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Sample records for tapeworm taenia solium

  1. Taenia solium tapeworms synthesize corticosteroids and sex steroids in vitro.

    PubMed

    Valdez, R A; Jiménez, P; Fernández Presas, A M; Aguilar, L; Willms, K; Romano, M C

    2014-09-01

    Cysticercosis is a disease caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium cestodes that belongs to the family Taeniidae that affects a number of hosts including humans. Taeniids tapeworms are hermaphroditic organisms that have reproductive units called proglottids that gradually mature to develop testis and ovaries. Cysticerci, the larval stage of these parasites synthesize steroids. To our knowledge there is no information about the capacity of T. solium tapeworms to metabolize progesterone or other precursors to steroid hormones. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to investigate if T. solium tapeworms were able to transform steroid precursors to corticosteroids and sex steroids. T. solium tapeworms were recovered from the intestine of golden hamsters that had been orally infected with cysticerci. The worms were cultured in the presence of tritiated progesterone or androstenedione. At the end of the experiments the culture media were analyzed by thin layer chromatography. The experiments described here showed that small amounts of testosterone were synthesized from (3)H-progesterone by complete or segmented tapeworms whereas the incubation of segmented tapeworms with (3)H-androstenedione, instead of (3)H-progesterone, improved their capacity to synthesize testosterone. In addition, the incubation of the parasites with (3)H-progesterone yielded corticosteroids, mainly deoxicorticosterone (DOC) and 11-deoxicortisol. In summary, the results described here, demonstrate that T. solium tapeworms synthesize corticosteroid and sex steroid like metabolites. The capacity of T. solium tapeworms to synthesize steroid hormones may contribute to the physiological functions of the parasite and also to their interaction with the host.

  2. Morphologic and genetic identification of Taenia tapeworms in Tanzania and DNA genotyping of Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Eom, Keeseon S; Chai, Jong-Yil; Yong, Tai-Soon; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Kihamia, Charles; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu

    2011-12-01

    Species identification of Taenia tapeworms was performed using morphologic observations and multiplex PCR and DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial cox1 gene. In 2008 and 2009, a total of 1,057 fecal samples were collected from residents of Kongwa district of Dodoma region, Tanzania, and examined microscopically for helminth eggs and proglottids. Of these, 4 Taenia egg positive cases were identified, and the eggs were subjected to DNA analysis. Several proglottids of Taenia solium were recovered from 1 of the 4 cases. This established that the species were T. solium (n = 1) and T. saginata (n = 3). One further T. solium specimen was found among 128 fecal samples collected from Mbulu district in Arusha, and this had an intact strobila with the scolex. Phylegenetic analysis of the mtDNA cox1 gene sequences of these 5 isolates showed that T. saginata was basal to the T. solium clade. The mitochondrial cox1 gene sequences of 3 of these Tanzanian isolates showed 99% similarity to T. saginata, and the other 2 isolates showed 100% similarity to T. solium. The present study has shown that Taenia tapeworms are endemic in Kongwa district of Tanzania, as well as in a previously identified Mbulu district. Both T. solium isolates were found to have an "African/Latin American" genotype (cox1).

  3. Molecular Identification of Zoonotic Tissue-Invasive Tapeworm Larvae Other than Taenia solium in Suspected Human Cysticercosis Cases.

    PubMed

    Tappe, Dennis; Berkholz, Jörg; Mahlke, Uwe; Lobeck, Hartmut; Nagel, Thomas; Haeupler, Alexandra; Muntau, Birgit; Racz, Paul; Poppert, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Rarely, zoonotic Taenia species other than Taenia solium cause human cysticercosis. The larval stages are morphologically often indistinguishable. We therefore investigated 12 samples of suspected human cysticercosis cases at the molecular level and surprisingly identified one Taenia crassiceps and one Taenia serialis (coenurosis) infection, which were caused by tapeworm larvae normally infecting rodents and sheep via eggs released from foxes and dogs. PMID:26491175

  4. Molecular Identification of Zoonotic Tissue-Invasive Tapeworm Larvae Other than Taenia solium in Suspected Human Cysticercosis Cases.

    PubMed

    Tappe, Dennis; Berkholz, Jörg; Mahlke, Uwe; Lobeck, Hartmut; Nagel, Thomas; Haeupler, Alexandra; Muntau, Birgit; Racz, Paul; Poppert, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Rarely, zoonotic Taenia species other than Taenia solium cause human cysticercosis. The larval stages are morphologically often indistinguishable. We therefore investigated 12 samples of suspected human cysticercosis cases at the molecular level and surprisingly identified one Taenia crassiceps and one Taenia serialis (coenurosis) infection, which were caused by tapeworm larvae normally infecting rodents and sheep via eggs released from foxes and dogs.

  5. Molecular Identification of Zoonotic Tissue-Invasive Tapeworm Larvae Other than Taenia solium in Suspected Human Cysticercosis Cases

    PubMed Central

    Tappe, Dennis; Berkholz, Jörg; Mahlke, Uwe; Lobeck, Hartmut; Nagel, Thomas; Haeupler, Alexandra; Muntau, Birgit; Racz, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Rarely, zoonotic Taenia species other than Taenia solium cause human cysticercosis. The larval stages are morphologically often indistinguishable. We therefore investigated 12 samples of suspected human cysticercosis cases at the molecular level and surprisingly identified one Taenia crassiceps and one Taenia serialis (coenurosis) infection, which were caused by tapeworm larvae normally infecting rodents and sheep via eggs released from foxes and dogs. PMID:26491175

  6. Challenges and opportunities in detecting Taenia solium tapeworm carriers in Los Angeles County California, 2009-2014.

    PubMed

    Croker, Curtis

    2015-12-01

    Carriers of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, are the sole source of neurocysticercosis, a parasitic tissue infection that can be chronic and severe. Identifying T. solium tapeworm carriers is challenging. Many are asymptomatic and go undetected and unreported. In addition, T. solium is difficult to distinguish from other Taenia species of less concern. From 2009 to 2014, 24 taeniasis cases were reported to the Los Angeles County (LAC) Department of Public Health. Twenty reports were received solely from our automated electronic laboratory reporting system (ELR), two from health care providers, and two were generated internally from investigation of households with a reported neurocysticercosis case. Further investigation identified one T. solium carrier originally reported by ELR and one identified from a neurocysticercosis case investigation. These results suggest that T. solium tapeworm carriers can be identified from investigation of ELR reports of unspeciated Taenia cases as well as from households of neurocysticercosis cases.

  7. Taenia solium cysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    García, Héctor H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Evans, Carlton A W; Gilman, Robert H

    2010-01-01

    The larval stage of the pork tapeworm (Taenia solium) infects the human nervous system, causing neurocysticercosis. This disease is one of the main causes of epileptic seizures in many less developed countries and is also increasingly seen in more developed countries because of immigration from endemic areas. Little information is available on the natural evolution of taeniasis or cysticercosis. Available therapeutic measures include steroids, treatments for symptoms, surgery, and, more controversially, antiparasitic drugs to kill brain parasites. Efforts to control and eliminate this disease are underway through antiparasitic treatment of endemic populations, development of pig vaccines, and other measures. PMID:12932389

  8. Effective protection against experimental Taenia solium tapeworm infection in hamsters by primo-infection and by vaccination with recombinant or synthetic heterologous antigens.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Revilla, C; Toledo, A; Rosas, G; Huerta, M; Flores-Perez, I; Peña, N; Morales, J; Cisneros-Quiñones, J; Meneses, G; Díaz-Orea, A; Anciart, N; Goldbaum, F; Aluja, A; Larralde, C; Fragoso, G; Sciutto, E

    2006-08-01

    The disease caused by Taenia solium is progressively being recognized as a growing global threat for public human health and pig husbandry that requires the development of effective control measures. A central participant in the taeniasis/cysticercosis transmission network is the human carrier of the adult tapeworm because of its great potential in spreading the infection. Herein, evidence is presented that a primary infection of golden hamsters with orally administered T. solium cysticerci improved the host's resistance against a secondary infection. Likewise, previous vaccination increased the hamster's resistance. Similar high levels of protection (> 78%) were induced by systemic or oral vaccination with the S3Pvac anticysticercosis synthetic peptide vaccine or the highly immunogenic recombinant chimera based on the protective peptide KETc1 bound to Brucella spp. lumazine synthase (BLS-KETc1). Increased resistance after primo-infection and vaccination possibly results from changes in the immune conditions prevailing in the host's intestine. The contribution to protection from the KETc1 and BLS epitopes in a chimeric vaccine is under study. Preventive vaccination of definitive hosts of T. solium against the tapeworm, the most relevant step in the taeniasis/cysticercosis transmission, may greatly impact the dynamics of endemic disease and has not been studied or tried previously.

  9. Control of Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Armando E; García, H H; Gilman, Robert H; Tsang, Victor C W

    2003-06-01

    Control or eradication of Taenia solium cysticercosis has been achieved to date only in Europe and North America. Significant improvements in sanitary conditions and developing functional slaughterhouse control systems were primarily responsible for control in these regions. Conversely, in endemic areas of developing countries control is limited by economic and sanitary conditions: the life cycle of T. solium is sustained because pigs have access to infected faeces, and cysticercosis-infested pork is available for consumption. Interventional trials with massive human cestocidal chemotherapy, treatment of both human and porcine populations with antihelminthic drugs and/or immunotherapy and health education have shown improvements in specific settings but not yet proven to be sustainable in the long-term. In order to ensure sustainability, any given control strategy towards elimination/eradication of porcine cysticercosis should incorporate economic incentives.

  10. Notes from the field: identification of a Taenia tapeworm carrier - Los Angeles County, 2014.

    PubMed

    Croker, Curtis; Soriano, Jan; Civen, Rachel; Larsen, Robert A; Schwartz, Benjamin

    2015-01-30

    Carriers of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, are the sole source of cysticercosis, a parasitic tissue infection. When tapeworm eggs excreted by the carrier are ingested, tapeworm larvae can form cysts. When cysts form in the brain, the condition is called neurocysticercosis and can be especially severe. In Los Angeles County an average of 136 county residents are hospitalized with neurocysticercosis each year. The prevalence of Taenia solium carriage is largely unknown because carriage is asymptomatic, making detection difficult. The identification and treatment of tapeworm carriers is an important public health measure that can prevent additional neurocysticercosis cases.

  11. Eradication of Taenia solium cysticercosis: a role for vaccination of pigs.

    PubMed

    Lightowlers, M W

    1999-06-01

    Neurocysticercosis due to Taenia solium is an important cause of human morbidity and mortality, particularly in Latin America and parts of Africa and Asia. The disease has been recognised as potentially eradicable. Emphasis has been placed on control of the parasite through mass chemotherapy of human populations to remove tapeworm carriers. This strategy does not control the source of tapeworm infections, cysticercosis in pigs, and parasite transmission may continue due to incomplete chemotherapy coverage of human tapeworm carriers or because of immigration of tapeworm carriers into control areas. Exceptionally effective, practical vaccines have been developed against cysticercosis in sheep and cattle and a recent trial has proved recombinant antigens to be effective against Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs. A new strategy for eradication of Taenia solium is proposed, based principally on a combined approach of chemotherapy of human tapeworm carriers and vaccination of all pigs at risk of infection.

  12. Phylogenetic characterisation of Taenia tapeworms in spotted hyenas and reconsideration of the "Out of Africa" hypothesis of Taenia in humans.

    PubMed

    Terefe, Yitagele; Hailemariam, Zerihun; Menkir, Sissay; Nakao, Minoru; Lavikainen, Antti; Haukisalmi, Voitto; Iwaki, Takashi; Okamoto, Munehiro; Ito, Akira

    2014-07-01

    The African origin of hominins suggests that Taenia spp. in African carnivores are evolutionarily related to the human-infecting tapeworms Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica. Nevertheless, the hypothesis has not been verified through molecular phylogenetics of Taenia. This study aimed to perform phylogenetic comparisons between Taenia spp. from African hyenas and the congeneric human parasites. During 2010-2013, 233 adult specimens of Taenia spp. were collected from 11 spotted hyenas in Ethiopia. A screening based on short DNA sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene classified the samples into four mitochondrial lineages designated as I-IV. DNA profiles of nuclear genes for DNA polymerase delta (pold) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck) showed that lineages II and III can be assigned as two independent species. Common haplotypes of pold and pepck were frequently found in lineages I and IV, suggesting that they constitute a single species. Morphological observations suggested that lineage II is Taenia crocutae, but the other lineages were morphologically inconsistent with known species, suggesting the involvement of two new species. A phylogenetic tree of Taenia spp. was reconstructed by the maximum likelihood method using all protein-coding genes of their mitochondrial genomes. The tree clearly demonstrated that T. crocutae is sister to T. saginata and T. asiatica, whereas T. solium was confirmed to be sister to the brown bear tapeworm, Taenia arctos. The tree also suggested that T. solium and T. arctos are related to two species of Taenia in hyenas, corresponding to lineages I+IV and III. These results may partially support the African origin of human-infecting Taenia spp., but there remains a possibility that host switching of Taenia to hominins was not confined to Africa. Additional taxa from African carnivores are needed for further testing of the "Out of Africa" hypothesis of Taenia in humans. PMID:24815426

  13. Phylogenetic characterisation of Taenia tapeworms in spotted hyenas and reconsideration of the "Out of Africa" hypothesis of Taenia in humans.

    PubMed

    Terefe, Yitagele; Hailemariam, Zerihun; Menkir, Sissay; Nakao, Minoru; Lavikainen, Antti; Haukisalmi, Voitto; Iwaki, Takashi; Okamoto, Munehiro; Ito, Akira

    2014-07-01

    The African origin of hominins suggests that Taenia spp. in African carnivores are evolutionarily related to the human-infecting tapeworms Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica. Nevertheless, the hypothesis has not been verified through molecular phylogenetics of Taenia. This study aimed to perform phylogenetic comparisons between Taenia spp. from African hyenas and the congeneric human parasites. During 2010-2013, 233 adult specimens of Taenia spp. were collected from 11 spotted hyenas in Ethiopia. A screening based on short DNA sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene classified the samples into four mitochondrial lineages designated as I-IV. DNA profiles of nuclear genes for DNA polymerase delta (pold) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck) showed that lineages II and III can be assigned as two independent species. Common haplotypes of pold and pepck were frequently found in lineages I and IV, suggesting that they constitute a single species. Morphological observations suggested that lineage II is Taenia crocutae, but the other lineages were morphologically inconsistent with known species, suggesting the involvement of two new species. A phylogenetic tree of Taenia spp. was reconstructed by the maximum likelihood method using all protein-coding genes of their mitochondrial genomes. The tree clearly demonstrated that T. crocutae is sister to T. saginata and T. asiatica, whereas T. solium was confirmed to be sister to the brown bear tapeworm, Taenia arctos. The tree also suggested that T. solium and T. arctos are related to two species of Taenia in hyenas, corresponding to lineages I+IV and III. These results may partially support the African origin of human-infecting Taenia spp., but there remains a possibility that host switching of Taenia to hominins was not confined to Africa. Additional taxa from African carnivores are needed for further testing of the "Out of Africa" hypothesis of Taenia in humans.

  14. Vaccination against Taenia solium cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Flisser, A; Lightowlers, M W

    2001-04-01

    Taenia solium is a parasite that causes human cysticercosis. Its life cycle includes the adult stage, the egg and the larval stage. Human cysticercosis is a disease related to underdevelopment, the main clinical manifestation is neurocysticercosis. Control measures include mass cestocidal treatment aimed to cure possible taeniosis cases. Although useful it has certain disadvantages, such as the generation of symptomatology in occult neurocysticercosis. Alternatively, health education has been shown to be highly effective since people become aware of the importance of human and porcine cysticercosis and the possibility of eliminating it. Nevertheless it has to be implemented by knowledgeable people. On the other hand, the life cycle can be controlled by avoiding swine cysticercosis. This review describes the studies performed to vaccinate pigs against T. solium and indicate that short time perspectives are very encouraging for the production of an optimal vaccine.

  15. Taenia solium: current understanding of laboratory animal models of taeniosis.

    PubMed

    Flisser, A; Avila, G; Maravilla, P; Mendlovic, F; León-Cabrera, S; Cruz-Rivera, M; Garza, A; Gómez, B; Aguilar, L; Terán, N; Velasco, S; Benítez, M; Jimenez-Gonzalez, D E

    2010-03-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a public health problem in many developing countries and is the most frequent parasitic disease of the brain. The human tapeworm carrier is the main risk factor for acquiring neurocysticercosis. Since the parasite lodges only in the human intestine, experimental models of Taenia solium taeniosis have been explored. Macaques, pigs, dogs, cats and rabbits are unsuccessful hosts even in immunodepressed status. By contrast, rodents are adequate hosts since tapeworms with mature, pregravid and, in some cases, gravid proglottids develop after infection. In this review, information that has been generated with experimental models of taeniosis due to T. solium is discussed. Initially, the use of the model for immunodiagnosis of human taeniosis and evaluation of intervention measures is summarized. Next, descriptions of tapeworms and comparison of hamsters, gerbils and other mammals as experimental models are discussed, as well as data on the humoral immune response, the inflammatory reaction and the production of cytokines associated to Th1 and Th2 responses in the intestinal mucosa. Finally, evaluation of protection induced against the development of tapeworms by recombinant T. solium calreticulin in hamsters is summarized and compared to other studies.

  16. Towards a Taenia solium Cysticercosis Vaccine: an Epitope Shared by Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium Protects Mice against Experimental Cysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, Andrea; Larralde, Carlos; Fragoso, Gladis; Gevorkian, Goar; Manoutcharian, Karen; Hernández, Marisela; Acero, Gonzalo; Rosas, Gabriela; López-Casillas, Fernando; Garfias, Carlos Kubli; Vázquez, Ricardo; Terrazas, Ignacio; Sciutto, Edda

    1999-01-01

    The Taenia crassiceps recombinant antigen KETc7 has been shown to be effective as a vaccine against experimental murine cysticercosis, a laboratory model used to test potentially promising molecules against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence of this proline-rich polypeptide, three fragments, GK-1, GK-2, and GK-3, were chemically synthesized in linear form. Of the three peptides, only GK-1 induced sterile protection against T. crassiceps cysticercosis in 40 to 70% of BALB/cAnN male mice. GK-1 is an 18-amino-acid peptide which contains at least one B-cell epitope, as demonstrated by its ability to induce an antibody response to the peptide and T. crassiceps antigen without need of a carrier protein. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that anti-GK1 antibodies strongly react with the native protein in the tegument of T. crassiceps and also with anatomical structures of T. solium eggs, oncospheres, cysticercus, and tapeworm. GK-1 also contains at least one T-cell epitope, capable of stimulating the proliferation of CD8+ and to a lower extent CD4+ T cells primed either with the free peptide or T. crassiceps total antigen. The supernatant of the stimulated cells contained high levels of gamma interferon and low levels of interleukin-4. Similar results were obtained with T cells tested for intracellular cytokine production, an indication of the peptide’s capacity to induce an inflammatory response. The remarkable protection induced by GK-1 immunization, its physicochemical properties, and its presence in all developmental stages of T. solium point to this synthetic peptide as a strong candidate in the construction of a synthetic vaccine against T. solium pig cysticercosis. PMID:10225916

  17. Control of Taenia solium cysticercosis/taeniosis.

    PubMed

    Willingham, Arve Lee; Engels, Dirk

    2006-01-01

    Cysticercosis is emerging as a serious public health and agricultural problem in many poorer countries of Latin America, Africa, and Asia. Caused by the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, this zoonotic disease forms larval cysts in humans and pigs that can lead to epilepsy and death in humans, reduces the market value of pigs and makes pork unsafe to eat. It occurs where pigs range freely, sanitation is poor, and meat inspection is absent or inadequate, and is thus strongly associated with poverty and smallholder farming. Although theoretically easy to control and declared eradicable cysticercosis remains neglected in most endemic countries due to lack of information and awareness about the extent of the problem, suitable diagnostic and management capacity, and appropriate prevention and control strategies. Human neurocysticercosis occurs when the larval cysts develop in the brain. It is considered to be the most common parasitic infection of the human nervous system and the most frequent preventable cause of epilepsy in the developing world. Thus far the infection has not been eliminated from any region by a specific program, and no national control programs are yet in place. We consider the tools available for combating cysticercosis and suggest simple packages of interventions, which can be conducted utilizing existing services and structures in the endemic countries to provide appropriate and sustainable control of the disease.

  18. Codon Usage Bias and Determining Forces in Taenia solium Genome.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xing; Ma, Xusheng; Luo, Xuenong; Ling, Houjun; Zhang, Xichen; Cai, Xuepeng

    2015-12-01

    The tapeworm Taenia solium is an important human zoonotic parasite that causes great economic loss and also endangers public health. At present, an effective vaccine that will prevent infection and chemotherapy without any side effect remains to be developed. In this study, codon usage patterns in the T. solium genome were examined through 8,484 protein-coding genes. Neutrality analysis showed that T. solium had a narrow GC distribution, and a significant correlation was observed between GC12 and GC3. Examination of an NC (ENC vs GC3s)-plot showed a few genes on or close to the expected curve, but the majority of points with low-ENC (the effective number of codons) values were detected below the expected curve, suggesting that mutational bias plays a major role in shaping codon usage. The Parity Rule 2 plot (PR2) analysis showed that GC and AT were not used proportionally. We also identified 26 optimal codons in the T. solium genome, all of which ended with either a G or C residue. These optimal codons in the T. solium genome are likely consistent with tRNAs that are highly expressed in the cell, suggesting that mutational and translational selection forces are probably driving factors of codon usage bias in the T. solium genome. PMID:26797435

  19. Codon Usage Bias and Determining Forces in Taenia solium Genome.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xing; Ma, Xusheng; Luo, Xuenong; Ling, Houjun; Zhang, Xichen; Cai, Xuepeng

    2015-12-01

    The tapeworm Taenia solium is an important human zoonotic parasite that causes great economic loss and also endangers public health. At present, an effective vaccine that will prevent infection and chemotherapy without any side effect remains to be developed. In this study, codon usage patterns in the T. solium genome were examined through 8,484 protein-coding genes. Neutrality analysis showed that T. solium had a narrow GC distribution, and a significant correlation was observed between GC12 and GC3. Examination of an NC (ENC vs GC3s)-plot showed a few genes on or close to the expected curve, but the majority of points with low-ENC (the effective number of codons) values were detected below the expected curve, suggesting that mutational bias plays a major role in shaping codon usage. The Parity Rule 2 plot (PR2) analysis showed that GC and AT were not used proportionally. We also identified 26 optimal codons in the T. solium genome, all of which ended with either a G or C residue. These optimal codons in the T. solium genome are likely consistent with tRNAs that are highly expressed in the cell, suggesting that mutational and translational selection forces are probably driving factors of codon usage bias in the T. solium genome.

  20. Codon Usage Bias and Determining Forces in Taenia solium Genome

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xing; Ma, Xusheng; Luo, Xuenong; Ling, Houjun; Zhang, Xichen; Cai, Xuepeng

    2015-01-01

    The tapeworm Taenia solium is an important human zoonotic parasite that causes great economic loss and also endangers public health. At present, an effective vaccine that will prevent infection and chemotherapy without any side effect remains to be developed. In this study, codon usage patterns in the T. solium genome were examined through 8,484 protein-coding genes. Neutrality analysis showed that T. solium had a narrow GC distribution, and a significant correlation was observed between GC12 and GC3. Examination of an NC (ENC vs GC3s)-plot showed a few genes on or close to the expected curve, but the majority of points with low-ENC (the effective number of codons) values were detected below the expected curve, suggesting that mutational bias plays a major role in shaping codon usage. The Parity Rule 2 plot (PR2) analysis showed that GC and AT were not used proportionally. We also identified 26 optimal codons in the T. solium genome, all of which ended with either a G or C residue. These optimal codons in the T. solium genome are likely consistent with tRNAs that are highly expressed in the cell, suggesting that mutational and translational selection forces are probably driving factors of codon usage bias in the T. solium genome. PMID:26797435

  1. State of the Art of Taenia solium as Compared to Taenia asiatica

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Three species of tapeworms infect humans in their adult stage (Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica). The 3 are flat, opaque white or yellowish, and exceptional long segmented parasites, measuring 1 to 12 m in their adult stage. In this review, the development of the knowledge regarding the first species, mainly focused on understanding how the larval stage or cysticercus is transmitted to humans, is described. The second species is a cosmopolitan parasite that only causes taeniosis and not cysticercosis; therefore, it will not be included. Information on the third species, which is presently being produced, since this species was recognized as such only at the end of the 20th century, will be discussed at the end of this review. PMID:23467388

  2. State of the art of Taenia solium as compared to Taenia asiatica.

    PubMed

    Flisser, Ana

    2013-02-01

    Three species of tapeworms infect humans in their adult stage (Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica). The 3 are flat, opaque white or yellowish, and exceptional long segmented parasites, measuring 1 to 12 m in their adult stage. In this review, the development of the knowledge regarding the first species, mainly focused on understanding how the larval stage or cysticercus is transmitted to humans, is described. The second species is a cosmopolitan parasite that only causes taeniosis and not cysticercosis; therefore, it will not be included. Information on the third species, which is presently being produced, since this species was recognized as such only at the end of the 20th century, will be discussed at the end of this review.

  3. Development of a species-specific coproantigen ELISA for human Taenia solium taeniasis.

    PubMed

    Guezala, Maria-Claudia; Rodriguez, Silvia; Zamora, Humberto; Garcia, Hector H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Tembo, Alice; Allan, James C; Craig, Philip S

    2009-09-01

    Taenia solium causes human neurocysticercosis and is endemic in underdeveloped countries where backyard pig keeping is common. Microscopic fecal diagnostic methods for human T. solium taeniasis are not very sensitive, and Taenia saginata and Taenia solium eggs are indistinguishable under the light microscope. Coproantigen (CoAg) ELISA methods are very sensitive, but currently only genus (Taenia) specific. This paper describes the development of a highly species-specific coproantigen ELISA test to detect T. solium intestinal taeniasis. Sensitivity was maintained using a capture antibody of rabbit IgG against T. solium adult whole worm somatic extract, whereas species specificity was achieved by utilization of an enzyme-conjugated rabbit IgG against T. solium adult excretory-secretory (ES) antigen. A known panel of positive and negative human fecal samples was tested with this hybrid sandwich ELISA. The ELISA test gave 100% specificity and 96.4% sensitivity for T. solium tapeworm carriers (N = 28), with a J index of 0.96. This simple ELISA incorporating anti-adult somatic and anti-adult ES antibodies provides the first potentially species-specific coproantigen test for human T. solium taeniasis.

  4. Immunology of Taenia solium taeniasis and human cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Garcia, H H; Rodriguez, S; Friedland, J S

    2014-08-01

    The life cycle of Taenia solium, the pork tapeworm, is continuously closed in many rural settings in developing countries when free roaming pigs ingest human stools containing T. solium eggs and develop cysticercosis, and humans ingest pork infected with cystic larvae and develop intestinal taeniasis, or may also accidentally acquire cysticercosis by faecal-oral contamination. Cysticercosis of the human nervous system, neurocysticercosis, is a major cause of seizures and other neurological morbidity in most of the world. The dynamics of exposure, infection and disease as well as the location of parasites result in a complex interaction which involves immune evasion mechanisms and involutive or progressive disease along time. Moreover, existing data are limited by the relative lack of animal models. This manuscript revises the available information on the immunology of human taeniasis and cysticercosis.

  5. Renewed hope for a vaccine against the intestinal adult Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Sciutto, Edda; Rosas, Gabriela; Cruz-Revilla, Carmen; Toledo, Andrea; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Hernández, Marisela; Hernándezt, Beatríz; Goldbaum, Fernando A; de Aluja, Aline S; Fragoso, Gladis; Larralde, Carlos

    2007-08-01

    Review of experimental and observational evidence about various cestode infections of mammalian hosts revives hope for the development of an effective vaccine against adult intestinal tapeworms, the central protagonists in their transmission dynamics. As for Taenia solium, there are abundant immunological data regarding cysticercosis in humans and pigs, but information about human taeniasis is scarce. A single publication reporting protection against T. solium taeniasis by experimental primo infection and by vaccination of an experimental foster host, the immunocompetent female hamster, kindles the hope of a vaccine against the tapeworm to be used in humans, its only natural definitive host.

  6. Tamoxifen Treatment in Hamsters Induces Protection during Taeniosis by Taenia solium

    PubMed Central

    Escobedo, Galileo; Palacios-Arreola, M. Isabel; Olivos, Alfonso; López-Griego, Lorena; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Human neurocysticercosis by Taenia solium is considered an emergent severe brain disorder in developing and developed countries. Discovery of new antiparasitic drugs has been recently aimed to restrain differentiation and establishment of the T. solium adult tapeworm, for being considered a central node in the disease propagation to both pigs and humans. Tamoxifen is an antiestrogenic drug with cysticidal action on Taenia crassiceps, a close relative of T. solium. Thus, we evaluated the effect of tamoxifen on the in vitro evagination and the in vivo establishment of T. solium. In vitro, tamoxifen inhibited evagination of T. solium cysticerci in a dose-time dependent manner. In vivo, administration of tamoxifen to hamsters decreased the intestinal establishment of the parasite by 70%, while recovered tapeworms showed an 80% reduction in length, appearing as scolices without strobilar development. Since tamoxifen did not show any significant effect on the proliferation of antigen-specific immune cells, intestinal inflammation, and expression of Th1/Th2 cytokines in spleen and duodenum, this drug could exert its antiparasite actions by having direct detrimental effects upon the adult tapeworm. These results demonstrate that tamoxifen exhibits a strong cysticidal and antitaeniasic effect on T. solium that should be further explored in humans and livestock. PMID:23509701

  7. Tamoxifen treatment in hamsters induces protection during taeniosis by Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Escobedo, Galileo; Palacios-Arreola, M Isabel; Olivos, Alfonso; López-Griego, Lorena; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Human neurocysticercosis by Taenia solium is considered an emergent severe brain disorder in developing and developed countries. Discovery of new antiparasitic drugs has been recently aimed to restrain differentiation and establishment of the T. solium adult tapeworm, for being considered a central node in the disease propagation to both pigs and humans. Tamoxifen is an antiestrogenic drug with cysticidal action on Taenia crassiceps, a close relative of T. solium. Thus, we evaluated the effect of tamoxifen on the in vitro evagination and the in vivo establishment of T. solium. In vitro, tamoxifen inhibited evagination of T. solium cysticerci in a dose-time dependent manner. In vivo, administration of tamoxifen to hamsters decreased the intestinal establishment of the parasite by 70%, while recovered tapeworms showed an 80% reduction in length, appearing as scolices without strobilar development. Since tamoxifen did not show any significant effect on the proliferation of antigen-specific immune cells, intestinal inflammation, and expression of Th1/Th2 cytokines in spleen and duodenum, this drug could exert its antiparasite actions by having direct detrimental effects upon the adult tapeworm. These results demonstrate that tamoxifen exhibits a strong cysticidal and antitaeniasic effect on T. solium that should be further explored in humans and livestock.

  8. Pathogenesis of Taenia solium taeniasis and cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, I; Rivera, J T; Garcia, H H

    2016-03-01

    Taenia solium infections (taeniasis/cysticercosis) are a major scourge to most developing countries. Neurocysticercosis, the infection of the human nervous system by the cystic larvae of this parasite, has a protean array of clinical manifestations varying from entirely asymptomatic infections to aggressive, lethal courses. The diversity of clinical manifestations reflects a series of contributing factors which include the number, size and location of the invading parasites, and particularly the inflammatory response of the host. This manuscript reviews the different presentations of T. solium infections in the human host with a focus on the mechanisms or processes responsible for their clinical expression. PMID:26824681

  9. The genome project of Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Díaz, Hugo; Bobes, Raúl J; Carrero, Julio C; Camacho-Carranza, Rafael; Cervantes, Claudia; Cevallos, Miguel A; Dávila, Guillermo; Rodríguez-Dorantes, Mauricio; Escobedo, Galileo; Fernández, José Luis; Fragoso, Gladis; Gaytán, Paul; Garciarubio, Alejandro; González, Victor M; González, Lorena; José, Marco V; Jiménez, Lucía; Laclette, Juan P; Landa, Abraham; Larralde, Carlos; Morales-Montor, Jorge; Morett, Enrique; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Sciutto, Edda; Santamaría, Rosa I; Soberón, Xavier; de la Torre, Patricia; Valdés, Víctor; Yánez, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    We have constituted a consortium of key laboratories at the National Autonomous University of Mexico to carry out a genomic project for Taenia solium. This project will provide powerful resources for the study of taeniasis/cysticercosis, and, in conjunction with the Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis genome project of expressed sequence tags (ESTs), will mark the advent of genomics for cestode parasites. Our project is planned in two consecutive stages. The first stage is being carried out to determine some basic parameters of the T. solium genome. Afterwards, we will evaluate the best strategy for the second stage, a full blown genome project. We have estimated the T. solium genome size by two different approaches: cytofluorometry on isolated cyton nuclei, as well as a probabilistic calculation based on approximately 2000 sequenced genomic clones, approximately 3000 ESTs, resulting in size estimates of 270 and 251 Mb, respectively. In terms of sequencing, our goal for the first stage is to characterize several thousand EST's (from adult worm and cysticerci cDNA libraries) and genomic clones. Results obtained so far from about 16,000 sequenced ESTs from the adult stage, show that only about 40% of the T. solium coding sequences have a previously sequenced homologue. Many of the best hits are found with mammalian genes, especially with humans. However, 1.5% of the hits lack homologues in humans, making these genes immediate candidates for investigation on pharmaco-therapy, diagnostics and vaccination. Most T. solium ESTs are related to gene regulation, and signal transduction. Other important functions are housekeeping, metabolism, cell division, cytoskeleton, proteases, vacuolar transport, hormone response, and extracellular matrix activities. Preliminary results also suggest that the genome of T. solium is not highly repetitive.

  10. Vaccine development against the Taenia solium parasite

    PubMed Central

    Gauci, Charles; Jayashi, César; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2013-01-01

    Taenia solium is a zoonotic parasite that causes cysticercosis. The parasite is a major cause of human disease in impoverished communities where it is transmitted to humans from pigs which act as intermediate hosts. Vaccination of pigs to prevent transmission of T. solium to humans is an approach that has been investigated to control the disease. A recombinant vaccine antigen, TSOL18, has been remarkably successful at reducing infection of pigs with T. solium in several experimental challenge trials. The vaccine has been shown to eliminate transmission of naturally acquired T. solium in a field trial conducted in Africa. We recently reported that the vaccine was also effective in a field trial conducted in Peru. The TSOL18 recombinant antigen for each of these trials has been produced by expression in Escherichia coli. Here we discuss research that has been undertaken on the TSOL18 antigen and related antigens with a focus on improved methods of preparation of recombinant TSOL18 and optimized expression in Escherichia coli. PMID:23196744

  11. Taenia solium Taeniasis and Cysticercosis in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Aung, Ar Kar; Spelman, Denis W

    2016-05-01

    Human taeniasis/cysticercosis caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium has been identified as a potentially eradicable disease by the International Task Force for Disease Eradication of the World Health Organization. In southeast Asia, T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is considered one of the major neglected tropical diseases afflicting the region. In the last few decades, a considerable effort has been invested toward establishing the epidemiology and burden of disease in several southeast Asian countries. Moreover, further evidence is emerging as to understanding the dynamics of disease transmission and cultural, political, and socioeconomic factors influencing the success of control and eradication efforts within the region. However, despite major collaborations by several champion groups, advances have been slow and little remains known about the complete epidemiology of taeniasis/cysticercosis and the barriers to programmatic success. This review article aims to address the above issues with a further focus on the challenges to control and eradicate taeniasis/cysticercosis within the southeast Asia region. PMID:26834197

  12. Taenia solium Cysticercosis--The lessons of history.

    PubMed

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; García, Héctor H

    2015-12-15

    Human taeniasis as well as porcine and human cysticercosis--caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium--are ancient diseases. The fact that pigs were considered impure in the ancient Greece and that the Koran prohibited the consumption of pork, were likely related to the knowledge that cysticercosis may affect swine. Evidence suggests that human cysticercosis was also present in the ancient Egypt and Rome. During the Renaissance, the causative agent was properly identified and human cases were recognized. Confirmation that both taeniasis and cysticercosis were caused by the same parasite was provided during the 19th Century by German pathologists. During the 20th Century, bouts of human cysticercosis in non-endemic regions left us valuable lessons on the mechanisms of disease acquisition and spread. These included a large series of neurocysticercosis cases in the United Kingdom that occurred after the return of troops stationed in India (which demonstrated that symptoms may occur years after infection), the epidemic of cysticercosis-related epilepsy in the Ekari people of Papua New Guinea occurring after the gift of pigs with cysticercosis received from Indonesia (demonstrating the fast establishment of endemic transmission and the impact of cysticercosis in epilepsy frequency), and the occurrence of neurocysticercosis among members of an Orthodox Jewish community of New York City, related to Latin American Taenia carriers working in their houses (highlighting the fact that cysticercosis transmission do not require the presence of infected pigs). These lessons of history have significantly contributed to our current knowledge on this disease. PMID:26320098

  13. Taenia solium Cysticercosis--The lessons of history.

    PubMed

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; García, Héctor H

    2015-12-15

    Human taeniasis as well as porcine and human cysticercosis--caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium--are ancient diseases. The fact that pigs were considered impure in the ancient Greece and that the Koran prohibited the consumption of pork, were likely related to the knowledge that cysticercosis may affect swine. Evidence suggests that human cysticercosis was also present in the ancient Egypt and Rome. During the Renaissance, the causative agent was properly identified and human cases were recognized. Confirmation that both taeniasis and cysticercosis were caused by the same parasite was provided during the 19th Century by German pathologists. During the 20th Century, bouts of human cysticercosis in non-endemic regions left us valuable lessons on the mechanisms of disease acquisition and spread. These included a large series of neurocysticercosis cases in the United Kingdom that occurred after the return of troops stationed in India (which demonstrated that symptoms may occur years after infection), the epidemic of cysticercosis-related epilepsy in the Ekari people of Papua New Guinea occurring after the gift of pigs with cysticercosis received from Indonesia (demonstrating the fast establishment of endemic transmission and the impact of cysticercosis in epilepsy frequency), and the occurrence of neurocysticercosis among members of an Orthodox Jewish community of New York City, related to Latin American Taenia carriers working in their houses (highlighting the fact that cysticercosis transmission do not require the presence of infected pigs). These lessons of history have significantly contributed to our current knowledge on this disease.

  14. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for a differential identification of human Taenia tapeworms.

    PubMed

    Sako, Yasuhito; Nkouawa, Agathe; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Ito, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), which employs a Bst DNA polymerase with strand-displacement activity and four primers (two inner primers and two outer primers) recognizing six distinct regions on the target DNA, is a highly sensitive, specific, simple, and rapid nucleotide amplification method. Moreover, because the Bst DNA polymerase resists much DNA polymerase inhibitors present in biological specimens, the LAMP method is suitable for the detection of infectious agents from clinical material such as fecal samples. Here, we describe the LAMP method which can differentially detect and identify human Taenia tapeworms, Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica, using DNA specimens prepared from parasite tissue and human fecal sample. PMID:24026690

  15. Taenia solium Infection in Peru: A Collaboration between Peace Corps Volunteers and Researchers in a Community Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Nathaniel S.; Pajuelo, Monica; Clark, Taryn; Loader, Maria-Cristina I.; Verastegui, Manuela R.; Sterling, Charles; Friedland, Jon S.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Neurocysticercosis is a leading cause of seizures and epilepsy in most of the world, and it occurs when Taenia solium larval cysts infect the central nervous system. T. solium tapeworm infection is endemic in much of Peru, but there are scarce data on the prevalence in many rural highland communities where it is likely to be hyper-endemic. Peace Corps Volunteers live and work in these communities; however, to our knowledge, they have not been used to facilitate public health research. Materials and Methods We utilized Peace Corps Volunteers to estimate the prevalence of T. solium tapeworm infection in seven rural communities in northern Peru. A convenience non-random sampling frame was used. Peace Corps Volunteers facilitated the collection of stool samples (N = 2,328), which were analyzed by sedimentation and microscopy. Niclosamide treatment and purgation preceded species identification, which was done by PCR-REA. Results Taenia sp. egg-positive stool samples were found in three of the seven communities we surveyed. The overall prevalence of Taenia sp. egg positivity was 2.1% (49/2,328) (95% CI = 1.6–2.8%) with prevalence up to 4.3% (42/977) (95% CI = 3.1–5.8%) by community. All 34 of the specimens tested by PCR-REA were T. solium. The overall prevalence of T. solium tapeworm infection was 1.5% (34/2,328) (95% CI = 1.0–2.0%). Prevalence up to 2.9% (28/977) (95% CI = 1.9–4.1%) by community was observed. Conclusion/Significance This study recorded high T. solium tapeworm prevalence, and identified hyper-endemic rural communities. It demonstrates that synergy between researchers and Peace Corps Volunteers can be an effective means to conducting large-scale, community-based studies in remote areas of Peru. PMID:25469506

  16. Complexities in using sentinel pigs to study Taenia solium transmission dynamics under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Aryal, Arjun; Tharmalingam, Jayaraman; Joshi, Durga Datt; Rijal, Suman; Speybroeck, Niko; Gabriël, Sarah; Victor, Bjorn; Dorny, Pierre

    2013-03-31

    The transmission dynamics of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, remain a matter of research and debate. In a longitudinal field study performed in southeastern Nepal, 18 sentinel pigs were serologically monitored to study the field kinetics of Taenia antigens and anti-T. solium antibodies. At the end of the twelve months' study period, necropsy was performed and suspected lesions were subjected to molecular identification of the Taenia species. The study generated new hypotheses on the transmission dynamics of Taenia spp. and exposed crucial complexities in the use of sentinel pigs in longitudinal field studies. Sentinel pigs can be useful epidemiological tools, but their use should be thoroughly planned before initiating a study and carefully monitored throughout the course of the study. Important aspects to be considered are those affecting the pig's susceptibility to infection, such as passive immunity, age, hormonal levels, and infection with competing Taenia species. In addition, serological test results should be interpreted considering possible cross-reactions and with proper understanding of the significance of a positive test result.

  17. Proteomic analysis of Taenia solium metacestode excretion-secretion proteins.

    PubMed

    Victor, Bjorn; Kanobana, Kirezi; Gabriël, Sarah; Polman, Katja; Deckers, Nynke; Dorny, Pierre; Deelder, André M; Palmblad, Magnus

    2012-06-01

    The metacestode larval stage of Taenia solium is the causal agent of a zoonotic disease called cysticercosis. The disease has an important impact on pork trade (due to porcine cysticercosis) and public health (due to human neurocysticercosis). In order to improve the current diagnostic tools and to get a better understanding of the interaction between T. solium metacestodes and their host, there is a need for more information about the proteins that are released by the parasite. In this study, we used protein sequences from different helminths, 1DE, reversed-phase LC, and MS/MS to analyze the excretion-secretion proteins produced by T. solium metacestodes from infected pigs. This is the first report of the T. solium metacestode excretion-secretion proteome. We report 76 proteins including 27 already described T. solium proteins, 17 host proteins and 32 proteins likely to be of T. solium origin, but identified using sequences from other helminths.

  18. Recent advances and perspectives in molecular epidemiology of Taenia solium cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Ito, Akira; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Nakao, Minoru

    2016-06-01

    Cysticercosis caused by accidental ingestion of eggs of Taenia solium is spreading all over the world through globalization and is one of the most neglected, neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) or neglected zoonotic diseases (NZDs). In the present study, the reason why T. solium cysticercosis has been neglected is discussed at first, and followed with an overview on the most recent advances and perspectives in molecular approaches for epidemiology of T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis, since although taeniasis does not constitute recognized zoonoses, transmission and complete development are dependent on human definitive hosts. Main topics are discussions on (1) the two, Asian and Afro/American, genotypes of T. solium, (2) comparative analysis of mitochondrial (haploid) and nuclear (diploid) genes, and (3) the presence of hybrids of these two genotypes which indicates out-crossing of two genotypes in hermaphrodite tapeworms in Madagascar. Additional topics are on (4) the usefulness of phylogeographic analyses to discuss where the infection was acquired from, and (5) miscellaneous unsolved topics around these genetic diversity of T. solium.

  19. [Identification of proliferating cells in Taenia solium cysts].

    PubMed

    Orrego-Solano, Miguel Ángel; Cangalaya, Carla; Nash, Theodore E; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Neoblasts are totipotent cells, solely responsible for the proliferation and maturation of tissues in free-living flatworms. Similar cells have been isolated from parasitic flatworms such as Echinococcus. Taenia solium causes human taeniasis (intestinal) and cysticercosis in humans and pigs. Brain infection with larvae (cysts) of T. solium results in neurocysticercosis which is hyperendemic in Peru, and its treatment is associated with serious neurological symptoms. The proliferative capacity and development stages of T. solium have not been described and the neoblasts of this parasite have not been characterized We looked for cell proliferation in T. solium cysts collected from an infected pig, which were identified when replicating and incorporating bromodeoxyuridine nucleotide detected with a monoclonal antibody. A stable cell line of neoblasts would be useful for systematic in vitro studies on drug efficacy and the biology of T. solium.

  20. Progesterone Induces Mucosal Immunity in a Rodent Model of Human Taeniosis by Taenia solium

    PubMed Central

    Escobedo, Galileo; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio; Nava-Luna, Paul; Olivos, Alfonso; Pérez-Torres, Armando; Leon-Cabrera, Sonia; Carrero, J.C.; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    More than one quarter of human world's population is exposed to intestinal helminth parasites. The Taenia solium tapeworm carrier is the main risk factor in the transmission of both human neurocysticercosis and porcine cysticercosis. Sex steroids play an important role during T. solium infection, particularly progesterone has been proposed as a key immunomodulatory hormone involved in susceptibility to human taeniosis in woman and cysticercosis in pregnant pigs. Thus, we evaluated the effect of progesterone administration upon the experimental taeniosis in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Intact female adult hamsters were randomly divided into 3 groups: progesterone-subcutaneously treated; olive oil-treated as the vehicle group; and untreated controls. Animals were treated every other day during 4 weeks. After 2 weeks of treatment, all hamsters were orally infected with 4 viable T. solium cysticerci. After 2 weeks post infection, progesterone-treated hamsters showed reduction in adult worm recovery by 80%, compared to both vehicle-treated and non-manipulated infected animals. In contrast to control and vehicle groups, progesterone treatment diminished tapeworm length by 75% and increased proliferation rate of leukocytes from spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes of infected hamsters by 5-fold. The latter exhibited high expression levels of IL-4, IL-6 and TNF-α at the duodenal mucosa, accompanied with polymorphonuclear leukocytes infiltration. These results support that progesterone protects hamsters from the T. solium adult tapeworm establishment by improving the intestinal mucosal immunity, suggesting a potential use of analogues of this hormone as novel inductors of the gut immune response against intestinal helminth infections and probably other bowel-related disorders. PMID:22110394

  1. Progesterone induces mucosal immunity in a rodent model of human taeniosis by Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Escobedo, Galileo; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio; Nava-Luna, Paul; Olivos, Alfonso; Pérez-Torres, Armando; Leon-Cabrera, Sonia; Carrero, J C; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    More than one quarter of human world's population is exposed to intestinal helminth parasites. The Taenia solium tapeworm carrier is the main risk factor in the transmission of both human neurocysticercosis and porcine cysticercosis. Sex steroids play an important role during T. solium infection, particularly progesterone has been proposed as a key immunomodulatory hormone involved in susceptibility to human taeniosis in woman and cysticercosis in pregnant pigs. Thus, we evaluated the effect of progesterone administration upon the experimental taeniosis in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Intact female adult hamsters were randomly divided into 3 groups: progesterone-subcutaneously treated; olive oil-treated as the vehicle group; and untreated controls. Animals were treated every other day during 4 weeks. After 2 weeks of treatment, all hamsters were orally infected with 4 viable T. solium cysticerci. After 2 weeks post infection, progesterone-treated hamsters showed reduction in adult worm recovery by 80%, compared to both vehicle-treated and non-manipulated infected animals. In contrast to control and vehicle groups, progesterone treatment diminished tapeworm length by 75% and increased proliferation rate of leukocytes from spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes of infected hamsters by 5-fold. The latter exhibited high expression levels of IL-4, IL-6 and TNF-α at the duodenal mucosa, accompanied with polymorphonuclear leukocytes infiltration. These results support that progesterone protects hamsters from the T. solium adult tapeworm establishment by improving the intestinal mucosal immunity, suggesting a potential use of analogues of this hormone as novel inductors of the gut immune response against intestinal helminth infections and probably other bowel-related disorders.

  2. Role of porcine serum haptoglobin in the host-parasite relationship of Taenia solium cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Navarrete-Perea, José; Toledano-Magaña, Yanis; De la Torre, Patricia; Sciutto, Edda; Bobes, Raúl José; Soberón, Xavier; Laclette, Juan Pedro

    2016-06-01

    Human and porcine cysticercosis is a parasitic disease caused by the larval stage (cysts) of the tapeworm Taenia solium. Cysts may live in several host tissues such as skeletal muscle or brain. We have previously described the presence of host haptoglobin (Hp) and hemoglobin (Hb) in different protein extracts of the T. solium cysts. Here, we report the binding of host Hp and Hb to a number of cyst proteins, evaluated through measuring electrophoretic and light absorbance changes. In the sera obtained from 18 cysticercotic pigs, Hp-Hb complexes were abundant, whereas free Hp was undetectable. In contrast, in the sera from non 18 cysticercotic pigs, Hp-Hb and free Hp were found. In the soluble protein fraction of cysts tissue, free Hp was detected showing a considerable Hb-binding ability, whereas in the vesicular fluid, Hp is mainly bound to Hb. Interestingly, assays carried out with the insoluble fraction of T. solium cysts tissue, showed binding of Hp and Hp-Hb in a saturable way, suggesting the existence of specific interactions. Our results suggested that the parasite can take advantage of the uptaken host Hp and Hb, either free or in complexes, as a source of iron or as a way to modulate the inflammatory response surrounding the T. solium cysts.

  3. Role of porcine serum haptoglobin in the host-parasite relationship of Taenia solium cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Navarrete-Perea, José; Toledano-Magaña, Yanis; De la Torre, Patricia; Sciutto, Edda; Bobes, Raúl José; Soberón, Xavier; Laclette, Juan Pedro

    2016-06-01

    Human and porcine cysticercosis is a parasitic disease caused by the larval stage (cysts) of the tapeworm Taenia solium. Cysts may live in several host tissues such as skeletal muscle or brain. We have previously described the presence of host haptoglobin (Hp) and hemoglobin (Hb) in different protein extracts of the T. solium cysts. Here, we report the binding of host Hp and Hb to a number of cyst proteins, evaluated through measuring electrophoretic and light absorbance changes. In the sera obtained from 18 cysticercotic pigs, Hp-Hb complexes were abundant, whereas free Hp was undetectable. In contrast, in the sera from non 18 cysticercotic pigs, Hp-Hb and free Hp were found. In the soluble protein fraction of cysts tissue, free Hp was detected showing a considerable Hb-binding ability, whereas in the vesicular fluid, Hp is mainly bound to Hb. Interestingly, assays carried out with the insoluble fraction of T. solium cysts tissue, showed binding of Hp and Hp-Hb in a saturable way, suggesting the existence of specific interactions. Our results suggested that the parasite can take advantage of the uptaken host Hp and Hb, either free or in complexes, as a source of iron or as a way to modulate the inflammatory response surrounding the T. solium cysts. PMID:27234210

  4. From stillness to motion: 80 years after the first description of Taenia solium oncosphere hatching

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Human neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a considered public health problem in many underdeveloped and developing countries. Because of the enormous increase in international tourism and migration, NCC nowadays is also found in some developed countries. Our group was the first to demonstrate that tapeworm carriers in the household are the main risk factor for acquiring cysticercosis in humans and pigs, since the disease results from the ingestion of microscopic tapeworm eggs. Findings We had the opportunity to film the liberation of the embryo from the oncospheral membrane after the hatching of the egg, which is the activation process required for intestinal wall invasion by the onchosphere. Yoshino (J Formosa Med Ass 32:139-142, 1933) described with great detail in diagrams and photographs this process eighty years ago after he infected himself with three living cysticerci in order to study the life cycle of Taenia solium. Other authors further described this process. Nevertheless it has never been filmed before. The purpose of this paper is to shift from stillness to motion since we can now show for the first time a movie of an activated oncosphere and its release from the oncospheral membrane. Conclusion Oncospheral activation is the requisite for T. solium embryos to invade the intestinal mucosa and develop into cysticerci. This process has been amply described but here it is shown for the first time in motion; thus it may be of interest for readers of the journal and useful for educational purposes towards the control of NCC. PMID:24433262

  5. Identification and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers Derived from the Whole Genome Analysis of Taenia solium

    PubMed Central

    Pajuelo, Mónica J.; Eguiluz, María; Dahlstrom, Eric; Requena, David; Guzmán, Frank; Ramirez, Manuel; Sheen, Patricia; Frace, Michael; Sammons, Scott; Cama, Vitaliano; Anzick, Sarah; Bruno, Dan; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Wilkins, Patricia; Nash, Theodore; Gonzalez, Armando; García, Héctor H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Porcella, Steve; Zimic, Mirko

    2015-01-01

    Background Infections with Taenia solium are the most common cause of adult acquired seizures worldwide, and are the leading cause of epilepsy in developing countries. A better understanding of the genetic diversity of T. solium will improve parasite diagnostics and transmission pathways in endemic areas thereby facilitating the design of future control measures and interventions. Microsatellite markers are useful genome features, which enable strain typing and identification in complex pathogen genomes. Here we describe microsatellite identification and characterization in T. solium, providing information that will assist in global efforts to control this important pathogen. Methods For genome sequencing, T. solium cysts and proglottids were collected from Huancayo and Puno in Peru, respectively. Using next generation sequencing (NGS) and de novo assembly, we assembled two draft genomes and one hybrid genome. Microsatellite sequences were identified and 36 of them were selected for further analysis. Twenty T. solium isolates were collected from Tumbes in the northern region, and twenty from Puno in the southern region of Peru. The size-polymorphism of the selected microsatellites was determined with multi-capillary electrophoresis. We analyzed the association between microsatellite polymorphism and the geographic origin of the samples. Results The predicted size of the hybrid (proglottid genome combined with cyst genome) T. solium genome was 111 MB with a GC content of 42.54%. A total of 7,979 contigs (>1,000 nt) were obtained. We identified 9,129 microsatellites in the Puno-proglottid genome and 9,936 in the Huancayo-cyst genome, with 5 or more repeats, ranging from mono- to hexa-nucleotide. Seven microsatellites were polymorphic and 29 were monomorphic within the analyzed isolates. T. solium tapeworms were classified into two genetic groups that correlated with the North/South geographic origin of the parasites. Conclusions/Significance The availability of draft

  6. Taeniasis and cysticercosis due to Taenia solium in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Taenia solium is a zoonotic cestode that causes taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans. The parasite is traditionally found in developing countries where undercooked pork is consumed under poor sanitary conditions and/or as part of traditional food cultures. However, the recent increase in international tourism and immigration is spreading the disease into non-endemic developed countries such as the United States. Although there has been concern that the number of cysticercosis cases is increasing in Japan, the current situation is not clear. This is largely because taeniasis and cysticercosis are not notifiable conditions in Japan and because there have been no comprehensive reviews of T. solium infections in Japan conducted in the last 15 years. Herein, we provide an overview of the status of T. solium infection in Japan over the past 35 years and point out the potential risks to Japanese society. PMID:22248435

  7. Immunological mechanisms involved in the protection against intestinal taeniosis elicited by oral immunization with Taenia solium calreticulin.

    PubMed

    Leon-Cabrera, Sonia; Cruz-Rivera, Mayra; Mendlovic, Fela; Romero-Valdovinos, Mirza; Vaughan, Gilberto; Salazar, Ana María; Avila, Guillermina; Flisser, Ana

    2012-11-01

    Oral immunization with functional recombinant Taenia solium calreticulin (rTsCRT) induces 37% reduction in tapeworm burden in the experimental model of intestinal taeniosis in hamsters. Furthermore, tapeworms recovered from vaccinated animals exhibit diminished length, being frequently found in more posterior parts of the small intestine. The aim of this study was to analyze the immunological mechanisms involved in protection in response to rTsCRT oral immunization. Hamsters were orally immunized with rTsCRT using cholera toxin (CT) as adjuvant, weekly for 4 weeks. Fifteen days after the last boost animals were challenged with four T. solium cysticerci. Reduction in the adult worm recovery and increased transcription of mRNA for IL-4 and IFN-γ in the mucosa of rTsCRT+CT immunized animals were observed. Immunization also induced goblet cell hyperplasia in the mucosa surrounding the implantation site of the parasite. Specific IgG and IgA antibodies in serum and fecal supernatants were detected after the second immunization, being more pronounced after challenge. Our data suggest that oral vaccination with rTsCRT+CT regulates a local expression of IL-4 and IFN-γ, stimulating secretion of IgA that, together with the increase of goblet cells and mucin production, could result in an unfavorable environment for T. solium promoting an impaired tapeworm development.

  8. Taenia solium cysticerci synthesize androgens and estrogens in vitro.

    PubMed

    Valdéz, R A; Jiménez, P; Cartas, A L; Gómez, Y; Romano, M C

    2006-04-01

    Cysticerci from Taenia solium develop in the pig muscle and cause severe diseases in humans. Here we report on the capacity of T. solium cysticerci to synthesize sex steroid hormones. T. solium cysticerci were dissected from infected pork meat. Parasites were incubated for different periods in culture media plus antibiotics and tritiated steroid precursors. Blanks and parasite culture media were extracted and analyzed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) in two different solvent systems. In some experiments, the scoleces were incubated separately. Results showed that T. solium cysticerci transform [(3)H]androstenedione to [(3)H]testosterone in a time-dependent manner. The production was confirmed in two different solvent systems. The incubation with [(3)H]testosterone yielded only small amounts of [(3)H]androstenedione. The recrystallization procedure further demonstrated that the metabolite identified by TLC was testosterone. The isolated scoleces incubated in the presence of [(3)H]androstenedione yielded [(3)H]testosterone and small quantities of [(3)H]17beta-estradiol. The results reported here demonstrate that T. solium cysticerci have the capacity to synthesize steroid hormones.

  9. Cytokine, Antibody and Proliferative Cellular Responses Elicited by Taenia solium Calreticulin upon Experimental Infection in Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Mendlovic, Fela; Cruz-Rivera, Mayra; Ávila, Guillermina; Vaughan, Gilberto; Flisser, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium causes two diseases in humans, cysticercosis and taeniosis. Tapeworm carriers are the main risk factor for neurocysticercosis. Limited information is available about the immune response elicited by the adult parasite, particularly the induction of Th2 responses, frequently associated to helminth infections. Calreticulin is a ubiquitous, multifunctional protein involved in cellular calcium homeostasis, which has been suggested to play a role in the regulation of immune responses. In this work, we assessed the effect of recombinant T. solium calreticulin (rTsCRT) on the cytokine, humoral and cellular responses upon experimental infection in Syrian Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Animals were infected with T. solium cysticerci and euthanized at different times after infection. Specific serum antibodies, proliferative responses in mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen cells, as well as cytokines messenger RNA (mRNA) were analyzed. The results showed that one third of the infected animals elicited anti-rTsCRT IgG antibodies. Interestingly, mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells from either infected or non-infected animals did not proliferate upon in vitro stimulation with rTsCRT. Additionally, stimulation with a tapeworm crude extract resulted in increased expression of IL-4 and IL-5 mRNA. Upon stimulation, rTsCRT increased the expression levels of IL-10 in spleen and MLN cells from uninfected and infected hamsters. The results showed that rTsCRT favors a Th2-biased immune response characterized by the induction of IL-10 in mucosal and systemic lymphoid organs. Here we provide the first data on the cytokine, antibody and cellular responses to rTsCRT upon in vitro stimulation during taeniasis. PMID:25811778

  10. Cytokine, antibody and proliferative cellular responses elicited by Taenia solium calreticulin upon experimental infection in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Mendlovic, Fela; Cruz-Rivera, Mayra; Ávila, Guillermina; Vaughan, Gilberto; Flisser, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium causes two diseases in humans, cysticercosis and taeniosis. Tapeworm carriers are the main risk factor for neurocysticercosis. Limited information is available about the immune response elicited by the adult parasite, particularly the induction of Th2 responses, frequently associated to helminth infections. Calreticulin is a ubiquitous, multifunctional protein involved in cellular calcium homeostasis, which has been suggested to play a role in the regulation of immune responses. In this work, we assessed the effect of recombinant T. solium calreticulin (rTsCRT) on the cytokine, humoral and cellular responses upon experimental infection in Syrian Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Animals were infected with T. solium cysticerci and euthanized at different times after infection. Specific serum antibodies, proliferative responses in mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen cells, as well as cytokines messenger RNA (mRNA) were analyzed. The results showed that one third of the infected animals elicited anti-rTsCRT IgG antibodies. Interestingly, mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells from either infected or non-infected animals did not proliferate upon in vitro stimulation with rTsCRT. Additionally, stimulation with a tapeworm crude extract resulted in increased expression of IL-4 and IL-5 mRNA. Upon stimulation, rTsCRT increased the expression levels of IL-10 in spleen and MLN cells from uninfected and infected hamsters. The results showed that rTsCRT favors a Th2-biased immune response characterized by the induction of IL-10 in mucosal and systemic lymphoid organs. Here we provide the first data on the cytokine, antibody and cellular responses to rTsCRT upon in vitro stimulation during taeniasis.

  11. Vaccination against Taenia solium cysticercosis in underfed rustic pigs of México: roles of age, genetic background and antibody response.

    PubMed

    Huerta, M; Sciutto, E; García, G; Villalobos, N; Hernández, M; Fragoso, G; Díaz, J; Díaz, A; Ramírez, R; Luna, S; García, J; Aguilar, E; Espinoza, S; Castilla, G; Bobadilla, J R; Avila, R; José, M V; Larralde, C; de Aluja, A S

    2000-06-27

    Vaccination of pigs of mixed genetic make-up, raised as rustically as done in rural Mexico, resulted in effective protection to experimental challenge against Taenia solium cysticercosis. Maximum protection was achieved if pigs were immunized at 70 days of age. There was large variation of viable parasite load within vaccinated pigs and controls, which is suggestive of significant genetic factors influencing susceptibility, besides immunization. Our results strengthen the advisability of pig vaccination for control of T. solium cysticercosis, since it lowers the number of viable cysticerci capable of transforming into tapeworms.

  12. Epidemiology of Taenia solium in Nepal: is it influenced by the social characteristics of the population and the presence of Taenia asiatica?

    PubMed

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Aryal, Arjun; Joshi, Durga Datt; Rijal, Suman; Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadur; Praet, Nicolas; Speybroeck, Niko; Duchateau, Luc; Vercruysse, Jozef; Dorny, Pierre

    2012-08-01

    The transmission of the zoonotic pork tapeworms Taenia solium and T. asiatica depends on a combination of specific risk factors, such as open defecation, backyard pig raising and the consumption of raw or undercooked pork and viscera. A community-based survey was conducted among 289 households in south-eastern Nepal to study the heterogeneity of these risk factor frequencies as a function of the social composition of the population. The frequency of open defecation, backyard pig raising and pork consumption differed significantly (P < 0.005) among the different coexisting caste and ethnic groups. In the same survey, the taeniosis prevalence was examined among the different groups. Tapeworm carriers were identified at a high prevalence among the Dum, one of the most disadvantaged communities of Nepal. A PCR-RFLP assay revealed that all collected tapeworm specimens were T. asiatica, a species thus far not known to occur in South Asia. These results can help to understand the epidemiology of T. solium in Nepal, which appears to be more complex than thought so far. PMID:22643112

  13. Epidemiology of Taenia solium in Nepal: is it influenced by the social characteristics of the population and the presence of Taenia asiatica?

    PubMed

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Aryal, Arjun; Joshi, Durga Datt; Rijal, Suman; Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadur; Praet, Nicolas; Speybroeck, Niko; Duchateau, Luc; Vercruysse, Jozef; Dorny, Pierre

    2012-08-01

    The transmission of the zoonotic pork tapeworms Taenia solium and T. asiatica depends on a combination of specific risk factors, such as open defecation, backyard pig raising and the consumption of raw or undercooked pork and viscera. A community-based survey was conducted among 289 households in south-eastern Nepal to study the heterogeneity of these risk factor frequencies as a function of the social composition of the population. The frequency of open defecation, backyard pig raising and pork consumption differed significantly (P < 0.005) among the different coexisting caste and ethnic groups. In the same survey, the taeniosis prevalence was examined among the different groups. Tapeworm carriers were identified at a high prevalence among the Dum, one of the most disadvantaged communities of Nepal. A PCR-RFLP assay revealed that all collected tapeworm specimens were T. asiatica, a species thus far not known to occur in South Asia. These results can help to understand the epidemiology of T. solium in Nepal, which appears to be more complex than thought so far.

  14. [Total protein analysis by two-dimensional electrophoresis in cysticerci of Taenia solium and Taenia asiatica].

    PubMed

    Fang, Wen; Xiao, Liang-Liang; Bao, Huai-En; Mu, Rong

    2011-06-01

    Two 20-day-old three-way crossed hybrid pigs were infected with 80000 Taenia solium or T. asiatica eggs, respectively. Immature cysticerci of the two species in liver were collected at 40 days after infection. The total proteins were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis, and differentially expressed proteins were analyzed by Image-Master 2D Platinum 6.0 software. The results showed that there were (236 +/- 12) and (231 +/- 14) protein spots in 2D electrophoresis gel images of T. solium and T. asiatica, respectively, with 3 proteins up-regulated and 7 proteins down-regulated in T. solium cysticercus by 2-fold or more compared with those in T. asiatica cysticercus.

  15. Taenia solium cysticercosis/taeniosis: potential linkage with FAO activities; FAO support possibilities.

    PubMed

    Eddi, Carlos; Nari, Armando; Amanfu, William

    2003-06-01

    Neurocysticercosis due to Taenia solium metacestodes is an important cause of human morbidity and mortality, particularly in parts of Latin America, Africa and Asia. The disease has been recognized as potentially eradicable. Emphasis has been placed on control through mass chemotherapy of human populations to remove tapeworm carriers, but this strategy does not control the source of infections, which is cysticercosis in pigs. Also, transmission may continue due to incomplete chemotherapy coverage of human carriers or because of immigration of tapeworm carriers into controlled areas. The FAO through the Veterinary Public Health (VPH) and Food Safety program has provided support for the write-up of guidelines for cysticercosis, diagnoses and control. This should be released in a joint effort with OIE and WHO and will provide regular support to seminars, workshops and congresses related to VPH. The FAO regular program has also established a global network of people directly involved in VPH, and is currently in the process of establishing four regional networks located in Asia, Africa, Eastern and Central Europe and Latin America. The networks should provide a basic framework to spread information related to diagnosis, prevention and control of major zoonotic diseases through electronic conferences, discussions, newsletters, and a Directory to establish contact with people involved in VPH and zoonotic diseases. Through the Technical Cooperation Program (TCP) the FAO has a tool to help Member Countries to create the basic environment to control emerging zoo-sanitary problems, such as zoonotic and food borne diseases. PMID:12781389

  16. Genetic similarity between cysticerci of Taenia solium isolated from human brain and from pigs.

    PubMed

    Hinojosa-Juarez, Araceli Consuelo; Sandoval-Balanzario, Miguel; McManus, Donald Peter; Monroy-Ostria, Amalia

    2008-09-01

    Mitochondrial (mt) cox1 and ribosomal ITS1 DNA sequences from Taenia solium cysticercus isolates from pigs and cysticerci (racemose and cellulose types) from patients with neurocysticercosis were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The amplicons were sequenced in order to determine the genetic relationship between these types of cysticerci. Phylogenetic trees were constructed and evolutionary distances were calculated. ITS1 and mt cox1 cysticerci sequence data were compared with previously published Taenia spp. sequences. The variation in the ITS1 and cox1 sequences of samples collected from Mexico was minimal, regardless of geographical origin, size or colour of cysticerci from either pigs or human brain. These results suggest that the racemose and cellulose types represent genetically identical metacestodes of T. solium. Alignment of the mt cox1 sequences of the Mexican samples with sequences of other Taenia taxa showed that most were very similar to T. solium from Mexico and T. solium from Colombia; one T. solium Mexican isolate and Taenia hydatigena were placed in the same group close to Taenia crassiceps. The ITS1 sequences for the Mexican T. solium samples indicated the majority were in the same group as the Latin American T. solium. Two Mexican T. solium samples and T. solium from Philippines were placed together in a different group.

  17. Does interspecific competition have a moderating effect on Taenia solium transmission dynamics in Southeast Asia?

    PubMed

    Conlan, James V; Vongxay, Khamphouth; Fenwick, Stanley; Blacksell, Stuart D; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2009-09-01

    It is well understood that sociocultural practices strongly influence Taenia solium transmission; however, the extent to which interspecific parasite competition moderates Taenia transmission has yet to be determined. This is certainly the case in Southeast Asia where T. solium faces competition in both the definitive host (people) and the intermediate host (pigs). In people, adult worms of T. solium, T. saginata and T. asiatica compete through density-dependent crowding mechanisms. In pigs, metacestodes of T. solium, T. hydatigena and T. asiatica compete through density-dependent immune-mediated interactions. Here, we describe the biological and epidemiological implications of Taenia competition and propose that interspecific competition has a moderating effect on the transmission dynamics of T. solium in the region. Furthermore, we argue that this competitive ecological scenario should be considered in future research and surveillance activities examining T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Southeast Asia.

  18. Vaccination against Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs using native and recombinant oncosphere antigens.

    PubMed

    Plancarte, A; Flisser, A; Gauci, C G; Lightowlers, M W

    1999-04-01

    Pigs were immunised with antigens derived from Taenia solium oncospheres or with a pool of three recombinant antigens from Taenia ovis, and subsequently challenged with T. solium eggs. The native oncosphere antigens induced 83% protection against viable, and 89% protection against the total number of cysticerci established following the challenge infection. Immunisation with the recombinant T. ovis antigens induced 93% protection against the establishment of viable cysticerci, and 74% protection against the total number of cysticerci. These results, and those achieved elsewhere with Taenia saginata and T. ovis, support the possibility of developing a practical vaccine to assist in the control of transmission of T. solium through pigs.

  19. Genetic diversity of Taenia solium cysticerci from naturally infected pigs of central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Bobes, Raúl J; Fragoso, Gladis; Reyes-Montes, María del Rocio; Duarte-Escalante, Esperanza; Vega, Rodrigo; de Aluja, Aline S; Zúñiga, Gerardo; Morales, Julio; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

    2010-02-26

    This study was designed to explore if each individual case of naturally acquired porcine cysticercosis, living in different geographic rural areas of central Mexico, is caused by one or more different specimens of Taenia solium tapeworm. The genetic variability among cysticerci from the same pig and that from different pigs was assessed by random amplified polymorphic DNA markers (RAPDs), through the percentage of polymorphic loci, the number of effective alleles, the expected heterozygosity and the Shannon index. The parasite population's reproductive structure was estimated through the association index (I(A)), and the degree of genetic differentiation and variation was determined using AMOVA. Using six different random primers, and a total of 181 cysticerci from 14 pigs, 88 different loci were amplified: 85% were polymorphic between pigs and 24% within pigs. The phenogram grouped the cysticerci into eight major clusters, with differences in the genetic distances among all cysticerci from 14 pigs ranging from 0.78 to 1. Most of the cysticerci grouped in accord with their different geographical origin and with their pig of origin. The similarity matrix produced from the phenogram (obtained by UPGMA) and the original similarity matrix yielded a good cophenetic correlation (r=0.82317, P=0.0004), which suggests that the phenogram accurately represents the original genetic similarities between isolates. The combination of I(A) (0.0-0.089) with the genetic diversity index (0.009-0.073) supports the idea that DNA diversity in T. solium cysticerci of naturally infected pigs is within the range expected from a recombination process occurring during sexual reproduction. The small genetic diversity found within the cysticerci of each pig (33.81%), when compared with that between pigs (66.19%), indicates that pigs are rarely infected by different tapeworms. It would then appear that porcine cysticercosis courses with effective concomitant immunity, as occurs in ovine

  20. A cross-sectional study of Taenia solium in a multiple taeniid-endemic region reveals competition may be protective.

    PubMed

    Conlan, James V; Vongxay, Khamphouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Dorny, Pierre; Sripa, Banchob; Elliot, Aileen; Blacksell, Stuart D; Fenwick, Stanley; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2012-08-01

    We conducted cross-sectional surveys for taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans, pigs, and dogs in four northern provinces of Laos. Human cysticercosis and taeniasis prevalence was 2.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4-3.0%) and 8.4% (95% CI = 6.9-9.9%), respectively. Eating uncooked beef, being male, province of residence, age, and ethnicity were significant risk factors for taeniasis and only province of residence was a significant risk factor for cystiercosis. Thirty-five human tapeworms were recovered during the survey and 33 (94.3%) and 2 (5.7%) were identified as Taenia saginata and T. solium, respectively. Maximum-likelihood adjusted prevalence of T. solium and T. hydatigena in pigs was 4.2% (95% CI = 0.5-7.9%) and 55.9% (95% CI = 47.5-64.3%), respectively, and T. hydatigena taeniasis in dogs was 4.8% (95% CI = 0.0-11.3%). Taenia hydatigena and T. saginata were the most prevalent taeniids in the respective pig and human populations and together may suppress T. solium transmission.

  1. Evaluation of Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps cysticercal antigens for the serodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Arruda, G C; da Silva, A D T; Quagliato, E M A B; Maretti, M A; Rossi, C L

    2005-10-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of seven cysticercal antigen extracts, four from Taenia solium cysticerci (whole parasite-TsoW, membrane-TsoMe, vesicular fluid-TsoVF and scolex-TsoSc) and three from T. crassiceps cysticerci (whole parasite-TcraW, membrane-TcraMe and vesicular fluid-TcraVF), for serodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cysticercus-specific IgG were screened in serum samples from 23 patients with neurocysticercosis, 32 patients with other infections and 48 healthy persons. The best results were obtained with the TsoVF-ELISA (91.3% sensitivity; 96.2% specificity) and TcraVF-ELISA (91.3% sensitivity; 95% specificity). The ELISA done with whole parasite and membrane extracts from cysts of T. solium and T. crassiceps and the scolex extract from T. solium cysts showed a low performance in terms of sensitivity, ranging from 47.8% to 73.9%. None of the antigen preparations from T. solium and T. crassiceps cysticerci used in this study showed outstanding performance for the serodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis. However, considering the results obtained with the seven antigen preparations, vesicular fluid from T. solium and T. crassiceps cysticerci may be useful for detecting specific antibodies in sera from patients with neurocysticercosis.

  2. Immunoinformatics prediction of linear epitopes from Taenia solium TSOL18

    PubMed Central

    Zimic, Mirko; Gutiérrez, Andrés Hazaet; Gilman, Robert Hugh; López, César; Quiliano, Miguel; Evangelista, Wilfredo; Gonzales, Armando; García, Héctor Hugo; Sheen, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Cysticercosis is a public health problem in several developing countries. The oncosphere protein TSOL18 is the most immunogenic and protective antigen ever reported against porcine cysticercosis, although no specific epitope has been identified to account for these properties. Recent evidence suggests that protection might be associated with conformational epitopes. Linear epitopes from TSOL18 were computationally predicted and evaluated for immunogenicity and protection against porcine cysticercosis. A synthetic peptide was designed based on predicted linear B cell and T cell epitopes that are exposed on the surface of the theoretically modeled structure of TSOL18. Three surface epitopes from TSOL18 were predicted as immunogenic. A peptide comprising a linear arrangement of these epitopes was chemically synthesized. The capacity of the synthetic peptide to protect pigs against an oral challenge with Taenia solium proglottids was tested in a vaccine trial. The synthetic peptide was able to produce IgG antibodies in pigs and was associated to a reduction of the number of cysts, although was not able to provide complete protection, defined as the complete absence of cysts in necropsy. This study demonstrated that B cell and T cell predicted epitopes from TSOL18 were not able to completely protect pigs against an oral challenge with Taenia solium proglottids. Therefore, other linear epitopes or eventually conformational epitopes may be responsible for the protection conferred by TSOL18. PMID:21738328

  3. Novel Rat Model for Neurocysticercosis Using Taenia solium

    PubMed Central

    Verastegui, Manuela R.; Mejia, Alan; Clark, Taryn; Gavidia, Cesar M.; Mamani, Javier; Ccopa, Fredy; Angulo, Noelia; Chile, Nancy; Carmen, Rogger; Medina, Roxana; García, Hector H.; Rodriguez, Silvia; Ortega, Ynes; Gilman, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium infecting the central nervous system and is the leading cause of acquired epilepsy and convulsive conditions worldwide. Research into the pathophysiology of the disease and appropriate treatment is hindered by lack of cost-effective and physiologically similar animal models. We generated a novel rat neurocysticercosis model using intracranial infection with activated T. solium oncospheres. Holtzman rats were infected in two separate groups: the first group was inoculated extraparenchymally and the second intraparenchymally, with different doses of activated oncospheres. The groups were evaluated at three different ages. Histologic examination of the tissue surrounding T. solium cysticerci was performed. Results indicate that generally infected rats developed cysticerci in the brain tissue after 4 months, and the cysticerci were observed in the parenchymal, ventricle, or submeningeal brain tissue. The route of infection did not have a statistically significant effect on the proportion of rats that developed cysticerci, and there was no dependence on infection dose. However, rat age was crucial to the success of the infection. Epilepsy was observed in 9% of rats with neurocysticercosis. In histologic examination, a layer of collagen tissue, inflammatory infiltrate cells, perivascular infiltrate, angiogenesis, spongy change, and mass effect were observed in the tissue surrounding the cysts. This study presents a suitable animal model for the study of human neurocysticercosis. PMID:26216286

  4. Novel rat model for neurocysticercosis using Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Verastegui, Manuela R; Mejia, Alan; Clark, Taryn; Gavidia, Cesar M; Mamani, Javier; Ccopa, Fredy; Angulo, Noelia; Chile, Nancy; Carmen, Rogger; Medina, Roxana; García, Hector H; Rodriguez, Silvia; Ortega, Ynes; Gilman, Robert H

    2015-08-01

    Neurocysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium infecting the central nervous system and is the leading cause of acquired epilepsy and convulsive conditions worldwide. Research into the pathophysiology of the disease and appropriate treatment is hindered by lack of cost-effective and physiologically similar animal models. We generated a novel rat neurocysticercosis model using intracranial infection with activated T. solium oncospheres. Holtzman rats were infected in two separate groups: the first group was inoculated extraparenchymally and the second intraparenchymally, with different doses of activated oncospheres. The groups were evaluated at three different ages. Histologic examination of the tissue surrounding T. solium cysticerci was performed. Results indicate that generally infected rats developed cysticerci in the brain tissue after 4 months, and the cysticerci were observed in the parenchymal, ventricle, or submeningeal brain tissue. The route of infection did not have a statistically significant effect on the proportion of rats that developed cysticerci, and there was no dependence on infection dose. However, rat age was crucial to the success of the infection. Epilepsy was observed in 9% of rats with neurocysticercosis. In histologic examination, a layer of collagen tissue, inflammatory infiltrate cells, perivascular infiltrate, angiogenesis, spongy change, and mass effect were observed in the tissue surrounding the cysts. This study presents a suitable animal model for the study of human neurocysticercosis.

  5. Novel rat model for neurocysticercosis using Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Verastegui, Manuela R; Mejia, Alan; Clark, Taryn; Gavidia, Cesar M; Mamani, Javier; Ccopa, Fredy; Angulo, Noelia; Chile, Nancy; Carmen, Rogger; Medina, Roxana; García, Hector H; Rodriguez, Silvia; Ortega, Ynes; Gilman, Robert H

    2015-08-01

    Neurocysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium infecting the central nervous system and is the leading cause of acquired epilepsy and convulsive conditions worldwide. Research into the pathophysiology of the disease and appropriate treatment is hindered by lack of cost-effective and physiologically similar animal models. We generated a novel rat neurocysticercosis model using intracranial infection with activated T. solium oncospheres. Holtzman rats were infected in two separate groups: the first group was inoculated extraparenchymally and the second intraparenchymally, with different doses of activated oncospheres. The groups were evaluated at three different ages. Histologic examination of the tissue surrounding T. solium cysticerci was performed. Results indicate that generally infected rats developed cysticerci in the brain tissue after 4 months, and the cysticerci were observed in the parenchymal, ventricle, or submeningeal brain tissue. The route of infection did not have a statistically significant effect on the proportion of rats that developed cysticerci, and there was no dependence on infection dose. However, rat age was crucial to the success of the infection. Epilepsy was observed in 9% of rats with neurocysticercosis. In histologic examination, a layer of collagen tissue, inflammatory infiltrate cells, perivascular infiltrate, angiogenesis, spongy change, and mass effect were observed in the tissue surrounding the cysts. This study presents a suitable animal model for the study of human neurocysticercosis. PMID:26216286

  6. Steroid hormone production by parasites: the case of Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium cysticerci.

    PubMed

    Romano, M C; Valdéz, R A; Cartas, A L; Gómez, Y; Larralde, C

    2003-06-01

    Many examples of reciprocal endocrine interactions between parasites and hosts have been found in insects, arthropods and mammals. Cysticercosis produced by Taenia solium metacestodes is a widely distributed parasite infection that affects the human and the pig. Taenia crassiceps experimental murine cysticercosis has been used to explore the role of biological factors involved in host-parasite interactions. We had shown that T. crassiceps cysticercosis affects the serum concentration of steroid hormones and the reproduction behavior of the male mice host. In an effort to understand the biology of the parasite, we had investigated the parasite capacity to produce sex steroids. For this purpose, T. crassiceps cysticerci were incubated in the presence of different steroid precursors. TLC and recrystallization procedures showed that testosterone is produced from 3H-androstenedione in cysticerci. The conversion of 3H-testosterone to androstenedione, although present is much less significant. In addition, we had studied the production of testosterone by T. solium cysticerci. For this purpose, cysticerci were dissected from pork meat and incubated as above described. The results showed that T. solium cysticerci also produce testosterone. We have speculated about the importance of androgens in the growth of T. crassiceps cysticerci and found that the addition of the antiandrogen flutamide to the culture media of the parasites significantly decreased 3H-thymidine incorporation. We therefore hypothesized, that the ability of cysticerci to produce testosterone from steroid precursors might be important for the parasite growth and development.

  7. Evaluating the Efficacy of Teaching Methods Regarding Prevention of Human Epilepsy Caused by Taenia solium Neurocysticercosis in Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Wohlgemut, Jared; Dewey, Cate; Levy, Mike; Mutua, Florence

    2010-01-01

    Taenia solium neurocysticercosis is a major cause of adult-onset epilepsy in developing countries. A questionnaire was administered to 282 Kenyan farmers, followed by a workshop, a second questionnaire, one-on-one training, and a third questionnaire. People who attended workshops were more likely to know how T. solium causes epilepsy in humans in the third visit than the second (P = 0.001). The likelihood that farmers would tether their pigs 100% of the time, limiting exposure to tapeworm eggs, increased after the first (P < 0.001) and second visits (P < 0.001). Farmers were more likely to have heard of Cysticercus cellulosae in the second (P = 0.001) and third visits (P = 0.007), and to know how pigs acquire infection in the second (P = 0.03) and third visits (P = 0.003). Farmers with at least a grade 8 education were more likely to know how T. solium is transmitted to humans in the second (P = 0.001) and third visits (P = 0.009), and were more likely to understand the relationship between epilepsy and T. solium in the second (P = 0.03) and third visits (P = 0.03). Grade 8 education may enhance learning from written material. Workshops followed by individual on-farm training enhanced knowledge acquisition and behavior changes. Training local government extension workers contributed to the sustainability of this project. PMID:20348512

  8. In Vitro Study of Taenia solium Postoncospheral Form

    PubMed Central

    Chile, Nancy; Clark, Taryn; Arana, Yanina; Ortega, Ynes R.; Palma, Sandra; Mejia, Alan; Angulo, Noelia; Kosek, Jon C.; Kosek, Margaret; Gomez-Puerta, Luis A.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gavidia, Cesar M.; Gilman, Robert H.; Verastegui, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Background The transitional period between the oncosphere and the cysticercus of Taenia solium is the postoncospheral (PO) form, which has not yet been completely characterized. The aim of this work was to standardize a method to obtain T. solium PO forms by in vitro cultivation. We studied the morphology of the PO form and compared the expression of antigenic proteins among the PO form, oncosphere, and cysticerci stages. Methodology/Principal Findings T. solium activated oncospheres were co-cultured with ten cell lines to obtain PO forms, which we studied at three stages of development–days 15, 30, and 60. A high percentage (32%) of PO forms was obtained using HCT-8 cells in comparison to the other cell lines. The morphology was observed by bright field, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. Morphology of the PO form changed over time, with the six hooks commonly seen in the oncosphere stage disappearing in the PO forms, and vesicles and microtriches observed in the tegument. The PO forms grew as they aged, reaching a diameter of 2.5 mm at 60 days of culture. 15–30 day PO forms developed into mature cysticerci when inoculated into rats. Antigenic proteins expressed in the PO forms are also expressed by the oncosphere and cysticerci stages, with more cysticerci antigenic proteins expressed as the PO forms ages. Conclusions/Significance This is the first report of an in vitro production method of T. solium PO forms. The changes observed in protein expression may be useful in identifying new targets for vaccine development. In vitro culture of PO form will aid in understanding the host-parasite relationship, since the structural changes of the developing PO forms may reflect the parasite’s immunoprotective mechanisms. A wider application of this method could significantly reduce the use of animals, and thus the costs and time required for further experimental investigations. PMID:26863440

  9. Immunolocalization of TSOL18 and TSOL45-1A, the successful protective peptides against porcine cysticercosis, in Taenia solium oncospheres.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Ocaña, Joel; Romero-Valdovinos, Mirza; de Kaminsky, Rina G; Maravilla, Pablo; Flisser, Ana

    2011-01-06

    Taenia solium life cycle includes humans as definitive hosts and pigs as intermediate hosts. One of the measures to stop the life cycle of this parasite is by vaccination of pigs. In experiments performed in pigs with TSOL18 and TSOL45-1A, two recombinant T. solium proteins, 99.5% and 97.0% protection was induced, respectively. The purpose of this paper was to localize these antigens in all stages of the parasite (adult worms, oncospheres and cysticerci) by immunofluorescence, with the use of antibodies against TSOL18 and TSOL45-1A that were obtained from the pigs used in the vaccination experiment. Results show that TSOL18 and TSOL45-1A are expressed on the surface of T. solium oncospheres and not in tapeworms or cysticerci, indicating that they are stage-specific antigens. This, therefore, might explain the high level of protection these antigens induce against pig cysticercosis.

  10. Immunolocalization of TSOL18 and TSOL45-1A, the successful protective peptides against porcine cysticercosis, in Taenia solium oncospheres

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Taenia solium life cycle includes humans as definitive hosts and pigs as intermediate hosts. One of the measures to stop the life cycle of this parasite is by vaccination of pigs. In experiments performed in pigs with TSOL18 and TSOL45-1A, two recombinant T. solium proteins, 99.5% and 97.0% protection was induced, respectively. The purpose of this paper was to localize these antigens in all stages of the parasite (adult worms, oncospheres and cysticerci) by immunofluorescence, with the use of antibodies against TSOL18 and TSOL45-1A that were obtained from the pigs used in the vaccination experiment. Results show that TSOL18 and TSOL45-1A are expressed on the surface of T. solium oncospheres and not in tapeworms or cysticerci, indicating that they are stage-specific antigens. This, therefore, might explain the high level of protection these antigens induce against pig cysticercosis. PMID:21211050

  11. Porphyrin content of the cysticercus of Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Larralde, C; Zedillo, G M; Lagunoff, D; Ludowyke, R; Montoya, R M; Goodsaid, F; Dreyfus, G; Sciutto, E; Govezensky, T; Diaz, M L

    1986-08-01

    The strong red fluorescence of the cysticercus of Taenia solium depends on the presence of several porphyrins in the vesicular fluid of the parasite: probably protoporphyrin IX, coproporphyin I or III, and 2 decarboxylated porphyrins intermediate between uroporphyrin and coproporphyrin. Cyst porphyrins associated to form conglomerates of high molecular weight that dissociated in acid solutions and were not antigenic themselves nor associated with antigenic molecules. An appreciable fraction of the porphyrins was capable of undergoing oxidation and reduction, indicating that some of the porphyrins were complexed with metal ions. The metabolic basis for the accumulation of porphyrins is unknown. Preliminary results suggest that conditions deleterious to the cysticercus cause release of porphyrins so that the appearance of porphyrins in the cerebrospinal fluid of neurocysticercotic patients may prove useful in monitoring therapeutic attacks on the parasite.

  12. Taenia solium: Development of an Experimental Model of Porcine Neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Agnès; Trejo, Armando; Cisneros, Humberto; García-Navarrete, Roberto; Villalobos, Nelly; Hernández, Marisela; Villeda Hernández, Juana; Hernández, Beatriz; Rosas, Gabriela; Bobes, Raul J; de Aluja, Aline S; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis

    2015-01-01

    Human neurocysticercosis (NC) is caused by the establishment of Taenia solium larvae in the central nervous system. NC is a severe disease still affecting the population in developing countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. While great improvements have been made on NC diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, the management of patients affected by extraparenchymal parasites remains a challenge. The development of a T. solium NC experimental model in pigs that will allow the evaluation of new therapeutic alternatives is herein presented. Activated oncospheres (either 500 or 1000) were surgically implanted in the cerebral subarachnoid space of piglets. The clinical status and the level of serum antibodies in the animals were evaluated for a 4-month period after implantation. The animals were sacrificed, cysticerci were counted during necropsy, and both the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of cysts were described. Based on the number of established cysticerci, infection efficiency ranged from 3.6% (1000 oncospheres) to 5.4% (500 oncospheres). Most parasites were caseous or calcified (38/63, 60.3%) and were surrounded by an exacerbated inflammatory response with lymphocyte infiltration and increased inflammatory markers. The infection elicited specific antibodies but no neurological signs. This novel experimental model of NC provides a useful tool to evaluate new cysticidal and anti-inflammatory approaches and it should improve the management of severe NC patients, refractory to the current treatments. PMID:26252878

  13. Taenia solium: Development of an Experimental Model of Porcine Neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Fleury, Agnès; Trejo, Armando; Cisneros, Humberto; García-Navarrete, Roberto; Villalobos, Nelly; Hernández, Marisela; Villeda Hernández, Juana; Hernández, Beatriz; Rosas, Gabriela; Bobes, Raul J.; S. de Aluja, Aline; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis

    2015-01-01

    Human neurocysticercosis (NC) is caused by the establishment of Taenia solium larvae in the central nervous system. NC is a severe disease still affecting the population in developing countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. While great improvements have been made on NC diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, the management of patients affected by extraparenchymal parasites remains a challenge. The development of a T. solium NC experimental model in pigs that will allow the evaluation of new therapeutic alternatives is herein presented. Activated oncospheres (either 500 or 1000) were surgically implanted in the cerebral subarachnoid space of piglets. The clinical status and the level of serum antibodies in the animals were evaluated for a 4-month period after implantation. The animals were sacrificed, cysticerci were counted during necropsy, and both the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of cysts were described. Based on the number of established cysticerci, infection efficiency ranged from 3.6% (1000 oncospheres) to 5.4% (500 oncospheres). Most parasites were caseous or calcified (38/63, 60.3%) and were surrounded by an exacerbated inflammatory response with lymphocyte infiltration and increased inflammatory markers. The infection elicited specific antibodies but no neurological signs. This novel experimental model of NC provides a useful tool to evaluate new cysticidal and anti-inflammatory approaches and it should improve the management of severe NC patients, refractory to the current treatments. PMID:26252878

  14. Taenia solium: Development of an Experimental Model of Porcine Neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Agnès; Trejo, Armando; Cisneros, Humberto; García-Navarrete, Roberto; Villalobos, Nelly; Hernández, Marisela; Villeda Hernández, Juana; Hernández, Beatriz; Rosas, Gabriela; Bobes, Raul J; de Aluja, Aline S; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis

    2015-01-01

    Human neurocysticercosis (NC) is caused by the establishment of Taenia solium larvae in the central nervous system. NC is a severe disease still affecting the population in developing countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. While great improvements have been made on NC diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, the management of patients affected by extraparenchymal parasites remains a challenge. The development of a T. solium NC experimental model in pigs that will allow the evaluation of new therapeutic alternatives is herein presented. Activated oncospheres (either 500 or 1000) were surgically implanted in the cerebral subarachnoid space of piglets. The clinical status and the level of serum antibodies in the animals were evaluated for a 4-month period after implantation. The animals were sacrificed, cysticerci were counted during necropsy, and both the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of cysts were described. Based on the number of established cysticerci, infection efficiency ranged from 3.6% (1000 oncospheres) to 5.4% (500 oncospheres). Most parasites were caseous or calcified (38/63, 60.3%) and were surrounded by an exacerbated inflammatory response with lymphocyte infiltration and increased inflammatory markers. The infection elicited specific antibodies but no neurological signs. This novel experimental model of NC provides a useful tool to evaluate new cysticidal and anti-inflammatory approaches and it should improve the management of severe NC patients, refractory to the current treatments.

  15. In vitro oncosphere-killing assays to determine immunity to the larvae of Taenia pisiformis, Taenia ovis, Taenia saginata, and Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Kyngdon, Craig T; Gauci, Charles G; Rolfe, Rick A; Velásquez Guzmán, Jeanette C; Farfán Salazar, Marilú J; Verástegui Pimentel, Manuela R; Gonzalez, Armando E; Garcia, Hector H; Gilmanl, Robert H; Strugnell, Richard A; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2006-04-01

    Taeniid cestodes infect humans and livestock, causing considerable morbidity and mortality, as well as economic loss. Substantial progress has been made toward the production of recombinant vaccines against cysticercosis in livestock animals. Further development of these vaccines would be aided if a reliable in vitro test were available to measure host-protective immune responses in vaccinated animals. Here, we describe in vitro oncosphere-killing assays for the quantification of host-protective serum antibodies against Taenia pisiformis, Taenia ovis, Taenia saginata, and Taenia solium in rabbits, sheep, cattle, and pigs, respectively. Activated oncospheres of T. pisiformis, T. ovis, T. saginata, and T. solium were incubated in vitro in culture medium, test serum, and a source of complement, and oncosphere killing was assessed after 10 days of culture. In vitro oncosphere killing reflected the presence of specific antibody, and the oncosphere-killing assay typically indicated immunity to the homologous parasite that had been determined in vivo. This study describes the first reliable oncosphere-killing assays for T. pisiformis, T. ovis, T. saginata, and T. solium. These assays will be used for further research into the optimization of recombinant vaccines against cysticercosis.

  16. Transcriptome analysis of Taenia solium cysticerci using Open Reading Frame ESTs (ORESTES)

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Carolina R; Stoco, Patricia H; Wagner, Glauber; Sincero, Thaís CM; Rotava, Gianinna; Bayer-Santos, Ethel; Rodrigues, Juliana B; Sperandio, Maísa M; Maia, Antônio AM; Ojopi, Elida PB; Zaha, Arnaldo; Ferreira, Henrique B; Tyler, Kevin M; Dávila, Alberto MR; Grisard, Edmundo C; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    Background Human infection by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium affects more than 50 million people worldwide, particularly in underdeveloped and developing countries. Cysticercosis which arises from larval encystation can be life threatening and difficult to treat. Here, we investigate for the first time the transcriptome of the clinically relevant cysticerci larval form. Results Using Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) produced by the ORESTES method, a total of 1,520 high quality ESTs were generated from 20 ORESTES cDNA mini-libraries and its analysis revealed fragments of genes with promising applications including 51 ESTs matching antigens previously described in other species, as well as 113 sequences representing proteins with potential extracellular localization, with obvious applications for immune-diagnosis or vaccine development. Conclusion The set of sequences described here will contribute to deciphering the expression profile of this important parasite and will be informative for the genome assembly and annotation, as well as for studies of intra- and inter-specific sequence variability. Genes of interest for developing new diagnostic and therapeutic tools are described and discussed. PMID:19646239

  17. Detection of Taenia solium Taeniasis Coproantigen Is an Early Indicator of Treatment Failure for Taeniasis

    PubMed Central

    Bustos, Javier A.; Rodriguez, Silvia; Jimenez, Juan A.; Moyano, Luz M.; Castillo, Yesenia; Ayvar, Viterbo; Allan, James C.; Craig, Philip S.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Tsang, Victor C. W.

    2012-01-01

    Taenia solium causes taeniasis and cysticercosis, a zoonotic complex associated with a significant burden of epilepsy in most countries. Reliable diagnosis and efficacious treatment of taeniasis are needed for disease control. Currently, cure can be confirmed only after a period of at least 1 month, by negative stool microscopy. This study assessed the performance of detection by a coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CoAg-ELISA) for the early evaluation of the efficacy of antiparasitic treatment of human T. solium taeniasis. We followed 69 tapeworm carriers who received niclosamide as standard treatment. Stool samples were collected on days 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, and 90 after treatment and were processed by microscopy and CoAg-ELISA. The efficacy of niclosamide was 77.9% (53/68). Thirteen patients received a second course of treatment and completed the follow-up. CoAg-ELISA was therefore evaluated for a total of 81 cases (68 treatments, 13 retreatments). In successful treatments (n = 64), the proportion of patients who became negative by CoAg-ELISA was 62.5% after 3 days, 89.1% after 7 days, 96.9% after 15 days, and 100% after 30 days. In treatment failures (n = 17), the CoAg-ELISA result was positive for 70.6% of patients after 3 days, 94.1% after 7 days, and 100% after 15 and 30 days. Only 2 of 17 samples in cases of treatment failure became positive by microscopy by day 30. The presence of one scolex, but not multiple scolices, in posttreatment stools was strongly associated with cure (odds ratio [OR], 52.5; P < 0.001). CoAg-ELISA is useful for the assessment of treatment failure in taeniasis. Early assessment at day 15 would detect treatment failure before patients become infective. PMID:22336287

  18. Specific Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium antigenic peptides for neurocysticercosis immunodiagnosis using serum samples.

    PubMed

    Bueno, E C; Vaz, A J; Machado, L D; Livramento, J A; Mielle, S R

    2000-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NC), i.e., the presence of the larval form of Taenia solium in tissues, is the most frequent and severe infection involving the central nervous system. Paired serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with NC, CSF and serum samples from a control group, and serum samples from patients with other parasitoses were studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and by immunoblotting with Taenia crassiceps vesicular fluid antigen (Tcra) and Taenia solium total saline antigen (Tso) for the detection of immunoglobulin G antibodies. ELISAs carried out with the Tso and Tcra antigens showed 94.1 and 95.6% sensitivities, respectively, for the detection of antibodies in CSF and 70.6% and 91.2% sensitivities, respectively, for the detection of antibodies in serum, with 100% specificity for the detection of antibodies in CSF and 80% specificity for the detection of antibodies in serum for both antigens. On the basis of the reactivities of the peptides in the samples analyzed, the peptides of

  19. Immune responses to a recombinant attenuated Salmonella typhimurium strain expressing a Taenia solium oncosphere antigen TSOL18.

    PubMed

    Ding, Juntao; Zheng, Yadong; Wang, Ying; Dou, Yongxi; Chen, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Xueliang; Wang, Shuai; Zhang, Shaohua; Liu, Zhenyong; Hou, Junling; Zhai, Junjun; Yan, Hongbin; Luo, Xuenong; Cai, Xuepeng

    2013-01-01

    A tapeworm, Taenia solium, remains a great threat to human health, particularly in developing countries. The life cycle of T. solium is thought to be terminated via vaccination of intermediate hosts. In this study, we constructed a recombinant attenuated Salmonella typhimurium live vaccine strain χ4558 expressing a TSOL18 antigen. SDS-PAGE and Western blot confirmed the expression of the interest protein and its antigenic property. The recombinant strain stably propagated in vitro, of which the growth was not reversely influenced by TSOL18 protein expressed. It was also shown that mice survived 10(12) CFU of S. typhimurium χ4558, while all mice infected with 10(7) CFU of the wild-type died within five days. The mouse experiment indicated that vaccine strain χ4558 induced a high titer of specific antibody for a long time. In contrast to the controls, the vaccinated mice had an obvious augment of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes and the percentage of helper CD4(+)/CD8(+) T lymphocytes was significantly increased (p<0.01). After oral administration, S. typhimurium χ4558 was first colonized mainly in the Peyer's patches and then predominantly in the mesenteric lymph nodes and spleens in the vaccinated mice. In addition, the high levels of specific anti-TSOL18 antibodies were also observed in pigs administrated with S. typhimurium χ4558. Collectively, these results demonstrate the possibility of use of an attenuated S. typhimurium strain as a vector to deliver protective antigens of T. solium.

  20. Improvement of the synthetic tri-peptide vaccine (S3Pvac) against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis in search of a more effective, inexpensive and manageable vaccine.

    PubMed

    Sciutto, Edda; Rosas, Gabriela; Hernández, Marisela; Morales, Julio; Cruz-Revilla, Carmen; Toledo, Andrea; Manoutcharian, Karen; Gevorkian, Goar; Blancas, Abel; Acero, Gonzalo; Hernández, Beatriz; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Bobes, Raul J; Goldbaum, Fernando A; Huerta, Mirna; Diaz-Orea, Alicia; Fleury, Agnes; de Aluja, Aline S; Cabrera-Ponce, Jose Luis; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Fragoso, Gladis; Larralde, Carlos

    2007-02-01

    Vaccination of pigs may curtail Taenia solium transmission by reducing the number of cysticerci, the precursors of adult intestinal tapeworms in humans. Several antigen preparations induce protection against porcine cysticercosis in experimental settings but only one subunit vaccine (S3Pvac) has been tested and proved effective in the field against naturally acquired disease. Besides improving of the vaccine's effectiveness, significant reductions in production costs and in the logistics of its administration are necessary for the feasibility of nationwide control programs. This review highlights the development of several versions of S3Pvac aimed to increase effectiveness, reduce costs and increase feasibility by novel delivery systems and alternative routes of administration.

  1. Characterization of a novel Taenia solium oncosphere antigen

    PubMed Central

    Mayta, Holger; Hancock, Kathy; Levine, Min Z.; Gilman, Robert H.; Farfán, Marilú J.; Verastegui, Manuela; Lane, William S.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Tsang, Victor C. W.

    2007-01-01

    Infections due to Taenia solium in humans (taeniasis/cysticercosis) remain a complex health problem, particularly in developing countries. We identified two oncosphere proteins that might protect the porcine intermediate host against cysticercosis and therefore help prevent disease in humans. One of these proteins was further identified by two-dimensional gel-electrophoresis and micro-sequencing. The gene encoding this protective protein was also identified, cloned and characterized. The native 31.5 KD protein Tso31 has four variants at the cDNA level. The longest sequence from which the others seem to derive, encodes a 253 amino acid peptide. The predicted protein has a molecular weight of 25.1 KD, one putative N-glycosylation site, two fibronectin type III domains, and one C terminal transmembrane domain. The gene structure of the protein consists of four exons and three introns. The finding of one gene and four different cDNAs for Tso31 suggests the existence of a possible mechanism of differential splicing in this parasite. The Tso31 protein is exclusive to T. solium oncospheres with a putative protein structure of an extra-cellular receptor-like protein. The Tso31 protein was expressed as a recombinant protein fused to GST and tested in a vaccine to determine its effectiveness in protecting pigs against cysticercosis. Only two pigs out of eight vaccinated were protected and although the total median number of cyst decreased in vaccinated pigs compared to controls this decrease was not statistically significant (P=0.09). PMID:17850901

  2. Ring-Screening to Control Endemic Transmission of Taenia solium

    PubMed Central

    O'Neal, Seth E.; Moyano, Luz M.; Ayvar, Viterbo; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gavidia, Cesar; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Gilman, Robert H.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Taenia solium is a major cause of preventable epilepsy in developing nations. Screening and treatment of human intestinal stage infection (taeniasis) within high-risk foci may reduce transmission and prevent epilepsy by limiting human exposure to infective eggs. We piloted a ring-strategy that involves screening and treatment for taeniasis among households located nearby pigs heavily-infected with the larval stage (cysticercosis). These pigs mark areas of increased transmission and can be identified by tongue examination. Methodology We selected two villages in northern Peru for a controlled prospective interventional cohort pilot study. In the intervention village (1,058 residents) we examined the tongues of all pigs every 4 months for nodules characteristic of cysticercosis. We then screened all residents living within 100-meters of any tongue-positive pig using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect Taenia antigens in stool. Residents with taeniasis were treated with niclosamide. In both the intervention and control (753 residents) we measured incidence of exposure by sampling the pig population every 4 months for serum antibodies against cysticercosis using enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot. Principal Findings Baseline seroincidence among pigs born during the study was 22.6 cases per 100 pigs per-month (95% confidence interval [CI] 17.0–30.0) in the intervention and 18.1 (95% CI 12.7–25.9) in the control. After one year we observed a 41% reduction in seroincidence in the intervention village compared to baseline (incidence rate ratio 0.59, 95% CI 0.41–0.87) while the seroincidence in the control village remained unchanged. At study end, the prevalence of taeniasis was nearly 4 times lower in the intervention than in the control (prevalence ratio 0.28, 95% CI 0.08–0.91). Conclusions/Significance Ring-screening reduced transmission of T. solium in this pilot study and may provide an effective and practical approach for regions where

  3. Taenia solium Infections in a Rural Area of Eastern Zambia-A Community Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Mwape, Kabemba E.; Phiri, Isaac K.; Praet, Nicolas; Muma, John B.; Zulu, Gideon; de Deken, Reginald; Speybroeck, Niko; Dorny, Pierre; Gabriël, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Background Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis is a parasitic infection occurring in many developing countries. Data on the status of human infections in Zambia is largely lacking. We conducted a community-based study in Eastern Zambia to determine the prevalence of human taeniosis and cysticercosis in a rural community. Methods and Findings Stool and serum samples were collected from willing participants. Geographical references of the participants' households were determined and household questionnaires administered. Taeniosis was diagnosed in stool samples by coprology and by the polyclonal antibody-based copro-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (copro-Ag ELISA), while cysticercosis was diagnosed in serum by the B158/B60 monoclonal antibody-based antigen ELISA (sero-Ag ELISA). Identification of the collected tapeworm after niclosamide treatment and purgation was done using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). A total of 255 households from 20 villages participated in the study, 718 stool and 708 serum samples were collected and examined. Forty-five faecal samples (6.3%) were found positive for taeniosis on copro-Ag ELISA while circulating cysticercus antigen was detected in 5.8% (41/708) individuals. The tapeworm recovered from one of the cases was confirmed to be T. solium on PCR-RFLP. Seropositivity (cysticercosis) was significantly positively related to age (p = 0.00) and to copro-Ag positivity (taeniosis) (p = 0.03) but not to gender. Change point analysis revealed that the frequency of cysticercus antigens increased significantly in individuals above the age of 30. Copro-Ag positivity was not related to age or gender. The following risk factors were noted to be present in the study community: free-range pig husbandry system and poor sanitation with 47.8% of the households visited lacking latrines. Conclusions This study has recorded high taeniosis and cysticercosis prevalences and identified the

  4. Development of the S3Pvac vaccine against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis: a historical review.

    PubMed

    Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis; Hernández, Marisela; Rosas, Gabriela; Martínez, José J; Fleury, Agnès; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Aluja, Aline; Larralde, Carlos

    2013-08-01

    Herein we present a review of our research dealing with vaccination against experimental and naturally acquired porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis using Taenia crassiceps-derived antigens. Results strongly support that the different versions of S3Pvac vaccine are indeed effective against porcine T. solium cysticercosis. Immunological results related to vaccination prove that protection is at least partially mediated by specific immunity. The data also support the validity of T. crassiceps murine cysticercosis as an effective tool to identify vaccine candidates against some metacestode infections.

  5. Genetic vaccination against murine cysticercosis by using a plasmid vector carrying Taenia solium paramyosin.

    PubMed

    Solís, Carlos F; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Lugo-Martínez, Verónica H; Johnston, Stephen Albert; Laclette, Juan Pedro

    2005-03-01

    A plasmid vector carrying the immunoprotective amino-terminal fragment of Taenia solium paramyosin (VW2-1) was designed for genetic vaccination studies. Mice that were genetically immunized with VW2-1 and challenged by intraperitoneal inoculation of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci showed 43 to 48% reductions in the parasite burden, values which were similar to values obtained previously when the recombinant protein was used.

  6. Protection against Asiatic Taenia solium induced by a recombinant 45W-4B protein.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xuenong; Zheng, Yadong; Hou, Junling; Zhang, Shaohua; Cai, Xuepeng

    2009-02-01

    Taenia solium is a great threat not only to human health but also to the pig-raising industry. Oncospheral stage-specific 45W proteins are good candidates for the development of anticysticercosis vaccines. In this study, a recombinant 45W-4B protein was highly produced and used for vaccination. Two animal trials resulted in a significant reduction in parasite burden induced by the definite protein against Asiatic T. solium, up to 97.0% and 98.4%, respectively. These provide informative results for the development of effective 45W-4B vaccines against cysticercosis caused by both Chinese and Mexican T. solium isolates and even by other isolates.

  7. Human migration and pig/pork import in the European Union: What are the implications for Taenia solium infections?

    PubMed

    Gabriël, S; Johansen, M V; Pozio, E; Smit, G S A; Devleesschauwer, B; Allepuz, A; Papadopoulos, E; van der Giessen, J; Dorny, P

    2015-09-30

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a neglected zoonotic disease complex occurring primarily in developing countries. Though claimed eradicated from the European Union (EU), an increasing number of human neurocysticercosis cases is being detected. Risk factors such as human migration and movement of pigs/pork, as well as the increasing trend in pig rearing with outside access are discussed in this review. The entry of a tapeworm carrier into the EU seems a lot more plausible than the import of infected pork. The establishment of local transmission in the EU is presently very unlikely. However, considering the potential changes in risk factors, such as the increasing trend in pig farming with outdoor access, the increasing human migration from endemic areas into the EU, this situation might change, warranting the establishment of an early warning system, which should include disease notification of taeniasis/cysticercosis both in human and animal hosts. As currently human-to-human transmission is the highest risk, prevention strategies should focus on the early detection and treatment of tapeworm carriers, and should be designed in a concerted way, across the EU and across the different sectors.

  8. Vaccination trials against Taiwan Taenia eggs in pigs injected with frozen oncospheres of Taiwan Taenia, Korea Taenia, T. saginata or T. solium.

    PubMed

    Fan, P C; Chung, W C; Eom, K S; Ito, A

    1997-06-01

    When Small-Ear-Miniature pigs subcutaneously injected once with frozen oncospheres of Taiwan Taenia, Korea Taenia, T. saginata or T. solium emulsified with Freund's complete adjuvant (1.6 x 10(4)/0.4 ml) were challenged orally with 1.6 x 10(4) viable eggs of Taiwan Taenia 41 days later, they all showed strong resistance compared with pigs vaccinated with T. solium. Most pigs (5/8) of the former 3 groups harboured no cysticerci. The number of cysticerci was 5.5 +/- 9.1 (mean +/- S.D.), whereas pigs of the T. solium group and control group harboured 160 +/- 30.1 and 661 +/- 637.2 cysticerci, respectively. All cysticerci recovered from vaccinated pigs and most cysticerci in control pigs were degenerated or calcified at 36-55 days after oral egg challenge. These results strongly suggest that oncospheres of Taiwan Taenia and Korea Taenia are very similar to T. saginata in their immunogenicity in pigs.

  9. Immune responses to viable and degenerative metacestodes of Taenia solium in naturally infected swine.

    PubMed

    Singh, Aloukick K; Prasad, Kashi N; Prasad, Amit; Tripathi, Mukesh; Gupta, Rakesh K; Husain, Nuzhat

    2013-12-01

    Neurocysticercosis, caused by the larvae of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium, is the most common helminth infection of the CNS in humans worldwide. There is no existing animal model of neurocysticercosis that resembles human infection. To overcome this limitation, swine (the natural intermediate host of the parasite) may be a suitable model. The immune response associated with different stages of the parasite larva (metacestode) has not yet been explored. Therefore, we investigated the immune response to various stages of the metacestode (cyst) in the brain and muscles of naturally infected swine. Swine with neurocysticercosis (n = 10) and healthy controls (n = 10), as confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging, were included in this study. The animals were sacrificed, and the tissues containing viable or degenerative metacestods in the brain and infected muscles were collected and subjected to reverse transcriptase-PCR and ELISA to determine the expression of different cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4 IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10). Higher expression of IL-10 was found to be associated with viable cysts. Degenerating cysts displayed significantly increased levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-8, whereas calcified cysts had elevated levels of IL-4, IL-10, TNF-α and IL-6. The present study indicated a strong regulatory (IL-10) and Th1 cytokine response in viable and degenerating cysts, respectively, whereas calcified cysts had a mixed anti-inflammatory (IL-4), regulatory (IL-10) and pro-inflammatory (TNF-α and IL-6) response. Thus, Th1 and Th2 immune response operate in the vicinity of metacestodes and the type of immune response may be responsible for disease severity.

  10. Nanobodies, a promising tool for species-specific diagnosis of Taenia solium cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Deckers, N; Saerens, D; Kanobana, K; Conrath, K; Victor, B; Wernery, U; Vercruysse, J; Muyldermans, S; Dorny, P

    2009-04-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a major helminth zoonosis in developing countries. Pigs are the intermediate hosts mediating transmission of infection. Specific assays to diagnose living cysts in pigs are lacking. The monoclonal-based antigen detection ELISA is genus-specific and cross-reactions with Taenia hydatigena hamper the use of this test to screen pigs. We, therefore, aimed to introduce nanobodies, camelid-derived single-domain antibodies specific for T. solium cysticercosis, to develop unambiguous tests. Nanobodies were cloned following immunization of two dromedaries with T. solium antigen and eight T. solium-specific nanobodies were selected after phage display. Their binding characteristics and potential for the diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis were investigated. The nanobodies do not cross-react with T. hydatigena, Taenia saginata, Taenia crassiceps or Trichinella spiralis and were categorized into four epitope-binding groups. The target protein was identified as 14kDa diagnostic glycoprotein (Ts14), but the nanobodies also reacted with other proteins of the same family. Nanobodies were tested in a sandwich ELISA with cyst fluid, and one particular nanobody detected its cognate serum antigens in a species-specific inhibition ELISA. Considering their beneficial production and stability properties, these highly specific nanobodies constitute a promising tool to diagnose cysticercosis after further improvement of the sensitivity and future assay validation.

  11. Spatial Distribution of Taenia solium Porcine Cysticercosis within a Rural Area of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Julio; Martínez, José Juan; Rosetti, Marcos; Fleury, Agnes; Maza, Victor; Hernandez, Marisela; Villalobos, Nelly; Fragoso, Gladis; de Aluja, Aline S.; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

    2008-01-01

    Cysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium, a parasitic disease that affects humans and rurally bred pigs in developing countries. The cysticercus may localize in the central nervous system of the human, causing neurocysticercosis, the most severe and frequent form of the disease. There appears to be an association between the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and domestic pigs that wander freely and have access to human feces. In order to assess whether the risk of cysticercosis infection is clustered or widely dispersed in a limited rural area, a spatial analysis of rural porcine cysticercosis was applied to 13 villages of the Sierra de Huautla in Central Mexico. Clustering of cases in specific households would indicate tapeworm carriers in the vicinity, whereas their dispersal would suggest that the ambulatory habits of both humans and pigs contribute to the spread of cysticercosis. A total of 562 pigs were included in this study (August–December 2003). A global positioning system was employed in order to plot the geographic distribution of both cysticercotic pigs and risk factors for infection within the villages. Prevalence of pig tongue cysticercosis varied significantly in sampled villages (p = 0.003), ranging from 0% to 33.3% and averaging 13.3%. Pigs were clustered in households, but no differences in the clustering of cysticercotic and healthy pigs were found. In contrast, the presence of pigs roaming freely and drinking stagnant water correlated significantly with porcine cysticercosis (p = 0.07), as did the absence of latrines (p = 0.0008). High prevalence of porcine cysticercosis proves that transmission is still quite common in rural Mexico. The lack of significant differentiation in the geographical clustering of healthy and cysticercotic pigs weakens the argument that focal factors (e.g., household location of putative tapeworm carriers) play an important role in increasing the risk of cysticercosis transmission in pigs. Instead, it

  12. Protection of pigs against Taenia solium cysticercosis by immunization with novel recombinant antigens.

    PubMed

    Gauci, Charles G; Jayashi, César M; Gonzalez, Armando E; Lackenby, Julia; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2012-06-01

    Recombinant antigens from the oncosphere stage of the parasite Taenia solium were expressed in Escherichia coli. The TSOL16, TSOL45-1A and TSOL45-1B recombinant antigens, each consisting of fibronectin type III (FnIII) domain S, were produced as fusion proteins with glutathione S-transferase (GST) and maltose binding protein (MBP). Groups of pigs were immunized twice with the GST fusions of the antigens and boosted a third time with the MBP fusions prior to receiving a challenge infection with T. solium eggs. The TSOL16 antigen was found to be capable of inducing high levels of immunity in pigs against a challenge infection with T. solium. Immunological investigations identified differences in immune responses in the pigs vaccinated with the various antigens. The results demonstrate that the TSOL16 antigen could be a valuable adjunct to current porcine vaccination approaches and may allow the further development of new vaccination strategies against T. solium cysticercosis.

  13. Monitoring the outcomes of interventions against Taenia solium: options and suggestions.

    PubMed

    Lightowlers, M W; Garcia, H H; Gauci, C G; Donadeu, M; Abela-Ridder, B

    2016-03-01

    There is an increasing interest in reducing the incidence of human neurocysticercosis, caused by infection with the larval stage of Taenia solium. Several intervention trials are currently assessing various options for control of T. solium transmission. A critical aspect of these trials will be the evaluation of whether the interventions have been successful. However, there is no consensus about the most appropriate or valuable methods that should be used. Here, we undertake a critical assessment of the diagnostic tests which are currently available for human T. solium taeniasis and human and porcine cysticercosis, as well as their suitability for evaluation of intervention trial outcomes. Suggestions are made about which of the measures that are available for evaluation of T. solium interventions would be most suitable, and which methodologies are the most appropriate given currently available technologies. Suggestions are also made in relation to the most urgent research needs in order to address deficiencies in current diagnostic methods. PMID:26538513

  14. Monitoring the outcomes of interventions against Taenia solium: options and suggestions.

    PubMed

    Lightowlers, M W; Garcia, H H; Gauci, C G; Donadeu, M; Abela-Ridder, B

    2016-03-01

    There is an increasing interest in reducing the incidence of human neurocysticercosis, caused by infection with the larval stage of Taenia solium. Several intervention trials are currently assessing various options for control of T. solium transmission. A critical aspect of these trials will be the evaluation of whether the interventions have been successful. However, there is no consensus about the most appropriate or valuable methods that should be used. Here, we undertake a critical assessment of the diagnostic tests which are currently available for human T. solium taeniasis and human and porcine cysticercosis, as well as their suitability for evaluation of intervention trial outcomes. Suggestions are made about which of the measures that are available for evaluation of T. solium interventions would be most suitable, and which methodologies are the most appropriate given currently available technologies. Suggestions are also made in relation to the most urgent research needs in order to address deficiencies in current diagnostic methods.

  15. Longevity and viability of Taenia solium eggs in the digestive system of the beetle Ammophorus rubripes.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Puerta, Luis Antonio; Lopez-Urbina, Maria Teresa; Garcia, Hector Hugo; Gonzalez, Armando Emiliano

    2014-03-01

    The present study evaluated the capacity of Ammophorus rubripes beetles to carry Taenia solium eggs, in terms of duration and viability of eggs in their digestive system. One hundred beetles were distributed into five polyethylene boxes, and then they were infected with T. solium eggs. Gravid proglottids of T. solium were crushed and then mixed with cattle feces. One gram of this mixture was placed in each box for 24 hours, after which each group of beetles was transferred into a new clean box. Then, five beetles were dissected every three days. Time was strongly associated with viability (r=0.89; P<0.001) and the calculated time to cero viability is 36 days. The eggs in the intestinal system of each beetle were counted and tested for viability. Taenia solium eggs were present in the beetle's digestive system for up to 39 days (13th sampling day out of 20), gradually reducing in numbers and viability, which was 0 on day 36 post-infection. Egg viability was around 40% up to day 24 post-infection, with a median number of eggs of 11 per beetle at this time. Dung beetles may potentially contribute towards dispersing T. solium eggs in endemic areas.

  16. Taenia crassiceps cysticerci: Characterization of the 14-kDa glycoprotein with homologies to antigens from Taenia solium cysticerci.

    PubMed

    Peralta, Regina H; Espíndola, Noeli M; Pardini, Alessandra X; Iha, Alberto H; Moura, Hercules; Barr, John R; Vaz, Adelaide J; Peralta, José M

    2010-03-01

    Glycoproteins from the total vesicular fluid of Taenia crassiceps (VF-Tc) were prepared using three different purification methods, consisting of ConA-lectin affinity chromatography (ConA-Tc), preparative electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) (14 gp-Tc), and monoclonal antibody immunoaffinity chromatography (18/14-Tc). The complex composition represented by the VF-Tc and ConA-Tc antigens revealed peptides ranging from 101- to 14-kDa and from 92- to 12-kDa, respectively. Immunoblotting using lectins confirmed glucose/mannose (glc/man) residues in the 18- and 14-kDa peptides, which are considered specific and immunodominant for the diagnosis of cysticercosis, and indicated that these fractions are glycoproteins. Serum antibodies from a patient with neurocysticercosis that reacted to the 14 gp band from T. crassiceps (Tc) were eluted from immunoblotting membranes and showed reactivity to 14 gp from Taenia solium. In order to determine the similar peptide sequence, the N-terminal amino acid was determined and analyzed with sequences available in public databases. This sequence revealed partial homology between T. crassiceps and T. solium peptides. In addition, mass spectrometry along with theoretical M(r) and pI of the 14 gp-Tc point suggested a close relationship to some peptides of a 150-kDa protein complex of the T. solium previously described. The identification of these common immunogenic sites will contribute to future efforts to develop recombinant antigens and synthetic peptides for immunological assays.

  17. An ocular cysticercosis in Bali, Indonesia caused by Taenia solium Asian genotype.

    PubMed

    Swastika, Kadek; Dewiyani, Cokorda I; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Sako, Yasuhiko; Sudarmaja, Made; Sutisna, Putu; Wandra, Toni; Dharmawan, Nyoman S; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Munehiro; Ito, Akira

    2012-06-01

    An ocular cysticercosis case of a nine-year-old Balinese girl in Indonesia is reported. She presented with redness and pain in the left eye and showed a cysticercus in the anterior chamber in December 2010. Morphological feature of the cysticercus removed from the anterior chamber indicated that it was an immature cysticercus of Taenia species with no hooklets. However, mitochondrial DNA analysis using a piece of histopathological specimen revealed it a cysticercus of Taenia solium Asian genotype. Serology by immunoblot and ELISA highly specific to cysticercosis was negative.

  18. Taenia solium taeniasis and cysticercosis control and elimination through community-based interventions

    PubMed Central

    Carabin, Hélène; Traoré, Aminata A

    2014-01-01

    Taenia solium was declared potentially eradicable by the International Task Force for Disease Eradication in 1992. Yet, very few well-designed community-based randomized controlled trials have been conducted to measure the effectiveness of alternative control strategies. Most strategies have been tested in pre-post intervention designs in very few communities, often without a control group. The only two community-based randomized controlled trials suggest that an educational program alone or a combination of human and porcine mass treatment reduce porcine cysticercosis in the short term. A transmission dynamics model suggests that improved sanitation and pig management are more effective and sustainable than pig vaccination, human or porcine mass treatment. Current evidence does not support the eradication of Taenia solium in the foreseeable future. Investigators should follow international recommendations on the conduct of community-based randomized control trials to provide more valid estimates of the effect and cost-effectiveness of alternative control strategies for cysticercosis. PMID:25544938

  19. Evaluation of the protective potential of a Taenia solium cysticercus mimotope on murine cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Capelli-Peixoto, Janaína; Chávez-Olórtegui, Carlos; Chaves-Moreira, Daniele; Minozzo, João Carlos; Gabardo, Juarez; Teixeira, Kádima Nayara; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Alvarenga, Larissa Magalhães; de Moura, Juliana

    2011-11-28

    An NC-1 mimotope from Taenia solium cysticerci can help identify patients with neurocysticercosis through immunoassay. After chemical synthesis, an NC-1 peptide was coupled to bovine serum albumin (NC-1/BSA) for used as an immunogen in murine Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis, which is an experimental model of cysticercosis caused by T. solium. NC-1/BSA immunisation decreased parasitaemia by inducing 74% protection compared to the 77% protection obtained with T. crassiceps crude antigen. The influence of immunisation was also observed on the size and stage of development of the parasite. Antibodies from NC-1/BSA-immunised mice recognised proteins from the tegument and from the buddings, and intense immunostaining was observed in the final stage of the metacestode. The capacity of NC-1/BSA to induce protective antibodies which are reactive to proteins from the tegument of the metacestode suggests that this mimotope is a potential candidate for a vaccine against human and animal cysticercosis.

  20. Prevention and control of Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Gilman, Robert H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Llanos-Zavalaga, Fernando; Tsang, Victor C W; Garcia, Hector H

    2012-01-01

    Taenia solium is endemic in most of the world, causing seizures and other neurological symptoms. Transmission is mainly maintained in rural areas by a human to pig cycle. Despite claims on its eradicability, sustainable interruption of transmission has not yet been reported. This manuscript reviews the conceptual basis for control, available diagnostic and control tools, and recent experiences on control in the field performed in Peru along the past decade PMID:23265557

  1. The Vicious Worm: a computer-based Taenia solium education tool.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Maria Vang; Trevisan, Chiara; Braae, Uffe Christian; Magnussen, Pascal; Ertel, Rebekka Lund; Mejer, Helena; Saarnak, Christopher F L

    2014-08-01

    Ignorance is a major obstacle for the effective control of diseases. To provide evidence-based knowledge about prevention and control of Taenia solium cysticercosis, we have developed a computer-based education tool: 'The Vicious Worm'. The tool targets policy makers, professionals, and laypeople, and comprises educational materials including illustrated short stories, videos, and scientific texts designed for the different target groups. We suggest that evidence-based health education is included as a specific control measure in any control programme.

  2. Prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs entering the food chain in western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Lian Francesca; Harrison, Leslie Jayne Stevenson; Toye, Philip; de Glanville, William Anson; Cook, Elizabeth Anne Jesse; Wamae, Claire Njeri; Fèvre, Eric Maurice

    2016-01-01

    Three hundred forty-three pigs slaughtered and marketed in western Kenya were subjected to lingual examination and HP10 Ag-ELISA for the serological detection of Taenia solium antigen. When estimates were adjusted for the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic assays, prevalence of T. solium cysticercosis estimated by lingual exam and HP10 Ag-ELISA was between 34.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 19.4-49.4%) and 37.6% (95% CI 29.3-45.9%), respectively. All pigs, however, were reported to have passed routine meat inspection. Since T. solium poses a serious threat to public health, these results, if confirmed, indicate that the introduction of control strategies may be appropriate to ensure the safety of pork production in this region. PMID:26581436

  3. Protection against Asiatic Taenia solium Induced by a Recombinant 45W-4B Protein▿

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xuenong; Zheng, Yadong; Hou, Junling; Zhang, Shaohua; Cai, Xuepeng

    2009-01-01

    Taenia solium is a great threat not only to human health but also to the pig-raising industry. Oncospheral stage-specific 45W proteins are good candidates for the development of anticysticercosis vaccines. In this study, a recombinant 45W-4B protein was highly produced and used for vaccination. Two animal trials resulted in a significant reduction in parasite burden induced by the definite protein against Asiatic T. solium, up to 97.0% and 98.4%, respectively. These provide informative results for the development of effective 45W-4B vaccines against cysticercosis caused by both Chinese and Mexican T. solium isolates and even by other isolates. PMID:19091992

  4. Detection of cysteine protease in Taenia solium-induced brain granulomas in naturally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Leifsson, Pall S; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2013-10-18

    In order to further characterize the immune response around the viable or degenerating Taenia solium cysts in the pig brain, the involvement of cysteine protease in the immune evasion was assessed. Brain tissues from 30 adult pigs naturally infected with T. solium cysticercosis were subjected to histopathology using hematoxylin and eosin stain, and immunohistochemistry using caspase-3 antibodies. Histopathological evaluation revealed lesions of stage I which was characterized by presence of viable parasite surrounded with minimal to moderate inflammatory cells and stage III characterized by the presence of a disintegrating parasite surrounded with high inflammatory cells. The results of immunohistochemistry indicated caspase-3 positive cells interspaced between inflammatory infiltrate mainly in stage I lesions, indicating the presence of cysteine protease. This result confirms the earlier hypothesis that cysteine protease may play a role in inducing immune evasion through apoptosis around viable T. solium cysts.

  5. Prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs entering the food chain in western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Lian Francesca; Harrison, Leslie Jayne Stevenson; Toye, Philip; de Glanville, William Anson; Cook, Elizabeth Anne Jesse; Wamae, Claire Njeri; Fèvre, Eric Maurice

    2016-01-01

    Three hundred forty-three pigs slaughtered and marketed in western Kenya were subjected to lingual examination and HP10 Ag-ELISA for the serological detection of Taenia solium antigen. When estimates were adjusted for the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic assays, prevalence of T. solium cysticercosis estimated by lingual exam and HP10 Ag-ELISA was between 34.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 19.4-49.4%) and 37.6% (95% CI 29.3-45.9%), respectively. All pigs, however, were reported to have passed routine meat inspection. Since T. solium poses a serious threat to public health, these results, if confirmed, indicate that the introduction of control strategies may be appropriate to ensure the safety of pork production in this region.

  6. Human neurocysticercosis case and an endemic focus of Taenia solium in Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Yong, Tai-Soon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Eom, Keeseon S

    2013-10-01

    A male patient with neurocysticercosis was identified in Montai Village, Xay District, Oudomxay Province, Lao PDR in February 2004. He had a history of diagnosis for neurocysticercosis by a CT scan in Thailand after an onset of epileptic seizure in 1993. A pig in the same district was found to contain Taenia solium metacestodes (=cysticerci); the slaughtered pig body contained more than 2,000 cysticerci. In addition to morphological identification, molecular identification was also performed on the cysticerci by DNA sequencing analysis of the mitochondrial cox1 gene; they were confirmed as T. solium metacestodes. The patient is regarded as an indigenous case of neurocysticercosis infected in an endemic focus of T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in Oudomxay Province, Lao PDR.

  7. Toxocara canis, Trichinella spiralis and Taenia solium helminthozoonoses: seroprevalence among selected populations in north India.

    PubMed

    Singh, B B; Sharma, R; Gill, J P S

    2015-09-01

    Helminthozoonoses are being considered as a research priority in India and many other tropical and subtropical countries. Taenia solium and Trichinella spiralis are emerging public health and food safety issues in the country and the developing world. The asymptomatic Ta. solium carriers act as important risk for neurocysticercosis, leading to adult onset epilepsy in the country. Human toxocariasis is another common zoonosis which occurs due to larvae of Toxocara canis or T. cati. The current study was planned to obtain baseline seropositivity data for Ta. solium, To. canis and Tr. spiralis antibodies among selected populations in Punjab province of northern India. In the present study, 122 human subjects belonging to selected occupations viz. farmers and veterinary practitioners were screened using the RIDASCREEN(®) Ta. solium IgG, RIDASCREEN(®) Toxocara IgG and RIDASCREEN(®) Trichinella IgG enzyme immunoassays for the qualitative determination of IgG antibodies against Ta. solium, Tr. spiralis and To. canis, respectively in human serum. The seropositivity of To. canis, Tr. spiralis and Ta. solium infections were found to be 22.13, 5.73 and 11.47 %, respectively in human serum samples. The relative risk of being infected for To. canis, Tr. spiralis and Ta. solium infections was found to be 1.91 (95 % CI 0.786-4.669), 2.61 (95 % CI 0.3258-20.94) and 1.596 (95 % CI 0.427-5.3893) times high respectively in farmers when compared to veterinary practitioners. The present study indicates that exposure to To. canis and Ta. solium is not uncommon among farmers and veterinary practitioners in this part of the country. These results provided evidence of Tr. spiralis among selected human populations in the country and demand more research related to trichinellosis in their respective animal and human hosts. PMID:26345057

  8. Toxocara canis, Trichinella spiralis and Taenia solium helminthozoonoses: seroprevalence among selected populations in north India.

    PubMed

    Singh, B B; Sharma, R; Gill, J P S

    2015-09-01

    Helminthozoonoses are being considered as a research priority in India and many other tropical and subtropical countries. Taenia solium and Trichinella spiralis are emerging public health and food safety issues in the country and the developing world. The asymptomatic Ta. solium carriers act as important risk for neurocysticercosis, leading to adult onset epilepsy in the country. Human toxocariasis is another common zoonosis which occurs due to larvae of Toxocara canis or T. cati. The current study was planned to obtain baseline seropositivity data for Ta. solium, To. canis and Tr. spiralis antibodies among selected populations in Punjab province of northern India. In the present study, 122 human subjects belonging to selected occupations viz. farmers and veterinary practitioners were screened using the RIDASCREEN(®) Ta. solium IgG, RIDASCREEN(®) Toxocara IgG and RIDASCREEN(®) Trichinella IgG enzyme immunoassays for the qualitative determination of IgG antibodies against Ta. solium, Tr. spiralis and To. canis, respectively in human serum. The seropositivity of To. canis, Tr. spiralis and Ta. solium infections were found to be 22.13, 5.73 and 11.47 %, respectively in human serum samples. The relative risk of being infected for To. canis, Tr. spiralis and Ta. solium infections was found to be 1.91 (95 % CI 0.786-4.669), 2.61 (95 % CI 0.3258-20.94) and 1.596 (95 % CI 0.427-5.3893) times high respectively in farmers when compared to veterinary practitioners. The present study indicates that exposure to To. canis and Ta. solium is not uncommon among farmers and veterinary practitioners in this part of the country. These results provided evidence of Tr. spiralis among selected human populations in the country and demand more research related to trichinellosis in their respective animal and human hosts.

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE CARBOHYDRATE COMPONENTS OF Taenia solium ONCOSPHERE PROTEINS AND THEIR ROLE IN THE ANTIGENICITY

    PubMed Central

    Arana, Yanina; Verastegui, Manuela; Tuero, Iskra; Grandjean, Louis; Garcia, Hector H.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the carbohydrate composition of Taenia solium whole oncosphere antigens (WOAs), in order to improve the understanding of the antigenicity of the T. solium. Better knowledge of oncosphere antigens is crucial to accurately diagnose previous exposure to T. solium eggs and thus predict the development of neurocysticercosis. A set of seven lectins conjugates with wide carbohydrate specificity were used on parasite fixations and somatic extracts. Lectin fluorescence revealed that D-mannose, D-glucose, D-galactose and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residues were the most abundant constituents of carbohydrate chains on the surface of T. solium oncosphere. Lectin blotting showed that post-translational modification with N-glycosylation was abundant while little evidence of O-linked carbohydrates was observed. Chemical oxidation and enzymatic deglycosylation in situ were performed to investigate the immunoreactivity of the carbohydrate moieties. Linearizing or removing the carbohydrate moieties from the protein backbones did not diminish the immunoreactivity of these antigens, suggesting that a substantial part of the host immune response against T. solium oncosphere is directed against the peptide epitopes on the parasite antigens. Finally, using carbohydrate probes, we demonstrated for the first time that the presence of several lectins on the surface of the oncosphere was specific to carbohydrates found in intestinal mucus, suggesting a possible role in initial attachment of the parasite to host cells. PMID:23982308

  10. Characterization of the carbohydrate components of Taenia solium oncosphere proteins and their role in the antigenicity.

    PubMed

    Arana, Yanina; Verastegui, Manuela; Tuero, Iskra; Grandjean, Louis; Garcia, Hector H; Gilman, Robert H

    2013-10-01

    This study examines the carbohydrate composition of Taenia solium whole oncosphere antigens (WOAs), in order to improve the understanding of the antigenicity of the T. solium. Better knowledge of oncosphere antigens is crucial to accurately diagnose previous exposure to T. solium eggs and thus predict the development of neurocysticercosis. A set of seven lectins conjugates with wide carbohydrate specificity were used on parasite fixations and somatic extracts. Lectin fluorescence revealed that D-mannose, D-glucose, D-galactose and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residues were the most abundant constituents of carbohydrate chains on the surface of T. solium oncosphere. Lectin blotting showed that posttranslational modification with N-glycosylation was abundant while little evidence of O-linked carbohydrates was observed. Chemical oxidation and enzymatic deglycosylation in situ were performed to investigate the immunoreactivity of the carbohydrate moieties. Linearizing or removing the carbohydrate moieties from the protein backbones did not diminish the immunoreactivity of these antigens, suggesting that a substantial part of the host immune response against T. solium oncosphere is directed against the peptide epitopes on the parasite antigens. Finally, using carbohydrate probes, we demonstrated for the first time that the presence of several lectins on the surface of the oncosphere was specific to carbohydrates found in intestinal mucus, suggesting a possible role in initial attachment of the parasite to host cells.

  11. Fact or hypothesis: Taenia crassiceps as a model for Taenia solium, and the S3Pvac vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Lightowlers, M W

    2010-01-01

    Research undertaken over the past 40 years has established many of the general principals concerning immunity to taeniid cestodes. Although much is well understood about the host-protective mechanisms against taeniids and this knowledge has been exploited in studies on vaccine development, many aspects require further investigation or confirmation. Some phenomena have come to be regarded as being well established, while careful analysis of the published data would suggest that they may be better regarded as hypotheses rather than established facts. This review considers one selected issue pertaining to immunity to cestode infections and examines carefully the nature of the evidence that is available to support conclusions that have been made in this area. The issue examined is the use of Taenia crassiceps as a model for cysticercosis in pigs caused by Taenia solium, together with the S3Pvac vaccine, which has been developed based on this model. Strong evidence is found to support the conclusion that defined T. crassiceps antigens can limit intraperitoneal proliferation of the ORF strain of T. crassiceps in mice; however, the potential for these antigens to affect T. solium infection in pigs requires further confirmation. PMID:21039610

  12. First ultrastructural data on the human tapeworm Taenia asiatica eggs by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM).

    PubMed

    Galán-Puchades, M Teresa; Yang, Yichao; Marcilla, Antonio; Choe, Seongjun; Park, Hansol; Osuna, Antonio; Eom, Keeseon S

    2016-09-01

    Humans are definitive hosts of three species of the Taenia genus, namely Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica. The relative novelty of the latter explains the lack of knowledge concerning certain relevant aspects related to this parasite, such as its definite geographical distribution and whether its eggs can infect humans or not. So far, only the eggs of T. solium are known to be infective for humans, producing cysticercosis. Although eggs contain the infective stage, the oncosphere, there is a lack of research on the ultrastructure of eggs of human taeniids. We show, for the first time, the ultrastructure of eggs of T. asiatica by means of SEM and TEM analyses. We detected all the envelopes, namely the egg shell, vitelline layer, outer embryophoric membrane, embryophore, granular layer, basal membrane, oncospheral membrane and oncospheral tegument. Hooks surrounded by myofibrils and glycogen-like particles, the two types of secretory granules of the penetration glands, as well as several nuclei and mitochondria were also revealed in the oncospheres. In addition to the already known structures in eggs from other Taenia species, the presence of two types of small vesicles is described herein, possibly corresponding to exosomes and ectosomes because of their shape and size, which could participate in the host/parasite intercellular communication. PMID:27277232

  13. The endocrine-immune network during taeniosis by Taenia solium: The role of the pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Quintanar-Stephano, Andrés; Hernández-Cervantes, Rosalía; Moreno-Mendoza, Norma; Escobedo, Galileo; Carrero, Julio Cesar; Nava-Castro, Karen E; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that sex hormones play an important role during Taenia solium infection; however, to our knowledge no studies exist concerning the immune response following complete or lobe-specific removal of the pituitary gland during T. solium infection. Thus, the aim of this work was to analyze in hamsters, the effects of lack of pituitary hormones on the duodenal immune response, and their impact on T. solium establishment and development. Thus, in order to achieve this goal, we perform anterior pituitary lobectomy (AL, n = 9), neurointermediate pituitary lobectomy (NIL, n = 9) and total hypophysectomy (HYPOX, n = 8), and related to the gut establishment and growth of T. solium, hematoxylin-eosin staining of duodenal tissue and immunofluorescence of duodenal cytokine expression and compared these results to the control intact (n = 8) and control infected group (n = 8). Our results indicate that 15 days post-infection, HYPOX reduces the number and size of intestinally recovered T. solium adults. Using semiquantitative immunofluorescent laser confocal microscopy, we observed that the mean intensity of duodenal IFN-γ and IL-12 Th1 cytokines was mildly expressed in the infected controls, in contrast with the high level of expression of these cytokines in the NIL infected hamsters. Likewise, the duodenum of HYPOX animals showed an increase in the expression of Th2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-6, when compared to control hamsters. Histological analysis of duodenal mucosa from HYPOX hamsters revealed an exacerbated inflammatory infiltrate located along the lamina propria and related to the presence of the parasite. We conclude that lobe-specific pituitary hormones affect differentially the T. solium development and the gut immune response. PMID:26481692

  14. The endocrine-immune network during taeniosis by Taenia solium: The role of the pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Quintanar-Stephano, Andrés; Hernández-Cervantes, Rosalía; Moreno-Mendoza, Norma; Escobedo, Galileo; Carrero, Julio Cesar; Nava-Castro, Karen E; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that sex hormones play an important role during Taenia solium infection; however, to our knowledge no studies exist concerning the immune response following complete or lobe-specific removal of the pituitary gland during T. solium infection. Thus, the aim of this work was to analyze in hamsters, the effects of lack of pituitary hormones on the duodenal immune response, and their impact on T. solium establishment and development. Thus, in order to achieve this goal, we perform anterior pituitary lobectomy (AL, n = 9), neurointermediate pituitary lobectomy (NIL, n = 9) and total hypophysectomy (HYPOX, n = 8), and related to the gut establishment and growth of T. solium, hematoxylin-eosin staining of duodenal tissue and immunofluorescence of duodenal cytokine expression and compared these results to the control intact (n = 8) and control infected group (n = 8). Our results indicate that 15 days post-infection, HYPOX reduces the number and size of intestinally recovered T. solium adults. Using semiquantitative immunofluorescent laser confocal microscopy, we observed that the mean intensity of duodenal IFN-γ and IL-12 Th1 cytokines was mildly expressed in the infected controls, in contrast with the high level of expression of these cytokines in the NIL infected hamsters. Likewise, the duodenum of HYPOX animals showed an increase in the expression of Th2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-6, when compared to control hamsters. Histological analysis of duodenal mucosa from HYPOX hamsters revealed an exacerbated inflammatory infiltrate located along the lamina propria and related to the presence of the parasite. We conclude that lobe-specific pituitary hormones affect differentially the T. solium development and the gut immune response.

  15. Control of Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis: past practices and new possibilities.

    PubMed

    Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2013-11-01

    Neurocysticercosis continues to be a major health burden on humans living in many regions of the world, despite the availability of highly effective taeniacides and identification of the cause, Taenia solium, as being potentially eradicable. Several T. solium control trials have been undertaken, generally achieving limited success and none that has been fully documented has achieved what was demonstrated to be a sustainable level of disease control. Pigs act as intermediate hosts for T. solium and two new control tools have become available for application in pigs - single-dose oxfendazole treatment of porcine cysticercosis and the TSOL18 vaccine. Three potential intervention scenarios for pigs are compared for control of cysticercosis, using either oxfendazole or vaccination. A control scenario involving vaccination plus oxfendazole treatment delivered at 4 monthly intervals was predicted to achieve the best outcome, with no pigs slaughtered at 12 months of age having viable T. solium cysticerci. Now that new control tools are available, there are opportunities to concentrate research attention on evaluation of novel control scenarios leading to the implementation of effective and sustainable control programmes and a reduction in the global burden of neurocysticercosis.

  16. Vaccine development against the Taenia solium parasite: the role of recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Gauci, Charles; Jayashi, César; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2013-01-01

    Taenia solium is a zoonotic parasite that causes cysticercosis. The parasite is a major cause of human disease in impoverished communities where it is transmitted to humans from pigs which act as intermediate hosts. Vaccination of pigs to prevent transmission of T. solium to humans is an approach that has been investigated to control the disease. A recombinant vaccine antigen, TSOL18, has been remarkably successful at reducing infection of pigs with T. solium in several experimental challenge trials. The vaccine has been shown to eliminate transmission of naturally acquired T. solium in a field trial conducted in Africa. We recently reported that the vaccine was also effective in a field trial conducted in Peru. The TSOL18 recombinant antigen for each of these trials has been produced by expression in Escherichia coli. Here we discuss research that has been undertaken on the TSOL18 antigen and related antigens with a focus on improved methods of preparation of recombinant TSOL18 and optimized expression in Escherichia coli.

  17. Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis in Africa: risk factors, epidemiology and prospects for control using vaccination.

    PubMed

    Assana, Emmanuel; Lightowlers, Marshall W; Zoli, André P; Geerts, Stanny

    2013-07-01

    Poor sanitary conditions, free-roaming of domestic pigs and lack of awareness of the disease play an important role in the perpetuation of the Taenia solium taeniosis and cysticercosis in Africa. Traditional pig production systems known as the source of T. solium taeniosis/cysticercosis complex are predominant in the continent, representing 60-90% of pig production in rural areas. It has been reported that T. solium cysticercosis is the main cause of acquired epilepsy in human population and results in considerable public health problems and economic costs to the endemic countries. Although the socioeconomic impact and public health burden of cysticercosis have been demonstrated, up to now no large-scale control programme has been undertaken in Africa. Most disease control trials reported in the literature have been located in Latin America and Asia. This review discusses the risk factors and epidemiology of T. solium cysticercosis in Africa and critically analyzes the options available for implementing control of this zoonotic disease in the continent.

  18. Protection of pigs against Taenia solium cysticercosis by immunization with novel recombinant antigens

    PubMed Central

    Gauci, Charles G.; Jayashi, César M.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Lackenby, Julia; Lightowlers, Marshall W.

    2012-01-01

    Recombinant antigens from the oncosphere stage of the parasite Taenia solium were expressed in Escherichia coli. The TSOL16, TSOL45-1A and TSOL45-1B recombinant antigens, each consisting of fibronectin type III (FnIII) domain S, were produced as fusion proteins with glutathione S-transferase (GST) and maltose binding protein (MBP). Groups of pigs were immunized twice with the GST fusions of the antigens and boosted a third time with the MBP fusions prior to receiving a challenge infection with T. solium eggs. The TSOL16 antigen was found to be capable of inducing high levels of immunity in pigs against a challenge infection with T. solium. Immunological investigations identified differences in immune responses in the pigs vaccinated with the various antigens. The results demonstrate that the TSOL16 antigen could be a valuable adjunct to current porcine vaccination approaches and may allow the further development of new vaccination strategies against T. solium cysticercosis. PMID:22521850

  19. Eradication of Taenia solium cysticercosis: a role for vaccination of pigs.

    PubMed

    Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2010-08-15

    Taenia solium is the causative agent of neurocysticercosis, a disease responsible for substantial human morbidity and mortality. It is a zoonotic parasite, involving pigs as intermediate hosts. The parasite's full life cycle is restricted to poor people in developing countries. Attempts to date to control transmission of the parasite have been relatively poorly effective and not sustainable. Over the past decade research has been undertaken to develop practical vaccines for use in pigs to prevent transmission of T. solium. The most effective of these vaccines in controlled experimental trials has been the TSOL18 vaccine. More recently, TSOL18 has been proven to be highly effective against naturally acquired infection with T. solium in pigs. Application of TSOL18 together with a single treatment of pigs with oxfendazole achieved the complete elimination of transmission of the parasite by pigs involved in the field trial. This strategy may provide a relatively low cost and sustainable control tool which could assist towards the goal of achieving eradication of the parasite. An assessment is made of the potential value of various control measures that are available for T. solium, and two options are suggested as potential parasite control programs.

  20. Morphological changes to early stage Taenia solium cysticerci following oxfendazole treatment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Jie; Li, Qing-Zhang; Hao, Yan-Hong

    2003-01-01

    The progressive morphological changes to early stage Taenia solium cysticerci following the treatment of pigs with a single therapeutic dose of oxfendazole (30 mg/kg), are described. On Day 1 after treatment, no obvious changes occurred in the general appearance of the larvae but alternations were seen by electron microscope, with an apparent reduction in the number of microtriches, and a complete disappearance of the tegument. Numerous granules were seen to have accumulated in the tegument cells. As treatment progressed, damage to the cysticerci was more serious and, by five days, all cysticerci were seen to be in an advanced stage of degeneration. By 45 days post-treatment, all cysts were calcified. These results suggest that oxfendazole is a highly effective drug against T. solium cysticerci in the early stages of development.

  1. Short Communication: In Vitro Efficacy Testing of Praziquantel, Ivermectin, and Oxfendazole against Taenia Solium Cysts.

    PubMed

    Cederberg, S; Sikasunge, C S; Andersson, A; Johansen, M V

    2012-01-01

    Oxfendazole is recommended as the drug of choice for treating porcine cysticercosis. The drug does not kill brain cysts and is not registered for use in pigs. Latest its safety in the recommended dose has been questioned. The aim of this study was to investigate two alternative anthelminthics. The efficacy of praziquantel and ivermectin was compared to oxfendazole In Vitro on Taenia solium. Cysts of T. solium were isolated from infected pork and incubated in culture media together with the drugs. The degree of evagination was used as effect measurement and determined after 6 hours. Praziquantel had a half maximal effective concentration (EC(50)) of value 0.006 ± 0.001 μg/mL. Ivermectin did not show any impact on the evagination in concentrations from 0.001 to 30 μg/mL and neither did oxfendazole in concentrations from 0.001 to 50 μg/mL.

  2. Anamnestic responses in pigs to the Taenia solium TSOL18 vaccine and implications for control strategies.

    PubMed

    Lightowlers, Marshall W; Donadeu, Meritxell; Elaiyaraja, M; Maithal, Kapil; Kumar, K Anand; Gauci, Charles G; Firestone, Simon M; Sarasola, Patxi; Rowan, Tim G

    2016-04-01

    Specific antibody responses were assessed in pigs immunized with the Taenia solium vaccine TSOL18. Anti-TSOL18 responses were compared 2 weeks after secondary immunization, where the interval between primary and secondary immunization was 4, 8, 12, 16 or 20 weeks. All animals responded to the vaccine and there was no diminution in antibody responses in animals receiving their second injection after an interval up to 20 weeks. Pigs receiving vaccinations at an interval of 12 weeks developed significantly increased antibody responses compared with animals receiving immunizations 4 weeks apart (P = 0.046). The ability to deliver TSOL18 vaccination effectively where the revaccination schedule can be delayed for up to 12-16 weeks in pigs increases the options available for designing T. solium control interventions that incorporate TSOL18 vaccination. PMID:26892239

  3. Simple and reliable preparation of immunodiagnostic antigens for Taenia solium cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Sako, Yasuhito; Itoh, Sonoyo; Okamoto, Munehiro; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Ito, Akira

    2013-11-01

    SUMMARY Cysticercosis caused by infection with the larval stage of Taenia solium is an important cause of neurological disease worldwide and immunodiagnosis is important for the control and elimination of cysticercosis. In the present study, we established a simple and reliable preparation of immunodiagnostic low-molecular-weight antigens (LMWAgs) from T. solium cyst fluids by a cation-exchange chromatography (CEC). Banding patterns of LMWAgs on SDS-PAGE were different between isolates from Ecuador and China. All cysticercosis patient sera and some echinococcosis patient sera recognized both LMWAgs by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), but sera from healthy persons were not positive. There was no statistical difference in immunodiagnostic performance of LMWAgs prepared from different geographical isolates. These results indicated that these novel immunodiagnostic antigen preparations could contribute the control and prevention of cysticercosis in endemic areas, especially developing countries.

  4. Epidemiology and Management of Cysticercosis and Taenia solium Taeniasis in Europe, Systematic Review 1990–2011

    PubMed Central

    Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Strohmeyer, Marianne; Bartalesi, Filippo; Bruno, Elisa; Muñoz, José; Buonfrate, Dora; Nicoletti, Alessandra; García, Héctor Hugo; Pozio, Edoardo; Bartoloni, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Background Cysticercosis is caused by the invasion of human or pig tissues by the metacestode larval stage of Taenia solium. In Europe, the disease was endemic in the past but the autochthonous natural life cycle of the parasite is currently completed very rarely. Recently, imported cases have increased in parallel to the increased number of migrations and international travels. The lack of specific surveillance systems for cysticercosis leads to underestimation of the epidemiological and clinical impacts. Objectives To review the available data on epidemiology and management of cysticercosis in Europe. Methods A review of literature on human cysticercosis and T. solium taeniasis in Europe published between 1990–2011 was conducted. Results Out of 846 cysticercosis cases described in the literature, 522 cases were autochthonous and 324 cases were imported. The majority (70.1%) of the autochthonous cases were diagnosed in Portugal from 1983 and 1994. Imported cases of which 242 (74.7%) diagnosed in migrants and 57 (17.6%) in European travellers, showed an increasing trend. Most of imported cases were acquired in Latin America (69.8% of migrants and 44.0% of travellers). The majority of imported cases were diagnosed in Spain (47.5%), France (16.7%) and Italy (8.3%). One third of neurosurgical procedures were performed because the suspected diagnosis was cerebral neoplasm. Sixty eight autochthonous and 5 imported T. solium taeniasis cases were reported. Conclusions Cysticercosis remains a challenge for European care providers, since they are often poorly aware of this infection and have little familiarity in managing this disease. Cysticercosis should be included among mandatory reportable diseases, in order to improve the accuracy of epidemiological information. European health care providers might benefit from a transfer of knowledge from colleagues working in endemic areas and the development of shared diagnostic and therapeutic processes would have impact on the

  5. Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase: cloning and analysis of the Taenia solium gene and Taenia crassiceps cDNA.

    PubMed

    Parra-Unda, Ricardo; Vaca-Paniagua, Felipe; Jiménez, Lucia; Landa, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Cytosolic Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD) catalyzes the dismutation of superoxide (O(2)(-)) to oxygen and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and plays an important role in the establishment and survival of helminthes in their hosts. In this work, we describe the Taenia solium Cu,Zn-SOD gene (TsCu,Zn-SOD) and a Taenia crassiceps (TcCu,Zn-SOD) cDNA. TsCu,Zn-SOD gene that spans 2.841 kb, and has three exons and two introns; the splicing junctions follow the GT-AG rule. Analysis in silico of the gene revealed that the 5'-flanking region has three putative TATA and CCAAT boxes, and transcription factor binding sites for NF1 and AP1. The transcription start site was a C, located at 22 nucleotides upstream of the translation start codon (ATG). Southern blot analysis showed that TcCu,Zn-SOD and TsCu,Zn-SOD genes are encoded by a single copy. The deduced amino acid sequences of TsCu,Zn-SOD gene and TcCu,Zn-SOD cDNA reveal 98.47% of identity, and the characteristic motives, including the catalytic site and β-barrel structure of the Cu,Zn-SOD. Proteomic and immunohistochemical analysis indicated that Cu,Zn-SOD does not have isoforms, is distributed throughout the bladder wall and is concentrated in the tegument of T. solium and T. crassiceps cysticerci. Expression analysis revealed that TcCu,Zn-SOD mRNA and protein expression levels do not change in cysticerci, even upon exposure to O(2)(-) (0-3.8 nmol/min) and H(2)O(2) (0-2mM), suggesting that this gene is constitutively expressed in these parasites.

  6. Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Human Taenia Solium Infections in Mbozi District, Mbeya Region, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mwanjali, Gloria; Kihamia, Charles; Kakoko, Deodatus Vitalis Conatus; Lekule, Faustin; Ngowi, Helena; Johansen, Maria Vang; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Willingham, Arve Lee

    2013-01-01

    Background Taenia solium cysticercosis/taeniosis is emerging as a serious public health and economic problem in many developing countries. This study was conducted to determine prevalence and risk factors of human T. solium infections in Mbeya Region, Tanzania. Methods and Findings A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 13 villages of Mbozi district in 2009. Sera of 830 people (mean 37.9±11.3 years (SD); 43% females) were tested for circulating cysticerci antigen (Ag-ELISA) and antibody (Ab-ELISA). A subset of persons found seropositive by Ag-ELISA underwent computed tomography (CT) scan of the brain for evidence of neurocysticercosis. Stool samples from 820 of the same participants were tested for taeniosis by copro-antigens (copro-Ag-ELISA) and formol-ether concentration technique. Cases of T. solium taeniosis were confirmed serologically by EITB assay (rES38). A questionnaire was used for identification of risk factors. Active cysticercosis by positive Ag-ELISA was found in 139 (16.7%) persons while anti-cysticercal antibodies were detected in 376 (45.3%) persons by Ab-ELISA. Among 55 persons positive for Ag-ELISA undergoing CT scan, 30 (54.6%) were found to have structures in the brain suggestive of neurocysticercosis. Using faecal analysis, 43 (5.2%) stool samples tested positive for taeniosis by copro-Ag-ELISA while Taenia eggs were detected in 9 (1.1%) stool samples by routine coprology. Antibodies specifically against adult T. solium were detected in 34 copro-Ag-ELISA positive participants by EITB (rES38) indicating T. solium taeniosis prevalence of 4.1%. Increasing age and hand washing by dipping in contrast to using running water, were found associated with Ag-ELISA seropositivity by logistic regression. Gender (higher risk in females) and water source were risk factors associated with Ab-ELISA seropositivity. Reported symptoms of chronic severe headaches and history of epileptic seizures were found associated with positive Ag-ELISA (p≤0

  7. Cloning, characterization and functional expression of Taenia solium 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Aceves-Ramos, A; de la Torre, P; Hinojosa, L; Ponce, A; García-Villegas, R; Laclette, J P; Bobes, R J; Romano, M C

    2014-07-01

    The 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17β-HSD) are key enzymes involved in the formation (reduction) and inactivation (oxidation) of sex steroids. Several types have been found in vertebrates including fish, as well as in invertebrates like Caenorhabditis elegans, Ciona intestinalis and Haliotis diversicolor supertexta. To date limited information is available about this enzyme in parasites. We showed previously that Taenia solium cysticerci are able to synthesize sex steroid hormones in vitro when precursors are provided in the culture medium. Here, we identified a T. solium 17β-HSD through in silico blast searches in the T. solium genome database. This coding sequence was amplified by RT-PCR and cloned into the pcDNA 3.1(+) expression vector. The full length cDNA contains 957bp, corresponding to an open reading frame coding for 319 aa. The highest identity (84%) at the protein level was found with the Echinococcus multilocularis 17β-HSD although significant similarities were also found with other invertebrate and vertebrate 17β-HSD sequences. The T. solium Tsol-17βHSD belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) protein superfamily. HEK293T cells transiently transfected with Tsol17β-HSD induced expression of Tsol17β-HSD that transformed 3H-androstenedione into testosterone. In contrast, 3H-estrone was not significantly transformed into estradiol. In conclusion, T. solium cysticerci express a 17β-HSD that catalyzes the androgen reduction. The enzyme belongs to the short chain dehydrogenases/reductase family and shares motifs and activity with the type 3 enzyme of some other species.

  8. Taenia solium cysticercosis in a village in northern Viet Nam: seroprevalence study using an ELISA for detecting circulating antigen.

    PubMed

    Erhart, Annette; Dorny, Pierre; Van De, Nguyen; Vien, Ha Viet; Thach, Dang Cam; Toan, Nguyen Duy; Cong, Le Dinh; Geerts, Stanny; Speybroeck, Niko; Berkvens, Dirk; Brandt, Jef

    2002-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detecting circulating Taenia solium antigen was evaluated in Viet Nam; 12 of 210 people gave a positive result, including 5 persons with epilepsy. Cysticercosis was confirmed in 9 persons. Agreement between the ELISA, computerized tomography scanning and biopsy examination was high. PMID:12174775

  9. Field trial for reducing porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis in Mexico by systematic vaccination of pigs.

    PubMed

    Molinari, J L; Rodríguez, D; Tato, P; Soto, R; Arechavaleta, F; Solano, S

    1997-04-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that immunization of pigs with a crude extract of Taenia solium metacestodes can confer a high level of protection against an egg challenge. Furthermore, vaccination of infected animals also induces an immune response against the larvae, which are either destroyed or rendered non-infectious. To assess the efficacy of immunization as a strategy for reducing the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis, a field trial of this vaccine was performed in an endemic area in the northern region of the Guerrero State, Mexico, Random samples of pigs belonging to 17 villages were examined for metacestodes by inspection of their tongues. Each animal was immunized with a dose of 150 micrograms of protein (antigenic extract from Taenia solium metacestodes) by the intramuscular route. A prevalence of 2.4% of porcine cysticercosis on average was found in these villages at the beginning of the trial (62 cysticercotic pigs out of 2650 inspected). Six of these villages were selected for the periodic vaccination of new random samples of pigs. A statistically significant decline in the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was observed at the end of the trial, decreasing from 2.4% at the beginning of vaccination to 0.45% at the end of the trial. A reduction of 82% was observed in spite of the poor living conditions in these villages. These results are consistent with previous data and suggest that it may be possible to turn a susceptible pig population into a protected one by systematic vaccination.

  10. Genetic similarity between Taenia solium cysticerci collected from the two distant endemic areas in North and North East India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Monika; Devi, Kangjam Rekha; Sehgal, Rakesh; Narain, Kanwar; Mahanta, Jagadish; Malla, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a major public health problem in developing countries. This study reports genotypic analysis of T. solium cysticerci collected from two different endemic areas of North (Chandigarh) and North East India (Dibrugarh) by the sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene. The variation in cox1 sequences of samples collected from these two different geographical regions located at a distance of 2585 km was minimal. Alignment of the nucleotide sequences with different species of Taenia showed the similarity with Asian genotype of T. solium. Among 50 isolates, 6 variant nucleotide positions (0.37% of total length) were detected. These results suggest that population in these geographical areas are homogenous.

  11. Simulating transmission and control of Taenia solium infections using a Reed-Frost stochastic model.

    PubMed

    Kyvsgaard, Niels C; Johansen, Maria Vang; Carabin, Hélène

    2007-04-01

    The transmission dynamics of the human-pig zoonotic cestode Taenia solium are explored with both deterministic and stochastic versions of a modified Reed-Frost model. This model, originally developed for microparasitic infections (i.e. bacteria, viruses and protozoa), assumes that random contacts occur between hosts and that hosts can be either susceptible, infected or 'recovered and presumed immune'. Transmission between humans and pigs is modelled as susceptible roaming pigs scavenging on human faeces infected with T. solium eggs. Transmission from pigs to humans is modelled as susceptible humans eating under-cooked pork meat harbouring T. solium metacestodes. Deterministic models of each scenario were first run, followed by stochastic versions of the models to assess the likelihood of infection elimination in the small population modelled. The effects of three groups of interventions were investigated using the model: (i) interventions affecting the transmission parameters such as use of latrines, meat inspection, and cooking habits; (ii) routine interventions including rapid detection and treatment of human carriers or pig vaccination; and (iii) treatment interventions of either humans or pigs. It is concluded that mass-treatment can result in a short term dramatic reduction in prevalence, whereas interventions targeting interruption of the life cycle lead to long-term reduction in prevalence.

  12. Differential antigenic protein recovery from Taenia solium cyst tissues using several detergents.

    PubMed

    Navarrete-Perea, José; Orozco-Ramírez, Rodrigo; Moguel, Bárbara; Sciutto, Edda; Bobes, Raúl J; Laclette, Juan P

    2015-07-01

    Human and porcine cysticercosis is caused by the larval stage of the flatworm Taenia solium (Cestoda). The protein extracts of T. solium cysts are complex mixtures including cyst's and host proteins. Little is known about the influence of using different detergents in the efficiency of solubilization-extraction of these proteins, including relevant antigens. Here, we describe the use of CHAPS, ASB-14 and Triton X-100, alone or in combination in the extraction buffers, as a strategy to notably increase the recovery of proteins that are usually left aside in insoluble fractions of cysts. Using buffer with CHAPS alone, 315 protein spots were detected through 2D-PAGE. A total of 255 and 258 spots were detected using buffers with Triton X-100 or ASB-14, respectively. More protein spots were detected when detergents were combined, i.e., 2% CHAPS, 1% Triton X-100 and 1% ASB-14 allowed detection of up to 368 spots. Our results indicated that insoluble fractions of T. solium cysts were rich in antigens, including several glycoproteins that were sensitive to metaperiodate treatment. Host proteins, a common component in protein extracts of cysts, were present in larger amounts in soluble than insoluble fractions of cysts proteins. Finally, antigens present in the insoluble fraction were more appropriate as a source of antigens for diagnostic procedures.

  13. Genetics of the pig tapeworm in Madagascar reveal a history of human dispersal and colonization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An intricate history of human dispersal and geographic colonization has strongly affected the distribution of obligate parasites circulating among people. Among these parasites, the pig tapeworm Taenia solium occurs throughout the world as the causative agent of cysticercosis, one of the most serio...

  14. Characterisation of antibody responses in pigs induced by recombinant oncosphere antigens from Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Jayashi, César M; Gonzalez, Armando E; Castillo Neyra, Ricardo; Kyngdon, Craig T; Gauci, Charles G; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2012-12-14

    Recombinant antigens cloned from the oncosphere life cycle stage of the cestode parasite Taenia solium (T. solium) have been proven to be effective as vaccines for protecting pigs against infections with T. solium. Previous studies have defined three different host protective oncosphere antigens, TSOL18, TSOL16 and TSOL45. In this study, we evaluated the potential for combining the antigens TSOL16 and TSOL18 as a practical vaccine. Firstly, in a laboratory trial, we compared the immunogenicity of the combined antigens (TSOL16/18) versus the immunogenicity of the antigens separately. Secondly, in a field trial, we tested the ability of the TSOL16/18 vaccine to induce detectable antibody responses in animals living under environmental stress and traditionally reared in areas where T. solium cysticercosis is endemic; and finally, we characterised the immune response of the study population. Pigs of 8-16 weeks of age were vaccinated with 200 μg each of TSOL16 and TSOL18, plus 5mg of Quil-A. Specific total IgG, IgG(1) and IgG(2) antibody responses induced by TSOL16 and TSOL18 were determined with ELISA. The immunogenicity of both antigens was retained in the combined TSOL16/18 vaccine. The combined vaccine TSOL16/18 induced detectable specific anti-TSOL18 antibody responses in 100% (113/113) and specific anti-TSOL16 in 99% (112/113) of the vaccinated animals measured at 2 weeks following the booster vaccination. From the two IgG antibody subtypes analysed we found there was stronger response to IgG(2).

  15. Molecular approaches to Taenia asiatica.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Eom, Keeseon S

    2013-02-01

    Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica are taeniid tapeworms that cause taeniasis in humans and cysticercosis in intermediate host animals. Taeniases remain an important public health concerns in the world. Molecular diagnostic methods using PCR assays have been developed for rapid and accurate detection of human infecting taeniid tapeworms, including the use of sequence-specific DNA probes, PCR-RFLP, and multiplex PCR. More recently, DNA diagnosis using PCR based on histopathological specimens such as 10% formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded and stained sections mounted on slides has been applied to cestode infections. The mitochondrial gene sequence is believed to be a very useful molecular marker for not only studying evolutionary relationships among distantly related taxa, but also for investigating the phylo-biogeography of closely related species. The complete sequence of the human Taenia tapeworms mitochondrial genomes were determined, and its organization and structure were compared to other human-tropic Taenia tapeworms for which complete mitochondrial sequence data were available. The multiplex PCR assay with the Ta4978F, Ts5058F, Tso7421F, and Rev7915 primers will be useful for differential diagnosis, molecular characterization, and epidemiological surveys of human Taenia tapeworms. PMID:23467738

  16. Molecular Diagnosis of Human Taenia martis Eye Infection.

    PubMed

    Koch, Till; Schoen, Christoph; Muntau, Birgit; Addo, Marylyn; Ostertag, Helmut; Wiechens, Burkhard; Tappe, Dennis

    2016-05-01

    Taenia martis, a tapeworm harbored in the intestine of mustelids, is a rarely encountered zoonotic cysticercosis pathogen. The larval stage closely resembles the Taenia solium cysticercus, but the natural host and thus the epidemiology of the disease is different. We here report a human eye infection diagnosed molecularly in a previously healthy female German patient. The case represents the third human infection described worldwide; the two previous cases were also European, involving eye and brain. PMID:26928837

  17. Current status of Taenia solium and cysticercosis in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Owen, Ifor L

    2006-01-01

    There is no evidence that taeniasis due to Taenia solium is present in Papua New Guinea (PNG), but there is some serological evidence that human cysticercosis exists at particular locations near the border with West Papua (Indonesia), where refugees from across the border have been settled. Only a few surveys have been conducted; the first was in 1986, when one refugee who originated from an infected locality in West Papua was found to be serologically positive, but asymptomatic. Subsequently, there have been unpublished reports of more positive but asymptomatic cases amongst refugees and, it is claimed, amongst local inhabitants that live near the border. A serological survey conducted in PNG in 1999 at the southern end of the border revealed no positive cases of cysticercosis. There are no reports of pigs or dogs affected with cysticercosis in PNG. PMID:16338165

  18. Measures for the prevention and control of Taenia solium taeniosis and cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Sarti, Elsa; Rajshekhar, Vedantam

    2003-06-01

    Taeniosis and cysticercosis due to Taenia solium are public health problems in many developing countries. Many studies of this parasitic zoonosis have focused on clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, surveillance, epidemiology and risk factors analysis. More recently projects on community and mass intervention strategies had been conducted in several rural areas worldwide focused on pig vaccination, pig cysticercosis treatment, human mass treatment, infrastructure development, as well as health education campaigns. Their advantages, disadvantages and public health impact have been published. This document discusses the feasibility and limitations of these interventions in order to assist countries in selection the best strategy for the prevention and control of this disease; we emphasized the specific strategies that might be recommended in different demographical situations.

  19. Anti-Taenia solium larval stage Ig G antibodies in patients with epileptic seizures

    PubMed Central

    Parija, Subhash Chandra; Raman, Gireesh A

    2011-01-01

    Background: Cysticercosis is the most common differential diagnosis for epilepsy. The present study was carried out to assess the serological response among patients with epileptic seizures visiting JIPMER Hospital Puducherry. Materials and Methods: A total of 934 serum samples were collected from patients with epileptic seizures. A standardized questionnaire was designed to obtain information on the demographic, socioeconomic, environmental, and behavioral characteristics related to the transmission of infection. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the anti-Taenia solium larval stage IgG antibodies. Samples found reactive and inconclusive by ELISA were further tested by the enzyme immunotransfer blot (EITB). Results: The frequency of antibodies in the serum samples of the above-mentioned population was 16.2% by EITB. Anti-Taenia solium larval stage antibodies were detected in serum samples of 163 patients, out of which 27 (16.56%) patients belonged to the 0 – 15-year age group, 82 (50.30%) patients were in the 16 – 40-year age group, and 52 (31.90%) patients were above 41 years, respectively. Although the sera from males had higher OD values than those from females, the difference was not statistically significant. Out of 163 seropositive by ELISA, 152 (93.25%) were found to be positive by EITB. Out of the 152, 61 (40.13%) were farmers and 79 (51.97%) were office or factory workers. Conclusions: In conclusion, the results indicate a probable endemic situation and a high prevalence of cysticercosis in patients with epileptic seizures. Living in poor sanitary conditions seems to be an important factor related to human cysticercosis in Puducherry and the neighboring districts of Tamil Nadu. PMID:23508037

  20. The emergence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Eastern and Southern Africa as a serious agricultural problem and public health risk.

    PubMed

    Phiri, Isaac K; Ngowi, Helena; Afonso, Sonia; Matenga, Elizabeth; Boa, Mathias; Mukaratirwa, Samson; Githigia, Samuel; Saimo, Margaret; Sikasunge, Chummy; Maingi, Ndichu; Lubega, George W; Kassuku, Ayub; Michael, Lynne; Siziya, Seter; Krecek, Rosina C; Noormahomed, Emilia; Vilhena, Manuela; Dorny, Pierre; Willingham, A Lee

    2003-06-01

    pigs positive. In Zimbabwe, a retrospective study in official abattoirs around the country from 1994 to 2001 reported a mean prevalence of 0.34% which is in contrast to a post-mortem survey in 1999, which showed that the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in rural west Zimbabwe where smallholder pig keeping is popular was 28.6%. In Zambia, abattoir records reported porcine cysticercosis in six of the nine provinces. Routine meat inspection of 1316 pigs at a slaughter slab in Lusaka showed that 20.6% of the pigs had cysticercosis whereas serological testing of 874 pigs at the same abattoir indicated that 56.6% were found to have circulating antigens of Taenia solium. Field surveys based on lingual palpation in Southern and Eastern Provinces of Zambia revealed prevalences of 8.2-28.4 and 5.2%, respectively. South Africa has the largest number of pigs in Southern Africa and cysticercosis has been recognised as a problem in the country for many decades. There is strong evidence supporting the high prevalence of neurocysticercosis infecting humans from resource-poor areas of the country where pigs are being raised under smallholder conditions. In spite of this community-based surveys on porcine cysticercosis have never been conducted in South Africa and the last slaughterhouse survey was conducted nearly 40 years ago. The prevalences of porcine cysticercosis found in these ESA countries rank among the highest in the world and the disease is emerging as an important constraint for the nutritional and economic well being of resource-poor smallholder farming communities. The current findings suggest the widespread presence of human tapeworm carriers and thus a high risk of human cysticercosis in both rural areas and urban centres in the ESA region. More research is required in the region to assess the extent and public health and economic impact of T. solium infection in order to determine whether and what prevention and control efforts are needed.

  1. Study and Ranking of Determinants of Taenia solium Infections by Classification Tree Models

    PubMed Central

    Mwape, Kabemba E.; Phiri, Isaac K.; Praet, Nicolas; Dorny, Pierre; Muma, John B.; Zulu, Gideon; Speybroeck, Niko; Gabriël, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is an important public health problem occurring mainly in developing countries. This work aimed to study the determinants of human T. solium infections in the Eastern province of Zambia and rank them in order of importance. A household (HH)-level questionnaire was administered to 680 HHs from 53 villages in two rural districts and the taeniasis and cysticercosis status determined. A classification tree model (CART) was used to define the relative importance and interactions between different predictor variables in their effect on taeniasis and cysticercosis. The Katete study area had a significantly higher taeniasis and cysticercosis prevalence than the Petauke area. The CART analysis for Katete showed that the most important determinant for cysticercosis infections was the number of HH inhabitants (6 to 10) and for taeniasis was the number of HH inhabitants > 6. The most important determinant in Petauke for cysticercosis was the age of head of household > 32 years and for taeniasis it was age < 55 years. The CART analysis showed that the most important determinant for both taeniasis and cysticercosis infections was the number of HH inhabitants (6 to 10) in Katete district and age in Petauke. The results suggest that control measures should target HHs with a high number of inhabitants and older individuals. PMID:25404073

  2. Study and ranking of determinants of Taenia solium infections by classification tree models.

    PubMed

    Mwape, Kabemba E; Phiri, Isaac K; Praet, Nicolas; Dorny, Pierre; Muma, John B; Zulu, Gideon; Speybroeck, Niko; Gabriël, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is an important public health problem occurring mainly in developing countries. This work aimed to study the determinants of human T. solium infections in the Eastern province of Zambia and rank them in order of importance. A household (HH)-level questionnaire was administered to 680 HHs from 53 villages in two rural districts and the taeniasis and cysticercosis status determined. A classification tree model (CART) was used to define the relative importance and interactions between different predictor variables in their effect on taeniasis and cysticercosis. The Katete study area had a significantly higher taeniasis and cysticercosis prevalence than the Petauke area. The CART analysis for Katete showed that the most important determinant for cysticercosis infections was the number of HH inhabitants (6 to 10) and for taeniasis was the number of HH inhabitants > 6. The most important determinant in Petauke for cysticercosis was the age of head of household > 32 years and for taeniasis it was age < 55 years. The CART analysis showed that the most important determinant for both taeniasis and cysticercosis infections was the number of HH inhabitants (6 to 10) in Katete district and age in Petauke. The results suggest that control measures should target HHs with a high number of inhabitants and older individuals. PMID:25404073

  3. Recombinant bacteriophage-based multiepitope vaccine against Taenia solium pig cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Manoutcharian, Karen; Díaz-Orea, Alicia; Gevorkian, Goar; Fragoso, Gladis; Acero, Gonzalo; González, Erik; De Aluja, Aline; Villalobos, Nelly; Gómez-Conde, Eduardo; Sciutto, Edda

    2004-05-01

    The aim of this study was to test the capacity of recombinant phages to deliver antigens for vaccination against porcine cysticercosis. Thus, three peptides (KETc1, KETc12, GK1) and a recombinant antigen KETc7, previously proven to induce high levels of protection against pig cysticercosis, were expressed on the surface of the M13 bacteriophage at multiple copies. The pool of these four recombinant phages induced high levels of protection against an experimental murine cysticercosis. The immunogenicity of the phage vaccine preparation was therefore, tested in pigs, the natural host of Taenia solium. Subcutaneous or oral vaccination with these phages induced antigen-specific cellular immune responses in pigs. Preliminary data also points to the protective capacity of this recombinant phage vaccine against pig cysticercosis. The immunogenicity of these recombinant phages, together with the low cost of their production, make them a realistic candidate to be tested in pigs as an anti-cysticercus phage vaccine for field trials. This is the first report describing the application of a filamentous bacteriophage as a vaccine in large animals such as pigs, the only intermediate hosts of T. solium, a parasite of major medical importance in developing countries. The potential application of phages as a modern platform for vaccines for human and animal diseases is discussed.

  4. Characterization of a monoclonal antibody that specifically inhibits triosephosphate isomerase activity of Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Víctor, Sanabria-Ayala; Yolanda, Medina-Flores; Araceli, Zavala-Carballo; Lucía, Jiménez; Abraham, Landa

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, we obtained and characterized partially a monoclonal antibody (4H11D10B11 mAb) against triosephosphate isomerase from Taenia solium (TTPI). This antibody recognized the enzyme by both ELISA and western blot and was able to inhibit its enzymatic activity in 74%. Moreover, the antigen-binding fragments (Fabs), products of digestion of the monoclonal antibody with papain, retained almost the same inhibitory effect. We determined the binding site by ELISA; synthetic peptides containing sequences from different non-conserved regions of the TTPI were confronted to the 4H11D10B11 mAb. The epitope recognized by the monoclonal antibody was located on peptide TTPI-56 (ATPAQAQEVHKVVRDWIRKHVDAGIADKARI), and an analysis of mimotopes, obtained with the 4H11D10B11 mAb, suggests that the epitope spans the sequence WIRKHVDAGIAD, residues 193-204 of the enzyme. This epitope is located within helix 6, next to loop 6, an essential active loop during catalysis. The antibody did not recognize triosephosphate isomerase from man and pig, definitive and intermediary hosts of T. solium, respectively. Furthermore, it did not bind to the catalytic site, since kinetic analysis demonstrated that inhibition had a non-competitive profile.

  5. Study and ranking of determinants of Taenia solium infections by classification tree models.

    PubMed

    Mwape, Kabemba E; Phiri, Isaac K; Praet, Nicolas; Dorny, Pierre; Muma, John B; Zulu, Gideon; Speybroeck, Niko; Gabriël, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is an important public health problem occurring mainly in developing countries. This work aimed to study the determinants of human T. solium infections in the Eastern province of Zambia and rank them in order of importance. A household (HH)-level questionnaire was administered to 680 HHs from 53 villages in two rural districts and the taeniasis and cysticercosis status determined. A classification tree model (CART) was used to define the relative importance and interactions between different predictor variables in their effect on taeniasis and cysticercosis. The Katete study area had a significantly higher taeniasis and cysticercosis prevalence than the Petauke area. The CART analysis for Katete showed that the most important determinant for cysticercosis infections was the number of HH inhabitants (6 to 10) and for taeniasis was the number of HH inhabitants > 6. The most important determinant in Petauke for cysticercosis was the age of head of household > 32 years and for taeniasis it was age < 55 years. The CART analysis showed that the most important determinant for both taeniasis and cysticercosis infections was the number of HH inhabitants (6 to 10) in Katete district and age in Petauke. The results suggest that control measures should target HHs with a high number of inhabitants and older individuals.

  6. Genetic polymorphism in Taenia solium metacestodes from different Brazilian geographic areas.

    PubMed

    Barcelos, Ivanildes Solange da Costa; Souza, Maria Aparecida; Pena, Janethe Deolinda de Oliveira; Machado, Gleyce Alves; Moura, Lísia Gomes Martins de; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate genetic polymorphisms in Taenia solium metacestodes from different Brazilian geographical areas and to relate them to antibody recognition in serum samples of neurocysticercosis (NC) patients. Metacestodes were obtained from the Distrito Federal (DF), Bahia, Minas Gerais (MG) and São Paulo (SP) regions of Brazil. Samples of human sera from 49 individuals with NC, 68 individuals with other helminthiasis and 40 healthy volunteers were analysed (157 individuals in total). Antigens were prepared and used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blotting assays to detect specific immunoglobulin G antibodies. Genetic distances between metacestode populations were analysed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Our results show that there was a higher frequency of reactivity in the DF region in the sera from NC patients (p < 0.05), while discrimination between active and inactive NC was seen only in extracts from the MG and SP regions (p < 0.05). Using RAPD, the sample from the DF region presented a greater increase compared to the other regions. A relationship between genetic polymorphisms among T. solium metacestodes from different areas in Brazil and the differences in antibody detection in patients with NC were established.

  7. Sequence analysis and molecular characterization of Wnt4 gene in metacestodes of Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Hou, Junling; Luo, Xuenong; Wang, Shuai; Yin, Cai; Zhang, Shaohua; Zhu, Xueliang; Dou, Yongxi; Cai, Xuepeng

    2014-04-01

    Wnt proteins are a family of secreted glycoproteins that are evolutionarily conserved and considered to be involved in extensive developmental processes in metazoan organisms. The characterization of wnt genes may improve understanding the parasite's development. In the present study, a wnt4 gene encoding 491amino acids was amplified from cDNA of metacestodes of Taenia solium using reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Bioinformatics tools were used for sequence analysis. The conserved domain of the wnt gene family was predicted. The expression profile of Wnt4 was investigated using real-time PCR. Wnt4 expression was found to be dramatically increased in scolex evaginated cysticerci when compared to invaginated cysticerci. In situ hybridization showed that wnt4 gene was distributed in the posterior end of the worm along the primary body axis in evaginated cysticerci. These findings indicated that wnt4 may take part in the process of cysticerci evagination and play a role in scolex/bladder development of cysticerci of T. solium.

  8. Protection of pigs against Taenia solium cysticercosis using recombinant antigen or in combination with DNA vaccine.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ying-Jun; Sun, Shu-Han; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Zhu-Huan; Wang, Kai-Yu; Huang, Li; Zhang, Shu; Zhang, Hong-Ying; Wang, Qing-Min; Wu, Dan; Zhu, Wei-Jia

    2004-09-28

    In the present study, we investigated the duration of protection afforded to pigs immunized in two different prime-boost regimens: one is homologus priming and boosting with a protein vaccine, and the other is priming with a DNA vaccine and boosting with the protein vaccine. Groups of pigs that received the same vaccination regimen were then challenged with Taenia solium eggs at 6, 12 or 20 weeks post-immunization (wpi), respectively. The results showed that all vaccinated pigs challenged at 6 or 12 wpi showed significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the development of cysts. When challenged at 20 wpi, pigs primed with the DNA vaccine (pcDNA3-cC1) followed by two boosters of the protein vaccine (GST-cC1) showed significant (P < 0.05) protection against the challenge of T. solium eggs, whereas pigs receiving three injections of the protein vaccine showed no significant protection compared to non-vaccinated controls (P > 0.05). Antibody isotype assays showed that DNA prime-protein boost regimen induced a predominantly IgG2 response, compared to an IgG1 biased response for the protein prime-protein boost regimen. In addition, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained from the DNA prime-protein boost group proliferated strongly in response to GST-cC1 protein, and this responsiveness persisted until 20 wpi. Taken together, our data suggest that the use of a prime-boost strategy combining DNA and protein vaccines may be better than protein alone for the longevity of protection against the challenge of T. solium eggs.

  9. Immune response to Taenia solium cysticerci after anti-parasitic therapy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Aloukick K; Singh, Satyendra K; Singh, Amrita; Gupta, Kamlesh K; Khatoon, Jahanarah; Prasad, Amit; Rai, Ravi P; Gupta, Rakesh K; Tripathi, Mukesh; Husain, Nuzhat; Prasad, Kashi N

    2015-10-01

    Albendazole is the drug of choice for Taenia solium infection. Concomitant administration of steroid has been advocated to avoid adverse reactions to albendazole therapy in neurocysticercosis. Some T. solium cysticerci (larvae) respond to albendazole therapy while others do not and the reasons remain unexplained. We hypothesise that the immune response differs between treatment responder and non-responder cysticerci and this may determine the outcome. Twenty swine naturally infected with T. solium were purchased from the market and the infection was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. Swine were divided into two groups; swine in group 1 were treated with albendazole and those in group 2 were treated with albendazole plus steroid (prednisolone). All the animals underwent follow-up MRIs at 6 and 12 weeks after start of therapy and were then sacrificed. Tissues surrounding the cysticerci were collected and studied for the expression of different cytokines by reverse transcriptase PCR and ELISA. Albendazole therapy was found to be more effective in parasite killing than albendazole plus steroid (94.11% versus 70.96%, P=0.011). Albendazole therapy provoked a pro-inflammatory, Th1 (IFN-γ) and pleiotropic (IL-6) cytokine response around the dead cysticerci. Despite a heavy parasite burden in the brain, all the pigs treated with albendazole plus steroid survived. In this group of animals, a mixed pro-inflammatory Th1, Th2 (IL-4) and regulatory cytokine (IL-10) response was associated with responder cysticerci. Further, Th2 and regulatory cytokine responses were associated with non-responder cysticerci.

  10. Immunodiagnosis of human cysticercosis (Taenia solium) with antigens purified by monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, E; Tavares, C A; Lopes, J D

    1987-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were generated from mice immunized with scolex protein antigen of Cysticercus cellulosae. Three monoclonal antibodies specific for cysticercal antigens, which did not show any cross-reactivity with Taenia solium or Taenia saginata antigens, were selected. Each monoclonal antibody coupled to Sepharose could purify one antigen, which appeared as a single band on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. When antigens purified by monoclonal antibodies were used to detect antibody in serum samples taken from patients with cysticercosis, taeniasis, and other parasitic infections in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, cross-reactivity was observed until a serum dilution of 1:128 was reached. Since serum samples from unexposed subjects showed positive reactions until a dilution of 1:64 was reached, we chose a discriminative dilution (1:128) above which no cross-reaction was observed. The percent positive serum samples from cysticercosis patients was 100% by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with any of the antigens purified by monoclonal antibodies. Images PMID:3611310

  11. Host Th1/Th2 immune response to Taenia solium cyst antigens in relation to cyst burden of neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Tharmalingam, J; Prabhakar, A T; Gangadaran, P; Dorny, P; Vercruysse, J; Geldhof, P; Rajshekhar, V; Alexander, M; Oommen, A

    2016-10-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC), Taenia solium larval infection of the brain, is an important cause of acquired seizures in endemic countries, which relate to number, location and degenerating cysts in the brain. Multicyst infections are common in endemic countries although single-cyst infection prevails in India. Single-cyst infections in an endemic country suggest a role for host immunity limiting the infection. This study examined ex vivo CD4(+) T cells and in vitro Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses to T. solium cyst antigens of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy subjects from endemic and nonendemic regions and of single- and multicyst-infected patients for association with cyst burden of NCC. T. solium cyst antigens elicited a Th1 cytokine response in healthy subjects of T. solium-endemic and T. solium-non-endemic regions and those with single-cyst infections and a Th2 cytokine response from subjects with multicyst neurocysticercosis. Multicyst neurocysticercosis subjects also exhibited low levels of effector memory CD4(+) T cells. Th1 cytokine response of T. solium exposure and low infectious loads may aid in limiting cyst number. Th2 cytokines and low effector T cells may enable multiple-cyst infections to establish and persist.

  12. Efficacy of ivermectin and oxfendazole against Taenia solium cysticercosis and other parasitoses in naturally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo; Leifsson, Pall S; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2013-10-01

    Smallholder semi-confined pig production is a fast growing practice in sub-Saharan Africa with an unfortunate outcome of high prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis and other parasitoses. The widely used anthelmintic for control of endo and ecto-parasites in pigs in the area is ivermectin at a recommended dose of 0.3mg/kg. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety in pigs after subcutaneous injection of ivermectin (IVM, 0.3mg/kg) and orally administration of oxfendazole (OFZ, 30mg/kg) in treatment of porcine cysticercosis and other parasitoses in naturally infected pigs. A total of 61 pigs with T. solium cysticercosis (38 males and 23 females) as identified by tongue palpation with age ranging from 3 to 24 months were recruited. The pigs were stratified based on sex, age and number of cysts on the tongue and randomly allocated to IVM, OFZ and control groups. Three days before treatment and two weeks after treatment faecal samples and skin scrapings were taken to establish the burden of endo- and ectoparasites, respectively and the effect of the treatment. No adverse effect was observed in any of the treatment groups throughout the study period. Half of the pigs from each group were slaughtered at week four and the remaining half at week twelve post treatment. The IVM treatment group had no significant effect (p=0.224) on T. solium cysts viability in comparison to the control group. Significant effect on cysts viability was observed in the OFZ treated group (p<0.001) compared to IVM and control groups in all muscle tissues. Regarding to brain cysts, neither of the drugs was efficacious. Ivermectin and OFZ treatments significantly reduced (p<0.001) the faecal egg count of Ascaris suum, strongyles and Trichuris suis two weeks after treatment. At slaughter, Oesophagostomum dentatum, Ascarops strongylina and Physocephalus sexalatus were recovered from pigs in the IVM treated and in the control groups. Ivermectin was 100% effective in control of

  13. Th1 and Th2 indices of the immune response in pigs vaccinated against Taenia solium cysticercosis suggest various host immune strategies against the parasite.

    PubMed

    Díaz, María Alicia; Villalobos, Nelly; de Aluja, Aline; Rosas, Gabriela; Goméz-Conde, Eduardo; Hernández, Pablo; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis

    2003-06-20

    Kinetics of the production of serum antibody levels and Th1 (IL-2, IFN-gamma) and Th2 (IL-4, IL-10) cytokines was studied in five pigs vaccinated with a synthetic tri-peptide vaccine (S3Pvac) against Taenia solium, a vaccine that has been shown protects pigs against naturally acquired infection. Healthy pigs of mixed genetic background, similar to those bred in rural villages of Mexico, were vaccinated with S3Pvac or with adjuvant alone, kept in sanitary conditions and bled at different times after vaccination to study the development of their specific immune response. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of vaccinated pigs showed a significant increment in the production of Th1 cytokines (IL-2 and IFN-gamma) but not of Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) after specific PBLs stimulation with all the individual peptides. A Th1-inclined cytokine profile leading to an exacerbated local inflammation at the early installation stage of the cysticercus may possibly interfere with their successful establishment in the serum antibodies against total cysticercus antigens and against each of the three different peptides comprising S3Pvac were detected 7-51 days after vaccination. Antibodies against GK-1 interfered with the cysticerci development into intestinal tapeworms in prednisolone-treated hamsters. The sub-lethal crippling effect of anti-GK-1 antibodies upon cysticerci indicates to a therapeutic application of S3Pvac in infected pigs having potential epidemiological consequences, as it could aid in decreasing the number of tapeworms expected to develop from the few cysticerci that survive in the vaccinated pigs.

  14. Population genetic structure of Taenia solium from Madagascar and Mexico: implications for clinical profile diversity and immunological technology.

    PubMed

    Vega, Rodrigo; Piñero, Daniel; Ramanankandrasana, Bienvenue; Dumas, Michel; Bouteille, Bernard; Fleury, Agnes; Sciutto, Edda; Larralde, Carlos; Fragoso, Gladis

    2003-11-01

    Taenia solium is a cestode parasitic of humans and pigs that strongly impacts on public health in developing countries. Its larvae (cysticercus) lodge in the brain, causing neurocysticercosis, and in other tissues, like skeletal muscle and subcutaneous space, causing extraneuronal cysticercosis. Prevalences of these two clinical manifestations vary greatly among continents. Also, neurocysticercosis may be clinically heterogeneous, ranging from asymptomatic forms to severely incapacitating and even fatal presentation. Further, vaccine design and diagnosis technology have met with difficulties in sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility. Parasite diversity underlying clinical heterogeneity and technological difficulties is little explored. Here, T. solium genetic population structure and diversity was studied by way of random amplified polymorphic DNA in individual cysticerci collected from pigs in Madagascar and two regions in Mexico. The amplification profiles of T. solium were also compared with those of the murine cysticercus Taenia crassiceps (ORF strain). We show significant genetic differentiation between Madagascar and Mexico and between regions in Mexico, but less so between cysticerci from different localities in Mexico and none between cysticerci from different tissues from the same pig. We also found restricted genetic variability within populations and gene flow was estimated to be low between populations. Thus, genetic differentiation of T. solium suggests that different evolutionary paths have been taken and provides support for its involvement in the differential tissue distribution of cysticerci and varying degrees of severity of the disease. It may also explain difficulties in the development of vaccines and tools for immunodiagnosis.

  15. Two epitopes shared by Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium confer protection against murine T. crassiceps cysticercosis along with a prominent T1 response.

    PubMed

    Toledo, A; Fragoso, G; Rosas, G; Hernández, M; Gevorkian, G; López-Casillas, F; Hernández, B; Acero, G; Huerta, M; Larralde, C; Sciutto, E

    2001-03-01

    Taenia crassiceps recombinant antigens KETc1 and KETc12 have been shown to induce high level of protection against experimental murine T. crassiceps cysticercosis, an experimental model successfully used to test candidate antigens for use in vaccination against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence, KETc1 and KETc12 were chemically synthesized in linear form. Immunization with KETc1 induced 66.7 to 100% protection against murine cysticercosis, and immunization with KETc12 induced 52.7 to 88.1% protection. The elicited immune response indicated that both peptides contain at least one B-cell epitope (as demonstrated by their ability to induce specific antibodies) and one T-cell epitope that strongly stimulated the proliferation of T cells primed with either the free peptide or total cysticercal T. crassiceps antigens. The high percentage of spleen cells expressing inflammatory cytokines points to the likelihood of a T1 response being involved in protection. The protective capacity of the peptides and their presence in all developmental stages of T. solium point to these two epitopes as strong candidates for inclusion in a polyepitopic synthetic vaccine against T. solium pig cysticercosis.

  16. Two Epitopes Shared by Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium Confer Protection against Murine T. crassiceps Cysticercosis along with a Prominent T1 Response

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, Andrea; Fragoso, Gladis; Rosas, Gabriela; Hernández, Marisela; Gevorkian, Goar; López-Casillas, Fernando; Hernández, Beatriz; Acero, Gonzalo; Huerta, Mirna; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

    2001-01-01

    Taenia crassiceps recombinant antigens KETc1 and KETc12 have been shown to induce high level of protection against experimental murine T. crassiceps cysticercosis, an experimental model successfully used to test candidate antigens for use in vaccination against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence, KETc1 and KETc12 were chemically synthesized in linear form. Immunization with KETc1 induced 66.7 to 100% protection against murine cysticercosis, and immunization with KETc12 induced 52.7 to 88.1% protection. The elicited immune response indicated that both peptides contain at least one B-cell epitope (as demonstrated by their ability to induce specific antibodies) and one T-cell epitope that strongly stimulated the proliferation of T cells primed with either the free peptide or total cysticercal T. crassiceps antigens. The high percentage of spleen cells expressing inflammatory cytokines points to the likelihood of a T1 response being involved in protection. The protective capacity of the peptides and their presence in all developmental stages of T. solium point to these two epitopes as strong candidates for inclusion in a polyepitopic synthetic vaccine against T. solium pig cysticercosis. PMID:11179354

  17. Severe seizures in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Trevisan, Chiara; Mkupasi, Ernatus M; Ngowi, Helena A; Forkman, Björn; Johansen, Maria V

    2016-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia solium is a serious neurological disease. In humans neurological symptoms have been thoroughly studied and documented, however, there is limited information on clinical signs in pigs infected with T. solium cysticerci. Among the scientific community, it is in fact believed that pigs with NCC rarely show neurological signs. The aim of this study was to describe clinical manifestations associated with NCC in pigs and correlate the manifestations to the number and distribution of cysticerci in brains of naturally infected pigs in Tanzania. Sixteen infected and 15 non-infected control pigs were observed for 14 days during daylight hours, and subsequently videotaped for another 14 consecutive days using close circuit television cameras. All occurrences of abnormal behaviour (trembling, twitching, mouth and ear paralysis, ataxia, dribbling, salivating, eye blinking, walking in circles) were recorded. At the end of the recording period, pigs were slaughtered and their brains dissected, cysticerci counted and locations noted. During the recording period, two infected pigs were observed having seizures. Some of the observed autonomic signs during a seizure were chewing motions with foamy salivation and ear stiffening. Motor signs included tonic muscle contractions followed by a sudden diminution in all muscle function leading to collapse of the animal. Stereotypic walking in circles was observed on several occasions. At dissection, both pigs had a high number of brain cysticerci (241 and 247 cysticerci). The two pigs with seizures were also older (36 months) compared to the others (18.3 months, ± 8.2 standard deviation). Results of this study have shown that pigs with NCC can develop clinical signs and suffer from seizures like humans with symptomatic NCC. Results of this study could potentially open up a new experimental pathway to explore the aetiology of neurological symptoms in humans with NCC associated epilepsy. PMID:26995723

  18. Visualization and 3D Reconstruction of Flame Cells of Taenia solium (Cestoda)

    PubMed Central

    Valverde-Islas, Laura E.; Arrangoiz, Esteban; Vega, Elio; Robert, Lilia; Villanueva, Rafael; Reynoso-Ducoing, Olivia; Willms, Kaethe; Zepeda-Rodríguez, Armando; Fortoul, Teresa I.; Ambrosio, Javier R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Flame cells are the terminal cells of protonephridial systems, which are part of the excretory systems of invertebrates. Although the knowledge of their biological role is incomplete, there is a consensus that these cells perform excretion/secretion activities. It has been suggested that the flame cells participate in the maintenance of the osmotic environment that the cestodes require to live inside their hosts. In live Platyhelminthes, by light microscopy, the cells appear beating their flames rapidly and, at the ultrastructural, the cells have a large body enclosing a tuft of cilia. Few studies have been performed to define the localization of the cytoskeletal proteins of these cells, and it is unclear how these proteins are involved in cell function. Methodology/Principal Findings Parasites of two different developmental stages of T. solium were used: cysticerci recovered from naturally infected pigs and intestinal adults obtained from immunosuppressed and experimentally infected golden hamsters. Hamsters were fed viable cysticerci to recover adult parasites after one month of infection. In the present studies focusing on flame cells of cysticerci tissues was performed. Using several methods such as video, confocal and electron microscopy, in addition to computational analysis for reconstruction and modeling, we have provided a 3D visual rendition of the cytoskeletal architecture of Taenia solium flame cells. Conclusions/Significance We consider that visual representations of cells open a new way for understanding the role of these cells in the excretory systems of Platyhelminths. After reconstruction, the observation of high resolution 3D images allowed for virtual observation of the interior composition of cells. A combination of microscopic images, computational reconstructions and 3D modeling of cells appears to be useful for inferring the cellular dynamics of the flame cell cytoskeleton. PMID:21412407

  19. Characterization of a Thioredoxin-1 Gene from Taenia solium and Its Encoding Product

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Lucía; Rodríguez-Lima, Oscar; Ochoa-Sánchez, Alicia; Landa, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium thioredoxin-1 gene (TsTrx-1) has a length of 771 bp with three exons and two introns. The core promoter gene presents two putative stress transcription factor binding sites, one putative TATA box, and a transcription start site (TSS). TsTrx-1 mRNA is expressed higher in larvae than in adult. This gene encodes a protein of 107 amino acids that presents the Trx active site (CGPC), the classical secondary structure of the thioredoxin fold, and the highest degree of identity with the Echinococcus granulosus Trx. A recombinant TsTrx-1 (rTsTrx-1) was produced in Escherichia coli with redox activity. Optimal activity for rTsTrx-1 was at pH 6.5 in the range of 15 to 25°C. The enzyme conserved activity for 3 h and lost it in 24 h at 37°C. rTsTrx-1 lost 50% activity after 1 h and lost activity completely in 24 h at temperatures higher than 55°C. Best storage temperature for rTsTrx-1 was at −70°C. It was inhibited by high concentrations of H2O2 and methylglyoxal (MG), but it was inhibited neither by NaCl nor by anti-rTsTrx-1 rabbit antibodies that strongly recognized a ~12 kDa band in extracts from several parasites. These TsTrx-1 properties open the opportunity to study its role in relationship T. solium-hosts. PMID:26090410

  20. Analyses of an Expressed Sequence Tag Library from Taenia solium, Cysticerca

    PubMed Central

    Lundström, Jonas; Salazar-Anton, Fernando; Sherwood, Ellen; Andersson, Björn; Lindh, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Background Neurocysticercosis is a disease caused by the oral ingestion of eggs from the human parasitic worm Taenia solium. Although drugs are available they are controversial because of the side effects and poor efficiency. An expressed sequence tag (EST) library is a method used to describe the gene expression profile and sequence of mRNA from a specific organism and stage. Such information can be used in order to find new targets for the development of drugs and to get a better understanding of the parasite biology. Methods and Findings Here an EST library consisting of 5760 sequences from the pig cysticerca stage has been constructed. In the library 1650 unique sequences were found and of these, 845 sequences (52%) were novel to T. solium and not identified within other EST libraries. Furthermore, 918 sequences (55%) were of unknown function. Amongst the 25 most frequently expressed sequences 6 had no relevant similarity to other sequences found in the Genbank NR DNA database. A prediction of putative signal peptides was also performed and 4 among the 25 were found to be predicted with a signal peptide. Proposed vaccine and diagnostic targets T24, Tsol18/HP6 and Tso31d could also be identified among the 25 most frequently expressed. Conclusions An EST library has been produced from pig cysticerca and analyzed. More than half of the different ESTs sequenced contained a sequence with no suggested function and 845 novel EST sequences have been identified. The library increases the knowledge about what genes are expressed and to what level. It can also be used to study different areas of research such as drug and diagnostic development together with parasite fitness via e.g. immune modulation. PMID:21200421

  1. Severe seizures in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Chiara; Mkupasi, Ernatus M; Ngowi, Helena A; Forkman, Björn; Johansen, Maria V

    2016-04-15

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia solium is a serious neurological disease. In humans neurological symptoms have been thoroughly studied and documented, however, there is limited information on clinical signs in pigs infected with T. solium cysticerci. Among the scientific community, it is in fact believed that pigs with NCC rarely show neurological signs. The aim of this study was to describe clinical manifestations associated with NCC in pigs and correlate the manifestations to the number and distribution of cysticerci in brains of naturally infected pigs in Tanzania. Sixteen infected and 15 non-infected control pigs were observed for 14 days during daylight hours, and subsequently videotaped for another 14 consecutive days using close circuit television cameras. All occurrences of abnormal behaviour (trembling, twitching, mouth and ear paralysis, ataxia, dribbling, salivating, eye blinking, walking in circles) were recorded. At the end of the recording period, pigs were slaughtered and their brains dissected, cysticerci counted and locations noted. During the recording period, two infected pigs were observed having seizures. Some of the observed autonomic signs during a seizure were chewing motions with foamy salivation and ear stiffening. Motor signs included tonic muscle contractions followed by a sudden diminution in all muscle function leading to collapse of the animal. Stereotypic walking in circles was observed on several occasions. At dissection, both pigs had a high number of brain cysticerci (241 and 247 cysticerci). The two pigs with seizures were also older (36 months) compared to the others (18.3 months, ± 8.2 standard deviation). Results of this study have shown that pigs with NCC can develop clinical signs and suffer from seizures like humans with symptomatic NCC. Results of this study could potentially open up a new experimental pathway to explore the aetiology of neurological symptoms in humans with NCC associated epilepsy.

  2. Characterization of a Thioredoxin-1 Gene from Taenia solium and Its Encoding Product.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Lucía; Rodríguez-Lima, Oscar; Ochoa-Sánchez, Alicia; Landa, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium thioredoxin-1 gene (TsTrx-1) has a length of 771 bp with three exons and two introns. The core promoter gene presents two putative stress transcription factor binding sites, one putative TATA box, and a transcription start site (TSS). TsTrx-1 mRNA is expressed higher in larvae than in adult. This gene encodes a protein of 107 amino acids that presents the Trx active site (CGPC), the classical secondary structure of the thioredoxin fold, and the highest degree of identity with the Echinococcus granulosus Trx. A recombinant TsTrx-1 (rTsTrx-1) was produced in Escherichia coli with redox activity. Optimal activity for rTsTrx-1 was at pH 6.5 in the range of 15 to 25°C. The enzyme conserved activity for 3 h and lost it in 24 h at 37°C. rTsTrx-1 lost 50% activity after 1 h and lost activity completely in 24 h at temperatures higher than 55°C. Best storage temperature for rTsTrx-1 was at -70°C. It was inhibited by high concentrations of H₂O₂ and methylglyoxal (MG), but it was inhibited neither by NaCl nor by anti-rTsTrx-1 rabbit antibodies that strongly recognized a ~12 kDa band in extracts from several parasites. These TsTrx-1 properties open the opportunity to study its role in relationship T. solium-hosts.

  3. Immune response to different fractions of Taenia solium cyst fluid antigens in patients with neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Amit, Prasad; Prasad, Kashi Nath; Kumar, Gupta Rakesh; Shweta, Tripathi; Sanjeev, Jha; Kumar, Paliwal Vimal; Mukesh, Tripathi

    2011-03-01

    The immunopathogenesis of neurocysticercosis (NCC) largely remains unknown. We analyzed the immune response to different fractions of Taenia solium cyst fluid antigens in patients with NCC. Lymphocytes were separated from 48 patients with NCC-related active epilepsy and 30 healthy controls. T. solium (isolated from pig muscles) antigens (crude lysate, CL; cyst wall, CW and cyst fluid, CF) at 20 μg/well concentrations were used to stimulate the cells in a lymphocyte transformation test (LTT). Only CF antigen stimulated cell proliferation significantly greater than control (p<0.001), hence cyst fluid antigens were further studied. The CF antigens were electro-blotted on nitrocellulose membrane (NC), cut at 0.5 cm distance and particulate antigens were prepared. A total of 12 fractions, designated F1 to F12 according to molecular weight were tested in-vitro for LTT. After 72 h of stimulation by the different fractions, Th1 (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-2) and Th2 (IL-4, IL-10) cytokine responses were determined in culture supernatants by ELISA. Low molecular weight fractions F1 through F4 (Mol. wt.<25 kDa) were found to be potent inducers of cytokines. Fractions F1, F3 and F4 induced the production of Th1 (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-2), whereas F2 induced the production of Th2 (IL-4 and IL-10) cytokine. The study shows that the low molecular weight fractions of CF antigens are immuno-dominant. Most of these fractions (F1, F3, F4) induce strong Th1 immune response except F2 which induces Th2 response. Further studies are needed to identify the different antigens present in these fractions to determine the molecules responsible for the immune response.

  4. Severe seizures in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Chiara; Mkupasi, Ernatus M; Ngowi, Helena A; Forkman, Björn; Johansen, Maria V

    2016-04-15

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia solium is a serious neurological disease. In humans neurological symptoms have been thoroughly studied and documented, however, there is limited information on clinical signs in pigs infected with T. solium cysticerci. Among the scientific community, it is in fact believed that pigs with NCC rarely show neurological signs. The aim of this study was to describe clinical manifestations associated with NCC in pigs and correlate the manifestations to the number and distribution of cysticerci in brains of naturally infected pigs in Tanzania. Sixteen infected and 15 non-infected control pigs were observed for 14 days during daylight hours, and subsequently videotaped for another 14 consecutive days using close circuit television cameras. All occurrences of abnormal behaviour (trembling, twitching, mouth and ear paralysis, ataxia, dribbling, salivating, eye blinking, walking in circles) were recorded. At the end of the recording period, pigs were slaughtered and their brains dissected, cysticerci counted and locations noted. During the recording period, two infected pigs were observed having seizures. Some of the observed autonomic signs during a seizure were chewing motions with foamy salivation and ear stiffening. Motor signs included tonic muscle contractions followed by a sudden diminution in all muscle function leading to collapse of the animal. Stereotypic walking in circles was observed on several occasions. At dissection, both pigs had a high number of brain cysticerci (241 and 247 cysticerci). The two pigs with seizures were also older (36 months) compared to the others (18.3 months, ± 8.2 standard deviation). Results of this study have shown that pigs with NCC can develop clinical signs and suffer from seizures like humans with symptomatic NCC. Results of this study could potentially open up a new experimental pathway to explore the aetiology of neurological symptoms in humans with NCC associated epilepsy. PMID:26995723

  5. Purification and kinetic analysis of cytosolic and mitochondrial thioredoxin glutathione reductase extracted from Taenia solium cysticerci.

    PubMed

    Plancarte, Agustin; Nava, Gabriela

    2015-02-01

    Thioredoxin glutathione reductases (TGRs) (EC 1.8.1.9) were purified to homogeneity from the cytosolic (cTsTGR) and mitochondrial (mTsTGR) fractions of Taenia solium, the agent responsible for neurocysticercosis, one of the major central nervous system parasitic diseases in humans. TsTGRs had a relative molecular weight of 132,000, while the corresponding value per subunit obtained under denaturing conditions, was of 62,000. Specific activities for thioredoxin reductase and glutathione reductase substrates for both TGRs explored were in the range or lower than values obtained for other platyhelminths and mammalian TGRs. cTsTGR and mTsTGR also showed hydroperoxide reductase activity using hydroperoxide as substrate. Km(DTNB) and Kcat(DTNB) values for cTsTGR and mTsTGR (88 µM and 1.9 s(-1); 45 µM and 12.6 s(-1), respectively) and Km(GSSG) and Kcat(GSSG) values for cTsTGR and mTsTGR (6.3 µM and 0.96 s(-1); 4 µM and 1.62 s(-1), respectively) were similar to or lower than those reported for mammalian TGRs. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that 12 peptides from cTsTGR and seven from mTsTGR were a match for gi|29825896 thioredoxin glutathione reductase [Echinococcus granulosus], confirming that both enzymes are TGRs. Both T. solium TGRs were inhibited by the gold compound auranofin, a selective inhibitor of thiol-dependent flavoreductases (I₅₀ = 3.25, 2.29 nM for DTNB and GSSG substrates, respectively for cTsTGR; I₅₀ = 5.6, 25.4 nM for mTsTGR toward the same substrates in the described order). Glutathione reductase activity of cTsTGR and mTsTGR exhibited hysteretic behavior with moderate to high concentrations of GSSG; this result was not observed either with thioredoxin, DTNB or NADPH. However, the observed hysteretic kinetics was suppressed with increasing amounts of both parasitic TGRs. These data suggest the existence of an effective substitute which may account for the lack of the detoxification enzymes glutathione reductase

  6. Histological and ultrastructural localization of antigen B in the metacestode of Taenia solium

    SciTech Connect

    Laclette, J.P.; Merchant, M.T.; Willms, K.

    1987-02-01

    The morphological localization of antigen B (AgB) in the tissues of the Taenia solium metacestode was studied by immunological and biochemical methods. Indirect immunofluorescence carried out on vibratome sections showed that AgB is widely distributed throughout the tissue. A more intense fluorescence was observed in the tegumentary cytons of the bladder wall and in the lumen of the spiral canal of the invaginated scolex. Ultrastructural analysis of larvae washed in PBS after dissection from meat and then incubated with rabbit antibodies against AgB, followed by peroxidase-labeled goat anti-rabbit IgG, did not exhibit electron-dense material on the external surface. Larvae fixed in glutaraldehyde immediately after dissection and exposed to the immunoperoxidase reagents did exhibit electron-dense material on microtriches, indicating that AgB is only loosely bound to the external surface. Crude extracts of surface-radioiodinated cysticerci analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) contained no labeled proteins with the molecular weight of AgB. Autoradiography of the immunoelectrophoretograms in which the crude extract was confronted with antibodies to AgB demonstrated that this antigen was not labeled, and therefore is not exposed on the tegumentary surface. The results suggest that AgB is synthesized by the tegumentary cytons of the parasite and secreted through the tegumental membrane into the host tissues and the lumen of the spiral canal.

  7. Taenia solium: immune response against oral or systemic immunization with purified recombinant calreticulin in mice.

    PubMed

    Fonseca-Coronado, Salvador; Ruiz-Tovar, Karina; Pérez-Tapia, Mayra; Mendlovic, Fela; Flisser, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Recombinant functional Taenia solium calreticulin (rTsCRT) confers different degrees of protection in the experimental model of intestinal taeniosis in hamsters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immune response induced after oral or systemic immunization with an electroeluted rTsCRT in BALB/c mice. Oral immunization elicited high fecal IgA and the production of IL-4 and IL-5 by mesenteric lymph node cells after in vitro stimulation with rTSCRT, indicating a Th2 response. Mice subcutaneously immunized produced high amounts of serum IgG, being IgG1 (Th2-related) the predominant isotype, while in vitro stimulated spleen cells synthesized IL-4, IL-5 and also IFN-γ, indicating a mixed Th1/Th2 cellular response after systemic immunization. Our data show that purified rTsCRT induces polarized Th2 responses after oral immunization of mice, a common characteristic of protective immunity against helminths and, consequently, a desirable hallmark in the search for a vaccine.

  8. The effect of oxfendazole treatment on muscle pathology in pigs infected with Taenia solium cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Iburg, Tine Moesgaard; Karlsson, Madeleine; Spång, Frederic; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2012-12-21

    The aim of the present study was to test histopathologically the hypothesis that the time for clearing Taenia solium cysts in muscle tissue of pigs following treatment with oxfendazole is cyst density dependent. A total of 248 cyst lesions in the masseter muscle of 28 naturally infected pigs were examined 1, 4 and 8 weeks after oxfendazole (OFZ) treatment. As controls, half of the pigs received no treatment. Lesions were graded 0-V according to their inflammatory response, based on viability of the parasite, the degree and type of cellular response as well as deposition of collagen. Comparison of the degree of inflammatory response was made between treated and un-treated groups showing a significant difference in the mean grade of inflammatory response between 1 and 8 weeks after OFZ treatment. The OFZ treated pigs were further divided into 4 cyst intensity groups. The group with the highest cyst intensity had the lowest mean grade of inflammatory response and the group with the lowest cyst intensity had the highest mean grade of inflammatory response. Thus the present study supports the hypothesis that the time needed for the body to clear the cysts depends on the cyst intensity of individual pigs at the time of treatment.

  9. Relationship between Serum Antibodies and Taenia solium Larvae Burden in Pigs Raised in Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gavidia, Cesar M.; Verastegui, Manuela R.; Garcia, Hector H.; Lopez-Urbina, Teresa; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Pan, William; Gilman, Robert H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Serological tests have been used for the diagnosis of Taenia solium infection in pigs. However, those serological results do not necessarily correlate with the actual infection burden after performing pig necropsy. This study aimed to evaluate the Electro Immuno Transfer Blot (EITB) seropositivity with infection burden in naturally infected pigs. Methodology/Principal Findings In an endemic area of Peru, 476 pigs were sampled. Seroprevalence was 60.5±4.5% with a statistically higher proportion of positive older pigs (>8 months) than young pigs. The logistic model showed that pigs >8 month of age were 2.5 times more likely to be EITB-positive than ≤8 months. A subset of 84 seropositive pigs were necropsied, with 45.2% (38/84) positive to 1–2 bands, 46.4% (39/84) to 3 bands, and 8.3% (7/84) to 4+ bands. 41 out of 84 positive pigs were negative to necropsy (48.8%) and 43 (51%) had one or more cysts (positive predictive value). Older pigs showed more moderate and heavy infection burdens compared to younger pigs. In general, regardless of the age of the pig, the probability of having more cysts (parasite burden) increases proportionally with the number of EITB bands. Conclusions/Significance The probability of being necropsy-positive increased with the number of bands, and age. Therefore, the EITB is a measure of exposure rather than a test to determine the real prevalence of cysticercosis infection. PMID:23658848

  10. Efficacy and Safety of Anthelmintics Tested against Taenia solium Cysticercosis in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2013-01-01

    Porcine cysticercosis, an infection caused by Taenia solium metacestodes, is continuously being reported in low-income countries of Latin America, Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. The disease was declared eradicable by the International Task Force for Diseases Eradication (ITFDE) in 1993, and it is listed among the 17 WHO Neglected Tropical Diseases and Neglected Zoonoses that are potentially eradicable. In view of that, WHO has proposed a step-wise approach to its elimination, including chemotherapy of infected pigs. Different drugs have been tested on porcine cysticercosis with varying efficacies. These include flubendazole, fenbendazole, albendazole, albendazole sulphoxide, oxfendazole, praziquantel, and nitazoxanide. This review summarises available information on the efficacies and adverse effects shown by these drugs in pigs. Oxfendazole has shown to be effective for the control of porcine cysticercosis; however, it needs to be integrated with other control approaches. There is a need for standardised guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics against porcine cysticercosis, and more efficacy studies are needed since the conclusions so far are based on a limited number of studies using few infected pigs. PMID:23936558

  11. Field evaluation of urine antigen detection for diagnosis of Taenia solium cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Mwape, K E; Praet, N; Benitez-Ortiz, W; Muma, J B; Zulu, G; Celi-Erazo, M; Phiri, I K; Rodriguez-Hidalgo, R; Dorny, P; Gabriël, S

    2011-10-01

    (Neuro)cysticercosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by infection with Taenia solium metacestode larvae. Existing immunodiagnostic techniques detect antibodies and circulating antigens (Ag) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Blood/CSF collection is an invasive procedure associated with blood-borne infections and is often not well accepted by communities. Detection of circulating Ag in urine has been suggested as an alternative, however this has been evaluated in clinical settings only. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the performance of a urine Ag-ELISA under field conditions. Paired serum and urine samples were obtained from participants in endemic areas of Ecuador (n=748) and Zambia (n=690) and were subjected to a monoclonal antibody-based Ag-ELISA. Calculation of positive and negative agreement indices (AI) showed better agreement in the negative direction both for Ecuadorian and Zambian samples (AI of 93.1 and 86.8, respectively). Using a Bayesian approach to determine the test characteristics, similar sensitivities were obtained for serum and urine Ag detection, whereas a decreased specificity was determined for the urine Ag-ELISA with a lower specificity (78.6%) for Zambian samples than for Ecuadorian samples (88.4%). This study indicates a higher specificity for the serum test under field conditions and promotes further research to improve the urine test. PMID:21862093

  12. New approaches to improve a peptide vaccine against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis; Manoutcharian, Karen; Gevorkian, Goar; Rosas-Salgado, Gabriela; Hernández-Gonzalez, Marisela; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Cabrera-Ponce, José; López-Casillas, Fernando; González-Bonilla, César; Santiago-Machuca, Araceli; Ruíz-Pérez, Fernando; Sánchez, Joaquín; Goldbaum, Fernando; Aluja, Aline; Larralde, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium frequently affects human health and rustic porciculture. Cysticerci may localize in the central nervous system of humans causing neurocysticercosis, a major health problem in undeveloped countries. Prevalence and intensity of this disease in pigs and humans are related to social factors (poor personal hygiene, low sanitary conditions, rustic rearing of pigs, open fecalism) and possibly to biological factors such as immunity, genetic background, and gender. The indispensable role of pigs as an obligatory intermediate host in the life cycle offers the possibility of interfering with transmission through vaccination of pigs. An effective vaccine based on three synthetic peptides against pig cysticercosis has been successfully developed and proved effective in experimental and field conditions. The well-defined peptides that constitute the cysticercosis vaccine offer the possibility to explore alternative forms of antigen production and delivery systems that may improve the cost/benefit of this and other vaccines. Encouraging results were obtained in attempts to produce large amounts of these peptides and increased its immunogenicity by expression in recombinant filamentous phage (M13), in transgenic plants (carrots and papaya), and associated to bacterial immunogenic carrier proteins.

  13. Expression of Multiple Taenia Solium Immunogens in Plant Cells Through a Ribosomal Skip Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Monreal-Escalante, Elizabeth; Bañuelos-Hernández, Bernardo; Hernández, Marisela; Fragoso, Gladis; Garate, Teresa; Sciutto, Edda; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio

    2015-07-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a major parasitic disease that affects the human health and the economy in underdeveloped countries. Porcine cysticercosis, an obligatory stage in the parasite life cycle, is a suitable target for vaccination. While several recombinant and synthetic antigens proved to be effective as vaccines, the cost and logistic difficulties have prevented their massive use. Taking this into account, a novel strategy for developing a multi-epitope low-cost vaccine is herein explored. The S3Pvac vaccine components (KETc1, KETc12, KETc7, and GK1 [KETc7]) and the protective HP6/TSOL18 antigen were expressed in a Helios2A polyprotein system, based on the 'ribosomal skip' mechanism mediated by the 2A sequence (LLNFDLLKLAGDVESNPG-P) derived from the Foot-and-mouth disease virus, which induces self-cleavage events at a translational level. This protein arrangement was expressed in transgenic tobacco cells. The inserted sequence and its transcript were detected in several Helios2A lines, with some lines showing recombinant protein accumulation levels up to 1.3 µg/g of fresh weight in leaf tissues. The plant-derived Helios2A vaccine was recognized by antibodies in the cerebral spinal fluid from neurocysticercosis patients and elicited specific antibodies in BALB/c immunized mice. These evidences point to the Helios2A polyprotein as a promising system for expressing multiple antigens of interest for vaccination and diagnosis in one single construction.

  14. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Taenia solium Cysticercosis in Rural Pigs of Northern Peru

    PubMed Central

    Jayashi, César M.; Arroyo, Gianfranco; Lightowlers, Marshall W.; García, Héctor H.; Rodríguez, Silvia; Gonzalez, Armando E.

    2012-01-01

    Taenia solium is a cestode parasite that causes cysticercosis in both humans and pigs. A serological survey was undertaken to assess the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with porcine cysticercosis in the rural district of Morropon, Peru. Pigs aged between 2 and 60 months were assessed by the Enzyme-linked Immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay to determine their serological status against porcine cysticercosis in a cross-sectional study. A total of 1,153 pigs were sampled. Porcine seroprevalence was 45.19% (42.31–48.06). The information about the animals and households was analyzed and risk factors associated with seroprevalence were determined by a multivariate logistic regression analysis. In the porcine population, the risk of being seropositive increased by 7% with every month of age (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.05–1.09), and by 148% for pigs living in East Morropon (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.82–3.37). Whereas, the presence of latrines in a household decreased the risk of being seropositive by 49% (OR 0.51; 95% CI 0.39–0.67). Sex and rearing system did not represent either risk or protective factors associated with the seroprevalence of porcine cysticercosis. The findings of this study could be used for further development of control programs that might focus on similar population groups within rural communities of developing countries where cysticercosis is endemic. PMID:22816002

  15. Cytokine expression at the anchor site in experimental Taenia solium infection in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Rivera, Mayra; Vaughan, Gilberto; Mendlovic, Fela; Vergara-Castañeda, Arely; Romero-Valdovinos, Mirza; Leon-Cabrera, Sonia; Alonso, Monica; Avila, Guillermina; Flisser, Ana

    2014-03-01

    The establishment of Taenia solium adult parasite in the human intestine causes taeniosis. Importantly, the immunological mechanisms occurring at the interface between the parasite and its host are not fully known. The development of experimental animal models has facilitated the understanding of the host-parasite relationship. In this study we standardized a quantitative RT-PCR method for analyzing hamster messenger RNA for interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukins (IL): IL-4 IL-10, IL-12 and IL-13. This method was then used to evaluate the local cytokine response elicited against the adult parasite at the attachment site in the intestine of infected hamsters. The results showed an intense IFN-γ response, as well as an up-regulation of IL-4 as early as three days post-infection, permanence of IL-10 until the end of the experiment and down regulation of IL-12. These data are in agreement with a bias toward a Th-2 response as the infection progresses.

  16. Identification and quantification of host proteins in the vesicular fluid of porcine Taenia solium cysticerci.

    PubMed

    Navarrete-Perea, José; Moguel, Bárbara; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Fragoso, Gladis; Sciutto, Edda; Bobes, Raúl J; Laclette, Juan P

    2014-08-01

    The host-parasite relationship in cestode infections is complex. One feature of this bidirectional molecular communication is the uptake of host proteins by the parasite. Here we describe the presence of several host proteins in the vesicular fluid of Taenia solium cysticerci dissected from the central nervous system and the skeletal muscle of naturally infected pigs. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis we compared the protein patterns of vesicular fluids of cysticerci vs. the sera of cysticercotic pigs. We found that the vesicular fluids of both groups of cysts showed 17 protein spots matching with the pig's sera spots. After mass spectrometry sequencing of these spots, five host proteins were identified: hemoglobin, albumin, serpin A3-8, haptoglobin, rho GTPase-activating protein 36-like. Three of the 17 spots corresponded to host protein fragments: hemoglobin, albumin and serpin A3-8. IgG heavy and light chains were also identified by Western blot using a specific antibody. Quantitative estimations indicated that the host proteins represented 11-13% of the protein content in the vesicular fluids. We also calculated the relative abundance of these host proteins in the vesicular fluids; all were represented in similar relative abundances as in host sera. This suggests that uptake of host proteins by cysticerci proceeds through an unspecific mechanism such as non-specific fluid pinocytosis.

  17. Functionally Expression of Metalloproteinase in Taenia solium Metacestode and Its Evaluation for Serodiagnosis of Cysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, Ying; BAE, Young-An; ZONG, Hong-Ying; KONG, Yoon; CAI, Guo-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Parasite proteases have important roles in cleavage of host proteins during the invasion of host tissues and participate in the parasite’s evasion from the host’s immune response. The aim of the present study was to estimate a metalloproteinase properties of Taenia solium metacestode (TsMP) during host-parasite interactions, and evaluate its potential as a serodiagnostic antigen for cysticercosis. Methods: The cDNA coding for the mature catalytic domain of TsMP was cloned into pGEX-6P-1 expression vector. A recombinant glutathione S-transferase and TsMP fusion protein was induced. After refolding and purification, enzymatic properties of the recombinant metalloproteinase were observed. Immunoblot assay was processed to evaluate its potential as a serodiagnostic antigen for cysticercosis. Results: The recombinant TsMP protein showed proteolytic activity, which preferred host extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen and fibronectin as degradable substrates. In immunoblot assay, 87.5% of sera from patients with cysticercosis showed strong reactivity. In sera from patients with other parasitic infections and from normal controls, it showed high specificity. Conclusions: TsMP might be involved in the processing of numerous host proteins and play an important role in the parasite life cycle. A single recombinant TsMP antigen could have a potential value for serodiagnosis of cysticercosis. PMID:27095967

  18. Efficacy and safety of anthelmintics tested against Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs.

    PubMed

    Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2013-01-01

    Porcine cysticercosis, an infection caused by Taenia solium metacestodes, is continuously being reported in low-income countries of Latin America, Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. The disease was declared eradicable by the International Task Force for Diseases Eradication (ITFDE) in 1993, and it is listed among the 17 WHO Neglected Tropical Diseases and Neglected Zoonoses that are potentially eradicable. In view of that, WHO has proposed a step-wise approach to its elimination, including chemotherapy of infected pigs. Different drugs have been tested on porcine cysticercosis with varying efficacies. These include flubendazole, fenbendazole, albendazole, albendazole sulphoxide, oxfendazole, praziquantel, and nitazoxanide. This review summarises available information on the efficacies and adverse effects shown by these drugs in pigs. Oxfendazole has shown to be effective for the control of porcine cysticercosis; however, it needs to be integrated with other control approaches. There is a need for standardised guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics against porcine cysticercosis, and more efficacy studies are needed since the conclusions so far are based on a limited number of studies using few infected pigs.

  19. Diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) binding fraction from Taenia solium metacestode improves the neurocysticercosis serodiagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Vanessa da S; Nunes, Daniela da S; Gonzaga, Henrique T; da Cunha-Junior, Jair P; Costa-Cruz, Julia M

    2014-07-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NC) is one of the most important diseases caused by parasites affecting the central nervous system. We fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-sepharose resin the total saline extract (S) from Taenia solium metacestodes and evaluated obtained fractions (DEAE S1 and DEAE S2) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, n = 123) and immunoblotting (IB, n = 22) to detect human NC in serum. Diagnostic parameters were established by ROC and TG ROC curves for ELISA tests. IB was qualitatively analyzed. S and DEAE S1 presented sensitivity of 87. 5% and DEAE S2 90%. The best specificity was observed for DEAE S2 (90.4%). In IB, using DEAE S2 samples from NC patients presented bands of 20-25, 43-45, 55-50, 60-66, 82, 89, and 140 kDa. The great diagnostic parameters reached by DEAE S2 suggest the potential applicability of this fraction in NC immunodiagnosis.

  20. Recombinant expression of Taenia solium TS14 antigen and its utilization for immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Marcia Ramos Monteiro; Maia, Antônio Augusto Mendes; Espíndola, Noeli Maria; Machado, Luís dos Ramos; Vaz, Adelaide José; Henrique-Silva, Flávio

    2006-12-01

    In order to evaluate the potential use of TS14 antigen in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NC), its open reading frame (ORF) was amplified by RT-PCR from mRNA isolated from Taenia solium cysticerci. The ORF was subcloned into the expression vector pET-28a, and was used to transform Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells to produce TS14 antigen. The His-tagged expressed protein was purified on a nickel affinity column. Using the HISTS14 as antigen, ELISA was positive for 100% of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and 97% of serum samples from NC patients. No positive results were observed with sera and CSF samples from control groups. Cross-reactivity with sera from patients with schistosomiasis and Chagas' disease was not observed. Serum samples from patients with taeniasis were evaluated and 2 of 13 cases showed reactivity in this assay. Our data indicate the usefulness of HISTS14 in ELISA for an accurate and rapid assay for diagnosis of NC and seroepidemiological studies.

  1. Synthetic peptide vaccine against Taenia solium pig cysticercosis: successful vaccination in a controlled field trial in rural Mexico.

    PubMed

    Huerta, M; de Aluja, A S; Fragoso, G; Toledo, A; Villalobos, N; Hernández, M; Gevorkian, G; Acero, G; Díaz, A; Alvarez, I; Avila, R; Beltrán, C; Garcia, G; Martinez, J J; Larralde, C; Sciutto, E

    2001-10-12

    Taenia solium cysticercosis seriously affects human health when localised in the central nervous system (CNS) and causes great economic loss in pig husbandry in rural areas of endemic countries. Increasing the resistance to the parasite in the obligatory host pig may help in curbing transmission. Three synthetic peptides based on protein sequences of the murine parasite Taenia crassiceps, which had previously been shown to induce protection in mice against homologous challenge, were tested as a vaccine against T. solium cysticercosis in pigs. Vaccinated and unvaccinated piglets (240 in all) were distributed in pairs among the peasants' households of two rural villages in Mexico in which 14% of the native pigs were cysticercotic. Ten to twelve months later, the effect of vaccination was evaluated at necropsy. Vaccination decreased the total number of T. solium cysticerci (98.7%) and reduced the prevalence (52.6%). The natural challenge conditions used in this field trial strengthen the likelihood of successful transmission control to both pig and human through a large-scale pig vaccination program. We believe this is a major contribution in anticysticercosis vaccine development as these rather simple yet protective peptides are potentially more cost-effective to produce and less variable in results than antigens that are more complex.

  2. Serodiagnosis of human neurocysticercosis using antigenic components of Taenia solium metacestodes derived from the unbound fraction from jacalin affinity chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Gleyce Alves; de Oliveira, Heliana Batista; Gennari-Cardoso, Margareth Leitão; Mineo, José Roberto; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse Taenia solium metacestode antigens that were derived from the unbound fraction of jacalin affinity chromatography and subsequent tert-octylphenoxy poly (oxyethylene) ethanol Triton X-114 (TX-114) partitioning in the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis (NCC). Immunoassays were designed to detect T. solium-specific IgG antibodies by ELISA and immunoblot. Serum samples were collected from 132 individuals who were categorised as follows: 40 had NCC, 62 presented Taenia spp or other parasitic diseases and 30 were healthy individuals. The jacalin-unbound (Junbound) fraction presented higher sensitivity and specificity rates than the jacalin-bound fraction and only this fraction was subjected to subsequent TX-114 partitioning, resulting in detergent (DJunbound) and aqueous (AJunbound) fractions. The ELISA sensitivity and specificity were 85% and 84.8% for Junbound, 92.5% and 93.5% for DJunboundand 82.5% and 82.6% for AJunbound. By immunoblot, the DJunboundfraction showed 100% sensitivity and specificity and only serum samples from patients with NCC recognised the 50-70 kDa T. solium-specific components. We conclude that the DJunboundfraction can serve as a useful tool for the differential immunodiagnosis of NCC by immunoblot. PMID:23778661

  3. Generation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific for 18 kDa antigen from Taenia solium cysticerci.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaohua; Luo, Xuenong; Guo, Aijiang; Zhu, Xueliang; Cai, Xuepeng

    2016-07-01

    The gene encoding a mature 18 kDa glycoprotein of Taenia solium cysticerci (Ts18) was cloned and bacterially expressed with a His-tagged fusion protein. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the recombinant Ts18 antigen were generated in vitro by routine murine hybridoma technique of fusing splenocytes, from BALB/c mice immunized with the vesicular fluid of T. solium cysticerci (TsVF), with mouse myeloma cells (SP2/0). The reactivity and specificity of these MAbs were evaluated by indirect ELISA and immunoblotting techniques. Three stable hybridoma clones, namely 3B11, 6C5, and 6G4, were screened using His-Ts18-based ELISA, and these showed two IgG1 isotypes and one IgM isotype. All MAbs reacted with His-Ts18 at molecular weight (MW) 12.8 kDa and the native antigen at MW 18 kDa in TsVF and whole larval extracts (WLE). In a dot blotting test, MAbs 6C5 and 6G4 showed no obvious cross-reactivity with heterologous vesicular fluids from other taeniid species, including Taenia saginata (TsaVF), Taenia pisiformis (TpVF), Taenia hydatigena (ThVF), Taenia multiceps (TmVF), and Echinococcus granulosus (EgVF). Immunofluorescent assays showed that MAb 6C5 specifically reacted with the Ts18 expressed from pEGFP-N1-Ts18-transfected HeLa cells. Immunolocalization analysis, using MAb 6C5 as a probe, indicated that Ts18 was present at high concentrations in the region of the larval sucker and spiral canal. The results indicate that the Ts18 protein is an abundantly secreted parasite protein and MAbs against it might provide a step forward for improving the diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis. PMID:26993086

  4. Generation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific for 18 kDa antigen from Taenia solium cysticerci.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaohua; Luo, Xuenong; Guo, Aijiang; Zhu, Xueliang; Cai, Xuepeng

    2016-07-01

    The gene encoding a mature 18 kDa glycoprotein of Taenia solium cysticerci (Ts18) was cloned and bacterially expressed with a His-tagged fusion protein. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the recombinant Ts18 antigen were generated in vitro by routine murine hybridoma technique of fusing splenocytes, from BALB/c mice immunized with the vesicular fluid of T. solium cysticerci (TsVF), with mouse myeloma cells (SP2/0). The reactivity and specificity of these MAbs were evaluated by indirect ELISA and immunoblotting techniques. Three stable hybridoma clones, namely 3B11, 6C5, and 6G4, were screened using His-Ts18-based ELISA, and these showed two IgG1 isotypes and one IgM isotype. All MAbs reacted with His-Ts18 at molecular weight (MW) 12.8 kDa and the native antigen at MW 18 kDa in TsVF and whole larval extracts (WLE). In a dot blotting test, MAbs 6C5 and 6G4 showed no obvious cross-reactivity with heterologous vesicular fluids from other taeniid species, including Taenia saginata (TsaVF), Taenia pisiformis (TpVF), Taenia hydatigena (ThVF), Taenia multiceps (TmVF), and Echinococcus granulosus (EgVF). Immunofluorescent assays showed that MAb 6C5 specifically reacted with the Ts18 expressed from pEGFP-N1-Ts18-transfected HeLa cells. Immunolocalization analysis, using MAb 6C5 as a probe, indicated that Ts18 was present at high concentrations in the region of the larval sucker and spiral canal. The results indicate that the Ts18 protein is an abundantly secreted parasite protein and MAbs against it might provide a step forward for improving the diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis.

  5. Comparative genomics reveals adaptive evolution of Asian tapeworm in switching to a new intermediate host

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuai; Wang, Sen; Luo, Yingfeng; Xiao, Lihua; Luo, Xuenong; Gao, Shenghan; Dou, Yongxi; Zhang, Huangkai; Guo, Aijiang; Meng, Qingshu; Hou, Junling; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Shaohua; Yang, Meng; Meng, Xuelian; Mei, Hailiang; Li, Hui; He, Zilong; Zhu, Xueliang; Tan, Xinyu; Zhu, Xing-quan; Yu, Jun; Cai, Jianping; Zhu, Guan; Hu, Songnian; Cai, Xuepeng

    2016-01-01

    Taenia saginata, Taenia solium and Taenia asiatica (beef, pork and Asian tapeworms, respectively) are parasitic flatworms of major public health and food safety importance. Among them, T. asiatica is a newly recognized species that split from T. saginata via an intermediate host switch ∼1.14 Myr ago. Here we report the 169- and 168-Mb draft genomes of T. saginata and T. asiatica. Comparative analysis reveals that high rates of gene duplications and functional diversifications might have partially driven the divergence between T. asiatica and T. saginata. We observe accelerated evolutionary rates, adaptive evolutions in homeostasis regulation, tegument maintenance and lipid uptakes, and differential/specialized gene family expansions in T. asiatica that may favour its hepatotropism in the new intermediate host. We also identify potential targets for developing diagnostic or intervention tools against human tapeworms. These data provide new insights into the evolution of Taenia parasites, particularly the recent speciation of T. asiatica. PMID:27653464

  6. Further evaluation of the synthetic peptide vaccine S3Pvac against Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs in an endemic town of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sciutto, E; Morales, J; Martínez, J J; Toledo, A; Villalobos, M N; Cruz-Revilla, C; Meneses, G; Hernández, M; Díaz, A; Rodarte, L F; Acero, G; Gevorkian, G; Manoutcharian, K; Paniagua, J; Fragoso, G; Fleury, A; Larralde, R; De Aluja, A S; Larralde, C

    2007-01-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a parasitic disease frequently affecting human health and the pig industry in many developing countries. A synthetic peptide vaccine (designated S3Pvac) against porcine cysticercosis has been developed previously as an aid to interrupt transmission and has been shown to be effective. The results of the present study support the effectiveness of the vaccine under endemic field conditions. However, given the time-frame of the vaccination trial, no changes in the local levels of transmission were detectable before and after vaccination using sentinel pigs. Thus, this investigation shows the limited usefulness of single vaccination as the sole means of interrupting Taenia solium transmission in an endemic region.

  7. Elimination of Taenia solium transmission to pigs in a field trial of the TSOL18 vaccine in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Assana, Emmanuel; Kyngdon, Craig T; Gauci, Charles G; Geerts, Stanny; Dorny, Pierre; De Deken, Redgi; Anderson, Garry A; Zoli, André P; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2010-04-01

    A pilot field trial of the TSOL18 vaccine was undertaken in Cameroon. Two hundred and forty, 2-3 month-old piglets were distributed to 114 individual households in pairs. Vaccinated animals received three immunisations with 200 microg TSOL18 plus 5 mg Quil A and 30 mg/kg oxfendazole at the time of the second immunisation. Necropsies were undertaken when the pigs were approximately 12 months of age. Viable Taenia solium cysticerci were identified in 20 control pigs (prevalence 19.6%); no cysticerci were found in any of the vaccinated animals (P<0.0001). Combined application of TSOL18 vaccination and a single oxfendazole treatment in pigs may be a relatively simple and sustainable procedure that has the potential to control T. solium transmission in endemic areas and, indirectly, reduce the number of new cases of neurocysticercosis in humans.

  8. Elimination of Taenia solium transmission to pigs in a field trial of the TSOL18 vaccine in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Assana, Emmanuel; Kyngdon, Craig T.; Gauci, Charles G.; Geerts, Stanny; Dorny, Pierre; De Deken, Redgi; Anderson, Garry A.; Zoli, André P.; Lightowlers, Marshall W.

    2010-01-01

    A pilot field trial of the TSOL18 vaccine was undertaken in Cameroon. Two hundred and forty, 2–3 month-old piglets were distributed to 114 individual households in pairs. Vaccinated animals received three immunisations with 200 μg TSOL18 plus 5 mg Quil A and 30 mg/kg oxfendazole at the time of the second immunisation. Necropsies were undertaken when the pigs were approximately 12 months of age. Viable Taenia solium cysticerci were identified in 20 control pigs (prevalence 19.6%); no cysticerci were found in any of the vaccinated animals (P < 0.0001). Combined application of TSOL18 vaccination and a single oxfendazole treatment in pigs may be a relatively simple and sustainable procedure that has the potential to control T. solium transmission in endemic areas and, indirectly, reduce the number of new cases of neurocysticercosis in humans. PMID:20138046

  9. Immunological evaluation of a 26-kDa antigen from Taenia solium larvae for specific immunodiagnosis of human neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Ev, L V; Maia, A A; Pianetti, G; Nascimento, E

    1999-02-01

    Human neurocysticercosis, due to infection of the central nervous system by cysticerci of Taenia solium, is a severe form of neurologic disease occurring in Central and South America. Specific proteins from scolex antigen from cysticerci were purified by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and electroelution and recognized in Western blots by antibodies present in sera from patients with neurocysticercosis. The proteins appeared as 13-, 17-, and 26-kDa bands on Coomassie blue-stained gels and proved to be specific to cysticerci of T. solium. No cross-reactivity with sera from patients with taeniasis or hydatidosis was observed. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using the purified proteins of 13, 17, and 26 kDa demonstrated rates of 53%, 88%, and 100% specificity, respectively, at the cutoff serum dilution of 1:32 for the specific immunodiagnosis of human neurocysticercosis.

  10. Taenia solium Human Cysticercosis: A Systematic Review of Sero-epidemiological Data from Endemic Zones around the World

    PubMed Central

    Coral-Almeida, Marco; Gabriël, Sarah; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Praet, Nicolas; Benitez, Washington; Dorny, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Background Taenia solium cysticercosis is a zoonotic neglected disease responsible for severe health disorders such as seizures and death. Understanding the epidemiology of human cysticercosis (HCC) in endemic regions will help to expose critical information about the transmission of the disease, which could be used to design efficient control programs. This review gathered serological data on apparent prevalence of T. solium circulating antigens and/or seroprevalence of T. solium antibodies, apparent prevalence of human taeniasis and risk factors for HCC from endemic communities in order to understand the differences in exposure to the parasite and active infections with T. solium metacestodes in endemic areas around the world. Methods Three databases were used to search sero-epidemiological data from community-based studies conducted between 1989 and 2014 in cysticercosis endemic communities worldwide. The search focused on data obtained from T. solium circulating antigen detection by monoclonal antibody-based sandwich ELISA and/or T. solium antibody seroprevalence determined by Enzyme-linked Immunoelectrotransfer Blot (EITB). A meta-analysis was performed per continent. Principal Findings A total of 39,271 participants from 19 countries, described in 37 articles were studied. The estimates for the prevalence of circulating T. solium antigens for Africa, Latin America and Asia were: 7.30% (95% CI [4.23–12.31]), 4.08% (95% CI [2.77–5.95]) and 3.98% (95% CI [2.81–5.61]), respectively. Seroprevalence estimates of T. solium antibodies were 17.37% (95% CI [3.33–56.20]), 13.03% (95% CI [9.95–16.88]) and 15.68% (95% CI [10.25–23.24]) respectively. Taeniasis reported prevalences ranged from 0 (95% CI [0.00–1.62]) to 17.25% (95% CI [14.55–20.23]). Significance A significant variation in the sero-epidemiological data was observed within each continent, with African countries reporting the highest apparent prevalences of active infections. Intrinsic factors

  11. Preliminary evaluation of Community-Led Total Sanitation for the control of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Katete District of Zambia.

    PubMed

    Bulaya, Carol; Mwape, Kabemba E; Michelo, Charles; Sikasunge, Chummy S; Makungu, Chitwambi; Gabriel, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Phiri, Isaac K

    2015-01-30

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a zoonotic disease endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. It is associated with poor sanitary practices, free-range pig husbandry and lack of disease awareness in endemic communities. A comparative research was conducted with pre and post-intervention assessments in nine villages to evaluate Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) as an intervention measure for the control of porcine cysticercosis in Katete District in the Eastern Province of Zambia. Blood samples were collected from pigs for circulating antigen detection and a questionnaire focused on the household was administered to a total of 153 respondents whose pigs were examined (64 pre-intervention, 89 post-intervention), in order to obtain information on general demographic characteristics, pig husbandry practices, sanitation practices and associated knowledge and awareness of T. solium infections. The first sampling was conducted prior to the implementation of the CLTS and second sampling eight months after triggering of CLTS in the selected villages. A total of 379 pig serum samples were examined using the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA to detect T. solium cysticercosis, 104 pre-intervention and 275 post-intervention, of which 14 (13.5%) and 45 (16.4%) were positive, respectively. Wald test p-values were computed to assess significant differences in the variables of interest mentioned above for the pre and post CLTS. The research revealed that CLTS as a control measure did not significantly improve T. solium infections in pigs. The research also revealed that the sanitation practices and awareness of cysticercosis did not change. It is recommended that a longer term evaluation be undertaken when the villages have been declared open defaecation free. In addition, the research recommends that health education, mass drug treatment and pig vaccination be incorporated, as an essential component of prevention and control programmes for T. solium infections. PMID:25591408

  12. Preliminary evaluation of Community-Led Total Sanitation for the control of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Katete District of Zambia.

    PubMed

    Bulaya, Carol; Mwape, Kabemba E; Michelo, Charles; Sikasunge, Chummy S; Makungu, Chitwambi; Gabriel, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Phiri, Isaac K

    2015-01-30

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a zoonotic disease endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. It is associated with poor sanitary practices, free-range pig husbandry and lack of disease awareness in endemic communities. A comparative research was conducted with pre and post-intervention assessments in nine villages to evaluate Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) as an intervention measure for the control of porcine cysticercosis in Katete District in the Eastern Province of Zambia. Blood samples were collected from pigs for circulating antigen detection and a questionnaire focused on the household was administered to a total of 153 respondents whose pigs were examined (64 pre-intervention, 89 post-intervention), in order to obtain information on general demographic characteristics, pig husbandry practices, sanitation practices and associated knowledge and awareness of T. solium infections. The first sampling was conducted prior to the implementation of the CLTS and second sampling eight months after triggering of CLTS in the selected villages. A total of 379 pig serum samples were examined using the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA to detect T. solium cysticercosis, 104 pre-intervention and 275 post-intervention, of which 14 (13.5%) and 45 (16.4%) were positive, respectively. Wald test p-values were computed to assess significant differences in the variables of interest mentioned above for the pre and post CLTS. The research revealed that CLTS as a control measure did not significantly improve T. solium infections in pigs. The research also revealed that the sanitation practices and awareness of cysticercosis did not change. It is recommended that a longer term evaluation be undertaken when the villages have been declared open defaecation free. In addition, the research recommends that health education, mass drug treatment and pig vaccination be incorporated, as an essential component of prevention and control programmes for T. solium infections.

  13. Mimotope peptides selected from phage display combinatorial library by serum antibodies of pigs experimentally infected with Taenia solium as leads to developing diagnostic antigens for human neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Gazarian, Karlen; Rowlay, Merril; Gazarian, Tatiana; Vazquez Buchelli, Jorge Enrique; Hernández Gonzáles, Marisela

    2012-12-01

    Neurocysticercosis is caused by penetration of the tapeworm Taenia solium larvae into the central nervous system resulting in a diverse range of neurologic complications including epilepsy in endemic areas that globalization spreads worldwide. Sensitive and specific immunodiagnosis is needed for the early detection and elimination of the parasite, but the lack of standardized, readily obtainable antigens is a challenge. Here, we used the phage display for resolving the problem. The rationale of the strategy rests on the concept that the screening of combinatorial libraries with polyclonal serum to pathogens reveals families of peptides mimicking the pathogen most immunodominant epitopes indispensable for the successful diagnosis. The screening of a 7mer library with serum IgG of four pigs experimentally infected with parasite followed by computer aided segregation of the selected sequences resulted in the discovery of four clusters of homologous sequences of which one presented a family of ten mimotopes selected by three infected pig serum IgGs; the common motif sequence LSPF carried by the family was considered to be the core of an immunodominant epitope of the parasite critical for the binding with the antibody that selected the mimotopes. The immunoassay testing permitted to select a mimotope whose synthetic peptide free of the phage with the amino acid sequence Leu-Ser-Fen-Pro-Ser-Val-Val that distinguished well a panel of 21 cerebrospinal fluids of neurocysticercosis patients from the fluids of individuals with neurological complications of other etiology. This peptide is proposed as a lead for developing a novel molecularly defined diagnostic antigen(s) for the neurocysticercosis.

  14. Protein and Antigen Diversity in the Vesicular Fluid of Taenia Solium Cysticerci Dissected from Naturally Infected Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Esquivel-Velázquez, Marcela; Larralde, Carlos; Morales, Julio; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium is a health threat for humans and pigs living in developing countries, for which there is neither a flawless immunodiagnostic test nor a totally effective vaccine. Suspecting of individual diversity of hosts and parasites as possible sources of the variations of the parasite loads among cysticercotic animals and of the limited success of such immunological applications as well as, we explored and measured both in nine cases of naturally acquired porcine cysticercosis. For this purpose, 2-Dimensional IgG immunoblots were performed by reacting the sera of each cysticercotic pig with the antigens contained in the vesicular fluid (VF) of their own cysticerci. We found an unexpectedly large diversity among the proteins and antigens contained in each of the nine VFs. Also diverse were the serum IgG antibody responses of the nine pigs, as none of their 2D- immunoblot images exhibited the same number of spots and resembled each other in only 6.3% to 65.3% of their features. So large an individual immunological diversity of the cysticercal antigens and of the infected pigs´ IgG antibody response should be taken into account in the design of immunological tools for diagnosis and prevention of cysticercosis and should also be considered as a possibly significant source of diversity in Taenia solium´s infectiveness and pathogenicity. PMID:22110381

  15. Protein and antigen diversity in the vesicular fluid of Taenia solium cysticerci dissected from naturally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Esquivel-Velázquez, Marcela; Larralde, Carlos; Morales, Julio; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium is a health threat for humans and pigs living in developing countries, for which there is neither a flawless immunodiagnostic test nor a totally effective vaccine. Suspecting of individual diversity of hosts and parasites as possible sources of the variations of the parasite loads among cysticercotic animals and of the limited success of such immunological applications as well as, we explored and measured both in nine cases of naturally acquired porcine cysticercosis. For this purpose, 2-Dimensional IgG immunoblots were performed by reacting the sera of each cysticercotic pig with the antigens contained in the vesicular fluid (VF) of their own cysticerci. We found an unexpectedly large diversity among the proteins and antigens contained in each of the nine VFs. Also diverse were the serum IgG antibody responses of the nine pigs, as none of their 2D- immunoblot images exhibited the same number of spots and resembled each other in only 6.3% to 65.3% of their features. So large an individual immunological diversity of the cysticercal antigens and of the infected pigs´ IgG antibody response should be taken into account in the design of immunological tools for diagnosis and prevention of cysticercosis and should also be considered as a possibly significant source of diversity in Taenia solium´s infectiveness and pathogenicity.

  16. Why pigs are free-roaming: Communities' perceptions, knowledge and practices regarding pig management and taeniosis/cysticercosis in a Taenia solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia.

    PubMed

    Thys, Séverine; Mwape, Kabemba E; Lefèvre, Pierre; Dorny, Pierre; Phiri, Andrew M; Marcotty, Tanguy; Phiri, Isaac K; Gabriël, Sarah

    2016-07-30

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis in many developing countries including Zambia. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. Socio-cultural determinants related to free range pig management and their implications for control of T. solium remain unclear. The study objective was to assess the communities' perceptions, reported practices and knowledge regarding management of pigs and taeniosis/cysticercosis (including neurocysticercosis) in an endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia, and to identify possible barriers to pig related control measures such as pig confinement. A total of 21 focus group discussions on pig husbandry practices were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages from Petauke district. The findings reveal that the perception of pigs and their role in society (financial, agricultural and traditional), the distribution of the management tasks among the family members owning pigs (feeding, building kraal, seeking care) and environmental aspects (feed supply, presence of bush, wood use priorities, rainy season) prevailing in the study area affect pig confinement. People have a fragmented knowledge of the pork tapeworm and its transmission. Even if negative aspects/health risks of free-range pigs keeping are perceived, people are ready to take the risk for socio-economic reasons. Finally, gender plays an important role because women, and also children, seem to have a higher perception of the risks but lack power in terms of economic decision-making compared to men. Currently pig confinement is not seen as an acceptable method to control porcine cysticercosis by many farmers in Eastern Zambia, vaccination and treatment seemed to be more appropriate. Embedded in a One Health approach, disease control programs should therefore ensure a complementary appropriate set of control

  17. Why pigs are free-roaming: Communities' perceptions, knowledge and practices regarding pig management and taeniosis/cysticercosis in a Taenia solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia.

    PubMed

    Thys, Séverine; Mwape, Kabemba E; Lefèvre, Pierre; Dorny, Pierre; Phiri, Andrew M; Marcotty, Tanguy; Phiri, Isaac K; Gabriël, Sarah

    2016-07-30

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis in many developing countries including Zambia. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. Socio-cultural determinants related to free range pig management and their implications for control of T. solium remain unclear. The study objective was to assess the communities' perceptions, reported practices and knowledge regarding management of pigs and taeniosis/cysticercosis (including neurocysticercosis) in an endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia, and to identify possible barriers to pig related control measures such as pig confinement. A total of 21 focus group discussions on pig husbandry practices were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages from Petauke district. The findings reveal that the perception of pigs and their role in society (financial, agricultural and traditional), the distribution of the management tasks among the family members owning pigs (feeding, building kraal, seeking care) and environmental aspects (feed supply, presence of bush, wood use priorities, rainy season) prevailing in the study area affect pig confinement. People have a fragmented knowledge of the pork tapeworm and its transmission. Even if negative aspects/health risks of free-range pigs keeping are perceived, people are ready to take the risk for socio-economic reasons. Finally, gender plays an important role because women, and also children, seem to have a higher perception of the risks but lack power in terms of economic decision-making compared to men. Currently pig confinement is not seen as an acceptable method to control porcine cysticercosis by many farmers in Eastern Zambia, vaccination and treatment seemed to be more appropriate. Embedded in a One Health approach, disease control programs should therefore ensure a complementary appropriate set of control

  18. Antibody responses and epitope specificities to the Taenia solium cysticercosis vaccines TSOL18 and TSOL45-1A.

    PubMed

    Kyngdon, C T; Gauci, C G; Gonzalez, A E; Flisser, A; Zoli, A; Read, A J; Martínez-Ocaña, J; Strugnell, R A; Lightowlers, M W

    2006-05-01

    Taenia solium is a cestode parasite that causes cysticercosis in humans and pigs. This study examined the antibody responses in pigs immunized with the TSOL18 and TSOL45-1A recombinant vaccines against T. solium cysticercosis. Immunization with these proteins induced specific, complement-fixing antibodies against the recombinant antigens that are believed to be associated with vaccine-induced protection against T. solium infection. Sera from immunized pigs were used to define the linear B-cell epitopes of TSOL18 and TSOL45-1A. Prominent reactivity was revealed to one linear epitope on TSOL18 and two linear epitopes on TSOL45-1A. These, and oncosphere antigens from other taeniid cestodes, contain a protein sequence motif suggesting that they may show a tertiary structure similar to the fibronectin type III domain (FnIII). Comparison of the location of linear antigenic epitopes in TSOL18 and TSOL45-1A within the proposed FnIII structure to those within related cestode vaccine antigens reveals conservation in the positioning of the epitopes between oncosphere antigens from different taeniid species.

  19. Dynamics and longevity of maternally-acquired antibodies to Taenia solium in piglets born to naturally infected sows.

    PubMed

    Sikasunge, Chummy S; Phiri, Isaac K; Willingham, Arve L; Johansen, Maria V

    2010-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate the longevity of maternally-acquired specific antibody (Ab) isotypes in piglets born to sows with Taenia solium cysticercosis. Four isotypes of anti-cysticercal immunoglobulins (IgG(total), IgG1, IgG2 and IgA), were assessed in sows naturally infected with T. solium (n=5) and their piglets (5/sow). Specific IgG2 and IgA responses were not detected in piglets at any sampling point. However, IgG(total) and IgG1 responses were detectable in sera from piglets from day 0 but not at 2months of age. Antibody profiles differed significantly over time between littermates and between piglets from different sows. These findings raise important questions as to the optimal timing of mass vaccination of piglets as a method of controlling cysticercosis in humans. The observed variations in the level of maternally-acquired Abs amongst piglets will pose a major challenge to the implementation of vaccination programmes against T. solium cysticercosis.

  20. Sensitive in vitro system to assess morphological and biochemical effects of praziquantel and albendazole on Taenia solium cysts.

    PubMed

    Mahanty, S; Paredes, A; Marzal, M; Gonzalez, E; Rodriguez, S; Dorny, P; Guerra-Giraldez, C; Garcia, H H; Nash, T

    2011-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis resulting from Taenia solium infections is a major cause of adult-acquired seizures worldwide. Disease is caused by larval cysts, and treatment consists of the anthelmintic drugs albendazole or praziquantel. There are no standard methods to assess drug activity to T. solium cysts in vitro. Morphological, functional, and biochemical changes that might reflect damaging (inhibiting, cytotoxic) drug effects were analyzed after exposure of cysts to albendazole sulfoxide (ABZ-SO), the major active metabolite of the drug in vivo, praziquantel (PZQ), or combinations of both. PZQ exposure led to a decrease in cyst size and inhibition of evagination, whereas ABZ-SO exposure resulted in minimal changes. Alkaline phosphatase (AP) is normally secreted by cysts, and both drugs inhibited AP secretion at concentrations of 5 and 50 ng/ml for PZQ and ABZ-SO, respectively. Some combinations of both drugs resulted in additive and/or synergistic activities. Parasite-specific antigen, detected in the cerebrospinal fluid and blood of infected patients, is also normally secreted by T. solium cysts. Antigen secretion was similarly inhibited by ABZ-SO and PZQ and a combination of both drugs, suggesting that inhibition of secretion is a common downstream consequence of the activities of both drugs. These studies establish quantitative methods to measure in vitro anthelmintic activity and suggest combination therapy with ABZ-SO and PZQ may have clinical benefit. PMID:21041508

  1. The genomes of four tapeworm species reveal adaptations to parasitism

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Flores, Alejandro; Brooks, Karen L.; Tracey, Alan; Bobes, Raúl J.; Fragoso, Gladis; Sciutto, Edda; Aslett, Martin; Beasley, Helen; Bennett, Hayley M.; Cai, Xuepeng; Camicia, Federico; Clark, Richard; Cucher, Marcela; De Silva, Nishadi; Day, Tim A; Deplazes, Peter; Estrada, Karel; Fernández, Cecilia; Holland, Peter W. H.; Hou, Junling; Hu, Songnian; Huckvale, Thomas; Hung, Stacy S.; Kamenetzky, Laura; Keane, Jacqueline A.; Kiss, Ferenc; Koziol, Uriel; Lambert, Olivia; Liu, Kan; Luo, Xuenong; Luo, Yingfeng; Macchiaroli, Natalia; Nichol, Sarah; Paps, Jordi; Parkinson, John; Pouchkina-Stantcheva, Natasha; Riddiford, Nick; Rosenzvit, Mara; Salinas, Gustavo; Wasmuth, James D.; Zamanian, Mostafa; Zheng, Yadong; Cai, Jianping; Soberón, Xavier; Olson, Peter D.; Laclette, Juan P.; Brehm, Klaus; Berriman, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Summary Tapeworms cause debilitating neglected diseases that can be deadly and often require surgery due to ineffective drugs. Here we present the first analysis of tapeworm genome sequences using the human-infective species Echinococcus multilocularis, E. granulosus, Taenia solium and the laboratory model Hymenolepis microstoma as examples. The 115-141 megabase genomes offer insights into the evolution of parasitism. Synteny is maintained with distantly related blood flukes but we find extreme losses of genes and pathways ubiquitous in other animals, including 34 homeobox families and several determinants of stem cell fate. Tapeworms have species-specific expansions of non-canonical heat shock proteins and families of known antigens; specialised detoxification pathways, and metabolism finely tuned to rely on nutrients scavenged from their hosts. We identify new potential drug targets, including those on which existing pharmaceuticals may act. The genomes provide a rich resource to underpin the development of urgently needed treatments and control. PMID:23485966

  2. The genomes of four tapeworm species reveal adaptations to parasitism.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Isheng J; Zarowiecki, Magdalena; Holroyd, Nancy; Garciarrubio, Alejandro; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Brooks, Karen L; Tracey, Alan; Bobes, Raúl J; Fragoso, Gladis; Sciutto, Edda; Aslett, Martin; Beasley, Helen; Bennett, Hayley M; Cai, Jianping; Camicia, Federico; Clark, Richard; Cucher, Marcela; De Silva, Nishadi; Day, Tim A; Deplazes, Peter; Estrada, Karel; Fernández, Cecilia; Holland, Peter W H; Hou, Junling; Hu, Songnian; Huckvale, Thomas; Hung, Stacy S; Kamenetzky, Laura; Keane, Jacqueline A; Kiss, Ferenc; Koziol, Uriel; Lambert, Olivia; Liu, Kan; Luo, Xuenong; Luo, Yingfeng; Macchiaroli, Natalia; Nichol, Sarah; Paps, Jordi; Parkinson, John; Pouchkina-Stantcheva, Natasha; Riddiford, Nick; Rosenzvit, Mara; Salinas, Gustavo; Wasmuth, James D; Zamanian, Mostafa; Zheng, Yadong; Cai, Xuepeng; Soberón, Xavier; Olson, Peter D; Laclette, Juan P; Brehm, Klaus; Berriman, Matthew

    2013-04-01

    Tapeworms (Cestoda) cause neglected diseases that can be fatal and are difficult to treat, owing to inefficient drugs. Here we present an analysis of tapeworm genome sequences using the human-infective species Echinococcus multilocularis, E. granulosus, Taenia solium and the laboratory model Hymenolepis microstoma as examples. The 115- to 141-megabase genomes offer insights into the evolution of parasitism. Synteny is maintained with distantly related blood flukes but we find extreme losses of genes and pathways that are ubiquitous in other animals, including 34 homeobox families and several determinants of stem cell fate. Tapeworms have specialized detoxification pathways, metabolism that is finely tuned to rely on nutrients scavenged from their hosts, and species-specific expansions of non-canonical heat shock proteins and families of known antigens. We identify new potential drug targets, including some on which existing pharmaceuticals may act. The genomes provide a rich resource to underpin the development of urgently needed treatments and control.

  3. Molecular and morphological characterization of the tapeworm Taenia hydatigena (Pallas, 1766) in sheep from Iran.

    PubMed

    Rostami, S; Salavati, R; Beech, R N; Babaei, Z; Sharbatkhori, M; Baneshi, M R; Hajialilo, E; Shad, H; Harandi, M F

    2015-03-01

    Although Taenia hydatigena is one of the most prevalent taeniid species of livestock, very little molecular genetic information exists for this parasite. Up to 100 sheep isolates of T. hydatigena were collected from 19 abattoirs located in the provinces of Tehran, Alborz and Kerman. A calibrated microscope was used to measure the larval rostellar hook lengths. Following DNA extraction, fragments of cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1) and 12S rRNA genes were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction method and the amplicons were subjected to sequencing. The mean total length of large and small hooks was 203.4 μm and 135.9 μm, respectively. Forty CO1 and 39 12S rRNA sequence haplotypes were obtained in the study. The levels of pairwise nucleotide variation between individual haplotypes of CO1 and 12S rRNA genes were determined to be between 0.3-3.4% and 0.2-2.1%, respectively. The overall nucleotide variation among all the CO1 haplotypes was 9.7%, and for all the 12S rRNA haplotypes it was 10.1%. A significant difference was observed between rostellar hook morphometry and both CO1 and 12S rRNA sequence variability. A significantly high level of genetic variation was observed in the present study. The results showed that the 12S rRNA gene is more variable than CO1.

  4. Molecular and morphological characterization of the tapeworm Taenia hydatigena (Pallas, 1766) in sheep from Iran.

    PubMed

    Rostami, S; Salavati, R; Beech, R N; Babaei, Z; Sharbatkhori, M; Baneshi, M R; Hajialilo, E; Shad, H; Harandi, M F

    2015-03-01

    Although Taenia hydatigena is one of the most prevalent taeniid species of livestock, very little molecular genetic information exists for this parasite. Up to 100 sheep isolates of T. hydatigena were collected from 19 abattoirs located in the provinces of Tehran, Alborz and Kerman. A calibrated microscope was used to measure the larval rostellar hook lengths. Following DNA extraction, fragments of cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1) and 12S rRNA genes were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction method and the amplicons were subjected to sequencing. The mean total length of large and small hooks was 203.4 μm and 135.9 μm, respectively. Forty CO1 and 39 12S rRNA sequence haplotypes were obtained in the study. The levels of pairwise nucleotide variation between individual haplotypes of CO1 and 12S rRNA genes were determined to be between 0.3-3.4% and 0.2-2.1%, respectively. The overall nucleotide variation among all the CO1 haplotypes was 9.7%, and for all the 12S rRNA haplotypes it was 10.1%. A significant difference was observed between rostellar hook morphometry and both CO1 and 12S rRNA sequence variability. A significantly high level of genetic variation was observed in the present study. The results showed that the 12S rRNA gene is more variable than CO1. PMID:24103709

  5. Disruption of the blood–brain barrier in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium, untreated and after anthelmintic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Marzal, Miguel; Cangalaya, Carla; Balboa, Diana; Orrego, Miguel Ángel; Paredes, Adriana; Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy; Arroyo, Gianfranco; García, Hector H.; González, Armando E.; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Nash, Theodore E.

    2014-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a widely prevalent disease in the tropics that causes seizures and a variety of neurological symptoms in most of the world. Experimental models are limited and do not allow assessment of the degree of inflammation around brain cysts. The vital dye Evans Blue (EB) was injected into 11 pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium cysts to visually identify the extent of disruption of the blood brain barrier. A total of 369 cysts were recovered from the 11 brains and classified according to the staining of their capsules as blue or unstained. The proportion of cysts with blue capsules was significantly higher in brains from pigs that had received anthelmintic treatment 48 and 120 h before the EB infusion, indicating a greater compromise of the blood brain barrier due to treatment. The model could be useful for understanding the pathology of treatment-induced inflammation in neurocysticercosis. PMID:23684909

  6. Disruption of the blood-brain barrier in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium, untreated and after anthelmintic treatment.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Marzal, Miguel; Cangalaya, Carla; Balboa, Diana; Orrego, Miguel Ángel; Paredes, Adriana; Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy; Arroyo, Gianfranco; García, Hector H; González, Armando E; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Nash, Theodore E

    2013-08-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a widely prevalent disease in the tropics that causes seizures and a variety into of neurological symptoms in most of the world. Experimental models are limited and do not allow assessment of the degree of inflammation around brain cysts. The vital dye Evans Blue (EB) was injected to 11 pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium cysts to visually identify the extent of disruption of the blood-brain barrier. A total of 369 cysts were recovered from the 11 brains and classified according to the staining of their capsules as blue or unstained. The proportion of cysts with blue capsules was significantly higher in brains from pigs that had received anthelmintic treatment 48 and 120h before the EB infusion, indicating a greater compromise of the blood-brain barrier due to treatment. The model could be useful for understanding the pathology of treatment-induced inflammation in neurocysticercosis.

  7. Optimized codon usage enhances the expression and immunogenicity of DNA vaccine encoding Taenia solium oncosphere TSOL18 gene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Chang, Xue-Lian; Tao, Zhi-Yong; Wang, Xiao-Li; Jiao, Yu-Meng; Chen, Yong; Qi, Wen-Juan; Xia, Hui; Yang, Xiao-Di; Sun, Xin; Shen, Ji-Long; Fang, Qiang

    2015-07-01

    Cysticercosis due to larval cysts of Taenia solium, is a serious public health problem affecting humans in numerous regions worldwide. The oncospheral stage-specific TSOL18 antigen is a promising candidate for an anti-cysticercosis vaccine. It has been reported that the immunogenicity of the DNA vaccine may be enhanced through codon optimization of candidate genes. The aim of the present study was to further increase the efficacy of the cysticercosis DNA vaccine; therefore, a codon optimized recombinant expression plasmid pVAX1/TSOL18 was developed in order to enhance expression and immunogenicity of TSOL18. The gene encoding TSOL18 of Taenia solium was optimized, and the resulting opt-TSOL18 gene was amplified and expressed. The results of the present study showed that the codon-optimized TSOL18 gene was successfully expressed in CHO-K1 cells, and immunized mice vaccinated with opt-TSOL18 recombinant expression plasmids demonstrated opt‑TSOL18 expression in muscle fibers, as determined by immunohistochemistry. In addition, the codon-optimized TSOL18 gene produced a significantly greater effect compared with that of TSOL18 and active spleen cells were markedly stimulated in vaccinated mice. 3H-thymidine incorporation was significantly greater in the opt-TSOL18 group compared with that of the TSOL18, pVAX and blank control groups (P<0.01). In conclusion, the eukaryotic expression vector containing the codon-optimized TSOL18 gene was successfully constructed and was confirmed to be expressed in vivo and in vitro. The expression and immunogenicity of the codon-optimized TSOL18 gene were markedly greater compared with that of the un-optimized gene. Therefore, these results may provide the basis for an optimized TSOL18 gene vaccine against cysticercosis.

  8. Inflammation Caused by Praziquantel Treatment Depends on the Location of the Taenia solium Cysticercus in Porcine Neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Cangalaya, Carla; Zimic, Mirko; Marzal, Miguel; González, Armando E.; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Nash, Theodore E.; García, Hector H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Neurocysticercosis (NCC), infection of the central nervous system by Taenia solium cysticerci, is a pleomorphic disease. Inflammation around cysticerci is the major cause of disease but is variably present. One factor modulating the inflammatory responses may be the location and characteristics of the brain tissue adjacent to cysticerci. We analyzed and compared the inflammatory responses to cysticerci located in the parenchyma to those in the meninges or cysticerci partially in contact with both the parenchyma and the meninges (corticomeningeal). Methodology/Principal Findings Histological specimens of brain cysticerci (n = 196) from 11 pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium cysticerci were used. Four pigs were sacrificed after 2 days and four after 5 days of a single dose of praziquantel; 3 pigs did not receive treatment. All pigs were intravenously injected with Evans Blue to assess disruption of the blood-brain barrier. The degree of inflammation was estimated by use of a histological score (ISC) based on the extent of the inflammation in the pericystic areas as assessed in an image composed of several photomicrographs taken at 40X amplification. Parenchymal cysticerci provoked a significantly greater level of pericystic inflammation (higher ISC) after antiparasitic treatment compared to meningeal and corticomeningeal cysticerci. ISC of meningeal cysticerci was not significantly affected by treatment. In corticomeningeal cysticerci, the increase in ISC score was correlated to the extent of the cysticercus adjacent to the brain parenchyma. Disruption of the blood-brain barrier was associated with treatment only in parenchymal tissue. Significance Inflammatory response to cysticerci located in the meninges was significantly decreased compared to parenchymal cysticerci. The suboptimal inflammatory response to cysticidal drugs may be the reason subarachnoid NCC is generally refractory to treatment compared to parenchymal NCC. PMID:26658257

  9. Genetics of the pig tapeworm in madagascar reveal a history of human dispersal and colonization.

    PubMed

    Yanagida, Tetsuya; Carod, Jean-François; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Hoberg, Eric P; Ito, Akira

    2014-01-01

    An intricate history of human dispersal and geographic colonization has strongly affected the distribution of human pathogens. The pig tapeworm Taenia solium occurs throughout the world as the causative agent of cysticercosis, one of the most serious neglected tropical diseases. Discrete genetic lineages of T. solium in Asia and Africa/Latin America are geographically disjunct; only in Madagascar are they sympatric. Linguistic, archaeological and genetic evidence has indicated that the people in Madagascar have mixed ancestry from Island Southeast Asia and East Africa. Hence, anthropogenic introduction of the tapeworm from Southeast Asia and Africa had been postulated. This study shows that the major mitochondrial haplotype of T. solium in Madagascar is closely related to those from the Indian Subcontinent. Parasitological evidence presented here, and human genetics previously reported, support the hypothesis of an Indian influence on Malagasy culture coinciding with periods of early human migration onto the island. We also found evidence of nuclear-mitochondrial discordance in single tapeworms, indicating unexpected cross-fertilization between the two lineages of T. solium. Analyses of genetic and geographic populations of T. solium in Madagascar will shed light on apparently rapid evolution of this organism driven by recent (<2,000 yr) human migrations, following tens of thousands of years of geographic isolation. PMID:25329310

  10. Genetics of the Pig Tapeworm in Madagascar Reveal a History of Human Dispersal and Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Yanagida, Tetsuya; Carod, Jean-François; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Hoberg, Eric P.; Ito, Akira

    2014-01-01

    An intricate history of human dispersal and geographic colonization has strongly affected the distribution of human pathogens. The pig tapeworm Taenia solium occurs throughout the world as the causative agent of cysticercosis, one of the most serious neglected tropical diseases. Discrete genetic lineages of T. solium in Asia and Africa/Latin America are geographically disjunct; only in Madagascar are they sympatric. Linguistic, archaeological and genetic evidence has indicated that the people in Madagascar have mixed ancestry from Island Southeast Asia and East Africa. Hence, anthropogenic introduction of the tapeworm from Southeast Asia and Africa had been postulated. This study shows that the major mitochondrial haplotype of T. solium in Madagascar is closely related to those from the Indian Subcontinent. Parasitological evidence presented here, and human genetics previously reported, support the hypothesis of an Indian influence on Malagasy culture coinciding with periods of early human migration onto the island. We also found evidence of nuclear-mitochondrial discordance in single tapeworms, indicating unexpected cross-fertilization between the two lineages of T. solium. Analyses of genetic and geographic populations of T. solium in Madagascar will shed light on apparently rapid evolution of this organism driven by recent (<2,000 yr) human migrations, following tens of thousands of years of geographic isolation. PMID:25329310

  11. Crystal Structure of Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase from Taenia Solium Reveals Metal-mediated Self-assembly

    SciTech Connect

    A Hernandez-Santoyo; A Landa; E Gonzalez-Mondragon; M Pedraza-Escalona; R Parra-Unda; A Rodriguez-Romero

    2011-12-31

    Taenia solium is the cestode responsible for porcine and human cysticercosis. The ability of this parasite to establish itself in the host is related to its evasion of the immune response and its antioxidant defence system. The latter includes enzymes such as cytosolic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase. In this article, we describe the crystal structure of a recombinant T. solium Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, representing the first structure of a protein from this organism. This enzyme shows a different charge distribution at the entrance of the active channel when compared with human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, giving it interesting properties that may allow the design of specific inhibitors against this cestode. The overall topology is similar to other superoxide dismutase structures; however, there are several His and Glu residues on the surface of the protein that coordinate metal ions both intra- and intermolecularly. Interestingly, one of these ions, located on the {beta}2 strand, establishes a metal-mediated intermolecular {beta}-{beta} interaction, including a symmetry-related molecule. The factors responsible for the abnormal protein-protein interactions that lead to oligomerization are still unknown; however, high metal levels have been implicated in these phenomena, but exactly how they are involved remains unclear. The present results suggest that this structure could be useful as a model to explain an alternative mechanism of protein aggregation commonly observed in insoluble fibrillar deposits.

  12. In Vitro Analysis of Albendazole Sulfoxide Enantiomers Shows that (+)-(R)-Albendazole Sulfoxide Is the Active Enantiomer against Taenia solium

    PubMed Central

    Paredes, Adriana; de Campos Lourenço, Tiago; Marzal, Miguel; Rivera, Andrea; Dorny, Pierre; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; García, Hector H.; Cass, Quezia B.

    2013-01-01

    Albendazole is an anthelmintic drug widely used in the treatment of neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain with Taenia solium cysts. However, drug levels of its active metabolite, albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO), are erratic, likely resulting in decreased efficacy and suboptimal cure rates in NCC. Racemic albendazole sulfoxide is composed of ABZSO (+)-(R)- and (−)-(S) enantiomers that have been shown to differ in pharmacokinetics and activity against other helminths. The antiparasitic activities of racemic ABZSO and its (+)-(R)- and (−)-(S) enantiomers against T. solium cysts were evaluated in vitro. Parasites were collected from naturally infected pigs, cultured, and exposed to the racemic mixture or to each enantiomer (range, 10 to 500 ng/ml) or to praziquantel as a reference drug. The activity of each compound against cysts was assayed by measuring the ability to evaginate and inhibition of alkaline phosphatase (AP) and parasite antigen release. (+)-(R)-ABZSO was significantly more active than (−)-(S)-ABZSO in suppressing the release of AP and antigen into the supernatant in a dose- and time-dependent manner, indicating that most of the activity of ABZSO resides in the (+)-(R) enantiomer. Use of this enantiomer alone may lead to increased efficacy and/or less toxicity compared to albendazole. PMID:23229490

  13. In vitro analysis of albendazole sulfoxide enantiomers shows that (+)-(R)-albendazole sulfoxide is the active enantiomer against Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Adriana; de Campos Lourenço, Tiago; Marzal, Miguel; Rivera, Andrea; Dorny, Pierre; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; García, Hector H; Nash, Theodore E; Cass, Quezia B

    2013-02-01

    Albendazole is an anthelmintic drug widely used in the treatment of neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain with Taenia solium cysts. However, drug levels of its active metabolite, albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO), are erratic, likely resulting in decreased efficacy and suboptimal cure rates in NCC. Racemic albendazole sulfoxide is composed of ABZSO (+)-(R)- and (-)-(S) enantiomers that have been shown to differ in pharmacokinetics and activity against other helminths. The antiparasitic activities of racemic ABZSO and its (+)-(R)- and (-)-(S) enantiomers against T. solium cysts were evaluated in vitro. Parasites were collected from naturally infected pigs, cultured, and exposed to the racemic mixture or to each enantiomer (range, 10 to 500 ng/ml) or to praziquantel as a reference drug. The activity of each compound against cysts was assayed by measuring the ability to evaginate and inhibition of alkaline phosphatase (AP) and parasite antigen release. (+)-(R)-ABZSO was significantly more active than (-)-(S)-ABZSO in suppressing the release of AP and antigen into the supernatant in a dose- and time-dependent manner, indicating that most of the activity of ABZSO resides in the (+)-(R) enantiomer. Use of this enantiomer alone may lead to increased efficacy and/or less toxicity compared to albendazole.

  14. Incidence of Human Taenia solium Larval Infections in an Ecuadorian Endemic Area: Implications for Disease Burden Assessment and Control

    PubMed Central

    Coral-Almeida, Marco; Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Richar; Celi-Erazo, Maritza; García, Héctor Hugo; Rodríguez, Silvia; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Benítez-Ortiz, Washington; Dorny, Pierre; Praet, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Background Human cysticercosis is a zoonotic disease causing severe health disorders and even death. While prevalence data become available worldwide, incidence rate and cumulative incidence figures are lacking, which limits the understanding of the Taenia solium epidemiology. Methodology/Principal findings A seroepidemiological cohort study was conducted in a south-Ecuadorian community to estimate the incidence rate of infection with and the incidence rate of exposure to T. solium based on antigen and antibody detections, respectively. The incidence rate of infection was 333.6 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI: [8.4–1,858] per 100,000 person-years) contrasting with a higher incidence rate of exposure 13,370 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI: [8,730–19,591] per 100,000 person-years). The proportion of infected individuals remained low and stable during the whole study year while more than 25% of the population showed at least one antibody seroconversion/seroreversion during the same time period. Conclusions/Significance Understanding the transmission of T. solium is essential to develop ad hoc cost-effective prevention and control programs. The estimates generated here may now be incorporated in epidemiological models to simulate the temporal transmission of the parasite and the effects of control interventions on its life cycle. These estimates are also of high importance to assess the disease burden since incidence data are needed to make regional and global projections of morbidity and mortality related to cysticercosis. PMID:24852050

  15. Taenia solium Cysticercosis in the Democratic Republic of Congo: How Does Pork Trade Affect the Transmission of the Parasite?

    PubMed Central

    Kabwe, Constantin; Maketa, Vivi; Lukanu, Philippe; Lutumba, Pascal; Polman, Katja; Matondo, Peter; Speybroeck, Niko; Dorny, Pierre; Sumbu, Julienne

    2010-01-01

    Background Taenia solium, a zoonotic parasite that is endemic in most developing countries where pork is consumed, is recognised as the main cause of acquired epilepsy in these regions. T. solium has been reported in almost all of the neighboring countries of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) but data on the current prevalence of the disease in the country itself are lacking. This study, focusing on porcine cysticercosis (CC), makes part of a first initiative to assess whether cysticercosis is indeed actually present in DRC. Methods An epidemiological study on porcine CC was conducted (1) on urban markets of Kinshasa where pork is sold and (2) in villages in Bas-Congo province where pigs are traditionally reared. Tongue inspection and ELISA for the detection of circulating antigen of the larval stage of T. solium were used to assess the prevalence of active CC in both study sites. Findings The overall prevalence of pigs with active cysticercosis did not significantly differ between the market and the village study sites (38.8 [CI95%: 34–43] versus 41.2% [CI95%: 33–49], respectively). However, tongue cysticercosis was only found in the village study site together with a significantly higher intensity of infection (detected by ELISA). Interpretation Pigs reared at village level are sold for consumption on Kinshasa markets, but it seems that highly infected animals are excluded at a certain level in the pig trade chain. Indeed, preliminary informal surveys on common practices conducted in parallel revealed that pig farmers and/or buyers select the low infected animals and exclude those who are positive by tongue inspection at village level. This study provides the only recent evidence of CC presence in DRC and gives the first estimates to fill an important gap on the African taeniasis/cysticercosis distribution map. PMID:20838646

  16. Characterization of hydrophobic-ligand-binding proteins of Taenia solium that are expressed specifically in the adult stage.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M; Lee, E-G; Kim, S-H; Bae, Y-A; Wang, H; Yang, Y; Kong, Y

    2012-09-01

    Taenia solium, a causative agent of taeniasis and cysticercosis, has evolved a repertoire of lipid uptake mechanisms. Proteome analysis of T. solium excretory-secretory products (TsESP) identified 10 kDa proteins displaying significant sequence identity with cestode hydrophobic-ligand-binding-proteins (HLBPs). Two distinct 362- and 352-bp-long cDNAs encoding 264- and 258-bp-long open reading frames (87 and 85 amino acid polypeptides) were isolated by mining the T. solium expressed sequence tags and a cDNA library screening (TsHLBP1 and TsHLBP2; 94% sequence identity). They clustered into the same clade with those found in Moniezia expansa and Hymenolepis diminuta. Genomic structure analysis revealed that these genes might have originated from a common ancestor. Both the crude TsESP and bacterially expressed recombinant proteins exhibited binding activity toward 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid (1,8-ANS), which was competitively inhibited by oleic acid. The proteins also bound to cis-parinaric acid (cPnA) and 16-(9-anthroyloxy) palmitic acid (16-AP), but showed no binding activity against 11-[(5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl) amino] undecanoic acid (DAUDA) and dansyl-DL-α-aminocaprylic acid (DACA). Unsaturated fatty acids (FAs) showed greater affinity than saturated FAs. The proteins were specifically expressed in adult worms throughout the strobila. The TsHLBPs might be involved in uptake and/or sequestration of hydrophobic molecules provided by their hosts, thus contributing to host-parasite interface interrelationships.

  17. Characterization and protective potential of the immune response to Taenia solium paramyosin in a murine model of cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Talavera, J; Solís, C F; Terrazas, L I; Laclette, J P

    2001-09-01

    Paramyosin has been proposed as a vaccine candidate in schistosomiasis and filariasis. However, limited information is available about its protective potential against cysticercosis and the immune response it induces. Immunization of mice with recombinant full-length paramyosin of Taenia solium (TPmy) results in about a 52% reduction in parasite burden after a subsequent challenge by intraperitoneal inoculation of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci. Immunization assays using recombinant fragments of TPmy, corresponding approximately to thirds on the amino, central, or carboxyl regions, suggest that protective epitopes are located mostly in the amino-end third. Proliferation assays using T cells obtained from mice immunized with the full-length recombinant TPmy also showed a preferential response to the amino-terminal fragment. In contrast, antibodies in the sera from these mice predominantly recognize epitopes located in the carboxyl-terminal fragment, being the immunoglobulin G1 subclass, the predominant antibody isotype. Characterization of the cellular immune response induced against the protective amino-terminal fragment reveals production of gamma interferon and interleukin-2, but not interleukin-4, suggesting a Th1-like profile.

  18. Characterization and Protective Potential of the Immune Response to Taenia solium Paramyosin in a Murine Model of Cysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Talavera, José; Solís, Carlos F.; Terrazas, Luis I.; Laclette, Juan P.

    2001-01-01

    Paramyosin has been proposed as a vaccine candidate in schistosomiasis and filariasis. However, limited information is available about its protective potential against cysticercosis and the immune response it induces. Immunization of mice with recombinant full-length paramyosin of Taenia solium (TPmy) results in about a 52% reduction in parasite burden after a subsequent challenge by intraperitoneal inoculation of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci. Immunization assays using recombinant fragments of TPmy, corresponding approximately to thirds on the amino, central, or carboxyl regions, suggest that protective epitopes are located mostly in the amino-end third. Proliferation assays using T cells obtained from mice immunized with the full-length recombinant TPmy also showed a preferential response to the amino-terminal fragment. In contrast, antibodies in the sera from these mice predominantly recognize epitopes located in the carboxyl-terminal fragment, being the immunoglobulin G1 subclass, the predominant antibody isotype. Characterization of the cellular immune response induced against the protective amino-terminal fragment reveals production of gamma interferon and interleukin-2, but not interleukin-4, suggesting a Th1-like profile. PMID:11500411

  19. TsAg5, a Taenia solium cysticercus protein with a marginal trypsin-like activity in the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Rueda, Analiz; Sifuentes, Cecilia; Gilman, Robert H.; Gutiérrez, Andrés H.; Piña, Ruby; Chile, Nancy; Carrasco, Sebastián; Larson, Sandra; Mayta, Holger; Verástegui, Manuela; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gutiérrez-Correa, Marcel; García, Héctor H.; Sheen, Patricia; Zimic, Mirko

    2011-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is an endemic parasitic disease caused by Taenia solium larva. Although the mechanism of infection is not completely understood, it is likely driven by proteolytic activity that degrades the intestinal wall to facilitate oncosphere penetration and further infection. We analyzed the publicly available Taenia solium EST/DNA library and identified two contigs comprising a full-length cDNA fragment very similar to E. granulosus Ag5 protein. The Taenia solium cDNA sequence included a proteolytic trypsin-like-domain in the C-terminal region, and a thrombospondin type-1 adherence-domain in the N-terminal region. Both the trypsin-like and adherence domains were expressed independently as recombinant proteins in bacterial systems. TsAg5 showed marginal trypsin-like activity and high sequence similarity to Ag5. The purified antigens were tested in a Western immunoblot assay to diagnose human neurocysticercosis. The sensitivity of the trypsin-like-domain was 96.36% in patients infected with extraparenchymal cysts, 75.44% in patients infected with multiple cysts, and 39.62% in patients with a single cyst. Specificity was 76.70%. The thrombospondin type-1 adherence-domain was not specific for neurocysticercosis. PMID:21893105

  20. An ocular cysticercosis case: Caused by Asian genotype of Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Sharma, M; Beke, N; Khurana, S; Bhatti, H S; Sehgal, R; Malla, N

    2015-01-01

    An ocular cysticercosis case of a 42-year-old male, who presented with anterior uveitis is being reported. Microscopical examination of the cyst revealed presence of only one hooklet suggestive of T. solium cysticercus. Mitochondrial DNA analysis confirmed it to be T. solium cysticercus of Asian genotype. This is the first report on molecular typing of cysticercus isolate from ocular cysticercosis patient in India. The study suggests that the molecular analysis of cox1 gene may be a useful diagnostic tool in cases where microscopic examination is not confirmatory. PMID:26470970

  1. An ocular cysticercosis case: Caused by Asian genotype of Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Sharma, M; Beke, N; Khurana, S; Bhatti, H S; Sehgal, R; Malla, N

    2015-01-01

    An ocular cysticercosis case of a 42-year-old male, who presented with anterior uveitis is being reported. Microscopical examination of the cyst revealed presence of only one hooklet suggestive of T. solium cysticercus. Mitochondrial DNA analysis confirmed it to be T. solium cysticercus of Asian genotype. This is the first report on molecular typing of cysticercus isolate from ocular cysticercosis patient in India. The study suggests that the molecular analysis of cox1 gene may be a useful diagnostic tool in cases where microscopic examination is not confirmatory.

  2. Lights and shadows of the Taenia asiatica life cycle and pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Galán-Puchades, Maria Teresa; Fuentes, Màrius Vicent

    2013-07-01

    Humans are definitive hosts of two well-known species of the Taenia genus, Taenia solium (the pig tapeworm) and Taenia saginata (the cattle tapeworm). In the 1990s, a third species, Taenia asiatica, was discovered, sharing features with the other two since the adult morphology is similar to that of T. saginata, but its life cycle is like that of T. solium. Human taeniasis usually is asymptomatic or displays mild symptoms, and only T. solium can cause other sometimes serious disorders when humans accidentally ingest the eggs and develop the larval stage in different organs (cysticercosis). In this review, we expose what we currently know (lights) and what we do not yet know (shadows) about the life cycle and pathogenicity of T. asiatica. Concerning its life cycle, the main uncertainty is whether humans can act as intermediate hosts of this species. We also suggest that due to its small size and location in pigs, the cysticerci probably escape veterinary inspection becoming a silent parasite. Concerning pathogenicity, it is still not known if T. asiatica can cause human liver cysticercosis, taking into account its principal hepatic tropism in pigs. To answer all these questions it would be essential to perform sensitive as well as specific diagnostic techniques for T. asiatica in humans and pigs. Currently, only molecular methods are able to determine the Taenia species, since morphology and immunology are useless, but unfortunately although largely used in research those methods are not employed in routine diagnosis. PMID:24470994

  3. Taenia solium metacestode viability in infected pork after preparation with salt pickling or cooking methods common in Yucatán, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Canul, R; Argaez-Rodriguez, F; de, la Gala D Pacheco; Villegas-Perez, S; Fraser, A; Craig, P S; Cob-Galera, L; Dominguez-Alpizar, J L

    2002-04-01

    The cestode parasite Taenia solium is an important cause of foodborne infection throughout tropical and subtropical regions. Ingestion of pork meat infected with T. solium larvae can lead to taeniasis infection in humans. With tourism and the consumption of native food increasing, it is important to investigate potential risks of transmission associated with food preparation methods. In this study, traditional Mexican salt pickling and two methods of pork preparation (as roast pork [cochinita pibil] and in pork and beans [frijol con puerco]) were evaluated in order to determine their effects on T. solium cyst viability in infected tissue. In the control groups, all metacestodes isolated were 100% viable, and only small changes in pH (from 6.0 to 5.9) and temperature (29 to 30 degrees C) were recorded. No viable cysts were detected after 12 and 24 h of salt pickling. The pH of the meat during salting dropped from 6.0 to 5.3. Osmotic changes and dehydration from the salting, rather than a change in pH, could be considered the main cause of cyst death. Temperatures of >65 degrees C damaged T. solium metacestodes in roast pork and in pork and beans. The results of this study indicate that if traditional pork dishes are prepared properly, T. solium cysts are destroyed. The criteria used in this study to evaluate the viability of tissue cysts are discussed. PMID:11952216

  4. Anti-Taenia solium monoclonal antibodies for the detection of parasite antigens in body fluids from patients with neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Adriana; Sáenz, Patricia; Marzal, Miguel W; Orrego, Miguel A; Castillo, Yesenia; Rivera, Andrea; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; García, Hector H; Nash, Theodore E

    2016-07-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain by Taenia solium (Ts) cysts, is the most common cause of adult-onset epilepsy in developing countries. Serological testing consists primarily of varying methods to detect antibodies in body fluids and more recently antigen (Ag) detection assays to identify individuals or animals with viable parasites. Antigen assays currently in use employ monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) raised against T. saginata, which have known cross reactivity to animal cestodes but are highly specific in human samples. We produced, characterized and tested 21 mAbs raised against T. solium whole cyst antigens, vesicular fluid or excretory secretory products. Reactivity of the TsmAbs against specific cyst structures was determined using immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry on histological sections of Ts muscle cysts. Four TsmAbs reacted to vesicular space alone, 9 to the neck and cyst wall, one to the neck and vesicular space and 7 to the neck, cyst wall and vesicular space. An in-house ELISA assay to detect circulating Ts antigen, using the TsmAbs as capture antibodies and a rabbit polyclonal anti-Ts whole cyst antibody as a detector antibody demonstrated that eight of the 21 TsmAbs detected antigens in known NCC-positive human sera and three of these also in urine samples. Reactivity was expressed as normalized ratios of optical densities (OD positive control/OD negative control). Three TsmAbs had ratios >10 and five between 2 and 10. The TsmAbs have potential utility for the diagnosis and post-treatment monitoring of patients with viable NCC infections. PMID:27018063

  5. Anti-Taenia solium monoclonal antibodies for the detection of parasite antigens in body fluids from patients with neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Adriana; Sáenz, Patricia; Marzal, Miguel W; Orrego, Miguel A; Castillo, Yesenia; Rivera, Andrea; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; García, Hector H; Nash, Theodore E

    2016-07-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain by Taenia solium (Ts) cysts, is the most common cause of adult-onset epilepsy in developing countries. Serological testing consists primarily of varying methods to detect antibodies in body fluids and more recently antigen (Ag) detection assays to identify individuals or animals with viable parasites. Antigen assays currently in use employ monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) raised against T. saginata, which have known cross reactivity to animal cestodes but are highly specific in human samples. We produced, characterized and tested 21 mAbs raised against T. solium whole cyst antigens, vesicular fluid or excretory secretory products. Reactivity of the TsmAbs against specific cyst structures was determined using immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry on histological sections of Ts muscle cysts. Four TsmAbs reacted to vesicular space alone, 9 to the neck and cyst wall, one to the neck and vesicular space and 7 to the neck, cyst wall and vesicular space. An in-house ELISA assay to detect circulating Ts antigen, using the TsmAbs as capture antibodies and a rabbit polyclonal anti-Ts whole cyst antibody as a detector antibody demonstrated that eight of the 21 TsmAbs detected antigens in known NCC-positive human sera and three of these also in urine samples. Reactivity was expressed as normalized ratios of optical densities (OD positive control/OD negative control). Three TsmAbs had ratios >10 and five between 2 and 10. The TsmAbs have potential utility for the diagnosis and post-treatment monitoring of patients with viable NCC infections.

  6. Distribution and histopathological changes induced by cysts of Taenia solium in the brain of pigs from Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mkupasi, E M; Ngowi, H A; Sikasunge, C S; Leifsson, P S; Johansen, M V

    2015-09-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia solium cysts is a frequent but neglected parasitic disease of the central nervous system (CNS) worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe anatomical locations of cysts in the CNS and the corresponding inflammation. A total of 17 naturally infected pigs were used to evaluate the distribution of cysts and, of these, seven were used to evaluate the corresponding inflammation further, through histopathology. Clinical signs in the pigs included dullness, sluggishness, somnolence, apathy and loss of consciousness. Cysts were distributed in all cerebral lobes, i.e. 39.7% in the frontal lobe, 20.3% in the parietal lobe, 20.0% in the occipital lobe and 19.7% in the temporal lobe, and only 0.4% in the cerebellum. No cysts were found in the spinal cord. Cysts were localized as follows: 47.9% in the dorsal subarachnoid, 46.9% in the parenchyma, 4.4% in the subarachnoid base and 0.9% in the ventricles. The results of the histopathology revealed lesions in an early inflammatory stage, i.e. stage I, in all anatomical locations except for two, which showed more of an inflammatory reaction, stage III, in one pig. It was concluded that clinical signs in pigs were neither pathognomonic nor consistent. These signs, therefore, cannot be used as a reliable indicator of porcine NCC. Furthermore, T. solium cysts were found to be in abundance in all cerebral lobes, and only a few were found in the cerebellum. Regarding the inflammatory response, no significant differences were found in the location and total number of cysts. Thus, further studies are needed to explain the determinants of cyst distribution in the CNS and assess in detail clinical signs associated with porcine NCC.

  7. Molecular characterization, functional expression, tissue localization and protective potential of a Taenia solium fatty acid-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Illescas, Oscar; Carrero, Julio C; Bobes, Raúl J; Flisser, Ana; Rosas, Gabriela; Laclette, Juan P

    2012-12-01

    The fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) comprise a family of proteins that are widely expressed in animal cells and perform a variety of vital functions. Here, we report the identification, characterization, recombinant expression, tissue localization and protective potential of a Taenia solium FABP (TsFABP1). The TsFABP1 primary structure showed all the conserved residues characteristic of the subfamily iv of the intracellular Lipid-Binding Proteins (iLBPs), including those involved in the binding stabilization of the fatty acid molecule. Through a competitive binding assay we found that TsFABP1 is able to bind at least six different fatty acids with preference toward palmitic and stearic acid, suggesting that TsFABP1 is a member of the iLBP subfamily iv. Immunolocalization assays carried out on larval and adult tissues of four species of taeniids using anti-TsFABP1 hyperimmune sera produced in mice and rabbit, showed intense labeling in the tegument of the spiral canal and in subtegumental cytons of the larvae. These findings suggest that the spiral canal might be a major place for FA uptake in the developing scolex. In contrast, only subtegumental cytons in the adult worms stained positive. We propose that TsFABP1 is involved in the mechanism to mobilize fatty acids between compartments in the extensive syncytial tissue of taeniids. Protection assays carried out in a murine model of cysticercosis showed that subcutaneous immunization with TsFABP1 resulted in about 45% reduction of parasite load against an intraperitoneal challenge with Taenia crassiceps cysts. This reduction in parasite load correlated with the level of cellular and humoral immune responses against TsFABP1, as determined in spleen lymphocyte proliferation and ELISA testing.

  8. A Comparative Study of Peripheral Immune Responses to Taenia solium in Individuals with Parenchymal and Subarachnoid Neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Tuero, Iskra; Palma, Sandra; Cabeza, Franco; Saleemi, Sarah; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gonzales, Isidro; Mayta, Holger; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Garcia, Hector H.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Background The ability of Taenia solium to modulate the immune system likely contributes to their longevity in the human host. We tested the hypothesis that the nature of the immune response is related to the location of parasite and clinical manifestations of infection. Methodology Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were obtained from untreated patients with neurocysticercosis (NCC), categorized as having parenchymal or subarachnoid infection by the presence of cysts exclusively within the parenchyma or in subarachnoid spaces of the brain, and from uninfected (control) individuals matched by age and gender to each patient. Using multiplex detection technology, sera from NCC patients and controls and cytokine production by PBMC after T. solium antigen (TsAg) stimulation were assayed for levels of inflammatory and regulatory cytokines. PBMC were phenotyped by flow cytometry ex vivo and following in vitro stimulation with TsAg. Principal Findings Sera from patients with parenchymal NCC demonstrated significantly higher Th1 (IFN-γ/IL-12) and Th2 (IL-4/IL-13) cytokine responses and trends towards higher levels of IL-1β/IL-8/IL-5 than those obtained from patients with subarachnoid NCC. Also higher in vitro antigen-driven TNF-β secretion was detected in PBMC supernatants from parenchymal than in subarachnoid NCC. In contrast, there was a significantly higher IL-10 response to TsAg stimulation in patients with subarachnoid NCC compared to parenchymal NCC. Although no differences in regulatory T cells (Tregs) frequencies were found ex vivo, there was a trend towards greater expansion of Tregs upon TsAg stimulation in subarachnoid than in parenchymal NCC when data were normalized for the corresponding controls. Conclusions/Significance T. solium infection of the subarachnoid space is associated with an enhanced regulatory immune response compared to infection in the parenchyma. The resulting anti-inflammatory milieu may represent a parasite strategy to maintain a

  9. Antibody responses to the host-protective Taenia solium oncosphere protein TSOL18 in pigs are directed against conformational epitopes

    PubMed Central

    ASSANA, E; GAUCI, C G; KYNGDON, C T; ZOLI, A P; DORNY, P; GEERTS, S; LIGHTOWLERS, M W

    2010-01-01

    TSOL18 is a recombinant protein that has been shown in repeated experimental trials to be capable of protecting pigs against challenge infection with the cestode parasite Taenia solium. Antibodies raised by the vaccine are capable of killing the parasite in an in vitroculture and it is believed that antibody and complement-mediated killing of invading parasites is the major protective immune mechanism induced by vaccination with TSOL18. Investigations were undertaken to characterize whether the principal antibody specificities raised by TSOL18 in pigs were against linear or conformational determinants. TSOL18 was expressed in two truncated forms representing either the amino terminal portion or the carboxy terminal portion, with the two truncations overlapping in sequence by 25 amino acids. The original protein (designated TSOL18N−) and the two truncations (TSOL18N−-1 and TSOL18N−-2) were used in inhibition ELISA. TSOL18N− was shown to be capable of completely inhibiting the binding of pig anti-TSOL18N− antibodies to TSOL18N− in ELISA. However, neither TSOL18N−-1 nor TSOL18N−-2, either alone or when combined together, was capable of inhibiting any detectable amount of reactivity of pig anti-TSOL18N− antibodies with TSOL18N−. It is concluded that the dominant antibody specificities, and probably the host-protective specificities, of TSOL18 are conformational epitopes. PMID:20500670

  10. Triosephosphate isomerase of Taenia solium (TTPI): phage display and antibodies as tools for finding target regions to inhibit catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Sanabria-Ayala, Víctor; Belmont, Iaraset; Abraham, Landa

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that antibodies against triosephosphate isomerase of Taenia solium (TTPI) can alter its enzymatic catalysis. In the present study, we used antibodies produced against the NH2-terminal region of TTPI (1/3NH2TTPI) and the phage display technology to find target regions to inhibit TTPI activity. As a first step, we obtained polyclonal antibodies against non-conserved regions from the 1/3NH2TTPI, which had an inhibitory effect of about 74 % on catalytic activity. Afterward, they were used to screen a library of phage-displayed dodecapeptides; as a result, 41 phage mimotope clones were isolated and grouped according to their amino acid sequence, finding the consensus A1 (VPTXPI), A2 (VPTXXI), B (LTPGQ), and D (DPLPR). Antibodies against selected phage mimotope clones were obtained by rabbit's immunization; these ones clearly recognized TTPI by both Western blot and ELISA. However, only the mimotope PDTS16 (DSVTPTSVMAVA) clone, which belongs to the VPTXXI consensus, raised antibodies capable of inhibiting the TTPI catalytic activity in 45 %. Anti-PDTS16 antibodies were confronted to several synthetic peptides that encompass the 1/3NH2TTPI, and they only recognized three, which share the motif FDTLQK belonging to the helix-α1 in TTPI. This suggests that this motif is the main part of the epitope recognized by anti-PDTS16 antibodies and revealed its importance for TTPI catalysis.

  11. Evaluation of the non-catalytic binding function of Ts26GST a glutathione transferase isoform of Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Plancarte, A; Romero, J R; Nava, G; Reyes, H; Hernández, M

    2014-03-01

    Taenia solium glutathione transferase isoform of 26.5 kDa (Ts26GST) was observed to bind non-catalytically to porphyrins, trans-trans-dienals, bile acids and fatty acids, as assessed by inhibition kinetics, fluorescence spectroscopy and competitive fluorescence assays with 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS). The quenching of Ts26GST intrinsic fluorescence allowed for the determination of the dissociation constants (KD) for all ligands. Obtained data indicate that Ts26GST binds to all ligands but with different affinity. Porphyrins and lipid peroxide products inhibited Ts26GST catalytic activity up to 100% in contrast with only 20-30% inhibition observed for bile acids and two saturated fatty acids. Non-competitive type inhibition was observed for all enzyme inhibitor ligands except for trans-trans-2,4-decadienal, which exhibited uncompetitive type inhibition. The dissociation constant value KD = 0.7 μM for the hematin ligand, determined by competitive fluorescence assays with ANS, was in good agreement with its inhibition kinetic value Ki = 0.3 μM and its intrinsic fluorescence quenching KD = 0.7 μM. The remaining ligands did not displace ANS from the enzyme suggesting the existence of different binding sites. In addition to the catalytic activity of Ts26GST the results obtained suggest that the enzyme exhibits a ligandin function with broad specificity towards nonsubstrate ligands.

  12. Improved diagnosis as an aid to better surveillance of Taenia solium cysticercosis, a potential public health threat to Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    McManus, D P

    1995-12-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis has been recognized as a public health problem in Indonesian Irian Jaya since its unfortunate introduction in a number of infected pigs imported from Bali. From its original point of introduction in 1971, the infection has spread from the Wissel Lakes area to other places within Irian Jaya. The present situation at the border between Irian Jaya and Papua New Guinea (PNG) is difficult to assess accurately but, in light of the flow of refugees and the traditional rights of movement of people with their pigs in the border area, PNG populations are now at risk. Government health officers and veterinarians in PNG are well aware of this threat and have been watching closely for transmission of Taenia solium into PNG. A rigorous survey of Irianese refugees at the border and surrounding areas in PNG using recently developed immunodiagnostic procedures such as the EITB (enzyme immunoelectrotransfer blot) for detecting human and pig cysticercosis and the dipstick ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) for identifying T. solium carriers, coupled with careful assessment of medical history and clinical and stool examination, is, however, required. Such a study would allow evaluation of the prevalence of cysticercosis and taeniasis in Irian Jayan refugees residing in camps in PNG. The study would also determine the extent to which the parasite has spread easterly and, importantly, whether cysticercosis/taeniasis has crossed the border and is endemic in PNG, thereby constituting a potentially serious public health problem. PMID:9522870

  13. Genetic variation in the Cytb gene of human cerebral Taenia solium cysticerci recovered from clinically and radiologically heterogeneous patients with neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Palafox-Fonseca, Héctor; Zúñiga, Gerardo; Bobes, Raúl José; Govezensky, Tzipe; Piñero, Daniel; Texco-Martínez, Laura; Fleury, Agnès; Proaño, Jefferson; Cárdenas, Graciela; Hernández, Marisela; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis

    2013-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NC) is a clinically and radiologically heterogeneous parasitic disease caused by the establishment of larval Taenia solium in the human central nervous system. Host and/or parasite variations may be related to this observed heterogeneity. Genetic differences between pig and human-derived T. solium cysticerci have been reported previously. In this study, 28 cysticerci were surgically removed from 12 human NC patients, the mitochondrial gene that encodes cytochrome b was amplified from the cysticerci and genetic variations that may be related to NC heterogeneity were characterised. Nine different haplotypes (Ht), which were clustered in four haplogroups (Hg), were identified. Hg 3 and 4 exhibited a tendency to associate with age and gender, respectively. However, no significant associations were found between NC heterogeneity and the different T. solium cysticerci Ht or Hg. Parasite variants obtained from patients with similar NC clinical or radiological features were genetically closer than those found in groups of patients with a different NC profile when using the Mantel test. Overall, this study establishes the presence of genetic differences in the Cytb gene of T. solium isolated from human cysticerci and suggests that parasite variation could contribute to NC heterogeneity. PMID:24271046

  14. Genetic variation in the Cytb gene of human cerebral Taenia solium cysticerci recovered from clinically and radiologically heterogeneous patients with neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Palafox-Fonseca, Héctor; Zúñiga, Gerardo; Bobes, Raúl José; Govezensky, Tzipe; Piñero, Daniel; Texco-Martínez, Laura; Fleury, Agnès; Proaño, Jefferson; Cárdenas, Graciela; Hernández, Marisela; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis

    2013-11-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NC) is a clinically and radiologically heterogeneous parasitic disease caused by the establishment of larval Taenia solium in the human central nervous system. Host and/or parasite variations may be related to this observed heterogeneity. Genetic differences between pig and human-derived T. solium cysticerci have been reported previously. In this study, 28 cysticerci were surgically removed from 12 human NC patients, the mitochondrial gene that encodes cytochrome b was amplified from the cysticerci and genetic variations that may be related to NC heterogeneity were characterised. Nine different haplotypes (Ht), which were clustered in four haplogroups (Hg), were identified. Hg 3 and 4 exhibited a tendency to associate with age and gender, respectively. However, no significant associations were found between NC heterogeneity and the different T. solium cysticerci Ht or Hg. Parasite variants obtained from patients with similar NC clinical or radiological features were genetically closer than those found in groups of patients with a different NC profile when using the Mantel test. Overall, this study establishes the presence of genetic differences in the Cytb gene of T. solium isolated from human cysticerci and suggests that parasite variation could contribute to NC heterogeneity.

  15. [Cathepsin L cysteine protease from Taenia solium: its biological role in the infection and potential use for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis].

    PubMed

    León, Nancy; Padilla, Carlos; Pajuelo, Mónica; Sheen, Patricia; Zimic, Mirko

    2013-07-01

    Taenia solium is a plane helminth responsible for taeniasis and human cysticercosis, the latter being the result of the consumption of infective eggs. Cysticerci can develop in different human tissues, often in the central nervous system, causing neurocysticercosis (NCC). For the diagnosis of NCC, an adequate interpretation of clinical data, neuroimaging results and serological tests are required. However, serological tests could be improved by developing candidate antigens able to increase their sensibility and specificity. In the last years, a series of surface and secretory proteins of T. solium essential for the parasite-host interaction have been described. One of these families is cathepsin L cysteine proteases, which have a predominant role in the development and survival of the parasite. They take part in the tissue invasion, immune response evasion, excystation and encystment of cysticercus. They are considered potential antigens for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis.

  16. TsAg5, a Taenia solium cysticercus protein with a marginal trypsin-like activity in the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Rueda, Analiz; Sifuentes, Cecilia; Gilman, Robert H; Gutiérrez, Andrés H; Piña, Ruby; Chile, Nancy; Carrasco, Sebastián; Larson, Sandra; Mayta, Holger; Verástegui, Manuela; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gutiérrez-Correa, Marcel; García, Héctor H; Sheen, Patricia; Zimic, Mirko

    2011-12-01

    Neurocysticercosis is an endemic parasitic disease caused by Taenia solium larva. Although the mechanism of infection is not completely understood, it is likely driven by proteolytic activity that degrades the intestinal wall to facilitate oncosphere penetration and further infection. We analyzed the publicly available T. solium EST/DNA library and identified two contigs comprising a full-length cDNA fragment very similar to Echinococcus granulosus Ag5 protein. The T. solium cDNA sequence included a proteolytic trypsin-like-domain in the C-terminal region, and a thrombospondin type-1 adherence-domain in the N-terminal region. Both the trypsin-like and adherence domains were expressed independently as recombinant proteins in bacterial systems. TsAg5 showed marginal trypsin-like activity and high sequence similarity to Ag5. The purified antigens were tested in a Western immunoblot assay to diagnose human neurocysticercosis. The sensitivity of the trypsin-like-domain was 96.36% in patients infected with extraparenchymal cysts, 75.44% in patients infected with multiple cysts, and 39.62% in patients with a single cyst. Specificity was 76.70%. The thrombospondin type-1 adherence-domain was not specific for neurocysticercosis.

  17. The highly antigenic 53/25 kDa Taenia solium protein fraction with cathepsin-L like activity is present in the oncosphere/cysticercus and induces non-protective IgG antibodies in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Zimic, Mirko; Pajuelo, Mónica; Gilman, Robert H.; Gutiérrez, Andrés H.; Rueda, Luis D.; Flores, Myra; Chile, Nancy; Verástegui, Manuela; Gonzalez, Armando; García, Héctor H.; Sheen, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Cathepsin L-like proteases are secreted by several parasites including Taenia solium. The mechanism used by T. solium oncospheres to degrade and penetrate the intestine and infect the host is incompletely understood. It is assumed that intestinal degradation is driven by the proteolytic activity of enzymes secreted by the oncosphere. Blocking the proteolytic activity by an antibody response would prevent the oncosphere penetration and further infection. Serine and cysteine proteases including chymotrypsin, trypsin, elastase, and cathepsin L, are secreted by T. solium and Taenia saginata oncospheres when cultured in vitro, being potential vaccine candidates. However, the purification of a sufficient quantity of proteases secreted by oncospheres to conduct a vaccine trial is costly and lengthy. A 53/25 kDa cathepsin L-like fraction partially purified from T. solium cyst fluid was described previously as an important antigen for immunodiagnostics. In this study we found that this antigen is present in the T. solium oncosphere and is also secreted by the cysticercus. This protein fraction was tested for its ability to protect pigs against an oral challenge with T. solium oncospheres in a vaccine trial. IgG antibodies against the 53/25 kDa cathepsin L-like protein fraction were elicited in the vaccinated animals but did not confer protection. PMID:22119017

  18. The highly antigenic 53/25 kDa Taenia solium protein fraction with cathepsin-L like activity is present in the oncosphere/cysticercus and induces non-protective IgG antibodies in pigs.

    PubMed

    Zimic, Mirko; Pajuelo, Mónica; Gilman, Robert H; Gutiérrez, Andrés H; Rueda, Luis D; Flores, Myra; Chile, Nancy; Verástegui, Manuela; Gonzalez, Armando; García, Héctor H; Sheen, Patricia

    2012-01-15

    Cathepsin L-like proteases are secreted by several parasites including Taenia solium. The mechanism used by T. solium oncospheres to degrade and penetrate the intestine and infect the host is incompletely understood. It is assumed that intestinal degradation is driven by the proteolytic activity of enzymes secreted by the oncosphere. Blocking the proteolytic activity by an antibody response would prevent the oncosphere penetration and further infection. Serine and cysteine proteases including chymotrypsin, trypsin, elastase, and cathepsin L, are secreted by T. solium and Taenia saginata oncospheres when cultured in vitro, being potential vaccine candidates. However, the purification of a sufficient quantity of proteases secreted by oncospheres to conduct a vaccine trial is costly and lengthy. A 53/25 kDa cathepsin L-like fraction partially purified from T. solium cyst fluid was described previously as an important antigen for immunodiagnostics. In this study we found that this antigen is present in the T. solium oncosphere and is also secreted by the cysticercus. This protein fraction was tested for its ability to protect pigs against an oral challenge with T. solium oncospheres in a vaccine trial. IgG antibodies against the 53/25 kDa cathepsin L-like protein fraction were elicited in the vaccinated animals but did not confer protection.

  19. Taenia: An Uninvited Guest

    PubMed Central

    Shafaghi, Afshin; Rezayat, Kambiz Akhavan; Mansour-Ghanaei, Fariborz; Maafi, Alireza Amir

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 55 Final Diagnosis: Taeniasis Symptoms: Abdominal pain • dyspepsia Medication: Omeprazole • Dicyclomine • Herb Clinical Procedure: Endoscopy Specialty: Gastroenterology Objective: Rare presentation Background: Taenia saginata and Taenia solium species are worldwide in distribution, causing bovine and porcine cysticercosis, and taeniasis in humans having the greatest economic and medical importance. Case Report: A 55-year-old woman living in a village around Rasht (northern Iran) was referred to our hospital with a history of chronic abdominal pain and recent dyspepsia and epigastric fullness. According to her clinical history, she was a candidate for an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. A large tape worm was seen in the stomach. Our efforts at extracting it from the stomach were unsuccessful. The endoscope was withdrawn and therapy with niclosamide was initiated. At the next visit, her symptoms were alleviated and she was relieved from the chronic pain. Conclusions: We believe that the retrograde migration of the tapeworm into the stomach may be due to low gastric acidity as a result of atrophic gastritis and chronic proton pump inhibitor use. PMID:26226138

  20. Taenia solium porcine cysticercosis in Madagascar: Comparison of immuno-diagnostic techniques and estimation of the prevalence in pork carcasses traded in Antananarivo city.

    PubMed

    Porphyre, V; Betson, M; Rabezanahary, H; Mboussou, Y; Zafindraibe, N J; Rasamoelina-Andriamanivo, H; Costard, S; Pfeiffer, D U; Michault, A

    2016-03-30

    Taenia solium cysticercosis was reported in official veterinary and medical statistics to be highly prevalent in pigs and humans in Madagascar, but few estimates are available for pigs. This study aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of porcine cysticercosis among pigs slaughtered in Antananarivo abattoirs. Firstly, the diagnostic performance of two antigen-ELISA techniques (B158B60 Ag-ELISA and HP10 Ag-ELISA) and an immunoblotting method were compared with meat inspection procedures on a sample of pigs suspected to be infected with (group 1; n=250) or free of (group 2; n=250) T. solium based on direct veterinary inspection in Madagascar. Sensitivity and specificity of the antigen ELISAs were then estimated using a Bayesian approach for detection of porcine cysticercosis in the absence of a gold standard. Then, a third set of pig sera (group 3, n=250) was randomly collected in Antananarivo slaughterhouses and tested to estimate the overall prevalence of T. solium contamination in pork meat traded in Antananarivo. The antigen ELISAs showed a high sensitivity (>84%), but the B158B60 Ag-ELISA appeared to be more specific than the HP10 Ag-ELISA (model 1: 95% vs 74%; model 2: 87% vs 71%). The overall prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in Antananarivo slaughterhouses was estimated at 2.3% (95% credibility interval [95%CrI]: 0.09-9.1%) to 2.6% (95%CrI: 0.1-10.3%) depending on the model and priors used. Since the sample used in this study is not representative of the national pig population, village-based surveys and longitudinal monitoring at slaughter are needed to better estimate the overall prevalence, geographical patterns and main risk factors for T. solium contamination, in order to improve control policies.

  1. Taenia solium porcine cysticercosis: viability of cysticerci and persistency of antibodies and cysticercal antigens after treatment with oxfendazole.

    PubMed

    Sikasunge, C S; Johansen, M V; Willingham, A L; Leifsson, P S; Phiri, I K

    2008-11-25

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of treating Taenia solium infected pigs with oxfendazole (OFZ) on viability and clearance of cysticerci and the corresponding persistence of specific antibody isotypes (IgG(total), IgG1, IgG2 and IgA) and circulating cysticercal antigen (CCA). Antibody isotypes and CCA responses were measured by antibody-ELISA (Ab-ELISA) and antigen ELISA (Ag-ELISA), respectively. Correlations were made between antibodies, CCA and the total number of cysticerci enumerated at necropsy. Forty pigs with cysticercosis were randomly allocated into two groups: Treatment group (n=20) was treated with OFZ at 30 mg/kg orally while the treatment control group (n=20) was not treated. Five uninfected pigs served as negative controls. Pigs were killed at 1, 4, 8 and 26 weeks post-treatment (wkpt). Overall, the mean total cyst count in treated pigs was 2904+/-5397 (mean+/-S.D.) while in the controls it was 6235+/-6705. Mean cyst viability was 5+/-11% (mean+/-S.D.) and 97+/-4% in treated and control pigs, respectively. Results showed that OFZ killed muscular cysticerci over a period of 4 weeks but failed to kill cerebral cysticerci. Antibodies, CCA responses and clearance of dead cysts from the meat, depended on the cyst intensity of individual pigs at time of treatment since both antibody and CCA correlated with intensity of cysticerci at necropsy (r=0.441, P=0.005; r=0.654, P<0.001), respectively. IgG1 responses were the best indicator of treatment efficacy because they were predominant in both infected treated and control pigs and disappeared early after treatment. Both Ab/Ag-ELISA failed to detect cysts in the brain. Though dead cysticerci took some time (26 wkpt) to clear from the meat, treatment of porcine cysticercosis with OFZ should, in combination with other intervention measures be considered as an important, cost-effective measure in the control of taeniosis/cysticercosis.

  2. Assessing the impact of a joint human-porcine intervention package for Taenia solium control: Results of a pilot study from northern Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Okello, Anna L; Thomas, Lian; Inthavong, Phouth; Ash, Amanda; Khamlome, Boualam; Keokamphet, Chattouphone; Newberry, Kim; Gauci, Charles G; Gabriël, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Thompson, Rc Andrew; Lightowlers, Marshall W; Allen, John

    2016-07-01

    Following confirmation that a remote village of approximately 300 inhabitants in northern Lao PDR was hyperendemic for the Neglected Tropical Disease Taenia solium, a pilot human-porcine therapeutic control intervention was implemented between October 2013 and November 2014. Mass drug administration with a three day albendazole 400mg protocol was offered to all eligible humans in October 2013 and March 2014. At these times, and again in October 2014, eligible village pigs received the anti-cysticercosis TSOL18 vaccination and an oral dose of oxfendazole anthelmintic at 30mg/kg, both repeated one month later. Community and individual human taeniasis prevalences were estimated via copro-antigen ELISA of volunteered human faecal samples prior to October 2013, and again in January 2015, in order to examine the short term impact of the intervention.

  3. Assessing the impact of a joint human-porcine intervention package for Taenia solium control: Results of a pilot study from northern Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Okello, Anna L; Thomas, Lian; Inthavong, Phouth; Ash, Amanda; Khamlome, Boualam; Keokamphet, Chattouphone; Newberry, Kim; Gauci, Charles G; Gabriël, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Thompson, Rc Andrew; Lightowlers, Marshall W; Allen, John

    2016-07-01

    Following confirmation that a remote village of approximately 300 inhabitants in northern Lao PDR was hyperendemic for the Neglected Tropical Disease Taenia solium, a pilot human-porcine therapeutic control intervention was implemented between October 2013 and November 2014. Mass drug administration with a three day albendazole 400mg protocol was offered to all eligible humans in October 2013 and March 2014. At these times, and again in October 2014, eligible village pigs received the anti-cysticercosis TSOL18 vaccination and an oral dose of oxfendazole anthelmintic at 30mg/kg, both repeated one month later. Community and individual human taeniasis prevalences were estimated via copro-antigen ELISA of volunteered human faecal samples prior to October 2013, and again in January 2015, in order to examine the short term impact of the intervention. PMID:26992295

  4. Expression of adhesion molecules, chemokines and matrix metallo- proteinases (MMPs) in viable and degenerating stage of Taenia solium metacestode in swine neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Satyendra K; Singh, Aloukick K; Prasad, Kashi N; Singh, Amrita; Singh, Avinash; Rai, Ravi P; Tripathi, Mukesh; Gupta, Rakesh K; Husain, Nuzhat

    2015-11-30

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a parasitic infection of central nervous system (CNS). Expression of adhesion molecules, chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were investigated on brain tissues surrounding viable (n=15) and degenerating cysticerci (n=15) of Taenia solium in swine by real-time RT-PCR and ELISA. Gelatin gel zymography was performed for MMPs activity. ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1), E-selectin, MIP-1α (macrophage inflammatory protein-1α), Eotaxin-1 and RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) were associated with degenerating cysticerci (cysts). However, VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1), MCP-1 (monocyte chemotactic protein-1), MMP-2 and MMP-9 were associated with both viable and degenerating cysts. In conclusion, viable and degenerating cysticerci have different immune molecule profiles and role of these molecules in disease pathogenesis needs to be investigated. PMID:26412140

  5. Expression of adhesion molecules, chemokines and matrix metallo- proteinases (MMPs) in viable and degenerating stage of Taenia solium metacestode in swine neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Satyendra K; Singh, Aloukick K; Prasad, Kashi N; Singh, Amrita; Singh, Avinash; Rai, Ravi P; Tripathi, Mukesh; Gupta, Rakesh K; Husain, Nuzhat

    2015-11-30

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a parasitic infection of central nervous system (CNS). Expression of adhesion molecules, chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were investigated on brain tissues surrounding viable (n=15) and degenerating cysticerci (n=15) of Taenia solium in swine by real-time RT-PCR and ELISA. Gelatin gel zymography was performed for MMPs activity. ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1), E-selectin, MIP-1α (macrophage inflammatory protein-1α), Eotaxin-1 and RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) were associated with degenerating cysticerci (cysts). However, VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1), MCP-1 (monocyte chemotactic protein-1), MMP-2 and MMP-9 were associated with both viable and degenerating cysts. In conclusion, viable and degenerating cysticerci have different immune molecule profiles and role of these molecules in disease pathogenesis needs to be investigated.

  6. Protective immunity against Taenia crassiceps murine cysticercosis induced by DNA vaccination with a Taenia saginata tegument antigen.

    PubMed

    Rosas, Gabriela; Fragoso, Gladis; Garate, Teresa; Hernández, Beatriz; Ferrero, Patricia; Foster-Cuevas, Mildred; Parkhouse, R Michael E; Harrison, Leslie J S; Briones, Sergio López; González, Luis Miguel; Sciutto, Edda

    2002-11-01

    This study investigated the protective capacity of the recombinant Taenia saginata Tso18 antigen administered as a DNA vaccine in the Taenia crassiceps murine model of cysticercosis. This Tso18 DNA sequence, isolated from a T. saginata oncosphere cDNA library, has homologies with Taenia solium and Echinococcus sp. It was cloned in the pcDNA3.1 plasmid and injected once intramuscularly into mice. Compared to saline-vaccinated control mice, immunization reduced the parasite burden by 57.3-81.4%, while lower levels of non-specific protection were induced in control mice injected with the plasmid pcDNA3.1 (18.8-33.1%) or a plasmid with irrelevant construct, pcDNA3.1/3D15 (33.4-38.8%). Importantly, significant levels of protection were observed between the pcDNA3.1/Tso18 plasmid and pcDNA3.1/3D15 plasmid immunized mice. Mice immunized with pTso18 synthesized low levels of, primarily IgG1 sub-class, antibodies. These antibodies were shown to recognize a 66 kDa antigen fraction of T. crassiceps and T. solium. Splenocytes enriched in both CD4+CD8- and CD4-CD8+ T cells from these vaccinated mice proliferated in vitro when exposed to antigens from both T. solium and T. crassiceps cestodes. Immunolocalization studies revealed the Tso18 antigen in oncospheres of T. saginata and T. solium, in the adult tapeworm and in the tegument of T. solium cysticerci. The protective capacity of this antigen and its extensive distribution in different stages, species and genera of cestodes points to the potential of Tso18 antigen for the possible design of a vaccine against cestodes.

  7. Comparative Study of Paired Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid Samples from Neurocysticercosis Patients for the Detection of Specific Antibody to Taenia solium Immunodiagnostic Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Sako, Yasuhito; Takayanagui, Osvaldo M; Odashima, Newton S; Ito, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an important disease of the central nervous system caused by infection with Taenia solium metacestodes. In addition to the clinical findings and the imaging analysis, the results of immunological tests are informative for the diagnosis of NCC. To compare the usefulness of serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples for antibody detection, paired serum and CSF samples from patients with NCC and other neurological diseases were examined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with low-molecular-weight antigens purified from T. solium cyst fluid in a blinded fashion. The sensitivity of both serum and CSF samples was 25.0% in inactive NCC cases (n = 4) and 90.9% in active NCC cases (n = 33), and the specificity of serum and CSF was 100% and 95.8%, respectively. When the serum and CSF samples were combined, the sensitivity in active NCC cases became 100%. There was no difference in test performance between serum and CSF samples. Based on these results, we recommend the detection of specific antibodies in serum for the diagnosis of active NCC because of the ease of collection. When the antibody test is negative, however, CSF should be used to confirm NCC and to rule out other medical disorders of the central nervous system. Antibody detection test using only serum or CSF has a limited diagnostic value and cannot be recommended for the diagnosis of suspected inactive NCC cases. PMID:26543392

  8. The seroprevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis among epileptic patients in León, Nicaragua, as evaluated by ELISA and western blotting.

    PubMed

    Bucardo, F; Meza-Lucas, A; Espinoza, F; García-Jerónimo, R C; García-Rodea, R; Correa, D

    2005-01-01

    The Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis complex is an important public-health problem in several countries, where many epileptic seizures appear to be associated with neurocysticercosis. As few data on this problem in Nicaragua exist, the seroprevalence of antibodies reacting with antigens from T. solium cysticerci was investigated among 88 Nicaraguan epileptics (45 males and 43 females, aged 6-53 years). In questionnaire-based interviews, each adult subject and a caregiver of each child investigated were asked about potential risk factors for taeniasis/cysticercosis. When a serum sample from each subject was then checked for anti-cysticercus antibodies, 8.0% of the subjects were found seropositive by ELISA and 14.8% by western blotting. Five samples (all from individuals who had been epileptic for > 5 years) were positive in both tests. When the level of association between each potential risk factor and seropositivity (in ELISA or by blotting) was evaluated, the only statistically significant association detected was that between a positive ELISA and the subject living in a household where pigs were raised (odds ratio = 5.18; 95% confidence interval = 0.8-41.6; P = 0.05). The bands most frequently recognized in the western blots (of 50, 42-39, 24 and 14 kDa) were those previously reported. The results indicate that, in the city of Léon, cysticercosis may be endemic and the cause of a significant proportion of the epilepsy recorded.

  9. Comparative Study of Paired Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid Samples from Neurocysticercosis Patients for the Detection of Specific Antibody to Taenia solium Immunodiagnostic Antigen.

    PubMed

    Sako, Yasuhito; Takayanagui, Osvaldo M; Odashima, Newton S; Ito, Akira

    2015-09-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an important disease of the central nervous system caused by infection with Taenia solium metacestodes. In addition to the clinical findings and the imaging analysis, the results of immunological tests are informative for the diagnosis of NCC. To compare the usefulness of serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples for antibody detection, paired serum and CSF samples from patients with NCC and other neurological diseases were examined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with low-molecular-weight antigens purified from T. solium cyst fluid in a blinded fashion. The sensitivity of both serum and CSF samples was 25.0% in inactive NCC cases (n = 4) and 90.9% in active NCC cases (n = 33), and the specificity of serum and CSF was 100% and 95.8%, respectively. When the serum and CSF samples were combined, the sensitivity in active NCC cases became 100%. There was no difference in test performance between serum and CSF samples. Based on these results, we recommend the detection of specific antibodies in serum for the diagnosis of active NCC because of the ease of collection. When the antibody test is negative, however, CSF should be used to confirm NCC and to rule out other medical disorders of the central nervous system. Antibody detection test using only serum or CSF has a limited diagnostic value and cannot be recommended for the diagnosis of suspected inactive NCC cases. PMID:26543392

  10. Utility of a Protein Fraction with Cathepsin L-Like Activity Purified from Cysticercus Fluid of Taenia solium in the Diagnosis of Human Cysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Zimic, Mirko; Pajuelo, Mónica; Rueda, Daniel; López, César; Arana, Yanina; Castillo, Yesenia; Calderón, Maritza; Rodriguez, Silvia; Sheen, Patricia; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Gonzales, Armando; García, Héctor H.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2009-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis, an endemic parasitic disease in most developing countries, is caused by Taenia solium and compromises the human central nervous system. Cathepsin L-like proteases are secreted by several parasites including T. solium and constitute important antigens for immunodiagnostics. A protein fraction with cathepsin L-like activity was purified from the cysticercus fluid by size exclusion and ion exchange chromatography. Cathepsin L-like activity was measured fluorometrically by detecting the hydrolysis of the fluorogenic substrate Z-Phe-Arg-AMC. The purified protein fraction included antigens of 53 and 25 kD that were tested in a Western immunoblot and in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of human cysticercosis. The sensitivity of the Western immunoblot was 96% for patients infected with multiple cysts and 78% for patients with a single cyst. Specificity was 98%. The sensitivity of the ELISA was 98% in patients with multiple cysts and 84% in patients with a single cyst. Specificity was 92.7%. PMID:19478259

  11. Comparative Study of Paired Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid Samples from Neurocysticercosis Patients for the Detection of Specific Antibody to Taenia solium Immunodiagnostic Antigen.

    PubMed

    Sako, Yasuhito; Takayanagui, Osvaldo M; Odashima, Newton S; Ito, Akira

    2015-09-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an important disease of the central nervous system caused by infection with Taenia solium metacestodes. In addition to the clinical findings and the imaging analysis, the results of immunological tests are informative for the diagnosis of NCC. To compare the usefulness of serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples for antibody detection, paired serum and CSF samples from patients with NCC and other neurological diseases were examined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with low-molecular-weight antigens purified from T. solium cyst fluid in a blinded fashion. The sensitivity of both serum and CSF samples was 25.0% in inactive NCC cases (n = 4) and 90.9% in active NCC cases (n = 33), and the specificity of serum and CSF was 100% and 95.8%, respectively. When the serum and CSF samples were combined, the sensitivity in active NCC cases became 100%. There was no difference in test performance between serum and CSF samples. Based on these results, we recommend the detection of specific antibodies in serum for the diagnosis of active NCC because of the ease of collection. When the antibody test is negative, however, CSF should be used to confirm NCC and to rule out other medical disorders of the central nervous system. Antibody detection test using only serum or CSF has a limited diagnostic value and cannot be recommended for the diagnosis of suspected inactive NCC cases.

  12. A School Based Cluster Randomised Health Education Intervention Trial for Improving Knowledge and Attitudes Related to Taenia solium Cysticercosis and Taeniasis in Mbulu District, Northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mwidunda, Sylvester A.; Carabin, Hélène; Matuja, William B. M.; Winkler, Andrea S.; Ngowi, Helena A.

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium causes significant economic and public health impacts in endemic countries. This study determined effectiveness of a health education intervention at improving school children’s knowledge and attitudes related to T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Tanzania. A cluster randomised controlled health education intervention trial was conducted in 60 schools (30 primary, 30 secondary) in Mbulu district. Baseline data were collected using a structured questionnaire in the 60 schools and group discussions in three other schools. The 60 schools stratified by baseline knowledge were randomised to receive the intervention or serve as control. The health education consisted of an address by a trained teacher, a video show and a leaflet given to each pupil. Two post-intervention re-assessments (immediately and 6 months post-intervention) were conducted in all schools and the third (12 months post-intervention) was conducted in 28 secondary schools. Data were analysed using Bayesian hierarchical log-binomial models for individual knowledge and attitude questions and Bayesian hierarchical linear regression models for scores. The overall score (percentage of correct answers) improved by about 10% in all schools after 6 months, but was slightly lower among secondary schools. Monitoring alone was associated with improvement in scores by about 6%. The intervention was linked to improvements in knowledge regarding taeniasis, porcine cysticercosis, human cysticercosis, epilepsy, the attitude of condemning infected meat but it reduced the attitude of contacting a veterinarian if a pig was found to be infected with cysticercosis. Monitoring alone was linked to an improvement in how best to raise pigs. This study demonstrates the potential value of school children as targets for health messages to control T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in endemic areas. Studies are needed to assess effectiveness of message transmission from children to parents and the general

  13. Taenia solium: the complex interactions, of biological, social, geographical and commercial factors, involved in the transmission dynamics of pig cysticercosis in highly endemic areas.

    PubMed

    Morales, J; Martínez, J J; Garcia-Castella, J; Peña, N; Maza, V; Villalobos, N; Aluja, A S; Fleury, A; Fragoso, G; Larralde, C; Sciutto, E

    2006-03-01

    If a programme for the control of pig cysticercosis is to be effective it has to be based on good data on the local epidemiology of Taenia solium. In 2002-2003, in a cross-sectional study of pig cysticercosis in the Mexican state of Morelos, 1747 pigs that had been born and reared in rural areas of the state were checked for T. solium infection by tongue inspection. The prevalence of cysticercosis in the pigs was found to vary from 0% to 30% according to the municipality from which the pigs came. Although prevalence appeared to be unaffected by the socio-economic status of the municipality, it was relatively high in areas that lacked latrines, and in pigs that were castrated, pregnant and/or of the native (rather than an imported) breed. The results of questionnaire-based interviews with pig owners revealed that most (64.5%) of the rural pigs, whether infected or not, are slaughtered and consumed within the locality where they were reared. The other pigs are sold at low prices to organised traffickers who take the uninspected pigs to neighbouring urban areas for sale. The observed complexity in the factors affecting the transmission of T. solium to the pigs of Morelos state calls for an intervention strategy of matching complexity, initially targeted at those villages with the highest prevalences of pig cysticercosis. The road transport of pigs needs to be better regulated, and the vaccination and genetic improvement of the rural pigs, and delaying the castration of the boars, should all be considered.

  14. A school based cluster randomised health education intervention trial for improving knowledge and attitudes related to Taenia solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Mbulu district, northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mwidunda, Sylvester A; Carabin, Hélène; Matuja, William B M; Winkler, Andrea S; Ngowi, Helena A

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium causes significant economic and public health impacts in endemic countries. This study determined effectiveness of a health education intervention at improving school children's knowledge and attitudes related to T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Tanzania. A cluster randomised controlled health education intervention trial was conducted in 60 schools (30 primary, 30 secondary) in Mbulu district. Baseline data were collected using a structured questionnaire in the 60 schools and group discussions in three other schools. The 60 schools stratified by baseline knowledge were randomised to receive the intervention or serve as control. The health education consisted of an address by a trained teacher, a video show and a leaflet given to each pupil. Two post-intervention re-assessments (immediately and 6 months post-intervention) were conducted in all schools and the third (12 months post-intervention) was conducted in 28 secondary schools. Data were analysed using Bayesian hierarchical log-binomial models for individual knowledge and attitude questions and Bayesian hierarchical linear regression models for scores. The overall score (percentage of correct answers) improved by about 10% in all schools after 6 months, but was slightly lower among secondary schools. Monitoring alone was associated with improvement in scores by about 6%. The intervention was linked to improvements in knowledge regarding taeniasis, porcine cysticercosis, human cysticercosis, epilepsy, the attitude of condemning infected meat but it reduced the attitude of contacting a veterinarian if a pig was found to be infected with cysticercosis. Monitoring alone was linked to an improvement in how best to raise pigs. This study demonstrates the potential value of school children as targets for health messages to control T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in endemic areas. Studies are needed to assess effectiveness of message transmission from children to parents and the general

  15. Genome analysis of Excretory/Secretory proteins in Taenia solium reveals their Abundance of Antigenic Regions (AAR)

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Sandra; Adalid-Peralta, Laura; Palafox-Fonseca, Hector; Cantu-Robles, Vito Adrian; Soberón, Xavier; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis; Bobes, Raúl J.; Laclette, Juan P.; Yauner, Luis del Pozo; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    Excretory/Secretory (ES) proteins play an important role in the host-parasite interactions. Experimental identification of ES proteins is time-consuming and expensive. Alternative bioinformatics approaches are cost-effective and can be used to prioritize the experimental analysis of therapeutic targets for parasitic diseases. Here we predicted and functionally annotated the ES proteins in T. solium genome using an integration of bioinformatics tools. Additionally, we developed a novel measurement to evaluate the potential antigenicity of T. solium secretome using sequence length and number of antigenic regions of ES proteins. This measurement was formalized as the Abundance of Antigenic Regions (AAR) value. AAR value for secretome showed a similar value to that obtained for a set of experimentally determined antigenic proteins and was different to the calculated value for the non-ES proteins of T. solium genome. Furthermore, we calculated the AAR values for known helminth secretomes and they were similar to that obtained for T. solium. The results reveal the utility of AAR value as a novel genomic measurement to evaluate the potential antigenicity of secretomes. This comprehensive analysis of T. solium secretome provides functional information for future experimental studies, including the identification of novel ES proteins of therapeutic, diagnosis and immunological interest. PMID:25989346

  16. Genome analysis of Excretory/Secretory proteins in Taenia solium reveals their Abundance of Antigenic Regions (AAR).

    PubMed

    Gomez, Sandra; Adalid-Peralta, Laura; Palafox-Fonseca, Hector; Cantu-Robles, Vito Adrian; Soberón, Xavier; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis; Bobes, Raúl J; Laclette, Juan P; Yauner, Luis del Pozo; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrián

    2015-05-19

    Excretory/Secretory (ES) proteins play an important role in the host-parasite interactions. Experimental identification of ES proteins is time-consuming and expensive. Alternative bioinformatics approaches are cost-effective and can be used to prioritize the experimental analysis of therapeutic targets for parasitic diseases. Here we predicted and functionally annotated the ES proteins in T. solium genome using an integration of bioinformatics tools. Additionally, we developed a novel measurement to evaluate the potential antigenicity of T. solium secretome using sequence length and number of antigenic regions of ES proteins. This measurement was formalized as the Abundance of Antigenic Regions (AAR) value. AAR value for secretome showed a similar value to that obtained for a set of experimentally determined antigenic proteins and was different to the calculated value for the non-ES proteins of T. solium genome. Furthermore, we calculated the AAR values for known helminth secretomes and they were similar to that obtained for T. solium. The results reveal the utility of AAR value as a novel genomic measurement to evaluate the potential antigenicity of secretomes. This comprehensive analysis of T. solium secretome provides functional information for future experimental studies, including the identification of novel ES proteins of therapeutic, diagnosis and immunological interest.

  17. Why latrines are not used: communities' perceptions and practices regarding latrines in a Taenia solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia.

    PubMed

    Thys, Séverine; Mwape, Kabemba E; Lefèvre, Pierre; Dorny, Pierre; Marcotty, Tanguy; Phiri, Andrew M; Phiri, Isaak K; Gabriël, Sarah

    2015-03-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis occurring in many developing countries. Socio-cultural determinants related to its control remain unclear. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. The study objective was to assess the communities' perceptions, practices and knowledge regarding latrines in a T. solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia inhabited by the Nsenga ethno-linguistic group, and to identify possible barriers to their construction and use. A total of 21 focus group discussions on latrine use were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages of the Petauke district. The themes covered were related to perceived latrine availability (absence-presence, building obstacles) and perceived latrine use (defecation practices, latrine management, socio-cultural constraints).The findings reveal that latrines were not constructed in every household because of the convenient use of existing latrines in the neighborhood. Latrines were perceived to contribute to good hygiene mainly because they prevent pigs from eating human feces. Men expressed reluctance to abandon the open-air defecation practice mainly because of toilet-associated taboos with in-laws and grown-up children of the opposite gender. When reviewing conceptual frameworks of people's approach to sanitation, we found that seeking privacy and taboos hindering latrine use and construction were mainly explained in our study area by the fact that the Nsenga observe a traditionally matrilineal descent. These findings indicate that in this local context latrine promotion messages should not only focus on health benefits in general. Since only men were responsible for building latrines and mostly men preferred open defecation, sanitation programs should also be directed to men and address related sanitary taboos in order to be

  18. Evans Blue Staining Reveals Vascular Leakage Associated with Focal Areas of Host-Parasite Interaction in Brains of Pigs Infected with Taenia solium

    PubMed Central

    Paredes, Adriana; Cangalaya, Carla; Rivera, Andrea; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Garcia, Hector H.; Nash, Theodore E.

    2014-01-01

    Cysticidal drug treatment of viable Taenia solium brain parenchymal cysts leads to an acute pericystic host inflammatory response and blood brain barrier breakdown (BBB), commonly resulting in seizures. Naturally infected pigs, untreated or treated one time with praziquantel were sacrificed at 48 hr and 120 hr following the injection of Evans blue (EB) to assess the effect of treatment on larval parasites and surrounding tissue. Examination of harvested non encapsulated muscle cysts unexpectedly revealed one or more small, focal round region(s) of Evans blue dye infiltration (REBI) on the surface of otherwise non dye-stained muscle cysts. Histopathological analysis of REBI revealed focal areas of eosinophil-rich inflammatory infiltrates that migrated from the capsule into the tegument and internal structures of the parasite. In addition some encapsulated brain cysts, in which the presence of REBI could not be directly assessed, showed histopathology identical to that of the REBI. Muscle cysts with REBI were more frequent in pigs that had received praziquantel (6.6% of 3736 cysts; n = 6 pigs) than in those that were untreated (0.2% of 3172 cysts; n = 2 pigs). Similar results were found in the brain, where 20.7% of 29 cysts showed histopathology identical to muscle REBI cysts in praziquantel-treated pigs compared to the 4.3% of 47 cysts in untreated pigs. Closer examination of REBI infiltrates showed that EB was taken up only by eosinophils, a major component of the cellular infiltrates, which likely explains persistence of EB in the REBI. REBI likely represent early damaging host responses to T. solium cysts and highlight the focal nature of this initial host response and the importance of eosinophils at sites of host-parasite interaction. These findings suggest new avenues for immunomodulation to reduce inflammatory side effects of anthelmintic therapy. PMID:24915533

  19. Why latrines are not used: communities' perceptions and practices regarding latrines in a Taenia solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia.

    PubMed

    Thys, Séverine; Mwape, Kabemba E; Lefèvre, Pierre; Dorny, Pierre; Marcotty, Tanguy; Phiri, Andrew M; Phiri, Isaak K; Gabriël, Sarah

    2015-03-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis occurring in many developing countries. Socio-cultural determinants related to its control remain unclear. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. The study objective was to assess the communities' perceptions, practices and knowledge regarding latrines in a T. solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia inhabited by the Nsenga ethno-linguistic group, and to identify possible barriers to their construction and use. A total of 21 focus group discussions on latrine use were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages of the Petauke district. The themes covered were related to perceived latrine availability (absence-presence, building obstacles) and perceived latrine use (defecation practices, latrine management, socio-cultural constraints).The findings reveal that latrines were not constructed in every household because of the convenient use of existing latrines in the neighborhood. Latrines were perceived to contribute to good hygiene mainly because they prevent pigs from eating human feces. Men expressed reluctance to abandon the open-air defecation practice mainly because of toilet-associated taboos with in-laws and grown-up children of the opposite gender. When reviewing conceptual frameworks of people's approach to sanitation, we found that seeking privacy and taboos hindering latrine use and construction were mainly explained in our study area by the fact that the Nsenga observe a traditionally matrilineal descent. These findings indicate that in this local context latrine promotion messages should not only focus on health benefits in general. Since only men were responsible for building latrines and mostly men preferred open defecation, sanitation programs should also be directed to men and address related sanitary taboos in order to be

  20. Why Latrines Are Not Used: Communities’ Perceptions and Practices Regarding Latrines in a Taenia solium Endemic Rural Area in Eastern Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Thys, Séverine; Mwape, Kabemba E.; Lefèvre, Pierre; Dorny, Pierre; Marcotty, Tanguy; Phiri, Andrew M.; Phiri, Isaak K.; Gabriël, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis occurring in many developing countries. Socio-cultural determinants related to its control remain unclear. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. The study objective was to assess the communities’ perceptions, practices and knowledge regarding latrines in a T. solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia inhabited by the Nsenga ethno-linguistic group, and to identify possible barriers to their construction and use. A total of 21 focus group discussions on latrine use were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages of the Petauke district. The themes covered were related to perceived latrine availability (absence-presence, building obstacles) and perceived latrine use (defecation practices, latrine management, socio-cultural constraints).The findings reveal that latrines were not constructed in every household because of the convenient use of existing latrines in the neighborhood. Latrines were perceived to contribute to good hygiene mainly because they prevent pigs from eating human feces. Men expressed reluctance to abandon the open-air defecation practice mainly because of toilet-associated taboos with in-laws and grown-up children of the opposite gender. When reviewing conceptual frameworks of people’s approach to sanitation, we found that seeking privacy and taboos hindering latrine use and construction were mainly explained in our study area by the fact that the Nsenga observe a traditionally matrilineal descent. These findings indicate that in this local context latrine promotion messages should not only focus on health benefits in general. Since only men were responsible for building latrines and mostly men preferred open defecation, sanitation programs should also be directed to men and address related sanitary taboos in order to be

  1. Evolution, molecular epidemiology and perspectives on the research of taeniid parasites with special emphasis on Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Bobes, Raúl J; Fragoso, Gladis; Fleury, Agnès; García-Varela, Martín; Sciutto, Edda; Larralde, Carlos; Laclette, Juan P

    2014-04-01

    Human cysticercosis is known since old historical times in Greece and China; however, human infections by tapeworms have accompanied human beings for more that hundred thousand years. The disease is tightly bound to poverty and lack of hygiene, and has been eradicated in developed countries, but continues being a public health problem in developing countries of Latin-American, Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia, and is also remerging in a number of non endemic countries. It is considered a neglected disease. Here we revise a number of key scientific contributions on taeniid biology that open new avenues for more effective approaches to the control of cysticercosis. The evolution of flatworms and class Cestoda is analyzed, with special emphasis on the emergence of taeniid parasites and the colonization of the human species by tapeworms. The complex molecular host-parasite interplay in this relationship as result of co-evolution between two distantly related organisms. The relevant host and parasite's factors, in the prospect of identifying species-specific molecular markers useful in epidemiological studies carried out in endemic countries. The new possibilities arising with the characterization of the genomes for several species of tapeworms, including a deeper understanding of these organisms, as well as improved tools for diagnosis, vaccination and drug treatment. The need to revise the current control and management strategies for this tropical neglected disease.

  2. Adjuvant effects of bacillus Calmette-Guerin DNA or CpG-oligonucleotide in the immune response to Taenia solium cysticercosis vaccine in porcine.

    PubMed

    Guo, Y-J; Wu, D; Wang, K-Y; Sun, S-H

    2007-12-01

    The immune stimulation properties of CpG-oligonucleotides (CpG-ODN) containing a central unmethylated CpG motif could be useful for vaccination against parasite infection. However, the high cost of synthetic CpG-ODN has limited its use in veterinary vaccines. In this study, we investigated whether genomic DNA derived from Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG-DNA) could be used as an effective adjuvant to enhance the immunogenicity and the protective capacity of recombinant cC1 antigen (rcC1) against pig cysticercosis. Pigs were vaccinated with rcC1 plus CpG-containing DNA adjuvants (BCG-DNA or CpG-ODN) or rcC1 alone. Immunization with rcC1 alone induced a Th1-biased response, whereas coadministration of rcC1 with BCG-DNA or CpG-ODN increased levels of IgG2, IFN-gamma, percentage of CD8+ and specific proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Four weeks after the last immunization, pigs were infected with Taenia solium eggs. A high level of protection (81%) was induced by rcC1 immunization that was not significantly increased by the CpG-containing DNA. These data indicate that coadministration of rcC1 plus BCG-DNA or CpG-ODN significantly enhanced Th1 response but did not improve the level of the protection induced.

  3. Familial clustering of Taenia solium cysticercosis in the rural pigs of Mexico: hints of genetic determinants in innate and acquired resistance to infection.

    PubMed

    Sciutto, E; Martínez, J J; Huerta, M; Avila, R; Fragoso, G; Villalobos, N; de Aluja, A; Larralde, C

    2003-10-20

    In two rural villages of the state of Puebla, Mexico, where Taenia solium pig cysticercosis is highly endemic, 120 pairs of young out-bred piglets were used to assay what proved to be an effective synthetic peptide vaccine against naturally acquired cysticercosis. Because the piglets used were all sired by one of three distinct studs in many different out-bred sows, the prevalence and intensity of infection, as well as degree of protection conferred by the vaccine, could be related to each of the three stud families (A-C). The highest prevalence was found in the C family (25%), whilst the prevalence of B and A families were 21.6 and 4.4%, respectively. Familial clustering of cases was even more conspicuous in vaccinated pigs than in not-vaccinated ones: seven of the nine cysticercosis cases that occurred in the vaccinated group belonged to the C family (7/26) and two to the B family (2/23), whilst the vaccine rendered the A family totally resistant (0/71). Parasite numbers were also higher in the C family in both nai;ve and vaccinated pigs. Familial clustering of cases and of large parasite numbers in naive and vaccinated pigs hint to the relevance of their genetic background in their innate and acquired resistance to cysticercosis.

  4. Taenia solium DNA is present in the cerebrospinal fluid of neurocysticercosis patients and can be used for diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Carolina R; Ojopi, Elida P; Nunes, Cáris M; Machado, Luis R; Takayanagui, Osvaldo M; Livramento, José A; Abraham, Ronaldo; Gattaz, Wagner F; Vaz, Adelaide J; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel

    2006-08-01

    Neurocysticercosis is the most frequent parasitic infection of the CNS and the main cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. Seizures are the most common symptoms of the disease, together with headache, involuntary movements, psychosis and a global mental deterioration. Absolute diagnostic criteria include the identification of cysticerci, with scolex, in the brain by MRI imaging. We demonstrate here, for the first time, that T. solium DNA is present in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients. The PCR amplification of the parasite DNA in the CSF enabled the correct identification of 29/30 cases (96.7 %). The PCR diagnosis of parasite DNA in the CSF may be a strong support for the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis.

  5. A dot-ELISA using a partially purified cathepsin-L-like protein fraction from Taenia solium cysticerci, for the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Piña, R; Gutiérrez, A H; Gilman, R H; Rueda, D; Sifuentes, C; Flores, M; Sheen, P; Rodriguez, S; GarcÍa, H H; Zimic, M

    2011-01-01

    Human neurocysticercosis (NCC), caused by the cestode Taenia solium, is responsible for a significant amount of neurological morbidity and epilepsy in developing countries. The disease remains highly endemic in many areas, despite several efforts and interventions to control it. A simple, cheap and fast diagnostic assay that is suitable for use in field conditions is highly desired. In immunodiagnostics based on western immunoblots or standard ELISA, a cathepsin-L-like protein purified from the cysticercus fluid has previously performed well as an antigen. In a recent study in Peru, the same 53/25-kDa antigen was therefore used in the development of a dot-ELISA that could be employed for mass screenings under field conditions. The assay was standardized and tested not only against sera from a large group of NCC cases but also against sera from patients with other common parasitic infections, so that sensitivity and specificity could be assessed. For NCC, the assay gave better sensitivity in the detection of individuals with extraparenchymal cysts (94·4%–100%) or multiple parenchymal cysts (74·6%–80·0%) than in the detection of individuals with single parenchymal cysts (29·4%–45·1%). The assay also showed a high specificity for NCC (99·0%–100%), with a very low level of cross-reactivity with other parasitic infections. The dot-ELISA developed in this study is a highly specific, simple, cheap and rapid test for NCC that could be used under field conditions, even in the low-resource settings that are common in developing countries. PMID:21871167

  6. Geographic Correlation between Tapeworm Carriers and Heavily Infected Cysticercotic Pigs

    PubMed Central

    O'Neal, Seth E.; Moyano, Luz M.; Ayvar, Viterbo; Gonzalvez, Guillermo; Diaz, Andre; Rodriguez, Silvia; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Gilman, Robert H.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Neurocysticercosis is a leading cause of preventable epilepsy in the developing world. Sustainable community-based interventions are urgently needed to control transmission of the causative parasite, Taenia solium. We examined the geospatial relationship between live pigs with visible cysticercotic cysts on their tongues and humans with adult intestinal tapeworm infection (taeniasis) in a rural village in northern Peru. The objective was to determine whether tongue-positive pigs could indicate high-risk geographic foci for taeniasis to guide targeted screening efforts. This approach could offer significant benefit compared to mass intervention. Methods We recorded geographic coordinates of all village houses, collected stool samples from all consenting villagers, and collected blood and examined tongues of all village pigs. Stool samples were processed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for presence of Taenia sp. coproantigens indicative of active taeniasis; serum was processed by enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot for antibodies against T. solium cysticercosis (EITB LLGP) and T. solium taeniasis (EITB rES33). Findings Of 548 pigs, 256 (46.7%) were positive for antibodies against cysticercosis on EITB LLGP. Of 402 fecal samples, 6 (1.5%) were positive for the presence of Taenia sp. coproantigens. The proportion of coproantigen-positive individuals differed significantly between residents living within 100-meters of a tongue-positive pig (4/79, 5.1%) and residents living >100 meters from a tongue-positive pig (2/323, 0.6%) (p = 0.02). The prevalence of taeniasis was >8 times higher among residents living within 100 meters of a tongue-positive pig compared to residents living outside this range (adjusted PR 8.1, 95% CI 1.4–47.0). Conclusions Tongue-positive pigs in endemic communities can indicate geospatial foci in which the risk for taeniasis is increased. Targeted screening or presumptive treatment for taeniasis within these high

  7. Immunological variation in Taenia solium porcine cysticercosis: measurement on the variation of the antibody immune response of naturally infected pigs against antigens extracted from their own cysticerci and from those of different pigs.

    PubMed

    Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Esquivel-Velázquez, Marcela; Larralde, Carlos

    2013-10-18

    Although it is widely assumed that both antigen and host immunological variability are involved in the variable intensity of natural porcine infections by Taenia solium (T. solium) cysticercis and success of immunodiagnostic tests vaccines, the magnitude of such combined variability has not been studied or measured at all. In this paper we report statistical data on the variability of the antibody response of naturally infected pigs against the antigens extracted from the vesicular fluids of their own infecting cysts (variance within pigs) and against antigen samples extracted from cysts of other cysticercotic pigs (variance among pigs). The variation between pigs was greater than the inter-pigs variations, which suggests that a concomitant immunity process prevents the establishment of cysts coming from a subsequent challenge. In so doing, we found that there is not a single antigenic band that was recognized by all hosts and that antigens varied among the cysts within the same pigs as well as among pigs. Our results may be valuable for the improvement of immunodiagnostic tests and of effective vaccines against naturally acquired porcine T. solium cysticercosis.

  8. Molecular Cloning of a cDNA Encoding for Taenia solium TATA-Box Binding Protein 1 (TsTBP1) and Study of Its Interactions with the TATA-Box of Actin 5 and Typical 2-Cys Peroxiredoxin Genes.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Lima, Oscar; García-Gutierrez, Ponciano; Jiménez, Lucía; Zarain-Herzberg, Ángel; Lazzarini, Roberto; Landa, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    TATA-box binding protein (TBP) is an essential regulatory transcription factor for the TATA-box and TATA-box-less gene promoters. We report the cloning and characterization of a full-length cDNA that encodes a Taenia solium TATA-box binding protein 1 (TsTBP1). Deduced amino acid composition from its nucleotide sequence revealed that encodes a protein of 238 residues with a predicted molecular weight of 26.7 kDa, and a theoretical pI of 10.6. The NH2-terminal domain shows no conservation when compared with to pig and human TBP1s. However, it shows high conservation in size and amino acid identity with taeniids TBP1s. In contrast, the TsTBP1 COOH-terminal domain is highly conserved among organisms, and contains the amino acids involved in interactions with the TATA-box, as well as with TFIIA and TFIIB. In silico TsTBP1 modeling reveals that the COOH-terminal domain forms the classical saddle structure of the TBP family, with one α-helix at the end, not present in pig and human. Native TsTBP1 was detected in T. solium cysticerci´s nuclear extract by western blot using rabbit antibodies generated against two synthetic peptides located in the NH2 and COOH-terminal domains of TsTBP1. These antibodies, through immunofluorescence technique, identified the TBP1 in the nucleus of cells that form the bladder wall of cysticerci of Taenia crassiceps, an organism close related to T. solium. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays using nuclear extracts from T. solium cysticerci and antibodies against the NH2-terminal domain of TsTBP1 showed the interaction of native TsTBP1 with the TATA-box present in T. solium actin 5 (pAT5) and 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (Ts2-CysPrx) gene promoters; in contrast, when antibodies against the anti-COOH-terminal domain of TsTBP1 were used, they inhibited the binding of TsTBP1 to the TATA-box of the pAT5 promoter gene. PMID:26529408

  9. Molecular Cloning of a cDNA Encoding for Taenia solium TATA-Box Binding Protein 1 (TsTBP1) and Study of Its Interactions with the TATA-Box of Actin 5 and Typical 2-Cys Peroxiredoxin Genes.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Lima, Oscar; García-Gutierrez, Ponciano; Jiménez, Lucía; Zarain-Herzberg, Ángel; Lazzarini, Roberto; Landa, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    TATA-box binding protein (TBP) is an essential regulatory transcription factor for the TATA-box and TATA-box-less gene promoters. We report the cloning and characterization of a full-length cDNA that encodes a Taenia solium TATA-box binding protein 1 (TsTBP1). Deduced amino acid composition from its nucleotide sequence revealed that encodes a protein of 238 residues with a predicted molecular weight of 26.7 kDa, and a theoretical pI of 10.6. The NH2-terminal domain shows no conservation when compared with to pig and human TBP1s. However, it shows high conservation in size and amino acid identity with taeniids TBP1s. In contrast, the TsTBP1 COOH-terminal domain is highly conserved among organisms, and contains the amino acids involved in interactions with the TATA-box, as well as with TFIIA and TFIIB. In silico TsTBP1 modeling reveals that the COOH-terminal domain forms the classical saddle structure of the TBP family, with one α-helix at the end, not present in pig and human. Native TsTBP1 was detected in T. solium cysticerci´s nuclear extract by western blot using rabbit antibodies generated against two synthetic peptides located in the NH2 and COOH-terminal domains of TsTBP1. These antibodies, through immunofluorescence technique, identified the TBP1 in the nucleus of cells that form the bladder wall of cysticerci of Taenia crassiceps, an organism close related to T. solium. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays using nuclear extracts from T. solium cysticerci and antibodies against the NH2-terminal domain of TsTBP1 showed the interaction of native TsTBP1 with the TATA-box present in T. solium actin 5 (pAT5) and 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (Ts2-CysPrx) gene promoters; in contrast, when antibodies against the anti-COOH-terminal domain of TsTBP1 were used, they inhibited the binding of TsTBP1 to the TATA-box of the pAT5 promoter gene.

  10. Molecular Cloning of a cDNA Encoding for Taenia solium TATA-Box Binding Protein 1 (TsTBP1) and Study of Its Interactions with the TATA-Box of Actin 5 and Typical 2-Cys Peroxiredoxin Genes

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Lima, Oscar; García-Gutierrez, Ponciano; Jiménez, Lucía; Zarain-Herzberg, Ángel; Lazzarini, Roberto; Landa, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    TATA-box binding protein (TBP) is an essential regulatory transcription factor for the TATA-box and TATA-box-less gene promoters. We report the cloning and characterization of a full-length cDNA that encodes a Taenia solium TATA-box binding protein 1 (TsTBP1). Deduced amino acid composition from its nucleotide sequence revealed that encodes a protein of 238 residues with a predicted molecular weight of 26.7 kDa, and a theoretical pI of 10.6. The NH2-terminal domain shows no conservation when compared with to pig and human TBP1s. However, it shows high conservation in size and amino acid identity with taeniids TBP1s. In contrast, the TsTBP1 COOH-terminal domain is highly conserved among organisms, and contains the amino acids involved in interactions with the TATA-box, as well as with TFIIA and TFIIB. In silico TsTBP1 modeling reveals that the COOH-terminal domain forms the classical saddle structure of the TBP family, with one α-helix at the end, not present in pig and human. Native TsTBP1 was detected in T. solium cysticerci´s nuclear extract by western blot using rabbit antibodies generated against two synthetic peptides located in the NH2 and COOH-terminal domains of TsTBP1. These antibodies, through immunofluorescence technique, identified the TBP1 in the nucleus of cells that form the bladder wall of cysticerci of Taenia crassiceps, an organism close related to T. solium. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays using nuclear extracts from T. solium cysticerci and antibodies against the NH2-terminal domain of TsTBP1 showed the interaction of native TsTBP1 with the TATA-box present in T. solium actin 5 (pAT5) and 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (Ts2-CysPrx) gene promoters; in contrast, when antibodies against the anti-COOH-terminal domain of TsTBP1 were used, they inhibited the binding of TsTBP1 to the TATA-box of the pAT5 promoter gene. PMID:26529408

  11. Distribution and density of cysticerci of Taenia solium by muscle groups and organs in naturally infected local finished pigs in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Boa, M E; Kassuku, A A; Willingham, A L; Keyyu, J D; Phiri, I K; Nansen, P

    2002-06-01

    The distribution and density of cysticerci of Taenia solium among distinct carcass sites was determined in 24 naturally infected finished pigs from Mbulu district, Tanzania. The heart, tongue, internal and external masseters, triceps brachii, lungs, liver, kidneys, psoas, diaphragm and brain of each pig as well as the muscles from the forelimb, hind limb, abdomen, head and thorax from one half of each pig carcass were all designated as distinct carcass sites and sliced in such a way that all fully developed cysts could be revealed and enumerated (i.e. each slice was less than 0.5 cm thick). The carcasses harboured from 76 to 80,340 cysts in total. Carcass sites which harboured the highest proportion of cysts were those of the hind and forelimbs (mean: 27.7 and 24.5%, respectively, of the total cysts in the carcass), while lower proportions were found in the tongue, heart, triceps brachii, and diaphragm (7, 3.6, 2 and 2, respectively). Relative cyst density was calculated for the different carcass sites by dividing the mean proportion of the total weight of the tissue groups into the mean proportion of cysts located in that site. The cysticerci in the examined distinct carcass sites were found in the following order of relative density: psoas muscles (10.5), internal masseter (8.1), external masseter (7.1), triceps brachii (4.9), forelimb (4.0), head muscles (3.8), tongue (3.4), hind limb (3.2), diaphragm (2.4), heart (1.9), abdominal muscles (1.3), trunk muscles (1.1), brain (1.0) and oesophagus (0.3). The proportion of cysts expected to be found at the surfaces exposed by visual examination or incision at meat inspection was calculated using an indirect method, which incorporated the area revealed by incision and visual inspection of an organ and the proportion of cysts located in the particular organ. It was estimated that 10.6% of the cysts would be located at inspected sites if regulations were followed carefully.

  12. Immunopathology in Taenia solium neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Fleury, A; Cardenas, G; Adalid-Peralta, L; Fragoso, G; Sciutto, E

    2016-03-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a clinically and radiologically heterogeneous disease, ranging from asymptomatic infection to a severe, potentially fatal clinical picture. The intensity and extension of the parasite-elicited inflammatory reaction is a key factor for such variability. The main features of the inflammatory process found in the brain and in the peripheral blood of neurocysticercosis patients will be discussed in this review, and the factors involved in its modulation will be herein presented. PMID:26667781

  13. Detailed Transcriptome Description of the Neglected Cestode Taenia multiceps

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xuhang; Fu, Yan; Yang, Deying; Zhang, Runhui; Zheng, Wanpeng; Nie, Huaming; Xie, Yue; Yan, Ning; Hao, Guiying; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2012-01-01

    Background The larval stage of Taenia multiceps, a global cestode, encysts in the central nervous system (CNS) of sheep and other livestock. This frequently leads to their death and huge socioeconomic losses, especially in developing countries. This parasite can also cause zoonotic infections in humans, but has been largely neglected due to a lack of diagnostic techniques and studies. Recent developments in next-generation sequencing provide an opportunity to explore the transcriptome of T. multiceps. Methodology/Principal Findings We obtained a total of 31,282 unigenes (mean length 920 bp) using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology and a new Trinity de novo assembler without a referenced genome. Individual transcription molecules were determined by sequence-based annotations and/or domain-based annotations against public databases (Nr, UniprotKB/Swiss-Prot, COG, KEGG, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, InterPro and Pfam). We identified 26,110 (83.47%) unigenes and inferred 20,896 (66.8%) coding sequences (CDS). Further comparative transcripts analysis with other cestodes (Taenia pisiformis, Taenia solium, Echincoccus granulosus and Echincoccus multilocularis) and intestinal parasites (Trichinella spiralis, Ancylostoma caninum and Ascaris suum) showed that 5,100 common genes were shared among three Taenia tapeworms, 261 conserved genes were detected among five Taeniidae cestodes, and 109 common genes were found in four zoonotic intestinal parasites. Some of the common genes were genes required for parasite survival, involved in parasite-host interactions. In addition, we amplified two full-length CDS of unigenes from the common genes using RT-PCR. Conclusions/Significance This study provides an extensive transcriptome of the adult stage of T. multiceps, and demonstrates that comparative transcriptomic investigations deserve to be further studied. This transcriptome dataset forms a substantial public information platform to achieve a fundamental understanding of the biology of

  14. A systematic review on the global occurrence of Taenia hydatigena in pigs and cattle.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Man Thi Thuy; Gabriël, Sarah; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-08-15

    Taenia hydatigena, a non-zoonotic tapeworm species shares the same intermediate hosts with other Taenia zoonotic species, such as Taenia solium in pigs and Taenia saginata in cattle. The occurrence of T. hydatigena in pigs and cattle may cause cross-reactions in immunodiagnostic tests and therefore, complicate the diagnosis of the zoonotic species. This study was conducted to systematically review the data on the prevalence of T. hydatigena in pigs and cattle, with the aim to assess the potential interference in serological diagnosis of zoonotic Taenia spp. due to T. hydatigena infection. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Africa Journal Online, website http://www.google.com and article reference lists in English, French and Vietnamese with no restriction on research time and publication status. Eligible studies included observational studies that showed the occurrence of T. hydatigena. Twenty-six studies, divided into two animal groups, i.e. pigs and cattle, met the eligibility criteria for qualitative synthesis and 17 studies were included for the meta-analysis in three continents. T. hydatigena was found by necropsy in all included studies, which mostly were abattoir surveys. Overall, results showed the worldwide occurrence of T. hydatigena cysticercosis in pigs and cattle. In pigs, there was a marked higher prevalence in Asia and South America that was 17.2% (95% CI: 10.6-26.8%) and 27.5% (CI: 20.8-35.3%), respectively, compared to a low prevalence of 3.9% (95% CI: 1.9-7.9%) in Africa. Overall, the prevalence of T. hydatigena in cattle was low with a mean of 1.1% (95% CI: 0.2-5.2%). These results show that interpretation of results of sero-diagnostic tests for zoonotic Taenia species in pigs and cattle has to take into account the prevalence of T. hydatigena infections in different settings.

  15. A systematic review on the global occurrence of Taenia hydatigena in pigs and cattle.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Man Thi Thuy; Gabriël, Sarah; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-08-15

    Taenia hydatigena, a non-zoonotic tapeworm species shares the same intermediate hosts with other Taenia zoonotic species, such as Taenia solium in pigs and Taenia saginata in cattle. The occurrence of T. hydatigena in pigs and cattle may cause cross-reactions in immunodiagnostic tests and therefore, complicate the diagnosis of the zoonotic species. This study was conducted to systematically review the data on the prevalence of T. hydatigena in pigs and cattle, with the aim to assess the potential interference in serological diagnosis of zoonotic Taenia spp. due to T. hydatigena infection. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Africa Journal Online, website http://www.google.com and article reference lists in English, French and Vietnamese with no restriction on research time and publication status. Eligible studies included observational studies that showed the occurrence of T. hydatigena. Twenty-six studies, divided into two animal groups, i.e. pigs and cattle, met the eligibility criteria for qualitative synthesis and 17 studies were included for the meta-analysis in three continents. T. hydatigena was found by necropsy in all included studies, which mostly were abattoir surveys. Overall, results showed the worldwide occurrence of T. hydatigena cysticercosis in pigs and cattle. In pigs, there was a marked higher prevalence in Asia and South America that was 17.2% (95% CI: 10.6-26.8%) and 27.5% (CI: 20.8-35.3%), respectively, compared to a low prevalence of 3.9% (95% CI: 1.9-7.9%) in Africa. Overall, the prevalence of T. hydatigena in cattle was low with a mean of 1.1% (95% CI: 0.2-5.2%). These results show that interpretation of results of sero-diagnostic tests for zoonotic Taenia species in pigs and cattle has to take into account the prevalence of T. hydatigena infections in different settings. PMID:27514893

  16. Fish tapeworm infection

    MedlinePlus

    Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with the tapeworm parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw ...

  17. Basic and applied immunology in cestode infections: from Hymenolepis to Taenia and Echinococcus.

    PubMed

    Ito, A

    1997-10-01

    In larval cestode infections, it is well established that the intermediate mammalian host infected with egg-derived metacestodes in the tissue becomes completely immune to reinfection with eggs, whereas autoinfection has been conceived to occur in Hymenolepis nana/mouse (and human) and Taenia solium/human systems when these hosts are initially infected with metacestode-derived adult tapeworms in the lumen. In this review paper, the first topic is immunobiology of H. nana/mouse system on the reinfection immunity in order to get critical information as to how the initially ingested parasite (eggs or metacestodes) can develop into adult worms and how autoinfection does or does not occur in immunocompetent mice, since H. nana can complete its whole life cycle in the mouse intestinal tissue and lumen. When mice are infected with eggs (= oncospheres) of H. nana, they become immune to challenge infections with eggs within a few days (early response) and with cysticercoids within two weeks (late response). The initially established adult worms are expelled later (worm expulsion response). When mice are infected with cysticercoids, either derived from beetles or mice, they become immune to challenge infection with cysticercoids but not with eggs. Therefore, autoinfection occurs in the intestinal tissue for the establishment of cysticercoids in the tissue but never occurs in the intestinal lumen for the establishment of adult worms in immunocompetent mice. The second topic is vaccination trial against challenge infection with eggs of Asian Taenia in pigs. Pigs vaccinated with frozen oncospheres of Asian Taenia from Taiwan or Korea or T. saginata showed very strong resistance, whereas pigs vaccinated with those of T. solium showed partial resistance only. It is suggested that Asian Taenia is much closer to T. saginata than T. solium from the immunobiological viewpoint. The third topic is immunodiagnosis of echinococcosis and cysticercosis. Immunoblot analysis has revealed

  18. Epidemiology and genetic diversity of Taenia asiatica: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Taenia asiatica has made a remarkable journey through the scientific literature of the past 50 years, starting with the paradoxical observation of high prevalences of T. saginata-like tapeworms in non-beef consuming populations, to the full description of its mitochondrial genome. Experimental studies conducted in the 1980s and 1990s have made it clear that the life cycle of T. asiatica is comparable to that of T. saginata, except for pigs being the preferential intermediate host and liver the preferential location of the cysts. Whether or not T. asiatica can cause human cysticercosis, as is the case for Taenia solium, remains unclear. Given the specific conditions needed to complete its life cycle, in particular the consumption of raw or poorly cooked pig liver, the transmission of T. asiatica shows an important ethno-geographical association. So far, T. asiatica has been identified in Taiwan, South Korea, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, south-central China, Vietnam, Japan and Nepal. Especially this last observation indicates that its distribution is not restricted to South-East-Asia, as was thought so far. Indeed, the molecular tools developed over the last 20 years have made it increasingly possible to differentiate T. asiatica from other taeniids. Such tools also indicated that T. asiatica is related more closely to T. saginata than to T. solium, feeding the debate on its taxonomic status as a separate species versus a subspecies of T. saginata. Furthermore, the genetic diversity within T. asiatica appears to be very minimal, indicating that this parasite may be on the verge of extinction. However, recent studies have identified potential hybrids between T. asiatica and T. saginata, reopening the debate on the genetic diversity of T. asiatica and its status as a separate species. PMID:24450957

  19. Epidemiology and genetic diversity of Taenia asiatica: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ale, Anita; Victor, Bjorn; Praet, Nicolas; Gabriël, Sarah; Speybroeck, Niko; Dorny, Pierre; Devleesschauwer, Brecht

    2014-01-01

    Taenia asiatica has made a remarkable journey through the scientific literature of the past 50 years, starting with the paradoxical observation of high prevalences of T. saginata-like tapeworms in non-beef consuming populations, to the full description of its mitochondrial genome. Experimental studies conducted in the 1980s and 1990s have made it clear that the life cycle of T. asiatica is comparable to that of T. saginata, except for pigs being the preferential intermediate host and liver the preferential location of the cysts. Whether or not T. asiatica can cause human cysticercosis, as is the case for Taenia solium, remains unclear. Given the specific conditions needed to complete its life cycle, in particular the consumption of raw or poorly cooked pig liver, the transmission of T. asiatica shows an important ethno-geographical association. So far, T. asiatica has been identified in Taiwan, South Korea, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, south-central China, Vietnam, Japan and Nepal. Especially this last observation indicates that its distribution is not restricted to South-East-Asia, as was thought so far. Indeed, the molecular tools developed over the last 20 years have made it increasingly possible to differentiate T. asiatica from other taeniids. Such tools also indicated that T. asiatica is related more closely to T. saginata than to T. solium, feeding the debate on its taxonomic status as a separate species versus a subspecies of T. saginata. Furthermore, the genetic diversity within T. asiatica appears to be very minimal, indicating that this parasite may be on the verge of extinction. However, recent studies have identified potential hybrids between T. asiatica and T. saginata, reopening the debate on the genetic diversity of T. asiatica and its status as a separate species. PMID:24450957

  20. Molecular identification of Taenia spp. In the Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cestodes of the genus Taenia are parasites of mammals, with mainly carnivores as definitive and herbivores as intermediate hosts. Various medium-sized cats, Lynx spp., are involved in the life cycles of several species of Taenia. The aim of the present study was to identify Taenia tapeworms in the E...

  1. Taenia asiatica: the most neglected human Taenia and the possibility of cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Galán-Puchades, M Teresa; Fuentes, Mario V

    2013-02-01

    Not only Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, but also Taenia asiatica infects humans. The last species is not included in the evaluation of the specificity of the immunodiagnostic techniques for taeniasis/cysticercosis. There is currently no specific immunodiagnostic method for T. asiatica available. Therefore, due to the fact that molecular techniques (the only tool to distinguish the 3 Taenia species) are normally not employed in routine diagnostic methods, the 2 questions concerning T. asiatica (its definite geographic distribution and its ability to cause human cysticercosis), remain open, turning T. asiatica into the most neglected agent of human taeniasis-cysticercosis. PMID:23467406

  2. Target gene enrichment in the cyclophyllidean cestodes, the most diverse group of tapeworms.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hao; Jiang, Jiamei; Jiménez, Francisco Agustín; Hoberg, Eric P; Cook, Joseph A; Galbreath, Kurt E; Li, Chenhong

    2016-09-01

    The Cyclophyllidea is the most diverse order of tapeworms, encompassing species that infect all classes of terrestrial tetrapods including humans and domesticated animals. Available phylogenetic reconstructions based either on morphology or molecular data lack the resolution to allow scientists to either propose a solid taxonomy or infer evolutionary associations. Molecular markers available for the Cyclophyllidea mostly include ribosomal DNA and mitochondrial loci. In this study, we identified 3641 single-copy nuclear coding loci by comparing the genomes of Hymenolepis microstoma, Echinococcus granulosus and Taenia solium. We designed RNA baits based on the sequence of H. microstoma, and applied target enrichment and Illumina sequencing to test the utility of those baits to recover loci useful for phylogenetic analyses. We captured DNA from five species of tapeworms representing two families of cyclophyllideans. We obtained an average of 3284 (90%) of the targets from the test samples and then used captured sequences (2 181 361 bp in total; fragment size ranging from 301 to 6969 bp) to reconstruct a phylogeny for the five test species plus the three species for which genomic data are available. The results were consistent with the current consensus regarding cyclophyllidean relationships. To assess the potential for our method to yield informative genetic variation at intraspecific scales, we extracted 14 074 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from alignments of four Arostrilepis macrocirrosa and two A. cooki and successfully inferred their relationships. The results showed that our target gene tools yield data sets that provide robust inferences at a range of taxonomic scales in the Cyclophyllidea. PMID:27037792

  3. Characterization of microRNAs in Taenia saginata of zoonotic significance by Solexa deep sequencing and bioinformatics analysis.

    PubMed

    Ai, L; Xu, M J; Chen, M X; Zhang, Y N; Chen, S H; Guo, J; Cai, Y C; Zhou, X N; Zhu, X Q; Chen, J X

    2012-06-01

    The beef tapeworm Taenia saginata infects human beings with symptoms ranging from nausea, abdominal discomfort to digestive disturbances and intestinal blockage. In the present study, microRNA (miRNA) expressing profile in adult T. saginata was analyzed using Solexa deep sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. A total of 15.8 million reads was obtained by Solexa sequencing, and 13.3 million clean reads (1.73 million unique sequences) was obtained after removing reads smaller than 18 nt. Ten conserved miRNAs corresponding to 607,382 reads were found when matching the reads against known miRNAs of Schistosoma japonicum in miRBase database. The miR-71 had the most abundant expression in T. saginata, followed by miR-219-5p, but some other common miRNAs such as let-7, miR-40, and miR-103 were not identified in T. saginata. Nucleotide bias analysis found that the known miRNAs showed high bias and the uracil was the dominant nucleotide, particularly at the first and 11th positions which were almost at the beginning and middle of conserved miRNAs. One novel miRNA (Tsa-miR-001) corresponding to ten precursors was identified and confirmed by stem-loop RT-PCR. To our knowledge, this is the first report of miRNA profiles in T. saginata, which will contribute to better understanding of the complex biology of this zoonotic trematode. The reported data of T. saginata miRNAs should provide valuable references for miRNA studies of closed related zoonotic Taenia cestodes such as Taenia solium and Taenia asiatica.

  4. Cysticercosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... called Taenia solium ( T solium ). It is a pork tapeworm that creates cysts in different areas in ... after a bowel movement. Risk factors include eating pork, fruits, and vegetables contaminated with T solium as ...

  5. A New Parasiticidal Compound in T. solium Cysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Bello, Romel; Escobedo, Galileo; Carrero, Julio Cesar; Cervantes-Rebolledo, Claudia; Dowding, Charles; Frincke, James; Reading, Chris; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The effect of 16α-bromoepiandrosterone (EpiBr), a dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) analogue, was tested on the cysticerci of Taenia solium, both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro treatment of T. solium cultures with EpiBr reduced scolex evagination, growth, motility, and viability in dose- and time-dependent fashions. Administration of EpiBr prior to infection with T. solium cysticerci in hamsters reduced the number and size of developed taenias in the intestine, compared with controls. These effects were associated to an increase in splenocyte proliferation in infected hamsters. These results leave open the possibility of assessing the potential of this hormonal analogue as a possible antiparasite drug, particularly in cysticercosis and taeniosis. PMID:23509732

  6. First Case of Human Cerebral Taenia martis Cysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Benoilid, Aurélien; Kremer, Stéphane; Dalvit, Constanza; Lefebvre, Nicolas; Hansmann, Yves; Chenard, Marie-Pierre; Mathieu, Bruno; Grimm, Felix; Deplazes, Peter; Pfaff, Alexander W.; Abou-Bacar, Ahmed; Marescaux, Christian; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2015-01-01

    Taenia martis is a tapeworm affecting mustelids, with rodents serving as intermediate hosts. The larval stage (cysticercus) has been found before only rarely in humans or primates. We hereby describe a case of cerebral T. martis cysticercosis in a French immunocompetent patient, confirmed by DNA analyses of biopsy material. PMID:26019196

  7. Laboratory diagnosis of Taenia asiatica in humans and animals.

    PubMed

    Parija, Subhash Chandra; Ponnambath, Dinoop Korol

    2013-07-01

    Taenia asiatica is a recently described species known to cause intestinal teniasis in humans and cysticercosis in animals. This species has close morphological resemblance to Taenia saginata and has a life cycle resembling Taenia solium, hence has been posing diagnostic dilemma and had been the reason for its comparatively late discovery. Recent diagnostic tools such as serological and molecular techniques have thrown light on its exact prevalence in the endemic countries. Hence introduction of utilization of these techniques in addition to the routine morphological analysis would be helpful in diagnosis of T. asiatica infections and early implementation of preventive measures. PMID:24470995

  8. Molecular identification of Taenia spp. in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland.

    PubMed

    Lavikainen, A; Haukisalmi, V; Deksne, G; Holmala, K; Lejeune, M; Isomursu, M; Jokelainen, P; Näreaho, A; Laakkonen, J; Hoberg, E P; Sukura, A

    2013-04-01

    Cestodes of the genus Taenia are parasites of mammals, with mainly carnivores as definitive and herbivores as intermediate hosts. Various medium-sized cats, Lynx spp., are involved in the life cycles of several species of Taenia. The aim of the present study was to identify Taenia tapeworms in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland. In total, 135 tapeworms from 72 lynx were subjected to molecular identification based on sequences of 2 mtDNA regions, the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 genes. Available morphological characters of the rostellar hooks and strobila were compared. Two species of Taenia were found: T. laticollis (127 samples) and an unknown Taenia sp. (5 samples). The latter could not be identified to species based on mtDNA, and the rostellar hooks were short relative to those described among other Taenia spp. recorded in felids from the Holarctic region. In the phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA sequences, T. laticollis was placed as a sister species of T. macrocystis, and the unknown Taenia sp. was closely related to T. hydatigena and T. regis. Our analyses suggest that these distinct taeniid tapeworms represent a putative new species of Taenia. The only currently recognized definitive host is L. lynx and the intermediate host is unknown.

  9. Description and life-cycle of Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea)

    PubMed Central

    Haukisalmi, Voitto; Konyaev, Sergey; Lavikainen, Antti; Isomursu, Marja; Nakao, Minoru

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of tapeworm, Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea), is described from the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), the main definitive host, and the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and Capreolus pygargus), the main intermediate hosts, from Finland and Russia (Siberia and the Russian Far East). The new species was found once also in the wolf (Canis lupus) and the Eurasian elk/moose (Alces alces), representing accidental definitive and intermediate hosts, respectively. The conspecificity of adult specimens and metacestodes of Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. in various host species and regions, and their distinction from related species of Taenia, was confirmed by partial nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene. Morphologically, Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. can be separated unambiguously from all other species of Taenia by the shape of its large rostellar hooks, particularly the characteristically short, wide and strongly curved blade. If the large rostellar hooks are missing, Taenia lynciscapreoli may be separated from related species by a combination of morphological features of mature proglottids. It is suggested that Taenia lynciscapreoli has been present in published materials concerning the tapeworms of Lynx lynx and Lynx pardinus in Europe, but has been misidentified as Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780). Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. has not been found in lynx outside the range of roe deer, suggesting a transmission pathway based on a specific predator–prey relationship. The present study applies a novel, simple approach to compare qualitative interspecific differences in the shape of rostellar hooks. PMID:27199592

  10. Description and life-cycle of Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea).

    PubMed

    Haukisalmi, Voitto; Konyaev, Sergey; Lavikainen, Antti; Isomursu, Marja; Nakao, Minoru

    2016-01-01

    A new species of tapeworm, Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea), is described from the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), the main definitive host, and the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and Capreolus pygargus), the main intermediate hosts, from Finland and Russia (Siberia and the Russian Far East). The new species was found once also in the wolf (Canis lupus) and the Eurasian elk/moose (Alces alces), representing accidental definitive and intermediate hosts, respectively. The conspecificity of adult specimens and metacestodes of Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. in various host species and regions, and their distinction from related species of Taenia, was confirmed by partial nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene. Morphologically, Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. can be separated unambiguously from all other species of Taenia by the shape of its large rostellar hooks, particularly the characteristically short, wide and strongly curved blade. If the large rostellar hooks are missing, Taenia lynciscapreoli may be separated from related species by a combination of morphological features of mature proglottids. It is suggested that Taenia lynciscapreoli has been present in published materials concerning the tapeworms of Lynx lynx and Lynx pardinus in Europe, but has been misidentified as Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780). Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. has not been found in lynx outside the range of roe deer, suggesting a transmission pathway based on a specific predator-prey relationship. The present study applies a novel, simple approach to compare qualitative interspecific differences in the shape of rostellar hooks. PMID:27199592

  11. Taenia infestation in the appendix: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cicek, Aysegul Copur; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim; Eksi, Saliha

    2013-11-01

    Taenia saginata is a zoonotic cestode causing taeniasis. Taeniasis refers to the intestinal infection with the adult stage of this tapeworm. An association between teaniasis and acute appendicitis is uncommon. We present the case of a 37 year old male who presented with abdominal pain for one day. He was diagnosed with having appendicitis and an appendectomy was performed. Pathology of the appendix showed Taenia saginata with eggs in the lumen. Histological analysis showed acute inflammation consistent with acute appendicitis caused by T. saginata. PMID:24450232

  12. Tapeworm infection - beef or pork

    MedlinePlus

    ... are infected when they pass segments of the worm in their stool, especially if the segments are ... In rare cases, worms can cause a blockage in the intestine. If pork tapeworm larvae move out of the intestine, they can cause ...

  13. Annotation of the Transcriptome from Taenia pisiformis and Its Comparative Analysis with Three Taeniidae Species

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Deying; Fu, Yan; Wu, Xuhang; Xie, Yue; Nie, Huaming; Chen, Lin; Nong, Xiang; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yan, Ning; Zhang, Runhui; Zheng, Wanpeng; Yang, Guangyou

    2012-01-01

    Background Taenia pisiformis is one of the most common intestinal tapeworms and can cause infections in canines. Adult T. pisiformis (canines as definitive hosts) and Cysticercus pisiformis (rabbits as intermediate hosts) cause significant health problems to the host and considerable socio-economic losses as a consequence. No complete genomic data regarding T. pisiformis are currently available in public databases. RNA-seq provides an effective approach to analyze the eukaryotic transcriptome to generate large functional gene datasets that can be used for further studies. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, 2.67 million sequencing clean reads and 72,957 unigenes were generated using the RNA-seq technique. Based on a sequence similarity search with known proteins, a total of 26,012 unigenes (no redundancy) were identified after quality control procedures via the alignment of four databases. Overall, 15,920 unigenes were mapped to 203 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. Through analyzing the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and axonal guidance pathways, we achieved an in-depth understanding of the biochemistry of T. pisiformis. Here, we selected four unigenes at random and obtained their full-length cDNA clones using RACE PCR. Functional distribution characteristics were gained through comparing four cestode species (72,957 unigenes of T. pisiformis, 30,700 ESTs of T. solium, 1,058 ESTs of Eg+Em [conserved ESTs between Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis]), with the cluster of orthologous groups (COG) and gene ontology (GO) functional classification systems. Furthermore, the conserved common genes in these four cestode species were obtained and aligned by the KEGG database. Conclusion This study provides an extensive transcriptome dataset obtained from the deep sequencing of T. pisiformis in a non-model whole genome. The identification of conserved genes may provide novel approaches for potential drug targets and

  14. Taenia saginata taeniosis: copro-antigen time-course in a voluntary self-infection.

    PubMed

    Tembo, A; Craig, P S

    2015-09-01

    Human taeniosis due to Taenia saginata is cosmopolitan where beef is consumed; however, there is little or no information on the symptomatology over the early time-course of human infection. Copro-antigen detection is very useful in community screening for human taeniosis, particularly for T. solium, but there are no data on copro-antigen detection in pre-patent infection. In order to provide insight into this, a voluntary self-infection with T. saginata was undertaken and monitored over a 6-month period using a copro-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that we developed using anti-T. saginata antibody based reagents. Tapeworm patency, defined as first proglottid appearance, occurred on day 86 post-infection (pi) and was followed by almost daily release of proglottids (range 1-8) until termination using praziquantel on day 180 pi. The first 10 weeks post-infection (wpi) were essentially asymptomatic, followed by main symptoms of involuntary proglottid discharge throughout the infection period, and abdominal discomfort peaking around 15-19 wpi. Copro-antigens could not be reliably detected until 2 weeks before proglottid patency but then remained highly elevated over the next 15 weeks until treatment. Copro-antigen levels reverted to negative 4 days post-treatment. This time-course study suggests that although copro-antigen ELISA is an excellent diagnostic tool for established patent infections of T. saginata, it may not be reliable for faecal antigen detection in the early infection phase prior to proglottid release for T. saginata and other human taenioses. PMID:24945107

  15. Dipylidium (Dog and Cat Flea Tapeworm) FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... the most common kind of tapeworm dogs and cats get? The most common tapeworm of dogs and cats in the United States is called Dipylidium caninum . ... infected with a tapeworm larvae. A dog or cat may swallow a flea while self-grooming. Once ...

  16. A digest of elasmobranch tapeworms.

    PubMed

    Caira, Janine N; Jensen, Kirsten

    2014-08-01

    This review brings together decades of work on elasmobranch tapeworms. The field has advanced significantly over the past 20 yr, with an emphasis on the discovery and description of novel taxa, and the establishment of phylogenetic frameworks for individual orders and their interrelationships. Tapeworms parasitizing elasmobranchs represent 9 orders and include 977 species and 201 genera-over 250 species and 50 genera are new within the last 2 decades. The 9 orders are treated individually, highlighting recent assessments of phylogenetic relationships informed by molecular sequence data. All but the "Tetraphyllidea" are monophyletic. Although much remains to be learned about their interrelationships, existing phylogenetic hypotheses suggest that elasmobranch tapeworms have played a key role in the evolution of the cestodes of essentially all other vertebrate groups. The apical organ is a defining feature (i.e., a synapomorphy) of a clade consisting of acetabulate taxa and Litobothriidea. Novel hook amino acid composition data support the independent origin of hooks in the various groups of hooked tapeworms. Cestode records exist for representatives of most of the major groups of elasmobranchs, however skates (Rajiformes) and catsharks ("Scyliorhinidae") are particularly neglected in terms of species sampled. The majority of tapeworm species are extremely host-specific exhibiting species-specific (i.e., oioxenous) associations with their hosts. Rapid advancements in elasmobranch taxonomy, with over 300 of the 1,200 species appearing new in the past 20 yr, signal the need for careful attention to be paid to host identifications; such identifications are best documented using a combination of specimen, photographic, and molecular data. Above the species level, many cestode taxa are restricted to host orders, families, or even genera. Documentation of these affiliations allows robust predictions to be made regarding the cestode faunas of unexplored elasmobranchs

  17. A digest of elasmobranch tapeworms.

    PubMed

    Caira, Janine N; Jensen, Kirsten

    2014-08-01

    This review brings together decades of work on elasmobranch tapeworms. The field has advanced significantly over the past 20 yr, with an emphasis on the discovery and description of novel taxa, and the establishment of phylogenetic frameworks for individual orders and their interrelationships. Tapeworms parasitizing elasmobranchs represent 9 orders and include 977 species and 201 genera-over 250 species and 50 genera are new within the last 2 decades. The 9 orders are treated individually, highlighting recent assessments of phylogenetic relationships informed by molecular sequence data. All but the "Tetraphyllidea" are monophyletic. Although much remains to be learned about their interrelationships, existing phylogenetic hypotheses suggest that elasmobranch tapeworms have played a key role in the evolution of the cestodes of essentially all other vertebrate groups. The apical organ is a defining feature (i.e., a synapomorphy) of a clade consisting of acetabulate taxa and Litobothriidea. Novel hook amino acid composition data support the independent origin of hooks in the various groups of hooked tapeworms. Cestode records exist for representatives of most of the major groups of elasmobranchs, however skates (Rajiformes) and catsharks ("Scyliorhinidae") are particularly neglected in terms of species sampled. The majority of tapeworm species are extremely host-specific exhibiting species-specific (i.e., oioxenous) associations with their hosts. Rapid advancements in elasmobranch taxonomy, with over 300 of the 1,200 species appearing new in the past 20 yr, signal the need for careful attention to be paid to host identifications; such identifications are best documented using a combination of specimen, photographic, and molecular data. Above the species level, many cestode taxa are restricted to host orders, families, or even genera. Documentation of these affiliations allows robust predictions to be made regarding the cestode faunas of unexplored elasmobranchs

  18. High-resolution melting analysis (HRM) for differentiation of four major Taeniidae species in dogs Taenia hydatigena, Taenia multiceps, Taenia ovis, and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Mansoureh; Mohammadi, Mohammad Ali; Rostami, Sima; Shamsaddini, Saeedeh; Mirbadie, Seyed Reza; Harandi, Majid Fasihi

    2016-07-01

    Tapeworms of the genus Taenia include several species of important parasites with considerable medical and veterinary significance. Accurate identification of these species in dogs is the prerequisite of any prevention and control program. Here, we have applied an efficient method for differentiating four major Taeniid species in dogs, i.e., Taenia hydatigena, T. multiceps, T. ovis, and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto. High-resolution melting (HRM) analysis is simpler, less expensive, and faster technique than conventional DNA-based assays and enables us to detect PCR amplicons in a closed system. Metacestode samples were collected from local abattoirs from sheep. All the isolates had already been identified by PCR-sequencing, and their sequence data were deposited in the GenBank. Real-time PCR coupled with HRM analysis targeting mitochondrial cox1 and ITS1 genes was used to differentiate taeniid species. Distinct melting curves were obtained from ITS1 region enabling accurate differentiation of three Taenia species and E. granulosus in dogs. The HRM curves of Taenia species and E .granulosus were clearly separated at Tm of 85 to 87 °C. In addition, double-pick melting curves were produced in mixed infections. Cox1 melting curves were not decisive enough to distinguish four taeniids. In this work, the efficiency of HRM analysis to differentiate four major taeniid species in dogs has been demonstrated using ITS1 gene. PMID:27008188

  19. Cysticercosis vaccine: cross protecting immunity with T. solium antigens against experimental murine T. crassiceps cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Sciutto, E; Fragoso, G; Trueba, L; Lemus, D; Montoya, R M; Diaz, M L; Govezensky, T; Lomeli, C; Tapia, G; Larralde, C

    1990-11-01

    Vaccination of mice with an antigen extract from Taenia solium cysticerci induced protection against challenge with T. crassiceps cysticerci as successfully as did antigen extracts from T. crassiceps. Vaccination was more effective in male than in female mice and in the resistant strain (BALB/B) more so than in the susceptible strain (BALB/c). While only the resistant strain was completely protected by vaccination, the parasite load of the susceptible strain was significantly reduced by vaccination. Cross immunity between the human and murine parasites establishes murine T. crassiceps cysticercosis as a convenient laboratory model in which to test promising T. solium antigens aimed at vaccine development against T. solium cysticercosis. Further, results point to strong interactions of the immune system with sexual and histocompatibility factors in the host's dealing with cysticercosis.

  20. Molecular identification of Taenia spp. in wolves (Canis lupus), brown bears (Ursus arctos) and cervids from North Europe and Alaska.

    PubMed

    Lavikainen, Antti; Laaksonen, Sauli; Beckmen, Kimberlee; Oksanen, Antti; Isomursu, Marja; Meri, Seppo

    2011-09-01

    Taenia tapeworms of Finnish and Swedish wolves (Canis lupus) and Finnish brown bears (Ursus arctos), and muscle cysticerci of Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus), Alaskan Grant's caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) and Alaskan moose (Alces americanus) were identified on the basis of the nucleotide sequence of a 396 bp region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene. Two species were found from wolves: Taenia hydatigena and Taenia krabbei. The cysticerci of reindeer, caribou and one moose also represented T. krabbei. Most of the cysticercal specimens from Alaskan moose, however, belonged to an unknown T. krabbei-like species, which had been reported previously from Eurasian elks (Alces alces) from Finland. Strobilate stages from two bears belonged to this species as well. The present results suggest that this novel Taenia sp. has a Holarctic distribution and uses Alces spp. as intermediate and ursids as final hosts. PMID:21571090

  1. Encysted Tenia solium larva of oral cavity: Case report with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamoorthy, Bhuvana; Suma, Gundareddy N; Dhillon, Manu; Srivastava, Siddharth; Sharma, Manisha Lakhanpal; Malik, Sangeeta Singh

    2012-01-01

    Cysticercosis is caused by the larvae of the pig tapeworm, Tenia solium. Oral cysticercosis is a rare event and is often a diagnostic challenge to the clinician. We report a 12-year-old girl who presented with a single, painless, nodule on the lower lip that was diagnosed as cysticercosis. Current literature on the clinical presentations, investigations, and treatment of the condition has been reviewed in this article. We have also proposed a set of criteria for the diagnosis of oral cysticercosis. PMID:23230370

  2. Effects of high pressure processing on hatching of eggs of the zoonotic rat tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta.

    PubMed

    Merwad, A M A; Mitchell, S M; Zajac, A M; Flick, G J; Lindsay, D S

    2011-03-10

    High hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) is an effective non-thermal treatment to remove pathogens from a variety of food and food products. It has been extensively examined using prokaryotic organisms but has had limited study on eukaryotic organisms. Treatment using HPP has been shown to be effective in inactivating nematode larvae in food and Ascaris suum eggs. Nothing is known on the efficacy of HPP on tapeworm cysts or eggs. Eggs of important zoonotic tapeworms including Echinococcus and Taenia spp. can potentially contaminate water and food intended for human consumption. The present study examined the efficacy of HPP on the viability of Hymenolepis diminuta eggs. Efficacy of HPP treatment was measured using an egg hatch assay in two experiments. One thousand unhatched H. diminuta eggs in Hanks balanced salt solution were packaged in sealable bags and exposed to 100-600megapascals (MPa; 1MPa=10atm=147psi) for 60s in a commercial HPP unit. Positive (no HPP) and negative (No HPP but frozen/thawed) controls were examined in each experiment. None of the HPP untreated and frozen eggs (negative controls) were able to hatch or exclude trypan blue when placed in the hatching solution in experiment 1 or 2. HPP untreated and nonfrozen eggs (positive controls) hatched and excluded trypan blue; 75% were positive in experiment 1 and 80% were positive in experiment 2. No hatched eggs were observed when they were exposed to 300-600MPa for 60s. Treatment at 400MPa and above caused rupturing of the oncosphere. Results from this study indicate that HPP is a possible method to inactivate tapeworm eggs and that the susceptibility of tapeworm eggs to HPP is similar to or greater than that of nematode eggs or tissue larvae.

  3. Immune response and protection elicited by DNA immunisation against Taenia cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-min; Sun, Shu-han; Hu, Zhen-lin; Wu, Dan; Wang, Zhong-chuan

    2003-04-01

    The study evaluated DNA vaccination in Taenia solium cysticercosis prevention by using cDNA of an antigen (cC1) from T. solium metacestode. pcDNA3-cC1 DNA vaccine was constructed by inserting the cDNA into the eukaryotic expression plasmid pcDNA3. Positive expression of the pcDNA3-cC1 product was confirmed by its transfection into COS7 cell and enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay using serum of pigs infected with T. solium metacestode. Immunisation of BALB/c mice with three injections of pcDNA3-cC1 induced antigen-specific immune responses of the Th1 phenotype. Inoculation of new-born pigs induced protection against challenge with T. solium by 73.3% reduction of the metacestode number. Antibodies elicited by DNA immunisation with pcDNA3-cC1 specifically reacted with native cC1 protein, which was mainly restricted to the cyst wall of T. solium metacestode. Positive apoptosis signals were also detected in the cyst wall cells of metacestode slices from pigs immunised with pcDNA3-cC1 by TUNEL staining method. Those suggested that apoptosis played a role in protecting pigs immunised with pcDNA3-cC1 nucleic acid vaccine from pathogen challenge.

  4. Simple Identification of Human Taenia Species by Multiplex Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification in Combination with Dot Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay.

    PubMed

    Nkouawa, Agathe; Sako, Yasuhito; Okamoto, Munehiro; Ito, Akira

    2016-06-01

    For differential detection of Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, and Taenia asiatica, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene has been recently developed and shown to be sensitive, specific, and effective. However, to achieve differential identification, one specimen requires three reaction mixtures containing a primer set of each Taenia species separately, which is complex and time consuming and increases the risk of cross-contamination. In this study, we developed a simple differential identification of human Taenia species using multiplex LAMP (mLAMP) in combination with dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-ELISA). Forward inner primers of T. solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), digoxigenin (DIG), and tetramethylrhodamine (TAMRA), respectively, and biotin-labeled backward inner primers were used in mLAMP. The mLAMP assay succeeded in specific amplification of each respective target gene in a single tube. Furthermore, the mLAMP product from each species was easily distinguished by dot-ELISA with an antibody specific for FITC, DIG, or TAMRA. The mLAMP assay in combination with dot-ELISA will make identification of human Taenia species simpler, easier, and more practical. PMID:27044566

  5. Simple Identification of Human Taenia Species by Multiplex Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification in Combination with Dot Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay.

    PubMed

    Nkouawa, Agathe; Sako, Yasuhito; Okamoto, Munehiro; Ito, Akira

    2016-06-01

    For differential detection of Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, and Taenia asiatica, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene has been recently developed and shown to be sensitive, specific, and effective. However, to achieve differential identification, one specimen requires three reaction mixtures containing a primer set of each Taenia species separately, which is complex and time consuming and increases the risk of cross-contamination. In this study, we developed a simple differential identification of human Taenia species using multiplex LAMP (mLAMP) in combination with dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-ELISA). Forward inner primers of T. solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), digoxigenin (DIG), and tetramethylrhodamine (TAMRA), respectively, and biotin-labeled backward inner primers were used in mLAMP. The mLAMP assay succeeded in specific amplification of each respective target gene in a single tube. Furthermore, the mLAMP product from each species was easily distinguished by dot-ELISA with an antibody specific for FITC, DIG, or TAMRA. The mLAMP assay in combination with dot-ELISA will make identification of human Taenia species simpler, easier, and more practical.

  6. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae)...

  7. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae)...

  8. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae)...

  9. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae)...

  10. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae)...

  11. Taenia eggs in a stabilization pond system with poor hydraulics: concern for human cysticercosis?

    PubMed

    Verbyla, Matthew E; Oakley, Stewart M; Lizima, Louis A; Zhang, Jie; Iriarte, Mercedes; Tejada-Martinez, Andres E; Mihelcic, James R

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the removal of Taenia eggs to the removal of Ascaris eggs in a wastewater stabilization pond system consisting of three ponds in series, where the hydraulic residence time distribution has been characterized via a tracer study supported by computational fluid dynamics modeling. Despite a theoretical hydraulic retention time of 30 days, the peak dye concentration was measured in the effluent of the first pond after only 26 hours. The smaller-sized Taenia eggs were detected in higher concentrations than Ascaris eggs in the raw wastewater. Ascaris eggs were not detected in the pond system effluent, but 45 Taenia eggs/L were detected in the system effluent. If some of these eggs were of the species Taenia solium, and if the treated wastewater were used for the irrigation of crops for human consumption, farmers and consumers could potentially be at risk for neurocysticercosis. Thus, limits for Taenia eggs in irrigation water should be established, and precautions should be taken in regions where pig taeniasis is endemic. The results of this study indicate that the theoretical hydraulic retention time (volume/flow) of a pond is not always a good surrogate for helminth egg removal. PMID:24355860

  12. Infection of Taenia asiatica in a Bai Person in Dali, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Luo, Xuenong; Hou, Junling; Guo, Aijiang; Zhang, Shaohua; Li, Hailong; Cai, Xuepeng

    2016-01-01

    We report here a human case of Taenia asiatica infection which was confirmed by genetic analyses in Dali, China. A patient was found to have symptoms of taeniasis with discharge of tapeworm proglottids. By sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene, we observed nucleotide sequence identity of 99% with T. asiatica and 96% with T. saginata. Using the cytochrome b (cytb) gene, 99% identity with T. asiatica and 96% identity with T. saginata were found. Our findings suggest that taeniasis of people in Dali, China may be mainly caused by T. asiatica. PMID:26951981

  13. Infection of Taenia asiatica in a Bai Person in Dali, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Luo, Xuenong; Hou, Junling; Guo, Aijiang; Zhang, Shaohua; Li, Hailong; Cai, Xuepeng

    2016-02-01

    We report here a human case of Taenia asiatica infection which was confirmed by genetic analyses in Dali, China. A patient was found to have symptoms of taeniasis with discharge of tapeworm proglottids. By sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene, we observed nucleotide sequence identity of 99% with T. asiatica and 96% with T. saginata. Using the cytochrome b (cytb) gene, 99% identity with T. asiatica and 96% identity with T. saginata were found. Our findings suggest that taeniasis of people in Dali, China may be mainly caused by T. asiatica. PMID:26951981

  14. Taeniasis among Refugees Living on Thailand-Myanmar Border, 2012.

    PubMed

    McCleery, Ellen J; Patchanee, Prapas; Pongsopawijit, Pornsawan; Chailangkarn, Sasisophin; Tiwananthagorn, Saruda; Jongchansittoe, Papaspong; Dantrakool, Anchalee; Morakote, Nimit; Phyu, Hnin; Wilkins, Patricia P; Noh, John C; Phares, Christina; O'Neal, Seth

    2015-10-01

    We tested refugee camp residents on the Thailand-Myanmar border for Taenia solium infection. Taeniasis prevalence was consistent with that for other disease-endemic regions, but seropositivity indicating T. solium taeniasis was rare. Seropositivity indicating cysticercosis was 5.5% in humans, and 3.2% in pigs. Corralling pigs and providing latrines may control transmission of these tapeworms within this camp.

  15. Treatment of taeniasis with Puag-Haad: a crude extract of Artocarpus lakoocha wood.

    PubMed

    Charoenlarp, P; Radomyos, P; Harinasuta, T

    1981-12-01

    Thirty-nine patients with tapeworm infection were treated with five grams of crude aqueous extract of Artocarpus lakoocha wood, "Puag-Haad". Seven of them vomited the drug immediately. Of the 32 patients, segments with scolices of Taenia saginata and of Taenia solium were recovered from 24 and 2 patients respectively. The side effects were vomiting and nausea.

  16. First report of Taenia arctos (Cestoda: Taeniidae) from grizzly (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears (Ursus americanus) in North America.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Stefano; Lejeune, Manigandan; Verocai, Guilherme G; Duignan, Pádraig J

    2014-04-01

    The cestode Taenia arctos was found at necropsy in the small intestine of a grizzly (Ursus arctos horribilis) and a black bear (Ursus americanus) from Kananaskis Country in southwestern Alberta, Canada. The autolysis of the tapeworm specimens precluded detailed morphological characterization of the parasites but molecular analysis based on mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene confirmed their identity as T. arctos. This is the first report of T. arctos from definitive hosts in North America. Its detection in Canadian grizzly and black bears further supports the Holarctic distribution of this tapeworm species and its specificity for ursids as final hosts. Previously, T. arctos was unambiguously described at its adult stage in brown bears (Ursus arctos arctos) from Finland, and as larval stages in Eurasian elk (Alces alces) from Finland and moose (Alces americanus) from Alaska, USA. Given the morphological similarity between T. arctos and other Taenia species, the present study underlines the potential for misidentification of tapeworm taxa in previous parasitological reports from bears and moose across North America. The biogeographical history of both definitive and intermediate hosts in the Holarctic suggests an ancient interaction between U. arctos, Alces spp., and T. arctos, and a relatively recent host-switching event in U. americanus.

  17. First report of Taenia arctos (Cestoda: Taeniidae) from grizzly (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears (Ursus americanus) in North America.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Stefano; Lejeune, Manigandan; Verocai, Guilherme G; Duignan, Pádraig J

    2014-04-01

    The cestode Taenia arctos was found at necropsy in the small intestine of a grizzly (Ursus arctos horribilis) and a black bear (Ursus americanus) from Kananaskis Country in southwestern Alberta, Canada. The autolysis of the tapeworm specimens precluded detailed morphological characterization of the parasites but molecular analysis based on mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene confirmed their identity as T. arctos. This is the first report of T. arctos from definitive hosts in North America. Its detection in Canadian grizzly and black bears further supports the Holarctic distribution of this tapeworm species and its specificity for ursids as final hosts. Previously, T. arctos was unambiguously described at its adult stage in brown bears (Ursus arctos arctos) from Finland, and as larval stages in Eurasian elk (Alces alces) from Finland and moose (Alces americanus) from Alaska, USA. Given the morphological similarity between T. arctos and other Taenia species, the present study underlines the potential for misidentification of tapeworm taxa in previous parasitological reports from bears and moose across North America. The biogeographical history of both definitive and intermediate hosts in the Holarctic suggests an ancient interaction between U. arctos, Alces spp., and T. arctos, and a relatively recent host-switching event in U. americanus. PMID:24382413

  18. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and wild dogs (dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) and dingo/domestic dog hybrids), as sylvatic hosts for Australian Taenia hydatigena and Taenia ovis

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, David J.; Urwin, Nigel A.R.; Williams, Thomas M.; Mitchell, Kate L.; Lievaart, Jan J.; Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Foxes (n = 499), shot during vertebrate pest control programs, were collected in various sites in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), New South Wales (NSW) and Western Australia (WA). Wild dogs (dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) and their hybrids with domestic dogs) (n = 52) captured also as part of vertebrate pest control programs were collected from several sites in the ACT and NSW. The intestine from each fox and wild dog was collected, and all Taenia tapeworms identified morphologically were collected and identified to species based on the DNA sequence of the small subunit of the mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (rrnS) gene. Taenia species were recovered from 6.0% of the ACT/NSW foxes, 5.1% of WA foxes and 46.1% of ACT/NSW wild dogs. Taenia ovis was recovered from two foxes, 1/80 from Jugiong, NSW and 1/102 from Katanning, WA. We confirm from rrnS sequences the presence of T. ovis in cysts from hearts and diaphragms and Taeniahydatigena in cysts from livers of sheep in Australia. T.ovis was not recovered from any of the wild dogs examined but T. hydatigena were recovered from 4(8.3%) wild dogs and a single fox. With foxes identified as a definitive host for T. ovis in Australia, new control strategies to stop transmission of T. ovis to sheep need to be adopted. PMID:25161904

  19. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and wild dogs (dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) and dingo/domestic dog hybrids), as sylvatic hosts for Australian Taenia hydatigena and Taenia ovis.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David J; Urwin, Nigel A R; Williams, Thomas M; Mitchell, Kate L; Lievaart, Jan J; Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa

    2014-08-01

    Foxes (n = 499), shot during vertebrate pest control programs, were collected in various sites in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), New South Wales (NSW) and Western Australia (WA). Wild dogs (dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) and their hybrids with domestic dogs) (n = 52) captured also as part of vertebrate pest control programs were collected from several sites in the ACT and NSW. The intestine from each fox and wild dog was collected, and all Taenia tapeworms identified morphologically were collected and identified to species based on the DNA sequence of the small subunit of the mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (rrnS) gene. Taenia species were recovered from 6.0% of the ACT/NSW foxes, 5.1% of WA foxes and 46.1% of ACT/NSW wild dogs. Taenia ovis was recovered from two foxes, 1/80 from Jugiong, NSW and 1/102 from Katanning, WA. We confirm from rrnS sequences the presence of T. ovis in cysts from hearts and diaphragms and T aenia hydatigena in cysts from livers of sheep in Australia. T. ovis was not recovered from any of the wild dogs examined but T. hydatigena were recovered from 4(8.3%) wild dogs and a single fox. With foxes identified as a definitive host for T. ovis in Australia, new control strategies to stop transmission of T. ovis to sheep need to be adopted. PMID:25161904

  20. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and wild dogs (dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) and dingo/domestic dog hybrids), as sylvatic hosts for Australian Taenia hydatigena and Taenia ovis.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David J; Urwin, Nigel A R; Williams, Thomas M; Mitchell, Kate L; Lievaart, Jan J; Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa

    2014-08-01

    Foxes (n = 499), shot during vertebrate pest control programs, were collected in various sites in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), New South Wales (NSW) and Western Australia (WA). Wild dogs (dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) and their hybrids with domestic dogs) (n = 52) captured also as part of vertebrate pest control programs were collected from several sites in the ACT and NSW. The intestine from each fox and wild dog was collected, and all Taenia tapeworms identified morphologically were collected and identified to species based on the DNA sequence of the small subunit of the mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (rrnS) gene. Taenia species were recovered from 6.0% of the ACT/NSW foxes, 5.1% of WA foxes and 46.1% of ACT/NSW wild dogs. Taenia ovis was recovered from two foxes, 1/80 from Jugiong, NSW and 1/102 from Katanning, WA. We confirm from rrnS sequences the presence of T. ovis in cysts from hearts and diaphragms and T aenia hydatigena in cysts from livers of sheep in Australia. T. ovis was not recovered from any of the wild dogs examined but T. hydatigena were recovered from 4(8.3%) wild dogs and a single fox. With foxes identified as a definitive host for T. ovis in Australia, new control strategies to stop transmission of T. ovis to sheep need to be adopted.

  1. Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis: humoral immune response and protection elicited by DNA immunization.

    PubMed

    Rosas, G; Cruz-Revilla, C; Fragoso, G; López-Casillas, F; Pérez, A; Bonilla, M A; Rosales, R; Sciutto, E

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate DNA vaccination in cysticercosis prevention by using a Taenia crassiceps cDNA of a recombinant antigen (KETc7) that has been reported as protective against murine cysticercosis. The KETc7 cDNA was cloned into the pcDNA3 plasmid alone or with the betaglycan signal peptide sequence (pTc-7 and pTc-sp7, respectively). Positive expression of the pTc-sp7 product was confirmed by transfection of C33 cells and immunofluorescence using sera of mice infected with T. crassiceps. Immunization of mice with 3 injections of pTc-sp7 DNA at the higher dose (200 microg) was the most effective to induce antibody with or without bupivacaine. Immunization with pTc-sp7 induced protection against challenge with T. crassiceps cysticerci as successfully as previously observed with the KETc7 recombinant protein. Antibodies elicited by DNA immunization with pTc-sp7 specifically reacted with the native protein of 56 kDa previously reported, which is immunolocalized in the tegument of T. crassiceps cysticerci. The 56-kDa antigen is also present in Taenia solium oncospheres, cysticerci, and adult tissue. The protection induced in DNA-immunized mice and the observation that the injected plasmid remains as an episomic form within muscle cells, encouraged us to continue testing this procedure to prevent T. solium cysticercosis.

  2. Transcriptome profiling of the cysticercus stage of the laboratory model Taenia crassiceps, strain ORF.

    PubMed

    García-Montoya, Gisela M; Mesa-Arango, Jairo A; Isaza-Agudelo, Juan P; Agudelo-Lopez, Sonia P; Cabarcas, Felipe; Barrera, Luis F; Alzate, Juan F

    2016-02-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NC) is a serious public health problem mainly in developing countries. NC caused by the cysticercus stage from cestode Taenia solium is considered by the WHO and ITFDE as a potentially eradicable disease. Definitive diagnosis of NC is challenging because of the unspecific clinical manifestations such as the non-definitive evidence presented by neuroimaging (in most cases) and the lack of definitive serological test. Taenia crassiceps (ORF strain) is a cestode closely related to T. solium and it has frequently been used as a source of antigens for immunodiagnostics. A murine model to study host immune response to infection has also been established by using T. crassiceps. Despite the extensive use of T. crassiceps for research, molecular information for this cestode is scarce in public databases. With the aim of providing more extensive information on T. crassiceps biology, an RNA-seq experiment and subsequent bioinformatic transcriptome processing of this cestode parasite mRNA in its cysticercus stage were carried out. A total of 227,082 read/ESTs were sequenced using the 454-GS FLX Titanium technology and assembled into 10,787 contigs. This transcriptome dataset represents new and valuable molecular information of the cestode T. crassiceps (ORF). This information will substantially improve public information and will help to achieve a better understanding of the biology of T. crassiceps and to identify target proteins for serodiagnosis and vaccination. PMID:26571070

  3. Transcriptome profiling of the cysticercus stage of the laboratory model Taenia crassiceps, strain ORF.

    PubMed

    García-Montoya, Gisela M; Mesa-Arango, Jairo A; Isaza-Agudelo, Juan P; Agudelo-Lopez, Sonia P; Cabarcas, Felipe; Barrera, Luis F; Alzate, Juan F

    2016-02-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NC) is a serious public health problem mainly in developing countries. NC caused by the cysticercus stage from cestode Taenia solium is considered by the WHO and ITFDE as a potentially eradicable disease. Definitive diagnosis of NC is challenging because of the unspecific clinical manifestations such as the non-definitive evidence presented by neuroimaging (in most cases) and the lack of definitive serological test. Taenia crassiceps (ORF strain) is a cestode closely related to T. solium and it has frequently been used as a source of antigens for immunodiagnostics. A murine model to study host immune response to infection has also been established by using T. crassiceps. Despite the extensive use of T. crassiceps for research, molecular information for this cestode is scarce in public databases. With the aim of providing more extensive information on T. crassiceps biology, an RNA-seq experiment and subsequent bioinformatic transcriptome processing of this cestode parasite mRNA in its cysticercus stage were carried out. A total of 227,082 read/ESTs were sequenced using the 454-GS FLX Titanium technology and assembled into 10,787 contigs. This transcriptome dataset represents new and valuable molecular information of the cestode T. crassiceps (ORF). This information will substantially improve public information and will help to achieve a better understanding of the biology of T. crassiceps and to identify target proteins for serodiagnosis and vaccination.

  4. Taenia hydatigena cysticercosis in slaughtered pigs, goats, and sheep in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Kabululu, Mwemezi; Nørmark, Michelle Elisabeth; Nejsum, Peter; Ngowi, Helena Aminel; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2015-12-01

    Few studies have been carried out in Africa to estimate the prevalence of Taenia hydatigena. With the aim to determine the prevalence of T. hydatigena in slaughtered pigs and small ruminants (goats and sheep) in Mbeya, Tanzania, two cross-sectional surveys were carried out investigating pigs in April to May 2014 and small ruminants in September 2012. In total, 243 pigs were examined post-mortem for T. hydatigena cysts which were found in 16 (6.6 %) pigs. The majority (80 %) of cysts were found on the omentum and the rest on the liver (20 %), all on the visceral surface. Two pigs were also found infected with Taenia solium but showed no signs of other infections. A total of 392 goats and 27 sheep were examined post-mortem, and the prevalence of T. hydatigena was similar in goats and sheep with 45.7 and 51.9 %, respectively. DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) from a subsample of metacestodes from goats and sheep confirmed the T. hydatigena infection. The prevalence found in small ruminants was comparable to other studies conducted in Africa, but for pigs, it is one of the highest recorded to date. The present study also confirms the occurrence of T. hydatigena and T. solium in pigs from Mbeya. Further studies are needed to determine the impact of T. hydatigena on production under sub-Saharan conditions and the financial consequences for smallholder farmers.

  5. Solo Schistocephalus solidus tapeworms are nasty.

    PubMed

    Nordeide, Jarle Tryti; Matos, Felipe

    2016-09-01

    Trophically transmitted parasites must trade-off own growth on one hand and energy drain from the intermediate host on the other hand, since killing the host before transmission to the next host is a dead end for both parasites and hosts. This challenge becomes especially intriguing when multiple parasites find themselves within the same individual host. The tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus may gain more than 98% of its final body mass within few months infecting its three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) intermediate host. During these months the tapeworms may achieve a mass even larger than its host. We studied virulence of single and multiple infections of S. solidus, by comparing body condition of wild stickleback hosts in two perennial stickleback populations located at high latitudes, and each population was studied in two different years. Our results demonstrated multiple compared with single infections to be a highly significant predictor of the condition of stickleback hosts, with multiple-infected hosts having relatively higher body condition. However, this applied only after adjusting for parasite mass, which was another significant predictor for host condition. Thus, our results suggested that, at a given parasite mass, S. solidus was more harmful towards their host's body condition in single compared with multiple infections. PMID:27221770

  6. Taenia spp. infections in wildlife in the Bangweulu and Kafue flood plains ecosystems of Zambia.

    PubMed

    Muma, J B; Gabriël, S; Munyeme, M; Munang'andu, H M; Victor, B; Dorny, P; Nalubamba, K S; Siamudaala, V; Mwape, K E

    2014-09-15

    Taenia spp. have an indirect life cycle, cycling between a definitive and an intermediate host with zoonotic species causing public health problems in many developing countries. During the course of 2 separate surveys in Zambia (2004 and 2009), the presence of Taenia larval stages (cysticerci) was examined in Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis), Black lechwe (Kobus leche smithermani) and other wildlife species from the Kafue and Bangweulu flood plains. Examinations involved post-mortem inspection and serum specific antigen detection. The recovered cysts from seven carcasses were characterised using PCR and DNA sequence analysis. The overall proportion of infection in wildlife on post-mortem examination was 19.0% (95% CI: 9.1-29.0%). The proportion of infected wildlife based on post-mortem examinations in the Kafue flood plains was estimated at 28.6% (95% CI: 13.3-43.9%), while the seroprevalence was estimated at 25.0% (95% CI: 2.9-47.1%). The seroprevalence for cattle in the Kafue flood plains was estimated at 61.5% (95% CI: 42.0-81.0%) while that of Kafue lechwe in the same ecosystem was estimated at 66.6% (95% CI: 45.6-85.7%). Infection rates were higher in Kafue lechwe than in Black lechwe suggesting differences in the exposure patterns. The sequencing results indicated that none of the recovered cysts were either Taenia solium or Taenia saginata. We therefore conclude they most likely belong to a less studied (wildlife) Taenia species that requires further characterisation. PMID:25090953

  7. Taenia spp. infections in wildlife in the Bangweulu and Kafue flood plains ecosystems of Zambia.

    PubMed

    Muma, J B; Gabriël, S; Munyeme, M; Munang'andu, H M; Victor, B; Dorny, P; Nalubamba, K S; Siamudaala, V; Mwape, K E

    2014-09-15

    Taenia spp. have an indirect life cycle, cycling between a definitive and an intermediate host with zoonotic species causing public health problems in many developing countries. During the course of 2 separate surveys in Zambia (2004 and 2009), the presence of Taenia larval stages (cysticerci) was examined in Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis), Black lechwe (Kobus leche smithermani) and other wildlife species from the Kafue and Bangweulu flood plains. Examinations involved post-mortem inspection and serum specific antigen detection. The recovered cysts from seven carcasses were characterised using PCR and DNA sequence analysis. The overall proportion of infection in wildlife on post-mortem examination was 19.0% (95% CI: 9.1-29.0%). The proportion of infected wildlife based on post-mortem examinations in the Kafue flood plains was estimated at 28.6% (95% CI: 13.3-43.9%), while the seroprevalence was estimated at 25.0% (95% CI: 2.9-47.1%). The seroprevalence for cattle in the Kafue flood plains was estimated at 61.5% (95% CI: 42.0-81.0%) while that of Kafue lechwe in the same ecosystem was estimated at 66.6% (95% CI: 45.6-85.7%). Infection rates were higher in Kafue lechwe than in Black lechwe suggesting differences in the exposure patterns. The sequencing results indicated that none of the recovered cysts were either Taenia solium or Taenia saginata. We therefore conclude they most likely belong to a less studied (wildlife) Taenia species that requires further characterisation.

  8. Unusual clinical case: extraluminal manifestation of a tapeworm from the eviscerated midline incision in a post-surgery patient.

    PubMed

    Dural, Ahmet Cem; Celik, Muhammet Ferhat; Temizgonul, Baha; Unsal, Mustafa Gokhan; Akarsu, Cevher; Gonenc, Murat; Kalayci, Mustafa Uygar; Alis, Halil

    2015-04-01

    Taenia saginata infestation is one of the most common cestode infestations in humans, that may cause gastrointestinal tract related complications as a result of obstruction, perforation or anastomotic leakage. A 55-year-old male patient who was receiving palliative chemotherapy for stage IV gastric cancer was admitted to the emergency department for abdominal pain. A hollow viscus organ perforation was diagnosed and an emergency surgery was performed. On postoperative day 5, the patient's midline incision eviscerated and a moving taenia emerged, with abundant particulated fluid from the incision line. The patient was admitted for abdominal surgery due to suspected bowel perforation. During the abdominal exploration, a relaxed purse stitch of the feeding tube was observed and no other bowel perforations were seen. The patient underwent two planned surgery for abdominal cavity lavage after the removal of cestode. Unfortunately, the patient died sixteen days after his admission to the intensive care unit. This is the first case describing an extraluminal manifestation of a tapeworm in a midline incision from evisceration without intestinal perforation.

  9. Unusual clinical case: extraluminal manifestation of a tapeworm from the eviscerated midline incision in a post-surgery patient.

    PubMed

    Dural, Ahmet Cem; Celik, Muhammet Ferhat; Temizgonul, Baha; Unsal, Mustafa Gokhan; Akarsu, Cevher; Gonenc, Murat; Kalayci, Mustafa Uygar; Alis, Halil

    2015-04-01

    Taenia saginata infestation is one of the most common cestode infestations in humans, that may cause gastrointestinal tract related complications as a result of obstruction, perforation or anastomotic leakage. A 55-year-old male patient who was receiving palliative chemotherapy for stage IV gastric cancer was admitted to the emergency department for abdominal pain. A hollow viscus organ perforation was diagnosed and an emergency surgery was performed. On postoperative day 5, the patient's midline incision eviscerated and a moving taenia emerged, with abundant particulated fluid from the incision line. The patient was admitted for abdominal surgery due to suspected bowel perforation. During the abdominal exploration, a relaxed purse stitch of the feeding tube was observed and no other bowel perforations were seen. The patient underwent two planned surgery for abdominal cavity lavage after the removal of cestode. Unfortunately, the patient died sixteen days after his admission to the intensive care unit. This is the first case describing an extraluminal manifestation of a tapeworm in a midline incision from evisceration without intestinal perforation. PMID:25881535

  10. Checklist of tapeworms (Platyhelminthes, Cestoda) of vertebrates in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Haukisalmi, Voitto

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A checklist of tapeworms (Cestoda) of vertebrates (fishes, birds and mammals) in Finland is presented, based on published observations, specimens deposited in the collections of the Finnish Museum of Natural History (Helsinki) and the Zoological Museum of the University of Turku, and additional specimens identified by the present author. The checklist includes 170 tapeworm species from 151 host species, comprising 447 parasite species/host species combinations. Thirty of the tapeworm species and 96 of the parasite/host species combinations have not been previously reported from Finland. The total number of tapeworm species in Finland (170 spp.) is significantly lower than the corresponding figure for the Iberian Peninsula (257 spp.), Slovakia (225 spp.) and Poland (279 spp.). The difference between Finland and the other three regions is particularly pronounced for anseriform, podicipediform, charadriiform and passeriform birds, reflecting inadequate and/or biased sampling of these birds in Finland. It is predicted that there are actually ca. 270 species of tapeworms in Finland, assuming that true number of bird tapeworms in Finland corresponds to that in other European countries with more comprehensive knowledge of the local tapeworm fauna. The other main pattern emerging from the present data is the seemingly unexplained absence in (northern) Fennoscandia of several mammalian tapeworms that otherwise have extensive distributions in the Holarctic region or in Eurasia, including the northern regions. Previously unknown type specimens, that is, the holotype of Bothrimonus nylandicus Schneider, 1902 (a junior synonym of Diplocotyle olrikii Krabbe, 1874) (MZH 127096) and the syntypes of Caryophyllaeides fennica (Schneider, 1902) (MZH 127097) were located in the collections of the Finnish Museum of Natural History. PMID:26668540

  11. Genetic variability of Taenia saginata inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Rostami, Sima; Salavati, Reza; Beech, Robin N; Babaei, Zahra; Sharbatkhori, Mitra; Harandi, Majid Fasihi

    2015-04-01

    Taenia saginata is an important tapeworm, infecting humans in many parts of the world. The present study was undertaken to identify inter- and intraspecific variation of T. saginata isolated from cattle in different parts of Iran using two mitochondrial CO1 and 12S rRNA genes. Up to 105 bovine specimens of T. saginata were collected from 20 slaughterhouses in three provinces of Iran. DNA were extracted from the metacestode Cysticercus bovis. After PCR amplification, sequencing of CO1 and 12S rRNA genes were carried out and two phylogenetic analyses of the sequence data were generated by Bayesian inference on CO1 and 12S rRNA sequences. Sequence analyses of CO1 and 12S rRNA genes showed 11 and 29 representative profiles respectively. The level of pairwise nucleotide variation between individual haplotypes of CO1 gene was 0.3-2.4% while the overall nucleotide variation among all 11 haplotypes was 4.6%. For 12S rRNA sequence data, level of pairwise nucleotide variation was 0.2-2.5% and the overall nucleotide variation was determined as 5.8% among 29 haplotypes of 12S rRNA gene. Considerable genetic diversity was found in both mitochondrial genes particularly in 12S rRNA gene. PMID:25687521

  12. Genotypic relationships between Taenia saginata, Taenia asiatica and their hybrids.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Kanako; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Li, Tiaoying; Chen, Xingwang; Dekumyoy, Paron; Waikagul, Jitra; Nkouawa, Agathe; Nakao, Minoru; Sako, Yasuhito; Ito, Akira; Sato, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Munehiro

    2013-11-01

    Partial sequences of the DNA polymerase delta (pold) gene from Taenia saginata-like adult worms were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that pold gene sequences were clearly divided into two clades, differing from each other in five to seven nucleotides. There is little doubt that T. saginata and Taenia asiatica were once separated into two distinct taxa as has been concluded in previous studies. On the other hand, most of the adult worms, which were identified as T. asiatica using mitochondrial DNA, were homozygous for an allele that originated from the allele of T. saginata via single nucleotide substitution. These results indicate that most of the adult worms, which had been called T. asiatica, are not actually 'pure T. asiatica' but instead originated from the hybridization of 'pure T. saginata' and 'pure T. asiatica'. PMID:24112449

  13. The present situation of human taeniases and cysticercosis in Asia.

    PubMed

    Ito, Akira; Wandra, Toni; Li, Tiaoying; Dekumyoy, Paron; Nkouawa, Agathe; Okamoto, Munehiro; Budke, Christine M

    2014-01-01

    Three human Taenia species, Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, and Taenia asiatica, are endemic in rural regions of Asia, with these species sympatrically distributed in parts of Thailand and China. The pork tapeworm, T. solium, is the most pathogenic to humans, causing cysticercosis and neurocysticercosis (NCC). Due to its public health impact, T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is one of 17 neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) prioritized by the World Health Organization. In this review, the current status of taeniasis and NCC in several Asian countries will be presented as will possible prevention and control strategies. Among the known T. solium endemic areas in Asia, Bali, Indonesia is of high importance due to the risk of tourists becoming infected. Therefore, special attention will be given to ongoing control initiatives in Bali. PMID:25858304

  14. Fish tapeworm infections (diphyllobothriasis) in Canada, particularly British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Ching, H L

    1984-05-01

    Although the risk of diphyllobothriasis is generally low in Canada, fish tapeworm infections seem to have become more frequent in recent years. This increase is probably a consequence of the growing popularity of raw or inadequately cooked ethnic fish dishes or of a preference for lightly cooked fish, especially salmon. Only freshwater fish become infected with the larvae, but not everyone may realize that salmon can acquire the parasites before they leave their native lakes and rivers for the sea. If fish known to be sources of the tapeworms are to be eaten raw they should first be well frozen or salted to kill the larvae. Physicians should regard fish tapeworm infection as a notifiable disease. In Canada niclosamide, the drug of choice, is available from the manufacturer on a patient-by-patient basis. PMID:6713334

  15. Cysticercosis of the oral cavity: an often misdiagnosed entity.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, B; Krishnaraj, S; Agrawal, K; Soundararagavan, J

    2008-09-01

    We present a case report of a single lesion of cysticercosis cellulosae, a parasitic infection caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium (pork tapeworm), presenting as a soft tissue swelling of the lower lip. We stress the importance of knowledge about oral manifestations of parasitic infections. PMID:17640427

  16. Taeniasis among Refugees Living on Thailand-Myanmar Border, 2012.

    PubMed

    McCleery, Ellen J; Patchanee, Prapas; Pongsopawijit, Pornsawan; Chailangkarn, Sasisophin; Tiwananthagorn, Saruda; Jongchansittoe, Papaspong; Dantrakool, Anchalee; Morakote, Nimit; Phyu, Hnin; Wilkins, Patricia P; Noh, John C; Phares, Christina; O'Neal, Seth

    2015-10-01

    We tested refugee camp residents on the Thailand-Myanmar border for Taenia solium infection. Taeniasis prevalence was consistent with that for other disease-endemic regions, but seropositivity indicating T. solium taeniasis was rare. Seropositivity indicating cysticercosis was 5.5% in humans, and 3.2% in pigs. Corralling pigs and providing latrines may control transmission of these tapeworms within this camp. PMID:26401787

  17. Taeniasis among Refugees Living on Thailand–Myanmar Border, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Patchanee, Prapas; Pongsopawijit, Pornsawan; Chailangkarn, Sasisophin; Tiwananthagorn, Saruda; Jongchansittoe, Papaspong; Dantrakool, Anchalee; Morakote, Nimit; Phyu, Hnin; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Noh, John C.; Phares, Christina; O’Neal, Seth

    2015-01-01

    We tested refugee camp residents on the Thailand–Myanmar border for Taenia solium infection. Taeniasis prevalence was consistent with that for other disease-endemic regions, but seropositivity indicating T. solium taeniasis was rare. Seropositivity indicating cysticercosis was 5.5% in humans, and 3.2% in pigs. Corralling pigs and providing latrines may control transmission of these tapeworms within this camp. PMID:26401787

  18. Taeniases and cysticercosis in Indonesia: past and present situations.

    PubMed

    Wandra, Toni; Ito, Akira; Swastika, Kadek; Dharmawan, Nyoman S; Sako, Yasuhito; Okamoto, Munehiro

    2013-11-01

    The main aim of this study is to overview the past and present situations of human taeniases and cysticercosis in Indonesia and including future perspectives. Through joint projects from 1996, we have confirmed the occurrence of Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm) in Bali, of Taenia solium (pork tapeworm) mainly in Papua and sporadically in Bali, and of Taenia asiatica in North Sumatra. These taeniases were caused through eating uncooked pork and pig viscera for T. solium and T. asiatica, respectively, and beef for T. saginata. The distribution of these tapeworms in Indonesia is basically highly restricted by the traditional cultural and religious backgrounds in each island. T. saginata is relatively common in Bali although people consume pork 'lawar' more than beef 'lawar'. Taeniases due to T. saginata or T. asiatica and T. solium and cysticercosis due to T. solium have also been sporadically reported in some other islands. Among these species, T. solium is exceptional since humans can be infected not only by larval stages (cysticerci) in pork but also by eggs released from human tapeworm carriers. Cysticercosis has been confirmed in Indonesia in humans, pigs and even dogs. PMID:23965293

  19. Evaluation of an antigen from Taenia crassiceps cysticercus for the serodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Peralta, Regina H S; Vaz, Adelaide J; Pardini, Alessandra; Macedo, Heloísa W; Machado, Luis R; De Simone, Salvatori G; Peralta, José M

    2002-08-01

    We report here the evaluation of an antigen from Taenia crassiceps cysticercus as a potential reagent in an enzyme-immunoelectrotransfer blotting assay (EITB) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the serodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NC) using clinical specimens obtained from patients in different phases of the disease. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 64 patients suspected of having NC according to clinical manifestation and brain computed tomography were tested by ELISA with Taenia solium total saline antigen (ELISA-Tso) and by immunoblotting with T. crassiceps glycoproteins antigen (EITB-gpTcra). Forty-five serum samples were also tested immunoblotting with T. solium glycoproteins antigen (EITB-gpTso) and 30 were tested by ELISA with T. crassiceps 14 kDa glycoprotein (ELISA-gp14Tcra). Serum samples from apparently healthy individuals without any parasitic disease and from patients with other parasitic diseases were included as controls. The results of ELISA-Tso analysis with CSF obtained from 64 patients with NC showed that 53 (83%) were reactive. EITB-gpTcra analysis with serum from the same group of patients showed a sensitivity of 91%. Results of EITB-gpTso and EITB-gpTcra analysis with serum samples demonstrated an agreement of 100% between both tests. ELISA-gp14Tcra was positive in 23 (77%) sera, 22 with paired CSF positive. When ELISA-gp14Tcra results were compared to EITB-Tso results, a relative sensitivity of 95% was observed. All serum samples from the control group were negative in ELISA-gp14Tcra and only one serum from an individual with Taenia saginata was reactive in this assay, showing a specificity of 99% for ELISA-gp14Tcra. This fraction was purified in only one step with a good yield for use in immunoassays. We suggest that the gp14Tcra antigen can be used for detecting anti-cysticercus antibodies in serum samples for epidemiological investigation purposes and also for diagnostic screening of NC patients.

  20. The Influence of Socio-economic, Behavioural and Environmental Factors on Taenia spp. Transmission in Western Kenya: Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Survey in Humans and Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Wardrop, Nicola A.; Thomas, Lian F.; Atkinson, Peter M.; de Glanville, William A.; Cook, Elizabeth A. J.; Wamae, C. Njeri; Gabriël, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Harrison, Leslie J. S.; Fèvre, Eric M.

    2015-01-01

    Taenia spp. infections, particularly cysticercosis, cause considerable health impacts in endemic countries. Despite previous evidence of spatial clustering in cysticercosis and the role of environmental factors (e.g. temperature and humidity) in the survival of eggs, little research has explored these aspects of Taenia spp. epidemiology. In addition, there are significant gaps in our understanding of risk factors for infection in humans and pigs. This study aimed to assess the influence of socio-economic, behavioural and environmental variables on human and porcine cysticercosis. A cross-sectional survey for human taeniasis (T. solium and T. saginata), human cysticercosis (T. solium) and pig cysticercosis (T. solium) in 416 households in western Kenya was carried out. These data were linked to questionnaire responses and environmental datasets. Multi-level regression was used to examine the relationships between covariates and human and porcine cysticercosis. The HP10 Ag-ELISA sero-prevalence (suggestive of cysticercosis) was 6.6% for humans (95% CI 5.6%–7.7%), and 17.2% for pigs (95% CI 10.2%–26.4%). Human taeniasis prevalence, based on direct microscopic observation of Taenia spp. eggs (i.e. via microscopy results only) was 0.2% (95% CI 0.05%–0.5%). Presence of Taenia spp. antigen in both humans and pigs was significantly associated with a range of factors, including positive correlations with land cover. The presence of HP10 antigen in humans was correlated (non-linearly) with the proportion of land within a 1 km buffer that was flooding agricultural land and grassland (odds ratio [OR] = 1.09 and 0.998; p = 0.03 and 0.03 for the linear and quadratic terms respectively), gender (OR = 0.58 for males compared to females, p = 0.02), level of education (OR = 0.62 for primary level education versus no formal education, p = 0.09), use of well water for drinking (OR = 2.76 for those who use well water versus those who do not, p = 0.02) and precipitation (OR = 0

  1. Photoreactivating enzyme activity in the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta

    SciTech Connect

    Woodhead, A.D.; Achey, P.M.

    1981-06-01

    There has been considerable speculation about the occurrence of photoreactivating enzyme in different organisms and about its biological purpose. We have developed a simple, sensitive assay for estimating pyrimidine dimers in DNA which is useful in making a rapid survey for the presence of the enzyme. Using this method, we have found photoreactivating enzyme activity in the tissues of the rat tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta. This parasite spends the majority of its life span in the bodies of its definitive or intermediate hosts, but a period is spent externally. We suggest that photoreactivating enzyme may be important in preserving the integrity of embryonic DNA during this free-living stage.

  2. Photoreactivating enzyme activity in the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta

    SciTech Connect

    Woodhead, A.D.; Achey, P.M.

    1981-01-01

    There has been considerable speculation about the occurrence of photoreactivating enzyme in different organisms and about its biologic purpose. We have developed a simple, sensitive assay for estimating pyrimidine dimers in DNA which is useful in making a rapid survey for the presence of the enzyme. Using this method, we have found photoreactivating enzyme activity in the tissues of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta. This parasite spends the majority of its life span in the bodies of its definitive or intermediate hosts, but a period is spent externally. We suggest that photoreactivating enzyme may be important in perserving the integrity of embryonic DNA during this free-living stage.

  3. A confocal microscopy-based atlas of tissue architecture in the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta.

    PubMed

    Rozario, Tania; Newmark, Phillip A

    2015-11-01

    Tapeworms are pervasive and globally distributed parasites that infect millions of humans and livestock every year, and are the causative agents of two of the 17 neglected tropical diseases prioritized by the World Health Organization. Studies of tapeworm biology and pathology are often encumbered by the complex life cycles of disease-relevant tapeworm species that infect hosts such as foxes, dogs, cattle, pigs, and humans. Thus, studies of laboratory models can help overcome the practical, ethical, and cost-related difficulties faced by tapeworm parasitologists. The rat intestinal tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta is easily reared in the laboratory and has the potential to enable modern molecular-based experiments that will greatly contribute to our understanding of multiple aspects of tapeworm biology, such as growth and reproduction. As part of our efforts to develop molecular tools for experiments on H. diminuta, we have characterized a battery of lectins, antibodies, and common stains that label different tapeworm tissues and organ structures. Using confocal microscopy, we have assembled an "atlas" of H. diminuta organ architecture that will be a useful resource for helminthologists. The methodologies we describe will facilitate characterization of loss-of-function perturbations using H. diminuta. This toolkit will enable a greater understanding of fundamental tapeworm biology that may elucidate new therapeutic targets toward the eradication of these parasites.

  4. Definitive Hosts of Versteria Tapeworms (Cestoda: Taeniidae) Causing Fatal Infection in North America

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Laura M.; Wallace, Roberta S.; Clyde, Victoria L.; Gendron-Fitzpatrick, Annette; Sibley, Samuel D.; Stuchin, Margot; Lauck, Michael; O’Connor, David H.; Nakao, Minoru; Lavikainen, Antti; Hoberg, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported fatal infection of a captive Bornean orangutan with metacestodes of a novel taeniid tapeworm, Versteria sp. New data implicate mustelids as definitive hosts of these tapeworms in North America. At least 2 parasite genetic lineages circulate in North America, representing separate introductions from Eurasia. PMID:26983004

  5. Definitive Hosts of Versteria Tapeworms (Cestoda: Taeniidae) Causing Fatal Infection in North America.

    PubMed

    Lee, Laura M; Wallace, Roberta S; Clyde, Victoria L; Gendron-Fitzpatrick, Annette; Sibley, Samuel D; Stuchin, Margot; Lauck, Michael; O'Connor, David H; Nakao, Minoru; Lavikainen, Antti; Hoberg, Eric P; Goldberg, Tony L

    2016-04-01

    We previously reported fatal infection of a captive Bornean orangutan with metacestodes of a novel taeniid tapeworm, Versteria sp. New data implicate mustelids as definitive hosts of these tapeworms in North America. At least 2 parasite genetic lineages circulate in North America, representing separate introductions from Eurasia. PMID:26983004

  6. A confocal microscopy-based atlas of tissue architecture in the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta.

    PubMed

    Rozario, Tania; Newmark, Phillip A

    2015-11-01

    Tapeworms are pervasive and globally distributed parasites that infect millions of humans and livestock every year, and are the causative agents of two of the 17 neglected tropical diseases prioritized by the World Health Organization. Studies of tapeworm biology and pathology are often encumbered by the complex life cycles of disease-relevant tapeworm species that infect hosts such as foxes, dogs, cattle, pigs, and humans. Thus, studies of laboratory models can help overcome the practical, ethical, and cost-related difficulties faced by tapeworm parasitologists. The rat intestinal tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta is easily reared in the laboratory and has the potential to enable modern molecular-based experiments that will greatly contribute to our understanding of multiple aspects of tapeworm biology, such as growth and reproduction. As part of our efforts to develop molecular tools for experiments on H. diminuta, we have characterized a battery of lectins, antibodies, and common stains that label different tapeworm tissues and organ structures. Using confocal microscopy, we have assembled an "atlas" of H. diminuta organ architecture that will be a useful resource for helminthologists. The methodologies we describe will facilitate characterization of loss-of-function perturbations using H. diminuta. This toolkit will enable a greater understanding of fundamental tapeworm biology that may elucidate new therapeutic targets toward the eradication of these parasites. PMID:26049090

  7. Elimination of Asian fish tapeworms from grass carp with praziquantel bath treatments: The need for 24 hour exposures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several states require that imported fish be free of the Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi. Praziquantel has been used for several years to treat fish with Asian fish tapeworms but rates and exposure periods necessary to eliminate these tapeworms from infected fish have not been ade...

  8. The present situation and towards the prevention and control of neurocysticercosis on the tropical island, Bali, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Wandra, Toni; Swastika, Kadek; Dharmawan, Nyoman S; Purba, Ivan Elisabeth; Sudarmaja, I Made; Yoshida, Takahiko; Sako, Yasuhito; Okamoto, Munehiro; Eka Diarthini, Ni Luh Putu; Sri Laksemi, Dewa Ayu Agus; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Nakao, Minoru; Ito, Akira

    2015-03-07

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC), which is caused by accidental ingestion of eggs of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, was common in Bali, Indonesia until the early 1990s. However, improved education on hygiene and sanitation, a move to keeping pigs indoors, and improvement of economic and living conditions have substantially reduced the occurrence of NCC in Bali. Since 2011, T. solium tapeworm carriers (T. solium taeniasis) and heavily infected pigs and dogs have exclusively been detected from villages in mountainous regions of northeastern Bali where NCC and ocular cysticercosis (OCC) cases have also been identified. In response to this continued area of high infection, a one-day workshop was convened to discuss how to prevent and control this potentially lethal zoonotic parasitic infection in Bali. This review presents an overview of the current status of T. solium taeniasis and cysticercosis in Indonesia and proposes a strategy for the prevention and control of this zoonosis in Bali.

  9. [Subcutaneous Taenia crassiceps-cysticercosis in a dog with Cushing's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Nolte, A; Strube, C; Raue, K; Brämer, C; Baumgärtner, W; Wohlsein, P

    2016-01-01

    A male, 12-year-old Cairn terrier suffering from Cushing's syndrome with two therapy-resistant inflammatory subcutaneous lesions was examined pathomorphologically and parasitologically. Within the subcutaneous tissue, there was a suppurative to necrotizing and histiocytic inflammation present with the formation of caverns. Intralesional whitish-grey cysts with a diameter of 1-4 mm were detected. Molecular investigations of the cysts confirmed the preliminary morphological identification as Cysticercus longicollis. The adenohypophysis showed an infiltrative growing carcinoma. Cysticercus longicollis is the metacestode of Taenia (T.) crassiceps, a tapeworm of foxes and coyotes. Small rodents are typical intermediate hosts, in which the metacestode develops within the body cavities as well as in the subcutis. Subcutaneous cysticercosis after infection with eggs of T. crassiceps is also described in different domestic animal species and in humans, who represent aberrant intermediate hosts. Immunosuppression due to Cushing's syndrome, probably caused by the tumor of the adenohypophysis, may have played a role in the pathogenesis of the present case. PMID:26763526

  10. Usefulness of serological ELISA assay for Taenia saginata to detect naturally infected bovines.

    PubMed

    Paulan, Silvana de Cássia; Gonzáles, Rutilia Marisela Hernándes; Peralta, Laura Adalid; Vicentini-Oliveira, Josy Campanhã; Biondi, Germano Francisco; Conde, Edda Sciuto; Parkhouse, Robert Michael Evans; Nunes, Cáris Maroni

    2013-01-01

    Bovine cysticercosis, a cosmopolitan disease caused by Taenia saginata, leads to economic losses due to carcass devaluation at slaughter. Sanitary inspection at slaughterhouses, the routine diagnostic method in Brazil, lacks the necessary sensitivity to detect the mildly infected cattle that are typically encoutered in Brazil. In this study we have tested cattle sera from animals diagnosed as positive and negative by veterianry inspection for (1) anti-parasite antibodies using metacestodes antigens (T. solium vesicular fluid and T. saginata secretions) and (2) the HP10 secreted antigen of viable metacestodes. The cut-off values were calculated by ROC curve for intense and mild infections conditions, and by the classical method ( for negative samples). The sensitivity and specificity of these diagnostic tests were different depending on the assumed cut-off value and, importantly, whether the infection was mild or intense. In spite of these observations, however, such ELISA assays for serum antibodies and parasite antigens constitute an important tool for epidemiological porposes, and in establishing priorities for the control of bovine cysticercosis. PMID:23802239

  11. ABSENCE OF THE SP/SP RECEPTOR CIRCUITRY IN THE SP PRECURSOR KNOCKOUT MICE OR SP-RECEPTOR, NEUROKININ (NK1) KNOCKOUT MICE LEADS TO AN INHIBITED CYTOKINE RESPONSE IN GRANULOMAS ASSOCIATED WITH MURINE TAENIA CRASSICEPS INFECTION

    PubMed Central

    Garza, Armandina; Weinstock, Joel; Robinson, Prema

    2008-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis, caused by the cestode Taenia solium, is the most common parasitic infection of the human central nervous system that leads to seizures. Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis in mice is an experimental model for Taenia solium cysticercosis. Similar to the human infection, live parasites cause little or no granulomatous inflammation. Dying parasites initiate a granulomatous reaction. The neuropeptide, Substance P (SP), stimulates Th1 cytokine production. In the current studies, we determined if absence of SP/SP receptor circuitry in the SP precursor, preprotachykinin knockout or SP-receptor, neurokinin (NK1) knockout mice, affected granuloma cytokine production. We hence compared the levels of Th1 cytokines, IL-2 and IFN-γ, and levels of Th2/immunoregulatory cytokines, IL-4 and IL-10, by ELISA in T. crassiceps-induced granulomas derived from infected C57BL/6 wild type (WT) versus SP-Precursor knockout and NK1 knockout mice. We found that mean levels of IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-10 in infected, WT-derived granulomas were significantly higher than those of granulomas derived from infected SP-Precursor knockout or the NK1 receptor knockout mice. Levels of Th2/immunoregulatory cytokines, IL-4 and IL-10, were higher in early stage granulomas (histologically-staged on basis of evidence of parasite remnants) versus late stage granulomas (no parasite-remnants) of both knockouts, whereas the reverse was noted in WT-derived granulomas. These studies established that the absence of an SP/SP receptor circuitry in the SP precursor knockout mice or NK1 receptor knockout led to an inhibited cytokine response. PMID:18576810

  12. Current status of human taeniasis in Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Yong, Tai-Soon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Yun, Cheong-Ha; Rim, Han-Jong; Pongvongsa, Tiengkham; Banouvong, Virasack; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Phommasack, Bounlay; Eom, Keeseon S

    2013-04-01

    Human taeniasis was investigated in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) between 2000 and 2011 as part of the nation's helminthiasis survey. A total of 55,038 inhabitants, including 29,846 school children, were examined using the Kato-Katz and scotch-tape anal swab method, and morphological observation of adult worms. Molecular identification of Taenia tapeworms was performed by multiplex PCR or DNA sequence analysis of the mitochondrial cox1 gene. Taenia eggs were present at a rate of 1.5% (845/55,038) in the subject population. Adult tapeworms were identified as T. solium or T. saginata by analyzing the collectable stool specimens (n=126). Three specimens identified as T. solium were found in Luang Prabang, while the remaining 123 specimens, which were T. saginata, were found in Bokeo, Bolikhamxay, Champasak, Houaphan, Khammouane, Luang Namta, Luang Prabang, Oudomxay, Phongsaly, Saysomboune, Saravane, Savannakhet, Xayaboury, Xekong, Xieng Khouang Province, and Vientiane Municipality. PMID:23710098

  13. Taenia saginata metacestode antigenic fractions without affinity to concanavalin A are an important source of specific antigens for the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Heliana B; Machado, Gleyce A; Mineo, José R; Costa-Cruz, Julia M

    2010-04-01

    Taenia saginata metacestode antigens have been constituted a useful alternative antigen for neurocysticercosis (NC) serodiagnosis, particularly due to an increasing difficulty to obtain Taenia solium homologous antigen. Cross-reactivity with Echinococcus granulosus infection occurs in homologous and heterologous antigens and could be avoided by using different purified methods. The present study evaluated antigen fractions obtained from saline extracts of T. saginata metacestodes purified by affinity chromatography with jacalin or concanavalin A (ConA) lectins to detect IgG antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblot analysis to diagnose human NC. Serum samples were collected from 142 individuals: 40 of them were diagnosed with NC, 62 presented Taenia sp. and other parasites, and 40 were apparently healthy individuals. The jacalin- and ConA-unbound fractions demonstrated sensitivity and specificity higher than those of bound fractions. Among unbound fractions, ConA demonstrated statistically higher sensitivity and specificity by ELISA (90% and 93.1%, respectively). By immunoblot assay, the 64- to 68-kDa component from the ConA-unbound fraction showed 100% sensitivity and specificity, making this component suitable for use as a specific antigen for diagnosis of NC. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing the relevance of using the unbound ConA fraction of T. saginata metacestodes to diagnose NC. In conclusion, the results obtained herein clearly demonstrate that antigenic fractions without affinity to ConA, obtained from T. saginata metacestodes, are an important source of specific peptides and are efficient in the diagnosis of NC when tested by immunoblot assay.

  14. Identification of Loci Controlling Restriction of Parasite Growth in Experimental Taenia crassiceps Cysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Fortin, Anny; Sciutto-Conde, Edda; Fragoso-González, Gladis; Gros, Philippe; Aguilar-Delfin, Irma

    2011-01-01

    Human neurocysticercosis (NC) caused by Taenia solium is a parasitic disease of the central nervous system that is endemic in many developing countries. In this study, a genetic approach using the murine intraperitoneal cysticercosis caused by the related cestode Taenia crassiceps was employed to identify host factors that regulate the establishment and proliferation of the parasite. A/J mice are permissive to T. crassiceps infection while C57BL/6J mice (B6) are comparatively restrictive, with a 10-fold difference in numbers of peritoneal cysticerci recovered 30 days after infection. The genetic basis of this inter-strain difference was explored using 34 AcB/BcA recombinant congenic strains derived from A/J and B6 progenitors, that were phenotyped for T. crassiceps replication. In agreement with their genetic background, most AcB strains (A/J-derived) were found to be permissive to infection while most BcA strains (B6-derived) were restrictive with the exception of a few discordant strains, together suggesting a possible simple genetic control. Initial haplotype association mapping using >1200 informative SNPs pointed to linkages on chromosomes 2 (proximal) and 6 as controlling parasite replication in the AcB/BcA panel. Additional linkage analysis by genome scan in informative [AcB55xDBA/2]F1 and F2 mice (derived from the discordant AcB55 strain), confirmed the effect of chromosome 2 on parasite replication, and further delineated a major locus (LOD = 4.76, p<0.01; peak marker D2Mit295, 29.7 Mb) that we designate Tccr1 (T. crassiceps cysticercosis restrictive locus 1). Resistance alleles at Tccr1 are derived from AcB55 and are inherited in a dominant fashion. Scrutiny of the minimal genetic interval reveals overlap of Tccr1 with other host resistance loci mapped to this region, most notably the defective Hc/C5 allele which segregates both in the AcB/BcA set and in the AcB55xDBA/2 cross. These results strongly suggest that the complement component 5 (C5) plays a

  15. Interaction of bass tapeworm, Proteocephalus ambloplitis, and Neoechinorhynchus sp. (Acanthocephala) in largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides.

    PubMed

    Durborow, R M; Rogers, W A; Klesius, P H

    1988-12-01

    The number of plerocercoids of the bass tapeworm, Proteocephalus ambloplitis, in wild largemouth bass was negatively correlated (r = -0.94) with the number of Neoechinorhynchus sp. Competitive inhibition between the 2 parasites appeared to exist. Similarly, the numbers of Neoechinorhynchus sp. in wild bass decreased when adult bass tapeworms were present in the intestine. Proteocephalus ambloplitis plerocercoids used to challenge bass vaccinated with either P. ambloplitis adult or Neoechinorhynchus sp. antigens were smaller (P less than 0.05) when recovered than those used to challenge control bass. Based on preliminary results, both antigens might have enabled the bass to limit growth and/or development of the invading bass tapeworm, plerocercoids. Cross-protective immunity may be the reason for this occurrence, in which case, it could offer an explanation for competitive inhibition existing between P. ambloplitis and Neoechinorhynchus sp.

  16. The invasive fish tapeworm Atractolytocestus huronensis (Cestoda), a parasite of carp, colonises Africa.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Tomáš; Tavakol, Sareh; Halajian, Ali; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J

    2015-09-01

    Biological invasions represent a serious threat for aquaculture because many of introduced parasites may negatively affect the health state of feral and cultured fish. In the present account, the invasive tapeworm Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), which was originally described from North America and has been introduced to Europe including the British Isles with its specific host, common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), is reported from Africa for the first time. Its recent introduction to South Africa, where it was found in four localities where common carp is cultured, is another evidence of insufficient prophylactic measures and inadequate veterinary control during transfers of cultured fish, especially common carp, between continents. Together with the Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, A. huronensis is another fish tapeworm with ability to spread throughout the globe as a result of man-made introductions of its fish hosts.

  17. Imaging in neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Dhesi, Balraj; Karia, Sumit J; Adab, Naghme; Nair, Sujit

    2015-04-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a parasitic neurological infection caused by the ingestion of larvae from the adult tapeworm Taenia solium. We describe a man who presented with generalised tonic-clonic seizures. He had been previously diagnosed with epilepsy in Malawi, where he had emigrated from 2 years before this episode. An MRI was performed to further investigate the cause of his seizures, as no previous imaging had been performed. His initial MRI showed multiple characteristic cystic lesions in keeping with neurocysticercosis.

  18. A solitary facial nodular swelling - A case report of intramuscular cysticercosis in buccinator muscle

    PubMed Central

    Dysanoor, Sujatha; Pol, Jyoti

    2013-01-01

    Taenia solium, the larvae of pork tapeworm can cause the parasitic infection known as cysticercosis. It is commonly seen in developing countries. The condition rarely involves orofacial region and represents a difficulty in clinical diagnosis. We present a case report of a healthy middle aged female patient who had a painless swelling on right side of face. The ultrasound examination revealed an intramuscular cysticercosal cyst.

  19. Annoying vacation souvenir: Fish tapeworm (Diphyllobothrium sp.) infestation in an Austrian fisherman.

    PubMed

    Stadlbauer, Vanessa; Haberl, Renate; Langner, Cord; Krejs, Günter J; Eherer, Andreas

    2005-11-01

    Diphyllobothriosis is infestation with the fish tapeworm. Although the worldwide incidence has decreased in recent decades, increased travel and the new popularity of dishes involving raw fish (e.g. sushi) may provide a higher risk of infestation in formerly low-risk areas. We report an Austrian fisherman who passed a 75 cm tapeworm segment in his stool. Infestation presumably occurred 14 months earlier during a fishing tour in Alaska. At presentation, the patient was asymptomatic, reported no weight loss and showed neither anaemia nor eosinophilia. He was cured with a single dose of 10 mg/kg body weight praziquantel. PMID:16416360

  20. Contribution of immunodiagnostic tests to epidemiological/intervention studies of cysticercosis/taeniosis in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Flisser, A; Gyorkos, T W

    2007-12-01

    Cysticercosis is acquired when swine ingest human faeces contaminated with Taenia solium eggs. Humans become tapeworm carriers when they ingest infected pork meat. They can also develop cysticercosis after inadvertently swallowing T. solium eggs. Human neurocysticercosis (NCC) is considered as a public health problem in Mexico and in several countries around the world, mainly developing ones. The development of immunodiagnostic techniques has promoted the conduct of seroepidemiological studies. This review provides insight into the evolution of these techniques, their predictive values and their use in field studies, and summarizes evidence supporting health care practice and policy related to cysticercosis/taeniosis in Mexico. Serological studies in rural and urban settings have demonstrated that close proximity with a tapeworm carrier is the main risk factor for acquiring cysticercosis. Research focusing on the tapeworm carrier generated an ELISA for the detection of Taenia coproantigens and facilitated the evaluation of intervention measures. Health education and self-identification of tapeworm carriers were shown to be successful. However, cestodial treatment as a community-based intervention was not as successful. Current immunodiagnostic techniques can be used to pinpoint transmission foci so that appropriate and effective interventions can be applied. In this way, sustainable control, and even eradication of T. solium may be envisioned.

  1. A case of taeniasis diagnosed postpartum.

    PubMed

    Noss, Matthew R; Gilmore, Katherine; Wittich, Arthur C

    2013-04-01

    A case of postpartum taeniasis will be discussed along with the pathophysiology, proper treatment, potential risks, and prevention of taeniasis infections to the pregnant mother, her infant, and her family members. Taenia spp. infections are relatively rare in developed societies. Increasing immigration to developed countries and an expanding role of medical aid in developing countries will lead to an increase in the number of taeniasis cases seen by medical providers. Taenia solium and T. saginata are the most common species and can be differentiated by proglottids (a segment of a tapeworm containing both male and female reproductive organs) or scolex (the head of a tapeworm which attaches to the intestine of the definitive host). Both carry different risks when considering autoinfection and transmission. Cystercercosis caused by T. solium is a risk for neonates and is cause for immediate treatment of the mother. A 23-year-old new mother, originally from Ethiopia, passed T. strobili shortly after giving birth. Her pregnancy was complicated by limited prenatal care. She did not experience any symptoms related to tapeworm infection. The patient received treatment with praziquantel. With a possible future increase in the number of cases seen by health care providers, understanding the risks of Taenia sp. infection is important as proper treatment and education are needed to halt the life cycle of the tapeworm before more serious infection ensues. PMID:23707843

  2. The effect of herbivore faeces on the edaphic mite community: implications for tapeworm transmission.

    PubMed

    Václav, Radovan; Kalúz, Stanislav

    2014-03-01

    Oribatid mites may be of epidemiological and medical importance because several species have been shown to serve as intermediate hosts for anoplocephalid tapeworms of wild and domestic animals. Despite their economic and conservation significance, relatively few studies examined factors influencing the effective number of oribatid mites that can serve as intermediate hosts. We examined variation in the structure of the edaphic arthropod community in functionally different territory parts of the Alpine marmot (Marmota marmota latirostris), a known definitive host of a prevalent anoplocephalid tapeworm, Ctenotaenia marmotae. We used a field experiment to test whether the abundance of oribatid mites in marmot pastures is affected by the presence of fresh herbivore faeces. We found that the abundance of soil and litter dwelling oribatid mites in marmot pastures did not change shortly after faeces addition. In contrast, numbers of other predominant soil-litter and phoretic microarthropods increased after faeces addition. The abundance of the two predominant phoretic mites colonizing the faeces was inversely related to the abundance of oribatid mites. In contrast, the abundance of a ubiquitous soil-litter mesostigmatid mite was a positive function of oribatid numbers. Although absolute numbers of oribatid mites did not change after faeces addition, our study suggests that, depending on soil quality or type, the probability of tapeworm egg ingestion by oribatid mites can be reduced due to increased interspecific prey-predatory and trophic interactions. Latrine site selection in Alpine marmots is consistent with a reduced probability of tapeworm transmission by oribatids.

  3. First record of human infection with the tapeworm Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense in North America.

    PubMed

    Wicht, Barbara; Scholz, Tomás; Peduzzi, Raffaele; Kuchta, Roman

    2008-02-01

    The tapeworm Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense (Cestoda: Diphyllobothriidea), originally described from Japan, is reported from a man in North America for the first time. Species identification was based on sequences of ribosomal (partial 18S rRNA) and mitochondrial (partial Cytochrome c Oxidase subunit I) genes of proglottids expelled from a Czech tourist who ate raw Pacific sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) from British Columbia, Canada.

  4. Novel praziquantel treatment regime for controlling Asian tapeworm infections in pond-reared fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iles, Alison C.; Archdeacon, Thomas P.; Bonar, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    The Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus achelognathii is an intestinal fish parasite that is nonnative to but widespread throughout the southwestern United States. Praziquantel is an anthelminthic drug commonly used to treat fish for Asian tapeworm; however, it does not kill tapeworm eggs, so the water in ponds used for fish rearing must be exchanged after treatment. Our objective was to determine whether a system containing both an intermediate copepod host and a definitive fish host for Asian tapeworm could be treated without exchanging the water by using a follow-up treatment for any tapeworms that developed from eggs released before or during the first treatment. Here, we have described a new praziquantel treatment regimen to control Asian tapeworm infections in freshwater-reared fish. To evaluate the efficacy of this regimen, we stocked 50 red shiners Cyprinella lutrensis and an intermediate copepod host, Cyclops vernalis, into each of six pond mesocosms containing artificial macrophytes, sand, and gravel to simulate natural pools and provide suitable substrate for the copepod's life history. The test fish population had been naturally infected with B. achelognathii and had an initial infection prevalence of 14% and an infection intensity of 2.14 ± 2.19 (mean ± SD) worms per fish. Three mesocosms were treated twice, each with 2.5 mg/L praziquantel; 19 d passed between treatments to allow for possible reinfection to occur. After a 2.5-month posttreatment period to allow any remaining tapeworms to reestablish themselves, we killed and dissected all of the remaining fish. No worms were found in treated fish; however, the control group had an infection prevalence of 18 ± 6% and an infection intensity of 3.45 ± 2.1 worms per fish. Based on these results, we concluded that the praziquantel treatment regime administered was efficacious and suggest testing it on a larger scale. We caution that praziquantel has not been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration

  5. Insights using a molecular approach into the life cycle of a tapeworm infecting great white sharks.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Haseeb S

    2011-04-01

    The great white shark Carcharodon carcharias Linnaeus, 1758 is a versatile and fierce predator (and responsible for many shark attacks on humans). This apex predator feeds on a wide range of organisms including teleosts, other elasmobranchs, cephalopods, pinnipeds, and cetaceans. Although much is known about its diet, no trophic links have been empirically identified as being involved in the transmission of its tapeworm parasites. Recently, the use of molecular tools combined with phylogenetics has proven useful to identify larval and immature stages of marine tapeworms; utilization of the technique has been increasing rapidly. However, the usefulness of this approach remains limited by the availability of molecular data. Here, I employed gene sequence data from the D2 region of the large subunit of ribosomal DNA to link adults of the tapeworm Clistobothrium carcharodoni Dailey and Vogelbein, 1990 (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea) to larvae for which sequence data for this gene are available. The sequences from the adult tapeworms were genetically identical (0% sequence divergence) to those available on GenBank for "SP" 'small' Scolex pleuronectis recovered from the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) and Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus). This study is the first to provide empirical evidence linking the trophic interaction between great white sharks and cetaceans as a definitive route for the successful transmission of a tetraphyllidean tapeworm. Using the intensity of infection data from this shark and from cetaceans as proxies for the extent of predation, I estimate that this individual shark would have consumed between 9 to 83 G. griseus , fresh, dead, or both, in its lifetime.

  6. An endemic Taenia from South America: validation of T. Talicei Dollfus, 1960 (Cestoda: Taeniidae) with characterization of metacestodes and adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Taeniid tapeworms are characteristic parasites in both domesticated and wild carnivores and life cycles are completed through predator-prey associations with rodent, lagomorph or ungulate intermediate hosts that harbor infective larvae. Globally these tapeworms contribute to morbidity and mortality ...

  7. Immunoregulation by Taenia crassiceps and Its Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Peón, Alberto N.; Espinoza-Jiménez, Arlett; Terrazas, Luis I.

    2013-01-01

    Taenia crassiceps is a cestode parasite of rodents (in its larval stage) and canids (in its adult stage) that can also parasitize immunocompromised humans. We have studied the immune response elicited by this helminth and its antigens in mice and human cells, and have discovered that they have a strong capacity to induce chronic Th2-type responses that are primarily characterized by high levels of Th2 cytokines, low proliferative responses in lymphocytes, an immature and LPS-tolerogenic profile in dendritic cells, the recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and, specially, alternatively activated macrophages. We also have utilized the immunoregulatory capabilities of this helminth to successfully modulate autoimmune responses and the outcome of other infectious diseases. In the present paper, we review the work of others and ourselves with regard to the immune response induced by T. crassiceps and its antigens, and we compare the advances in our understanding of this parasitic infection model with the knowledge that has been obtained from other selected models. PMID:23484125

  8. Excretory/secretory antigens (ES) from in-vitro cultures of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci, and use of an anti-ES monoclonal antibody for antigen detection in samples of cerebrospinal fluid from patients with neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Espíndola, N M; Vaz, A J; Pardini, A X; Fernandes, I

    2002-06-01

    Antigens were obtained from cysticerci of the ORF strain of Taenia crassiceps, by culture of cysts in protein-free hybridoma medium (PFHM). Budding of new vesicles was observed after 24-48 h. Excretory/secretory (ES) antigens (peptides of <20 kDa) were recovered in the medium after culture for 48 h. SDS-PAGE analysis of vesicular-fluid (VF) antigens (obtained by rupturing T. crassiceps cysticerci in PFHM) and the ES antigens indicated partial homology between the two preparations. ES peptides of 18- and 14-kDa were recognized by polyclonal antibodies produced in rabbits immunized either with the VF antigens or with a total-antigen preparation of T. solium cysticerci. Antibodies present in samples of serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with neurocysticercosis also reacted with ES peptides. An anti-ES monoclonal antibody detected antigens in the CSF from 10 patients with neurocysticercosis, showing the antigenic homology of the ES antigens with those of T. solium cysticerci in human infections.

  9. First record of the invasive Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in Honduras, Central America

    PubMed Central

    Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Matamoros, Wilfredo A.; Kreiser, Brian R.; Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan Manuel; Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides the first report of the invasive Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934, in Honduras. The cestode was found in Profundulus portillorum (Cyprinodontiformes: Profundulidae), which represents a new host record, and which is a member of a genus faced with a variety of conservation challenges, now potentially complicated by the presence of this pathogenic cestode. Nearly complete sequence data from the ITS-1 5.8S and ITS-2 regions corroborate the determination based on morphological characteristics. Several species of carp were introduced to Honduras for aquaculture purposes in the early 1980s and the presence of the Asian fish tapeworm in Honduras may be related to these introductions. In addition, this report documents the currently known geographical distribution of this parasite in Central America, first recorded from Panamá and now from Honduras. PMID:25654444

  10. Pacific Broad Tapeworm Adenocephalus pacificus as a Causative Agent of Globally Reemerging Diphyllobothriosis.

    PubMed

    Kuchta, Roman; Serrano-Martínez, Marcus Enrique; Scholz, Tomas

    2015-10-01

    The Pacific broad tapeworm Adenocephalus pacificus (syn. Diphyllobothrium pacificum) is the causative agent of the third most common fish-borne cestodosis among humans. Although most of the nearly 1,000 cases among humans have been reported in South America (Peru, Chile, and Ecuador), cases recently imported to Europe demonstrate the potential for spread of this tapeworm throughout the world as a result of global trade of fresh or chilled marine fish and travel or migration of humans. We provide a comprehensive survey of human cases of infection with this zoonotic parasite, summarize the history of this re-emerging disease, and identify marine fish species that may serve as a source of human infection when eaten raw or undercooked.

  11. First record of the invasive Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in Honduras, Central America.

    PubMed

    Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Matamoros, Wilfredo A; Kreiser, Brian R; Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan Manuel; Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides the first report of the invasive Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934, in Honduras. The cestode was found in Profundulus portillorum (Cyprinodontiformes: Profundulidae), which represents a new host record, and which is a member of a genus faced with a variety of conservation challenges, now potentially complicated by the presence of this pathogenic cestode. Nearly complete sequence data from the ITS-1 5.8S and ITS-2 regions corroborate the determination based on morphological characteristics. Several species of carp were introduced to Honduras for aquaculture purposes in the early 1980s and the presence of the Asian fish tapeworm in Honduras may be related to these introductions. In addition, this report documents the currently known geographical distribution of this parasite in Central America, first recorded from Panamá and now from Honduras.

  12. Pacific Broad Tapeworm Adenocephalus pacificus as a Causative Agent of Globally Reemerging Diphyllobothriosis

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Martínez, Marcus Enrique; Scholz, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    The Pacific broad tapeworm Adenocephalus pacificus (syn. Diphyllobothrium pacificum) is the causative agent of the third most common fish-borne cestodosis among humans. Although most of the nearly 1,000 cases among humans have been reported in South America (Peru, Chile, and Ecuador), cases recently imported to Europe demonstrate the potential for spread of this tapeworm throughout the world as a result of global trade of fresh or chilled marine fish and travel or migration of humans. We provide a comprehensive survey of human cases of infection with this zoonotic parasite, summarize the history of this re-emerging disease, and identify marine fish species that may serve as a source of human infection when eaten raw or undercooked. PMID:26402440

  13. Position of Larval Tapeworms, Polypocephalus sp., in the Ganglia of Shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus

    PubMed Central

    Carreon, Nadia; Faulkes, Zen

    2014-01-01

    Parasites that invade the nervous system of their hosts have perhaps the best potential to manipulate their host’s behavior, but how they manipulate the host, if they do at all, could depend on their position within the host’s nervous system. We hypothesize that parasites that live in the nervous system of their host will be randomly distributed if they exert their influence through non-specific effects (i.e., general pathology), but that their position in the nervous system will be non-random if they exert their influence by targeting specific neural circuits. We recorded the position of larval tapeworms, Polypocephalus sp., in the abdominal ganglia of white shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus. Tapeworms are more common within ganglia than in the section of the nerve cord between ganglia, even though the nerve cord has a greater volume than the ganglia. The tapeworms are also more abundant in the periphery of the ganglia. Because most synaptic connections are within the central region of the ganglion, such positioning may represent a trade-off between controlling the nervous system and damaging it. PMID:24820854

  14. Short report: cysticercosis in an Egyptian mummy of the late Ptolemaic period.

    PubMed

    Bruschi, Fabrizio; Masetti, Massimo; Locci, Maria Teresa; Ciranni, Rosalba; Fornaciari, Gino

    2006-04-01

    We describe here an ancient case of cysticercosis that was discovered in an Egyptian mummy of a young woman of about 20 years of age who lived in the late Ptolemaic period (second to first centuries b.c.). On removal of the stomach and its rehydration, a cystic lesion in the stomach wall was observed by naked eye. Microscopical examination of sections of this lesion revealed a cystic structure, with a wall, with numerous projecting eversions, a characteristic feature of the larval stage (cysticercus) of the human tapeworm Taenia solium (or "pig tapeworm"). Immunohistochemical testing with serum from a T. solium-infected human confirmed the identity of the cyst. This finding is the oldest on record of the antiquity of this zoonotic parasite. This observation also confirms that, in Hellenistic Egypt, the farming of swine, along with man an intermediate host of this parasite, was present, and supports other archeological evidence. PMID:16606991

  15. Neurocysticercosis: regional status, epidemiology, impact and control measures in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Flisser, Ana; Sarti, Elsa; Lightowlers, Marshall; Schantz, Peter

    2003-06-01

    The analysis of epidemiological data concerning human cysticercosis point to important advances in understanding the magnitude and distribution of this parasitic disease in Latin America, as well as the relationship of the elements that conform the life cycle of Taenia solium. The data indicate that the main risk factor for acquiring human neurocysticercosis and swine cysticercosis is the presence of the tapeworm carrier in the household. Therefore, several intervention measures for the control of cysticercosis have been evaluated: mass treatment in order to cure tapeworm carriers, health education towards understanding the risk factors, pig control by restraining them, experimental vaccination of pigs and treatment of swine cysticercosis. In this paper, we review the information obtained in these areas. We hope it will be useful in other endemic countries that wish to elaborate an action plan for the control and ultimate eradication of T. solium.

  16. 21 CFR 520.1872 - Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus granulosus); hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum... for the removal and control of tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs. (iii) Limitations. Do...

  17. 21 CFR 520.1872 - Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus granulosus); hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum... for the removal and control of tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs. (iii) Limitations. Do...

  18. 21 CFR 520.1872 - Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus granulosus); hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum... for the removal and control of tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs. (iii) Limitations. Do...

  19. 21 CFR 520.1872 - Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus granulosus); hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum... for the removal and control of tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs. (iii) Limitations. Do...

  20. 21 CFR 520.1872 - Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus granulosus); hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum... for the removal and control of tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs. (iii) Limitations. Do...

  1. Tapeworm Diphyllobothrium dendriticum (Cestoda)—Neglected or Emerging Human Parasite?

    PubMed Central

    Kuchta, Roman; Brabec, Jan; Kubáčková, Petra; Scholz, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    Background A total number of 14 valid species of Diphyllobothrium tapeworms have been described in literature to be capable of causing diphyllobothriosis, with D. latum being the major causative agent of all human infections. However, recent data indicate that some of these infections, especially when diagnosed solely on the basis of morphology, have been identified with this causative agent incorrectly, confusing other Diphyllobothrium species with D. latum. Another widely distributed species, D. dendriticum, has never been considered as a frequent parasite of man, even though it is found commonly throughout arctic and subarctic regions parasitizing piscivorous birds and mammals. Recent cases of Europeans infected with this cestode called into question the actual geographic distribution of this tapeworm, largely ignored by medical parasitologists. Methodology and Results On the basis of revision of more than 900 available references and a description and revision of recent European human cases using morphological and molecular (cox1) data supplemented by newly characterized D. dendriticum sequences, we updated the current knowledge of the life-cycle, geographic distribution, epidemiological status, and molecular diagnostics of this emerging causal agent of zoonotic disease of man. Conclusions The tapeworm D. dendriticum represents an example of a previously neglected, probably underdiagnosed parasite of man with a potential to spread globally. Recent cases of diphyllobothriosis caused by D. dendriticum in Europe (Netherlands, Switzerland and Czech Republic), where the parasite has not been reported previously, point out that causative agents of diphyllobothriosis and other zoonoses can be imported throughout the world. Molecular tools should be used for specific and reliable parasite diagnostics, and also rare or non-native species should be considered. This will considerably help improve our knowledge of the distribution and epidemiology of these human parasites

  2. Solid lipid nanoparticle suspension enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of praziquantel against tapeworm

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Shuyu; Pan, Baoliang; Shi, Baoxin; Zhang, Zhuangzhi; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Ming; Zhou, Wenzhong

    2011-01-01

    Hydatid disease caused by tapeworm is an increasing public health and socioeconomic concern. In order to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of praziquantel (PZQ) against tapeworm, PZQ-loaded hydrogenated castor oil solid lipid nanoparticle (PZQ-HCO-SLN) suspension was prepared by a hot homogenization and ultrasonication method. The stability of the suspension at 4°C and room temperature was evaluated by the physicochemical characteristics of the nanoparticles and in-vitro release pattern of the suspension. Pharmacokinetics was studied after subcutaneous administration of the suspension in dogs. The therapeutic effect of the novel formulation was evaluated in dogs naturally infected with Echinococcus granulosus. The results showed that the drug recovery of the suspension was 97.59% ± 7.56%. Nanoparticle diameter, polydispersivity index, and zeta potential were 263.00 ± 11.15 nm, 0.34 ± 0.06, and −11.57 ± 1.12 mV, respectively and showed no significant changes after 4 months of storage at both 4°C and room temperature. The stored suspensions displayed similar in-vitro release patterns as that of the newly prepared one. SLNs increased the bioavailability of PZQ 5.67-fold and extended the mean residence time of the drug from 56.71 to 280.38 hours. Single subcutaneous administration of PZQ-HCO-SLN suspension obtained enhanced therapeutic efficacy against tapeworm in infected dogs. At the dose of 5 mg/kg, the stool-ova reduction and negative conversion rates and tapeworm removal rate of the suspension were 100%, while the native PZQ were 91.55%, 87.5%, and 66.7%. When the dose reduced to 0.5 mg/kg, the native drug showed no effect, but the suspension still got the same therapeutic efficacy as that of the 5 mg/kg native PZQ. These results demonstrate that the PZQ-HCO-SLN suspension is a promising formulation to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of PZQ. PMID:22072873

  3. [Influence of the selection of maternal Hymenolepis diminuta WMS il1 on the variability of descended tapeworms].

    PubMed

    Stradowski, Marek

    2002-01-01

    A continuation of a single-individual culture of Hymenolepis diminuta WMS ill from generations 37 to 66 revealed a very high infective ability of cysticercoids which is reflected in the percentage of tapeworms detected in relation to the number of cysticercoids given to rats (94.4%). The tapeworms investigated revealed a significant increase in the abundance of type 0p3a proglottids (those with no testes on the poral side and 3 on the aporal) in tapeworms of successive generation groups. Each group of tapeworms analysed statistically belonged to three successive generations and numbered 31-34 individuals. The mean abundances of 0p3a type proglottids in tapeworms of the first groups studied in experiment, including generations 37-39 and 40-42 were 9.2% and 9.5%, respectively. The last studied groups, including generations 61-63 and 64-66 had higher mean numbers of type 0p3a proglottids, at 11.1% and 11.5%, respectively. The quantitative figures of 1p3a type proglottids amounted to 1.6% and 1.3% in first generation groups and in the last two groups 0.8% and 1.0%, respectively. The probable cause of this significant (P < 0.01) relative increase in the numbers of 0p3a type proglottids and decrease (P < 0.01) in the numbers of 1p3a type proglottids was the deliberate selection of maternal tapeworms characterized by numbers of 0p3a type proglottids greater and 1p3a type proglottids smaller than the average for their generation.

  4. A Pipeline for Differential Proteomics in Unsequenced Species.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Şule; Victor, Bjorn; Hulstaert, Niels; Vandermarliere, Elien; Barsnes, Harald; Degroeve, Sven; Gupta, Surya; Sticker, Adriaan; Gabriël, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Palmblad, Magnus; Martens, Lennart

    2016-06-01

    Shotgun proteomics experiments often take the form of a differential analysis, where two or more samples are compared against each other. The objective is to identify proteins that are either unique to a specific sample or a set of samples (qualitative differential proteomics), or that are significantly differentially expressed in one or more samples (quantitative differential proteomics). However, the success depends on the availability of a reliable protein sequence database for each sample. To perform such an analysis in the absence of a database, we here propose a novel, generic pipeline comprising an adapted spectral similarity score derived from database search algorithms that compares samples at the spectrum level to detect unique spectra. We applied our pipeline to compare two parasitic tapeworms: Taenia solium and Taenia hydatigena, of which only the former poses a threat to humans. Furthermore, because the genome of T. solium recently became available, we were able to prove the effectiveness and reliability of our pipeline a posteriori.

  5. A Pipeline for Differential Proteomics in Unsequenced Species.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Şule; Victor, Bjorn; Hulstaert, Niels; Vandermarliere, Elien; Barsnes, Harald; Degroeve, Sven; Gupta, Surya; Sticker, Adriaan; Gabriël, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Palmblad, Magnus; Martens, Lennart

    2016-06-01

    Shotgun proteomics experiments often take the form of a differential analysis, where two or more samples are compared against each other. The objective is to identify proteins that are either unique to a specific sample or a set of samples (qualitative differential proteomics), or that are significantly differentially expressed in one or more samples (quantitative differential proteomics). However, the success depends on the availability of a reliable protein sequence database for each sample. To perform such an analysis in the absence of a database, we here propose a novel, generic pipeline comprising an adapted spectral similarity score derived from database search algorithms that compares samples at the spectrum level to detect unique spectra. We applied our pipeline to compare two parasitic tapeworms: Taenia solium and Taenia hydatigena, of which only the former poses a threat to humans. Furthermore, because the genome of T. solium recently became available, we were able to prove the effectiveness and reliability of our pipeline a posteriori. PMID:27089233

  6. Effect of heat treatment on viability of Taenia hydatigena eggs.

    PubMed

    Buttar, Birpal S; Nelson, Mark L; Busboom, Jan R; Hancock, Dale D; Walsh, Douglas B; Jasmer, Douglas P

    2013-04-01

    Effects of heat treatments on activation and infectivity of Taenia hydatigena eggs were assessed. Eggs containing oncospheres were used for in vitro and in vivo studies to determine the response to 5min of heat treatment, ranging from room temperature (22°C) to 60°C. The study demonstrated 99.47% and 100% reduction in oncosphere activation or infectivity after 5min of heat treatment at 60°C and 57.38°C under in vitro and in vivo conditions, respectively. Similar results between the two approaches indicted the appropriateness of the in vitro methods to identify oncosphericidal treatments of practical significance. Similar heat treatments may also be effective against Taenia saginata and help to reduce occurrence of beef cysticercosis.

  7. Intestinal obstruction caused by Taenia taeniaeformis infection in a cat.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Rebbecca S; Bowman, Dwight D; Barr, Stephen C; Euclid, James M

    2009-01-01

    An adult domestic shorthair (DSH) cat was presented with acute vomiting, anorexia, lethargy, and dyspnea. The cat's clinical status worsened over 24 hours with conservative medical management. An exploratory celiotomy was performed. Acute intestinal obstruction resulting from infection with Taenia (T.) taeniaeformis was diagnosed. Surgical removal of the cestodes via multiple enterotomies resolved the obstruction. This paper reports, for the first time, small intestinal obstruction caused by T. taeniaeformis infection in a cat.

  8. TAENIA SAGINATA INFECTION IN A 14-MONTH-OLD TODDLER.

    PubMed

    Sitcharungsil, Raweerat; Watthanakulpanich, Dorn

    2016-05-01

    A 14-month-old female toddler presented with a 3-day history of pass- ing gravid proglottids of Taenia saginata. Neither she nor her family members had a history of eating raw beef or other raw meat. Single doses of praziquantel and niclosamide were administered. To the best of our knowledge, this is the youngest described patient with T. saginata infection to date. PMID:27405121

  9. Asian fish tapeworm, Khawia japonensis (Yamaguti, 1934), has expanded its European invasive range.

    PubMed

    Oros, Mikuláš; Barčák, Daniel; Bazsalovicsová, Eva; Hanzelová, Vladimíra

    2015-05-01

    The invasive fish tapeworm, Khawia japonensis (Yamaguti, 1934) originally described in Japan, is reported for the first time in Slovakia. The tapeworm was found in farmed common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) from East-Slovakian breeding fish pond. This finding is registered 4 years after the first announcement of this parasite in Europe (Po River Basin in Italy) in 2010 and increases its distribution area within this continent. Morphological characterization of K. japonensis supplemented with DNA sequences of cox1 and ribosomal lsrDNA genes is provided. Specimens from Slovakia phenotypically corresponded with those from feral and farmed carps from China, Vietnam, and Italy. Moreover, 100 and 98.7% identity of partial ribosomal lsrDNA gene and mitochondrial cox1 genes, respectively, were detected with K. japonensis from Japan. The invasive and pathogenic potential of K. japonensis in commercial breeding fisheries and its possible further spread in natural habitats is difficult to estimate for now. As yet, K. japonensis appears to be without a major impact on commercial breeding fisheries, but calls for more attention to the problem of biological invasions.

  10. Biotransformation of anthelmintics and the activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes in the tapeworm Moniezia expansa.

    PubMed

    Prchal, Lukáš; Bártíková, Hana; Bečanová, Aneta; Jirásko, Robert; Vokřál, Ivan; Stuchlíková, Lucie; Skálová, Lenka; Kubíček, Vladimír; Lamka, Jiří; Trejtnar, František; Szotáková, Barbora

    2015-04-01

    The sheep tapeworm Moniezia expansa is very common parasite, which affects ruminants such as sheep, goats as well as other species. The benzimidazole anthelmintics albendazole (ABZ), flubendazole (FLU) and mebendazole (MBZ) are often used to treat the infection. The drug-metabolizing enzymes of helminths may alter the potency of anthelmintic treatment. The aim of our study was to assess the activity of the main drug-metabolizing enzymes and evaluate the metabolism of selected anthelmintics (ABZ, MBZ and FLU) in M. expansa. Activities of biotransformation enzymes were determined in subcellular fractions. Metabolites of the anthelmintics were detected and identified using high performance liquid chromatography/ultra-violet/VIS/fluorescence or ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Reduction of MBZ, FLU and oxidation of ABZ were proved as well as activities of various metabolizing enzymes. Despite the fact that the conjugation enzymes glutathione S-transferase, UDP-glucuronosyl transferase and UDP-glucosyl transferase were active in vitro, no conjugated metabolites of anthelmintics were identified either ex vivo or in vitro. The obtained results indicate that sheep tapeworm is able to deactivate the administered anthelmintics, and thus protects itself against their action.

  11. Synergy advances parasite taxonomy and systematics: an example from elasmobranch tapeworms.

    PubMed

    Caira, Janine N

    2011-11-01

    The synergism facilitated by a series of recent developments has conspired to catalyze rapid advancements in the taxonomy and systematics of elasmobranch tapeworms. These developments are: (1) increased interest in global biodiversity; (2) globalization-facilitated communication; (3) enhanced microscopic and digital technologies; (4) availability of web-based taxonomic resources; (5) ease of use and low cost of molecular techniques and (6) the impressive repertoire of available phylogenetic methods. As a consequence, an estimation of global elasmobranch tapeworm diversity is now within our grasp, as is a basic understanding of the effort and resources required to complete the discovery and description of this fauna globally. The generation of robust hypotheses of the phylogenetic relationships for most elasmobranch-parasitizing cestode orders is also well underway. An international community of cestodologists has emerged and through their sharing of knowledge and specimens is making great strides towards expanding knowledge of the cestode fauna of vertebrates worldwide. It is important that these efforts continue to move forward in a collaborative fashion, integrating morphological and molecular data, but also fully engaging elasmobranch taxonomists and systematists. It is equally important that efforts to characterize and describe global biodiversity are not derailed by such seductive, but ultimately unrewarding impracticable initiatives as molecular taxonomy. Integrated taxonomy is certainly not for the feint of heart, but those with the courage to pursue this strategy will be responsible for maintaining and enhancing the biologically relevant context required for effective species recognition well into the future.

  12. Efficacy of 6-, 12-, and 24-h praziquantel bath treatments against Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in grass carp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Praziquantel is an effective antihelmintic that has been used in dogs and cats as a de-wormer. It has also been used successfully against tapeworms and trematodes in fish. The current study tested the efficacy of praziquantel bath treatments at various concentrations (0.187, 0.375, 0.75, 1.5, 3.0,...

  13. 9 CFR 311.25 - Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms. 311.25 Section 311.25 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY...

  14. 9 CFR 311.25 - Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms. 311.25 Section 311.25 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY...

  15. 9 CFR 311.25 - Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms. 311.25 Section 311.25 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY...

  16. Multiplex PCR for Differential Identification of Broad Tapeworms (Cestoda: Diphyllobothrium) Infecting Humans▿

    PubMed Central

    Wicht, Barbara; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Scholz, Tomáš; Ito, Akira; Jiménez, Juan A.; Brabec, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The specific identification of broad tapeworms (genus Diphyllobothrium) infecting humans is very difficult to perform by morphological observation. Molecular analysis by PCR and sequencing represents the only reliable tool to date to identify these parasites to the species level. Due to the recent spread of human diphyllobothriosis in several countries, a correct diagnosis has become crucial to better understand the distribution and the life cycle of human-infecting species as well as to prevent the introduction of parasites to disease-free water systems. Nevertheless, PCR and sequencing, although highly precise, are too complicated, long, and expensive to be employed in medical laboratories for routine diagnostics. In the present study we optimized a cheap and rapid molecular test for the differential identification of the most common Diphyllobothrium species infecting humans (D. latum, D. dendriticum, D. nihonkaiense, and D. pacificum), based on a multiplex PCR with the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene of mitochondrial DNA. PMID:20592146

  17. Experimental parasite community ecology: intraspecific variation in a large tapeworm affects community assembly.

    PubMed

    Benesh, Daniel P; Kalbe, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Non-random species associations occur in naturally sampled parasite communities. The processes resulting in predictable community structure (e.g. particular host behaviours, cross-immunity, interspecific competition) could be affected by traits that vary within a parasite species, like growth or antigenicity. We experimentally infected three-spined sticklebacks with a large tapeworm (Schistocephalus solidus) that impacts the energy needs, foraging behaviour and immune reactions of its host. The tapeworms came from two populations, characterized by high or low growth in sticklebacks. Our goal was to evaluate how this parasite, and variation in its growth, affects the acquisition of other parasites. Fish infected with S. solidus were placed into cages in a lake to expose them to the natural parasite community. We also performed a laboratory experiment in which infected fish were exposed to a fixed dose of a common trematode parasite. In the field experiment, infection with S. solidus affected the abundance of four parasite species, relative to controls. For two of the four species, changes occurred only in fish harbouring the high-growth S. solidus; one species increased in abundance and the other decreased. These changes did not appear to be directly linked to S. solidus growth though. The parasite exhibiting elevated abundance was the same trematode used in the laboratory infection. In that experiment, we found a similar infection pattern, suggesting that S. solidus affects the physiological susceptibility of fish to this trematode. Associations between S. solidus and other parasites occur and vary in direction. However, some of these associations were contingent on the S. solidus population, suggesting that intraspecific variability can affect the assembly of parasite communities. PMID:27061288

  18. In vitro anthelmintic assessment of selected phytochemicals against Hymenolepis diminuta, a zoonotic tapeworm.

    PubMed

    Vijaya; Yadav, Arun K

    2016-09-01

    A large number of medicinal plants are used as herbal remedy for the treatment of helminthic diseases in the developing countries, however, far too little attention has been paid to assess the anthelmintic potentials of chemical compounds that are present in these plants. This study was carried out to assess the in vitro anthelmintic effects of biochanin A, ursolic acid, betulinic acid and beta-sitosterol which are the major phytochemicals of Trifolium repens, Houttuynia cordata and Lasia spinosa, the traditionally used anthelmintic plants of Northeast India. The in vitro anthelmintic testing of these phytochemicals was undertaken against Hymenolepis diminuta, a zoonotic tapeworm, and their efficacy was compared with a reference drug, praziquantel. The results revealed that except beta-sitosterol, which showed a very weak anthelmintic effect, remaining all other tested compounds possess highly significant (p ≤ 0.001) and dose-dependent anthelmintic effects. Upon exposure to 0.25, 0.50 and 1 mg/ml concentrations of biochanin A, ursolic acid and betulinic acid, the test parasite H. diminuta, at first, showed a paralyzed state which later culminated into their mortality after short time periods. Of all the phytochemicals tested, betulinic acid (1 mg/ml) showed the best anthelmintic effect and caused the mortality of test parasites at 3.4 ± 0.66 h. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrate for the first time that betulinic acid, biochanin A and ursolic acid possess significant in vitro anthelmintic effects against H. diminuta, a zoonotic tapeworm, and, therefore, these compounds may be exploited further for anthelmintic drug development. PMID:27605841

  19. Inexpensive anti-cysticercosis vaccine: S3Pvac expressed in heat inactivated M13 filamentous phage proves effective against naturally acquired Taenia solium porcine cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Morales, Julio; Martínez, José Juan; Manoutcharian, Karen; Hernández, Marisela; Fleury, Agnes; Gevorkian, Goar; Acero, Gonzalo; Blancas, Abel; Toledo, Andrea; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Maza, Victor; Quet, Fabrice; Bonnabau, Henri; de Aluja, Aline S; Fragoso, Gladis; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

    2008-06-01

    In search of reducing vaccine production costs', a recombinant M13 phage version of the anti-cysticercosis tripeptide vaccine (S3Pvac) was developed. The efficacy of S3Pvac-Phage vs. placebo was evaluated in a randomized trial that included 1,047 rural pigs in 16 villages of Central Mexico. Three to five months after vaccination 530 pigs were examined by tongue inspection. At 5-27 months of age, 331 pigs (197 vaccinated/134 controls) were inspected at necropsy. Vaccination reduced 70% the frequency of tongue cysticercosis and, based on necropsy, 54% of muscle-cysticercosis and by 87% the number of cysticerci.

  20. Novel PCRs for differential diagnosis of cestodes.

    PubMed

    Roelfsema, Jeroen H; Nozari, Nahid; Pinelli, Elena; Kortbeek, Laetitia M

    2016-02-01

    Cestodes or tapeworms belong to a diverse group of helminths. The adult Taenia saginata and Taenia solium tapeworm can infest the human gut and the larval stage of Echinococcus spp. and T. solium can infect tissues of the human body, causing serious disease. Molecular diagnostics can be performed on proglottids, eggs and on cyst fluids taken by biopsy. Detection of cestodes when a helminthic infection is suspected is of vital importance and species determination is required for appropriate patient care. For routine diagnostics a single test that is able to detect and type a range of cestodes is preferable. We sought to improve our diagnostic procedure that used to rely on PCR and subsequent sequencing of the Cox1 and Nad1 genes. We have compared these PCRs with novel PCRs on the 12S rRNA and Nad5 gene and established the sensitivity and specificity. A single PCR on the 12S gene proved to be very suitable for detection and specification of Taenia sp. and Echinococcus sp. Both targets harbour enough polymorphic sites to determine the various Echinococcus species. The 12S PCR was most sensitive of all tested. PMID:26704662

  1. Standardization of an experimental model of human taeniosis for oral vaccination.

    PubMed

    León-Cabrera, Sonia; Cruz-Rivera, Mayra; Mendlovic, Fela; Avila-Ramírez, Guillermina; Carrero, Julio César; Laclette, Juan Pedro; Flisser, Ana

    2009-12-01

    Neurocysticercosis in humans is caused by the tapeworm Taenia solium and generates substantial morbidity in Latin America, Africa and Asia.The life cycle of T. solium includes pigs as intermediate hosts and human beings as definitive hosts. Tapeworm carriers are the main risk factor for acquiring cysticercosis in the household, thus prevention and control programs are being developed. Infected people have no symptoms, therefore are difficult to identify and treat, thus vaccination against the adult tapeworm is an alternative control measure. Since the infection occurs naturally only in human beings, experimental models have been standardized. Hamsters are believed to be good models to study the infection but they have not been properly evaluated for vaccination. Since taeniosis is gained by ingesting pork meat with cysticerci, oral vaccination was evaluated, and given that intestinal immunity is enhanced with adjuvants, cholera toxin was used, because it is one of the most potent adjuvants, in view of the fact that it increases epithelium permeability enhancing entrance of the co-administered unrelated antigens. Recombinant functional T. solium calreticulin was employed for the standardization of the methodology and the evaluation of oral vaccination. Protection was associated with the type of cysticerci and the age of the hamsters used. When reddish bigger parasites were orally introduced in hamsters as challenge, protection was around 40%, while when yellowish small parasites were used, protection increased to 100%, suggesting that the characteristics of cysticerci are determinant. Protection was gained in 9month old hamsters, but not in 3month old animals.

  2. Spathebothriidea: survey of species, scolex and egg morphology, and interrelationships of a non-segmented, relictual tapeworm group (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda).

    PubMed

    Kuchta, Roman; Pearson, Rebecca; Scholz, Tomás; Ditrich, Oleg; Olson, Peter D

    2014-08-01

    Tapeworms of the order Spathebothriidea Wardle et McLeod, 1952 (Cestoda) are reviewed. Molecular data made it possible to assess, for the first time, the phylogenetic relationships of all genera and to confirm the validity of Bothrimonus Duvernoy, 1842, Diplocotyle Krabbe, 1874 and Didymobothrium Nybelin, 1922. A survey of all species considered to be valid is provided together with new data on egg and scolex morphology and surface ultrastructure (i.e. microtriches). The peculiar morphology of the members of this group, which is today represented by five effectively monotypic genera whose host associations and geographical distribution show little commonality, indicate that it is a relictual group that was once diverse and widespread. The order potentially represents the earliest branch of true tapeworms (i.e. Eucestoda) among extant forms.

  3. [The biological and anatomical-morphological properties of Hymenolepis diminuta tapeworms of WMS il1 and the WMS "strain"].

    PubMed

    Stradowski, M; Grytner-Ziecina, B; Rebandel, H

    2001-01-01

    Crowded infrapopulations of H. diminuta obtained from the WMS il1 inbred line resembled those of the potentially non-inbred WMS strain in not showing either the abrupt reductions in the numbers of worms or the destrobilation described by other autors. Denser populations of both types of tapeworm have a greather abundance of 4 - testis proglottids of the 1p3a type (having 1 testis on the poral side and three on the aporal), and fewer of type 0p3a. Changes in the positioning of genital ducts and pores show a marked positive correlation with the abundance of type 2pla proglottids. Strobilae of H. diminuta WMS il1 contain a relatively greather number of type 0p3a proglottids and fewer of type 1p3a, than those of the WMS "strain"; something which is probably linked with the respective selection of the maternal tapeworms.

  4. Psychiatric manifestations of neurocysticercosis in paediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Tejado, Laura de Anta; Pozo, Kazuhiro Tajima; Palomino, Camila Bayón; de Dios de Vega, José Luis

    2012-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is the most frequent parasitic disease of the central nervous system and is caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm Taenia solium, in which the human being becomes the parasite’s intermediary host. The disease has a worldwide distribution, with a marked prevalence in underdeveloped or developing. However, this disease is rare in children, which is attributed to the long incubation period of the disease, ranging from several months up to 30 years. For this reason, very few cases are found in infants at the age of preschoolers, while most frequently cases are found in children between the ages of 6 and 16. PMID:22892232

  5. Neurocysticercosis presenting as acute psychosis: a rare case report from rural India.

    PubMed

    Verma, Archana; Kumar, Alok

    2013-12-01

    Neurocysticercosis, caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm Taenia solium, is the most common parasitic infection of the central nervous system. Its clinical manifestations are varied, non specific and pleomorphic, depending on multiple factors. Seizures are the commonest presentation of neurocysticercosis. In this communication we describe an interesting case of multiple neurocysticercosis in a young presenting with psychiatric manifestations. He responded well to steroid and antipsychotic treatment. This case highlights an uncommon presentation of neurocysticercosis and significance of early recognizing this reversible cause will avoid delay in treatment.

  6. Extraparenchymal (Racemose) Neurocysticercosis and Its Multitude Manifestations: A Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Anish; Rangasetty, Srinivasa

    2015-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is an infection of the central nervous system caused by the larval form of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium. In the brain it occurs in two forms: parenchymal and extraparenchymal or racemose cysts. The clinical presentation of racemose cysts is pleomorphic, and is quite different from parenchymal cysticercosis. The clinical diagnosis of racemose cysts is quite challenging, with neuroimaging being the mainstay. However, the advent of newer brain imaging modalities has made a more accurate diagnosis possible. The primary focus of this article is racemose neurocysticercosis and its multitude manifestations, and includes a discussion of the newer diagnostic modalities and treatment options. PMID:26022457

  7. Extraparenchymal (Racemose) Neurocysticercosis and Its Multitude Manifestations: A Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Mahale, Rohan R; Mehta, Anish; Rangasetty, Srinivasa

    2015-07-01

    Neurocysticercosis is an infection of the central nervous system caused by the larval form of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium. In the brain it occurs in two forms: parenchymal and extraparenchymal or racemose cysts. The clinical presentation of racemose cysts is pleomorphic, and is quite different from parenchymal cysticercosis. The clinical diagnosis of racemose cysts is quite challenging, with neuroimaging being the mainstay. However, the advent of newer brain imaging modalities has made a more accurate diagnosis possible. The primary focus of this article is racemose neurocysticercosis and its multitude manifestations, and includes a discussion of the newer diagnostic modalities and treatment options. PMID:26022457

  8. [The infectivity of the population with the tapeworm Diphyllobothrium klebanovskii in an area of infection drift in the Khabarovsk Territory].

    PubMed

    Muratov, I V; Posokhov, P S; Romanenko, N A; Kozyreva, T G; Skulkina, A I

    1992-01-01

    Copro-ovoscopic survey of the human population in the Khabarovsk Territory and the analysis of data of account of territorial sanitary epidemiological station showed that people invaded with D. klebanovskii are registered only in areas whose rivers catadromous salmon come to spawn. Most of invaded people are recorded on the seashore. The risk of tapeworm invasion and the epidemiological characteristics of the carry-over zone are discussed.

  9. Genetic Variation and Population Genetics of Taenia saginata in North and Northeast Thailand in relation to Taenia asiatica.

    PubMed

    Anantaphruti, Malinee; Thaenkham, Urusa; Kusolsuk, Teera; Maipanich, Wanna; Saguankiat, Surapol; Pubampen, Somjit; Phuphisut, Orawan

    2013-01-01

    Taenia saginata is the most common human Taenia in Thailand. By cox1 sequences, 73 isolates from four localities in north and northeast were differentiated into 14 haplotypes, 11 variation sites and haplotype diversity of 0.683. Among 14 haplotypes, haplotype A was the major (52.1%), followed by haplotype B (21.9%). Clustering diagram of Thai and GenBank sequences indicated mixed phylogeny among localities. By MJ analysis, haplotype clustering relationships showed paired-stars-like network, having two main cores surrounded by minor haplotypes. Tajima's D values were significantly negative in T. saginata world population, suggesting population expansion. Significant Fu's F s values in Thai, as well as world population, also indicate that population is expanding and may be hitchhiking as part of selective sweep. Haplotype B and its dispersion were only found in populations from Thailand. Haplotype B may evolve and ultimately become an ancestor of future populations in Thailand. Haplotype A seems to be dispersion haplotype, not just in Thailand, but worldwide. High genetic T. saginata intraspecies divergence was found, in contrast to its sister species, T. asiatica; among 30 samples from seven countries, its haplotype diversity was 0.067, while only 2 haplotypes were revealed. This extremely low intraspecific variation suggests that T. asiatica could be an endangered species. PMID:23864933

  10. Infection of Tribolium beetles with a tapeworm: variation in susceptibility within and between beetle species and among genetic strains.

    PubMed

    Yan, G; Norman, S

    1995-02-01

    Host susceptibility and resistance to parasites are often hypothesized to be genetically variable traits. We tested 2 species of Tribolium flour beetles for among-strain variation in susceptibility to the rat tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta. Twelve genetic strains of Tribolium confusum and 11 strains of Tribolium castaneum were examined. We found T. castaneum was more susceptible to the tapeworm than T. confusum. There was significant among-strain and between-sex variation for both beetle species in infection intensity and prevalence. Among-vial variation was marginally significant. These results add to evidence that host susceptibility to a parasite is a genetically variable trait. We view these results as important findings for understanding natural selection on host-parasite interactions. Traits that are genetically variable can respond to natural selection. Thus, if a beetle's susceptibility to the tapeworm is correlated with fitness and heritable, susceptibility can evolve. Susceptibility is likely to be pleiotropic and have important consequences on issues ranging from parasite transmission to host species interactions and community structure.

  11. Tapeworm Khawia sinensis: review of the introduction and subsequent decline of a pathogen of carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Oros, Mikulás; Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Scholz, Tomás

    2009-10-14

    The Asian tapeworm Khawia sinensis Hsü, 1935 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea) is a large-sized (body length up to 11.5 cm) monozoic (unsegmented) parasite of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) that may cause mortality of young fish (fry). Since the 1960s, this cestode successfully colonized a large part of Europe, including the British Isles, North America and Japan. However, a review of published records provides evidence that the tapeworm K. sinensis, invasive parasite of carp, has become less common during the last two decades. Decline of K. sinensis may have been related to the recent introduction of another invasive tapeworm, the caryophyllidean Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958 to Europe. Other factors that may have caused that K. sinensis is much less common than previously are also briefly discussed. A comparison of K. sinensis from feral and cultured carp, published to date, with those recently found for the first time in wild populations of carp in Slovakia did not reveal any marked differences in their morphology or measurements.

  12. The parasite's long arm: a tapeworm parasite induces behavioural changes in uninfected group members of its social host.

    PubMed

    Beros, Sara; Jongepier, Evelien; Hagemeier, Felizitas; Foitzik, Susanne

    2015-11-22

    Parasites can induce alterations in host phenotypes in order to enhance their own survival and transmission. Parasites of social insects might not only benefit from altering their individual hosts, but also from inducing changes in uninfected group members. Temnothorax nylanderi ant workers infected with the tapeworm Anomotaenia brevis are known to be chemically distinct from nest-mates and do not contribute to colony fitness, but are tolerated in their colonies and well cared for. Here, we investigated how tapeworm- infected workers affect colony aggression by manipulating their presence in ant colonies and analysing whether their absence or presence resulted in behavioural alterations in their nest-mates. We report a parasite-induced shift in colony aggression, shown by lower aggression of uninfected nest-mates from parasitized colonies towards conspecifics, potentially explaining the tolerance towards infected ants. We also demonstrate that tapeworm-infected workers showed a reduced flight response and higher survival, while their presence caused a decrease in survival of uninfected nest-mates. This anomalous behaviour of infected ants, coupled with their increased survival, could facilitate the parasites' transmission to its definitive hosts, woodpeckers. We conclude that parasites exploiting individuals that are part of a society not only induce phenotypic changes within their individual hosts, but in uninfected group members as well. PMID:26582019

  13. The activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes and the biotransformation of selected anthelmintics in the model tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta.

    PubMed

    Bártíková, Hana; Vokřál, Ivan; Skálová, Lenka; Kubíček, Vladimír; Firbasová, Jana; Briestenský, David; Lamka, Jiří; Szotáková, Barbora

    2012-05-01

    The drug-metabolizing enzymes of some helminths can deactivate anthelmintics and therefore partially protect helminths against these drugs' toxic effect. The aim of our study was to assess the activity of the main drug-metabolizing enzymes and evaluate the metabolism of selected anthelmintics (albendazole, flubendazole, mebendazole) in the rat tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta, a species often used as a model tapeworm. In vitro and ex vivo experiments were performed. Metabolites of the anthelmintics were detected and identified by HPLC with spectrofluorometric or mass-spectrometric detection. The enzymes of H. diminuta are able to reduce the carbonyl group of flubendazole, mebendazole and several other xenobiotics. Although the activity of a number of oxidation enzymes was determined, no oxidative metabolites of albendazole were detected. Regarding conjugation enzymes, a high activity of glutathione S-transferase was observed. A methyl derivative of reduced flubendazole was the only conjugation metabolite identified in ex vivo incubations of H. diminuta with anthelmintics. The results revealed that H. diminuta metabolized flubendazole and mebendazole, but not albendazole. The biotransformation pathways found in H. diminuta differ from those described in Moniezia expanza and suggest the interspecies differences in drug metabolism not only among classes of helminths, but even among tapeworms.

  14. Orders out of chaos – molecular phylogenetics reveals the complexity of shark and stingray tapeworm relationships

    PubMed Central

    Caira, Janine N.; Jensen, Kirsten; Waeschenbach, Andrea; Olson, Peter D.; Littlewood, D. Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Novel molecular data are presented to resolve the long-standing issue of the non-monophyly of the elasmobranch-hosted tapeworm order Tetraphyllidea relative to the other acetabulate eucestode orders. Bayesian Inference analyses of various combinations of full ssrDNA, and full or partial lsrDNA (D1-D3), sequence data, which included 134 species representing 97 genera across the 15 eucestode orders, were conducted. New ssrDNA data were generated for 82 species, partial lsrDNA data for 53 species, and full lsrDNA data for 29 species. The monophyly of each of the elasmobranch-hosted orders Cathetocephalidea, Litobothriidea, Lecanicephalidea, and Rhinebothriidea was confirmed, as was the non-monophyly of the Tetraphyllidea. Two relatively stable groups of tetraphyllidean taxa emerged and are hereby designated as new orders. The Onchoproteocephalidea n. ord. is established to recognize the integrated nature of one undescribed and ten described genera of hook-bearing tetraphyllideans, previously of the family Onchobothriidae, with the members of the order Proteocephalidea. The Phyllobothriidea n. ord. is established for a subset of 12 non-hooked genera characterized by scoleces bearing four bothridia each with an anterior accessory sucker; most parasitise sharks and have been assigned to the Phyllobothriidae at one time or another. Tentative ordinal placements are suggested for 8 additional genera; placements for the remaining tetraphyllidean genera have not yet emerged. We propose these 17 genera remain in the “Tetraphyllidea”. Among these, particularly labile across analyses were Anthobothrium, Megalonchos, Carpobothrium, Calliobothrium, and Caulobothrium. The unique association of Chimaerocestus with holocephalans, rather than with elasmobranchs, appears to represent a host-switching event. Both of the non-elasmobranch hosted clades of acetabulate cestodes (i.e., Proteocephalidea and Cyclophyllidea and their kin) appear to have had their origins with elasmobranch

  15. Orders out of chaos--molecular phylogenetics reveals the complexity of shark and stingray tapeworm relationships.

    PubMed

    Caira, Janine N; Jensen, Kirsten; Waeschenbach, Andrea; Olson, Peter D; Littlewood, D Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    Novel molecular data are presented to resolve the long-standing issue of the non-monophyly of the elasmobranch-hosted tapeworm order Tetraphyllidea relative to the other acetabulate eucestode orders. Bayesian inference analyses of various combinations of full ssrDNA, and full or partial lsrDNA (D1-D3), sequence data, which included 134 species representing 97 genera across the 15 eucestode orders, were conducted. New ssrDNA data were generated for 82 species, partial lsrDNA data for 53 species, and full lsrDNA data for 29 species. The monophyly of each of the elasmobranch-hosted orders Cathetocephalidea, Litobothriidea, Lecanicephalidea and Rhinebothriidea was confirmed, as was the non-monophyly of the Tetraphyllidea. Two relatively stable groups of tetraphyllidean taxa emerged and are hereby designated as new orders. The Onchoproteocephalidea n. ord. is established to recognise the integrated nature of one undescribed and 10 described genera of hook-bearing tetraphyllideans, previously placed in the family Onchobothriidae, with the members of the order Proteocephalidea. The Phyllobothriidea n. ord. is established for a subset of 12 non-hooked genera characterised by scoleces bearing four bothridia each with an anterior accessory sucker; most parasitise sharks and have been assigned to the Phyllobothriidae at one time or another. Tentative ordinal placements are suggested for eight additional genera; placements for the remaining tetraphyllidean genera have not yet emerged. We propose that these 17 genera remain in the "Tetraphyllidea". Among these, particularly labile across analyses were Anthobothrium, Megalonchos, Carpobothrium, Calliobothrium and Caulobothrium. The unique association of Chimaerocestus with holocephalans, rather than with elasmobranchs, appears to represent a host-switching event. Both of the non-elasmobranch hosted clades of acetabulate cestodes (i.e. Proteocephalidea and Cyclophyllidea and their kin) appear to have had their origins with

  16. Lifetime inbreeding depression, purging, and mating system evolution in a simultaneous hermaphrodite tapeworm.

    PubMed

    Benesh, Daniel P; Weinreich, Friederike; Kalbe, Martin; Milinski, Manfred

    2014-06-01

    Classical theory on mating system evolution suggests that simultaneous hermaphrodites should either outcross if they have high inbreeding depression (ID) or self-fertilize if they have low ID. However, a mixture of selfing and outcrossing persists in many species. Previous studies with the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus have found worms to self-fertilize some of their eggs despite ID. The probability for selfing to spread depends on the relative fitness of selfers, as well as the genetic basis for ID and whether it can be effectively purged. We bred S. solidus through two consecutive generations of selfing and recorded several fitness correlates over the whole life cycle. After one round of selfing, ID was pronounced, particularly in early-life traits, and the conservatively estimated lifetime fitness of selfed progeny was only 9% that of the outcrossed controls. After a second generation of selfing, ID remained high but was significantly reduced in several traits, which is consistent with the purging of deleterious recessive alleles (the estimated load of lethal equivalents dropped by 48%). Severe ID, even if it can be rapidly purged, likely prevents transitions toward pure selfing in this parasite, although we also cannot exclude the possibility that low-level selfing has undetected benefits.

  17. A new combination and a new species of onchobothriid tapeworm (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea: Onchobothriidae) from triakid sharks.

    PubMed

    Kurashima, Akira; Shimizu, Toshiya; Mano, Nobuhiro; Ogawa, Kazuo; Fujita, Toshihiko

    2014-05-01

    A new combination and a new species of onchobothriid tapeworm are described from triakid sharks. We found Platybothrium xiamenensis Wang & Yang, 2001 and Erudituncus musteli (Yamaguti, 1952) from Hemitriakis japanica (Müller & Henle). Based on the morphology of the hooks P. xiamenensis is transferred to the genus Erudituncus Healy, Scholz & Caira, 2001. The specimens studied by us differ from the original description in the number of proglottids and testes and in the size of the cirrus-sac. However, we consider them conspecific with E. xiamenensis due to the consistent hook morphology and laciniations in both descriptions and believe the differences reflect intraspecific variation. The type-host of E. xiamenensis was reported as Mustelus griseus Pietschmann. However, in the present study, this parasite was found only in H. japanica and never in M. griseus although many specimens of the latter host were examined. This suggests that the type-host in the original description has probably been misidentified. We found another undescribed species in M. griseus, Calliobothrium shirozame n. sp., which is distinguished from the congeners by having a unique combination of the number of laciniations: four in the cephalic peduncle, six in the immature proglottids and four in the mature proglottids. PMID:24711114

  18. An insect-tapeworm model as a proxy for anthelminthic effects in the mammalian host.

    PubMed

    Woolsey, Ian David; Fredensborg, Brian L; Jensen, Per M; Kapel, Christian M O; Meyling, Nicolai V

    2015-07-01

    Invertebrate models provide several important advantages over their vertebrate counterparts including fewer legislative stipulations and faster, more cost-effective experimental procedures. Furthermore, various similarities between insect and mammalian systems have been highlighted. To obtain maximum use of invertebrate models in pharmacology, their fidelity as analogues of vertebrate systems requires verification. We utilised a flour beetle (Tenebrio molitor)-tapeworm (Hymenolepis diminuta) model to evaluate the efficacy of known anthelmintic compounds, praziquantel, mebendazole and levamisole against H. diminuta cysticercoid larvae in vitro. Inhibition of cysticercoid activity during the excystation procedure was used as a proxy for worm removal. The effects of the three compounds mirrored their relative efficacy in treatment against adult worms in mammalian systems; however, further study is required to determine the fidelity of this model in relation to dose administered. The model precludes comparison of consecutive daily administration of pharmaceuticals in mammals due to cysticercoids not surviving outside of the host for multiple days. Treatment of beetles in vivo, followed by excystation of cysticercoids postdissection could potentially allow for such comparisons. Further model validation will include analysis of pharmaceutical efficacy in varying H. diminuta isolates and pharmaceutical dilution in solvents other than water. Notwithstanding, our results demonstrate that this model holds promise as a method to efficiently identify promising new cestocidal candidates. PMID:25895063

  19. Advances in diagnosis and spatial analysis of cysticercosis and taeniasis.

    PubMed

    Raoul, Francis; Li, Tiaoying; Sako, Yasuhito; Chen, Xingwang; Long, Changping; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Wu, Yunfei; Nakao, Minoru; Okamoto, Munehiro; Craig, Philip S; Giraudoux, Patrick; Ito, Akira

    2013-11-01

    Human cysticercosis, caused by accidental ingestion of eggs of Taenia solium, is one of the most pathogenic helminthiases and is listed among the 17 WHO Neglected Tropical Diseases. Controlling the life-cycle of T. solium between humans and pigs is essential for eradication of cysticercosis. One difficulty for the accurate detection and identification of T. solium species is the possible co-existence of two other human Taenia tapeworms (T. saginata and T. asiatica, which do not cause cysticercosis in humans). Several key issues for taeniasis/cysticercosis (T/C) evidence-based epidemiology and control are reviewed: (1) advances in immunological and molecular tools for screening of human and animals hosts and identification of Taenia species, with a focus on real-time detection of taeniasis carriers and infected animals in field community screenings, and (2) spatial ecological approaches that have been used to detect geospatial patterns of case distributions and to monitor pig activity and behaviour. Most recent eco-epidemiological studies undertaken in Sichuan province, China, are introduced and reviewed. PMID:23985371

  20. Detection of human taeniases in Tibetan endemic areas, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Tiaoying; Chen, Xingwang; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Wang, Hao; Long, Changping; Sako, Yasuhito; Okamoto, Munehir; Wu, Yunfei; Giraudoux, Patrick; Raoul, Francis; Nkouawa, Agathe; Nakao, Minoru; Craig, Philip S; Ito, Akira

    2013-11-01

    Detection of taeniasis carriers of Taenia solium is essential for control of cysticercosis in humans and pigs. In the current study, we assessed the positive detection rate of a self-detection tool, stool microscopy with direct smear and coproPCR for taeniasis carriers in endemic Tibetan areas of northwest Sichuan. The self-detection tool through questioning about a history of proglottid expulsion within the previous one year showed an overall positive detection rate of more than 80% for Taenia saginata, T. solium and T. asiatica. The positive detection rate was similar for T. saginata and T. solium. In 132 taeniid tapeworm carriers, 68 (51·5%) were detected by microscopy and 92 (69·7%) were diagnosed by coproPCR. A combination of microscopy and coproPCR increased the positive detection rate to 77·3%. There remained 10 cases (7·6%) coproPCR negative but microscopy positive. Due to the high cost and complicated process, coproPCR is required for the identification of Taenia species only when necessary, though it had a significant higher positive detection rate than microscopy. Combined use of self-detection and stool microscopy are recommended in community-based mass screening for taeniases in this Tibetan area or in other situation-similar endemic regions. PMID:23866973

  1. An immunoblot for detection of Taenia saginata cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Abuseir, Sameh; Nagel-Kohl, Uschi; Wolken, Sonja; Strube, Christina

    2013-05-01

    Control measures to prevent human infections with the food-borne zoonotic helminth Taenia saginata are currently based on meat inspection, which shows rather low diagnostic sensitivity. To develop an immunoblot for detection of T. saginata-infected cattle, crude proteins of T. saginata cysts were extracted and separated with SDS-PAGE. The cyst antigens showed ten protein bands ranging from 260 to 14 kDa. T. saginata cyst proteins 260, 150, 130, 67, 60, 55, 50, and 23 kDa were immunoreactive with known positive sera of T. saginata-infected cattle but cross-reacted with sera from Echinocccus granulosus-infected ruminants. By contrast, 14- and 18-kDa cyst proteins reacted specifically with T. saginata-positive sera and thus might be potential candidates for the development of a T. saginata-specific immunoassay. Proteins of E. granulosus cysts and Taenia hydatigena cysts were also extracted and separated with SDS-PAGE. E. granulosus cysts revealed 11 protein bands ranging from 260 to 23 kDa. E. granulosus protein 60 kDa was immunoreactive with E. granulosus-positive sera only. The cyst of T. hydatigena showed 11 protein bands ranging from 290 to 14 kDa. The protein band 35 kDa showed cross-reaction with positive sera from both T. saginata- and E. granulosus-infected animals. A protein of 67 kDa was present in all three tested cestode species and was the major antigenic protein detected by sera of T. saginata- and E. granulosus-infected animals. Therefore, this protein represents a potential vaccine candidate against both cysticercosis and cystic echinococcosis in cattle. PMID:23483261

  2. Control of the taeniosis/cysticercosis complex: future developments.

    PubMed

    Flisser, Ana; Rodríguez-Canul, Rossanna; Willingham, Arve Lee

    2006-07-31

    Cysticercosis is due to the establishment of the larval stage of the zoonotic cestode parasite Taenia solium. The infection causes substantial human morbidity and mortality, particularly in several Latin American countries and parts of Africa and Asia, as well as economic losses in pig husban dry due to condemnation of infected pork meat. The life cycle of T. solium includes human beings as definitive hosts and pigs as intermediate hosts. Cysticercosis is acquired by the ingestion of eggs released by human tapeworm carriers, who become infected after ingesting pork meat contaminated with cysticerci. Taenia solium transmission has been associated with poverty, lack of sanitary services and practices of rearing backyard pigs with free access to the areas that villagers use as toilets, as well as cultural behaviour. Nonetheless, due to the recent increase of migration and tourism, industrial countries are also reporting cases of human cysticercosis. There are many epidemiological studies that have been conducted mainly in Latin American countries that have evaluated intervention measures for control of cysticercosis including the development and testing of vaccines. Furthermore, the involvement of international agencies and institutions, such as the World Health Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization and the International Livestock Research Institute, as well as the commitment of policymakers, scientists and field workers, are key means for the sustainable control and, hopefully, eradication of T. solium infections.

  3. IL-22 Restrains Tapeworm-Mediated Protection against Experimental Colitis via Regulation of IL-25 Expression.

    PubMed

    Reyes, José L; Fernando, Maria R; Lopes, Fernando; Leung, Gabriella; Mancini, Nicole L; Matisz, Chelsea E; Wang, Arthur; McKay, Derek M

    2016-04-01

    Interleukin (IL)-22, an immune cell-derived cytokine whose receptor expression is restricted to non-immune cells (e.g. epithelial cells), can be anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory. Mice infected with the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta are protected from dinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (DNBS)-induced colitis. Here we assessed expulsion of H. diminuta, the concomitant immune response and the outcome of DNBS-induced colitis in wild-type (WT) and IL-22 deficient mice (IL-22-/-) ± infection. Interleukin-22-/- mice had a mildly impaired ability to expel the worm and this correlated with reduced or delayed induction of TH2 immunity as measured by splenic and mesenteric lymph node production of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 and intestinal Muc-2 mRNA and goblet cell hyperplasia; in contrast, IL-25 increased in the small intestine of IL-22-/- mice 8 and 12 days post-infection compared to WT mice. In vitro experiments revealed that H. diminuta directly evoked epithelial production of IL-25 that was inhibited by recombinant IL-22. Also, IL-10 and markers of regulatory T cells were increased in IL-22-/- mice that displayed less DNBS (3 mg, ir. 72h)-induced colitis. Wild-type mice infected with H. diminuta were protected from colitis, as were infected IL-22-/- mice and the latter to a degree that they were almost indistinguishable from control, non-DNBS treated mice. Finally, treatment with anti-IL-25 antibodies exaggerated DNBS-induced colitis in IL-22-/- mice and blocked the anti-colitic effect of infection with H. diminuta. Thus, IL-22 is identified as an endogenous brake on helminth-elicited TH2 immunity, reducing the efficacy of expulsion of H. diminuta and limiting the effectiveness of the anti-colitic events mobilized following infection with H. diminuta in a non-permissive host. PMID:27055194

  4. Murine autoimmune arthritis is exaggerated by infection with the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta.

    PubMed

    Graepel, Rabea; Leung, Gabriella; Wang, Arthur; Villemaire, Michelle; Jirik, Frank R; Sharkey, Keith A; McDougall, Jason J; McKay, Derek M

    2013-06-01

    Infection with helminth parasites triggers strong and stereotypic immune responses in humans and mice, which can protect against specific experimentally-induced autoimmune diseases. We have shown that infection with the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, confers a protective effect on FCA-induced joint inflammation. Here, we investigated the effect of a prophylactic infection with H. diminuta on the K/BxN-serum model of polyarthritis in BALB/c mice. Mice were infected with 10 cysticercoids of H. diminuta by oral gavage and 8 days later arthritis was induced by i.p. injection of K/BxN arthritogenic serum. Joint swelling and pain measurements were recorded throughout a 13 day time course. At necropsy, joints and blood serum were collected. K/BxN-treated mice developed joint inflammation in the front paws, hind paws and knees as shown by increased swelling, mechanical allodynia and myeloperoxidase activity. Mice infected with H. diminuta had more severe disease, with increased eosinophil peroxidase activity in their paws and greater inflammatory infiltrate and synovitis in the knee joints. Hymenolepis diminuta-infected mice displayed significant increases in serum levels of C5a and mast cell protease-1 compared with K/BxN-serum only treatment, the latter being indicative of mast cell activation. In contrast to the protective effect of infection with H. diminuta in FCA-induced monoarthritis, infection with this helminth exacerbated K/BxN serum-induced polyarthritis in BALB/c mice. This correlated with increases in C5a and mast cell activation: factors critical in the development of K/BxN-induced arthritis. Thus, while data accumulate from animal models showing that infection with helminth parasites may be beneficial for a variety of auto-inflammatory diseases, our findings demonstrate the potential for helminths to exacerbate disease. Hence care is needed when helminth therapy is translated into a clinical setting.

  5. IL-22 Restrains Tapeworm-Mediated Protection against Experimental Colitis via Regulation of IL-25 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, José L.; Fernando, Maria R.; Lopes, Fernando; Leung, Gabriella; Mancini, Nicole L.; Matisz, Chelsea E.; Wang, Arthur; McKay, Derek M.

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-22, an immune cell-derived cytokine whose receptor expression is restricted to non-immune cells (e.g. epithelial cells), can be anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory. Mice infected with the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta are protected from dinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (DNBS)-induced colitis. Here we assessed expulsion of H. diminuta, the concomitant immune response and the outcome of DNBS-induced colitis in wild-type (WT) and IL-22 deficient mice (IL-22-/-) ± infection. Interleukin-22-/- mice had a mildly impaired ability to expel the worm and this correlated with reduced or delayed induction of TH2 immunity as measured by splenic and mesenteric lymph node production of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 and intestinal Muc-2 mRNA and goblet cell hyperplasia; in contrast, IL-25 increased in the small intestine of IL-22-/- mice 8 and 12 days post-infection compared to WT mice. In vitro experiments revealed that H. diminuta directly evoked epithelial production of IL-25 that was inhibited by recombinant IL-22. Also, IL-10 and markers of regulatory T cells were increased in IL-22-/- mice that displayed less DNBS (3 mg, ir. 72h)-induced colitis. Wild-type mice infected with H. diminuta were protected from colitis, as were infected IL-22-/- mice and the latter to a degree that they were almost indistinguishable from control, non-DNBS treated mice. Finally, treatment with anti-IL-25 antibodies exaggerated DNBS-induced colitis in IL-22-/- mice and blocked the anti-colitic effect of infection with H. diminuta. Thus, IL-22 is identified as an endogenous brake on helminth-elicited TH2 immunity, reducing the efficacy of expulsion of H. diminuta and limiting the effectiveness of the anti-colitic events mobilized following infection with H. diminuta in a non-permissive host. PMID:27055194

  6. Senna leaf extracts induced Ca(+2) homeostasis in a zoonotic tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta.

    PubMed

    Roy, Saptarshi; Kundu, Suman; Lyndem, Larisha M

    2016-10-01

    Context Plants and plant products have been used in traditional medicine as anthelmintic agents in human and veterinary medicine. Three species of Senna plant, S. alata (L), S. alexandrina (M) and S. occidentalis (L.) Link (Fabaceae) have been shown to have a vermicidal/vermifugal effect on a zoonotic tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta (Rudolphi) (Cyclophyllidean). Objective The present study validates the mode of action of these Senna plants on the parasite. The alcoholic leaf extract was determined to obtain information on the intracellular free calcium concentration level. Materials and methods Hymenolepis diminuta was maintained in Sprague-Dawley rat model for 2 months. Live parasites collected from infected rat intestine were exposed to 40 mg/mL concentration of each plant extracts prepared in phosphate buffer saline at 37 °C, till parasite gets paralyzed. The rate of efflux of calcium from the parasite tissue to the medium and the level of intracellular Ca(2+ )concentration were determined by an atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results This study revealed that exposure of the worms to the plant extract leads to disruption in intracellular calcium homeostasis. A significant increase (44.6% and 25%) of efflux in Ca(2+ )from the tissue to the incubated medium was observed. Senna alata showed high rate of efflux (5.32 mg/g) followed by S. alexandria and S. occidentalis (both 4.6 mg/g) compared with control (3.68 mg/g). Discussion and conclusion These results suggest that leaf extracts caused membrane permeability to Ca(2+ )after vacuolization of the tegument under stress and the extracts may contain compound that can be used as a chemotherapeutic agent.

  7. IL-22 Restrains Tapeworm-Mediated Protection against Experimental Colitis via Regulation of IL-25 Expression.

    PubMed

    Reyes, José L; Fernando, Maria R; Lopes, Fernando; Leung, Gabriella; Mancini, Nicole L; Matisz, Chelsea E; Wang, Arthur; McKay, Derek M

    2016-04-01

    Interleukin (IL)-22, an immune cell-derived cytokine whose receptor expression is restricted to non-immune cells (e.g. epithelial cells), can be anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory. Mice infected with the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta are protected from dinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (DNBS)-induced colitis. Here we assessed expulsion of H. diminuta, the concomitant immune response and the outcome of DNBS-induced colitis in wild-type (WT) and IL-22 deficient mice (IL-22-/-) ± infection. Interleukin-22-/- mice had a mildly impaired ability to expel the worm and this correlated with reduced or delayed induction of TH2 immunity as measured by splenic and mesenteric lymph node production of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 and intestinal Muc-2 mRNA and goblet cell hyperplasia; in contrast, IL-25 increased in the small intestine of IL-22-/- mice 8 and 12 days post-infection compared to WT mice. In vitro experiments revealed that H. diminuta directly evoked epithelial production of IL-25 that was inhibited by recombinant IL-22. Also, IL-10 and markers of regulatory T cells were increased in IL-22-/- mice that displayed less DNBS (3 mg, ir. 72h)-induced colitis. Wild-type mice infected with H. diminuta were protected from colitis, as were infected IL-22-/- mice and the latter to a degree that they were almost indistinguishable from control, non-DNBS treated mice. Finally, treatment with anti-IL-25 antibodies exaggerated DNBS-induced colitis in IL-22-/- mice and blocked the anti-colitic effect of infection with H. diminuta. Thus, IL-22 is identified as an endogenous brake on helminth-elicited TH2 immunity, reducing the efficacy of expulsion of H. diminuta and limiting the effectiveness of the anti-colitic events mobilized following infection with H. diminuta in a non-permissive host.

  8. Tapeworm infection is a significant risk factor for spasmodic colic and ileal impaction colic in the horse.

    PubMed

    Proudman, C J; French, N P; Trees, A J

    1998-05-01

    The association between the equine intestinal tapeworm Anoplocephala perfoliata and specific types of intestinal disease was investigated by matched case-control study using coprological and serological diagnosis. We have previously shown that the host IgG(T) response to 12/13 kDa antigens of A. perfoliata correlates well with infection intensity, therefore this antibody response was used to investigate the risk of colic at different levels of parasite infection intensity. One hundred and three spasmodic colic cases with an equal number of controls matched for age, breed and gender, and 20 ileal impaction cases each with 2 similarly matched controls were obtained. Cases of spasmodic colic were much more likely (odds ratio = 8.0) to be associated with A. perfoliata infection detected coprologically than controls. Serological diagnosis revealed an increasing risk of spasmodic colic with increasing infection intensity. Calculation of an aetiological fraction suggests that 22% of spasmodic colic cases in this study were tapeworm associated. No significant association was found between colic and strongyle egg count. Conditional logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the relationship between colic and A. perfoliata infection intensity was not confounded by strongyle egg count and there was a linear relationship between infection intensity and the log-odds of spasmodic colic. For cases of ileal impaction, a strong association was found between colic and A. perfoliata as diagnosed by coprological means (odds ratio of 34.0). Serological diagnosis also revealed a strong association that increased with higher levels of infection intensity (odds ratio = 26.0). The aetiological fraction for the ileal impaction data suggests that 81% of the ileal impaction cases in this study were tapeworm associated. This study concludes that A. perfoliata is a significant risk factor for spasmodic colic and ileal impaction colic in the horse; and that the risk of spasmodic colic

  9. Infection level of the Asian tapeworm (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi) in the cyprinid fish, Schizothorax niger, from Anchar Lake, relative to season, sex, length and condition factor.

    PubMed

    Zargar, Ummer Rashid; Chishti, M Z; Yousuf, A R; Ahmed, Fayaz

    2012-01-01

    Various studies have shown that the Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi causes great economic loss in hatcheries, fish farms as well as in lakes. In order to understand the seasonal variation of infection in a nutrient-enriched lake, parasitological investigation was carried out in the indigenous cyprinid fish, Schizothorax niger Heckel 1838 from September, 2008 to August, 2009. Overall, this study revealed definite seasonality of infection (p < 0.05), with greater infection in summer (prevalence = 39.5%) and lesser in winter (prevalence = 8.1%). The prevalence among different seasons revealed significant differences (p < 0.05). Sex was not an important factor influencing the prevalence of the Asian tapeworm. A strong positive correlation (Pearson's correlation, r = 0.7; p = 0.02) between total length of S. niger and number of Asian fish tapeworms was observed. Similarly, a strong positive correlation existed between weight of fish and number of tapeworms (Pearson's correlation, r = 0.7; p = 0.005). Prevalence and mean abundance were positively and significantly correlated with water temperature (r = 0.8, p < 0.01 and r = 0.8, p < 0.01, respectively). Thus seasonal dynamics, total length and weight of the host significantly influenced the tapeworm infection. The above findings will be useful in devising the appropriate control strategies for the Asian tapeworm in wild fish in Kashmir valley as well as in similar climatic zones of other parts of the world. Also, information from this study will be used to assess the spread and extent of B. acheilognathi which is a potential threat to the indigenous fish fauna of Anchar Lake. PMID:21739312

  10. Cysticercosis Control: Bringing Advances to the Field

    PubMed Central

    O’Neal, SE; Winthrop, KL; Gonzalez, AE

    2011-01-01

    Progress towards Taenia solium control is evident in the development of new technologies and in increasing regional coordination, yet disease eradication remains unlikely in the near future. In the meantime, translation of research advances into functioning control programs is necessary to address the ongoing disease burden in endemic areas. Multiple screening assays, effective treatments for both human and porcine infection, and vaccines blocking transmission to pigs are currently available. Strategies based on identification and treatment of T. solium adult tapeworms, as well as interventions that block cysticercosis acquisition in pigs have temporarily reduced transmission. Building on these successes with controlled community trials in varying endemic scenarios will drive progress towards regional elimination. PMID:21731303

  11. An Unusual Eyelid Mass of Cysticercosis: A Twist in the Tale

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Poonam J; Nair, Akshay Gopinathan; Trivedi, Mihir G; Potdar, Nayana A; Gopinathan, Indumati; Shinde, Chhaya A

    2016-01-01

    Cysticercosis is a parasitic infestation caused by the larval form of the tapeworm, Taenia solium (T. solium). The common sites for cysticerosis include the brain, eyes, and skeletal muscle. Ocular or adnexal involvement is commonly seen with the commonest ophthalmic site being subretinal space and the vitreous cavity. However, only a handful of cases of eyelid cysticercosis have been reported in the past. We report a rare and unusual case of isolated eyelid cysticercosis in a middle-aged woman masquerading as an asymptomatic slowly growing subcutaneous painless mass in the left eyelid which was presumed to be a benign skin mass, a cyst of appendageal origin such as an epidermoid cyst. This case highlights the ubiquitous nature of cysticercosis in tropical countries and the need for a high degree of suspicion while surgically treating subcutaneous masses. We would additionally emphasize the need to rule out neurocysticercosis in such cases. PMID:27398015

  12. An Unusual Eyelid Mass of Cysticercosis: A Twist in the Tale.

    PubMed

    Rai, Poonam J; Nair, Akshay Gopinathan; Trivedi, Mihir G; Potdar, Nayana A; Gopinathan, Indumati; Shinde, Chhaya A

    2016-01-01

    Cysticercosis is a parasitic infestation caused by the larval form of the tapeworm, Taenia solium (T. solium). The common sites for cysticerosis include the brain, eyes, and skeletal muscle. Ocular or adnexal involvement is commonly seen with the commonest ophthalmic site being subretinal space and the vitreous cavity. However, only a handful of cases of eyelid cysticercosis have been reported in the past. We report a rare and unusual case of isolated eyelid cysticercosis in a middle-aged woman masquerading as an asymptomatic slowly growing subcutaneous painless mass in the left eyelid which was presumed to be a benign skin mass, a cyst of appendageal origin such as an epidermoid cyst. This case highlights the ubiquitous nature of cysticercosis in tropical countries and the need for a high degree of suspicion while surgically treating subcutaneous masses. We would additionally emphasize the need to rule out neurocysticercosis in such cases. PMID:27398015

  13. Genetic characterisation of Taenia multiceps cysts from ruminants in Greece.

    PubMed

    Al-Riyami, Shumoos; Ioannidou, Evi; Koehler, Anson V; Hussain, Muhammad H; Al-Rawahi, Abdulmajeed H; Giadinis, Nektarios D; Lafi, Shawkat Q; Papadopoulos, Elias; Jabbar, Abdul

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to genetically characterise the larval stage (coenurus) of Taenia multiceps from ruminants in Greece, utilising DNA regions within the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (partial cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (pnad1) mitochondrial (mt) genes, respectively. A molecular-phylogenetic approach was used to analyse the pcox1 and pnad1 amplicons derived from genomic DNA samples from individual cysts (n=105) from cattle (n=3), goats (n=5) and sheep (n=97). Results revealed five and six distinct electrophoretic profiles for pcox1 and pnad1, respectively, using single-strand conformation polymorphism. Direct sequencing of selected amplicons representing each of these profiles defined five haplotypes each for pcox1 and pnad1, among all 105 isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of individual sequence data for each locus, including a range of well-defined reference sequences, inferred that all isolates of T. multiceps cysts from ruminants in Greece clustered with previously published sequences from different continents. The present study provides a foundation for future large-scale studies on the epidemiology of T. multiceps in ruminants as well as dogs in Greece. PMID:26688203

  14. Genetic characterisation of Taenia multiceps cysts from ruminants in Greece.

    PubMed

    Al-Riyami, Shumoos; Ioannidou, Evi; Koehler, Anson V; Hussain, Muhammad H; Al-Rawahi, Abdulmajeed H; Giadinis, Nektarios D; Lafi, Shawkat Q; Papadopoulos, Elias; Jabbar, Abdul

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to genetically characterise the larval stage (coenurus) of Taenia multiceps from ruminants in Greece, utilising DNA regions within the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (partial cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (pnad1) mitochondrial (mt) genes, respectively. A molecular-phylogenetic approach was used to analyse the pcox1 and pnad1 amplicons derived from genomic DNA samples from individual cysts (n=105) from cattle (n=3), goats (n=5) and sheep (n=97). Results revealed five and six distinct electrophoretic profiles for pcox1 and pnad1, respectively, using single-strand conformation polymorphism. Direct sequencing of selected amplicons representing each of these profiles defined five haplotypes each for pcox1 and pnad1, among all 105 isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of individual sequence data for each locus, including a range of well-defined reference sequences, inferred that all isolates of T. multiceps cysts from ruminants in Greece clustered with previously published sequences from different continents. The present study provides a foundation for future large-scale studies on the epidemiology of T. multiceps in ruminants as well as dogs in Greece.

  15. Neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis, the most common helminthic infection of the nervous system, is a major cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. The disease occurs when humans become intermediate hosts of the tapeworm Taenia solium after ingesting its eggs by contagion from an asymptomatic Taenia carrier. Within the nervous system, parasites may locate in brain parenchyma, subarachnoid space, ventricular system, or spinal cord, causing several pathological changes that are responsible for the clinical pleomorphism of the disease. Seizures are the most common clinical manifestation, but a sizable proportion of patients develop focal deficits, intracranial hypertension, or cognitive decline. Preoperative diagnosis of neurocysticercosis is possible after proper integration of data from neuroimaging studies and immunological tests. Cysticidal drugs (albendazole and praziquantel) have changed the prognosis of most patients with neurocysticercosis. The use of these drugs has shown to reduce the parasite load within the central nervous system and to improve the clinical prognosis of the disease in many cases. Future studies should focus on disease eradication through the implementation of control programs against all the interrelated steps in the life cycle of T solium, including human carriers of the adult tapeworm, infected pigs, and eggs in the environment. PMID:25360206

  16. Peritonitis caused by jejunal perforation with Taenia saginata: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Bekraki, Ali; Hanna, Khalil

    2016-03-01

    Complicated Taeniasis necessitating surgical intervention is extremely rare and is usually reported to occur in the distal ileal region of the Gastrointestinal tract. A case of peritonitis secondary to proximal jejunal perforation due to Taenia saginata is presented. Preoperative evaluation suggested the diagnosis of acute duodenal ulcer perforation. Although no real change in management and outcome is present, Taenia remains an exceptional direct cause of intestinal perforation, and should be kept on the list of differential diagnosis of peritonitis and acute abdomen in endemic geographical locations. PMID:27065626

  17. Prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in French cattle in 2010.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Céline; Morlot, Claire; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle; Mas, Michel; Grandmontagne, Claude; Gilli-Dunoyer, Pascale; Gay, Emilie; Callait-Cardinal, Marie-Pierre

    2014-06-16

    Bovine cysticercosis is a foodborne disease caused by the cestode Taenia saginata with cattle as the intermediate host and humans as the final host. This disease is responsible for direct financial losses for farmers. It is also economically important because human infestation through raw or undercooked meat consumption can have a negative impact on the confidence the consumer has in the food industry. This study aimed to determine the apparent and true prevalence of bovine cysticercosis in France and describe the locations of identified cysticercosis lesions. The study sample included 4,564,065 cattle slaughtered in 2010 in France, among which 6491 were detected as harbouring cysticercosis lesions using the current EU meat inspection process. The overall apparent prevalence (including both viable and degenerated cysticerci) was estimated at 0.142% [0.142-0.143]. The true overall prevalence defined as the estimation of the prevalence after taking into account the sensitivity of meat inspection (detection fraction) was 1.23% [0.83-1.93]. The true prevalence of cattle with at least one viable cysticercus was 0.113% [0.076-0.189]. Taking into account both our results and those of a previous study on the prevalence of human cysticercosis in France, we estimated that one carcass could infest an average of 8-20 individuals. The spatial distribution of viable cysticerci showed that the highest apparent prevalence was found in eastern France. This study, the largest survey ever conducted on bovine cysticercosis in France, indicated a low but spatially heterogeneous prevalence of the parasite among the cattle population. Considering French eating habits, according to which it is not uncommon to consume undercooked meat, the possibility of humans being infested even though viable cysticerci are not detected during meat inspection is high. Increasing the detection sensitivity of meat inspection through the use of a risk-based meat inspection procedure should improve

  18. Four cases of Taenia saginata infection with an analysis of COX1 gene.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jaeeun; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Lim, Hyemi; Kim, Min-Jae; Yooyen, Thanapon; Lee, Dongmin; Eom, Keeseon S; Shin, Eun-Hee; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2014-02-01

    Human taeniases had been not uncommon in the Republic of Korea (=Korea) until the 1980s. The prevalence decreased and a national survey in 2004 revealed no Taenia egg positive cases. However, a subsequent national survey in 2012 showed 0.04% (10 cases) prevalence of Taenia spp. eggs suggesting its resurgence in Korea. We recently encountered 4 cases of Taenia saginata infection who had symptoms of taeniasis that included discharge of proglottids. We obtained several proglottids from each case. Because the morphological features of T. saginata are almost indistinguishable from those of Taenia asiatica, molecular analyses using the PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) were performed to identify the species. The PCR-RFLP patterns of all of the 4 specimens were consistent with T. saginata, and the cox1 gene sequence showed 99.8-100% identity with that of T. saginata reported previously from Korea, Japan, China, and Cambodia. All of the 4 patients had the history of travel abroad but its relation with contracting taeniasis was unclear. Our findings may suggest resurgence of T. saginata infection among people in Korea. PMID:24623887

  19. The first workshop towards the control of cestode zoonoses in Asia and Africa

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The first workshop towards the control of cestode zoonoses in Asia and Africa was held in Asahikawa Medical University, Japan on 15 and 16 Feb 2011. This meeting was fully supported by the Asian Science and Technology Strategic Cooperation Promotion Programs sponsored by the Special Coordination Funds for Promoting Science and Technology, the Ministry of Education Japan (MEXT) for 3 years from 2010 to Akira Ito. A total of 24 researchers from 9 countries joined together and discussed the present situation and problems towards the control of cestode zoonoses. As the meeting was simultaneously for the establishment of joint international, either bilateral or multilateral collaboration projects, the main purposes were directed to 1) how to detect taeniasis/cysticercosis infected patients, 2) how to differentiate Taenia solium from two other human Taenia species, T. saginata and T. asiatica, 3) how to evaluate T. asiatica based on the evidence of hybrid and hybrid-derived adult tapeworms from Thailand and China, 4) how to evaluate T. solium and T. hyaenae and other Taenia species from the wild animals in Ethiopia, and 5) how to detect echinococcosis patients and 6) how to differentiate Echinococcus species worldwide. Such important topics are summarized in this meeting report. PMID:21693001

  20. Is the human-infecting Diphyllobothrium pacificum a valid species or just a South American population of the holarctic fish broad tapeworm, D. latum?

    PubMed

    Skeríková, Andrea; Brabec, Jan; Kuchta, Roman; Jiménez, Juan A; García, Hector H; Scholz, Tomás

    2006-08-01

    Using ITS2 gene sequences, the validity of the tapeworm Diphyllobothrium pacificum (Nybelin, 1931), infecting humans on the Pacific coast of South America and in Japan, was assessed. ITS2 sequences of this cestode differed markedly (sequence similarity 79.0-80.2%) from those of the most common human-infecting cestode, the broad fish tapeworm Diphyllobothrium latum (L.), as well as other four species of Diphyllobothrium, including potential human parasites (D. cordatum, D. dendriticum, and D. lanceolatum) and two species of Spirometra (sequence similarity 77.5-81.9%). Interspecific sequence similarity between all but one (D. pacificum) species was 86.1-99.6%, whereas individual isolates of D. dendriticum and D. ditremum exhibited intraspecific sequence similarity of 97.0-98.0% and 98.2-99.9%, respectively. Phylogenetic trees constructed from ITS2 sequences show a markedly distant position of D. pacificum from other species analyzed and also indicate the possible paraphyly of Spirometra.

  1. Molecular identification of larvae of a tetraphyllidean tapeworm (Platyhelminthes: Eucestoda) in a razor clam as an alternative intermediate host in the life cycle of Acanthobothrium brevissime.

    PubMed

    Holland, Nicholas D; Wilson, Nerida G

    2009-10-01

    Dwarf razor clams (Ensis minor) in the Gulf of Mexico are known to be infected with plerocercoid larvae of a tetraphyllidean tapeworm. Here, we show that these larvae live unencysted in the intestinal lumen of the clam. Morphologically, the larvae are similar to (although significantly larger than) tapeworm larvae previously described living in the gut of amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae) from the same habitat. Sequence data from the D2 region of the 28S rDNA from clam-infecting larvae were identical to the sequence of Acanthobothrium brevissime isolated as larvae from amphioxus and as adults from a stingray (Dasyatis say). The sequence data leave little doubt that the dwarf razor clam and the amphioxus are alternative intermediate hosts in the life cycle of A. brevissime. PMID:19366282

  2. Isolation and identification of lignans from Caulis Bambusae in Taenia with antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jia; Yu, Jin; Zhang, Pei-Cheng; Tang, Feng; Yue, Yong-De; Yang, Ya-Nan; Feng, Zi-Ming; Guo, Xue-Feng

    2013-05-15

    Caulis Bambusae in Taenia is a medicinal preparation from Bambusa tuldoides Munro consisting of skinless slices of the stem (bamboo shavings) and used as a traditional health food in tea, wine, and soup in Asia. Three novel lignans, (-)-7'-epi-lyoniresinol 4,9'-di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (7), (-)-lyoniresinol 4,9'-di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (8), bambulignan A (10), and seven known lignan compounds (1-6 and 9) were isolated from Caulis Bambusae in Taenia. The structures of the lignans were determined by detailed spectroscopic analysis (HRESIMS, HSQC, HMBC, NOE). All the isolated lignans were tested for antioxidant activities by DPPH and FARP assays. The results showed that the compounds (+)-lyoniresinol 9'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1) and (-)-7'-epi-lyoniresinol 9'-O-β-D- glucopyranoside (9) have strong free radical scavenging activity and reducing power.

  3. Isolation and identification of lignans from Caulis Bambusae in Taenia with antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jia; Yu, Jin; Zhang, Pei-Cheng; Tang, Feng; Yue, Yong-De; Yang, Ya-Nan; Feng, Zi-Ming; Guo, Xue-Feng

    2013-05-15

    Caulis Bambusae in Taenia is a medicinal preparation from Bambusa tuldoides Munro consisting of skinless slices of the stem (bamboo shavings) and used as a traditional health food in tea, wine, and soup in Asia. Three novel lignans, (-)-7'-epi-lyoniresinol 4,9'-di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (7), (-)-lyoniresinol 4,9'-di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (8), bambulignan A (10), and seven known lignan compounds (1-6 and 9) were isolated from Caulis Bambusae in Taenia. The structures of the lignans were determined by detailed spectroscopic analysis (HRESIMS, HSQC, HMBC, NOE). All the isolated lignans were tested for antioxidant activities by DPPH and FARP assays. The results showed that the compounds (+)-lyoniresinol 9'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1) and (-)-7'-epi-lyoniresinol 9'-O-β-D- glucopyranoside (9) have strong free radical scavenging activity and reducing power. PMID:23578339

  4. Paralogues of nuclear ribosomal genes conceal phylogenetic signals within the invasive Asian fish tapeworm lineage: evidence from next generation sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Brabec, Jan; Kuchta, Roman; Scholz, Tomáš; Littlewood, D Timothy J

    2016-08-01

    Complete mitochondrial genomes and nuclear rRNA operons of eight geographically distinct isolates of the Asian fish tapeworm Schyzocotyle acheilognathi (syn. Bothriocephalus acheilognathi), representing the parasite's global diversity spanning four continents, were fully characterised using an Illumina sequencing platform. This cestode species represents an extreme example of a highly invasive, globally distributed pathogen of veterinary importance with exceptionally low host specificity unseen elsewhere within the parasitic flatworms. In addition to eight specimens of S. acheilognathi, we fully characterised its closest known relative and the only congeneric species, Schyzocotyle nayarensis, from cyprinids in the Indian subcontinent. Since previous nucleotide sequence data on the Asian fish tapeworm were restricted to a single molecular locus of questionable phylogenetic utility-the nuclear rRNA genes-separating internal transcribed spacers-the mitogenomic data presented here offer a unique opportunity to gain the first detailed insights into both the intraspecific phylogenetic relationships and population genetic structure of the parasite, providing key baseline information for future research in the field. Additionally, we identify a previously unnoticed source of error and demonstrate the limited utility of the nuclear rRNA sequences, including the internal transcribed spacers that has likely misled most of the previous molecular phylogenetic and population genetic estimates on the Asian fish tapeworm. PMID:27155330

  5. 21 CFR 520.1871 - Praziquantel and pyrantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (Ancylostoma caninum, Ancylostoma braziliense, and Uncinaria stenocephala), and tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum... for use. For removal of tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis), hookworms (Ancylostoma tubaeforme), and large roundworms (Toxocara cati) in cats and kittens. (iii) Limitations. Not...

  6. [Taenia martis (Cestoda, Taeniidae) from vertebrates in the Republic of Belarus].

    PubMed

    Shimalov, V V

    2010-01-01

    Infestation of vertebrate animals with the cestode Taenia martis and its larvae was investigated in south-west Belarus during 2001-2008. Obligatory definitive host (common marten) and intermediate hosts (red-backed vole, yellow-necked mouse, striped field mouse, and red squirrel) of this helminth were established for the Republic of Belarus. Description and figure of the T. martis larva is given.

  7. Co-infection with Enterobius vermicularis and Taenia saginata mimicking acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Saravi, Kasra H; Fakhar, Mahdi; Nematian, Javad; Ghasemi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    In this report, we describe an unusual case of verminous appendicitis due to Enterobius vermicularis and Taenia saginata in a 29-year-old woman from Iran. The histopathological examinations and parasitological descriptions of both worms found in the appendix lumen are discussed. The removed appendix exhibited the macroscopic and microscopic features of acute appendicitis. Antihelminthic therapy was initiated with single doses of praziquantel for the taeniasis and mebendazole for the enterobiasis, and the patient was discharged. PMID:26754203

  8. A proposal to declare neurocysticercosis an international reportable disease.

    PubMed Central

    Román, G.; Sotelo, J.; Del Brutto, O.; Flisser, A.; Dumas, M.; Wadia, N.; Botero, D.; Cruz, M.; Garcia, H.; de Bittencourt, P. R.; Trelles, L.; Arriagada, C.; Lorenzana, P.; Nash, T. E.; Spina-França, A.

    2000-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is an infection of the nervous system caused by Taenia solium. It is the most important human parasitic neurological disease and a common cause of epilepsy in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, representing enormous costs for anticonvulsants, medical resources and lost production. Neurocysticercosis is a human-to-human infection, acquired by the faecal-enteric route from carriers of intestinal T. solium, most often in areas with deficient sanitation. Intestinal tapeworms cause few symptoms, but adult taeniae carried by humans release large numbers of infective eggs and are extremely contagious. Ingestion of poorly cooked pig meat infested with T. solium larvae results in intestinal taeniosis but not neurocysticercosis. With a view to hastening the control of taeniosis and neurocysticercosis we propose that neurocysticercosis be declared an international reportable disease. New cases of neurocysticercosis should be reported by physicians or hospital administrators to their health ministries. An epidemiological intervention could then be launched to interrupt the chain of transmission by: (1) searching for, treating and reporting the sources of contagion, i.e. human carriers of tapeworms; (2) identifying and treating other exposed contacts; (3) providing health education on parasite transmission and improvement of hygiene and sanitary conditions; and (4) enforcing meat inspection policies and limiting the animal reservoir by treatment of pigs. We believe that the first step required to solve the problem of neurocysticercosis is to implement appropriate surveillance mechanisms under the responsibility of ministries of health. Compulsory notification also has the major advantage of providing accurate quantification of the incidence and prevalence of neurocysticercosis at regional level, thus permitting the rational use of resources in eradication campaigns. PMID:10812740

  9. A proposal to declare neurocysticercosis an international reportable disease.

    PubMed

    Román, G; Sotelo, J; Del Brutto, O; Flisser, A; Dumas, M; Wadia, N; Botero, D; Cruz, M; Garcia, H; de Bittencourt, P R; Trelles, L; Arriagada, C; Lorenzana, P; Nash, T E; Spina-França, A

    2000-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is an infection of the nervous system caused by Taenia solium. It is the most important human parasitic neurological disease and a common cause of epilepsy in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, representing enormous costs for anticonvulsants, medical resources and lost production. Neurocysticercosis is a human-to-human infection, acquired by the faecal-enteric route from carriers of intestinal T. solium, most often in areas with deficient sanitation. Intestinal tapeworms cause few symptoms, but adult taeniae carried by humans release large numbers of infective eggs and are extremely contagious. Ingestion of poorly cooked pig meat infested with T. solium larvae results in intestinal taeniosis but not neurocysticercosis. With a view to hastening the control of taeniosis and neurocysticercosis we propose that neurocysticercosis be declared an international reportable disease. New cases of neurocysticercosis should be reported by physicians or hospital administrators to their health ministries. An epidemiological intervention could then be launched to interrupt the chain of transmission by: (1) searching for, treating and reporting the sources of contagion, i.e. human carriers of tapeworms; (2) identifying and treating other exposed contacts; (3) providing health education on parasite transmission and improvement of hygiene and sanitary conditions; and (4) enforcing meat inspection policies and limiting the animal reservoir by treatment of pigs. We believe that the first step required to solve the problem of neurocysticercosis is to implement appropriate surveillance mechanisms under the responsibility of ministries of health. Compulsory notification also has the major advantage of providing accurate quantification of the incidence and prevalence of neurocysticercosis at regional level, thus permitting the rational use of resources in eradication campaigns.

  10. Update on the distribution of the invasive Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, in the U.S. and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choudhury, A.; Charipar, E.; Nelson, P.; Hodgson, J.R.; Bonar, S.; Cole, Rebecca A.

    2006-01-01

    The documented range of the invasive and potentially pathogenic Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934 in the United States and Canada is updated based on examination of museum depositions and original field collections. Gravid specimens of B. acheilognathi were collected from the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas Rafinesque in Peter Lake, at the University of Notre Dame Environmental Research Center (UNDERC) Land o' Lakes, Wisconsin. A single immature specimen of the parasite was collected from a white bass, Morone chrysops (Rafinesque) in Lake Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. This is the first record of B. acheilognathi in Canada and extends its northern range in the interior of the continent by more than 600 miles over the last documented record. The previous record of B. acheilognathi in Canada, from the northern pikeminnow, Ptychocheilus oregonensis in British Columbia, is a misidentification of Eubothrium tulipai. Examination of selected records of intestinal cestodes from native cyprinids, in the Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology (HWML, n = 9) collection and in the United States National Parasite Collection (USNPC, n = 8), provided evidence of the parasite in Nebraska and possibly in the upper Colorado River basin. Introductions into Wisconsin-Michigan were due to the stocking of golden shiners, whereas the source of the introduction in Manitoba remains unknown.

  11. Complete Sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta: Gene arrangements indicate that platyhelminths are eutrochozoans

    SciTech Connect

    von Nickisch-Rosenegk, Markus; Brown, Wesley M.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2001-01-01

    Using ''long-PCR'' we have amplified in overlapping fragments the complete mitochondrial genome of the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) and determined its 13,900 nucleotide sequence. The gene content is the same as that typically found for animal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) except that atp8 appears to be lacking, a condition found previously for several other animals. Despite the small size of this mtDNA, there are two large non-coding regions, one of which contains 13 repeats of a 31 nucleotide sequence and a potential stem-loop structure of 25 base pairs with an 11-member loop. Large potential secondary structures are identified also for the non-coding regions of two other cestode mtDNAs. Comparison of the mitochondrial gene arrangement of H. diminuta with those previously published supports a phylogenetic position of flatworms as members of the Eutrochozoa, rather than being basal to either a clade of protostomes or a clade of coelomates.

  12. Lanfrediella amphicirrus gen. nov. sp. nov. Nematotaeniidae (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea), a tapeworm parasite of Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758) (Amphibia: Bufonidae).

    PubMed

    Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Furtado, Adriano Penha; Soares, Maurílio José; Gonçalves, Evonnildo Costa; Vallinoto, Antonio Carlos Rosário; Santos, Jeannie Nascimento dos

    2011-09-01

    The family Nematotaeniidae, tapeworms commonly found in the small intestines of amphibians and reptiles, includes 27 recognised species distributed among four genera: Bitegmen Jones, Cylindrotaenia Jewell, Distoichometra Dickey and Nematotaenia Lühe. The taxonomy of these cestodes is poorly defined, due in part to the difficulties of observing many anatomical traits. This study presents and describes a new genus and species of nematotaeniid parasite found in cane toads (Rhinella marina) from eastern Brazilian Amazonia. The cestodes were collected during the necropsy of 20 hosts captured in the urban area of Belém, Pará. The specimens were fixed and processed for light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction. Samples were also collected for molecular analyses. The specimens presented a cylindrical body, two testes and paruterine organs. However, they could not be allocated to any of the four existing nematotaeniid genera due to the presence of two each of dorsal compact medullary testes, cirri, cirrus pouches, genital pores, ovaries and vitelline glands per mature segment. Lanfrediella amphicirrus gen. nov. sp. nov. is the first nematotaeniid studied using Historesin analysis, SEM and 3D reconstruction, and it is the second taxon for which molecular data have been deposited in GenBank.

  13. Suppression of the tapeworm order Pseudophyllidea (Platyhelminthes: Eucestoda) and the proposal of two new orders, Bothriocephalidea and Diphyllobothriidea.

    PubMed

    Kuchta, R; Scholz, T; Brabec, J; Bray, R A

    2008-01-01

    Pseudophyllidea van Beneden in Carus, 1863, a well recognised order of tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Eucestoda), is suppressed because it is composed of two phylogenetically unrelated groups, for which the new names Bothriocephalidea and Diphyllobothriidea are proposed. The new orders differ from each other in the following characters: (i) position of the genital pore: on the dorsal, dorso-lateral or lateral aspects and posterior to the ventral uterine pore in the Bothriocephalidea versus on the ventral aspect of segments and anterior to the uterine pore in the Diphyllobothriidea; (ii) the presence of a muscular external seminal vesicle in the Diphyllobothriidea, which is absent in the Bothriocephalidea; (iii) the presence of a uterine sac in the Bothriocephalidea, which is absent in the Diphyllobothriidea; and (iv) the spectrum of definitive hosts: mainly teleost fishes, never homoiothermic vertebrates in the Bothriocephalidea, versus tetrapods, most frequently mammals, in the Diphyllobothriidea, with species of Diphyllobothrium, Spirometra and Diplogonoporus parasitic in humans. The Diphyllobothriidea, which includes 17 genera in four families (Digramma is synonymised with Ligula), is associated with cestode groups that have a range of plesiomorphic characters (Haplobothriidea and Caryophyllidea), whereas the Bothriocephalidea, consisting of 41 genera grouped in four families, is the sister-group to the 'acetabulate' or 'tetrafossate' cestodes, which are generally regarded as having derived characters.

  14. Ecological aspects of the occurrence of asian tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934 infection in the largemouth yellowfish, Labeobarbus kimberleyensis ( Gilchrist and Thompson, 1913) in the Vaal Dam, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retief, N.-R.; Avenant-Oldewage, A.; du Preez, H. H.

    Infection of fish by the Asian tapeworm can damage intestines and cause abnormal growth. Eighty largemouth yellowfish Labeobarbus kimberleyensis were collected in the Vaal Dam (26°52.249‧S, 28°10.249‧E) with the aid of gill nets during a study between April 2005 and February 2006. The fish were killed and the weight and length determined. Thereafter the intestines were removed, the length determined and the intestines opened to expose the tapeworms. The distance between the beginning of the intestine and the attachment position of the first tapeworm was measured, and thereafter all the worms were collected. The prevalence, abundance and mean intensity was calculated for all the surveys. Seasonality and intensity of tapeworms were compared to the intestine and total lengths of the fish. All the tapeworms were identified as the Asian Tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934. The position of the first tapeworm was located between 10% and 20% from the anterior end of the intestine in close proximity to the bile opening. A total of 100% prevalence was recorded for all the surveys and the highest mean intensity of 231.1 was recorded during the autumn survey. The lowest mean intensity of 73.7 was recorded during the summer survey. Although the infection rates were very high, the fish condition was good and apparently the fecundity of the fish was not negatively affected as young fish fry was collected during the summer survey. Parasite numbers are higher and differ from a study conducted in 2000 and this is attributed to water temperature and water quality. No correlation was observed between parasite intensity and total length of each fish. This indicates that intensity is not dependant on host size and that infection is not the result of a buildt of over years.

  15. Disparities in Beef Tapeworm Identification Rates in the Abattoirs of Gauteng Province, South Africa: A Descriptive Epidemiologic Study

    PubMed Central

    Odoi, Agricola

    2016-01-01

    Background Bovine Taenia saginata cysticercus infections (also called bovine cysticercosis or beef measles) is usually diagnosed in cattle only during post-mortem meat inspection. The aim of this study was to investigate the identification rates of these infections in and to identify predictors/determinants of variations in the identification rates in abattoirs in Gauteng province, South Africa. Methods Retrospective data for over 1.4 million cattle carcasses inspected in 26 abattoirs between January 2010 and December 2013 were used for the study. The identification rates (proportion of bovine Taenia saginata cysticercus positive carcasses) were computed and generalized estimating equations used to identify predictors/determinants of identification rates. Results The overall identification rate was 0.70% (95% CI: 0.45, 0.95). Significantly (p< 0.05) lower rates were reported during summer (0.55%) than other seasons. Some geographic areas reported significantly (p<0.05) higher rates than others. The identification rates in high throughput abattoirs was significantly (p<0.05) higher (RR: 9.4; 95% CI: 4.7–19.1) than in low throughput abattoirs. Similarly, the identification rates among animals from feedlots were significantly (p<0.05) higher (RR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.7–3.5) than those from non-feedlot sources. No significant (p>0.05) association was identified between identification rates and either the number of meat inspectors per abattoir or the provider of inspection services. Conclusion Although no significant association was found between identification rates and provider of inspection services, follow-up studies will need to be done to specifically investigate the potential conflict of interest arising from the fact that abattoir owners hire meat inspection services directly. Capture of abattoir surveillance data needs to include farm address and for each case to be reported separately. Finally, information on the type of identified cysts (alive or calcified

  16. Multiple isotope analyses of the pike tapeworm Triaenophorus nodulosus reveal peculiarities in consumer-diet discrimination patterns.

    PubMed

    Behrmann-Godel, J; Yohannes, E

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies of dietary isotope discrimination have led to the general expectation that a consumer will exhibit enriched stable isotope levels relative to its diet. Parasite-host systems are specific consumer-diet pairs in which the consumer (parasite) feeds exclusively on one dietary source: host tissue. However, the small numbers of studies previously carried out on isotopic discrimination in parasite-host (ΔXP-HT) systems have yielded controversial results, showing some parasites to be isotopically depleted relative to their food source, while others are enriched or in equilibrium with their hosts. Although the mechanism for these deviations from expectations remains to be understood, possible influences of specific feeding niche or selection for only a few nutritional components by the parasite are discussed. ΔXP-HT for multiple isotopes (δ13C, δ15N, δ34S) were measured in the pike tapeworm Triaenophorus nodulosus and two of its life-cycle fish hosts, perch Perca fluviatilis and pike Esox lucius, within which T. nodulosus occupies different feeding locations. Variability in the value of ΔXP-HT calculated for the parasite and its different hosts indicates an influence of feeding location on isotopic discrimination. In perch liver ΔXP-HT was relatively more negative for all three stable isotopes. In pike gut ΔXP-HT was more positive for δ13C, as expected in conventional consumer-diet systems. For parasites feeding on pike gut, however, the δ15N and δ34S isotope values were comparable with those of the host. We discuss potential causes of these deviations from expectations, including the effect of specific parasite feeding niches, and conclude that ΔXP-HT should be critically evaluated for trophic interactions between parasite and host before general patterns are assumed.

  17. Nutritional status and gene expression along the somatotropic axis in roach (Rutilus rutilus) infected with the tapeworm Ligula intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Kroupova, H; Trubiroha, A; Wuertz, S; Frank, S N; Sures, B; Kloas, W

    2012-06-01

    The tapeworm Ligula intestinalis inhibits gametogenesis of its fish host, the roach (Rutilus rutilus). We investigated whether L. intestinalis infection makes significant demands on nutritional resources and consequently manipulates the endocrine somatotropic axis of roach. Two groups of naturally infected and uninfected roach were studied: a field group (natural feeding) and a laboratory group (ad libitum food supply). In females, no significant impact of parasitization on storage substrates (glycogen, lipids, and protein) was detected, whereas in males, either lipid content of the liver (field group) or lipid of the muscle and glycogen of the liver (laboratory group) were slightly decreased. Except for the females of the field group, higher mRNA expression of growth hormone (gh) in the pituitary of infected fish was observed. Furthermore, the expression of hypophyseal somatolactin α and β (slα, slβ) was up-regulated in infected females of the field and laboratory group, respectively. In liver and muscle, mRNA expression of insulin-like growth factors (igf1, igf2) and igf receptor (igfr) remained either unchanged or were up-regulated with infection. Parasitization showed inconsistent effects on gh receptor 1 (ghr1) expression in liver and muscle, whereas ghr2 mRNA was mostly not influenced by infection. In general, the expression profile of genes involved in the somatotropic axis as well as the content of storage substances in infected roach did not resemble that of food-deprived fish either under natural or ad libitum feeding. In conclusion, the present study does not indicate starvation of L. intestinalis infected roach, and it is suggested that the inhibition of reproduction attenuated the nutritional demand of parasitization.

  18. Vaccination with recombinant oncosphere antigens reduces the susceptibility of sheep to infection with Taenia multiceps☆

    PubMed Central

    Gauci, Charles; Vural, Gulay; Öncel, Taraneh; Varcasia, Antonio; Damian, Veronica; Kyngdon, Craig T.; Craig, Philip S.; Anderson, Garry A.; Lightowlers, Marshall W.

    2008-01-01

    Taenia multiceps is a cestode parasite, the larval stage of which encysts in the brain of sheep, goats and cattle causing an often fatal condition. The parasite also causes zoonotic infections in humans. Homologues of the recombinant oncosphere vaccine antigens from Taenia ovis and other Taenia species were identified in T. multiceps. Sequencing of the associated T. multiceps genes and cloning of the encoding mRNA has revealed conserved features in the genes and proteins. The T. multiceps oncosphere proteins, designated Tm16 and Tm18, contain a predicted secretory signal and fibronectin type III domain. The recombinant Tm16 and Tm18 proteins were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli as fusion proteins with GST. The antigens, formulated with Quil A adjuvant, were tested in a vaccine trial in sheep. The antigens stimulated immunity in sheep against challenge infection with T. multiceps eggs. Five of nine control sheep died due to a challenge infection with T. multiceps whereas none of 20 vaccinated animals died as a result of the parasite challenge (P = 0.001). In addition, vaccination with the Tm16 protein, or Tm16 plus Tm18, induced significant protection against the number of parasites encysting in the brain as a result of the challenge infection (P = 0.023, P = 0.015, respectively). No clear relationship was apparent between the level of specific serum antibody in vaccinated animals and either the presence or absence of parasites or the number of parasites that occurred in some of the vaccinated animals. We believe this study is the first description of recombinant vaccine-related investigations for T. multiceps. The recombinant oncosphere antigens identified may allow development of effective vaccination strategies against T. multiceps infection in sheep. They raise the potential for the development of a combined vaccine with the Echinococcus granulosus EG95 antigen for prevention of T. multiceps as well as preventing the transmission of cystic

  19. Vaccination with hatched but non-activated, non-viable oncospheres of Taenia taeniaeformis in rats.

    PubMed

    Ito, A; Hashimoto, A

    1993-06-01

    The usefulness of hatched but non-activated oncospheres as a candidate vaccine was evaluated using a Taenia taeniaeformis/rat system, since preparation of these oncospheres in vitro is known to be very simple. The findings were: (1) rats vaccinated with non-viable oncospheres became completely resistant to challenge infection; (2) intra-venous injection was the most effective to induce complete resistance; (3) a single oncosphere was sufficient to induce complete resistance in infected rats, whereas approximately 50 and 500 non-viable oncospheres were required to evoke strong and complete resistance, respectively, in vaccinated rats. The usefulness of non-viable oncospheres without adjuvant is discussed.

  20. Neurocysticercosis: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Del Brutto, Oscar H.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroysticercosis is the most common helminthic infection of the nervous system, and a leading cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. The disease occurs when humans become intermediate hosts of Taenia solium by ingesting its eggs from contaminated food or, most often, directly from a taenia carrier by the fecal-to-oral route. Cysticerci may be located in brain parenchyma, subarachnoid space, ventricular system, or spinal cord, causing pathological changes that are responsible for the pleomorphism of neurocysticercosis. Seizures are the most common clinical manifestation, but many patients present with focal deficits, intracranial hypertension, or cognitive decline. Accurate diagnosis of neurocysticercosis is possible after interpretation of clinical data together with findings of neuroimaging studies and results of immunological tests. The introduction of cysticidal drugs have changed the prognosis of most patients with neurocysticercosis. These drugs have shown to reduce the burden of infection in the brain and to improve the clinical course of the disease in most patients. Further efforts should be directed to eradicate the disease through the implementation of control programs against all the interrelated steps in the life cycle of T. solium, including human carriers of the adult tapeworm, infected pigs, and eggs in the environment. PMID:22312322

  1. Phosphatidic acid-induced contraction in guinea-pig taenia coli.

    PubMed

    Ohata, H; Momose, K

    1990-06-01

    Natural phosphatidic acid from egg yolk lecithin (PA) caused a sustained contraction in guinea-pig taenia coli. The contractile response to PA was concentration-dependent (10(-6)-10(-4) M) in the normal medium and the maximal response to PA was about 20% of the response to carbachol (CCh) at 10(-6) M. Phospholipase D mimicked PA-induced contraction. This result suggests that increase in endogenous PA can induce contraction. The PA-induced contraction was not inhibited by atropine (10(-6) M). The contraction was more dependent on concentration of extracellular Ca2+ than CCh-induced contraction. PA increased 45Ca2+ uptake into the tissue. These results suggest that the PA-induced contraction results from increase in Ca2+ influx across plasma membranes, but not release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores in guinea-pig taenia coli. The PA-induced contraction was inhibited to 42% of the control response by propyl gallate (0.2 mM), a combined inhibitor of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase. This result indicates that a portion of the contraction is related to release of arachidonic acid and its metabolites, and the other portions are based on direct action of PA. These results suggest a possibility that increased PA by agonist stimulation is related to the following extracellular Ca2(+)-dependent contraction.

  2. Successful immunization of naturally reared pigs against porcine cysticercosis with a recombinant oncosphere antigen vaccine.

    PubMed

    Jayashi, César M; Kyngdon, Craig T; Gauci, Charles G; Gonzalez, Armando E; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2012-09-10

    Taenia solium causes cysticercosis in pigs and taeniasis and neurocysticercosis in humans. Oncosphere antigens have proven to be effective as vaccines to protect pigs against an experimental infection with T. solium. A pair-matched vaccination trial field, using a combination of two recombinant antigens, TSOL16 and TSOL18, was undertaken in rural villages of Peru to evaluate the efficacy of this vaccine under natural conditions. Pairs of pigs (n=137) comprising one vaccinated and one control animal, were allocated to local villagers. Animals received two vaccinations with 200 μg of each of TSOL16 and TSOL18, plus 5mg Quil-A. Necropsies were performed 7 months after the animals were distributed to the farmers. Vaccination reduced 99.7% and 99.9% (p<0.01) the total number of cysts and the number of viable cysts, respectively. Immunization with the TSOL16-TSOL18 vaccines has the potential to control T. solium transmission in areas where the disease is endemic, reducing the source for tapeworm infections in humans.

  3. Successful immunization of naturally reared pigs against porcine cysticercosis with a recombinant oncosphere antigen vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Jayashi, César M.; Kyngdon, Craig T.; Gauci, Charles G.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Lightowlers, Marshall W.

    2012-01-01

    Taenia solium causes cysticercosis in pigs and taeniasis and neurocysticercosis in humans. Oncosphere antigens have proven to be effective as vaccines to protect pigs against an experimental infection with T. solium. A pair-matched vaccination trial field, using a combination of two recombinant antigens, TSOL16 and TSOL18, was undertaken in rural villages of Peru to evaluate the efficacy of this vaccine under natural conditions. Pairs of pigs (n = 137) comprising one vaccinated and one control animal, were allocated to local villagers. Animals received two vaccinations with 200 μg of each of TSOL16 and TSOL18, plus 5 mg Quil-A. Necropsies were performed 7 months after the animals were distributed to the farmers. Vaccination reduced 99.7% and 99.9% (p < 0.01) the total number of cysts and the number of viable cysts, respectively. Immunization with the TSOL16–TSOL18 vaccines has the potential to control T. solium transmission in areas where the disease is endemic, reducing the source for tapeworm infections in humans. PMID:22541797

  4. Cysticercosis of temporalis muscle: an unusual cause of temporal headaches. A case report.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Prahlad K; Sethi, Nitin K; Torgovnick, Josh; Arsura, Edward

    2007-10-01

    Cysticercosis is a common parasitic infection caused by encysted larvae of the helminth Taenia solium (pork tapeworm). The central nervous system (CNS) is the most important primary site of infection and the disease can present with solitary or multiple space occupying lesions. Less common presentations in the CNS include the racemose variety with macroscopic groups of cysticerci in the subarachnoid space giving the appearance of a cluster of grapes and basal or ventricular cysticercosis causing obstructive hydrocephalus. Involvement of other organs: skeletal muscle, eyes, myocardium and the lungs has also been reported. Cases of cysticercosis presenting as isolated muscle mass (pseudotumours) without involvement of the CNS have also been recently described in the literature. We present a case of a 43-year-old woman who complained of subacute onset of left temporal pain and headache. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed characteristic imaging findings suggestive of cysticercosis of the temporalis muscle. PMID:17955174

  5. Ultrasonography Guided Excision of Isolated Cysticercosis of the Temporalis Muscle Causing Intractable Headache: A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vivek; Bhavana, Kranti; Kumar, Prem; Kumar, Subhash

    2016-09-01

    Cysticercosis cellulosae is a systemic parasitic infection caused by the larval stage of pork tapeworm, Taenia solium which involve humans as either a definitive or secondary hosts. The central nervous system is the most important primary site of involvement. Cases of cysticercosis presenting as an isolated muscle mass is an extremely rare entity and demands documentation. We report an extremely unusual case of isolated cysticercosis of the temporalis muscle causing intractable headache which presented a diagnostic challenge. The condition was surgically treated by ultrasonography guided excision of the cysticercosis swelling in the temporalis muscle. We also emphasize on the role of proper imaging modalities in the diagnosis and treatment of such unique cases. PMID:27508147

  6. Oral Cysticercosis in a Pediatric Patient: A Rare Case Report with Review

    PubMed Central

    Sarawgi, Aditi; Asopa, Kirti; Gumber, Parvind; Dutta, Samir

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cysticercosis is a condition in which a human acts as the intermediate host of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium. Although cysticercosis is a common disease in some regions of the world and can occur in any body site, oral lesions are rare. In this report, we document the case of oral cysticercosis in a 10-year-old boy who sought treatment for an asymptomatic nodule on the dorsal surface of the tongue. A detailed history, thorough clinical examination, morphological appearance and the histopathologic findings of the excised cyst formed the basis for the diagnosis of the lesion. How to cite this article: Goenka P, Sarawgi A, Asopa K, Gumber P, Dutta S. Oral Cysticercosis in a Pediatric Patient: A Rare Case Report with Review. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):156-161. PMID:27365940

  7. Cysticercosis Update

    PubMed Central

    Grisolia, James Santiago

    1984-01-01

    Already the most common brain parasite disease, cysticercosis has been increasingly seen throughout the American Southwest. Symptoms arise from infection with larvae of Taenia solium, the pork tapeworm. Seizures, hydrocephalus, focal deficits and chronic meningitis most commonly result. Cerebrospinal fluid eosinophilia, serology by indirect hemagglutination and computed tomography are helpful adjuncts to diagnosis. New evidence suggests that selective immunosuppression is important for the parasites' survival and that cyst death permits renewed host immunity, which may actually precipitate an acute neurologic presentation. New larvicides, including praziquantel, are being tested in humans; caution is indicated in assessing these drugs because of the acute worsening associated with cyst death. Conventional therapy includes anticonvulsants, steroids or ventricular drainage as needed. Prevention remains the best management. Person-to-person transmission within the United States has recently been documented and merits public health scrutiny. PMID:6377706

  8. Interview--Hector H. Garcia. Iinterviewed by Christo Hall.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Hector H

    2012-09-01

    Prof. Garcia is a Wellcome Trust Senior International Research Fellow in Public Health and Tropical Medicine and a Coordinating Member of the Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru. Neurocysticercosis is a global health problem and is majorly responsible for the high prevalence of epilepsy in the developing world. Despite the introduction of potent cysticidal drugs, this parasitic disease continues to pose a threat to millions of people living in these areas. More recent efforts, directed to interrupt all interrelated steps in the life cycle of the causal agent, the pork tapeworm Taenia solium, will undoubtedly reduce the impact burden of the disease. In this regard, the work of Dr. Hector H. Garcia is commendable, as he is co-directing a large-scale control program for the disease complex Taeniasis-cysticercosis in Tumbes, Perú , whose final lresults we are anxiously awaiting.

  9. A rare case of racemose neurocysticercosis and its complications. Case report.

    PubMed

    Pamplona, Jaime; Braz, Ana; Conceição, Carla; Rios, Cristina; Reis, João

    2015-08-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a central nervous system infection caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium. The disease is endemic in Central and South America, Asia and Africa. Racemose neurocysticercosis refers to cysts in the subarachnoid space and is characterized by proliferative lobulated cysts without a scolex. We report a case of a 43-year-old woman with an eight-month history of headaches, ataxia and loss of vision. CT and MRI showed an intraventricular cyst, causing entrapment of Monro foramina and hydrocephalus, smaller cysts at subarachnoid space in temporal lobes, Sylvian fissures, supra-selar and perimesencephalic cisterns, and an intra-orbital cyst. Additionally, there were acute ischemic vascular lesions on the left thalamus and corpus callosum splenium and subacute ischemic lesions of both occipital lobes. The diagnosis of racemose cysticercosis was made after biopsy and drainage of the intraventricular cyst. It is important to recognize neurocysticercosis as a differential diagnosis in intra-cranial cysts, not only intraparenchymal cysts.

  10. Oral Cysticercosis in a Pediatric Patient: A Rare Case Report with Review.

    PubMed

    Goenka, Puneet; Sarawgi, Aditi; Asopa, Kirti; Gumber, Parvind; Dutta, Samir

    2016-01-01

    Cysticercosis is a condition in which a human acts as the intermediate host of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium. Although cysticercosis is a common disease in some regions of the world and can occur in any body site, oral lesions are rare. In this report, we document the case of oral cysticercosis in a 10-year-old boy who sought treatment for an asymptomatic nodule on the dorsal surface of the tongue. A detailed history, thorough clinical examination, morphological appearance and the histopathologic findings of the excised cyst formed the basis for the diagnosis of the lesion. How to cite this article: Goenka P, Sarawgi A, Asopa K, Gumber P, Dutta S. Oral Cysticercosis in a Pediatric Patient: A Rare Case Report with Review. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):156-161. PMID:27365940

  11. Tapeworm infection - Hymenolepsis

    MedlinePlus

    ... United States. Insects eat the eggs of these worms. Humans and other animals become infected when they ... an infected person, it is possible for the worm's entire life cycle to be completed in the ...

  12. Detection of taeniid (Taenia spp., Echinococcus spp.) eggs contaminating vegetables and fruits sold in European markets and the risk for metacestode infections in captive primates.

    PubMed

    Federer, Karin; Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa; Gori, Francesca; Hoby, Stefan; Wenker, Christian; Deplazes, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Due to frequent cases of alveolar echinococcosis (AE) in captive primates in Europe, 141 samples of food, which consisting of vegetables and fruits, were investigated for contamination with egg-DNA of taeniids. Each sample consisted of at least 40 heads of lettuce as well as various vegetables and fruits. The samples were purchased at different times of the year: either from September to November (autumn), originating from greenhouses or fields in the Basel region in the North of Switzerland, or in April and May (spring) when fruit and vegetables are sourced from throughout Europe from various wholesalers. Each sample was washed, and the washing water sieved through mesh apertures of 50 μm and 21 μm, respectively. The debris, including taeniid eggs, collected on the 21 μm sieve were investigated by a multiplex PCR-analysis followed by direct sequencing. In 17 (18%) of the 95 samples collected in autumn, taeniid-DNA was detected (Taenia hydatigena in four, Taenia ovis in three, Taenia polyacantha in two and Hydatigera (Taenia) taeniaeformis in five cases). Similarly, in 13 (28%) of the 46 samples collected during spring taeniid-DNA was detected (Echinococcus granulosus s.l. in two, Taenia crassiceps in one, T. hydatigena in two, Taenia multiceps/Taenia serialis in two, Taenia saginata in one and H. taeniaeformis in five cases). Although DNA of Echinococcus multilocularis was not found specifically in this study, the detection of other fox taeniids reveals that vegetables and fruit fed to the primates at the Zoo Basel at different times of the year and from different origin are contaminated with carnivore's faeces and therefore act as a potential source of AE infections. PMID:27556010

  13. Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta).

    PubMed

    Luzón, Mónica; de la Fuente-López, Concepción; Martínez-Nevado, Eva; Fernández-Morán, Jesús; Ponce-Gordo, Francisco

    2010-06-01

    Subcutaneous and intraperitoneal cysticercosis due to Taenia crassiceps was diagnosed in a 5-yr-old male ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) in the Madrid Zoo-Aquarium (Madrid, Spain). Under laparoscopic examination, several septated fibrous cystic structures and numerous masses of small transparent vesicles (ca. 3 mm in diameter) were observed subcutaneously and inside the peritoneal cavity. Most of the structures were extirpated but, after 2 days of postsurgical intensive care, the animal died. The loss of body weight of the animal after surgical extirpation (566 g) represented 22% of the total weight (body weight before mass removal, 2582 g). The vesicles were identified under light microscopic examination as cysticerci and by molecular diagnosis as Cysticercus longicollis, the larval form of T. crassiceps. The present report represents the first detection of T. crassiceps in the prosimian genus Lemur.

  14. Vaccination of mice against Taenia taeniaeformis using antigen fractions partitioned with Triton X-114.

    PubMed

    Schnieder, T; Bøgh, H O; Lightowlers, M W; Rickard, M D

    1996-01-01

    Taenia taeniaeformis oncosphere and metacestode antigens were fractioned using Triton X-114 into insoluble, aqueous and detergent rich fractions. These fractions were analysed in SDS-PAGE and immunoblots and used in vaccination trials against infection with T. taeniaeformis in mice. Qualitative differences were apparent in the spectrum of antigens partitioning into the different detergent phases but host-prospective antigens were present in all three fractions. The presence of individual antigenic components in the phases did not correlate with the degree of protection afforded by these fractions in the vaccination trials. Host protective immunogenicity of T. taeniaeformis oncosphere and metacestode extracts may be due to multiple protective antigens which partition into the different Triton X-114 fractions.

  15. Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta).

    PubMed

    Luzón, Mónica; de la Fuente-López, Concepción; Martínez-Nevado, Eva; Fernández-Morán, Jesús; Ponce-Gordo, Francisco

    2010-06-01

    Subcutaneous and intraperitoneal cysticercosis due to Taenia crassiceps was diagnosed in a 5-yr-old male ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) in the Madrid Zoo-Aquarium (Madrid, Spain). Under laparoscopic examination, several septated fibrous cystic structures and numerous masses of small transparent vesicles (ca. 3 mm in diameter) were observed subcutaneously and inside the peritoneal cavity. Most of the structures were extirpated but, after 2 days of postsurgical intensive care, the animal died. The loss of body weight of the animal after surgical extirpation (566 g) represented 22% of the total weight (body weight before mass removal, 2582 g). The vesicles were identified under light microscopic examination as cysticerci and by molecular diagnosis as Cysticercus longicollis, the larval form of T. crassiceps. The present report represents the first detection of T. crassiceps in the prosimian genus Lemur. PMID:20597227

  16. Taenia saginata: vaccination against cysticercosis in cattle with recombinant oncosphere antigens.

    PubMed

    Lightowlers, M W; Rolfe, R; Gauci, C G

    1996-12-01

    Taenia saginata is a medically and economically important cestode parasite. Infection with the cysticercus larval stage in cattle causes economic loss in the beef meat industry. A practical vaccine to prevent infection with the parasite in cattle would be valuable and would assist in control of transmission of the parasite to humans, the obligate definitive host. Here we use recombinant DNA techniques to clone oncosphere antigens of T. saginata and use the recombinant antigens in vaccine trials in cattle. Vaccination with a combination of two antigens, designated TSA-9 and TSA-18, induced up to 99.8% protection against experimental challenge infection with T. saginata eggs. Operational characteristics of the vaccine will need to be defined, such as duration of immunity and protection of newborn calves. The vaccine has the potential to be used on a commercial scale for the control of bovine cysticercosis.

  17. Molecular and morphological evidence of Taenia omissa in pumas (Puma concolor) in the Peruvian Highlands.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Puerta, Luis Antonio; Alarcon, Virgilio; Pacheco, Joel; Franco, Francisco; Lopez-Urbina, Maria Teresa; Gonzalez, Armando Emiliano

    2016-01-01

    A total of 41 cestodes were collected during necropsy examination on 2 pumas (Puma concolor) that were found in 2 communities in Canchis province, Cuzco region, Peru, at 4500 meters above sea level (Peruvian Andes). The cestodes were evaluated morphologically and molecularly. A fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) was used as a genetic marker. All the cestodes were identified as Taenia omissa. In the present report, we give a brief description by molecular and morphological diagnosis of the cestodes and compare nucleotide sequences with previous isolates from GenBank. Upon comparison, the sequences showed a difference in the cox1 gene of 5.1 to 5.3% with other teniids sequences. This finding constitutes the first report of T. omissa in Peru and expands the geographic distribution of this parasite.

  18. Jacalin-unbound fraction of Taenia saginata in immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis in human cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    da Silva Nunes, Daniela; da Silva Ribeiro, Vanessa; Manhani, Marianna Nascimento; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate jacalin-bound fraction (JBF) and jacalin-unbound fraction (JUF) of the total saline extract from Taenia saginata metacestodes for human neurocysticercosis (NC) immunodiagnosis in cerebrospinal fluid. Total extract, JBF, and JUF were separated by affinity chromatography using Sepharose(®)-jacalin and were tested in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting (WB) to detect immunoglobulin G. In ELISA test, JUF showed the higher diagnostic efficiency and specificity indexes, 92% and 100%, respectively. In WB, 5 immunodominant proteins (39-42, 47-52, 64-68, 70, and 75 kDa) were detected when using JUF. In conclusion, the results achieved demonstrate that JUF, obtained from T. saginata metacestodes, are an important source of specific peptides and are efficient in the diagnosis of NC.

  19. Ovicidal activity of different concentrations of Pochonia chlamydosporia chlamydospores on Taenia taeniaeformis eggs.

    PubMed

    Braga, F R; Silva, A R; Carvalho, R O; Araújo, J V; Pinto, P S A

    2011-03-01

    Three concentrations of chlamydospores of the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia (1000, 10,000 and 20,000 per Petri dish) were evaluated in vitro on Taenia taeniaeformis eggs. Chlamydospores at each concentration were cultured in two different media: 2% water-agar (2%WA) and 2% corn-meal-agar (2%CMA). Taenia taeniaeformis eggs were plated in each chlamydospore concentration in 2%WA and 2%CMA (treated groups) and without fungus (control group). Eggs were removed from each Petri dish at intervals of 7, 14 and 21 days and classified according to ovicidal activity (type 1, type 2 and type 3 effects). Plates containing 2%CMA showed the highest percentages for type 3 effect (81.3%) on the 21st day of observation. A difference (P < 0.01) between the media 2%WA and 2%CMA for type 1 effect was observed only at a concentration of 1000 chlamydospores on the 7th day. There were differences (P < 0.01) between 2%WA and 2%CMA on the 14th and 21st days, at the concentration of 20,000 chlamydospores, for type 1 and type 3 effects. Regression curves for type 3 effect in 2%WA and 2%CMA at the tested concentrations showed higher ovicidal activity with increasing chlamydospore concentrations. Results indicate that, at concentrations of 1000, 10,000 and 20,000 per Petri dish, chlamydospores of P. chlamydosporia effectively destroyed T. taeniaeformis eggs and can be considered a potential biological control agent for this cestode. PMID:20338078

  20. European colonization by the spined loach (Cobitis taenia) from Ponto-Caspian refugia based on mitochondrial DNA variation.

    PubMed

    Culling, Mark A; Janko, Karel; Boron, Alicja; Vasil'ev, Victor P; Côté, Isabelle M; Hewitt, Godfrey M

    2006-01-01

    In the last 20 years, new species, asexual reproduction, polyploidy and hybridization have all been reported within the genus Cobitis. An understanding of the current distribution and baseline phylogeographical history of 'true' nonhybrid Cobitis species is crucial in order to unravel these discoveries. In the present work, we investigated the phylogeography of the spined loach, Cobitis taenia, using 1126 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene from 174 individuals collected at 47 sites. In total, 51 haplotypes that differed at 49 positions (4.35%) were detected. We deduce that C. taenia survived European glaciations in at least three refugees in the Ponto-Caspian area. Two of these refugees each provided a major lineage that recolonized Europe in separate directions: one westward to England and the other spreading north into Russia before moving west. A third (minor) lineage that contributed little to the recolonization of Europe was also revealed--remaining near its Black Sea refuge. However, more recent history was difficult to resolve with colonization from a more western refugium during the last glacial maximum (LGM) a distinct possibility. Nested clade analysis indicates a pattern of restricted gene flow with isolation by distance at the first two levels and overall. Unlike many other European freshwater fish species, the Danube is not part of the current distribution of C. taenia, nor was it used as either a refuge or a source of colonization of Europe. Low genetic diversity within C. taenia suggests that its colonization of Europe is relatively recent. Demographic analyses revealed a history of recent expansion and isolation by distance.

  1. Current status of food-borne parasitic zoonoses in the United States.

    PubMed

    Schantz, P M; McAuley, J

    1991-12-01

    Although not a major public health problem, food-borne parasitic zoonoses in the United States are the cause of numerous diseases that occur widely in the population. The most common food-borne parasitic diseases in the United States are trichinosis, toxoplasmosis, taeniasis/cysticercosis, diphyllobothriasis, and anisakiasis. Since 1947, when the US Public Health Service began to record statistics on trichinosis cases in humans, the numbers of reported cases in the United States have declined markedly, from an average of about 400 with 10-15 deaths reported each year in the late 1940s, to an average of 57 per year with three deaths overall in the 5 years 1982-1986. Each year throughout the world, Toxoplasma gondii infects millions of persons, who contract it either by eating raw or poorly cooked meat from infected animals such as hogs or sheep or by ingesting soil contaminated with cat feces. In the United States between 400 and 10,000 infants are born each year with congenital toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasmic encephalitis, marked by dementia and seizures, has become the most commonly recognized cause of central nervous system opportunistic infection in AIDS patients. Intestinal taeniid tapeworm infection acquired in the United States is almost entirely caused by Taenia saginata, the beef tapeworm. Neurocysticercosis, caused by larvae of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium, is diagnosed in hundreds of persons in the United States every year. Nearly all patients are immigrants or travelers from Mexico and other disease-endemic areas. Diphyllobothriasis and anisakiasis both have increased in recent years in association with increasing popularity of raw fish dishes. Adequate prevention and control of food-borne parasitic zoonoses require continued and improved programs to educate consumers, producers and medical practitioners. PMID:1822940

  2. Relaxation of isolated taenia coli of guinea-pig by enantiomers of 2-azido analogues of adenosine and adenine nucleotides.

    PubMed Central

    Cusack, N. J.; Planker, M.

    1979-01-01

    1 2-Azido photoaffinity analogues of adenosine 5'triphosphate (ATP), adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP), adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP), and adenosine have been synthesized and tested on guinea-pig taenia coli. 2 2-Azido-ATP and 2-azido-ADP were approximately 20 times more potent than ATP as relaxants of taenia coli, and required prolonged washout times before recovery of the muscle. 3 2-Azido-AMP and 2-azidoadenosine were 2 to 12 times more potent than ATP, but took much longer (up to 100 s) to reach maximal relaxation. This behaviour is different from that of AMP and adenosine which were much less potent than ATP. 4 L-Enantiomers of adenosine and adenine nucleotides were also tested. L-ATP and L-ADP were 3 to 6 times less potent than ATP and ADP, and L-AMP and L-adenosine were inactive. 2-Azido-L-ATP and 2-azido-L-ADP were approximately 120 times less potent than 2-Azido-ATP and 6 times less potent than ATP as relaxants of taenia coli. 2-Azido-L-AMP and 2-azidio-L-adenosine were almost inactive. 5 2-Azido derivatives are photolysed by u.v. irradiation to reactive intermediates. 2-Azido-ATP and 2-azidoadenosine might be suitable photoaffinity ligands for labelling putative P2 and P1 purine receptors respectively. 2-Azido-L-ATP and 2-azido-L-adenosine could be useful controls for nonspecific labelling. PMID:497519

  3. Characterization of S3Pvac Anti-Cysticercosis Vaccine Components: Implications for the Development of an Anti-Cestodiasis Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Rassy, Dunia; Bobes, Raúl J.; Rosas, Gabriela; Anaya, Victor H.; Brehm, Klaus; Hernández, Beatriz; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Pedraza, Saúl; Morales, Julio; Villalobos, Nelly; de Aluja, Aline S.; Laclette, Juan P.; Nunes, Caris M.; Biondi, Germano F.; Fragoso, Gladis; Hernández, Marisela; Sciutto, Edda

    2010-01-01

    Background Cysticercosis and hydatidosis seriously affect human health and are responsible for considerable economic loss in animal husbandry in non-developed and developed countries. S3Pvac and EG95 are the only field trial-tested vaccine candidates against cysticercosis and hydatidosis, respectively. S3Pvac is composed of three peptides (KETc1, GK1 and KETc12), originally identified in a Taenia crassiceps cDNA library. S3Pvac synthetically and recombinantly expressed is effective against experimentally and naturally acquired cysticercosis. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, the homologous sequences of two of the S3Pvac peptides, GK1 and KETc1, were identified and further characterized in Taenia crassiceps WFU, Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis. Comparisons of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences coding for KETc1 and GK1 revealed significant homologies in these species. The predicted secondary structure of GK1 is almost identical between the species, while some differences were observed in the C terminal region of KETc1 according to 3D modeling. A KETc1 variant with a deletion of three C-terminal amino acids protected to the same extent against experimental murine cysticercosis as the entire peptide. On the contrary, immunization with the truncated GK1 failed to induce protection. Immunolocalization studies revealed the non stage-specificity of the two S3Pvac epitopes and their persistence in the larval tegument of all species and in Taenia adult tapeworms. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that GK1 and KETc1 may be considered candidates to be included in the formulation of a multivalent and multistage vaccine against these cestodiases because of their enhancing effects on other available vaccine candidates. PMID:20585656

  4. Zoonotic foodborne parasites and their surveillance.

    PubMed

    Murrell, K D

    2013-08-01

    Humans suffer from several foodborne helminth zoonotic diseases, some of which can be deadly (e.g., trichinellosis, cerebral cysticercosis) while others are chronic and cause only mild illness (e.g., intestinal taeniosis). The route of infection is normally consumption of the parasite's natural host as a human food item (e.g., meat). The risk for infection with these parasites is highest wherever people have an inadequate knowledge of infection and hygiene, poor animal husbandry practices, and unsafe management and disposal of human and animal waste products. The design of surveillance and control strategies for the various foodborne parasite species, and the involvement of veterinary and public health agencies, vary considerably because of the different life cycles of these parasites, and epidemiological features. Trichinella spiralis, which causes most human trichinellosis, is acquired from the consumption of pork, although increasingly cases occur from eating wild game. For cysticercosis, however, the only sources for human infection are pork (Taenia solium) or beef (T. saginata). The chief risk factor for infection of humans with these parasites is the consumption of meat that has been inadequately prepared. For the pig or cow, however, the risk factors are quite different between Trichinella and Taenia. For T. spiralis the major source of infection of pigs is exposure to infected animal meat (which carries the infective larval stage), while for both Taenia species it is human faecal material contaminated with parasite eggs shed by the adult intestinal stage of the tapeworm. Consequently, the means for preventing exposure of pigs and cattle to infective stages of T. spiralis, T. solium, and T. saginata vary markedly, especially the requirements for ensuring the biosecurity of these animals at the farm. The surveillance strategies and methods required for these parasites in livestock are discussed, including the required policy-level actions and the necessary

  5. Excitatory purinergic neurotransmission in smooth muscle of guinea-pig [corrected] taenia caeci.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Paterson, William G

    2005-03-15

    Non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC) inhibitory neurotransmission has been an area of intense interest in gut motor physiology, whereas excitatory NANC neurotransmission has received less attention. In order to further explore excitatory NANC neurotransmission, we performed conventional intracellular recordings from guinea-pig taenia caeci smooth muscle. Tissue was perfused with oxygenated Krebs solution at 35 degrees C and nerve responses evoked by either oral or aboral nerve stimulation (NS) (4 square wave pulses, 0.3 ms duration, 20 Hz). Electrical activity was characterized by slow waves upon which one to three action potentials were superimposed. Oral NS evoked an inhibitory junction potential (IJP) at either the valley or peak of the slow wave. Application of nifedipine (1 microM) abolished slow waves and action potentials, but membrane potential flunctuations (1-3 mV) and IJPs remained unaffected. Concomitant application of apamin (300 nM), a small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel blocker, converted the IJP to an EJP that was followed by slow IJP. Further administration of N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME, 200 microM), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, abolished the slow IJP without affecting the EJP, implying that the slow IJP is due to nitrergic innervation. The EJP was abolished by tetrodotoxin (1 microM), but was not significantly affected by atropine (3 microM) and guanethidine (3 microM) or hexamethonium (500 microM). Substance P (SP, 1 microM) desensitization caused slight attenuation of the EJP, but the EJP was abolished by desensitization with alpha,beta-methylene ATP (50 microM), a P2 purinoceptor agonist that is more potent than ATP at the P2X receptor subtype, suramin (100 microM), a non-selective P2 purinoceptor antagonist, and pyridoxal-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid (PPADS, 100 microM) , a selective P2X purinoceptor antagonist. In contrast, the EJP was unaffected by MRS-2179 (2 microM), a selective P2Y(1

  6. Experimental infection of the endangered bonytail chub (Gila elegans) with the Asian fish tapeworm (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi): impacts on survival, growth, and condition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, S.P.; Choudhury, A.; Heisey, D.M.; Ahumada, J.A.; Hoffnagle, T.L.; Cole, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934, a tapeworm known to be pathogenic to some fish species, has become established in the endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha Miller, 1964) in Grand Canyon, USA, following the tapeworm's introduction into the Colorado River system. The potential impact of this tapeworm on humpback chub was studied by exposing the closely related bonytail chub (Gila elegans Baird and Girard, 1853) to the parasite under a range of conditions that included potential stressors of humpback chub in their natal waters, such as abrupt temperature change and a limited food base. Survival of infected fish under low food rations was considerably lower than that of control fish, and mortality of infected fish began 20days earlier. Growth of infected fish was significantly reduced, and negative changes in health condition indices were found. No significant negative impacts were revealed from the synergistic effects between temperature shock and infection. Bothriocephalus acheilognathi does present a potential threat to humpback chub in Grand Canyon and should be considered, along with conventional concerns involving altered flow regimes and predation, when management decisions are made concerning conservation of this endangered species.// Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934, un ver plat connu comme pathog??ne pour certaines esp??ces de poissons, s'est associ?? au A (Gila cypha Miller, 1964), une esp??ce menac??e du Grand Canyon, ??.-U., apr??s l'introduction du ver dans le r??seau hydrographique du Colorado. Nous avons ??tudi?? l'impact potentiel de ce ver plat sur le m??n?? bossu en exposant l'esp??ce proche Gila elegans Baird et Girard, 1853 au parasite sous une gamme de conditions qui incluent les facteurs potentiels de stress des m??n??s bossus dans leurs cours d'eau d'origine, tels que les changements abrupts de temp??rature et des ressources alimentaires limit??es. La survie des poissons infect??s dans des conditions de

  7. Oestradiol and progesterone differentially alter cytoskeletal protein expression and flame cell morphology in Taenia crassiceps.

    PubMed

    Ambrosio, Javier R; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Palacios-Arreola, M Isabel; Ruíz-Rosado, Azucena; Sánchez-Orellana, Pedro L; Reynoso-Ducoing, Olivia; Nava-Castro, Karen E; Martínez-Velázquez, Nancy; Escobedo, Galileo; Ibarra-Coronado, Elizabeth G; Valverde-Islas, Laura; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2014-09-01

    We examined the effects of oestradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) on cytoskeletal protein expression in the helminth Taenia crassiceps - specifically actin, tubulin and myosin. These proteins assemble into flame cells, which constitute the parasite excretory system. Total protein extracts were obtained from E2- and P4-treated T. crassiceps cysticerci and untreated controls, and analysed by one- and two-dimensional protein electrophoresis, flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and videomicroscopy. Exposure of T. crassiceps cysticerci to E2 and P4 induced differential protein expression patterns compared with untreated controls. Changes in actin, tubulin and myosin expression were confirmed by flow cytometry of parasite cells and immunofluorescence. In addition, parasite morphology was altered in response to E2 and P4 versus controls. Flame cells were primarily affected at the level of the ciliary tuft, in association with the changes in actin, tubulin and myosin. We conclude that oestradiol and progesterone act directly on T. crassiceps cysticerci, altering actin, tubulin and myosin expression and thus affecting the assembly and function of flame cells. Our results increase our understanding of several aspects of the molecular crosstalk between host and parasite, which might be useful in designing anthelmintic drugs that exclusively impair parasitic proteins which mediate cell signaling and pathogenic reproduction and establishment.

  8. Depressed T-cell proliferation associated with susceptibility to experimental Taenia crassiceps infection.

    PubMed Central

    Sciutto, E; Fragoso, G; Baca, M; De la Cruz, V; Lemus, L; Lamoyi, E

    1995-01-01

    Peritoneal infection with Taenia crassiceps cysticerci of naturally resistant (C57BL/10J and C57BL/6J) and susceptible (BALB/cAnN) mice induces a cellular immune depression. T-cell proliferation in response to concanavalin A (ConA) or anti-CD3 was significantly depressed in infected mice of all strains tested. However, in resistant mice, the diminished response to ConA was transient and animals recovered normal responsiveness at day 40, whereas susceptible mice remained suppressed throughout the 40 days of the experiment. In contrast, the proliferative response to anti-CD3 was lower in infected mice than in noninfected controls regardless of differences in natural susceptibility of the strains. Intraperitoneal injection of mice with a parasite extract also induced a depression of the response to ConA, although not as strong as that produced by the parasite itself. This depression is not due to direct effects by parasite antigens over host lymphocytes, as proliferation is not affected by the presence of cysticercal antigens added in vitro. Diminished interleukin-2 production during the parasitosis accounts at least in part for the diminished responses to ConA. A primary infection favors parasite establishment after a second challenge, pointing to the relevance of the immunodepression in generating a host environment favorable to the parasite. PMID:7768609

  9. EXPERIMENTAL SUBCUTANEOUS CYSTICERCOSIS BY Taenia crassiceps IN BALB/c AND C57BL/6 MICE

    PubMed Central

    PEREIRA, Íria Márcia; LIMA, Sarah Buzaim; FREITAS, Aline de Araújo; VINAUD, Marina Clare; JUNIOR, Ruy de Souza LINO

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Human cysticercosis is one of the most severe parasitic infections affecting tissues. Experimental models are needed to understand the host-parasite dynamics involved throughout the course of the infection. The subcutaneous experimental model is the closest to what is observed in human cysticercosis that does not affect the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to evaluate macroscopically and microscopically the experimental subcutaneous cysticercosis caused by Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Animals were inoculated in the dorsal subcutaneous region and macroscopic and microscopic aspects of the inflammatory process in the host-parasite interface were evaluated until 90 days after the inoculation (DAI). All the infected animals presented vesicles containing cysticerci in the inoculation site, which was translucent at 7 DAI and then remained opaque throughout the experimental days. The microscopic analysis showed granulation tissue in BALB/c mice since the acute phase of infection evolving to chronicity without cure, presenting 80% of larval stage cysticerci at 90 DAI. While C57BL/6 mice presented 67% of final stage cysticerci at 90 DAI, the parasites were surrounded by neutrophils evolving to the infection control. It is possible to conclude that the genetic features of susceptibility (BALB/c) or resistance (C57BL/6) were confirmed in an experimental subcutaneous model of cysticercosis. PMID:27410915

  10. Molecular identification of Taenia mustelae cysts in subterranean rodent plateau zokors (Eospalax baileyi)

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, Fang; ZHANG, Ming-Xia; MA, Jun-Ying; CAI, Hui-Xia; SU, Jian-Ping; CAI, Hui-Xia; HOU, Zhi-Bin; ZHANG, Tong-Zuo; LIN, Gong-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Cestode larvae spend one phase of their two-phase life cycle in the viscera of rodents, but cases of cestodes infecting subterranean rodents have only been rarely observed. To experimentally gain some insight into this phenomenon, we captured approximately 300 plateau zokors (Eospalax baileyi), a typical subterranean rodent inhabiting the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and examined their livers for the presence of cysts. Totally, we collected five cysts, and using a mitochondrial gene (cox1) and two nuclear genes (pepck and pold) as genetic markers, we were able to analyze the taxonomy of the cysts. Both the maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods showed that the cysts share a monophyly with Taenia mustelae, while Kimura 2-parameter distances and number of different sites between our sequences and T. mustelae were far less than those found between the examined sequences and other Taeniidae species. These results, alongside supporting paraffin section histology, imply that the cysts found in plateau zokors can be regarded as larvae of T. mustelae, illustrating that zokors are a newly discovered intermediate host record of this parasite. PMID:25017751

  11. Taenia crassiceps infection does not influence the development of experimental rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Flores, Aaxin M; Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Calleja, Elsa A; Rodríguez-Sosa, Miriam; Juárez, Imelda; Terrazas, Luis I

    2013-01-01

    It was previously reported by our group that infection with Taenia crassiceps reduces incidence and severity of inflammatory and autoimmune experimental diseases like type 1 diabetes and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In this research, we set out to study whether infection with T. crassiceps would affect the development of experimental rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We found that mice infected with the parasite and induced with experimental RA showed similar clinical scores as the noninfected experimental RA group; systemic cytokines were not affected while anti-CII Abs were higher in the infected group. Histological evaluation showed damage in both infected and noninfected experimental RA-induced groups and although some surface molecules such as PDL-2 and MR which are associated with immunomodulatory mechanisms were upregulated in the infected and RA-induced group as compared to the noninfected RA group, they did not exert any changes in the outcome of experimental RA. Thus, we determined that infection with T. crassiceps does not influence the outcome of experimental RA.

  12. Immunity in taeniasis-cysticercosis I. Vaccination against Taenia taeniaeformis in rats using purified antigen.

    PubMed

    Kwa, B H; Liew, F Y

    1977-07-01

    Artificial immunization of rats against Taenia taeniaeformis was studied using somatic antigen (Som-Ag) and excretory-secretory antigen (ES-Ag). It was found that both Som-Ag and ES-Ag stimulated immediate-type hypersensitivity and delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions of similar levels. Antibody levels rose from the 2nd wk and peaked around the 6th and 7th wk. Both IgM and IgG were detectable from the 2nd wk onwards, with IgG at a considerably higher level compared to IgM. It terms of protection, 90-100% reduction in cyst counts were detected if the rats were challenged 10 days or more after immunization. In all cases, no significant difference was observed between immunization with either Som-Ag or ES-Ag were purified and characterized using Sephadex G-200 chromatography, double immunodiffusion, and disk acrylamide gel electrophoresis. A purified antigen (mol wt, 140,000 daltons) was obtained, and highly significant protection against infection resulted with injections of 50, 10, or 1 mug doses of this antigen with complete Freund's adjuvant.

  13. Protection against Taenia pisiformis larval infection induced by a recombinant oncosphere antigen vaccine.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Yang, D Y; Xie, Y; Nong, X; Huang, X; Fu, Y; Gu, X B; Wang, S X; Peng, X R; Yang, G Y

    2014-02-13

    Taenia pisiformis larvae cause significant health problems to rabbits. At present, it is not known whether the recombinant antigen from the T. pisiformis oncosphere is able to confer protective immunity against T. pisiformis larval infection. The full-length cDNA was cloned into a pET32a (+) vector, and the recombinant protein was then expressed in BL21 (DE3) cells. Vaccination with the purified rTpUbc2 coupled with QuilA was carried out in New Zeal