formed landslide dams. The data base includes only landslide dams that have formed in historical times - that is, those formed during times when humans were able to record their occurrence, and the information transferred through various means of written and/or oral documentation. There have been far more prehistoric landslide dams about which relatively little is known. None of these is included in this data base. The focus on historical landslide dams allows insights into this natural process that will aid in understanding their role as a significant geologic process in recent Earth history.

  7. The collapse of the Sella Zerbino gravity dam.

    PubMed

    Petaccia, G; Lai, C G; Milazzo, C; Natale, L

    2016-08-23

    When a severe flood wave completely filled the Ortiglieto reservoir on August 13, 1935, the 14 m high "Sella Zerbino" secondary dam failed catastrophically causing > 100 casualties. Both of the dams, Sella Zerbino-Zerbino Saddle and Bric Zerbino-Zerbino Peak (Fig. 1) were overtopped but only the Sella Zerbino failed whereas the main barrage did not suffer any damage. The lawsuit that followed this tragic event ended with a full acquittal of the dam's designers since the plaintiff experts succeeded in demonstrating that the collapse was due to an extreme rainfall storm of unpredictable intensity. The case was then officially closed and still today the failure of the Sella Zerbino dam is attributed to the unpredictable hydrological event. Recently, Natale and Petaccia (2013) re-examined the case assessing the capacity of the flood spillways which equipped the Bric Zerbino dam. This paper thoroughly reviews the mechanics of the collapse of the Sella Zerbino dam focusing on the stability of the structure. The water pressure underneath the dam and the poor quality of the foundation rock is believed to have played a major role in the sequence of events that ended in the collapse of the barrage.

  8. 226Ra bioavailability to plants at the Urgeiriça uranium mill tailings site.

    PubMed

    Madruga, M J; Brogueira, A; Alberto, G; Cardoso, F

    2001-01-01

    Large amounts of solid wastes (tailings) resulting from the exploitation and treatment of uranium ore at the Urgeiriça mine (north of Portugal) have been accumulated in dams (tailing ponds). To reduce the dispersion of natural radionuclides into the environment, some dams were revegetated with eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globolus) and pines (Pinus pinea). Besides these plants, some shrubs (Cytisus spp.) are growing in some of the dams. The objective of this study is to determine the 226Ra bioavailability from uranium mill tailings by quantifying the total and available fraction of radium in the tailings and to estimate its transfer to plants growing on the tailing piles. Plant and tailing samples were randomly collected and the activity concentration of 226Ra in plants (aerial part and roots) and tailings was measured by gamma-spectrometry. The exchangeable fraction of radium in tailings was quantified using one single step extraction with 1 mol dm-3 ammonium acetate (pH = 7) or 1 mol dm-3 calcium chloride solutions. The results obtained for 226Ra uptake by plants show that 226Ra concentration ratios for eucalyptus and pines decrease at low 226Ra concentrations in the tailings and appear relatively constant at higher radium concentrations. For shrubs, the concentration ratios increase at higher 226Ra solid waste concentrations approaching a saturation value. Percentage values of 16.0 +/- 8.3 and 12.9 +/- 8.9, for the fraction of radium extracted from the tailings, using 1 mol dm-3 ammonium acetate or calcium chloride solutions, respectively, were obtained. The 226Ra concentration ratios determined on the basis of exchangeable radium are one order of magnitude higher than those based on total radium. It can be concluded that, at a 95% confidence level, more consistent 226Ra concentration ratios were obtained when calculated on the basis of available radium than when total radium was considered, for all the dams.

  9. Lower San Fernando corrugated metal pipe failure

    SciTech Connect

    Bardet, J.P.; Davis, C.A.

    1995-12-31

    During the January 17, 1994, Northridge earthquake, a 2.4 m diameter corrugated metal pipe was subjected to 90 m of extensive lateral crushing failure at the Lower San Fernando Dam. The dam and outlet works were reconstructed after the 1971 San Fernando Earthquake. In 1994, the dam underwent liquefaction upstream of the reconstructed berm. The pipe collapsed on the west side of the liquefied zone and a large sinkhole formed over the drain line. The failure of this drain line provides a unique opportunity to study the seismic response of buried drains and culverts.

  10. Coupled dam safety analysis using WinDAM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Windows® Dam Analysis Modules (WinDAM) is a set of modular software components that can be used to analyze overtopping and internal erosion of embankment dams. Dakota is an extensive software framework for design exploration and simulation. These tools can be coupled to create a powerful framework...

  11. ECHETA DAM RIPRAP ON RESERVOIR SIDE OF THE DAM AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ECHETA DAM RIP-RAP ON RESERVOIR SIDE OF THE DAM AT BREACH. VIEW TO NORTH-NORTHEAST. - Echeta Dam & Reservoir, 2.9 miles east of Echeta Road at Echeta Railroad Siding at County Road 293, Echeta, Campbell County, WY

  12. 32. AERIAL VIEW OF TIETON DAM, UPSTREAM FACE OF DAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. AERIAL VIEW OF TIETON DAM, UPSTREAM FACE OF DAM (Trashrack-structure for outlet at lower left in reservoir, spillway at upper left. Reservoir nearly empty due to drought.) - Tieton Dam, South & East of State Highway 12, Naches, Yakima County, WA

  13. Dam health diagnosis and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhongru; Su, Huaizhi

    2005-06-01

    Based on the bionics principle in the life sciences field, we regard a dam as a vital and intelligent system. A bionics model is constructed to observe, diagnose and evaluate dam health. The model is composed of a sensing system (nerve), central processing unit (cerebrum) and decision-making implement (organism). In addition, the model, index system and engineering method on dam health assessment are presented. The proposed theories and methods are applied to evaluate dynamically the health of one concrete dam.

  14. Risk assessment for large Romanian dams situated on Bistrita and Siret Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldovan, Iren-Adelina; Petruta Constantin, Angela; Popescu, Emilia; Toma-Danila, Dragos; Otilia Placinta, Anica

    2015-04-01

    The work will present an ongoing national Project that have as final goal to provide the local emergency services with warnings of a potential dam failure and ensuing flood as a result of a large earthquake occurrence, allowing further public training for evacuation. Probabilistic seismic hazard (PSH), vulnerability and risk studies in 6 counties from Moldova region including Izvorul Muntelui Dam, down on Bistrita and following on Siret River and theirs affluent will be accomplished during the project. A number of 5 large dams (the most vulnerable) will be studied in detail and flooding maps will be drawn to find the most exposed downstream localities both for risk assessment studies and warnings. The results will consist in local and regional seismic information, dams specific characteristics and locations, seismic hazard maps and risk classes, for all dams sites (for more than 30 dams), inundation maps (for the most vulnerable 5 dams from the region) and possible affected localities. The maps will provide the best available estimate of the general location and extent of dam failure inundation areas and will tell if a specific location lies within a dam failure inundation zone. Besides periodical technical inspections, the monitoring and the surveillance of dams' related structures and infrastructures, there are some more seismic specific requirements towards dams' safety. The most important one is the seismic risk assessment that can be accomplished by rating the dams into seismic risk classes using the theory of Bureau and Ballentine (2002), and Bureau (2003), taking into account the maximum expected peak ground motions at the dams site. In this paper we will obtain the ground motion parameters in the dams locations using probabilistic hazard assessment techniques, the structures vulnerability and the downstream risk characteristics (human, economical, historic and cultural heritage, etc) in the areas that might be flooded in the case of a dam failure, and will

  15. Methodology for Risk Analysis of Dam Gates and Associated Operating Equipment Using Fault Tree Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    aging gate structures at dam spillways, there is an increasing risk of potential dam failures due to gate inoperability, malfunction, or under-design...method uses probabilities for more events defined more precisely than in standard practice, and adds criticality analysis to rank each of the potential ...a combination of the two. One method defined by Boeing Systems (1998) classifies failure modes according to the three levels defined be- low in

  16. Risk analysis of gravity dam instability using credibility theory Monte Carlo simulation model.

    PubMed

    Xin, Cao; Chongshi, Gu

    2016-01-01

    Risk analysis of gravity dam stability involves complicated uncertainty in many design parameters and measured data. Stability failure risk ratio described jointly by probability and possibility has deficiency in characterization of influence of fuzzy factors and representation of the likelihood of risk occurrence in practical engineering. In this article, credibility theory is applied into stability failure risk analysis of gravity dam. Stability of gravity dam is viewed as a hybrid event considering both fuzziness and randomness of failure criterion, design parameters and measured data. Credibility distribution function is conducted as a novel way to represent uncertainty of influence factors of gravity dam stability. And combining with Monte Carlo simulation, corresponding calculation method and procedure are proposed. Based on a dam section, a detailed application of the modeling approach on risk calculation of both dam foundation and double sliding surfaces is provided. The results show that, the present method is feasible to be applied on analysis of stability failure risk for gravity dams. The risk assessment obtained can reflect influence of both sorts of uncertainty, and is suitable as an index value.

  17. Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Heart Failure What is Heart Failure? In heart failure, the heart cannot pump enough ... failure often experience tiredness and shortness of breath. Heart Failure is Serious Heart failure is a serious and ...

  18. Risk Perception Analysis Related To Existing Dams In Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solimene, Pellegrino

    2013-04-01

    In the first part of this work, the progress of Italian National Rules about dams design, construction and operation are presented to highlight the strong connection existing between the promulgation of new decrees, as a consequence of a dam accidents, and the necessity to prevent further loss of lives and goods downstream. Following the Gleno Dam failure (1923), a special Ministerial Committee wrote out the first Regulations and made the proposal to establish, within the High Council of Public Works, a special department that become soon the "Dam Service", with the tasks of control and supervision about construction and operation phases of the dams and their reservoirs. A different definition of tasks and the structure of Dam Service were provided in accordance with law n° 183/1989, which transferred all the technical services to the Office of the Prime Minister; the aim was to join the Dam Office with the Department for National Technical Services, with the objective of increasing the knowledge of the territory and promoting the study on flood propagation downstream in case of operations on bottom outlet or hypothetical dam-break. In fact, population living downstream is not ready to accept any amount of risk because has not a good knowledge of the efforts of experts involved in dam safety, both from the operators and from the safety Authority. So it's important to optimize all the activities usually performed in a dam safety program and improve the emergency planning as a response to people's primary needs and feeling about safety from Civil Protection Authority. In the second part of the work, a definition of risk is provided as the relationship existing between probability of occurrence and loss, setting out the range within to plan for prevention (risk mitigation), thanks to the qualitative assessment of the minimum safety level that is suited to assign funds to plan for Civil Protection (loss mitigation). The basic meaning of the reliability of a zoned

  19. The Social, Historical, and Institutional Contingencies of Dam Removal.

    PubMed

    Magilligan, F J; Sneddon, C S; Fox, C A

    2017-02-25

    Environmental managers in the United States and elsewhere are increasingly perceiving dam removal as a critical tool for river restoration and enhancing watershed resilience. In New England, over 125 dams have been dismantled for ecological and economic rationales. A surprising number of these removals, including many that are ongoing, have generated heated conflicts between restoration proponents and local communities who value their dammed landscapes. Using a comparative case study approach, we examine the environmental conflict around efforts to remove six dams in New England. Each of these removal efforts followed quite different paths and resultant outcomes: successful removal, stalled removal, and failure despite seemingly favorable institutional conditions. Lengthy conflicts often transpired in instances where removals occurred, but these were successfully arbitrated by paying attention to local historical-geographical conditions conducive to removal and by brokering effective compromises between dam owners and the various local actors and stakeholders involved in the removal process. Yet our results across all cases suggest that these are necessary, but not sufficient conditions for restoration through dam removal since a similar set of conditions typified cases where removals are continuously stalled or completely halted. Scholars examining the intersection between ecological restoration and environmental politics should remain vigilant in seeking patterns and generalities across cases of environmental conflict in order to promote important biophysical goals, but must also remain open to the ways in which those goals are thwarted and shaped by conflicts that are deeply contingent on historical-geographical conditions and broader institutional networks of power and influence.

  20. Environmental Assessment : Tumwater Dam and Dryden Dam Fish Passage Projects.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1986-01-01

    Existing fish passage facilities at Tumwater Dam and Dryden Dam currently do not effectively pass the anadromous fish runs in the Wenatchee River. At Tumwater Dam, the proposed action includes the construction of a new fish ladder which will improve water flow characteristics and, subsequently, fish passage. In order to improve fish passage at Dryden Dam, a new fish ladder will be constructed to replace the existing ladder and another ladder will be constructed. The proposed action will supplement mitigation of adverse hydroelectric impacts to the fisheries of the Columbia River basin. The proposal to fund the Tumwater Dam and Dryden Dam Fish Passage facilities does not appear to constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment and would not require an environmental impact statement.

  1. Geomorphic and Ecological Issues in Removal of Sediment-Filled Dams in the California Coast Ranges (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondolf, G. M.; Oreilly, C.

    2010-12-01

    Water-supply reservoirs in the actively eroding California Coast Ranges are vulnerable to sediment filling, thus creating obsolete impounding dams (Minear & Kondolf 2009). Once full of sediment, there is more impetus to remove dams for public safety and fish passage, but managing accumulated sediments becomes a dominant issue in dam removal planning. We analyzed the planning process and sediment management analyses for five dams, all of which have important ecological resources but whose dam removal options are constrained by potential impacts to downstream urban populations. Ringe Dam on Malibu Ck, Matilija Dam on the Ventura River, Searsville Dam on San Francisquito Ck, and Upper York Creek Dam on York Ck cut off important habitat for anadromous steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). San Clemente Dam on the Carmel River has a working fish ladder, but only some of the migratory steelhead use it. By virtue of having filled with sediment, all five dams are at greater risk of seismic failure. San Clemente Dam is at greater risk because its foundation is on alluvium (not bedrock), and the poor-quality concrete in Matilija Dam is deteriorating from an akali-aggregate reaction. Simply removing the dams and allowing accumulated sediments to be transported downstream is not an option because all these rivers have extremely expensive houses along downstream banks and floodplains, so that allowing the downstream channel to aggrade with dam-dervied sediments could expose agencies to liability for future flood losses. Analyses of potential sediment transport have been based mostly on application of tractive force models, and have supported management responses ranging from in-situ stabilization (San Clemente and Matilija) to removal of stored sediment (York) to annual dredging to maintain capacity and prevent sediment passing over the dam (proposed for Searsville).

  2. Deformation Monitoring Studies and GPR Application on Dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkan, Y.; Bilgi, S.

    2015-12-01

    Some basic physical data are very important for assessing the safety and performance of dams. These are movement, water pressure, seepage, reservoir and tail-water elevations, local seismic activities, total pressure, stress and strain, internal concrete temperature, ambient temperature and precipitation. Dams and their surroundings have to be monitored by using essential methods at periodic time intervals in order to determine the possible changes that may occur over the time. Monitoring programs typically consist of; surveillance or visual observation. These programs on dams provide information for evaluating the dam's performance related to the design intent and expected changes that could affect the safety performance of the dam. Additionally, these programs are used for investigating and evaluating the abnormal or degrading performance where any remedial action is necessary. Geodetic and non-geodetic methods are used for monitoring. Geometric changes at the dam surface and in the galleries are defined using geodetic methods. Physical and geometrical changes in embankment inside are defined using non-geodetic methods. This study provides information about the deformation monitoring techniques of the dams, dam safety and related analysis. The case study is the deformation monitoring of Atatürk Dam, 6th largest dam of world considering the reservoir volume, which was constructed on Euphrates (Fırat) River having importance for providing drinking water, hydroelectric power and irrigation. In the study, brief information is given about this dam and the methods of geodetic and non-geodetic deformation monitoring measurements applied by various disciplines. Bathymetric surveying techniques in the water covered area and Real Time Kinematic (RTK) GNSS surveying technique on the other area were used in order to determine the topography of the embankment and reservoir surfaces. Contour maps were drawn to determine the slumping and heaving areas. Also Ground

  3. Initial Geomorphic Responses to Removal of Milltown Dam, Clark Fork River, Montana, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, A. C.; Brinkerhoff, D.; Woelfle-Erskine, C.

    2008-12-01

    The removal of Milltown Dam on the Clark Fork River, Montana, USA, is creating a field-scale experiment on upstream and downstream responses to dam removal and on how gravel-bed rivers respond to sediment pulses. Milltown Dam was removed in 2008, reconnecting the Clark Fork River to its upstream basin in terms of sediment transport and fish passage. This dam removal is especially notable because (1) it is the largest dam removal to date in the United States in terms of the volume of reservoir sediment potentially available for downstream transport (over 3 million m3; 1.7 million m3 are being mechanically removed); and (2) the dam is the downstream end of the largest Superfund site in the United States, the Clark Fork Complex, and reservoir sediments are composed largely of contaminated mine tailings. Data collection on pre- and post-dam removal channel morphology, bed sediment characteristics, and sediment loads are being used to investigate spatial and temporal patterns of sediment transport and deposition associated with this dam removal. In the first several months following breaching of the dam, snowmelt runoff with a 3-year recurrence interval peak caused substantial erosion and downstream transport of metals-laden sediments from Milltown reservoir. Reservoir sediments in the Clark Fork arm of Milltown reservoir eroded at levels far exceeding modeling predictions as a result of both incision to the new base level created by dam removal and bank retreat of over 200 m in reaches upstream of a constructed bypass reach and remediation area. Copper and other metals in these eroded reservoir sediments provide a tracer for identifying whether sediment deposits observed downstream of the dam originated from Milltown reservoir or uncontaminated tributaries and indicate that Milltown sediments have reached over 200 km downstream. Downstream deposition has been greatest along channel margins and in side-channel areas, whereas the transport capacity of the active channel

  4. 1000 dams down and counting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connor, James E.; Duda, Jeff J.; Grant, Gordon E.

    2015-01-01

    Forty years ago, the demolition of large dams was mostly fiction, notably plotted in Edward Abbey's novel The Monkey Wrench Gang. Its 1975 publication roughly coincided with the end of large-dam construction in the United States. Since then, dams have been taken down in increasing numbers as they have filled with sediment, become unsafe or inefficient, or otherwise outlived their usefulness (1) (see the figure, panel A). Last year's removals of the 64-m-high Glines Canyon Dam and the 32-m-high Elwha Dam in northwestern Washington State were among the largest yet, releasing over 10 million cubic meters of stored sediment. Published studies conducted in conjunction with about 100 U.S. dam removals and at least 26 removals outside the United States are now providing detailed insights into how rivers respond (2, 3).

  5. Groundwater-Surface Water Interaction: A Case Study of Embankment Dam Safety Assessment in Sweden.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferdos, F.; Dargahi, B.

    2015-12-01

    Seepage, when excessive and unimpeded, can cause embankment dam failure. Such failures are often initiated by internal erosion and piping. Modelling these phenomena in embankment dams, accounting for the groundwater-surface water interactions, is crucial when performing dam safety assessments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of modelling seepage flows in multi-region dams using a finite element based multi-physics model. The model was applied to the Trängslet dam, the largest dam in Sweden. The objectives were to analyze the characteristics of both the flow and the surface-ground water interactions occurring in the dam, including: i) the saturated and unsaturated laminar flow regimes within the dam body, ii) the non-linear through-flow in the dam shoulders' coarse material, iii) the influence of the surface waves in the reservoir on the seepage flow by coupling the physics to a hydrodynamic interface, and iv) the influence of a conceptual "erosion tunnel" on the seepage flow and its interaction with the surface water flow by coupling the physics to a CFD interface. The focus of the study was on the influence of the transient water head boundary condition, surface waves and the internal erosion tunnel on the location of the phreatic line and the seepage flow rate. The simulated seepage flow of the dam in its original condition tallied with the monitoring measurements (40-70 l/s). The main feature found was the relatively high position of the phreatic line, which could compromise the stability of the dam. The combination of the seepage model with the reservoir hydrodynamics indicated a negligible influence of the surface waves on seepage flow. Results from the combination of the seepage model with fluid dynamics indicated that a conceptual "erosion tunnel" placed within the dam, even as high as in the unsaturated zone, significantly affects the phreatic line's position. This also causes the seepage flow to increase by several orders of

  6. The Tail of BPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruba, Steve; Meyer, Jim

    Business process management suites (BPMS's) represent one of the fastest growing segments in the software industry as organizations automate their key business processes. As this market matures, it is interesting to compare it to Chris Anderson's 'Long Tail.' Although the 2004 "Long Tail" article in Wired magazine was primarily about the media and entertainment industries, it has since been applied (and perhaps misapplied) to other markets. Analysts describe a "Tail of BPM" market that is, perhaps, several times larger than the traditional BPMS product market. This paper will draw comparisons between the concepts in Anderson's article (and subsequent book) and the BPM solutions market.

  7. Estimating tail probabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, D.B.; Tolley, H.D.

    1982-12-01

    This paper investigates procedures for univariate nonparametric estimation of tail probabilities. Extrapolated values for tail probabilities beyond the data are also obtained based on the shape of the density in the tail. Several estimators which use exponential weighting are described. These are compared in a Monte Carlo study to nonweighted estimators, to the empirical cdf, to an integrated kernel, to a Fourier series estimate, to a penalized likelihood estimate and a maximum likelihood estimate. Selected weighted estimators are shown to compare favorably to many of these standard estimators for the sampling distributions investigated.

  8. Owyhee River intracanyon lava flows: does the river give a dam?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, Lisa L.; Brossy, Cooper C.; House, P. Kyle; Safran, Elizabeth B.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Champion, Duane E.; Fenton, Cassandra R.; Bondre, Ninad R.; Orem, Caitlin A.; Grant, Gordon E.; Henry, Christopher D.; Turrin, Brent D.

    2013-01-01

    Rivers carved into uplifted plateaus are commonly disrupted by discrete events from the surrounding landscape, such as lava flows or large mass movements. These disruptions are independent of slope, basin area, or channel discharge, and can dominate aspects of valley morphology and channel behavior for many kilometers. We document and assess the effects of one type of disruptive event, lava dams, on river valley morphology and incision rates at a variety of time scales, using examples from the Owyhee River in southeastern Oregon. Six sets of basaltic lava flows entered and dammed the river canyon during two periods in the late Cenozoic ca. 2 Ma–780 ka and 250–70 ka. The dams are strongly asymmetric, with steep, blunt escarpments facing up valley and long, low slopes down valley. None of the dams shows evidence of catastrophic failure; all blocked the river and diverted water over or around the dam crest. The net effect of the dams was therefore to inhibit rather than promote incision. Once incision resumed, most of the intracanyon flows were incised relatively rapidly and therefore did not exert a lasting impact on the river valley profile over time scales >106 yr. The net long-term incision rate from the time of the oldest documented lava dam, the Bogus Rim lava dam (≤1.7 Ma), to present was 0.18 mm/yr, but incision rates through or around individual lava dams were up to an order of magnitude greater. At least three lava dams (Bogus Rim, Saddle Butte, and West Crater) show evidence that incision initiated only after the impounded lakes filled completely with sediment and there was gravel transport across the dams. The most recent lava dam, formed by the West Crater lava flow around 70 ka, persisted for at least 25 k.y. before incision began, and the dam was largely removed within another 35 k.y. The time scale over which the lava dams inhibit incision is therefore directly affected by both the volume of lava forming the dam and the time required for sediment

  9. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Middle Pond Dam (CT 00283), Farmington River Basin, Plymouth, Connecticut. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    volumes available for the dam breach flows . Upon failure of the dam the flood wave would enter a large swamp. The initial impact area is an apartment...resulted in leaning and buidging of the downstream stone masonry wall. Con- tinued flow over the right spillway could lead to further collapse ...partially blocked by GENERAL CONDITION OF CONCRETE debris . j RUST OR STAINING ON CONCRETE SPALL ING __________________ EROSION OR CAVITATION CRACKING

  10. USGS Dam Removal Science Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bellmore, J. Ryan; Vittum, Katherine; Duda, Jeff J.; Greene, Samantha L.

    2015-01-01

    This database is the result of an extensive literature search aimed at identifying documents relevant to the emerging field of dam removal science. In total the database contains 179 citations that contain empirical monitoring information associated with 130 different dam removals across the United States and abroad. Data includes publications through 2014 and supplemented with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers National Inventory of Dams database, U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System and aerial photos to estimate locations when coordinates were not provided. Publications were located using the Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Clearinghouse for Dam Removal Information.

  11. Health impacts of large dams

    SciTech Connect

    Lerer, L.B.; Scudder, T.

    1999-03-01

    Large dams have been criticized because of their negative environmental and social impacts. Public health interest largely has focused on vector-borne diseases, such as schistosomiasis, associated with reservoirs and irrigation projects. Large dams also influence health through changes in water and food security, increases in communicable diseases, and the social disruption caused by construction and involuntary resettlement. Communities living in close proximity to large dams often do not benefit from water transfer and electricity generation revenues. A comprehensive health component is required in environmental and social impact assessments for large dam projects.

  12. Arsenic and heavy metals in native plants at tailings impoundments in Queretaro, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos-Jallath, José; Castro-Rodríguez, Alejandrina; Huezo-Casillas, José; Torres-Bustillos, Luis

    Ten native plants species that grow in three tailings dams from Ag, Pb, Cu and Zn mine in Queretaro, Mexico were studied. Total concentrations in tailings were 183-14,660 mg/kg As, 45-308 mg/kg Cd, 327-1754 mg/kg Pb, 149-459 mg/kg Cu and 448-505 mg/kg Zn. In the three tailings dams, the solubility of these elements is low. Tailings in dam 1 are acid generating while tailings in dams 2 and 3 are not acid-generating potential. Plants species that accumulate arsenic and heavy metals was identified; Nicotina glauca generally presented the highest concentrations (92 mg/kg As, 106 mg/kg Cd, 189 mg/kg Pb, 95 mg/kg Cu and 1985 mg/kg Zn). Other species that accumulate these elements are Flaveria pubescens, Tecoma stans, Prosopis Sp, Casuarina Sp and Maurandia antirrhiniflora. Two species were found that accumulates a large amount of metals in the root, Cenchrus ciliaris and Opuntia lasiacantha. Concentrations in soils in which plants grow were 488-5990 mg/kg As, 5-129 mg/kg Cd, 169-3638 mg/kg Pb, 159-1254 mg/kg Cu and 1431-13,488 mg/kg Zn. The Accumulation Factor (AF) determined for plants was less than 1, with exception of N. glauca for Cd. The correlation between arsenic and heavy metals found in soils and plants was low. Knowledge of plant characteristics allows it use in planning the reforestation of tailings dams in controlled manner. This will reduce the risk of potentially toxic elements are integrated into the food chain of animal species.

  13. National Dam Safety Program. Parker Street Dam. (NJ00055), Atlantic Coastal Basin. North Branch of Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    based oil tle determination that dam failure resulting from overtopping would not sit’niticantly increase the hazard to loss of life downstream from the...perpendicular to the dam for approximately 300 feet until it comes to U.S. Route 9, then it runs northeast paralleling theIv highway for approximately 100...PARKER STREET DAM I 0 I 2I , I * I I I Scale:l"= I Mile LEGEND QUATERNARY Qbs Beach Sand Qg Gravel TERTIARY Tch Cohansey Sand GEOLOGIC MAP PARKER

  14. 78 FR 43868 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Whittier Narrows Dam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... DSMS will evaluate alternatives to remediate safety concerns such as dam settling, seismic damages, and... Control Act of 1936. After almost 60 years of settlement and damage from seismic events, the Corps has determined that the Whittier Narrows Dam has a high risk of failure due to significant seismic, seepage,...

  15. Wagging tail vibration absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barclay, R. G.; Humphrey, P. W.

    1969-01-01

    A 750-foot cantilever length of extendible-tape boom (very low stiffness) was considered as the main system to be damped. A number of tail lengths were tried from 20 feet to 80 feet after which 40 feet was investigated further as a desirable compromise between performance and practical lengths. A 40-foot damping tail produced a damping effect on the main boom for the first mode equivalent in decay rate to 3.1 percent of critical damping. In this case the spring-hinge and tail were tuned to the main boom first mode frequency and the hinge damping was set at 30 percent of critical based on the tail properties. With this same setting, damping of the second mode was .4 percent and the third mode .1 percent.

  16. The Tail Suspension Test

    PubMed Central

    Terrillion, Chantelle E.; Piantadosi, Sean C.; Bhat, Shambhu; Gould, Todd D.

    2012-01-01

    The tail-suspension test is a mouse behavioral test useful in the screening of potential antidepressant drugs, and assessing of other manipulations that are expected to affect depression related behaviors. Mice are suspended by their tails with tape, in such a position that it cannot escape or hold on to nearby surfaces. During this test, typically six minutes in duration, the resulting escape oriented behaviors are quantified. The tail-suspension test is a valuable tool in drug discovery for high-throughput screening of prospective antidepressant compounds. Here, we describe the details required for implementation of this test with additional emphasis on potential problems that may occur and how to avoid them. We also offer a solution to the tail climbing behavior, a common problem that renders this test useless in some mouse strains, such as the widely used C57BL/6. Specifically, we prevent tail climbing behaviors by passing mouse tails through a small plastic cylinder prior to suspension. Finally, we detail how to manually score the behaviors that are manifested in this test. PMID:22315011

  17. War damages and reconstruction of Peruca dam

    SciTech Connect

    Nonveiller, E.; Rupcic, J. |; Sever, Z.

    1999-04-01

    The paper describes the heavy damages caused by blasting in the Peruca rockfill dam in Croatia in January 1993. Complete collapse of the dam by overtopping was prevented through quick action of the dam owner by dumping clayey gravel on the lowest sections of the dam crest and opening the bottom outlet of the reservoir, thus efficiently lowering the water level. After the damages were sufficiently established and alternatives for restoration of the dam were evaluated, it was decided to construct a diaphragm wall through the damaged core in the central dam part as the impermeable dam element and to rebuild the central clay core at the dam abutments. Reconstruction works are described.

  18. 6. GENE WASH DAM, LOOKING NORTHWEST. SURVEY REFLECTOR IN FOREGROUND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. GENE WASH DAM, LOOKING NORTHWEST. SURVEY REFLECTOR IN FOREGROUND FOR MONITORING MOVEMENT OF DAM AND EARTH. - Gene Wash Reservoir & Dam, 2 miles west of Parker Dam, Parker Dam, San Bernardino County, CA

  19. Seismic hazard and risk assessment for large Romanian dams situated in the Moldavian Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldovan, Iren-Adelina; Popescu, Emilia; Otilia Placinta, Anica; Petruta Constantin, Angela; Toma Danila, Dragos; Borleanu, Felix; Emilian Toader, Victorin; Moldoveanu, Traian

    2016-04-01

    Besides periodical technical inspections, the monitoring and the surveillance of dams' related structures and infrastructures, there are some more seismic specific requirements towards dams' safety. The most important one is the seismic risk assessment that can be accomplished by rating the dams into seismic risk classes using the theory of Bureau and Ballentine (2002), and Bureau (2003), taking into account the maximum expected peak ground motions at the dams site - values obtained using probabilistic hazard assessment approaches (Moldovan et al., 2008), the structures vulnerability and the downstream risk characteristics (human, economical, historic and cultural heritage, etc) in the areas that might be flooded in the case of a dam failure. Probabilistic seismic hazard (PSH), vulnerability and risk studies for dams situated in the Moldavian Platform, starting from Izvorul Muntelui Dam, down on Bistrita and following on Siret River and theirs affluent will be realized. The most vulnerable dams will be studied in detail and flooding maps will be drawn to find the most exposed downstream localities both for risk assessment studies and warnings. GIS maps that clearly indicate areas that are potentially flooded are enough for these studies, thus giving information on the number of inhabitants and goods that may be destroyed. Geospatial servers included topography is sufficient to achieve them, all other further studies are not necessary for downstream risk assessment. The results will consist of local and regional seismic information, dams specific characteristics and locations, seismic hazard maps and risk classes, for all dams sites (for more than 30 dams), inundation maps (for the most vulnerable dams from the region) and possible affected localities. The studies realized in this paper have as final goal to provide the local emergency services with warnings of a potential dam failure and ensuing flood as a result of an large earthquake occurrence, allowing further

  20. History of dams at the Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.P.; Wilson, C.B.

    1995-12-01

    Since the production of nuclear material at SRS for weapons required large quantities of cooling water, a series of canals, dikes, and dams were constructed to provide conveyance systems and reservoirs. This paper presents a brief overview of the history of the construction of the dams and dikes. Attention is given to the use of asphaltic concrete for 30 years (and its maintenance and repair) to line the banks of dikes and the upstream slopes of dams to prevent erosion and possible failure. The ability of asphaltic concrete in preventing dam/dike failure was proven. Benefits and drawbacks to the use of this material are discussed based on the extensive experience at SRS.

  1. Controls on the breach geometry and flood hydrograph during overtopping of non-cohesive earthen dams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walder, Joseph S.; Iverson, Richard M.; Godt, Jonathan W.; Logan, Matthew; Solovitz, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Overtopping failure of non-cohesive earthen dams was investigated in 13 large-scale experiments with dams built of compacted, damp, fine-grained sand. Breaching was initiated by cutting a notch across the dam crest and allowing water escaping from a finite upstream reservoir to form its own channel. The channel developed a stepped profile, and upstream migration of the steps, which coalesced into a headcut, led to the establishment of hydraulic control (critical flow) at the channel head, or breach crest, an arcuate erosional feature that functions hydraulically as a weir. Novel photogrammetric methods, along with underwater videography, revealed that the retreating headcut maintained a slope near the angle of friction of the sand, while the cross section at the breach crest maintained a geometrically similar shape through time. That cross-sectional shape was nearly unaffected by slope failures, contrary to the assumption in many models of dam breaching. Flood hydrographs were quite reproducible--for sets of dams ranging in height from 0.55 m to 0.98 m--when the time datum was chosen as the time that the migrating headcut intersected the breach crest. Peak discharge increased almost linearly as a function of initial dam height. Early-time variability between flood hydrographs for nominally identical dams is probably a reflection of subtle experiment-to-experiment differences in groundwater hydrology and the interaction between surface water and groundwater.

  2. Assessing Resiliency in a Large Lake Receiving Mine Tailings Waste: Impacts of Major Environmental Disturbance.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petticrew, Ellen; Owens, Philip; Albers, Sam

    2016-04-01

    On 4th August 2014, the tailings impoundment of the Mount Polley copper and gold mine in British Columbia failed. Material from the impoundment (surface area = 2.7 km2) flowed into nearby Polley Lake and Hazeltine Creek, before discharging into Quesnel Lake, a large (ca. 100 km long, >500 m deep), relatively pristine lake. Initial estimates suggest that approximately 25 Mm3 of tailings (water and solids) and eroded soils and surficial materials from Hazeltine Creek were delivered to Quesnel Lake, raising the lake by 7.7 cm. Much of this material was deposited at the bottom of Quesnel Lake but a plume of fine-grained sediment (D50 of ca. 1 μm) remained suspended in the water column. The impact of the distribution of this sediment was monitored over the next 15 months using water column profiling for temperature, conductivity, fluorescence and turbidity with depth. The plume movement was regulated by natural processes associated with the physical limnology of this large fjord lake, specifically, seiche events which transferred suspended particles both up-lake, against the flow regime, and down-lake into the Quesnel River. Samples of lake water and bottom sediment taken from the impacted area show elevated levels of total metals and other elements, which may have important ecosystem implications in this watershed. Indeed, the breach occurred at a time when a peak run of sockeye salmon were returning to their natal streams in the Quesnel basin. Zooplankton sampling for metals was initiated in fall 2014 to determine up take of metals into the food web. This poster describes the failure of the impoundment dam and presents results of sampling the aquatic environment over the first fifteen months of impact.

  3. Geomorphic responses to large check-dam removal on a mountain river in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Stark, C. P.; Cook, K. L.; Kuo, W.

    2011-12-01

    Dam removal has become an important aspect of river restoration in recent years, but studies documenting the physical and ecological response to dam removal are still lacking - particularly in mountain rivers and following major floods. This presentation documents the recent removal of a large dam on a coarse-grained, steep (an order of magnitude greater than on the Marmot) mountain channel in Taiwan. The Chijiawan river, a tributary of the Tachia River draining a 1236 km2 watershed, is the only habitat in Taiwan of the endangered Formosan landlocked salmon. The habitat of this fish has been cut significantly since the 1960s following construction of check dams designed to prevent reservoir sedimentation downstream. The largest and lowermost barrier on Chijiawan creek is the 15m high, "No. 1 Check Dam" built in 1971. Forty years later, in early 2011, the sediment wedge behind the dam had reached an estimated 0.2 million m3 and the dam toe had been scoured about 4m below its foundation, posing a serious risk of dam failure. For these reasons, the Shei-Pa National Park removed the dam in late May 2011. To monitor the response of the river to dam removal, we installed video cameras, time-lapse cameras, stage recorders, and turbidity sensors, conducted surveys of grain size distributions and longitudinal profiles, and carried out repeat photography. Channel changes were greatest immediately following removal as a result of the high stream power, steep energy slope, and unconsolidated alluvial fill behind the dam. Headcut propagation caused immediate removal of the sand-grade sediment and progressive channel widening. One month after dam removal, a minor flood event excavated a big wedge of sediment from the impoundment. Most of the subsequent downstream deposition occurred within 500m of the dam, with alluviation reaching up to 0.5m in places. Two months after dam removal, erosion had propagated 300m upstream into the impounded sediment along a bed profile of gradient

  4. 7 CFR 1724.55 - Dam safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dam safety. 1724.55 Section 1724.55 Agriculture... § 1724.55 Dam safety. (a) The provisions of this section apply only to RUS financed electric system... for Dam Safety,”(Guidelines), as applicable. A dam, as more fully defined in the Guidelines,...

  5. 7 CFR 1724.55 - Dam safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dam safety. 1724.55 Section 1724.55 Agriculture... § 1724.55 Dam safety. (a) The provisions of this section apply only to RUS financed electric system... for Dam Safety,”(Guidelines), as applicable. A dam, as more fully defined in the Guidelines,...

  6. 7 CFR 1724.55 - Dam safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dam safety. 1724.55 Section 1724.55 Agriculture... § 1724.55 Dam safety. (a) The provisions of this section apply only to RUS financed electric system... for Dam Safety,”(Guidelines), as applicable. A dam, as more fully defined in the Guidelines,...

  7. 7 CFR 1724.55 - Dam safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dam safety. 1724.55 Section 1724.55 Agriculture... § 1724.55 Dam safety. (a) The provisions of this section apply only to RUS financed electric system... for Dam Safety,”(Guidelines), as applicable. A dam, as more fully defined in the Guidelines,...

  8. Deer Creek Dam, Dam, 1,204 feet/238 degrees from intersection of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Deer Creek Dam, Dam, 1,204 feet/238 degrees from intersection of dam complex access road and U.S. Highway 189 to center of dam, 874 feet/352 degrees from Hydroelectric Powerplant (HAER UT-93-B) to center of dam, Charleston, Wasatch County, UT

  9. Seismic safety of earth dams: A probabilistic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Simos, N.; Costantino, C.J.; Reich, M.

    1994-08-01

    The evaluation of the potential for slope sliding and/or liquefaction failure of earthen dams subjected to earthquake loadings is most often based on deterministic procedures of both the excitation input and of the physical model. Such treatment provides answers in the form of either factor of safety values or a yes or no as to whether liquefaction will occur or not. Uncertainties in the physical properties of the soil in the embankment and the foundation layers underlying the dam are typically treated with parametric studies. Consideration of probabilities pertaining to the uncertainties of the earthquake and of the site characterization is expected to augment the prediction of failure potential by associating slope and liquefaction failure to generic properties of the earthquake and of the site characterization. In this study, the procedures for conditional slope failure/liquefaction probabilities are formulated based on a series of simulated deterministic analyses of a dam cross section . These synthetic earthquakes emanate from a 1-D stationary stochastic process of zero mean and an analytical form of power spectral density function. The response of the dam section is formed upon a dynamic finite element approach which provides the temporal variations of the stresses, strains and pore water pressure throughout the model. The constitutive response of the granular soil skeleton and its coupling with the fluid phase is formulated based on the Biot dynamic equations of motion with nonlinear terms compensated for into soil hysteretic damping. Lastly, a stochastic approach to liquefaction based on the transferring of the input motion statistics to the cross section is presented.

  10. Is it worth a dam?

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, S

    1997-01-01

    Once a sign of modernization and growth, dams are often seen today as symbols of environmental and social devastation. Over 800,000 dams have been built worldwide to provide drinking water, flood control, hydropower, irrigation, navigation, and water storage. Dams do indeed provide these things,but at the cost of several adverse, unexpected effects: disruption of ecosystems, decline of fish stocks, forced human and animal resettlements, and diseases such as malaria, which are borne by vectors that thrive in quiet waters. PMID:9349830

  11. Rubber dam may increase the survival time of dental restorations.

    PubMed

    Keys, William; Carson, Susan J

    2017-03-01

    Data sourcesCochrane Oral Health's Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase, LILACS, SciELO, Chinese BioMedical Literature Database, VIP, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, ClinicalTrials.gov, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, OpenGrey and Sciencepaper Online databases. Handsearches in a number of journals.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials, including split-mouth studies assessing the effects of rubber dam isolation for restorative treatments in dental patients.Data extraction and synthesisTwo review authors independently screened the results of the electronic searches, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies.ResultsFour studies involving a total of 1,270 patients were included. The studies were at high risk of bias. One trial was excluded from the analysis due to inconsistencies in the presented data. Restorations had a significantly higher survival rate in the rubber dam isolation group compared to the cotton roll isolation group at six months in participants receiving composite restorative treatment of non-carious cervical lesions (risk ratio (RR) 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04 to 1.37, very low-quality evidence). The rubber dam group had a lower risk of failure at two years in children undergoing proximal atraumatic restorative treatment in primary molars (hazard ratio (HR) 0.80, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.97, very low-quality evidence). One trial reported limited data showing that rubber dam usage during fissure sealing might shorten the treatment time. None of the included studies mentioned adverse effects or reported the direct cost of the treatment, or the level of patient acceptance/satisfaction. There was also no evidence evaluating the effects of rubber dam usage on the quality of the restorations.ConclusionsWe found some very low-quality evidence, from single studies, suggesting that rubber dam usage in dental direct

  12. Managing 'tail liability'.

    PubMed

    Frese, Richard C; Weber, Ryan J

    2013-11-01

    To reduce and control their level of tail liability, hospitals should: Utilize a self-insurance vehicle; Consider combined limits between the hospital and physicians; Communicate any program changes to the actuary, underwriter, and auditor; Continue risk management and safety practices; Ensure credit is given to the organization's own medical malpractice program.

  13. REAR PROFILE OF TAIL FROM SECOND LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REAR PROFILE OF TAIL FROM SECOND LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK STAND, SHOWING AIRCRAFT NUMBER (319), HORIZONTAL STABILIZER, TAIL CONE AND COOLING CTS FOR THE AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU), MECHANIC PAUL RIDEOUT IS LOWERING THE BALANCE PANELS ON THE STABILIZERS FOR LUBRICATION AND INSPECTION. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  14. A pre-dam-removal assessment of sediment transport for four dams on the Kalamazoo River between Plainwell and Allegan, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Syed, Atiq U.; Bennett, James P.; Rachol, Cynthia M.

    2005-01-01

    Four dams on the Kalamazoo River between the cities of Plainwell and Allegan, Mich., are in varying states of disrepair. The Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) are considering removing these dams to restore the river channels to pre-dam conditions. This study was initiated to identify sediment characteristics, monitor sediment transport, and predict sediment resuspension and deposition under varying hydraulic conditions. The mathematical model SEDMOD was used to simulate streamflow and sediment transport using three modeling scenarios: (1) sediment transport simulations for 730 days (Jan. 2001 to Dec. 2002), with existing dam structures, (2) sediment transport simulations based on flows from the 1947 flood at the Kalamazoo River with existing dam structures, and (3) sediment transport simulations based on flows from the 1947 flood at the Kalamazoo River with dams removed. Sediment transport simulations based on the 1947 flood hydrograph provide an estimate of sediment transport rates under maximum flow conditions. These scenarios can be used as an assessment of the sediment load that may erode from the study reach at this flow magnitude during a dam failure. The model was calibrated using suspended sediment as a calibration parameter and root mean squared error (RMSE) as an objective function. Analyses of the calibrated model show a slight bias in the model results at flows higher than 75 m3/s; this means that the model-simulated suspended-sediment transport rates are higher than the observed rates; however, the overall calibrated model results show close agreement between simulated and measured values of suspended sediment. Simulation results show that the Kalamazoo River sediment transport mechanism is in a dynamic equilibrium state. Model results during the 730-day simulations indicate significant sediment erosion from the study reach at flow rates higher than 55 m3/s. Similarly, significant

  15. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Middle Reservoir Dam (CT 00590), Housatonic River Basin, Seymour, Connecticut. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    Structures 1. Primary Spillway: The primary spillway is a 29 foot long and 8 foot wide broad crested weir located in the central portion of the dam...accommodate approximately 3 ac. -ft. The primary spillway is a 29 foot long by 8 foot wide broad crested uncontrolled weir . The auxiliary spillway is...5000 feet, the effects of the failure discharge will be reduced as it enters the Quillian Reservoir. Water surface elevations due to the failure of the

  16. Faun tail nevus

    PubMed Central

    Yamini, M.; Sridevi, K. S.; Babu, N. Prasanna; Chetty, Nanjappa G.

    2011-01-01

    Faun tail nevus is a posterior midline cutaneous lesion of importance to dermatologists as it could be a cutaneous marker for its underlying spine and spinal cord anomaly. We report a 13-year-old girl with excessive hair growth over the lumbosacral region since birth. There was associated spinal anomaly with no neurological manifestation affecting the lower spinal cord. The diagnosis was made on clinical basis. The patient reported for cosmetic disability. This case is reported for its clinical importance. PMID:23130210

  17. Faun tail nevus.

    PubMed

    Yamini, M; Sridevi, K S; Babu, N Prasanna; Chetty, Nanjappa G

    2011-01-01

    Faun tail nevus is a posterior midline cutaneous lesion of importance to dermatologists as it could be a cutaneous marker for its underlying spine and spinal cord anomaly. We report a 13-year-old girl with excessive hair growth over the lumbosacral region since birth. There was associated spinal anomaly with no neurological manifestation affecting the lower spinal cord. The diagnosis was made on clinical basis. The patient reported for cosmetic disability. This case is reported for its clinical importance.

  18. Assessing low-activity faults for the seismic safety of dams

    SciTech Connect

    Page, W.D.; Savage, W.U.; McLaren, M.K.

    1995-12-31

    Dams have been a familiar construct in the northern Sierra Nevada range in California (north of the San Joaquin River) since the forty-niners and farmers diverted water to their gold mines and farms in the mid 19th century. Today, more than 370 dams dot the region from the Central Valley to the eastern escarpment. Fifty-five more dam streams on the eastern slope. The dams are of all types: 240 earth fill; 56 concrete gravity; 45 rock and earth fills; 35 rock fill; 14 concrete arch; 9 hydraulic fill; and 29 various other types. We use the northern Sierra Nevada to illustrate the assessment of low-activity faults for the seismic safety of dams. The approach, techniques, and methods of evaluation are applicable to other regions characterized by low seismicity and low-activity faults having long recurrence intervals. Even though several moderate earthquakes had shaken the Sierra Nevada since 1849 (for example, the 1875 magnitude 5.8 Honey Lake and the 1909 magnitudes 5 and 5.5 Downieville earthquakes), seismic analyses for dams in the area generally were not performed prior to the middle of this century. Following the 1971 magnitude 6.7 San Fernando earthquake, when the hydraulic-fill Lower Van Norman Dam in southern California narrowly escaped catastrophic failure, the California Division of Safety of Dams and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission required seismic safety to be addressed with increasing rigor. In 1975, the magnitude 5.7 Oroville earthquake on the Cleveland Hill fault near Oroville Dam in the Sierra Nevada foothills, showed convincingly that earthquakes and surface faulting could occur within the range. Following this event, faults along the ancient Foothills fault system have been extensively investigated at dam sites.

  19. Dam-Breach hydrology of the Johnstown flood of 1889-challenging the findings of the 1891 investigation report.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Neil M; Kaktins, Uldis; Wojno, Stephanie

    2016-06-01

    In 1891 a report was published by an ASCE committee to investigate the cause of the Johnstown flood of 1889. They concluded that changes made to the dam by the South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club did not cause the disaster because the embankment would have been overflowed and breached if the changes were not made. We dispute that conclusion based on hydraulic analyses of the dam as originally built, estimates of the time of concentration and time to peak for the South Fork drainage basin, and reported conditions at the dam and in the watershed. We present a LiDAR-based volume of Lake Conemaugh at the time of dam failure (1.455 × 10(7) m(3)) and hydrographs of flood discharge and lake stage decline. Our analytical approach incorporates the complex shape of this dam breach. More than 65 min would have been needed to drain most of the lake, not the 45 min cited by most sources. Peak flood discharges were likely in the range 7200 to 8970 m(3) s(-1). The original dam design, with a crest ∼0.9 m higher and the added capacity of an auxiliary spillway and five discharge pipes, had a discharge capacity at overtopping more than twice that of the reconstructed dam. A properly rebuilt dam would not have overtopped and would likely have survived the runoff event, thereby saving thousands of lives. We believe the ASCE report represented state-of-the-art for 1891. However, the report contains discrepancies and lapses in key observations, and relied on excessive reservoir inflow estimates. The confidence they expressed that dam failure was inevitable was inconsistent with information available to the committee. Hydrodynamic erosion was a likely culprit in the 1862 dam failure that seriously damaged the embankment. The Club's substandard repair of this earlier breach sowed the seeds of its eventual destruction.

  20. Beaver dams, hydrological thresholds, and controlled floods as a management tool in a desert riverine ecosystem, Bill Williams River, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andersen, D.C.; Shafroth, P.B.

    2010-01-01

    Beaver convert lotic stream habitat to lentic through dam construction, and the process is reversed when a flood or other event causes dam failure. We investigated both processes on a regulated Sonoran Desert stream, using the criterion that average current velocity is < 0.2 m s-1 in a lentic reach. We estimated temporal change in the lotic:lentic stream length ratio by relating beaver pond length (determined by the upstream lentic-lotic boundary position) to dam size, and coupling that to the dam-size frequency distribution and repeated censuses of dams along the 58-km river. The ratio fell from 19:1 when no beaver dams were present to < 3:1 after 7 years of flows favourable for beaver. We investigated the dam failure-flood intensity relationship in three independent trials (experimental floods) featuring peak discharge ranging from 37 to 65 m3 s-1. Major damage (breach ??? 3-m wide) occurred at ??? 20% of monitored dams (n = 7-86) and a similar or higher proportion was moderately damaged. We detected neither a relationship between dam size and damage level nor a flood discharge threshold for initiating major damage. Dam constituent materials appeared to control the probability of major damage at low (attenuated) flood magnitude. We conclude that environmental flows prescribed to sustain desert riparian forest will also reduce beaver-created lentic habitat in a non-linear manner determined by both beaver dam and flood attributes. Consideration of both desirable and undesirable consequences of ecological engineering by beaver is important when optimizing environmental flows to meet ecological and socioeconomic goals. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. OVERALL VIEW OF CASCADE CANAL COMPANY CRIB DAM, LOOKING UPSTREAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF CASCADE CANAL COMPANY CRIB DAM, LOOKING UPSTREAM FROM DIRECTION OF KACHESS DAM. VIEW TO NORTH - Kachess Dam, 1904 Cascade Canal Company Crib Dam, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  2. 17. VIEW OF MAIN AND DIVERSION DAMS FROM WATERGATE AFTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW OF MAIN AND DIVERSION DAMS FROM WATER-GATE AFTER REMOVAL OF DRIFTWOOD. DIVERSION DAM IN LEFT FOREGROUND, MAIN DAM TO THE RIGHT. Photographed July 18, 1938. - Forge Creek Dam-John Cable Mill, Townsend, Blount County, TN

  3. Layered internal structure and breaching risk assessment of the Higashi-Takezawa landslide dam in Niigata, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gonghui; Furuya, Gen; Zhang, Fanyu; Doi, Issei; Watanabe, Naoki; Wakai, Akihiko; Marui, Hideaki

    2016-08-01

    The internal structure and geotechnical properties of landslide dams have rarely been examined in detail, although they largely control the longevity and potential failure mechanisms of the dams. During the 2004 Mid-Niigata Prefecture earthquake, thousands of landslides were triggered and many landslide dams were formed in the Imo River basin. Among these landslides dams, the biggest one that occurred in the Higashi-Takezawa district threatened both the upstream and downstream areas. Emergency and eventual permanent countermeasures were successfully performed to mitigate the hazards presented by the dam. The preserved landslide dam provides a good field study area for improving understanding of the formation and stability of similar features. To characterize its internal structure and to provide more reliable information for stability analysis, we used a multiple-channel surface-wave technique and microtremor array measurements to survey the dam's S-wave velocity (Vs) profile. Our results show that the integrated use of these methods is an effective approach for determining the S-wave velocity structure of landslide dams, irrespective of the mountainous environment in which they typically occur. The Vs profile suggests that the displaced landslide materials had been little disturbed during movement, although movement was rapid and over a long distance. We also discuss herein the landsliding mechanism and assess the breaching risk of the landslide dam due to overtopping.

  4. Risk Costs for New Dams: Economic Analysis and Effects of Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paté-Cornell, M. Elisabeth; Tagaras, George

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents new developments and illustrations of the introduction of risk and costs in cost-benefit analysis for new dams. The emphasis is on a method of evaluation of the risk costs based on the structure of the local economy. Costs to agricultural property as well as residential, commercial, industrial, and public property are studied in detail. Of particular interest is the case of sequential dam failure and the evaluation of the risk costs attributable to a new dam upstream from an existing one. Three real cases are presented as illustrations of the method: the Auburn Dam, the Dickey-Lincoln School Project, and the Teton Dam, which failed in 1976. This last case provides a calibration tool for the estimation of loss ratios. For these three projects, the risk-modified benefit-cost ratios are computed to assess the effect of the risk on the economic performance of the project. The role of a warning system provided by systematic monitoring of the dam is analyzed: by reducing the risk costs, the warning system attenuates their effect on the benefit-cost ratio. The precursors, however, can be missed or misinterpreted: monitoring does not guarantee that the risks to human life can be reduced to zero. This study shows, in particular, that it is critical to consider the risk costs in the decision to build a new dam when the flood area is large and densely populated.

  5. The Dramatic Methods of Hans van Dam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Water, Manon

    1994-01-01

    Interprets for the American reader the untranslated dramatic methods of Hans van Dam, a leading drama theorist in the Netherlands. Discusses the functions of drama as a method, closed dramatic methods, open dramatic methods, and applying van Dam's methods. (SR)

  6. Have Large Dams Altered Extreme Precipitation Patterns?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Faisal; Jeyachandran, Indumathi; Pielke, Roger

    2009-12-01

    Dams and their impounded waters are among the most common civil infrastructures, with a long heritage of modern design and operations experience. In particular, large dams, defined by the International Commission on Large Dams (ICOLD) as having a height greater than 15 meters from the foundation and holding a reservoir volume of more than 3 million cubic meters, have the potential to vastly transform local climate, landscapes, regional economics, and urbanization patterns. In the United States alone, about 75,000 dams are capable of storing a volume of water equaling almost 1 year's mean runoff of the nation [Graf, 1999]. The World Commission on Dams (WCD) reports that at least 45,000 large dams have been built worldwide since the 1930s. These sheer numbers raise the question of the extent to which large dams and their impounded waters alter patterns that would have been pervasive had the dams not been built.

  7. Three Gorges Dam, China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This ASTER image shows a 60 km stretch of the Yangtze River in China, including the Xiling Gorge, the eastern of the three gorges. In the left part of the image is the construction site of the Three Gorges Dam, the world's largest.

    This image was acquired on July 20, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Size: 60 x 24 km (36 x 15 miles) Location: 30.6 deg. North lat., 111.2 deg. East long. Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER

  8. Integrin Cytoplasmic Tail Interactions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric cell surface adhesion receptors essential for multicellular life. They connect cells to the extracellular environment and transduce chemical and mechanical signals to and from the cell. Intracellular proteins that bind the integrin cytoplasmic tail regulate integrin engagement of extracellular ligands as well as integrin localization and trafficking. Cytoplasmic integrin-binding proteins also function downstream of integrins, mediating links to the cytoskeleton and to signaling cascades that impact cell motility, growth, and survival. Here, we review key integrin-interacting proteins and their roles in regulating integrin activity, localization, and signaling. PMID:24467163

  9. Wind Tails Near Chimp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image of the rock 'Chimp' was taken by the Sojourner rover's right front camera on Sol 72 (September 15). Fine-scale texture on Chimp and other rocks is clearly visible. Wind tails, oriented from lower right to upper left, are seen next to small pebbles in the foreground. These were most likely produced by wind action.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  10. The geomagnetic tail

    SciTech Connect

    Birn, J. )

    1991-01-01

    A review is presented of the plasma sheet and lobe regions of the magnetotail, focusing principally on large-scale processes or microprocesses with some large-scale effects. Consideration is given to quiet and average structures, not necessarily related to activity phases, with quasi-steady convection aspects, and with the characteristics of dynamic phases including acceleration mechanisms and single particle aspects. Attention is given to various activity models, average and quiet time properties, properties and effects of magnetospheric convection, dynamics of the magnetotail, and the near tail, substorm current wedge.

  11. Webinar: Stepped chute design for embankment dams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changing demographics in the vicinity of dams have led to hazard creep in a number of dams worldwide. Many of these dams now have insufficient spillway capacity as a result of these changes in hazard classification from low to significant or high hazard. Stepped chutes applied to the embankment da...

  12. Inception point for embankment dam stepped spillways

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stepped spillways applied to embankment dams have become a common design practice with the rehabilitation of aging watershed dams, especially those experiencing a hazard classification change from low to high hazard. Previous research on stepped spillways focused on gravity dams where aerated flow ...

  13. Multiple flow processes accompanying a dam-break flood in a small upland watershed, Centralia, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Costa, John E.

    1994-01-01

    On October 5, 1991, following 35 consecutive days of dry weather, a 105-meter long, 37-meter wide, 5.2-meter deep concrete-lined watersupply reservoir on a hillside in the eastern edge of Centralia, Washington, suddenly failed, sending 13,250 cubic meters of water rushing down a small, steep tributary channel into the city. Two houses were destroyed, several others damaged, mud and debris were deposited in streets, on lawns, and in basements over four city blocks, and 400 people were evacuated. The cause of failure is believed to have been a sliding failure along a weak seam or joint in the siltstone bedrock beneath the reservoir, possibly triggered by increased seepage into the rock foundation through continued deterioration of concrete panel seams, and a slight rise (0.6 meters) in the pool elevation. A second adjacent reservoir containing 18,900 cubic meters of water also drained, but far more slowly, when a 41-cm diameter connecting pipe was broken by the landslide. The maximum discharge resulting from the dam-failure was about 71 cubic meters per second. A reconstructed hydrograph based on the known reservoir volume and calculated peak discharge indicates the flood duration was about 6.2 minutes. Sedimentologic evidence, high-water mark distribution, and landforms preserved in the valley floor indicate that the dam failure flood consisted of two flow phases: an initial debris flow that deposited coarse bouldery sediment along the slope-area reach as it lost volume, followed soon after by a water-flood that achieved a stage about one-half meter higher than the debris flow. The Centralia dam failure is one of three constructed dams destroyed by rapid foundation failure that defines the upper limits of an envelope curve of peak flood discharge as a function of potential energy for failed constructed dams worldwide.

  14. National Dam Safety Program. Lake Stockholm Dam (NJ 00302), Passaic River Basin, Small Branch, Passaic County, New Jersey. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-03-01

    been classified as having “High Hazard Potential” on the basis that failure of the dam would cause excessive property damage to residences downstream...and could potentially cause more than a few deaths. Visual inspection of the downstream area shows that breach of the dam would cause little damage...L ~ .~ tI-, _______ DATE I~ 7 .73 Li. k~~~ L .1 a ’ u s-. JOB NO. ~J’ 7~ ~ p CKD ~~~~) DATE L-bz?~L SHEET NO. ‘ OF ID I- ‘Cz~- I— 0 0 CL

  15. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Youngs Brook Dam (VT 00165) Richelieu River Basin, Town of West Rutland, Rutland County, Vermont. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    inspection party (see Appendix A-i) was accompanied by Mr. Joseph Skaza, Water System Operator, who represented the Owner. The weather was overcast. The...the computer output start on Appendix D-17. Results for all stations are summarized in Table 5.2. BREACH AT TOP OF DAM is a major sudden failure of...the dam under the conditions previously discussed in Section 5.5.a. Results are summarized in Table 5.2 for all stations , with the computer input and

  16. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Natick Pond Dam (RI 03801) Pawtuxet River Basin, Warwick, Rhode Island. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-01

    for the following two conditions: Condition 1. Failure of raceway headworks and filled channel when headwater pond is at Elevation 54.0. The raceway is...the old mill raceway . b. Design Data. No hydrologic or hydraulic design data were retrieved for Natick Pond Dam. c. Experience Data. No records are...Al) A156 738 NATIONAL PROGRAM FO0 INSPECTION OF NON-FEDERAL DAMS I/1 NATICK POND DAN IRI O.IUT CORPS OF ENGINEERS WALTHAN MA NEW ENGLAND DIV JUN 79

  17. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Goffs Falls Dam (NH 00292), NHWRB 150.05, Merrimack River Basin, Manchester, New Hampshire. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    dam approximately 80 feet in length. Pine Island Pond , a 37-acre recreational pond , is formed behind this dam. This "’ pond has been the subject of...spillway section is 68.5 feet in length and 5 feet long. On the left abutment, there is an old raceway structure 10 feet long and rpresently filled with...present time. The abandoned sluiceway should be reconstructed in order to preclude failure of the left bank and to provide a means to lower the pond

  18. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    SciTech Connect

    Hanchey, L A

    1981-01-01

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

  19. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    SciTech Connect

    Hanchey, L A

    1981-04-01

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the United States may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

  20. Tailed bacteriophages: the order caudovirales.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, H W

    1998-01-01

    Tailed bacteriophages have a common origin and constitute an order with three families, named Caudovirales. Their structured tail is unique. Tailed phages share a series of high-level taxonomic properties and show many facultative features that are unique or rare in viruses, for example, tail appendages and unusual bases. They share with other viruses, especially herpesviruses, elements of morphogenesis and life-style that are attributed to convergent evolution. Tailed phages present three types of lysogeny, exemplified by phages lambda, Mu, and P1. Lysogeny appears as a secondary property acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Amino acid sequence alignments (notably of DNA polymerases, integrases, and peptidoglycan hydrolases) indicate frequent events of horizontal gene transfer in tailed phages. Common capsid and tail proteins have not been detected. Tailed phages possibly evolved from small protein shells with a few genes sufficient for some basal level of productive infection. This early stage can no longer be traced. At one point, this precursor phage became perfected. Some of its features were perfect enough to be transmitted until today. It is tempting to list major present-day properties of tailed phages in the past tense to construct a tentative history of these viruses: 1. Tailed phages originated in the early Precambrian, long before eukaryotes and their viruses. 2. The ur-tailed phage, already a quite evolved virus, had an icosahedral head of about 60 nm in diameter and a long non-contractile tail with sixfold symmetry. The capsid contained a single molecule of dsDNA of about 50 kb, and the tail was probably provided with a fixation apparatus. Head and tail were held together by a connector. a. The particle contained no lipids, was heavier than most viruses to come, and had a high DNA content proportional to its capsid size (about 50%). b. Most of its DNA coded for structural proteins. Morphopoietic genes clustered at one end of the genome, with head

  1. Geomorphic evolution to large check-dam removal on a mountain river in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Kuo, W.

    2012-12-01

    As aging dams become obsolete or economically inefficient, dam removal has become an important aspect of river restoration in recent years. While various efforts are ongoing to enhance our understanding, studies documenting the physical and ecological responses to dam removal are still lacking, particularly for removal of large dams in mountain river and following major flood, where the size of watersheds and the amount of reservoir sediment released can be much greater than for most previously studied dam removals. This presentation documents the geomorphic evolution to removal of a large dam on a coarse-grained, steep (an order of magnitude greater than on the Marmot) mountain channel in Taiwan. The Chijiawan creek is the only habitat in Taiwan of the endangered Formosan landlocked salmon. Its habitat has been cut significantly since the 1960s following construction of check dams designed to prevent reservoir sedimentation downstream. The largest and lowermost barrier on Chijiawan creek is the 15m high, "No. 1 Check Dam" built in 1971. Forty years later, the dam had backfilled with about an estimated 0.2 million m3 sediment and its toe had been scoured about 4m below its foundation, raising a significant risk of dam failure. For these reasons, the Shei-Pa National Park removed the dam in late May 2011. To monitor the channel response to dam removal, we conducted surveys of grain size distributions, cross-sectional and longitudinal profiles, analyzed the stage and turbidity records, and carried out repeat photography. Channel changes were greatest immediately following removal as a result of the high stream power, steep energy slope, and unconsolidated alluvial fill behind the dam. Headcut propagation caused immediate removal of the sand-grade sediment and progressive channel widening. One month after dam removal, a minor flood event with the estimated peak discharge of 20 m3/s excavated a big wedge of sediment from the impoundment. Two months after dam removal

  2. Comparison of Natural Dams from Lava Flows and Landslides on the Owyhee River, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ely, L. L.; Brossy, C. C.; Othus, S. M.; Orem, C.; Fenton, C.; House, P. K.; O'Connor, J. E.; Safran, E. B.

    2008-12-01

    Numerous large lava flows and mass movements have temporarily dammed the Owyhee River in southeastern Oregon at various temporal and spatial scales. These channel-encroaching events potentially play a significant role in creating and maintaining the geomorphic features of river canyons in uplifted volcanic terranes that compose a significant part of the western U.S. Abundant landslides and lava flows have the capacity to inhibit incision by altering channel slope, width, and bed character, and burying valley- bottom bedrock under exogenous material; or promote incision by generating cataclysmic floods through natural dam failures. The natural dams vary in their source, morphology, longevity and process of removal, which in turn affects the extent and duration of their impact on the river. The 3 most recent lava flows filled the channel 10-75 m deep and flowed up to 26 kilometers downvalley, creating long, low dams that were subject to gradual, rather than catastrophic, removal. In the last 125 ka, the Saddle Butte and West Crater lava dams created reservoirs into which 10-30 meters of silt and sand were deposited. The river overtopped the dams and in most reaches eventually cut a new channel through the adjacent, less resistant bedrock buttresses. Terraces at several elevations downstream and upstream of the West Crater dam indicate periods of episodic incision ranging from 0.28 to 1.7 mm/yr., based on 3He exposure ages on strath surfaces and boulder-rich fluvial deposits. In contrast to the lava dams, outburst flood deposits associated with landslide dams are common along the river. The mechanisms of failure are related to the geologic setting, and include rotational slump complexes, cantilevered blocks and block slides, and massive earthflows. Most large-scale mass movements occur in reaches where the Owyhee canyon incises through stacks of interbedded fluviolacustrine sediments capped with lava flows. The frequently observed association of landslides and flood

  3. Scale-dependency of macroinvertebrate communities: responses to contaminated sediments within run-of-river dams.

    PubMed

    Colas, Fanny; Archaimbault, Virginie; Devin, Simon

    2011-03-01

    Due to their nutrient recycling function and their importance in food-webs, macroinvertebrates are essential for the functioning of aquatic ecosystems. These organisms also constitute an important component of biodiversity. Sediment evaluation and monitoring is an essential aspect of ecosystem monitoring since sediments represent an important component of aquatic habitats and are also a potential source of contamination. In this study, we focused on macroinvertebrate communities within run-of-river dams, that are prime areas for sediment and pollutant accumulation. Little is known about littoral macroinvertebrate communities within run-of-river dam or their response to sediment levels and pollution. We therefore aimed to evaluate the following aspects: the functional and structural composition of macroinvertebrate communities in run-of-river dams; the impact of pollutant accumulation on such communities, and the most efficient scales and tools needed for the biomonitoring of contaminated sediments in such environments. Two run-of-river dams located in the French alpine area were selected and three spatial scales were examined: transversal (banks and channel), transversal x longitudinal (banks/channel x tail/middle/dam) and patch scale (erosion, sedimentation and vegetation habitats). At the patch scale, we noted that the heterogeneity of littoral habitats provided many available niches that allow for the development of diversified macroinvertebrate communities. This implies highly variable responses to contamination. Once combined on a global 'banks' spatial scale, littoral habitats can highlight the effects of toxic disturbances.

  4. Galactic bridges and tails.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toomre, A.; Toomre, J.

    1972-01-01

    This paper argues that the bridges and tails seen in some multiple galaxies are just tidal relics of close encounters. These consequences of the brief but violent tidal forces are here studied in a deliberately simple-minded fashion. Each encounter is considered to involve only two galaxies and to be roughly parabolic; each galaxy is idealized as just a disk of noninteracting test particles which initially orbit a central mass point. As shown here, the two-sided distortions provoked by gravity alone in such circumstances can indeed evolve kinematically into some remarkably narrow and elongated features. Besides extensive pictorial survey of tidal damage, this paper offers reconstructions of the orbits and outer shapes of four specific interacting pairs: Arp 295, M51 + NGC 5195, NGC 4676, and NGC 4038/9.

  5. Nonlinear Seismic Analysis of Morrow Point Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, C R; Nuss, L K

    2004-02-20

    This research and development project was sponsored by the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), who are best known for the dams, power plants, and canals it constructed in the 17 western states. The mission statement of the USBR's Dam Safety Office, located in Denver, Colorado, is ''to ensure Reclamation dams do not present unacceptable risk to people, property, and the environment.'' The Dam Safety Office does this by quickly identifying the dams which pose an increased threat to the public, and quickly completing the related analyses in order to make decisions that will safeguard the public and associated resources. The research study described in this report constitutes one element of USBR's research and development work to advance their computational and analysis capabilities for studying the response of dams to strong earthquake motions. This project focused on the seismic response of Morrow Point Dam, which is located 263 km southwest of Denver, Colorado.

  6. Seismic safety of high concrete dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Houqun

    2014-08-01

    China is a country of high seismicity with many hydropower resources. Recently, a series of high arch dams have either been completed or are being constructed in seismic regions, of which most are concrete dams. The evaluation of seismic safety often becomes a critical problem in dam design. In this paper, a brief introduction to major progress in the research on seismic aspects of large concrete dams, conducted mainly at the Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research (IWHR) during the past 60 years, is presented. The dam site-specific ground motion input, improved response analysis, dynamic model test verification, field experiment investigations, dynamic behavior of dam concrete, and seismic monitoring and observation are described. Methods to prevent collapse of high concrete dams under maximum credible earthquakes are discussed.

  7. Controls on the Breach Geometry and Flood Hydrograph During Overtopping of Non-cohesive Earthen Dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walder, J. S.; Iverson, R. M.; Godt, J.; Logan, M.; Solovitz, S.

    2015-12-01

    To gain insight into overtopping failure of natural and constructed earthen dams, large-scale experiments were done with dams built of damp, compacted, fine-grained sand with nearly trapezoidal cross sections. Both the height and top width were varied, so that the cross-sectional shape ranged approximately from that of embankment or moraine dams to that of landslide dams. Breaching was initiated by cutting a shallow notch across the dam crest and allowing water escaping from a finite upstream reservoir to form its own channel. The channel invariably developed a stepped profile, with steps migrating upstream and coalescing into a headcut. Hydraulic control became established at the channel head, or breach crest, an arcuate erosional feature. Intersection of the migrating headcut with the breach crest triggered rapid, runaway downcutting. Step development and headcut retreat proceeded much more slowly in low dams with wide tops than in tall dams with narrow tops. Photogrammetry and underwater videography showed that the slope of the retreating headcut stayed near the friction angle of the sand and that the evolving flow cross section at the breach crest maintained a geometrically similar shape in 3D. Contrary to a common assumption in dam-breach models, the hydraulic control section was rarely perturbed by slope failures. The idea that hydraulic control reflects tradeoff between sediment delivery by slope failures and sediment removal by fluvial processes is wrong. Hydrographs were quite reproducible when the time datum was chosen as the time that the migrating headcut reached the breach crest. Peak discharge increased systematically with the initial reservoir water level Z0, a puzzling fact given that that flow depth at the breach crest was nearly always much smaller than Z0, implying that the hydraulics at the breach crest, and thus the local shear stress, should have been nearly independent of Z0. This conundrum may be resolved if breach-crest erosion rate, and

  8. Respiratory Failure

    MedlinePlus

    Respiratory failure happens when not enough oxygen passes from your lungs into your blood. Your body's organs, ... brain, need oxygen-rich blood to work well. Respiratory failure also can happen if your lungs can' ...

  9. Modelling the impact of dam removal on geomorphic channel response and sediment delivery: an Austrian case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöppl, Ronald; Coulthard, Tom; Keesstra, Saskia; Keiler, Margreth

    2015-04-01

    Dams are often considered to have the most significant impact on rivers as dam construction generally reduces downstream sediment fluxes which further involves geomorphic changes in the affected river reaches. Since many dams no longer fulfill their intended purpose (e.g. due to siltation), are dangerous (e.g. catastrophic dam failures) and/or are ecologically damaging (e.g. habitat destruction), within the last two decades several dams have been removed and many more are already proposed for removal. Unfortunately, there is still only little empirical knowledge about the geomorphic consequences of dam removals and the related sediment release which represents a big challenge for river management. Modelling is one way to approach this problem. In the presented study we modelled the impacts of dam removal on geomorphic channel processes, channel morphology and sediment delivery further considering the role of channel engineering measures and reservoir excavation within a river reach impacted by a series of dams using the landscape evolution model CAESAR-Lisflood. The model was run with data from a small catchment located in Lower Austria. Modelled geomorphic channel changes and sediment fluxes were spatio-temporally analyzed, related to real-world data and are discussed in the context of river management issues.

  10. Telling tails: selective pressures acting on investment in lizard tails.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Patricia A; Valentine, Leonie E; Bateman, Philip W

    2013-01-01

    Caudal autotomy is a common defense mechanism in lizards, where the animal may lose part or all of its tail to escape entrapment. Lizards show an immense variety in the degree of investment in a tail (i.e., length) across species, with tails of some species up to three or four times body length (snout-vent length [SVL]). Additionally, body size and form also vary dramatically, including variation in leg development and robustness and length of the body and tail. Autotomy is therefore likely to have fundamentally different effects on the overall body form and function in different species, which may be reflected directly in the incidence of lost/regenerating tails within populations or, over a longer period, in terms of relative tail length for different species. We recorded data (literature, museum specimens, field data) for relative tail length (n=350 species) and the incidence of lost/regenerating tails (n=246 species). We compared these (taking phylogeny into account) with intrinsic factors that have been proposed to influence selective pressures acting on caudal autotomy, including body form (robustness, body length, leg development, and tail specialization) and ecology (foraging behavior, physical and temporal niches), in an attempt to identify patterns that might reflect adaptive responses to these different factors. More gracile species have relatively longer tails (all 350 spp., P < 0.001; also significant for five of the six families tested separately), as do longer (all species, P < 0.001; Iguanidae, P < 0.05; Lacertidae, P < 0.001; Scindidae, P < 0.001), climbing (all species, P < 0.05), and diurnal (all species, P < 0.01; Pygopodidae, P < 0.01) species; geckos without specialized tails (P < 0.05); or active-foraging skinks (P < 0.05). We also found some relationships with the data for caudal autotomy, with more lost/regenerating tails for nocturnal lizards (all 246 spp., P < 0.01; Scindidae, P < 0.05), larger skinks (P < 0.05), climbing geckos (P < 0

  11. Runaway tails in magnetized plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moghaddam-Taaheri, E.; Vlahos, L.; Rowland, H. L.; Papadopoulos, K.

    1985-01-01

    The evolution of a runaway tail driven by a dc electric field in a magnetized plasma is analyzed. Depending on the strength of the electric field and the ratio of plasma to gyrofrequency, there are three different regimes in the evolution of the tail. The tail can be (1) stable with electrons accelerated to large parallel velocities, (2) unstable to Cerenkov resonance because of the depletion of the bulk and the formation of a positive slope, (3) unstable to the anomalous Doppler resonance instability driven by the large velocity anisotropy in the tail. Once an instability is triggered (Cerenkov or anomalous Doppler resonance) the tail relaxes into an isotropic distribution. The role of a convection type loss term is also discussed.

  12. GIS-based Mine Tailings Yield Mapping using RUSLE and Sediment Delivery Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Choi, Y.; Park, H.; Kwon, H.; Yoon, S.; Go, W.

    2010-12-01

    Erosion of mine tailings heaped up on the side of abandoned mine is an environmental problem because they contain harmful heavy metals. These harmful heavy metals such as copper, lead, arsenic in mine tailings cause contamination of surrounding streams and soil. To prevent and reduce the damage of surrounding streams caused by harmful heavy metals leaking from mine tailings, evaluating the pollution loading amount of mine tailings is required. However, it is difficult to assess its environmental impacts accurately because of its complex processes associated with it (Lal 1994). To estimate soil erosion and develop soil erosion management plans, there are some soil erosion estimation methods. Among these methods, the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) is the most widely used method. The six factors affecting soil loss such as rainfall-runoff erosivity, soil erodibility, slope length and steepness, cover management, and support practice were extracted from the spatial data and measurement data to evaluate average annual soil loss. Applying this model to mine tailings is possible, because mine tailings are regarded as soil. All the sediment generated may not be delivered at the watershed outlet because some of it may be deposited at various locations in the watershed. RUSLE does not consider the sediment delivery ratio to estimate the mine tailings delivered to the downstream point of interest. In this study, three methods are provided to compute the spatially distributed sediment delivery ratios and the results are compared with each other. Geographical Information System (GIS)-based erosion model and sediment delivery model were used to estimate the potential sediment yield from mine tailings in this study. The results achieved in this study can be used as basis data to assist mine tailings management and tailings dam installation plan. This work was supported by the Mine Reclamation Corporation funded by the Ministry of Knowledge Economy, Republic of Korea

  13. Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    Heart failure is a condition in which the heart can't pump enough blood to meet the body's needs. Heart failure does not mean that your heart has stopped ... Tiredness and shortness of breath Common causes of heart failure are coronary artery disease, high blood pressure and ...

  14. Electromagnetic profiling of Owena Dam, Southwestern Nigeria, using very-low-frequency radio fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okpoli, Cyril; Tijani, Raphael

    2016-10-01

    Very low frequency (VLF) was used to assess variations in overburden composition, bedrock lithology and the concealed basement structures within the bedrock of Owena Dam in Igbara-Oke of the Precambrian Basement Complex of Southwestern Nigeria. Five VLF-electromagnetic (EM) traverses were occupied at 5 m intervals. The VLF normal and filtered real component anomalies identify major geological interfaces suspected to be faults/fractured zones. The points of crossover between the real and imaginary components delineate the fractured zones, which were identified as areas of possible seepage (piping and sloughing). The internal erosion (permeability) of soil mass eventually leads to the formation of an open conduit in the soil, which may lead to failure of the embankment/dam. The fractured zones are suspected to be present at all traverses. In total, 21 fractured zones were identified along the dam embankment, with the deepest occurrence at Traverse 5. These seepage zones cause heterogeneity in the subsurface composition, which could lead to dam failure. The result of the study suggests that VLF is an adequate method of monitoring seepages in embankment dams.

  15. Using hydraulic modeling to address social impacts of small dam removals in southern New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Wyrick, Joshua R; Rischman, Brian A; Burke, Christopher A; McGee, Craig; Williams, Chasity

    2009-07-01

    Small relic mill dams are common in the watersheds of southern New Jersey, dotting the landscape with many small neighborhood lakes. Originally built in the late 1800s, most of these dams have become increasingly unable to handle current design storms due to increased urbanization of the watersheds. Several of these dams have also been classified as "high hazard" by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Dam Safety Division because their failure has the potential for loss of life or extensive property damage. The current private owners are generally unable to afford the high repair costs needed to rehabilitate the dams to current safety standards, and are therefore more inclined to remove them. This research analyses both the physical and social impacts of the removal of two small dams in southern New Jersey, and integrates the two seemingly disparate concepts. Using hydraulic modeling and previous case studies, it is predicted that there will be limited effects to the hydrological and biological characteristics of the stream corridor. A survey distributed to the affected homeowners that live on these lakes shows that the community, however, expects significant impacts to the bio-physical characteristics of the stream corridor, as well financial impacts to their property value and social impacts to their recreational activities. The current study exposes the widening gap between policy makers and landowners, and highlights where complete stakeholder interaction could and should occur.

  16. A tool to aid emergency managers and communities in appraising private dam safety and policy.

    PubMed

    Pisaniello, John D; McKay, Jennifer

    2007-06-01

    Issues concerning dam safety and equitable sharing of catchment run-off are receiving more attention throughout the world. This paper assesses these matters in the context of Australia, and the need for policy responses. Landholders often overlook the common law obligation to review/design dams to current standards because of high costs, leaving them vulnerable to litigation if their dam fails. The paper reports on an innovative spillway design/review procedure, applicable to southeast Australia, but transferable to any region worldwide. Dam safety policy models and guidelines derived from international best practice are linked to the procedure and intended to aid government decision-making. The procedure minimises costs to landholders and provides an acceptable level of safety assurance to downstream communities. Also discussed are recent surveys testing community attitudes to the procedure and implemented dam safety and water allocation policies. These further guide any government wanting to implement this'integrated engineering and community partnerships'approach to preventing potential disasters due to private dam failure and achieving sustainable and safe water storage and use.

  17. Impact of a base metal slimes dam on water systems, Madziwa Mine, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupankwa, K.; Love, D.; Mapani, B. S.; Mseka, S.

    The Mazowe Valley contains several of Zimbabwe’s largest current mining operations, is densely populated and is also a major agricultural area. The urban areas of Bindura, Goromonzi, Shamva, Marondera, Murehwa and Mutoko all draw water from within the Mazowe Valley. Irrigation of commercial crops is also a major water user. Accordingly, managing the impact of mining operations on water quality in the Mazowe Valley must be a major priority for sustainable development in this area. Madziwa Mine, 150 km north-east of Harare, is a case in point. Mining took place between 1966 and 2001. The main sulphides were chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, pentlandite and pyrite. Waste from the mine’s plant has been disposed of via a tailings dam, the focus of this study. Surface water samples were collected at 12 sites around the slimes dam and groundwater samples were collected from six boreholes. The samples were analysed for dissolved metals using atomic absorption spectrometry and for anions using gravimetry and titration. The surface water chemical analyses showed that acidic effluent with high concentrations of iron, nickel and sulphate emanates from the tailings dam. Concentrations of metals are lower after the water has passed through natural wetlands. Chemical analysis of groundwater showed similarly high levels of acidity, sulphate and metal. These findings show that acid mine drainage is seeping from the tailings dam. Efforts are being made to reduce the effects of the acid mine drainage. For surface seepage from the dumps these efforts include diverting acidic effluent from the dump into natural wetlands that neutralise the acidity. To reduce drainage into the groundwater efforts are being made to plant trees with high evaporation rates to minimise the amount of water that can cause acid mine drainage.

  18. Lift generation by the avian tail.

    PubMed

    Maybury, W J; Rayner, J M; Couldrick, L B

    2001-07-22

    Variation with tail spread of the lift generated by a bird tail was measured on mounted, frozen European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) in a wind tunnel at a typical air speed and body and tail angle of attack in order to test predictions of existing aerodynamic theories modelling tail lift. Measured lift at all but the lowest tail spread angles was significantly lower than the predictions of slender wing, leading edge vortex and lifting line models of lift production. Instead, the tail lift coefficient based on tail area was independent of tail spread, tail aspect ratio and maximum tail span. Theoretical models do not predict bird tail lift reliably and, when applied to tail morphology, may underestimate the aerodynamic optimum tail feather length. Flow visualization experiments reveal that an isolated tail generates leading edge vortices as expected for a low-aspect ratio delta wing, but that in the intact bird body-tail interactions are critical in determining tail aerodynamics: lifting vortices shed from the body interact with the tail and degrade tail lift compared with that of an isolated tail.

  19. [Tail Plane Icing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Program initiated by NASA in 1997 has put greater emphasis in safety related research activities. Ice-contaminated-tailplane stall (ICTS) has been identified by the NASA Lewis Icing Technology Branch as an important activity for aircraft safety related research. The ICTS phenomenon is characterized as a sudden, often uncontrollable aircraft nose- down pitching moment, which occurs due to increased angle-of-attack of the horizontal tailplane resulting in tailplane stall. Typically, this phenomenon occurs when lowering the flaps during final approach while operating in or recently departing from icing conditions. Ice formation on the tailplane leading edge can reduce tailplane angle-of-attack range and cause flow separation resulting in a significant reduction or complete loss of aircraft pitch control. In 1993, the Federal Aviation Authority (FAA) and NASA embarked upon a four-year research program to address the problem of tailplane stall and to quantify the effect of tailplane ice accretion on aircraft performance and handling characteristics. The goals of this program, which was completed in March 1998, were to collect aerodynamic data for an aircraft tail with and without ice contamination and to develop analytical methods for predicting the effects of tailplane ice contamination. Extensive dry air and icing tunnel tests which resulted in a database of the aerodynamic effects associated with tailplane ice contamination. Although the FAA/NASA tailplane icing program generated some answers regarding ice-contaminated-tailplane stall (ICTS) phenomena, NASA researchers have found many open questions that warrant further investigation into ICTS. In addition, several aircraft manufacturers have expressed interest in a second research program to expand the database to other tail configurations and to develop experimental and computational methodologies for evaluating the ICTS phenomenon. In 1998, the icing branch at NASA Lewis initiated a second

  20. Probabilistic seismic and geotechnical evaluation at a dam site

    SciTech Connect

    Vanmarcke, E.H.

    1983-09-01

    This report examines the use of probabilistic methods in dealing with the problem of potential earthquake-induced liquefaction of foundation soils at an example dam site located in the central United States, near the New Madrid earthquake zone. The example dam is assumed to be a 1-mile long rolled-filled embankment founded on a 100-ft deep deposit of interbedded alluvial gravels, sands, silts, and clays. The study is seen as an opportunity to examine probabilistic concepts and procedures in the framework of an example engineering project. In this context, the main practical value of a probabilistic approach is that it permits more informed decision making about further data acquisition, additional engineering analysis, and if necessary, remedial action. The specific aim of the study is to show how probabilistic procedures complement and help to reinterpret the results of deterministic (earthquake-induced) liquefaction analysis. The procedures focus on evaluating the impact of the different sources of variability (in the input parameters) on the uncertainty in performance predictions, and they permit results of the liquefaction analyses to be seen in the broader framework of assessment of earthquake-related dam failure risks.

  1. Numerical Simulation of Downstream Flooding due to a Flexible-Dam Collapse. The case of "La Esperanza" dam, Hidalgo-México: Implication on Hazard Assessment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Areu Rangel, O. S., Sr.; Mendoza-Sanchez, I.; Bonasia, R.

    2015-12-01

    The risk of flooding of settlements located downstream of a dam is high due to the large number of people living on natural waterways. Risk assessment of flooding could help in projecting containment and protection in case of a dam-break. For projecting containment and protection works, the assessment should take into account velocities, densities and impact pressure of the water on the villages in risk. Therefore, it is appealing to conduct a series of numerical simulations of downstream flooding including velocity and pressure fields, and their temporal and spatial fluctuations. The present work focuses on the real case of "La Esperanza" dam, located in the state of Hidalgo (Mexico). The dam was built 70 years ago and currently two thirds of its capacity is covered with silt, which implies a very high horizontal thrust. The simulation of the flood due to failure of the dam was carried on using the DualSPHysics code, a new implementation of the mesh-free Lagrangian Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) method. For the boundary conditions, a Digital Elevation Model of the potentially affected area was built using satellite images, the actual bathymetry of the dam and cross sections of the channel. In order to evaluate the hazard posed to the villages located downstream of the dam, different collapse scenarios were simulated, with particular focus on the consequences of the temporal variation of rainfall. Preliminary results show acceleration and dynamic pressure values of water in especially selected areas that are subjected to high risk for the elevated number of inhabitant.

  2. Egypt: after the Aswan Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, S.

    1981-05-01

    Ten years after its completion, the controversial Aswan High Dam's hydrologic and human consequences are clearer because of a joint US-Egyptian interdisciplinary study. Water supply and distribution is emerging as a major world resource problem with the recognition that unsafe drinking water and inadequate sanitation contribute to health problems. Dams provide water supplies, but they also create conditions favorable to the spread of water-borne diseases. The Aswan Dam solved problems of flooding and drought by opening 2.5 million acres to year-round irrigation, although some of the reclaimed land has been lost to urban expansion and shoreline erosion, and provides hydroelectric power. The negative effects include increasing soil salinity, changes in the water table, excessive downstream water plant growth, and diseases such as schistosomiasis and other intestinal parasites, and the social impact on the Nubians, whose homeland was flooded. Planners must use the information gathered in this study to see that the benefits outweigh the human costs. 22 references, 7 figures.

  3. Helicopter tail rotor noise analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, A. R.; Chou, S. T.

    1986-01-01

    A study was made of helicopter tail rotor noise, particularly that due to interactions with the main rotor tip vortices, and with the fuselage separation mean wake. The tail rotor blade-main rotor tip vortex interaction is modelled as an airfoil of infinite span cutting through a moving vortex. The vortex and the geometry information required by the analyses are obtained through a free wake geometry analysis of the main rotor. The acoustic pressure-time histories for the tail rotor blade-vortex interactions are then calculated. These acoustic results are compared to tail rotor loading and thickness noise, and are found to be significant to the overall tail rotor noise generation. Under most helicopter operating conditions, large acoustic pressure fluctuations can be generated due to a series of skewed main rotor tip vortices passing through the tail rotor disk. The noise generation depends strongly upon the helicopter operating conditions and the location of the tail rotor relative to the main rotor.

  4. Mercury's Dynamic Magnetic Tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, James A.

    2010-01-01

    The Mariner 10 and MESSENGER flybys of Mercury have revealed a magnetosphere that is likely the most responsive to upstream interplanetary conditions of any in the solar system. The source of the great dynamic variability observed during these brief passages is due to Mercury's proximity to the Sun and the inverse proportionality between reconnection rate and solar wind Alfven Mach number. However, this planet's lack of an ionosphere and its small physical dimensions also contribute to Mercury's very brief Dungey cycle, approx. 2 min, which governs the time scale for internal plasma circulation. Current observations and understanding of the structure and dynamics of Mercury's magnetotail are summarized and discussed. Special emphasis will be placed upon such questions as: 1) How much access does the solar wind have to this small magnetosphere as a function of upstream conditions? 2) What roles do heavy planetary ions play? 3) Do Earth-like substorms take place at Mercury? 4) How does Mercury's tail respond to extreme solar wind events such coronal mass ejections? Prospects for progress due to advances in the global magnetohydrodynamic and hybrid simulation modeling and the measurements to be taken by MESSENGER after it enters Mercury orbit on March 18, 2011 will be discussed.

  5. View of upstream face of the forebay dam of Grand ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of upstream face of the forebay dam of Grand Coulee Dam, looking west. Construction of the forebay dam, which replaced the eastern end of the original Grand Coulee Dam, was completed in 1974. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  6. 18. DETAIL AT JUNCTION OF MAIN DAM AT LEFT AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAIL AT JUNCTION OF MAIN DAM AT LEFT AND DIVERSION DAM AT RIGHT SHOWING LOG CRIBBING. SPACES INSIDE CRIBBING WERE FILLED WITH STONE TO ANCHOR DAM; DETERIORATION OF DAM HAS ALLOWED STONE BALLAST TO WASH AWAY. Photographed July 18, 1938. - Forge Creek Dam-John Cable Mill, Townsend, Blount County, TN

  7. Exporting dams: China's hydropower industry goes global.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Kristen; Bosshard, Peter; Brewer, Nicole

    2009-07-01

    In line with China's "going out" strategy, China's dam industry has in recent years significantly expanded its involvement in overseas markets. The Chinese Export-Import Bank and other Chinese financial institutions, state-owned enterprises, and private firms are now involved in at least 93 major dam projects overseas. The Chinese government sees the new global role played by China's dam industry as a "win-win" situation for China and host countries involved. But evidence from project sites such as the Merowe Dam in Sudan demonstrates that these dams have unrecognized social and environmental costs for host communities. Chinese dam builders have yet to adopt internationally accepted social and environmental standards for large infrastructure development that can assure these costs are adequately taken into account. But the Chinese government is becoming increasingly aware of the challenge and the necessity of promoting environmentally and socially sound investments overseas.

  8. Comparison of Dam Breach Parameter Estimators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    from a large storm in 1975 (CEATI). The dam was constructed of a clay core containing shale. The upstream and downstream fill was homogeneous earth ...Comparison of Dam Breach Parameter Estimators D. Michael Gee1 1 Senior Hydraulic Engineer, Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering...Center, 609 2nd St., Davis, CA 95616; email: michael.gee@usace.army.mil. ABSTRACT Analytical techniques for the estimation of dam breach

  9. Measurement of Dam Deformations: Case Study of Obruk Dam (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulal, V. Engin; Alkan, R. Metin; Alkan, M. Nurullah; İlci, Veli; Ozulu, I. Murat; Tombus, F. Engin; Kose, Zafer; Aladogan, Kayhan; Sahin, Murat; Yavasoglu, Hakan; Oku, Guldane

    2016-04-01

    In the literature, there is information regarding the first deformation and displacement measurements in dams that were conducted in 1920s Switzerland. Todays, deformation measurements in the dams have gained very different functions with improvements in both measurement equipment and evaluation of measurements. Deformation measurements and analysis are among the main topics studied by scientists who take interest in the engineering measurement sciences. The Working group of Deformation Measurements and Analysis, which was established under the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG), carries out its studies and activities with regard to this subject. At the end of the 1970s, the subject of the determination of fixed points in the deformation monitoring network was one of the main subjects extensively studied. Many theories arose from this inquiry, as different institutes came to differing conclusions. In 1978, a special commission with representatives of universities has been established within the FIG 6.1 working group; this commission worked on the issue of determining a general approach to geometric deformation analysis. The results gleaned from the commission were discussed at symposiums organized by the FIG. In accordance with these studies, scientists interested in the subject have begun to work on models that investigate cause and effect relations between the effects that cause deformation and deformation. As of the scientist who interest with the issue focused on different deformation methods, another special commission was established within the FIG engineering measurements commission in order to classify deformation models and study terminology. After studying this material for a long time, the official commission report was published in 2001. In this prepared report, studies have been carried out by considering the FIG Engineering Surveying Commission's report entitled, 'MODELS AND TERMINOLOGY FOR THE ANALYSIS OF GEODETIC MONITORING OBSERVATIONS

  10. 33 CFR 100.1102 - Marine Events on the Colorado River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, Arizona) and Headgate Dam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, Arizona) and Headgate Dam (Parker, Arizona). 100.1102 Section... Davis Dam (Bullhead City, Arizona) and Headgate Dam (Parker, Arizona). (a) General. Sponsors are... Roadrunner Resort and Headgate Dam). Bullhead City Boat Drags Sponsor: Sunshine Promotions Date: 2 to...

  11. Geomorphic Responses to Check-Dam Removal on a Steep Mountain River in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. W.; Kuo, W. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Chijiawan creek, located in the mountains of Central Taiwan with a strongly seasonal hydrology, high discharge and sediment yields, is the only habitat in Taiwan of the endangered Formosan landlocked salmon. The 13-m-high No. 1 Check Dam was the largest and lowermost barrier on Chijiawan creek built in 1972. After forty years, the dam had 4-m scouring holes below its foundation, raising a significant risk of dam failure. Due to the safety concern and habitat restoration, the Shei-Pa National Park removed the dam in late May 2011. This paper documents the channel evolution after its removal by focusing on understanding the geomorphic responses to sediment processes and complexities of hydrological processes. We collected the hourly discharge data of a Taipower gaging station located 6.8 km from the dam from 2010 to 2013 and conducted surveys of grain size distributions, cross-sectional and longitudinal profiles, and carried out repeat photography. One month after dam removal, a one-year event (Typhoon Meari) excavated a wedge of sediment from the impoundment. The knickpoint migrated to 200 m upstream from the dam and about 20,000 m3 of sediment had eroded from the reservoir. The profile remained pretty much unchanged until a year after in June 2012. Following a 20-year event (Typhoon Saola) in August 2012, the highest flow after dam removal to present, the channel significantly changed and the knickpoint migrated to 800 m upstream to the dam. The cumulative eroded amount increased to 150,000 m3, about three-thirds of the former impounded sediment. After a 5-year event (Typhoon Soulik) later on in July 2013, the knickpoint did not show much difference and the eroded amount of impounded sediment only increased 10,000 m3. However, the surveyed cross-sections showed obvious channel form changes and thalweg migration. It is likely that the entire bed was mobilized during the earlier high flows (Typhoon Saola), resulting in more easily mobilized bed material. As many

  12. National Dam Safety Program. Inventory of Dams, Delaware.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    of these regions and basins follows. 0 13. Item 17. River /Stream. Official name of river or stream on which dam is built. If un-named, listing should...0208 Lover Chesapeake Bay South Atlantic Oulf 03 I -two0301 R~oanoke 0302 Tar -Neuse 0305 Cape Fear 303-\\004& Pee Dee 0305 Santee- Edisto 0306 Savannab...has an official name. 12. Items 15 & 16. Codes for Region & Basin respectively in accordance with the following: Region 02 Middle Atlantic Basin 01

  13. Sirenomelia apus with vestigial tail.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Tushar B; Nanavati, Ruchi N; Udani, Rekha H

    2005-04-01

    Sirenomelia is an exceptionally rare congenital malformation characterized by complete or near complete fusion of lower limbs. A newborn with clinical features of sirenomelia including fused lower limbs in medial position, absent fibula, anal atresia, complete absence of urogenital system (bilateral renal agenesis, absent ureters, urinary bladder, absent internal and external genitalia), a single umbilical artery and a vestigial tail is reported. Association of vestigial tail with sirenomelia is not described in the literature.

  14. Experiments in dam removal, sediment pulses and channel evolution on the Clark Fork River, MT and White Salmon River, WA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, A. C.

    2012-12-01

    Two recent dam removals on tributaries to the Columbia River in the northwestern United States present contrasting examples of how dam removal methods, reservoir contents, and geomorphic settings influence system responses. The 2008 removal of Milltown Dam, from the Clark Fork River (CFR), Montana, and the 2011 removal of Condit Dam from the White Salmon River (WSR), Washington (Table 1), represent two of the largest dam removals to date. The Milltown Dam removal was notable because the dam stored millions of cubic meters of contaminated mine tailings, a portion of which were excavated as part of Superfund remediation but a portion of which flowed downstream after the removal. On the CFR, post-breach high flows in 2008 produced reservoir erosion and downstream deposition in bed interstices, along bars, and on the floodplain, but above-average (3-15 year recurrence interval) floods since then have remobilized this material and have, to a large extent, erased signs of downstream sedimentation. The Condit Dam removal entailed dynamiting of a 4m by 5.5m hole at the base of the dam, which produced rapid and dramatic draining of fine reservoir sediments within hours of the blast. Downstream of Condit Dam, the initial hyperconcentrated flows and sediment pulse draped the WSR with fine sediment, filled pools, and, in an unconfined reach influenced by the Columbia River's backwater, caused meters of aggradation and new bar formation. In the confined, bedrock-dominated reach downstream of the Condit site, pool-riffle structure has started to reemerge as of summer 2012 and the finest bed materials have been evacuated from the main channel, although sediment storage in pools and eddies persists. Whereas post-breach geomorphic responses on the CFR have been largely driven by hydrology, the post-breach evolution of the WSR has been predominantly influenced by antecedent geomorphic conditions (slope, confinement, and Columbia River backwater). On both the CFR and WSR, the pace of

  15. 3. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING A SMALL FIELDSTONE DAM (KNOWN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING A SMALL FIELD-STONE DAM (KNOWN LOCALLY AS DAM NO. 2), BUILT BY THE CCC - J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge Dams, Along Lower Souris River, Kramer, Bottineau County, ND

  16. 8. VIEW OF DAM 83, SHOWING OLD SOURIS RIVER CHANNEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF DAM 83, SHOWING OLD SOURIS RIVER CHANNEL FROM THE DOWNSTREAM FACE OF THE DAM WITH POND A IN THE BACKGROUND, LOOKING SOUTH - Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 83, Souris River Basin, Foxholm, Surrey (England), ND

  17. 4. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING A LARGE FIELDSTONE DAM (KNOWN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING A LARGE FIELD-STONE DAM (KNOWN LOCALLY AS DAM NO. 1), BUILT BY THE CCC - J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge Dams, Along Lower Souris River, Kramer, Bottineau County, ND

  18. Dam located to east of powerhouse, view from south. This ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Dam located to east of powerhouse, view from south. This dam holds back the waters of the Chattahoochee River to form the mill pond north of Riverdale Cotton Mill - Riverdale Cotton Mill, Powerhouse & Dam, Valley, Chambers County, AL

  19. 3. VIEW OF UPSTREAM FACE OF DAM, SHOWING OUTLET GATE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF UPSTREAM FACE OF DAM, SHOWING OUTLET GATE, LOOKING NORTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Island Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.8 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  20. 10. BRIDGE IN CONTEXT OF DAM, THIRD POWER HOUSE IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. BRIDGE IN CONTEXT OF DAM, THIRD POWER HOUSE IN FOREGROUND, LOOKING NORTH BY 360 DEGREES - Columbia River Bridge at Grand Coulee Dam, Spanning Columbia River at State Route 155, Coulee Dam, Okanogan County, WA

  1. 56. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). AUXILIARY LOCK AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). AUXILIARY LOCK AND REMAINDER OF DAM -- CONCRETE MONOLITH PLAN AND WALL ELEVATIONS (WITH LOCK APPURTENANCES). Drawing V-601 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

  2. 5. VIEW SHOWING DOWNSTREAM FACE AND TOE OF DAM, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW SHOWING DOWNSTREAM FACE AND TOE OF DAM, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Kidney Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.7 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  3. 4. VIEW SHOWING UPSTREAM FACE OF DAM, LOOKING NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW SHOWING UPSTREAM FACE OF DAM, LOOKING NORTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Kidney Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.7 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  4. 6. VIEW SHOWING DOWNSTREAM FACE AND TOE OF DAM, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW SHOWING DOWNSTREAM FACE AND TOE OF DAM, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Kidney Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.7 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  5. 3. OVERALL VIEW OF DAM, SHOWING UPSTREAM FACE, LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. OVERALL VIEW OF DAM, SHOWING UPSTREAM FACE, LOOKING EAST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Kidney Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.7 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  6. 7. DETAIL VIEW OF DAM, SHOWING ROLLER GATES, GATE PIERS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL VIEW OF DAM, SHOWING ROLLER GATES, GATE PIERS, HEADHOUSES AND DAM BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTHWEST, UPSTREAM - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 9, Lynxville, Crawford County, WI

  7. 5. DETAIL VIEW OF DAM, SHOWING ROLLER AND TAINTER GATES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL VIEW OF DAM, SHOWING ROLLER AND TAINTER GATES, GATE PIERS, HEADHOUSES AND DAM BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTHWEST, UPSTREAM - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 9, Lynxville, Crawford County, WI

  8. GENERAL VIEW OF THE WILSON DAM, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, GENERATING PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF THE WILSON DAM, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, GENERATING PLANT IN THE BACKGROUND. - Wilson Dam & Hydroelectric Plant, Spanning Tennessee River at Wilson Dam Road (Route 133), Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  9. 2. East side of lower dam shown with water flowing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. East side of lower dam shown with water flowing over dam. VIEW WEST - Loleta Recreation Area, Lower Dam, 6 miles Southeast of interesection of State Route 24041 & State Route 66, Loleta, Elk County, PA

  10. View of upstream face of Lake Sabrina Dam showing the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of upstream face of Lake Sabrina Dam showing the redwood planks and base of dam from Lake Sabrina Basin, view north - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 2, Lake Sabrina Dam, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  11. View of Lake Sabrina Dam downstream face from parking lot ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Lake Sabrina Dam downstream face from parking lot showing concrete outlet structure on tow of dam at left edge of photo, view southeast - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 2, Lake Sabrina Dam, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  12. 24. VIEW OF DAM ROLLER GATE BULKHEADS, BULKHEAD CARS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. VIEW OF DAM ROLLER GATE BULKHEADS, BULKHEAD CARS AND TRACKS IN STORAGE YARD, WITH MOVABLE CRANE AND DAM BRIDGE IN BACKGROUND, LOOKING WEST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 3, Red Wing, Goodhue County, MN

  13. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Chance Brook Dam (NH 00410), NHWRB 87.15, Merrimack River Basin, Franklin, New Hampshire. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-08-01

    if it can retain an appropriate design flood without failure. The owner should also consider delegating a local official to open the outlet works in an...now serves only as a recreational resource. (h) Design and Construction History The original granite block darn, which was constructed to generate...S S S S S 0 * - SECTION 2 - ENGINEERING DATA 2.1 Design The only design data available for the present dam is a 1976 %%%1 report by the NHWRB which

  14. National Dam Safety Program. Incline Village Lake Dam (MO 11041), Mississippi - Salt - Quincy River Basin, St. Charles County, Missouri. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    susceptible to erosion. if the Lindley soil type was used in the embankment, the potential of failure of the embankment would be increased due to erosion during...Townsend and Associates, Ltd. and PRC Engineering Consultants, Inc. (A Joint Venture) of St. Louis, Missouri, according to the U. S. Army Corps of...an intermediate size dam with a high hazard potential is required by the guidelines to pass the Probable Maximum Flood without overtopping. It was

  15. Morphogenesis of the T4 tail and tail fibers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Remarkable progress has been made during the past ten years in elucidating the structure of the bacteriophage T4 tail by a combination of three-dimensional image reconstruction from electron micrographs and X-ray crystallography of the components. Partial and complete structures of nine out of twenty tail structural proteins have been determined by X-ray crystallography and have been fitted into the 3D-reconstituted structure of the "extended" tail. The 3D structure of the "contracted" tail was also determined and interpreted in terms of component proteins. Given the pseudo-atomic tail structures both before and after contraction, it is now possible to understand the gross conformational change of the baseplate in terms of the change in the relative positions of the subunit proteins. These studies have explained how the conformational change of the baseplate and contraction of the tail are related to the tail's host cell recognition and membrane penetration function. On the other hand, the baseplate assembly process has been recently reexamined in detail in a precise system involving recombinant proteins (unlike the earlier studies with phage mutants). These experiments showed that the sequential association of the subunits of the baseplate wedge is based on the induced-fit upon association of each subunit. It was also found that, upon association of gp53 (gene product 53), the penultimate subunit of the wedge, six of the wedge intermediates spontaneously associate to form a baseplate-like structure in the absence of the central hub. Structure determination of the rest of the subunits and intermediate complexes and the assembly of the hub still require further study. PMID:21129200

  16. Fragility Analysis of Concrete Gravity Dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tekie, Paulos B.; Ellingwood, Bruce R.

    2002-09-01

    Concrete gravity dams are an important part ofthe nation's infrastructure. Many dams have been in service for over 50 years, during which time important advances in the methodologies for evaluation of natural phenomena hazards have caused the design-basis events to be revised upwards, in some cases significantly. Many existing dams fail to meet these revised safety criteria and structural rehabilitation to meet newly revised criteria may be costly and difficult. A probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) provides a rational safety assessment and decision-making tool managing the various sources of uncertainty that may impact dam performance. Fragility analysis, which depicts fl%e uncertainty in the safety margin above specified hazard levels, is a fundamental tool in a PSA. This study presents a methodology for developing fragilities of concrete gravity dams to assess their performance against hydrologic and seismic hazards. Models of varying degree of complexity and sophistication were considered and compared. The methodology is illustrated using the Bluestone Dam on the New River in West Virginia, which was designed in the late 1930's. The hydrologic fragilities showed that the Eluestone Dam is unlikely to become unstable at the revised probable maximum flood (PMF), but it is likely that there will be significant cracking at the heel ofthe dam. On the other hand, the seismic fragility analysis indicated that sliding is likely, if the dam were to be subjected to a maximum credible earthquake (MCE). Moreover, there will likely be tensile cracking at the neck of the dam at this level of seismic excitation. Probabilities of relatively severe limit states appear to be only marginally affected by extremely rare events (e.g. the PMF and MCE). Moreover, the risks posed by the extreme floods and earthquakes were not balanced for the Bluestone Dam, with seismic hazard posing a relatively higher risk.

  17. The requirement for the Dam1 complex is dependent upon the number of kinetochore proteins and microtubules.

    PubMed

    Burrack, Laura S; Applen, Shelly E; Berman, Judith

    2011-05-24

    The Dam1 complex attaches the kinetochore to spindle microtubules and is a processivity factor in vitro. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which has point centromeres that attach to a single microtubule, deletion of any Dam1 complex member results in chromosome segregation failures and cell death. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, which has epigenetically defined regional centromeres that each attach to 3-5 kinetochore microtubules, Dam1 complex homologs are not essential. To determine why the complex is essential in some organisms and not in others, we used Candida albicans, a multimorphic yeast with regional centromeres that attach to a single microtubule. Interestingly, the Dam1 complex was essential in C. albicans, suggesting that the number of microtubules per centromere is critical for its requirement. Importantly, by increasing CENP-A expression levels, more kinetochore proteins and microtubules were recruited to the centromeres, which remained fully functional. Furthermore, Dam1 complex members became less crucial for growth in cells with extra kinetochore proteins and microtubules. Thus, the requirement for the Dam1 complex is not due to the DNA-specific nature of point centromeres. Rather, the Dam1 complex is less critical when chromosomes have multiple kinetochore complexes and microtubules per centromere, implying that it functions as a processivity factor in vivo as well as in vitro.

  18. SUBAQUEOUS DISPOSAL OF MILL TAILINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Neeraj K. Mendiratta; Roe-Hoan Yoon; Paul Richardson

    1999-09-03

    A study of mill tailings and sulfide minerals was carried out in order to understand their behavior under subaqueous conditions. A series of electrochemical experiments, namely, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanic coupling tests were carried out in artificial seawater and in pH 6.8 buffer solutions with chloride and ferric salts. Two mill tailings samples, one from the Kensington Mine, Alaska, and the other from the Holden Mine, Washington, were studied along with pyrite, galena, chalcopyrite and copper-activated sphalerite. SEM analysis of mill tailings revealed absence of sulfide minerals from the Kensington Mine mill tailings, whereas the Holden Mine mill tailings contained approximately 8% pyrite and 1% sphalerite. In order to conduct electrochemical tests, carbon matrix composite (CMC) electrodes of mill tailings, pyrite and galena were prepared and their feasibility was established by conducting a series of cyclic voltammetry tests. The cyclic voltammetry experiments carried out in artificial seawater and pH 6.8 buffer with chloride salts showed that chloride ions play an important role in the redox processes of sulfide minerals. For pyrite and galena, peaks were observed for the formation of chloride complexes, whereas pitting behavior was observed for the CMC electrodes of the Kensington Mine mill tailings. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy conducted in artificial seawater provided with the Nyquist plots of pyrite and galena. The Nyquist plots of pyrite and galena exhibited an inert range of potential indicating a slower rate of leaching of sulfide minerals in marine environments. The galvanic coupling experiments were carried out to study the oxidation of sulfide minerals in the absence of oxygen. It was shown that in the absence of oxygen, ferric (Fe3+) ions might oxidize the sulfide minerals, thereby releasing undesirable oxidation products in the marine environment. The source of Fe{sup 3{minus}} ions may be

  19. Analysis and dynamic modeling of a moraine failure and glacier lake outburst flood at Ventisquero Negro, Patagonian Andes (Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worni, Raphael; Stoffel, Markus; Huggel, Christian; Volz, Christian; Casteller, Alejandro; Luckman, Brian

    2012-06-01

    SummaryAlthough moraine dams are inherently prone to failure because of their often weak structure, loose internal composition and lack of an engineered spillway, the understanding of dam breaching processes remains largely incomplete and appropriate modeling approaches are scarce. This paper analyzes a recent glacier lake outburst, caused by the failure of the terminal moraine of Ventisquero Negro (Patagonian Andes, Argentina) in May 2009. The dam breach trigger, breaching and lake emptying processes, plus the dynamics of the outburst flood were reconstructed based on field evidence and the application of a dynamic dam break model. Results indicate that the moraine failure was caused most probably by a rising lake level due to heavy precipitation, resulting in high lake outflow which led to dam erosion and finally to dam failure. The lake volume of ca. 10 × 106 m3 was released in ca. 3 h, producing high-discharge (ca. 4100 m3 s-1) debris flows and hyperconcentrated flows as the escaping water entrained large volumes of clastic material. The methodology presented in this paper provides valuable insights into complex dam breach and GLOF processes, and closes a critical gap in dynamic dam break modeling aimed at providing the lake outburst hydrograph. An accurate determination of outburst hydrographs constitutes one of the most crucial aspects for hazard assessment of unstable lakes and will gain further importance with ongoing glacier retreat and glacier lake formation.

  20. McNary Dam, Ice Harbor Dam, and Lower Monumental Dam Smolt Monitoring Program; 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hillson, Todd; Lind, Sharon; Price, William

    1997-07-01

    The Washington Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW) assumed responsibility for the Smolt Monitoring Program at McNary Dam on the Columbia River in 1990 and at the new juvenile collection facility at Lower Monumental Dam on the Snake River in 1993. In 1996, Smolt Monitoring Program activities also began at the new juvenile collection facility located at Ice Harbor Dam. This report summarizes the 1996 Smolt Monitoring work at all three sites. The work at Ice Harbor consisted of Gas Bubble Trauma (GBT) monitoring only. In general, the 1996 passage season at both the McNary and Lower Monumental sites can be characterized by reduced passage of juveniles through the collection systems due to elevated river flows and spill, and low (<1%) overall facility mortality rates most likely resulting from cooler water temperatures. In accordance with the National Marine Fisheries Service recommendations (NMFS, 1995) all spring migrants were bypassed at McNary Dam in 1996. Mechanical problems within the McNary collection system resulted in collection and sampling activities being delayed until April 18 at this site, while sampling and collection began on the scheduled starting date of April 1 at Lower Monumental Dam. Monitoring operations were conducted through December 14 at McNary Dam and through October 28 at Lower Monumental Dam. An ongoing transportation evaluation summer migrant marking program was conducted at McNary Dam in 1996 by the NMFS. This necessitated the sampling of 394,211 additional fish beyond the recommended sampling guidelines. All total, 509,237 and 31,219 juvenile salmonids were anesthetized and individually counted, examined for scale loss, injuries, and brands by WDFW Smolt Monitoring personnel in 1996 at McNary Dam and Lower Monumental Dam, respectively.

  1. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Mianus Filter Plant Dam (CT 00040), Southwestern Coastal Basin, Greenwich, Connecticut. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    broad crested , uncontrolled weir 2. Length of weir 65 feet 3. Crest elevation 69.65 4. Gates None 5. UIS Channel Natural Bed 6. D/S Channel Stone...long by 7 foot wide broad crested weir . Stream and basin slopes are flat to moderate having average grades of 0.5 percent to 2.0 percent. 5.2 Design...feet, the effects of the failure discharge will be reduced as it enters Mianus Pond. Water surface elevations due to the failure of the dam are listed

  2. The Impact of Dam-Reservoir-Foundation Interaction on Nonlinear Response of Concrete Gravity Dams

    SciTech Connect

    Amini, Ali Reza; Motamedi, Mohammad Hossein; Ghaemian, Mohsen

    2008-07-08

    To study the impact of dam-reservoir-foundation interaction on nonlinear response of concrete gravity dams, a two-dimensional finite element model of a concrete gravity dam including the dam body, a part of its foundation and a part of the reservoir was made. In addition, the proper boundary conditions were used in both reservoir and foundation in order to absorb the energy of outgoing waves at the far end boundaries. Using the finite element method and smeared crack approach, some different seismic nonlinear analyses were done and finally, we came to a conclusion that the consideration of dam-reservoir-foundation interaction in nonlinear analysis of concrete dams is of great importance, because from the performance point of view, this interaction significantly improves the nonlinear response of concrete dams.

  3. Delineation of subsurface structures using resistivity, VLF and radiometric measurement around a U-tailings pond and its hydrogeological implication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, K. S.; Sharma, S. P.; Sarangi, A. K.; Sengupta, D.

    The hydrogeological characteristics of the uranium mill tailings pond in the vicinity of Jaduguda (Jharkhand, India) were investigated to examine possible contamination and suggest suitable remedial measures, if required. As the hydrogeological characteristics of subsurface geology are closely related to the electrical properties of the subsurface, geophysical measurements using electrical resistivity coupled with Very Low Frequency electromagnetic method and radiation study were used to investigate the geophysical and geological condition of mill tailings in order to characterize the subsurface structures of the tailings pond. The resistivity interpretation depicted the thickness of the soil cover and thickness of tailings in the pond, as well as the depth to the basement. It also suggested the possible flow direction of leachate. It was observed that the resistivity of the top layer decreases in the direction opposite to the dam axis, which in turn, indicated that the groundwater movement occurs in the opposite direction of the dam axis (in the northwest direction). The VLF method depicted the fractures through which groundwater moves, and also showed the current density alignment in the northwest direction at 10 m depth. The radiation measurement showed relatively higher counts in the northwest direction. This correlated well with the resistivity measurement. The current density at a depth of 20 m showed a closed contour suggesting no groundwater movement in the area at this depth, and that high conductivity material was confined to the tailings area only. It was concluded that groundwater moves in opposite direction of the dam axis at shallower depth only. It was found that continuation of fractures do not extend to deeper depths, which suggested that the tailings storage facility at Jaduguda was reasonably safe from any downward contamination.

  4. 76 FR 12094 - Whitman River Dam, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ..., 38.5-foot-high Crocker Pond dam; (2) an existing 99.7- acre impoundment with a normal water surface... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Whitman River Dam, Inc. Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and Soliciting Additional Study Requests Take notice that the...

  5. 75 FR 62024 - Metal and Nonmetal Dams

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration 30 CFR Parts 56 and 57 RIN 1219-AB70 Metal and Nonmetal Dams AGENCY... measures to assure that metal and nonmetal mine operators design, construct, operate and maintain dams in...

  6. Detecting fluid leakage of a reservoir dam based on streaming self-potential measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Seo Young; Kim, Bitnarae; Nam, Myung Jin; Lim, Sung Keun

    2015-04-01

    Between many reservoir dams for agriculture in suburban area of South Korea, water leakage has been reported several times. The dam under consideration in this study, which is located in Gyeong-buk, in the south-east of the Korean Peninsula, was reported to have a large leakage at the right foot of downstream side of the reservoir dam. For the detection of the leakage, not only geological survey but also geophysical explorations have been made for precision safety diagnosis, since the leakage can lead to dam failure. Geophysical exploration includes both electrical-resistivity and self-potential surveys, while geological surveys water permeability test, standard penetration test, and sampling for undisturbed sample during the course of the drilling investigation. The geophysical explorations were made not only along the top of dam but also transverse the heel of dam. The leakage of water installations can change the known-heterogeneous structure of the dam body but also cause streaming spontaneous (self) potential (SP) anomaly, which can be detected by electrical resistivity and SP measurements, respectively. For the interpretation of streaming SP, we used trial-and-error method by comparing synthetic SP data with field SP data for model update. For the computation, we first invert the resistivity data to obtain the distorted resistivity structure of the dam levee then make three-dimensional electrical-resistivity modeling for the streaming potential distribution of the dam levee. Our simulation algorithm of streaming SP distribution based on the integrated finite difference scheme computes two-dimensional (2D) SP distribution based on the distribution of calculated flow velocities of fluid for a given permeability structure together with physical properties. This permeability is repeatedly updated based on error between synthetic and field SP data, until the synthetic data match the field data. Through this trial-and-error-based SP interpretation, we locate the

  7. Numerical analysis of earthquake response of an ultra-high earth-rockfill dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, W. X.; Xu, W. J.; Yu, Y. Z.; Lv, H.

    2013-05-01

    Failure of high earth dams under earthquake may cause disastrous economic damage and loss of lives. It is necessary to conduct seismic safety assessment, and numerical analysis is an effective way. Solid-fluid interaction has a significant influence on the dynamic responses of geotechnical materials, which should be considered in the seismic analysis of earth dams. The initial stress field needed for dynamic computation is often obtained from postulation, without considering the effects of early construction and reservoir impounding. In this study, coupled static analyses are conducted to simulate the construction and impounding of an ultra-high earth rockfill dam in China. Then based on the initial static stress field, dynamic response of the dam is studied with fully coupled nonlinear method. Results show that excess pore water pressure accumulates gradually with earthquake and the maximum value occurs at the bottom of core. Acceleration amplification reaches the maximum at the crest as a result of whiplash effect. Horizontal and vertical permanent displacements both reach the maximum values at the dam crest.

  8. Application of parallel computing to seismic damage process simulation of an arch dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Hong; Lin, Gao; Li, Jianbo

    2010-06-01

    The simulation of damage process of high arch dam subjected to strong earthquake shocks is significant to the evaluation of its performance and seismic safety, considering the catastrophic effect of dam failure. However, such numerical simulation requires rigorous computational capacity. Conventional serial computing falls short of that and parallel computing is a fairly promising solution to this problem. The parallel finite element code PDPAD was developed for the damage prediction of arch dams utilizing the damage model with inheterogeneity of concrete considered. Developed with programming language Fortran, the code uses a master/slave mode for programming, domain decomposition method for allocation of tasks, MPI (Message Passing Interface) for communication and solvers from AZTEC library for solution of large-scale equations. Speedup test showed that the performance of PDPAD was quite satisfactory. The code was employed to study the damage process of a being-built arch dam on a 4-node PC Cluster, with more than one million degrees of freedom considered. The obtained damage mode was quite similar to that of shaking table test, indicating that the proposed procedure and parallel code PDPAD has a good potential in simulating seismic damage mode of arch dams. With the rapidly growing need for massive computation emerged from engineering problems, parallel computing will find more and more applications in pertinent areas.

  9. Do we need construct more dams?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Shi, H.

    2013-12-01

    This paper reviews global dam development in association with the growths of global population, economy, and energy consumption in the past several decades, and also evaluates contributions of dam development to future world sustainable development. Eventually, this paper answers whether we need more dams in the future or not. The world population has rapidly increased from 1.6 billion in 1900, 2.5 billion in 1950, 6.1 billion in 2000, to 7.0 billion in 2011, and is projected to reach 9.5 billion in 2050; similarly, the world economy has dramatically expanded. To maintain socioeconomic development, the consumption of water, food and energy has increased rapidly as well. However, the total volume of available water resource over the world is limited, the food production largely depends on water supply, and the main energy sources are still oil, coal and gas at present, which are regarded as non-renewable resources. Accordingly, it is expected that we will face serious problems to deal with the challenges of water crisis, food security and energy shortage in the near future. In order to enhance the capability of regulating water resource, a great number of global dams (and related reservoirs) have been constructed in the last one hundred years; currently, almost all large rivers over the world have been regulated by dams. The reservoirs can supply sufficient water for irrigated land to ensure food production, and the associated hydropower stations can generate electricity. This article collects the dam data from the ICOLD (International Commission on Large Dams) and GRanD (Global Reservoir and Dam) databases, and some socioeconomic data, including population, economy, and consumptions of water, food and energy over the world. Analysis of these data reveals that global dam development has a great impact on the world sustainable development. Further, it is concluded that we need further dam development to maintain our future development.

  10. Programmed translational frameshift in the bacteriophage P2 FETUD tail gene operon.

    PubMed

    Christie, Gail E; Temple, Louise M; Bartlett, Becky A; Goodwin, Tina S

    2002-12-01

    The major structural components of the P2 contractile tail are encoded in the FETUD tail gene operon. The sequences of genes F(I) and F(II), encoding the major tail sheath and tail tube proteins, have been reported previously (L. M. Temple, S. L. Forsburg, R. Calendar, and G. E. Christie, Virology 181:353-358, 1991). Sequence analysis of the remainder of this operon and the locations of amber mutations Eam30, Tam5, Tam64, Tam215, Uam25, Uam77, Uam92, and Dam6 and missense mutation Ets55 identified the coding regions for genes E, T, U, and D, completing the sequence determination of the P2 genome. Inspection of the DNA sequence revealed a new open reading frame overlapping the end of the essential tail gene E. Lack of an apparent translation initiation site and identification of a putative sequence for a programmed translational frameshift within the E gene suggested that this new reading frame (E') might be translated as an extension of gene E, following a -1 translational frameshift. Complementation analysis demonstrated that E' was essential for P2 lytic growth. Analysis of fusion polypeptides verified that this reading frame was translated as a -1 frameshift extension of gpE, with a frequency of approximately 10%. The arrangement of these two genes within the tail gene cluster of phage P2 and their coupling via a translational frameshift appears to be conserved among P2-related phages. This arrangement shows a striking parallel to the organization in the tail gene cluster of phage lambda, despite a lack of amino acid sequence similarity between the tail gene products of these phage families.

  11. Spatio-temporal evaluation of Yamchi Dam basin water quality using Canadian water quality index.

    PubMed

    Farzadkia, Mahdi; Djahed, Babak; Shahsavani, Esmaeel; Poureshg, Yousef

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, the growth of population and increase of the industries around the tributaries of Yamchi Dam basin have led to deterioration of dam water quality. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of the Yamchi Dam basin water, which is used for drinking and irrigation consumptions using Canadian Water Quality Index (CWQI) model, and to determine the main water pollution sources of this basin. Initially, nine sampling stations were selected in the sensitive locations of the mentioned basin's tributaries, and 12 physico-chemical parameters and 2 biological parameters were measured. The CWQI for drinking consumptions was under 40 at all the stations indicating a poor water quality for drinking consumptions. On the other hand, the CWQI was 62-100 for irrigation at different stations; thus, the water had an excellent to fair quality for irrigation consumptions. Almost in all the stations, the quality of irrigation and drinking water in cold season was better. Besides, for drinking use, total coliform and fecal coliform had the highest frequency of failure, and total coliform had the maximum deviation from the specified objective. For irrigation use, total suspended solids had the highest frequency of failure and deviation from the objective in most of the stations. The pisciculture center, aquaculture center, and the Nir City wastewater discharge were determined as the main pollution sources of the Yamchi Dam basin. Therefore, to improve the water quality in this important surface water resource, urban and industrial wastewater treatment prior to disposal and more stringent environmental legislations are recommended.

  12. Dams and the fish fauna of the Neotropical region: impacts and management related to diversity and fisheries.

    PubMed

    Agostinho, A A; Pelicice, F M; Gomes, L C

    2008-11-01

    Reservoirs have been built in almost all of the hydrographic basins of Brazil. Their purposes include water supply for cities, irrigation and mainly, generation of electricity. There are more than 700 large dams and associated reservoirs in the large rivers of the country. These reservoirs favor local and regional economic development, but they also bring serious and irreversible alterations in the natural hydrologic regime of rivers, affecting habitat quality and the dynamics of the biota. In the impounded area, the main impact is the change from lotic to lentic water, which influences aquatic fauna, including fishes. Impacts of reservoirs present relevant spatiotemporal variations. Immediately after reservoir formation, fish species richness usually increases due to incorporation of surrounding habitats, but richness decreases as reservoirs age. However, impacts downstream of dams appear to be similar or stronger than those that occur within the reservoir. Dams promote discharge control, altering the seasonal cycles of floods. These effects are augmented when dams are constructed in cascades. Therefore, dams profoundly influence composition and structure of fish assemblages. Most affected species are the rheophilics and long distance migratory that require distinct habitats to fulfill their life cycles. Populations of migratory species may collapse or even disappear in intensely regulated stretches. Management actions taken to minimize impacts of dams in Brazil historically considered construction of fish passages, fishery control and stocking. The results of these actions are questionable and/or with clear failures. In this paper, we give emphasis to the Paraná River basin, the most affected by dams in Brazil. We describe some patterns in the alteration and decline in fish diversity in areas influenced by dams. We also discuss negative consequences in the fishery and ecosystems functioning. Finally, we argue the relevance and the success of the management

  13. Kidney Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dialysis or Transplant Paying for Kidney Failure Treatment Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ... to share this content freely. October 2, 2013 Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ...

  14. Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... for people who can't tolerate ACE inhibitors. Beta blockers. This class of drugs not only slows your ... rhythms and lessen your chance of dying unexpectedly. Beta blockers may reduce signs and symptoms of heart failure, ...

  15. Modeling an ancient Iranian dam system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertsen, Maurits; De Schacht, Tijs

    2013-04-01

    In Iran, along the northern and eastern fringes of the Pasargadae plain, five dam remains from the Achaemenid period (550-330 BCE) present an important footprint of the human impact and reshaping of the region. The dams are predominantly found in dry wadi beds. In the framework of the Joint Iranian-French Archaeological Project at Pasargadae, these dam sites were studied and excavated. Located 22 km to the north of Pasargadae in a small wadi, the Sad-i Didegan dam has a watershed of circa 46 square km, small compared with catchments of other known Achaemenid dams. It is an earth built gravity dam of circa 90 m wide, 21 m high and with a crown length of about 150 m. In the lower body of the dam, remains of a feeder canal and an accessible control infrastructure at the downstream flank of the dam were found. To the northwest, the dam site of Sad-i Shahidabad can be found, another large Achaemenid dam, which stored water from the perennial river of the Rud-i Polvar. This dam also had a similar canal and control structure. Close to the Sad-i Didegan area is a large earthwork, found to cross the watershed divide between Didegan and Shahidabad, consisting of a wide V-shaped trench of remarkable size: up to 100 m wide, a total length of at least 900 m and a maximum present day depth of 7.5 m. Even though the construction of the system in this case clearly was left unfinished, the remains echo the major investment of available labor. Given the contemporaneity of both dam sites, it is clear evidence of the more regionally and elaborately planned character of the hydrological endeavors in the Pasargadae area. Only through further study and future fieldwork (also obtaining absolute dating material), this impressive feature will be fully understood. This contribution proposes a possible use of the two dam system using a modern control simulation model. This analysis will also shed light on the question why the system probably never functioned.

  16. Magnetospheric Substorms and Tail Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, W. Jeffrey

    1998-01-01

    This grant funded several studies of magnetospheric substorms and their effect on the dynamics of the earth's geomagnetic tail. We completed an extensive study of plasmoids, plasma/magnetic field structures that travel rapidly down the tail, using data from the ISEE 3 and IMP 8 spacecraft. This study formed the PhD thesis of Mark Moldwin. We found that magnetically plasmoids are better described as flux-ropes (twisted magnetic flux tubes) rather than plasma bubbles, as had been generally regarded up to that point (Moldwin and Hughes, 1990; 1991). We published several examples of plasmoids observed first in the near tail by IMP 8 and later in the distant tail by ISEE 3, confirming their velocities down tail. We showed how the passage of plasmoids distorts the plasma sheet. We completed the first extensive statistical survey of plasmoids that showed how plasmoids evolve as they move down tail from their formation around 30 RE to ISEE 3 apogee at 240 RE. We established a one-to-one correspondence between the observation of plasmoids in the distant tail and substorm onsets at earth or in the near tail. And we showed that there is a class of plasmoid-like structures that move slowly earthward, especially following weak substorms during northward IMF. Collectively this work constituted the most extensive study of plasmoids prior to the work that has now been done with the GEOTAIL spacecraft. Following our work on plasmoids, we turned our attention to signatures of substorm onset observed in the inner magnetosphere near geosynchronous orbit, especially signatures observed by the CRRES satellite. Using data from the magnetometer, electric field probe, plasma wave instrument, and low energy plasma instrument on CRRES we were able to better document substorm onsets in the inner magnetosphere than had been possible previously. Detailed calculation of the Poynting flux showed energy exchange between the magnetosphere and ionosphere, and a short burst of tailward convective

  17. 75 FR 6004 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement and Dam Safety Assurance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... prepare a draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Federal action to remediate seismic, seepage... the Isabella Lake main and auxiliary dams have a high risk of failure due to significant seismic... strength during seismic loading; e. Hydrologic studies indicate that the spillway is inadequate; and...

  18. Heart failure

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Heart failure occurs in 3% to 4% of adults aged over 65 years, usually as a consequence of coronary artery disease or hypertension, and causes breathlessness, effort intolerance, fluid retention, and increased mortality. The 5-year mortality in people with systolic heart failure ranges from 25% to 75%, often owing to sudden death following ventricular arrhythmia. Risks of cardiovascular events are increased in people with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) or heart failure. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of multidisciplinary interventions for heart failure? What are the effects of exercise in people with heart failure? What are the effects of drug treatments for heart failure? What are the effects of devices for treatment of heart failure? What are the effects of coronary revascularisation for treatment of heart failure? What are the effects of drug treatments in people at high risk of heart failure? What are the effects of treatments for diastolic heart failure? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to August 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 80 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: aldosterone receptor antagonists, amiodarone, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, anticoagulation, antiplatelet agents, beta-blockers, calcium

  19. Trapping efficiency of three types check dams experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hui-Kai; CHEN, Su-Chin; AN, Hsuan-Pei

    2015-04-01

    The check dams constructed to trap debris flow. This study divide check dams into three types as closed-type check dam, slit dam, and modular steel check dam. Closed-type check dam which can trap all kind of sediment or driftwood. Slit check dam is permeable dam, so it can prevent from depositing all of sediment or driftwood. A modular steel check dam improves the existing hard-to-change disadvantages of slit dam structure. The assembling of longitudinal and transverse beams can be constructed independently, and then it could be freely configured to form a flexibly adjustable modular steel check dam. This study used the laws of geometric similitude to design model of dam. To explore the trapping mechanisms and phenomenon in different dismantle transverse beams conditions and compared the trapping efficiency with different type of check dams. This study used different volume ratio with driftwood and sediment. In order to capture the trace of debris flow and calculate accuracy velocity of debris flow the study used several high-speed photography combining the method of 3D Remodeling from Motion Structure with Multi-View Stereo which constructed with multiple photos of overlapping coefficient at least 70% and established three-dimensional system of coordinate in laboratory experiment. As a result, the driftwood deposition rate of modular steel check dam increase 60% than slit dam and 40% than closed-type dam; the debris deposition rate increase 30% than slit dam. In addition, the increment of driftwood volume ratio led to the increment of trapping efficiency of three type of check dams. Meanwhile slit dam is the most effective type in trapping driftwood and sediment with more than 50% of increased rate, because of more driftwood flow through the slit dam jam together easily. Finally, transverse beams which installed the modular steel check dam can suppress the upward movement of driftwood, therefore driftwood can easily form the arched stacking efficiency with

  20. 8. VIEW OF BASIN BEHIND DAM, SHOWING SCARS FROM EARTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF BASIN BEHIND DAM, SHOWING SCARS FROM EARTH MOVING TO CONSTRUCT DAM, LOOKING NORTH - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, East Timothy Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 8.4 miles North of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  1. 4. VIEW OF DOWNSTREAM FACE OF DAM, WITH SCARS FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF DOWNSTREAM FACE OF DAM, WITH SCARS FROM EARTH MOVING TO CONSTRUCT DAM IN FOREGROUND, LOOKING NORTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Five Point Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 12 miles Northwest of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  2. 9. VIEW OF BASIN BEHIND DAM, SHOWING SCARS FROM EARTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF BASIN BEHIND DAM, SHOWING SCARS FROM EARTH MOVING TO CONSTRUCT DAM, LOOKING EAST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, East Timothy Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 8.4 miles North of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  3. 66. AVALON DAM Photographic copy of historic photo, May ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. AVALON DAM - Photographic copy of historic photo, May 22, 1908 (original print filed in Record Group 115, National Archives, Washington, D.C.) W.J.Lubken, photographer 'VIEW LOOKING EAST FROM WEST END OF AVALON DAM, SHOWING DOWNSTREAM FACE OF DAM' - Carlsbad Irrigation District, Avalon Dam, On Pecos River, 4 miles North of Carlsbad, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM

  4. 2. Overview of the Lost River Diversion Dam House complex ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Overview of the Lost River Diversion Dam House complex taken from west edge of horseshoe-shaped Lost River Diversion Dam. Interior of east side of dam in the foreground. Facing East. - Klamath Basin Project, Lost River Diversion Dam House, Lost River near intersection of State Highway 140 & Hill Road, Klamath Falls, Klamath County, OR

  5. 8. WEST DAM, LOOKING DUE NORTH OVER TOP OF WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. WEST DAM, LOOKING DUE NORTH OVER TOP OF WEST DAM, SHOWING RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OUTLET TO RIGHT OF DAM, NEW PUMP PLANT BUILDING AND CANAL TO LEFT OF DAM. - Eastside Reservoir, Diamond & Domenigoni Valleys, southwest of Hemet, Hemet, Riverside County, CA

  6. 46. Photocopy of photograph, c. 1933. VIEW OF DAM AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Photocopy of photograph, c. 1933. VIEW OF DAM AND FOREBAY. NOTE ALL WATER FLOWING THROUGH FOREBAY AND OUT EITHER TAILRACE OR SLUICE GATE (INSTEAD OF OVER DAM) BECAUSE OF LOW WATER FLOW. (Courtesy of the Potomac Edison Company Library (Hagerstown, MD), Historical Data Files, Dam No. 5 listing - Dam No. 5 Hydroelectric Plant, On Potomac River, Hedgesville, Berkeley County, WV

  7. 53. AVALON DAM Photographic copy of historic photo, August ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. AVALON DAM - Photographic copy of historic photo, August 9, 1893 (original print located at the Carlsbad Irrigation District offices, Carlsbad, New Mexico) photographer unknown 'EDDY DAM. LOOKING EAST.' VIEW OF COLLAPSED DAM - Carlsbad Irrigation District, Avalon Dam, On Pecos River, 4 miles North of Carlsbad, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM

  8. 43. Credit TR. Reconstruction of Dam No. 4 after 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. Credit TR. Reconstruction of Dam No. 4 after 1936 flood. Pouring concrete for new dam section; opening at left for flume to remove water from behind coffer dam. Photo c. 1936 - Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Plant, Potomac River, Martinsburg, Berkeley County, WV

  9. 43 CFR 418.18 - Diversions at Derby Dam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Diversions at Derby Dam. 418.18 Section 418... and Management § 418.18 Diversions at Derby Dam. (a) Diversions of Truckee River water at Derby Dam...) Increases in canal diversions which would reduce Truckee River flows below Derby Dam by more than 20...

  10. 6. DAM AFTERBAY, WITH OWYEE RIVER IN FOREGROUND, SHOWING OUTLET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DAM AFTERBAY, WITH OWYEE RIVER IN FOREGROUND, SHOWING OUTLET TUNNEL PORTAL (LEFT) AND POWERHOUSE AND ENTRANCE PORTAL TO DAM INTERIOR (RIGHT). NOTE RELEASE OF WATER FROM NEEDLE VALVE NUMBER 2 IN VALVEHOUSE ON DAM. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Owyhee Dam, Across Owyhee River, Nyssa, Malheur County, OR

  11. 7. SOUTHEAST VIEW OF BIG DALTON DAM SHOWING THE MULTIPLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. SOUTHEAST VIEW OF BIG DALTON DAM SHOWING THE MULTIPLE ARCHES, AN UPSTREAM VIEW OF THE PARAPET WALL ALONG THE CREST OF THE DAM, AND THE SHELTER HOUSE AT THE EAST END OF THE DAM. - Big Dalton Dam, 2600 Big Dalton Canyon Road, Glendora, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. Concrete dam on the Bratsk hydroelectric station

    SciTech Connect

    Solov'eva, Z.I.

    1988-07-01

    The Bratsk concrete dam was designed and constructed with a sufficient degree of reliability. Settlement of the dam together with the powerhouse developed uniformly under the entire foundation. Two irreversible processes causing aging of the dam have been established by operating observations: leaching of the concrete and decompression of the contact zone of the foundation near the upstream face of the powerhouse sections. The decompression is due to the fact that the powerhouse sections are lighter than the spillway sections. At the present level this process can only be slowed by the combined use of grouting and drainage unloading.

  13. Weighing a dam's economic and environmental impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    While some people claim that it was a publicity stunt or criticize it as an economic loss and a move in the wrong direction, the breaching of the low-slung Edwards Dam on July 1 has changed the landscape of the Kennebec River flowing through Augusta, Maine, and may also change the landscape for some other dammed rivers nationwide.The breaching marks the first time that the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), which licenses nonfederal hydroelectric projects, has ruled that a dam should be removed because the environmental damage that it causes outweighs its economic benefits.

  14. Sustainability of dams-an evaluation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersson, E.

    2003-04-01

    Situated in the stream bed of a river, dams and reservoirs interrupt the natural hydrological cycle. They are very sensitive to all kinds of changes in the catchment, among others global impacts on land use, climate, settlement structures or living standards. Vice versa dams strongly affect the spatially distributed, complex system of ecology, economy and society in the catchment both up- and downstream of the reservoir. The occurrence of negative impacts due to large dams led to serious conflicts about future dams. Nevertheless, water shortages due to climatic conditions and their changes, that are faced by enormous water and energy demands due to rising living standards of a growing world population, seem to require further dam construction, even if both supply and demand management are optimised. Although environmental impact assessments are compulsory for dams financed by any of the international funding agencies, it has to be assumed that the projects lack sustainability. Starting from an inventory of today's environmental impact assessments as an integral part of a feasibility study the presentation will identify their inadequacies with regard to the sustainability of dams. To improve the sustainability of future dams and avoid the mistakes of the past, the planning procedures for dams have to be adapted. The highly complex and dynamical system of interrelated physical and non-physical processes, that involves many different groups of stakeholders, constitutes the need for a model-oriented decision support system. In line with the report of the World Commission of Dams an integrated analysis and structure of the complex interrelations between dams, ecology, economy and society will be presented. Thus the system, that a respective tool will be based on, is analysed. Furthermore an outlook will be given on the needs of the potential users of a DSS and how it has to be embedded in the overall planning process. The limits of computer-based decision-support in the

  15. 33 CFR 208.19 - Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Texas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Texas. 208.19 Section 208.19 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Texas. In the interest of flood control, the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA) shall operate the Marshall Ford Dam...

  16. Dam-breach analysis and flood-inundation mapping for Lakes Ellsworth and Lawtonka near Lawton, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rendon, Samuel H.; Ashworth, Chad E.; Smith, S. Jerrod

    2012-01-01

    Dams provide beneficial functions such as flood control, recreation, and reliable water supplies, but they also entail risk: dam breaches and resultant floods can cause substantial property damage and loss of life. The State of Oklahoma requires each owner of a high-hazard dam, which the Federal Emergency Management Agency defines as dams for which failure or misoperation probably will cause loss of human life, to develop an emergency action plan specific to that dam. Components of an emergency action plan are to simulate a flood resulting from a possible dam breach and map the resulting downstream flood-inundation areas. The resulting flood-inundation maps can provide valuable information to city officials, emergency managers, and local residents for planning the emergency response if a dam breach occurs. Accurate topographic data are vital for developing flood-inundation maps. This report presents results of a cooperative study by the city of Lawton, Oklahoma, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to model dam-breach scenarios at Lakes Ellsworth and Lawtonka near Lawton and to map the potential flood-inundation areas of such dam breaches. To assist the city of Lawton with completion of the emergency action plans for Lakes Ellsworth and Lawtonka Dams, the USGS collected light detection and ranging (lidar) data that were used to develop a high-resolution digital elevation model and a 1-foot contour elevation map for the flood plains downstream from Lakes Ellsworth and Lawtonka. This digital elevation model and field measurements, streamflow-gaging station data (USGS streamflow-gaging station 07311000, East Cache Creek near Walters, Okla.), and hydraulic values were used as inputs for the dynamic (unsteady-flow) model, Hydrologic Engineering Center's River Analysis System (HEC-RAS). The modeled flood elevations were exported to a geographic information system to produce flood-inundation maps. Water-surface profiles were developed for a 75-percent probable maximum

  17. Research on Dam Simulation System Based on OpenGL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kairong; Wang, Juanni; Zuo, Kui; Yun, Jian

    Dam, not only has great ability to alleviate water shortages especially during the dry season which improve hydropower capacity, but also plays an imporant rule in the river ecosystem. Dam has significant effect in improving our water environment and protecting ecological system.This paper copes with the three-dimensional model of dams and discusses OpenGL modeling, lighting, material, model transformation, perspective transformation technologies to achieve visualization of the dam, and eventually we visualize the dam through concrete examples.

  18. Heart failure

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Heart failure occurs in 3% to 4% of adults aged over 65 years, usually as a consequence of coronary artery disease or hypertension, and causes breathlessness, effort intolerance, fluid retention, and increased mortality. The 5-year mortality in people with systolic heart failure ranges from 25% to 75%, often owing to sudden death following ventricular arrhythmia. Risks of cardiovascular events are increased in people with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) or heart failure. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-drug treatments, and of drug and invasive treatments, for heart failure? What are the effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in people at high risk of heart failure? What are the effects of treatments for diastolic heart failure? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to May 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 85 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: aldosterone receptor antagonists, amiodarone, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, anticoagulation, antiplatelet agents, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, cardiac resynchronisation therapy, digoxin (in people already receiving diuretics and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors), exercise, hydralazine plus isosorbide dinitrate, implantable cardiac

  19. Lobster Tail Ice Formation on Aerosurface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Glace Ice formation commonly refered to as 'Lobster Tail' by scientists and engineers, is caused to form on the leading edge of a aircraft tail section in the icing research tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio.

  20. White Sturgeon Passage at The Dalles Dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Researchers at the USGS Western Fisheries Research Center's Columbia River Research Laboratory, working with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, sought to better understand upstream and downstream passage of white sturgeon at dams. A study at The Dalles Dam provided the opportunity to compare two fish ladders; one that passes sturgeon upstream to one that does not, to determine if subtle differences in construction result in better passage of white sturgeon. Researchers conducted a study using a combination of acoustic and radio telemetry technologies to obtain information on juvenile and adult white sturgeon near The Dalles Dam, with the objectives of characterizing the distribution and movements of white sturgeon in the immediate vicinity of the dam and to determine timing and routes of upstream and downstream passage.

  1. 7 CFR 1724.55 - Dam safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... impounding capacity at maximum water storage elevation of 55 acre-feet (68,000 m3) or more. (ii) The“Federal... publications regarding dam safety are available from FEMA: (i)“Emergency Action Planning Guidelines for...

  2. Socioeconomic Considerations in Dam Safety Risk Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    The analytical review and summary critique of literature related to risk analysis was conducted for the purpose of highlighting those ideas, concepts...alternative solutions. The critique of the philosophical and analytical bases of risk analysis as further directed toward the specific problem of dam...safety risk analysis . Dam safety is unique in that it represents an extreme situation characteristic of low probability/high consequence event

  3. Geologic Conceptual Model of Mosul Dam

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    options in the Groundwater Modeling System (GMS) • MODFLOW modeling • ERDC Hydrogeologic Flow Model for Mosul Dam Most of the workshop time was...L., T. J. Budge, A. M. Lemon, and A. K. Zundel. 2002. Generating MODFLOW grids from boundary representation solid models. Ground Water 40(2):194-200...Modeling System (GMS) • MODFLOW Modeling • ERDC Hydrogeologic Flow Model for Mosul Dam ERDC TR-07-6 31 Trainees To fully benefit from the

  4. National Dam Safety Program. Welch Lake Dam (MO 10733), Missouri - Kansas City Basin, Boone County, Missouri. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    of Non-Federal Dams. This report assesses the general condition of the dam with respect to safety, based on available data and on visual inspection...Corps of Engi- neers. The purpose of the inspection wa to make an assessment of the general condition of the dam with respect to safety, based upon...professional engineering organizations, and private engineers. Based on these guidelines, this dam is classified as a small size dam with a high

  5. Geophysical investigations of geology and structure at the Martis Creek Dam, Truckee, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bedrosian, P.A.; Burton, B.L.; Powers, M.H.; Minsley, B.J.; Phillips, J.D.; Hunter, L.E.

    2012-01-01

    A recent evaluation of Martis Creek Dam highlighted the potential for dam failure due to either seepage or an earthquake on nearby faults. In 1972, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers constructed this earthen dam, located within the Truckee Basin to the north of Lake Tahoe, CA for water storage and flood control. Past attempts to raise the level of the Martis Creek Reservoir to its design level have been aborted due to seepage at locations downstream, along the west dam abutment, and at the base of the spillway. In response to these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey has undertaken a comprehensive suite of geophysical investigations aimed at understanding the interplay between geologic structure, seepage patterns, and reservoir and groundwater levels. This paper concerns the geologic structure surrounding Martis Creek Dam and emphasizes the importance of a regional-scale understanding to the interpretation of engineering-scale geophysical data. Our studies reveal a thick package of sedimentary deposits interbedded with Plio-Pleistocene volcanic flows; both the deposits and the flows are covered by glacial outwash. Magnetic field data, seismic tomography models, and seismic reflections are used to determine the distribution and chronology of the volcanic flows. Previous estimates of depth to basement (or the thickness of the interbedded deposits) was 100 m. Magnetotelluric soundings suggest that electrically resistive bedrock may be up to 2500 m deep. Both the Polaris Fault, identified outside of the study area using airborne LiDAR, and the previously unnamed Martis Creek Fault, have been mapped through the dam area using ground and airborne geophysics. Finally, as determined by direct-current resistivity imaging, time-domain electromagnetic sounding, and seismic refraction, the paleotopography of the interface between the sedimentary deposits and the overlying glacial outwash plays a principal role both in controlling groundwater flow and in the distribution of the

  6. Geophysical investigations of geology and structure at the Martis Creek Dam, Truckee, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedrosian, Paul A.; Burton, Bethany L.; Powers, Michael H.; Minsley, Burke J.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Hunter, Lewis E.

    2012-02-01

    A recent evaluation of Martis Creek Dam highlighted the potential for dam failure due to either seepage or an earthquake on nearby faults. In 1972, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers constructed this earthen dam, located within the Truckee Basin to the north of Lake Tahoe, CA for water storage and flood control. Past attempts to raise the level of the Martis Creek Reservoir to its design level have been aborted due to seepage at locations downstream, along the west dam abutment, and at the base of the spillway. In response to these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey has undertaken a comprehensive suite of geophysical investigations aimed at understanding the interplay between geologic structure, seepage patterns, and reservoir and groundwater levels. This paper concerns the geologic structure surrounding Martis Creek Dam and emphasizes the importance of a regional-scale understanding to the interpretation of engineering-scale geophysical data. Our studies reveal a thick package of sedimentary deposits interbedded with Plio-Pleistocene volcanic flows; both the deposits and the flows are covered by glacial outwash. Magnetic field data, seismic tomography models, and seismic reflections are used to determine the distribution and chronology of the volcanic flows. Previous estimates of depth to basement (or the thickness of the interbedded deposits) was 100 m. Magnetotelluric soundings suggest that electrically resistive bedrock may be up to 2500 m deep. Both the Polaris Fault, identified outside of the study area using airborne LiDAR, and the previously unnamed Martis Creek Fault, have been mapped through the dam area using ground and airborne geophysics. Finally, as determined by direct-current resistivity imaging, time-domain electromagnetic sounding, and seismic refraction, the paleotopography of the interface between the sedimentary deposits and the overlying glacial outwash plays a principal role both in controlling groundwater flow and in the distribution of the

  7. Global phosphorus retention by river damming

    PubMed Central

    Maavara, Taylor; Parsons, Christopher T.; Ridenour, Christine; Stojanovic, Severin; Dürr, Hans H.; Powley, Helen R.; Van Cappellen, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    More than 70,000 large dams have been built worldwide. With growing water stress and demand for energy, this number will continue to increase in the foreseeable future. Damming greatly modifies the ecological functioning of river systems. In particular, dam reservoirs sequester nutrient elements and, hence, reduce downstream transfer of nutrients to floodplains, lakes, wetlands, and coastal marine environments. Here, we quantify the global impact of dams on the riverine fluxes and speciation of the limiting nutrient phosphorus (P), using a mechanistic modeling approach that accounts for the in-reservoir biogeochemical transformations of P. According to the model calculations, the mass of total P (TP) trapped in reservoirs nearly doubled between 1970 and 2000, reaching 42 Gmol y−1, or 12% of the global river TP load in 2000. Because of the current surge in dam building, we project that by 2030, about 17% of the global river TP load will be sequestered in reservoir sediments. The largest projected increases in TP and reactive P (RP) retention by damming will take place in Asia and South America, especially in the Yangtze, Mekong, and Amazon drainage basins. Despite the large P retention capacity of reservoirs, the export of RP from watersheds will continue to grow unless additional measures are taken to curb anthropogenic P emissions. PMID:26644553

  8. Crosshole seismic tomography across a masonry dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Joe

    1995-05-01

    An intensive crosshole seismic survey was done across a 700-foot-long stone-masonry dam. It involved measurements on six connected panels each approximately 100 feet in width extending completely across the dam from abutment to abutment. The objective was to provide tomographic images of P-wave velocity and dynamic elastic moduli of the dam and foundation materials along the axis of the dam. Field seismograms were recorded with an airgun source and hydrophone detectors. Data analysis included interactive time-picking, plotting of common source gathers, and tomographic imaging using an iterative back-propagation technique. Color-coded tomograms of velocity and dynamic Young's modulus were produced and correlated with geological and geophysical data measured on drill core samples. Low values of velocity and dynamic elastic modulus correlated with low RQD and high fracture frequency. The tomograms showed significant variations of mechanical properties in the stone masonry dam and its foundation. The colored tomograms were useful in highlighting zones of weak rock possibly requiring remedial action. They also assisted engineering evaluation of the dam by providing a detailed two-dimensional distribution of mechanical properties which can be used as ground truth data for numerical modeling of stress-strain fields.

  9. Distributional Impacts of Large Dams in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, X.

    2010-12-01

    Dams on a river are believed to have heterogeneous impacts to the upstream, local and downstream areas. Generally, irrigation dams will bring benefits to the downstream by facilitating more irrigation, while it will bring negative impacts to upstream due to inundation or no impact to local area as a combination result of population dislocation and economic benefits. This paper checked the impacts of large dams (above 100 meters) on the upstream, downstream and local area, using 2000-2008 county level data in China. Robust heterogeneous impacts of different categories of dams (mainly dams serving for irrigation, hydropower, or other purposes) were found on different areas, using IV regression approaches. Dams higher than 100 meters are significantly and heterogeneously impacting agricultural production, urban employment and rural per capita income. Its beneficial impact on agriculture production is significant for downstream especially in continuous drought years. But its impacts on social welfare indicators, such as primary school enrollment and hospital beds, are not heterogeneously different across regions.

  10. Floodplain Hyporheic Response under Dam Release Hydrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, T.; Ward, A. S.; O'Connor, B. L.; Endreny, T. A.

    2012-12-01

    Hydropower operations cause altered hydrograph patterns downstream of dams, which regulates the direction and magnitude of floodplain and riverbed hyporheic flux. Periodic adjustments in river stage changes temporal and spatial patterns in hydraulic pressure, initiates propagation of lateral and vertical hyporheic flux, and affects the riparian ecological system by changing the hyporheic penetration distance, hyporheic flux rate, and thermal conditions in river banks. While this issue has been largely neglected by watershed scientists and managers, there is the potential to use hyporheic metrics in setting dam release rules and restoring downstream river reaches. In order to evaluate the hyporheic feedbacks of various dam release patterns, this study applied a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to simulate the interaction of open water hydrographs on porous media lateral hyporheic exchange for the Green River, Utah, downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam. The CFD initially represented the river as a straight channel with a thick porous media extending from the channel banks and bottom. The dam release hydrographs changed the patterns of hyporheic flux at the river banks, the penetration distance of the hyporheic flux, the subsurface thermal patterns, and the residence time of water in the subsurface. The results suggest the undulating river stage downstream of dam releases can initiate patterns of hyporheic exchange similar to those induced by restoration of river bed morphology.

  11. Kidney (Renal) Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Kidney Failure Kidney failure, also known as renal failure, ... evaluated? How is kidney failure treated? What is kidney (renal) failure? The kidneys are designed to maintain ...

  12. National Dam Safety Program. Windmiller Dam Number 1 (MO 10035), Windmiller Dam Number 2 (MO 11675), Missouri - Kansas City Basin, Boone County, Missouri. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-05-01

    excavated through limestone bedrock approx- Cimately 1300 feet north of the left end of the dam. See Plate A-l. (b) Dam No. 2 discharge is through a...flows and flow from the spring are not periodi- cally monitored for change of color or change in volume. b. Dam No. 2. The lack of control of erosion of...which is considered a deficiency. c. Operating Records. There are no controlled operating facilities for these dams. d. Post Construction Changes . It

  13. Instanton calculus of Lifshitz tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaida, Sho

    2016-02-01

    Some degree of quenched disorder is present in nearly all solids, and can have a marked impact on their macroscopic properties. A manifestation of this effect is the Lifshitz tail of localized states that then gets attached to the energy spectrum, resulting in the nonzero density of states in the band gap. We present here a systematic approach for deriving the asymptotic behavior of the density of states and of the typical shape of the disorder potentials in the Lifshitz tail. The analysis is carried out first for the well-controlled case of noninteracting particles moving in a Gaussian random potential and then for a broad class of disordered scale-invariant models—pertinent to a variety of systems ranging from semiconductors to semimetals to quantum critical systems. For relevant Gaussian disorder, we obtain the general expression for the density of states deep in the tail, with the rate of exponential suppression governed by the dynamical exponent and spatial dimensions. For marginally relevant disorder, however, we would expect a power-law scaling. We discuss the implications of these results for understanding conduction in disordered materials.

  14. 78 FR 53494 - Dam Safety Modifications at Cherokee, Fort Loudoun, Tellico, and Watts Bar Dams

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... of Dam Structures: Combination of Concrete Floodwalls and Earthen Embankments, will protect the four... Watts Bar). TVA also installed a permanent concrete apron on approximately 2 acres of the downstream...--Permanent Modifications of Dam Structures: Combination of Concrete Floodwalls and Earthen Embankments....

  15. Project Planning for Cougar Dam during 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haskell, Craig A.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.

    2011-01-01

    Cougar Dam is a 158 m-tall, rock fill dam located about 63 km east of Springfield, Oregon. Completed in 1963, the dam is owned and operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). It impounds Cougar Reservoir, which is 9.7 km long, has a surface area of 518 ha, and is predominately used for flood control. The pool elevation typically ranges from a maximum conservation pool of 515 m (1,690 ft) National Geodetic Vertical Datum (NGVD) in summer to a minimum flood control elevation of 467 m (1,532 ft NGVD) in winter. The reservoir thermally stratifies in the summer, has an average depth of 37 m, and holds 153,500 acre-feet when full. Cougar Dam is located on the South Fork of the McKenzie River 7 km upstream from the mainstem McKenzie River, a tributary of the Willamette River. The McKenzie River Basin basin supports the largest remaining population of wild spawning spring Chinook salmon in the Willamette River Basin (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; NOAA, 2008). Cougar Dam and others were collectively deemed to cause jeopardy to the sustainability of anadromous fish stocks in the Willamette River Basin (NOAA, 2008). Prior to dam construction, as many as 805 redds were observed in the South Fork of the McKenzie River (Willis and others, 1960) and it is estimated that 40 km of spawning habitat were lost when access was blocked after dam construction. The 2008 Willamette Biological Opinion (BIOP) requires improvements to operations and structures to reduce impacts on Upper Willamette River (UWR) Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and UWR steelhead (O. mykiss; NOAA, 2008). In 2010, an adult fish collection facility was completed below Cougar Dam to collect returning adult salmon for transport to spawning habitats above the dam. Before that time, returning adult spring Chinook salmon were transported to upstream spawning areas as part of a trap-and-haul program with adults passed ranging annually from 0 to 1,038 (Taylor, 2000). The progeny of

  16. Field verification of reconstructed dam-break flood, Laurel Run, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Cheng-lung; Armbruster, Jeffrey T.

    1979-01-01

    A one-dimensional dam-break flood routing model is verified by using observed data on the flash flood resulting from the failure of Laurel Run Reservoir Dam near Johnstown, Pennsylvania. The model has been developed on the basis of an explicit scheme of the characteristics method with specified time intervals. The model combines one of the characteristic equations with the Rankine-Hugoniot shock equations to trace the corresponding characteristic backward to the known state for solving the depth and velocity of flow at the wave front. The previous version of the model has called for a modification of the method of solution to overcome the computational difficulty at the narrow breach and at any geomorphological constraints where channel geometry changes rapidly. The large reduction in the computational inaccuracies and oscillations was achieved by introducing the actual "storage width" in the equation of continuity and the imaginary "conveyance width" in the equation of motion. Close agreement between observed and computed peak stages at several stations downstream of the dam strongly suggests the validity and applicability of the model. However, small numerical noise appearing in the computed stage and discharge hydrographs at the dam site as well as discrepancy of attenuated peaks in the discharge hydrographs indicate the need for further model improvement.

  17. The hydrogeology of a tailings impoundment formed by central discharge of thickened tailings: implications for tailings management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al, Tom A.; Blowes, David W.

    1999-06-01

    The Kidd Creek Cu-Zn sulfide mine is located near Timmins, Ontario. Mill tailings are thickened and deposited as a slurry in a circular impoundment with an area of approximately 1200 ha. Deposition of tailings as a thickened slurry from a central discharge ramp results in a conical-shaped tailings deposit with low perimeter dykes, a uniform grain-size distribution, uniform and low hydraulic conductivity, and a tension-saturated zone above the water table up to 5 to 6 m thick. These characteristics provide benefits over conventionally disposed tailings with respect to tailings management. The thick tension-saturated zone within the tailings limits the thickness of unsaturated tailings that are susceptible to rapid sulfide oxidation. The conical shape of the deposit results in the formation of a recharge area near the centre of the impoundment and discharge in the peripheral areas. In contrast, the elevated nature of many conventional, unthickened tailings impoundments results in recharge over most of the surface of the impoundment, with discharge occurring outside the impoundment through large containment dykes. Three-dimensional pore water flow modelling suggests that approximately 90% of the total discharge from the thickened tailings occurs within the tailings impoundment. When discharge is confined within the impoundment, there is improved control over low-quality effluent, and an opportunity to design passive control measures to reduce treatment costs and minimize environmental impacts.

  18. Dental dam patch: an effective intraoral repair technique using cyanoacrylate.

    PubMed

    Liebenberg, W H

    1998-10-01

    Secondary dental dam retention is a critical component of successful dental dam isolation and relates to the provision of an effective seal at the dam/tooth junction. Restorative success can be compromised if this seal is inadvertently interrupted during the operative effort. One such periodic mishap is entanglement of the bur and the interdental dam strip during caries or restorative removal. This invariably results in a gaping interproximal defect in the dam. This article discusses the importance of optimum isolation as it relates to current "wet bonding" adhesive procedures, and introduces a repair technique using a patch of dental dam and cyanoacrylate.

  19. Marmot Dam Removal: Predictions and Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Y.; Orr, B. K.; Wilcox, A.; Vick, J.; Podolak, C.; Wilcox, P.

    2008-12-01

    The 14-m tall Marmot Dam on the Sandy River, Oregon was removed in the summer of 2007, allowing the approximately 730,000 cubic meters of sand and gravel to remain in the river for natural erosion by the flow. Pre-dam removal studies included sediment transport modeling that simulated several dam removal alternatives and provided key pieces of information that allowed a diverse stakeholder group to unanimously agree on the "blow-and-go" alternative, allowing a large amount of sediment to be released to a major salmonid-bearing river in the Columbia River basin. Although it is still too early to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the model performance because morphological responses in the downstream reaches, if any, are likely years away, observations to date (one year after dam removal) indicate that model predictions are generally accurate. Here we present some of the key findings of pre-dam-removal sediment transport modeling predictions and compare them with post-removal observations.

  20. The Remains of the Dam: What Have We Learned From 10 Years of Dam Removals?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, G. E.; O'Connor, J. E.; Major, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past 10 years in the U.S., dam removal has evolved from an occasionally implemented, rarely studied, and poorly understood intervention to improve rivers, to a much more frequently accomplished and better studied and understood approach to river restoration. Over that same time period, the numbers and sizes of dams and volumes of sediment released have dramatically increased. By some estimates close to 1000 dams have been removed over the last 100 years, with most of those occurring within the last 10. While most of these are small (less than 15 m high) dams, removals of dams up to 70 m high are presently underway. Releases of sediment associated with these removals over the past 10 years have also increased by close to four orders of magnitude; for example removal of the Elwha River dams in Washington is estimated to release almost 107 m3 of sediment into the lower Elwha River. Given a decade's worth of dam removals and, in some cases, well-orchestrated case studies of the effects of removal on the geomorphology and (to a lesser extent) ecology of rivers, what have we learned? More specifically, where do we now stand with respect to being able to predict the consequences of future dam removals? Drawing on both field examples and numerical models of dam removals in the western U.S., several key lessons stand out. Although every dam removal and river are different, removals initiate very rapid upstream river response and reservoir erosion and evacuation of sediment by various mechanisms that are strongly controlled by grain size of the deposit, volumes of residual sediment relative to total reservoir volume, and style of dam removal (instantaneous versus staged). Erosion of sediment accumulations in fully and partially filled (by sediment) reservoirs proceeds by different trajectories and rates, with full reservoirs releasing sediment primarily by upstream knickpoint retreat while erosion and sediment release in partially-filled reservoirs proceeds by

  1. Toward policies and decision-making for dam removal.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Martin W; Harbor, Jon M; Stanley, Emily H

    2003-04-01

    Dam removal has emerged as a critical issue in environmental management. Agencies responsible for dams face a drastic increase in the number of potential dam removals in the near future. Given limited resources, these agencies need to develop ways to decide which dams should be removed and in what order. The underlying science of dam removal is relatively undeveloped and most agencies faced with dam removal lack a coherent purpose for removing dams. These shortcomings can be overcome by the implementation of two policies by agencies faced with dam removal: (1) the development and adoption of a prioritization scheme for what constitutes an important dam removal, and (2) the establishment of minimum levels of analysis prior to decision-making about a dam removal. Federal and state agencies and the scientific community must encourage an initial experimental phase of dam removal during which only a few dams are removed, and these are studied intensively. This will allow for the development of the fundamental scientific understanding needed to support effective decision-making in the future and minimize the risk of disasters arising from poorly thought out dam removal decisions.

  2. Uranium mill tailings neutralization: contaminant complexation and tailings leaching studies

    SciTech Connect

    Opitz, B.E.; Dodson, M.E.; Serne, R.J.

    1985-05-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed to compare the effectiveness of limestone (CaCO/sub 3/) and hydrated lime (Ca(OH)/sub 2/) for improving waste water quality through the neutralization of acidic uranium mill tailings liquor. The experiments were designed to also assess the effects of three proposed mechanisms - carbonate complexation, elevated pH, and colloidal particle adsorption - on the solubility of toxic contaminants found in a typical uranium mill waste solution. Of special interest were the effects each of these possible mechanisms had on the solution concentrations of trace metals such as Cd, Co, Mo, Zn, and U after neutralization. Results indicated that the neutralization of acidic tailings to a pH of 7.3 using hydrated lime provided the highest overall waste water quality. Both the presence of a carbonate source or elevating solution pH beyond pH = 7.3 resulted in a lowering of previously achieved water quality, while adsorption of contaminants onto colloidal particles was not found to affect the solution concentration of any constituent investigated. 24 refs., 8 figs., 19 tabs.

  3. Channel changes downstream from a dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hadley, R.F.; Emmett, W.W.

    1998-01-01

    A flood-control dam was completed during 1979 on Bear Creek, a small tributary stream to the South Platte River in the Denver, Colorado, area. Before and after dam closure, repetitive surveys between 1977 and 1992 at five cross sections downstream of the dam documented changes in channel morphology. During this 15-year period, channel width increased slightly, but channel depth increased by more than 40 percent. Within the study reach, stream gradient decreased and median bed material sizes coarsened from sand in the pools and fine gravel on the riffle to a median coarse gravel throughout the reach. The most striking visual change was from a sparse growth of streamside grasses to a dense growth of riparian woody vegetation.

  4. Optimizing the dammed: water supply losses and fish habitat gains from dam removal in California.

    PubMed

    Null, Sarah E; Medellín-Azuara, Josué; Escriva-Bou, Alvar; Lent, Michelle; Lund, Jay R

    2014-04-01

    Dams provide water supply, flood protection, and hydropower generation benefits, but also harm native species by altering the natural flow regime and degrading aquatic and riparian habitat. Restoring some rivers reaches to free-flowing conditions may restore substantial environmental benefits, but at some economic cost. This study uses a systems analysis approach to preliminarily evaluate removing rim dams in California's Central Valley to highlight promising habitat and unpromising economic use tradeoffs for water supply and hydropower. CALVIN, an economic-engineering optimization model, is used to evaluate water storage and scarcity from removing dams. A warm and dry climate model for a 30-year period centered at 2085, and a population growth scenario for year 2050 water demands represent future conditions. Tradeoffs between hydropower generation and water scarcity to urban, agricultural, and instream flow requirements were compared with additional river kilometers of habitat accessible to anadromous fish species following dam removal. Results show that existing infrastructure is most beneficial if operated as a system (ignoring many current institutional constraints). Removing all rim dams is not beneficial for California, but a subset of existing dams are potentially promising candidates for removal from an optimized water supply and free-flowing river perspective. Removing individual dams decreases statewide delivered water by 0-2282 million cubic meters and provides access to 0 to 3200 km of salmonid habitat upstream of dams. The method described here can help prioritize dam removal, although more detailed, project-specific studies also are needed. Similarly, improving environmental protection can come at substantially lower economic cost, when evaluated and operated as a system.

  5. 1. VIEW OF DAM 83, LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM THE LOOKOUT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF DAM 83, LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM THE LOOKOUT TOWER AT THE REFUGE HEADQUARTERS (see HAER No. ND-3-A-13 for comparison) - Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 83, Souris River Basin, Foxholm, Surrey (England), ND

  6. 11. VIEW OF SPILLWAY AT DAM 83, SHOWING REFUGE HEADQUARTERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF SPILLWAY AT DAM 83, SHOWING REFUGE HEADQUARTERS ON THE HORIZON (LEFT, CENTER), LOOKING EAST - Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 83, Souris River Basin, Foxholm, Surrey (England), ND

  7. 9. VIEW OF SPILLWAY AT DAM 83, SHOWING LOCATION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF SPILLWAY AT DAM 83, SHOWING LOCATION OF FORMER CONCRETE FLASHBOARD STRUCTURE ON RIGHT, LOOKING WEST - Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 83, Souris River Basin, Foxholm, Surrey (England), ND

  8. 10. DETAIL VIEW OF SPILLWAY AT DAM 83, SHOWING RIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL VIEW OF SPILLWAY AT DAM 83, SHOWING RIVER COBBLE PAVING (FOREGROUND) AND WINGWALL, LOOKING EAST - Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 83, Souris River Basin, Foxholm, Surrey (England), ND

  9. View of powerhouse and dam from third floor of original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of powerhouse and dam from third floor of original section of Langdale Cotton Mill, looking northeast - Langdale Cotton Mill, Powerhouse & Dam, 5910 Nineteenth Avenue, Valley, Chambers County, AL

  10. View of Read Sawmill masonry dam, site of submerged sawmill ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Read Sawmill masonry dam, site of submerged sawmill remains and earthen dam, facing north - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  11. 1. OVERALL VIEW OF UPSTREAM FACE OF DAM; SPILLWAY IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERALL VIEW OF UPSTREAM FACE OF DAM; SPILLWAY IN FOREGROUND, LOCK IN BACKGROUND ON NORTH RIVER BANK. VIEW TO NORTH. - Starved Rock Locks & Dam, Illinois Waterway River mile 231, Peru, La Salle County, IL

  12. 32. Otter Lake Dam. View from downstream show how the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Otter Lake Dam. View from downstream show how the dam blends into its environment. Looking east-northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  13. 11. VIEW OF HOCK OUTCROPPING, CONCRETE GRAVITY DAM FACE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF HOCK OUTCROPPING, CONCRETE GRAVITY DAM FACE AND LAKE WITH TUNNEL INLET STRUCTURE IN DISTANCE, SHOWN AT MINIMUM WATER FLOW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST (UPSTREAM) - Van Arsdale Dam, South Fork of Eel River, Ukiah, Mendocino County, CA

  14. 12. DETAIL VIEW OF STEPPED CONCRETE GRAVITY DAM FACE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL VIEW OF STEPPED CONCRETE GRAVITY DAM FACE AND ROCK OUTCROPPING, WITH LAKE IN BACKGROUND, SHOWN AT MINIMUM WATER FLOW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST (UPSTREAM) - Van Arsdale Dam, South Fork of Eel River, Ukiah, Mendocino County, CA

  15. 6. GENERAL CONSTRUCTION VIEW ALONG AXIS OF DAM FROM THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. GENERAL CONSTRUCTION VIEW ALONG AXIS OF DAM FROM THE EAST ABUTMENT.... Volume XVII, No. 18, December 18, 1939. - Prado Dam, Embankment, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  16. 21. THE WHITNEY CONSTRUCTION CAMP AT THE DIVERSION DAM, FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. THE WHITNEY CONSTRUCTION CAMP AT THE DIVERSION DAM, FACING SOUTH. WOOD BURNING PLANT AT RIGHT, INTAKE GATES AT CENTER LEFT. Photographer: Walter J. Lubken, June 13, 1906 - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

  17. 10. DETAIL OF NONOVERFLOW SECTION OF DAM SHOWING PENSTOCK OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL OF NON-OVERFLOW SECTION OF DAM SHOWING PENSTOCK OF SUBMERSIBLE TURBINE-GENERATOR - Middle Creek Hydroelectric Dam, On Middle Creek, West of U.S. Route 15, 3 miles South of Selinsgrove, Selinsgrove, Snyder County, PA

  18. 10. Downstream face of Mormon Flat Dam under construction. Cement ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Downstream face of Mormon Flat Dam under construction. Cement storage shed is at center right. Photographer unknown, September 1924. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  19. 87. DAM TAINTER GATE OPERATING MACHINERY TRAVELING HOIST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    87. DAM - TAINTER GATE OPERATING MACHINERY - TRAVELING HOIST - AMERICAN TYPE ASSEMBLY (ML-5-55/111-FS), February 1938 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 5, Minneiska, Winona County, MN

  20. 15. AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH OF DAM SITE SHOWING SPILLWAY OGEE SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH OF DAM SITE SHOWING SPILLWAY OGEE SECTION AND SPILLWAY APRON EXCAVATION IN FOREGROUND.... Volume XVIII, No. 10, January 18, 1940. - Prado Dam, Spillway, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  1. 32. AERIAL VIEW OF BOISE DIVERSION DAM. VIEW TO NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. AERIAL VIEW OF BOISE DIVERSION DAM. VIEW TO NORTH. Photocopy of photograph by Glade Walker, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Pacific Northwest Region, May 1981. - Boise Project, Boise River Diversion Dam, Across Boise River, Boise, Ada County, ID

  2. Harvesting river water through small dams promote positive environmental impact.

    PubMed

    Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy; Chaudhary, Sunita; Chinnasamy, Pennan; Hsu, Minna J

    2016-11-01

    While deliberations relating to negative consequences of large dams on the environment continue to dominate world attention, positive benefits provided by small dams, also known as check dams, go unobserved. Besides, little is known about the potential of check dams in mitigating global warming impacts due to less data availability. Small dams are usually commissioned to private contractors who do not have clear mandate from their employers to post their work online for public scrutiny. As a result, statistics on the design, cost, and materials used to build check dams are not available in public domain. However, this review paper presents data for the first time on the often ignored potential of check dams mitigating climate-induced hydrological threats. We hope that the scientific analysis presented in this paper will promote further research on check dams worldwide to better comprehend their eco-friendly significance serving society.

  3. 5. UPSTREAM (WEST) VIEW OF SPILLWAY, WITH COOKE DAM POND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. UPSTREAM (WEST) VIEW OF SPILLWAY, WITH COOKE DAM POND IN FOREGROUND AND NORTH EMBANKMENT (MI-98-A) AT LEFT. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Cooke Hydroelectric Plant, Spillway, Cook Dam Road at Au Sable River, Oscoda, Iosco County, MI

  4. 7. CLOSEUP VIEW OF WASHED UP 12' x 12' DAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. CLOSE-UP VIEW OF WASHED UP 12' x 12' DAM SUPPORT TIMBERS, THREE BEARS LAKE, LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM SOUTH SIDE OF LAKE - Three Bears Lake & Dams, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

  5. 2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, headworks overflow weir to center left, view to east - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

  6. 1. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, weir (to left), sand and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, weir (to left), sand and silt sluice gate (center), main canal headworks (to right), view to northwest - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

  7. 12. VIEW SHOWING CCC CREWS FREEING FLOOD GATES AT DAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW SHOWING CCC CREWS FREEING FLOOD GATES AT DAM 326 OF ICE TO PREVENT DAMAGE TO STRUCTURE - J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 326, Along Lower Souris River, Kramer, Bottineau County, ND

  8. 59. AERIAL VIEW OF OWYHEE DAM SHOWING RINGGATE SPILLWAY. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. AERIAL VIEW OF OWYHEE DAM SHOWING RING-GATE SPILLWAY. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. Aerial photo by Glade Walker, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Pacific Northwest Region, September 29, 1989. - Owyhee Dam, Across Owyhee River, Nyssa, Malheur County, OR

  9. 117. Maricopa Dam Water System, Electric Transmission Lines, Catwalk, Derrick ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    117. Maricopa Dam Water System, Electric Transmission Lines, Catwalk, Derrick at Elev. +65. October 15, 1934. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  10. 4. Aerial view of Whitsett intake (lower right), Parker Dam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Aerial view of Whitsett intake (lower right), Parker Dam and village (left), Gene Wash Reservoir, Gene Pump Plant and village (right). - Parker Dam, Spanning Colorado River between AZ & CA, Parker, La Paz County, AZ

  11. 9. VIEW OF DAM FROM LEFT SIDE. PUMPCRETE PIPE LINES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF DAM FROM LEFT SIDE. PUMPCRETE PIPE LINES ARE CARRIED ON WALKWAY. UPSTREAM PARTS OF BUTTRESSES ARE FOG-SPRAYED TO PERMIT PROMPT FILLING OF CONTRACTION JOINTS. July 30, 1938 - Bartlett Dam, Verde River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  12. 5. VIEW SHOWING THE DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF SWAN FALLS DAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW SHOWING THE DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF SWAN FALLS DAM AND POWER HOUSE, LOOKING UPSTREAM TO SOUTH FROM THE A MOUND OF DEBRIS ABOUT THIRTY TO FORTY FEET ABOVE THE RIVER - Swan Falls Dam, Snake River, Kuna, Ada County, ID

  13. 68. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: STRESS SHEET, SHEET 4; MAY, 1918. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. 71. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, EASTWOOD MULTIPLEARCHED DAM: STRESS SHEET, SHEET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, EASTWOOD MULTIPLE-ARCHED DAM: STRESS SHEET, SHEET 3; DECEMBER 20, 1918. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. 2. EASTSIDE RESERVOIR UNDER CONSTRUCTION LOOKING WEST WITH EAST DAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EASTSIDE RESERVOIR UNDER CONSTRUCTION LOOKING WEST WITH EAST DAM IN MIDDLE GROUND, WEST DAM IN DISTANCE. - Eastside Reservoir, Diamond & Domenigoni Valleys, southwest of Hemet, Hemet, Riverside County, CA

  16. 3. POOL, DAM, AND INTAKE TO PIPELINE LEADING TO FISH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. POOL, DAM, AND INTAKE TO PIPELINE LEADING TO FISH WHEEL, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Bear Creek Diversion Dam & Confluence Pool, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  17. 5. DETAIL VIEW OF TOE SPILLWAY SECTION OF LOWWATER DAM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL VIEW OF TOE SPILLWAY SECTION OF LOW-WATER DAM, LOOKING NORTHWEST (UPSTREAM). ST. LOUIS WATER DEPARTMENT INTAKE IN BACKGROUND - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 27, Granite City, Madison County, IL

  18. 2. OVERALL VIEW OF LOWWATER DAM, LOOKING UPSTREAM. CHAIN OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OVERALL VIEW OF LOW-WATER DAM, LOOKING UPSTREAM. CHAIN OF ROCKS BRIDGE AND ST. LOUIS WATER DEPARTMENT INTAKE IN BACKGROUND, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 27, Granite City, Madison County, IL

  19. 6. VIEW NORTHEAST, WEST END OF DAM DURING CONSTRUCTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW NORTHEAST, WEST END OF DAM DURING CONSTRUCTION OF FISHWAY, DECEMBER 1995, SHOWING REMOVAL OF PLANKING - Norwich Water Power Company, Dam, West bank of Shetucket River opposite Fourteenth Street, Greenville section, Norwich, New London County, CT

  20. 7. Detail view of reinforced concrete archrings comprising dam's upstream ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Detail view of reinforced concrete arch-rings comprising dam's upstream face. Impressions of the wooden formwork used in construction are visible in the concrete. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. 54. Downstream face of Agua Fria project's diversion dam showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. Downstream face of Agua Fria project's diversion dam showing initial masonry construction and poured concrete capping. Photographer Mark Durben, 1986. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  2. 44. Reinforcement construction to Pleasant Dam. Photographer unknown, 1935. Source: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Reinforcement construction to Pleasant Dam. Photographer unknown, 1935. Source: Huber Collection, University of California, Berkeley, Water Resources Library. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  3. 2. VIEW EAST OF HEADGATES AT SPOOL DAM; DRAIN GATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW EAST OF HEADGATES AT SPOOL DAM; DRAIN GATE MECHANISM AND DAM EDGE AT RIGHT - Willimantic Linen Company, Mill No. 1, Immediately West of South Main Street, North Bank of Willimantic River, Windham, Windham County, CT

  4. 50. Upstream face of Humbug Creek Diversion Dam showing sluice ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Upstream face of Humbug Creek Diversion Dam showing sluice opening. Photographer James Eastwood, 1986. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  5. 60. Waddell Dam in relation and spillway tailrace. Photographer Mark ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. Waddell Dam in relation and spillway tailrace. Photographer Mark Durben, 1986. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  6. 45. Reinforcement work to buttresses at Pleasant Dam. Support work ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Reinforcement work to buttresses at Pleasant Dam. Support work for roadway and roadway visible. Photographer unknown, 1935. Source: Huber Collection. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  7. 57. Downstream side of left section of diversion dam. Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. Downstream side of left section of diversion dam. Photographer Mark Durben, 1986. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  8. 56. Upstream face of diversion dam looking east. Headgates are ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. Upstream face of diversion dam looking east. Headgates are partially visible at far left. Photographer Mark Durben, 1986. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  9. 70. Downstream view of Waddell Dam spillway and taintor gates. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. Downstream view of Waddell Dam spillway and taintor gates. Photographer Mark Durben. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  10. 49. Downstream face of Humbug Creek Diversion Dam with sluice ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. Downstream face of Humbug Creek Diversion Dam with sluice opening at center. Photographer James Eastwood, 1986. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  11. 40. Reservoir behind Pleasant Dam, looking downstream, spillway is at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Reservoir behind Pleasant Dam, looking downstream, spillway is at right. Photographer unknown, c. late 1920s. Source: MWD. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  12. 27. Evening view of downstream face of Pleasant Dam under ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Evening view of downstream face of Pleasant Dam under construction. Part of construction camp housing is visible in foreground. Photographer unknown, 1927. Source: MWD. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  13. 39. Pleasant Dam from east abutment with spillway visible at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. Pleasant Dam from east abutment with spillway visible at center. Photographer unknown, 1927. Source: MWD. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  14. 55. Downstream face of diversion dam looking northwest. Photographer Mark ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. Downstream face of diversion dam looking northwest. Photographer Mark Durben, 1986. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  15. View of upstream face of Grand Coulee Dam, looking northeast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of upstream face of Grand Coulee Dam, looking northeast. This image features a cloudless sky.) - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  16. 19. View of low crib dam, headworks, and tramway above ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. View of low crib dam, headworks, and tramway above dam, looking southeast. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  17. 1. OVERALL VIEW SHOWING FACE OF CONCRETE GRAVITY DAM AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERALL VIEW SHOWING FACE OF CONCRETE GRAVITY DAM AND FISH LADDER, LOOKING SOUTHWEST (UPSTREAM) FROM SNORE OPPOSITE FISH LADDER - Van Arsdale Dam, South Fork of Eel River, Ukiah, Mendocino County, CA

  18. 1. East side of lower dam shown with water level ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. East side of lower dam shown with water level dropped. VIEW WEST - Loleta Recreation Area, Lower Dam, 6 miles Southeast of interesection of State Route 24041 & State Route 66, Loleta, Elk County, PA

  19. 3. Side view of upper dam overspill, taken from east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Side view of upper dam overspill, taken from east bank of Millstone Creek. VIEW WEST - Loleta Recreation Area, Upper Dam, 6 miles Southeast of interesection of State Route 24041 & State Route 66, Loleta, Elk County, PA

  20. 5. View of upper dam side sluice taken from east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View of upper dam side sluice taken from east bank of Millstone Creek. VIEW WEST - Loleta Recreation Area, Upper Dam, 6 miles Southeast of interesection of State Route 24041 & State Route 66, Loleta, Elk County, PA

  1. 4. Side of view of upper dam overspill, taken from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Side of view of upper dam overspill, taken from west bank of Millstone Creek, VIEW EAST - Loleta Recreation Area, Upper Dam, 6 miles Southeast of interesection of State Route 24041 & State Route 66, Loleta, Elk County, PA

  2. View of upstream face of Lake Sabrina Dam showing redwood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of upstream face of Lake Sabrina Dam showing redwood planks and boulders in Lake Sabrina Basin, view north - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 2, Lake Sabrina Dam, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  3. View of Lake Sabrina Dam upstream face from ridge showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Lake Sabrina Dam upstream face from ridge showing spillway at lower right of photo, view southwest - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 2, Lake Sabrina Dam, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  4. View of Lake Sabrina Dam and Lake Sabrina from east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Lake Sabrina Dam and Lake Sabrina from east ridge showing spillway at photo center, view southwest - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 2, Lake Sabrina Dam, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  5. View of Lake Sabrina Dam showing the wooden planks along ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Lake Sabrina Dam showing the wooden planks along the upstream side face and the spillway at the right center of photo, view north - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 2, Lake Sabrina Dam, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  6. 76. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, LITTLEROCK DAM, EASTWOOD MULTIPLEARCHED TYPE: DOWNSTREAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    76. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, LITTLEROCK DAM, EASTWOOD MULTIPLE-ARCHED TYPE: DOWNSTREAM ELEVATION, SHEET 3; OCTOBER 2, 1919. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. 78. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, LITTLEROCK DAM, EASTWOOD MULTIPLEARCHED TYPE: DIMENSIONS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    78. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, LITTLEROCK DAM, EASTWOOD MULTIPLE-ARCHED TYPE: DIMENSIONS, SECTION THROUGH ARCH RING, SHEET 5; OCTOBER 2, 1919. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. 79. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, LITTLEROCK DAM, EASTWOOD MULTIPLEARCHED TYPE: REINFORCEMENT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    79. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, LITTLEROCK DAM, EASTWOOD MULTIPLE-ARCHED TYPE: REINFORCEMENT, SHEET 6; OCTOBER 2, 1919. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. 77. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, LITTLEROCK DAM, EASTWOOD MULTIPLEARCHED TYPE: CROSS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    77. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, LITTLEROCK DAM, EASTWOOD MULTIPLE-ARCHED TYPE: CROSS SECTIONS, SHEET 4; OCTOBER 2, 1919. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. 74. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, LITTLEROCK DAM, EASTWOOD MULTIPLEARCHED TYPE: PLAN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    74. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, LITTLEROCK DAM, EASTWOOD MULTIPLE-ARCHED TYPE: PLAN, SHEET 1, OCTOBER 2, 1919. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. 75. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, LITTLEROCK DAM, EASTWOOD MULTIPLEARCHED TYPE: UPSTREAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    75. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, LITTLEROCK DAM, EASTWOOD MULTIPLE-ARCHED TYPE: UPSTREAM ELEVATION, SHEET 2; OCTOBER 2, 1919. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. 7. ISLAND PLANT AND HORSESHOE DAM FROM WEST BANK (negative ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. ISLAND PLANT AND HORSESHOE DAM FROM WEST BANK (negative reversed) - American Falls Water, Power & Light Company, Island Power Plant, Snake River, below American Falls Dam, American Falls, Power County, ID

  13. 20. HORSESHOE DAM LOOKING EAST WITH UPPER END DEMOLISHED FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. HORSESHOE DAM LOOKING EAST WITH UPPER END DEMOLISHED FOR NEW SPILLWAY (negative reversed) - American Falls Water, Power & Light Company, Island Power Plant, Snake River, below American Falls Dam, American Falls, Power County, ID

  14. 20. View of Mormon Flat Dam, power plant, and reservoir. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. View of Mormon Flat Dam, power plant, and reservoir. Photographer unknown, 1926. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  15. 1. Site of Mormon Flat Dam looking upstream. Photographer unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Site of Mormon Flat Dam looking upstream. Photographer unknown, 1923. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  16. 26. Original hydroelectric unit at Mormon Flat Dam. Unit is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Original hydroelectric unit at Mormon Flat Dam. Unit is still in operation. Photographer Mark Durben, 1988. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  17. 19. Downstream face of Mormon Flat Dam completed. Power plant ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Downstream face of Mormon Flat Dam completed. Power plant is nearing completion. Photographer unknown, 1926. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  18. 1. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, VIEW OF NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, VIEW OF NORTH ELEVATION OF INTAKE ON EAST SIDE OF DAM - Snake River Valley Irrigation District, East Side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Shelley, Bingham County, ID

  19. 24. CLOSEUP VIEW OF HORSE MESA DAM. HEFU PENSTOCK IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. CLOSE-UP VIEW OF HORSE MESA DAM. HEFU PENSTOCK IS AT CENTER RIGHT, AND LEFT (OR SOUTH) SPILLWAY CHUTE IS AT UPPER RIGHT - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  20. 36. CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF ORIGINAL HORSE MESA DAM POWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF ORIGINAL HORSE MESA DAM POWER PLANT, LOOKING NORTH. ONLY TWO OF THE THREE UNITS ARE VISIBLE - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  1. 22. VIEW SHOWING THE COMPLETED HORSE MESA DAM, EXCEPT FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. VIEW SHOWING THE COMPLETED HORSE MESA DAM, EXCEPT FOR TRANSFORMER EQUIPMENT BEING INSTALLED ABOVE THE POWER PLANT 1927 - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  2. 23. VIEW OF HORSE MESA DAM, SHOWING SPILLWAY DISCHARGE TUNNEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW OF HORSE MESA DAM, SHOWING SPILLWAY DISCHARGE TUNNEL AT LEFT, RIGHT (OR NORTH) SPILLWAY, HEFU POWER UNIT, AND ORIGINAL POWER PLANT - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  3. 3. VIEW SOUTHEAST, WEST END OF DAM AT LEFT CENTER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW SOUTHEAST, WEST END OF DAM AT LEFT CENTER, HEADGATE STRUCTURE AT CENTER - Dayville Mills Hydroelectric Facility, Dam, North side of Route 101, .5 mile west of Route 395, Killingly Center, Windham County, CT

  4. 2. VIEW EAST, WEST END OF DAM AT CENTER, HEADGATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW EAST, WEST END OF DAM AT CENTER, HEADGATE OPERATING MECHANISMS AT LEFT - Dayville Mills Hydroelectric Facility, Dam, North side of Route 101, .5 mile west of Route 395, Killingly Center, Windham County, CT

  5. 1. VIEW NORTH, SOUTH FACE OF DAM AT RIGHT CENTER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW NORTH, SOUTH FACE OF DAM AT RIGHT CENTER, HEADGATES AND CANAL AT LEFT - Dayville Mills Hydroelectric Facility, Dam, North side of Route 101, .5 mile west of Route 395, Killingly Center, Windham County, CT

  6. 77. Plan of Proposed Concrete of Rubble Masonry Dam at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    77. Plan of Proposed Concrete of Rubble Masonry Dam at Frog Tanks on the Agua Fria River, Arizona. September 1903. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  7. 4. View of dam front and sluiceway outlets Mississippi ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View of dam front and sluiceway outlets - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 1, In Mississippi River at Mississippi Boulevard, below Ford Parkway Bridge, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  8. 3. Down river view of lock and dam to southwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Down river view of lock and dam to southwest - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 1, In Mississippi River at Mississippi Boulevard, below Ford Parkway Bridge, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  9. 2. Distant view of lock and dam to northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Distant view of lock and dam to northwest - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 1, In Mississippi River at Mississippi Boulevard, below Ford Parkway Bridge, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  10. 1. Distant view of lock and dam to northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Distant view of lock and dam to northeast - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 1, In Mississippi River at Mississippi Boulevard, below Ford Parkway Bridge, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  11. INTAKE AND DAM #3; FACING NORTHEAST Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTAKE AND DAM #3; FACING NORTHEAST - Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project, Reservoir and Dam Complex, North Bank of Snake River, extreme Eastern end of the Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project, Tipperary Corner, Jerome County, ID

  12. OVERVIEW OF FALLS AND DAM COMPLEX, SPILLWAY AT RIGHT; FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF FALLS AND DAM COMPLEX, SPILLWAY AT RIGHT; FACING EAST-NORTHEAST - Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project, Reservoir and Dam Complex, North Bank of Snake River, extreme Eastern end of the Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project, Tipperary Corner, Jerome County, ID

  13. OVERVIEW OF DAM COMPLEX FROM SPILLWAY TO INTAKE; FACING WESTNORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF DAM COMPLEX FROM SPILLWAY TO INTAKE; FACING WEST-NORTHWEST - Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project, Reservoir and Dam Complex, North Bank of Snake River, extreme Eastern end of the Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project, Tipperary Corner, Jerome County, ID

  14. INTAKE, DAMS #1, #2, AND #3, AND FOOTBRIDGE; FACING NORTHNORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTAKE, DAMS #1, #2, AND #3, AND FOOTBRIDGE; FACING NORTH-NORTHEAST - Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project, Intake, North Bank of Snake River, immediately West/Northwest of the Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project Dam No. 1, Tipperary Corner, Jerome County, ID

  15. Unchannelized dam-break flows: Effects of the lateral spreading on the flow dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girolami, L.; Wachs, A.; Vinay, G.

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we used a three-dimensional discrete-grain model (Grains3D) to explore the flow and deposit characteristics of unchannelized dam-break collapses. A series of numerical experiments was performed to predict the behaviour of different granular columns (characterized by different initial aspect ratio a, varying from 0.5 to 18). As observed previously in similar channelized dam-break flows and axisymmetric slumps, the phenomenology of the collapse depends strongly on a, revealing different flow regimes. Small collapsing heaps (a ≲ 3) develop shallow cascades that form deposits characterized by a tail extended by a rounded frontal region. Instead, tall avalanching columns (a ≳ 3) generate dense, fast-moving currents that form a circular final deposit that resembles to those obtained from axisymmetric columns. The conversion from vertical to horizontal momentum was observed to be more efficient in these flows. The aggrading inner tapering region of static grains developed during the flow increases the number of final cascades necessary to adjust the slope of the final deposit, extending the total flow duration from 3 τc in dam-break flows to 7 τc in unchannelized ones. Surprisingly, mean aggradation velocities measured at different locations were observed to be independent of the lateral position, depending primarily on the longitudinal distance from reservoir and the initial aspect ratio. Scaled deposit widths and runouts revealed different power-law dependences on a, exposing a non-isotropic behaviour which tends to form a smooth transition from channelized dam-break flows to axisymmetric slumps.

  16. Lake Shewa Rock-Slope Failures and Water Impoundment, Badakshan Province, Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shroder, J. F.; Weihs, B. J.

    2009-12-01

    Lake Shewa in northeastern Badakshan Province, Afghanistan, was dammed in antiquity when a large rock-slope failure (RSF) from the strongly fault-shattered and well weathered Archean gneisses of the Zirnokh peaks to the north moved down fault and foliation planes for ~1700 m into the Arakht River valley. This dammed up the river and its tributaries to a dam thickness of ~400 m (~1.6 cubic km volume), producing a 12-km-long lake that is as much as 270 m deep, leaving ~80 m of freeboard to the top of the dam. The valley had been glaciated in the past and the debuttressing caused by prior ice melt-out most likely reduced shear strength, while the active faulting with associated seismicity likely increased shear stress. At least five separate slope failures occurred at the site of the landslide dam, with a ~960-m-long rock glacier at the head giving evidence of long-prior emplacement of the main RSF. An additional massive rock slide also occurs in an adjacent valley 9 km north along the large strike-slip fault that passes through the main scarp. Spring seepage through the Shewa dam face has caused several recent subsidiary slump failures of the landslide mass, which if continued at a large enough scale for long enough, or with additional seismicity from the two active strike-slip fault systems that cross beneath the landslide dam, could threaten its integrity. The world’s largest known landslide dam (Usoi, ~550m thickness, ~2 - 2.5 cubic km volume) was triggered by a seismic event and occurs nearby in Tajikistan.

  17. Evaluating the effects of dam breach methodologies on Consequence Estimation through Sensitivity Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalyanapu, A. J.; Thames, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    Dam breach modeling often includes application of models that are sophisticated, yet computationally intensive to compute flood propagation at high temporal and spatial resolutions. This results in a significant need for computational capacity that requires development of newer flood models using multi-processor and graphics processing techniques. Recently, a comprehensive benchmark exercise titled the 12th Benchmark Workshop on Numerical Analysis of Dams, is organized by the International Commission on Large Dams (ICOLD) to evaluate the performance of these various tools used for dam break risk assessment. The ICOLD workshop is focused on estimating the consequences of failure of a hypothetical dam near a hypothetical populated area with complex demographics, and economic activity. The current study uses this hypothetical case study and focuses on evaluating the effects of dam breach methodologies on consequence estimation and analysis. The current study uses ICOLD hypothetical data including the topography, dam geometric and construction information, land use/land cover data along with socio-economic and demographic data. The objective of this study is to evaluate impacts of using four different dam breach methods on the consequence estimates used in the risk assessments. The four methodologies used are: i) Froehlich (1995), ii) MacDonald and Langridge-Monopolis 1984 (MLM), iii) Von Thun and Gillete 1990 (VTG), and iv) Froehlich (2008). To achieve this objective, three different modeling components were used. First, using the HEC-RAS v.4.1, dam breach discharge hydrographs are developed. These hydrographs are then provided as flow inputs into a two dimensional flood model named Flood2D-GPU, which leverages the computer's graphics card for much improved computational capabilities of the model input. Lastly, outputs from Flood2D-GPU, including inundated areas, depth grids, velocity grids, and flood wave arrival time grids, are input into HEC-FIA, which provides the

  18. Heart failure.

    PubMed

    Braunwald, Eugene

    2013-02-01

    Despite major improvements in the treatment of virtually all cardiac disorders, heart failure (HF) is an exception, in that its prevalence is rising, and only small prolongations in survival are occurring. An increasing fraction, especially older women with diabetes, obesity, and atrial fibrillation exhibit HF with preserved systolic function. Several pathogenetic mechanisms appear to be operative in HF. These include increased hemodynamic overload, ischemia-related dysfunction, ventricular remodeling, excessive neurohumoral stimulation, abnormal myocyte calcium cycling, excessive or inadequate proliferation of the extracellular matrix, accelerated apoptosis, and genetic mutations. Biomarkers released as a consequence of myocardial stretch, imbalance between formation and breakdown of extracellular matrix, inflammation, and renal failure are useful in the identification of the pathogenetic mechanism and, when used in combination, may become helpful in estimating prognosis and selecting appropriate therapy. Promising new therapies that are now undergoing intensive investigation include an angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor, a naturally-occurring vasodilator peptide, a myofilament sensitizer and several drugs that enhance Ca++ uptake by the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Cell therapy, using autologous bone marrow and cardiac progenitor cells, appears to be promising, as does gene therapy. Chronic left ventricular assistance with continuous flow pumps is being applied more frequently and successfully as destination therapy, as a bridge to transplantation, and even as a bridge to recovery and explantation. While many of these therapies will improve the care of patients with HF, significant reductions in prevalence will require vigorous, multifaceted, preventive approaches.

  19. Lac Courte Oreilles Hydro Dam Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Jason; Meyers, Amy

    2014-12-31

    The main objective of this project was to investigate upgrading the existing hydro power generating system at the Winter Dam. The tribe would like to produce more energy and receive a fair market power purchase agreement so the dam is no longer a drain on our budget but a contributor to our economy. We contracted Kiser Hydro, LLC Engineering for this project and received an engineering report that includes options for producing more energy with cost effective upgrades to the existing turbines. Included in this project was a negotiation of energy price sales negotiations.

  20. Effects of different soil ameliorants on karee trees (Searsia lancea) growing on mine tailings dump soil-part I: pot trials.

    PubMed

    Lange, Christian A; Kotte, Karsten; Smit, Martin; van Deventer, Peter W; van Rensburg, Leon

    2012-10-01

    Rehabilitation of mine tailings dams is often a challenge due to a lack of nutrients and a poor humus reservoir prevailing in tailings soils. This is especially true for establishing longer lived species such as trees. For these reasons the effects of different soil ameliorants (woodchips compost, vermicompost, mature sewage sludge), added to the root system of Karee (Searsia lancea) saplings were tested in pot trials. Those pots were filled with platinum and gold tailings substrate as well as red clay soil, respectively. For three months plants remained in a greenhouse and were subsequently moved to a test field outside. Throughout the test period regular chl a fluorescence measurements were taken and subjected to JIP-test quantifying changes in photosynthetic vitality status. Additionally, growth measurements and one-off leaf analysis were carried out. Test plants growing on mine tailings experienced an up to 35% higher average photosynthetic vitality (PI(ABS)) and improved nutrient supply, when treated with mature sewage sludge. Consequently, sewage sludge treated plants showed a higher biomass build-up rate and an up to 55% higher diameter growth, compared to control. In summary the experiments present a low cost alternative for reforestation enterprises on platinum and gold tailings dams in South Africa.

  1. "No. 172. General view of the dam, looking downstream from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "No. 172. General view of the dam, looking downstream from the east end. F.E.D. June, 1916." Compare this historic image, taken upon dam completion (1916), with current-condition photograph HAER CO-90-1. The dam retains a remarkable degree of integrity of design and setting - Grand Valley Diversion Dam, Half a mile north of intersection of I-70 & Colorado State Route 65, Cameo, Mesa County, CO

  2. 2. View of the southern twothirds of the dam showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View of the southern two-thirds of the dam showing the Glens Falls Bridge over the Hudson River on the left, the Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation penstocks and inktake structure at the southeast corner of the dam, and the dam itself. The Finch Pruyn & Company Forebay is the foreground. Facing south. - Glens Falls Dam, 100' to 450' West of U.S. Route 9 Bridge Spanning Hudson River, Glens Falls, Warren County, NY

  3. Planning Guide for Fish Passage at Pittsburgh District Dams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    slowed sufficiently, or 4) by swimming over the dam spillway (either as a fixed crest dam or supplemental weir at a gated dam; this route is seldom...of the Dashields fixed crest dam. The plan at Dashields includes a new gate for additional flow capacity. LRP was directed by the USACE Great Lakes...fishways on the spillway. Technical fishways (e.g., Denil, pool and weirs , and vertical slot) are known to effectively pass some fish species and could

  4. Seismic performance analysis of Tendaho earth fill dam, Ethiopia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berhe, T.; Wu, W.

    2009-04-01

    The Tendaho dam is found in the Afar regional state, North Eastern part of Ethiopia. It is located within an area known as the ‘Tendaho Graben' ,which forms the center of Afar triangle, a low lying area of land where East African, Red sea and the Gulf of Eden Rift systems converge. The dam is an earthfill dam with a volume of about 4 Million cubic meters and with mixed clay core. The geological setting associated with the site of the dam, the geotechnical properties of the dam materials and seismicity of the region are reviewed. Based on this review, the foundation materials and dam body include some liquefiable granular soils. Moreover, the active East African Rift Valley fault, which can generate an earthquake of magnitude greater than 6, passes through the dam body. This valley is the primary seismic source contributing to the hazard at the Tendaho dam site. The availability of liquefiable materials beneath and within the dam body and the presence of the active fault crossing the dam site demand a thorough seismic analysis of the dam. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) is selected as a measure of ground motion severity. The PGA was selected according to the guidelines of the International Commission on Large Dams, ICOLD. Based on the criteria set by the ICOLD, the dam is analyzed for two different earthquake magnitudes, the Maximum Credible Earthquake (MCE) and the Operating Basis Earthquake (OBE). Numerical codes are useful tools to investigate the safety of dams in seismic prone areas. In this paper, FLAC3D numerical tool is used to investigate the performance of the dam under dynamic loading. Based on the numerical analysis, the seismic performance of the dam is investigated.

  5. The role of selected tree species in industrial sewage sludge/flotation tailing management.

    PubMed

    Mleczek, Mirosław; Rutkowski, Paweł; Niedzielski, Przemysław; Goliński, Piotr; Gąsecka, Monika; Kozubik, Tomisław; Dąbrowski, Jędrzej; Budzyńska, Sylwia; Pakuła, Jarosław

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the ability of ten tree and bush species to tolerate and accumulate Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, and As species [As(III), As(V), and total organic arsenic] in industrial sewage sludge extremely contaminated with arsenic (almost 27.5 g kg(-1)) in a pot experiment. The premise being that it will then be possible to select the most promising tree/bush species, able to grow in the vicinity of dams where sewage sludge/flotation tailings are used as landfill. Six of the ten tested tree species were able to grow on the sludge. The highest content of total As was observed in Betula pendula roots (30.0 ± 1.3 mg kg(-1) DW), where the dominant As species was the toxic As(V). The highest biomass of Quercus Q1 robur (77.3 § 2.6 g) and Acer platanoides (76.0 § 4.9 g) was observed. A proper planting of selected tree species that are able to thrive on sewage sludge/flotation tailings could be an interesting and promising way to protect dams. By utilizing differences in their root systems and water needs, we will be able to reduce the risk of fatal environmental disasters.

  6. A descriptive and quantitative approach regarding erosion and development of landforms on abandoned mine tailings: New insights and environmental implications from SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín Duque, J. F.; Zapico, I.; Oyarzun, R.; López García, J. A.; Cubas, P.

    2015-06-01

    The San Cristóbal-Perules mining site in Mazarrón in southeast Spain was subjected to about a hundred years of intense mining activity for lead, silver, and zinc. Metallurgical operations (smelting, calcination, gravity concentration) carried out during the late nineteenth century-early twentieth century induced significant land transformation, and the most conspicuous wastes of this period consist of a chaotic piling of 'old' tailing deposits. Later on, during the mid-twentieth century, 'modern' tailings resulting from froth flotation were accumulated filling small valleys; these latter valley-fill tailings rose sequentially according to the upstream construction method, progressively raising the level of the dam during the process. Once abandoned, both types of tailing deposits underwent severe erosion, resulting in a mosaic of erosional and sedimentary landforms developed upon (e.g., gully formation) and within them (e.g., piping). We made an inventory and classification of these landforms. Our study shows the geomorphic work to reestablish a new steady state between the tailings deposits and the local erosive conditions. This scenario implies several hazards related to the extremely high heavy metal contents of these tailings and the geomorphic instability of the deposits. We also quantified the tailings tonnage and erosion that occurred at one of the tailings dams (El Roble). As shown by an oblique aerial photograph taken in 1968, this dam had a terraced topography, whereas in 2013 this morphology had evolved into a badland-type relief with deep parallel gullies. By recognizing and surveying specific, remnant points along the benches and outslopes of the older terraced topography, we were able to build up a first digital elevation model (DEM1) reflecting the initial topography. A second DEM, this time showing the present topography, allowed quantification of erosion via Material Loss = DEM1 - DEM2. This yields an erosion rate (1968-2009) of 151.8 Mg (MT) ha

  7. 6. VIEW OF DAM 83, SHOWING OUTLET CHANNEL FLOWING INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF DAM 83, SHOWING OUTLET CHANNEL FLOWING INTO POND A WITH DIVERSION GATES LONG EAST (LEFT) SIDE OF OUTLET CHANNEL, LOOKING SOUTH FROM DOWNSTREAM FACE OF THE DAM - Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 83, Souris River Basin, Foxholm, Surrey (England), ND

  8. 29. At Willard, Little Salmon Creek. Site of former dam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. At Willard, Little Salmon Creek. Site of former dam and water supply pond for Broughton flume. View from downstream of intake, dam wind wall to right, lower wall of overflow chute in left foreground (contains pipes and small dam, possibly for water pumping). West 320 degrees. - Broughton Flume, Hood River Junction on Columbia River at Washington/Oregon border, Hood, Skamania County, WA

  9. 6. VIEW OF NORTH END OF EAST DAM, LOOKING SOUTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF NORTH END OF EAST DAM, LOOKING SOUTH. (View is taken from lakeside with lowered water level. This view encompasses the same area as MT-88-A-5 above.) - Three Bears Lake & Dams, East Dam, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

  10. 25 CFR 173.16 - Reserved area, Coolidge Dam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reserved area, Coolidge Dam. 173.16 Section 173.16... area, Coolidge Dam. No permit for any commercial business or other activity (except boating concessions...-fourths of a mile from the center of the Coolidge Dam, Arizona....

  11. 25 CFR 173.16 - Reserved area, Coolidge Dam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reserved area, Coolidge Dam. 173.16 Section 173.16... area, Coolidge Dam. No permit for any commercial business or other activity (except boating concessions...-fourths of a mile from the center of the Coolidge Dam, Arizona....

  12. 25 CFR 173.16 - Reserved area, Coolidge Dam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reserved area, Coolidge Dam. 173.16 Section 173.16... area, Coolidge Dam. No permit for any commercial business or other activity (except boating concessions...-fourths of a mile from the center of the Coolidge Dam, Arizona....

  13. 25 CFR 173.16 - Reserved area, Coolidge Dam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Reserved area, Coolidge Dam. 173.16 Section 173.16 Indians..., Coolidge Dam. No permit for any commercial business or other activity (except boating concessions confined...-fourths of a mile from the center of the Coolidge Dam, Arizona....

  14. 43 CFR 418.18 - Diversions at Derby Dam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Diversions at Derby Dam. 418.18 Section... Operations and Management § 418.18 Diversions at Derby Dam. (a) Diversions of Truckee River water at Derby Dam must be managed to maintain minimum terminal flow to Lahontan Reservoir or the Carson River...

  15. 25 CFR 173.16 - Reserved area, Coolidge Dam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reserved area, Coolidge Dam. 173.16 Section 173.16... area, Coolidge Dam. No permit for any commercial business or other activity (except boating concessions...-fourths of a mile from the center of the Coolidge Dam, Arizona....

  16. 30. Otter Lake Dam. View shows rustic stone facade of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Otter Lake Dam. View shows rustic stone facade of the dam. The stepped face of the dam gives the illusion of a natural cascade. Facing southeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  17. 2. UPSTREAM SIDE OF DAM AND BRIDGE WITH ABANDONED SAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. UPSTREAM SIDE OF DAM AND BRIDGE WITH ABANDONED SAN TAN FLOOD-WATER HEADGATE IN FOREGROUND. TAKEN FROM NORTH END OF DAM - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Sacaton Dam & Bridge, Gila River, T4S R6E S12/13, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  18. 51. AVALON DAM Photographic copy of historic photo, c1889 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. AVALON DAM - Photographic copy of historic photo, c1889 (original print located at the Carlsbad Irrigation District offices, Carlsbad, New Mexico) photographer unknown VIEW OF EXCAVATION OF HEADGATE CHANNEL. ALSO SHOWS A PORTION OF DAM - Carlsbad Irrigation District, Avalon Dam, On Pecos River, 4 miles North of Carlsbad, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM

  19. 61. AVALON DAM Photographic copy of historic photo, 1907 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. AVALON DAM - Photographic copy of historic photo, 1907 (original print located at the Carlsbad Irrigation District offices, Carlsbad, New Mexico) photographer unknown VIEW OF AVALON DAM RECONSTRUCTION - Carlsbad Irrigation District, Avalon Dam, On Pecos River, 4 miles North of Carlsbad, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM

  20. 56. AVALON DAM Photographic copy of historic photo, December ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. AVALON DAM - Photographic copy of historic photo, December 18, 1905 (original print located at the Carlsbad Irrigation District offices, Carlsbad, New Mexico) photographer unknown 'REMAINING PORTIONS OF WASHED OUT TEMPORARY DAM' - Carlsbad Irrigation District, Avalon Dam, On Pecos River, 4 miles North of Carlsbad, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM

  1. 50. AVALON DAM Photographic copy of historic photo, c1889 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. AVALON DAM - Photographic copy of historic photo, c1889 (original print located at the Carlsbad Irrigation District offices, Carlsbad, New Mexico) photographer unknown 'ROCK CUT AND DAM AT HEAD OF DITCH ABOVE EDDY, N.M.' - Carlsbad Irrigation District, Avalon Dam, On Pecos River, 4 miles North of Carlsbad, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM

  2. 75. AVALON DAM Photographic copy of historic photo, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    75. AVALON DAM - Photographic copy of historic photo, April 10, 1938 (original print in '1938 Annual Report of the Carlsbad Project,' located at the Carlsbad Irrigation District offices, Carlsbad, New Mexico) photographer unknown 'AVALON DAM - CCC ROCK WORK AT SPILLWAY NO. 2' - Carlsbad Irrigation District, Avalon Dam, On Pecos River, 4 miles North of Carlsbad, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM

  3. 52. AVALON DAM Photographic copy of historic photo, c1890 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. AVALON DAM - Photographic copy of historic photo, c1890 (original print located at the Carlsbad Irrigation District offices, Carlsbad, New Mexico) photographer unknown VIEW OF SCOURWAY THROUGH AVALON DAM DISCHARGING WATER - Carlsbad Irrigation District, Avalon Dam, On Pecos River, 4 miles North of Carlsbad, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM

  4. 1. VIEW OF DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF DIVERSION DAM ON THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF DIVERSION DAM ON THE SNAKE RIVER, LOOKING NORTHEAST. NOTE HEADGATE STRUCTURE ON NORTH BANK, SPILLWAY ON LEFT SIDE OF DAM, AND SPLASH LOGS ON DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF DAM. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  5. 3. View of the northern twothirds of the dam showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of the northern two-thirds of the dam showing the Finch, Pruyn & Company intake structure and forebay canal on the right and the ice-covered log chute along the dam. Facing south-southwest. - Glens Falls Dam, 100' to 450' West of U.S. Route 9 Bridge Spanning Hudson River, Glens Falls, Warren County, NY

  6. 28. Photocopied August 1978. UPPER INTAKE COFFER DAM, OCTOBER 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Photocopied August 1978. UPPER INTAKE COFFER DAM, OCTOBER 7, 1901. LOGS WERE PLACED ON THE WATER SIDE OF THIS DAM TO COUNTERACT WAVE ACTION AGAINST THE DAM. NOTE THE TIMBER RETAINING WALL ON THE NORTH SIDE OF THE LOWER INTAKE. (185) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  7. LOOKING DOWNSTREAM FROM KACHESS DAM CREST, 1910 RIVER CUTOFF CHANNEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOOKING DOWNSTREAM FROM KACHESS DAM CREST, 1910 RIVER CUTOFF CHANNEL WITH CRIB STRUCTURE IN CENTER. BRIDGE FOOTING CRIB STRUCTURE AT RIGHT (Upstream face of Kachess Dam in foreground) - Kachess Dam, Cutoff Channel and Crib Structures, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  8. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device composed of a thin sheet of latex with a hole in...

  9. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device composed of a thin sheet of latex with a hole in...

  10. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device composed of a thin sheet of latex with a hole in...

  11. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device composed of a thin sheet of latex with a hole in...

  12. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device composed of a thin sheet of latex with a hole in...

  13. LOCK, DOG HOUSE, CONTROL STATION, DAM GATE, MANEUVER BOAT No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOCK, DOG HOUSE, CONTROL STATION, DAM GATE, MANEUVER BOAT No. 1, AND DAM. NOTE LOWER LOCK GATE IN FOREGROUND. LOOKING NORTH NORTHEAST. - Illinois Waterway, La Grange Lock and Dam, 3/4 mile south of Country 795N at Illinois River, Versailles, Brown County, IL

  14. 1. East apron upper dam with water flowing over overspill. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. East apron upper dam with water flowing over overspill. Photograph taken from crest of lower dam in foreground). VIEW WEST - Loleta Recreation Area, Upper Dam, 6 miles Southeast of interesection of State Route 24041 & State Route 66, Loleta, Elk County, PA

  15. 55. AVALON DAM (Photographic copy of photo in Reservoirs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. AVALON DAM - (Photographic copy of photo in Reservoirs for Irrigation, Water-Power, and Domestic Water Supply. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1902.) 'CANAL HEADGATES, LAKE AVALON DAM' - Carlsbad Irrigation District, Avalon Dam, On Pecos River, 4 miles North of Carlsbad, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM

  16. 6. VIEW SHOWING CREST OF DAM AND OUTLET GATE WHEEL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW SHOWING CREST OF DAM AND OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Milk Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 9.4 miles Northwest of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  17. 20. VIEW FROM DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF DAM SHOWING BUTTS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. VIEW FROM DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF DAM SHOWING BUTTS OF LOGS PROJECTING BETWEEN CROSS LOGS. FREQUENTLY WHOLE TREES WERE USED IN CONSTRUCTING THESE DAMS. THE BRANCHES WERE PLACED UPSTREAM AND COVERED WITH EARTH AND STONE TO ANCHOR THEM. Photographed November 6, 1935. - Forge Creek Dam-John Cable Mill, Townsend, Blount County, TN

  18. Ecotechnological approach for consolidation of uranium tailings.

    PubMed

    Soni, Prafulla; Singh, Lal

    2011-07-01

    Present study has been undertaken to consolidate radioactivity in uranium mill tailings at Jaduguda, Jharkhand, India.Tailings that remain after processing of ore are released in tailing ponds specially designed for the purpose. The degraded tailing ponds have been capped with 30 cm. thick soil cover. For cosolidation of radioactivity in the tailings firstly the selected plant species should not have any socioeconomic relevance in that area and secondly, uptake of uranium by selected plants has to be low to avoid its dissemination in any form in environment. Seven native plant species of forestry origin were used for experimental trials. Above ground growth has been measured for two years under ex- situ and in- situ conditions. Distribution and concentration of uranium have been evaluated in tailing pond soil as well as tailings. Uranium uptake by plants has been evaluated and discussed in this paper. The highest concentration of uranium has been found in the order as: in tailings > soil cover on tailings > roots of selected plant species > shoots of all the selected species. These results show that among seven species tried Jatropha gossypifolia and Furcraea foetida have lowest uptake (below detectable limit), while Saccharum spontaneum and Pogostemon benghalense have comparatively higher uptake among the studied species.

  19. Seismic Stability Evaluation of Folsom Dam and Reservoir Project. Report 8. Mormon Island Auxiliary Dam. Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    static stresses, strains, and dis- placements in earth and rockfill dams and their foundations. The program uses a hyperbolic constitutive model...Earthquake Resistant Design of Earth and Rockfill Dams ," Geotechnique, Vol 29, No. 3, pp 215-263. , 1983. "Earthquake-Resistant Design of Earth Dams ...06, University of California, Berkeley, CA. Hynes-Griffin, M. E. 1979. "Dynamic Analyses of Earth Embankments for Richard B. Russell Dam and Lake

  20. National Dam Safety Program. Moeckel Dam (MO 30476), Mississippi - Kaskaskia -St. Louis Basin, Washington County, Missouri. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    the dam site and a cutoff is often made to shallow bedrock. Locally obtained earth , usually a gravelly clay, is then typically placed to form the... earth , densely vegetated j. Regulating outlets. None 8 SECTION 2 ENGINEERING DATA 2.1 Peis No design drawings or data were found for this dam . 2.2...the guidance of a professional engineer experienced in the design and construction of rockfill dams , in order to maintain stable and safe dam

  1. Crucial advantages of tail use in the evolution of vertebrate terrestrial locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astley, Henry; McInroe, Benjamin; Kawano, Sandy; Blob, Rick; Goldman, Daniel

    In the invasion of terrestrial environment, the first tetrapods faced the challenge of locomotion on flowable substrates (e.g. sand and mud), sometimes oriented at inclines. Although the morphology of many early tetrapods is known, robotic studies have revealed that effective locomotion on these substrates also depends strongly upon kinematics; slight differences in movements of the same appendage can lead to success or failure. Using a model organism (the mudskipper) and a robotic physical model, we demonstrate how muscular tails provided critical locomotor advantages on granular substrates that the first invaders of land likely encountered. Mudskippers use their tails for additional propulsion with increasing frequency as the slope of the granular material increases, and the decline in locomotor performance with slope is shallower when the tail is used. Experiments with a robotic model of the mudskipper showed that, while the tail did not always provide a benefit to locomotion, use of the tail made the robot's performance more robust, achieving effective locomotion on a wider range of slopes, limb postures and foot placements. These results suggest that, rather than simply being an inert appendage, the tails of early tetrapods were vital to their first forays into terrestrial habitats.

  2. Facilitating fish passage at ultra low head dams: An alternative to dam removal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Odeh, M.

    2004-01-01

    Ecosystem sustainability and returning the biological integrity to rivers continue to change the landscape of fish passage technology. Installing a conventional fishways has a limited degree of success in accommodating fish passage needs. Recently, the option of total dam removal has been gaining momentum among resource managers, conservationists, and even engineers. Certain dams, however, cannot be removed, and conventional fishways are either too expensive to build or the real estate is simply not available; yet freedom of passage must be attained. At the Little Falls Dam on the Potomac River a notch in the crest of the dam was installed to accommodate passage of fish. The notch has three labyrinth weirs used for energy dissipation. Water velocities are maintained at less than about 4 m/s anywhere within the passage structure during migratory season of the target species (American shad). Construction of this novel design was recently completed (March 2000) and future biological evaluations are ongoing. Copyright ASCE 2004.

  3. A Tale of Two Tails: Exploring Stellar Populations in the Tidal Tails of NGC 3256

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodruck, Michael; Charlton, Jane C.; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis

    2016-01-01

    Galaxy interactions can inject material into the intergalactic medium via violent gravitational dynamics, often visualized in tidal tails. The composition of these tails has remained a mystery, as previous studies have focused on detecting tidal features, rather than the composite material itself. We have developed an observing program using deep, multiband imaging to probe the chaotic regions of tidal tails in search for an underlying stellar population. NGC 3256's twin tidal tails serve as a case study for this new technique. Our results show color values of u - g = 1.15 and r - i = 0.08 for the Western tail, and u - g = 1.33 and r - i = 0.22 for the Eastern tail, corresponding to discrepant ages between the tails of approximately 320 Myr and 785 Myr, respectively. With the interaction age of the system measured at 400 Myr, we find the stellar light in Western tail to be dominated by disrupted star clusters formed during and after the interaction, whereas the light from the Eastern tail is dominated by a 10 Gyr population originating from the host galaxies. We fit the Eastern tail color to a Mixed Stellar Population (MSP) model comprised 94% by mass of a 10 Gyr stellar population, and 6% of a 309 Myr population. We find 52% of the bolometric flux originating from this 10 Gyr population. We also detect a blue to red color gradient in each tail, running from galactic center to tail tip. In addition to tidal tail light, we detect 29 star cluster candidates (SCCs) in the Western tail and 19 in the Eastern, with mean ages of 282 Myr and 98 Myr respectively. Interestingly, we find an excess of very blue SCCs in the Eastern tail as compared to the Western tail, marking a recent, small episode of star formation.

  4. 33 CFR 208.19 - Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Tex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Tex. 208.19 Section 208.19 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Tex. The Secretary of the Interior, through his agent, the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA) shall operate the Marshall Ford...

  5. 33 CFR 208.19 - Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Tex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Tex. 208.19 Section 208.19 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Tex. The Secretary of the Interior, through his agent, the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA) shall operate the Marshall Ford...

  6. 33 CFR 208.19 - Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Tex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Tex. 208.19 Section 208.19 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Tex. The Secretary of the Interior, through his agent, the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA) shall operate the Marshall Ford...

  7. Socioeconomic and Institutional Dimensions of Dam Removals: The Wisconsin Experience

    PubMed

    Born; Genskow; Filbert; Hernandez-Mora; Keefer; White

    1998-05-01

    / There are tens of thousands of small dams in the United States; many of these aging structures are deteriorating. Governments and dam owners face decisions regarding repair or removal of these structures. Along with the many benefits society derives from dams and their impoundments, numerous recent ecological studies are revealing the extensive alteration and degradation of river ecosystems by dams. Dam removal-a principal restoration strategy-is an infrequent event. The major reasons for removal have been public safety and the high costs associated with repair; the goal of river ecosystem restoration now warrants greater attention. Substantial study is being given to the environmental aspects of dams and dam removals, but very little attention has been given to the socioeconomic and institutional dimensions associated with the removal of dams, although these factors play a significant role in the removal decision-making process. Based on a case study of dam removals in Wisconsin-where more than 30 of the state's 3600 small dams have been removed in the past few decades-legal, financial, and socioeconomic issues associated with dam removal are documented and assessed. Dam removal has been complex and contentious, with limited community-based support for removal and loss of the impounded waters. In cases examined here, the estimated costs of repairing a dam averaged more than three times the cost of removal. The availability of governmental financing has been a key determinant in removal decisions. Watershed-scale ecological considerations are not major factors for most local interests. As watershed management and restoration increasingly include dam removal options as part of an integrated strategy, more attention will need to be focused on socioeconomic factors and stakeholder perspectives-variables that strongly influence the viability of this management alternative.KEY WORDS: Dam removal; River restoration; Institutions; Stakeholders

  8. Dam water quality study. Report to Congress

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-05-01

    The objective of the report is to identify water quality effects attributable to the impoundment of water by dams as required by Section 524 of the Water Quality Act of 1987. The document presents a study of water quality effects associated with impoundments in the U.S.A.

  9. Will We. . .? Thai Dam Resource Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Richard, Ed.; And Others

    This resource book is intended as an aid to persons working with Thai Dam refugees. To help the language teacher, some differences between Lao and English are discussed, specifically tonal inflections, positioning, declension of pronouns, conjugation of verbs, interrogatives, classifiers and predicate adjectives. An outline of cultural differences…

  10. Fish reproductive guilds downstream of dams.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, L P; Alves, D C; Gomes, L C

    2014-11-01

    Fish reproductive guilds were used to evaluate the responses of species with different reproductive strategies during two different periods of post-dam construction. The data used for the comparisons were collected in the upper Paraná River floodplain (Brazil), downstream of the Porto Primavera dam, 2 and 10 years after impoundment. The abundance (catch per unit effort, CPUE), species richness, evenness and structure of communities, all within reproductive guilds, were used to test the hypothesis that these metrics vary spatially and temporally. The influence of damming on species structure and the diversity of fish reproductive guilds varied spatiotemporally, and species with opportunistic reproductive strategies tended to be less affected. Conversely, long-distance migratory species responded more markedly to spatiotemporal variations, indicating that the ecosystem dynamics exert greater effects on populations of these species. Thus, the effects of a dam, even if attenuated, may extend over several years, especially downstream. This finding emphasizes the importance of maintaining large undammed tributaries downstream of reservoirs.

  11. Dams and Salmon: A Northwest Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Michael; Tromley, Cheryl L.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes an experiential exercise in which participants assume the roles of various stakeholder groups in the controversy surrounding possible dam removal to revive northwestern U. S. salmon populations. The role-play (a) increases environmental awareness in the context of the competing interests various stakeholders have in our…

  12. White Oak Dam stability analysis. Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, S.B.

    1994-01-01

    A parametric study was conducted to evaluate the stability of the White Oak Dam (WOD) embankment and foundation. Slope stability analyses were performed for the upper and lower bound soil properties at three sections of the dam using the PCSTABL4 computer program. Minimum safety factors were calculated for the applicable seismic and static loading conditions. Liquefaction potential of the dam embankment and foundation solid during the seismic event was assessed by using simplified procedures. The WOD is classified as a low hazard facility and the Evaluation Basis Earthquake (EBE) is defined as an earthquake with a magnitude of m{sub b} = 5.6 and a Peak Ground Accelerator (PGA) of 0.13 g. This event is approximately equivalent to a Modified Mercalli Intensity of VI-VIII. The EBE is used to perform the seismic evaluation for slope stability and liquefaction potential. Results of the stability analyses and the liquefaction assessment lead to the conclusion that the White Oak Dam is safe and stable for the static and the seismic events defined in this study. Ogden Environmental, at the request of MMES, has checked and verified the calculations for the critical loading conditions and performed a peer review of this report. Ogden has determined that the WOD is stable under the defined static and seismic loading conditions and the embankment materials are in general not susceptible to liquefaction.

  13. Yellowtail Dam Wastewater Treatment Facility NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit MT-0022993, the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility located at the Yellowtail Dam Field Office in Big Horn County, Montana, to the Yellowtail Afterbay Reservoir/Bighorn River.

  14. Radar proves its worth in dam rehabilitation

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This article outlines the use of radar techniques to survey the masonry structure of White Marble Dam. The survey used a subsurface interface radar, and this equipment displayed a cross-sectional profile of the entire structure, revealing the size and location of any faults. By avoiding the draining and dredging of the upstream pool, it is estimated that this technique saved three months.

  15. The long-term environmental impacts of the Mount Polley mine tailings spill, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, Patrick; Hudson-Edwards, Karen; Macklin, Mark; Brewer, Paul; Bird, Graham; Williams, Richard

    2015-04-01

    On the 4th August 2014 a tailings impoundment failure at the Mount Polley gold and copper mine in British Columbia, Canada, released approximately 25 million m3 of solid and liquid waste into Hazeltine Creek, Quesnel Lake and Polley Lake. The sheer volume of the tailings released caused Haseltine Creek channel to expand from 2m to over 25m in width and Polley Lake water level to rise by 1.7m. The spill also removed trees in a 900 km2 corridor either side of Hazeltine Creek. Local residents and government officials have expressed serious concerns regarding the potential long-term effects on regional biodiversity, water security and to the livelihoods of First Nation communities. Among impoundment failures, the Mount Polley disaster is unique in that the solid tailings contain an unusual mixture of metal contaminants (arsenic, copper, gold, manganese, nickel, lead, vanadium). As particulate matter is the principal carrier of metal contaminants, the spilled tailings may reside in the regional soils and sediments for 1000s of years serving as a secondary source of pollution. The environmental risk posed by the spilled tailings is compounded by the location of the spill in a mountainous forested catchment, affected by severe winters with prominent spring snow melts that have the potential to remobilise very large quantities of spilled tailings. No data currently exist on the short- to long-term behaviour of these tailings in soils and sediments and the effects of the clean-up operations on their behaviour in this type of river environment. In this study, we adopt a multidisciplinary approach to determine the environmental and geomorphological impacts of the tailings spill. We have two specific objectives. (1) The physicochemical speciation and geochemical stability of spilled tailings will be characterised in surface and hyporheic sediments using bulk chemistry, mineralogical (XRD and SEM) and speciation methods (sequential extractions, electron microprobe analysis, XAS

  16. Secondary retention of rubber dam: effective moisture control access considerations.

    PubMed

    Liebenberg, W H

    1995-04-01

    Primary rubber dam retention affects attachment of the latex sheet to the anchor teeth bordering the isolated working field. Secondary rubber dam retention is the provision of an effective seal at the dam-tooth junction, which is essential to the maintenance of adequate access and moisture control within the working field. Practical hints are offered to optimize access and moisture control through well-planned and properly executed secondary retention of classic rubber dam applications. In addition, innovative solutions to the limitations of general field isolation, which pertain mostly to secondary retention of the unrestrained buccal and lingual curtains of the slit dam, are introduced.

  17. National Dam Inspection Program. Hopewell Dam (NDS I.D. Number PA 00724, DER I.D. Number 6-401), Delaware River Basin, Scotts Run, Berks County, Pennsylvania. Phase I Inspection Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    and possible loss of life in the event of failure, a formal procedure of observation and warning during periods of high precipitation should be... periodically . Visual inspection indicated two small holes in the mortar of the small stones of the ogee section between the notch and the left spillway...surveillance of the dam during periods of high rainfall runoff. It is also noted that the manual contains factual errors relative to the physical

  18. Integrative biology of tail autotomy in lizards.

    PubMed

    Higham, Timothy E; Russell, Anthony P; Zani, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    Self-amputation (autotomy) of the tail is essential for the survival of many lizards. Accordingly, it has garnered the attention of scientists for more than 200 years. Several factors can influence the release of the tail, such as the size, sex, and age of the lizard; type of predator; ecology; and evolutionary history of the lineage. Once lost, the tail will writhe for seconds to minutes, and these movements likely depend on the size and physiology of the tail, habitat of the lizard, and predation pressure. Loss of the tail will, in turn, have impacts on the lizard, such as modified locomotor performance and mechanics, as well as escape behavior. However, the tail is almost always regenerated, and this involves wound healing, altered investment of resources, and tissue differentiation. The regenerated tail generally differs from the original in several ways, including size, shape, and function. Here we summarize recent findings of research pertaining to tail autotomy, and we propose a framework for future investigations.

  19. Faun tail nevus with aplasia cutis congenita.

    PubMed

    Chander, Ram; Jain, Arpita; Jaykar, Kranti; Garg, Taru; Anand, Rama

    2009-01-01

    Faun tail nevus describes abnormal lumbar hypertrichosis, which may overlie on occult spinal abnormality and be a marker of asymptomatic underlying spinal dysraphism. We report a case of faun tail nevus, with dermal pits along with aplasia cutis congenita and asymptomatic spina bifida occulta, tethered conus, and diastematomyelia, a constellation of findings which to our knowledge has not been previously reported.

  20. The use of rubber dam among Czech dental practitioners.

    PubMed

    Kapitán, Martin; Sustová, Zdenka

    2011-01-01

    Rubber dam is considered an ideal device for tooth isolation. Nevertheless, its usage is quite rare in the Czech Republic. The aim of this study was: firstly, to gather and evaluate information regarding the use of rubber dam by dentists in the Czech Republic and to compare it with other countries; secondly to find out whether there are any influencing factors as to rubber dam usage; and finally to find out frequency of rubber dam use separately in endodontic treatment and in placing fillings of different materials. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted. Dentists filled in the questionnaires during dental conventions, educational events, conferences and congresses. Rubber dam was routinely used by less than eight per cent of the respondents (n = 35); less than twenty-two per cent of the respondents (n = 97) used rubber dam occasionally, and more than seventy per cent of the respondents (n = 317) has never use it. The results showed that rubber dam is not used frequently in the Czech Republic. If rubber dam is used, then it is typically for endodontic treatment or composite fillings. There were several factors with a statistically significant influence on the usage of rubber dam, such as gender, length of professional career, percentage of direct payments, previous experience in using rubber dam, and undergraduate training in rubber dam use.

  1. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Bickford Pond Dam (MA 01021), Bickford Reservoir Dam (MA 01022), Connecticut River Basin, Hubbardston and Princeton, Massachusetts. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    long earth dam with concrete core wall. The dam has a maximum height of 51.2 feet and includes a drop inlet spillway and box conduit outlet structure...spillway. Bickford Reservoir Dam , also known as the Bickford Dike, was built in 1970 and is a 507-foot long earth dam with a concrete core wall. The dam ...deg. 56.1 min. I west. b. Description of Dams and Appurtenances. Bickford Pond Dam is a 933-foot long, earth embankment dam with a 15-inch thick

  2. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Ludlow Dam (MA 00547) and Cherry Valley Dam (MA 00548), Chicopee River Basin, Ludlow, Massachusetts. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-08-01

    of Springfield Reservoir. Both dams , which were built in approximately 1877, are of the earth fill . type with a vertical spiling wall along their...of the reservoir. Both dams are of the earth filled type with a ’ .,, vertical spiling wall along their centerlines. An overall view of the . . " LS...ne j.Asonry 0 Tim.bpr _____ Rockfill ______Other_______ Dam Tyrpe: Gravity X_ Stra i.L,L X __Curved, Arched - ~ Other . Overflow _____Non-overflow S

  3. Gabcikovo dam and Liptovska Mara dam - statistical analysis of measurement data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakac, J.; Sabo, M.

    2012-04-01

    Introduction: Water level in the observation wells is measured regularly and one of the reasons is evaluation of the safety of the water constructions. In this paper we are exploring the reliability of the measuring devices that are responsible for evaluation of the safety of the two largest and the most important dams in Slovakia. We test ability of selected statistical methods to detect early inaccuracies of measuring devices and thus improve the evaluation of the safety of the water constructions. As a follow-up study, we used the time series model (Neural network) to predict water levels in the observation wells that were considered to be without defects. Neural Network is also able to show dynamics of the filtration stability of the observational well. Methods: On the Liptovska Mara dam weekly data was used as a monitoring tool. On the Gabcikovo dam five minute time series of the measurements of the water level in observation wells around the right lock chamber were used. Data from the measuring devices of the dams were explored with boxplots, correlations, neural network, etc. The mentioned statistical tools analyze time series and detect the errors that measuring devices make when generating data and can be used to predict errors even in real time. In the second step, agreement between predicted data from neural network and measured data in the real time was evaluated. We used grid search for finding the optimal number of neurons and then predicted errors by using this model. The ability of the neural network in evaluation of the sealing of the dilatation joints on the filtration stability in the years 2009 - 2011 is presented. Results: From the 18 selected measuring devices on the Liptovska Mara dam there are only 3 devices which can be considered as reliable. On the Gabcikovo dam, 8 of 9 measuring devices (observation wells around right lock chamber) were considered as a reliable. There was very good agreement between the predicted and measured data at the

  4. Passage and survival probabilities of juvenile Chinook salmon at Cougar Dam, Oregon, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, John W.; Evans, Scott D.; Haner, Philip V.; Hansel, Hal C.; Hansen, Amy C.; Smith, Collin D.; Sprando, Jamie M.

    2014-01-01

    total of 92.2 percent of the treatment group passed through the RO during the November study and the RO was the only route open during the December study. The assumptions of the survival model were either met or adjusted for during each study. There was little evidence that tagger skill or premature failure of radio transmitters had an effect on survival estimates. There were statistically significant differences in travel times between treatment and control groups through several of the river reaches they had in common, but the differences were typically only a few hours, and the two groups likely experienced the same in-river conditions. There was direct evidence of bias due to detection of euthanized fish with live transmitters released as part of the study design. The bias was ameliorated by adjusting the survival estimates for the probability of detecting dead fish with live transmitters, which reduced the estimated survival probabilities by about 0.02. The data and models indicated that the treatment effect was not fully expressed until the study reach terminating with Marshall Island Park on the Willamette River, a distance of 105.8 kilometers downstream of Cougar Dam. This was the first reach in which the 95-percent confidence interval of the estimated reach-specific relative survival overlapped 1.0, indicating similar survival of treatment and control groups. The median travel time of the treatment group from release to Marshall Island Park was 1.64 days during the November study and 1.36 days during the December study. The survival probability of fish that passed into the RO was greater during the December study than during the November study. The relative survival probability of fish passing through the RO was 0.4594 (standard error [SE] 0.0543) during the November study and 0.7389 (SE 0.1160) during the December study. These estimates represent relative survival probabilities from release near Cougar Dam to the Marshall Island site. The estimated survival

  5. National Dam Inspection Program. Lake Housatonic Dam and Dike (CT 00026 and CT 01714). Connecticut Coastal Basin, Housatonic River, Derby-Shelton, Connecticut. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    8217;’,.-+-.-. ""’"" . .•• "•;. - NATIONAL DAM INSPECTION PROGRAM PHASE I INSPECTION REPORT Identification No.: CT 00026, CT 01714 N *~ Name of Dam: Lake Housatonic Dam and Dike " Town...approach was used between 1868 and 1870 to strengthen the Holyoke dam. The dam that existed there at the time was a timber crib dam, 1,017 feet long and 30

  6. Earthquake Hazard for Aswan High Dam Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Awad

    2016-04-01

    Earthquake activity and seismic hazard analysis are important components of the seismic aspects for very essential structures such as major dams. The Aswan High Dam (AHD) created the second man-made reservoir in the world (Lake Nasser) and is constructed near urban areas pose a high-risk potential for downstream life and property. The Dam area is one of the seismically active regions in Egypt and is occupied with several cross faults, which are dominant in the east-west and north-south. Epicenters were found to cluster around active faults in the northern part of Lake and AHD location. The space-time distribution and the relation of the seismicity with the lake water level fluctuations were studied. The Aswan seismicity separates into shallow and deep seismic zones, between 0 and 14 and 14 and 30 km, respectively. These two seismic zones behave differently over time, as indicated by the seismicity rate, lateral extent, b-value, and spatial clustering. It is characterized by earthquake swarm sequences showing activation of the clustering-events over time and space. The effect of the North African drought (1982 to present) is clearly seen in the reservoir water level. As it decreased and left the most active fault segments uncovered, the shallow activity was found to be more sensitive to rapid discharging than to the filling. This study indicates that geology, topography, lineations in seismicity, offsets in the faults, changes in fault trends and focal mechanisms are closely related. No relation was found between earthquake activity and both-ground water table fluctuations and water temperatures measured in wells located around the Kalabsha area. The peak ground acceleration is estimated in the dam site based on strong ground motion simulation. This seismic hazard analyses have indicated that AHD is stable with the present seismicity. The earthquake epicenters have recently took place approximately 5 km west of the AHD structure. This suggests that AHD dam must be

  7. Artificial inoculation-perspectives in tailings phytostabilization.

    PubMed

    Petrisor, Ioana G; Dobrota, Smaranda; Komnitsas, Kostas; Lazar, Ioan; Kuperberg, J Michael; Serban, Mihai

    2004-01-01

    Intensive mining and processing activities worldwide resulted in the generation of huge amounts of waste (tailings), generally characterized as toxic, radioactive, and/or hazardous. The exposure potential and, hence, the risk posed by such wastes is enhanced by a general lack of vegetation. Phytostabilization has proven to be efficient in reducing this risk. However, establishing vegetation on tailing dumps may be expensive due to the intensive use of amendments and chemical fertilizers. In this article, investigations on artificial inoculation of mine tailings with bacterial strains as a means to improve the development of vegetative covers and reduce application cost by eliminating chemical fertilization are presented and discussed. The development of plants and microbial communities from tailings, as well as the impact of inoculation on metal uptake in plants, were studied. Experiments were carried out in greenhouse using two types of mine tailings (phosphogypsum and sulphidic tailings) from the Romanian Black Sea coast. Indigenous herbaceous plants were cultivated on tailings with the addition of chemical fertilizers versus bacterial inoculation. After a 6-month experimental period, excellent plant growth, which is associated with a rich microbial community, was observed in all inoculated treatments, in contrast with poor plant growth and microbiota from the chemical fertilization treatments alone. Additionally, artificial inoculation improved plant resistance to heavy metals by reducing the uptake of some toxic metals. Once a rich microbial community is established, inoculation may be discontinued. Based on these results, efficient and cost-effective phytostabilization schemes can be proposed.

  8. Dam removal increases American eel abundance in distant headwater streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Eyler, Sheila; Wofford, John E.B.

    2012-01-01

    American eel Anguilla rostrata abundances have undergone significant declines over the last 50 years, and migration barriers have been recognized as a contributing cause. We evaluated eel abundances in headwater streams of Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, to compare sites before and after the removal of a large downstream dam in 2004 (Embrey Dam, Rappahannock River). Eel abundances in headwater streams increased significantly after the removal of Embrey Dam. Observed eel abundances after dam removal exceeded predictions derived from autoregressive models parameterized with data prior to dam removal. Mann–Kendall analyses also revealed consistent increases in eel abundances from 2004 to 2010 but inconsistent temporal trends before dam removal. Increasing eel numbers could not be attributed to changes in local physical habitat (i.e., mean stream depth or substrate size) or regional population dynamics (i.e., abundances in Maryland streams or Virginia estuaries). Dam removal was associated with decreasing minimum eel lengths in headwater streams, suggesting that the dam previously impeded migration of many small-bodied individuals (<300 mm TL). We hypothesize that restoring connectivity to headwater streams could increase eel population growth rates by increasing female eel numbers and fecundity. This study demonstrated that dams may influence eel abundances in headwater streams up to 150 river kilometers distant, and that dam removal may provide benefits for eel management and conservation at the landscape scale.

  9. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    The Grand Junction site has been reevaluated in order to revise the October 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Grand Junction, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.9 million tons of tailings at the Grand Junction site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The eight alternative actions presented herein range from millsite and off-site decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through VIII). Cost estimates for the eight options range from about $10,200,000 for stabilization in-place to about $39,500,000 for disposal in the DeBeque area, at a distance of about 35 mi, using transportation by rail. If transportation to DeBeque were by truck, the cost estimated to be about $41,900,000. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Grand Junction tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; (b) treatment at an existing mill; and (c) reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $200/lb by heap leach and $150/lb by conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery appears not to be economically attractive.

  10. Radial gate evaluation: Olympus Dam, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The report presents a structural analysis of the radial gates of Olympus Dam in eastern Colorado. Five 20-foot wide by 17-foot high radial gates are used to control flow through the spillway at Olympus Dam. The spillway gates were designed in 1947. The gate arm assemblies consist of two separate wide flange beams, with a single brace between the arms. The arms pivot about a 4.0-inch diameter pin and bronze graphite-insert bushing. The pin is cantilevered from the pier anchor girder. The radial gates are supported by a pin bearing on a pier anchor birder bolted to the end of the concrete pier. The gates are operated by two-part wire rope 15,000-pound capacity hoise. Stoplog slots upstream of the radial gates are provided in the concrete piers. Selected drawings of the gates and hoists are located in appendix A.

  11. Three-dimensional dynamic response analysis of earth dams

    SciTech Connect

    Mejia, L.H.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the present work has been to develop numerical techniques for the three-dimensional dynamic analysis of earth and rockfill dams and to study the dynamic behavior of embankment dams in three dimensions. A computer program suitable for the three-dimensional dynamic response analysis of earth dams was used to back-calculate the dynamic material properties of Oroville Dam from the recorded response of the dam to the August 1, 1975 Oroville earthquake. The dynamic response characteristics of earth dams which exhibit considerable three-dimensional behavior have been studied and the applicability of two-dimensional analysis to the computation of the dynamic response of such structures has been evaluated. Additionally, the effects that the degree of discretization in the cross-valley direction has on the computed three-dimensional dynamic response of earth dams have been studied. A K/sub 2/max value of 170 was found to be representative of the in-situ dynamic characteristics of the Oroville gravels. The three-dimensional effects of canyon geometry on the dynamic response of dams in triangular canyons were found to depend on the crest length to height ratio, L/H, of the dam. For dams with L/H greater than 7, these effects are small. The dynamic characteristics of these dams can, therefore, be simulated reasonably well using two-dimensional analyses. However, 2-D analyses cannot simulate correctly the dynamic response of dams in narrower canyons since the effects of canyon geometry for these dams are very pronounced.

  12. Seismology-based early identification of dam-formation landquake events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y. M.; Chao, W. A.

    2015-12-01

    Flooding resulting from the bursting of dams formed by landquake events such as rock avalanches, landslides and debris flows can lead to serious bank erosion and inundation of populated areas near rivers. Seismic waves can be generated by landquake events which can be described as time-dependent forces (unloading/reloading cycles) acting on the Earth. In this study, we conduct inversions of long-period (LP, period ≥ 20 sec) waveforms for different source mechanisms. Results show that single-force (SF) mechanism better explains the observed seismograms generated by landquake events. We then perform inversions for the landquake force histories (LFHs) of ten events, which provide quantitative characterization of the initiation, propagation and termination stages of the slope failures. When the results obtained from LP waveforms are analyzed together with high-frequency (HF, 1-3 Hz) seismic signals, we find a relatively strong late-arriving seismic phase (dubbed Dam-forming phase or D-phase) recorded clearly in the HF waveforms at the closest stations, which potentially marks the time when the collapsed masses sliding into river and perhaps even impacting the topographic barrier on the opposite bank. Consequently, our approach to analyzing the LP and HF waveforms developed in this study has a high potential for identifying five dam-forming landquake events (DFLEs) in near real-time using broadband seismic records, which can provide timely warnings of the impending floods to downstream residents.

  13. Seismology-based early identification of dam-formation landquake events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Wei-An; Zhao, Li; Chen, Su-Chin; Wu, Yih-Min; Chen, Chi-Hsuan; Huang, Hsin-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Flooding resulting from the bursting of dams formed by landquake events such as rock avalanches, landslides and debris flows can lead to serious bank erosion and inundation of populated areas near rivers. Seismic waves can be generated by landquake events which can be described as time-dependent forces (unloading/reloading cycles) acting on the Earth. In this study, we conduct inversions of long-period (LP, period ≥20 s) waveforms for the landquake force histories (LFHs) of ten events, which provide quantitative characterization of the initiation, propagation and termination stages of the slope failures. When the results obtained from LP waveforms are analyzed together with high-frequency (HF, 1–3 Hz) seismic signals, we find a relatively strong late-arriving seismic phase (dubbed Dam-forming phase or D-phase) recorded clearly in the HF waveforms at the closest stations, which potentially marks the time when the collapsed masses sliding into river and perhaps even impacting the topographic barrier on the opposite bank. Consequently, our approach to analyzing the LP and HF waveforms developed in this study has a high potential for identifying five dam-forming landquake events (DFLEs) in near real-time using broadband seismic records, which can provide timely warnings of the impending floods to downstream residents.

  14. Seismology-based early identification of dam-formation landquake events

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Wei-An; Zhao, Li; Chen, Su-Chin; Wu, Yih-Min; Chen, Chi-Hsuan; Huang, Hsin-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Flooding resulting from the bursting of dams formed by landquake events such as rock avalanches, landslides and debris flows can lead to serious bank erosion and inundation of populated areas near rivers. Seismic waves can be generated by landquake events which can be described as time-dependent forces (unloading/reloading cycles) acting on the Earth. In this study, we conduct inversions of long-period (LP, period ≥20 s) waveforms for the landquake force histories (LFHs) of ten events, which provide quantitative characterization of the initiation, propagation and termination stages of the slope failures. When the results obtained from LP waveforms are analyzed together with high-frequency (HF, 1–3 Hz) seismic signals, we find a relatively strong late-arriving seismic phase (dubbed Dam-forming phase or D-phase) recorded clearly in the HF waveforms at the closest stations, which potentially marks the time when the collapsed masses sliding into river and perhaps even impacting the topographic barrier on the opposite bank. Consequently, our approach to analyzing the LP and HF waveforms developed in this study has a high potential for identifying five dam-forming landquake events (DFLEs) in near real-time using broadband seismic records, which can provide timely warnings of the impending floods to downstream residents. PMID:26753931

  15. Seismology-based early identification of dam-formation landquake events.

    PubMed

    Chao, Wei-An; Zhao, Li; Chen, Su-Chin; Wu, Yih-Min; Chen, Chi-Hsuan; Huang, Hsin-Hua

    2016-01-12

    Flooding resulting from the bursting of dams formed by landquake events such as rock avalanches, landslides and debris flows can lead to serious bank erosion and inundation of populated areas near rivers. Seismic waves can be generated by landquake events which can be described as time-dependent forces (unloading/reloading cycles) acting on the Earth. In this study, we conduct inversions of long-period (LP, period ≥20 s) waveforms for the landquake force histories (LFHs) of ten events, which provide quantitative characterization of the initiation, propagation and termination stages of the slope failures. When the results obtained from LP waveforms are analyzed together with high-frequency (HF, 1-3 Hz) seismic signals, we find a relatively strong late-arriving seismic phase (dubbed Dam-forming phase or D-phase) recorded clearly in the HF waveforms at the closest stations, which potentially marks the time when the collapsed masses sliding into river and perhaps even impacting the topographic barrier on the opposite bank. Consequently, our approach to analyzing the LP and HF waveforms developed in this study has a high potential for identifying five dam-forming landquake events (DFLEs) in near real-time using broadband seismic records, which can provide timely warnings of the impending floods to downstream residents.

  16. Centrifuge study on volume changes and dynamic stability of earth dams

    SciTech Connect

    Arulanandan, K. ); Seed, H.B. ); Yogachandran, C. ); Muraleetharan, K.K. ); Seed, R.B. ); Kabilamany, K. )

    1993-11-01

    A simplified method of analysis for determining the permanent displacement of a clay core in a heterogeneous earth dam subjected to dynamic excitation is discussed. Centrifuge studies on three identical models were used to determine the deformation characteristics of earth dams subjected to earthquakes large enough to produce flow slides. These studies suggest that the failure mode is considerably influenced by the reduction in shear strength caused by the void-ratio increase and the subsequent decrease in effective stress at the sand-clay interface. Conventional sliding block analysis does not consider this phenomenon. A simplified method using the concepts of critical-state soil mechanics is presented that may be used to estimate both the reduced shear strength and the redistributed void-ratio at the interface. Values predicted using this method were found to agree well with those observed in the centrifuge experiments. By integrating these quantities into Newmark's sliding block analysis, a better estimate of the permanent displacement of an earth dam may be obtained.

  17. Wind-tunnel Investigation of End-plate Effects of Horizontal Tails on a Vertical Tail Compared with Available Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Harry E

    1946-01-01

    A vertical-tail model with stub fuselage was tested in combination with various simulated horizontal tails to determine the effect of horizontal-tail span and location on the aerodynamic characteristics of the vertical tail. Available theoretical data on end-plate effects were collected and presented in the form most suitable for design purposes. Reasonable agreement was obtained between the measured and theoretical end-plate effects of horizontal tails on vertical tails, and the data indicated that the end-plate effect was determined more by the location of the horizontal tail than by the span of the horizontal tail. The horizontal tail gave most end-plate effect when located near either tip of the vertical tail and, when located near the base of the vertical tail, the end-plate effect was increased by moving the horizontal tail rearward.

  18. Localized toxoplasmosis in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) causing placentitis, stillbirths, and disseminated fetal infection.

    PubMed

    Juan-Sallés, Carles; Mainez, Mireia; Marco, Alberto; Sanchís, Ana M Malabia

    2011-09-01

    Localized, myocardial toxoplasmosis contributed to the death of a female ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) 1 week after the delivery of 4 stillborn offspring with disseminated toxoplasmosis; the diagnosis was obtained by histopathology and immunohistochemistry in all 5 lemurs. Varying degrees of placentitis and placental edema with intralesional Toxoplasma gondii immunolabeling were observed in the 3 available placentas. The dam had severe myocarditis, and T. gondii antigen was only detected in the myocardial lesions. Disseminated toxoplasmosis with mild encephalitis was noted in all 4 fetuses, and 2 of the fetuses had mild acute multifocal hepatic necrosis. Fetal death was attributed to placental insufficiency with subsequent hypoxia and amniotic fluid aspiration.

  19. Acute kidney failure

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure; Renal failure; Renal failure - acute; ARF; Kidney injury - acute ... There are many possible causes of kidney damage. They include: ... cholesterol (cholesterol emboli) Decreased blood flow due to very ...

  20. What Is Heart Failure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Heart Failure? Heart failure is a condition in which the heart can' ... force. Some people have both problems. The term "heart failure" doesn't mean that your heart has stopped ...