Science.gov

Sample records for tang wei wang

  1. Editorial: Which Wei Wang?

    SciTech Connect

    Sprouse, Gene D.

    2007-12-01

    The APS journals receive manuscripts from scientists all over the world. For authors whose names cannot be expressed in Latin characters, their names in the byline must be transliterated, a process that is not necessarily bidirectionally unique. For example, the eight Chinese names all transliterate as Wei Wang. To remove some of the ambiguity arising from this unfortunate degeneracy of names, APS will allow some authors the option to include their names in their own language in parentheses after the transliterated name, such as Wei Wang. The option to present names in the article byline in this manner is an experiment initially offered to Chinese, Japanese, and Korean authors, whose names can be expressed in Unicode characters. An example of a Japanese name is Tadanori Minamisono and a Korean name is Chang Kee Jung. In the English text the given name precedes the family name, while the reverse is true for the characters. As we gain experience, we may be able to broaden this offer to other languages. Authors who wish to try this option will need to prepare their manuscripts by following the special instructions at http://authors.aps.org/names.html.

  2. [Clinical features of Wei Yuheng].

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhong-yuan

    2006-04-01

    Wei Yuheng held that the endogenous miscellaneous diseases are mostly caused by liver diseases, highly stressed the treating method of nourishing yin to generate liver. He claimed that liver deficiency is mostly caused by congenital factors, sexual strain or improper treatment. He criticized that the improper treatment by elder generations mainly was caused by their ignorance of tonifying the liver based on the saying of "no tonifying treatment for the liver". Wei Yuheng's medical theories and clinical experiences are scattered in his book Xu Mingyi Lei'an (Supplement to Classified Case Records of Celebrated Physicians). Wang Mengying collected part of his thoughts and experiences and wrote the book Liuzhou Yihua (Liuzhou Medical Talks). Although Wang Mengying's book could deduce part of the thoughts of Wei Yuheng, it didn't disclose his theories completely. It is known to all that the compound recipe Yiguan Jian is a representative formula of Wei Yuheng to tonify liver yin. Actually, it can be concluded from the analysis of Xu Mingyi Lei'an that he used Fructus Lycii (Gouqi) as a main herb to tonify liver yin in the method of nourishing yin to generate liver. Based on the idea that there are accept, restriction, generation and transformation relationship among the lung, kidney and liver yin, so he also always used Radix Glehniae (Beishashen), Radix Ophiopogonis (Maidong), Radix Rehmanniae Recens (Shengdihuang), and Radix Rehmanniae Preparata (Shudihuang) in his compound recipes. If the yin blood is insufficient, Semen Ziziphi Spinosae (Suanzaoren) should be added. In order to prepare a out way for phlegm-heat caused dy liver yin deficiency, a lubricative, Semen Trichosanthis (Gualouren) was always used and raw Semen Coicis Recens (Shengyiyiren) too. Sichuan Rhizoma Coptidis (Chuanhuanglian) can be used to clear fire-heat, and Fructus Meliae Toosendan (Chuanlianzi) for pain caused by fire-heat. PMID:17096983

  3. 77 FR 34339 - Yufeng Wei, a/k/a Annie Wei, 165 Beech Street, Belmont, MA 02378; Order Denying Export Privileges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Yufeng Wei, a/k/a Annie Wei, 165 Beech Street, Belmont, MA 02378; Order..., Yufeng Wei, a/k/a Annie Wei (``Wei'') was convicted of violating the International Emergency Economic... her conviction. Accordingly, it is hereby ordered I. Until January 28, 2021, Yufeng Wei, a/k/a...

  4. Greg Tang: Making Math Count

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierpont, Katherine

    2006-01-01

    Greg Tang has a resume that could get his foot in the door to a lot of places. A graduate of Harvard with both a B.A. and M.A. in economics, Tang has found success as a business executive, a speechwriter, a software designer and owner of a Tae Kwon Do school. After the publication of his first best-selling book for children, "The Grapes of Math"…

  5. Correction to Wei et al. (2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Meifen; Mallinckrodt, Brent; Larson, Lisa, M.; Zakalik, Robyn, A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports an error in the original article, "Adult Attachment, Depressive Symptoms, and Validation From Self Versus Others," by Meifen Wei, Brent Mallinckrodt, Lisa M. Larson, and Robyn A. Zakalik (Journal of Counseling Psychology, 2005[Jul], 52[3], 368-377). In this article, boxes were inadvertently placed around every path coefficient…

  6. Jumihaidokuto (Shi-Wei-Ba-Du-Tang), a Kampo Formula, Decreases the Disease Activity of Palmoplantar Pustulosis

    PubMed Central

    Mizawa, Megumi; Makino, Teruhiko; Inami, Chieko; Shimizu, Tadamichi

    2016-01-01

    Palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP) is a chronic skin disease characterized by sterile intraepidermal pustules associated with erythematous scaling on the palms and soles. Jumihaidokuto is a traditional herbal medicine composed of ten medical plants and has been given to patients with suppurative skin disease in Japan. This study investigated the effect of jumihaidokuto on the disease activity in PPP patients (n = 10). PPP patients were given jumihaidokuto (EKT-6; 6.0 g per day) for 4 to 8 weeks in addition to their prescribed medications. The results showed that the palmoplantar pustular psoriasis area and severity index (PPPASI) was decreased after the administration of jumihaidokuto (p < 0.05). Therefore, Jumihaidokuto is seemingly effective against PPP. PMID:27143961

  7. T'ang Dynasty Tomb Figure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selle, Penny

    1988-01-01

    Uses a print of a T'ang Dynasty tomb figure to acquaint grades 10-12 students with the tools needed for developing aesthetic judgement and artistic criticism. Includes background on the artwork and instructional strategies to help students describe the object, analyze the artmaking process, and formulate their own opinions. (GEA)

  8. Lung cancer and indoor air pollution in Xuan Wei, China.

    PubMed

    Mumford, J L; He, X Z; Chapman, R S; Cao, S R; Harris, D B; Li, X M; Xian, Y L; Jiang, W Z; Xu, C W; Chuang, J C

    1987-01-01

    In Xuan Wei County, Yunnan Province, lung cancer mortality is among China's highest and, especially in females, is more closely associated with indoor burning of "smoky" coal, as opposed to wood or "smokeless" coal, than with tobacco smoking. Indoor air samples were collected during the burning of all three fuels. In contrast to wood and smokeless coal emissions, smoky coal emission has high concentrations of submicron particles containing mutagenic organics, especially in aromatic and polar fractions. These studies suggested an etiologic link between domestic smoky coal burning and lung cancer in Xuan Wei.

  9. Wang linker free of side reactions.

    PubMed

    Castro, Vida; Rodriguez, Hortensia; Albericio, Fernando

    2013-01-18

    A new resin for the solid-phase synthesis of peptide acids was developed. It was based on a linker with two unique features: methoxy groups as the only activating groups of the phenyl ring and a copper(I)-catalyzed Click chemistry reaction to anchor it to the solid support. The efficiency of this new resin in solid phase peptide synthesis was compared with that of Wang resin.

  10. Magnitude of the Wang-Landau error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Gregory; Rikvold, PA; Odbadrakh, Kh; Nicholson, DM

    2016-09-01

    The Wang-Landau algorithm is an entropic sampling method that incoroporates an update factor ln fi , which introduces a self-avoidance tendency into the random walk. Continued sampling at constant ln fi leads to a steady state estimate of the density of states ln gi (E). We find numerically that the difference between ln gi (E) and the true density of states ln g (E) is proportional to the update factor.

  11. Effects of Lizhong Tang on gastrointestinal motility in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Min Cheol; Ha, Wooram; Park, Jinhyeong; Kim, Junghoon; Jung, Yunjin; Kim, Byung Joo

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the effects of Lizhong Tang, a traditional Chinese medicine formula, on gastrointestinal motility in mice. METHODS The in vivo effects of Lizhong Tang on GI motility were investigated by measuring the intestinal transit rates (ITRs) and gastric emptying (GE) values in normal mice and in mice with experimentally induced GI motility dysfunction (GMD). RESULTS In normal ICR mice, the ITR and GE values were significantly and dose-dependently increased by Lizhong Tang (ITR values: 54.4% ± 1.9% vs 65.2% ± 1.8%, P < 0.01 with 0.1 g/kg Lizhong Tang and 54.4% ± 1.9% vs 83.8% ± 1.9%, P < 0.01 with 1 g/kg Lizhong Tang; GE values: 60.7% ± 1.9% vs 66.8% ± 2.1%, P < 0.05 with 0.1 g/kg Lizhong Tang and 60.7% ± 1.9% vs 72.5% ± 1.7%, P < 0.01 with 1 g/kg Lizhong Tang). The ITRs of the GMD mice were significantly reduced compared with those of the normal mice, which were significantly and dose-dependently reversed by Lizhong Tang. Additionally, in loperamide- and cisplatin-induced models of GE delay, Lizhong Tang administration reversed the GE deficits. CONCLUSION These results suggest that Lizhong Tang may be a novel candidate for development as a prokinetic treatment for the GI tract. PMID:27678361

  12. Effects of Lizhong Tang on gastrointestinal motility in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Min Cheol; Ha, Wooram; Park, Jinhyeong; Kim, Junghoon; Jung, Yunjin; Kim, Byung Joo

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the effects of Lizhong Tang, a traditional Chinese medicine formula, on gastrointestinal motility in mice. METHODS The in vivo effects of Lizhong Tang on GI motility were investigated by measuring the intestinal transit rates (ITRs) and gastric emptying (GE) values in normal mice and in mice with experimentally induced GI motility dysfunction (GMD). RESULTS In normal ICR mice, the ITR and GE values were significantly and dose-dependently increased by Lizhong Tang (ITR values: 54.4% ± 1.9% vs 65.2% ± 1.8%, P < 0.01 with 0.1 g/kg Lizhong Tang and 54.4% ± 1.9% vs 83.8% ± 1.9%, P < 0.01 with 1 g/kg Lizhong Tang; GE values: 60.7% ± 1.9% vs 66.8% ± 2.1%, P < 0.05 with 0.1 g/kg Lizhong Tang and 60.7% ± 1.9% vs 72.5% ± 1.7%, P < 0.01 with 1 g/kg Lizhong Tang). The ITRs of the GMD mice were significantly reduced compared with those of the normal mice, which were significantly and dose-dependently reversed by Lizhong Tang. Additionally, in loperamide- and cisplatin-induced models of GE delay, Lizhong Tang administration reversed the GE deficits. CONCLUSION These results suggest that Lizhong Tang may be a novel candidate for development as a prokinetic treatment for the GI tract.

  13. [Textual research on the chronicle of Wang Fengchun's life].

    PubMed

    Wu, Z

    1999-10-01

    Wang Fengchun was a noted doctor in Beijing, but there were a lot of discrepancies and errors about the chronicle of Wang's life in the literatures. This article was a textual research on the chronicle of Wang Fengchun's life, such as the date of birth, the time when migrated to Beijing, and the number of years practised medicine in Beijing, mostly based on the Bo Lu Yi An.

  14. Tool Measures Depths of Defects on a Case Tang Joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ream, M. Bryan; Montgomery, Ronald B.; Mecham, Brent A.; Keirstead, Bums W.

    2005-01-01

    A special-purpose tool has been developed for measuring the depths of defects on an O-ring seal surface. The surface lies in a specially shaped ringlike fitting, called a capture feature tang, located on an end of a cylindrical segment of a case that contains a solid-fuel booster rocket motor for launching a space shuttle. The capture feature tang is a part of a tang-and-clevis, O-ring joint between the case segment and a similar, adjacent cylindrical case segment. When the segments are joined, the tang makes an interference fit with the clevis and squeezes the O-ring at the side of the gap.

  15. Free energy computations employing Jarzynski identity and Wang - Landau algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalyan, M. Suman; Murthy, K. P. N.; Sastry, V. S. S.

    2016-05-01

    We introduce a simple method to compute free energy differences employing Jarzynski identity in conjunction with Wang - Landau algorithm. We demonstrate this method on Ising spin system by comparing the results with those obtained from canonical sampling.

  16. Massively parallel Wang Landau sampling on multiple GPUs

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Junqi; Landau, D. P.

    2012-01-01

    Wang Landau sampling is implemented on the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) with the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA). Performances on three different GPU cards, including the new generation Fermi architecture card, are compared with that on a Central Processing Unit (CPU). The parameters for massively parallel Wang Landau sampling are tuned in order to achieve fast convergence. For simulations of the water cluster systems, we obtain an average of over 50 times speedup for a given workload.

  17. Chemical gas-dynamics beyond Wang Chang-Uhlenbeck's kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnichenko, Evgeniy G.; Gorbachev, Yuriy E.

    2014-12-01

    Wang Chang-Uhlenbeck equation does not give possibility to take into account intermolecular processes such as redistribution of the energy among different degrees of freedom. The modification of the generalized Wang Chang-Uhlenbeck equation including such processes is proposed. It allows to study for instance the kinetics of non-radiative transitions. Limitations of this approach are connected with the requirements of absence of polarization of rotational momentum and phases of intermolecular vibrations.

  18. Chemical gas-dynamics beyond Wang Chang-Uhlenbeck's kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Kolesnichenko, Evgeniy G.; Gorbachev, Yuriy E.

    2014-12-09

    Wang Chang-Uhlenbeck equation does not give possibility to take into account intermolecular processes such as redistribution of the energy among different degrees of freedom. The modification of the generalized Wang Chang-Uhlenbeck equation including such processes is proposed. It allows to study for instance the kinetics of non-radiative transitions. Limitations of this approach are connected with the requirements of absence of polarization of rotational momentum and phases of intermolecular vibrations.

  19. Spatial chaos of Wang tiles with two symbols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jin-Yu; Chen, Yu-Jie; Hu, Wen-Guei; Lin, Song-Sun

    2016-02-01

    This investigation completely classifies the spatial chaos problem in plane edge coloring (Wang tiles) with two symbols. For a set of Wang tiles B , spatial chaos occurs when the spatial entropy h ( B ) is positive. B is called a minimal cycle generator if P ( B ) ≠ 0̸ and P ( B ' ) = 0̸ whenever B ' ⫋ B , where P ( B ) is the set of all periodic patterns on ℤ2 generated by B . Given a set of Wang tiles B , write B = C 1 ∪ C 2 ∪ ⋯ ∪ C k ∪ N , where Cj, 1 ≤ j ≤ k, are minimal cycle generators and B contains no minimal cycle generator except those contained in C1∪C2∪⋯∪Ck. Then, the positivity of spatial entropy h ( B ) is completely determined by C1∪C2∪⋯∪Ck. Furthermore, there are 39 equivalence classes of marginal positive-entropy sets of Wang tiles and 18 equivalence classes of saturated zero-entropy sets of Wang tiles. For a set of Wang tiles B , h ( B ) is positive if and only if B contains a MPE set, and h ( B ) is zero if and only if B is a subset of a SZE set.

  20. [Discussion on WANG Guo-rui's acupuncture academy thought].

    PubMed

    Gao, Xi-Yan; Wang, Xin; Gao, Ling; Chen, Xin-Wang

    2013-12-01

    Through study on Bianque Shenying Zhenjiu Yulong Jing (Bianque's Classic of Effective Acupuncture Prescriptions), acupuncture experiences and ideology of WANG Guo-rui, an acupuncture physician of the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368), is discussed in this article. Inherited and carried forward DOU's acupuncture theory, WANG Guo-rui encouraged to use experiential points and to expand extra points. Penetrating needling method was created, and the application of acupoints according to needling opportunities and seasonal factors were enriched by him. Great importance was also attached on treatment according to differentiation of syndromes, which including the simultaneous acupuncture and moxibustion, simultaneous reinforcing and reducing, reducing after reinforcing, reinforcing after reducing, predomination of reducing and predomination of reinforcing. The flexible treating methods are still extensively adopted in clinic nowadays. WANG Guo-rui is a master of clinical acupuncture who made great contribution to the development of acupuncture and moxibustion.

  1. Analysis of temporal and spatial trends of hydro-climatic variables in the Wei River Basin.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Huang, Qiang; Chang, Jianxia; Liu, Dengfeng; Huang, Shengzhi; Shi, Xiaoyu

    2015-05-01

    The Wei River is the largest tributary of the Yellow River in China. The relationship between runoff and precipitation in the Wei River Basin has been changed due to the changing climate and increasingly intensified human activities. In this paper, we determine abrupt changes in hydro-climatic variables and identify the main driving factors for the changes in the Wei River Basin. The nature of the changes is analysed based on data collected at twenty-one weather stations and five hydrological stations in the period of 1960-2010. The sequential Mann-Kendall test analysis is used to capture temporal trends and abrupt changes in the five sub-catchments of the Wei River Basin. A non-parametric trend test at the basin scale for annual data shows a decreasing trend of precipitation and runoff over the past fifty-one years. The temperature exhibits an increase trend in the entire period. The potential evaporation was calculated based on the Penman-Monteith equation, presenting an increasing trend of evaporation since 1990. The stations with a significant decreasing trend in annual runoff mainly are located in the west of the Wei River primarily interfered by human activities. Regression analysis indicates that human activity was possibly the main cause of the decline of runoff after 1970.

  2. Analysis of temporal and spatial trends of hydro-climatic variables in the Wei River Basin.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Huang, Qiang; Chang, Jianxia; Liu, Dengfeng; Huang, Shengzhi; Shi, Xiaoyu

    2015-05-01

    The Wei River is the largest tributary of the Yellow River in China. The relationship between runoff and precipitation in the Wei River Basin has been changed due to the changing climate and increasingly intensified human activities. In this paper, we determine abrupt changes in hydro-climatic variables and identify the main driving factors for the changes in the Wei River Basin. The nature of the changes is analysed based on data collected at twenty-one weather stations and five hydrological stations in the period of 1960-2010. The sequential Mann-Kendall test analysis is used to capture temporal trends and abrupt changes in the five sub-catchments of the Wei River Basin. A non-parametric trend test at the basin scale for annual data shows a decreasing trend of precipitation and runoff over the past fifty-one years. The temperature exhibits an increase trend in the entire period. The potential evaporation was calculated based on the Penman-Monteith equation, presenting an increasing trend of evaporation since 1990. The stations with a significant decreasing trend in annual runoff mainly are located in the west of the Wei River primarily interfered by human activities. Regression analysis indicates that human activity was possibly the main cause of the decline of runoff after 1970. PMID:25619963

  3. TANG1, Encoding a Symplekin_C Domain-Contained Protein, Influences Sugar Responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Leiying; Shang, Li; Chen, Xing; Zhang, Limin; Xia, Yan; Smith, Caroline; Bevan, Michael W; Li, Yunhai; Jing, Hai-Chun

    2015-07-01

    Sugars not only serve as energy and cellular carbon skeleton but also function as signaling molecules regulating growth and development in plants. Understanding the molecular mechanisms in sugar signaling pathways will provide more information for improving plant growth and development. Here, we describe a sugar-hypersensitive recessive mutant, tang1. Light-grown tang1 mutants have short roots and increased starch and anthocyanin contents when grown on high-sugar concentration medium. Dark-grown tang1 plants exhibit sugar-hypersensitive hypocotyl elongation and enhanced dark development. The tang1 mutants also show an enhanced response to abscisic acid but reduced response to ethylene. Thus, tang1 displays a range of alterations in sugar signaling-related responses. The TANG1 gene was isolated by a map-based cloning approach and encodes a previously uncharacterized unique protein with a predicted Symplekin tight-junction protein C terminus. Expression analysis indicates that TANG1 is ubiquitously expressed at moderate levels in different organs and throughout the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) life cycle; however, its expression is not affected by high-sugar treatment. Genetic analysis shows that PRL1 and TANG1 have additive effects on sugar-related responses. Furthermore, the mutation of TANG1 does not affect the expression of genes involved in known sugar signaling pathways. Taken together, these results suggest that TANG1, a unique gene, plays an important role in sugar responses in Arabidopsis.

  4. TANG1, Encoding a Symplekin_C Domain-Contained Protein, Influences Sugar Responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Leiying; Shang, Li; Chen, Xing; Zhang, Limin; Xia, Yan; Smith, Caroline; Bevan, Michael W; Li, Yunhai; Jing, Hai-Chun

    2015-07-01

    Sugars not only serve as energy and cellular carbon skeleton but also function as signaling molecules regulating growth and development in plants. Understanding the molecular mechanisms in sugar signaling pathways will provide more information for improving plant growth and development. Here, we describe a sugar-hypersensitive recessive mutant, tang1. Light-grown tang1 mutants have short roots and increased starch and anthocyanin contents when grown on high-sugar concentration medium. Dark-grown tang1 plants exhibit sugar-hypersensitive hypocotyl elongation and enhanced dark development. The tang1 mutants also show an enhanced response to abscisic acid but reduced response to ethylene. Thus, tang1 displays a range of alterations in sugar signaling-related responses. The TANG1 gene was isolated by a map-based cloning approach and encodes a previously uncharacterized unique protein with a predicted Symplekin tight-junction protein C terminus. Expression analysis indicates that TANG1 is ubiquitously expressed at moderate levels in different organs and throughout the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) life cycle; however, its expression is not affected by high-sugar treatment. Genetic analysis shows that PRL1 and TANG1 have additive effects on sugar-related responses. Furthermore, the mutation of TANG1 does not affect the expression of genes involved in known sugar signaling pathways. Taken together, these results suggest that TANG1, a unique gene, plays an important role in sugar responses in Arabidopsis. PMID:26002908

  5. CORRIGENDUM: Prospects for a new boson W+/-1 in the minimal Higgsless model at the LHC Prospects for a new boson W+/-1 in the minimal Higgsless model at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming-Shui; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; He, Hong-Jian; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Li, Zu-Hao; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiang-Wei; Qi, Yong-Hui; Tang, Zhi-Cheng; Tao, Jun-Quan; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xian-You; Wang, Jian-Xiong; Xiao, Hong; Yang, Min; Zang, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Zhen-Xia

    2009-12-01

    The author list originally given in the above article (Ming-Shui Chen, Jian-Guo Bian, Guo-Ming Chen, Hong-Jian He, Chun-Hua Jiang, Zu-Hao Li, Song Liang, Xiang-Wei Meng, Yong-Hui Qi, Zhi-Cheng Tang, Jun-Quan Tao, Zheng Wang, Jian Wang, Jian Wang, Xian-You Wang, Jian-Xiong Wang, Hong Xiao, Min Yang, Jing-Jing Zang, Bin Zhang, Zhen Zhang and Zhen- Xia Zhang) is incorrect. The correct author list is: Ming-Shui Chen, Jian-Guo Bian, Guo-Ming Chen, Chun-Hua Jiang, Zu-Hao Li, Song Liang, Xiang-Wei Meng, Zhi-Cheng Tang, Jun-Quan Tao, Zheng Wang, Jian Wang, Jian Wang, Xian-You Wang, Jian-Xiong Wang, Hong Xiao, Min Yang, Jing-Jing Zang, Bin Zhang, Zhen Zhang and Zhen-Xia Zhang. Hong-Jian He and Yong-Hui Qi did not take part in the writing of this text and do not bear any responsibility for its contents. Also, reference [4] in the paper should be corrected to: [4] Hong-Jian He et al 2008 Phys. Rev. D 78 031701(R)

  6. Effect of lu-duo-wei on scavenging superoxide and hydroxyl radicals in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fang, Y Z; Sun, C P; Tian, X H; Cong, J H

    1998-01-01

    Irradiation of a riboflavin-containing system by ultraviolet light was used to produce superoxide radical (.O2-). Hydroxyl radical (.OH) was generated by the system of Fe(II)-H2O2. Using electron spin resonance and spin trapping techniques, the effect of Lu-Duo-Wei, a capsule consisting extracts of green tea, Fructus Lycii and Semen Ziziphi Spinosae, on scavenging .O2- and .OH was observed. The results showed that the efficiency of scavenging .O2- and .OH by Lu-Duo-Wei was much higher than that by tea polyphenol alone. It is suggested that the synergistic action of tea polyphenol and other components are responsible for the scavenging effect of Lu-Duo-Wei on .O2- and .OH. PMID:9799967

  7. Payload Specialist Taylor Wang performs repairs on Drop Dynamics Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Payload Specialist Taylor G. Wang performs a repair task on the Drop Dynamics Module (DDM) in the science module aboard the orbiter Challenger. Fellow crew members Dr. William E. Thornton (facing camera) and Don Lind are at the right of the frame.

  8. Reclassification of Deinococcus xibeiensis Wang et al. 2010 as a heterotypic synonym of Deinococcus wulumuqiensis Wang et al. 2010.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sunhee; Farrance, Christine E; Russell, Anne; Yi, Hana

    2015-03-01

    Two species of the genus Deinococcus, namely Deinococcus wulumuqiensis Wang et al. 2010 and Deinococcus xibeiensis Wang et al. 2010, were simultaneously proposed and described in the same publication. However, the identical 16S rRNA gene sequence of the two type strains strongly raised the probability of their relatedness at the species level. Thus, the genomic relatedness of the two species of the genus Deinococcus was investigated here to clarify their taxonomic status. The high (99.9 %) average nucleotide identity (ANI) between the genome sequences of the two type strains suggested that the two species are synonymous. Additional phenotypic data including enzymic activities and substrate-utilization profiles showed no pronounced differences between the type strains of the two species. Data from this study demonstrated that the two taxa constitute a single species. According to Rule 42 of the Bacteriological Code, we propose that D. xibeiensis Wang et al. 2010 should be reclassified as a subjective heterotypic synonym of D. wulumuqiensis Wang et al. 2010.

  9. The epidemiology of lung cancer in Xuan Wei, China: current progress, issues, and research strategies.

    PubMed

    Chapman, R S; Mumford, J L; Harris, D B; He, Z Z; Jiang, W Z; Yang, R D

    1988-01-01

    In Xuan Wei, a rural Chinese county of about one million people, females' annual lung cancer mortality is China's highest, and males' is among China's highest. Xuan Wei's very high indoor air pollution levels (sometimes exceeding 20 mg/m3), residentially stable population, relatively uncomplicated lifestyle, and wide geographic variation in lung cancer mortality render it highly amenable to quantitative, interdisciplinary investigation of chemical carcinogens due to indoor air pollution. To date, epidemiologic findings reveal a closer association of lung cancer with the indoor burning of "smoky" coal (as opposed to "smokeless" coal or wood) than with tobacco use or occupation. Current aerometric, chemical, and toxicologic findings tend to confirm this association, though the specific carcinogenic constituents of Xuan Wei indoor air pollution have not yet been determined. Chinese and American investigators are conducting interdisciplinary field and laboratory investigations to quantify the lung cancer risk attendant on indoor air pollution relative to other factors, to measure and compare the characteristics of pollution from different Xuan Wei fuels, to determine the relative etiologic importance of pollution composition and concentration, and to develop quantitative relationships between air pollution dose and lung cancer risk.

  10. POLYMORPHISMS IN THE DNA NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION REPAIR GENES AND LUNG CANCER RISK IN XUAN WEI, CHINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The lung cancer mortality rate in Xuan Wei County, China is among the highest in the country and has been etiologically attributed to exposure to indoor smoky coal emissions that contain very high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Nucleotide excision repair (NE...

  11. Silica-volatile interaction and the geological cause of the Xuan Wei lung cancer epidemic

    SciTech Connect

    David J. Large; Shona Kelly; Baruch Spiro; Linwei Tian; Longyi Shao; Robert Finkelman; Mingquan Zhang; Chris Somerfield; Steve Plint; Yasmin Ali; Yiping Zhou

    2009-12-01

    Parts of Xuan Wei County, Yunnan Province, China have the highest known lung cancer mortality in nonsmoking women. This high mortality displays a clear spatial relationship to the mines producing coal from the uppermost Permian. Geochemical, petrographic, and grain size analyses were undertaken on a set of coal samples from Xuan Wei. Results demonstrate that the single geochemical property that makes this coal unusual is its high concentration of quartz (13.5 wt %) of which 35-55% occurs as < 10 {mu}m grains. We propose the potential for silica-volatile interaction (PSVI) as a new method for assessing the combined influence of silica and volatile organic matter and use this as a basis for re-evaluating existing ecological data. Published lung cancer mortality values are more strongly correlated with PSVI values for Xuan Wei coal than with volatiles or silica alone and the PSVI values measured are distinct from those of other coals. Finally we propose that the localization of this epidemic to Xuan Wei results from enhanced weathering of the local Emeishan basalts as a consequence of geochemical perturbations at the Permo-Triassic Boundary.

  12. Home Education of a Bright Student: A Case Study on Lu Wei

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuexiang, Chen; Hongfang, Zhou

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the life history and home education of Lu Wei, a top student in the 2004 Guangdong Province College entrance examination. The authors argue that the following issues of Lu's home education played an important role in Lu's success: emphasis and nurture of intellectual development in the early years of life,…

  13. A parallel implementation of the Wang Landau algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Lixin

    2008-09-01

    The Wang-Landau algorithm is a flat-histogram Monte Carlo method that performs random walks in the configuration space of a system to obtain a close estimation of the density of states iteratively. It has been applied successfully to many research fields. In this paper, we propose a parallel implementation of the Wang-Landau algorithm on computers of shared memory architectures by utilizing the OpenMP API for distributed computing. This implementation is applied to Ising model systems with promising speedups. We also examine the effects on the running speed when using different strategies in accessing the shared memory space during the updating procedure. The allowance of data race is recommended in consideration of the simulation efficiency. Such treatment does not affect the accuracy of the final density of states obtained.

  14. Generic, hierarchical framework for massively parallel Wang-Landau sampling.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Thomas; Li, Ying Wai; Wüst, Thomas; Landau, David P

    2013-05-24

    We introduce a parallel Wang-Landau method based on the replica-exchange framework for Monte Carlo simulations. To demonstrate its advantages and general applicability for simulations of complex systems, we apply it to different spin models including spin glasses, the Ising model, and the Potts model, lattice protein adsorption, and the self-assembly process in amphiphilic solutions. Without loss of accuracy, the method gives significant speed-up and potentially scales up to petaflop machines.

  15. A generic, hierarchical framework for massively parallel Wang Landau sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, Thomas; Li, Ying Wai; Wuest, Thomas; Landau, David P

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a parallel Wang Landau method based on the replica-exchange framework for Monte Carlo simulations. To demonstrate its advantages and general applicability for simulations of com- plex systems, we apply it to the self-assembly process in amphiphilic solutions and to lattice protein adsorption. Without loss of accuracy, the method gives significant speed-up on small architectures like multi-core processors, and should be beneficial for petaflop machines.

  16. Assessment of ecosystem health based on fish assemblages in the Wei River basin, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Xu, Zongxue; Yin, Xuwang; Zuo, Depeng

    2014-06-01

    In the Wei River basin, the ecosystem is gradually deteriorating due to the rapid growth of the population and the development of economies. It is thus important to assess the ecosystem health and take measures to restore the damaged ecosystem. In this study, an index of biotic integrity (IBI) for fish was developed to aid the conservation of the ecosystem based on a calibration data set. An index of water and habitat quality (IWHQ) was calculated based on environmental variables and habitat quality (QHEI) to identify the environmental degradation in the studied sites. The least degraded sites (IWHQ ≤ 2; W1, W5, W10, W12, W13, W14, and W16) were chosen as the reference sites. Six metrics that are sensitive to environmental degradation were utilized to differentiate the reference and the impaired sites using statistical methods. These metrics included the number of species (P1), the total biomass (P2), the number of Cobitidae species (P8), the proportion of species in the middle and low tiers (P10), the proportion of individuals that were classified as sensitive species (P25), and number of individuals in the sample (P39). A continuous scoring method was used to score the six metrics, and four classes were defined to characterize the ecosystem health of the Wei River basin. The fact that the overall IBI scores were negatively correlated with the index of environmental quality (IWHQ) based on the validation data set indicated that the index should be useful for biomonitoring and the conservation of biodiversity. According to the results, more than half of the sites were classified as poor or very poor. The ecosystem health in the Wei River was better than that in the Jing River and the Beiluo River, and this study will be a great reference for water resources management and ecosystem restoration in the Wei River basin.

  17. Simulation of blue and green water resources in the Wei River basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Z.; Zuo, D.

    2014-09-01

    The Wei River is the largest tributary of the Yellow River in China and it is suffering from water scarcity and water pollution. In order to quantify the amount of water resources in the study area, a hydrological modelling approach was applied by using SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool), calibrated and validated with SUFI-2 (Sequential Uncertainty Fitting program) based on river discharge in the Wei River basin (WRB). Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses were also performed to improve the model performance. Water resources components of blue water flow, green water flow and green water storage were estimated at the HRU (Hydrological Response Unit) scales. Water resources in HRUs were also aggregated to sub-basins, river catchments, and then city/region scales for further analysis. The results showed that most parts of the WRB experienced a decrease in blue water resources between the 1960s and 2000s, with a minimum value in the 1990s. The decrease is particularly significant in the most southern part of the WRB (Guanzhong Plain), one of the most important grain production basements in China. Variations of green water flow and green water storage were relatively small on the spatial and temporal dimensions. This study provides strategic information for optimal utilization of water resources and planning of cultivating seasons in the Wei River basin.

  18. Beyond Tang: The Hidden Benefits of the Space Program

    SciTech Connect

    Barlow, Nadine

    2005-05-25

    Most people are familiar with the advertisement touting Tang as the orange drink that the astronauts took to the Moon. However, many other products have resulted from the space program, as well as discoveries with applications to everyday life. NASA highlights these products and information in an annual publication entitled 'Spinoffs'. Bar coding, medical imaging, suits worn by fire-fighters, smoke detectors, and thermal gloves and boots are all examples of products resulting from technologies developed in support of the space program. Detection of the 750K surface temperature of Venus in the 1960's led to the realization that the greenhouse effect (or 'global warming') is a real physical manifestation and resulted in concerns about our own terrestrial environment. Debate about the possibility of underground life on Mars spurred investigations which found organisms living inside rocks on the Earth. These spinoffs and more will be discussed.

  19. Orszag Tang vortex - Kinetic study of a turbulent plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Parashar, T. N.; Servidio, S.; Shay, M. A.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Cassak, P. A.

    2010-03-25

    Kinetic evolution of the Orszag-Tang vortex is studied using collisionless hybrid simulations based on particle in cell ions and fluid electrons. In magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) this configuration leads rapidly to broadband turbulence. An earlier study estimated the dissipation in the system. A comparison of MHD and hybrid simulations showed similar behavior at large scales but substantial differences at small scales. The hybrid magnetic energy spectrum shows a break at the scale where Hall term in the Ohm's law becomes important. The protons heat perpendicularly and most of the energy is dissipated through magnetic interactions. Here, the space time structure of the system is studied using frequency-wavenumber (k-omega) decomposition. No clear resonances appear, ruling out the cyclotron resonances as a likely candidate for the perpendicular heating. The only distinguishable wave modes present, which constitute a small percentage of total energy, are magnetosonic modes.

  20. Ke Wang, a Chinese television soap opera with a message.

    PubMed

    Wang, M; Singhal, A

    1992-01-01

    The Chinese soap opera, Ke Wang, was created by Li Xiaoming between August 1989 and June 1990 and produced at a cost of US$4650 per episode. The characters were drawn from everyday ordinary Chinese life: a traditional and open-minded and caring woman, a typical mother who works hard and loves her children, a highly educated upwardly mobile man who divorces his wife, a professor criticized during the Cultural Revolution, a doctor prejudiced against ordinary people, a kind honest man who marries the divorcee, a friend of the divorcee, a man who is optimistic in spite of bad experiences during the Cultural Revolution, and an excellent medical doctor who also resolves conflicts. The program was very popular, even among Communists, because of its value-based content, the real-life nature of the show, the change from highly restricted programming, the elaborate and supportive media coverage, and dialogue which closely matches audience preferences. The show has been aired by over 100 stations to date and has reached a total estimated audience of 550 million. The sale of television sets has increased since the show's appearance. The script reflects the conflicts between traditional and modern Chinese values. Pro-social values and behaviors are learned from the role models depicted; examples are given of immediate social impact. Ke Wang was a by-product of the Beijing Television Arts Center's interest in designing television programs that are relevant to the lives of ordinary people. The 60-minute scripts dealt with issues such as the status of women, social morality, family harmony, class conflict, responsible parenthood, maintenance of traditional culture, volunteerism, child development, and coping with physical disability. The Chinese government hailed Ke Wang as model television and awarded US$20,000 in prize money to the producers. The Chinese government is planning to produce other entertainment-education soap operas, which raises the problem of blatant, political

  1. Ke Wang, a Chinese television soap opera with a message.

    PubMed

    Wang, M; Singhal, A

    1992-01-01

    The Chinese soap opera, Ke Wang, was created by Li Xiaoming between August 1989 and June 1990 and produced at a cost of US$4650 per episode. The characters were drawn from everyday ordinary Chinese life: a traditional and open-minded and caring woman, a typical mother who works hard and loves her children, a highly educated upwardly mobile man who divorces his wife, a professor criticized during the Cultural Revolution, a doctor prejudiced against ordinary people, a kind honest man who marries the divorcee, a friend of the divorcee, a man who is optimistic in spite of bad experiences during the Cultural Revolution, and an excellent medical doctor who also resolves conflicts. The program was very popular, even among Communists, because of its value-based content, the real-life nature of the show, the change from highly restricted programming, the elaborate and supportive media coverage, and dialogue which closely matches audience preferences. The show has been aired by over 100 stations to date and has reached a total estimated audience of 550 million. The sale of television sets has increased since the show's appearance. The script reflects the conflicts between traditional and modern Chinese values. Pro-social values and behaviors are learned from the role models depicted; examples are given of immediate social impact. Ke Wang was a by-product of the Beijing Television Arts Center's interest in designing television programs that are relevant to the lives of ordinary people. The 60-minute scripts dealt with issues such as the status of women, social morality, family harmony, class conflict, responsible parenthood, maintenance of traditional culture, volunteerism, child development, and coping with physical disability. The Chinese government hailed Ke Wang as model television and awarded US$20,000 in prize money to the producers. The Chinese government is planning to produce other entertainment-education soap operas, which raises the problem of blatant, political

  2. Scalable replica-exchange framework for Wang-Landau sampling.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Thomas; Li, Ying Wai; Wüst, Thomas; Landau, David P

    2014-08-01

    We investigate a generic, parallel replica-exchange framework for Monte Carlo simulations based on the Wang-Landau method. To demonstrate its advantages and general applicability for massively parallel simulations of complex systems, we apply it to lattice spin models, the self-assembly process in amphiphilic solutions, and the adsorption of molecules on surfaces. While of general current interest, the latter phenomena are challenging to study computationally because of multiple structural transitions occurring over a broad temperature range. We show how the parallel framework facilitates simulations of such processes and, without any loss of accuracy or precision, gives a significant speedup and allows for the study of much larger systems and much wider temperature ranges than possible with single-walker methods.

  3. Wang-Landau simulation of Gō model molecules.

    PubMed

    Böker, Arne; Paul, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Gō-like models are one of the oldest protein modeling concepts in computational physics and have proven their value over and over for forty years. The essence of a Gō model is to define a native contact matrix for a well-defined low-energy polymer configuration, e.g., the native state in the case of proteins or peptides. Many different potential shapes and many different cut-off distances in the definition of this native contact matrix have been proposed and applied. We investigate here the physical consequences of the choice for this cut-off distance in the Gō models derived for a square-well tangent sphere homopolymer chain. For this purpose we are performing flat-histogram Monte Carlo simulations of Wang-Landau type, obtaining the thermodynamic and structural properties of such models over the complete temperature range. Differences and similarities with Gō models for proteins and peptides are discussed.

  4. Scalable replica-exchange framework for Wang Landau sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, Thomas; Li, Ying Wai; Wuest, Thomas; Landau, David P

    2014-01-01

    We investigate a generic, parallel replica-exchange framework for Monte Carlo simulations based on the Wang Landau method. To demonstrate its advantages and general applicability for massively parallel simulations of complex systems, we apply it to lattice spin models, the self-assembly process in amphiphilic solutions, and the adsorption of molecules on surfaces. While of general, current interest, the latter phenomena are challenging to study computationally because of multiple structural transitions occurring over a broad temperature range. We show how the parallel framework facilitates simulations of such processes and, without any loss of accuracy or precision, gives a significant speedup and allows for the study of much larger systems and much wider temperature ranges than possible with single-walker methods.

  5. Wang-Landau simulation of Gō model molecules.

    PubMed

    Böker, Arne; Paul, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Gō-like models are one of the oldest protein modeling concepts in computational physics and have proven their value over and over for forty years. The essence of a Gō model is to define a native contact matrix for a well-defined low-energy polymer configuration, e.g., the native state in the case of proteins or peptides. Many different potential shapes and many different cut-off distances in the definition of this native contact matrix have been proposed and applied. We investigate here the physical consequences of the choice for this cut-off distance in the Gō models derived for a square-well tangent sphere homopolymer chain. For this purpose we are performing flat-histogram Monte Carlo simulations of Wang-Landau type, obtaining the thermodynamic and structural properties of such models over the complete temperature range. Differences and similarities with Gō models for proteins and peptides are discussed. PMID:26810395

  6. Shifted Tietz-Wei oscillator for simulating the atomic interaction in diatomic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falaye, Babatunde J.; Ikhdair, Sameer M.; Hamzavi, Majid

    2015-05-01

    The shifted Tietz-Wei (sTW) oscillator is as good as traditional Morse potential in simulating the atomic interaction in diatomic molecules. By using the Pekeris-type approximation, to deal with the centrifugal term, we obtain the bound-state solutions of the radial Schrödinger equation with this typical molecular model via the exact quantization rule (EQR). The energy spectrum for a set of diatomic molecules (, , , , , and for arbitrary values of and quantum numbers are obtained. For the sake of completeness, we study the corresponding wavefunctions using the formula method.

  7. Spatial-temporal variation of precipitation concentration and structure in the Wei River Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shengzhi; Huang, Qiang; Chen, Yutong; Xing, Li; Leng, Guoyong

    2016-07-01

    It is of significant importance to investigate precipitation structure and precipitation concentration due to their great impact on droughts, floods, soil erosion, as well as water resources management. A complete investigation of precipitation structure and its distribution pattern in the Wei River Basin was performed based on recorded daily precipitation data in this study. Two indicators were used: concentration index based on daily precipitation (CID), to assess the distribution of rainy days, and concentration index based on monthly precipitation (CIM), to estimate the seasonality of the precipitation. Besides, the modified Mann-Kendall trend test method was employed to capture the variation trends of CID and CIM. The results indicate that: (1) the 1-3-day events are the predominant precipitation events in terms of the occurrence and fractional contribution; (2) the obvious differences in the CID of various areas are found in the Wei River Basin, and the high CID values mainly concentrate in the northern basin, conversely, the southern basin has a relatively low CID value; (3) high CIM values are primarily in the western and northern basin, reflecting a remarkable seasonality of precipitation in these regions; and (4) all of the stations show a downward trend of CIM, which indicates that the monthly precipitation distribution tends to be more uniform.

  8. The Structure of the Kac-Wang-Yan Algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linshaw, Andrew R.

    2016-07-01

    The Lie algebra {mathcal{D}} of regular differential operators on the circle has a universal central extension {hat{mathcal{D}}}. The invariant subalgebra {hat{mathcal{D}}^+} under an involution preserving the principal gradation was introduced by Kac, Wang, and Yan. The vacuum {hat{mathcal{D}}^+}-module with central charge {c in mathbb{C}}, and its irreducible quotient {mathcal{V}_c}, possess vertex algebra structures, and {mathcal{V}_c} has a nontrivial structure if and only if {c in 1/2mathbb{Z}}. We show that for each integer {n > 0}, {mathcal{V}_{n/2}} and {mathcal{V}_{-n}} are {mathcal{W}}-algebras of types {mathcal{W}(2, 4,dots,2n)} and {mathcal{W}(2, 4,dots, 2n^2 + 4n)}, respectively. These results are formal consequences of Weyl's first and second fundamental theorems of invariant theory for the orthogonal group {O(n)} and the symplectic group {Sp(2n)}, respectively. Based on Sergeev's theorems on the invariant theory of {Osp(1, 2n)} we conjecture that {mathcal{V}_{-n+1/2}} is of type {mathcal{W}(2, 4,dots, 4n^2 + 8n + 2)}, and we prove this for {n = 1}. As an application, we show that invariant subalgebras of {βγ}-systems and free fermion algebras under arbitrary reductive group actions are strongly finitely generated.

  9. Structural behavior of the space shuttle SRM tang-clevis joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, William H.; Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Stockwell, Alan E.

    1988-01-01

    The space shuttle Challenger accident investigation focused on the failure of a tang-clevis joint on the right solid rocket motor. The existence of relative motion between the inner arm of the clevis and the O-ring sealing surface on the tang has been identified as a potential contributor to this failure. This motion can cause the O-rings to become unseated and therefore lose their sealing capability. Finite element structural analyses have been performed to predict both deflections and stresses in the joint under the primary, pressure loading condition. These analyses have demonstrated the difficulty of accurately predicting the structural behavior of the tang-clevis joint. Stresses in the vicinity of the connecting pins, obtained from elastic analyses, considerably exceed the material yield allowables indicating that inelastic analyses are probably necessary. Two modifications have been proposed to control the relative motion between the inner clevis arm and the tang at the O-ring sealing surface. One modification, referred to as the capture feature, uses additional material on the inside of the tang to restrict motion of the inner clevis arm. The other modification uses external stiffening rings above and below the joint to control the local bending in the shell near the joint. Both of these modifications are shown to be effective in controlling the relative motion in the joint.

  10. Structural behavior of the space shuttle SRM Tang-Clevis joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, W. H.; Knight, N. F., Jr.; Stockwell, A. E.

    1986-01-01

    The space shuttle Challenger accident investigation focused on the failure of a tang-clevis joint on the right solid rocket motor. The existence of relative motion between the inner arm of the clevis and the O-ring sealing surface on the tang has been identified as a potential contributor to this failure. This motion can cause the O-rings to become unseated and therefore lose their sealing capability. Finite element structural analyses have been performed to predict both deflections and stresses in the joint under the primary, pressure loading condition. These analyses have demonstrated the difficulty of accurately predicting the structural behavior of the tang-clevis joint. Stresses in the vicinity of the connecting pins, obtained from elastic analyses, considerably exceed the material yield allowables indicating that inelastic analyses are probably necessary. Two modifications have been proposed to control the relative motion between the inner clevis arm and the tang at the O-ring sealing surface. One modification, referred to as the capture feature, uses additional material on the inside of the tang to restrict motion of the inner clevis arm. The other modification uses external stiffening rings above and below the joint to control the local bending in the shell near the joint. Both of these modifications are shown to be effective in controlling the relative motion in the joint.

  11. Importance of wine-treated Angelica Sinensis Radix in Si Wu Tang, a traditional herbal formula for treating women's ailments.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Janis Y X; Zheng, Ken Y Z; Zhu, Kevin Y; Zhang, Wendy L; Bi, Cathy W C; Chen, J P; Du, Crystal Y Q; Dong, Tina T X; Lau, David T W; Tsim, Karl W K

    2013-05-01

    Si Wu Tang (Four Agents Decoction), a traditional Chinese decoction composed of Angelica Sinensis Radix, Chuanxiong Rhizoma, Paeoniae Radix Alba, and Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata in a ratio of 1 : 1 : 1 : 1, has been used to treat women's diseases for more than a thousand years. According to the original description of Si Wu Tang, Angelica Sinensis Radix should be treated with wine. However, the importance of this wine-treated Angelica Sinensis Radix in Si Wu Tang's function has not been identified. In this article, the chemical and biological properties of two decoctions processed in different ways (Si Wu Tang with crude Angelica Sinensis Radix and Si Wu Tang with wine-treated Angelica Sinensis Radix) were compared for examination. The herbal decoction Si Wu Tang prepared from wine-treated Angelica Sinensis Radix contained much different amounts of its active compounds. Compared with Si Wu Tang using crude Angelica Sinensis Radix, Si Wu Tang prepared from wine-treated Angelica Sinensis Radix had better biological responses. Therefore, these findings accentuate the functional importance of herbs treated with wine in the Chinese decoction.

  12. Chemical characterization of indoor air of homes from communes in Xuan Wei, China, with high lung cancer mortality rates

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a rural county, Xuan Wei, China, the lung cancer mortality rate is among China's highest, especially in women. This mortality rate is more associated with indoor air burning of smoky coal, as opposed to smokeless coal or wood, for cooking and heating under unvented conditions....

  13. Buyanghuanwu Tang therapy for neonatal rats with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiyao; Min, Yue; Gu, Weiwang; Wang, Yujue; Tian, Yuguang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a clinical syndrome manifested by neurological symptoms in the first days of life in term infants. Purpose: To investigate the therapy effect of Buyanghuanwu Tang (BYHWT), a decoction with 7 herbal ingredients, on neonatal rats with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) and its mechanism. Methods: 50 3-week male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into normal control group, model group, BYHWT 1d group, BYHWT 3d group and BYHWT 7d group, 10 rats in each group. The HIE model of was established in later 4 groups. The later 3 groups were treated with BYHWT for 1, 3 and 7 days, respectively, and the normal control group and model group were treated with PBS. The Morris water maze test and dynamic 18F-FDG-PET/CT imaging were performed. The changes of hippocampal tissue observed by histopathologic examination, and the expressions of JNK1/JNK2 and TNF-α protein were observed western blotting. Results: Compared with model group, the impaired performance on distance and latency parameters was mitigated in BYHWT 1d group, BYHWT 3d group and BYHWT 7d group (P < 0.01), the FDG uptake was decreased in BYHWT 3d group and BYHWT 7d group, the apoptotic cells and inflammatory cells were significantly decreased in BYHWT 3d group and BYHWT 7d group, and the expressions of JNK1/JNK2 and TNF-α protein were significantly decreased in BYHWT 7d group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: BYHWT can delay the HIE onset and preserve the motor function, primarily by regulating inflammation, apoptosis and inhibition by mediating JNK signaling. PMID:26770451

  14. A new paradigm for petascale Monte Carlo simulation: Replica exchange Wang Landau sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ying Wai; Vogel, Thomas; Wuest, Thomas; Landau, David P

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a generic, parallel Wang Landau method that is naturally suited to implementation on massively parallel, petaflop supercomputers. The approach introduces a replica-exchange framework in which densities of states for overlapping sub-windows in energy space are determined iteratively by traditional Wang Landau sampling. The advantages and general applicability of the method are demonstrated for several distinct systems that possess discrete or continuous degrees of freedom, including those with complex free energy landscapes and topological constraints.

  15. Changes in the long-term hydrological regimes and the impacts of human activities in the main Wei River, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongbo; Huang, Qiang; Zhang, Qiang; Gu, Lei; Chen, Keyu; Yu, Qijun

    2016-03-01

    Under the combined influence of climate changes and human activities, the hydrological regime of the Wei River shows remarkable variations which have caused many issues in the Wei River in recent decades, such as a lack of freshwater, water pollution, disastrous flooding and channel sedimentation. Hence, hydrological regime changes and potential human-induced impacts have been drawing increasing attention from local government and hydrologists. This study investigates hydrological regime changes in the natural and measured runoff series at four hydrological stations on the main Wei River and quantifies features of their long-term change by analysing their historical annual and seasonal runoff data using several approaches, i.e., continuous wavelet transform, cross-wavelet, wavelet coherence, trend-free pre-whitening Mann-Kendall test and detrended fluctuation analysis. By contrasting two different analysis results between natural and measured river runoff series, the impacts of human activities on the long-term hydrological regime were investigated via the changes of spatio-temporal distribution in dominant periods, the trends and long-range memory of river runoff. The results show : (a) that periodic properties of the streamflow changes are the result of climate, referring to precipitation changes in particular, while human activities play a minor role; (b) a significant decreasing trend can be observed in the natural streamflow series along the entire main stream of the Wei River and the more serious decrease emerging in measured flow should result from human-induced influences in recent decades; and (c) continuous decreasing streamflow in the Wei River will trigger serious shortages of freshwater in the future, which may challenge the sustainability and safety of water resources development in the river basin, and should be paid great attention before 2020.

  16. Undercooling, Rapid Solidification, and Relations to Processing in Low Earth Orbit (A Review of the Works of Bingbo Wei)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Henry C., III

    1999-01-01

    This is a survey of the published works of Prof. Bingbo Wei of the Department of Applied Physics at Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xian P.R. China. Transformations among solid - liquid - and vapor are fundamental to the foundations of life and culture on Earth. The development and understanding of materials has lead the evolution and advancement of the human race since antiquity. Materials and fluids research is continuing today, with us standing on the shoulders of those that have gone before us. Technological and scientific breakthroughs continue due to studies of greater and greater complexity, that include for example, research done at high pressures, in high magnetic fields, at temperatures near absolute zero, and in the low gravity environment of low Earth orbit. Of particular technological importance is the liquid to solid transformation of metals and alloys. Solidification processing is generally the most important factor in the final properties of objects made of metal; and undercooling is the fundamental driving force for all solidification. The interest and resources dedicated to the study of solidification and undercooling are great and World wide. For many years B. Wei and his coworkers have been studying undercooling and rapid solidification and have amassed a significant body of published research in this important field, contributing to the leading edge of the state-of-the-art. It is the goal of this memorandum to provide a review of the research of B. Wei et al.; publications in Chinese are included in the reference list but are not discussed. The bulk of Wei's work has been in the area of undercooling and rapid solidification [1-11, 13-16, 24-36] with papers dating back to 1989, the same year he earned his Ph.D. Below, discussions of Wei's undercooling and rapid solidification research have been grouped together mostly on the basis of alloy type, such as eutectic, intermetallic, or monotectic.

  17. [Medical application of the art of supplication before the Tang dynasty].

    PubMed

    Ding, Yuan; Ding, Jieyun; Zhang, Ruqing

    2015-05-01

    Ample materials on diseases treated with supplication were seen on excavated texts, medical works from ancient time, and religious works before the Tang dynasty (including Tang dynasty). Since the breaking up of witchcraft from medicine, there are still supplication applied in the treatment and prevention of diseases, including those of internal medicine, external medicine, women's and children's diseases, disease of the sense organs, and infections. There are dual reasons for this phenomena, one being the diseases caused by spirit and ghostss; and the other being certain effectiveness of this art on some diseases not cured by other regular treatments, hence, its acceptance by secular people. PMID:26420523

  18. Sagunja-Tang Improves Lipid Related Disease in a Postmenopausal Rat Model and HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Go, Hiroe; Ryuk, Jin Ah; Lee, Hye Won; Park, In Sil; Kil, Ki-Jung; Park, Sunmin; Kim, Dong il; Ko, Byoung Seob

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of Sagunja-tang on the lipid related disease in a rat model of menopausal hyperlipidemia and lipid accumulation in methyl-β-cyclodextrin-induced HepG2 cells. In in vivo study using menopausal hyperlipidemia rats, Sagunja-tang reduced retroperitoneal and perirenal fat, serum lipids, atherogenic index, cardiac risk factor, media thickness, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis score, when compared to menopausal hyperlipidemia control rats. In HepG2 cells, Sagunja-tang significantly decreased the lipid accumulation, total cholesterol levels, and low-density/very-low-density lipoprotein levels. Moreover, Sagunja-tang reversed the methyl-β-cyclodextrin-induced decrease in the protein levels of critical molecule involved in cholesterol synthesis, sterol regulatory element binding protein-2, and low-density lipoprotein receptor and inhibited protein levels of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase as well as activity. Phosphorylation level of AMP-activated protein kinase was stimulated by Sagunja-tang. These results suggest that Sagunja-tang has effect on inhibiting hepatic lipid accumulation through regulation of cholesterol synthesis and AMPK activity in vitro. These observations support the idea that Sagunja-tang is bioavailable both in vivo and in vitro and could be developed as a preventive and therapeutic agent of hyperlipidemia in postmenopausal females. PMID:25977697

  19. [Discrimination of patients with Xiao-Chaihu Tang syndrome using 1H NMR metabonomics and partial least square analysis].

    PubMed

    Xing, Jie; Yuan, Shu-chun; Sun, Hui-min; Fan, Ma-li; Li, Zhen-yu; Qin, Xue-mei

    2015-08-01

    1H NMR metabonomics approach was used to reveal the chemical difference of urine between patients with Xiao-Chaihu Tang syndrome (XCHTS) and healthy participants (HP). The partial least square method was used to establish a model to distinguish the patients with Xiao-Chaihu-Tang syndrome from the healthy controls. Thirty-four endogenous metabolites were identified in the 1H NMR spectrum, and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis showed the urine of patients with Xiao-Chaihu Tang syndrome and healthy participants could be separated clearly. It is indicated that the metabolic profiling of patients with Xiao-Chaihu Tang syndrome was changed obviously. Fifteen metabolites were found by S-pot of OPLS-DA and VIP value. The contents of leucine, formic acid, glycine, hippuric acid and uracil increased in the urine of patients, while threonine, 2-hydroxyisobutyrate, acetamide, 2-oxoglutarate, citric acid, dimethylamine, malonic acid, betaine, trimethylamine oxide, phenylacetyl glycine, and uridine decreased. These metabolites involve the intestinal microbial balance, energy metabolism and amino acid metabolism pathways, which is related with the major symptom of Xiao-Chaihu Tang syndrome. The patients with Xiao-Chaihu Tang syndrome could be identified and predicted correctly using the established partial least squares model. This study could be served as the basis for the accurate diagnostic and reasonable administration of Xiao-Chaihu-Tang syndrome.

  20. Liu-Jun-Zi-Tang, a kampo medicine, promotes adaptive relaxation in isolated guinea pig stomachs.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, T; Arakawa, T; Kase, Y; Akiyama, S; Ishige, A; Takeda, S; Sasaki, H; Uno, H; Fukuda, T; Higuchi, K; Kobayashi, K

    1999-01-01

    Some patients with dysmotility-like functional dyspepsia present impaired reservoir functions such as gastric adaptive relaxation. A traditional Chinese herbal medicine, Liu-Jun-Zi-Tang, has been identified as an effective drug against dyspeptic symptoms and is widely used for therapy in such patients. In this study, we examined the effects of this drug on the gastric adaptive relaxation in isolated guinea pig stomachs. The changes in intragastric volume and pressure were recorded in the presence of atropine and guanethidine. Gastric adaptive relaxation was induced by luminal distention. Liu-Jun-Zi-Tang (100 mg/ml) induced gastric adaptive relaxation at a lower intragastric pressure and increased the % volume of the gastric adaptive relaxation and the absolute intragastric volume. Metoclopramide (2 mg/ml), trimebutine (6 mg/ml) and cisapride (2 mg/ml) did not affect gastric adaptive relaxation. It was inhibited by means of the incubation of the stomach with NG-nitro-L-arginine (100 microM). Liu-Jun-Zi-Tang (100 mg/ml), but not gastroprokinetics overcame the effect of NG-nitro-L-arginine. These results suggested that Liu-Jun-Zi-Tang promoted gastric adaptive relaxation. This effect might, at least in part, contribute to the symptom relief in patients with functional dyspepsia. PMID:10568209

  1. The alteration of components in the fermented Hwangryunhaedok-tang and its neuroprotective activity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hye Jin; Weon, Jin Bae; Lee, Bohyoung; Ma, Choong Je

    2011-01-01

    Background: Hwangryunhaedok-tang is a traditional herbal prescription that has sedative activity, hypotensive and anti-bacterial effects. Objective: In this study, we investigated the alteration of contents of components in Hwangryunhaedok-tang, antioxidant activity and neuroprotective activity by fermentation with Lactobacillus acidophilus KFRI 128. Materials and Methods: Contents of three marker compounds (geniposide, berberine and palmatine) and unknown compounds in the Hwangryunhaedok-tang (HR) and the fermented Hwangryunhaedok-tang (FHR) were measured and compared using the established high-performance liqued chromatograph coupled with a photodiode (HPLC-DAD) method. The antioxidant activity of HR and FHR were determined by DPPH free radical and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging assay. Also, the neuroprotective activities of HR and FHR against glutamate-induced oxidative stress in a mouse hippocampal cell line (HT22) were evaluated by MTT assay. Results: The contents of geniposide and palmatine were decreased but the content of berberine was increased in the FHR. And the contents of unknown compounds (1), (2), (3), (4) and (5) in the HR were altered by fermentation. Electron donating activity (EDA, %) value of FHR was higher than HR for DPPH radical scavenging activity and H2O2 scavenging activity, respectively. In the MTT assay, FHR showed more potent neuroprotective activity than HR by 513.90%. Conclusion: The FHR using microorganism could convert compounds in HR and enhance the antioxidant and neuroprotective activity. PMID:21969791

  2. Pulse spectrum study on the effect of sie-zie-tang and Radix aconiti.

    PubMed

    Wang, W K; Hsu, T L; Chiang, Y; Wang, Y Y

    1997-01-01

    Extracts of the traditional Chinese formula Sie-Zie-Tang as well as one of its main components, Radix Aconiti were injected into rats intraperitoneally to observe pressure wave spectrum changes at the caudate artery. We found that Radix Aconiti decreased the C0 (DC term of the pulse), C5 and C6 (the harmonic proportions of the 5th and the 6th harmonic), but increased C2 and C3 (the harmonic proportions of the second and the third harmonic) significantly. For Sie-Zie-Tang, the increases of C2, C3, and C4 were accompanied by the decreasing of C0. The decreases of C5, C6 were small and not significant. The additional ingredients in the formula reduce toxic side effects (arrhythmia or heart failure caused by faster and stronger heart beat) due to Radix Aconiti. For human subjects, low dose Sie-Zie-Tang tends to normalize the Fourier components of the pressure wave. Orally taking the formula elevates the harmonic proportion of the harmonic that is lower than normal, but suppresses the higher one. Our results provides a possible mechanism for heart meridian related herbs. It strengthens heart beats, and normalizes energy distribution to different meridians. The study on Sie-Zie-Tang reveals another formula construction to reduce toxic side effects.

  3. Heavy metal pollution and health risk assessment in the Wei River in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuefu; Duan, Jinming; Wang, Lei; Li, Wei; Guan, Jianling; Beecham, Simon; Mulcahy, Dennis

    2015-03-01

    From data collected monthly at 26 monitoring cross sections in the Wei River in the Shaanxi Region of China during the period 2008-2012, the temporal pollution characteristics of heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Cr(VI), Pb, and As) were analyzed based on a heavy metal pollution index (HPI). The monthly HPI values of the five heavy metals in the river fluctuated greatly in 2008 and then declined gradually with time. This general trend of reduction in HPI appears not to have a seasonal variation and most likely resulted from the continued improvement in heavy metal pollution control strategies implemented by local environmental agencies combined with a significant improvement in wastewater treatment capacities. Among the five heavy metals, Cd and Pb were below 0.1 and 3 μg L(-1), respectively, at all the sampling points in the studied areas in the year 2012. The detection rates of As, Hg, and Cr(VI) were in the order of Hg > Cr(VI) > As. Hg, Cr(VI), and As exceeded, in a month of the dry season in 2012, the standard limits for category III surface waters according to the China Environment Quality Standards for Surface Water (CEQSSW). Based on the assessment using the HPI method, the pollution status of these heavy metals in water of the Wei River in the Shaanxi Region was generally at an acceptable level, but exhibited distinctive characteristics between the main stream river and tributaries. Most of the tributaries were more seriously polluted than the main river. A health risk assessment was conducted based on the Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA) method recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Apart from As, the health risk for the five heavy metals in the region were at acceptable levels for drinking water sources (hazard quotient (HQ) < 1, carcinogenic risk (CR) ranged from 10(-4)-10(-6)) according to the Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS), USEPA. Arsenic was identified as the most important pollutant of concern

  4. Analysis of baseflow index based hydrological model in Upper Wei River basin on the Loess Plateau in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D.; Chang, J.; Tian, F.; Huang, Q.; Meng, X.

    2015-05-01

    The baseflow is the drainage from the groundwater and soil water to the streamflow. As one important source of the streamflow, the baseflow could be the main source of the streamflow in the dry season. The Wei River, located in the semi-arid region of the Loess Plateau which is overlain by deep and loose soil, is the largest tributary of the Yellow River. According to former research, most of the streamflow in the dry season in the headwater of the Yellow River is baseflow. For the whole Yellow River basin, the baseflow is an important component of the streamflow, and accounts for about 44% of the annual runoff. Physically-based distributed hydrological models can simulate the runoff components separately, and are important tools to analyse the runoff components. Given the importance of the baseflow in the dry season for drought relief to support the ecological water requirement and irrigation, especially in the Wei River, the baseflow is analysed in this study. To investigate the baseflow in the Upper Wei River basin, a semi-distributed hydrological model based on a Representative Elementary Watershed approach (THREW) is employed to investigate the runoff generation process. To compare the results, an automatic baseflow separation method proposed by Arnold is used to separate the baseflow from the daily streamflow at Beidao hydrological station in Upper Wei River basin from 2001 to 2004. Based on the hydrological modelling and the Arnold separation method, the average annual baseflow index, i.e. the ratio of baseflow to the total runoff, is estimated as in the range of 0.30-0.36. The average intra-annual monthly baseflow index represents the seasonality of the baseflow due to the seasonality of the precipitation and evapotranspiration, and is also analysed.

  5. [Investigation of determining strontium in M. nitida Benth. var. hirsutissima. Z. Wei. by flame atomic absorption spectra].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Rao, Zhi-Jun; Guan, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Hai-Ming

    2010-12-01

    The present paper is aimed to establish the method of determining the strontium in M. nitida Benth. var. hirsutissima. Z. Wei. by means of air-acetylene flame atomic absorption spectra, and also provide reference for the determination of the strontium in other traditional Chinese medicine. M. Nitida Benthvarhirsutissima Z. Wei. was taken as the object. The authors used nitric-perchloric acid as digestion solution to digest samples by microwave which was controlled by pressure, and used EDTA-2Na as the releasing agent to add in the samples for determining the strontium in M. nitida Benth. var. hirsutissima. Z. Wei. by FAAS. The results showed that the samples were entirely digested by microwave. The working curve was Y = 0.036 5x -0.001 1, r = 0.999 4, the range was 0-1.6 microg x mL(-1), the average recovery rate was 101.5% with RSD 2.04%, and the method detection limit was 0.008 2 microg x mL(-1) (n = 21). It is concluded that this method is simple and accurate. It has high sensitivity and can be effectively used for determining the strontium in this traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:21322253

  6. Spatio-Temporal Changes in Potential Evaporation Based on Entropy Across the Wei River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S.; Wang, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The distribution of potential evaporation is highly unstable due to complex human activities and climate changes. Therefore, it is of great significance for further understanding hydrological cycle to estimate potential evaporation distribution. Reasonable regionalization of potential evaporation will help to improve the efficiency of irrigation and increase the ability of drought relief, which is of great importance to irrigation planning and management. Hence, the spatio-temporal changes in potential evaporation distribution at monthly and annual scales are investigated based on the modified Mann-Kendall trend test method and the entropy theory in the Wei River Basin. A nonparametric method as an attractive alternative to empirical and parametric approaches is proposed to calculate the univariate and bivariate probability distribution of potential evaporation. The directional information transfer index (DITI) is employed to estimate the similarity among the meteorological stations, and the k-means cluster analysis is used to classify the meteorological stations into several distribution zones with distinct features. Based on the monthly potential evaporation from 1960 to 2008 at 21 meteorological stations, the basin is ultimately classified into 8 zones with their own distinct spatio-temporal distribution features. In view of the distinct spatio-temporal distribution features, the DITI-based model combined with the nonparametric probability estimation method and the k-means cluster analysis offers a more precise classification of potential evaporation distribution zones.

  7. Replica-exchange Wang Landau sampling: pushing the limits of Monte Carlo simulations in materials sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Perera, Meewanage Dilina N; Li, Ying Wai; Eisenbach, Markus; Vogel, Thomas; Landau, David P

    2015-01-01

    We describe the study of thermodynamics of materials using replica-exchange Wang Landau (REWL) sampling, a generic framework for massively parallel implementations of the Wang Landau Monte Carlo method. To evaluate the performance and scalability of the method, we investigate the magnetic phase transition in body-centered cubic (bcc) iron using the classical Heisenberg model parameterized with first principles calculations. We demonstrate that our framework leads to a significant speedup without compromising the accuracy and precision and facilitates the study of much larger systems than is possible with its serial counterpart.

  8. Applications of the Wei-Lachin Multivariate One-Sided Test for Multiple Outcomes on Possibly Different Scales

    PubMed Central

    Lachin, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies aim to assess whether a therapy has a beneficial effect on multiple outcomes simultaneously relative to a control. Often the joint null hypothesis of no difference for the set of outcomes is tested using separate tests with a correction for multiple tests, or using a multivariate T2-like MANOVA or global test. However, a more powerful test in this case is a multivariate one-sided or one-directional test directed at detecting a simultaneous beneficial treatment effect on each outcome, though not necessarily of the same magnitude. The Wei-Lachin test is a simple 1 df test obtained from a simple sum of the component statistics that was originally described in the context of a multivariate rank analysis. Under mild conditions this test provides a maximin efficient test of the null hypothesis of no difference between treatment groups for all outcomes versus the alternative hypothesis that the experimental treatment is better than control for some or all of the component outcomes, and not worse for any. Herein applications are described to a simultaneous test for multiple differences in means, proportions or life-times, and combinations thereof, all on potentially different scales. The evaluation of sample size and power for such analyses is also described. For a test of means of two outcomes with a common unit variance and correlation 0.5, the sample size needed to provide 90% power for two separate one-sided tests at the 0.025 level is 64% greater than that needed for the single Wei-Lachin multivariate one-directional test at the 0.05 level. Thus, a Wei-Lachin test with these operating characteristics is 39% more efficient than two separate tests. Likewise, compared to a T2-like omnibus test on 2 df, the Wei-Lachin test is 32% more efficient. An example is provided in which the Wei-Lachin test of multiple components has superior power to a test of a composite outcome. PMID:25329662

  9. [Study on the names of Muzhi and Pinzhi before the Tang dynasty].

    PubMed

    Sun, Ji-Ran; Liu, Yang; Sun, Li-Na; Lü, Ai-Ping; Liu, Ming-Xin; Dai, Zhao-Yu

    2011-01-01

    Muzhi (male hemorrhoid) and Pinzhi (female hemorrhoid) recorded in bamboo slips found in the Han Tomb of Zhanjiashan were named after the shape of genitalia of males and females, which conserved the original meaning of Mu (male) and Pin (female). In Wu shi er Bingfang (Formularies for 52 Kinds of Disorders), a silk manuscript found in the Han Tombs of Mawangdui, Pinzhi and Muzhi were defined as hemorrhoid inside and outside the anus, which used the extended meaning of Mu (male) and Pin (female). In Sui and Tang dynasties, Muzhi and Pinzhi were named after morphology or location of the hemorrhoid. The famous doctor of the Tang dynasty, XU Zeren, made a more perfect classification of hemorrhoids. In all, the names of Muzhi and Pinzhi were related to location, morphology and features of hemorrhoids and the influence of yin-yang thought to medicine. PMID:21569694

  10. Learning from Wang Yang-Ming: Exploring Oriental Contributions to Understanding Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tickle, Les

    2005-01-01

    This article reports recent foraging for ideas in action research among the lives and intellects of Chinese society. It began and is reported as a personal journey, initially following the trail of the activist scholar Wang Yang-Ming. The method is a roam through some of the resources that have so far been discovered. The style is…

  11. A new framework to evaluate ecosystem health: a case study in the Wei River basin, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Xu, Zongxue; Zhan, Chesheng; Yin, Xuwang; Yu, Songyan

    2015-07-01

    water and watershed management of the Wei River basin, or even the Yellow River basin.

  12. A new framework to evaluate ecosystem health: a case study in the Wei River basin, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Xu, Zongxue; Zhan, Chesheng; Yin, Xuwang; Yu, Songyan

    2015-07-01

    water and watershed management of the Wei River basin, or even the Yellow River basin. PMID:26108745

  13. The protective effect of Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Fang in salt-sensitive hypertension rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiang; He, Yanming; Wang, Wenjian

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Hypertension is considered as a chronic and complex disease relating to multiple systemic systems. Apart from lowering blood pressure, the final purpose of the treatment lies in reducing the variability of blood pressure and other risk factors. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has a long history of treating hypertension. This study was designed to determine the effect of Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Fang (L-W-D-H-F), a compound used in traditional Chinese herbal medicine, to treat salt-sensitive hypertension (SSHT) induced by a high-salt and high-fat diet. L-W-D-H-F was prepared from six plant extracts. It was dissolved in 0.9% sodium chloride solution prior to use. Male Sprague-Dawley (6 weeks) rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal diet (CON); HSF (Without Drug Intervention); VAL (Valsartan 13.33 mg/kg/day); and LW (L-W-D-H-F 8.13 g/kg/day). Six weeks after blood pressure treatment, plasma biochemical analyses and histological and functional examination of the kidney were performed. L-W-D-H-F decreased the levels of mean arterial pressure (MAP), fasting blood glucose (FG), insulin (INS), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), homeostasis model assessment of basal insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and angiotensin II (Ang II) from plasma and Ang II and renin from kidney. It also promoted the excretion of urinary Na(+), reducing the loss of urinary K(+) and microalbuminuria (MAU), and improved the glomerular afferent arteriole, arterioles and each kidney unit. Together, these results suggest that L-W-D-H-F is capable of moderately reducing MAP in salt-sensitive hypertension and can work at different levels on multiple differential targets. PMID:24164386

  14. Unravelling the factors influencing flooding over the last 60 years in the Wei River Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, Lingtong; Baartman, Jantiene E. M.; Mendoza-Carranza, Manuel; Wang, Fei; Ritsema, Coen J.; Geissen, Violette

    2016-04-01

    Flood hazard has become a growing concern in the Wei River Basin in China due to the extensive damage to private and public property under the pressure of extreme meteorological events and human intervention in the river basin. A better understanding of the influence of topographic, climatic and especially anthropogenic factors on hydrological discharge and flooding are important for flood regime and water resources management. This study is aiming at answering the questions why, where, when, and how flooding occurs. While most studies focus on single flood events, we aimed at unravelling a multitude of factors contributing to flooding over a decadal timespan. To be able to do this, we used conditional inference tree analysis, a promising method not often applied in hydrological studies. This method allows to rank all the influencing factors by its contribution to the occurrence of flooding therefore to identify the most important ones and spatially important subcatchments leading to flooding on both yearly and monthly bases in the basin. Dam construction period was identified as the most important factor (why) affecting flooding, followed by the elevation of the river outlet. The subcatchment farthest upstream in the basin (where) contributed the most to the discharge at the downstream floodplain. We then analyzed the impact of the periods of dam construction on the precipitation-discharge relationship using cross-correlation and double mass curves analysis, respectively. The results showed a smaller effect of dam construction on the time lags (when) between precipitation and discharge than on the effect of reducing the quantity of discharge (how).

  15. Verification of efficacy as an ergogenic aid and safety in doping of sibjeondaebo-tang

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Hyun Jin; Choi, Geun Hoon; Lee, Man Gyoon; Kang, Chang Kyun; Park, Hyon

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Various kinds of food substances from all over the world have been proposed to use as ergogenic aids for the additional improvement of exercise performance especially in athletes. Herb medicine which usually being applied for the cure of disease is used as a performance booster in several far eastern countries including Korea. Many scientists and coaches have asked very objective verifications on the reality of herb medicines practically used but never been scientifically elucidated well enough. In addition to the possibility as an ergogenic aid, the safety in doping is the critical factor to be examined thoroughly. In this study, Sibjeondaebo-Tang, a leading popular prescribed herb medicine in Korea, was examined. [Methods] After the intake of Sibjeondaebo-Tang, its effects on VO2max, recovery from fatigue, and doping safety through the official process as WADA suggested. Six volunteered male Taekwondo Pumsae players were subjected in a repeatedly examined protocol. [Results] First of all, every subjects showed ‘negative’ in doping test, and the treatment did not show any significant improvement on VO2max even though there was a significant decrease in blood lactate level on a step test. [Conclusion] In conclusion, Sibjeondaebo-Tang may have some limited effects as a fatigue delayer and the use of it showed safe to doping test with the strict limitation as the way in this study. So we should abstain from the over-interpreted application of the results so far. PMID:25566455

  16. [The prevalence, prevention and treatment of cattle epidemic during the Han-Tang Period].

    PubMed

    Han, Yi

    2013-03-01

    About 21 times of cattle epidemic with rather strong infectivity happened during the Han-Tang Period, including 6 in the Eastern Han Dynasty, 2 in the Jin Dynasty, 4 in the Southern and Northern Dynasties, 8 in the Tang Dynasty and 1in the Five Dynasty. Most of them were spread along the Yellow River and the northern region of the Huai River. The type of cattle epidemic included the acute cattle plague, cattle bovine mange, cattle yellow fever and cattle rotten hoof disease, etc. Its occurrence and prevalence brought a serious influentce on the society of the Han and Tang Dynasties, causing massive mortality of farm cattle, and then the shortage of animal power, and threatening the agriculture, which drew the attention of the governments, physicians, agriculturists, astrologists and Taoists. The medical measures and economic measures were adopted for the prevention and treatment of cattle epidemic. Especially, prescriptions in the books of medicine and agriculture exerted positive effects on the containment of cattle epidemic. On the other hand, its prevalence and the mass mortality of farm cattle, in a way, promoted, to certain extent, the improvement of the government's function of relief, the updating of the methods of agriculture and the creation of new farm tools, and being regarded as a main cause for the technological innovation of agriculture.

  17. To Unveil the Molecular Mechanisms of Qi and Blood through Systems Biology-Based Investigation into Si-Jun-Zi-Tang and Si-Wu-Tang formulae

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jing; Zhang, Li; He, Yujun; Zhang, Kun; Wu, Liping; Fan, Yongsheng; Xie, Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is increasingly getting clinical application worldwide. But its theory like QI-Blood is still abstract. Actually, Qi deficiency and blood deficiency, which were treated by Si-Jun-Zi-Tang (SJZT) and Si-Wu-Tang (SWT) respectively, have characteristic clinical manifestations. Here, we analyzed targets of the ingredients in SJZT and SWT to unveil potential biologic mechanisms between Qi deficiency and blood deficiency through biomedical approaches. First, ingredients in SWT and SJZT were retrieved from TCMID database. The genes targeted by these ingredients were chosen from STITCH. After enrichment analysis by Gene Ontology (GO) and DAVID, enriched GO terms with p-value less than 0.01 were collected and interpreted through DAVID and KEGG. Then a visualized network was constructed with ClueGO. Finally, a total of 243 genes targeted by 195 ingredients of SWT formula and 209 genes targeted by 61 ingredients of SJZT were obtained. Six metabolism pathways and two environmental information processing pathways enriched by targets were correlated with 2 or more herbs in SWT and SJZT formula, respectively. PMID:27677604

  18. Suan Zao Ren Tang in Combination with Zhi Zi Chi Tang as a Treatment Protocol for Insomniacs with Anxiety: A Randomized Parallel-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Lin-lin; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Wen-juan; Li, Mei; Zhang, Yong-hua

    2015-01-01

    Insomnia is a serious worldwide health problem that is often comorbid with anxiety. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a Chinese formula containing Suan Zao Ren Tang (SZRT) and Zhi Zi Chi Tang (ZZCT; SZR-ZZC) for improving sleep quality and anxiety states with four indices of Polysomnography (PSG), the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Self Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS). Methods. A randomized, parallel-controlled trial compared SZR-ZZC to lorazepam tablet in insomniacs with anxiety. Patients were randomized to the SZR-ZZC treatment group (n = 60) and the lorazepam tablet treatment group (n = 59). Results. SZR-ZZC significantly improved scores on all four treatment indices. Compared with lorazepam, treatment with SZR-ZZC resulted in a significant reduction in the ISI (P = 0.029), the PSQI (P = 0.017), and wake after sleep onset (WASO; P = 0.008) scores and improved sleep architecture (P = 0.000–0.003) after a 4-week treatment period. Only one subject in the SZR-ZZC group experienced adverse side effects. Conclusion. Treatment with SZR-ZZC for 4 weeks appears to be a relatively safe and effective complementary therapeutic option when aiming to improve sleep quality and anxiety in insomniacs with anxiety. PMID:25793006

  19. Evaluation of the teratogenic effects of three traditional Chinese medicines, Si Jun Zi Tang, Liu Jun Zi Tang and Shenling Baizhu San, during zebrafish pronephros development

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yu-Ju; Wang, Bo-Cheng; Wen, Chi-Chung; Sun, Chiao-Yin; Lee, Hsun-Hua; Lee, Fei-Peng; Yang, Ling-Ling; Chen, Yau-Hung

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the teratogenic effects of three common Chinese medical prescriptions, Si Jun Zi Tang (SJZT), Liu Jun Zi Tang (LJZT) and Shenling Baizhu San (SLBS), during zebrafish pronephros development. We used the transgenic zebrafish line Tg(wt1b:EGFP) to assess the teratogenic effects using 12 different protocols, which comprised combinations of 4 doses (0, 25, 250, 1,250 ng/mL) and 3 exposure methods [methods I, 12–36 hours post fertilization (hpf), II, 24–48 hpf, and III, 24–36 hpf]. As a result, few defects in the kidneys were observed in the embryos exposed to 25 ng/mL of each medical prescription. The percentage of kidney malformation phenotypes increased as the exposure concentrations increased (25 ng/mL, 0–10%; 250 ng/mL, 0–60%; 1,250 ng/mL, 80–100%). Immunohistochemistry for α6F, which is a basolateral and renal tubular differentiation marker, revealed no obvious defective phenotypes in either SJZT- or LJZT-treated embryos, indicating that these Chinese medical prescriptions had minimal adverse effects on the pronephric duct. However, SLBS-treated embryos displayed a defective phenotype in the pronephric duct. According to these findings, we suggest (1) that the Chinese medical prescriptions induced kidney malformation phenotypes that are dose dependent and (2) that the embryonic zebrafish kidney was more sensitive to SLBS than SJZT and LJZT. PMID:26441476

  20. High-performance liquid chromatography determination and pharmacokinetics of coumarin compounds after oral administration of Samul-Tang to rats

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Youn-Hwan; Cho, Won-Kyung; Jang, Doorye; Ha, Jeong-Ho; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2014-01-01

    Background: Samul-tang has been traditionally used for the treatment of cardiovascular, gynecologic, cutaneous, and chronic inflammation disorders. Although coumarin compounds do have various pharmacological activities and the same may be present in Samul-tang, however there is little information about it. Objective: A simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed for the determination of nodakenin, nodakenetin, decursin, decursinol, and decursinol angelate in rat plasma. To obtain a better understanding for pharmacological properties of Samul-tang, pharmacokinetic study of coumarin compounds was performed after oral administration of Samul-tang in rats. Materials and Methods: Chromatographic separation of the analytes was successfully achieved on a Phenomenex Luna C18 column (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm) using a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile water with a gradient elution at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. Noncompartmental analysis was performed. Results: Calibration curves for all analytes had good linearity (r2 <0.999) in a wide linear range. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) ranged from 0.05 to 0.1 μg/mL. The variation of intra- and interday assay was less than 15%. Nodakenin, nodakenetin, and decursinol were determined in rat plasma after oral administration of Samul-tang. Conclusion: This developed and validated HPLC method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of three coumarin compounds in rats, given as a single oral administration of Samul-tang. These pharmacokinetic data of the nodakenin, nodakenetin, and decursinol could offer a new point of view to evaluate the pharmacological effects of Samul-tang. PMID:24696544

  1. Analysis of the elemental composition of Tang Sancai from the four major kilns in China using EDXRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Bo; Liu, Long; Feng, Song-Lin; Xu, Qing; Feng, Xiang-Qian

    2014-01-01

    Tang Sancai was widely used in the Tang Dynasty, and the study of this pottery provides information about the sociocultural aspects of the Tang people. To understand the characteristics of the different kilns for the production of Tang Sancai, Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) was used to analyze 174 Tang Sancai shards. These specimens were selected from four production centers in the Tang Dynasty, namely, the Huangye Kiln, the Huangbu Kiln, the Xing Kiln and the Liquanfang Kiln. The results demonstrate that the clay bodies from different kilns have varying compositions, and each kiln has a unique elemental fingerprint. Of the 17 elements analyzed, TiO2 and Fe2O3 had distinctly different contents in the samples from the Huangye Kiln and the Huangbu Kiln. For the Xing Kiln and the Huangye Kiln, the characteristic elements are Fe2O3 and MnO. For the Xing Kiln and the Huangbu Kiln, the most dissimilar elements are TiO2, MnO and ZnO. When the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was employed, the data points for the Huangye Kiln, the Huangbu Kiln and the Xing Kiln fell into distinct areas. For the Liquanfang Kiln, the contents of Al2O3 and Fe2O3 in white-bodied samples are different from those of other colors, which indicates that at least two types of raw materials were used. When compared with the white-bodied samples from the other three kilns, the white-bodied samples from the Liquanfang Kiln were found to have compositions similar to those of the samples from the Huangye Kiln, rather than the Huangbu Kiln, although the latter is much closer geographically than the former. All the obtained data provide valuable scientific criteria for provenance identification for Tang Sancai of unknown origin.

  2. Wang-Landau sampling in face-centered-cubic hydrophobic-hydrophilic lattice model proteins.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingfa; Song, Beibei; Yao, Yonglei; Xue, Yu; Liu, Wenjie; Liu, Zhaoxia

    2014-10-01

    Finding the global minimum-energy structure is one of the main problems of protein structure prediction. The face-centered-cubic (fcc) hydrophobic-hydrophilic (HP) lattice model can reach high approximation ratios of real protein structures, so the fcc lattice model is a good choice to predict the protein structures. The lacking of an effective global optimization method is the key obstacle in solving this problem. The Wang-Landau sampling method is especially useful for complex systems with a rough energy landscape and has been successfully applied to solving many optimization problems. We apply the improved Wang-Landau (IWL) sampling method, which incorporates the generation of an initial conformation based on the greedy strategy and the neighborhood strategy based on pull moves into the Wang-Landau sampling method to predict the protein structures on the fcc HP lattice model. Unlike conventional Monte Carlo simulations that generate a probability distribution at a given temperature, the Wang-Landau sampling method can estimate the density of states accurately via a random walk, which produces a flat histogram in energy space. We test 12 general benchmark instances on both two-dimensional and three-dimensional (3D) fcc HP lattice models. The lowest energies by the IWL sampling method are as good as or better than those of other methods in the literature for all instances. We then test five sets of larger-scale instances, denoted by the S, R, F90, F180, and CASP target instances on the 3D fcc HP lattice model. The numerical results show that our algorithm performs better than the other five methods in the literature on both the lowest energies and the average lowest energies in all runs. The IWL sampling method turns out to be a powerful tool to study the structure prediction of the fcc HP lattice model proteins.

  3. Two alternate proofs of Wang's lune formula for sparse distributed memory and an integral approximation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaeckel, Louis A.

    1988-01-01

    In Kanerva's Sparse Distributed Memory, writing to and reading from the memory are done in relation to spheres in an n-dimensional binary vector space. Thus it is important to know how many points are in the intersection of two spheres in this space. Two proofs are given of Wang's formula for spheres of unequal radii, and an integral approximation for the intersection in this case.

  4. Exploring new frontiers in statistical physics with a new, parallel Wang-Landau framework

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, Thomas; Li, Ying Wai; Wuest, Thomas; Landau, David P

    2014-01-01

    Combining traditional Wang Landau sampling for multiple replica systems with an exchange of densities of states between replicas we describe a general framework for simulations on massively parallel Petaflop supercomputers. The advantages and general applicability of the method for simulations of complex systems are demonstrated for the classical 2D Potts spin model featuring a strong first-order transition and the self-assembly of lipid bilayers in amphiphilic solutions in a continuous model.

  5. Wang-Landau sampling in face-centered-cubic hydrophobic-hydrophilic lattice model proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingfa; Song, Beibei; Yao, Yonglei; Xue, Yu; Liu, Wenjie; Liu, Zhaoxia

    2014-10-01

    Finding the global minimum-energy structure is one of the main problems of protein structure prediction. The face-centered-cubic (fcc) hydrophobic-hydrophilic (HP) lattice model can reach high approximation ratios of real protein structures, so the fcc lattice model is a good choice to predict the protein structures. The lacking of an effective global optimization method is the key obstacle in solving this problem. The Wang-Landau sampling method is especially useful for complex systems with a rough energy landscape and has been successfully applied to solving many optimization problems. We apply the improved Wang-Landau (IWL) sampling method, which incorporates the generation of an initial conformation based on the greedy strategy and the neighborhood strategy based on pull moves into the Wang-Landau sampling method to predict the protein structures on the fcc HP lattice model. Unlike conventional Monte Carlo simulations that generate a probability distribution at a given temperature, the Wang-Landau sampling method can estimate the density of states accurately via a random walk, which produces a flat histogram in energy space. We test 12 general benchmark instances on both two-dimensional and three-dimensional (3D) fcc HP lattice models. The lowest energies by the IWL sampling method are as good as or better than those of other methods in the literature for all instances. We then test five sets of larger-scale instances, denoted by the S, R, F90, F180, and CASP target instances on the 3D fcc HP lattice model. The numerical results show that our algorithm performs better than the other five methods in the literature on both the lowest energies and the average lowest energies in all runs. The IWL sampling method turns out to be a powerful tool to study the structure prediction of the fcc HP lattice model proteins.

  6. Wang-Landau sampling in face-centered-cubic hydrophobic-hydrophilic lattice model proteins.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingfa; Song, Beibei; Yao, Yonglei; Xue, Yu; Liu, Wenjie; Liu, Zhaoxia

    2014-10-01

    Finding the global minimum-energy structure is one of the main problems of protein structure prediction. The face-centered-cubic (fcc) hydrophobic-hydrophilic (HP) lattice model can reach high approximation ratios of real protein structures, so the fcc lattice model is a good choice to predict the protein structures. The lacking of an effective global optimization method is the key obstacle in solving this problem. The Wang-Landau sampling method is especially useful for complex systems with a rough energy landscape and has been successfully applied to solving many optimization problems. We apply the improved Wang-Landau (IWL) sampling method, which incorporates the generation of an initial conformation based on the greedy strategy and the neighborhood strategy based on pull moves into the Wang-Landau sampling method to predict the protein structures on the fcc HP lattice model. Unlike conventional Monte Carlo simulations that generate a probability distribution at a given temperature, the Wang-Landau sampling method can estimate the density of states accurately via a random walk, which produces a flat histogram in energy space. We test 12 general benchmark instances on both two-dimensional and three-dimensional (3D) fcc HP lattice models. The lowest energies by the IWL sampling method are as good as or better than those of other methods in the literature for all instances. We then test five sets of larger-scale instances, denoted by the S, R, F90, F180, and CASP target instances on the 3D fcc HP lattice model. The numerical results show that our algorithm performs better than the other five methods in the literature on both the lowest energies and the average lowest energies in all runs. The IWL sampling method turns out to be a powerful tool to study the structure prediction of the fcc HP lattice model proteins. PMID:25375531

  7. Dynamical traps in Wang-Landau sampling of continuous systems: Mechanism and solution.

    PubMed

    Koh, Yang Wei; Sim, Adelene Y L; Lee, Hwee Kuan

    2015-08-01

    We study the mechanism behind dynamical trappings experienced during Wang-Landau sampling of continuous systems reported by several authors. Trapping is caused by the random walker coming close to a local energy extremum, although the mechanism is different from that of the critical slowing-down encountered in conventional molecular dynamics or Monte Carlo simulations. When trapped, the random walker misses the entire or even several stages of Wang-Landau modification factor reduction, leading to inadequate sampling of the configuration space and a rough density of states, even though the modification factor has been reduced to very small values. Trapping is dependent on specific systems, the choice of energy bins, and the Monte Carlo step size, making it highly unpredictable. A general, simple, and effective solution is proposed where the configurations of multiple parallel Wang-Landau trajectories are interswapped to prevent trapping. We also explain why swapping frees the random walker from such traps. The efficacy of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated.

  8. Exploring Replica-Exchange Wang-Landau sampling in higher-dimensional parameter space

    SciTech Connect

    Valentim, Alexandra; Rocha, Julio C. S.; Tsai, Shan-Ho; Li, Ying Wai; Eisenbach, Markus; Fiore, Carlos E; Landau, David P

    2015-01-01

    We considered a higher-dimensional extension for the replica-exchange Wang-Landau algorithm to perform a random walk in the energy and magnetization space of the two-dimensional Ising model. This hybrid scheme combines the advantages of Wang-Landau and Replica-Exchange algorithms, and the one-dimensional version of this approach has been shown to be very efficient and to scale well, up to several thousands of computing cores. This approach allows us to split the parameter space of the system to be simulated into several pieces and still perform a random walk over the entire parameter range, ensuring the ergodicity of the simulation. Previous work, in which a similar scheme of parallel simulation was implemented without using replica exchange and with a different way to combine the result from the pieces, led to discontinuities in the final density of states over the entire range of parameters. From our simulations, it appears that the replica-exchange Wang-Landau algorithm is able to overcome this diculty, allowing exploration of higher parameter phase space by keeping track of the joint density of states.

  9. Dynamical traps in Wang-Landau sampling of continuous systems: Mechanism and solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Yang Wei; Sim, Adelene Y. L.; Lee, Hwee Kuan

    2015-08-01

    We study the mechanism behind dynamical trappings experienced during Wang-Landau sampling of continuous systems reported by several authors. Trapping is caused by the random walker coming close to a local energy extremum, although the mechanism is different from that of the critical slowing-down encountered in conventional molecular dynamics or Monte Carlo simulations. When trapped, the random walker misses the entire or even several stages of Wang-Landau modification factor reduction, leading to inadequate sampling of the configuration space and a rough density of states, even though the modification factor has been reduced to very small values. Trapping is dependent on specific systems, the choice of energy bins, and the Monte Carlo step size, making it highly unpredictable. A general, simple, and effective solution is proposed where the configurations of multiple parallel Wang-Landau trajectories are interswapped to prevent trapping. We also explain why swapping frees the random walker from such traps. The efficacy of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated.

  10. Study on the modification factor of Wang-Landau sampling for computational science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seung-Yeon

    2015-08-01

    Wang-Landau Monte Carlo sampling is the most efficient method in obtaining the density of states as a function of energy E ( g( E)). In Wang-Landau sampling, the most important concept to calculate g( E) more efficiently is the modification factor f. For the systematic study of the modification factor of Wang-Landau sampling, the density of states g i ( E) of the Ising model on a 20 × 20 square lattice is obtained for a sequence of modification factors f i = exp[21- i ] ( i = 1 ~ 30). The sampling results are evaluated by using the traditional maximum entropy and the first partition function zero (a more sensitive indicator) for the first time. With both speed and accuracy considered, the best choice of the final modification factor f final can be f final - 1 = 10-7. If one wants to save simulation time, a clever choice is f final - 1 = 10-4, yielding a valuable estimate of g( E).

  11. The Anticancer Properties and Apoptosis-inducing Mechanisms of Cinnamaldehyde and the Herbal Prescription Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang ( Huáng Lián Jiě Dú Tang) in Human Hepatoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Liang-Tzung; Wu, Shu-Jing; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2013-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has long been one of the most important causes of cancer mortality in the world. Many natural products and traditional herbal medicines have been used to treat HCC in Asian countries such as Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and China. The present review aims to describe the anticancer properties and apoptotic mechanisms of cinnamaldehyde, the bioactive ingredient isolated from cinnamon trees, and the herbal prescription Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang ( Huáng Lián Jiě Dú Tang; HLJDT) against human hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Implication of their treatment for the development of targeted therapy against HCC is discussed. PMID:24716182

  12. The therapeutic effects of Sheng Jing Zhong Zi Tang in treating male infertility.

    PubMed

    Yang, B; Zhang, C; Du, L; Xue, W; Zou, P

    2001-06-01

    Eight-seven cases of male infertility due to spermatopathy were treated with Sheng Jing Zhong Zi Tang (SJZZT [symbol: see text]) for 1-3 courses. The total effective rate was 95.40% (83/87). 56.32% (49/87) of their spouses got pregnant and the semen quality was markedly improved (P < 0.01). The results showed that the decoction could dual-directionally regulate the levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), prolan B luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone (T), and cortisol (C).

  13. POLYMORPHISMS IN THE DNA BASE EXCISION REPAIR GENES APEX1 AND XRCC1 AND LUNG CANCER RISK IN XUAN WEI, CHINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The lung cancer mortality rate in Xuan Wei County is among the highest in China and has been attributed to exposure to indoor smoky coal emissions that contain very high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Nucleotide excision repair (NER) plays a key role in revers...

  14. GSTM1 AND GSTT1 GENOTYPES AND LUNG CANCER RISK ASSOCIATED WITH EXPOSURE TO INDOOR COAL EMISSIONS: A CASE-CONTROL STUDY IN XUAN WEI, CHINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The lung cancer mortality rate in Xuan Wei County, China is among the highest in the country and has been associated with exposure to indoor smoky coal emissions that contain high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. This risk may be modified by variation in metabolism gen...

  15. Conodont index fossil Hindeodus changxingensis Wang fingers greatest mass extinction event

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Metcalfe, I.; Nicoll, R.S.; Wardlaw, B.R.

    2007-01-01

    The marine conodont fossil species, Hindeodus changxingensis Wang, that has a distinctive morphology, is restricted to a very narrow stratigraphic interval essentially from the Permian-Triassic extinction event through the internationally recognized boundary and into the very earliest Triassic. The species is geographically widespread in the Tethyan Region, from Italy to South China, and serves as a characteristic index fossil to reliably identify this short but critical interval that encompasses the greatest mass extinction of life on earth and the boundary between the Paleozoic and Mesozoic Eras. ?? 2007 Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, CAS.

  16. [Contribution of professor Wang Xuetai in development of acu-moxibustion science].

    PubMed

    Wen, Li

    2006-01-01

    Wang Xuetai is a famous specialist of acupuncture-moxibustion science. Ever since 1948, he devoted himself to the studies of acupuncture literature, history, theory, clinical treatment and experimental work. He presided the International Standardization of Nomenclature of Acupoints, guided the International Standardization of Locations of Acupoints, and was invited to be the advisor of Studies on Meridians, one of the programs of State Climb Plans. Especially in the recent 20 years, he concentrated his efforts on the studies of development strategies and the advance of internationalization of acupuncture. His academic thinking produces a great impact in both China and abroad.

  17. Wang-Landau Algorithm for Continuous Models and Joint Density of States

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Chenggang; Schulthess, Thomas C; Torbrugge, S.; Landau, D. P.

    2006-01-01

    We present a modified Wang-Landau algorithm for models with continuous degrees of freedom. We demonstrate this algorithm with the calculation of the joint density of states of ferromagnet Heisenberg models and a model polymer chain. The joint density of states contains more information than the density of states of a single variable-energy, but is also much more time consuming to calculate. We present strategies to significantly speed up this calculation for large systems over a large range of energy and order parameter.

  18. An L1-script-transfer-effect fallacy: a rejoinder to Wang et al. (2003).

    PubMed

    Yamada, Jun

    2004-09-01

    Do different L1 (first language) writing systems differentially affect word identification in English as a second language (ESL)? Wang, Koda, and Perfetti [Cognition 87 (2003) 129] answered yes by examining Chinese students with a logographic L1 background and Korean students with an alphabetic L1 background for their phonological and orthographic processing skills on English word identification. Such a conclusion is premature, however. We propose that the L1 phonological system (rather than the L1 writing system) of the learner largely accounts for cognitive processes in learning to read a second language (L2).

  19. Protein folding of the H0P model: A parallel Wang-Landau study

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Guangjie; Wuest, Thomas; Li, Ying Wai; Landau, David P

    2015-01-01

    We propose a simple modication to the hydrophobic-polar (HP) protein model, by introducing a new type of monomer, "0", with intermediate hydrophobicity of some amino acids between H and P. With the replica-exchange Wang-Landau sampling method, we investigate some widely studied HP sequences as well as their H0P counterparts and observe that the H0P sequences exhibit dramatically reduced ground state degeneracy and more signicant transition signals at low temperature for some thermodynamic properties, such as the specific heat.

  20. Comments on "Adaptive resolution simulation in equilibrium and beyond" by H. Wang and A. Agarwal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, R.

    2015-09-01

    Wang and Agarwal (Eur. Phys. J. Special Topics, this issue, 2015, doi: 10.1140/epjst/e2015-02411-2) discuss variants of Adaptive Resolution Molecular Dynamics Simulations (AdResS), and their applications. Here we comment on their report, addressing scaling properties of the method, artificial forcings implemented to ensure constant density across the full simulation despite changing thermodynamic properties of the simulated media, the possible relation between an AdResS system on the one hand and a phase transition phenomenon on the other, and peculiarities of the SPC/E water model.

  1. Security analysis of boolean algebra based on Zhang-Wang digital signature scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Jinbin

    2014-10-06

    In 2005, Zhang and Wang proposed an improvement signature scheme without using one-way hash function and message redundancy. In this paper, we show that this scheme exits potential safety concerns through the analysis of boolean algebra, such as bitwise exclusive-or, and point out that mapping is not one to one between assembly instructions and machine code actually by means of the analysis of the result of the assembly program segment, and which possibly causes safety problems unknown to the software.

  2. Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld model on the square site-percolation lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najafi, M. N.

    2016-08-01

    The Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld (BTW) model is considered on the site-diluted square lattice, tuned by the occupancy probability p. Various statistical observables of the avalanches are analyzed in terms of p, e.g. the fractal dimension of their exterior frontiers, gyration radius, loop lengths and Green’s function. The model exhibits critical behavior for all amounts of p, and the exponents of the statistical observables are analyzed. We find a distinct universality class at p={p}c, which is unstable towards a p = 1 (BTW) fixed point. This universality class displays some common features such as a two-dimensional (2D) Ising universality class, e.g. the fractal dimension of loops in the thermodynamic limit is {D}Fp={pc}=1.38\\mp 0.01 which is compatible with the fractal dimension of geometrical spin clusters of the 2D critical Ising model (with {D}F{{Ising}}=\\tfrac{11}{8}).

  3. Finding fault: Earthquakes during the reign of Tang Dezong (785-805)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortenberry, Kyle S.

    Drawing from trends in environmental and disaster studies, this study examines the meaning of earthquakes within the official histories of China's Tang Dynasty (618-907), specifically those during the reign of Emperor Dezong (r. 785-805), as both historiographic metaphors and incidents of real natural-induced disaster. Earthquakes, like other forms of potentially harmful natural phenomena, demonstrated, the Chinese believed, Heaven's dissatisfaction with a sitting ruler. Over time, ministers and court scholars sought to draw connections between earthquakes and specific forms of behavior in attempts to perhaps prevent future incidents of seismic reproach. And though certain relationships are articulated more clearly in some parts of the histories than others, earthquakes nevertheless demonstrated an ability to engender a great sense of uncertainty and discord within historical memory. Consequently, the reading of the natural world codified in the official histories marked an attempt by the Chinese state to control human behavior for generations to come.

  4. Effects of Sohamhyoong-Tang on Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Reaction in BALB/c Mice.

    PubMed

    Jo, So Hyun; Lee, Yun Jung; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub; Kim, Dae Ki; Park, Min Cheol

    2016-01-01

    IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation and excessive Th2 cells activation are major features of various allergic diseases. Sohamhyoong-tang has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of Sohamhyoong-tang extract (SHHTE) on allergic symptoms and inflammatory responses in ovalbumin- (OVA-) sensitized BALB/c mice. The mice were sensitized with OVA and alum at 2-week intervals and then orally given SHHTE for 13 days followed by intradermal OVA injection. Administration of SHHTE significantly reduced edema formation and inflammatory-cell infiltration in ear tissues. Total and OVA-specific IgEs as well as proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α and Th2-associated cytokine IL-4 levels were lower in the SHHTE-treated group than in the vehicle. SHHTE treatment significantly suppressed both mRNA and protein levels of IL-4 and IL-5 in OVA-stimulated splenocytes. SHHTE decreased Th1 (IFN-γ) and Th17 (IL-17a) cytokine mRNA expression but increased Treg cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-β1). Moreover, SHHTE significantly inhibited degranulation of RBL-2H3 cell line in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, SHHTE efficiently inhibited the allergic symptoms in an OVA-sensitized mouse model and its action may correlate with the suppression of IgE production by increasing IL-10 and TGF-β1, which can limit the function of other T helper cells and prevent the release of inflammatory mediators from mast cells. These results suggest that SHHTE could be a therapeutic agent for treating various allergic diseases. PMID:27403198

  5. Effects of Sohamhyoong-Tang on Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Reaction in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jo, So Hyun; Lee, Yun Jung; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub; Kim, Dae Ki; Park, Min Cheol

    2016-01-01

    IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation and excessive Th2 cells activation are major features of various allergic diseases. Sohamhyoong-tang has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of Sohamhyoong-tang extract (SHHTE) on allergic symptoms and inflammatory responses in ovalbumin- (OVA-) sensitized BALB/c mice. The mice were sensitized with OVA and alum at 2-week intervals and then orally given SHHTE for 13 days followed by intradermal OVA injection. Administration of SHHTE significantly reduced edema formation and inflammatory-cell infiltration in ear tissues. Total and OVA-specific IgEs as well as proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α and Th2-associated cytokine IL-4 levels were lower in the SHHTE-treated group than in the vehicle. SHHTE treatment significantly suppressed both mRNA and protein levels of IL-4 and IL-5 in OVA-stimulated splenocytes. SHHTE decreased Th1 (IFN-γ) and Th17 (IL-17a) cytokine mRNA expression but increased Treg cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-β1). Moreover, SHHTE significantly inhibited degranulation of RBL-2H3 cell line in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, SHHTE efficiently inhibited the allergic symptoms in an OVA-sensitized mouse model and its action may correlate with the suppression of IgE production by increasing IL-10 and TGF-β1, which can limit the function of other T helper cells and prevent the release of inflammatory mediators from mast cells. These results suggest that SHHTE could be a therapeutic agent for treating various allergic diseases. PMID:27403198

  6. Performance of Replica-Exchange Wang-Landau Sampling for the 2D Ising Model: A Brief Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Yiwei; Cheung, Siu Wun; Li, Ying Wai; Eisenbach, Markus

    2014-01-01

    We report a brief performance study of the replica-exchange Wang-Landau algorithm, a recently proposed parallel realization of Wang-Landau sampling, using the 2D Ising model as a test case. The simulation time is found to scale inversely with the square root of the number of subwindows (and thus number of processors) used to span the global parameter space. We also investigate the time profiles for random walkers in dierent subwindows to complete iterations, which will aid the development of and adaptive load-balancing scheme.

  7. Evaluation of the Influence of Sulfur-Fumigated Paeoniae Radix Alba on the Quality of Si Wu Tang by Chromatographic and Chemometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Ke; Duan, Yu; Qiao, Feng-Xian; Tu, Si-Cong; Liu, Xiao; Wang, Xiao-Li; Song, Xiao-Qing; Fan, Kai-Lei; Cai, Bao-Chang

    2016-01-01

    An accurate and reliable method of high-performance liquid chromatographic fingerprint combining with multi-ingredient determination was developed and validated to evaluate the influence of sulfur-fumigated Paeoniae Radix Alba on the quality and chemical constituents of Si Wu Tang. Multivariate data analysis including hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis, which integrated with high-performance liquid chromatographic fingerprint and multi-ingredient determination, was employed to evaluate Si Wu Tang in a more objective and scientific way. Interestingly, in this paper, a total of 37 and 36 peaks were marked as common peaks in ten batches of Si Wu Tang containing sun-dried Paeoniae Radix Alba and ten batches of Si Wu Tang containing sulfur-fumigated Paeoniae Radix Alba, respectively, which indicated the changed fingerprint profile of Si Wu Tang when containing sulfur-fumigated herb. Furthermore, the results of simultaneous determination for multiple ingredients showed that the contents of albiflorin and paeoniflorin decreased significantly (P < 0.01) and the contents of gallic acid and Z-ligustilide decreased to some extent at the same time when Si Wu Tang contained sulfur-fumigated Paeoniae Radix Alba. Therefore, sulfur-fumigation processing may have great influence on the quality of Chinese herbal prescription. PMID:27034892

  8. Evaluation of the Influence of Sulfur-Fumigated Paeoniae Radix Alba on the Quality of Si Wu Tang by Chromatographic and Chemometric Analysis.

    PubMed

    Pei, Ke; Cai, Hao; Duan, Yu; Qiao, Feng-Xian; Tu, Si-Cong; Liu, Xiao; Wang, Xiao-Li; Song, Xiao-Qing; Fan, Kai-Lei; Cai, Bao-Chang

    2016-01-01

    An accurate and reliable method of high-performance liquid chromatographic fingerprint combining with multi-ingredient determination was developed and validated to evaluate the influence of sulfur-fumigated Paeoniae Radix Alba on the quality and chemical constituents of Si Wu Tang. Multivariate data analysis including hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis, which integrated with high-performance liquid chromatographic fingerprint and multi-ingredient determination, was employed to evaluate Si Wu Tang in a more objective and scientific way. Interestingly, in this paper, a total of 37 and 36 peaks were marked as common peaks in ten batches of Si Wu Tang containing sun-dried Paeoniae Radix Alba and ten batches of Si Wu Tang containing sulfur-fumigated Paeoniae Radix Alba, respectively, which indicated the changed fingerprint profile of Si Wu Tang when containing sulfur-fumigated herb. Furthermore, the results of simultaneous determination for multiple ingredients showed that the contents of albiflorin and paeoniflorin decreased significantly (P < 0.01) and the contents of gallic acid and Z-ligustilide decreased to some extent at the same time when Si Wu Tang contained sulfur-fumigated Paeoniae Radix Alba. Therefore, sulfur-fumigation processing may have great influence on the quality of Chinese herbal prescription.

  9. Nonequilibrium behaviors of the three-dimensional Heisenberg model in the Swendsen-Wang algorithm.

    PubMed

    Nonomura, Yoshihiko; Tomita, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it was shown [Y. Nonomura, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 83, 113001 (2014)JUPSAU0031-901510.7566/JPSJ.83.113001] that the nonequilibrium critical relaxation of the two-dimensional (2D) Ising model from a perfectly ordered state in the Wolff algorithm is described by stretched-exponential decay, and a universal scaling scheme was found to connect nonequilibrium and equilibrium behaviors. In the present study we extend these findings to vector spin models, and the 3D Heisenberg model could be a typical example. To evaluate the critical temperature and critical exponents precisely using the above scaling scheme, we calculate nonequilibrium ordering from the perfectly disordered state in the Swendsen-Wang algorithm, and we find that the critical ordering process is described by stretched-exponential growth with a comparable exponent to that of the 3D XY model. The critical exponents evaluated in the present study are consistent with those in previous studies. PMID:26871018

  10. Replica-exchange Wang-Landau simulations of the H0P lattice protein model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Guangjie; Wüst, Thomas; Li, Ying Wai; Landau, David P.

    The hydrophobic-polar (HP) lattice protein model has been the subject of intensive investigation in an effort to aid our understanding of protein folding. However, the high ground state degeneracies caused by its simplification stands in contrast to the generally unique native states of natural proteins. Here we proposed a simple modification, by introducing a new type of ``neutral'' monomer, 0, i.e. neither hydrophobic nor polar, thus rendering the model more realistic without increasing the difficulties of sampling significantly. With the replica exchange Wang-Landau (REWL) scheme we investigated several widely studied HP proteins and their H0P counterparts. Dramatic differences in both ground state and thermodynamic properties have been found. For example, the H0P version of Crambin shows more clear two-step folding and 3 order of magnitudes less ground state degeneracy than its HP counterpart. Supported by NSF.

  11. [RAPD and SCAR molecular markers linked to the sexuality of cycads (Cycas tanqingii D. Y. Wang)].

    PubMed

    Jing, Jian-Zhou; Jin, Hong; Li, Dong-Liang; Chen, Xiao-Ke; Zhang, Yong

    2007-11-01

    The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to amplify DNA fragment, aiming at finding markers linked to the sex trait in Cycas tanqingii D. Y. Wang. A total number of 160 random primers were screened in the RAPD-PCR and more than 2500 RAPD fragments were generated from the male or the female plants. One fragment of about 500 bp was amplified steadily and repeatedly by the S0465 (CCCCGGTAAC) primer only from female plants but not male plants. The RAPD marker was then converted into female-linked dominant SCAR (Sequence Characterized Amplified Regions) marker named STQC-S465-483. The development of this sex-linked SCAR marker provides a possibility of identifying the sex of Cycas tanqingii before sexual maturation, which is very important to in situ or ex situ conservation. PMID:18257243

  12. [RAPD and SCAR molecular markers linked to the sexuality of cycads (Cycas tanqingii D. Y. Wang)].

    PubMed

    Jing, Jian-Zhou; Jin, Hong; Li, Dong-Liang; Chen, Xiao-Ke; Zhang, Yong

    2007-11-01

    The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to amplify DNA fragment, aiming at finding markers linked to the sex trait in Cycas tanqingii D. Y. Wang. A total number of 160 random primers were screened in the RAPD-PCR and more than 2500 RAPD fragments were generated from the male or the female plants. One fragment of about 500 bp was amplified steadily and repeatedly by the S0465 (CCCCGGTAAC) primer only from female plants but not male plants. The RAPD marker was then converted into female-linked dominant SCAR (Sequence Characterized Amplified Regions) marker named STQC-S465-483. The development of this sex-linked SCAR marker provides a possibility of identifying the sex of Cycas tanqingii before sexual maturation, which is very important to in situ or ex situ conservation.

  13. Nonequilibrium behaviors of the three-dimensional Heisenberg model in the Swendsen-Wang algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonomura, Yoshihiko; Tomita, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it was shown [Y. Nonomura, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 83, 113001 (2014), 10.7566/JPSJ.83.113001] that the nonequilibrium critical relaxation of the two-dimensional (2D) Ising model from a perfectly ordered state in the Wolff algorithm is described by stretched-exponential decay, and a universal scaling scheme was found to connect nonequilibrium and equilibrium behaviors. In the present study we extend these findings to vector spin models, and the 3D Heisenberg model could be a typical example. To evaluate the critical temperature and critical exponents precisely using the above scaling scheme, we calculate nonequilibrium ordering from the perfectly disordered state in the Swendsen-Wang algorithm, and we find that the critical ordering process is described by stretched-exponential growth with a comparable exponent to that of the 3D X Y model. The critical exponents evaluated in the present study are consistent with those in previous studies.

  14. Spatial-temporal change in precipitation patterns based on the cloud model across the Wei River Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shengzhi; Hou, Beibei; Chang, Jianxia; Huang, Qiang; Chen, Yutong

    2015-04-01

    It is of significant importance to investigate the spatial-temporal change in precipitation patterns due to its great effects on droughts, floods, soil erosion and water resource management. A complete investigation of precipitation structure and its distribution pattern based on daily precipitation covering 1960-2005 at 21 meteorological stations in the Wei River Basin has been performed. In order to comprehensively and objectively describe the changing pattern of precipitation, the cloud model is employed to quantitatively analyse the average, uniformity and stability of precipitation. Results indicate the following: (1) the occurrence of different precipitation durations exhibits a positive exponential curve with the decrease in precipitation durations, and 1-3-day events are the predominant precipitation events which have an increasing trend; (2) precipitation and its non-uniformity is increasingly reducing, while its stability increases initially then decreases; (3) mean precipitation reduces from southeast to northwest, and the precipitation of the Guanzhong Plain has a low uniformity and stability due to its location and increasingly intensifying human activities. The cloud model provides a new idea and quantitative measure for the evaluation of the uniformity and stability of precipitation.

  15. Effect of chimneys on indoor air concentrations of PM 10 and benzo[a]pyrene in Xuan Wei, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Linwei; Lan, Qing; Yang, Dong; He, Xingzhou; Yu, Ignatius T. S.; Hammond, S. Katharine

    This paper reports the effect of chimneys in reducing indoor air pollution in a lung cancer epidemic area of rural China. Household indoor air pollution concentrations were measured during unvented burning (chimneys blocked) and vented burning (chimneys open) of bituminous coal in Xuan Wei, China. Concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or less (PM 10) and of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) were measured in 43 homes during normal activities. The use of chimneys led to significant decreases in indoor air concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or less (PM 10) by 66% and of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) by 84%. The average BaP content of PM 10 also decreased by 55% with the installation of a chimney. The reduction of indoor pollution levels by the installation of a chimney supports the epidemiology findings on the health benefits of stove improvement. However, even in the presence of a chimney, the indoor air concentrations for both PM 10 and BaP still exceeded the indoor air quality standards of China. Movement up the energy ladder to cleaner liquid or gaseous fuels is probably the only sustainable indoor air pollution control measure.

  16. Eigensolution techniques, their applications and Fisherʼs information entropy of the Tietz-Wei diatomic molecular model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falaye, B. J.; Oyewumi, K. J.; Ikhdair, S. M.; Hamzavi, M.

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the approximate analytical solutions of Schrödinger, Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations under the Tietz-Wei (TW) diatomic molecular potential are represented by using an approximation for the centrifugal term. We have applied three types of eigensolution techniques: the functional analysis approach, supersymmetry quantum mechanics and the asymptotic iteration method to solve the Klein-Gordon, Dirac and Schrödinger equations, respectively. The energy eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenfunctions for these three wave equations are obtained, and some numerical results and figures are reported. It has been shown that these techniques yielded exactly the same results. some expectation values of the TW diatomic molecular potential within the framework of the Hellmann-Feynman theorem have been presented. The probability distributions that characterize the quantum mechanical states of TW diatomic molecular potential are analyzed by means of complementary information measures of a probability distribution called Fisher's information entropy. This distribution has been described in terms of Jacobi polynomials, whose characteristics are controlled by quantum numbers.

  17. Effects of the Chinese Herbal Formulation (Liu Wei Di Huang Wan) on the Pharmacokinetics of Isoflavones in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Limopasmanee, Wirin; Chansakaow, Sunee; Rojanasthien, Noppamas; Manorot, Maleeya; Sangdee, Chaichan; Teekachunhatean, Supanimit

    2015-01-01

    A combination of soy isoflavones and Liu Wei Di Huang Wan (LWDHW) is potentially effective for postmenopausal women with intolerable vasomotor episodes who are not suitable candidates for hormonal therapy. The objective of this open-label, three-phase, crossover study was to determine the influence of both single and multiple oral doses of LWDHW on isoflavone pharmacokinetics in healthy postmenopausal women. Eleven subjects were assigned to receive the following regimens in a fixed sequence with washout periods of at least one week: Phase A, a single oral dose of soy milk; Phase B, a single oral dose of soy milk coadministered with LWDHW; and Phase C, multiple oral doses of LWDHW for 14 days followed by a single oral dose of soy milk. Blood samples were collected and mixed with β-glucuronidase/sulfatase to hydrolyze isoflavone conjugates to their respective aglycones (i.e., daidzein and genistein) and were determined using high performance liquid chromatography. The pharmacokinetic parameters analyzed were maximal plasma concentration (Cmax), time to reach peak concentration (Tmax), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC), and half-life (t1/2). The results found no statistically significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters of daidzein and genistein among the three regimens. PMID:26146635

  18. Effects of Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San on the Peripheral and Lymphatic Pharmacokinetics of Paclitaxel in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Mei-Ling; Lu, Chia-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Paclitaxel is effective against breast cancer. The herbal medicine, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San (JWXYS), is the most frequent prescription used to relieve the symptoms of breast cancer treatments. The aim of the study was to investigate the herb-drug interaction effects of a herbal medicine on the distribution of paclitaxel to lymph. A validated ultraperformance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was used to determine the paclitaxel levels in rat plasma and lymph after intravenous infusion of paclitaxel alone with or without 7 days of JWXYS pretreatment. The pharmacokinetic results indicate that paclitaxel concentrations in plasma exceeded those in lymph by approximately 3.6-fold. The biodistribution of paclitaxel from plasma to lymph was 39 ± 5%; however, this increased to 45 ± 4% with JWXYS pretreatment. With JWXYS pretreatment, the AUC and Cmax of paclitaxel in plasma were significantly reduced by approximately 1.5-fold, compared to paclitaxel alone. Additionally, JWXYS decreased the AUC and Cmax of paclitaxel in lymph. However, the lymph absorption rate of paclitaxel with or without JWXYS pretreatment was not significantly changed (27 ± 3 and 30 ± 2%, resp.). Our findings demonstrate that when paclitaxel is prescribed concurrently with herbal medicine, monitoring of the blood pharmacokinetics of paclitaxel is recommended. PMID:27057200

  19. Chemical characterization of indoor air of homes from communes in Xuan Wei, China, with high lung cancer mortality rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, J. C.; Cao, S. R.; Xian, Y. L.; Harris, D. B.; Mumford, J. L.

    In a rural county, Xuan Wei, China, the lung cancer mortality rate is among China's highest, especially in women. This mortality rate is more associated with indoor air burning of smoky coal, as opposed to smokeless coal or wood, for cooking and heating under unvented conditions. Homes using different fuels from communes with high and low lung cancer mortality rates were sampled for particulate matter (< 10 μm) and semivolatile organics. The fine particles obtained from homes using smoky coal contained highest concentrations of organic matter (> 70%), including PAH, followed by homes using wood and smokeless coal. The major components present in the smoky coal filter samples were PAH and alkylated PAH. The smokeless coal filter samples exhibited profiles which were similar to the smoky coal samples except that some sulfur compounds were found. The estimated concentration levels of PAH in the smokeless coal samples were about one to two orders of magnitude lower than those of the smoky coal samples. In addition to PAH, aliphatic compounds and fatty acids were the major components found in the wood samples. Selected sample extracts from homes using smoky coal were fractionated into four fractions, and the results showed that the PAH and polar fractions have high mutagenic activity. Chemical characterization of the PAH fraction indicated that concentrations of some alkylated PAH were higher than those of their parent compounds. Chemical characterization of the polar fractions showed that nitrogen heterocyclic compounds are present.

  20. Chemopreventive flavonoids from Millettia pulchra Kurz var-laxior (Dunn) Z.Wei (Yulangsan) function as Michael reaction acceptors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenli; Wang, Jian; Li, Ning; Zhang, Xiangrong; Zhao, Weihong; Li, Jiayuan; Si, Yingying

    2015-03-01

    Natural NQO1 [NAD(P)H quinine oxidoreductase 1] inducing agents play a critical role in cancer chemoprevention. The expression of NQO1 is regulated by Michael reaction acceptors (MRAs) via the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway. The aims of this study were to identify and characterize novel effective chemopreventive agents from naturally occurring products. Using bioassay-guided isolation approaches 16 bioactive MRAs from Millettia pulchra Kurz var-laxior (Dunn) Z.Wei, also called Yulangsan as a famous Zhuang medicine. The structures were elucidated as chalcone (1-7), flavonone (8-14), flavanone (15) and isoflavan (16). Their electrophilic abilities and NQO1 inducing activity were assessed using GSH (glutathione) rapid screening, and in vitro cell-based (Hepa 1c1c7 cells) assay, respectively. Compounds 3, 4, 6, 13, and 14 showed to have NQO1 inducing activity. Among them, compounds 4 and 14 interact with NQO1 at Gly 149, Gly 150, Phe 106, Typ 105 and His 161, revealed by molecular docking studies. PMID:25630222

  1. [Line scanning analysis of white porcelain from Gong Kiln in early Tang dynasty by energy disperse X-ray fluorescence].

    PubMed

    Ling, Xue; Mao, Zhen-wei; Feng, Min; Hu, Yao-wu; Wang, Chang-sui; Liu, Hong-miao

    2005-07-01

    Gong kiln, for its long porcelain-firing history, was one of three representative white porcelain kilns in northern China. In order to improve the quality and whiteness of white porcelain, a decorating layer or cosmetic earth was laid on the body surface in Gong kiln during early Tang dynasty, which was able to blot out rough surface and weaken the influence of fuscous body upon surface color. In this paper the main chemical composition of the white porcelain's profile was analyzed by using energy disperse X-Ray fluorescence. The result showed that different materials were used as cosmetic earth during early Tang dynasty, in accordance with the phenomenon under optical microscope. In addition, the glaze belongs to calcium glaze in which plant ash was added.

  2. Entropic sampling via Wang-Landau random walks in dominant energy subspaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malakis, A.; Martinos, S. S.; Hadjiagapiou, I. A.; Fytas, N. G.; Kalozoumis, P.

    2005-12-01

    Dominant energy subspaces of statistical systems are defined with the help of restrictive conditions on various characteristics of the energy distribution, such as the probability density and the fourth order Binder’s cumulant. Our analysis generalizes the ideas of the critical minimum energy subspace (CRMES) technique, applied previously to study the specific heat’s finite-size scaling. Here, we illustrate alternatives that are useful for the analysis of further finite-size anomalies and the behavior of the corresponding dominant subspaces is presented for the two-dimensional (2D) Baxter-Wu and the 2D and 3D Ising models. In order to show that a CRMES technique is adequate for the study of magnetic anomalies, we study and test simple methods which provide the means for an accurate determination of the energy-order-parameter (E,M) histograms via Wang-Landau random walks. The 2D Ising model is used as a test case and it is shown that high-level Wang-Landau sampling schemes yield excellent estimates for all magnetic properties. Our estimates compare very well with those of the traditional Metropolis method. The relevant dominant energy subspaces and dominant magnetization subspaces scale as expected with exponents α/ν and γ/ν , respectively. Using the Metropolis method we examine the time evolution of the corresponding dominant magnetization subspaces and we uncover the reasons behind the inadequacy of the Metropolis method to produce a reliable estimation scheme for the tail regime of the order-parameter distribution.

  3. Sipjeondaebo-tang in patients with cancer with anorexia: a protocol for a pilot, randomised, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Chunhoo; Park, Sunju; Park, Yu Lee; Huang, Ching-Wen; Ko, Youme; Jang, Bo-Hyoung; Shin, Yong-Cheol; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cancer-related anorexia is the loss of appetite or desire to eat in patients with cancer. Although treatments for cancer-related anorexia do exist, patients have sought complementary and alternative medicine including herbal remedies, due to safety concerns. Sipjeondaebo-tang is one among other popular herbal medicines that are beneficial to management of anorexia in Korea. The purpose of this study is to examine the feasibility for a full randomised clinical trial of Sipjeondaebo-tang for cancer-related anorexia. Methods and analysis This study is a randomised, double-blinded and placebo-controlled trial of Sipjeondaebo-tang. For the study, 40 patients with cancer, aged 20–80 years, who reported anorexia, will be recruited. The participants will receive either 3 g of Sipjeondaebo-tang or a placebo, 3 times a day for 4 weeks. The primary end point is a change in the anorexia/cachexia subscale (A/CS) of Functional Assessment of Anorexia/Cachexia Therapy (FAACT). The secondary end points include changes in the visual analogue scale (VAS) of appetite, cortisol and ghrelin. The outcomes will be measured on every visit. Each participant will visit once a week during 4 weeks. Ethics and dissemination The present study has been approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Dunsan Korean Medicine Hospital of Daejeon University (reference DJDSKH-15-03-2 (V.2.0)). The results will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and scientific conference. Trial registration number NCT02468141; Pre-results. PMID:27173813

  4. Why Three Heads Are a Better Bet than Four: A Reply to Sun, Tweney, and Wang (2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Ulrike; Warren, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    We (Hahn & Warren, 2009) recently proposed a new account of the systematic errors and biases that appear to be present in people's perception of randomly generated events. In a comment on that article, Sun, Tweney, and Wang (2010) critiqued our treatment of the gambler's fallacy. We had argued that this fallacy was less gross an error than it…

  5. Mineralogical and compositional characteristics of Late Permian coals from an area of high lung cancer rate in Xuan Wei, Yunnan, China: Occurrence and origin of quartz and chamosite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dai, S.; Tian, L.; Chou, C.-L.; Zhou, Y.; Zhang, M.; Zhao, L.; Wang, Jingyuan; Yang, Z.; Cao, H.; Ren, D.

    2008-01-01

    Some townships in Xuan Wei County, Yunnan Province, have one of the highest lung cancer mortality rates in China and the epidemic disease in the area has generally been attributed to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) released from domestic coal burning. However, the cancer-causing culprit is not settled as Tian [Tian, L., 2005. Coal Combustion Emissions and Lung Cancer in Xuan Wei, China. Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Berkeley.] found nanometer quartz in these coals, soot emissions, and lung cancer tissues. We have conducted mineralogical and geochemical studies of the coals from Xuan Wei for the purpose of shedding light on the minerals which may be related to the epidemic lung cancer. In this paper, abundances, modes of occurrence, and origins of minerals and elements in the coals from two mines in Xuan Wei have been studied using optical microscope, low-temperature ashing, X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The minerals in the coals are mainly composed of quartz, chamosite, kaolinite, and calcite. The particle size of quartz is rather small, mostly less than 20????m and it is of authigenic origin. Chamosite occurs mainly as cell-fillings. The occurrence of quartz and chamosite indicates that they were derived from the hydrothermal fluids. Epigenetic calcite is derived from calcic fluids. Kaolinite is derived mainly from sediment source region of Kangdian Oldland to the west of coal basin. The composition of Xuan Wei coal is high in SiO2, Fe2O3, TiO2, CaO, MnO, V, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn. The high SiO2 content is attributed to quartz, and the Fe2O3 content to chamosite. The high Mn and low Mg contents in the coal indicate the inputs of hydrothermal fluids. CaO occurs mainly in epigenetic calcite. Elements Ti, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, and rare earth elements were derived from the basaltic rocks at sediment source region. ?? 2008

  6. Hemopoietic effect of extracts from constituent herbal medicines of Samul-tang on phenylhydrazine-induced hemolytic anemia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Won; Kim, Hyojun; Ryuk, Jin Ah; Kil, Ki-Jung; Ko, Byoung Seob

    2014-01-01

    Samul-tang (Si-Wu-Tang, SMT), a kind of herbal medicines, has been used for the hemato-deficient disease for hundreds of years. In this work, investigate the anti-anemia activity of the H2O extracts from constituent herbal medicines of Samul-tang in an anemia model induced by intravenous infection of phenylhydrazine-HCL (PHZ) at 10 mg/kg for 4 days. After PHZ injection, female Sparague-Dawley rats were administrated extracts from constituent herbal medicines of SMT (300 mg/kg/day, p.o.) daily for 1 week. Results showed that sever hemolysis was induced by PHZ. For Paeonia lactiflora (PL2) H2O extract treated groups, the concentration of hemoglobin, hematocrit and red blood cells number increased much more significantly than PHZ-treated group. Moreover, Angelica gigas (AG), Angelica. acutiloba (AA), Paeonia lactiflora (PL2) and Rehmannia glutinosa (RG) extract administration significantly improved serum erythropoietin concentration. The activity of aminolevulinic acid dehydrates (ALDL) in liver homegenate was increased in Angelica gigas(AA), Paeonia lactiflora (PL2) and Rehmannia glutinosa (RG) treated group. PMID:25337267

  7. Evaluation of the influence of sulfur fumigation on the pharmacokinetics of four active ingredients in Si Wu Tang.

    PubMed

    Pei, Ke; Cai, Hao; Liu, Xiao; Tu, Sicong; Cao, Gang; Li, Huan; Zhao, Yingying; Song, Xiaoqing; Lou, Yajing; Qiao, Fengxian; Cai, Baochang

    2015-01-01

    Sulfur fumigation may induce the decrease or the chemical transformation of some active ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines in vitro. Whether sulfur fumigation can cause the pharmacokinetic changes of the active ingredients in vivo is related to the efficacy and the safety of Chinese medicines' application clinically. A sensitive, specific, and accurate method for the simultaneous determination of paeoniflorin, ferulic acid, senkyunolide A, and senkyunolide I in rat plasma by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry was developed to evaluate the influence of sulfur fumigation to Si Wu Tang for the first time. Each compound was extracted from plasma samples by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate, and the chromatographic separation was accomplished on an Agilent Extend C18 column with a linear gradient elution. The mass spectrometric detection and analysis were performed by using an AB Sciex triple quadrupole 5500 mass spectrometer in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of four compounds in rats after oral administration of sun-dried and sulfur-fumigated Si Wu Tang. The results provided a meaningful basis for evaluating the affection of sulfur fumigation to the clinical application and the efficacy of Si Wu Tang. PMID:25354295

  8. Hemopoietic effect of extracts from constituent herbal medicines of Samul-tang on phenylhydrazine-induced hemolytic anemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye Won; Kim, Hyojun; Ryuk, Jin Ah; Kil, Ki-Jung; Ko, Byoung Seob

    2014-01-01

    Samul-tang (Si-Wu-Tang, SMT), a kind of herbal medicines, has been used for the hemato-deficient disease for hundreds of years. In this work, investigate the anti-anemia activity of the H2O extracts from constituent herbal medicines of Samul-tang in an anemia model induced by intravenous infection of phenylhydrazine-HCL (PHZ) at 10 mg/kg for 4 days. After PHZ injection, female Sparague-Dawley rats were administrated extracts from constituent herbal medicines of SMT (300 mg/kg/day, p.o.) daily for 1 week. Results showed that sever hemolysis was induced by PHZ. For Paeonia lactiflora (PL2) H2O extract treated groups, the concentration of hemoglobin, hematocrit and red blood cells number increased much more significantly than PHZ-treated group. Moreover, Angelica gigas (AG), Angelica. acutiloba (AA), Paeonia lactiflora (PL2) and Rehmannia glutinosa (RG) extract administration significantly improved serum erythropoietin concentration. The activity of aminolevulinic acid dehydrates (ALDL) in liver homegenate was increased in Angelica gigas(AA), Paeonia lactiflora (PL2) and Rehmannia glutinosa (RG) treated group. PMID:25337267

  9. Expression of Cytochrome P450s in the Liver of Rats Administered with Socheongryong-tang, a Traditional Herbal Formula

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Seong Eun; Ha, Hyekyung; Seo, Chang-Seob; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo; Jeong, Soo-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential influences of Socheongryong-tang (SCRT) on the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) in vivo. Materials and Methods: SCRT was orally administered to either male or female Sprague-Dawley rats once daily at doses of 0, 1000, 2000, or 5000 mg/kg/day for 13 weeks. The mRNA expression of CYP450s (CYP1A1, 1A2, 2B1/2, 2C11, 2E1, 3A1, 3A2, and 4A1) in liver tissues was measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. And then, the protein expression of CYP1A1 and CYP2B1/2 in liver tissues was analyzed by the Western blot. Results: We found no significant influence in the mRNA expression of hepatic CYP1A2, 2C11, 2E1, 3A1, 3A2, and 4A1 after repeated administration of SCRT for 13 weeks. By contrast, the mRNA and protein expression of hepatic CYP1A1 was increased by repeated SCRT treatment in male rats, but not in female rats. The mRNA and protein expression of hepatic CYP2B1/2 in both genders was increased by administration of SCRT. Conclusion: A caution is needed when SCRT is co-administered with substrates of CYP2B1/2 for clinical usage. In case of male, an attention is also required when SCRT and drugs metabolized by CYP1A1 are taken together. Our findings provide information regarding the safety and effectiveness of SCRT when combined with conventional drugs. SUMMARY Oral administration of Socheongryong-tang for 13 weeks did not affect the mRNA expression of hepatic CYP1A2, 2C11, 2E1, 3A1, 3A2, and 4A1In male rats, oral administration of Socheongryong-tang for 13 weeks induced the mRNA and protein expression of hepatic CYP1A1 and CYP2B1/2In female rats, oral administration of Socheongryong-tang for 13 weeks induced the mRNA and protein expression of hepatic CYP2B1/2. Abbreviations used: SCRT: Socheongryong-tang, CYP450: Cytochrome P450, HPLC: High performance liquid chromatography, RT-PCR: Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.

  10. The administration of Sheng Hua Tang immediately after delivery to reduce the incidence of retained placenta in Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Cui, Dongan; Wang, Xuezhi; Wang, Lei; Wang, Xurong; Zhang, Jingyan; Qin, Zhe; Li, Jianxi; Yang, Zhiqiang

    2014-03-15

    Sheng Hua Tang, a classical herbal formula consisting of Radix Angelicae sinensis, Ligustici rhizoma, Semen persicae, Zingiberis rhizoma, and Radix glycyrrhizae, is known to be beneficial in alleviating postpartum diseases and facilitating a return to normal reproductive function. This study investigated whether the administration of Sheng Hua Tang within 2 to 4 hours after delivery was effective as a preventive treatment for reducing the risk of retained placenta in Holstein dairy cows. A total of 357 cows, each of which had delivered its calf spontaneously, were randomly allocated to one of two groups. In the treatment group, the cows (n = 175) received Sheng Hua Tang with an oral dose of 0.36 g crude herb per kg·body weight once daily for three consecutive days. The controls (n = 182) received no treatment. The placental retention proportion was 4.0% and 17.0% within 12 hours after delivery in the treated and control animals, respectively (P < 0.01). We found decreases in the calving-to-first-service interval (73.2 ± 25.1 vs. 81.9 ± 32.8 days; P < 0.01), calving-to-conception interval (93.4 ± 38.8 vs. 114.6 ± 42.9 days; P < 0.01), and service per conception (1.5 ± 0.8 vs. 1.9 ± 1.0 days; P < 0.01) in the treatment group compared with the control group. The first artificial insemination conception proportion was higher in the treatment group than in the control group (60.4% vs. 41.1%; P = 0.01). Moreover, the between-group difference in the proportion of cows that were pregnant within 180 days postpartum approached statistical significance (88.2% vs. 80.6%; P = 0.07). Sheng Hua Tang showed beneficial effects in reducing the incidence of retained placenta and improving subsequent reproductive performance in cows. This preventive treatment strategy would be effective in improving the management of puerperal health. The potential benefits of Sheng Hua Tang warrant further investigation to determine whether this preventive treatment strategy can be endorsed as

  11. Expression of Cytochrome P450s in the Liver of Rats Administered with Socheongryong-tang, a Traditional Herbal Formula

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Seong Eun; Ha, Hyekyung; Seo, Chang-Seob; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo; Jeong, Soo-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential influences of Socheongryong-tang (SCRT) on the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) in vivo. Materials and Methods: SCRT was orally administered to either male or female Sprague-Dawley rats once daily at doses of 0, 1000, 2000, or 5000 mg/kg/day for 13 weeks. The mRNA expression of CYP450s (CYP1A1, 1A2, 2B1/2, 2C11, 2E1, 3A1, 3A2, and 4A1) in liver tissues was measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. And then, the protein expression of CYP1A1 and CYP2B1/2 in liver tissues was analyzed by the Western blot. Results: We found no significant influence in the mRNA expression of hepatic CYP1A2, 2C11, 2E1, 3A1, 3A2, and 4A1 after repeated administration of SCRT for 13 weeks. By contrast, the mRNA and protein expression of hepatic CYP1A1 was increased by repeated SCRT treatment in male rats, but not in female rats. The mRNA and protein expression of hepatic CYP2B1/2 in both genders was increased by administration of SCRT. Conclusion: A caution is needed when SCRT is co-administered with substrates of CYP2B1/2 for clinical usage. In case of male, an attention is also required when SCRT and drugs metabolized by CYP1A1 are taken together. Our findings provide information regarding the safety and effectiveness of SCRT when combined with conventional drugs. SUMMARY Oral administration of Socheongryong-tang for 13 weeks did not affect the mRNA expression of hepatic CYP1A2, 2C11, 2E1, 3A1, 3A2, and 4A1In male rats, oral administration of Socheongryong-tang for 13 weeks induced the mRNA and protein expression of hepatic CYP1A1 and CYP2B1/2In female rats, oral administration of Socheongryong-tang for 13 weeks induced the mRNA and protein expression of hepatic CYP2B1/2. Abbreviations used: SCRT: Socheongryong-tang, CYP450: Cytochrome P450, HPLC: High performance liquid chromatography, RT-PCR: Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. PMID

  12. Tang-Tong-Fang Confers Protection against Experimental Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy by Reducing Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mingdi; Huang, Da; Liu, Xiaoxing; Lin, Lan

    2015-01-01

    Tang-tong-fang (TTF) is a Chinese herbal formula that has been shown to be beneficial in diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), a common complication secondary to diabetic microvascular injury. However, the underlying mechanism of protection in nerve ischemia provided by TTF is still unclear. We hypothesized that TTF alleviates DPN via inhibition of ICAM-1 expression. Therefore, we tested the effect of TTF in a previously established DPN model, in which nerve injury was induced by ischemia/reperfusion in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. We found that the conduction velocity and amplitude of action potentials of sciatic nerve conduction were reduced in the DPN model group but were rescued by TTF treatment. In addition, TTF treatment also attenuated the effect of DPN on other parameters including histology and ultrastructural changes, expression of ICAM-1, MPO, and TNF-α in rat sciatic nerves, and plasma sICAM-1 and MPO levels. Together, our data suggest that TTF treatment may alleviate DPN via ICAM-1 inhibition. PMID:26539228

  13. Huangqi Jianzhong Tang for Treatment of Chronic Gastritis: A Systematic Review of Randomized Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yue; Ma, Li-Xin; Yin, Sheng-Jun; An, Jing; Wei, Qi; Yang, Jin-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    To assess the clinical effects and safety of Huangqi Jianzhong Tang (HQJZ) for the treatment of chronic gastritis (CG), three English databases and four Chinese databases were searched through the inception to January 2015. In randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing HQJZ with placebo, no intervention and western medicine were included. A total of 9 RCTs involving 979 participants were identified. The methodological quality of the included trials was generally poor. Meta-analyses demonstrated that HQJZ plus conventional medicine was more effective in improving overall gastroscopy outcome than western medicine alone for treatment of chronic superficial gastritis with the pooling result of overall improvement [OR 3.78 (1.29,11.06), P = 0.02]. In addition, the combination of HQJZ with antibiotics has higher overall effect rate than antibiotics alone for the treatment of CG [OR 2.60 (1.49,4.54), P = 0.0007]. There were no serious adverse events reported in both the intervention and controlled groups. HQJZ has the potential of improvement of the patients' gastroscopy outcomes, Helicobacter pylori clearance rate, traditional Chinese Medicine syndromes, and overall effect rate alone or in combination use with conventional western medicine for chronic atrophic gastritis. However, due to poor methodological quality, the beneficial effect and safeties of HQJZ for CG could not be confirmed. PMID:26819622

  14. Coptidis rhizome and Si Jun Zi Tang Can Prevent Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chiung-Hung; Yu, Bi; Su, Chiu-Hsian; Chen, Daniel S.; Hou, Yu-Chi; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Hsu, Yuan-Man

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella, a common zoonotic pathogen, causes gastroenteritis in both humans and animals. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been used to improve gastrointestinal dysfunction and to modify the immune response to inflammation for centuries. This study used six herbal plants and four TCM formulae to rate their efficacy in preventing S. Typhimurium infection via mouse model. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of Coptidis rhizome (CR) against the reference strain tallied 12.5 mg/ml and against clinical isolate ST21 was 25 mg/ml. MBCs of other herbal extracts and formulae on Salmonella Typhimurium strains were above 50 mg/ml. In the mice model, CR and Si Jun Zi Tang (SJZT) could significantly decrease the bacterial load in organs and blood after being challenged, along with body weight loss due to the infection. CR and SJZT alleviated infection-induced interferon-gamma levels in the serum and tissues, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels in intestinal tissues. CR and SJZT serum metabolites could suppress S. Typhimurium invasion and TNF-α expression in RAW264.7 cells. The therapeutic activity of CR and SJZT may involve berberine, ginsenoside Rb1, and glycyrrhizin, interfering with Salmonella when invading macrophages. CR and SJZT has shown potential in preventing S. Typhimurium infection through the regulation of the immune response. PMID:25133542

  15. Antihypertensive Effect of the GaMiSamHwangSaSimTang in Spontaneous Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyungjin; Kim, Bumjung; Hur, Heseung; Chinannai, Khanita Suman; Ham, Inhye; Choi, Ho-Young

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the antihypertensive effect of GaMiSamHwangSaSimTang (HVC1), a 30% ethanol extract of a mixture comprising Pruni Cortex, Scutellariae Radix, Coptidis Rhizoma, and Rhei Rhizoma, on spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs). The systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured every 4 or 7 days using the noninvasive tail cuff system. The vasorelaxant effects on isolated aortic rings were evaluated. Aortic rings were contracted using phenylephrine (PE) or KCl, and the changes in tension were recorded via isometric transducers connected to a data acquisition system. In this study, oral administration of HVC1 decreased the SBP of SHRs over the experimental period. HVC1 induced concentration-dependent relaxation in the aortic rings that had been precontracted using PE or KCl. The vasorelaxant effects of HVC1 on endothelium-intact aortic rings were inhibited by pretreatment with Nω-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) or methylene blue. HVC1 inhibited the contraction induced by extracellular Ca2+ in endothelium-denuded rat aortic rings that had been precontracted using PE or KCl. In conclusion, HVC1 reduced the SBP of SHR and relaxed isolated SHR aortic rings by upregulating NO formation and the NO-cGMP pathway and blocking the entry of extracellular Ca2+ via receptor-operative Ca2+ channel and voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel. PMID:26539233

  16. Flavonoid profiling of a traditional Chinese medicine formula of Huangqin Tang using high performance liquid chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tao; Zhuang, Shuaixing; Wang, Yiwei; Wang, Yanli; Wang, Weihao; Zhang, Huihui; Chen, Li; Wang, Dunfang; Zhou, Zhongming; Yang, Weipeng

    2016-01-01

    The quality control processes for herbal medicines have been problematic. Flavonoids are the major active components of Huangqin Tang (HQT, a traditional Chinese medicine formula). In this study, we used a combinative method approach consisting of chromatographic fingerprinting (high performance liquid chromatography; HPLC), quantitative methods and a pharmacodynamic evaluation model to analyze the flavonoids of HQT obtained from different sources. Ten batches of HQT were analyzed by the HPLC fingerprinting method and 26 common peaks were detected, of which 23 peaks corresponded with the chemical profile of HQT. In addition, 11 major compounds were identified by LC–MS analysis (liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometer; LC–MSn) and quantified by the HPLC quantitative method approach. The studied 10 batches of HQT were found to be homogeneous in their composition with a similarity between 0.990 and 1.000. The distribution of the 11 identified compounds was found to be very similar among the batches. Only slight pharmacodynamic differences were detected between the different batches, confirming the homogeneity of HQT. The results of this study prove that the combination of chromatographic fingerprinting and quantitative analysis can be readily used for comprehensive quality control of herbal medicines. PMID:27006899

  17. On the convergence improvement in the metadynamics simulations: a Wang-Landau recursion approach.

    PubMed

    Min, Donghong; Liu, Yusong; Carbone, Irina; Yang, Wei

    2007-05-21

    As a popular tool in exploring free energy landscapes, the metadynamics method has been widely applied to elucidate various chemical or biochemical processes. As deeply discussed by Laio et al. [J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 6714 (2005)], the size of the updating Gaussian function is pivotal to the free energy convergence toward the target free energy surface. For instance, a greater Gaussian height can facilitate the quick visit of a conformation region of interest; however, it may lead to a larger error of the calculated free energy surface. In contrast, a lower Gaussian height can guarantee a better resolution of the calculated free energy surface; however, it will take longer time for such a simulation to navigate through the defined conformational region. In order to reconcile such confliction, the authors present a method by implementing the Wang-Landau recursion scheme in the metadynamics simulations to adaptively update the height of the unit Gaussian function. As demonstrated in their model studies on both a toy system, and a realistic molecular system treated with the hybrid quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical (QMMM) potential, the present approach can quickly result in more decently converged free energy surfaces, compared with the classical metadynamics simulations employing the fixed Gaussian heights.

  18. Generic transition hierarchies of lattice HP protein adsorption: A Wang-Landau study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying Wai; Landau, D. P.; Wüst, T.

    2012-02-01

    We have applied Wang-Landau sampling with appropriate trial movesootnotetextT. W"ust and D. P. Landau, Phy. Rev. Lett. 102, 178101 (2009). to investigate the thermodynamics and structural properties of the HP lattice protein modelootnotetextK. A. Dill, Biochemistry 24, 1501 (1985). interacting with an attractive substrate. The conformational ``phase transitions'' of several benchmark HP sequences have been identified by a comprehensive canonical analysis of the specific heat and structural observables, e. g. radius of gyration and thermal derivatives of number of surface contacts. Three major ``transitions'': adsorption, hydrophobic core formation, and ``flattening'' of adsorbed structures, are observed. Depending on the surface attractive strength relative to the intra-protein attraction among the H monomers, these processes take place in a different order upon cooling. We identify a small number of generic categories that are sufficient to classify the folding hierarchies for different HP chains consisting of assorted sequences and chain lengths, regardless of the monomer type that the surface attracts. We thus believe that this classification scheme is generally applicable to lattice protein adsorption problems.

  19. Wang-Landau sampling of the interplay between surface adsorption and folding of HP lattice proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ying Wai; Wuest, Thomas; Landau, David P

    2014-01-01

    Generic features associated with the adsorption of proteins on solid surfaces are reviewed within the framework of the hydrophobic-polar (HP) lattice protein model. The thermodynamic behavior and structural properties of various HP protein sequences interacting with attractive surfaces have been studied using extensive Wang-Landau sampling with different types of surfaces, each of which attracts either: all monomers, only hydrophobic (H) monomers, or only polar (P) monomers, respectively. Consequently, different types of folding behavior occur for varied surface strengths. Analysis of the combined patterns of various structural observables, e.g., the derivatives of the numbers of interaction contacts, together with the specific heat, leads to the identification of fundamental categories of folding and transition hierarchies. We also inferred a connection between the transition categories and the relative surface strengths, i.e., the ratios of the surface attractive strengths to the intra-chain attraction among H monomers. We thus believe that the folding hierarchies and identification scheme are generic for different HP sequences interacting with attractive surfaces, regardless of the chain length, sequence, or surface attraction.

  20. [Recent abuse of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ("yaoto-wang", "ecstasy")].

    PubMed

    Satsumi, Yuki Nishimura

    2002-01-01

    3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ("Yaoto(head shifting)-wang", "Ecstasy"), designer drugs is popular world wide along with rave party, especially from the 1980s. Although there is a significant misconception of MDMA as "a safe drug", recent findings show its serotonin (5-HT) selective neurotoxity with memory disturbance and cognitive disorders, not only during its use but lasting for years. Hyperinnervation of 5-HT neurons has also been reported among non-human primates. Serotonin syndrome, serious dehydration and acute renal failure are reported as serious clinical symptoms and some deaths related to the use of MDMA have been reported. Unlike many stimulant users, MDMA users are likely to be socially adapted and epidemiological research suggests that, in the United States and European countries, 6-8% of students and 0.5-3% of adults have experienced MDMA use. Although criminal cases have been reported in Japan since the 1990s, there has been no empirical study of MDMA abuse, especially among youth. Based on the "Classification of Medicine and Drugs" of the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Labor. MDMA is classified as "compound narcotics: hallucinogens and stimulants" rather than individually. Another problem is that MDMA users are likely to visit emergency rooms rather than psychiatric clinics. The American Psychiatric Association has publicized the misconception of MDMA as a safe drug and informed people of its dangers. The author offers suggestions for Japanese psychiatrists to take steps to cope with this situation and recommends authorities to establish an appropriate drug policy.

  1. Somatic embryogenesis and enhanced shoot organogenesis in Metabriggsia ovalifolia W. T. Wang

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Yao; Chen, Yulu; Lü, Jinfeng; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A.; Zhang, Xinhua; Ma, Guohua

    2016-01-01

    An efficient protocol providing a dual regeneration pathway via direct shoot organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis for an endangered species, Metabriggsia ovalifolia W. T. Wang, was established from leaf explants. When applied at 2.5 μM, the cytokinins 6-benzyladenine (BA) or thidiazuron (TDZ) and the auxins indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) could induce shoots when on basal Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. BA and TDZ could induce more adventitious shoots (19.1 and 31.2/explant, respectively) than NAA (4.6/explant), IBA (5.7/explant) or IAA (6.4/explant). BA and TDZ at 5–10 μM could induce both shoots and somatic embryos. A higher concentration of TDZ (25 μM) induced only somatic embryos (39.8/explant). The same concentration of BA induced both adventitious shoots (23.6/explant) and somatic embryos (9.7/explant). Thus, somatic embryogenesis in this plant needs a high cytokinin concentration (BA; TDZ), as evidenced by histology. Somatic embryos germinated easily when left on the same media, but formed adventitious roots in two weeks on MS supplemented with 0.5 μM NAA, 0.5 μM IBA and 0.1% activated charcoal. Over 93% of plantlets survived following acclimatization and transfer to a mixture of sand and vermiculite (1:1, v/v) in trays. PMID:27090564

  2. Enhanced von Weizsäcker Wang-Govind-Carter kinetic energy density functional for semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Ilgyou; Carter, Emily A.

    2014-05-01

    We propose a new form of orbital-free (OF) kinetic energy density functional (KEDF) for semiconductors that is based on the Wang-Govind-Carter (WGC99) nonlocal KEDF. We enhance within the latter the semi-local von Weizsäcker KEDF term, which is exact for a single orbital. The enhancement factor we introduce is related to the extent to which the electron density is localized. The accuracy of the new KEDF is benchmarked against Kohn-Sham density functional theory (KSDFT) by comparing predicted energy differences between phases, equilibrium volumes, and bulk moduli for various semiconductors, along with metal-insulator phase transition pressures. We also compare point defect and (100) surface energies in silicon for a broad test of its applicability. This new KEDF accurately reproduces the exact non-interacting kinetic energy of KSDFT with only one additional adjustable parameter beyond the three parameters in the WGC99 KEDF; it exhibits good transferability between semiconducting to metallic silicon phases and between various III-V semiconductors without parameter adjustment. Overall, this KEDF is more accurate than previously proposed OF KEDFs (e.g., the Huang-Carter (HC) KEDF) for semiconductors, while the computational efficiency remains at the level of the WGC99 KEDF (several hundred times faster than the HC KEDF). This accurate, fast, and transferable new KEDF holds considerable promise for large-scale OFDFT simulations of metallic through semiconducting materials.

  3. Validation of Community Models: 2. Development of a Baseline, Using the Wang-Sheeley-Arge Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacNeice, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This paper is the second in a series providing independent validation of community models of the outer corona and inner heliosphere. Here I present a comprehensive validation of the Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA) model. These results will serve as a baseline against which to compare the next generation of comparable forecasting models. The WSA model is used by a number of agencies to predict Solar wind conditions at Earth up to 4 days into the future. Given its importance to both the research and forecasting communities, it is essential that its performance be measured systematically and independently. I offer just such an independent and systematic validation. I report skill scores for the model's predictions of wind speed and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) polarity for a large set of Carrington rotations. The model was run in all its routinely used configurations. It ingests synoptic line of sight magnetograms. For this study I generated model results for monthly magnetograms from multiple observatories, spanning the Carrington rotation range from 1650 to 2074. I compare the influence of the different magnetogram sources and performance at quiet and active times. I also consider the ability of the WSA model to forecast both sharp transitions in wind speed from slow to fast wind and reversals in the polarity of the radial component of the IMF. These results will serve as a baseline against which to compare future versions of the model as well as the current and future generation of magnetohydrodynamic models under development for forecasting use.

  4. Temperature-dependent phase transition of ferroelectric perovskites: A Wang-Landau-DFT approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuk, Simuck; Li, Ying Wai; Eisenbach, Markus; Cooper, Valentino

    Since the discovery of ferroelectricity in perovskite oxides, considerable efforts have been devoted to understanding their phase transition behaviors in terms of temperature, pressure, and composition. Such materials have regularly been used in transducer and actuator applications. As our first step to make accurate predictions of the crystal phases of more complex oxides such as Pb(ZrxTi1-x) O3, we have used the Wang-Landau (WL) algorithm and density functional theory (DFT) to examine the temperature-dependent phase transition of PbTiO3, BaTiO3, and KNbO3. DFT was employed to evaluate the energetics of important crystal-structure candidates, which were later used as the input for WL algorithm. In addition, we examine how the choice of exchange-correlation functionals affects our predictions of the relevant phase transition temperatures. Research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Science and Engineering Division and the Office of Science Early Career Research Program (V.R.C.) and used resources at NERSC and OLCF.

  5. Nonconvergence of the Wang-Landau algorithms with multiple random walkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belardinelli, R. E.; Pereyra, V. D.

    2016-05-01

    This paper discusses some convergence properties in the entropic sampling Monte Carlo methods with multiple random walkers, particularly in the Wang-Landau (WL) and 1 /t algorithms. The classical algorithms are modified by the use of m -independent random walkers in the energy landscape to calculate the density of states (DOS). The Ising model is used to show the convergence properties in the calculation of the DOS, as well as the critical temperature, while the calculation of the number π by multiple dimensional integration is used in the continuum approximation. In each case, the error is obtained separately for each walker at a fixed time, t ; then, the average over m walkers is performed. It is observed that the error goes as 1 /√{m } . However, if the number of walkers increases above a certain critical value m >mx , the error reaches a constant value (i.e., it saturates). This occurs for both algorithms; however, it is shown that for a given system, the 1 /t algorithm is more efficient and accurate than the similar version of the WL algorithm. It follows that it makes no sense to increase the number of walkers above a critical value mx, since it does not reduce the error in the calculation. Therefore, the number of walkers does not guarantee convergence.

  6. Monte Carlo and Molecular Dynamics in the Multicanonical Ensemble: Connections between Wang-Landau Sampling and Metadynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Thomas; Perez, Danny; Junghans, Christoph

    2014-03-01

    We show direct formal relationships between the Wang-Landau iteration [PRL 86, 2050 (2001)], metadynamics [PNAS 99, 12562 (2002)] and statistical temperature molecular dynamics [PRL 97, 050601 (2006)], the major Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics work horses for sampling from a generalized, multicanonical ensemble. We aim at helping to consolidate the developments in the different areas by indicating how methodological advancements can be transferred in a straightforward way, avoiding the parallel, largely independent, developments tracks observed in the past.

  7. Banhabaekchulchunma-tang, a traditional herbal formula attenuates absolute ethanol-induced gastric injury by enhancing the antioxidant status

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Banhabaekchulchunma-tang (hange-byakujutsu-tenma-to in Japanese and banxia-baizhu-tianma-tang in Chinese) is a mixture of fourteen herbs. It is used traditionally for the treatment of anemia, anorexia, general weakness, and female infertility in China, Japan, and Korea. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of a Banhabaekchulchunma-tang water extract (BCT) against ethanol-induced acute gastric injury in rats. Methods Gastric injury was induced by intragastric administration of 5 mL/kg body weight of absolute ethanol to each rat. The positive control group and the BCT group were given oral doses of omeprazole (50 mg/kg) or BCT (400 mg/kg), respectively, 2 h prior to the administration of absolute ethanol. The stomach of each animal was excised and examined for gastric mucosal lesions. To confirm the protective effects of BCT, we evaluated the degree of lipid peroxidation, the level of reduced glutathione (GSH), and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase in the stomach. In addition, we conducted an acute toxicity study to evaluate the safety of BCT according to OECD guideline. Results BCT reduced ethanol-induced hemorrhage, hyperemia, and loss of epithelial cell in the gastric mucosa. BCT reduced the increased lipid peroxidation associated with ethanol-induced acute gastric lesions, and increased the mucosal GSH content and the activities of antioxidant enzymes. In addition, BCT did not cause any adverse effects at up to 5000 mg/kg. Conclusions These results indicate that BCT protects the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced gastric injury by increasing the antioxidant status. We suggest that BCT could be developed as an effective drug for the treatment of gastric injury caused by alcohol intake. PMID:23844748

  8. The cumulative effects of urban expansion on land surface temperatures in metropolitan JingjinTang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yonghong; Jia, Gensuo; Hou, Meiting; Zhang, Xiaoxuan; Zheng, Feixiang; Liu, Yonghe

    2015-10-01

    Rapid urbanization has resulted in the permanent conversion of large areas of cropland and natural vegetation to impervious surfaces and therefore greatly modified land surface properties and land-atmosphere interactions. This study sought to examine the urbanization process using Landsat images from 2001 to 2010 in metropolitan JingjinTang (JJT), a rapidly expanding urban cluster in northern China. We aggregated the original results of land use data as fractional cover information in 1 km and 10 km grids. Annual and seasonal land surface temperatures (LSTs) were processed from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer products. We used moving window and gradient analysis methods to examine the differences in LST between urban and other land types, further identifying LST increases in gradients of urbanization levels. Urban extent increased by 1.6 times, and approximately 45% newly developed areas were converted from croplands during this process. Emerging urban land in JJT has caused approximately 0.85 ± 0.68°C warming in terms of annual mean LST, and the greatest warming occurred in the summer. An increase in urban land of 10% in a 1 km grid in JJT would cause approximately a 0.21°C increase in annual LST. Urbanization also led to increases in daytime LSTs and nighttime LSTs by approximately 1.03 ± 1.38°C and 0.78 ± 1.02°C, respectively. The warming trend induced by urbanization exhibits clear seasonal and diurnal differences, and this warming trend is most likely caused by the cumulative effects of changes in land properties, radiation storage, and anthropogenic heat release by urbanization.

  9. Antipruritic and antiinflammatory effects of aqueous extract from Si-Wu-Tang.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yue; But, Paul Pui-Hay; Chan, Yiu-Pong; Matsuda, Hideaki; Kubo, Michinori

    2002-09-01

    Si-Wu-Tang (SWT), a traditional Chinese formula, has been clinically used in the treatment of cutaneous pruritus, chronic inflammation, and other diseases. The present study was carried out to observe the antipruritic and antiinflammatory effects of SWT aqueous extract using compound 48/80 and picryl chloride (PC) models in mice. SWT (500, 1000 mg/kg p.o.) clearly reduced the scratching responses elicited by compound 48/80 in normal mice. At doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg, it inhibited the scratching responses induced by PC in mice actively sensitized with 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP)-ovalbumin (OVA) plus alum. Furthermore, SWT (250, 500, 1000 mg/kg) significantly inhibited the footpad swelling caused by compound 48/80 in mice. In the biphasic ear skin reactions induced by PC in actively sensitized mice, SWT (250, 500 mg/kg) reduced the immediate-phase reaction, but did not affect the late-phase reaction. In vitro, SWT (50-500 microg/ml) showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of the histamine release induced by compound 48/80 from rat peritoneal mast cells. The crude drugs contained in SWT, Paeoniae Radix (25, 100 microg/ml), Rehmanniae Radix, and Chuanxiong Rhizoma (100 microg/ml), also showed a clear inhibition, but Angelica Radix did not at the concentrations examined. These findings indicate that SWT aqueous extract has antipruritic and antiinflammatory effects in mice. SWT inhibits histamine release from rat mast cells, and Paeoniae Radix probably plays a crucial role in the formula.

  10. Rehmanniae Radix provides most of the free fructose and glucose in Si-Wu-Tang decoction.

    PubMed

    Ma, J; Liang, Q D; Ma, Z C; Wang, Y G; Liu, M; Lu, B B; Tan, H L; Xiao, C G; Zhang, B L; Gao, Y

    2010-06-01

    Our previous study showed that free fructose is an important active constituent responsible for Si-Wu-Tang's (SWT) effect promoting hematopoiesis and immunity. However, the contribution from SWT's four ingredient drugs to the free fructose content in the SWT decoction was not clear. To answer this question, in this study, the fructose, glucose and sucrose content in the SWT decoction, in the decoctions of each single ingredient drug, and in the decoctions of the four formulae lacking each single ingredient drug were determined by HPLC-ELSD. The results showed that the fructose and glucose content in the decoction of single Rehmanniae Radix were almost the same as those in the SWT decoction. In the single Rehmanniae Radix decoction concentrations were: 4.25 ± 0.53 mg/mL for fructose, and 3.43 ± 0.60 mg/mL for glucose; in the SWT decoction concentrations were: 4.10 ± 0.43 mg/mL for fructose, and 3.42 ± 0.32 mg/mL for glucose, while the content of fructose and glucose in the decoctions of single Angelica Radix, single Paeoniae Radix, single Chuanxiong Rhizoma and the formula lacking Rehmanniae Radix were either very small or undetectable. On the other hand, the fructose and glucose content in the decoctions of the formulae lacking Angelica Radix, lacking Paeoniae Radix and lacking Chuanxiong Rhizoma also were approximately the same as those in the SWT decoction. This indicated that Rehmanniae Radix provides most of the free fructose and glucose in the SWT decoction, and therefore plays an important role in SWT's effect promoting hematopoiesis and immunity. As for sucrose in the SWT decoction, Angelica Radix was shown to be a major donor.

  11. Interoccurrence times in the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile model: a comparison with the observed statistics of solar flares.

    PubMed

    Paczuski, Maya; Boettcher, Stefan; Baiesi, Marco

    2005-10-28

    A sequence of bursts observed in an intermittent time series may be caused by a single avalanche, even though these bursts appear as distinct events when noise and/or instrument resolution impose a detection threshold. In the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile, the statistics of quiet times between bursts switches from Poissonian to scale invariant on raising the threshold for detecting instantaneous activity, since each zero-threshold avalanche breaks into a hierarchy of correlated bursts. Calibrating the model with the time resolution of GOES data, qualitative agreement with the interoccurrence time statistics of solar flares at different intensity thresholds is found.

  12. A new felt scale genus Macroporicoccus gen. n. (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Eriococcidae) from China, with a redescription of Macroporicoccus ulmi (Tang & Hao) comb. n. .

    PubMed

    Nan, Nan; Deng, Jun; Wu, San'an

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese species Cryptococcus ulmi Tang & Hao is found to be distantly related to other sampled Cryptococcus species based on both molecular and morphological study. A new felt scale genus, Macroporicoccus Nan & Wu gen. n., is erected therefore for C. ulmi. The new genus differs from other eriococcid genera due to the presence of large simple pores, here referred to as macrodisc pores. The adult female of Macroporicoccus ulmi (Tang & Hao) comb. n. is redescribed and illustrated. Some important taxonomic characters are illustrated with SEM photographs.

  13. Toxicity of Alangium salvifolium Wang chemical constituents against the tobacco cutworm Spodoptera litura Fab.

    PubMed

    Selin-Rani, Selvaraj; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Revathi, Kannan; Chandrasekaran, Rajamanickam; Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran; Ponsankar, Athirstam; Edwin, Edward Sam; Pradeepa, Venkatraman

    2016-01-01

    Widespread use of synthetic pesticides has resulted in the development of insecticide-resistant populations of pests and harmful effects on human health and the environment. There is a need to identify alternative pest management strategies to reduce our reliance on conventional chemical pesticides. In recent years the use of botanical pesticides for protecting crops from insect pests has assumed greater importance. Methanol extract of Alangium salvifolium (L.f.) Wang has potential insecticidal activity against Spodoptera litura Fab. The active fractions were identified through chromatographic techniques as F-IV (Rf value=0.45) and F-VI (Rf value=0.63) and were subjected to GC-MS (GCMATE II). Fifty, 100 and 200ppm of active fractions were applied to fourth instar larvae and the mortality increased with higher concentrations. Relative consumption rate, relative growth rate, efficiency of conversion of ingested food and efficiency of conversion of digested food values all decreased in treated larvae, but approximate digestibility rate increased after treatment. The hydrolytic enzymes, such as acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and the glycolytic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase were inhibited in treated larvae compared with controls. The histopathology study revealed that the epithelial columnar cells were enlarged, completely atrophied; intercellular spaces were swollen, and also noted a cytoplasmic ooze of cell material that mixed with food column. The present study clearly showed the active fractions from A. salvifolium as potential botanicals to control the larvae of S. litura. This is the first report for nutritional indices, enzymatic activities and histological effects of A. salvifolium chemical constituents against S. litura. Thus probably, this will be used as an alternative for synthetic pesticides against the polyphagous pest like S. litura. PMID:26778440

  14. Comparison of 19-gauge eXcelon and WANG MW-319 transbronchial aspiration needles.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Li-Han; Liu, Chia-Chuan; Ko, Jen-Sheng; Feng, An-Chen; Chu, Nei-Min

    2016-03-01

    Conventional transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) using 19-gauge needles can obtain larger histological specimens for hilar-mediastinal diagnosis. A new 19-gauge eXcelon needle was introduced in Taiwan in July 2012. We prospectively enrolled patients with hilar-mediastinal lesions and pathology results of suspected benign origin or lymphoproliferative processes, to perform TBNA using a 19-gauge eXcelon needle, between July 2012 and December 2012. The results were compared with historical control of TBNA using a WANG MW-319 needle between January 2011 and June 2012. The procedure was performed by the same pulmonologist, and rapid on-site cytologic evaluation was used. The 19-gauge eXcelon needle was used in nine patients with 15 lymph nodes aspirated, with a mean diameter of 23.3 ± 10.7 mm. The mean number of needle passes was 2.7 ± 1.4, with a diagnostic accuracy of 77.8%. The MW-319 needle was used in 12 patients with 18 lymph nodes aspirated, with a mean diameter of 21.3 ± 5.7 mm. The mean number of needle passes was 2.2 ± 0.4, with a diagnostic accuracy of 75.0%. Neither technical nor major clinical complications were noted in either group. We concluded that the 19-gauge eXcelon needle was as safe and effective as the MW-319 needle. A more adequate specimen could be obtained and fewer needle passes were required with the MW-319 needle, although the difference did not reach significance. PMID:27042234

  15. An epidemiological study of lung cancer in Xuan Wei County, China: current progress. Case-control study on lung cancer and cooking fuel.

    PubMed

    He, X Z; Chen, W; Liu, Z Y; Chapman, R S

    1991-08-01

    In Xuan Wei County, Yunnan Province, lung cancer mortality rates are among China's highest in males and females. Previous studies have shown a strong association of lung cancer mortality with air pollution from "smoky" coal combustion. In the present quantitative risk assessment of indoor air pollution study, the result strongly shows an obvious on-site exposure-response relationship between benzo[a]pyrene concentration in indoor air and lung cancer mortality and strongly supports the hypothesis that indoor air pollution is the main risk factor in inducing lung cancer in Xuan Wei County. In the present case-control study, the result shows that in females, the presence of lung cancer is statistically significantly associated with chronic bronchitis and family history of lung cancer. The results also suggest an association of lung cancer with duration of cooking food, but not with passive smoking. In males, the presence of lung cancer is associated with smoking, bronchitis, family history of lung cancer, and personal history of cooking food.

  16. Computer processing of Landsat and spot images for the morpho-structural analysis of the Wei He Graben (Shaanxi-China). Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binelli-Chahine, M.; Vergely, P.; Masson, Ph.

    The Cenozoic Wei He Graben is the most southern of the northern China rift system. It is a half-graben, which southern limit are the ESE-WNW main boundary faults of the Qin Ling Shan Mountains. They correspond to the main eastward-trending faults of the Tibet northern border. A first geological, structural and morphological approach was conducted, based on Landsat multispectral data (MSS, 1:500,000 colour composite images). A geological photo-interpretation and the plotting of important faults (plurikilometric) show the geometry and the general structural pattern of the rift. The morphogical study accounts for vertical movements of large areas but major fault kinematics remains unknown. In order to specify the fault kinematics, a more accurate morpho-structural analysis was conducted, based on SPOT image processing and interpretation. The preliminary results show that during the Recent Quaternary up to Present, no important strike-slip fault movements (more than 20 m) exist along the Wei He Graben faults as suggested by the pull-apart graben model. In return, the vertical component movements (subsidence) prevail and this agrees with field data.

  17. Computer processing of Landsat and SPOT images for the morpho-structural analysis of the Wei He Graben (Shaanxi-China) - Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binelli-Chahine, M.; Vergely, P.; Masson, Ph.

    1990-10-01

    The Cenozoic Wei He Graben is the most southern of the northern China rift system. It is a half-graben, which southern limit are the ESE-WNW main boundary faults of the Qin Ling Shan mountains. They correspond to the main eastward-trending faults of the Tibet northern border. A first geological, structural and morphological approach was conducted, based on Landsat multi-spectral data (MSS, 1:500,000 color composite images). A geological photo-interpretation and the plotting of important faults (plurikilometric) show the geometry and the general structural pattern of the rift. The morphological study accounts for vertical movements of large areas but major fault kinematics remains unknown. In order to specify the fault kinematics, a more accurate morpho-structural analysis was conducted, based on SPOT image processing and interpretation. The preliminary results show that during the Recent Quaternary up to Present, no important strike-slip fault movements (more than 20 m) exist along the Wei He Graben faults as suggested by the pull-apart graben model. In return, the vertical component movements (subsidence) prevail and this agrees with field data.

  18. Micro-Raman analysis of the pigments on painted pottery figurines from two tombs of the Northern Wei Dynasty in Luoyang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhaojun; Han, Yunxia; Han, Ligang; Cheng, Yongjian; Ma, Yiqiang; Fang, Li

    2013-05-01

    The pigments on the painted pottery figurines from two tombs of Northern Wei Dynasty (AD 386-534) in Luoyang were analyzed by Raman microscopy. All the pigments were identified compared with the Raman spectra of standard pigments. The red pigments were identified as haematite, the blue pigment as lapis lazuli, the green pigment as malachite, the black pigment as carbon black and the white pigment as calcite. Similar pigments were used in the two tombs despite the pottery figurines were very different in artistic style. The use of lapis lazuli as blue pigment on Chinese painted pottery figurines was found for the first time. This pigment and the painted pottery figurine of Sogdians are of great archaeological significance because it demonstrated that the trade and cultural exchanges via the Silk Road had extended to Luoyang city in the Northern Wei Dynasty. The result also confirms that micro-Raman spectroscopy is a powerful analytical method for the identification of pigments on ancient artworks.

  19. Micro-Raman analysis of the pigments on painted pottery figurines from two tombs of the Northern Wei Dynasty in Luoyang.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaojun; Han, Yunxia; Han, Ligang; Cheng, Yongjian; Ma, Yiqiang; Fang, Li

    2013-05-15

    The pigments on the painted pottery figurines from two tombs of Northern Wei Dynasty (AD 386-534) in Luoyang were analyzed by Raman microscopy. All the pigments were identified compared with the Raman spectra of standard pigments. The red pigments were identified as haematite, the blue pigment as lapis lazuli, the green pigment as malachite, the black pigment as carbon black and the white pigment as calcite. Similar pigments were used in the two tombs despite the pottery figurines were very different in artistic style. The use of lapis lazuli as blue pigment on Chinese painted pottery figurines was found for the first time. This pigment and the painted pottery figurine of Sogdians are of great archaeological significance because it demonstrated that the trade and cultural exchanges via the Silk Road had extended to Luoyang city in the Northern Wei Dynasty. The result also confirms that micro-Raman spectroscopy is a powerful analytical method for the identification of pigments on ancient artworks.

  20. Micro-Raman analysis of the pigments on painted pottery figurines from two tombs of the Northern Wei Dynasty in Luoyang.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaojun; Han, Yunxia; Han, Ligang; Cheng, Yongjian; Ma, Yiqiang; Fang, Li

    2013-05-15

    The pigments on the painted pottery figurines from two tombs of Northern Wei Dynasty (AD 386-534) in Luoyang were analyzed by Raman microscopy. All the pigments were identified compared with the Raman spectra of standard pigments. The red pigments were identified as haematite, the blue pigment as lapis lazuli, the green pigment as malachite, the black pigment as carbon black and the white pigment as calcite. Similar pigments were used in the two tombs despite the pottery figurines were very different in artistic style. The use of lapis lazuli as blue pigment on Chinese painted pottery figurines was found for the first time. This pigment and the painted pottery figurine of Sogdians are of great archaeological significance because it demonstrated that the trade and cultural exchanges via the Silk Road had extended to Luoyang city in the Northern Wei Dynasty. The result also confirms that micro-Raman spectroscopy is a powerful analytical method for the identification of pigments on ancient artworks. PMID:23501716

  1. Chemical and Biological Assessment of Angelica Roots from Different Cultivated Regions in a Chinese Herbal Decoction Danggui Buxue Tang

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wendy L.; Zheng, Ken Y. Z.; Zhu, Kevin Y.; Zhan, Janis Y. X.; Bi, Cathy W. C.; Chen, J. P.; Dong, Tina T. X.; Choi, Roy C. Y.; Lau, David T. W.; Tsim, Karl W. K.

    2013-01-01

    Roots of Angelica sinensis (Danggui) have been used in promoting blood circulation as herbal medicine for over 2000 years in China. Another species of Angelica roots called A. gigas is being used in Korea. To reveal the efficiency of different Angelica roots, the chemical and biological properties of Angelica roots from different cultivated regions were compared. Roots of A. sinensis contained higher levels of ferulic acid, Z-ligustilide, and senkyunolide A, while high amounts of butylphthalide and Z-butylenephthalide were found in A. gigas roots. The extracts deriving from A. gigas roots showed better effects in osteogenic and estrogenic properties than that of A. sinensis from China. However, this difference was markedly reduced when the Angelica roots were being prepared in a Chinese herbal decoction together with Astragali Radix as Danggui Buxue Tang. In contrast, the herbal decoction prepared from A. sinensis roots showed better responses in cell cultures. In addition, the extracts of A. gigas roots showed strong cell toxicity both as single herb and as Danggui Buxue Tang. This result revealed the distinct properties of Angelica roots from China and Korea suggesting the specific usage of herb in preparing a unique herbal decoction. PMID:23476692

  2. Vascular Protective Role of Samul-Tang in HUVECs: Involvement of Nrf2/HO-1 and NO

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eun Sik; Lee, Yun Jung; Seo, Chang Seob; Yoon, Jung Joo; Han, Byung Hyuk; Park, Min Cheol; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2016-01-01

    Samul-Tang (Si-Wu-Tang, SMT), composed of four medicinal herbs, is a well-known herbal formula treating hematological disorder or gynecologic disease. However, vascular protective effects of SMT and its molecular mechanisms on the vascular endothelium, known as the central spot of vascular inflammatory process, are not reported. The aim of this study was to investigate vascular protective effects of SMT water extract in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Water extract of SMT was prepared and identified by HPLC-PDA analysis. Expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) were determined by western blot. Nuclear localization of NF-κB and Nrf2 was visualized by immunofluorescence and DNA binding activity of NF-κB was measured. ROS production, HL-60 monocyte adhesion, and intracellular nitric oxide (NO) were also measured using a fluorescent indicator. SMT suppressed NF-κB translocation and activation as well as expression of CAMs, monocyte adhesion, and ROS production induced by TNF-α in HUVECs. SMT treated HUVECs showed upregulation of HO-1 and NO which are responsible for vascular protective action. Our study suggests that SMT, a traditionally used herbal formula, protects the vascular endothelium from inflammation and might be used as a promising vascular protective drug. PMID:27366195

  3. Changes of Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Subtypes in Patients with End Stage Cancer Administered Localized Radiotherapy and Bojungikki-Tang

    PubMed Central

    Lee, A-Jin; Lee, Ho Jun; Kim, Jong-Dae; Jung, Hyun-Jung; Bae, Sung Hwa; Ryoo, Hun Mo; Kim, Sang-Gyung

    2014-01-01

    Localized radiotherapy (RT) can cause immune dysfunction. Bojungikki-tang is known to restore immune function. We investigated the absolute counts and percentages of peripheral blood (PB) lymphocyte subtypes in end stage cancer patients before and after RT and after oral administration of Bojungikki-tang water extract (BJITE) and to evaluate the changes mediated by RT and BJITE. Absolute counts and percentages of lymphocyte and lymphocyte subsets were determined in whole blood using the TetraONE System (Beckman Coulter, USA). Flow cytometry results were compared before and after RT and after administration of BJITE. Absolute numbers of CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells and CD19+ B cells decreased significantly after RT (P < 0.05). Absolute numbers of CD3-CD56+ cells did not change in both groups. No significant differences were observed in the absolute counts of lymphocyte subtypes before and after administration of BJITE or vitamin group. When BJITE group was compared with vitamin group, absolute numbers of CD19+ B cells increased. RT-induced decrease in T cells and B cells in PB suggests that immune deterioration occurs after RT. Administration of BJITE might be effective in the restoration of number of B cells. PMID:24696700

  4. Duhuo Jisheng Tang for treating osteoarthritis of the knee: a prospective clinical observation

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Jung-Nien; Chen, Huey-Jeng; Chen, Chao-Chung; Lin, Jer-Huei; Hwang, Jing-Shiang; Wang, Jung-Der

    2007-01-01

    Background Little scientific evidence supports the efficacy of herbal medicines in the treatment of degenerative arthritis of the knee. The purpose of this study is to evaluate both the efficacy and safety of a finished Chinese herbal preparation Duhuo Jisheng Tang (DJT) in reducing symptoms of degenerative osteoarthritis of the knee. Methods A prospective follow-up study was carried out in two hospitals in Taipei between April and October 2005. Sixty-eight osteoarthritis patients, with symptoms diagnosed by radiologists, received DJT at a rate of 2.5 g, twice daily for four weeks. Baseline scores were measured on the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) index, followed by further measures at the end of weeks 1, 2 and 4. The World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL) assessment was undertaken as a secondary outcome, with pattern identification questionnaires being adopted. Regression models were constructed to explore the score differences between the baseline and at weeks 2 and 4 by various determinants including age, gender, body mass index (BMI), severity at baseline, use of rescue medication, aversion to cold and flaccidity of the lower back and knees. Results Among the 68 participants, there were statistically significant reductions in the WOMAC index scores for pain, stiffness and physical functioning in the second and fourth weeks, with effects first appearing during week 2. By week 4, the mean WOMAC index scores had fallen from 22.2 (± 19.2) to 16.1 (± 16.2) for pain, from 28.1 (± 24.9) to 18.5 (± 20.3) for stiffness, and from 22.6 (± 18.0) to 18.2 (± 17.8) for physical functioning, while the global score for pain under the visual analogue scale (VAS) was reduced from 38.7 (± 21.5) to 27.8 (± 19.8). Conclusion In the treatment of degenerative osteoarthritis of the knee, a 4-week therapy with the Chinese herbal preparation DJT reduced pain and stiffness and improved physical functioning, but it was less effective

  5. Chronic administration of Liu Wei Dihuang protects rat's brain against D-galactose-induced impairment of cholinergic system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-Wei; Sun, Qi-Xin; Liu, Yin-Hui; Gao, Wei; Li, Yan-Hai; Lu, Kun; Wang, Zhuo

    2011-06-25

    This study was aimed to investigate the protective effect of Liu Wei Dihuang (LWDH) against D-galactose (D-gal)-induced brain injury in rats and the existence of sex-dependent differences in LWDH protection. Sixty-four rats evenly composed of males and females were randomly assigned into 4 groups (n = 8): normal saline (NS) + NS (N + N), NS + LWDH (N + L), D-gal + NS (D + N) and D-gal + LWDH (D + L) groups. Rats in D + N and D + L groups received daily injection of D-gal (100 mg/kg, s.c.) for six weeks to establish the aging model, while rats in N + N and N + L groups were injected with the same volume of NS. From the third week, rats in N + L and D + L groups were orally administered with a decoction of LWDH for subsequent six weeks. Rats in N + N and D + N groups were orally administered just with the same volume of NS simultaneously. Morris water maze test was employed to evaluate the ability of learning and memory of the rats in all the groups. Acetylcholine (ACh) content, activities of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in visual cortex were assayed. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining were used to observe the morphologic injury in hippocampus and visual cortex, and immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate ChAT and AChE expression levels in the visual cortex. The results showed that the rats in D + N groups exhibited a longer escape latency to platform, lower swimming speed, less percent of target quadrant search time and platform crossings, compared with N + N groups, suggesting the establishment of aging model, while LWDH improved these indexes in D-gal-treated rats. Compared with D + N groups, LWDH increased ACh content and ChAT activity, and decreased AChE activity in visual cortex. Remarkable loss of neurons was found in hippocampus and visual cortex of aging rats, and the injury was significantly attenuated by LWDH. Immunohistochemistry showed D-gal-induced decreases of ChAT and AChE expressions were restored by LWDH

  6. The WEI6K, a 6-kW 7-m Small Wind Turbine: Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wetzel, Kyle K.; McCleer, Patrick J.; Hahlbeck, Edwin C.; DOE Project Office - Keith Bennett

    2006-07-21

    This project was selected by the U.S. Department of Energy under a DOE solicitation “Low Wind Speed Technology for Small Turbine Development.” The objective of this project has been to design a new small wind turbine with improved cost, reliability and performance in grid-connected residential and small business applications, in order to achieve the overall DOE goal of cost effectiveness in Class 3 wind resources that can now be achieved in Class 5 resources. The scope of work for this project has been to complete the preliminary design of an improved small wind turbine, including preliminary loads and strength analyses; analysis and design of all major components; systems integration and structural dynamic analysis; estimation of life-cycle cost of energy; and design documentation and review. The project did not entail hardware fabrication or testing. The WEI6K Turbine resulting from this project is an upwind horizontal-axis wind turbine rated at 6 kW. It features a 3-blade 7-m diameter rotor. The generator is a direct-drive permanent magnet synchronous machine generating 3-phase power at 240 VAC. The turbine is maintained oriented in to the wind via active yaw control using electromechanical servos. Power is regulated with active blade pitch control. The turbine is presently designed to be placed on a 100-foot (30m) tower. The turbine is predicted to generate electricity at a levelized cost of energy (COE) between 7.3 and 8.9 ¢/kWh at an IEC Class II site, with an average wind speed of 8.5 m/s at hub height, depending upon whether the customer uses a guyed truss tower (the lower figure) or a monopole tower. For the NREL Reference Site, with a mean wind speed of 5.35 m/s at 10 m height, the turbine would generate at a levelized cost of energy of between 9.7 and 11.9 ¢/kWh. The lowest of these numbers is presently competitive with retail electricity rates in most of the country. The 8.9 ¢/kWh is still competitive with retail rates in many regions of the

  7. Modulatory Effect of Eui-E-In-Tang on Serum Leptin Concentration in Obese Korean Female Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yun-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Background. Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation and cytokines. However, to date, the relationship between the serum levels of cytokines in obese individuals and taking herbal drugs remains largely unexplored. Methods. Serum cytokines were assessed by multiplex cytokine profiling assay. Serum samples of obese female Korean adults (obese group; n = 20) as well as normal female Korean adults (normal group; n = 21) were collected at the start and end of study period. Twenty obese female Korean adults were randomized to receive Eui-E-In-Tang (Eui-E-In-Tang group; n = 9) at a daily dose of 9 g or a matched placebo (placebo group; n = 11) for 12 weeks. Results. According to investigating serum cytokine levels at the start point of this study, the serum C-peptide, insulin, leptin, lipocalin-2, and adipsin levels in the obese group were found to be significantly higher than in the normal group. And the investigation of serum cytokine levels at the end point of this study demonstrated that mean serum leptin of Eui-E-In-Tang group was found to be significantly reduced (P = 0.037). Conclusions. This study provides preliminary evidence that Eui-E-In-Tang may exert immunomodulatory effect via altering the circulating concentration of leptin in Korean female adults. PMID:27630731

  8. Modulatory Effect of Eui-E-In-Tang on Serum Leptin Concentration in Obese Korean Female Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yun-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Background. Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation and cytokines. However, to date, the relationship between the serum levels of cytokines in obese individuals and taking herbal drugs remains largely unexplored. Methods. Serum cytokines were assessed by multiplex cytokine profiling assay. Serum samples of obese female Korean adults (obese group; n = 20) as well as normal female Korean adults (normal group; n = 21) were collected at the start and end of study period. Twenty obese female Korean adults were randomized to receive Eui-E-In-Tang (Eui-E-In-Tang group; n = 9) at a daily dose of 9 g or a matched placebo (placebo group; n = 11) for 12 weeks. Results. According to investigating serum cytokine levels at the start point of this study, the serum C-peptide, insulin, leptin, lipocalin-2, and adipsin levels in the obese group were found to be significantly higher than in the normal group. And the investigation of serum cytokine levels at the end point of this study demonstrated that mean serum leptin of Eui-E-In-Tang group was found to be significantly reduced (P = 0.037). Conclusions. This study provides preliminary evidence that Eui-E-In-Tang may exert immunomodulatory effect via altering the circulating concentration of leptin in Korean female adults.

  9. Modulatory Effect of Eui-E-In-Tang on Serum Leptin Concentration in Obese Korean Female Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Song, Yun-Kyung; Lee, Ji-Young; Park, Wansu

    2016-01-01

    Background. Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation and cytokines. However, to date, the relationship between the serum levels of cytokines in obese individuals and taking herbal drugs remains largely unexplored. Methods. Serum cytokines were assessed by multiplex cytokine profiling assay. Serum samples of obese female Korean adults (obese group; n = 20) as well as normal female Korean adults (normal group; n = 21) were collected at the start and end of study period. Twenty obese female Korean adults were randomized to receive Eui-E-In-Tang (Eui-E-In-Tang group; n = 9) at a daily dose of 9 g or a matched placebo (placebo group; n = 11) for 12 weeks. Results. According to investigating serum cytokine levels at the start point of this study, the serum C-peptide, insulin, leptin, lipocalin-2, and adipsin levels in the obese group were found to be significantly higher than in the normal group. And the investigation of serum cytokine levels at the end point of this study demonstrated that mean serum leptin of Eui-E-In-Tang group was found to be significantly reduced (P = 0.037). Conclusions. This study provides preliminary evidence that Eui-E-In-Tang may exert immunomodulatory effect via altering the circulating concentration of leptin in Korean female adults. PMID:27630731

  10. A description of preimaginal stages of Pseudaspidapion botanicum Alonso-Zarazaga & Wang, 2011 (Apionidae, Curculionoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiliang; Alonso-Zarazaga, M. A.; Zhou, Dakang; Zhang, Runzhi

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The preimaginal stages including egg, mature larva and pupa of Pseudaspidapion botanicum Alonso-Zarazaga & Wang, 2011 were described and figured, diagnostic characters of larva and pupa were discussed, and corresponding biological information was supplied. The nomenclature of frontal setae in the larva compared with curculionid weevils, the absence of the hypopharyngeal bracon in the larva, and the metafemoral setae in the pupa were discussed. Common and different characters among the larvae of Pseudaspidapion botanicum, Aspidapion radiolus (Marsham, 1802) and Aspidapion aeneum (Fabricius, 1775) were also provided. PMID:23653504

  11. Sediment transport and decadal morphodynamic changes in the Tang Estuary with a Re-Migrating inlet, Iranian Coastline of the Oman Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosratpour, Behrouz; Amjadi, Soma; Haghshenas, S. Abbas

    2016-04-01

    The Tang Estuary located on the Iranian Coastline of the Oman Sea, The estuary's inlet is a rare re-migrating one which connects the Tang bay/estuary to the Oman Sea. The estuary experiences considerable floods and sediment load during occasional intense rainy periods. The upstream watershed supplies the narrow inlet channel with heavy sediment load twice a year on average. Moreover, a reef acts as a headland/natural offshore breakwater, which results in the formation of a tombolo in front of the estuary inlet. The most important feature of the system is the migration of the channel and the inlet which has occurred at least three times during the past 50 years. Considering the importance of this dynamic system and corresponding sediment discharge, physiography and watershed analysis of the Tang Estuary is investigated and sediment discharge from the channel and its sand content are estimated in the first step. A numerical model has been utilized to investigate cases of flow and sediment transport behaviour in the coastal Tang area and future migration patterns of the re-migrating inlet is estimated. The morphodynamic changes are investigated by analysing two sets of aerial photos taken in 1967 and 1993, a series of high resolution satellite images from 2008 and 33 series of lower resolution data in the period of 1966 to 2015 in a GIS framework to investigate decadal evolution of the Tang Estuary the past five decades. Eventually, numerical results are compared with field observations and comprehensive GIS based analysis of historic shoreline changes from aerial photos and satellite imagery. Management guidelines and suggestions are deducted and drawn from the calibration and verification of the results with field observations and satellite image analysis.

  12. Factors affecting domestic water consumption in rural households upon access to improved water supply: insights from the Wei River Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Fan, Liangxin; Liu, Guobin; Wang, Fei; Geissen, Violette; Ritsema, Coen J

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensively understanding water consumption behavior is necessary to design efficient and effective water use strategies. Despite global efforts to identify the factors that affect domestic water consumption, those related to domestic water use in rural regions have not been sufficiently studied, particularly in villages that have gained access to improved water supply. To address this gap, we investigated 247 households in eight villages in the Wei River Basin where three types of improved water supply systems are implemented. Results show that domestic water consumption in liters per capita per day was significantly correlated with water supply pattern and vegetable garden area, and significantly negatively correlated with family size and age of household head. Traditional hygiene habits, use of water appliances, and preference for vegetable gardening remain dominant behaviors in the villages with access to improved water supply. Future studies on rural domestic water consumption should pay more attention to user lifestyles (water appliance usage habits, outdoor water use) and cultural backgrounds (age, education).

  13. Farmer and retailer knowledge and awareness of the risks from pesticide use: a case study in the Wei River catchment, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaomei; Wang, Fei; Meng, Lei; Zhang, Wenshuai; Fan, Liangxin; Geissen, Violette; Ritsema, Coen J

    2014-11-01

    Monitoring the educational level of farmers and retailers on pesticide use would be useful to assess the appropriateness of information for reducing or/and avoiding the risks from pesticides in rural regions. The levels of knowledge and awareness of the dangers to the environment and human health were investigated by questionnaires for farmers (209) and retailers (20) in two rural regions (Qianyang County (S1) and Chencang County (S2)) of the Wei River catchment in China where the modes of farming and the state of erosion are very different. The results showed that farmers learned the use and dangers of pesticides mainly by oral communication (p<0.01). Protective measures were inadequate; 65% (S1) and 55% (S2) of farmers never used any protective measures during spraying (p<0.05). Washing hands (>70%) was the most common mode of personal hygiene, relative to wearing masks, showering, and changing clothes, but no significant differences were observed between the selected regions. Most pesticide wastes were dumped directly onto the land or into water, suggesting that educational measures should be taken to address the potential risks from the residues in the wastes. Over 85% of farmers (S1 and S2) claimed to use illegal pesticides, but the reasons for their use varied (p<0.01). Retailers were well-informed and highly conscious of their responsibility for the safe use of pesticides, especially in S2 (p<0.01). A canonical correspondence analysis indicated that educational level and age differed between the two regions and contributed greatly to the risks from pesticide use (p<0.01). Educational programmes targeted to age groups, proper disposal of pesticide waste, and sufficient supervision from authorities should consequently be considered for improving the levels of knowledge and awareness of the dangers of pesticides to human health and environmental pollution in the Wei River catchment, China.

  14. Improved prescription of taohechengqi-tang alleviates D-galactosamine acute liver failure in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yang; Luo, Jian-Xing; Hu, Xiao-Yu; Yang, Fang; Zhong, Sen; Lin, Wu

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the hepatoprotective effect of improved prescription of Taohechengqi-tang (IPTT) against acute liver failure (ALF) in rats. METHODS: Seventy specific pathogen free male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group (normal rats, n = 10), ALF group (ALF model, n = 20), Stronger Neo-Minophagen C (SNMC) group (ALF model + SNMC, n = 20), and IPTT group (ALF model + IPTT, n = 20). The ALF model group was administered an intraperitoneal injection of D-galactosamine (1.4 g/kg), and the control group received normal saline intraperitoneally. The SNMC and IPTT groups were treated with SMMC (15.6 mg/kg) or IPTT (28.6 g/kg) by gavage at 24 h intervals, and the ALF and control groups were treated with normal saline. At 36 h after injection, serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, albumin, and cholinesterase and prothrombin time were determined, and liver histopathological scores were observed by microscopy after hematoxylin and eosin staining. mRNA expression of high mobility group box (HMGB) 1, toll-like receptor (TLR) 4, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and caspase-3 were analyzed via fluorescence quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry in liver tissue was also performed. RESULTS: D-galactosamine notably decreased the biochemical and coagulation profiles in serum. IPTT not only improved liver function and histopathology but also normalized the gene expression levels in liver tissue. Compared with the model group, in the IPTT and SNMC groups, HMGB1 mRNA/β-actin (0.06 ± 0.03, 0.11 ± 0.04 vs 0.25 ± 0.04, P < 0.05); TLR4 mRNA/β-actin (0.07 ± 0.02, 0.22 ± 0.08 vs 0.41 ± 0.22, P < 0.05); NF-κB mRNA/β-actin (0.74 ± 0.41, 1.78 ± 0.64 vs 2.68 ± 1.35, P < 0.05); and caspase-3 mRNA/β-actin levels were all significantly reduced (1.61 ± 0.45, 2.57 ± 1.04 vs 3.41 ± 0.85, P < 0.05). The gene expression levels were

  15. Three-Dimensional MHD Modeling of The Solar Corona and Solar Wind: Comparison with The Wang-Sheeley Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Usmanov, A. V.; Goldstein, M. L.

    2003-01-01

    We present simulation results from a tilted-dipole steady-state MHD model of the solar corona and solar wind and compare the output from our model with the Wang-Sheeley model which relates the divergence rate of magnetic flux tubes near the Sun (inferred from solar magnetograms) to the solar wind speed observed near Earth and at Ulysses. The boundary conditions in our model specified at the coronal base and our simulation region extends out to 10 AU. We assumed that a flux of Alfven waves with amplitude of 35 km per second emanates from the Sun and provides additional heating and acceleration for the coronal outflow in the open field regions. The waves are treated in the WKB approximation. The incorporation of wave acceleration allows us to reproduce the fast wind measurements obtained by Ulysses, while preserving reasonable agreement with plasma densities typically found at the coronal base. We find that our simulation results agree well with Wang and Sheeley's empirical model.

  16. Calculation of the Curie temperature of Ni using first principles based Wang-Landau Monte-Carlo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenbach, Markus; Yin, Junqi; Li, Ying Wai; Nicholson, Don

    2015-03-01

    We combine constrained first principles density functional with a Wang-Landau Monte Carlo algorithm to calculate the Curie temperature of Ni. Mapping the magnetic interactions in Ni onto a Heisenberg like model to underestimates the Curie temperature. Using a model we show that the addition of the magnitude of the local magnetic moments can account for the difference in the calculated Curie temperature. For ab initio calculations, we have extended our Locally Selfconsistent Multiple Scattering (LSMS) code to constrain the magnitude of the local moments in addition to their direction and apply the Replica Exchange Wang-Landau method to sample the larger phase space efficiently to investigate Ni where the fluctuation in the magnitude of the local magnetic moments is of importance equal to their directional fluctuations. We will present our results for Ni where we compare calculations that consider only the moment directions and those including fluctuations of the magnetic moment magnitude on the Curie temperature. This research was sponsored by the Department of Energy, Offices of Basic Energy Science and Advanced Computing. We used Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility resources at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, supported by US DOE under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  17. Effects of traditional Chinese herbal medicine San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang on gastrointestinal motility in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Min Woo; Ahn, Tae Seok; Hong, Noo Ri; Jeong, Han-Sol; Jung, Myeong Ho; Ha, Ki-Tae; Kim, Byung Joo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang (SHXXT), a herbal product used in traditional Chinese medicine, on gastrointestinal (GI) motility in mice. METHODS: The in vivo effects of SHXXT on GI motility were investigated by measuring the intestinal transit rates (ITRs) using Evans blue in normal mice and in mice with experimentally induced GI motility dysfunction (GMD). RESULTS: In normal ICR mice, ITRs were significantly and dose-dependently increased by SHXXT (0.1-1 g/kg). GMD was induced by injecting acetic acid or streptozotocin intraperitoneally. The ITRs of GMD mice were significantly reduced compared to normal mice, and these reductions were significantly and dose-dependently inhibited by SHXXT (0.1-1 g/kg). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that SHXXT is a novel candidate for the development of a prokinetic agent that may prevent or alleviate GMD. PMID:25632184

  18. Banha-sasim-tang as an herbal formula for the treatment of functional dyspepsia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-center trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Functional dyspepsia (FD) is characterized by a high prevalence rate and no standard conventional treatments. Alternative therapies, such as herbal formulas, are widely used to treat FD. However, there are inadequate evidences regarding the safety and efficacy of these formulas. Moreover, the mechanisms by which herbal formulas act in the gastrointestinal tract are controversial. In traditional Korean medicine, Banha-sasim-tang has long been one of the most frequently prescribed herbal formulas for treating dyspepsia. The current study is designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Banha-sasim-tang for FD patients and to examine whether there will be a significant correlation between cutaneous electrogastrography recordings and dyspeptic symptoms in FD patients, and between changes in gastric myoelectrical activity and improvement in dyspeptic symptoms during Banha-sasim-tang administration. Methods This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial will be performed at two centers and will include a Banha-sasim-tang group and placebo group. Each group will consist of 50 FD patients. Six weeks of administration of Banha-sasim-tang or placebo will be conducted. During the subsequent 2 months, follow-up observations of primary and secondary outcomes will be performed. The primary outcomes are differences as measured on the gastrointestinal symptom scale, and the secondary outcomes are differences as measured on the visual analogue scale for dyspepsia and on the questionnaire for FD-related quality of life. All outcomes will be measured at baseline, at 2, 4, and 6 weeks of treatment, and at the 1 and 2 month follow-up. Cutaneous electrogastrography will be performed and assessed at baseline and at 6 weeks. Discussion This trial will provide evidence of the safety and efficacy of Banha-sasim-tang for the treatment for FD. Furthermore, based on the assessment of the relationship between cutaneous electrogastrography recordings and dyspeptic symptoms

  19. Yukmijihwang-tang for the treatment of xerostomia in the elderly: study protocol for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-center trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Xerostomia, a subjective sense of dry mouth, is not generally regarded a disease despite its high prevalence among the elderly, and therefore continues to impair affected patients’ quality of life. In traditional Korean medicine, ‘Yin-Deficiency’ has been implicated in the pathogenesis of xerostomia among the elderly. Yukmijihwang-tang is a famous herbal prescription used to relieve ‘Yin-Deficiency’, and reportedly has antioxidant effects; therefore, it is postulated that Yukmijihwang-tang can be used to treat xerostomia in the elderly. However, to our knowledge, no clinical trial has been conducted on the effects of Yukmijihwang-tang on xerostomia. Thus, we designed a randomized clinical trial to investigate the effects and safety of Yukmijihwang-tang on xerostomia in the elderly. In addition, we will clarify the aforementioned assumption that ‘Yin-Deficiency’ is the major cause of xerostomia in the elderly by identifying a correlation between xerostomia and ‘Yin-Deficiency’. Methods/Design This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial will be carried out at two centers: Kyung Hee University Korean Medicine Hospital and Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong. We will recruit 96 subjects aged 60-80 years who have experienced xerostomia for 3 months prior to participation. Subjects who present with score >40 on the visual analogue scale for xerostomia and unstimulated salivary flow rate under 0.3mL/min will be included and the randomization will be carried out by an independent statistician by using a random number creation program. The subjects and all researchers except the statistician will be blinded to the group assignment. Yukmijihwang-tang or placebo will be administered to each group for 8 weeks. The primary outcome is change in the scores for the visual analogue scale for xerostomia and the dry mouth symptom questionnaire from 0 to 8 weeks. Discussion It will be assessed whether Yukmijihwang-tang can be used as a

  20. All-atom simulation study of protein PTH(1-34) by using the Wang-Landau sampling method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seung-Yeon; Kwak, Wooseop

    2014-12-01

    We perform simulations of the N-terminal 34-residue protein fragment PTH(1-34), consisting of 581 atoms, of the 84-residue human parathyroid hormone by using the all-atom ECEPP/3 force field and the Wang-Landau sampling method. Through a massive high-performance computation, the density of states and the partition function Z( T), as a continuous function of T, are obtained for PTH(1-34). From the continuous partition function Z( T), the partition function zeros of PTH(1-34) are evaluated for the first time. From both the specific heat and the partition function zeros, two characteristic transition temperatures are obtained for the all-atom protein PTH(1-34). The higher transition temperature T 1 and the lower transition temperature T 2 of PTH(1-34) can be interpreted as the collapse temperature T θ and the folding temperature T f , respectively.

  1. Wang-Landau method for calculating Rényi entropies in finite-temperature quantum Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Inglis, Stephen; Melko, Roger G

    2013-01-01

    We implement a Wang-Landau sampling technique in quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations for the purpose of calculating the Rényi entanglement entropies and associated mutual information. The algorithm converges an estimate for an analog to the density of states for stochastic series expansion QMC, allowing a direct calculation of Rényi entropies without explicit thermodynamic integration. We benchmark results for the mutual information on two-dimensional (2D) isotropic and anisotropic Heisenberg models, a 2D transverse field Ising model, and a three-dimensional Heisenberg model, confirming a critical scaling of the mutual information in cases with a finite-temperature transition. We discuss the benefits and limitations of broad sampling techniques compared to standard importance sampling methods.

  2. Hepatospora eriocheir (Wang and Chen, 2007) gen. et comb. nov. infecting invasive Chinese mitten crabs (Eriocheir sinensis) in Europe.

    PubMed

    Stentiford, G D; Bateman, K S; Dubuffet, A; Chambers, E; Stone, D M

    2011-11-01

    We describe a microsporidian parasite infecting non-native Chinese mitten crabs (Eriochier sinensis) from Europe. Electron microscopy revealed merogonic and sporogonic life stages bound within a plasmalemma. The crab parasite develops polar tube precursors at the sporont stage but does not complete formation of the intact spore extrusion apparatus at the stage of the sporogonial plasmodium like Enterocytozoon bienuesi and other representatives of the Enterocytozoonidae. Its presence within an aquatic crustacean host, and a distinct molecular phylogeny based on partial small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequences also place it relatively close, though distinct to, existing genera within the Enterocytozoonidae. Consideration of morphological and phylogenetic characteristics of other hepatopancreas-infecting microsporidia from crustaceans suggests that certain ones (e.g. Enterospora canceri) are retained within the clade corresponding to the existing family Enterocytozoonidae, while others, including the parasite described here, may eventually be grouped in a sister taxon potentially of family rank. Based upon morphological and host similarity, it is likely that the parasite described here is the same as Endoreticulatus eriocheir (Wang and Chen, 2007), previously described from Chinese mitten crabs in Asia. However, using a combined taxonomic approach based upon morphological and phylogenetic data, we propose the formation of a new genus (Hepatospora) to replace the previous generic classification of the Asian parasite as Endoreticulatus. The microsporidian from the hepatopancreas of E. sinensis is named Hepatospora eriocheir (Wang and Chen, 2007) gen. et comb. nov. It is assumed that the parasite was introduced during initial invasions of this crab to Europe during the early 20th Century.

  3. Inter- and intra-annual variability of fluvial sediment transport in the proglacial river Riffler Bach (Weißseeferner, Ötztal Alps, Tyrol)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baewert, Henning; Weber, Martin; Morche, David

    2015-04-01

    The hydrology of a proglacial river is strongly affected by glacier melting. Due to glacier retreat the effects of snow melt and rain storms will become more important in future decades. Additionally, the development of periglacial landscapes will play a more important role in the hydrology of proglacial rivers. The importance of paraglacial sediment sources in sediment budgets of glacier forefields is increasing, while the role of glacial erosion is declining. In two consecutive ablation seasons the fluvial sediment transport of the river Riffler Bach in the Kaunertal (Tyrol/Austria) was quantified. The catchment area of this station is 20 km² with an altitudinal range from 1929 m to 3518 m above msl. The "Weißseeferner" glacier (2.34 km² in 2012) is the greatest of the remaining glaciers. An automatic water sampler (AWS 2002) and a probe for water level were installed were installed at the outlet of the catchment. In order to calculate annual stage-discharge-relations, discharge (Q) was repeatedly measured with current meters. Concurrent to the discharge measurements bed load was collected using a portable Helley-Smith sampler. Bed load (BL) samples were weighted and sieved in the laboratory to gain annual bed load rating curves and grain size distributions. In 2012, 154 water samples were sampled during 7 periods and subsequently filtered to quantify suspended sediment concentrations (SSC). A Q-SSC-relation was calculated for every period due to the high variability in suspended sediment transport. In addition, the grain size distribution of the filtered material was determined by laser diffraction analysis. In 2013, the same procedure was performed for 232 water samples which were collected during 9 periods. Meteorological data were logged at the climate station "Weißsee", which is located in the centre of the study area. First results show a high variability of discharge and solid sediment transport both at the inter-annual as well as at the intra

  4. [Genetic polymorphisms of Y-STR haplotypes in unrelated male blood donors from the surname of Li, Wang and Zhang population in Shenzhen].

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhi-Hui; Li, Qian; Wang, Da-Ming; Gao, Su-Qing; Zeng, Jian-Qiang

    2007-11-01

    To study the genetic polymorphisms of Y-chromosome-specific STR loci in Chinese of different surnames, 9 Y-STR loci were amplified by single fluorescent multiplex PCR and the PCR products were detected by using ABI PrismTM 3100 DNA Sequencer. Samples were randomly-selected from male blood donors in ShenZhen. These individuals, who were otherwise unrelated, had the most common surnames among Chinese as their surnames, namely Li, Wang or Zhang. There were 139 subjects with surname Li, 118 with surname Wang and 119 with the surname Zhang. In the Li population, a total of 126 haplotypes was found and 118 of them were unique, with a haplotype diversity 0.9974. In the Wang population, a total of 105 haplotypes was found and 94 of them were unique, with a haplotype diversity of 0.9953. In the Zhang population, a total of 101 haplotypes was found and 88 of them were unique, with a haplotype diversity of 0.9964. Our results indicated that the genetic polymorphisms of Y-STR haplotypes at these 9 loci in unrelated male individuals with Chinese surnames of Li, Wang or Zhang are highly polymorphic and showed no significant differences with our previous data of haplotype polymorphisms in unrelated male individuals from the Chinese ethnic Han population.

  5. Two Simple Approaches to Overcome a Problem with the Mantel-Haenszel Statistic: Comments on Wang, Bradlow, Wainer, and Muller (2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinharay, Sandip; Dorans, Neil J.

    2010-01-01

    The Mantel-Haenszel (MH) procedure (Mantel and Haenszel) is a popular method for estimating and testing a common two-factor association parameter in a 2 x 2 x K table. Holland and Holland and Thayer described how to use the procedure to detect differential item functioning (DIF) for tests with dichotomously scored items. Wang, Bradlow, Wainer, and…

  6. Prevalence of Pediculus humanus capitis among school girls of Chuang-Wei and Nan-Ao Districts in I-Lan County and Man-Chow District in Ping-Tung County, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chao, D; Liu, H Y; Fan, P C

    1981-03-01

    By using the naked eye examination and comb method, a field survey and combing collection of head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis) among school girls in three different area (Man-Chow, Nan-Ao and Chuang-Wei) of Taiwan were performed from July 1979 to February, 1980. The general infestation rate of head louse was 39.8% (or 998/2,509). In the primary schools, comparatively, the rate at Man-Chow (66.7%) was highest, the next at Nan-Ao (55.4%) and the lowest at Chuang-Wei (39.4%). While in the junior high schools, the rate was apparently higher at Nan-Ao (38.4%) than that at Man-Chow (15.6%) and Chang-Wei (12.0%). The highest rate in the primary schools was found in 3rd graders except at Chuang-Wei in 5th graders. The corresponding figure in the junior high schools was found in 1st graders except at Nan-Ao in 2nd graders. Of 774 infested girls studied, according to the number of lice per infested girl, the percentages of infestation in the 5 groups were: the very light (nits only) 54.5, light (1-10) 38.5, moderate (11-50) 6.5, heavy (51-100) 0.4 and very heavy (over 100) 0.1 respectively. Of 2,178 head lice examined, 53.0% was nymphs; 28.7% females; 18.2% males. The average number of head louse in each infested girl 6.2.

  7. XuefuZhuyu Tang exerts antitumor effects by inhibiting glioma cell metastasis and invasion via regulating tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianmin; Zhang, Ji; Huang, Liangwen; Zhu, Xuhong; Chen, Wei; Hu, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Background XuefuZhuyu Tang (XZT) is a traditional Chinese herb used for destagnation and is currently being used for oncotherapy. This study was intended to assess the effects of XZT on glioma along with its anticancer mechanism. Materials and methods U251 cells were divided into five groups: CNC (cells were cultured with normal saline), TSC (cells were treated with TaohongSiwu Tang [TST]), XSC (cells were treated with XZT), THC (cells were treated with homogenate of TST), and XHC (cells were treated with homogenate of XZT). The mRNA and protein expression of VEGF/VEGFR, CXCR4/CXCL12, and TIMP1/MMP9/MMP2 were measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting, respectively. Moreover, MTT assay, transwell assay, wound-healing assay, and flow cytometry were conducted to assess the cell viability, cell migration and invasion, cell motility, and cell apoptosis of U251 cells, respectively. In vivo, three mice models (group CNM, gavaging saline; group TSM, gavaging TST; group XZM, gavaging XZT) were constructed after establishing xenograft mice models. Then, models were examined using hematoxylin and eosin staining, RT-PCR, and Western blotting. Results In vitro, XZT significantly upregulated TIMP1 expression and downregulated the expression of VEGF, VEGFR, CXCR4, CXCL12, MMP9, and MMP2 in U251 cells (all P<0.05). In addition, XZT inhibited cell proliferation, invasion, and migration and induced cell apoptosis. In vivo, the average expression level of VEGF, CXCL12, MMP9, and MMP2 was downregulated in the XZM group compared with the control and TSM groups (all P<0.05). Tumor volumes in the XZM group were significantly lower than those in the CNM and TSM groups (all P<0.05). Conclusion XZT may suppress glioma growth and decrease expression levels of VEGF, CXCL12, MMP9, and MMP2. We speculate that XZT may be a potential therapeutic herb for curing glioma. PMID:27382298

  8. Particle-induced oxidative damage of indoor PM10 from coal burning homes in the lung cancer area of Xuan Wei, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Longyi; Hu, Ying; Wang, Jing; Hou, Cong; Yang, Yuanyuan; Wu, Mingyuan

    2013-10-01

    The lung cancer mortality rate in the rural area of the Xuan Wei, Yunnan, is among the highest in China, especially in women. In this paper, the coal-burning indoor and corresponding outdoor PM10 samples were collected at the Hutou village, representing the case of high lung cancer rate, and the Xize village, representing the case of low lung cancer rate. Plasmid scission assay was used to investigate the bioreactivity of the PM10. The inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was employed to investigate the trace element compositions of the PM10. The results showed that the oxidative damage caused by both indoor and outdoor PM10 at the Hutou village was obviously higher than that at the Xize village, with the indoor PM10 having higher oxidative damage than corresponding outdoors. Among all analyzed samples, the indoor night PM10 samples from the Hutou village have the highest oxidative capacity. The levels of total water-soluble elements had a higher level in the PM10 of the Hutou village than that of the Xize village. It is interesting that the levels of water-soluble As, Cd, Cs, Pb, Sb, Tl and Zn in PM10 had better positive correlation with DNA damage rates, implying that these elements in their water-soluble state should be one of the main factors responsible for the high oxidative capacity of PM10, thus possibly the higher lung cancer rates, at the Hutou village.

  9. JiaWeiDangGui Decoction Ameliorates Proteinuria and Kidney Injury in Adriamycin-Induced Rat by Blockade of TGF-β/Smad Signaling.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ming-Gang; He, Wei-Ming; Lu, Xun; Ni, Li; Yang, Yan-Yu; Chen, Lin; Xiong, Pei-Hua; Sun, Wei

    2016-01-01

    JiaWeiDangGui (JWDG) decoction has anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects, which is used widely for the treatment of various kidney diseases. In previous studies, we have found that JWDG decoction can reduce the quantity of proteinuria, but the mechanism was unknown. Here, we studied the protective effect of JWDG decoction in adriamycin-induced nephropathy on rat. JWDG decoction, at 10 mL/kg/d, 20 mL/kg/d, and 40 mL/kg/d, was orally administered daily for 12 weeks. Therapeutic effects and mechanisms were further examined. The kidney function related biochemical indexes were measured by automatic biochemistry analyzer. The pathomorphological changes were observed using light and transmission electron microcopies. The proteins expressions of podocin, nephrin, collagen IV, and fibronectin (FN) were examined by immunohistochemical staining, and key proteins involved in TGF-β/Smad signaling were evaluated by RT-PCR and western blotting. Compared with vehicle-treated controls, JWDG decoction decreased the quantity of proteinuria; reduced glomerulosclerotic lesions induced by ADR; and preserved the expression of podocin and nephrin. JWDG decoction also inhibited the expression of the collagen IV, FN, and fibrogenic TGF-β. Further studies revealed that inhibition of renal fibrosis was associated with the blockade of TGF-β/Smad signaling and downregulation of snail expression dose dependently. JWDG decoction prevents proteinuria production, podocyte dysfunction, and kidney injury in adriamycin nephropathy by inhibiting TGF-β/Smad signaling. PMID:27403197

  10. Changes of major tea polyphenols and production of four new B-ring fission metabolites of catechins from post-fermented Jing-Wei Fu brick tea.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yun-Fei; Chen, Jing-Jing; Ji, Xiao-Ming; Hu, Xin; Ling, Tie-Jun; Zhang, Zheng-Zhu; Bao, Guan-Hu; Wan, Xiao-Chun

    2015-03-01

    HPLC analysis of samples from four major fermentation procedures of Jing-Wei Fu brick tea showed that the level of major tea catechins epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and epicatechin gallate (ECG) dropped increasingly to about 1/3 in the final product. Phytochemical study of the final product led to the discovery of four new B-ring fission metabolites of catechins (BRFCs) Fuzhuanin C-F (1-4) together with three known BRFCs (5-7), six known catechins (8-13), five simple phenols (14-18), seven flavones and flavone glycosides (19-25), two alkaloids (26, 27), three triterpenoids (28-30) and one steroid (31). The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR, LC-HR-ESI-MS, IR, and CD spectra. Five compounds (16-18, 28, 29) were reported for the first time in tea. Possible pathways for the degradation of major tea catechins and the generation of BRFCs were also provided.

  11. Role of Peltigera rufescens (Weis) Humb. (a lichen) on imazalil-induced genotoxicity: analysis of micronucleus and chromosome aberrations in vitro.

    PubMed

    Türkez, Hasan; Aydin, Elanur; Sişman, Turgay; Aslan, Ali

    2012-07-01

    Imazalil (IMA), a commonly used fungicide in both agricultural and clinical domains, is suspected to produce very serious toxic effects on vertebrates. On the other hand, in recent years, a number of studies have suggested that lichens might be easily accessible sources of natural drugs that could be used as a possible food supplement. Extensive research is being carried out to explore the importance of lichen species, which are known to contain a variety of pharmacological active compounds. In this context, the anti-genotoxic effects of aqueous Peltigera rufescens (Weis) Humb. extracts (PREs) were studied against the genotoxic damage induced by IMA on cultured human lymphocytes using chromosomal aberrations (CAs) and micronucleus (MN) as cytogenetic parameters. Human peripheral lymphocytes were treated in vitro with varying concentrations of PREs (0, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 mg/L), tested in combination with IMA (336 mg/L). PREs alone were not genotoxic and when combined with IMA treatment, reduced the frequency of CAs and the rates of MNs. A clear dose-dependent decrease in the genotoxic damage of IMA was observed, suggesting a genoprotective role of P. rufescens extract. The results of the present study indicate that this plant extract per se do not have genotoxic potential but can minimize the genotoxicity of IMA on human lymphocytes in vitro. In conclusion our findings may have an important application for the protection of human lymphocyte from the genetic damage and side effects induced by agricultural and medical chemicals hazardous in people.

  12. JiaWeiDangGui Decoction Ameliorates Proteinuria and Kidney Injury in Adriamycin-Induced Rat by Blockade of TGF-β/Smad Signaling

    PubMed Central

    He, Wei-ming; Lu, Xun; Ni, Li; Yang, Yan-yu; Chen, Lin; Xiong, Pei-hua; Sun, Wei

    2016-01-01

    JiaWeiDangGui (JWDG) decoction has anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects, which is used widely for the treatment of various kidney diseases. In previous studies, we have found that JWDG decoction can reduce the quantity of proteinuria, but the mechanism was unknown. Here, we studied the protective effect of JWDG decoction in adriamycin-induced nephropathy on rat. JWDG decoction, at 10 mL/kg/d, 20 mL/kg/d, and 40 mL/kg/d, was orally administered daily for 12 weeks. Therapeutic effects and mechanisms were further examined. The kidney function related biochemical indexes were measured by automatic biochemistry analyzer. The pathomorphological changes were observed using light and transmission electron microcopies. The proteins expressions of podocin, nephrin, collagen IV, and fibronectin (FN) were examined by immunohistochemical staining, and key proteins involved in TGF-β/Smad signaling were evaluated by RT-PCR and western blotting. Compared with vehicle-treated controls, JWDG decoction decreased the quantity of proteinuria; reduced glomerulosclerotic lesions induced by ADR; and preserved the expression of podocin and nephrin. JWDG decoction also inhibited the expression of the collagen IV, FN, and fibrogenic TGF-β. Further studies revealed that inhibition of renal fibrosis was associated with the blockade of TGF-β/Smad signaling and downregulation of snail expression dose dependently. JWDG decoction prevents proteinuria production, podocyte dysfunction, and kidney injury in adriamycin nephropathy by inhibiting TGF-β/Smad signaling. PMID:27403197

  13. The Dual Antimelanogenic and Antioxidant Activities of the Essential Oil Extracted from the Leaves of Acorus macrospadiceus (Yamamoto) F. N. Wei et Y. K. Li

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Huey-Chun; Wang, Hsiao-Fen; Yih, Kuang-Hway; Chang, Long-Zen; Chang, Tsong-Min

    2012-01-01

    The antimelanogenic and antioxidant activities of the essential oil extracted from the leaves of Acorus macrospadiceus (Yamamoto) F. N. Wei et Y. K. Li have never been explored. The essential oil effectively inhibited mushroom tyrosinase activity (EC50 = 1.57 mg/mL) and B16F10 tyrosinase activity (IC50 = 1.01 mg/mL), decreased the melanin content (EC50 = 1.04 mg/mL), and depleted the cellular level of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) (EC50 = 1.87 mg/mL). The essential oil effectively scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) (EC50 = 0.121 mg/mL) and 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) ABTS+ radicals (EC50 = 0.122 mg/mL). It also exhibited an apparent reducing power (EC50 = 0.021 mg/mL) and metal-ion chelating activity (EC50 = 0.029 mg/mL). The chemical constituents of the essential oil are ethers (55.73%), ketones (19.57%), monoterpenes (7.82%), alcohols (3.85%), esters (3.77%), sesquiterpenes (3.72%), and aromatic compounds (2.85%). The results confirm that A. macrospadiceus essential oil is a natural antioxidant and inhibitor of melanogenesis. PMID:23304214

  14. Changes of major tea polyphenols and production of four new B-ring fission metabolites of catechins from post-fermented Jing-Wei Fu brick tea.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yun-Fei; Chen, Jing-Jing; Ji, Xiao-Ming; Hu, Xin; Ling, Tie-Jun; Zhang, Zheng-Zhu; Bao, Guan-Hu; Wan, Xiao-Chun

    2015-03-01

    HPLC analysis of samples from four major fermentation procedures of Jing-Wei Fu brick tea showed that the level of major tea catechins epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and epicatechin gallate (ECG) dropped increasingly to about 1/3 in the final product. Phytochemical study of the final product led to the discovery of four new B-ring fission metabolites of catechins (BRFCs) Fuzhuanin C-F (1-4) together with three known BRFCs (5-7), six known catechins (8-13), five simple phenols (14-18), seven flavones and flavone glycosides (19-25), two alkaloids (26, 27), three triterpenoids (28-30) and one steroid (31). The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR, LC-HR-ESI-MS, IR, and CD spectra. Five compounds (16-18, 28, 29) were reported for the first time in tea. Possible pathways for the degradation of major tea catechins and the generation of BRFCs were also provided. PMID:25306324

  15. Anti-apoptotic effect of San Huang Shel Shin Tang cyclodextrin complex (SHSSTc) on CCl4 -induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng-Hsun; Ting, Wei-Jen; Shen, Chia-Yao; Hsu, Hsi-Hsien; Lin, Yueh-Min; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Tsai, Chang-Hai; Tsai, Yuhsin; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2016-06-01

    The metabolic loading is heavier in liver especially when injured or inflammation. San Huang Shel Shin Tang (SHSST) was an old traditional herbal decoction, which composed with Rheum officinale Baill, Scutellaria baicalnsis Geprgi and Coptis chinensis Franch (1:1:2 in weight), can provide a liver protection effects. We used a beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) drug modification method in reduce of the necessary dose of the SHSST. As the results, the FAS-FADD expressions leaded apoptosis in CCl4 intraperitoneal (IP) injection induced acute liver injury in rats. Silymarin, baicalein, SHSST, and SHSST β-CD complex (SHSSTc) pretreatments protected liver through the decreasing of the expressions of FAS-FADD and downstream caspase-3 and caspase-8. Particularly, SHSSTc (30 mg/kg day) treatment enhanced cell survival pathway activation through the PI3K, Akt and Bad phosphorylation. Compared with SHSST as well as silymarin and baicalein, SHSSTc provided a magnificent liver protection effect, especially in survival pathway activation/TUNEL-apoptotic cell reduction/serum cholesterol level suppression. All these data suggested that β-CD complex modified the SHSST and promoted the bioavailability and liver protection effects. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 663-670, 2016.

  16. Anti-allergic effects of So-Cheong-Ryong-Tang in ovalbumin-induced allergic rhinitis model.

    PubMed

    Ku, Jin Mo; Hong, Se Hyang; Kim, Soon Re; Choi, Han-Seok; Seo, Hye Sook; Jang, Bo-Hyoung; Ko, Seong-Gyu; Shin, Yong Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is an allergic inflammation of the nasal airways. The Korean herbal medicine, So-Cheong-Ryong-Tang (SCRT) has been typically used for the treatment of AR for hundreds of years. In the present study, we investigated whether SCRT suppresses the progression of AR in animal model. AR was induced by ovalbumin (OVA). Treatment with SCRT was assessed to study the effect of SCRT on AR in mice. Histological analysis, multiplex cytokine assay, blood analysis, cell viability assay, RT-PCR and Elisa assay were performed to verify inhibitory effect of SCRT on AR. SCRT reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells into nasal cavity. SCRT reduced infiltration of mast cells into nasal mucosa. SCRT reduced the levels of cytokines (IL-4 and LIF) in the serum. SCRT reduced the levels of leukocytes in the blood. SCRT decreased cell viability of HMC-1 cells and splenocyte. SCRT suppressed IL-4 level in HMC-1 cells and splenocyte cells in a dose-dependent manner. SCRT suppressed IL-6 level and TNF-α level in splenocyte. SCRT suppresses the progression of AR induced by OVA. SCRT might be a useful drug for the treatment of AR.

  17. Hyeonggaeyeongyo-Tang for Treatment of Allergic and Nonallergic Rhinitis: A Prospective, Nonrandomized, Pre-Post Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Hyeonggaeyeongyo-tang (HYT) is an ancient formula of oriental medicine traditionally used to treat rhinitis; however, clinical evidence has not yet been established. The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term and long-term efficacy and safety of HYT for chronic rhinitis. Adult subjects with chronic rhinitis symptoms were recruited. The subjects received HYT for 4 weeks and had follow-up period of 8 weeks. Any medicines used to treat nasal symptoms were not permitted during the study. The skin prick test was performed to distinguish the subjects with allergic rhinitis from those with nonallergic rhinitis. After treatment, the total nasal symptoms score and the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire score significantly improved in the whole subject group, in the allergic rhinitis group, and in the nonallergic rhinitis group, with no adverse events. This improvement lasted during a follow-up period of 8 weeks. Total IgE and eosinophil levels showed no significant difference after treatment in the allergic rhinitis group. HYT improved nasal symptoms and quality of life in patients with allergic rhinitis and nonallergic rhinitis. This is the first clinical study to evaluate the use of HYT to treat patients with rhinitis. This trial has been registered with the ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT02477293. PMID:27698676

  18. Subacute Oral Toxicity of Yukmijiwhang-Tang in Crl:CD Sprague-Dawley Rats and Its Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Chang-Seob; Huh, Jung-Im; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2014-01-01

    Background. The traditional herbal formula Yukmijiwhang-tang (YMJ) consists of six medicinal herbs and has been used to treat dysuria, diabetic mellitus, and neurosis in Korea, China, and Japan. Here we report safety information on its subacute toxicity and the cytotoxicity. Methods. YMJ extract was administered to SD rats at various dosages for 4 weeks. We monitored clinical signs, mortality, body and organ weights, food intake, and hematological and serum biochemistry factors. For cytotoxicity testing, each cell line was treated with various concentrations of YMJ for 24 h. Results. YMJ treatment had no significant effects on changes in clinical signs, body weight, or food intake in male or female rats. In male rats, YMJ treatment decreased the absolute weights of the epididymides and serum Na levels. In female rats, YMJ significantly reduced the prothrombin time (PT) and serum creatine level. However, the changes were not severe and were considered to be in the normal physiological range for rats. The no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) was estimated to be 2000 mg/kg/day. YMJ extract did not exert any cytotoxicity against 23 tested cell lines. Conclusions. Our data provide scientific evidence on the safety of YMJ for potential development as a prescription drug. PMID:25431608

  19. Compositions, Formation Mechanism, and Neuroprotective Effect of Compound Precipitation from the Traditional Chinese Prescription Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chenze; Zhao, Rui; Yan, Wenqiang; Wang, Hui; Jia, Menglu; Zhu, Nailiang; Zhu, Yindi; Zhang, Yuzhong; Wang, Penglong; Lei, Haimin

    2016-01-01

    Compounds in the form of precipitation (CFP) are universally formed during the decocting of Chinese prescriptions, such as Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang (HLJDT). The formation rate of HLJDT CFP even reached 2.63% ± 0.20%. The identification by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS(n)) proved that the main chemical substances of HLJDT CFP are baicalin and berberine, which is coincident with the theory that the CFP might derive from interaction between acidic and basic compounds. To investigate the formation mechanism of HLJDT CFP, baicalin and berberine were selected to synthesize a simulated precipitation and then the baicalin-berberine complex was obtained. Results indicated that the melting point of the complex interposed between baicalin and berberine, and the UV absorption, was different from the mother material. In addition, ¹H-NMR integral and high-resolution mass spectroscopy (HR-MS) can validate that the binding ratio was 1:1. Compared with baicalin, the chemical shifts of H and C on glucuronide had undergone significant changes by ¹H-, (13)C-NMR, which proved that electron transfer occurred between the carboxylic proton and the lone pair of electrons on the N atom. Both HLJDT CFP and the baicalin-berberine complex showed protective effects against cobalt chloride-induced neurotoxicity in differentiated PC12 cells. It is a novel idea, studying the material foundation of CFP in Chinese prescriptions. PMID:27548137

  20. Suan Zao Ren Tang as an Original Treatment for Sleep Difficulty in Climacteric Women: A Prospective Clinical Observation

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Chia-Hao; Arnold, Christof K.; Chen, Yen-Hui; Lai, Jung-Nein

    2011-01-01

    Little scientific evidence supports the efficacy of herbal medicines in the treatment of women with sleep difficulty during the climacteric period. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Suan Zao Ren Tang (SZRT) in reducing the impact of sleep disturbance on climacteric women, as measured by Pittsburg sleep quality index (PSQI) and the World Health Organization quality of life (WHOQOL). Sixty-seven climacteric women with sleep difficulty intending to treat received SZRT at a rate of 4.0 g, thrice daily for four weeks (MRS < 16, n = 34; MRS ≥ 16, n = 33). After taking into account potential confounding factors, the mean PSQI total scores had fallen from 13.0 (±2.9) to 9.0 (±3.2) (95% confidence interval −4.93, −3.10). Further analyses showed that SZRT produced superior benefit of daytime dysfunction in women with severe menopausal symptoms (MRS ≥ 16). There were three of the withdrawals involved treatment-related adverse events (stomachache, diarrhea, and dizziness). Excluding women with a past history of stomachache, diarrhea, or dizziness, four weeks of therapy with SZRT appears to be a relatively safe and effective short-term therapeutic option in improving daytime function of climacteric women with poor sleep quality. PMID:21660310

  1. Hydrolysis of Glycosidic Flavonoids during the Preparation of Danggui Buxue Tang: An Outcome of Moderate Boiling of Chinese Herbal Mixture.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wendy Li; Chen, Jian-Ping; Lam, Kelly Yin-Ching; Zhan, Janis Ya-Xian; Yao, Ping; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung

    2014-01-01

    Chemical change during boiling of herbal mixture is a puzzle. By using Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT), a herbal decoction that contains Astragali Radix (AR) and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR), we developed a model in analyzing the hydrolysis of flavonoid glycosides during the boiling of herbal mixture in water. A proper preparation of DBT is of great benefit to the complete extraction of bioactive ingredients. Boiling of DBT in water increased the solubility of AR-derived astragaloside IV, calycosin, formononetin, calycosin-7-O- β -D-glucoside, and ononin in a time- and temperature-dependent manner: the amounts of these chemicals reached a peak at 2 h. The glycosidic resides of AR, calycosin-7-O- β -D-glucoside, and ononin could be hydrolyzed during the moderate boiling process to form calycosin and formononetin, respectively. The hydrolysis efficiency was strongly affected by pH, temperature, and amount of herbs. Interestingly, the preheated herbs were not able to show this hydrolytic activity. The current results supported the rationality of ancient preparation of DBT in boiling water by moderate heat.

  2. Anti-diabetic effect of Wen-pi-tang-Hab-Wu-ling-san extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hyo Won; Jung, Jin Ki; Ramalingam, Mahesh; Yoon, Cheol-Ho; Bae, Hyo Sang; Park, Yong-Ki

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Wen-pi-tang-Hab-Wu-ling-san (WHW) is an oriental herbal prescription formulated using 14 herbs and has been used to cure chronic renal failure in Korean oriental medicine. In this study, we investigated the anti-diabetic effect of WHW in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ, 60 mg/kg, i.p.) in rats. WHW extract (100 mg/kg) was orally dosed once a day for four weeks. The results were compared with standard antidiabetic drug, glibenclamide (3 mg/kg, p.o). Results: Significant decrease in body weight and insulin levels and increase in blood glucose, triglycerides, urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine were detected in STZ-induced diabetic rats with disruption and disappearance of pancreatic and kidney cells and decrease in insulin producing beta cells. However, these diabetic changes were significantly inhibited by treatment with WHW extract. In the oral glucose tolerance test, the extract produced a significant decrease in glycemia 60 minutes after the glucose pulse. Conclusions: Based on these results, we suggest that WHW extract has favorable effects in protecting the STZ-induced hyperglycemia, renal damage, and beta-cell damage in rats. PMID:22345879

  3. Du-Huo-Ji-Sheng-Tang Attenuates Inflammation of TNF-Tg Mice Related to Promoting Lymphatic Drainage Function

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan; Li, Jinlong; Li, Qiang; Wang, Tengteng; Xing, Lianping; Xu, Hao; Wang, Yongjun; Shi, Qi; Zhou, Quan; Liang, Qianqian

    2016-01-01

    To investigate whether Du-Huo-Ji-Sheng-Tang (DHJST) attenuate inflammation of RA related to lymphatic drainage function in vivo, we treated eight 3-month-old TNF-Tg mice with DHJST (12 g/kg) or the same volume of physiological saline once every day for 12 weeks, and 3-month-old WT littermates were used as negative control. After twelve weeks, we performed NIR-ICG imaging and found that DHJST increased the ICG clearance at the footpad and the pulse of efferent lymphatic vessel between popliteal lymph node and footpad. Histology staining at ankle joints showed that DHJST decreases synovial inflammation, bone erosion, cartilage erosion, and TRAP+ osteoclast area in TNF-Tg mice. Immunohistochemical staining by using anti-Lyve-1 and anti-podoplanin antibody showed that DHJST stimulated lymphangiogenesis in ankle joints of TNF-Tg mice. And zebrafish study suggested that DHJST promoted the formation of lymphatic thoracic duct. In conclusion, DHJST inhibits inflammation severity and promotes lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic drainage function of TNF-Tg mice. PMID:27239212

  4. Chemomics-Integrated Proteomics Analysis of Jie-Geng-Tang to Ameliorate Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Jin; Nie, Yan; Ma, Xiaoyao; Ding, Guoyu; Gao, Jie; Jiang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Jie-Geng-Tang (JGT), a classic and famous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription composed of Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq.) A. DC. (PG) and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. (GU), is well known for “clearing heat and relieving toxicity” and its ability to “diffuse the lung and relieve sore throat.” However, the mechanism underlying its action remains unclear. In this study, potential anti-inflammatory ingredients were screened and submitted to PharmMapper and the KEGG bioinformatics website to predict the target proteins and related pathways, respectively. Differentially expressed candidate proteins from acute lung injury (ALI) mice treated with JGT were identified by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) and LC Triple-TOF. Eleven potential anti-inflammatory ingredients were found, including the derivatives of glycyrrhizic acid, licorice-saponin, liquiritin, and platycodigenin. A total of sixty-seven differentially expressed proteins were confirmed after JGT treatment with four therapeutic functions, including immunoregulation, anti-inflammation, ribosome, and muscle contraction. PG and GU comediate PI3K/Akt signal pathway inhibition of NF-κB, VCAM1, and ICAM1 release which primarily act on PI3K, PDK1, AKT, and GSK3β. GU markedly inhibits the ERK/MAPK signaling pathways and primarily acts on LCK, RAS, and MEK. A network was constructed using bioactive ingredients, targets, and pathways to determine the mechanism underlying JGT treatment of ALI. PMID:27579049

  5. Anti-adipogenic and antioxidant effects of the traditional Korean herbal formula Samchulgeonbi-tang: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Sae-Rom; Seo, Chang-Seob; Kim, Ohn-Soon; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo; Jeong, Soo-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Here we report in vitro anti-adipogenic and antioxidant effects of Samchulgeonbi-tang (SCGBT), a traditional Korean herbal formula. Methods: 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated into adipocytes with or without SCGBT. After differentiation, we measured Oil Red O staining, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity and leptin production. In addition, its effect on scavenging activities of 2,2’-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 2,2’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals in in vitro systems. Results: In differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, SCGBT significantly inhibited lipid accumulation and triglyceride production, and mediated inactivation of GPDH, a major enzyme in the process of adipogenesis. Consistent with this, SCGBT stimulation significantly decreased the amount of leptin in 3T3-L1 adipose cells. Furthermore, SCGBT enhanced the scavenging activities on ABTS and DPPH radicals. The generation of malondialdehyde (MDA) during low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation was significantly reduced by SCGBT treatment. Of interest, SCGBT extract inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Conclusion: Overall, our findings suggest that SCGBT has the potential for anti-adipogenic activity and antioxidant properties. PMID:26309521

  6. Hyeonggaeyeongyo-Tang for Treatment of Allergic and Nonallergic Rhinitis: A Prospective, Nonrandomized, Pre-Post Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Hyeonggaeyeongyo-tang (HYT) is an ancient formula of oriental medicine traditionally used to treat rhinitis; however, clinical evidence has not yet been established. The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term and long-term efficacy and safety of HYT for chronic rhinitis. Adult subjects with chronic rhinitis symptoms were recruited. The subjects received HYT for 4 weeks and had follow-up period of 8 weeks. Any medicines used to treat nasal symptoms were not permitted during the study. The skin prick test was performed to distinguish the subjects with allergic rhinitis from those with nonallergic rhinitis. After treatment, the total nasal symptoms score and the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire score significantly improved in the whole subject group, in the allergic rhinitis group, and in the nonallergic rhinitis group, with no adverse events. This improvement lasted during a follow-up period of 8 weeks. Total IgE and eosinophil levels showed no significant difference after treatment in the allergic rhinitis group. HYT improved nasal symptoms and quality of life in patients with allergic rhinitis and nonallergic rhinitis. This is the first clinical study to evaluate the use of HYT to treat patients with rhinitis. This trial has been registered with the ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT02477293.

  7. Chemomics-Integrated Proteomics Analysis of Jie-Geng-Tang to Ameliorate Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jin; Nie, Yan; Hou, Yuanyuan; Ma, Xiaoyao; Ding, Guoyu; Gao, Jie; Jiang, Min; Bai, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Jie-Geng-Tang (JGT), a classic and famous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription composed of Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq.) A. DC. (PG) and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. (GU), is well known for "clearing heat and relieving toxicity" and its ability to "diffuse the lung and relieve sore throat." However, the mechanism underlying its action remains unclear. In this study, potential anti-inflammatory ingredients were screened and submitted to PharmMapper and the KEGG bioinformatics website to predict the target proteins and related pathways, respectively. Differentially expressed candidate proteins from acute lung injury (ALI) mice treated with JGT were identified by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) and LC Triple-TOF. Eleven potential anti-inflammatory ingredients were found, including the derivatives of glycyrrhizic acid, licorice-saponin, liquiritin, and platycodigenin. A total of sixty-seven differentially expressed proteins were confirmed after JGT treatment with four therapeutic functions, including immunoregulation, anti-inflammation, ribosome, and muscle contraction. PG and GU comediate PI3K/Akt signal pathway inhibition of NF-κB, VCAM1, and ICAM1 release which primarily act on PI3K, PDK1, AKT, and GSK3β. GU markedly inhibits the ERK/MAPK signaling pathways and primarily acts on LCK, RAS, and MEK. A network was constructed using bioactive ingredients, targets, and pathways to determine the mechanism underlying JGT treatment of ALI. PMID:27579049

  8. Enhanced Bone Tissue Regeneration by Porous Gelatin Composites Loaded with the Chinese Herbal Decoction Danggui Buxue Tang

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen-Ling; Sheu, Shi-Yuan; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Kao, Shung-Te; Fu, Yuan-Tsung; Kuo, Tzong-Fu; Chen, Kuo-Yu; Yao, Chun-Hsu

    2015-01-01

    Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT) is a traditional Chinese herbal decoction containing Radix Astragali and Radix Angelicae sinensis. Pharmacological results indicate that DBT can stimulate bone cell proliferation and differentiation. The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of adding DBT to bone substitutes on bone regeneration following bone injury. DBT was incorporated into porous composites (GGT) made from genipin-crosslinked gelatin and β-triclacium phosphates as bone substitutes (GGTDBT). The biological response of mouse calvarial bone to these composites was evaluated by in vivo imaging systems (IVIS), micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), and histology analysis. IVIS images revealed a stronger fluorescent signal in GGTDBT-treated defect than in GGT-treated defect at 8 weeks after implantation. Micro-CT analysis demonstrated that the level of repair from week 4 to 8 increased from 42.1% to 71.2% at the sites treated with GGTDBT, while that increased from 33.2% to 54.1% at GGT-treated sites. These findings suggest that the GGTDBT stimulates the innate regenerative capacity of bone, supporting their use in bone tissue regeneration. PMID:26126113

  9. Effect of Sipjeondaebo-tang on cancer-induced anorexia and cachexia in CT-26 tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Choi, Youn Kyung; Jung, Ki Yong; Woo, Sang-Mi; Yun, Yee Jin; Jun, Chan-Yong; Park, Jong Hyeong; Shin, Yong Cheol; Cho, Sung-Gook; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2014-01-01

    Cancer-associated anorexia and cachexia are a multifactorial condition described by a loss of body weight and muscle with anorexia, asthenia, and anemia. Moreover, they correlate with a high mortality rate, poor response to chemotherapy, poor performance status, and poor quality of life. Cancer cachexia is regulated by proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF- α). In addition, glucagon like peptide-1 (GIP-1), peptide YY (PYY), ghrelin, and leptin plays a crucial role in food intake. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of one of the traditional herbal medicines, Sipjeondaebo-tang (Juzen-taiho-to in Japanese; SJDBT), on cancer anorexia and cachexia in a fundamental mouse cancer anorexia/cachexia model, CT-26 tumor-bearing mice. SJDBT was more significantly effective in a treatment model where it was treated after anorexia and cachexia than in a prevention model where it was treated before anorexia and cachexia on the basis of parameters such as weights of muscles and whole body and food intakes. Moreover, SJDBT inhibited a production of IL-6, MCP-1, PYY, and GLP-1 and ameliorated cancer-induced anemia. Therefore, our in vivo studies provide evidence on the role of SJDBT in cancer-associated anorexia and cachexia, thereby suggesting that SJDBT may be useful for treating cancer-associated anorexia and cachexia.

  10. Optimized Wang-Landau sampling of lattice polymers: ground state search and folding thermodynamics of HP model proteins.

    PubMed

    Wüst, Thomas; Landau, David P

    2012-08-14

    Coarse-grained (lattice-) models have a long tradition in aiding efforts to decipher the physical or biological complexity of proteins. Despite the simplicity of these models, however, numerical simulations are often computationally very demanding and the quest for efficient algorithms is as old as the models themselves. Expanding on our previous work [T. Wüst and D. P. Landau, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 178101 (2009)], we present a complete picture of a Monte Carlo method based on Wang-Landau sampling in combination with efficient trial moves (pull, bond-rebridging, and pivot moves) which is particularly suited to the study of models such as the hydrophobic-polar (HP) lattice model of protein folding. With this generic and fully blind Monte Carlo procedure, all currently known putative ground states for the most difficult benchmark HP sequences could be found. For most sequences we could also determine the entire energy density of states and, together with suitably designed structural observables, explore the thermodynamics and intricate folding behavior in the virtually inaccessible low-temperature regime. We analyze the differences between random and protein-like heteropolymers for sequence lengths up to 500 residues. Our approach is powerful both in terms of robustness and speed, yet flexible and simple enough for the study of many related problems in protein folding.

  11. Risky choice with heuristics: reply to Birnbaum (2008), Johnson, Schulte-Mecklenbeck, and Willemsen (2008), and Rieger and Wang (2008).

    PubMed

    Brandstätter, Eduard; Gigerenzer, Gerd; Hertwig, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    E. Brandstätter, G. Gigerenzer, and R. Hertwig (2006) showed that the priority heuristic matches or outperforms modifications of expected utility theory in predicting choice in 4 diverse problem sets. M. H. Birnbaum (2008) argued that sets exist in which the opposite is true. The authors agree--but stress that all choice strategies have regions of good and bad performance. The accuracy of various strategies systematically depends on choice difficulty, which the authors consider a triggering variable underlying strategy selection. Agreeing with E. J. Johnson, M. Schulte-Mecklenbeck, and M. C. Willemsen (2008) that process (not "as-if") models need to be formulated, the authors show how quantitative predictions can be derived and test them. Finally, they demonstrate that many of Birnbaum's and M. O. Rieger and M. Wang's (2008) case studies championing their preferred models involved biased tests in which the priority heuristic predicted data, whereas the parameterized models were fitted to the same data. The authors propose an adaptive toolbox approach of risky choice, according to which people first seek a no-conflict solution before resorting to conflict-resolving strategies such as the priority heuristic.

  12. Overcoming barriers in trajectory space: mechanism and kinetics of rare events via Wang-Landau enhanced transition path sampling.

    PubMed

    Borrero, Ernesto E; Dellago, Christoph

    2010-10-01

    Within the framework of transition path sampling (TPS), activation energies can be computed as path ensemble averages without a priori information about the reaction mechanism [C. Dellago and P. G. Bolhuis, Mol. Simul. 30, 795 (2004)]. Activation energies computed for different conditions can then be used to determine by numerical integration the rate constant for a system of interest from the rate constant known for a reference system. However, in systems with complex potential energy surfaces, multiple reaction pathways may exist making ergodic sampling of trajectory space difficult. Here, we present a combination of TPS with the Wang-Landau (WL) flat-histogram algorithm for an efficient sampling of the transition path ensemble. This method, denoted by WL-TPS, has the advantage that from one single simulation, activation energies at different temperatures can be determined even for systems with multiple reaction mechanisms. The proposed methodology for rate constant calculations does not require the knowledge of the reaction coordinate and is generally applicable to Arrhenius and non-Arrhenius processes. We illustrate the applicability of this technique by studying a two-dimensional toy system consisting of a triatomic molecule immersed in a fluid of repulsive soft disks. We also provide an expression for the calculation of activation volumes from path averages such that the pressure dependence of the rate constant can be obtained by numerical integration.

  13. Herb-Drug Pharmacokinetic Interaction of a Traditional Chinese Medicine Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San with 5-Fluorouracil in the Blood and Brain of Rat Using Microdialysis

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Meng-Hsuan; Chang, Li-Wen; Wang, Ju-Wen; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2015-01-01

    According to a survey from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD), Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San (JWXYS) is the most popular Chinese medicine for cancer patients in Taiwan. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a general anticancer drug for the chemotherapy. To investigate the herb-drug interaction of JWXYS on pharmacokinetics of 5-FU, a microdialysis technique coupled with a high-performance liquid chromatography system was used to monitor 5-FU in rat blood and brain. Rats were divided into four parallel groups, one of which was treated with 5-FU (100 mg/kg, i.v.) alone and the remaining three groups were pretreated with a different dose of JWXYS (600, 1200, or 2400 mg/kg/day for 5 consecutive days) followed by a combination with 5-FU. This study demonstrates that 5-FU with JWXYS (600 mg/kg/day or 1200 mg/kg/day) has no significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of 5-FU in the blood and brain. However, JWXYS (2400 mg/kg/day) coadministered with 5-FU extends the elimination half-life and increases the volume of distribution of 5-FU in the blood. The elimination half-life of 5-FU in the brain for the pretreatment group with 2400 mg/kg/day of JWXYS is significantly longer than that for the group treated with 5-FU alone and also reduces the clearance. This study provides practical dosage information for clinical practice and proves the safety of 5-FU coadministered with JWXYS. PMID:25861367

  14. Aqueous Extract of Shi-Liu-Wei-Liu-Qi-Yin Induces G2/M Phase Arrest and Apoptosis in Human Bladder Carcinoma Cells via Fas and Mitochondrial Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Ting-Tsz; Wang, Chau-Jong; Hung, Guang-Uei; Wu, Cheng-Hsun; Lee, Huei-Jane

    2011-01-01

    Shi-Liu-Wei-Liu-Qi-Yin (SLWLQY) was traditionally used to treat cancers. However, scientific evidence of the anticancer effects still remains undefined. In this study, we aimed to clarify the possible mechanisms of SLWLQY in treating cancer. We evaluated the effects of SLWLQY on apoptosis-related experiments inducing in TSGH-8301 cells by (i) 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-zyl)-2,5-diphenylterazolium bromide (MTT) for cytotoxicity; (ii) cell-cycle analysis and (iii) western blot analysis of the G2/M-phase and apoptosis regulatory proteins. Human bladder carcinoma TSGH-8301 cells were transplanted into BALB/c nude mice as a tumor model for evaluating the antitumor effect of SLWLQY. Treatment of SLWLQY resulted in the G2/M phase arrest and apoptotic death in a dose-dependent manner, accompanied by a decrease in cyclin-dependent kinases (cdc2) and cyclins (cyclin B1). SLWLQY stimulated increases in the protein expression of Fas and FasL, and induced the cleavage of caspase-3, caspase-9 and caspase-8. The ratio of Bax/Bcl2 was increased by SLWLQY treatment. SLWLQY markedly reduced tumor size in TSGH-8301 cells-xenografted tumor tissues. In the tissue specimen, SLWLQY up-regulated the expression of Fas, FasL and Bax proteins, and down-regulated Bcl2 as well as in in vitro assay. Our results showed that SLWLQY reduced tumor growth, caused cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in TSGH-8301 cells via the Fas and mitochondrial pathway. PMID:19383839

  15. Decision support system for integrated river basin management conflict assessment and resolution approaches for the Weiße Elster river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennrich, K. P.; Rode, M.; Hansjürgens, B.; Klauer, B.; Petry, D.

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of the EU water framework directive is to establish a good ecological status for inland surface waters, transition waters, groundwater and coastal waters until 2009. To achieve this goal a program of measures has to be defined in a management plan for each river basin. To date, methodological gaps exist regarding the scientific, economic and legal instruments available to implement the directive in Germany. The main aim of the project is to develop a decision support system for integrated river basin management based on a computer modelling system. Study area is the meso-scale river basin of the Weiße Elster river, flowing through three states, Thuringia, Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt. Currently, river basins in Germany are managed on a state level. Research is carried out in close cooperation with local authorities. In the context of the EU water framework directive scientific, economic, and legal methods and approaches will be coupled and developed further. The core of the decision support system is an object-oriented modelling system coupled with a multi-criteria analysis. The modelling system integrates water and substance transport as well as socio-economic forecasting models and methods. The system will be able to simulate and assess the scientific, economic and social effects of management measures. The results as well as interests of concerned stakeholders will be joined and evaluated in a subsequent multi-criteria analysis. Based on these results for decision support, programs of measures recognising interests of water management, industry, agriculture, politics and the public can be established in the management plans of the respective authorities.

  16. Vulcaniibacterium tengchongense gen. nov., sp. nov. isolated from a geothermally heated soil sample, and reclassification of Lysobacter thermophilus Wei et al. 2012 as Vulcaniibacterium thermophilum comb. nov.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tian-Tian; Zhou, En-Min; Yin, Yi-Rui; Yao, Ji-Cheng; Ming, Hong; Dong, Lei; Li, Shuai; Nie, Guo-Xing; Li, Wen-Jun

    2013-09-01

    A thermotolerant Gram-staining negative and aerobic bacterium, designated strain YIM 77520(T), was isolated from a geothermally heated soil sample collected at Rehai National Park, Tengchong, Yunnan Province, South-West China. Cells of the strain were found to be rod-shaped and colonies were light beige and circular. The strain was found to grow in the presence of 0-2 % (w/v) total salts (optimum, 0 %), at pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum, pH 7.0) and 25-55 °C (optimum, 45 °C). The only quinone detected was Q-8 and the genomic DNA G+C content was determined to be 66.9 mol%. The major fatty acids (>10 %) were identified as iso-C16:0 and iso-C15:0. The phospholipids were found to consist of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, five unknown phospholipids and three aminophospholipids. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain YIM 77520(T) was found to form a cluster with Lysobacter thermophilus YIM 77875(T) and showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to L. thermophilus YIM 77875(T) (96.0 %). These two strains formed a distinct lineage of the family 'Xanthomonadaceae'. On the basis of the morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, as well as genotypic data, a new genus, Vulcaniibacterium gen. nov. is proposed with Vulcaniibacterium tengchongense sp. nov. as the type species. The type strain of V. tengchongense sp. nov. is strain YIM 77520(T) (=DSM 25623(T) = CCTCC AB 2011152(T)). Furthermore we propose that L. thermophilus Wei et al. 2012 is reclassified in the new genus as Vulcaniibacterium thermophilum comb. nov. (type strain YIM 77875(T) = CCTCC AB 2012064(T) = KCTC 32020(T)) based on polyphasic data.

  17. Public health impact of disease-behavior dynamics. Comment on "Coupled disease-behavior dynamics on complex networks: A review" by Z. Wang et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Chad R.; Galvani, Alison P.

    2015-12-01

    In a loop of dynamic feedback, behavior such as the decision to vaccinate, hand washing, or avoidance influences the progression of the epidemic, yet behavior is driven by the individual's and population's perceived risk of infection during an outbreak. In what we believe will become a seminal paper that stimulates future research as well as an informative teaching aid, Wang et. al. comprehensively review methodological advances that have been used to incorporate human behavior into epidemiological models on the effects of coupling disease transmission and behavior on complex social networks [1]. As illustrated by the recent outbreaks of measles and Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), here we highlight the importance of coupling behavior and disease transmission that Wang et al. address.

  18. The effects of venting and decompression on Yellow Tang (Zebrasoma flavescens) in the marine ornamental aquarium fish trade

    PubMed Central

    Tissot, Brian N.; Heidel, Jerry R.; Miller-Morgan, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Each year, over 45 countries export 30 million fish from coral reefs as part of the global marine ornamental aquarium trade. This catch volume is partly influenced by collection methods that cause mortality. Barotrauma in fish resulting from forced ascent from depth can contribute to post-collection mortality. However, implementing decompression stops during ascent can prevent barotrauma. Conversely, venting (puncturing the swim bladder to release expanded internal gas) following ascent can mitigate some signs of barotrauma like positive buoyancy. Here, we evaluate how decompression and venting affect stress and mortality in the Yellow Tang (Zebrasoma flavescens). We examined the effects of three ascent treatments, each with decompression stops of varying frequency and duration, coupled with or without venting, on sublethal effects and mortality using histology and serum cortisol measurements. In fish subjected to ascent without decompression stops or venting, a mean post-collection mortality of 6.2% occurred within 24 h of capture. Common collection methods in the fishery, ascent without decompression stops coupled with venting, or one long decompression stop coupled with venting, resulted in no mortality. Histopathologic examination of heart, liver, head kidney, and swim bladder tissues in fish 0d and 21d post-collection revealed no significant barotrauma- or venting-related lesions in any treatment group. Ascent without decompression stops resulted in significantly higher serum cortisol than ascent with many stops, while venting alone did not affect cortisol. Future work should examine links in the supply chain following collection to determine if further handling and transport stressors affect survivorship and sublethal effects. PMID:25737809

  19. Shape Variation in Aterian Tanged Tools and the Origins of Projectile Technology: A Morphometric Perspective on Stone Tool Function

    PubMed Central

    Iovita, Radu

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent findings suggest that the North African Middle Stone Age technocomplex known as the Aterian is both much older than previously assumed, and certainly associated with fossils exhibiting anatomically modern human morphology and behavior. The Aterian is defined by the presence of ‘tanged’ or ‘stemmed’ tools, which have been widely assumed to be among the earliest projectile weapon tips. The present study systematically investigates morphological variation in a large sample of Aterian tools to test the hypothesis that these tools were hafted and/or used as projectile weapons. Methodology/Principal Findings Both classical morphometrics and Elliptical Fourier Analysis of tool outlines are used to show that the shape variation in the sample exhibits size-dependent patterns consistent with a reduction of the tools from the tip down, with the tang remaining intact. Additionally, the process of reduction led to increasing side-to-side asymmetries as the tools got smaller. Finally, a comparison of shape-change trajectories between Aterian tools and Late Paleolithic arrowheads from the North German site of Stellmoor reveal significant differences in terms of the amount and location of the variation. Conclusions/Significance The patterns of size-dependent shape variation strongly support the functional hypothesis of Aterian tools as hafted knives or scrapers with alternating active edges, rather than as weapon tips. Nevertheless, the same morphological patterns are interpreted as one of the earliest evidences for a hafting modification, and for the successful combination of different raw materials (haft and stone tip) into one implement, in itself an important achievement in the evolution of hominin technologies. PMID:22216161

  20. Activity-dependent branching ratios in stocks, solar x-ray flux, and the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Elliot; Shreim, Amer; Paczuski, Maya

    2010-01-01

    We define an activity-dependent branching ratio that allows comparison of different time series Xt . The branching ratio bx is defined as bx=E[ξx/x] . The random variable ξx is the value of the next signal given that the previous one is equal to x , so ξx={Xt+1∣Xt=x} . If bx>1 , the process is on average supercritical when the signal is equal to x , while if bx<1 , it is subcritical. For stock prices we find bx=1 within statistical uncertainty, for all x , consistent with an “efficient market hypothesis.” For stock volumes, solar x-ray flux intensities, and the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld (BTW) sandpile model, bx is supercritical for small values of activity and subcritical for the largest ones, indicating a tendency to return to a typical value. For stock volumes this tendency has an approximate power-law behavior. For solar x-ray flux and the BTW model, there is a broad regime of activity where bx≃1 , which we interpret as an indicator of critical behavior. This is true despite different underlying probability distributions for Xt and for ξx . For the BTW model the distribution of ξx is Gaussian, for x sufficiently larger than 1, and its variance grows linearly with x . Hence, the activity in the BTW model obeys a central limit theorem when sampling over past histories. The broad region of activity where bx is close to one disappears once bulk dissipation is introduced in the BTW model—supporting our hypothesis that it is an indicator of criticality.

  1. Changes in urinary Cu, Zn, and Se levels in cancer patients after treatment with Sha Shen Mai Men Dong Tang

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Tung-Yuan; Kuo, Hsien-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Sha Shen Mai Men Dong Tang (SMD-2; 沙參麥冬湯 shā shēn mài dōng tāng) is a Chinese medicinal herb (CMH; 中草藥 zhōng cǎo yào) used to treat symptoms associated with cancer therapy. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of SMD-2 on the levels of urinary copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and selenium (Se) in lung cancer patients and head and neck cancer patients receiving chemoradiotherapy. Forty-two head and neck cancer patients and 10 lung cancer patients participated in our clinical trial. Each patient received chemoradiotherapy for 4 weeks. In addition, each patient was treated with SMD-2 for 8 weeks, including 2 weeks prior to and after the chemoradiotherapy treatment. Comparison of urinary Cu, Zn, and Se levels and the ratios of Zn to Cu and Se to Cu at three time points in the two types of cancer were assessed using the generalized estimating equations (GEEs). After the patients received chemoradiotherapy for 4 weeks, SMD-2 treatment was found to be associated with a significant decrease in urinary Cu levels, whereas urinary Zn and Se levels increased significantly. In addition, the ratios of Zn to Cu and Se to Cu in the urine samples of these patients also increased significantly. Both the urinary Zn levels and the ratio of Zn to Cu in head and neck cancer patients were significantly higher than in lung cancer patients. Urinary Zn and Se levels and the ratios of Zn to Cu and Se to Cu, but not urinary Cu levels, increased significantly during and after treatment when assessed using the GEE model. The SMD-2 treatments significantly increased Zn and Se levels in the urine of head and neck cancer patients. Increased Zn and Se levels in urine strengthened immune system. PMID:27114935

  2. Yin-Chen-Hao Tang Attenuates Severe Acute Pancreatitis in Rat: An Experimental Verification of In silico Network Target Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Hong; Wang, Guijun; Qu, Jialin; Xia, Shilin; Tao, Xufeng; Qi, Bing; Zhang, Qingkai; Shang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Yin-Chen-Hao Tang (YCHT) is a classical Chinese medicine compound that has a long history of clinical use in China for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, the efficacy and mechanisms of YCHT for the treatment of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) are not known. The current study investigated the pharmacological properties of YCHT against SAP and its underlying mechanisms. A computational prediction of potential targets of YCHT was initially established based on a network pharmacology simulation. The model suggested that YCHT attenuated SAP progress by apoptosis inducement, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation and blood lipid regulation. These effects were validated in SAP rats. YCHT administration produced the following results: (1) significantly inhibited the secretion of pancreatic enzymes and protected pancreatic tissue; (2) obviously increased the number of in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells and induced apoptosis; (3) markedly inhibited neutrophil infiltration to the impaired pancreas and reduced the inflammatory reaction; (4) notably enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes and decreased the nitric oxide synthase levels; (5) significantly reduced the levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein and increased high-density lipoprotein; and (6) significantly up-regulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) and down-regulated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). In summary, these results demonstrated that YCHT attenuated SAP progress by inducing apoptosis, repressing inflammation, alleviating oxidative stress and regulating lipid metabolism partially via regulation of the NF-κB/PPARγ signal pathway. PMID:27790147

  3. Evaluating the Pharmacological Mechanism of Chinese Medicine Si-Wu-Tang through Multi-Level Data Integration

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Zhao; Lu, Bingxin; Liu, Mingyao; Zhang, Meixia; Yi, Zhenghui; Wen, Chengping; Shi, Tieliu

    2013-01-01

    Si-Wu-Tang (SWT) is a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formula widely used for the treatments of gynecological diseases. To explore the pharmacological mechanism of SWT, we incorporated microarray data of SWT with our herbal target database TCMID to analyze the potential activity mechanism of SWT's herbal ingredients and targets. We detected 2,405 differentially expressed genes in the microarray data, 20 of 102 proteins targeted by SWT were encoded by these DEGs and can be targeted by 2 FDA-approved drugs and 39 experimental drugs. The results of pathway enrichment analysis of the 20 predicted targets were consistent with that of 2,405 differentially expressed genes, elaborating the potential pharmacological mechanisms of SWT. Further study from a perspective of protein-protein interaction (PPI) network showed that the predicted targets of SWT function cooperatively to perform their multi-target effects. We also constructed a network to combine herbs, ingredients, targets and drugs together which bridges the gap between SWT and conventional medicine, and used it to infer the potential mechanisms of herbal ingredients. Moreover, based on the hypothesis that the same or similar effects between different TCM formulae may result from targeting the same proteins, we analyzed 27 other TCM formulae which can also treat the gynecological diseases, the subsequent result provides additional insight to understand the potential mechanisms of SWT in treating amenorrhea. Our bioinformatics approach to detect the pharmacology of SWT may shed light on drug discovery for gynecological diseases and could be utilized to investigate other TCM formulae as well. PMID:24223693

  4. Rapid HPLC Quantification Approach for Detection of Active Constituents in Modern Combinatorial Formula, San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang (SHXXT)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tung-Ying; Chang, Fang-Rong; Liou, Jing-Ru; Lo, I-Wen; Chung, Tang-Chia; Lee, Li-Yao; Chi, Chun-Chen; Du, Ying-Chi; Wong, Man-Hon; Juo, Suh-Hang Hank; Lee, Chun-Chen; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2016-01-01

    San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang (SHXXT), one of the most important traditional Chinese medicinal formulas, is comprised by three herbal medicines, the rhizome of Rheum officinale [or Rheum tanguticum (Polygonaceae) (Dahuang in Chinese)], the root of Scutellaria baicalensis (Labiatae) (Huangqin in Chinese), and the rhizome of Coptis chinensis (Ranunculaceae) (Huanglian in Chinese) in the ratios of 2:1:1 or 1:1:1. This study is aimed to quantitate and qualify of SHXXT, by a rapid, convenient, and effective HPLC-PDA approach associated with LC-MS technique. Of which method, nine chosen major bioactive components in SHXXT, including aloe-emodin (Ale), baicalin (Ba), berberine (Be), coptisine (Co), palmatine (Pa), resveratroloside (Res), rhein (Rh), sennoside A (Se-A), and wogonin (Wo), were evaluated within 30 min. The nine chemical markers were monitored in a high sensitivity with a low detection limit of 0.01−0.55 μg/mL and the correlation coefficient of the regression curve revealed a good linearity with R2 > 0.99. Moreover, the extraction solution system and the HPLC elution conditions were also optimized in the present study. This present developed protocol was then successfully applied to quantify nine chemical markers of 10 SHXXT products from eight Taiwanese TCM pharmaceutical companies. In quantitative results, Res was found as the major compound in SHXXT-1~5 and 8 with significantly higher amounts than those in other products, indicating the products SHXXT-1~5 and 8 may use R. tanguticum as the raw material, which possessed a higher concentration of the bioactive composition Res, instead of R. officinale. Simultaneously, Ale, Rh, and Wo were < 2% in these 10 products. Different chemical profiles of commercial products indicated that, probably, each product with the same named formula might be regarded as a sole medicine and need to be investigated individually. Importantly, it is never too much to emphasize the importance of quality control in TCM development. PMID

  5. The effects of venting and decompression on Yellow Tang (Zebrasoma flavescens) in the marine ornamental aquarium fish trade.

    PubMed

    Munday, Emily S; Tissot, Brian N; Heidel, Jerry R; Miller-Morgan, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Each year, over 45 countries export 30 million fish from coral reefs as part of the global marine ornamental aquarium trade. This catch volume is partly influenced by collection methods that cause mortality. Barotrauma in fish resulting from forced ascent from depth can contribute to post-collection mortality. However, implementing decompression stops during ascent can prevent barotrauma. Conversely, venting (puncturing the swim bladder to release expanded internal gas) following ascent can mitigate some signs of barotrauma like positive buoyancy. Here, we evaluate how decompression and venting affect stress and mortality in the Yellow Tang (Zebrasoma flavescens). We examined the effects of three ascent treatments, each with decompression stops of varying frequency and duration, coupled with or without venting, on sublethal effects and mortality using histology and serum cortisol measurements. In fish subjected to ascent without decompression stops or venting, a mean post-collection mortality of 6.2% occurred within 24 h of capture. Common collection methods in the fishery, ascent without decompression stops coupled with venting, or one long decompression stop coupled with venting, resulted in no mortality. Histopathologic examination of heart, liver, head kidney, and swim bladder tissues in fish 0d and 21d post-collection revealed no significant barotrauma- or venting-related lesions in any treatment group. Ascent without decompression stops resulted in significantly higher serum cortisol than ascent with many stops, while venting alone did not affect cortisol. Future work should examine links in the supply chain following collection to determine if further handling and transport stressors affect survivorship and sublethal effects. PMID:25737809

  6. Effects of Dang-Gui-Bu-Xue-Tang, an herbal decoction, on iron uptake in iron-deficient anemia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guan-Cheng; Chen, Shih-Yu; Tsai, Po-Wei; Ganzon, Jerome G; Lee, Chia-Jung; Shiah, Her-Shyong; Wang, Ching-Chiung

    2016-01-01

    Dang-Gui-Bu-Xue-Tang (DBT), a combination of Angelicae Sinensis Radix and Astragali Radix, is a widely used herbal decoction in traditional Chinese medicine primarily to promote or invigorate the "blood". In this study, we explored this ancient formulation and provide evidence of its blood-toning properties. We used the improvement iron uptake as promote or invigorate the "blood" indicator. Ferritin formation of Caco-2 cells in vitro assay and diet-induced anemia (DIA) in rat model were used to prove its improvement iron uptake and ameliorating effects. Finally, the iron-DBT interactions were measured by iron-binding assay. We first demonstrated DBT increased uptake of ferrous iron through the biosynthesis of ferritin by Caco-2 cells and determined which complementary treatment would provide optimum results. Thereafter, effects of the treatment on improving the bioavailability of absorbed iron in the form of hemoglobin (Hb) were established using a DIA-animal model. The results showed that DBT slightly improved Hb levels compared with the baseline Hb and pretreatment with DBT for 2 hours prior to supplementation with ferrous sulfate provided the greatest gain in Hb levels in DIA rats. However, DBT and ferrous sulfate were co-treated with Caco-2 cell or DIA rats, the ferritin formation and Hb levels both were decreased. In iron-binding assay, the DBT extract influenced the free Fe(II) type in the FeSO4 solution. Therefore, we suggest that complementary treatment with DBT and iron supplementation can have a strong ameliorating effect on iron-deficiency anemia in clinical settings, but needs a 2-hour interval of DBT administration prior to ferrous sulfate treatment.

  7. Ren Shen Yangrong Tang for Fatigue in Cancer Survivors: A Phase I/II Open-Label Study

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yichen; Chen, Yanzhi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: This open-label, prospective, phase I/II trial was performed to establish the safety and efficacy of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) herbal products for treating non–anemia-related fatigue in patients with cancer. Although this practice is widespread in China, it has not been confirmed in a prospective clinical study. Design: Thirty-three patients who had completed cancer treatment, had stable disease and no anemia, and reported moderate to severe fatigue (rated ≥4 on a 0–10 scale) were enrolled in a TCM outpatient clinic. Patients took Ren Shen Yangrong Tang (RSYRT) decoction, a soup containing 12 TCM herbs, twice a day for 6 weeks. RSYRT aims to correct qi deficiency. Fatigue was assessed before and after RSYRT therapy, which all patients completed. Results: No discomfort or toxicity was observed. Before the study, all patients had had fatigue for at least 4 months. Fatigue severity decreased significantly from before therapy to 6 weeks after therapy: from 7.06 to 3.30 on a 0–10 scale (p<0.001). Fatigue category (mild, moderate, severe) shifted significantly (p=0.024): Of 22 patients with severe fatigue (rated ≥7) before therapy, 11 had mild fatigue and 11 had moderate fatigue after TCM treatment. The time-to-fatigue-alleviation was 2–3 weeks. Conclusion: RSYRT therapy was safe and was associated with fatigue improvement in nonanemic cancer survivors, consistent with historical TCM clinical practice experience. Because of a possible placebo effect in this open-label study, decoction RSYRT warrants further study in randomized clinical trials to confirm its effectiveness for managing moderate to severe fatigue. PMID:25918996

  8. Utilization of gene expression signature for quality control of traditional Chinese medicine formula Si-Wu-Tang.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chen; Wang, Zhijun; Wang, Charles; Xu, Jun; Wen, Zhining; Wang, Haitian; Shi, Leming; Chow, Moses S S; Huang, Ying; Zuo, Zhong

    2013-07-01

    The current study utilized a combined pharmacokinetic and genomic approach to demonstrate the feasibility of a new quality control method by using a panel of special differentially expressed genes (DEGs) as unique fingerprint to serve as marker of in vivo bioactivity for a representative traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, Si-Wu-Tang (SWT). The method involves firstly obtaining possible in vivo active components, i.e., the "absorbable" components from the permeate of the Caco-2 monolayer model to simulate oral administration of two specific SWT products (CU-SWT, J-SWT), their component single herbs (Angelicae, Chuanxiong, Paeoniae, and Rehmanniae), and a standard mixture of active compounds (ferulic acid, ligustilide, senkyunolide A). Then, these respective absorbable components were incubated with MCF-7 cells to determine the gene expression profile using microarray processing/analysis as well as real-time PCR. From the available DEGs identified following the incubation, the magnitude of change in DEGs by real-time PCR was found to be consistent with that by microarray. The designated DEGs from the CU-SWT permeate were found to be distinct from other 19 products. Furthermore, the changes in the DEGs resulting from MCF-7 cells treated by eight replicate extracts of CU-SWT on three separate days were consistent. These results demonstrated sufficient specificity and consistency of the DEG panel which could serve as a unique bioactive "fingerprint" for the designated SWT product. The present method for DEG determination may be applied to other TCM products and with further definitive study can potentially provide a unique method for quality control of TCM in the future.

  9. Evaluating the pharmacological mechanism of Chinese medicine Si-Wu-Tang through multi-level data integration.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhao; Lu, Bingxin; Liu, Mingyao; Zhang, Meixia; Yi, Zhenghui; Wen, Chengping; Shi, Tieliu

    2013-01-01

    Si-Wu-Tang (SWT) is a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formula widely used for the treatments of gynecological diseases. To explore the pharmacological mechanism of SWT, we incorporated microarray data of SWT with our herbal target database TCMID to analyze the potential activity mechanism of SWT's herbal ingredients and targets. We detected 2,405 differentially expressed genes in the microarray data, 20 of 102 proteins targeted by SWT were encoded by these DEGs and can be targeted by 2 FDA-approved drugs and 39 experimental drugs. The results of pathway enrichment analysis of the 20 predicted targets were consistent with that of 2,405 differentially expressed genes, elaborating the potential pharmacological mechanisms of SWT. Further study from a perspective of protein-protein interaction (PPI) network showed that the predicted targets of SWT function cooperatively to perform their multi-target effects. We also constructed a network to combine herbs, ingredients, targets and drugs together which bridges the gap between SWT and conventional medicine, and used it to infer the potential mechanisms of herbal ingredients. Moreover, based on the hypothesis that the same or similar effects between different TCM formulae may result from targeting the same proteins, we analyzed 27 other TCM formulae which can also treat the gynecological diseases, the subsequent result provides additional insight to understand the potential mechanisms of SWT in treating amenorrhea. Our bioinformatics approach to detect the pharmacology of SWT may shed light on drug discovery for gynecological diseases and could be utilized to investigate other TCM formulae as well.

  10. The effects of venting and decompression on Yellow Tang (Zebrasoma flavescens) in the marine ornamental aquarium fish trade.

    PubMed

    Munday, Emily S; Tissot, Brian N; Heidel, Jerry R; Miller-Morgan, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Each year, over 45 countries export 30 million fish from coral reefs as part of the global marine ornamental aquarium trade. This catch volume is partly influenced by collection methods that cause mortality. Barotrauma in fish resulting from forced ascent from depth can contribute to post-collection mortality. However, implementing decompression stops during ascent can prevent barotrauma. Conversely, venting (puncturing the swim bladder to release expanded internal gas) following ascent can mitigate some signs of barotrauma like positive buoyancy. Here, we evaluate how decompression and venting affect stress and mortality in the Yellow Tang (Zebrasoma flavescens). We examined the effects of three ascent treatments, each with decompression stops of varying frequency and duration, coupled with or without venting, on sublethal effects and mortality using histology and serum cortisol measurements. In fish subjected to ascent without decompression stops or venting, a mean post-collection mortality of 6.2% occurred within 24 h of capture. Common collection methods in the fishery, ascent without decompression stops coupled with venting, or one long decompression stop coupled with venting, resulted in no mortality. Histopathologic examination of heart, liver, head kidney, and swim bladder tissues in fish 0d and 21d post-collection revealed no significant barotrauma- or venting-related lesions in any treatment group. Ascent without decompression stops resulted in significantly higher serum cortisol than ascent with many stops, while venting alone did not affect cortisol. Future work should examine links in the supply chain following collection to determine if further handling and transport stressors affect survivorship and sublethal effects.

  11. Effects of Dang-Gui-Bu-Xue-Tang, an herbal decoction, on iron uptake in iron-deficient anemia

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Guan-Cheng; Chen, Shih-Yu; Tsai, Po-Wei; Ganzon, Jerome G; Lee, Chia-Jung; Shiah, Her-Shyong; Wang, Ching-Chiung

    2016-01-01

    Dang-Gui-Bu-Xue-Tang (DBT), a combination of Angelicae Sinensis Radix and Astragali Radix, is a widely used herbal decoction in traditional Chinese medicine primarily to promote or invigorate the “blood”. In this study, we explored this ancient formulation and provide evidence of its blood-toning properties. We used the improvement iron uptake as promote or invigorate the “blood” indicator. Ferritin formation of Caco-2 cells in vitro assay and diet-induced anemia (DIA) in rat model were used to prove its improvement iron uptake and ameliorating effects. Finally, the iron–DBT interactions were measured by iron-binding assay. We first demonstrated DBT increased uptake of ferrous iron through the biosynthesis of ferritin by Caco-2 cells and determined which complementary treatment would provide optimum results. Thereafter, effects of the treatment on improving the bioavailability of absorbed iron in the form of hemoglobin (Hb) were established using a DIA-animal model. The results showed that DBT slightly improved Hb levels compared with the baseline Hb and pretreatment with DBT for 2 hours prior to supplementation with ferrous sulfate provided the greatest gain in Hb levels in DIA rats. However, DBT and ferrous sulfate were co-treated with Caco-2 cell or DIA rats, the ferritin formation and Hb levels both were decreased. In iron-binding assay, the DBT extract influenced the free Fe(II) type in the FeSO4 solution. Therefore, we suggest that complementary treatment with DBT and iron supplementation can have a strong ameliorating effect on iron-deficiency anemia in clinical settings, but needs a 2-hour interval of DBT administration prior to ferrous sulfate treatment. PMID:27041997

  12. Inhibitory Effect of Yongdamsagan-Tang Water Extract, a Traditional Herbal Formula, on Testosterone-Induced Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mee-Young; Lee, Nari

    2016-01-01

    Yongdamsagan-tang, a traditional herbal formula, is used widely for the treatment of inflammation and viral diseases. In this study, we investigated whether Yongdamsagan-tang water extract (YSTE) affects testosterone propionate- (TP-) induced benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in a rat model. To induce BPH, rats were injected subcutaneously with 10 mg/kg of TP every day. YSTE was administrated daily by oral gavage at doses of 200 and 500 mg/kg along with the TP injection. After 4 weeks, prostates were collected, weighed, and analyzed. The relative prostrate weight was significantly lower in both YSTE groups (200 and 500 mg/kg/day) compared with the TP-induced BPH group. YSTE administration reduced the expression of proliferation markers PCNA, cyclin D1, and Ki-67 and the histological abnormalities observed in the prostate in TP-induced BPH rats. YSTE attenuated the increase in the TP-induced androgen concentration in the prostate. The YSTE groups also showed decreased lipid peroxidation and increased glutathione reductase activity in the prostate. These findings suggest that YSTE effectively prevented the development of TP-induced BPH in rats through antiproliferative and antioxidative activities and might be useful in the clinical treatment of BPH. PMID:27504137

  13. Jiang Tang Xiao Ke Granule, a Classic Chinese Herbal Formula, Improves the Effect of Metformin on Lipid and Glucose Metabolism in Diabetic Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; An, Hong; Pan, Si-Yuan; Zhao, Dan-Dan; Zuo, Jia-Cheng; Li, Xiao-Ke; Gao, Ya; Mu, Qian-Qian; Yu, Na; Ma, Yue; Mo, Fang-Fang; Gao, Si-Hua

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidative effects of metformin (MET) combined with Jiang Tang Xiao Ke (JTXK) granule derived from the "Di Huang Tang" were evaluated in mice with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) induced by high-fat diet/streptozotocin. DM mice were orally treated with MET (0.19 g/kg) either alone or combined with different doses (1.75, 3.5, or 7 g/kg) of JTXK for 4 weeks. Results showed that the serum and hepatic glucose, lipids, and oxidative stress levels were elevated in DM mice, when compared with the normal mice. MET treatment decreased FBG and serum glucagon levels of DM mice. Combination treatment with MET and JTXK 3.5 g/kg increased the hypoglycemia and insulin sensitivity at 4 weeks when compared with the DM mice treated with MET alone. However, neither MET nor MET/JTXK treatment could completely reverse the hyperglycemia in DM mice. JTXK enhanced the serum triglyceride (TG) and hepatic lipid-lowering effect of MET in a dose-dependent manner in DM mice. JTXK 1.75 and 3.5 g/kg improved the hepatoprotective effect of MET in DM mice. Synergistic effect of combination treatment with MET and JTXK on antioxidant stress was also found in DM mice compared with MET alone. PMID:27418937

  14. Inhibitory Effect of Yongdamsagan-Tang Water Extract, a Traditional Herbal Formula, on Testosterone-Induced Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in Rats.

    PubMed

    Park, Eunsook; Lee, Mee-Young; Jeon, Woo-Young; Lee, Nari; Seo, Chang-Seob; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2016-01-01

    Yongdamsagan-tang, a traditional herbal formula, is used widely for the treatment of inflammation and viral diseases. In this study, we investigated whether Yongdamsagan-tang water extract (YSTE) affects testosterone propionate- (TP-) induced benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in a rat model. To induce BPH, rats were injected subcutaneously with 10 mg/kg of TP every day. YSTE was administrated daily by oral gavage at doses of 200 and 500 mg/kg along with the TP injection. After 4 weeks, prostates were collected, weighed, and analyzed. The relative prostrate weight was significantly lower in both YSTE groups (200 and 500 mg/kg/day) compared with the TP-induced BPH group. YSTE administration reduced the expression of proliferation markers PCNA, cyclin D1, and Ki-67 and the histological abnormalities observed in the prostate in TP-induced BPH rats. YSTE attenuated the increase in the TP-induced androgen concentration in the prostate. The YSTE groups also showed decreased lipid peroxidation and increased glutathione reductase activity in the prostate. These findings suggest that YSTE effectively prevented the development of TP-induced BPH in rats through antiproliferative and antioxidative activities and might be useful in the clinical treatment of BPH. PMID:27504137

  15. Lunar and seasonal patterns in fecundity of an indeterminate, multiple-spawning surgeonfish, the yellow tang Zebrasoma flavescens.

    PubMed

    Bushnell, M E; Claisse, J T; Laidley, C W

    2010-04-01

    Reproduction was investigated in relation to lunar and annual cycles in a population of yellow tang Zebrasoma flavescens, a popular aquarium species commercially harvested in Hawaii. Lunar periodicity was determined to be an inherent characteristic of reproduction; peaks in mean daily egg production, female gonado-somatic index (I(G)) and the fraction of females with eggs were observed at the full moon of each sampled month. An increase in the fraction of late-stage vitellogenic oocytes within the ovaries was also observed at the full moon. Reproductive effort peaked in the late spring and summer as indicated by high values of mean daily egg production, female I(G) and the recorded incidence of females spawning for at least two consecutive days. Mean daily egg production and I(G) of monthly samples were lowest in November to February, although some level of egg production continued throughout the year. Large individual variation in batch fecundity was observed, with a range from 44 to > 24,000 eggs per female produced on a single sampling date. Smaller females, 80-120 mm standard length (L(S)), produced limited numbers of eggs, while females > or = 120 mm L(S) were capable of maximal egg production (> 20,000 eggs per batch). In contrast to trends observed in many fish species, no significant relationship between batch fecundity and adult L(S) > 120 mm was observed in female Z. flavescens. An estimate of annual fecundity (mean +/-S.E. 1,055,628 +/- 120,596 eggs) was also generated using a simple model of the lunar variability in egg production. This study illustrates the importance of accounting for potential variation in egg production over time, especially with respect to diel and lunar cycles, in the design of reproductive studies of multiple-spawning fishes. Greater insight into the environmental factors that regulate reproductive activity may be gained by determining the relative reproductive investment allocated at each spawning event. The ability to estimate

  16. Discovery of molecular mechanisms of traditional Chinese medicinal formula Si-Wu-Tang using gene expression microarray and connectivity map.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhining; Wang, Zhijun; Wang, Steven; Ravula, Ranadheer; Yang, Lun; Xu, Jun; Wang, Charles; Zuo, Zhong; Chow, Moses S S; Shi, Leming; Huang, Ying

    2011-03-28

    To pursue a systematic approach to discovery of mechanisms of action of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), we used microarrays, bioinformatics and the "Connectivity Map" (CMAP) to examine TCM-induced changes in gene expression. We demonstrated that this approach can be used to elucidate new molecular targets using a model TCM herbal formula Si-Wu-Tang (SWT) which is widely used for women's health. The human breast cancer MCF-7 cells treated with 0.1 µM estradiol or 2.56 mg/ml of SWT showed dramatic gene expression changes, while no significant change was detected for ferulic acid, a known bioactive compound of SWT. Pathway analysis using differentially expressed genes related to the treatment effect identified that expression of genes in the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) cytoprotective pathway was most significantly affected by SWT, but not by estradiol or ferulic acid. The Nrf2-regulated genes HMOX1, GCLC, GCLM, SLC7A11 and NQO1 were upregulated by SWT in a dose-dependent manner, which was validated by real-time RT-PCR. Consistently, treatment with SWT and its four herbal ingredients resulted in an increased antioxidant response element (ARE)-luciferase reporter activity in MCF-7 and HEK293 cells. Furthermore, the gene expression profile of differentially expressed genes related to SWT treatment was used to compare with those of 1,309 compounds in the CMAP database. The CMAP profiles of estradiol-treated MCF-7 cells showed an excellent match with SWT treatment, consistent with SWT's widely claimed use for women's diseases and indicating a phytoestrogenic effect. The CMAP profiles of chemopreventive agents withaferin A and resveratrol also showed high similarity to the profiles of SWT. This study identified SWT as an Nrf2 activator and phytoestrogen, suggesting its use as a nontoxic chemopreventive agent, and demonstrated the feasibility of combining microarray gene expression profiling with CMAP mining to discover mechanisms of actions and

  17. Improved CUDA programs for GPU computing of Swendsen-Wang multi-cluster spin flip algorithm: 2D and 3D Ising, Potts, and XY models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komura, Yukihiro; Okabe, Yutaka

    2016-03-01

    We present new versions of sample CUDA programs for the GPU computing of the Swendsen-Wang multi-cluster spin flip algorithm. In this update, we add the method of GPU-based cluster-labeling algorithm without the use of conventional iteration (Komura, 2015) to those programs. For high-precision calculations, we also add a random-number generator in the cuRAND library. Moreover, we fix several bugs and remove the extra usage of shared memory in the kernel functions.

  18. A systems biology-based investigation into the therapeutic effects of Gansui Banxia Tang on reversing the imbalanced network of hepatocellular carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanqiong; Guo, Xiaodong; Wang, Danhua; Li, Ruisheng; Li, Xiaojuan; Xu, Ying; Liu, Zhenli; Song, Zhiqian; Lin, Ya; Li, Zhiyan; Lin, Na

    2014-02-01

    Several complex molecular events are involved in tumorigenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The interactions of these molecules may constitute the HCC imbalanced network. Gansui Banxia Tang (GSBXT), as a classic Chinese herbal formula, is a popular complementary and alternative medicine modality for treating HCC. In order to investigate the therapeutic effects and the pharmacological mechanisms of GSBXT on reversing HCC imbalanced network, we in the current study developed a comprehensive systems approach of integrating disease-specific and drug-specific networks, and successfully revealed the relationships of the ingredients in GSBXT with their putative targets, and with HCC significant molecules and HCC related pathway systems for the first time. Meanwhile, further experimental validation also demonstrated the preventive effects of GSBXT on tumor growth in mice and its regulatory effects on potential targets.

  19. Protective effects of Danggui Buxue Tang on renal function, renal glomerular mesangium and heparanase expression in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    YE, TAI-SHENG; ZHANG, YING-WEN; ZHANG, XIAN-MEI

    2016-01-01

    Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT) is a simple combination of Radix Astragali and Radix Angelica sinensis (5:1), with a variety pharmacological activities. In the present study, a single intravenous injection of 30 mg/kg streptozotocin and subsequent six weeks of high glucose diet in Sprague Dawley rats were used to induce diabetic nephropathy. Rats with diabetes mellitus showed increased levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Scr), serum and urine β2-microglobulins (β2-MG), and type IV collagen (all P<0.05). DBT treatment significantly decreased the levels of FBG, BUN, Scr, serum and urine β2-MG, and type IV collagen. Furthermore, DBT treatment significantly and dose-dependently restored the ultrastructural injury, and reduced the expression of heparanase, compared with the vehicle (P<0.05). Therefore, DBT may be a novel therapeutic approach for the prevention and treatment of diabetic nephrology. PMID:27284335

  20. The multi-herbal formula Chong-Myung-Tang improves spatial memory and increases cell genesis in the dentate gyrus of aged mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Zhang, Mingwei; Zhang, Ruifen; Lee, Mira; Wang, Zhen; Hou, Jingang; Sung, Chang-Keun

    2014-01-01

    Chong-Myung-Tang (CMT) is a multi-herbal formula that has been used to improve memory. However, the potential mechanism remains unknown. The present study investigated the effects of CMT (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) on spatial memory of aged mice. The behavioral training tests indicated that 200 mg/kg CMT treatment can significantly improve spatial memory of aged mice in the Morris water maze. Moreover, cell survival was examined by injecting bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) on the first three days. The result showed that 200 mg/kg CMT treatment significantly increased cell survival in the dentate gyrus. Cell proliferation was determined by injecting BrdU 2 h before the mice were killed. The result suggested that CMT treatments had no influence on cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus. Thus, an increase in cell survival in the dentate gyrus stimulated by CMT may be involved in the effect of CMT on spatial memory improvement.

  1. [Establishment of three-dimensional integrated "serum pharmacochemistry-pharmacokinetics (pharmacodynamics)-systems biology" for research of traditional Chinese medicine prescription and its application in Yinchenhao Tang].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ai-Hua; Sun, Hui; Yan, Guang-Li; Han, Ying; Wang, Xi-Jun

    2013-11-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription is a valuable asset for clinical medication, has multi-component and multi-target characteristics. However, due to the complex ingredients of prescription, the unclear mechanism, the lack of scientific data to support the dose-response relationship, it has become the bottleneck for the in-depth study for the process of modernization and internationalization of TCM. It requires the integration of Chinese medicine theory, modern analysis and data mining technology to build new research model for characteristic of TCM prescription. This paper provides an overview of TCM serum pharmacochemistry, pharmacokinetics (pharmacodynamics) and systems biology theory and practice, to establish the integrated three-dimensional "serum pharmacochemistry-pharmacokinetics (pharmacodynamics)-systems biology" for the research of TCM prescription to reveal the pharma-material basis and action mechanism and the compatibility scientific connotation, with a prescription Yinchenhao Tang as a case study.

  2. [Establishment of three-dimensional integrated "serum pharmacochemistry-pharmacokinetics (pharmacodynamics)-systems biology" for research of traditional Chinese medicine prescription and its application in Yinchenhao Tang].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ai-Hua; Sun, Hui; Yan, Guang-Li; Han, Ying; Wang, Xi-Jun

    2013-11-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription is a valuable asset for clinical medication, has multi-component and multi-target characteristics. However, due to the complex ingredients of prescription, the unclear mechanism, the lack of scientific data to support the dose-response relationship, it has become the bottleneck for the in-depth study for the process of modernization and internationalization of TCM. It requires the integration of Chinese medicine theory, modern analysis and data mining technology to build new research model for characteristic of TCM prescription. This paper provides an overview of TCM serum pharmacochemistry, pharmacokinetics (pharmacodynamics) and systems biology theory and practice, to establish the integrated three-dimensional "serum pharmacochemistry-pharmacokinetics (pharmacodynamics)-systems biology" for the research of TCM prescription to reveal the pharma-material basis and action mechanism and the compatibility scientific connotation, with a prescription Yinchenhao Tang as a case study. PMID:24494574

  3. Quality evaluation of commercial Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang based on simultaneous determination of fourteen major chemical constituents using high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Ka-Yan; Xu, Jun; Ho, Hing-Man; Chen, Hu-Biao; Li, Min; Lang, Yan; Han, Quan-Bin

    2013-11-01

    Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang (HLJDT), comprising Coptidis Rhizoma, Scutellariae Radix, Phellodendri Cortex and Gardeniae Fructus, is one of the commonly used Chinese medicine formulas for clearing heat and detoxifying. Quality control of the herbal complex like Chinese medicine formulas still remains a challenge. The successful approval of botanical drug Veregen by FDA indicated the importance of quantitative analysis in quality control of herbal medicines. In this study, an effective quantitative method based on conventional HPLC-DAD was developed for simultaneous determination of fourteen major ingredients (seven alkaloids, four flavonoids, three terpenes) in HLJDT. The established method was well validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy and stability and then successfully applied to quality evaluation of commercial HLJDT samples. The developed method can quantitatively determine up to 70% of the chemicals of commercial HLJDT sample and effectively revealed the significant variation in the quality of the commercial HLJDT samples collected from different locations.

  4. Examining the phase transition behavior of amphiphilic lipids in solution using statistical temperature molecular dynamics and replica-exchange Wang-Landau methods.

    PubMed

    Gai, Lili; Vogel, Thomas; Maerzke, Katie A; Iacovella, Christopher R; Landau, David P; Cummings, Peter T; McCabe, Clare

    2013-08-01

    Two different techniques - replica-exchange Wang-Landau (REWL) and statistical temperature molecular dynamics (STMD) - were applied to systematically study the phase transition behavior of self-assembling lipids as a function of temperature using an off-lattice lipid model. Both methods allow the direct calculation of the density of states with improved efficiency compared to the original Wang-Landau method. A 3-segment model of amphiphilic lipids solvated in water has been studied with varied particle interaction energies (ε) and lipid concentrations. The phase behavior of the lipid molecules with respect to bilayer formation has been characterized through the calculation of the heat capacity as a function of temperature, in addition to various order parameters and general visual inspection. The simulations conducted by both methods can go to very low temperatures with the whole system exhibiting well-ordered structures. With optimized parameters, several bilayer phases are observed within the temperature range studied, including gel phase bilayers with frozen water, mixed water (i.e., frozen and liquid water), and liquid water, and a more fluid bilayer with liquid water. The results obtained from both methods, STMD and REWL, are consistently in excellent agreement with each other, thereby validating both the methods and the results.

  5. Cytotoxicity enhancement in MDA-MB-231 cells by the combination treatment of tetrahydropalmatine and berberine derived from Corydalis yanhusuo W. T. Wang

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yan; Gao, Jian-Li; Ji, Jian-Wei; Gao, Min; Yin, Qiao-Shan; Qiu, Qiao-Li; Wang, Chuan; Chen, Shu-Zhan; Xu, Juan; Liang, Ren-Shang; Cai, Yan-Zi; Wang, Xia-Fei

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Our previous works have demonstrated that Chinese herb medicine yanhusuo (Corydalis yanhusuo W. T. Wang) has strong anti-cancer proliferation effect in MDA-MB-231 cells. The goal of this study was to find out the synergic cytotoxicity effect of three natural compounds, tetrahydropalmatine (THP), berberine (Ber), and dehydrocorydaline (DHC), isolated from C. yanhusuo W. T. Wang. Materials and Methods: The IC50 of THP Ber and DHC in single use, as well as in combination use at fixed ratios and doses was measured by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay. Isobologram, combination index and modified coefficient of drug interaction (CDI) methods were used for evaluation the combination effects of THF! Ber, and DHC in different ratio and concentration. Results: The results indicated that the combination of THP and Ber shown the strongest anti-cancer cell proliferation effect at the ratio of 2:3 (Ber: THF the average CDI value was 0.5795). DHC and THP have additive cytotoxicity in MDA-MB-231 cells. However, there wasn’t any synergistic effect between Ber and DHC, and it even exhibited antagonistic effect when the percentage of DHC was >50%. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that the combination of THP and Ber might be beneficial for anti-proliferation of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells through a significant synergy effect. PMID:26401350

  6. Examining the phase transition behavior of amphiphilic lipids in solution using statistical temperature molecular dynamics and replica-exchange Wang-Landau methods

    PubMed Central

    Gai, Lili; Vogel, Thomas; Maerzke, Katie A.; Iacovella, Christopher R.; Landau, David P.; Cummings, Peter T.; McCabe, Clare

    2013-01-01

    Two different techniques – replica-exchange Wang-Landau (REWL) and statistical temperature molecular dynamics (STMD) – were applied to systematically study the phase transition behavior of self-assembling lipids as a function of temperature using an off-lattice lipid model. Both methods allow the direct calculation of the density of states with improved efficiency compared to the original Wang-Landau method. A 3-segment model of amphiphilic lipids solvated in water has been studied with varied particle interaction energies (ɛ) and lipid concentrations. The phase behavior of the lipid molecules with respect to bilayer formation has been characterized through the calculation of the heat capacity as a function of temperature, in addition to various order parameters and general visual inspection. The simulations conducted by both methods can go to very low temperatures with the whole system exhibiting well-ordered structures. With optimized parameters, several bilayer phases are observed within the temperature range studied, including gel phase bilayers with frozen water, mixed water (i.e., frozen and liquid water), and liquid water, and a more fluid bilayer with liquid water. The results obtained from both methods, STMD and REWL, are consistently in excellent agreement with each other, thereby validating both the methods and the results. PMID:23927268

  7. Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta): a new species from South China Sea based on morphological observation and rbcL gene sequences analysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ling; Wang, Hongwei; Luan, Rixiao

    2013-01-01

    Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. is a new species described from Lingshui, Hainan Province, South China Sea. Based on the external form and internal structure, combined with rbcL gene sequence analysis, Grateloupia tenuis is distinct from other Grateloupia species as follows: (1) thalli is slippery and cartilaginous in texture; possess fewer branches, relatively slight main axes, and two or three dichotomous branches; (2) cortex is 5-6 layers; medulla is solid when young, but hollow in old branches; reproductive structures are dispersed in main axes of thalli and lower portions of branchlets; exhibits Grateloupia-type auxiliary cell ampullae; (3) the four studied G. tenuis sequences were positioned in a large Grateloupia clade of Halymeniaceae, which included sister group generitype G. filicina with 68 bp differences; G. tenuis was determined to be a sister taxon to the G. catenata, G. ramosissima, G. orientalis, and G. filiformis subclade. The pairwise distances between G. tenuis and these species were 39 to 50 bp. The sequences of G. tenuis differed by 81-108 bp from the sequences of other samples in Grateloupia; there are 114-133 bp changes between G. tenuis and other genera of Halymeniaceae. In final analysis, we considered Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. to be a new species of genus Grateloupia.

  8. The construction of the spatio-temporal database of the ancient Silk Road within Xinjiang province during the Han and Tang dynasties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Jiantao; Luo, Guilin; Wang, Xingxing; Zhu, Zuojia

    2014-03-01

    As the bridge over the Chinese and Western civilization, the ancient Silk Road has made a huge contribution to cultural, economic, political exchanges between China and western countries. In this paper, we treated the historical period of Western Han Dynasty, Eastern Han Dynasty and Tang Dynasty as the research time domain, and the Western Regions' countries that were existed along the Silk Road at the mean time as the research spatial domain. Then we imported these data into the SQL Server database we constructed, from which we could either query the attribute information such as population, military force, the era of the Central Plains empire, the significant events taking place in the country and some related attribute information of these events like the happened calendar year in addition to some related spatial information such as the present location, the coordinates of the capital and the territory by inputting the name of the Western countries. At the same time we could query the significant events, government institution in Central Plains and the existent Western countries at the mean time by inputting the calendar year. Based on the database, associated with GIS, RS, Flex, C# and other related information technology and network technology, we could not only browsing, searching and editing the information of the ancient Silk Road in Xinjiang Province during the Han and Tang Dynasties, but preliminary analysing as well. This is the combination of archaeology and modern information technology, and the database could also be a reference to further study, research and practice in the related fields in the future.

  9. Pharmacokinetic determination of ephedrine in Herba Ephedrae and Wu Tou Tang decoctions in rats using ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhijie; Yan, Tongmeng; Chen, Weiying; Ye, Ling; Tang, Lan; Liu, Zhongqiu

    2012-08-01

    A rapid and sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the determination and quantification of ephedrine in rat plasma samples. An Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column (1.7 μm, 2.1 mm × 50 mm) was used for chromatographic separation. Electrospray ionization in the positive mode was used, and the precursor-fragment ion pairs of m/z 166/148 and m/z 289/97 were adopted to characterize ephedrine and testosterone (internal standard), respectively. The method was validated using 10, 100 and 500 ng/mL of ephedrine. It demonstrated adequate levels of precision and accuracy, matrix effect, extraction recovery and stability. Linearity over the concentration range of 0.5-2000 ng/mL was acceptable with a correlation coefficient (r²) better than 0.990. To determine the pharmacokinetic behaviour of this sympathomimetic compound in the Sprague-Dawley rats, ephedrine hydrochloride, Herba Ephedrae single-herb and Wu Tou Tang decoctions were administered orally, and ephedrine hydrochloride was also administered by intravenous injection, and blood samples were collected over 24 h. Ephedrine was measured in plasma and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by using the standard non-compartmental method and calculated by using Practical Pharmacokinetic Program-Version 87/97. The AUC(0-t) and T(max) values were significantly different (p < 0.05). Ephedrine AUC(0-t) values were significantly lower following the Wu Tou Tang decoction compared to the other oral treatments, suggesting that some components in the decoction may reduce the bioavailability of ephedrine.

  10. Soshiho-Tang Aqueous Extract Exerts Antiobesity Effects in High Fat Diet-Fed Mice and Inhibits Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mee-young; Kang, Byoung-Kab

    2016-01-01

    Soshiho-tang (SST; sho-saiko-to in Japanese; xiaochaihu-tang in Chinese) has generally been used to improve liver fibrosis- and cirrhosis-related symptoms in traditional Korean medicine. Although many studies have investigated the pharmacological properties of SST, its antiobesity effect has not been elucidated. Thus, our present study was carried out to evaluate the antiobesity effect of SST using a high fat diet- (HFD) induced obese mouse model and 3T3-L1 adipose cells. C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into four groups (n = 6/group), normal diet (ND), HFD-fed group, and HFD- and SST-fed groups (S200: 200 mg/kg of SST; S600: 600 mg/kg of SST) and given HFD with or without SST extract for 8 weeks. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated into adipocytes for 8 days with or without SST. In the HFD-fed obese mice, body weight and fat accumulation in adipose tissue were significantly reduced by SST administration. Compared with control-differentiated adipocytes, SST significantly inhibited lipid accumulation by decreasing the triglyceride (TG) content and leptin concentration in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. SST also decreased the expression of adipogenesis-related genes including lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-alpha (C/EBP-α), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ). Our findings suggest that SST has potential as a nontoxic antiobesity medication. PMID:27777595

  11. Genotoxicity evaluation of Guibi-Tang extract using an in vitro bacterial reverse mutation assay, chromosome aberration assay, and in vivo micronucleus test

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Guibi-Tang is a traditional herbal prescription made from 12 different herbs that is used in the treatment of amnesia and poor memory. Methods In the present study, we evaluated the acute oral toxicity and genotoxic potential of Guibi-Tang water extract (GBT) at doses up to 2000 μg/plate an using a bacterial reverse mutation test (Ames test) with Salmonella typhimurium strains TA100, TA1535, TA98, and TA1537, and Escherichia coli strain WP2uvrA. Acute toxicity and genotoxic potential were measured in the presence and absence of an exogenous source of metabolic activation, in an in vitro chromosome aberration assay with Chinese hamster lung (CHL) cells, and in an in vivo micronucleus test using ICR mice bone marrow as recommended by the Korean Food and Drug Administration. An acute oral toxicity test of GBT was performed in Sprague Dawley rats. The Ames test showed that GBT did not induce gene mutations in S. typhimurium or in E. coli in the presence or absence of S9 activation. Results GBT did not significantly increase the number of structural aberrations in CHL cells with or without S9 activation. The oral administration of GBT at a dose of up to 2000 mg/kg caused no significant increase in the number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes or in the mean ratio of polychromatic to total erythrocytes. Conclusions However, as we did not identify the components of GBT responsible for these effects, other assays are needed to confirm its genotoxicity. PMID:24985139

  12. Simple deterministic models and applications. Comment on "Coupled disease-behavior dynamics on complex networks: A review" by Z. Wang et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hyun Mo

    2015-12-01

    Currently, discrete modellings are largely accepted due to the access to computers with huge storage capacity and high performance processors and easy implementation of algorithms, allowing to develop and simulate increasingly sophisticated models. Wang et al. [7] present a review of dynamics in complex networks, focusing on the interaction between disease dynamics and human behavioral and social dynamics. By doing an extensive review regarding to the human behavior responding to disease dynamics, the authors briefly describe the complex dynamics found in the literature: well-mixed populations networks, where spatial structure can be neglected, and other networks considering heterogeneity on spatially distributed populations. As controlling mechanisms are implemented, such as social distancing due 'social contagion', quarantine, non-pharmaceutical interventions and vaccination, adaptive behavior can occur in human population, which can be easily taken into account in the dynamics formulated by networked populations.

  13. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of nine major compounds in the Bozhougyiqi-Tang using a high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector and electrospray ionization mass spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Weon, Jin Bae; Ma, Jin Yeul; Yang, Hye Jin; Lee, Bohyoung; Yun, Bo-Ra; Ma, Choong Je

    2013-01-01

    Background: Bozhougyiqi-Tang (BZYQT) is of traditional herbal medicine used for enhancement of digestive capacity. Objective: An accurate and reliable simultaneous determination using a HPLC-DAD and ESI-MS was developed and validated for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of 9 major compounds, ferulic acid (1), naringin (2), hesperidin (3), decursinol (4), glycyrrhizin (5), saikosaponin A (6), 6-gingerol (7), ginsenoside Rg3 (8), decursin (9), in traditional herbal medicine ‘Bozhougyiqi-Tang.’ Materials and Methods: The chromatographic separation of 9 compounds was performed on a SHISEIDO C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., S-5 μm) using gradient elution with 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The 9 compounds were identified based on peak retention time and UV spectrum and MS data of these compounds. Results: This developed method showed good linearity (R2 > 0.999). The LOD and LOQ of the major compounds were less than 0.09 and 0.28 μg/ml, respectively. The intra - day and inter - day RSD values were within 2.06% and 1.64%, respectively. The mean recoveries were from 92.10% to 108.56% with less than 1.88%. The results indicated that established method had good precision and accuracy. Conclusion: The new method was successfully applied to the simultaneous analysis of 9 compounds in Bozhougyiqi-Tangs samples. PMID:23930013

  14. News & Views Evaluation of Projects for Basic Research of Scientific Instruments in 2008 Completed NSFC Former President Tang Ao-qing Passed Away Professor Tang Aoqing and NSFC Carbon Nanotube Film-Based Speaker Developed in Tsinghua University Dinosaur Footprint Fossils Discovered in Xinjiang New Method for Early Cancer Diagnosis New Progress Achieved by NSFC Project in Basic Research of Black Hole Physics New progress in Organic FET 67 NSFC-RFBR Cooperative Projects Approved for 2008 Spin Configuration and Super-exchange Mechanism in Molecular Magnets Observed NSFC Strengthens its Funding in Wenchuan Concerns Go to Disaster's Impact on Economy and Emergency Response Thirty-seven NSFC-KOSEF Cooperative Projects Approved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation of Projects for Basic Research of Scientific Instruments in 2008 Completed NSFC Former President Tang Ao-qing Passed Away Professor Tang Aoqing and NSFC Carbon Nanotube Film-Based Speaker Developed in Tsinghua University Dinosaur Footprint Fossils Discovered in Xinjiang New Method for Early Cancer Diagnosis New Progress Achieved by NSFC Project in Basic Research of Black Hole Physics New progress in Organic FET 67 NSFC-RFBR Cooperative Projects Approved for 2008 Spin Configuration and Super-exchange Mechanism in Molecular Magnets Observed NSFC Strengthens its Funding in Wenchuan Concerns Go to Disaster's Impact on Economy and Emergency Response Thirty-seven NSFC-KOSEF Cooperative Projects Approved

  15. Chinese herbal medicine formula Gu-Ben-Fang-Xiao-Tang attenuates airway inflammation by modulating Th17/Treg balance in an ovalbumin-induced murine asthma model

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Guiying; Tao, Baohong; Wang, Dongguo; Li, Yong; Wu, Jingyi; Yin, Genquan

    2016-01-01

    Gu-Ben-Fang-Xiao-Tang (GBFXT) is a traditional Chinese medicine formula consisting of 11 medicinal plants, which has been used in the treatment of asthma. The present study aimed to determine the protective effects and the underlying mechanisms of GBFXT on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic inflammation in a mouse model of allergic asthma. A total of 50 mice were randomly assigned to the following five experimental groups: Normal, model, montelukast (2.6 mg/kg), 12 g/kg GBFXT and 36 g/kg GBFXT groups. Airway responsiveness was measured using the forced oscillation technique, while differential cell count in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was measured by Wright-Giemsa staining. Histological assessment was performed by hematoxylin and eosin staining, while BALF levels of Th17/Treg cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the proportions of Th17 and Treg cells were evaluated by flow cytometry. The results showed that GBFXT suppressed airway hyperresponsiveness during methacholine-induced constriction, reduced the percentage of leukocytes and eosinophils, and resulted in decreased absolute neutrophil infiltration in lung tissue. In addition, GBFXT treatment significantly decreased the IL-17A cytokine level and increased the IL-10 cytokine level in the BALF. Furthermore, GBFXT significantly suppressed Th17 cells and increased Treg cells in asthmatic mice. In conclusion, the current results demonstrated that GBFXT may effectively inhibit the progression of airway inflammation in allergic asthma, partially by modulating the Th17/Treg cell balance. PMID:27588063

  16. Jiang Tang Xiao Ke Granule, a Classic Chinese Herbal Formula, Improves the Effect of Metformin on Lipid and Glucose Metabolism in Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; An, Hong; Pan, Si-Yuan; Zhao, Dan-Dan; Zuo, Jia-Cheng; Li, Xiao-Ke; Gao, Ya; Mu, Qian-Qian; Yu, Na; Ma, Yue; Mo, Fang-Fang; Gao, Si-Hua

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidative effects of metformin (MET) combined with Jiang Tang Xiao Ke (JTXK) granule derived from the “Di Huang Tang” were evaluated in mice with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) induced by high-fat diet/streptozotocin. DM mice were orally treated with MET (0.19 g/kg) either alone or combined with different doses (1.75, 3.5, or 7 g/kg) of JTXK for 4 weeks. Results showed that the serum and hepatic glucose, lipids, and oxidative stress levels were elevated in DM mice, when compared with the normal mice. MET treatment decreased FBG and serum glucagon levels of DM mice. Combination treatment with MET and JTXK 3.5 g/kg increased the hypoglycemia and insulin sensitivity at 4 weeks when compared with the DM mice treated with MET alone. However, neither MET nor MET/JTXK treatment could completely reverse the hyperglycemia in DM mice. JTXK enhanced the serum triglyceride (TG) and hepatic lipid-lowering effect of MET in a dose-dependent manner in DM mice. JTXK 1.75 and 3.5 g/kg improved the hepatoprotective effect of MET in DM mice. Synergistic effect of combination treatment with MET and JTXK on antioxidant stress was also found in DM mice compared with MET alone. PMID:27418937

  17. Simultaneous determination of five components in rat plasma by UPLC-MS/MS and its application to a comparative pharmacokinetic study in Baihe Zhimu Tang and Zhimu extract.

    PubMed

    Li, Guolong; Tang, Zhishu; Yang, Jie; Duan, Jinao; Qian, Dawei; Guo, Jianming; Zhu, Zhenhua; Liu, Hongbo

    2015-01-01

    Baihe Zhimu Tang (BZT) is a famous traditional Chinese medicine recipe to treat dry coughing due to yin deficiency and for moisturizing the lungs. Zhimu is an essential ingredient in BZT used to treat inflammation, fever and diabetes. The most important active components in Zhimu are flavonoids such as neomangiferin, mangiferin, and steroid saponins (e.g., timosaponin BII, anemarsaponin BIII, timosaponin AIII). The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of mangiferin, neomangiferin, timosaponin BII, anemarsaponin BIII and timosaponin AIII in rat plasma after oral administration of BZT and Zhimu extract (ZME). A sensitive, reliable and robust LC-MS/MS method to simultaneously determine steroid saponins and flavonoids in rat plasma was successfully validated. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found in the pharmacokinetic parameters of timosaponin BII, anemarsaponin BIII and timosaponin AIII between BZT and ZME. It was surmised that formula compatibility could significantly influence the pharmacokinetics of BZT and our study is the first to study the administration of BZT based on pharmacokinetic studies.

  18. Flavonoid content, free radical scavenging and increase in xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity in Galgeun-tang following fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Seon; Um, Young Ran; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2014-11-01

    Galgeun-tang (GT) prior to and following fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum was analyzed to determine the total polyphenol and flavonoid contents and the antioxidant activity. GT, fermented GT (FGT) and their three solvent-partitioned fractions, which were prepared by successive partitioning with ethyl acetate (EtOAc), butanol (BuOH) and water, were evaluated for total polyphenol and flavonoid contents, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity. Following fermentation, the total polyphenol content only increased slightly; however, the flavonoid content increased by 24.3%. The radical scavenging activity increased from 22.4 to 27.5% and the XO inhibitory activity increased from 20.2 to 62.4% at 500 µg/ml. The EtOAc fraction among the solvent‑partitioned fractions demonstrated the highest total polyphenol and flavonoid contents, radical scavenging activities and XO inhibitory activity, and the quantity also markedly increased following fermentation.

  19. Potential Beneficial Effects of Si-Wu-Tang on White Blood Cell Numbers and the Gastrointestinal Tract of γ-Ray Irradiated Mice.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jin; Romero-Weaver, Ana L; Kennedy, Ann R

    2014-09-01

    Si-Wu-Tang (SWT) is a decoction consisting of a mixture of ingredients of Rehmanniae Radix, Angelica Radix, Chuanxiong Rhizoma and Paeoniae Radix. As a traditional Chinese herbal decoction, SWT has been widely used for the treatment of diseases characterized as blood and/or energy deficit. The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of SWT on the different populations of circulating white blood cells (WBCs) and gastrointestinal changes in γ-ray irradiated mice. Female mice were treated daily with orally administered SWT seven days before irradiation, until one day before irradiation or until one day before sample collection. WBC counts were determined from peripheral blood samples taken from the mice at different times post-irradiation. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, as well as immunohistochemical analysis of fibrinogen, were utilized to evaluate the effects of SWT in the intestines of mice after radiation exposure. The results of the present studies demonstrate that SWT has protective effects against radiation damage to circulating WBCs, specifically to lymphocytes, and to the gastrointestinal tract of the irradiated animals. PMID:25324699

  20. Bai-Hu-Jia-Ren-Shen-Tang Decoction Reduces Fatty Liver by Activating AMP-Activated Protein Kinase In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui-Kang; Hung, Tzu-Min; Huang, Hsiu-Chen; Lee, I-Jung; Chang, Chia-Chuan; Cheng, Jing-Jy; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Huang, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and associated conditions, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), are currently a worldwide health problem. In Asian traditional medicine, Bai-Hu-Jia-Ren-Shen-Tang (BHJRST) is widely used in diabetes patients to reduce thirst. However, whether it has a therapeutic effect on T2DM or NAFLD is not known. The aim of this study was to examine whether BHJRST had a lipid-lowering effect using a HuS-E/2 cell model of fatty liver induced by palmitate and in a db/db mouse model of dyslipidemia. Incubation of HuS-E/2 cells with palmitate markedly increased lipid accumulation and expression of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), which is involved in lipolysis. BHJRST significantly decreased lipid accumulation and increased ATGL levels and phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its primary downstream target, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), which are involved in fatty acid oxidation. Furthermore, after twice daily oral administration for six weeks, BHJRST significantly reduced hepatic fat accumulation in db/db mice, as demonstrated by increased hepatic AMPK and ACC phosphorylation, reduced serum triglyceride levels, and reduced hepatic total lipid content. The results show that BHJRST has a lipid-lowering effect in the liver that is mediated by activation of the AMPK signaling pathway. PMID:26508982

  1. A comprehensive platform for quality control of botanical drugs (PhytomicsQC): a case study of Huangqin Tang (HQT) and PHY906

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Establishing botanical extracts as globally-accepted polychemical medicines and a new paradigm for disease treatment, requires the development of high-level quality control metrics. Based on comprehensive chemical and biological fingerprints correlated with pharmacology, we propose a general approach called PhytomicsQC to botanical quality control. Methods Incorporating the state-of-the-art analytical methodologies, PhytomicsQC was employed in this study and included the use of liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) for chemical characterization and chemical fingerprinting, differential cellular gene expression for bioresponse fingerprinting and animal pharmacology for in vivo validation. A statistical pattern comparison method, Phytomics Similarity Index (PSI), based on intensities and intensity ratios, was used to determine the similarity of the chemical and bioresponse fingerprints among different manufactured batches. Results Eighteen batch samples of Huangqin Tang (HQT) and its pharmaceutical grade version (PHY906) were analyzed using the PhytomicsQC platform analysis. Comparative analysis of the batch samples with a clinically tested standardized batch obtained values of PSI similarity between 0.67 and 0.99. Conclusion With rigorous quality control using analytically sensitive and comprehensive chemical and biological fingerprinting, botanical formulations manufactured under standardized manufacturing protocols can produce highly consistent batches of products. PMID:20727161

  2. High-throughput screening of inhibitory effects of Bo-yang-hwan-o-tang on human cytochrome P450 isoforms in vitro using UPLC/MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Lee, Miran; Park, Jeonghyeon; Lim, Mi-sun; Seong, Sook Jin; Lee, Joomi; Seo, Jeong Ju; Park, Yong-Ki; Lee, Hae Won; Yoon, Young-Ran

    2012-01-01

    Bo-yang-hwan-o-tang (BHT) is an oriental herbal medicine for treating brain disorders such as cerebral ischemia. The objective of this study was to develop an economically feasible and time-saving high-throughput screening method to monitor the potential inhibitory effects of BHT on human cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in vitro. Two cocktail sets were used for incubation of human liver microsomes: Cocktail A: 6 probe substrates for CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2C8, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4; Cocktail B: 3 for CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2E1. The concentrations of the substrate metabolites were simultaneously analyzed using UPLC/MS/MS. The BHT extract had almost negligible inhibitory effects on the nine human CYP isoforms tested, with the half-maximal inhibitory concentration value ranged from 3624.99 to 45412.44 μg/ml. The results suggest that BHT extract has no inhibitory effects on CYP isoforms within the clinically recommended dosage range. We conclude that BHT might be free of drug-herb interactions when co-administered with other medicines. However, more in vivo human studies are needed to confirm these results. The high-throughput screening method can be a useful tool for drug discovery and for understanding drug interactions. PMID:23232241

  3. Traditional formula, modern application: chinese medicine formula sini tang improves early ventricular remodeling and cardiac function after myocardial infarction in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiangang; Peter, Karoline; Shi, Dazhuo; Zhang, Lei; Dong, Guoju; Zhang, Dawu; Breiteneder, Heimo; Jakowitsch, Johannes; Ma, Yan

    2014-01-01

    SINI TANG (SNT) IS A TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL FORMULA CONSISTING OF FOUR DIFFERENT HERBS: the root of Aconitum carmichaelii, the bark of Cinnamomum cassia, the rhizome of Zingiber officinale, and the root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis. This study aims to evaluate the improvement of early ventricular remodeling and cardiac function in myocardial infarction (MI) rats by SNT. A MI model was established by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Following treatment for 4 weeks, ultrasonic echocardiography was performed. Myocardial histopathological changes were observed using haematoxylin and eosin staining. Collagens (type I and type III), transforming growth factor- β 1 (TGF- β 1), and Toll-like receptors (TLR-2 and TLR-4) were measured in plasma, serum, and myocardial tissue. SNT treatment decreased the infarct size, the left ventricular cavity area/heart cavity area ratio, and the left ventricle dimension at end systole and increased the left ventricular ejection fraction. SNT reduced the levels of TLR-2 and TLR-4 in myocardial tissue significantly and decreased the collagens content in serum and in myocardial tissue. SNT could partially reduce the level of TGF- β 1 in serum and in myocardial tissue. Our data suggest that the Chinese medicine formula SNT has the potential to improve early ventricular remodeling and cardiac function after MI.

  4. Chemical differentiation of Da-Cheng-Qi-Tang, a Chinese medicine formula, prepared by traditional and modern decoction methods using UPLC/Q-TOFMS-based metabolomics approach.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jian-Bo; Bai, Xu; Cai, Xiu-Jiang; Rao, Yi; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2013-09-01

    In order to evaluate chemical consistency between traditional and modern decoctions of Da-Cheng-Qi-Tang (DCQT), a classical Chinese medicine formula commonly used in the treatment of digestive diseases, an ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOFMS) combined with multivariate statistical analysis was established to globally characterize the chemical profile and discover differentiating chemical markers. Two kinds of decoctions, namely traditional decoction (multi-step decoction of constituent herbs), and modern decoction (one-step decoction of all herbs), were prepared and subjected to UPLC-MS analysis, the datasets of tR-m/z pairs, ion intensities and sample codes were processed with supervised orthogonal partial least squared discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) to comprehensively compare the chemical difference between these two kinds of decoction samples. The global chemical difference was found between traditional and modern decoctions, and rhein, sennoside A/B, diosmetin, magnoloside B and naringin were the components contributing most to these differences. Based on the fact that traditional decoction of DCQT presents the higher concentration of rhein and sennoside A/B, mainly contributed to laxative activity of DCQT, the purgative effect of traditional decoction might be more potent, compared with modern decoction. However, the comparative study on purgative effect of traditional and modern DCQT remains to be further investigated using pharmacological approaches. Our findings also provide the early scientific evidence of traditional decoction method of DCQT.

  5. Optimization of the extraction process for the seven bioactive compounds in Yukmijihwang-tang, an herbal formula, using response surface methodology

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-Hoon; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo; Seo, Chang-Seob

    2014-01-01

    Background: Yukmijihwang-tang (YJT) contains multiple bioactive compounds. Heat-reflux extraction was employed and optimized for the extraction of the bioactive compounds in YJT. Objective: The determination of optimal conditions with maximum yields of bioactive compounds, gallic acid, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, morroniside, loganin, paeoniflorin, benzoic acid and paeonol, in YJT. Materials and Methods: The extraction ratio (ratio of water to herbal formula), extraction time and extraction number were set as individual values and the yields of the seven compounds were the response values that were optimized with a Box–Behnken design. Results: The optimal conditions obtained from response surface methodology (RSM) were 1:11.99 for the extraction ratio, 94.53 min for the extraction time and 2.21 for the extraction number. Under the optimal conditions, the response value of the experiment closely agreed with the predicted response value. Conclusions: The result suggests that RSM is successfully applied for optimizing the extraction of the marker compounds in YJT. PMID:25298681

  6. Pharmacokinetics of geniposide by monoclonal antibody-based icELISA in mice after oral administration of Huanglian-Jiedu-Tang.

    PubMed

    Qu, Hui-Hua; Sun, Ye; Wu, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Gui-Liang; Cheng, Jin-Jun; Wang, Xue-Qian; Feng, Hui-Bin; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Qing-Guo

    2014-01-01

    Geniposide, Geniposide, the main active component in extracts of Gardenia jasminoides ELLIS., is one of the main components of Huanglian-Jiedu-Tang (HJT). This study aimed to validate an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) based on monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against geniposide (anti-geniposide mAb), which was developed by our lab, and apply the assay to study the pharmacokinetics of geniposide in HJT in mice. Blood samples were drawn from mice at predetermined time points after oral administration of HJT in three dosages. A linear correlation was obtained for geniposide concentrations in the range from 1.17 to 37.50 µg/mL. The intra-day and inter-day precision values of the icELISA method were well within the recommended range (≤10%). The recovery rates ranged from 99.74 to 102.40%. Stability studies showed that geniposide sample solutions were intact for 12 h. The Tmax and mean residence time (MRT) of geniposide of the three groups were consistent with previous data. The results suggest that a reliable and effective method was established and could be applied to the study of the pharmacokinetics of geniposide in HJT. PMID:25177035

  7. Effects of Danggui Buxue Tang, a traditional Chinese herbal decoction, on high glucose-induced proliferation and expression of extracellular matrix proteins in glomerular mesangial cells.

    PubMed

    Ke, Hao-Liang; Zhang, Ying-Wen; Zhou, Bi-Fa; Zhen, Rui-Tang

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage failure of the kidney, but the efficacy of currently available strategies for the prevention of DN remains unsatisfactory. In this study, we investigated the effects of Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT), a Chinese herbal decoction prepared from Radix Astragali (RA) and Radix Angelicae sinensis (RAS), on high glucose-induced proliferation and expression of laminin, type IV collagen (collagen IV) and fibronectin in glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs). The cell proliferation was determined by MTT assay, and the expression of collagen IV, laminin and fibronectin in GMCs was detected by ELISA assay. It was shown that high glucose clearly induced the proliferation of GMCs and increased the release of collagen IV, laminin and fibronectin. Treatment with RA, RAS and DBT inhibited cell proliferation and the expression of collagen IV, laminin and fibronectin induced by high glucose, with DBT, especially at the highest concentration (DBT20), exhibiting a stronger effect than RA and RAS alone. Thus, it is concluded that DBT inhibits increased cell proliferation and the expression of major extracellular matrix proteins that are induced by high glucose, indicating its value for prophylaxis and therapy of DN at the early stages.

  8. Simultaneous determination of five components in rat plasma by UPLC-MS/MS and its application to a comparative pharmacokinetic study in Baihe Zhimu Tang and Zhimu extract.

    PubMed

    Li, Guolong; Tang, Zhishu; Yang, Jie; Duan, Jinao; Qian, Dawei; Guo, Jianming; Zhu, Zhenhua; Liu, Hongbo

    2015-01-01

    Baihe Zhimu Tang (BZT) is a famous traditional Chinese medicine recipe to treat dry coughing due to yin deficiency and for moisturizing the lungs. Zhimu is an essential ingredient in BZT used to treat inflammation, fever and diabetes. The most important active components in Zhimu are flavonoids such as neomangiferin, mangiferin, and steroid saponins (e.g., timosaponin BII, anemarsaponin BIII, timosaponin AIII). The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of mangiferin, neomangiferin, timosaponin BII, anemarsaponin BIII and timosaponin AIII in rat plasma after oral administration of BZT and Zhimu extract (ZME). A sensitive, reliable and robust LC-MS/MS method to simultaneously determine steroid saponins and flavonoids in rat plasma was successfully validated. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found in the pharmacokinetic parameters of timosaponin BII, anemarsaponin BIII and timosaponin AIII between BZT and ZME. It was surmised that formula compatibility could significantly influence the pharmacokinetics of BZT and our study is the first to study the administration of BZT based on pharmacokinetic studies. PMID:25884551

  9. Involvement of the Cerebral Monoamine Neurotransmitters System in Antidepressant-Like Effects of a Chinese Herbal Decoction, Baihe Dihuang Tang, in Mice Model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Meng-Li; Gao, Jie; He, Xin-Rong; Chen, Qian

    2012-01-01

    Baihe Dihuang Tang (BDT) is a renowned Chinese herbal formula which is commonly used for treating patients with mental instability, absentmindedness, insomnia, deficient dysphoria, and other psychological diseases. These major symptoms closely associated with the depressive disorders. BDT was widely popular use for treating emotion-thought disorders for many years in China. In the present study, the antidepressant-like effect of BDT in mice was investigated by using the forced swim test (FST) and the tail suspension test (TST). The underlying mechanism was explored by determining the effect of BDT on the level of cerebral monoamine neurotransmitters. BDT (9 and 18 g/kg, p.o. for 14 days) administration significantly reduced the immobility time in both the FST and the TST without changing locomotion in the open field-test (OFT). Moreover, BDT treatment at the dose of 18 g/kg inhibited reserpine-induced ptosis. Meanwhile, BDT enhanced 5-HT and NA levels in mouse cerebrum as well as decreased the ratio of 5-HT compared to its metabolite, 5-HIAA, (turnover, 5-HIAA/5-HT) after TST. The results demonstrated that the antidepressant-like effect of BDT is mediated, at least partially, via the central monoaminergic neurotransmitter system. PMID:22956973

  10. Comparing the effects of kamikihito in Japan and kami-guibi-tang in Korea on memory enhancement: working towards the development of a global study.

    PubMed

    Watari, Hidetoshi; Shigyo, Michiko; Tanabe, Norio; Tohda, Michihisa; Cho, Ki-Ho; Kyung, Park Su; Jung, Woo Sang; Shimada, Yutaka; Shibahara, Naotoshi; Kuboyama, Tomoharu; Tohda, Chihiro

    2015-03-01

    Traditional medicine is widely used in East Asia, and studies that demonstrate its usefulness have recently become more common. However, formulation-based studies are not globally understood because these studies are country-specific. There are many types of formulations that have been introduced to Japan and Korea from China. Establishing whether a same-origin formulation has equivalent effects in other countries is important for the development of studies that span multiple countries. The present study compared the effects of same-origin traditional medicine used in Japan and Korea in an in vivo experiment. We prepared drugs that had the same origin and the same components. The drugs are called kamikihito (KKT) in Japan and kami-guibi-tang (KGT) in Korea. KKT (500 mg extract/kg/day) and KGT (500 mg extract/kg/day) were administered to ddY mice, and object recognition and location memory tests were performed. KKT and KGT administration yielded equivalent normal memory enhancement effects. 3D-HPLC showed similar, but not identical, patterns of the detected compounds between KKT and KGT. This comparative research approach enables future global clinical studies of traditional medicine to be conducted through the use of the formulations prescribed in each country.

  11. A Systems Biology-Based Investigation into the Pharmacological Mechanisms of Sheng-ma-bie-jia-tang Acting on Systemic Lupus Erythematosus by Multi-Level Data Integration

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lin; Lv, Qi; Liu, Fenfen; Shi, Tieliu; Wen, Chengping

    2015-01-01

    Sheng-ma-bie-jia-tang (SMBJT) is a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formula that is widely used for the treatment of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) in China. However, molecular mechanism behind this formula remains unknown. Here, we systematically analyzed targets of the ingredients in SMBJT to evaluate its potential molecular mechanism. First, we collected 1,267 targets from our previously published database, the Traditional Chinese Medicine Integrated Database (TCMID). Next, we conducted gene ontology and pathway enrichment analyses for these targets and determined that they were enriched in metabolism (amino acids, fatty acids, etc.) and signaling pathways (chemokines, Toll-like receptors, adipocytokines, etc.). 96 targets, which are known SLE disease proteins, were identified as essential targets and the rest 1,171 targets were defined as common targets of this formula. The essential targets directly interacted with SLE disease proteins. Besides, some common targets also had essential connections to both key targets and SLE disease proteins in enriched signaling pathway, e.g. toll-like receptor signaling pathway. We also found distinct function of essential and common targets in immune system processes. This multi-level approach to deciphering the underlying mechanism of SMBJT treatment of SLE details a new perspective that will further our understanding of TCM formulas. PMID:26560501

  12. Simultaneous quantification of active components in the herbs and products of Si-Wu-Tang by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Jun; Wo, Siu-Kwan; Wang, Ling; Lau, Clara B S; Lee, Vincent H L; Chow, Moses S S; Zuo, Zhong

    2009-09-01

    Si-Wu-Tang (SWT), comprising Paeoniae, Angelicae, Chuanxiong and Rehmanniae, is one of the most popular Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formulae for woman's health. Data mining from the available Chinese and English literatures indicated that the major bioactive components of SWT consist of paeoniflorin, paeonol, gallic acid, ferulic acid, Z-ligustilide, ligustrazine, butylphthalide, senkyunolide A and catalpol. Since content determination of the marker compounds is generally considered as an initial step for quality control of TCM product, a high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric method employing both positive and negative electrospray ionization was developed for the simultaneous determination of the nine identified compounds in the raw herbs and products of SWT. The LOQ of the developed assay method for the tested components was 10ng/ml for ligustrazine, 200ng/ml for catalpol, and 100ng/ml for the other seven compounds. The intra-day and inter-day variations of the current assay were within 17.5%. Paeoniflorin, ferulic acid, gallic acid, Z-ligustilide and senkyunolide A were found in all SWT products investigated. Variations in the contents of the studied compounds were observed among batches of raw herbs and SWT products. The currently developed method provides a sensitive and rapid quantification approach that can be useful in the quality control of raw herbs and products of SWT.

  13. Potential Beneficial Effects of Si-Wu-Tang on White Blood Cell Numbers and the Gastrointestinal Tract of γ-Ray Irradiated Mice.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jin; Romero-Weaver, Ana L; Kennedy, Ann R

    2014-09-01

    Si-Wu-Tang (SWT) is a decoction consisting of a mixture of ingredients of Rehmanniae Radix, Angelica Radix, Chuanxiong Rhizoma and Paeoniae Radix. As a traditional Chinese herbal decoction, SWT has been widely used for the treatment of diseases characterized as blood and/or energy deficit. The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of SWT on the different populations of circulating white blood cells (WBCs) and gastrointestinal changes in γ-ray irradiated mice. Female mice were treated daily with orally administered SWT seven days before irradiation, until one day before irradiation or until one day before sample collection. WBC counts were determined from peripheral blood samples taken from the mice at different times post-irradiation. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, as well as immunohistochemical analysis of fibrinogen, were utilized to evaluate the effects of SWT in the intestines of mice after radiation exposure. The results of the present studies demonstrate that SWT has protective effects against radiation damage to circulating WBCs, specifically to lymphocytes, and to the gastrointestinal tract of the irradiated animals.

  14. A bio-activity guided in vitro pharmacokinetic method to improve the quality control of Chinese medicines, application to Si Wu Tang.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Wang, Zhijun; Wo, Siukwan; Lau, Clara B S; Chen, Xiao; Huang, Min; Lee, Vincent H L; Chow, Moses S S; Zuo, Zhong

    2011-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using a bio-activity guided in vitro pharmacokinetic (BAPK) method in identifying relevant (absorbable and bioactive) markers for quality control (QC) of Chinese medicines (CM), using Si Wu Tang (SWT), a popular CM for women's health, as an example. A stepwise BAPK approach was utilized for relevant marker determination and evaluating of six SWT products: (1) data mining to identify active components of SWT, (2) quantification of the identified active components in each SWT product, (3) determination of in vitro dissolution and metabolism of the components under simulated gastrointestinal conditions, (4) identification of absorbable components or marker(s) via in vitro Caco-2 cell model, (5) stability testing of the permeable marker(s). Our results showed considerable variations in the amount of active components in different SWT products. Of the nine active components identified from data mining, three (ferulic acid, ligustilide, senkyunolide A) were found to be well permeated and stable over three months. Paeoniflorin, the marker designated by Chinese Pharmacopoeia, was poorly permeable and thus could not be considered a relevant marker for SWT. Our preliminary evaluation of the BAPK method appears to be feasible and may offer as a useful approach for identifying relevant markers of other TCM products in the future.

  15. Potential Beneficial Effects of Si-Wu-Tang on White Blood Cell Numbers and the Gastrointestinal Tract of γ-Ray Irradiated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Jin; Romero-Weaver, Ana L.; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2014-01-01

    Si-Wu-Tang (SWT) is a decoction consisting of a mixture of ingredients of Rehmanniae Radix, Angelica Radix, Chuanxiong Rhizoma and Paeoniae Radix. As a traditional Chinese herbal decoction, SWT has been widely used for the treatment of diseases characterized as blood and/or energy deficit. The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of SWT on the different populations of circulating white blood cells (WBCs) and gastrointestinal changes in γ-ray irradiated mice. Female mice were treated daily with orally administered SWT seven days before irradiation, until one day before irradiation or until one day before sample collection. WBC counts were determined from peripheral blood samples taken from the mice at different times post-irradiation. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, as well as immunohistochemical analysis of fibrinogen, were utilized to evaluate the effects of SWT in the intestines of mice after radiation exposure. The results of the present studies demonstrate that SWT has protective effects against radiation damage to circulating WBCs, specifically to lymphocytes, and to the gastrointestinal tract of the irradiated animals. PMID:25324699

  16. Antiinflammatory effects of traditional Korean medicine, JinPi-tang and its active ingredient, hesperidin in HaCaT cells.

    PubMed

    Moon, Phil-Dong; Kim, Hyung-Mim

    2012-05-01

    A traditional Korean medicine, JinPi-tang (JPT), has been used in dermatological therapeutics and cosmeceuticals including antiaging creams and moisturizers. However, it has not been clarified how JPT and its active ingredient, hesperidin (HES), regulates inflammatory reactions in HaCaT cells. Thus, the mechanisms of action of JPT and HES on inflammatory reactions were investigated for the first time in an experimental model. The antiinflammatory effects of JPT and HES in HaCaT cells were investigated by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction as well as western blot analysis. JPT and HES inhibited the H(2)O(2)-induced interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α production as well as its mRNA expression. In addition, JPT and HES inhibited the activation of the nuclear factor-κB, the phosphorylation of IκBα and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, as well as the activation of cyclooxygenase-2. The findings suggest that JPT and HES would be helpful in the treatment of UV radiation-induced inflammatory skin diseases.

  17. Inhibitory activity of Socheongryong‑tang and its constituent components against the production of RANTES, eotaxin, eotaxin‑3 and MMP‑9 from BEAS‑2B cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junh-Hoon; Jeon, Woo-Young; Lee, Mee-Young; Seo, Chang-Seob; Lim, Hye-Sun; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2014-12-01

    Socheongryeong‑tang (SCRT) is a herbal formula previously used to treat pulmonary diseases primarily caused by the common cold virus, including airway inflammation, asthma and allergy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of SCRT water extract and its 13 constituent components on chemokine and enzyme production in the human bronchial epithelium cell line BEAS‑2B when induced by tumor necrosis factor‑α and interleukin‑4. The chemokines examined included regulated on activation of normal T‑cell‑expressed‑and‑secreted (RANTES), eotaxin and eotaxin‑3. The SCRT water extract demonstrated a dose‑dependent inhibition of RANTES, eotaxin, eotaxin‑3 and matrix metalloproteinase‑9 (MMP‑9) in BEAS‑2B cells. The 13 constituent compounds of SCRT water extract were quantitatively determined, and it was found that gallic acid, 6‑gingerol and methyl eugenol produced the most potent inhibition of RANTES, eotaxin and eotaxin‑3 as well as MMP‑9 activity regardless of their concentration in SCRT water extract. Principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis revealed that the inhibitory effect of these three compounds contributed to that of SCRT water extract. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that the inhibitory effects of SCRT on chemokine and enzyme production in BEAS‑2B cells was associated with three of its constituent compounds, gallic acid, 6‑gingerol and methyl eugenol. This therefore suggested the potential use of these compounds as anti‑inflammatory agents.

  18. The relationship between climate change and wars waged between nomadic and farming groups from the Western Han Dynasty to the Tang Dynasty period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Y.; Liu, L.; Fang, X. Q.; Ma, Y. N.

    2016-01-01

    In ancient China, shifts in regional productivity of agriculture and animal husbandry, caused by climate change, either led to wars or peaceful relations between nomadic and farming groups. During the period spanning the Western Han Dynasty to the Tang Dynasty, 367 wars were waged between these groups. While 69 % of the wars were initiated by nomads, 62.4 % were won by the farming groups. On a centennial timescale, the battlegrounds were mostly in northern areas (at an average latitude of 38.92° N) during warm periods, moving southward (at an average latitude of 34.66° N) during cold periods. On a decadal timescale, warm climates corresponded to a high incidence of wars (a correlation coefficient of 0.293). While farming groups were inclined to initiate wars during dry and cold periods, their chances of achieving victory were reduced at such times. The main reasons for this are, first, that a warm climate provided a solid material foundation for nomadic and farming groups, contributing especially to enhanced productivity among the former. However, the overriding desire of nomadic groups to expand essential subsistence means led to wars. Second, during cold periods, farming groups moved to and settled in the south, while nomadic groups occupied the Central Plain. Thus, the locations of the battlefields also changed. While other factors also influenced these wars, climate change served as a backdrop, playing an indirect role in wars between these groups.

  19. Relationship between climate change and wars between nomadic and farming groups from the Western Han Dynasty to the Tang Dynasty period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Y.; Liu, L.; Fang, X. Q.; Ma, Y. N.

    2015-07-01

    In ancient China, the change in regional agriculture and animal husbandry productivity caused by climate change led to either wars or peaceful relations between nomadic and farming groups. From the Western Han Dynasty to the Tang Dynasty there were 367 wars between the two groups. The nomadic people initiated 69 % of the wars, but 62.4 % were won by the farmers. On a 30 year-period timescale, warm climates corresponded to a high incidence of wars. The conflicts between the nomadic and farming groups took place in some areas which are sensitive to climate change. During the cold periods, the battlefields were mostly in the southern regions. The main causes which leading to the above results are following: (1) warm climate provided a solid material foundation for nomadic and farming groups, especially contributed to improve the productivity of nomadic group; meanwhile, the excessive desire for essential means of subsistence in nomadic group could led to wars. (2) During the cold periods, people of farming group moved to the south and construct the south, meanwhile, nomadic group occupied the central plains, thus the battlefields also changed. As the background, climate change plays an indirect role in wars between groups.

  20. Traditional medicine yanggyuksanhwa-tang inhibits adipogenesis and suppresses proliferator-activated receptor-gamma expression in 3T3-L1 cells

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Soo-Jin; Yoo, Sae-Rom; Seo, Chang-Seob; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Yanggyuksanhwa-tang (YGSHT) is a specific traditional Korean herbal formula for Soyangin according to Sasang constitutional philosophy. Although its biological activities against inflammation and cerebral infarction have been reporting, there is no information about the adipogenic activity of YGSHT. In the present study, we investigated the anti-adipogenic activity of YGSHT to evaluate effects of YGSHT on adipogenesis in vitro. Materials and Methods: Using 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, we induced the cellular differentiation into adipocytes by adding insulin. Anti-adipogenic activity of YGSHT was measured by oil red O staining, triglyceride assay, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity test, and leptin assay. Results: YGSHT extract had no significant cytotoxicity in preadipocytes or differentiated adipocytes. YGSHT reduced the number of lipid droplets and content of triglyceride in adipose cells. YGSHT also significantly inhibited GPDH activity and decreased leptin production compared with control adipocytes. Down-regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) expression at the messenger RNA level was observed in YGSHT-treated adipocytes. Conclusion: Taken together, our data suggest that YGSHT has potential as an anti-obesity drug candidate. PMID:26246724

  1. Identification of multiple ingredients for a Traditional Chinese Medicine preparation (bu-yang-huan-wu-tang) by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Lee-Hsin; Chen, Wei-Ming; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2013-01-01

    Bu-yang-huan-wu-tang (BYHWT) is a popular Traditional Chinese Medicine formula consisting of seven herbal medicines (Astragalus membranaceus, Angelica sinensis, Paeonia lactiflora, Ligusticum chuanxiong, Carthamus tinctorius, Amygdalus persica and Pheretima aspergillum), that has been used in China for centuries to overcome stroke-induced disability. To ensure the consistency of quality, a reliable analytical method is required, therefore, we developed a liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for quantitative analysis of the major constituents in BYHWT. The herbal ingredients consisting of the cycloartane-type triterpene glycosides of astragaloside I, astragaloside II and astragaloside IV; isoflavones of formononetin, ononin calycosin, calycosin-7-O-β-d-glucoside; ligustilide and paeoniflorin were separated on a C18 column with gradient elution of methanol/10 mM ammonium acetate buffer-formic acid (100:0.1, v/v). This study was performed by a mass spectrometer using electrospray ionization (ESI) with positive ionization ions monitored in the multiple reaction-monitoring (MRM) mode. The linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection (LOD) and lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) were validated for this quantification method, and the sensitivity, reliability and reproducibility were all confirmed. The experiments provided a good method for analyzing BYHWT extracts. This study also quantitated the active components in various brands of commercially available products. The results indicated that the pharmaceutical industrial products of BYHWT exhibited considerable variation in their contents of the herbal compounds. PMID:24036516

  2. Simultaneous determination of thirteen flavonoids from Xiaobuxin-Tang extract using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cen, Meifeng; Ruan, Jinxiu; Huang, Lihua; Zhang, Zhenqing; Yu, Nengjiang; Zhang, Youzhi; Cheng, Xuange; Xiong, Xiaohong; Wang, Guixiang; Zang, Linquan; Wang, Sujun

    2015-11-10

    A simple and reliable high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) analysis method was established to simultaneously determine thirteen flavonoids of Xiaobuxing-Tang in intestine perfusate, namely onpordin, 3'-O-methylorobol, glycitein, patuletin, genistein, luteolin, quercetin, nepitrin, quercimeritrin, daidzin, patulitrin, quercetagitrin and 3-glucosylisorhamnetin. Detection was performed on a quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization (ESI) source operating in negative ionization mode. Negative ion ESI was used to form deprotonated molecules at m/z 315 for onpordin, m/z 299 for 3'-O-methylorobol, m/z 283 for glycitein, m/z 331 for patuletin, m/z 269 for genistein, m/z 285 for luteolin, m/z 301 for quercetin, m/z 477 for nepitrin, m/z 463 for quercimeritrin, m/z 461 for daidzin, m/z 493 for patulitrin, m/z 479 for quercetagitrin, m/z 477 for 3-glucosylisorhamnetin and m/z 609.2 for rutin. The linearity, sensitivity, selectivity, repeatability, accuracy, precision, recovery and matrix effect of the assay were evaluated. The proposed method was successfully applied to simultaneous determination of these thirteen flavonoids, and using this method, the intestinal absorption profiles of thirteen flavonoids were preliminarily predicted.

  3. Spatial distribution and source apportionment of water pollution in different administrative zones of Wen-Rui-Tang (WRT) river watershed, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liping; Mei, Kun; Liu, Xingmei; Wu, Laosheng; Zhang, Minghua; Xu, Jianming; Wang, Fan

    2013-08-01

    Water quality degradation in river systems has caused great concerns all over the world. Identifying the spatial distribution and sources of water pollutants is the very first step for efficient water quality management. A set of water samples collected bimonthly at 12 monitoring sites in 2009 and 2010 were analyzed to determine the spatial distribution of critical parameters and to apportion the sources of pollutants in Wen-Rui-Tang (WRT) river watershed, near the East China Sea. The 12 monitoring sites were divided into three administrative zones of urban, suburban, and rural zones considering differences in land use and population density. Multivariate statistical methods [one-way analysis of variance, principal component analysis (PCA), and absolute principal component score-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR) methods] were used to investigate the spatial distribution of water quality and to apportion the pollution sources. Results showed that most water quality parameters had no significant difference between the urban and suburban zones, whereas these two zones showed worse water quality than the rural zone. Based on PCA and APCS-MLR analysis, urban domestic sewage and commercial/service pollution, suburban domestic sewage along with fluorine point source pollution, and agricultural nonpoint source pollution with rural domestic sewage pollution were identified to the main pollution sources in urban, suburban, and rural zones, respectively. Understanding the water pollution characteristics of different administrative zones could put insights into effective water management policy-making especially in the area across various administrative zones.

  4. Regulation of hepatic macrophage function by oral administration of xiao-chai-hu-tang (sho-saiko-to, TJ-9) in rats.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, K; Mochida, S; Nagoshi, S; Iijima, O; Matsuzaki, Y; Takeda, S; Aburada, M

    1995-05-01

    The effect of Xiao-Chai-Hu-Tang (Sho-saiko-to, TJ-9), the extract of a mixture of 7 herbs, on hepatic macrophage function was studied using rats. Hepatic macrophages were activated by injection of Corynebacterium parvum or 70% partial hepatectomy. Oral administration of TJ-9 for 3 weeks did not affect the ability of these macrophages to produce superoxide anions evaluated in situ by liver perfusion with nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). However, the similar administration of TJ-9 attenuated the blocking of the activation after partial hepatectomy produced by pretreatment with gum arabic, a polysaccharide of high molecular weight. When gum arabic was added to the medium of rat hepatic macrophages cultured with normal rat sera, their ability to produce superoxide anions was reduced in a dose-related manner. This reduction was attenuated by changing the sera to the sera obtained from rats given oral doses of TJ-9 for 3 weeks. These results suggest that TJ-9 may improve the blocked function of hepatic macrophages in activation. PMID:7650948

  5. CUDA programs for the GPU computing of the Swendsen-Wang multi-cluster spin flip algorithm: 2D and 3D Ising, Potts, and XY models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komura, Yukihiro; Okabe, Yutaka

    2014-03-01

    We present sample CUDA programs for the GPU computing of the Swendsen-Wang multi-cluster spin flip algorithm. We deal with the classical spin models; the Ising model, the q-state Potts model, and the classical XY model. As for the lattice, both the 2D (square) lattice and the 3D (simple cubic) lattice are treated. We already reported the idea of the GPU implementation for 2D models (Komura and Okabe, 2012). We here explain the details of sample programs, and discuss the performance of the present GPU implementation for the 3D Ising and XY models. We also show the calculated results of the moment ratio for these models, and discuss phase transitions. Catalogue identifier: AERM_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AERM_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 5632 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 14688 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C, CUDA. Computer: System with an NVIDIA CUDA enabled GPU. Operating system: System with an NVIDIA CUDA enabled GPU. Classification: 23. External routines: NVIDIA CUDA Toolkit 3.0 or newer Nature of problem: Monte Carlo simulation of classical spin systems. Ising, q-state Potts model, and the classical XY model are treated for both two-dimensional and three-dimensional lattices. Solution method: GPU-based Swendsen-Wang multi-cluster spin flip Monte Carlo method. The CUDA implementation for the cluster-labeling is based on the work by Hawick et al. [1] and that by Kalentev et al. [2]. Restrictions: The system size is limited depending on the memory of a GPU. Running time: For the parameters used in the sample programs, it takes about a minute for each program. Of course, it depends on the system size, the number of Monte Carlo steps, etc. References: [1] K

  6. Wang-Landau density of states based study of the folding-unfolding transition in the mini-protein Trp-cage (TC5b)

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Priya; Sarkar, Subir K.; Bandyopadhyay, Pradipta

    2014-07-07

    We present the results of a high-statistics equilibrium study of the folding/unfolding transition for the 20-residue mini-protein Trp-cage (TC5b) in water. The ECEPP/3 force field is used and the interaction with water is treated by a solvent-accessible surface area method. A Wang-Landau type simulation is used to calculate the density of states and the conditional probabilities for the various values of the radius of gyration and the number of native contacts at fixed values of energy—along with a systematic check on their convergence. All thermodynamic quantities of interest are calculated from this information. The folding-unfolding transition corresponds to a peak in the temperature dependence of the computed specific heat. This is corroborated further by the structural signatures of folding in the distributions for radius of gyration and the number of native contacts as a function of temperature. The potentials of mean force are also calculated for these variables, both separately and jointly. A local free energy minimum, in addition to the global minimum, is found in a temperature range substantially below the folding temperature. The free energy at this second minimum is approximately 5 k{sub B}T higher than the value at the global minimum.

  7. Evaluation of the grand-canonical partition function using expanded Wang-Landau simulations. III. Impact of combining rules on mixtures properties

    SciTech Connect

    Desgranges, Caroline; Delhommelle, Jerome

    2014-03-14

    Combining rules, such as the Lorentz-Berthelot rules, are routinely used to calculate the thermodynamic properties of mixtures using molecular simulations. Here we extend the expanded Wang-Landau simulation approach to determine the impact of the combining rules on the value of the partition function of binary systems, and, in turn, on the phase coexistence and thermodynamics of these mixtures. We study various types of mixtures, ranging from systems of rare gases to biologically and technologically relevant mixtures, such as water-urea and water-carbon dioxide. Comparing the simulation results to the experimental data on mixtures of rare gases allows us to rank the performance of combining rules. We find that the widely used Lorentz-Berthelot rules exhibit the largest deviations from the experimental data, both for the bulk and at coexistence, while the Kong and Waldman-Hagler provide much better alternatives. In particular, in the case of aqueous solutions of urea, we show that the use of the Lorentz-Berthelot rules has a strong impact on the Gibbs free energy of the solute, overshooting the value predicted by the Waldman-Hagler rules by 7%. This result emphasizes the importance of the combining rule for the determination of hydration free energies using molecular simulations.

  8. From polymers to proteins: the effect of side chains and broken symmetry on the formation of secondary structures within a Wang-Landau approach.

    PubMed

    Škrbić, Tatjana; Badasyan, Artem; Hoang, Trinh Xuan; Podgornik, Rudolf; Giacometti, Achille

    2016-05-25

    We use a micro-canonical Wang-Landau technique to study the equilibrium properties of a single flexible homopolymer where consecutive monomers are represented by impenetrable hard spherical beads tangential to each other, and non-consecutive monomers interact via a square-well potential. To mimic the characteristics of a protein-like system, the model is then refined in two different directions. Firstly, by allowing partial overlap between consecutive beads, we break the spherical symmetry and thus provide a severe constraint on the possible conformations of the chain. Alternatively, we introduce additional spherical beads at specific positions in the direction normal to the backbone, to represent the steric hindrance of the side chains in real proteins. Finally, we consider also a combination of these two ingredients. In all three systems, we obtain the full phase diagram in the temperature-interaction range plane and find the presence of helicoidal structures at low temperatures in the intermediate range of interactions. The effect of the range of the square-well attraction is highlighted, and shown to play a role similar to that found in simple liquids and polymers. Perspectives in terms of protein folding are finally discussed. PMID:27137225

  9. Petrochemistry and mineral chemistry of Late Permian hornblendite and hornblende gabbro from the Wang Nam Khiao area, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand: Indication of Palaeo-Tethyan subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanka, Alongkot; Tsunogae, Toshiaki; Daorerk, Veerote; Tsutsumi, Yukiyasu; Takamura, Yusuke; Endo, Takahiro; Sutthirat, Chakkaphan

    2016-11-01

    In the Wang Nam Khiao area, Nakhon Ratchasima, northeastern Thailand, there are various mafic-ultramafic plutons composed of hornblendite, hornblende gabbro and hornblende microgabbro. The rocks are generally dominated by hornblende, plagioclase and clinopyroxene. The mineral chemistry and whole-rock geochemistry of hornblendite, hornblende gabbro and hornblende microgabbro show their similarities, suggesting a close relationship of their magmatic evolution. The flat REE pattern and low HREE concentration indicate fractional crystallization from hydrous magma. The enrichment in LILE (e.g. Ba, K, Sr) and depletion of HFSE (e.g. Nb, Ta, Zr) together with compositions of clinopyroxene and hornblende reflect arc-related subduction. Hornblende-plagioclase geothermometry and Al-in-hornblende geobarometry indicate the PT conditions of crystallization are 5.3-9.8 kbar and 670-1000 °C, 7.6-9.0 kbar and 850-950 °C, and 7.6-8.8 kbar and 750-850 °C for hornblendite, hornblende gabbro and hornblende microgabbro, respectively, at the lower crustal depth (28-31 km). Zircon U-Pb age of hornblende microgabbro dike, that intruded into hornblendite, yields 257 Ma of intrusion age, suggesting the emplacement of the mafic-ultramafic rock in this area is related to Late Permian arc magmatism resulted from subduction of Palaeo-Tethys beneath Indochina Terrane.

  10. Evaluation of the grand-canonical partition function using expanded Wang-Landau simulations. III. Impact of combining rules on mixtures properties.

    PubMed

    Desgranges, Caroline; Delhommelle, Jerome

    2014-03-14

    Combining rules, such as the Lorentz-Berthelot rules, are routinely used to calculate the thermodynamic properties of mixtures using molecular simulations. Here we extend the expanded Wang-Landau simulation approach to determine the impact of the combining rules on the value of the partition function of binary systems, and, in turn, on the phase coexistence and thermodynamics of these mixtures. We study various types of mixtures, ranging from systems of rare gases to biologically and technologically relevant mixtures, such as water-urea and water-carbon dioxide. Comparing the simulation results to the experimental data on mixtures of rare gases allows us to rank the performance of combining rules. We find that the widely used Lorentz-Berthelot rules exhibit the largest deviations from the experimental data, both for the bulk and at coexistence, while the Kong and Waldman-Hagler provide much better alternatives. In particular, in the case of aqueous solutions of urea, we show that the use of the Lorentz-Berthelot rules has a strong impact on the Gibbs free energy of the solute, overshooting the value predicted by the Waldman-Hagler rules by 7%. This result emphasizes the importance of the combining rule for the determination of hydration free energies using molecular simulations.

  11. Critical nonequilibrium relaxation in the Swendsen-Wang algorithm in the Berezinsky-Kosterlitz-Thouless and weak first-order phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonomura, Yoshihiko; Tomita, Yusuke

    2015-12-01

    Recently we showed that the critical nonequilibrium relaxation in the Swendsen-Wang algorithm is widely described by the stretched-exponential relaxation of physical quantities in the Ising or Heisenberg models. Here we make a similar analysis in the Berezinsky-Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition in the two-dimensional (2D) X Y model and in the first-order phase transition in the 2D q =5 Potts model and find that these phase transitions are described by the simple exponential relaxation and power-law relaxation of physical quantities, respectively. We compare the relaxation behaviors of these phase transitions with those of the second-order phase transition in the three- and four-dimensional X Y models and in the 2D q -state Potts models for 2 ≤q ≤4 and show that the species of phase transitions can be clearly characterized by the present analysis. We also compare the size dependence of relaxation behaviors of the first-order phase transition in the 2D q =5 and 6 Potts models and propose a quantitative criterion on "weakness" of the first-order phase transition.

  12. Scaling behavior can be tricky: Comment on "Universal scaling for the dilemma strength in evolutionary games" by Z. Wang et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Pak Ming; Xu, Chen

    2015-09-01

    Evolutionary game theory is a powerful tool for studying the emergence of cooperation among competing individuals [1]. Popularly studied games include the prisoner's dilemma [2], snowdrift game [3] and stag hunt game [4]. They have been extensively studied for the extent of cooperative behavior under different dilemma strengths. Generally, the games can be defined by a 2 × 2 matrix and thus four payoff elements, T, R, P, and S, for the possible payoffs to players when they use pure strategies against each other. Detailed definitions of the four payoffs are given in the review by Wang et al. [5]. For simplicity, it is often the case that fewer parameters are invoked, e.g. a single parameter [3] and more generally two parameters [6]. Generally speaking, reducing the number of parameters has the effect of restricting the system to a certain subspace of the unreduced case. In addition, the spatial structures, such as a well-mixed population or a population forming a complex network, that govern the competing relationship and environment of the agents, and the evolutionary rules, that govern how agents update their strategies, are vital in determining how cooperation evolves, as well documented in the references of [5].

  13. Effect of modified Bo-yang-Hwan-o-Tang, a polyherbal medicine on the hippocampal neuronal damage in a rat model of global ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Tae Woo; Jung, Hyo Won; Park, Yong-Ki

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion has been well-characterized as a common pathological status contributing to vascular dementia (VD). In this study, the neuroprotective effect of modified Bo-yang-Hwan-O Tang (mBHT), a polyherbal medicine for ischemic stroke, was investigated in a rat model for global ischemia. Materials and Methods: Global ischemia model was prepared in Sprague-Dawley rats by the permanent occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries (two-vessel occlusion [2VO])-induced chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. mBHT at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg was orally administrated for 4 weeks once a day, 24 h after 2VO. Histopathological change of the hippocampal region was observed by hematoxylin and eosin, Nissl, and Fluoro-Jade B staining and immunohistochemistry with anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein and anti-neuronal nuclei antibodies. The expression of Bax, Bcl-2, and caspase-3 was investigated in the hippocampus by Western blot. The nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) expression was also analyzed in hippocampal CA1 region using immunofluorescence staining. Results: The administration of mBHT at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg significantly inhibited chronic cerebral hypoperfusion-induced neuronal damage and astroglial activation in the hippocampal CA1 region in 2VO rats. mBHT increased the NF-κB expression in the CA1 neuronal cells but decreased in activated astrocytes. In addition, mBHT significantly decreased the hippocampal expression of Bax and caspase-3 and increased the Bcl-2 expression in 2VO rats. Conclusions: Our data indicate that mBHT has a neuroprotective property in VD induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion through inhibiting the hippocampal neuronal damage and astrogliosis. PMID:26246747

  14. Chungsim-Yeunja-Tang decreases the inflammatory response in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with cerebral infarction through an NF-κB dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Chungsim-Yeunja-Tang (CYT) has been used as a medicine for cerebral infarction (CI) patients in Korea. The objective of this study was to determine precisely the effect of CYT on CI patients using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Methods For a clinical study, 47 CI patients were identified who had taken CYT (0.01 g/kg) 3 times a day after meals for 2 weeks by oral administration. For ex vivo experiments, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from CI patients. We analyzed the effect of CYT and its main components on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokine production and mechanism on PBMCs of CI patients by using ELISA, western blot analysis, transcription factor enzyme-linked immunoassay, and caspase assay. Results Clinical signs of CI significantly disappeared about 2 weeks after oral administration of CYT to CI patients (P < 0.05). CYT and quercetin, an active compound of CYT, significantly inhibited LPS-induced interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production and expression in PBMCs. CYT and quercetin also inhibited LPS-induced nuclear translocation and DNA binding activities of nuclear factor-κB and degradation of IκBα. In addition, CYT and quercetin inhibited LPS-induced IL-32 expression and caspase-1 activation. Conclusion These results suggest a mechanism that might explain the beneficial effect of CYT in treating CI patients. Taken together, our findings indicate that inhibition of IL-32 expression and caspase-1 activation may be a novel biomarker and potential therapeutic target in CI. PMID:21108840

  15. Development and Validation of an UHPLC-QqQ-MS Technique for Simultaneous Determination of Ten Bioactive Components in Fangji Huangqi Tang.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoli; Liu, Xiao; Zhu, Tingting; Cai, Baochang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop an ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography method coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry for simultaneous determination of tetrandrine, fangchinoline, atractylenolide I, atractylenolide III, calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, glycyrrhizin, liquiritin, isoliquiritin, liquiritigenin, and isoliquiritigenin in Fangji Huangqi Tang (FHT). The chromatographic separation was performed on a reversed-C18 column, eluted with a mixture of 0.1% acetic acid and acetonitrile at 0.4 mL/min. The separation of these ten compounds was achieved by linear gradient elution. The method was strictly validated with respect to specificity, precision, accuracy, and repeatability. All the compounds showed good linearities (r ≥ 0.999). The LOQs of the ten components were 0.36, 0.18, 0.09, 0.43, 0.02, 1.89, 0.26, 0.18, 0.61, and 0.48 ng/mL for tetrandrine, fangchinoline, atractylenolide I, atractylenolide III, calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, glycyrrhizin, liquiritin, isoliquiritin, liquiritigenin, and isoliquiritigenin, respectively. The LODs of the ten components were 0.11, 0.05, 0.03, 0.13, 0.01, 0.57, 0.08, 0.05, 0.18, and 0.14 ng/mL for tetrandrine, fangchinoline, atractylenolide I, atractylenolide III, calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, glycyrrhizin, liquiritin, isoliquiritin, liquiritigenin, and isoliquiritigenin, respectively. The method was proven to be specific and reliable, which would provide a meaningful basis for the quality control and evaluation of FHT during its clinical application. PMID:27313950

  16. Teng-Long-Bu-Zhong-Tang, a Chinese herbal formula, enhances anticancer effects of 5 - Fluorouracil in CT26 colon carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer remains one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has played a positive role in colorectal cancer treatment. There is a great need to establish effective herbal formula for colorectal cancer treatment. Based on TCM principles and clinical practices, we have established an eight herbs composed formula for colorectal cancer treatment, which is Teng-Long-Bu-Zhong-Tang (TLBZT). We have demonstrated the anticancer effects of TLBZT against colorectal carcinoma in vitro. In present study, we evaluated the anticancer potential of TLBZT, used alone or in combination with low dose of 5-Fluorouracil (5-Fu), in CT26 colon carcinoma in vivo. Methods CT26 colon carcinoma was established in BALB/c mice and treated with TLBZT, 5-Fu, or TLBZT plus 5-Fu. The tumor volumes were observed. Apoptosis was detected by TUNEL assay. Caspases activities were detected by colorimetric assay. Cell senescence was indentified by senescence β-galactosidase staining. Gene expression and angiogenesis was observed by immunohistochemistry or western blot. Results TLBZT significantly inhibited CT26 colon carcinoma growth. TLBZT elicited apoptosis in CT26 colon carcinoma, accompanied by Caspase-3, 8, and 9 activation and PARP cleavage, and downregulation of XIAP and Survivin. TLBZT also induced cell senescence in CT26 colon carcinoma, with concomitant upregulation of p16 and p21 and downregulation of RB phosphorylation. In addition, angiogenesis and VEGF expression in CT26 colon carcinoma was significantly inhibited by TLBZT treatment. Furthermore, TLBZT significantly enhanced anticancer effects of 5-Fu in CT26 colon carcinoma. Conclusions TLBZT exhibited significantly anticancer effect, and enhanced the effects of 5-Fu in CT26 colon carcinoma, which may correlate with induction of apoptosis and cell senescence, and angiogenesis inhibition. The present study provides new insight into TCM approaches for colon cancer treatment

  17. Development and Validation of an UHPLC-QqQ-MS Technique for Simultaneous Determination of Ten Bioactive Components in Fangji Huangqi Tang

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoli; Liu, Xiao; Zhu, Tingting; Cai, Baochang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop an ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography method coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry for simultaneous determination of tetrandrine, fangchinoline, atractylenolide I, atractylenolide III, calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, glycyrrhizin, liquiritin, isoliquiritin, liquiritigenin, and isoliquiritigenin in Fangji Huangqi Tang (FHT). The chromatographic separation was performed on a reversed-C18 column, eluted with a mixture of 0.1% acetic acid and acetonitrile at 0.4 mL/min. The separation of these ten compounds was achieved by linear gradient elution. The method was strictly validated with respect to specificity, precision, accuracy, and repeatability. All the compounds showed good linearities (r ≥ 0.999). The LOQs of the ten components were 0.36, 0.18, 0.09, 0.43, 0.02, 1.89, 0.26, 0.18, 0.61, and 0.48 ng/mL for tetrandrine, fangchinoline, atractylenolide I, atractylenolide III, calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, glycyrrhizin, liquiritin, isoliquiritin, liquiritigenin, and isoliquiritigenin, respectively. The LODs of the ten components were 0.11, 0.05, 0.03, 0.13, 0.01, 0.57, 0.08, 0.05, 0.18, and 0.14 ng/mL for tetrandrine, fangchinoline, atractylenolide I, atractylenolide III, calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, glycyrrhizin, liquiritin, isoliquiritin, liquiritigenin, and isoliquiritigenin, respectively. The method was proven to be specific and reliable, which would provide a meaningful basis for the quality control and evaluation of FHT during its clinical application. PMID:27313950

  18. Using UPLC-QTOF-MS to analyze the chemical changes between traditional and dispensing granule decoctions of San-Ao-Tang.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chunhua; Qian, Yefei; Fan, Xinsheng; Shang, ErXin; Yao, Xin; Ma, Shiping

    2014-04-01

    In the present study, a chemical profiling approach based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-PDA-TOF-MS) was proposed to rapidly evaluate the chemical consistency between traditional and dispensing granule decoctions of traditional medicine combinatorial formulae and validated using San-Ao-Tang (SAT) as a model combinatorial formula. SAT is an effective traditional Chinese medicine, which is usually used in treating asthma and other diseases of the respiratory system. Two decoctions were prepared: traditional decoction, which is a water extract of three mixed constituent herbs of SAT; and dispensing granule decoction, which is a mixed water extract of each individual herb of SAT. Batches of these two decoction samples were subjected to UPLC-PDA-TOF-MS analysis and the data sets of t(R)-m/z pairs, ion intensities and sample codes were processed with supervised orthogonal partial least squared discriminant analysis to holistically compare their differences. Once a clear classification trend was found in the score plot, further statistics were performed to generate points at the two ends of S, and the components that correlated to these ions were regarded as the most changed components during decoction of the combinatorial formula. The changed components were identified by comparing the mass/ultraviolet spectra and retention times with those of reference compounds and/or tentatively assigned by matching empirical molecular formulae with those of the known compounds published in the literature. Using the proposed approach, global chemical differences were found between traditional and dispensing granule decoctions, like ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, norpseudoephedrine, licorice saponine H2, licorice saponine G2 and amygdalin. PMID:23572319

  19. A tale of two theorems. Comment on "Universal scaling for the dilemma strength in evolutionary games" by Z. Wang et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudge, Simon J.; Brede, Markus

    2015-09-01

    Wang et al. [12] give an extensive review on evolutionary game theory, with a particular focus on the evolution of cooperation; an area that is of central importance to understanding many disparate biological topics [1,2,8,9]. One of the key focuses of the paper is that there are potentially two differing ways of defining two-by-two games so that they can be parameterised with only two variables. This is a highly worthwhile endeavour in that it allows one to systematically investigate and categorise all such games with much greater ease. Perhaps the key result of the paper is that the authors argue that one such parameterisation is far superior to the other, as it retains predictive power even with the additional assumption of a number of reciprocity mechanisms, such as network reciprocity. We wish to draw attention to the fact that these two parameterisations can be understood as the application of two invariance theorems in evolutionary game theory. Furthermore, we complement the authors' extensive simulations with a mathematical argument that might help explain their result in a more transparent way. We will show that one of these invariance theorems generalises to the case of an assorted population and the other does not. It may be argued that many, if not all, of the particular mechanisms of reciprocity crucially rely on the positive assortment of cooperative behaviours [3-7,10]; if one accepts this then our result acts as an argument towards why only one game parameterisation will be sufficient for models of reciprocity.

  20. Screening and analysis of the multiple absorbed bioactive components and metabolites of Baihe Zhimu Tang by the metabolic fingerprinting technique and liquid chromatography/diode array detection-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Kunming; Cai, Hao; Liu, Xiao; Lu, Tulin; Fang, Qianbo; Yao, Zhongqing; Xu, Zisheng; Cai, Baochang

    2011-01-01

    Background: Baihe Zhimu Tang (BZT) is a widely used traditional Chinese medicinal formula in treating various diseases; however, its active components have remained unknown. Materials and Methods: Based on the metabolic fingerprinting technique and liquid chromatography/diode array detection-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC/DAD-ESI-MS), a method for rapid screening and analysis of the multiple absorbed bioactive components and metabolites of an oral solution of Baihe Zhimu Tang (BZT) in rabbit plasma, urine and feces after oral administration of BZT was developed. Results: The results obtained from a comprehensive comparative analysis of the fingerprints of the BZT and its metabolic fingerprints in rabbit biological samples indicated that 19 components in the BZT were absorbed into the rabbit's body. Both of them were tentatively identified from their MS and UV spectra and retention behaviors by comparing the results with the reported literature. In addition, only six components were found in the metabolic fingerprints, which suggested that they might be metabolites of some components in the BZT. Conclusion: The findings demonstrated that the proposed method could be used to rapidly and simultaneously analyze and screen the multiple absorbed bioactive constituents and metabolites in a formula of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) by comparing and contrasting the chromatographic fingerprints with its metabolic fingerprints. This is very important not only for the pharmaceutical discovery process and the quality control of crude drugs, but also for explaining the curative mechanism of TCMs. PMID:21969787

  1. Chemical interaction between Paeonia lactiflora and Glycyrrhiza uralensis, the components of Jakyakgamcho-tang, using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method: herbal combination and chemical interaction in a decoction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Hoon; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo; Seo, Chang-Seob

    2014-10-01

    The herbal combination is the basic unit of a herbal formula that affects the chemical characteristics of individual herbs. In the present study, a method of simultaneous determination of the 11 marker compounds in Jakyakgamcho-tang was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. The validated analytical method was successfully applied to approach the chemical interaction between Paeonia lactiflora and Glycyrrhiza uralensis in co-decoction. In P. lactiflora, the contents of gallic acid, oxypaeoniflorin, (+)-catechin, paeoniflorin, and benzoylpaeoniflorin were decreased, while those of albiflorin and benzoic acid were increased; in G. uralensis, the contents of liquiritin, isoliquiritin, ononin, and glycyrrhizin were decreased, when decocting two herbs together. Moreover, as the ratio between P. lactiflora and G. uralensis was increased, the contents of chemical contents from each herb were proportionally increased. However, each content of marker compound per the gram of herbal medicine was decreased as the ratio of combinative herbs increased. The results showed that P. lactiflora and G. uralensis affect the extraction efficiency of chemical compounds in a Jakyakgamcho-tang decoction. Overall, the method established in this study was simple, rapid, and accurate, and would be useful for the determination of marker compounds and for the investigation of the chemical interaction between herbal medicines. PMID:25044951

  2. Novel biotransformation process of podophyllotoxin to 4 β-sulfur-substituted podophyllum derivates with anti-tumor activity by Penicillium purpurogenum Y.J. Tang.

    PubMed

    Bai, J-K; Zhao, W; Li, H-M; Tang, Y-J

    2012-01-01

    According to the structure-function relationship of podophyllotoxin (PTOX) and its analogue of 4'- demethylepipodophyllotoxin (DMEP), the 4 β-substitution of sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds with a carbon-sulfur bond at 4 position of PTOX or DMEP is an essential modification direction for improving the anti-tumor activity. So, four novel 4 β-sulfursubstituted podophyllum derivatives (i.e., 4β -(1,2,4-triazole-3-yl)sulfanyl-4-deoxy-podophyllotoxin (4-MT-PTOX), 4β-(1,3,4- thiadiazole-2-yl)sulfanyl-4-deoxy-podophyllotoxin (4-MTD-PTOX), 4β-(1,2,4-triazole-3-yl)sulfanyl-4-deoxy-4' -demethylepipodophyllotoxin (4-MT-DMEP), and 4β-(1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-yl)sulfanyl-4-deoxy-4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin (4-MTD-DMEP)) were designed and then successfully biosynthesized in this work. In the novel sulfur-substituted biotransformation processes, PTOX and DMEP was linked with sulfur-containing compounds (i.e., 3-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole (MT) and 2-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole (MTD)) at 4 position of cycloparaffin to produce 4-MT-PTOX (1), 4-MTD-PTOX (2), 4-MT-DMEP (3), and 4-MTD-DMEP (4) by Penicillium purpurogenum Y.J. Tang, respectively, which was screened out from Diphylleia sinensis Li (Hubei, China). All the novel compounds exhibited promising in vitro bioactivity, especially 4-MT-PTOX (1). Compared with etoposide (i.e., a 50 % effective concentration [EC(50)] of 25.72, 167.97, and 1.15 M), the EC(50) values of 4-MT-PTOX (1) against tumor cell line BGC-823, A549 and HepG2 (i.e., 0.28, 0.76, and 0.42 M) were significantly improved by 91, 221 and 2.73 times, respectively. Moreover, the EC(50) value of 4-MT-PTOX (1) against the normal human cell line HK-2 (i.e., 182.4 μM) was 19 times higher than that of etoposide (i.e., 9.17 μM). Based on the rational design, four novel 4 β-sulfur-substituted podophyllum derivatives with superior in vitro anti-tumor activity were obtained for the first time. The correctness of structure-function relationship and rational drug

  3. Tang-Nai-Kang alleviates pre-diabetes and metabolic disorders and induces a gene expression switch toward fatty acid oxidation in SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Linyi; Yoshitomi, Hisae; Wei, Ying; Qin, Lingling; Zhou, Jingxin; Xu, Tunhai; Wu, Xinli; Zhou, Tian; Sun, Wen; Guo, Xiangyu; Wu, Lili; Wang, Haiyan; Zhang, Yan; Li, Chunna; Liu, Tonghua; Gao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Increased energy intake and reduced physical activity can lead to obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Transcriptional modulation of metabolic networks has become a focus of current drug discovery research into the prevention and treatment of metabolic disorders associated with energy surplus and obesity. Tang-Nai-Kang (TNK), a mixture of five herbal plant extracts, has been shown to improve abnormal glucose metabolism in patients with pre-diabetes. Here, we report the metabolic phenotype of SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr (SHR/cp) rats treated with TNK. Pre-diabetic SHR/cp rats were randomly divided into control, TNK low-dose (1.67 g/kg) and TNK high-dose (3.24 g/kg) groups. After high-dose treatment for 2 weeks, the serum triglycerides and free fatty acids in SHR/cp rats were markedly reduced compared to controls. After 3 weeks of administration, the high dose of TNK significantly reduced the body weight and fat mass of SHR/cp rats without affecting food consumption. Serum fasting glucose and insulin levels in the TNK-treated groups decreased after 6 weeks of treatment. Furthermore, TNK-treated rats exhibited obvious improvements in glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. The improved glucose metabolism may be caused by the substantial reduction in serum lipids and body weight observed in SHR/cp rats starting at 3 weeks of TNK treatment. The mRNA expression of NAD+-dependent deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and genes related to fatty acid oxidation was markedly up-regulated in the muscle, liver and adipose tissue after TNK treatment. Furthermore, TNK promoted the deacetylation of two well-established SIRT1 targets, PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC1α) and forkhead transcription factor 1 (FOXO1), and induced the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) in different tissues. These observations suggested that TNK may be an alternative treatment for pre-diabetes and metabolic syndrome by inducing a gene expression switch toward fat

  4. Effects of Huanglian-Jie-Du-Tang and Its Modified Formula on the Modulation of Amyloid-β Precursor Protein Processing in Alzheimer's Disease Models

    PubMed Central

    Durairajan, Siva Sundara Kumar; Huang, Ying-Yu; Yuen, Pui-Yee; Chen, Lei-Lei; Kwok, Ka-Yan; Liu, Liang-Feng; Song, Ju-Xian; Han, Quan-Bin; Xue, Lei; K. Chung, Sookja; Huang, Jian-Dong; Baum, Larry; Senapati, Sanjib; Li, Min

    2014-01-01

    Huanglian-Jie-Du-Tang (HLJDT) is a famous traditional Chinese herbal formula that has been widely used clinically to treat cerebral ischemia. Recently, we found that berberine, a major alkaloid compound in HLJDT, reduced amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation in an Alzheimer’s disease (AD) mouse model. In this study, we compared the effects of HLJDT, four single component herbs of HLJDT (Rhizoma coptidis (RC), Radix scutellariae (RS), Cortex phellodendri (CP) and Fructus gardenia (FG)) and the modified formula of HLJDT (HLJDT-M, which is free of RS) on the regulatory processing of amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) in an in vitro model of AD. Here we show that treatment with HLJDT-M and its components RC, CP, and the main compound berberine on N2a mouse neuroblastoma cells stably expressing human APP with the Swedish mutation (N2a-SwedAPP) significantly decreased the levels of full-length APP, phosphorylated APP at threonine 668, C-terminal fragments of APP, soluble APP (sAPP)-α and sAPPβ-Swedish and reduced the generation of Aβ peptide in the cell lysates of N2a-SwedAPP. HLJDT-M showed more significant APP- and Aβ- reducing effects than berberine, RC or CP treatment alone. In contrast, HLJDT, its component RS and the main active compound of RS, baicalein, strongly increased the levels of all the metabolic products of APP in the cell lysates. The extract from FG, however, did not influence APP modulation. Interestingly, regular treatment of TgCRND8 APP transgenic mice with baicalein exacerbated the amyloid plaque burden, APP metabolism and Aβ production. Taken together, these data provide convincing evidence that HLJDT and baicalein treatment can increase the amyloidogenic metabolism of APP which is at least partly responsible for the baicalein-mediated Aβ plaque increase in the brains of TgCRND8 mice. On the other hand, HLJDT-M significantly decreased all the APP metabolic products including Aβ. Further study of HLJDT-M for therapeutic use in treating AD is

  5. Tang-Nai-Kang Alleviates Pre-diabetes and Metabolic Disorders and Induces a Gene Expression Switch toward Fatty Acid Oxidation in SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr Rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linyi; Yoshitomi, Hisae; Wei, Ying; Qin, Lingling; Zhou, Jingxin; Xu, Tunhai; Wu, Xinli; Zhou, Tian; Sun, Wen; Guo, Xiangyu; Wu, Lili; Wang, Haiyan; Zhang, Yan; Li, Chunna; Liu, Tonghua; Gao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Increased energy intake and reduced physical activity can lead to obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Transcriptional modulation of metabolic networks has become a focus of current drug discovery research into the prevention and treatment of metabolic disorders associated with energy surplus and obesity. Tang-Nai-Kang (TNK), a mixture of five herbal plant extracts, has been shown to improve abnormal glucose metabolism in patients with pre-diabetes. Here, we report the metabolic phenotype of SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr (SHR/cp) rats treated with TNK. Pre-diabetic SHR/cp rats were randomly divided into control, TNK low-dose (1.67 g/kg) and TNK high-dose (3.24 g/kg) groups. After high-dose treatment for 2 weeks, the serum triglycerides and free fatty acids in SHR/cp rats were markedly reduced compared to controls. After 3 weeks of administration, the high dose of TNK significantly reduced the body weight and fat mass of SHR/cp rats without affecting food consumption. Serum fasting glucose and insulin levels in the TNK-treated groups decreased after 6 weeks of treatment. Furthermore, TNK-treated rats exhibited obvious improvements in glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. The improved glucose metabolism may be caused by the substantial reduction in serum lipids and body weight observed in SHR/cp rats starting at 3 weeks of TNK treatment. The mRNA expression of NAD+-dependent deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and genes related to fatty acid oxidation was markedly up-regulated in the muscle, liver and adipose tissue after TNK treatment. Furthermore, TNK promoted the deacetylation of two well-established SIRT1 targets, PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC1α) and forkhead transcription factor 1 (FOXO1), and induced the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) in different tissues. These observations suggested that TNK may be an alternative treatment for pre-diabetes and metabolic syndrome by inducing a gene expression switch toward fat

  6. On the use of COSMO-SkyMed time series for the identification of Archaeological traces dating from the Eastern-Han to Northern-Wei Dynasties in Luoyang city.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fulong; Masini, Nicola; Yang, Ruixia; Feng, Dexian; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2015-04-01

    The availability of Very High Resolution (VHR) Synthetic Aperture SAR (SAR) data (Lasaponara and Masini 2013, Tapete et al. 2013), such as TerraSAR-X and Cosmo Sky Med launched in 2007, opened a new era in the spaceborne SAR remote sensing, including archaeology remote sensing previous mainly based on optical data (see for example Lasaponara and Masini 2012, Ciminale et al. 2009, Masini and Lasaponara 2006). They provide powerful tools, based on active sensors from space operating in the microwave frequency range, which are useful to extract information about the contemporary landscape and make possible, in some conditions, to infer changes in the former environment and to detect archaeological remains. Nevertheless, the capability of satellite radar technology in archaeology has so far not been fully assessed. This paper (Chen et al 2015) is a pioneering effort to assess the potential of satellite SAR X-band data in the detection of archaeological marks. We focus on the results obtained from a collaborative contribution jointly carried out by archaeologists and remote sensing experts in order to test the use of COSMO-SkyMed data in different contexts and environmental conditions. The methodological approach we adopted is based on multi-temporal analysis performed to reduce noise and highlight archaeological marks. Results from multi-temporal data analysis, conducted using 40 scenes from COSMO-SkyMed X-band Stripmap data (27 February to 17 October 2013), enable us to detect unknown archaeological crop, soil, and shadow marks representing Luoyang city, dating from the Eastern-Han to Northern-Wei Dynasties. Reference Chen F., Masini N., Yang R., Milillo P., Feng D., Lasaponara R., 2015 A Space View of Radar Archaeological Marks: First Applications of COSMO-SkyMed X-Band Data. Remote Sens. 2015, 7, 24-50; doi:10.3390/rs70100024. Lasaponara R., Masini N. 2013, Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar in Archaeology and Cultural Landscape: An Overview. Archaeological

  7. Reciprocity Mechanisms meet together. A previous step to bridge the gap with experiments?. Comment on "Universal scaling for the dilemma strength in evolutionary games", by Z. Wang, et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús

    2015-09-01

    As it is well-recognized, powerful theoretical schemes for the promotion of cooperation fall into the following five categories: direct reciprocity, indirect reciprocity, kin selection, group selection, and network reciprocity, all of which got a great deal of attention and theoretical validation during the past decades [1,2]. In [3] Wang et al. briefly explain how reciprocity mechanisms work, illustrating the huge amount of theoretical work done in the area during the last decades, to finally pose some of the still unsolved puzzles that need to be solved in order to achieve a full (theoretical) understanding of the mechanisms that allow cooperative traits to survive in different scenarios.

  8. The anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperuricemic effects of Chinese herbal formula danggui-nian-tong-tang on acute gouty arthritis: a comparative study with indomethacin and allopurinol.

    PubMed

    Chou, C T; Kuo, S C

    1995-01-01

    The traditional Chinese antirheumatic herb Danggui-Nian-Tong-Tang (DGNTT) was studied comparatively with indomethacin and allopurinol to evaluate its anti-inflammatory and antihyperuricemic effects in patients with gout. Results in this study did not show any significant improvement in reducing the total number of painful and swollen joints, articular index and pain score (P > 0.05) by treatment with DGNTT. Unlike allopurinol, DGNTT did not lower the high serum level of uric acid. In vitro study in rats showed that DGNTT significantly inhibits the activity of beta-glucuronidase (P < 0.05) and lysozyme release (P < 0.01) from neutrophils. In conclusion, despite the effect of inhibition on enzyme release from neutrophils, DGNTT is not effective in treating acute arthritis or hyperuricemia.

  9. Aqueous Extract of Gumiganghwal-tang, a Traditional Herbal Medicine, Reduces Pulmonary Fibrosis by Transforming Growth Factor-β1/Smad Signaling Pathway in Murine Model of Chronic Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Shin, In-Sik; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo; Jin, Seong Eun; Lee, Mee-Young

    2016-01-01

    Gumiganghwal-tang is a traditional herbal prescription that is used widely for the treatment of the common cold and inflammatory diseases in Korea and other Asian countries. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of a Gumiganghwal-tang aqueous extract (GGTA) against airway inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis using a mouse model of chronic asthma. Chronic asthma was modeled in BALB/c mice via sensitization/challenge with an intraperitoneal injection of 1% ovalbumin (OVA) and inhalation of nebulized 1% OVA for 4 weeks. GGTA (100 mg/kg or 200 mg/kg) was also administered by oral gavage once a day for 4 weeks. We investigated the number of inflammatory cells, production of T-helper type 2 (Th2) cytokines, chemokine and the total transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF); the levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) in the plasma; the infiltration of inflammatory cells in lung tissue; and the expression of TGF-β1, Smad-3, and collagen in lung tissue. Our results revealed that GGTA lowered the recruitment of inflammatory cells (particularly, lymphocyte); and decreased the production of Th2 cytokines, chemokine and total TGF-β1; and attenuated the levels of total and OVA-specific IgE; and decreased the infiltration of inflammatory cells. Moreover, GGTA significantly reduced the expression of TGF-β1 and Smad-3, and lowered collagen deposition. These results indicate that GGTA reduces airway inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis by regulating Th2 cytokines production and the TGF-β1/Smad-3 pathway, thus providing a potential treatment for chronic asthma. PMID:27741312

  10. Insight into the differences in classification of mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes between Wang's lymph node map and the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer lymph node map.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya-Qing; Wang, Ko-Pen; Ben, Su-Qin

    2015-12-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of malignant-tumor-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. Transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) has for the past 30 years been an effective technique for the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. Understanding the anatomy of mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes is essential to improve the yield of TBNA. Wang's lymph node map is based on the lymph node map of the American Thoracic Society (ATS), and on the TBNA technique; it was published in 1994, and has promoted the development of both conventional TBNA (cTBNA) and endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA). In 2009, the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) developed a new chest lymph node map to reconcile the differences between the Naruke and The Mountain-Dresler (MD)-ATS lymph node maps. The IASLC lymph node map was incorporated into the seventh edition of the tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) staging system for lung cancer, which directly affected the treatment and prognosis of lung cancer. There are significant differences between Wang's lymph node map and the IASLC lymph node map in TNM staging, and it is imperative to understand these differences and correlate these maps for the prognosis and staging of lung cancer using cTBNA or EBUS-TBNA.

  11. A pilot study to evaluate the effect of Taeumjowi-tang on obesity in Korean adults: study protocol for a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Obesity, which is described as excessive or abnormal body fat, increases the risk of diet-related diseases. In Korea and around the world, the prevalence of obesity has grown annually from 1998 to 2008. This growth has continued despite various therapeutic efforts. The discovery of new and alternative treatments for obesity should be considered an important priority. Taeumjowi-tang (TJ001), a traditional Korean medicinal extract consisting of eight herbs, is a widely used herbal remedy for obesity in Korea. However, the efficacy and safety of TJ001 have not been fully investigated in a clinical trial. The purpose of this pilot study is to estimate obesity-related parameters and to assess the efficacy and safety of TJ001. Methods Our study is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre clinical trial of Taeumjowi-tang (TJ001). For this study, we will recruit obese Korean patients of both sexes, ages 18 to 65 years, from four university hospitals. A total of 104 subjects will be recruited. The participants will receive either 7 g of TJ001 or a placebo three times daily for 12 weeks. The primary end point will be the rate of subjects who lose at least 5% of their baseline body weight. The secondary end points will be changes in body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist/hip circumference ratio, lipid profiles, body fat composition, blood pressure, fasting glucose concentration, C-reactive protein and questionnaires related to the quality of life. The outcomes will be measured every 4 weeks. The study period will be 12 weeks and will include a total of five visits with each subject (at screening and at 0, 4, 8 and 12 weeks). Conclusions The results of our study will inform various estimates of TJ001 and will serve as the basis for a larger-scale trial. This study will assess the efficacy and safety of TJ001 as an alternative herbal remedy for obesity. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN87153759

  12. Influence of herbal combinations on the extraction efficiencies of chemical compounds from Cinnamomum cassia, Paeonia lactiflora, and Glycyrrhiza uralensis, the herbal components of Gyeji-tang, evaluated by HPLC method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Hoon; Ha, Woo-Ram; Park, Jin-Hyung; Lee, Guemsan; Choi, Goya; Lee, Seung-Ho; Kim, Young-Sik

    2016-09-10

    During decoction process, the ingredients of herbal formula interact with each other, such that therapeutic properties and chemical extraction characteristics are altered. The crude drugs, Cinnamomum cassia (CC), Paeonia lactiflora (PL), and Glycyrrhiza uralensis (GU), are the main herbal constituents of Gyeji-tang, a traditional herbal formula. To evaluate the chemical interaction between CC, PL, and GU during the course of decoction, quantification of 16 marker compounds in the herbal decoction, performed using a Box-Behnken experimental design, was carried out by HPLC-diode array detection using validated method. Correlations between the amounts of marker compounds from CC, PL, and GU were assessed by multiple regression analysis. The results obtained showed that amounts of single herb marker compounds significantly changed (usually decreased) by decoction in the presence of other herbs and that these changes depended on the chemical natures of the markers and the herbal medicines present. Results also demonstrated that the extraction efficiencies of marker compounds increased when the proportion of the herb containing them was increased and decreased in proportion to amounts of herbs added. In conclusion, chemical interactions between compositional herbal medicines may occur when herbs are co-decocted. This study provides insight of understanding the herbal interactions in herbal formulae. PMID:27399342

  13. Influence of herbal combinations on the extraction efficiencies of chemical compounds from Cinnamomum cassia, Paeonia lactiflora, and Glycyrrhiza uralensis, the herbal components of Gyeji-tang, evaluated by HPLC method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Hoon; Ha, Woo-Ram; Park, Jin-Hyung; Lee, Guemsan; Choi, Goya; Lee, Seung-Ho; Kim, Young-Sik

    2016-09-10

    During decoction process, the ingredients of herbal formula interact with each other, such that therapeutic properties and chemical extraction characteristics are altered. The crude drugs, Cinnamomum cassia (CC), Paeonia lactiflora (PL), and Glycyrrhiza uralensis (GU), are the main herbal constituents of Gyeji-tang, a traditional herbal formula. To evaluate the chemical interaction between CC, PL, and GU during the course of decoction, quantification of 16 marker compounds in the herbal decoction, performed using a Box-Behnken experimental design, was carried out by HPLC-diode array detection using validated method. Correlations between the amounts of marker compounds from CC, PL, and GU were assessed by multiple regression analysis. The results obtained showed that amounts of single herb marker compounds significantly changed (usually decreased) by decoction in the presence of other herbs and that these changes depended on the chemical natures of the markers and the herbal medicines present. Results also demonstrated that the extraction efficiencies of marker compounds increased when the proportion of the herb containing them was increased and decreased in proportion to amounts of herbs added. In conclusion, chemical interactions between compositional herbal medicines may occur when herbs are co-decocted. This study provides insight of understanding the herbal interactions in herbal formulae.

  14. Xiang-qi-tang increases avian pathogenic Escherichia coli-induced survival rate and regulates serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1 and soluble endothelial protein C receptor in chicken.

    PubMed

    He, Chang-Liang; Fu, Ben-Dong; Shen, Hai-Qing; Jiang, Xiao-Lin; Zhang, Chang-Shuai; Wu, Shuai-Cheng; Zhu, Wei; Wei, Xu-Bin

    2011-01-01

    Xiang-qi-tang (XQT) is a Chinese herbal formula containing rhizoma Cyperi, Andrographis paniculata and Astragalus membranaceus. The present study investigated the effects of XQT on the mortality and inflammatory mediators in a chicken model challenged with avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC). To detect the effect of XQT, the chickens were pretreated with the formula 12 h before being challenged with 10(8) colony forming unit (CFU) of APEC. The results showed that 0.6 g/kg XQT significantly elevated the survival rate of infected chickens. To further investigate the mechanism of decreasing mortality of XQT, we examined plasma inflammatory mediator levels. The levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 (IL-1) and soluble endothelial protein C receptor (sEPCR) were significantly increased in chickens challenged with APEC alone, whereas chickens pretreated with 0.6 g/kg XQT showed marked decrease of these inflammatory mediator levels during the death peak. Taken together, this study demonstrates that XQT has protective effects in APEC-treated chickens. The action mechanisms of XQT involve anti-inflammation and antithrombotic activity. These findings may contribute to future research on the action mechanisms of this formula, as well as prevention of or therapy for avian colibacillosis.

  15. The Effects of Banha-sasim-tang on Dyspeptic Symptoms and Gastric Motility in Cases of Functional Dyspepsia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, and Two-Center Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Seok-Jae; Han, Gajin; Yeo, Inkwon; Ryu, Bongha; Kim, Jinsung

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Functional dyspepsia (FD) is highly prevalent, and no standard treatments exist for this condition. Herbal prescriptions are widely used to treat FD. In traditional Korean medicine, Banha-sasim-tang (BST) is a famous herbal prescription for dyspepsia. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of BST and to examine the relationship between gastric slow waves and dyspeptic symptoms. Materials and Methods. In total, 100 FD patients were recruited; BST or placebo was administered for 6 weeks. The gastrointestinal symptom scale, FD-related quality of life scale, and frequency or power variables regarding gastric slow waves were measured at 0, 6, and 14 weeks. Results. There were no significant differences in the overall dyspeptic symptoms or quality of life between the BST and placebo groups. However, early satiety was significantly improved in the BST group (P = 0.009, at 6 weeks by intention-to-treat analysis). Abnormal gastric dysrhythmias and power ratios were also significantly improved by BST. Conclusion. BST had no significant effects on FD. However, early satiety appeared to improve after BST administration. Electrogastrography may be a useful technique for assessing changes in gastric motility dysfunction after interventions for FD. Further investigation focused on specific symptoms or subtypes of FD is required. PMID:23861702

  16. Sip-jeon-dea-bo-tang, a traditional herbal medicine, ameliorates cisplatin-induced anorexia via the activation of JAK1/STAT3-mediated leptin and IL-6 production in the fat tissue of mice.

    PubMed

    Woo, Sang-Mi; Choi, Youn Kyung; Kim, Ah-Jeong; Yun, Yee Jin; Shin, Yong Cheol; Cho, Sung-Gook; Ko, Seong Gyu

    2016-04-01

    Despite its therapeutic advantages, chemotherapy can also cause adverse effects, including anorexia and loss of appetite. Although numerous patients with cancer have been reported to suffer from anorexia during or following chemotherapy, treatment options for anorexia remain to be determined. In Asian countries, traditional medicines are widely used to treat problems with appetite; sip-jeon-dea-bo-tang (SJDBT) is one of those medicines used for the treatment of anorexia. The present study demonstrated that SJDBT ameliorated cisplatin-induced anorexia. In a mouse model of chemotherapy-induced anorexia, oral administration of SJDBT prevented the cisplatin-induced reduction of food intake, inhibiting weight loss. The results of multiplex assays showed that SJDBT only altered the levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and leptin in the serum and fat tissue. In addition, SJDBT maintained the serum leptin level and increased the serum IL-6 level, whereas cisplatin reduced the levels of both serum leptin and IL‑6. Furthermore, SJDBT was revealed to increase the levels of leptin and IL-6 in the fat tissue by activating the JAK1/STAT3 signaling pathway. In conclusion, the present results revealed that SJDBT ameliorated cisplatin-induced anorexia, suggesting its usefulness in the prevention of anorexia during chemotherapy. PMID:26936678

  17. Proteomics study on the hepatoprotective effects of traditional Chinese medicine formulae Yin-Chen-Hao-Tang by a combination of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hui; Zhang, Aihua; Yan, Guangli; Han, Ying; Sun, Wenjun; Ye, Yuan; Wang, Xijun

    2013-03-01

    Proteomics can bring breakthroughs in the study of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Yin-Chen-Hao-Tang (YCHT), a famous TCM formulae, has been used to alleviate various types of liver injury. However, the underlying mechanisms and drug targets of YCHT associated with the hepatic injury are largely unknown. To identify the possible target proteins of YCHT, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE)-based proteomics was performed and proteins altered after YCHT treatment were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. Interestingly, 15 modulated proteins were identified, out of which 7 were found to be significantly altered by YCHT. YCHT treatment caused a statistically significant down-regulation of zinc finger protein 407, haptoglobin, macroglobulin, alpha-1-antitrypsin; significant up-regulation of transthyretin, vitamin D-binding protein, and prothrombin, appear to be involved in metabolism, energy generation, chaperone, antioxidation, signal transduction, protein folding and apoptosis. Finally, interaction network from 7 differentially expressed protein to the signal-related proteins was established using bioinformatic analysis. Of note, these signal-related proteins could be included in a network together with 7 proteins through direct interaction or only one intermediate partner. Functional pathway analysis suggested that these proteins were closely related in the protein-protein interaction network and the modulation of multiple vital physiological pathways. Thus, our data will help to understand the molecular mechanisms of hepatoprotective effects of YCHT.

  18. Sip-jeon-dea-bo-tang, a traditional herbal medicine, ameliorates cisplatin-induced anorexia via the activation of JAK1/STAT3-mediated leptin and IL-6 production in the fat tissue of mice.

    PubMed

    Woo, Sang-Mi; Choi, Youn Kyung; Kim, Ah-Jeong; Yun, Yee Jin; Shin, Yong Cheol; Cho, Sung-Gook; Ko, Seong Gyu

    2016-04-01

    Despite its therapeutic advantages, chemotherapy can also cause adverse effects, including anorexia and loss of appetite. Although numerous patients with cancer have been reported to suffer from anorexia during or following chemotherapy, treatment options for anorexia remain to be determined. In Asian countries, traditional medicines are widely used to treat problems with appetite; sip-jeon-dea-bo-tang (SJDBT) is one of those medicines used for the treatment of anorexia. The present study demonstrated that SJDBT ameliorated cisplatin-induced anorexia. In a mouse model of chemotherapy-induced anorexia, oral administration of SJDBT prevented the cisplatin-induced reduction of food intake, inhibiting weight loss. The results of multiplex assays showed that SJDBT only altered the levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and leptin in the serum and fat tissue. In addition, SJDBT maintained the serum leptin level and increased the serum IL-6 level, whereas cisplatin reduced the levels of both serum leptin and IL‑6. Furthermore, SJDBT was revealed to increase the levels of leptin and IL-6 in the fat tissue by activating the JAK1/STAT3 signaling pathway. In conclusion, the present results revealed that SJDBT ameliorated cisplatin-induced anorexia, suggesting its usefulness in the prevention of anorexia during chemotherapy.

  19. UPLC-MS/MS determination of ephedrine, methylephedrine, amygdalin and glycyrrhizic acid in Beagle plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of Ma Huang Tang.

    PubMed

    Yan, Tianhua; Fu, Qiang; Wang, Jing; Ma, Shiping

    2015-02-01

    An ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric (UPLC-MS) method was developed to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of ephedrine, methylephedrine, amygdalin, and glycyrrhizic acid after oral gavage of Ma Huang Tang (MHT) in Beagles. Beagle plasma samples were pretreated using liquid-liquid extraction, and chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column using a linear gradient of water-formic acid mixture (0.1%). The pharmacokinetic parameters of ephedrine, methylephedrine, amygdalin, and glycyrrhizic acid from MHT in Beagles were quantitatively determined by UPLC with tandem mass detector. The qualitative detection of the four compounds was accomplished by selected ion monitoring in negative/positive ion modes electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Detection was based on multiple reaction monitoring with the precursor-to-product ion transitions m/z 166.096-116.983 (ephedrine), m/z 179.034-146.087 (methylephedrine), m/z 456.351-323.074 (amygdalin), and m/z 821.606-351.062 (glycyrrhizic acid). The selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, extraction recovery, ion suppression, and stability were within the acceptable ranges. The method described was successfully applied to reveal the pharmacokinetic properties of ephedrine, methylephedrine, amygdalin, and glycyrrhizic acid after oral gavage of MHT in Beagles.

  20. Screening and identification of multiple constituents and their metabolites of Fangji Huangqi Tang in rats by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry basing on coupling data processing techniques.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoli; Liu, Xiao; Xu, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Tingting; Shi, Fa; Qin, Kunming; Cai, Baochang

    2015-03-15

    Fangji Huangqi Tang (FHT) is a classical formula widely used in Chinese clinical application. In this paper, a novel and advanced strategy has been developed for the multiple constituent identification of FHT in rats, which was basing on an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography equipped with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS) method combined with dynamic background subtract (DBS) data acquisition and enhance peak list (EPL) data processing techniques. Firstly, a total of 58 potential bioactive compounds including alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, saccharides and terpenoids were detected from FHT. Their chemical structures were identified by comparing the retention time and mass spectrometry data, as well as retrieving the reference literatures. Based on the same instrumental conditions, 33 compounds were found in rat serum after oral administration of FHT. After a considerate comparison with the former chemical identification results of FHT, 33 compounds were found, which turned out to be 8 original compounds of FHT as well as 25 metabolites, including 20 phase I and 5 phase II metabolites. The results indicated that the metabolic reactions included hydroxylation, hydrogenation, demethylation, tarine conjugation and acetylation. This study firstly reported the metabolism description of fangchinoline and tetrandrine in vivo, which could be very useful for further pharmacological and clinical studies of FHT. Meanwhile, it provided a practical strategy for rapid screening and identifying of multiple constituents and their metabolites of complex traditional Chinese medicine in biological matrix. PMID:25656758

  1. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of tetrandrine and fangchinoline in rat plasma after oral administration of Fangji Huangqi Tang and Stephania tetrandra S. Moore extracts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoli; Liu, Xiao; Cai, Hao; Pei, Ke; Cao, Gang; Xu, Xiaoyan; Shi, Fa; Cai, Baochang

    2015-05-01

    A rapid, sensitive, and reliable analytical method based on ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry has been developed for the simultaneous determination of fangchinoline and tetrandrine in rat plasma. Plasma samples were pretreated by protein precipitation with acetonitrile. The analysis was performed on a C18 reversed-phase ultra high performance liquid chromatography column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 3.5 μm, Agilent), and the flow rate was set at 0.4 mL/min. Under the experimental conditions, extraction recoveries from plasma were 68.1-72.8% for fangchinoline and 69.2-76.5% for tetrandrine. The plasma concentrations of tetrandrine and fangchinoline in rats at assigned time points were all successfully detected through exactly validated method. Good linearities were obtained in the range of 0.92-184 ng/mL for tetrandrine and in the range of 0.83-166 ng/mL for fangchinoline. The intra- and interday precisions for both analytes were within 11.1% and the accuracies were within the range of -10.7 to 11.3%. The developed method was then successfully applied to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of these two alkaloids after oral administration of Stephania tetrandra S. Moore extracts and Fangji Huangqi Tang. The comparative results provided a meaningful basis for a better understanding of the practical value of the compatibility theory of traditional Chinese medicine in the clinic. PMID:25645647

  2. Xiang-Qi-Tang and its active components exhibit anti-inflammatory and anticoagulant properties by inhibiting MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways in LPS-treated rat cardiac microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    He, Chang-Liang; Yi, Peng-Fei; Fan, Qiao-Jia; Shen, Hai-Qing; Jiang, Xiao-Lin; Qin, Qian-Qian; Song, Zhou; Zhang, Cui; Wu, Shuai-Cheng; Wei, Xu-Bin; Li, Ying-Lun; Fu, Ben-Dong

    2013-04-01

    Xiang-Qi-Tang (XQT) is a Chinese herbal formula containing Cyperus rotundus, Astragalus membranaceus and Andrographis paniculata. Alpha-Cyperone (CYP), astragaloside IV (AS-IV) and andrographolide (AND) are the three major active components in this formula. XQT may modulate the inflammatory or coagulant responses. We therefore assessed the effects of XQT on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory model of rat cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (RCMECs). XQT, CYP, AS-IV and AND inhibited the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and up-regulated the mRNA expression of Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2). XQT and CYP inhibited the secretion of tissue factor (TF). To further explore the mechanism, we found that XQT, or its active components CYP, AS-IV and AND significantly inhibited extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 phosphorylation protein expression as well as decreased the phosphorylation levels of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) p65 proteins in LPS-stimulated RCMECs. These results suggested that XQT and its active components inhibited the expression of inflammatory and coagulant mediators via mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) and NF-κB signaling pathways. These findings may contribute to future research on the action mechanisms of this formula, as well as therapy for inflammation- or coagulation-related diseases. PMID:23171279

  3. Effect of Dangguibohyul-Tang, a Mixed Extract of Astragalus membranaceus and Angelica sinensis, on Allergic and Inflammatory Skin Reaction Compared with Single Extracts of Astragalus membranaceus or Angelica sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, You Yeon; Kim, Mi Hye; Hong, Jongki

    2016-01-01

    Dangguibohyul-tang (DBT), herbal formula composed of Astragalus membranaceus (AM) and Angelica sinensis (AS) at a ratio of 5 : 1, has been used for the treatment of various skin diseases in traditional medicine. We investigated the effect of DBT on allergic and inflammatory skin reaction in atopic dermatitis-like model compared to the single extract of AM or AS. DBT treatment showed the remission of clinical symptoms, including decreased skin thickness and scratching behavior, the total serum IgE level, and the number of mast cells compared to DNCB group as well as the single extract of AM- or AS-treated group. Levels of cytokines (IL-4, IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-1β) and inflammatory mediators (NF-κB, phospho-IκBα, and phospho-MAPKs) were significantly decreased in AM, AS, and DBT groups. These results demonstrated that AM, AS, and DBT may have the therapeutic property on atopic dermatitis by inhibition of allergic and inflammatory mediators and DBT formula; a mixed extract of AM and AS based on the herb pairs theory especially might be more effective on antiallergic reaction as compared with the single extract of AM or AS. PMID:27051450

  4. Dai Huang Fu Zi Tang could ameliorate intestinal injury in a rat model of hemorrhagic shock by regulating intestinal blood flow and intestinal expression of p-VASP and ZO-1

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dai Huang Fu Zi Tang (DHFZT), an oriental herbal formula, has long been used clinically in treatment of intestinal obstruction, acute pancreatitis, cholecystalgia and chronic diarrhea for thousands of years. Recent studies have demonstrated that DHFZT can reduce intestinal pathological injury and the concentration of enterogenous endotoxin in an animal model. But the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Methods SD male rats in adult were used to model HS and treated with DHFZT. The serum concentration of endotoxin were analyzed by dynamic turbidimetric method. In addition, the blood flow of small intestine were measured using laser speckle technique. Phosphorylated vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (p-VASP) and zonula occludens (ZO)-1 protein, intestinal fatty acid binding protein (IFABP) were measured by Western Blotting, RT-PCR, ELISA respectively. Results Present study showed that DHFZT markedly elevated the blood flow of small intestine, protected the intestinal barrier function by up-regulating the expression of ZO-1 protein and down-regulating expression of p-VASP, and notely decreased serum concentration of IFABP and endotoxin in HS. Conclusions These results reveal that DHFZT improves intestinal blood flow, protects the intestinal barrier function, and ameliorates intestinal endotoxaemia in rats with HS. PMID:24580804

  5. Sip-jeon-dea-bo-tang, a traditional herbal medicine, ameliorates cisplatin-induced anorexia via the activation of JAK1/STAT3-mediated leptin and IL-6 production in the fat tissue of mice

    PubMed Central

    WOO, SANG-MI; CHOI, YOUN KYUNG; KIM, AH-JEONG; YUN, YEE JIN; SHIN, YONG CHEOL; CHO, SUNG-GOOK; KO, SEONG GYU

    2016-01-01

    Despite its therapeutic advantages, chemotherapy can also cause adverse effects, including anorexia and loss of appetite. Although numerous patients with cancer have been reported to suffer from anorexia during or following chemotherapy, treatment options for anorexia remain to be determined. In Asian countries, traditional medicines are widely used to treat problems with appetite; sip-jeon-dea-bo-tang (SJDBT) is one of those medicines used for the treatment of anorexia. The present study demonstrated that SJDBT ameliorated cisplatin-induced anorexia. In a mouse model of chemotherapy-induced anorexia, oral administration of SJDBT prevented the cisplatin-induced reduction of food intake, inhibiting weight loss. The results of multiplex assays showed that SJDBT only altered the levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and leptin in the serum and fat tissue. In addition, SJDBT maintained the serum leptin level and increased the serum IL-6 level, whereas cisplatin reduced the levels of both serum leptin and IL-6. Furthermore, SJDBT was revealed to increase the levels of leptin and IL-6 in the fat tissue by activating the JAK1/STAT3 signaling pathway. In conclusion, the present results revealed that SJDBT ameliorated cisplatin-induced anorexia, suggesting its usefulness in the prevention of anorexia during chemotherapy. PMID:26936678

  6. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of tetrandrine and fangchinoline in rat plasma after oral administration of Fangji Huangqi Tang and Stephania tetrandra S. Moore extracts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoli; Liu, Xiao; Cai, Hao; Pei, Ke; Cao, Gang; Xu, Xiaoyan; Shi, Fa; Cai, Baochang

    2015-05-01

    A rapid, sensitive, and reliable analytical method based on ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry has been developed for the simultaneous determination of fangchinoline and tetrandrine in rat plasma. Plasma samples were pretreated by protein precipitation with acetonitrile. The analysis was performed on a C18 reversed-phase ultra high performance liquid chromatography column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 3.5 μm, Agilent), and the flow rate was set at 0.4 mL/min. Under the experimental conditions, extraction recoveries from plasma were 68.1-72.8% for fangchinoline and 69.2-76.5% for tetrandrine. The plasma concentrations of tetrandrine and fangchinoline in rats at assigned time points were all successfully detected through exactly validated method. Good linearities were obtained in the range of 0.92-184 ng/mL for tetrandrine and in the range of 0.83-166 ng/mL for fangchinoline. The intra- and interday precisions for both analytes were within 11.1% and the accuracies were within the range of -10.7 to 11.3%. The developed method was then successfully applied to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of these two alkaloids after oral administration of Stephania tetrandra S. Moore extracts and Fangji Huangqi Tang. The comparative results provided a meaningful basis for a better understanding of the practical value of the compatibility theory of traditional Chinese medicine in the clinic.

  7. Peer review statement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-11-01

    All papers published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the editors of the 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems proceedings. Reviews were conducted by expert referees from the International Technical Committee to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing. The members of the Scientific Committee who selected and reviewed the papers included in the Proceedings of the 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems are: Yulin WU Tsinghua University China François AVELLAN EPFL-LMH Switzerland (principal) Xingqi LUO Xi'an University of Sci & Tech China Martin BÖHLE Kaiserslautern University Germany Gerard BOIS Arts et Métiers ParisTech France Luca D'AGOSTINO University of Pisa Italy Eduard EGUSQUIZA Polytechnical University Catalonia Spain Richard FISHER Voith Hydro Inc USA Regiane FORTES-PATELLA Institute Polytechnique de Grenoble France Aleksandar GAJIC University of Belgrade Serbia Wei YANG China Agriculture University China YinLu YOUNG University of Michigan USA Adrian LUNGU Dunarea de Jos University of Galati Romania Arpad FAY University of Miskolcz Hungary José GONZÁLEZ Universidad de Oviedo Spain Baoshan ZHU Tsinghua University China Hongxun CHEN Shanghai University China Chisachi KATO University of Tokyo Japan Zhenyue MA Dalian University of Sci & Tech China Honggang FAN Tsinghua University China François GUIBAULT Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal Canada Pengcheng GUO Xian University of Technology China Leqing WANG Zhejiang University China Toshiaki IKOHAGI Tohoku University Japan Jiandong YANG Wuhan University China Jianzhong ZHOU Huazhong University of Sci & Tech China Jinwei LI NULL China Rennian LI Lanzhou University of Sci & Tech China Houlin LIU NULL China Juan LIU Tsinghua University China Shuhong LIU Tsinghua University China Xianwu LUO Tsinghua University China Michihiro NISHI Tsinghua

  8. Diversity of Stomoxys spp. (Diptera: Muscidae) and diurnal variations of activity of Stomoxys indicus and S. Calcitrans in a farm, in Wang Nam Khiao District, Nakhon ratchasima Province, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Keawrayup, S.; Duvallet, G.; Sukonthabhirom, S.; Chareonviriyaphap, T.

    2012-01-01

    A study of species diversity of Stomoxys spp. and diurnal variations of activity of the most abundant was performed during a one year period at a local dairy cattle farm in Wang Nam Khiao District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand. Four species of stomoxyine flies were morphologically identified, including Stomoxys indicus Picard 1908, S. calcitrans (Linnaeus 1758), S. sitiens Rondani 1873 and S. uruma Shinonaga and Kanao 1966. The most common species were S. indicus (50.2%) and S. calcitrans (49.5%). S. sitiens and S. uruma were found in small proportions (< 1%). The number of flies captured was significantly different among the three seasons with the greatest number in the rainy season (mean = 66%; df = 2, P < 0.05). The variations of diurnal activity were observed during different period of times (06:00 to 18:00) during three seasons. Both sexes of S. indicus and males of S. calcitrans showed unimodal activity pattern in cool and summer seasons. But a bimodal activity pattern was recorded in rainy season. For females S. calcitrans, a unimodal peak of activity was observed in cool season and a constant variation of activity all along the day in summer and rainy seasons, with an increase from the morning to the evening. A better understanding of stomoxyine fly behavior, especially the daily flight activity, can assist in prioritization and design of appropriate vector prevention and control strategies. PMID:22910668

  9. Ssanghwa-tang, an oriental herbal cocktail, exerts anti-melanogenic activity by suppression of the p38 MAPK and PKA signaling pathways in B16F10 cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ssanghwa-tang (SHT) is a widely used medication for the treatment of fatigue, pain, inflammation, hypothermia, erectile dysfunction, cancer, and osteoporosis in Asia, however, role of SHT on the melanin synthesis has not been checked previously. Thus, the present study was designed to determine the effect of SHT on α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-induced melanogensis and its mechanisms of action in murine B16F10 melanoma cells. Method Cellular melanin content and tyrosinase activity in murine B16F10 melanoma cells were determined after α-MSH stimulation with or without pre-treatment of SHT at the concentration of 250 and 500 μg/ml. Expression level of tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP-1), TRP-2, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), and activation of c-AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), c-AMP-related element binding protein (CREB), and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) were examined by Western blot analysis. Results SHT significantly inhibited α-MSH-induced melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity, and also decreased α-MSH-induced expression of MITF, tyrosinase, and TRP-1. In addition, SHT remarkably suppressed tyrosinase, CRE, and MITF luciferase reporter activity in a resting state as well as in α-MSH-stimulating condition. Phosphorylation of p38 MAPK by α-MSH stimulation was efficiently blocked by SHT pre-treatment. Moreover, SHT as an herbal cocktail showed synergistic anti-melanogenic effect compared with that of each single constituent herb. Conclusion SHT efficiently inhibited c-AMP-induced melanin synthesis in B16F10 cells via suppression of PKA and p38 MAPK signaling pathways and subsequently decreased the level of CREB phosphorylation, MITF, and melanogenic enzymes. These results indicate that SHT may be useful as herbal medicine for treating hyperpigmentation and cosmetics as a skin-whitening agent. PMID:23981281

  10. Traditional herbal formula Jakyakgamcho-tang (Paeonia lactiflora and Glycyrrhiza uralensis) impairs inflammatory chemokine production by inhibiting activation of STAT1 and NF-κB in HaCaT cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Soo-Jin; Lim, Hye-Sun; Seo, Chang-Seob; Kim, Jung-Hoon; Jin, Seong-Eun; Yoo, Sae-Rom; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2015-02-15

    A traditional herbal formula Jakyakgamcho-tang (JYGCT; Paeonia lactiflora and Glycyrrhiza uralensis) has been used for treatment of backache, muscle pain, acute abdominal pain, neuralgia, bronchial asthma, and painful peripheral neuropathy in Oriental medicine. We report on our experiments using the HaCaT human keratinocyte cell line showing that a traditional herbal formula JYGCT has inhibitory effects on inflammatory responses in skin. Stimulation with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) caused a significant increase in the production of the following chemokines: thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC)/CCL17; macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC)/CCL22; regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES)/CCL5; and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in HaCaT cells. By contrast, treatment with JYGCT extract significantly reduced the production of TARC, MDC, RANTES, and IL-8, but caused no cytotoxicity, compared with TNF-α and IFN-γ-treated control cells. Consistently, JYGCT extract downregulated the mRNA expression of TARC, MDC, RANTES, and IL-8 induced by TNF-α and IFN-γ in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, TNF-α and IFN-γ markedly increased the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) and the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in HaCaT cells. By contrast, TNF-α and IFN-γ-induced activation of STAT1 and NF-κB activation was inhibited by JYGCT treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Our data indicate that JYGCT attenuates TNF-α and IFN-γ-mediated chemokine production by targeting the STAT1 and NF-κB signalling in keratinocytes. Our findings suggest that JYGCT has potential as a therapeutic drug candidate for the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases. PMID:25765840

  11. Evaluation of the grand-canonical partition function using expanded Wang-Landau simulations. IV. Performance of many-body force fields and tight-binding schemes for the fluid phases of silicon.

    PubMed

    Desgranges, Caroline; Delhommelle, Jerome

    2016-03-28

    We extend Expanded Wang-Landau (EWL) simulations beyond classical systems and develop the EWL method for systems modeled with a tight-binding Hamiltonian. We then apply the method to determine the partition function and thus all thermodynamic properties, including the Gibbs free energy and entropy, of the fluid phases of Si. We compare the results from quantum many-body (QMB) tight binding models, which explicitly calculate the overlap between the atomic orbitals of neighboring atoms, to those obtained with classical many-body (CMB) force fields, which allow to recover the tetrahedral organization in condensed phases of Si through, e.g., a repulsive 3-body term that favors the ideal tetrahedral angle. Along the vapor-liquid coexistence, between 3000 K and 6000 K, the densities for the two coexisting phases are found to vary significantly (by 5 orders of magnitude for the vapor and by up to 25% for the liquid) and to provide a stringent test of the models. Transitions from vapor to liquid are predicted to occur for chemical potentials that are 10%-15% higher for CMB models than for QMB models, and a ranking of the force fields is provided by comparing the predictions for the vapor pressure to the experimental data. QMB models also reveal the formation of a gap in the electronic density of states of the coexisting liquid at high temperatures. Subjecting Si to a nanoscopic confinement has a dramatic effect on the phase diagram with, e.g. at 6000 K, a decrease in liquid densities by about 50% for both CMB and QMB models and an increase in vapor densities between 90% (CMB) and 170% (QMB). The results presented here provide a full picture of the impact of the strategy (CMB or QMB) chosen to model many-body effects on the thermodynamic properties of the fluid phases of Si. PMID:27036464

  12. New observations - with older ones reviewed - on mass migrations in millipedes based on a recent outbreak on Hachijojima (Izu Islands) of the polydesmid diplopod (Chamberlinius hualienensis, Wang 1956): Nothing appears to make much sense

    PubMed Central

    MEYER-ROCHOW, Victor Benno

    2015-01-01

    Mass aggregations and migrations of millipedes despite numerous attempts to find causes for their occurrences are still an enigma. They have been reported from both southern and northern hemisphere countries, from highlands and lowlands of both tropical and temperate regions and they can involve species belonging to the orders Julida and Spirobolida, Polydesmida and Glomerida. According to the main suggestions put forward in the past, mass occurrences in Diplopoda occur: (1) because of a lack of food and a population increase beyond sustainable levels; (2) for the purpose of reproduction and in order to locate suitable oviposition sites; (3) to find overwintering or aestivation sites; (4) because of habitat disruption and changes in the local environment; (5) as a consequence of weather conditions the year (or winter and spring) before. A recent outbreak (November 2014) of a mass migration of the polydesmid Chamberlinius hualienensis Wang 1956 on the Japanese Izu Island of Hachijojima 300 km to the south of Tokyo gave this author an opportunity to review the existing literature on millipede mass migrations and to carry out additional observations on the phenomenon in the field as well as the laboratory. Hitherto unreported heavy infestations with phoretic deutonymphs of the mite Histiostoma sp. as well as dense populations of internal rhabditid nematodes (Oscheius cf. necromena and an unidentified species of the genus Fictor), suggest that infestations of this kind could be necromenic and either have been a contributing factor for the mass migration or been a consequence of so many individuals occurring together at close proximity. It is concluded that mass migrations and aggregations in millipedes do not have one common cause, but represent phenomena that often are seasonally recurring events and appear identical in their outcome, but which have evolved as responses to different causes in different millipede taxa and therefore need to be examined on a case

  13. New observations - with older ones reviewed - on mass migrations in millipedes based on a recent outbreak on Hachijojima (Izu Islands) of the polydesmid diplopod (Chamberlinius hualienensis, Wang 1956): Nothing appears to make much sense.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Rochow, Victor Benno

    2015-05-18

    Mass aggregations and migrations of millipedes despite numerous attempts to find causes for their occurrences are still an enigma. They have been reported from both southern and northern hemisphere countries, from highlands and lowlands of both tropical and temperate regions and they can involve species belonging to the orders Julida and Spirobolida, Polydesmida and Glomerida. According to the main suggestions put forward in the past, mass occurrences in Diplopoda occur: (1) because of a lack of food and a population increase beyond sustainable levels; (2) for the purpose of reproduction and in order to locate suitable oviposition sites; (3) to find overwintering or aestivation sites; (4) because of habitat disruption and changes in the local environment; (5) as a consequence of weather conditions the year (or winter and spring) before. A recent outbreak (November 2014) of a mass migration of the polydesmid Chamberlinius hualienensis Wang 1956 on the Japanese Izu Island of Hachijojima 300 km to the south of Tokyo gave this author an opportunity to review the existing literature on millipede mass migrations and to carry out additional observations on the phenomenon in the field as well as the laboratory. Hitherto unreported heavy infestations with phoretic deutonymphs of the mite Histiostoma sp. as well as dense populations of internal rhabditid nematodes (Oscheius cf. necromena and an unidentified species of the genus Fictor), suggest that infestations of this kind could be necromenic and either have been a contributing factor for the mass migration or been a consequence of so many individuals occurring together at close proximity. It is concluded that mass migrations and aggregations in millipedes do not have one common cause, but represent phenomena that often are seasonally recurring events and appear identical in their outcome, but which have evolved as responses to different causes in different millipede taxa and therefore need to be examined on a case

  14. Evaluation of the grand-canonical partition function using expanded Wang-Landau simulations. IV. Performance of many-body force fields and tight-binding schemes for the fluid phases of silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desgranges, Caroline; Delhommelle, Jerome

    2016-03-01

    We extend Expanded Wang-Landau (EWL) simulations beyond classical systems and develop the EWL method for systems modeled with a tight-binding Hamiltonian. We then apply the method to determine the partition function and thus all thermodynamic properties, including the Gibbs free energy and entropy, of the fluid phases of Si. We compare the results from quantum many-body (QMB) tight binding models, which explicitly calculate the overlap between the atomic orbitals of neighboring atoms, to those obtained with classical many-body (CMB) force fields, which allow to recover the tetrahedral organization in condensed phases of Si through, e.g., a repulsive 3-body term that favors the ideal tetrahedral angle. Along the vapor-liquid coexistence, between 3000 K and 6000 K, the densities for the two coexisting phases are found to vary significantly (by 5 orders of magnitude for the vapor and by up to 25% for the liquid) and to provide a stringent test of the models. Transitions from vapor to liquid are predicted to occur for chemical potentials that are 10%-15% higher for CMB models than for QMB models, and a ranking of the force fields is provided by comparing the predictions for the vapor pressure to the experimental data. QMB models also reveal the formation of a gap in the electronic density of states of the coexisting liquid at high temperatures. Subjecting Si to a nanoscopic confinement has a dramatic effect on the phase diagram with, e.g. at 6000 K, a decrease in liquid densities by about 50% for both CMB and QMB models and an increase in vapor densities between 90% (CMB) and 170% (QMB). The results presented here provide a full picture of the impact of the strategy (CMB or QMB) chosen to model many-body effects on the thermodynamic properties of the fluid phases of Si.

  15. Comment on: “Electromagnetic wave propagation in single-wall carbon nanotubes” [Phys. Lett. A 333 (2004) 303

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosravi, Heidar; Moradi, Afshin

    2007-05-01

    In a recent article [L. Wei, Y.-N. Wang, Phys. Lett. A 333 (2004) 303], Li Wei and You-Nian Wang studied the propagation of electromagnetic wave in single-wall carbon nanotubes and presented different expressions of the dispersions relations of TE and TM modes, respectively. Here we have derived the correct form of the dispersion relation for TM mode on low-frequency electromagnetic wave. It is shown numerically that asymptotic behaviours of the TM and TE modes are quite similar in single-wall carbon nanotubes.

  16. A reply to Wang T, Shan L, Du L, Feng J, Xu Z, Staal WG, Jia F. Serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in autism spectrum disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2015; doi: 10.1007/s00787-015-0786-1.

    PubMed

    Fluegge, Keith

    2016-04-01

    The author of this correspondence has recently published findings of an ecological investigation wherein herbicide use was proposed as an instrumental variable that predicts healthcare utilization among subjects with severe ADHD impairment via individual exposure to nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Vitamin D deficiency, a possible risk factor for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) as discussed by Wang et al., may be a homeostatic response to increasing chronic environmental N2O exposures. The author explains how deficient and insufficient states of vitamin D may promote vagal withdrawal and tolerance to increasing opioid exposures in the environment and how these characteristics are particularly relevant in neurodevelopmental disorders, like ASD and ADHD. PMID:26662808

  17. Northern Song Reflections on the Tang

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    In the mid-eleventh century Chinese intellectuals argued about history, and left their competing narratives to us in print. They contested how history should be written, and what relevant lessons ought to be adapted to the changing society of Song (960-1279) dynasty China. They were particularly concerned with the history of the long-lasting Tang…

  18. RETRACTION: Electronic characteristics of n-type nanocrystalline/p-type crystalline silicon heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wensheng; Wang, Tianmin; He, Yuliang

    2008-03-01

    It has come to the attention of IOP Publishing that this article should not have been submitted for publication owing to its substantial replication of an earlier paper (Wensheng Wei, Tianmin Wang and Yuliang He 2008 Investigation on high mobility nanocrystalline Si with crystalline Si heterostructure Superlattices and Microstructures 41 216-226). Consequently this paper has been retracted by IOP Publishing.

  19. Integrating Real-World Numeracy Applications and Modelling into Vocational Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Graham

    2014-01-01

    Practitioner research is in progress at a Further Education college to improve the motivation of vocational students for numeracy and problem solving. A framework proposed by Tang, Sui, & Wang (2003) has been adapted for use in courses. Five levels are identified for embedding numeracy applications and modelling into vocational studies:…

  20. Discussion of "Carbon benefits of wolfberry plantation on secondary saline land in Jingtai oasis, Gansu - A case study on application of the CBP model" by Yaolin Wang, Chuanyan Zhao, Quanlin Ma, Yingke Li, Hujia Jing, Tao Sun, Eleanor Milne, Mark Easter, Keith Paustian, Hoi Wen Au Yong, John McDonagh (2015) [Journal of Environmental Management 157, 303-310].

    PubMed

    Azarnivand, Ali

    2015-12-01

    Wang et al. (2015) employed driving force-pressure-state-impact-response (DPSIR) framework to provide a robust decision-making structure for carbon emission reduction by use of wolfberry plantation in the Jingtai oasis, China. DPSIR appropriately identified the causes of problem along with adopting the responses to the barriers associated with wolfberry plantation. However, the discusser argues that, the paper could have prepared more viable outcomes, if the authors had used causal network rather than causal chains through the DPSIR framework. Furthermore, they could have quantified the mutual relationship among the relevant factors to provide a detailed economic assessment. With this knowledge in hand, the current discussion letter suggests eDPSIR and meDPSIR to address drawbacks regarding conventional DPSIR framework. Due to proper performance of eDPSIR and meDPSIR, they are recommended as practical tools in the future environmental studies. PMID:26355261

  1. Discussion of "Carbon benefits of wolfberry plantation on secondary saline land in Jingtai oasis, Gansu - A case study on application of the CBP model" by Yaolin Wang, Chuanyan Zhao, Quanlin Ma, Yingke Li, Hujia Jing, Tao Sun, Eleanor Milne, Mark Easter, Keith Paustian, Hoi Wen Au Yong, John McDonagh (2015) [Journal of Environmental Management 157, 303-310].

    PubMed

    Azarnivand, Ali

    2015-12-01

    Wang et al. (2015) employed driving force-pressure-state-impact-response (DPSIR) framework to provide a robust decision-making structure for carbon emission reduction by use of wolfberry plantation in the Jingtai oasis, China. DPSIR appropriately identified the causes of problem along with adopting the responses to the barriers associated with wolfberry plantation. However, the discusser argues that, the paper could have prepared more viable outcomes, if the authors had used causal network rather than causal chains through the DPSIR framework. Furthermore, they could have quantified the mutual relationship among the relevant factors to provide a detailed economic assessment. With this knowledge in hand, the current discussion letter suggests eDPSIR and meDPSIR to address drawbacks regarding conventional DPSIR framework. Due to proper performance of eDPSIR and meDPSIR, they are recommended as practical tools in the future environmental studies.

  2. The genus name Ensifer Casida 1982 takes priority over Sinorhizobium Chen et al. 1988, and Sinorhizobium morelense Wang et al. 2002 is a later synonym of Ensifer adhaerens Casida 1982. Is the combination "Sinorhizobium adhaerens" (Casida 1982) Willems et al. 2003 legitimate? Request for an Opinion.

    PubMed

    Young, J M

    2003-11-01

    The synonymy of the genera Ensifer and Sinorhizobium was recently reported, but it was proposed that the later-named genus, Sinorhizobium, take priority in nomenclature. There is no justification in the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria (Prokaryotes) for this step; Ensifer is the correct name of the genus, with Ensifer adhaerens as the type species. Species previously allocated to Sinorhizobium are here proposed as the new combinations Ensifer arboris, Ensifer fredii, Ensifer kostiensis, Ensifer kummerowiae, Ensifer medicae, Ensifer meliloti, Ensifer saheli, Ensifer terangae and Ensifer xinjiangensis. Sinorhizobium morelense was proposed in 2002 [Wang, E. T., Tan, Z. Y., Willems, A., Fernández-López, M., Reinhold-Hurek, B. & Martínez-Romero, E., Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52, 1687-1693, 2002], but a consideration of all published data indicate that it is a nitrogen-fixing genomovar and later heterotypic synonym of Ensifer adhaerens. A Request for an Opinion is made as to whether or not the combination "Sinorhizobium adhaerens" (Casida 1982) Willems et al. 2003 is legitimate.

  3. Pharmacokinetics screening for multi-components absorbed in the rat plasma after oral administration traditional Chinese medicine formula Yin-Chen-Hao-Tang by ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with pattern recognition methods.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xijun; Sun, Hui; Zhang, Aihua; Jiao, Guozheng; Sun, Wenjun; Yuan, Ye

    2011-12-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely used in many oriental countries for thousands of years and played an indispensable role in the prevention and treatment of diseases, especially the complicated and chronic ones. It is a very complex mixture containing hundreds or thousands of different components. Pharmacokinetic study on active constituents in TCM preparations is a good way for us to explain and predict a variety of events related to the efficacy and toxicity of TCM. A selective and sensitive method of ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS) was first developed to screen the potentially bioactive components in vivo, using the semi-quantitative determination of multicomponents in the rat plasma after a single oral administration of Yin-Chen-Hao-Tang (YCHT), a famous TCM formula for liver disorders. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were built to evaluate the differences of pharmacokinetic behaviors (time-course) of the absorbed components of YCHT. Here, we report that the developed method was successfully applied to monitoring the pharmacokinetic time-course of 21 compounds in rat plasma, and were grouped in 3 separate clusters using pattern recognition approaches (both HCA and PCA). Comparing the body dynamics of each composition, the initial choice of the following 9 compounds as the candidate components was: 7-methoxycoumarin-6-hydroxyl sulfate, genipingentiobioside, geniposide, 6,7-dimethylesculetin, peak 16, chimaphylin, 6-dementhoxycapillarisin, capillarisin, rhein. Pharmacokinetics based-UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS combined with HCA and PCA approaches can provide a reliable and suitable means of identifying and screening potentially bioactive components contributing to pharmacological effects of TCM, further prospecting natural products in the search for new leads in drug discovery.

  4. Superlinear problems without Ambrosetti and Rabinowitz growth condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyagaki, O. H.; Souto, M. A. S.

    Superlinear elliptic boundary value problems without Ambrosetti and Rabinowitz growth condition are considered. Existence of nontrivial solution result is established by combining some arguments used by Struwe and Tarantello and Schechter and Zou (also by Wang and Wei). Firstly, by using the mountain pass theorem due to Ambrosetti and Rabinowitz is constructed a solution for almost every parameter λ by varying the parameter λ. Then, it is considered the continuation of the solutions.

  5. 76 FR 72387 - Order Relating to Xun Wang

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... recent being that of August 12, 2011 (76 FR 50,661 (Aug. 16, 2011)), has continued the Regulations in... export of epoxy paint and epoxy paint thinner, items subject to the Regulations, to Pakistan, through China, for use in the Chasma 2 nuclear power plant that was under construction in Islamabad,...

  6. Joint Density of States Calculation Employing Wang-Landau Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalyan, M. Suman; Bharath, R.; Sastry, V. S. S.; Murthy, K. P. N.

    2016-04-01

    Joint density of states (JDoS), which depends both on energy and another variable like order parameter provides more information than the conventional density of states (DoS) which depend only on energy. Calculation of JDoS requires huge computational time. In this paper we employ two level method to calculate JDoS which requires relatively much less computational time. We demonstrate this method on a two dimensional Ising spin system, lattice spin model of double strand DNA (dsDNA) and Heisenberg ferromagnet.

  7. Les mémoires de la dynastie Tang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M.

    1996-07-01

    Dans la nuit des temps, les astronomes chinois ont ete d'incomparables observateurs de cometes. Ces savants, dont les notations raffinees ponctuaient l'histoire officielle des empereurs, relevaient chaque passage d'astre errant avec une precision inestimable. Un veritable tresor ou puise encore la science contemporaine.

  8. [Research on origin and evolution of Wan Mizhai's Medical Encyclopedia].

    PubMed

    Mao, D

    1996-05-01

    This encyclopedia was lost early in the Ming dynasty. The current edition was blockprinted by Wan's fifth generation grandson in 1654-1659, then comes the next edition of Zhang Tanyi Shilu Tang of Hanyang edition blockprinted in 1712. Next comes Hu Leuqing Wei Tang of Jinxi's edition blockprinted in 1724, which was interpolatedly reprinted by Fuwentang, Tongrentang. The latter was entitled Wan Mizhai's Medical Encyclopedia when blockprinted in 1741. After 1778, there was also a Zhongxintang edition with unknown printed time. The modern printed edition of Luotian revised edition was printed in 1981-1986. The above editions are verified by textual research and material books by describing their printing, edition features and mutual relationship between its origin and development. Errors of printing of some editions are also dealt with.

  9. Transition-Metal Planar Boron Clusters: a New Class of Aromatic Compounds with High Coordination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2012-06-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy in combination with computational studies over the past decade has shown that boron clusters possess planar or quasi-planar structures, in contrast to that of bulk boron, which is dominated by three-dimensional cage-like building blocks. All planar or quasi-planar boron clusters are observed to consist of a monocyclic circumference with one or more interior atoms. The propensity for planarity has been found to be due to both σ and π electron delocalization throughout the molecular plane, giving rise to concepts of σ and π double aromaticity. We have found further that the central boron atoms can be substituted by transition metal atoms to form a new class of aromatic compounds, which consist of a central metal atom and a monocyclic boron ring (M B_n). Eight-, nine-, and ten-membered rings of boron have been observed, giving rise to octa-, ennea-, and deca-coordinated aromatic transition metal compounds [1-3]. References: [1] ``Aromatic Metal-Centered Monocyclic Boron Rings: Co B_9^- and Ru B_9^-" (Constantin Romanescu, Timur R. Galeev, Wei-Li Li, A. I. Boldyrev, and L. S. Wang), Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. {50}, 9334-9337 (2011). [2] ``Transition-Metal-Centered Nine-Membered Boron Rings: M B_9 and M B_9^- (M = Rh, Ir)" (Wei-Li Li, Constantin Romanescu, Timur R. Galeev, Zachary Piazza, A. I. Boldyrev, and L. S. Wang), J. Am. Chem. Soc. {134}, 165-168 (2012). [3] ``Observation of the Highest Coordination Number in Planar Species: Decacoordinated Ta B10^- and Nb B_9^- Anions" (Timur R. Galeev, Constantin Romanescu, Wei-Li Li, L. S. Wang, and A. I. Boldyrev), Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. {51}, 2101-2105 (2012).

  10. Hermitian tridiagonal solution with the least norm to quaternionic least squares problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Sitao; Wang, Minghui; Wei, Musheng

    2010-03-01

    Quaternionic least squares (QLS) is an efficient method for solving approximate problems in quaternionic quantum theory. In view of the extensive applications of Hermitian tridiagonal matrices in physics, in this paper we list some properties of basis matrices and subvectors related to tridiagonal matrices, and give an iterative algorithm for finding Hermitian tridiagonal solution with the least norm to the quaternionic least squares problem by making the best use of structure of real representation matrices, we also propose a preconditioning strategy for the Algorithm LSQR-Q in Wang, Wei and Feng (2008) [14] and our algorithm. Numerical experiments are provided to verify the effectiveness of our method.

  11. REPLY TO COMMENT: Reply to Comment on 'Generation of cluster-type entangled coherent states'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Li

    2010-10-01

    We respond to the criticism of our paper 'Generation of cluster-type entangled coherent states'. In the original paper, we remove the explicit time dependence from the interaction Hamiltonian by transforming to a rotating frame for the field operators, which is also done to quantum dots embedded in a microcavity (Djuric and Search 2007 Phys. Rev. B 75 155307). We thank Wei Haihong and Wang Faqiang for pointing out that cluster-type entangled coherent states (CTECS) cannot be obtained with the original time-dependent Hamiltonian under certain parameter condition λ Lt |χ|. For the original field operators, we present a new method to generate CTECS in the same system.

  12. Forgery attack on one-time proxy signature and the improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chun-Wei; Luo, Yi-Ping; Hwang, Tzonelih

    2014-09-01

    This paper points out that in Wang and Wei's scheme (Quantum Inf Process 11:455-463, 2012), an eavesdropper, Eve, can replace the original message of a proxy signature with a forged one of her choice without being detected by the verifier. Accordingly, one of the security requirements of a quantum signature, i.e., unforgeability, may not be satisfied in their scheme. An improvement is given to avoid this attack, and the comparisons with the existing quantum proxy signature are also demonstrated.

  13. EDITORIAL: High performance under pressure High performance under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2011-11-01

    low donor concentrations. Back in 19th Century France, observations of the reverse piezoresistive effect inspired Pierre Curie to investigate similar symmetry in other physical processes. These endeavours led to significant progress in the theories of magnetism, such as the discovery of the Curie point at which temperature the magnetic properties of materials change. As an avid scientist, he is remembered as happiest in the lab, where he spent most of his time with his wife with whom he shares the 1903 Nobel Prize for physics [9]. As he once said to his wife, "[In science] we can aspire to accomplish something...every discovery, however small, is a permanent gain" [10]. His life was cut short in a traffic accident in 1906 but the truth in his words are evident as his work continues to inspire research and progress in the understanding and application of the piezoelectric effect and other physical phenomena. References [1] Minary-Jolandan M and Yu M-F 2009 Nanotechnology 20 085706 [2] Castellanos-Gomez A, Agraït N and Rubio-Bollinger G 2009 Nanotechnology 20 215502 [3] Mile E et al2010 Nanotechnology 21 165504 [4] Romano G, Mantini G, Di Carlo A, D'Amico A and Falconi C 2011 Nanotechnology 22 465401 [5] Martin A J P 1941 Proc. Phys. Soc. 53 186 [6] CYang Y, Qi J, Liao Q, Li H, Wang Y, Tang L and Zhang Y 2009 Nanotechnology 20 125201 [7] Lin S S, Song J H, Lu Y F and Wang Z L 2009 Nanotechnology 20 365703 [8] Xu S, Qin Y, Xu C, Wei Y, Yang R and Wang L Z 2010 Nanotechnology 5 366-73 [9] The Nobel Prize in Physics Nobelprize.org [10] Pasachoff N 2000 Pierre Curie Marie Curie and the Science of Radioactivity

  14. Protein folding with implicit crowders: a study of conformational states using the Wang-Landau method.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Travis; Yuan, Jian-Min

    2011-03-10

    In this paper we introduce the idea of the implicit crowding method to study the statistical mechanical behaviors of folding of β-sheet peptides. Using a simple bead-lattice model, we are able to consider, separately, the conformational entropy involving the bond angles along the backbone and the orientational entropy associated with the dihedral angles. We use a Ising-like model to partially account for the dihedral angle entropy and, implicitly, the hydrogen-bond formations. We also compare our results to recent experiments and find good quantitative agreement on the predicted folded fraction. On the basis of the predictions from the scaled particle theory, we investigate changes in the melting temperature of the protein, suggesting crowding enhanced stability for a variant of trpzip hairpin and a slight instability for the larger β-sheet designed proteins.

  15. Argonne's Michael Wang talks about the GREET Model for reducing vehicle emi

    ScienceCinema

    Michael Wang

    2016-07-12

    To fully evaluate energy and emission impacts of advanced vehicle technologies and new transportation fuels, the fuel cycle from wells to wheels and the vehicle cycle through material recovery and vehicle disposal need to be considered. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Argonne has developed a full life-cycle model called GREET (Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation). It allows researchers and analysts to evaluate various vehicle and fuel combinations on a full fuel-cycle/vehicle-cycle basis. The first version of GREET was released in 1996. Since then, Argonne has continued to update and expand the model. The most recent GREET versions are the GREET 1 2012 version for fuel-cycle analysis and GREET 2.7 version for vehicle-cycle analysis.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: NGC 2808 AGB and RGB stars Na abundance (Wang+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Primas, F.; Charbonnel, C.; van der Swaelmen, M.; Bono, G.; Chantereau, W.; Zhao, G.

    2016-05-01

    The high-resolution spectra of our sample of AGB and RGB stars in the Galactic globular cluster NGC 2808 were obtained with the high-resolution multi-object spectrograph FLAMES, mounted on ESO/VLT-UT2. A combined mode was used where the brightest five objects was observed with UVES-fibre and the remaining targets with GIRAFFE/Medusa. The basic information of our sample stars are listed in Table 2, including the evolutionary phase, instrument used for observation, coordinates, photometry and barycentric radial velocity. Our Fe abundances were derived from the equivalent widths of Fe lines, while the Na abundances were determined with spectra synthesis. Both FeI and Na abundances have been corrected for the non-LTE effect. In Table 4 we show the derived stellar parameters of our sample stars, and the Na abundances are shown in Table 6. (3 data files).

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Photometric variability search in the CSTAR field (Wang+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Zhang, H.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, J.-L.; Fu, J.-N.; Yang, M.; Liu, H.; Xie, J.; Wang, L.; Wang, L.; Wittenmyer, R. A.; Ashley, M. C. B.; Feng, L.-L.; Gong, X.; Lawrence, J. S.; Liu, Q.; Luong-van, D. M.; Ma, J.; Peng, X.; Storey, J. W. V.; Wu, Z.; Yan, J.; Yang, H.; Yang, J.; Yuan, X.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, X.; Zhu, Z.; Zou, H.

    2015-08-01

    Chinese Small Telescope Array (CSTAR), controlled from the PLATO autonomous observatory, consists of four fixed co-aligned 14.5cm (effective aperture of 10cm) telescopes, each with a different optical filter in SDSS bands: r, g, i, and open. CSTAR, the first photometric telescope to enter operation at Dome A, was successfully deployed in 2008 January and operated for the subsequent four winters until it was retrieved in 2012 to be repurposed. The data set analyzed in this work was collected from 2008 March 4 to August 8. In this observing season, about 1728hr observations provided some 0.3million i-band frames for 18145 stars with exposure times of 20s or 30s. A detailed description of the CSTAR observations in 2008 is given in Zhou et al. (2010, J/PASP/122/347). (3 data files).

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Photometry and proper motions in Praesepe (Wang+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P. F.; Chen, W. P.; Lin, C. C.; Pandey, A. K.; Huang, C. K.; Panwar, N.; Lee, C. H.; Tsai, M. F.; Tang, C.-H.; Goldman, B.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Draper, P. W.; Flewelling, H.; Grav, T.; Heasley, J. N.; Hodapp, K. W.; Huber, M. E.; Jedicke, R.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Luppino, G. A.; Lupton, R. H.; Magnier, E. A.; Metcalfe, N.; Monet, D. G.; Morgan, J. S.; Onaka, P. M.; Price, P. A.; Stubbs, C. W.; Sweeney, W.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C.

    2016-08-01

    Data used in this study include photometry and proper motion measurements within a 5° radius around the Praesepe center (R.A.=08h40m, decl.=+19°42', J2000). Archival data were taken from the 2MASS Point Sources Catalog (2MASS; cat. II/246), PPMXL (Roeser et al. 2010, cat. I/317), and Panoramic Survey Telescope And Rapid Response (Pan-STARRS). Pan-STARRS is a wide-field (7deg2) imaging system, with a 1.8m, f/4.4 telescope, equipped with a 1.4 giga-pixel camera. The prototype (PS1), located atop Haleakala, Maui, USA, has been patrolling the entire sky north of -30° declination since mid-2010 with a combination of gP1, rP1, iP1, zP1, and yP1 bands. The PS1 filters differ slightly from those of the SDSS. The gP1 filter extends 20nm redward of gSDSS for greater sensitivity and lower systematics for photometric redshift estimates. SDSS has no corresponding y filter (Tonry et al. 2012, cat. J/ApJ/750/99). Upon the completion of its 3.5yr mission by early 2014, PS1 will provide reliable photometry and astrometry. Table1 lists the properties of the 1040 candidates. (1 data file).

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Parameters of Kepler stars using LAMOST & seismic data (Wang+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Wang, W.; Wu, Y.; Zhao, G.; Li, Y.; Luo, A.; Liu, C.; Zhang, Y.; Hou, Y.; Wang, Y.; Cao, Z.

    2016-06-01

    We present stellar atmospheric and physical parameters using Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) spectra and Kepler global oscillation parameters for 3,060 stars in the Kepler field. (1 data file).

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Catalog of Chandra ACIS point like sources (Wang+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Liu, J.; Qiu, Y.; Bai, Y.; Yang, H.; Guo, J.; Zhang, P.

    2016-07-01

    The ACIS observations were downloaded from the Chandra Data Archive on 2014 December 4, yielding 10047 ACIS observations. Eighteen observations with PI as "Calibration" or Exposure as zero were excluded. Finally, there are 10029 ACIS observations containing 4146 ACIS-I observations and 5883 ACIS-S observations in our sample. The exposure times for the selected observations cover a range from 50s to 190ks, with a total of 221851ks. (4 data files).

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SEAMBHs. II. Continuum and Hbeta LCs (Wang+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.-M.; Du, P.; Hu, C.; Netzer, H.; Bai, J.-M.; Lu, K.-X.; Kaspi, S.; Qiu, J.; Li, Y.-R.; Wang, F.; SEAMBH Collaboration

    2016-08-01

    Detailed information of our reverberation mapping (RM) campaign are given in Paper I (Du+ 2014, J/ApJ/782/45), where we describe the observatory, the telescope, the spectrograph, and the observing procedure in great detail. The campaign started in 2012 October and lasted until 2013 June. We used the Lijiang 2.4m telescope of Yunnan Observatory in China. All targets are classified spectroscopically as narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s), i.e., (1) FWHM(Hβ)<~2000km/s; (2) [OIII]/Hβ<~3; and (3) strong FeII emission lines. Only radio-quiet sources are selected to avoid contamination by relativistic jet emission to the optical continuum and perhaps emission lines. (2 data files).

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Atomic data of vanadium (V I) (Wang+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q.; Jiang, L. Y.; Quinet, P.; Palmeri, P.; Zhang, W.; Shang, X.; Tian, Y. S.; Dai, Z. W.

    2014-05-01

    Radiative lifetimes of 79 levels belonging to the 3d34s4p, 3d< 3d34s5p, 3d45p, and 3d34s4d configurations of V I with energy from 26604.807 to 46862.786cm-1 have been measured using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence (TR-LIF) spectroscopy in laser-produced plasma. The lifetime values reported in this paper are in the range of 3.3-494ns, and the uncertainties of these measurements are within +/-10%. A good agreement was obtained with previous data. HFR+CPOL (Hartree-Fock with relativistic corrections method - Cowan; 1981tass.book.....C + core-polarization; Quinet et al. 1999MNRAS.307..934Q) calculations have been performed and used to combine the calculated branching fractions with the available experimental lifetimes to determine semi-empirical transition probabilities for 784 V I transitions. (1 data file).

  3. DOE/GO/15075-MacDiarmid-Wang Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Pen-Cheng

    2007-11-01

    Since Cho et al. reported up to ~8 wt% room-temperature hydrogen adsorption in HCl-treated polyaniline and polypyrrole [1], the research on the interactions between hydrogen and conducting polymers has become an area of special interest in the hydrogen economy community. However, later studies on hydrogen sorption using conducting polymers gave controversial results, which showed either much lower H2 uptake [2] or no H2 uptake at all [3]. As conducting polymers possess some unique “unconventional” and complex characteristics [4], it is highly likely that the controversial results could be attributed to the variation in material characteristics caused by “ambiguous” processing/handling procedures employed in H2 uptake studies involving conducting polymers. In order to determine whether conducting polymers can be developed into a new type of high-performance media for hydrogen storage applications, the goals of the project were to (i) confirm the brief report by Cho et al. [1] that ~8 wt% hydrogen gas storage in doped (metallic) forms of organic conducting polymers (“synthetic metals”), polyaniline and polypyrrole, can be attained, (ii) determine the optimum polymer preparative methods, chemical composition, polymer electrode potential, polymer crystallinity and morphology to give quantitative optimum conditions of hydrogen gas adsorption and desorption and (iii) investigate hydrogen storage by the many known types of organic conducting polymers in their semiconducting and, metallic forms, and in selected oxidation states.

  4. PREFACE: IUPAP C20 Conference on Computational Physics (CCP 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troparevsky, Claudia; Stocks, George Malcolm

    2012-12-01

    McCurdy (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, US) Ingrid Mertig (Martin Luther University, Germany) Alejandro Muramatsu (Universitat Stuttgart, Germany) Richard Needs (Cavendish Laboratory, UK) Giuseppina Orlandini (University of Trento, Italy) Martin Savage (University of Washington, US) Thomas Schulthess (ETH, Switzerland) Dzidka Szotek (Daresbury Laboratory, UK) Hideaki Takabe (Osaka University, Japan) William M. Tang (Princeton University, US) James Vary (Iowa State, US) Enge Wang (Chinese Academy of Science, China) Jian-Guo Wang (Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, China) Jian-Sheng Wang (National University, Singapore) Dan Wei (Tsinghua University, China) Tony Williams (University of Adelaide, Australia) Rudy Zeller (Julich, Germany) Conference Administrator: Ann Strange (ORNL)

  5. Observations from Space: Marine Ecosystem and Environment Response to Typhoon/ Hurricanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Danling; Yi, Sui

    Isoguchi, 2005. Seasonal phytoplankton blooms associated with monsoonal influences and coastal environments in the sea areas either side of the Indochina Peninsula. JGR-Bio-geo. VOL. 111, G01010, doi:10.1029/2005JG000050, 2006. Tang, DanLing, H Kawamura, Hai Doan-Nhu, W Takahashi , 2004. Remote sensing oceanography of a harmful algal bloom (HAB) off the coast of southeastern Vietnam. J. of Geophysical Research (Ocean).Vol 109, doi:10.1029/2003JC002045; Tang, DanLing, H Kawamura, TV Dien. MA Lee, 2004. Offshore phytoplankton biomass increase and its oceanographic causes in the South China Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 268: 31-41; Tang, DanLing, H ZHAO, B. Satyanarayana, GM ZHENG, RP. SINGH, JH LV, 2009, Enhancement of Chlorophyll-a in the Northeastern Indian Ocean after the 2004 South Asian Tsunami, Int. J. Remote Sensing doi10.1080/01431160802603778 , Vol.30 (17):4553-4565; Zhao, H., DanLing Tang, and Y. Wang, 2008, Comparison of phyto-plankton blooms triggered by two typhoons with different intensities and translation speeds in the South China SeaMar Ecol Prog Ser, 365, 57-65; Zheng, GM. and DanLing Tang ,2007Off-shore and nearshore chlorophyll increases induced by typhoon winds and subsequent terrestrial rainwater runoff, Mar Ecol Prog Ser, 333, 61-72; H Zhao, DanLing TANG, DX Wang, 2009, Phytoplankton blooms near the Pearl River Estuary induced by Typhoon Nuri, Journal of Geophysical Research -Oceans. 114, C12027; YQ Chen, DanLing Tang, 2010, Cold eddies and eddy-shape phytoplankton blooms induced by tropical cyclone Linfa in the South China Sea. In preparation; XX Yang, DanLing Tang, 2010, Sea Surface Temperature Decreasing in the Northern South China Sea Induced by Typhoon. In preparation.

  6. [Introduction of Indian medicine into China in the Wei-Jin-Southern-Northern dynasties as interpreted by beriberi].

    PubMed

    Fan, J

    1995-01-01

    Since the sea route between China and all countries in the Western Region was unimpeded, many Buddhist monks came to China. Some of them settled in Lingnan Region. With them, Indian medicine was imported which greatly expanded the coverage of TCM. Some of the Northerners moved southward into Lingnan Region and contracted beriberi which were cured by Indian monks. The author explores the importation of Indian medcine through analysis of beriberi as an example.

  7. The effects of land use change and precipitation change on direct runoff in Wei River watershed, China.

    PubMed

    Dong, Leihua; Xiong, Lihua; Lall, Upmanu; Wang, Jiwu

    2015-01-01

    The principles and degrees to which land use change and climate change affect direct runoff generation are distinctive. In this paper, based on the MODIS data of land use in 1992 and 2003, the impacts of land use and climate change are explored using the Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) method under two defined scenarios. In the first scenario, the precipitation is assumed to be constant, and thus the consequence of land use change could be evaluated. In the second scenario, the condition of land use is assumed to be constant, so the influence only induced by climate change could be assessed. Combining the conclusions of two scenarios, the effects of land use and climate change on direct runoff volume can be separated. At last, it is concluded: for the study basin, the land use types which have the greatest effect on direct runoff generation are agricultural land and water body. For the big sub basins, the effect of land use change is generally larger than that of climate change; for middle and small sub basins, most of them suffer more from land use change than from climate change. PMID:25633954

  8. Copula-based drought risk assessment combined with an integrated index in the Wei River Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jianxia; Li, Yunyun; Wang, Yimin; Yuan, Meng

    2016-09-01

    It is critical to assess drought risk based on a reliably integrated drought index incorporating comprehensive information of meteorology, hydrology and agriculture drought indices, which is of great value for further understanding the future drought tendency, prevention and mitigation. Thus, the primary objective of this study was to focus on constructing a multivariate integrated drought index (MIDI) by coupling four drought indices (i.e., Precipitation Anomaly Percentage (PAP), Runoff Anomaly Percentage (RAP), Standardized Precipitation Index with 6-month aggregation time step (SPI6) and Modified Palmer Drought Severity Index (MPDSI)) to objectively and comprehensively investigate drought risk. The variable fuzzy set theory and entropy weight method are used during the MIDI construction process. Based on the MIDI, a drought event including drought duration and severity is redefined using run theory. Then copula-based drought risk is fully assessed through the joint probability distribution of drought duration and severity. Results indicate the following: (1) the constructed MIDI is consistent with the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Runoff Anomaly Percentage (RAP) series, and it is more sensitive and effective to capture historical drought events; (2) the drought characteristics present noticeable spatial variability among five subzones, and the entire basin has 49 droughts with the longest drought duration spanning 8.55 months; and (3) the mainstream, especially the middle and lower reaches, has higher occurrences of severe droughts for approximately every 10 years.

  9. The effects of land use change and precipitation change on direct runoff in Wei River watershed, China.

    PubMed

    Dong, Leihua; Xiong, Lihua; Lall, Upmanu; Wang, Jiwu

    2015-01-01

    The principles and degrees to which land use change and climate change affect direct runoff generation are distinctive. In this paper, based on the MODIS data of land use in 1992 and 2003, the impacts of land use and climate change are explored using the Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) method under two defined scenarios. In the first scenario, the precipitation is assumed to be constant, and thus the consequence of land use change could be evaluated. In the second scenario, the condition of land use is assumed to be constant, so the influence only induced by climate change could be assessed. Combining the conclusions of two scenarios, the effects of land use and climate change on direct runoff volume can be separated. At last, it is concluded: for the study basin, the land use types which have the greatest effect on direct runoff generation are agricultural land and water body. For the big sub basins, the effect of land use change is generally larger than that of climate change; for middle and small sub basins, most of them suffer more from land use change than from climate change.

  10. Contributions to the knowledge of subterranean trechine beetles in southern China’s karsts: five new genera (Insecta, Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechinae)

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Mingyi; Huang, Sunbin; Wang, Xinhui; Tang, Mingruo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recent discoveries reveal that southern China’s karsts hold the most diverse and morphologically modified subterranean trechine beetles in the world, albeit the first troglobitic blind beetle was only reported in the early 1990’s. In total, 110 species belonging to 43 genera of cavernicolous trechines have hitherto been recorded from the karsts of southern China, including the following five new genera proposed below: Shiqianaphaenops Tian, gen. n., to contain two species: Shiqianaphaenops majusculus (Uéno, 1999) (= Shenaphaenops majusculus Uéno, 1999, comb. n.), the type species from Cave Feng Dong, Shiqian, Guizhou, and Shiqianaphaenops cursor (Uéno, 1999) (= Shenaphaenops cursor Uéno, 1999, comb. n.), from Cave Shenxian Dong, Shiqian, Guizhou; and the monotypic Dianotrechus Tian, gen. n. (the type species: Dianotrechus gueorguievi Tian, sp. n., from Cave Dashi Dong, Kunming, Yunnan), Tianeotrechus Tian & Tang, gen. n. (the type species: Tianeotrechus trisetosus Tian & Tang, sp. n., from Cave Bahao Dong, Tian’e County, Guangxi), Huoyanodytes Tian & Huang, gen. n. (the type species: Huoyanodytes tujiaphilus Tian & Huang, sp. n., from Longshan, Hunan) and Wanhuaphaenops Tian & Wang, gen. n. (the type species: Wanhuaphaenops zhangi Tian & Wang, sp. n., from Cave Songjia Dong, Chenzhou, Hunan). PMID:27081334

  11. IFSSH Flexor Tendon Committee report 2014: from the IFSSH Flexor Tendon Committee (Chairman: Jin Bo Tang).

    PubMed

    Tang, Jin Bo; Chang, James; Elliot, David; Lalonde, Donald H; Sandow, Michael; Vögelin, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Hand surgeons continue to search for the best surgical flexor tendon repair and treatment of the tendon sheaths and pulleys, and they are attempting to establish postoperative regimens that fit diverse clinical needs. It is the purpose of this report to present the current views, methods, and suggestions of six senior hand surgeons from six different countries - all experienced in tendon repair and reconstruction. Although certainly there is common ground, the report presents provocative views and approaches. The report reflects an update in the views of the committee. We hope that it is helpful to surgeons and therapists in treating flexor tendon injuries. PMID:23962872

  12. Coprescription of Chinese herbal medicine and Western medication among female patients with breast cancer in Taiwan: analysis of national insurance claims

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bih-Ru; Chang, Yuh-Lih; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chiu, Jen-Hwey; Wu, Jing Chong; Wu, Min-Shan; Chou, Chia-Lin; Chou, Yueh-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Background Many female breast cancer (FBC) patients take Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) and Western medication (WM) concurrently in Taiwan. Despite the possibility of interactions between the CHM and WM mentioned in previous studies, the pattern of these coprescriptions in FBC patients remains unclear. Hence, the aim of the present study is to investigate the utilization of coprescriptions of CHM and WM among the FBC patients in Taiwan. Methods The study was a cross-sectional survey using the sampled cohort in 2009 obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. There were 3,507 FBC patients identified from the registry for catastrophic illness patients. Ambulatory visit records, corresponding prescriptions, and the data of beneficiaries belonging to the FBC patients were further extracted. A total of 1,086 FBC patients used CHM at least once. CHM and WM prescribed within any overlapping duration were defined as coprescriptions. Results There were 868 (80.0%) patients simultaneously receiving CHM and WM. A total of 4,927 CHM prescriptions and 6,358 WM prescriptions were prescribed concurrently. Among these coprescriptions, the most frequently used CHM was jia-wei-xiao-yao-san (21.2%), and the most frequently coprescribed WM was acetaminophen (38.9%), followed by tamoxifen (25.5%). There were 346 patients using systemic adjuvant therapy and CHM concurrently. The most commonly coprescribed CHM with chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, and trastuzumab was xiang-sha-liu-jun-zi-tang, jia-wei-xiao-yao-san, and zhi-gan-cao-tang, respectively. Conclusion The combined use of CHM with WM is prevalent. The main purpose of combining CHM with systemic cancer treatment is to alleviate the treatment-related adverse effects. However, the combination may result in the potential risk of drug–herb interactions. Further clinical studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the CHM and WM coprescriptions for FBC patients. PMID:24855343

  13. To "bee" or not to be-on some ornamental shrimp from Guangdong Province, Southern China and Hong Kong SAR, with descriptions of three new species.

    PubMed

    Klotz, Werner; Von Rintelen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Several atyid specimens were collected from hill streams in Guangdong Province, Southern China and Hong Kong during fieldtrips between 2004 and 2013. Some of these species, most of them also sold as ornamental pet shrimp in the international aquarium trade, proved to be new to science by morphological observation and analysis of mtDNA sequences. Three new species, Caridina logemanni n. sp., Caridina mariae n. sp. and Caridina conghuensis n. sp., all of them members of the so called Caridina serrata species group  (Cai & Ng 1999) are described in detail below. Caridina tumida Wang, Liang & Li, 2008 is synonymised with Caridina venusta Wang, Liang & Li, 2008. Caridina meridionalis Wang, Liang & Li, 2008 is moved to the genus Paracaridina Liang, Guo & Tang, 1999 and synonymised with Paracaridina zijinica Liang, 2002. New records for Caridina trifasciata Yam & Cai, 2003 and Caridina serrata Stimpson, 1860 are recorded. All species are compared to their morphologically closest congeners and the phylogenetic relationships between atyid shrimps from Southern China are shown.  PMID:25544138

  14. Auxiliary Lagrangian and Conservation Laws for a Wave Equation Incorporating Dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang; Wei, Long

    2015-04-01

    In this work we study the Lagrangian and the conservation laws for a wave equation with a dissipative source. Using semi-inverse method, we show that the equation possesses a nonlocal Lagrangian with an auxiliary function. As a result, from a modified Noether's theorem and the nonclassical Noether symmetry generators, we construct some conservation laws for this equation, which are different from the ones obtained by Ibragimov's theorem in [Y. Wang and L. Wei, Abstr. App. Anal. 2013 (2013) 407908]. The results show that our method work for arbitrary functions f(u) and g(u) rather than special ones. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11101111, and Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. LY14A010029 and LY12A01003

  15. Feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-01-01

    Shi Changxu, former vice-president of NSFC wins Top Prize of National Science and Technology Award of China Both China and the world materials community have greatly benefitted from his service, by RPH Chang Shi Changxu—a great teacher and mentor for materials scientists, by Gaoqing Max Lu A bright example for all of us—Professor Shi Changxu, by Wei Gao Professor Shi Changxu—The Giant Materials Scientist of China, by Wuzong Zhou Congratulations to Academician Changxu Shi on the Occasion of His Winning the 2010 Chinese Science & Technology Grand Prize, by Ju Li, Kai Chen, Zhiwei Shan, Guanjun Qiao, Jun Sun and Evan Ma Materials—the foundation for technology revolutions, by Zhong Lin Wang

  16. Analysis of Forgery Attack on One-Time Proxy Signature and the Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tian-Yin; Wei, Zong-Li

    2016-02-01

    In a recent paper, Yang et al. (Quant. Inf. Process. 13(9), 2007-2016, 2014) analyzed the security of one-time proxy signature scheme Wang and Wei (Quant. Inf. Process. 11(2), 455-463, 2012) and pointed out that it cannot satisfy the security requirements of unforgeability and undeniability because an eavesdropper Eve can forge a valid proxy signature on a message chosen by herself. However, we find that the so-called proxy message-signature pair forged by Eve is issued by the proxy signer in fact, and anybody can obtain it as a requester, which means that the forgery attack is not considered as a successful attack. Therefore, the conclusion that this scheme cannot satisfy the security requirements of proxy signature against forging and denying is not appropriate in this sense. Finally, we study the reason for the misunderstanding and clarify the security requirements for proxy signatures.

  17. Anti-stokes photoluminescence of II-VI nanoparticles with different emitting states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozturk, Birol; Wang, Yimg; Chen, Wei; Kotov, Nicholas A.

    2003-03-01

    Anti-stokes photoluminescence of II-VI nanoparticles with different emitting states Birol Ozturk(a), Wei Chen(b), Yimg Wang(a), Nicholas Kotov (a) (a) Department of Chemistry, Oklahoma State University,Stillwater,OK 74078,USA (b) Nomadics Inc., 1024South Innovation Way, Stillwater, OK 74074, USA Abstract Anti-stokes photoluminescence (ASPL) in II-VI colloidal nanoparticles of CdTe and CdSe was studied in dispersions. The measurements showed that photoluminescence PL and ASPL were likely to originate from different although close-lying electronic states. Temperature dependence measurements between 10K and 300K showed that there is no thermal excitation step involved in ASPL emission. Emission intensity dependence on excitation intensity is linear which indicates deviation from the classical two-photon absorption mechanism. The ASPL excitation scheme involving a long-lived intermediate state is discussed.

  18. Pseudo-feathery dunes in the Kumtagh desert reclassified as linear dunes and zibars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen-Ting; Sun, Qing-Feng; Ren, Xiao-Zong; Wang, Tao; Chen, Fa-Hu

    Dunes with apparent feathery patterns are common in the harsh and inaccessible Kumtagh desert in China. A recent paper by Dong et al. [Dong, Z., Qu, J., Wang, X., Qian, G., Luo, W., Wei, Z., 2008. Pseudo-feathery dunes in the Kumtagh desert. Geomorphology 100, 328-334] argued that the dunes are pseudo-feathery dunes with the different forms (linear versus marginal feather vanes) being related to grain composition differences. Field studies in the region and sedimentological analyses revealed that the dune 'feathers' are created by dunes of different heights, rather than by differences in material composition. The dunes are, in fact, linear dunes and zibars corresponding with the rachises and vanes, respectively, and appearing as feathery patterns in aerial photographs and satellite images.

  19. A new species and a key to 19 species of the genus Traulia Stål, 1873 (Orthoptera: Catantopidae) from China.

    PubMed

    Cao, Cheng-Quan; Shi, Jian-Ping; Yin, Zhan

    2015-01-01

    A new species of the genus Traulia Stål, 1873 namely Traulia xiai sp. nov. is described from China in this paper. The new species is similar to Traulia brachypeza Bi, 1986, but differs from the latter by the short tegmina, reaching the middle of third abdominal tergite only. The new species is also similar to Traulia ornate Shiraki, 1910, but differs from the latter by hind tibia all orange red and furculae of male absent. We think that Traulia yifengensis Wang, Xiangyu & Liu, 1997 is a valid species, not a synonym of Traulia brachypeza Bi, 1985 by Wei & Huang (2012), because the tegmina of Traulia yifengensis is very long, extending over the end of abdomen distinctly. A key to 19 species of this genus from China is also given in this paper. The type specimens are deposited in the National Museum of Natural Science, Taichung, Taiwan, China. PMID:26624686

  20. Theoretical modelling of exchange interactions in metal-phthalocyanines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wei; Fisher, Andrew; Harrison, Nic; Serri, Michele; Wu, Zhenlin; Heutz, Sandrine; Jones, Tim; Aeppli, Gabriel

    2012-02-01

    The theoretical understanding of exchange interactions in organics provides a key foundation for quantum molecular magnetism. Recent SQUID magnetometry of a well know organic semiconductor, copper-phthalocyanine [1,2] (CuPc) shows that it forms quasi-one-dimensional spin chains. Green's function perturbation theory calculation [3] is used to find the dominant exchange mechanism. Hybrid density functional theory simulations [4] give a quantitative insight to exchange interactions and electronic structures. Both calculations are performed for different stacking and sliding angles for lithium-Pc, cobalt-Pc, chromium-Pc, and copper-Pc. The exchange interactions depend strongly on stacking angles, but weakly on sliding angles. Our results qualitatively agree with the experiments, and remarkably α-cobalt-Pc has a very large exchange above liquid-Nitrogen temperature. Our theoretical predictions on the exchange interactions can guide experimentalists to design novel organic semiconductors. [0pt] [1] S. Heutz, et. al., Adv. Mat., 19, 3618 (2007) [2] Hai Wang, et. al., ACS Nano, 4, 3921 (2010) [3] Wei Wu, et. al., Phys. Rev. B 77, 184403 (2008) [4] Wei Wu, et. al., Phys. Rev. B 84, 024427 (2011)

  1. [Commentary on "group and organization: a dimension of collaboration of anthropology and epidemiology" by Song LM and Wang N].

    PubMed

    Liao, Su-Su; Zhang, Qing-Ning; Hou, Lei

    2012-10-01

    Epidemiology, as the study of occurrence and distribution of diseases or health events in specified populations and the application of the study to control health problems, is not just a method to study determinants of diseases at individual level through analysis of mass data based on individuals. To achieve the aims on the control of health problems in specified populations, Epidemiology should be public health-oriented to reduce incidence, prevalence and mortality, and should include study on determinants at the population level. Interdisplinarity and systems science will facilitate the breakthrough in improving health of the populations.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: z>4.5 QSOs with SDSS and WISE. I. Opt. spectra (Wang+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, F.; Wu, X.-B.; Fan, X.; Yang, J.; Yi, W.; Bian, F.; McGreer, I. D.; Yang, Q.; Ai, Y.; Dong, X.; Zuo, W.; Jiang, L.; Green, R.; Wang, S.; Cai, Z.; Wang, R.; Yue, M.

    2016-05-01

    Optical spectroscopic observations to identify these quasar candidates were carried out using several facilities: the Lijiang 2.4m telescope (LJT) and the Xinglong 2.16m telescope in China; the Kitt Peak 2.3m Bok telescope and the 6.5m MMT telescope in the U.S.; and the 2.3m ANU telescope in Australia. (4 data files).

  3. Inventing a Modern Lexicon for Grammar in Chinese: The Experience of Wang Fengzao, Ma Jianzhong and Yan Fu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellin, Tommaso

    2008-01-01

    In China, from the second half of the nineteenth century to the first years of the twentieth century, extensive translation of Western works on science, economics and law was undertaken. The goal was to spread "Western learning", thought of as the key tool for the industrial and military modernization of the country, among the Chinese ruling…

  4. Risky Choice with Heuristics: Reply to Birnbaum (2008), Johnson, Schulte-Mecklenbeck, and Willemsen (2008), and Rieger and Wang (2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandstatter, Eduard; Gigerenzer, Gerd; Hertwig, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    E. Brandstatter, G. Gigerenzer, and R. Hertwig (2006) showed that the priority heuristic matches or outperforms modifications of expected utility theory in predicting choice in 4 diverse problem sets. M. H. Birnbaum (2008) argued that sets exist in which the opposite is true. The authors agree--but stress that all choice strategies have regions of…

  5. The law of cooperation: Comment on "Universal scaling for the dilemma strength in evolutionary games" by Z. Wang et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichinose, Genki

    2015-09-01

    Cooperation is a behavior that benefits others while incurring costs to the actor. Thus, natural selection favors defection (non-cooperation), which unilaterally takes the benefits without paying any costs, rather than cooperation. Despite this logical consequence, reality is the opposite: Cooperation is ubiquitous at any level from genomes to human societies. This contradiction is known as the puzzle of the evolution of cooperation. For a long time, evolutionary game theorists have used the prisoner's dilemma game (PD) and the chicken game (CH) as the standard models to solve this puzzle. For these researchers, it is recognized that a specific mechanism is needed for the evolution of cooperation [1]. Five mechanisms are proposed: kin selection, direct reciprocity, indirect reciprocity, network reciprocity, and group selection. By using the donor and recipient game (D&R), which is one of the particular forms of PD, Nowak theoretically showed that once benefit (b), cost (c), and the other one or two parameters for each mechanism are given, we (evolutionary game theorists) can immediately know whether cooperation evolves [1]. The point here is that he included those unique parameters for each mechanism into PD and then reformulated the payoff matrix. Therefore, we can use this extended PD as the first scaling parameters.

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Energies & radiative transition from ArXII to ZnXXIV (Wang+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K.; Si, R.; Dang, W.; Jonsson, P.; Guo, X. L.; Li, S.; Chen, Z. B.; Zhang, H.; Long, F. Y.; Liu, H. T.; Li, D. F.; Hutton, R.; Chen, C. Y.; Yan, J.

    2016-04-01

    Combined relativistic configuration interaction and many-body perturbation calculations are performed for the 359 fine-structure levels of the 2s22p3, 2s2p4, 2p5, 2s22p23l, 2s2p33l, 2p43l, and 2s22p24l configurations in N-like ions from Ar XII to Zn XXIV. Complete and consistent data sets of energies, wavelengths, radiative rates, oscillator strengths, and line strengths for all possible electric dipole, magnetic dipole, electric quadrupole, and magnetic quadrupole transitions among the 359 levels are given for each ion. The present work significantly increases the amount of accurate data for ions in the nitrogen-like sequence, and the accuracy of the energy levels is high enough to enable the identification and interpretation of observed spectra involving the n=3, 4 levels, for which experimental values are largely scarce. Meanwhile, the results should be of great help for modeling and diagnosing astrophysical and fusion plasmas. (2 data files).

  7. Equivalence of cooperation indexes. Comment on "Universal scaling for the dilemma strength in evolutionary games" by Z. Wang et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Vaquero, Luis; Grujić, Jelena; Lenaerts, Tom

    2016-03-01

    Symmetric 2 × 2 games where two players can select between two actions and the payoff depends on what they both choose, provide one of the simplest models to study the evolution of cooperation. The actions are usually called cooperation (C) and defection (D) and the payoffs they receive are R (reward for mutual cooperation), P (punishment for mutual defection), T (temptation to defect) and S (suckers payoff). The relative ordering of these 4 payoff values determines the type of dilemma: Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) when T > R > P > S, Snowdrift with T > R > S > P and Stag-Hunt with R > T > P > S. Within the framework of Darwinian Evolution it is well known that in the PD, where both greed (T > R) and fear (P > S) are present, the evolution of cooperation is an important conundrum [1], requiring the identification of mechanisms to overcome it.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: X-ray luminosities of SDSS DR7 clusters from RASS (Wang+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Yang, X.; Shen, S.; Mo, H. J.; van den Bosch, F. C.; Luo, W.; Wang, Y.; Lau, E. T.; Wang, Q. D.; Kang, X.; Li, R.

    2015-07-01

    The optical data used in our analysis are taken from the SDSS galaxy group catalogues of Yang et al. (2007ApJ...671..153Y), constructed using the adaptive halo-based group finder of Yang et al. (2005MNRAS.356.1293Y), here updated to DR7. The parent galaxy catalogue is the New York University Value-Added Galaxy Catalog (NYU-VAGC; Blanton et al. 2005AJ....129.2562B) based on the SDSS DR7 (Abazajian et al. 2009ApJS..182..543A), which contains an independent set of significantly improved reductions. (1 data file).

  9. Upgrade of absolute extreme ultraviolet diagnostic on J-TEXT

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X. L.; Cheng, Z. F. Hou, S. Y.; Zhuang, G.; Luo, J.

    2014-11-15

    The absolute extreme ultraviolet (AXUV) diagnostic system is used for radiation observation on J-TEXT tokamak [J. Zhang, G. Zhuang, Z. J. Wang, Y. H. Ding, X. Q. Zhang, and Y. J. Tang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 073509 (2010)]. The upgrade of the AXUV system is aimed to improve the spatial resolution and provide a three-dimensional image on J-TEXT. The new system consists of 12 AXUV arrays (4 AXUV16ELG arrays, 8 AXUV20ELG arrays). The spatial resolution in the cross-section is 21 mm for the AXUV16ELG arrays and 17 mm for the AXUV20ELG arrays. The pre-amplifier is also upgraded for a higher signal to noise ratio. By upgrading the AXUV imaging system, a more accurate observation on the radiation information is obtained.

  10. Finite Time Extinction for Stochastic Sign Fast Diffusion and Self-Organized Criticality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gess, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    We prove finite time extinction for stochastic sign fast diffusion equations driven by linear multiplicative space-time noise, corresponding to the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld model for self-organized criticality. This solves a problem posed and left open in several works: (Barbu, Methods Appl Sci 36:1726-1733, 2013; Röckner and Wang, J Lond Math Soc (2) 87:545-560, 2013; Barbu et al. J Math Anal Appl 389:147-164, 2012; Barbu and Röckner, Comm Math Phys 311:539-555, 2012; Barbu et al., Comm Math Phys 285:901-923, 2009, C R Math Acad Sci Paris 347(1-2):81-84, 2009). The highly singular-degenerate nature of the drift in interplay with the stochastic perturbation causes the need for new methods in the analysis of mass diffusion, and several new estimates and techniques are introduced.

  11. Automatic locking knee brace joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    This invention is an apparatus for controlling the pivotal movement of a knee brace comprising a tang-and-clevis joint that has been uniquely modified. Both the tang and the clevis have a set of teeth that, when engaged, can lock the tang and the clevis together. In addition, the tang is biased away from the clevis. Consequently, when there is no axial force (i.e., body weight) on the tang, the tang is free to pivot within the clevis. However, when an axial force is exerted on the tang, the tang is pushed into the clevis, both sets of teeth engage, and the tang and the clevis lock together.

  12. Fermented Sipjeondaebo-tang Alleviates Memory Deficits and Loss of Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Scopolamine-induced Amnesia in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hee Ra; Lee, Heeeun; Park, Hwayong; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the anti-amnesic effects of SJ and fermented SJ (FSJ) on scopolamine (SCO)-induced amnesia mouse model. Mice were orally co-treated with SJ or FSJ (125, 250, and 500 mg/kg) and SCO (1 mg/kg), which was injected intraperitoneally for 14 days. SCO decreased the step-through latency and prolonged latency time to find the hidden platform in the passive avoidance test and Morris water maze test, respectively, and both SCO effects were ameliorated by FSJ treatment. FSJ was discovered to promote hippocampal neurogenesis during SCO treatment by increasing proliferation and survival of BrdU-positive cells, immature/mature neurons. In the hippocampus of SCO, oxidative stress and the activity of acetylcholinesterase were elevated, whereas the levels of acetylcholine and choline acetyltransferase were diminished; however, all of these alterations were attenuated by FSJ-treatment. The alterations in brain-derived neurotrophic factor, phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein, and phosphorylated Akt that occurred following SCO treatment were protected by FSJ administration. Therefore, our findings are the first to suggest that FSJ may be a promising therapeutic drug for the treatment of amnesia and aging-related or neurodegenerative disease-related memory impairment. Furthermore, the molecular mechanism by which FSJ exerts its effects may involve modulation of the cholinergic system and BDNF/CREB/Akt pathway. PMID:26939918

  13. To designate the United States courthouse located at 700 Grant Street in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, as the "Joseph F. Weis Jr. United States Courthouse".

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Doyle, Michael F. [D-PA-14

    2014-07-17

    12/09/2014 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Environment and Public Works. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. Pseudopotential Calculation of the Excited States of Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Andrew; Wang, Lin-Wang; Fu, Hiauxiang; Zunger, Alex

    1998-03-01

    We present the results of our pseudopotential calculations of up to 10 single-exciton states in free standing InP, InAs and CdSe quantum dots with diameters ranging from 10 to 50ÅIn the first step we solve for ≈20-40 single particle hole and electron states using a screened atomic pseudopotential Hamiltonian[1], solved within a plane wave basis using the Folded Spectrum Method[2]. In the second step, we calculate the electron-hole Coulomb energy[3] and the dipole transition probability for each of the ≈1000 possible single particle excitations. We present a comparison of the size scaling of the peaks in absorption and emission spectra obtained in our calculations with those from recent experiments and those of the effective mass based, k.p method. We also compare pseudopotential and k.p predictions of the character of the initial and final single particle states associated with each of these emission peaks. [1] J. Kim, A.J. Williamson, L.W. Wang, S.H-. Wei and A. Zunger, submitted to Phys. Rev. B [2] L. W. Wang and A. Zunger, J. Chem. Phys. 100, 2394 (1994). [3] A. Franceschetti and A. Zunger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 915 (1997). *Supported under BES/OER/DMS contract No. DE---AC36---83CH10093

  15. New View of Distant Galaxy Reveals Furious Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-12-01

    A furious rate of star formation discovered in a distant galaxy shows that galaxies in the early Universe developed either much faster or in a different way from what astronomers have thought. "This galaxy is forming stars at an incredible rate," said Wei-Hao Wang, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, New Mexico. The galaxy, Wang said, is forming the equivalent of 4,000 Suns a year. This is a thousand times more violent than our own Milky Way Galaxy. Location of Distant Galaxy Visible-light, left (from HST) and Infrared, right, (from Spitzer) Images: Circles indicate location of GOODS 850-5. CREDIT: Wang et al., STScI, Spitzer, NASA, NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for high-resolution file (1 MB) The galaxy, called GOODS 850-5, is 12 billion light-years from Earth, and thus is seen as it was only about 1.5 billion years after the Big Bang. Wang and his colleagues observed it using the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's Submillimeter Array (SMA) on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. Young stars in the galaxy were enshrouded in dust that was heated by the stars and radiated infrared light strongly. Because of the galaxy's great distance from Earth, the infrared light waves have been stretched out to submillimeter-length radio waves, which are seen by the SMA. The waves were stretched or "redshifted," as astronomers say, by the ongoing expansion of the Universe. "This evidence for prolific star formation is hidden by the dust from visible-light telescopes," Wang explained. The dust, in turn, was formed from heavy elements that had to be built up in the cores of earlier stars. This indicates, Wang said, that significant numbers of stars already had formed, then spewed those heavy elements into interstellar space through supernova explosions and stellar winds. "Seeing the radiation from this heated dust revealed star formation we could have found in no other way," Wang said. Similar dusty galaxies in the early Universe may contain most of the

  16. Chronic exposure to air pollution particles increases the risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome: findings from a natural experiment in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yongjie; Zhang, Junfeng Jim; Li, Zhigang; Gow, Andrew; Chung, Kian Fan; Hu, Min; Sun, Zhongsheng; Zeng, Limin; Zhu, Tong; Jia, Guang; Li, Xiaoqian; Duarte, Marlyn; Tang, Xiaoyan

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiologic evidence suggests that air pollution is a risk factor for childhood obesity. Limited experimental data have shown that early-life exposure to ambient particles either increases susceptibility to diet-induced weight gain in adulthood or increases insulin resistance, adiposity, and inflammation. However, no data have directly supported a link between air pollution and non-diet-induced weight increases. In a rodent model, we found that breathing Beijing's highly polluted air resulted in weight gain and cardiorespiratory and metabolic dysfunction. Compared to those exposed to filtered air, pregnant rats exposed to unfiltered Beijing air were significantly heavier at the end of pregnancy. At 8 wk old, the offspring prenatally and postnatally exposed to unfiltered air were significantly heavier than those exposed to filtered air. In both rat dams and their offspring, after continuous exposure to unfiltered air we observed pronounced histologic evidence for both perivascular and peribronchial inflammation in the lungs, increased tissue and systemic oxidative stress, dyslipidemia, and an enhanced proinflammatory status of epididymal fat. Results suggest that TLR2/4-dependent inflammatory activation and lipid oxidation in the lung can spill over systemically, leading to metabolic dysfunction and weight gain.-Wei, Y., Zhang, J., Li, Z., Gow, A., Chung, K. F., Hu, M., Sun, Z., Zeng, L., Zhu, T., Jia, G., Li, X., Duarte, M., Tang, X. Chronic exposure to air pollution particles increases the risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome: findings from a natural experiment in Beijing.

  17. A Major Out of Sequence Fault in Central Range and Its Implication to Mountain Building Process of Taiwan Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. H.

    2015-12-01

    A Major Out of Sequence Fault in Central Range and Its Implication to Mountain Building Process of Taiwan Orogenic Belt Yuan-Hsi Lee1, Wei Lo2, Wei-Hau Wang1, Tim-Byrne 3, Ruey-Juen Rau 41. Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Cheng University, Taiwan, R.O.C. 2. Department of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Taipei, National Taipei University of Technology, Taiwan, R.O.C. 3. Center for Integrative Geosciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA 4. Department of Earth Science, National Chen-Kung University, Taiwan, R.O.C. Taiwan mountain belt results from collision between Eurasia continental crust and Philippine Sea plate that result in exposing the metamorphic complex with high exhumation rate in eastern Central Range of Taiwan orogenic belt. In this study we combine with field survey, zircon fission track (ZFT), metamorphic grade, and tomography data to identify there exists a major out of sequence fault (MOSF) in eastern Central Range of Taiwan orogenic belt. This MOSF extends from north to south of eastern central Range with several segments and the total length is more than 250 km. The ZFT shows total annealing age of ca.1-3 Ma on the hanging wall and partial annealing ages on the foot wall. The seismicity data indicates the MOSF is still active from central to southern central Range. We consider that the MOSF is related with crustal channel flow in depth. To the western side of crustal flow it shows thrusting mechanism associated with MOSF and the normal faults (or normal shearing zone) develop in eastern side of the crustal channel flow. This crustal channel flow is also related with exposing the metamorphic complex in Central Range that is important mechanism for the mountain building process of Taiwan orogenic belt.

  18. Taxonomic Status, Phylogenetic Affinities and Genetic Diversity of a Presumed Extinct Genus, Paraisometrum W.T. Wang (Gesneriaceae) from the Karst Regions of Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wen-Hong; Shui, Yu-Min; Yang, Jun-Bo; Wang, Hong; Nishii, Kanae; Wen, Fang; Zhang, Zhi-Rong; Möller, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background The karst regions in South China have an abundance of endemic plants that face high extinction risks. The Chinese Gesneriaceae endemic Paraisometrum mileense ( = Oreocharis mileensis), was presumed extinct for 100 years. After its re-discovery, the species has become one of five key plants selected by the Chinese forestry government to establish a new conservation category for plants with extremely small populations. For conservation purposes, we studied the phylogenetic and population genetic status of P. mileense at the three only known localities in Guangxi, Guizhou and Yunnan. Methodology/Principal Findings We collected 64 samples (52 species) of Oreocharis and 8 samples from three provinces of P. mileense and generated molecular phylogenies, and inferred that P. mileense represents a relatively isolated and derived taxonomic unit within Oreocharis. Phylogeographic results of 104 samples of 12 populations of P. mileense indicated that the populations in Yunnan have derived from those in Guangxi and Guizhou. Based on AFLP data, the populations were found to harbor low levels of genetic diversity (He = 0.118), with no apparent gradient across the species’ range, a restricted gene flow and significant isolation-by-distance with limited genetic differentiation among the populations across the three provinces (FST = 0.207, P<0.001). The 10 populations in Yunnan were found to represent two distinct lineages residing at different altitudes and distances from villages. Conclusion/Significance The low levels of genetic diversity found in P. mileense are perhaps a consequence of severe bottlenecks in the recent past. The distribution of the genetic diversity suggests that all populations are significant for conservation. Current in situ and ex situ measures are discussed. Further conservation actions are apparently needed to fully safeguard this conservation flagship species. Our work provides a model of an integrated study for the numerous endemic species in the karst regions with extremely small populations. PMID:25250568

  19. The importance of accurately modelling human interactions. Comment on "Coupled disease-behavior dynamics on complex networks: A review" by Z. Wang et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosati, Dora P.; Molina, Chai; Earn, David J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Human behaviour and disease dynamics can greatly influence each other. In particular, people often engage in self-protective behaviours that affect epidemic patterns (e.g., vaccination, use of barrier precautions, isolation, etc.). Self-protective measures usually have a mitigating effect on an epidemic [16], but can in principle have negative impacts at the population level [12,15,18]. The structure of underlying social and biological contact networks can significantly influence the specific ways in which population-level effects are manifested. Using a different contact network in a disease dynamics model-keeping all else equal-can yield very different epidemic patterns. For example, it has been shown that when individuals imitate their neighbours' vaccination decisions with some probability, this can lead to herd immunity in some networks [9], yet for other networks it can preserve clusters of susceptible individuals that can drive further outbreaks of infectious disease [12].

  20. The impact of information spreading on disease dynamics. Comment on "Coupled disease-behavior on complex networks: A review" by Z. Wang et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Francisco A.

    2015-12-01

    Epidemic modeling is fundamental to our understanding of the disease dynamics [1]. Theoretical models have allowed the development of methods for immunization and vaccination policies, being used for disease forecast and control [1-3]. Typically, disease propagation is modeled as a stochastic process in which an infectious agent is transmitted from an infected individual to a susceptible subject via the connection between them [4]. The initial models to describe the disease propagation considered homogeneous-mixing compartmental models [2], which assume that all subjects have identical probabilities of interaction. In this way, the network of contacts is a fully connected graph wherein the interaction might happen between every pair of individuals [2].

  1. Scaling up complexity in host-pathogens interaction models. Comment on "Coupled disease-behavior dynamics on complex networks: A review" by Z. Wang et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguiar, Maíra

    2015-12-01

    Caused by micro-organisms that are pathogenic to the host, infectious diseases have caused debilitation and premature death to large portions of the human population, leading to serious social-economic concerns. The persistence and increase in the occurrence of infectious diseases as well the emergence or resurgence of vector-borne diseases are closely related with demographic factors such as the uncontrolled urbanization and remarkable population growth, political, social and economical changes, deforestation, development of resistance to insecticides and drugs and increased human travel. In recent years, mathematical modeling became an important tool for the understanding of infectious disease epidemiology and dynamics, addressing ideas about the components of host-pathogen interactions. Acting as a possible tool to understand, predict the spread of infectious diseases these models are also used to evaluate the introduction of intervention strategies like vector control and vaccination. Many scientific papers have been published recently on these topics, and most of the models developed try to incorporate factors focusing on several different aspects of the disease (and eventually biological aspects of the vector), which can imply rich dynamic behavior even in the most basic dynamical models. As one example to be cited, there is a minimalistic dengue model that has shown rich dynamic structures, with bifurcations (Hopf, pitchfork, torus and tangent bifurcations) up to chaotic attractors in unexpected parameter regions [1,2], which was able to describe the large fluctuations observed in empirical outbreak data [3,4].

  2. Connecting human behavior and infectious disease spreading. Comment on "Coupled disease-behavior dynamics on complex networks: A review" by Wang et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holme, Petter

    2015-12-01

    Vaccination against measles is one of the great success stories of 20th century medicine. In the USA, before the introduction of the vaccine in 1963, three to four million adolescents were infected annually, around 500 died, around 5000 got serious complications (primarily encephalitis, swelling of the brain), and around 50,000 were hospitalized [7]. With the vaccine, measles virtually vanished and by 2000 it was declared extinct from the USA. This was, however, not the end of the story. There is still a small fraction of parents who do not let their children be vaccinated. The reasons vary-fear of side effects, an aversion of exposing children to something "unnatural", and a large number of other ideas. (For a non-academic account of the psychology of vaccination, we recommend Eula Biss's On Immunity[3].) The last few decades, anti-vaccination ideas have been spreading in social media and united people opposing vaccination into something of a movement [4]. In December 2014 there was a first larger outbreak (over 500 cases) of the century, centered around Disneyland (Anaheim, California) [10], and the anti-vaccination movement got much of the blame [4]. This example illustrates how ideas and opinions-that just like diseases are spreading over networks of people-can facilitate outbreaks. The reverse is, thankfully, more common-people, aware of an emerging outbreak, try to lower the chance of contagion by improving hygiene etc., which impedes the outbreak.

  3. Re-parametrizing the dilemmas. Comment on "Universal scaling for the dilemma strength in evolutionary games", by Z. Wang et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobilia, Mauro

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the mechanisms at the origin of cooperation is a major challenge to Darwin's natural selection theory [1]: If only the fittest individuals survive, how to explain the ubiquity of cooperation? Among many examples of altruistic behaviors, one can mention insects that coordinate their efforts for the benefit of their "queen" [2].

  4. Large-Scale Simulation of the Effects of Climate Change on Runoff Erosion Following Extreme Wildfire Events Authors: Gould, Adam, Warren, Barber, Wagenbrenner, Robichaud, Wang, Cherkauer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, G.; Adam, J. C.; Barber, M. E.; Wagenbrenner, J. W.; Robichaud, P. R.; Wang, L.; Cherkauer, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    Across the western U.S., there is clear concern for increases in wildfire occurrence, severity, and post-fire runoff erosion due to projected climate changes. The aim of this study was to advance our capability to simulate post-fire runoff erosion at scales larger than a single hillslope to examine the relative contribution of sediment being released to larger streams and rivers in response to wildfire. We applied the Variable Capacity Infiltration-Water Erosion Prediction Project (VIC-WEPP), a newly-developed physically-based modeling framework that combines large-scale hydrology with hillslope-scale runoff erosion, over the Salmon River basin (SRB) in central Idaho. We selected the SRB for this study because of recent research that suggested that forest wildfires are likely contributing the majority of coarser sands that settle in downstream navigation channels and in reservoirs, causing adverse impacts to aquatic life, navigation, and flood storage. Using the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR), burn intensity and severity maps show the regularity of wildfire occurrence in the SRB. These maps compare pre-fire images to next growing season images from the Landsat Thematic Mapper multispectral scanning sensor. Rather than implementing WEPP over all hillslopes within the SRB, we applied a representative hillslope approach. A monofractal scaling method downscales globally available 30 arc second digital elevation model (DEM) data to a 30 m resolution for simulations. This information determined the distribution of slope gradients within each VIC grid cell. This study applied VIC-WEPP over the 1979-2010 period and compared an ensemble of future climate simulations for the period of 2041-2070. For future scenarios, we only considered meteorological impacts on post-fire erosion and did not incorporate changes in future fire occurrence or severity. We ran scenarios for a variety of land cover and soil parameter sets, particularly those that relate to pre and post-fire characteristics, such as vegetative cover, interrill and rill erodibility factors, and saturated hydraulic conductivity. Evaluation of runoff erosion at experimental sites, observed by the U.S. Forest Service, involved using Disturbed WEPP which showed reasonable first post-fire year annual erosion predictions. We evaluated VIC-WEPP by comparing sediment observations downstream of the SRB with simulated yields for both pre and post-fire conditions. Generation of maps showing erosion over the SRB for each of the scenarios show specific areas within the SRB to be high, moderate, or low runoff-induced post-fire erosion regions. Our methodology will enable forest managers in the region to incorporate the impacts of changes in meteorological events on runoff erosion into their strategic management plans.

  5. Mathematical universality and direct applicability of evolutionary games. Comment on "Universal scaling for the dilemma strength in evolutionary games", by Z. Wang et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arranz, Jordi; Traulsen, Arne

    2015-09-01

    The application of classical game theory to biological sciences allowed researchers to successfully approach problems in theoretical and evolutionary biology in a novel manner [1]. Among those, the evolution of cooperation is the most popular application of evolutionary game theory. The evolution of cooperation is traditionally modeled through games, in particular social dilemmas. These depict situations, in which the interest of an individual is in conflict with the interest of the group, thus games offer an ideal ground to study how cooperation can emerge in the face of natural selection, where individual advantage triumphs over group benefits.

  6. Unifying perspectives on cooperation under social viscosity. Comment on "Universal scaling for the dilemma strength in evolutionary games" by Z. Wang et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauch, Chris T.

    2015-09-01

    How cooperation evolved in populations of self-interested agents puzzled Charles Darwin, who portrayed the paradox in The Descent of Man as such: "He who was ready to sacrifice his life, as many a savage has been, rather than betray his comrades, would often leave no offspring to inherit his noble nature" [1]. Darwin invoked group selection to explain cooperation: if groups of cooperating individuals could work together to outcompete groups of selfish individuals, cooperation could thrive. Fundamentally, this mechanism works by allowing cooperators to interact preferentially with one another: cooperators tend to interact with other co-operators whereas selfish "defectors" tend to interact with other defectors. Since cooperators cooperate and defectors defect, groups of cooperators should do better, on average.

  7. Modelling real disease dynamics with behaviourally adaptive complex networks. Comment on "Coupled disease-behavior dynamics on complex networks: A review" by Z. Wang et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Small, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Mean field compartmental models of disease transmission have been successfully applied to a host of different scenarios, and the Kermack-McKendrick equations are now a staple of mathematical biology text books. In Susceptible-Infected-Removed format these equations provide three coupled first order ordinary differential equations with a very mild nonlinearity and they are very well understood. However, underpinning these equations are two important assumptions: that the population is (a) homogeneous, and (b) well-mixed. These assumptions become closest to being true for diseases infecting a large portion of the population for which inevitable individual effects can be averaged away. Emerging infectious disease (such as, in recent times, SARS, avian influenza, swine flu and ebola) typically does not conform to this scenario. Individual contacts and peculiarities of the transmission network play a vital role in understanding the dynamics of such relatively rare infections - particularly during the early stages of an outbreak.

  8. International association for the study of lung cancer map, Wang lymph node map and rapid on-site evaluation in transbronchial needle aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing-Hua; Arias, Sixto

    2016-01-01

    The invaluable role of transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) in the diagnosis and staging of mediastinal adenopathy and lung cancer has been well established. Different lymph nodes regional nomenclatures and maps had been described over the years. The international association for the study of lung cancer (IASLC) and Wang’s maps complement each other benefiting patients with lung cancer. In this article we briefly reviewed the roles of IALSC, Wang’s maps and ROSE in TBNA. PMID:27747023

  9. Towards unified characterization of cooperation mechanisms. Comment on "Universal scaling for the dilemma strength in evolutionary games" by Z. Wang et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, The Anh

    2015-09-01

    "I will jump into the river to save two brothers or eight cousins": This famous quote by J.B.S. Haldane accurately anticipates the conditions under which cooperation is the favorable choice in an interaction between genetic relatives. The general condition can later be formulated as a surprisingly simple mathematical expression, known as the Hamilton's rule, stating that natural selection favors cooperation if the genetic relatedness (r) between the donor and the recipient of a cooperative act is greater than its cost (c) to benefit (b) ratio [1]: r > c / b. Motivated by Hamilton's elegant early studies, researchers have attempted to find simple and concise rules that characterize the conditions for cooperation to be selected under various social viscosity [2,3]. For example, the seminal work by M. Nowak [3] in 2006 shows that similarly simple rules can be derived that govern each of the other four popular mechanisms of cooperation-direct reciprocity, indirect reciprocity, group selection and network reciprocity-, which can be expressed via the cost-to-benefit ratio being smaller than some critical value associated with the mechanism at work (as seen, for kin interactions, the critical value is relatedness). However, these rules are restricted to the donor and recipient (D&R) paradigm. The question is thus whether it is possible to obtain simple rules even for the general case? The answer is not trivial as a general two-player game is described by four independent parameters, not just two as in the D&R game.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Galaxy clusters at z=0.23 and 0.45 X-ray emission (Wang+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q. D.; Walker, S.

    2016-02-01

    The Chandra data used in this work were taken in nine separate observations. We reprocess the data with the latest version of the Chandra Interactive Analysis of Observations (CIAO; version 4.5). (1 data file).

  11. Hochu‑ekki‑to (Bu‑zhong‑yi‑qi‑tang), a herbal medicine, enhances cisplatin‑induced apoptosis in HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tetsuo; Kita, Kazuko; Sato, Chihomi; Kaneda, Atsushi

    2015-10-01

    Hochu‑ekki‑to (HET), a Kampō herbal medicine composed of ten medicinal plants, is traditionally used to improve the general state of patients with malignant diseases such as cancer. Recent studies showed that HET had an anti‑cancer effect against several cancer cell lines in vitro by inducing apoptosis. However, high doses of HET may have cytotoxic effects attributed to saponins or detergent‑like compounds. Therefore, the present study used low doses of HET (50 µg/ml), which did not affect cell viability, to evaluate its synergistic anti‑cancer effects with cisplatin. HeLa cells were cultured for 24 h with 50 µg/ml HET, followed by cisplatin treatment for 24 h at various concentrations. Subsequently, the sensitivity of the cells to cisplatin was assessed using a colony survival and a crystal violet cell viability assay. Furthermore, cisplatin‑induced apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. Proteins associated with cell viability and apoptosis, including phosphorylated (p‑)Akt, p53, B‑cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2), Bcl‑2‑associated X protein (Bax) and active caspase‑3 were analyzed by immunoblotting. The present study revealed that cell survival was decreased and apoptosis was increased in HeLa cells pre‑treated with HET prior to cisplatin treatment compared with HET‑untreated cells. Furthermore, protein expression of p53 and active caspase‑3 was increased, while the expression of p‑Akt as well as the Bcl‑2/Bax ratio, an index of survival activity in cells, were decreased in the HET‑pre‑treated cells compared with those in HET‑untreated cells following incubation with cisplatin. In conclusion, the present study indicated that HET enhanced cisplatin‑induced apoptosis of HeLa cells and that the administration of HET may therefore be clinically beneficial alongside apoptosis‑inducing chemotherapy.

  12. Identification of a common protein association region in the neuronal Cdk5 activator.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Ching, Y P; Lam, W H; Qi, Z; Zhang, M; Wang, J H

    2000-10-13

    Cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5 (Cdk5) depends on the association with neuronal Cdk5 activator (Nck5a) for kinase activity. A variety of cellular proteins have been shown to undergo high affinity association with Nck5a, including three novel proteins, C42, C48, and C53 found by a yeast two-hybrid screen (Ching, Y. P., Qi, Z., and Wang, J. H. (2000) Gene 242, 285-294). The three proteins show competitive binding to Nck5a suggesting that they bind at a common site. The binding site has been mapped to a region of 26 amino acid residues (residues 145 to 170) at the N-terminal boundary of the kinase activation domain of Nck5a. This region of Nck5a contains an amphipathic alpha-helix whose hydrophobic face is involved in Cdk5 activation (Chin, K. T., Ohki, S, Tang, D., Cheng, H. C., Wang, J. H. , and Zhang, M. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 7120-7127). Several lines of evidence suggest that Nck5a interacts with the binding proteins at the hydrophilic face of the amphipathic alpha-helix. First, the Nck5a-(145-170) peptide can bind Cdk5 and Nck5a-binding proteins simultaneously. Second, the association of Nck5a-(145-170) to C48 can be markedly reduced by high ionic strength whereas the interaction between Nck5a and Cdk5 is not affected. Third, substitution of Glu(157) by glutamine in Nck5a-(145-170) abolishes the peptide's ability to bind to the three Nck5a-binding proteins without diminishing its Cdk5 binding activity. PMID:10915792

  13. Why Deuterium+Au was the critical control experiment at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyulassy, Miklos

    2003-10-01

    One of the striking discoveries at RHIC was the strong (factor of 4-5) suppression of high pT pions above 4 GeV/c in central Au+Au at 200 AGeV. In addition the data reveal an evolution from di-jet correlations in peripheral collisions to mono-jet production in central collisions. Two paradigms existed prior to the new D+Au data proporting to explain the same jet quenching pattern. One is based on the formation of an opaque Quark-Gluon Plasma [1]. The other is based on initial state gluon shadowing in the Color Glass Condensate model for the nuclear wavefunction [2]. I review both paradigms and how the D+Au reaction provides the critical control experiment to decide which is closer to reality under RHIC conditions. I conclude that if the preliminary d+Au data are confirmed, then a QGP was in fact formed in central Au+Au at RHIC. References: [1] M. Gyulassy, Ivan Vitev, Xin-Nian Wang, Ben-Wei Zhang nucl-th/0302077 and refs. therein. [2] Edmond Iancu, Raju Venugopalan hep-ph/0303204 and refs. therein.

  14. Construction of a promoter collection for genes co-expression in filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Meng, Fanju; Liu, Pei; Yang, Shengli; Wei, Dongzhi

    2014-11-01

    Trichoderma reesei is the preferred organism for producing industrial cellulases. However, cellulases derived from T. reesei have their highest activity at acidic pH. When the pH value increased above 7, the enzyme activities almost disappeared, thereby limiting the application of fungal cellulases under neutral or alkaline conditions. A lot of heterologous alkaline cellulases have been successfully expressed in T. reesei to improve its cellulolytic profile. To our knowledge, there are few reports describing the co-expression of two or more heterologous cellulases in T. reesei. We designed and constructed a promoter collection for gene expression and co-expression in T. reesei. Taking alkaline cellulase as a reporter gene, we assessed our promoters with strengths ranging from 4 to 106 % as compared to the pWEF31 expression vector (Lv D, Wang W, Wei D (2012) Construction of two vectors for gene expression in Trichoderma reesei. Plasmid 67(1):67-71). The promoter collection was used in a proof-of-principle approach to achieve the co-expression of an alkaline endoglucanase and an alkaline cellobiohydrolase. We observed higher activities of both cellulose degradation and biostoning by the co-expression of an endoglucanase and a cellobiohydrolase than the activities obtained by the expression of only endoglucanase or cellobiohydrolase. This study makes the process of engineering expression of multiple genes easier in T. reesei.

  15. The influence of nonmonotonic synchronized flow branch in a cellular automaton traffic flow model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Cheng-Jie; Wang, Wei

    2011-11-01

    In this paper we study the congested patterns upstream of an isolated on-ramp in a cellular automaton traffic flow model, which is proposed in our previous paper [Cheng-Jie Jin, Wei Wang, Rui Jiang, Kun Gao, J. Stat. Mech (2010) P03018]. The simulation results under open boundary conditions are presented by spatiotemporal diagrams. Our diagram of congested patterns is quite similar to that of the cellular automaton models within Kerner’s three-phase traffic theory, while some differences in the “moving synchronized flow pattern” (MSP) should be noted. In our model the upstream front of MSP propagates not only upstream, but also downstream. The propagation direction depends on the flow rates and densities of free flow and synchronized flow. Besides, in our model the outflow of wide moving jams or bottlenecks could be free flow or synchronized flow, as reported in many empirical data. In the dissolving of congestions, the form of free flow may be hindered and stable synchronized flow may emerge. This phenomenon can help us understand more about the outflow. All the interesting characteristics of our model are due to the nonmonotonic structure of synchronized flow branch in the fundamental diagram, which has not been found in previous models.

  16. A new apparatus for study of pressure-dependent laminar premixed flames with vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Z. Y.; Wang, Y.; Tang, X. F.; Wu, W. H.; Qi, F.

    2013-01-01

    We report a home-made combustion apparatus for study of pressure-dependent laminar premixed flames with tunable vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry. The instrument consists of a flame chamber, a photoionization chamber with a single-stage sampling system, an ion transfer/storage system, and an orthogonal-acceleration reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Preliminary results of fuel-rich C2H4/O2/Ar flames at pressures of 30, 150, and 760 Torr have been obtained with this instrument. Compared to previous instruments [T. A. Cool, A. McIlroy, F. Qi, P. R. Westmoreland, L. Poisson, D. S. Peterka, and M. Ahmed, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 094102 (2005), 10.1063/1.2010307; F. Qi, R. Yang, B. Yang, C. Q. Huang, L. X. Wei, J. Wang, L. S. Sheng, and Y. W. Zhang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 084101 (2006)], 10.1063/1.2234855, performances of the new apparatus have higher mass resolution (˜3500 at m/z = 40), better detection limit (<1 ppm), and broader dynamic range (better than 5 order of magnitude).

  17. Scale disparity and spectral transfer in anisotropic numerical turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ye; Yeung, P. K.; Brasseur, James G.

    1994-08-01

    To study the effect of cancellations within long-range interactions on local isotropy at the small scales, we calculate explicitly the degree of cancellation in distant interactions in the simulations of Yeung & Brasseur and Yeung, Brasseur & Wang using the single scale disparity parameter 's' developed by Zhou. In the simulations, initially isotropic simulated turbulence was subjected to coherent anisotropic forcing at the large scales and the smallest scales were found to become anisotropic as a consequence of direct large-small scale couplings. We find that the marginally distant interactions in the simulation do not cancel out under summation and that the development of small-scale anisotropy is indeed a direct consequence of the distant triadic group, as argued by Yeung, et. al. A reduction of anisotropy at later times occurs as a result of the isotropizing influences of more local energy-cascading triadic interactions. Nevertheless, the local-to-nonlocal triadic group persists as an isotropizing influence at later times. We find that, whereas long-range interactions, in general, contribute little to net energy transfer into or out of a high wavenumber shell k, the anisotropic transfer of component energy within the shell increases with increasing scale separations. These results are consistent with results by Zhou, and Brasseur & Wei, and suggest that the anisotropizing influences of long range interactions should persist to higher Reynolds numbers. The residual effect of the forced distant group in this low-Reynolds number simulation is found to be forward cascading, on average.

  18. Scale disparity and spectral transfer in anisotropic numerical turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, YE; Yeung, P. K.; Brasseur, James G.

    1994-01-01

    To study the effect of cancellations within long-range interactions on local isotropy at the small scales, we calculate explicitly the degree of cancellation in distant interactions in the simulations of Yeung & Brasseur and Yeung, Brasseur & Wang using the single scale disparity parameter 's' developed by Zhou. In the simulations, initially isotropic simulated turbulence was subjected to coherent anisotropic forcing at the large scales and the smallest scales were found to become anisotropic as a consequence of direct large-small scale couplings. We find that the marginally distant interactions in the simulation do not cancel out under summation and that the development of small-scale anisotropy is indeed a direct consequence of the distant triadic group, as argued by Yeung, et. al. A reduction of anisotropy at later times occurs as a result of the isotropizing influences of more local energy-cascading triadic interactions. Nevertheless, the local-to-nonlocal triadic group persists as an isotropizing influence at later times. We find that, whereas long-range interactions, in general, contribute little to net energy transfer into or out of a high wavenumber shell k, the anisotropic transfer of component energy within the shell increases with increasing scale separations. These results are consistent with results by Zhou, and Brasseur & Wei, and suggest that the anisotropizing influences of long range interactions should persist to higher Reynolds numbers. The residual effect of the forced distant group in this low-Reynolds number simulation is found to be forward cascading, on average.

  19. Superconductivity in the vicinity of antiferromagnetic order in CrAs and related materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jianlin

    2015-03-01

    Transition-metal oxides or pnictides are in rich of novel and intriguing electronic behaviors due to multiple quantum orders and competing phenomena. Among the different electronic states, the emergence of superconductivity in the vicinity of other quantum orders is at the heart of the rich physics. Superconductivity has been observed in a majority of 3d transition-metal compounds except for the Cr- and Mn- based compounds. It is thus of high interest in exploring possible superconductivity in those systems. In this talk, I will present the discovery of superconductivity on the verge of antiferromagnetic order in CrAs via the application of external high pressure. Bulk superconductivity with Tc ~ 2 K emerges at the critical pressure Pc ~ 8 kbar, where the first-order antiferromagnetic transition at TN ~ 265 K under ambient pressure is completely suppressed. In addition, quantum criticality and non-Fermi liquid behavior are observed near Pc, which we interpret as originating from a nearly second-order magnetic quantum phase transition that is concomitant with a first-order structural transition. The present finding opens a new avenue for searching novel superconductors in the Cr and other 3d transitional-metal based systems. In collaboration with Wei Wu, Jinguang Cheng, Kazuyuki Matsubayashi, Panpan Kong, Fukun Lin, Changqing Jin, Nanlin Wang, Yoshiya Uwatoko, Rong Yi, and Qimiao Si.

  20. Deep Orogen-parallel Electrically Conductive Troughs And The Relationship To Surface Deformation In Eastern Tibet And Indochina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meju, M. A.; Bai, D.; Ma, X.; Jiang, C.; Zhou, Z.; Zhao, C.; Wang, L.

    2007-12-01

    spatially related to the crustal conductive layer suggesting a link between lower crustal conductivity heterogeneity and surface deformation in and off the Tibetan plateau. We suggest that the troughs are pre-existing fold structures or buried basins and that they probably influenced crustal melt distribution and deformation in the region. Our folding interpretation is shown to be consistent with inferences from gravity and topographical data (Jin et al.,1994; Braitenberg et al. 2000). References: Beaumont, C., R. A. Jamieson, M. H. Nguyen and B. Lee, Nature, 414, 738-742, 2001. Braitenberg, C., Zado, M., Fang, J., Wang, Y. & Hsu, H.T., J. Geodynamics 30, 489-505, 2000. Clark, M. K., L. H. Royden, Geology, 28, 703-706, 2000. Jin, Y., McNutt, M. & Zhu, Y. , Nature 371, 669-674, 1994. Sun, J., G. Jin, D. Bai, and L. Wang, Science in China, 46, 243-253, 2003. Unsworth M., Wei Wenbo, Jones A., et al., JGR, 109, B02403, doi:10.1029/2002JB002305, 2004. Tapponnier P., Xu Z., Roger F., Meyer B., Arnaud N., Wittlinger G., Yang J., Science, 294 (5547), 1671-1677, 2001. Wei W., Unsworth M., Jones A., et al., Science, 292 (5517), 716-719, 2001. Yin, A., T. M. Harrison, Annual Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 28, 211-280, 2000.

  1. EDITORIAL: Focus on Quantum Cryptography: Theory and Practice FOCUS ON QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY: THEORY AND PRACTICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lütkenhaus, N.; Shields, A. J.

    2009-04-01

    descriptions and are based on observable tests during the run of QKD sessions. It is now 25 years since the first proposal for QKD was published and 20 since the first experimental realization. The intervening years have brought several technological and theoretical advances, which have driven new insights into the application of quantum theory to the wider field of information technology. We are looking forward to the new twists and turns this field will take in the next 25 years! Focus on Quantum Cryptography: Theory and Practice Contents Security of continuous-variable quantum key distribution: towards a de Finetti theorem for rotation symmetry in phase space A Leverrier, E Karpov, P Grangier and N J Cerf Optical networking for quantum key distribution and quantum communications T E Chapuran, P Toliver, N A Peters, J Jackel, M S Goodman, R J Runser, S R McNown, N Dallmann, R J Hughes, K P McCabe, J E Nordholt, C G Peterson, K T Tyagi, L Mercer and H Dardy Proof-of-concept of real-world quantum key distribution with quantum frames I Lucio-Martinez, P Chan, X Mo, S Hosier and W Tittel Composability in quantum cryptography Jörn Müller-Quade and Renato Renner Distributed authentication for randomly compromised networks Travis R Beals, Kevin P Hynes and Barry C Sanders Feasibility of 300 km quantum key distribution with entangled states Thomas Scheidl, Rupert Ursin, Alessandro Fedrizzi, Sven Ramelow, Xiao-Song Ma, Thomas Herbst, Robert Prevedel, Lothar Ratschbacher, Johannes Kofler, Thomas Jennewein and Anton Zeilinger Decoy-state quantum key distribution with both source errors and statistical fluctuations Xiang-Bin Wang, Lin Yang, Cheng-Zhi Peng and Jian-Wei Pan High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibres D Stucki, N Walenta, F Vannel, R T Thew, N Gisin, H Zbinden, S Gray, C R Towery and S Ten Topological optimization of quantum key distribution networks R Alléaume, F Roueff, E Diamanti and N Lütkenhaus The SECOQC quantum key

  2. THE LITHOSPHERIC MAGNETIC FIELD ALONG THE NISHAN-GUYANG PROFILE, CHINA 6 datesYuan Jiehao1; Gu Zuowen1; Chen Bin1; Xu Rugang2; Wang Lie2; Wang Can1 1. Institute of Geophysics, China Earthquake Administration(IGP CEA), yjh810405@163.com 2. Anhui Earthquake Administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, J.

    2014-12-01

    In order to research the lithospheric magnetic field and the magnetization structure, the geomagnetic field was surveyed along the Nishan-Guyang profile with 900 km long in the Neimenggu and Shanxi provinces in China. The distance between the adjacent geomagnetic sites is about 7 km along the profile. The geomagnetic data were analyzed, and the lithospheric magnetic field was obtained. Using the upward continuation method, the geomagnetic anomalies in different depths were obtained: the basement anomaly, the upper crust anomaly and the superficial anomaly. Basing on these geomagnetic anomalies, the magnetization structure was obtained by using the software of the ModelVision 11.0. The preliminary results show: (1) The geomagnetic anomalies have good relationship with the local geological structure. (2) The magnetization structure is related to the depth variation of the Curie interface, the values of the magnetic susceptibility, the seismic activity and the tectonic block.

  3. Metamorphic and tectonic evolution of the Greater Himalayan Crystalline Complex in Nyalam region, south Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jia-Min; Zhang, Jin-Jiang; Rubatto, Daniela

    2016-04-01

    timing along the South Tibetan detachment (27-16 Ma) but precedes that along the MCT (16-10 Ma). Comparison between the obtained P-T-t data and model predictions implies that a lateral crustal flow process dominated the exhumation of the high-grade upper GHC migmitites during 25-16 Ma, whereas a critical taper thrusting process dominated the exhumation of the MCT zone nonmigmatites and cooled migmatites in the lower GHC at 16-10 Ma. In other words, at different temporal and spatial scale, both propagating thrusting along large tectonic boundaries and a low-viscosity melting crust could contribute to the exhumation of high-grade metamorphic rocks in Himalaya-like large hot collisional orogens. KEY WORDS: Greater Himalayan Crystalline Complex; P-T path; U-Pb geochronology; channel flow; tectonic discontinuity References: Wang, J.M., Rubatto, D., Zhang, J.J., 2015a. Timing of partial melting and cooling across the Greater Himalayan Crystalline Complex (Nyalam, central Himalaya): in-sequence thrusting and its implications. Journal of Petrology, 56, 1677-1702. Wang, J.M., Zhang, J.J., Wei, C.J., Rai, S.M., Wang, M., Qian, J.H., 2015b. Characterizing the metamorphic discontinuity across the Main Central Thrust Zone of eastern-central Nepal. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 101, 83-100. Wang, J.M., Zhang, J.J., Wang, X.X., 2013. Structural kinematics, metamorphic P-T profiles and zircon geochronology across the Greater Himalayan Crystalline Complex in south-central Tibet: implication for a revised channel flow. Journal of Metamorphic Geology 31, 607-628.

  4. [Preliminary investigation on the materia medica of the Zhuang ethnic group].

    PubMed

    Rong, Xiao-Xiang; Li, Gui

    2013-09-01

    By Zhuang materia medica, it refers to application of medicines under the instructions of medical theory of Zhuang ethnic group. By studying the pronunciation of the Zhuang language for the terms "zhu yu", "bai jiu", and "mi gu" included in the shan hai jing nan shan jing (The Classic of Southern Mountain in Classic of Seas and Mountains) carried out by the Zhuang scholar Qin Bao-lin, it was concluded that the Zhuang minority already applied medicines early in the pre-Qin period. Through extensive cultural communication in different regions in the Wei-Jin-Southern-Northern Dynasties, the medicinal experiences of the Zhuang ethnic group appeared in ancient literature. The antidotes in Zhou hou fang (Handbook of Prescriptions for Emergency), for instance, were mostly coming from the Southern Ridge area. Since the Sui-Tang Dynasties, many materia medica recorded in the herbal works and regional gazetteers, and Annals such as the Guangxi Annals, Gazetteer of Nanning County, and Gazetteer of Liuzhou County, Gazetteer of Binzhou County etc., also carry medicines such as Cinnamom twigs and bark, and mangosteen etc., which are similar to those of the Zhuang medicines. In the Republican period, many manuscripts of Zhuang medicines appeared. After 1949, many institutions of Zhuang medicine were set up successively, including The Nanning Medical Institute, The Medical Institute of Wuzhou, The Medical Institute of Guilin. Systematic researches were also done, with publication of a series of works on Zhuang materia medica. Reformation of part of the prescription forms of Zhuang medicine were also accomplished.

  5. 78 FR 19565 - Notice of Proposal To Extend the Memorandum of Understanding Between the Government of the United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... Restrictions on Categories of Archaeological Material From the Paleolithic Period Through the Tang Dynasty and... Archaeological Material from the Paleolithic Period Through the Tang Dynasty and Monumental Sculpture and...

  6. PREFACE International Symposium on Spintronic Devices and Commercialization 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, You-wei; Judy, Jack; Qian, Zhenghong; Wang, Jianping

    2011-01-01

    very successful indeed. We are also grateful to the Advisory Committee, the Conference Chairs, the Excutive Chairs, the Academic Committee, the Organization Committee and the Secretariat for their fruitful work. We would especially like to thank all the organizers listed below for their support in all aspects of the conference. We would like to express our thanks to all the authors for their time and genuine efforts, and to the reviewers for their fruitful comments during the preparation of this volume. ISSDC'2010 ORGANIZATION Advisory Committee Chialing Chien, USAJunhao Chu, ChinaBernard Dieny, FranceKoichiro Inomata, Japan Liangmo Mei, ChinaJohn Sivertsen, USAMingjing Tu, ChinaDingsheng Wang, China Zhanguo Wang, ChinaQikun Xue, ChinaWenshan Zhan, China Conference Chairs Jack Judy, USAYouwei Du, China Executive Chairs Zhenghong Qian, USAJianping Wang, USA Organization Committee ChairJiyan Luo, China Vice ChairsGuilin Duan, ChinaLingling Sun, ChinaBaogen Shen, China MembersTiecheng Lu, ChinaDa Ma, ChinaYe Tian, China Jinsong Xu, ChinaQiuling XuChangmao Yang, China Guanghua Yu, ChinaYi Yan, China Academic Committee ChairsZhenghong Qian, USAYongbing Xu, UK Vice ChairsSeongtae Bae, SingaporeYong Jiang, ChinaDexin Wang, USA Huaiwu Zhang, ChinaJianhua Zhao, China MembersJianwang Cai, ChinaXiangdong Chen, ChinaHaifeng Ding, China Chunhong Hou, USAGunther Baubock, USABin Hu, USA Jungchun Huang, TaiwanDexuan Huo, ChinaYoon H Jeong, Korea Chihuang Lai, TaiwanRunwei Li, ChinaWei Liu, China Jing Shi, USAYasushi Takemura, JapanMark Tondra, USA Shan X Wang, USADi Wu, ChinaDesheng Xue, China Minglang Yan, USAShishen Yan, ChinaXiaofei Yang, China Chun Yeol You, KoreaWei Zhao, ChinaShiming Zhou, China Jianguo Zhu, China Secretariat Secretary-generalChangmao Yang, China Vice Secretary-generalJunli Wang, ChinaJinsong Xu, ChinaYe Tian, China MembersRu Bai, ChinaHongliang Zhan, China ISSDC' 2010 Organizers Department of Science and Technology, CSIC, China SpinIC Inc., China Hangzhou

  7. Taxonomic review on the subgenus Tripodura Townes (Diptera: Chironomidae: Polypedilum) from China with eleven new species and a supplementary world checklist.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruilei; Song, Chao; Qi, Xin; Wang, Xinhua

    2016-01-01

    The subgenus Tripodura Townes of Polypedilum Kieffer from China including 26 species is reviewed. Eleven new species, named P. (T.) absensilobum Zhang & Wang sp. n., P. (T.) apiculusetosum Zhang & Wang sp. n., P. (T.) arcuatum Zhang & Wang sp. n., P. (T.) bilamella Zhang & Wang sp. n., P. (T.) conghuaense Zhang & Wang sp. n., P. (T.) dengae Zhang & Wang sp. n., P. (T.) mengmanense Zhang & Wang sp. n., P. (T.) napahaiense Zhang & Wang sp. n., P. (T.) parallelum Zhang & Wang sp. n., P. (T.) pollicium Zhang & Wang sp. n. and P. (T.) trapezium Zhang & Wang sp. n. are described and illustrated based on male imagines. Three species, P. (T.) quadriguttatum Kieffer, P. (T.) unifascia (Tokunaga) and P. (T.) udominutum Niitsuma are firstly recorded in China. A key to known male imagines of Chinese species and an updated world checklist of subgenus Tripodura are presented. PMID:27395703

  8. Structural behavior of solid rocket motor field joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, Michael F.; Wingate, Robert T.

    1987-01-01

    Structural analysis studies conducted on three concepts for the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor field joints are summarized. Deflections and stresses in the Challenger clevis-tang joint are compared with a proposed capture-tang replacement joint and with an alternate bolted joint design. Results indicate deflections and stresses are subsequently reduced in both the capture-tang and bolted joint concepts. The capture-tang and bolted joint designs are respectively 24 and 70 percent heavier than the baseline clevis-tang joint.

  9. Determinants of cyanuric acid and melamine assembly in water.

    PubMed

    Ma, Mingming; Bong, Dennis

    2011-07-19

    While the recognition of cyanuric acid (CA) by melamine (M) and their derivatives has been known to occur in both water and organic solvents for some time, analysis of CA/M assembly in water has not been reported (Ranganathan, A.; Pedireddi, V. R.; Rao, C. N. R. J. Am. Chem. Soc.1999, 121, 1752-1753; Mathias, J. P.; Simanek, E. E.; Seto, C. T.; Whitesides, G. M. Macromol. Symp.1994, 77, 157-166; Zerkowski, J. A.; MacDonald, J. C.; Seto, C. T.; Wierda, D. A.; Whitesides, G. M. J. Am. Chem. Soc.1994, 116, 2382-2391; Mathias, J. P.; Seto, C. T.; Whitesides, G. M. Polym. Prepr.1993, 34, 92-93; Seto, C. T.; Whitesides, G. M. J. Am. Chem. Soc.1993, 115, 905-916; Zerkowski, J. A.; Seto, C. T.; Whitesides, G. M. J. Am. Chem. Soc.1992, 114, 5473-5475; Seto, C. T.; Whitesides, G. M. J. Am. Chem. Soc.1990, 112, 6409-6411; Wang, Y.; Wei, B.; Wang, Q. J. Chem. Cryst.1990, 20, 79-84; ten Cate, M. G. J.; Huskens, J.; Crego-Calama, M.; Reinhoudt, D. N. Chem.-Eur. J.2004, 10, 3632-3639). We have examined assembly of CA/M, as well as assembly of soluble trivalent CA and M derivatives (TCA/TM), in aqueous solvent, using a combination of solution phase NMR, isothermal titration and differential scanning calorimetry (ITC/DSC), cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), and synthetic chemistry. While the parent heterocycles coprecipitate in water, the trivalent system displays more controlled and cooperative assembly that occurs at lower concentrations than the parent and yields a stable nanoparticle suspension. The assembly of both parent and trivalent systems is rigorously 1:1 and proceeds as an exothermic, proton-transfer coupled process in neutral pH water. Though CA and M are considered canonical hydrogen-bonding motifs in organic solvents, we find that their assembly in water is driven in large part by enthalpically favorable surface-area burial, similar to what is observed with nucleic acid recognition. There are currently few synthetic systems capable of robust molecular

  10. Atomic physics and quantum optics using superconducting circuits: from the Dynamical Casimir effect to Majorana fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nori, Franco

    2012-02-01

    This talk will present an overview of some of our recent results on atomic physics and quantum optics using superconducting circuits. Particular emphasis will be given to photons interacting with qubits, interferometry, the Dynamical Casimir effect, and also studying Majorana fermions using superconducting circuits.[4pt] References available online at our web site:[0pt] J.Q. You, Z.D. Wang, W. Zhang, F. Nori, Manipulating and probing Majorana fermions using superconducting circuits, (2011). Arxiv. J.R. Johansson, G. Johansson, C.M. Wilson, F. Nori, Dynamical Casimir effect in a superconducting coplanar waveguide, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 147003 (2009). [0pt] J.R. Johansson, G. Johansson, C.M. Wilson, F. Nori, Dynamical Casimir effect in superconducting microwave circuits, Phys. Rev. A 82, 052509 (2010). [0pt] C.M. Wilson, G. Johansson, A. Pourkabirian, J.R. Johansson, T. Duty, F. Nori, P. Delsing, Observation of the Dynamical Casimir Effect in a superconducting circuit. Nature, in press (Nov. 2011). P.D. Nation, J.R. Johansson, M.P. Blencowe, F. Nori, Stimulating uncertainty: Amplifying the quantum vacuum with superconducting circuits, Rev. Mod. Phys., in press (2011). [0pt] J.Q. You, F. Nori, Atomic physics and quantum optics using superconducting circuits, Nature 474, 589 (2011). [0pt] S.N. Shevchenko, S. Ashhab, F. Nori, Landau-Zener-Stuckelberg interferometry, Phys. Reports 492, 1 (2010). [0pt] I. Buluta, S. Ashhab, F. Nori. Natural and artificial atoms for quantum computation, Reports on Progress in Physics 74, 104401 (2011). [0pt] I.Buluta, F. Nori, Quantum Simulators, Science 326, 108 (2009). [0pt] L.F. Wei, K. Maruyama, X.B. Wang, J.Q. You, F. Nori, Testing quantum contextuality with macroscopic superconducting circuits, Phys. Rev. B 81, 174513 (2010). [0pt] J.Q. You, X.-F. Shi, X. Hu, F. Nori, Quantum emulation of a spin system with topologically protected ground states using superconducting quantum circuit, Phys. Rev. A 81, 063823 (2010).

  11. The impact of agriculture management on soil quality in citrus orchards in Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hondebrink, Merel; Cerdà, Artemi; Cammeraat, Erik

    2015-04-01

    Bodí, M.B. 2009. Soil and water losses from new citrus orchards growing on sloped soils in the western Mediterranean basin. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 34, 1822-1830. DOI: 10.1002/esp.1889 Hazarika, S., Thakuria, D., Ganeshamurthy, A. N., & Sakthivel, T. (2014). Soil quality as influenced by land use history of orchards in humid subtropics. Catena, 123, 37-44. Wang, L., Tang, L., Wang, X., & Chen, F. (2010). Effects of alley crop planting on soil and nutrient losses in the citrus orchards of the Three Gorges Region. Soil and Tillage Research, 110(2), 243-250. Wanshnong, R. K., Thakuria, D., Sangma, C. B., Ram, V., & Bora, P. K. (2013). Influence of hill slope on biological pools of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in acidic alfisols of citrus orchard. Catena, 111, 1-8. X. H. Li, J. Yang, C. Y Zhao and B. Wang
 (2014) Runoff and sediment from orchard terraces in Southeastern China. Land Degradation and Development, 25, 184-192. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.1160 Xu, Q. X., Wang, T. W., CAI, C. F., Li, Z.X., SHI, Z. H. 2012. Effects of soil conservation on soil properties of citrus orchards in the Three-Gorges Area, China. Land Degradation & Development, 23: 34 -42. DOI 10.1002/ldr.1045

  12. Fake "Returnee" Earns 4 Million through Fraudulent Marriages: More than Ten Women Fall for His Claims of Being a Boss and Possessing a House and Car

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinese Education and Society, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the case of Wang Ruiliang. Ms. Huang filed a case against Wang Jun, alleging that he had defrauded her. Ms. Huang met a man named Wang Jun in April 2002 through a certain matrimonial agency. Before they had been together for very long, Wang Jun asked to borrow money from Ms. Huang, claiming that he was having difficulties in…

  13. Magnetic field asymmetry and high temperature magnetoresistance in single-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobden, David

    2006-03-01

    The length scales and scattering processes in the one-dimensional electron system in single-walled carbon nanotubes remain only partially understood. Measuring the magnetoresistance, in both linear and nonlinear response, is a way to investigate these processes. In disordered nanotubes with ballistic paths much shorter than the length, we observe magnetoresistance in the metallic regime which at low temperatures resembles the universal fluctuations and weak localization seen in higher dimensional metals. A parabolic magnetoresistance persists at room temperature, indicating a significant role for phase coherence and/or interactions at high temperatures. While the linear resistance of a two-terminal sample must be an even function of magnetic field B by Onsager's principle, the nonlinear resistance need not be. Importantly, the B-asymmetric nonlinear terms can in principle be used to infer the strength of electron-electron interactions in the sample [1]. We have therefore also measured in detail the lowest order B-asymmetric current contributions, with a focus on the B-linear term. This has apparently not been done before in any system. Consistent with general theory, at high temperatures the term is small and has a constant sign independent of Fermi energy. At low temperatures it grows and develops mesoscopic fluctuations. Although these result imply that interactions are involved in the transport, calculations specific to nanotubes are needed in order to extract interaction parameters. This work was done by the authors of Ref [2]. References: [1] E.L. Ivchenko and B. Spivak, Phys. Rev. B 66, 155404 (2002); [2] Jiang Wei, Michael Shimogawa, Zenghui Wang, Iuliana Radu, Robert Dormaier, and David H. Cobden, Phys. Rev. Lett. (Dec. 2005) (cond-mat/0506275).

  14. FDCSUSYDecay: An MSSM decay package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Wei; Wang, Jian-xiong

    2007-08-01

    FDCSUSYDecay is a FORTRAN program package generated by FDC (Feynman Diagram Calculation) system fully automatically. It is dedicated to calculate at tree-level all the possible 2-body decays of SUSY and Higgs particles in the Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM). The format of its output files complies with SUSY Les Houches Accord and can be easily imported by other packages. Program summaryManuscript title:FDCSUSYDecay: An MSSM decay package Authors:Wei Qi, Jian-xiong Wang Program title:FDCSUSYDecay (Version 1.00) Catalogue identifier:ADYV_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADYV_v1_0.html Program obtainable from:CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions:Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:22 008 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:622 751 Distribution format:tar.gz Programming language:FORTRAN 77 Operating system:Linux Keywords:SUSY decay, MSSM, FDC PACS:02.70.-c, 12.60.Jv Classification:11.1, 11.6 External routines:CERNLIB 2003 (or up) Nature of problem: This package can calculate all the possible SUSY particle and Higgs 2-body decay width and branch ratio at tree-level in the MSSM model. Solution method: By running FDC, the Feynman rules for the MSSM model are generated, all the decay widths are calculated analytically and corresponding FORTRAN codes are generated for this package. Running time: Less than 1 second for both high-scale and low-scale modes on a Pentium IV 2.4 GHz machine (512 MB memory).

  15. Lumping analysis for the prediction of long-time dynamics: From monomolecular reaction systems to inherent structure dynamics of glassy materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lempesis, Nikolaos; Tsalikis, Dimitrios G.; Boulougouris, Georgios C.; Theodorou, Doros N.

    2011-11-01

    In this work we develop, test, and implement a methodology that is able to perform, in an automated manner, "lumping" of a high-dimensional, discrete dynamical system onto a lower-dimensional space. Our aim is to develop an algorithm which, without any assumption about the nature of the system's slow dynamics, is able to reproduce accurately the long-time dynamics with minimal loss of information. Both the original and the lumped systems conform to master equations, related via the "lumping" analysis introduced by Wei and Kuo [Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam. 8, 114 (1969)], and have the same limiting equilibrium probability distribution. The proposed method can be used in a variety of processes that can be modeled via a first order kinetic reaction scheme. Lumping affords great savings in the computational cost and reveals the characteristic times governing the slow dynamics of the system. Our goal is to approach the best lumping scheme with respect to three criteria, in order for the lumped system to be able to fully describe the long-time dynamics of the original system. The criteria used are: (a) the lumping error arising from the reduction process; (b) a measure of the magnitude of singular values associated with long-time evolution of the lumped system; and (c) the size of the lumped system. The search for the optimum lumping proceeds via Monte Carlo simulation based on the Wang-Landau scheme, which enables us to overcome entrapment in local minima in the above criteria and therefore increases the probability of encountering the global optimum. The developed algorithm is implemented to reproduce the long-time dynamics of a glassy binary Lennard-Jones mixture based on the idea of "inherent structures," where the rate constants for transitions between inherent structures have been evaluated via hazard plot analysis of a properly designed ensemble of molecular dynamics trajectories.

  16. Graphene: A partially ordered non-periodic solid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Dongshan; Wang, Feng

    2014-10-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study the structural features of graphene over a wide range of temperatures from 50 to 4000 K using the PPBE-G potential [D. Wei, Y. Song, and F. Wang, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 184704 (2011)]. This potential was developed by force matching the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) exchange correlation functional and has been validated previously to provide accurate potential energy surface for graphene at temperatures as high as 3000 K. Simulations with the PPBE-G potential are the best available approximation to a direct Car-Parrinello Molecular Dynamics study of graphene. One advantage of the PBE-G potential is to allow large simulation boxes to be modeled efficiently so that properties showing strong finite size effects can be studied. Our simulation box contains more than 600 000 C atoms and is one of the largest graphene boxes ever modeled. With the PPBE-G potential, the thermal-expansion coefficient is negative up to 4000 K. With a large box and an accurate potential, the critical exponent for the scaling properties associated with the normal-normal and height-height correlation functions was confirmed to be 0.85. This exponent remains constant up to 4000 K suggesting graphene to be in the deeply cooled regime even close to the experimental melting temperature. The reduced peak heights in the radial distribution function of graphene show an inverse power law dependence to distance, which indicates that a macroscopic graphene sheet will lose long-range crystalline order as predicted by the Mermin-Wagner instability. Although graphene loses long-range translational order, it retains long range orientational order as indicated by its orientational correlation function; graphene is thus partially ordered but not periodic.

  17. Why are the Tcs so high in rare-earth doped CaFe2As2 single crystals and ultrathin FeSe epi-films?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, C. W.

    2015-03-01

    Recent reports of non-bulk superconductivity with unexpectedly high onset-Tcs up to 49 K in the Pr-doped CaFe2As2 [(Ca,Pr)122] single crystals and up to 100 K in one-unit-cell (1UC) FeSe epi-films, respectively, offer an unusual opportunity to seek an answer to the question posed in the title. Through systematic compositional, structural, resistive, and magnetic investigations on (Ca,R)122 single crystals with R = La, Ce, Pr, and Nd, we have observed a doping-level-independent Tc, a large magnetic anisotropy, and the existence of mesoscopic-2D structures in these crystals, thus providing evidence consistent with the proposed interface-enhanced Tc in these naturally assembled Fe-based superconductors. Similar resistive and magnetic measurements were also made on the 1-4UC FeSe ultra thin epi-films. We have detected a Meissner state below 1 Oe with extensive weak-links up to ~ 20 K, unconnected small superconducting patches up to ~ 40 K, and an unusual dispersion of diamagnetic moment with frequency up to 80 K. The unusual frequency dependences of the diamagnetic moment observed in the films at different temperature ranges suggest that collective excitations of electron and/or spin nature may exist in the FeSe films below 20 K and 40-80 K. The experimental results will be presented and the implications discussed. Collaborators: Liangzi Deng, Bing Lv, Fengyan Wei, and Yu-Yi Xue, University of Houston; Li-Li Wang, Xu-Cun Ma, and Qi-Kun Xue, Tsinghua University, Beijing.

  18. Graphene: A partially ordered non-periodic solid

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Dongshan; Wang, Feng

    2014-10-14

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study the structural features of graphene over a wide range of temperatures from 50 to 4000 K using the PPBE-G potential [D. Wei, Y. Song, and F. Wang, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 184704 (2011)]. This potential was developed by force matching the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) exchange correlation functional and has been validated previously to provide accurate potential energy surface for graphene at temperatures as high as 3000 K. Simulations with the PPBE‑G potential are the best available approximation to a direct Car-Parrinello Molecular Dynamics study of graphene. One advantage of the PBE-G potential is to allow large simulation boxes to be modeled efficiently so that properties showing strong finite size effects can be studied. Our simulation box contains more than 600 000 C atoms and is one of the largest graphene boxes ever modeled. With the PPBE-G potential, the thermal-expansion coefficient is negative up to 4000 K. With a large box and an accurate potential, the critical exponent for the scaling properties associated with the normal-normal and height-height correlation functions was confirmed to be 0.85. This exponent remains constant up to 4000 K suggesting graphene to be in the deeply cooled regime even close to the experimental melting temperature. The reduced peak heights in the radial distribution function of graphene show an inverse power law dependence to distance, which indicates that a macroscopic graphene sheet will lose long-range crystalline order as predicted by the Mermin-Wagner instability. Although graphene loses long-range translational order, it retains long range orientational order as indicated by its orientational correlation function; graphene is thus partially ordered but not periodic.

  19. Graphene: a partially ordered non-periodic solid.

    PubMed

    Wei, Dongshan; Wang, Feng

    2014-10-14

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study the structural features of graphene over a wide range of temperatures from 50 to 4000 K using the PPBE-G potential [D. Wei, Y. Song, and F. Wang, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 184704 (2011)]. This potential was developed by force matching the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) exchange correlation functional and has been validated previously to provide accurate potential energy surface for graphene at temperatures as high as 3000 K. Simulations with the PPBE‑G potential are the best available approximation to a direct Car-Parrinello Molecular Dynamics study of graphene. One advantage of the PBE-G potential is to allow large simulation boxes to be modeled efficiently so that properties showing strong finite size effects can be studied. Our simulation box contains more than 600,000 C atoms and is one of the largest graphene boxes ever modeled. With the PPBE-G potential, the thermal-expansion coefficient is negative up to 4000 K. With a large box and an accurate potential, the critical exponent for the scaling properties associated with the normal-normal and height-height correlation functions was confirmed to be 0.85. This exponent remains constant up to 4000 K suggesting graphene to be in the deeply cooled regime even close to the experimental melting temperature. The reduced peak heights in the radial distribution function of graphene show an inverse power law dependence to distance, which indicates that a macroscopic graphene sheet will lose long-range crystalline order as predicted by the Mermin-Wagner instability. Although graphene loses long-range translational order, it retains long range orientational order as indicated by its orientational correlation function; graphene is thus partially ordered but not periodic.

  20. Human Defensin 5 Disulfide Array Mutants: Disulfide Bond Deletion Attenuates Antibacterial Activity Against Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Wanniarachchi, Yoshitha A.; Kaczmarek, Piotr; Wan, Andrea; Nolan, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Human α-defensin 5 (HD5, HD5ox to specify the oxidized and disulfide linked form) is a 32-residue cysteine-rich host-defense peptide, expressed and released by small intestinal Paneth cells, that exhibits antibacterial activity against a number of Gram-negative and –positive bacterial strains. To ascertain the contributions of its disulfide array to structure, antimicrobial activity, and proteolytic stability, a series of HD5 double mutant peptides where pairs of cysteine residues corresponding to native disulfide linkages (Cys3—Cys31, Cys5—Cys20, Cys10—Cys30) were mutated to Ser or Ala residues were overexpressed in E. coli, purified and characterized. A hexa mutant peptide, HD5[Serhexa], where all six native Cys residues are replaced by Ser residues was also evaluated. Removal of a single native S—S linkage influences oxidative folding and regioisomerization, antibacterial activity, Gram-negative bacterial membrane permeabilization, and proteolytic stability. Whereas the majority of the HD5 mutant peptides show low-micromolar activity against Gram-negative E. coli ATCC 25922 in colony counting assays, the wild-type disulfide array is essential for low-micromolar activity against Gram-positive S. aureus ATCC 25923. Removal of a single disulfide bond attenuates the activity observed for HD5ox against this Gram-positive bacterial strain. This observation supports the notion that the HD5ox mechanism of antibacterial action differs for Gram-negative and Gram-positive species (Wei, G.; de Leeuw, E., Pazgier, M., Yuan, W., Zou, G., Wang, J., Ericksen, B., Lu, W.-Y.; Lehrer, R. I.; Lu, W. (2009) J. Biol. Chem. 284, 29180-29192), and that the native disulfide array is a requirement for its activity against S. aureus. PMID:21861459

  1. Magnetic sifters and biochips for early diagnosis and therapy monitoring of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earhart, Chris

    2008-03-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles conjugated with biomolecules or recognition moieties are finding wide applications in medicine. In this context, we are developing a micromachined magnetic sifter and magnetic nanoparticles aimed for sample preparation applications in early diagnosis of cancer. The microfabricated sifter consisting of arrays of micron sized slits etched through a silicon wafer. A magnetic film is deposited on the wafer, producing high magnetic field gradients, comparable in magnitude to gradients in planar flow devices. As the solution flows through the die, magnetic particles are captured by the magnetic material surrounding the slits. The large number of slits allows for processing of large volumes of liquid, much greater than that of planar microfluidic devices. The sifters can be simply attached to a syringe or tube, resulting in a portable and user-friendly tool for molecular biology. Separation efficiencies of ˜ 50% for one pass through the sifter have been achieved. We have also designed and fabricated several types of magnetic biochips consisting of arrays of giant magnetoresistive (GMR) spin valve detectors with appropriate dimensions, surface chemistry, and microfluidics. An advanced electronic test station has been set up as a demonstration vehicle for the integrated evaluation of our magnetic biochips with commercial and custom magnetic nanoparticle labels for DNA or protein biomarkers. The magnetic biochip is capable of detecting down to 1-30 nanotags. Real-time detection of DNA signatures and protein targets in buffer and serum samples has been successfully performed in our laboratories, suggesting that magnetic biochips hold great promises for molecular diagnostics of cancer and other diseases. In collaboration with Chris M. Earhart, Wei Hu, Robert J. Wilson, Sebastian J. Osterfeld, Robert L. White, Nader Pourmand, and Shan X. Wang @ Stanford University. This work was supported by grants from NIH (1U54CA119367-01) and DARPA/Navy (N00014-02-1-0807).

  2. Graphene: a partially ordered non-periodic solid.

    PubMed

    Wei, Dongshan; Wang, Feng

    2014-10-14

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study the structural features of graphene over a wide range of temperatures from 50 to 4000 K using the PPBE-G potential [D. Wei, Y. Song, and F. Wang, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 184704 (2011)]. This potential was developed by force matching the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) exchange correlation functional and has been validated previously to provide accurate potential energy surface for graphene at temperatures as high as 3000 K. Simulations with the PPBE‑G potential are the best available approximation to a direct Car-Parrinello Molecular Dynamics study of graphene. One advantage of the PBE-G potential is to allow large simulation boxes to be modeled efficiently so that properties showing strong finite size effects can be studied. Our simulation box contains more than 600,000 C atoms and is one of the largest graphene boxes ever modeled. With the PPBE-G potential, the thermal-expansion coefficient is negative up to 4000 K. With a large box and an accurate potential, the critical exponent for the scaling properties associated with the normal-normal and height-height correlation functions was confirmed to be 0.85. This exponent remains constant up to 4000 K suggesting graphene to be in the deeply cooled regime even close to the experimental melting temperature. The reduced peak heights in the radial distribution function of graphene show an inverse power law dependence to distance, which indicates that a macroscopic graphene sheet will lose long-range crystalline order as predicted by the Mermin-Wagner instability. Although graphene loses long-range translational order, it retains long range orientational order as indicated by its orientational correlation function; graphene is thus partially ordered but not periodic. PMID:25318732

  3. First Radio Burst Imaging Observation From Mingantu Ultrawide Spectral Radioheliograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yihua; Chen, Linjie; Yu, Sijie; CSRH Team

    2015-08-01

    Radio imaging spectroscopy over wide range wavelength in dm/cm-bands will open new windows on solar flares and coronal mass ejections by tracing the radio emissions from accelerated electrons. The Chinese Spectral Radioheliograph (CSRH) with two arrays in 400MHz-2GHz /2-15GHz ranges with 64/532 frequency channels have been established in Mingantu Observing Station, Inner Mongolia of China, since 2013 and is in test observations now. CSRH is renamed as MUSER (Mingantu Ultrawide SpEctral Radioheliograph) after it's accomplishment We will introduce the progress and current status of CSRH. Some preliminary results of CSRH will be presented.On 11 Nov2014, the first burst event was registered by MUSER-I array at 400MHz-2GHz waveband. According to SGD event list there was a C-class flare peaked at 04:49UT in the disk center and the radio bursts around 04:22-04:24UT was attributed to this flare. However, MUSER-I image observation of the burst indicates that the radio burst peaked around 04:22UT was due to the eruption at the east limb of the Sun and connected to a CME appeared in that direction about 1 hour later. This demonstrate the importance of the spectroscopy observation of the solar radio burst.Acknowledgement: The CSRH team includes Wei Wang, Zhijun Chen, Fei Liu, Lihong Geng and Jian Zhang and CSRH project is supported by National Major Scientific Equipment R&D Project ZDYZ2009-3. The research was also supported by NSFC grants (11433006, 11221063), MOST grant (MOST2011CB811401), CAS Pilot-B Project (XDB09000000) and Marie Curie PIRSES- GA-295272-RADIOSUN.

  4. Medical problems requiring mountain rescues from 1985 to 2007 in Yu-Shan National Park, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shih-Hao; Hsu, Tai-Yi; Kuan, Jen-Tse; Chen, Jih-Chang; Kao, Wei-Fong; Chiu, Te-Fa; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Hang-Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Wang, Shih-Hao(1,2) Tai-Yi Hsu,(1,2) Jen-Tse Kuan,(1,2) Jih-Chang Chen,(1,2) Wei-Fong Kao,(3) Te-Fa Chiu,(1,2) Yu-Cheng Chen,(1,2) and Hang-Cheng Chen.(1,2) Medical problems requiring mountain rescues from 1985 to 2007 in Yu-Shan National Park, Taiwan. High Alt. Med Biol. 10:77-82, 2009.-Medical problems requiring mountain rescue in densely populated and low-latitude locations like Taiwan have rarely been studied or discussed. The purpose of this research was to examine mountain-rescue operations that occurred in Yu-Shan National Park Taiwan from 1985 to 2007. Of 186 mountain-rescue operations, 128 involved medical problems (illnesses or injuries). Of the medical problems, 62% involved trauma and 41% involved illness. Ninety-nine ground rescues, 14 helicopter rescues, 38 combination ground and helicopter rescues, and 20 rescues using unclear methods were conducted, and the remaining 15 rescue operations did not involve visitors. In the 186 rescue operations, 330 visitors were rescued, 240 of them survived, 66 were dead, and 24 had an unclear outcome. Factors that affected the type of injury or the probability of survival included the activity, altitude, composition of the visitor group, weather, and occurrence of natural disasters. Mountain-rescue operations in which both ground and helicopter rescue were utilized were more successful. Our retrospective findings indicate that wilderness emergency services should have the capability of performing rescues in rugged terrain and be flexible in their approach to any situation arising in mountainous regions; proper training of onboard helicopter medical personnel is also necessary. In conclusion, we recommend setting up a standard system for reporting mountain- rescue operations, with statistics compiled annually.

  5. Comment on "High-temperature soft magnetic properties of antiperovskite nitrides ZnNFe3 and AlNFe3" by Yankun Fu, Shuai Lin, and Bosen Wang, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 378 (2015) 54-58

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, T.; Leineweber, A.; Dronskowski, R.

    2016-10-01

    The authors of the aforementioned manuscript have recently claimed the synthesis of the ternary nitrides ZnNFe3 (=ZnFe3N) and AlNFe3 (=AlFe3N), ordered substituted variants of the binary phase γ'-Fe4N [1]. While soft ferromagnets of such kind are presently attracting lots of attention, their history dates back for more than half a century. In particular, Al-substituted γ'-Fe4N has already been mentioned in 1961 [2], and the existence of AlFe3N has also been claimed in 2009 [3] from a two-step ammonolysis reaction combining a high-temperature sintering step and a low-temperature nitriding reaction [4]. Nonetheless, one of us had to withdraw the latter claim after finding out, by means of scanning-electron microscopy and elemental mapping, that all samples of "AlFe3N" consisted of an intimate solid mixture of γ'-Fe4N and amorphous Al2O3[5]. From what follows, we have strong reasons to believe that the authors of Ref. [1] overlooked our findings [5] and also did not synthesize ZnFe3N and AlFe3N.

  6. How to analytically characterize the epidemic threshold within the coupled disease-behavior systems?. Comment on "Coupled disease-behavior dynamics on complex networks: A review" by Z. Wang et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Cheng-Yi; Ding, Shuai; Sun, Shi-Wen; Wang, Li; Gao, Zhong-Ke; Wang, Juan

    2015-12-01

    As is well known, outbreak of epidemics may drive the human population to take some necessary measures to protect themselves from not being infected by infective ones, these precautions in turn will also keep from the further spreading of infectious diseases among the population. Thus, to fully comprehend the epidemic spreading behavior within real-world systems, the interplay between disease dynamics and human behavioral and social dynamics needs to be considered simultaneously, such that some effective containment-measures can be successfully developed [1-3].

  7. How to identify the most effective control measures based on disease-behavior coupled mechanisms?. Comment on "Coupled disease-behavior dynamics on complex networks: A review" by Z. Wang et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Gui-Quan; Jin, Zhen

    2015-12-01

    Modelling infectious diseases on complex networks is a significant tool to understand the transmission of epidemics in human society, and consequently it has commanded increasing attention in the community of mathematicians, physicists, epidemiologists, public health policy-makers and so on [1-4]. Human behavior responses are associated with the emergence of infectious disease, for instance, wearing masks [5], staying away from a thick crowd [6], cutting contacts with infected individuals [7] and receiving a vaccination [8]. However, infectious diseases and human behavior were often modeled as independent systems in the literature, despite the fact that in the real world they are often mutually influential on each other, and hence their coupling exerts significant impacts on disease spread [9,10].

  8. Virus-mediated chemical changes in rice plants impact the relationship between non-vector planthopper Nilaparvata lugens Stål and its egg parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae Pang et Wang.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaochan; Xu, Hongxing; Gao, Guanchun; Zhou, Xiaojun; Zheng, Xusong; Sun, Yujian; Yang, Yajun; Tian, Junce; Lu, Zhongxian

    2014-01-01

    In order to clarify the impacts of southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) infection on rice plants, rice planthoppers and natural enemies, differences in nutrients and volatile secondary metabolites between infected and healthy rice plants were examined. Furthermore, the impacts of virus-mediated changes in plants on the population growth of non-vector brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, and the selectivity and parasitic capability of planthopper egg parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae were studied. The results showed that rice plants had no significant changes in amino acid and soluble sugar contents after SRBSDV infection, and SRBSDV-infected plants had no significant effect on population growth of non-vector BPH. A. nilaparvatae preferred BPH eggs both in infected and healthy rice plants, and tended to parasitize eggs on infected plants, but it had no significant preference for infected plants or healthy plants. GC-MS analysis showed that tridecylic aldehyde occurred only in rice plants infected with SRBSDV, whereas octanal, undecane, methyl salicylate and hexadecane occurred only in healthy rice plants. However, in tests of behavioral responses to these five volatile substances using a Y-tube olfactometer, A. nilaparvatae did not show obvious selectivity between single volatile substances at different concentrations and liquid paraffin in the control group. The parasitic capability of A. nilaparvatae did not differ between SRBSDV-infected plants and healthy plant seedlings. The results suggested that SRBSDV-infected plants have no significant impacts on the non-vector planthopper and its egg parasitoid, A. nilaparvatae. PMID:25141278

  9. Is the universal scaling for the dilemma strength still available in populations with heterogeneous connectivity or activities?. Comment on "Universal scaling for the dilemma strength in evolutionary games" by Z. Wang et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Cheng-Yi; Wang, Lin

    2015-09-01

    The emergence and maintenance of cooperative behavior are widely observed in various realistic systems, such as cellular organisms, vertebrates, and human society [1]. Understanding the ubiquity of cooperation is a challenging problem, attracting great interest from diverse communities. The development of evolutionary game theory contributes to valuable tools for studying the origin of cooperative behavior and solving related social dilemmas [2]. Five key reciprocal mechanisms to promote the cooperation, including direct reciprocity, indirect reciprocity, network reciprocity, group selection, and kin selection, have been identified [3], inspiring much effort in exploring the effects of game dynamics and population's connectivity structure on the patterns of cooperation. Most of current works generate conclusions by focusing on specific game models or mechanisms, which imply the probable existence of some effective and universal laws.

  10. Virus-Mediated Chemical Changes in Rice Plants Impact the Relationship between Non-Vector Planthopper Nilaparvata lugens Stål and Its Egg Parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae Pang et Wang

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Guanchun; Zhou, Xiaojun; Zheng, Xusong; Sun, Yujian; Yang, Yajun; Tian, Junce; Lu, Zhongxian

    2014-01-01

    In order to clarify the impacts of southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) infection on rice plants, rice planthoppers and natural enemies, differences in nutrients and volatile secondary metabolites between infected and healthy rice plants were examined. Furthermore, the impacts of virus-mediated changes in plants on the population growth of non-vector brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, and the selectivity and parasitic capability of planthopper egg parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae were studied. The results showed that rice plants had no significant changes in amino acid and soluble sugar contents after SRBSDV infection, and SRBSDV-infected plants had no significant effect on population growth of non-vector BPH. A. nilaparvatae preferred BPH eggs both in infected and healthy rice plants, and tended to parasitize eggs on infected plants, but it had no significant preference for infected plants or healthy plants. GC-MS analysis showed that tridecylic aldehyde occurred only in rice plants infected with SRBSDV, whereas octanal, undecane, methyl salicylate and hexadecane occurred only in healthy rice plants. However, in tests of behavioral responses to these five volatile substances using a Y-tube olfactometer, A. nilaparvatae did not show obvious selectivity between single volatile substances at different concentrations and liquid paraffin in the control group. The parasitic capability of A. nilaparvatae did not differ between SRBSDV-infected plants and healthy plant seedlings. The results suggested that SRBSDV-infected plants have no significant impacts on the non-vector planthopper and its egg parasitoid, A. nilaparvatae. PMID:25141278

  11. Whole Genome DNA Methylation Analysis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea: IL1R2, NPR2, AR, SP140 Methylation and Clinical Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yung-Che; Chen, Ting-Wen; Su, Mao-Chang; Chen, Chung-Jen; Chen, Kuang-Den; Liou, Chia-Wei; Tang, Petrus; Wang, Ting-Ya; Chang, Jen-Chieh; Wang, Chin-Chou; Lin, Hsin-Ching; Chin, Chien-Hung; Huang, Kuo-Tung; Lin, Meng-Chih; Hsiao, Chang-Chun

    2016-01-01

    commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 723. Citation: Chen YC, Chen TW, Su MC, Chen CJ, Chen KD, Liou CW, Tang P, Wang TY, Chang JC, Wang CC, Lin HC, Chin CH, Huang KT, Lin MC, Hsiao CC. Whole genome DNA methylation analysis of obstructive sleep apnea: IL1R2, NPR2, AR, SP140 methylation and clinical phenotype. SLEEP 2016;39(4):743–755. PMID:26888452

  12. Bound states for an induced electric dipole in the presence of an azimuthal magnetic field and a disclination

    SciTech Connect

    Bakke, K.

    2010-09-15

    Based on the Wei-Han-Wei setup [H. Wei, R. Han, and X. Wei, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2071 (1995)], where a neutral particle with an induced electric dipole moment interacts with a configuration of crossed electric and magnetic fields, in this paper we study the bound states that arise when we change the Wei-Han-Wei field configuration and consider a field configuration of crossed azimuthal magnetic field and a radial electric field. Moreover, we consider here a spin-half neutral particle and the presence of a linear topological defect called disclination. We obtain the bound states in two distinct cases: in the first case, we consider that the wave function of the neutral particle is well-behaved at the origin and vanishes at the asymptotic limit; in the second case, we consider the neutral particle confined to a parabolic potential like a quantum dot.

  13. Cloning of three novel neuronal Cdk5 activator binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Ching, Y P; Qi, Z; Wang, J H

    2000-01-25

    Neuronal Cdc2-like kinase (Nclk) is involved in the regulation of neuronal differentiation and neuro-cytoskeleton dynamics. The active kinase consists of a catalytic subunit, Cdk5, and a 25 kDa activator protein (p25nck5a) derived from a 35 kDa neuronal-specific protein (p35nck5a). As an extension of our previous study (Qi, Z., Tang, D., Zhu, X., Fujita, D.J., Wang, J.H., 1998. Association of neurofilament proteins with neuronal Cdk5 activator. J. Biol. Chem. 270, 2329-2335), which showed that neurofilament is one of the p35nck5a-associated proteins, we now report the isolation of three other novel p35nck5a-associated proteins using the yeast two-hybrid screen. The full-length forms of these three novel proteins, designated C42, C48 and C53, have a molecular mass of 66, 24, and 57 kDa, respectively. Northern analysis indicates that these novel proteins are widely expressed in human tissues, including the heart, brain, skeletal muscle, placenta, lung, liver, kidney and pancreas. The bacterially expressed glutathione S-transferase (GST)-fusion forms of these three proteins were able to co-precipitate p35nck5a complexed with Cdk5 from insect cell lysate. Among these three proteins, only C48 and C53 can be phosphorylated by Nclk, suggesting that they may be the substrates of Nclk. Sequence homology searches have suggested that the C48 protein is marginally related to restin protein, whereas the C42 protein has homologues of unknown function in Caenorhabditis elegans and Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:10721722

  14. The prostamide-related glaucoma therapy, bimatoprost, offers a novel approach for treating scalp alopecias

    PubMed Central

    Khidhir, Karzan G.; Woodward, David F.; Farjo, Nilofer P.; Farjo, Bessam K.; Tang, Elaine S.; Wang, Jenny W.; Picksley, Steven M.; Randall, Valerie A.

    2013-01-01

    Balding causes widespread psychological distress but is poorly controlled. The commonest treatment, minoxidil, was originally an antihypertensive drug that promoted unwanted hair. We hypothesized that another serendipitous discovery, increased eyelash growth side-effects of prostamide F2α-related eyedrops for glaucoma, may be relevant for scalp alopecias. Eyelash hairs and follicles are highly specialized and remain unaffected by androgens that inhibit scalp follicles and stimulate many others. Therefore, we investigated whether non-eyelash follicles could respond to bimatoprost, a prostamide F2α analog recently licensed for eyelash hypotrichosis. Bimatoprost, at pharmacologically selective concentrations, increased hair synthesis in scalp follicle organ culture and advanced mouse pelage hair regrowth in vivo compared to vehicle alone. A prostamide receptor antagonist blocked isolated follicle growth, confirming a direct, receptor-mediated mechanism within follicles; RT-PCR analysis identified 3 relevant receptor genes in scalp follicles in vivo. Receptors were located in the key follicle regulator, the dermal papilla, by analyzing individual follicular structures and immunohistochemistry. Thus, bimatoprost stimulates human scalp follicles in culture and rodent pelage follicles in vivo, mirroring eyelash behavior, and scalp follicles contain bimatoprost-sensitive prostamide receptors in vivo. This highlights a new follicular signaling system and confirms that bimatoprost offers a novel, low-risk therapeutic approach for scalp alopecias.—Khidhir, K. G., Woodward, D. F., Farjo, N. P., Farjo, B. K., Tang, E. S., Wang, J. W., Picksley, S. M., and Randall, V. A. The prostamide-related glaucoma therapy, bimatoprost, offers a novel approach for treating scalp alopecias. PMID:23104985

  15. Alleviative Effects of a Kampo (a Japanese Herbal) Medicine “Maoto (Ma-Huang-Tang)” on the Early Phase of Influenza Virus Infection and Its Possible Mode of Action

    PubMed Central

    Kataoka, Erika; Aoki, Yuka; Hokari, Rei

    2014-01-01

    A Kampo medicine, maoto, has been prescribed in an early phase of influenza-like illness and used for a treatment of influenza clinically in Japan these days. However, the efficacy of maoto against the virus infection remains to be elucidated. This study was conducted to evaluate the alleviative effects of maoto against early phase of influenza virus infection and its preliminary mode of actions through immune systems. When maoto (0.9 and 1.6 g/kg/day) was orally administered to A/J mice on upper respiratory tract infection of influenza virus A/PR/8/34 from 4 hours to 52 hours postinfection (p.i.) significant antipyretic effect was shown in comparison with water-treated control. Administration of maoto (0.8 and 1.3 g/kg/day) significantly decreased the virus titers in both nasal (NLF) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) at 52 hours p.i., and significantly increased the anti-influenza virus IgM, IgA, and IgG1 antibody titers in NLF, BALF, and serum, respectively. Maoto also increased significantly the influenza virus-bound IgG1 and IgM antibody titers in serum and the virus-bound IgM antibody titer in even the BALF of uninfected A/J mice. These results indicate that maoto exerts antipyretic activity in influenza virus-infected mice and virus reducing effect at an early phase of the infection through probably augmentation of the virus-bound natural antibodies. PMID:24778699

  16. Automatic locking orthotic knee device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce C. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An articulated tang in clevis joint for incorporation in newly manufactured conventional strap-on orthotic knee devices or for replacing such joints in conventional strap-on orthotic knee devices is discussed. The instant tang in clevis joint allows the user the freedom to extend and bend the knee normally when no load (weight) is applied to the knee and to automatically lock the knee when the user transfers weight to the knee, thus preventing a damaged knee from bending uncontrollably when weight is applied to the knee. The tang in clevis joint of the present invention includes first and second clevis plates, a tang assembly and a spacer plate secured between the clevis plates. Each clevis plate includes a bevelled serrated upper section. A bevelled shoe is secured to the tank in close proximity to the bevelled serrated upper section of the clevis plates. A coiled spring mounted within an oblong bore of the tang normally urges the shoes secured to the tang out of engagement with the serrated upper section of each clevic plate to allow rotation of the tang relative to the clevis plate. When weight is applied to the joint, the load compresses the coiled spring, the serrations on each clevis plate dig into the bevelled shoes secured to the tang to prevent relative movement between the tang and clevis plates. A shoulder is provided on the tang and the spacer plate to prevent overextension of the joint.

  17. 77 FR 28880 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Applicants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ..., Inglewood, CA 90301, Officers: Edison Chen, Manager (Qualifying Individual), Wei-Nung (Janus) Lin, Member... A. Case, Vice President (Qualifying Individual), Thomas C. Case, President, Application Type:...

  18. 78 FR 58318 - Submission for OMB Review; 30-day Comment Request: The Framingham Heart Study (FHS)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... studying the determinants of cardiovascular disease. Morbidity and mortality follow-up will continue to... data collection plans and instruments, contact Dr. Gina Wei, Division of Cardiovascular Sciences,...

  19. Research Projects, Technical Reports and Publications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliger, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    The Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (RIACS) was established by the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) at the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) on June 6, 1983. RIACS is privately operated by USRA, a consortium of universities with research programs in the aerospace sciences, under contract with NASA. The primary mission of RIACS is to provide research and expertise in computer science and scientific computing to support the scientific missions of NASA ARC. The research carried out at RIACS must change its emphasis from year to year in response to NASA ARC's changing needs and technological opportunities. A flexible scientific staff is provided through a university faculty visitor program, a post doctoral program, and a student visitor program. Not only does this provide appropriate expertise but it also introduces scientists outside of NASA to NASA problems. A small group of core RIACS staff provides continuity and interacts with an ARC technical monitor and scientific advisory group to determine the RIACS mission. RIACS activities are reviewed and monitored by a USRA advisory council and ARC technical monitor. Research at RIACS is currently being done in the following areas: Advanced Methods for Scientific Computing High Performance Networks During this report pefiod Professor Antony Jameson of Princeton University, Professor Wei-Pai Tang of the University of Waterloo, Professor Marsha Berger of New York University, Professor Tony Chan of UCLA, Associate Professor David Zingg of University of Toronto, Canada and Assistant Professor Andrew Sohn of New Jersey Institute of Technology have been visiting RIACS. January 1, 1996 through September 30, 1996 RIACS had three staff scientists, four visiting scientists, one post-doctoral scientist, three consultants, two research associates and one research assistant. RIACS held a joint workshop with Code 1 29-30 July 1996. The workshop was held to discuss needs and opportunities in basic research in

  20. Space shuttle solid rocket motor Profile Measuring Device (PMD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redmon, John

    1988-01-01

    The SRM PMD is an electromechanical tool used for measuring and recording the profile and diameters of the solid rocket motor segments, both Tang and Clevis ends. This system consists of a crossbeam assembly that mounts to the SRM segment using the existing assembly pin holes. The mounting configuration is such that the tool can be used to measure Clevis up/Tang down or Clevis up/Tang down. The testing and calibration of the PMD is described.

  1. Spent Nuclear Fuel Transport Reliability Study

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong; Jiang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    This conference paper was orignated and shorten from the following publisehd PTS documents: 1. Jy-An Wang, Hao Jiang, and Hong Wang, Dynamic Deformation Simulation of Spent Nuclear Fuel Assembly and CIRFT Deformation Sensor Stability Investigation, ORNL/SPR-2015/662, November 2015. 2. Jy-An Wang, Hong Wang, Mechanical Fatigue Testing of High-Burnup Fuel for Transportation Applications, NUREG/CR-7198, ORNL/TM-2014/214, May 2015. 3. Jy-An Wang, Hong Wang, Hao Jiang, Yong Yan, Bruce Bevard, Spent Nuclear Fuel Vibration Integrity Study 16332, WM2016 Conference, March 6 10, 2016, Phoenix, Arizona.

  2. New species of cynipid inquilines of the genus Saphonecrus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Synergini) from the Eastern Palaearctic, with a re-appraisal of known species world-wide.

    PubMed

    Schwéger, Szabina; Melika, George; Tang, Chang-Ti; Yang, Man-Miao; Stone, Graham N; Nicholls, James A; Sinclair, Frazer; Hearn, Jack; Bozsó, Miklós; Pénzes, Zsolt

    2015-12-08

    Fifteen new species of cynipid inquilines, Saphonecrus chinensis Tang & Schwéger, S. gilvus Melika & Schwéger, S. globosus Schwéger & Tang, S. leleyi Melika & Schwéger, S. lithocarpii Schwéger & Melika, S. longinuxi Schwéger & Melika, S. morii Schwéger & Tang, S. nantoui Tang, Schwéger & Melika, S. nichollsi Schwéger & Melika, S. pachylomai Schwéger, Tang & Melika, S. robustus Schwéger & Melika, S. saliciniai Melika, Tang & Schwéger, S. shanzhukui Melika & Tang, S. symbioticus Melika & Schwéger, and S. taitungi Schwéger, Tang & Melika, from the Eastern Palaearctic are described. Descriptions, diagnoses, biology, and host associations for the new species, and a key to Palaearctic Saphonecrus species are given. All new taxa form distinct units as demonstrated by the molecular phylogenetic analyses of Palaearctic Saphonecrus species. The status of some earlier described Saphonecrus species is discussed also. The Synergini genus Lithonecrus Nieves-Aldrey & Butterill, 2014 is synonymized with Lithosaphonecrus Tang, Melika & Bozsó, 2013. Three Saphonecrus species are transferred to Synergus: Synergus brevis (Weld) comb. nova, Synergus hupingshanensis (Liu, Yang & Zhu) comb. nova, and Synergus yukawai (Wachi, Ide & Abe) comb. nova. Synophrus vietnamensis Abe, Ide, Konishi & Ueno is transferred to Lithosaphonecrus: Lithosaphonecrus vietnamensis Abe, Ide, Konishi & Ueno), comb. nova. The current number of valid Saphonecrus species worldwide is 36.

  3. Pumpspeicherbecken im Karstgrundwasserleiter des Weißen Jura der Schwäbischen Alb. Erste Ergebnisse aus der geologischen und hydrogeologischen Erkundung für die Planfeststellung Pumped-storage hydroelectric power plant in the Jurassic karst aquifer of the swabian alb, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neukum, Christoph; Köhler, Hans Joachim; Fernandez-Steeger, Tomas; Hennings, Sibylle; Azzam, Rafig

    2014-06-01

    Extensive geological and hydrogeological investigations have been undertaken for the planned pumped-storage hydroelectric power plant in "Blautal" (Swabian Alb, Germany) in order to characterise the Jurassic karst aquifer in which the lower reservoir will be constructed. The preferred option for the plant setup is to integrate the lower reservoir into the groundwater without sealing. Therefore, in order to reliably predict the impact of the pumped storage plant operations on the surrounding drinking water wells and groundwater dependent ecosystems, a comprehensive database has been developed to assess the hydraulic conditions of the karst aquifer. A large scale geological site investigation was carried out to characterise the rock mass and extensive hydraulic tests were performed in many boreholes. The results of the hydraulic characterisation were then implemented in a three dimensional flow model. In this paper, the first results of the geological and hydrogeological investigations are presented and discussed.

  4. A Comment on Class Productions in Elite Secondary Schools in Twenty-First-Century Global Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Lois

    2014-01-01

    In this closing essay, Lois Weis offers a broad overview of the contributions of this Special Issue on class production in elite secondary schools in the twenty-first-century global context. Drawing upon her own research within US privileged secondary schools, Weis explores the contemporary social, economic and political landscape as connected to…

  5. Developing an Understanding of the Nature of Accessibility and Usability Problems Blind Students Face in Web-Enhanced Instruction Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babu, Rakesh

    2011-01-01

    The central premise of this research is that blind and visually impaired (BVI) people cannot use the Internet effectively due to accessibility and usability problems. Use of the Internet is indispensable in today's education system that relies on Web-enhanced instruction (WEI). Therefore, BVI students cannot participate effectively in WEI. Extant…

  6. Two new species of Fiorinia Targioni-Tozzetti (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Diaspididae) from China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jiufeng; Zhang, Bin; Feng, Jinian

    2013-01-01

    The adult females of two new species of armored scale, Fiorinia tianshuiensis Wei & Feng sp. n. and F. dinghuensis Wei & Feng sp. n., are described and illustrated from specimens collected from China. A key is provided for the all Fiorilim species known from China.

  7. Teachers for Tomorrow's Schools: Analysis of the World Education Indicators. 2001 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Montreal (Quebec). Inst. for Statistics.

    This book is the second in a series that analyzes the education indicators developed through the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)/UNESCO World Education Indicators (WEI) program. It brings together data from countries participating in the WEI program with comparable data from OECD countries. Its main objective is to…

  8. Measuring Student Perceptions of Blackboard Using the Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landry, Brett J. L.; Griffeth, Rodger; Hartman, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Web Enhanced Instruction (WEI) is not intended to replace the traditional classroom setting, but rather to supplement the traditional lecture with course content that can be accessed from campus or the Internet. WEI has the potential to extend the boundaries of traditional classrooms by providing new opportunities for communication and interaction…

  9. Two new species of the genus Podalonia Fernald from China and a key to the Chinese species of the genus (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Hong; Li, Qiang; Ma, Li

    2016-01-01

    Two new species are described: Podalonia arcuaticlypeata Wang & Ma, sp. nov. from Xinjiang, China and Podalonia bicellularis Wang & Ma, sp. nov. from Qinghai, China. A key to the species of Podalonia from China is provided.

  10. Genetics Home Reference: Schindler disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... or Free article on PubMed Central Desnick RJ, Wang AM. Schindler disease: an inherited neuroaxonal dystrophy due ... Kanzaki T, Yokota M, Irie F, Hirabayashi Y, Wang AM, Desnick RJ. Angiokeratoma corporis diffusum with glycopeptiduria ...

  11. Two new species of the genus Podalonia Fernald from China and a key to the Chinese species of the genus (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Hong; Li, Qiang; Ma, Li

    2016-01-01

    Two new species are described: Podalonia arcuaticlypeata Wang & Ma, sp. nov. from Xinjiang, China and Podalonia bicellularis Wang & Ma, sp. nov. from Qinghai, China. A key to the species of Podalonia from China is provided. PMID:27615896

  12. Multifractal analysis of 2D gray soil images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Torres, Ivan; Losada, Juan Carlos; Heck, Richard; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2015-04-01

    Soil structure, understood as the spatial arrangement of soil pores, is one of the key factors in soil modelling processes. Geometric properties of individual and interpretation of the morphological parameters of pores can be estimated from thin sections or 3D Computed Tomography images (Tarquis et al., 2003), but there is no satisfactory method to binarized these images and quantify the complexity of their spatial arrangement (Tarquis et al., 2008, Tarquis et al., 2009; Baveye et al., 2010). The objective of this work was to apply a multifractal technique, their singularities (α) and f(α) spectra, to quantify it without applying any threshold (Gónzalez-Torres, 2014). Intact soil samples were collected from four horizons of an Argisol, formed on the Tertiary Barreiras group of formations in Pernambuco state, Brazil (Itapirema Experimental Station). The natural vegetation of the region is tropical, coastal rainforest. From each horizon, showing different porosities and spatial arrangements, three adjacent samples were taken having a set of twelve samples. The intact soil samples were imaged using an EVS (now GE Medical. London, Canada) MS-8 MicroCT scanner with 45 μm pixel-1 resolution (256x256 pixels). Though some samples required paring to fit the 64 mm diameter imaging tubes, field orientation was maintained. References Baveye, P.C., M. Laba, W. Otten, L. Bouckaert, P. Dello, R.R. Goswami, D. Grinev, A. Houston, Yaoping Hu, Jianli Liu, S. Mooney, R. Pajor, S. Sleutel, A. Tarquis, Wei Wang, Qiao Wei, Mehmet Sezgin. Observer-dependent variability of the thresholding step in the quantitative analysis of soil images and X-ray microtomography data. Geoderma, 157, 51-63, 2010. González-Torres, Iván. Theory and application of multifractal analysis methods in images for the study of soil structure. Master thesis, UPM, 2014. Tarquis, A.M., R.J. Heck, J.B. Grau; J. Fabregat, M.E. Sanchez and J.M. Antón. Influence of Thresholding in Mass and Entropy Dimension of 3-D

  13. Organic photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna; Krebs, Frederik C.; Chen, Hongzheng

    2013-12-01

    X, Jin Z, Li K, Wang S, Wang H and Ma W 2013 Low-temperature, solution-processed alumina for organic solar cells Nanotechnology 24 484010 [12] Chen F, Chen Q, Mao L, Wang Y, Huang X, Lu W, Wang B and Chen L 2013 Tuning ITO work function with solution-processed alkali carbonate interfacial layers for high-efficiency inverted organic photovoltaic cells Nanotechnology 24 484011 [13] Wu Z, Song T, Xia Z, Wei H and Sun B 2013 Enhanced performance of polymer solar cell with ZnO nanoparticle electron transporting layer passivated by in situ cross-linked three-dimensional polymer network Nanotechnology 24 484012 [14] Urbina A, Park J-S, Lee J-M, Kim S-O and Kim J-S 2013 Work function engineering of ZnO electrodes by using p-type and n-type doped carbon nanotubes Nanotechnology 24 484013 [15] van de Wiel H J et al 2013 R2R embedded conductive structures integrated into OPV devices Nanotechnology 24 484014

  14. A brief history of recognition of the Kuroshio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Hideo

    1998-10-01

    Since ancient times the Japanese and Asians have encountered the Kuroshio. For instance, records of long-distance driftings that must have been greatly influenced by the Kuroshio are found in official chronicles of Japan from before 833 and a biography of Ganjin, the Chinese Buddhist who arrived in Japan on a religious mission in 754 across the Kuroshio. In the seventh and eighth centuries, some of the ships of Japanese envoys to China during the Tang Dynasty crossed the Kuroshio in the East China Sea, despite frequent incidents of ship wrecks. In the Momoyama and early Edo periods (1592-1635) Japanese ships with the shogunate license for foreign trade crossed the Kuroshio east of Taiwan bound for Luzon. During those periods, however, no mention of the Kuroshio has been found, except for that of S. Vizcaı´no, the Spanish navigator who reported a segment of strong current east of the Boso Peninsula in 1614. After the National Isolation Policy was enforced in 1635, the building of large ships and navigation in waters beyond where the coast was visible were prohibited in Japan, and hence it seems unlikely that many early books from this period will mention the Kuroshio. However, by searching and deciphering early books, the author has found many important notes, descriptions and illustrations referring to the Kuroshio in maps and books from the Edo period (1603-1867). Terms “Luo-Ji” and “Wei-Lü”, Chinese equivalents of “Kuroshio”, were searched for in Chinese classics and were examined. The term “Luo-Ji” (Rakusai in Japanese) was cited by some Japanese books written in the Edo period referring to the Kuroshio in the East China Sea. Meanwhile, the term “Wei-Lü” (Biryo in Japanese) was considered to be too mythical to be used in Japan as indicating the Kuroshio, although Needham (1971) inferred that the “Wei-Lü” had been used since ancient times as the Chinese equivalent of “Kuroshio”. To clarify the evolution of types of image of the

  15. PREFACE: XXVIII International Conference on Photonic, Electronic and Atomic Collisions (ICPEAC 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Guoqing; Cai, Xiaohong; Ding, Dajun; Ma, Xinwen; Zhao, Yongtao

    2014-04-01

    express its great appreciation to National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP), IMP, and IMP-YIPA for financial support, to Fangfang Ruan, Qiang Liang, Dacheng Zhang, Shukai Tian, Yuyu Wang, Wenping Zhu, Wei Liang, Mingwu Zhang, Haibo Yuan, Shan Sha, Jieru Ren, Jie Yang and Zhenhai Chen for their contributions to the organization, and to the volunteer group from Lanzhou University, the High School Attached Northwest Normal University and IMP for their excellent volunteer work. The Local Organizing Committee would like to thank all of the participants and the authors of the proceedings for their supports and contributions to the conference. Guoqing Xiao Director of Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences

  16. Temporal Trends of Secondhand Smoke Exposure: Nonsmoking Workers in the United States (NHANES 2001–2010)

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Binnian; Bernert, John T.; Blount, Benjamin C.; Sosnoff, Connie S.; Wang, Lanqing; Richter, Patricia; Pirkle, James L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The workplace is one of the major locations outside of the home for nonsmokers’ exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). New policies in many U.S. states and localities restrict or prohibit smoking in the workplace, and information on current trends in the exposure of nonsmokers to SHS across various occupational groups is therefore needed. Objective: We evaluated temporal trends in SHS exposure among nonsmoking workers in the United States and identified those occupations with workers with the highest levels of SHS exposure. Methods: We combined serum cotinine (sCOT) measurements and questionnaire data from five survey cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES: 2001–2010). Trends in SHS exposure by occupations were determined from percent changes and least-squares geometric means (LSGMs) of sCOT concentrations computed using sample-weighted multiple regression models. Results: Between NHANES 2001–2002 and NHANES 2009–2010, LSGMs of sCOT levels had changed –25% (95% CI: –39, –7%) in nonsmoking workers. The largest decrease was identified among food preparation workers [–54% (95% CI: –74, –19%)], followed by white-collar [–40%, (95% CI: –56, –19%)] and blue-collar workers (–32%, 95% CI: –51, –5%). LSGMs of sCOT remained highest in food preparation workers in all survey cycles, but the gap between occupations narrowed in the latest survey cycle (2009–2010). For example, the gap in LSGMs of sCOT between food preparation and science/education workers dropped > 70% during 2000 to 2010. Conclusions: During the period from 2001 to 2010, the overall SHS exposure in nonsmoking workers declined with substantial drops in food preparation/service and blue-collar workers. Although disparities persist in SHS exposure, the gaps among occupations have narrowed. Citation: Wei B, Bernert JT, Blount BC, Sosnoff CS, Wang L, Richter P, Pirkle JL. 2016. Temporal trends of secondhand smoke exposure: nonsmoking workers

  17. Top five medical innovations in China mainland since Xinhai revolution [1911]: results of AME survey-002

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Fan

    2015-01-01

    Objective This survey aims to scrutinize important medical innovations in Chinese mainland since Xinhai (Hsin-hai) revolution in 1911, which marked the end of Manchurian imperial rule and the beginning of China’s republican era. Methods An online cross-sectional survey was carried out during the period of Dec 29, 2014 to Feb 5, 2015, totaling 37 days. The survey was conducted on the platform provided by DXY (www.dxy.cn), which is the largest medical and paramedical related website in China. An email was sent to all DXY registered users to invite them to participate in a 5-minute survey. The participants were asked to nominate up to four important medical innovations in China mainland since Xinhai revolution. The participant could select ‘zero’ which means he/she felt there was no important medical innovations, or he/she did not know important medical innovations. It was noted that important medical innovations refer to (I) those with practical and almost immediate significance to improve healthcare; (II) should not only be introducing western technique to China, but those involve major improvement of existing western techniques count; (III) should not be those with important theoretical discovery but did not have almost immediate significance to improve healthcare. Results In total 1,513 DXY users participated in the voting. Totally 489 (32.3%), 441 (29.1%), 342 (22.6%), 150 (9.9%), 91 (6.0%) participants provided 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 nominations respectively. (I) Artemisine (Qinghaosu) for malaria treatment (Project 523 team, 1972); (II) arsenic Trioxide (As2O3) for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) treatment (ZHANG Ting-Dong and colleagues, 1970s); (III) limb re-plantation (CHEN Zhong-Wei and colleagues, 1963); (IV) all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) for APL treatment (WANG Zhen-Yi and colleagues, 1988); and (V) Wu’s mask for plague prevention (WU Lien-The, 1910), were voted as the top five innovations in China mainland since Xinhai revolution, with 375, 96, 91, 53

  18. Mingantu, 18th-Century Mongol Astronomer and Radioheliograph Namesake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.

    2013-01-01

    The 18th-century Mongol astronomer Mingantu (1692-1765) has been honored with a city named after him and a nearby solar telescope array. During the IAU/Beijing, my wife and I went to the new Chinese solar radioheliograph, the Mingantu Observing Station, in Inner Mongolia, ~400 km northwest of Beijing, a project of the National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. It currently contains 40 dishes each 4.5 m across, with a correlator from Beijing. Within a year, 60 2-m dishes will be added. We passed by the 12-century ruins of Xanadu (about 20 km north of Zhangbei) about halfway. The radioheliograph is in a plane about 1 km across, forming a three-armed spiral for interferometric solar mapping, something colleagues and I had carried out with the Jansky Very Large Array, taking advantage of the lunar occultation before annularity at the 20 May 2012 solar eclipse. In the central square of Mingantu city, a statue ~10-m high of the Mongol astronomer Mingantu appears. Its base bears a plaque ~1-m high of IAU Minor Planet Circular MPC 45750 announcing the naming in 2002 of asteroid 28242 Mingantu, discovered at a Chinese observatory in 1999. Mingantu carried out orbital calculations, mapping, mathematical work on infinite series, and other scientific research. He is honored by a modern museum behind the statue. The museum's first 40% describes Mingantu and his work, and is followed by some artifacts of the region from thousands of years ago. The final, large room contains a two-meter-square scale model of the radioheliograph, flat-screen televisions running Solar Dynamics Observatory and other contemporary visualizations, orreries and other objects, and large transparencies of NASA and other astronomical imagery. See my post at http://www.skyandtelescope.com/community/skyblog/newsblog/ specfically Astro-Sightseeing_in_Inner_Mongolia-167712965.html. We thank Yihua Yan for arranging the visit and Wang Wei (both NAOC) for accompanying us. My solar research

  19. Teacher agency in the performance of inquiry-oriented science curriculum reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.

    2012-09-01

    In this commentary, I consider several theoretical and analytical aspects of Tang Wee Teo and Margery Osborne's case study. I begin by identifying structuralist and cultural themes in Tang Wee and Margery's theoretical model of human activity. Next, I offer an alternative interpretation for Tang Wee and Margery's reported findings in terms of the notion of multiple teacher agencies. After that, I discuss the dramaturgical or theatrical nature of the symbolic interactionist model used by Tang Wee and Margery, focusing specifically on the issues of teacher role-taking and curriculum authorship. The paper then ends with a discussion about the significance of Tang Wee and Margery's study wherein I emphasize the need for science education researchers to give more careful consideration to teacher agency and the analytical value of theatrical metaphors from the field of social dramatism.

  20. Condensed Matter Nuclear Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Akito; Ota, Ken-Ichiro; Iwamura, Yashuhiro

    Preface -- 1. General. Progress in condensed matter nuclear science / A. Takahashi. Summary of ICCF-12 / X. Z. Li. Overview of light water/hydrogen-based low-energy nuclear reactions / G. H. Miley and P. J. Shrestha -- 2. Excess heat and He detection. Development of "DS-reactor" as the practical reactor of "cold fusion" based on the "DS-cell" with "DS-cathode" / Y. Arata and Y.-C. Zhang. Progress in excess of power experiments with electrochemical loading of deuterium in palladium / V. Violante ... [et al.]. Anomalous energy generation during conventional electrolysis / T. Mizuno and Y. Toriyabe. "Excess heat" induced by deuterium flux in palladium film / B. Liu ... [et al.]. Abnormal excess heat observed during Mizuno-type experiments / J.-F. Fauvarque, P. P. Clauzon and G. J.-M. Lallevé. Seebeck envelope calorimetry with a Pd|D[symbol]O + H[symbol]SO[symbol] electrolytic cell / W.-S. Zhang, J. Dash and Q. Wang. Observation and investigation of nuclear fusion and self-induced electric discharges in liquids / A. I. Koldamasov ... [et al.]. Description of a sensitive seebeck calorimeter used for cold fusion studies / E. Storms. Some recent results at ENEA / M. Apicella ... [et al.]. Heat measurement during plasma electrolysis / K. Iizumi ... [et al.]. Effect of an additive on thermal output during electrolysis of heavy water with a palladium cathode / Q. Wang and J. Dash. Thermal analysis of calorimetric systems / L. D'Aulerio ... [et al.]. Surface plasmons and low-energy nuclear reactions triggering / E. Castagna ... [et al.]. Production method for violent TCB jet plasma from cavity / F. Amini. New results and an ongoing excess heat controversy / L. Kowalski ... [et al.] -- 3. Transmutation. Observation of surface distribution of products by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry during D[symbol] gas permeation through Pd Complexes / Y. Iwamura ... [et al.]. Discharge experiment using Pd/CaO/Pd multi-layered cathode / S. Narita ... [et al.]. Producing transmutation

  1. Editorial: Focus on Laser- and Beam-Driven Plasma Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Chan; Malka, Victor

    2010-04-01

    , S Mangles, L O Silva, R Fonseca and P A Norreys Electro-optic shocks from blowout laser wakefields D F Gordon, A Ting, M H Helle, D Kaganovich and B Hafizi Onset of self-steepening of intense laser pulses in plasmas J Vieira, F Fiúza, L O Silva, M Tzoufras and W B Mori Analysis of laser wakefield dynamics in capillary tubes N E Andreev, K Cassou, F Wojda, G Genoud, M Burza, O Lundh, A Persson, B Cros, V E Fortov and C-G Wahlstrom Characterization of the beam loading effects in a laser plasma accelerator C Rechatin, J Faure, X Davoine, O Lundh, J Lim, A Ben-Ismaïl, F Burgy, A Tafzi, A Lifschitz, E Lefebvre and V Malka Energy gain scaling with plasma length and density in the plasma wakefield accelerator P Muggli, I Blumenfeld, C E Clayton, F J Decker, M J Hogan, C Huang, R Ischebeck, R H Iverson, C Joshi, T Katsouleas, N Kirby, W Lu, K A Marsh, W B Mori, E Oz, R H Siemann, D R Walz and M Zhou Generation of tens of GeV quasi-monoenergetic proton beams from a moving double layer formed by ultraintense lasers at intensity 1021-1023Wcm-2 Lu-Le Yu, Han Xu, Wei-Min Wang, Zheng-Ming Sheng, Bai-Fei Shen, Wei Yu and Jie Zhang Carbon ion acceleration from thin foil targets irradiated by ultrahigh-contrast, ultraintense laser pulses D C Carroll, O Tresca, R Prasad, L Romagnani, P S Foster, P Gallegos, S Ter-Avetisyan, J S Green, M J V Streeter, N Dover, C A J Palmer, C M Brenner, F H Cameron, K E Quinn, J Schreiber, A P L Robinson, T Baeva, M N Quinn, X H Yuan, Z Najmudin, M Zepf, D Neely, M Borghesi and P McKenna Numerical modelling of a 10-cm-long multi-GeV laser wakefield accelerator driven by a self-guided petawatt pulse S Y Kalmykov, S A Yi, A Beck, A F Lifschitz, X Davoine, E Lefebvre, A Pukhov, V Khudik, G Shvets, S A Reed, P Dong, X Wang, D Du, S Bedacht, R Zgadzaj, W Henderson, A Bernstein, G Dyer, M Martinez, E Gaul, T Ditmire and M C Downer Effects of laser prepulses on laser-induced proton generation D Batani, R Jafer, M Veltcheva, R Dezulian, O Lundh, F Lindau, A

  2. DDIA-30: a Versatile Megabar Mutli-anvil Device for in-situ High Pressure Studies with White and Monochromatic Synchrotron Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Jing, Z.; Hilairet, N.; Yu, T.; Nishiyama, N.; Tange, Y.; Sakamaki, T.; Rivers, M. L.; Sutton, S. R.

    2010-12-01

    diffraction is the preferred detection technique for this configuration. The new DDIA-30 adds a powerful tool for the large-volume high pressure community. References [1] Wang, Y., et al. (2003) Rev. Sci. Instrum., 74, 3002. [2] Tange, Y., et al. (2008) High Pressure Research, 28, 245. [3] Ito, E., et al. (2010) Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 293, 84. [4] Nishiyama, N., et al. (2008) High Pressure Research, 28, 307. [5] Kawazoe, T., et al. (2010) High Pressure Research, 30, 167.

  3. Sawflies of the genus Emphytopsis (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae) associated with Stewartia (Theaceae) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Akihiko; Saito, Takeshi; Ibuki, Shin-Ichi; Hara, Hideho

    2014-11-17

    Japanese species of the sawfly genus Emphytopsis Wei & Nie, 1998, are reviewed and the following four species are recognized and keyed: E. flatoserrula Wei, 2011, from Kyushu, E. nigromaculata (Takeuchi, 1952) from Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu, E. shinoharai Wei & Niu, 2011, from Honshu and Shikoku, and E. vernalis Shinohara, n. sp., from Honshu and Kyushu. Stewartia pseudocamellia Maxim. (Theaceae) is recorded as a host plant for E. nigromaculata and E. vernalis and the larvae of these two species are briefly described. The life history of these two species is discussed based on field observations and rearing records. 

  4. Mid-Holocene variability of the East Asian monsoon based on bulk organic δ13C and C/N records from the Pearl River estuary, southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, F.; Lloyd, J. M.; Zong, Y.; Leng, M. J.; Switzer, A. D.; Yim, W. W.; Huang, G.

    2010-12-01

    Understanding the mid-Holocene dynamics of the East Asian monsoon (EAM) is integral to modelling the Holocene development of the global climate system (Webster et al., 1998). Thus the mid-Holocene EAM history was reconstructed using bulk organic carbon isotopes (δ13C), total carbon to total nitrogen (C/N) ratios and total organic carbon (TOC) from a sediment core (UV1), at a mean resolution of 10 years, from the Pearl River estuary, southern China. Sedimentary δ13C, C/N and TOC from the Pearl River estuary is a good indicator of changes in monsoonal precipitation strength (Zong et al., 2006; Yang et al., 2010), eg sediments buried during a period of high precipitation exhibit a high proportion of terrigenous sediments, and have low δ13C and high C/N, and vice versa (Yu et al., 2010). Results suggest a general decreasing trend in monsoonal precipitation from 6650-2215 cal yr BP due to the weakening insolation over northern hemisphere most likely related to the current precession circle (An, 2000). Superimposed on this trend are apparent dry-wet oscillations at centennial to millennial timescales most likely in response to solar activity. Mismatch between δ13C and results from the Dongge Cave in southern China at millennial-timescale oscillations (Wang et al., 2005), may indicate that the δ13C from the Pearl River estuary reveals changes in precipitation in a broader area than the δ18O from Dongge Cave does. Reference An Z (2000) The history and variability of the East Asian paleomonsoon climate. Quaternary Science Reviews 19: 171-187. Wang Y, Cheng H, Edwards RL, He Y, Kong X, An Z, Wu J, Kelly MJ, Dykoski CA and Li X (2005) The Holocene Asian Monsoon: Links to Solar Changes and North Atlantic Climate. Science 308: 854-857. Webster PJ, Magaña VO, Palmer TN, Shukla J and Tomas RA (1998) Monsoons: Processes, predictability, and the prospects for prediction. Journal of Geophysical Research 103(C7): 14451-14510. Yang S, Tang M, Yim WWS, Zong Y, Huang G, Switzer

  5. Mid-Holocene variability of the East Asian monsoon based on bulk organic δ13C and C/N records from the Pearl River estuary, southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, F.; Zong, Y.; Lloyd, J. M.; Leng, M. J.; Switzer, A. D.; Yim, W. W.; Huang, G.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the mid-Holocene dynamics of the East Asian monsoon (EAM) is integral to modelling the Holocene development of the global climate system (Webster et al., 1998). Thus the mid-Holocene EAM history was reconstructed using bulk organic carbon isotopes (δ13C), total carbon to total nitrogen (C/N) ratios and total organic carbon (TOC) from a sediment core (UV1), at a mean resolution of 7-10 years, from the Pearl River estuary, southern China. Sedimentary δ13C, C/N and TOC from the Pearl River estuary is a good indicator of changes in monsoonal precipitation strength (Zong et al., 2006; Yang et al., 2010; Yu et al., 2010), eg sediments buried during a period of high precipitation exhibit a high proportion of terrigenous sediments, and have low δ13C and high C/N, and vice versa (Yu et al., 2010). Results suggest a general decreasing trend in monsoonal precipitation from 6650 to 2215 cal yr BP because of the weakening Northern Hemisphere insolation most likely related to the current precession circle (An, 2000). Superimposed on this trend are apparent dry-wet oscillations at centennial to millennial timescales most likely in response to solar activity. Mismatch between δ13C and results from the Dongge Cave in southern China at millennial-timescale oscillations (Wang et al., 2005), may indicate that the δ13C from the Pearl River estuary reveals changes in precipitation in a broader area than the δ18O from Dongge Cave does. Reference An Z (2000) The history and variability of the East Asian paleomonsoon climate. Quaternary Science Reviews 19: 171-187. Wang Y, Cheng H, Edwards RL, He Y, Kong X, An Z, Wu J, Kelly MJ, Dykoski CA and Li X (2005) The Holocene Asian Monsoon: Links to Solar Changes and North Atlantic Climate. Science 308: 854-857. Webster PJ, Magaña VO, Palmer TN, Shukla J and Tomas RA (1998) Monsoons: Processes, predictability, and the prospects for prediction. Journal of Geophysical Research 103(C7): 14451-14510. Yang S, Tang M, Yim WWS, Zong

  6. Committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-11-01

    Quebec IREQ, Varennes Canada Etienne PARKINSON Andritz Hydro Ltd. Switzerland B V S S S PRASAD Indian Institute of Technology Madras India Stefan RIEDELBAUCH Stuttgart University Germany Michel SABOURIN Alstom Hydro Canada Inc Canada Bruno SCHIAVELLO Flowserve Corporation USA Katsumasa SHIMMEI Hitachi Ltd Japan Christoph SINGRTüN VDMA Germany Ale? SKOTAK CKD Blansko Engineering, a s Czech Republic Toshiaki SUZUKI Toshiba Corporation Japan Andy C C TAN Queensland University of Technology Australia Geraldo TIAGO FILHO Universidade Federal de Itajuba Brazi Thi C VU Andritz Hydro Ltd Canada Satoshi WATANABE Kyushu University Japan S H WINOTO National University of Singapore Singapore Woo-Seong WOO STX Institute of Technology Korea International Technical Committee François AVELLAN (principal) EPFL-LMH Switzerland Xingqi LUO (principal) Xi'an University of Technology China Martin BÖHLE Kaiserslautern University Germany Gerard BOIS ENSAM France Young-Seok CHOI KITECH Korea Luca d'AGOSTINO University of Pisa Italy Eduard EGUSQUIZA Polytechnical University Catalonia Spain Arpad FAY University of Miskolcz Hungary Richard FISHER Voith Hydro Inc USA Regiane FORTES-PATELLA Institute Polytechnique de Grenoble France Aleksandar GAJIC University of Belgrade Serbia José GONZÁLEZ Universidad de Oviedo Spain François GUIBAULT Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal Canada Toshiaki IKOHAGI Tohoku University Japan Chisachi KATO University of Tokyo Japan Kwang-Yong KIM Inha University Korea Youn-Jea KIM Sungkyunkwan University Korea Smaine KOUIDRI Université Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris 6) France Shengcai LI Warwick University UK Adrian LUNGU Dunarea de Jos University of Galati Romania Torbjøm K NIELSEN NTNU Norway Michihiro NISHI Tsinghua University China Peter PELZ Darmstadt University Germany Frantisek POCHYLY Brno University Czech Republic Albert RUPRECHT University of Stuttgart Germany Rudolf SCHILLING Technische University München Germany Wei SHYY HKUST Hong Kong,China Romeo SUSAN

  7. PREFACE: XIV International Conference on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yifang

    2011-03-01

    H KAVATSYUK, MyroslavKVI, University of Groningen KHRAMOV, EvgenyJoint Institute for Nuclear Research KISTENEV, EdouardBrookhaven National Laboratory KUO, Chia MingNCU KWON, YoungilYonsei University LAKTINEH, ImadIPNL LECOQ, PaulCERN LI, ChengUniversity of Science and Technology of China LI, NingboNanJing Normal University & IHEP LI, WeidongIHEP LI, WeiguoIHEP LIU, ChunxiuIHEP LIU, LijiaoUniversity of Bergen, Norway LIVAN, MicheleDipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, University di Pavia , Italy LU, JunguangIHEP LUBRANO, PasqualeINFN Sezione di Perugia MACHIKHILIYAN, IrinaLAPP, Annecy, France MAVROMANOLAKIS, GeorgiosCERN MILLER, David WSLAC and Stanford University NECESAL, PetrInstitute of Physics AS CR, v.v.i. NEMECEK, StanislavFZU AVCR Praha NIESS, ValentinLPC, Clermont (CNRS/IN2P3) NOVOTNY, Rainer W2nd Physics Institute, University Giessen, Germany OBERLACK, HorstMPI für Physik, Munich PARA, AdamFermilab PARAMATTI, RiccardoINFN Rome & CERN PEPE, MonicaINFN Perugia POSPELOV, GennadyMax-Planck-Institut für Physik REPOND, JoseArgonne National Laboratory ROSSETTI, ValerioIFAE - Barcelona SCHACHT, PeterMPI/Munich SEFKOW, FelixDESY SFYRLA, AnnaCERN SGUAZZONI, GiacomoINFN Section of Florence SIMON, FrankMax-Planck-Institute for Physics SIMONYAN, MargarNiels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University SPADARO, TommasoLNF INFN SUN, XileiIHEP TAKESHITA, TohruShinshu University TANG, ZeboUniversity of Science and Technology of China TAPAN, IlhanUludag University THEOFILATOS, KonstantinosETH Zurich THOMSON, MarkUniversity of Cambridge TOKUNO, HisaoDepartment of Physics, Graduate School of Science and Engineering TRONCON, ClaraINFN UOZUMI SatoruKyungpook National University USAI, GiulioUniversity of Texas at Arlington VAZQUEZ GOMEZ, RicardoUniversitat de Barcelona VIDEAU, HenriLLR - Ecole polytechnique VOLOBOUEV, IgorTexas Tech University WAN, RenzhuoIOPP-CCNU, Wuhan, China & IPHC-CNRS, Strasbourg, France WANG, ZhengIHEP WANG, ZhigangIHEP WENZEL, HansFermilab WIGMANS, RichardTexas Tech

  8. Extreme soil erosion rates in citrus slope plantations and control strategies. A literature review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Ángel González Peñaloza, Félix; Pereira, Paulo; Reyes Ruiz Gallardo, José; García Orenes, Fuensanta; Burguet, María

    2013-04-01

    approach. Catena, 85 (3), 231-236. Cerdà, A., Jurgensen, M.F., Bodi, M.B. 2009. Effects of ants on water and soil losses from organically-managed citrus orchards in eastern Spain. Biologia, 64 (3), 527-531. Cerdà, A., Morera, A.G., Bodí, M.B. 2009. Soil and water losses from new citrus orchards growing on sloped soils in the western Mediterranean basin. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 34 (13), 1822-1830. Lavigne, C., Achard, R., Tixier, P., Lesueur Jannoyer, M. 2012. How to integrate cover crops to enhance sustainability in banana and citrus cropping systems. Acta Horticulturae, 928, 351-358. Le Bellec, F., Damas, O., Boullenger, G., Vannière, H., Lesueur Jannoyer, M., Tournebize, R., Ozier Lafontaine, H. 2012. Weed control with a cover crop (Neonotonia wightii) in mandarin orchards in Guadeloupe (FWI). Acta Horticulturae, 928, 359-366. Liu, Y., Tao, Y., Wan, K.Y., Zhang, G.S., Liu, D.B., Xiong, G.Y., Chen, F. 2012. Runoff and nutrient losses in citrus orchards on sloping land subjected to different surface mulching practices in the Danjiangkou Reservoir area of China. Agricultural Water Management, 110, 34-40. Lu, J., Wilson, M.J., Yu, J. 1997. Effects of trench planting and soil chiselling on soil properties and citrus production in hilly ultisols of China Soil and Tillage Research, 43 (3-4), 309-318. Lü, W., Zhang, H., Wu, Y., Cheng, J., Li, J., Wang, X. 2012. The impact of plant hedgerow in Three Gorges on the soil chemicophysical properties and soil erosion. Key Engineering Materials, 500, 142-148. Wang, L., Tang, L., Wang, X., Chen, F. 2010. Effects of alley crop planting on soil and nutrient losses in the citrus orchards of the Three Gorges Region. Soil and Tillage Research, 110 (2), 243-250. Wu J., Li Q., Yan L. 1997. Effect of intercropping on soil erosion in young citrus plantation - a simulation study. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology, 8 (2), 143-146. Wu, D.-M., Yu, Y.-C., Xia, L.-Z., Yin, S.-X., Yang, L.-Z. 2011. Soil fertility indices of citrus

  9. [Rethink on "experiment of progated sensation along meridians"].

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Lian-shi

    2011-11-01

    The theory, methods and ideas of "experiment of progated sensation along meridians (PSM)" were examined in the article through retrieval of ancient medical books, excavating the theory of meridians, the qi of meridians, ying (nutrient) qi, wei (defensive) qi and the related acupuncture techniques. The result shows that PSM is not the reaction of the meridian qi, but the reflection of wei (defensive) qi. Therefore, whether the experiment of PSM revealed with the phenomenon of meridian and all hypothesis based on it or not are still remained as a question. However, although PSM is considered to be related with the wei (defensive) qi, it can not be concluded that the experiment of PSM revealed the function of the wei (defensive) qi. PMID:22136040

  10. 76 FR 45615 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... components thereof. The complaint names as respondents Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. of China; FutureWei Technologies, Inc. d/b/a Huawei Technologies (USA) of TX; Nokia Corporation of Finland; Nokia Inc. of NY;...

  11. 1D Nanostructures: Controlled Fabrication and Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Michael Z.

    2013-01-01

    Jian Wei, Xuchun Song, Chunli Yang, and Michael Z. Hu, 1D Nanostructures: Controlled Fabrication and Energy Applications, Journal of Nanomaterials, published special issue (http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/si/197254/) (2013).

  12. Wein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahlmeister, Klaus

    Dieses Kapitel behandelt die verschiedenen Weinarten (Weiß-, Rot-, Roséwein) sowie die wichtigsten aus Wein hergestellten Erzeugnisse (Perlwein, Schaumwein, Likörwein, aromatisierte Getränke auf Weinbasis, Brennwein, entalkoholisierter Wein).

  13. Comments on X. Yin, A. Wen, Y. Chen, and T. Wang, `Studies in an optical millimeter-wave generation scheme via two parallel dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulators', Journal of Modern Optics, 58(8), 2011, pp. 665-673

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Mehedi; Maldonado-Basilio, Ramón; Hall, Trevor J.

    2015-04-01

    Yin et al. have described an innovative filter-less optical millimeter-wave generation scheme for octotupling of a 10 GHz RF oscillator, or sedecimtupling of a 5 GHz RF oscillator using two parallel dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulators (DP-MZMs). The great merit of their design is the suppression of all harmonics except those of order ? (octotupling) or all harmonics except those of order ? (sedecimtupling), where ? is an integer. A demerit of their scheme is the requirement to set a precise RF signal modulation index in order to suppress the zeroth order optical carrier. The purpose of this comment is to show that, in the case of the octotupling function, all harmonics may be suppressed except those of order ?, where ? is an odd integer, by the simple addition of an optical ? phase shift between the two DP-MZMs and an adjustment of the RF drive phases. Since the carrier is suppressed in the modified architecture, the octotupling circuit is thereby released of the strict requirement to set the drive level to a precise value without any significant increase in circuit complexity.

  14. Climatic and Hydrologic Modeling in the Yellow River Basin in China Dr. Shourong Wang wangsr@cma.gov.cn China Meteorological Administration No.46, Zhongguancun Nandajie, Haidian District, Beijing 100081, China Dr. Ruby LEUNG, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.

    2012-12-01

    In order to enhance climatic and hydrologic prediction and assessment ability in the Yellow River Basin, the climatic and hydrologic modeling system is developed based on a joint international research. The system includes three sub-modeling systems, the seasonal climatic modeling system, the climate change modeling system, and the hydrologic modeling system. The seasonal climatic modeling system is composed of a regional climate model WRF3.3.1 developed by PNNL in 2011, with domain cover whole China and surrounding areas and horizontal resolution of 30 km, the Global general circulation models (GCMs) developed by China National Climate Center (NCC), providing lateral boundary conditions to WRF3.3.1, and both dynamic and statistic downscaling tools for providing detail modeling results in the Yellow River Basin. The climate change modeling system is composed of a regional climate model RegCM4.0 modified by NCC, with domain and horizontal resolution similar to WRF3.3.1, four GCMs MIROC3.2, ECHAM5, HadCM3 and NCC-CSM1.1, providing lateral boundary conditions to RegCM4.0, respectively, for comparing the nest modeling results, and also the downscaling tools. The hydrologic modeling system is composed of a large scale semi-distributed hydrologic mode VIC(Variable Infiltration Capacity) modified by PNNL, with domain cover whole Yellow River Basin and horizontal resolution of 50 km, and a distributed hydrologic mode DHSVM3.0 (Distributed Hydrology-Soil-vegetation Mode) also modified by PNNL, with domain cover the headstream of Yellow River Basin and horizontal resolution of 0.5 km. Both VIC and DHSVM3.0 are driven by the outputs of WRF3.3.1 and RegCM4.0, and provide seasonal hydrologic predictions and future hydrologic projections under IPCC AR5 climate change scenarios SRES RCP8.5 and RCP4.5. Now the simulated seasonal climatic and hydrologic results are compared and verified by recorded data sets, and VIC and DHSVM3.0 are running for the future hydrologic simulation driven by climate change modeling outputs.

  15. Empirical Evidence of Social and Emotional Learning's Influence on School Success: A Commentary on "Building Academic Success on Social and Emotional Learning: What Does the Research Say?," a Book Edited by Joseph E. Zins, Roger P. Weissberg, Margaret C. Wang, and Herbert J. Walberg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Rebecca D.; Dymnicki, Allison B.

    2007-01-01

    In Building Academic Success on Social and Emotional Learning: What does the Research Say? Zins and his colleagues presented a new way to conceptualize the impact of social and emotional learning programs on students' school success by broadening the concept to include students' attitudes, behaviors, and performance. To build on Zins' ideas, we…

  16. Clevis joint for deployable space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Marvin D. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    This invention relates generally to pin clevis joints, and more particularly, to zero play pin clevis joints for connecting structural members of a deployable space structure. A joint includes a pin, a tang, and a shackle. The pin is tapered at the same angle as the bores extending through the projections of the shackle and the tang. A spring washer biases the tang onto the tapered sidewall of the pin. The invention solves the free play problem associated with deployable space structures by using a tapered pin which is held in tapered holes by the spring washers.

  17. PREFACE: Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Qingming; Wang, Lihong V.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2011-02-01

    )Ruey-Jen Sung, Stanford University (USA)A Dean Sherry, The University of Texas at Dallas (USA)Bruce Tromberg, University of California/Irvine (USA)Fujia Yang, Nottingham University (UK)Jianquan Yao, Tianjin University (China)Yixin Zeng, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center (China)Baoyong Zheng, Hua Wei Technologies Corporation, Inc (China) Program CommitteeWei R Chen, University of Central Oklahoma (USA)Zhongping Chen, University of California/Irvine (USA)Arthur Chiou, National Yang-Ming University (Taiwan, China)Frank Y S Chuang, University of California, Davis (USA)Zhihua Ding, Zhejiang University (China)Congwu Du, Brookhaven National Laboratory (USA)Stefan Haacke, Strasbourg University - IPCMS-DON (France)Weiping Han, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR) (Singapore)Zheng Huang, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center (USA)Zhiwei Huang, National University of Singapore (Singapore)Steven L Jacques, Oregon Health & Science University (USA)Fu-Jen Kao, National Yang-Ming University (Taiwan, China)Hideaki Koizumi, Hitachi, Ltd (Japan)Xingde Li, Johns Hopkins University (USA)Yong-qing Li, East Carolina University (USA)Chengyi Liu, South China Normal University (China)Hong Liu, University of Oklahoma (USA)Zuhong Lu, Southeast University (China)Dennis L Matthews, University of California/Davis (USA)Avraham Mayevsky, Bar Ilan University (Israel)Stephen P Morgan, University of Nottingham (UK)Shoko Nioka, University of Pennsylvania (USA)Yingtian Pan, State University of New York at Stony Brook (USA)Alexander V Priezzhev, MV Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russia)Jianan Y Qu, The Hongkong University of Science and Technology (Hong Kong, China)Colin J R Sheppard, National University of Singapore (Singapore)Mamoru Tamura, Tsinghua University (China)Sergey Ulyanov, Saratov State University (Russia)Ruikang K Wang, Oregon Health & Science University (USA)Xunbin Wei, Fudan University (China)Da Xing, South China Normal University (China)Haishan Zeng, BC Cancer Research

  18. An authentication scheme for secure access to healthcare services.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Kumari, Saru

    2013-08-01

    Last few decades have witnessed boom in the development of information and communication technologies. Health-sector has also been benefitted with this advancement. To ensure secure access to healthcare services some user authentication mechanisms have been proposed. In 2012, Wei et al. proposed a user authentication scheme for telecare medical information system (TMIS). Recently, Zhu pointed out offline password guessing attack on Wei et al.'s scheme and proposed an improved scheme. In this article, we analyze both of these schemes for their effectiveness in TMIS. We show that Wei et al.'s scheme and its improvement proposed by Zhu fail to achieve some important characteristics necessary for secure user authentication. We find that security problems of Wei et al.'s scheme stick with Zhu's scheme; like undetectable online password guessing attack, inefficacy of password change phase, traceability of user's stolen/lost smart card and denial-of-service threat. We also identify that Wei et al.'s scheme lacks forward secrecy and Zhu's scheme lacks session key between user and healthcare server. We therefore propose an authentication scheme for TMIS with forward secrecy which preserves the confidentiality of air messages even if master secret key of healthcare server is compromised. Our scheme retains advantages of Wei et al.'s scheme and Zhu's scheme, and offers additional security. The security analysis and comparison results show the enhanced suitability of our scheme for TMIS.

  19. Leaf-rolling sawflies (Hymenoptera, Pamphiliidae, Pamphiliinae) of Tianmushan Mountains, Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Akihiko; Wei, Mei-Cai

    2016-01-01

    Two species of Neurotoma, six species of Onycholyda, and five species of Pamphilius are recorded from Tianmushan, Zhejiang Province, China, and a key is given to these three genera and 13 species. Three new species, Onycholyda atra Shinohara & Wei, sp. nov. from Zhejiang Province, O. fulvicornis Shinohara, sp. nov. from Shaanxi Province and Zhejiang Province, and Pamphilius padus Shinohara, sp. nov. from Zhejiang Province, are described. New distribution records are: Onycholyda shaanxiana Shinohara, 1999, from Hubei Province, Zhejiang Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, O. subquadrata (Maa, 1944) from Zhejiang Province, O. tianmushana Shinohara & Xiao, 2006, from Hunan Province and Jiangxi Province, Pamphilius palliceps Shinohara & Xiao, 2006, from Anhui Province, P. lizejiani Shinohara in Shinohara & Wei, 2012, from Zhejiang Province, P. shengi Wei in Wei & Xiao, 1999, from Hubei Province and Zhejiang Province, and P. qinlingicus Wei in Wu & Wei, 2010, from Zhejiang Province. The larva of P. padus feeds on Padus obtusata (Rosaceae) and that of P. palliceps feeds on Rosa multiflora (Rosaceae), both singly making a leaf-roll. Rubus peltatus (Rosaceae) is recorded as a host plant of O. atra based on the observation of oviposition. PMID:27395926

  20. An authentication scheme for secure access to healthcare services.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Kumari, Saru

    2013-08-01

    Last few decades have witnessed boom in the development of information and communication technologies. Health-sector has also been benefitted with this advancement. To ensure secure access to healthcare services some user authentication mechanisms have been proposed. In 2012, Wei et al. proposed a user authentication scheme for telecare medical information system (TMIS). Recently, Zhu pointed out offline password guessing attack on Wei et al.'s scheme and proposed an improved scheme. In this article, we analyze both of these schemes for their effectiveness in TMIS. We show that Wei et al.'s scheme and its improvement proposed by Zhu fail to achieve some important characteristics necessary for secure user authentication. We find that security problems of Wei et al.'s scheme stick with Zhu's scheme; like undetectable online password guessing attack, inefficacy of password change phase, traceability of user's stolen/lost smart card and denial-of-service threat. We also identify that Wei et al.'s scheme lacks forward secrecy and Zhu's scheme lacks session key between user and healthcare server. We therefore propose an authentication scheme for TMIS with forward secrecy which preserves the confidentiality of air messages even if master secret key of healthcare server is compromised. Our scheme retains advantages of Wei et al.'s scheme and Zhu's scheme, and offers additional security. The security analysis and comparison results show the enhanced suitability of our scheme for TMIS. PMID:23828650