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Sample records for tar creek study

  1. The challenge posed to children's health by mixtures of toxic waste: the Tar Creek superfund site as a case-study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Howard; Shine, James; Wright, Robert O

    2007-02-01

    In the United States, many of the millions of tons of hazardous wastes that have been produced since World War II have accumulated in sites throughout the nation. Citizen concern about the extent of this problem led Congress to establish the Superfund Program in 1980 to locate, investigate, and clean up the worst sites nationwide. Most such waste exists as a complex mixture of many substances. This article discusses the issue of toxic mixtures and children's health by focusing on the specific example of mining waste at the Tar Creek Superfund Site in Northeast Oklahoma.

  2. Streamflow, Water Quality, and Metal Loads from Chat Leachate and Mine Outflow into Tar Creek, Ottawa County, Oklahoma, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cope, Caleb C.; Becker, Mark F.; Andrews, William J.; DeHay, Kelli

    2008-01-01

    Picher mining district is an abandoned lead and zinc mining area located in Ottawa County, northeastern Oklahoma. During the first half of the 20th century, the area was a primary producer of lead and zinc in the United States. Large accumulations of mine tailings, locally referred to as chat, produce leachate containing cadmium, iron, lead, and zinc that enter drainages within the mining area. Metals also seep to local ground water and streams from unplugged shafts, vent holes, seeps, and abandoned mine dewatering wells. Streamflow measurements were made and water-quality samples were collected and analyzed from two locations in Picher mining district from August 16 to August 29 following a rain event beginning on August 14, 2005, to determine likely concentrations and loads of metals from tailings and mine outflows in the part of Picher mining district near Tar Creek. Locations selected for sampling included a tailings pile with an adjacent mill pond, referred to as the Western location, and a segment of Tar Creek from above the confluence with Lytle Creek to below Douthat bridge, referred to as Tar Creek Study Segment. Measured streamflow was less than 0.01 cubic foot per second at the Western location, with streamflow only being measurable at that site on August 16, 2005. Measured streamflows ranged from <0.01 to 2.62 cubic feet per second at Tar Creek Study Segment. One water-quality sample was collected from runoff at the Western location. Total metals concentrations in that sample were 95.3 micrograms per liter cadmium, 182 micrograms per liter iron, 170 micrograms per liter lead, 1,760 micrograms per liter zinc. Total mean metals concentrations in 29 water-quality samples collected from Tar Creek Study Segment from August 16-29, 2005, were 21.8 micrograms per liter cadmium, 7,924 micrograms per liter iron, 7.68 micrograms per liter lead, and 14,548 micrograms per liter zinc. No metals loading values were calculated for the Western location. Metals loading

  3. Effect of Transport and Aging Processes on Metal Speciation in Iron Oxyhydroxide Aggregates, Tar Creek Superfund Site, Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estes, E. R.; Schaider, L. A.; Shine, J. P.; Brabander, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    Following the cessation of mining activity in the late 20th century, Tar Creek Superfund Site was left highly contaminated by Pb, Zn, and Cd. Tar Creek, which flows through the site and into the Neosho River, has been studied extensively because of its potential to transport metals from the mining site to downstream communities. Previous research identified aggregated iron oxyhydroxide material, which forms when mine seepage mixes with Tar Creek surface water, as a major transport vector of metals. Frequent flooding in Tar Creek deposits aggregates on downstream floodplains, where wetting and drying processes alter the speciation of iron and other metals. This study seeks to better quantify those changes and to determine how transport and aging affects the human and ecological health risk. Sequential extractions of aggregate samples collected from the creek demonstrate that Fe is present in both amorphous (10-35% of Fe extracted) and more crystalline (8-23% of Fe extracted) phases. Substantial portions of heavy metals sorb to amorphous iron oxyhydroxide phases (accounting for 10-30% of Pb and Zn extracted) but are not associated with more crystalline iron oxide phases (representing only 1% or less of the Pb and Zn extracted). Samples have a high organic matter content (18-25% mass loss on ignition), but only Fe was significantly extracted by the oxidizing step targeting organic matter (1-2% of Pb and Zn extracted, but 10-26% of Fe extracted). The majority of metals were extracted by the soluble or residual steps. If metals and organic matter inhibit transformation of amorphous iron oxyhydroxide material to nano and crystalline iron oxides, then a steady-state volume of amorphous iron oxyhydroxide material with a high total sorption capacity may exist within Tar Creek, enhancing the metal flux accommodated by this transport mechanism. Once transported downstream and deposited on floodplains, however, it is hypothesized that repeated changes in soil matrix

  4. Field test of in situ soil amendments at the Tar Creek National Priorities List Superfund site.

    PubMed

    Brown, S L; Compton, H; Basta, N T

    2007-01-01

    A range of soil amendments including diammonium phosphate fertilizer (DAP), municipal biosolids (BS), biosolids compost, and Al- and Fe-based water treatment residuals were tested on Pb-, Zn-, and Cd-contaminated yard soils and tailings at the Tar Creek NPL site in Oklahoma to determine if amendments could restore a vegetative cover and reduce metal availability in situ. For the yard soils, all amendments reduced bioaccessible (assessed with a physiologic-based extraction method) Pb, with reductions ranging from 35% (BS+Al, DAP 0.5%, DAP+Compost+Al) to 57% (Compost+Al). Plant Zn (Cynadon dactylon L.) and NH4 NO3-extractable Cd and Zn were also reduced by a number of amendments. For the tailings, all amendments excluding BS reduced bioaccessible Pb, with the largest reductions observed in the DAP 3% and DAP3%+BS treatments (75 and 84%). Plant growth was suppressed in all treatments that contained DAP for the first season, with the highest growth in the treatments that included compost and biosolids. In the second year, growth was vigorous for all treatments. Plant Zn and Cd and extractable metal concentration were also reduced. A number of treatments were identified that reduced bioaccessible Pb and sustained a healthy plant with reduced metal concentrations. For the yard soil, Compost+Al was the most effective treatment tested. For the tailings, BS+DAP 1% was the most effective treatment tested. These results indicate that in situ amendments offer a remedial alternative for the Tar Creek site.

  5. Flow cytometric analysis of red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta) from Tar Creek Superfund Site.

    PubMed

    Hays, Kimberly A; McBee, Karen

    2007-05-01

    Tar Creek Superfund Site (TCSFS) was heavily mined from the 1890s to 1970 and currently is contaminated with lead, zinc, and cadmium. Flow cytometry (FCM) was used to measure variation in nuclear DNA content of red blood cells collected from Trachemys scripta living within TCSFS and reference sites, Lake Carl Blackwell (LCB) and Sequoyah National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR). We also used atomic absorption spectrometry to measure Pb in blood and carapace and Cd in blood samples of turtles from TCSFS and SNWR. Mean coefficients of variation around the G(1) peak ranged from 5.33 to 5.48 and showed no significant difference between contaminated and reference populations; however, there was a significantly higher frequency of aneuploidy at TCSFS when compared with both reference populations. Blood Pb levels were not significantly different between TCSFS and SNWR populations. Pb levels in carapace samples did not differ significantly between sites; however, Pb levels were higher in carapace than blood for both populations. Blood Cd was significantly higher in animals at TCSFS than SNWR.

  6. Potential health impacts of heavy-metal exposure at the Tar Creek Superfund site, Ottawa County, Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Neuberger, John S; Hu, Stephen C; Drake, K David; Jim, Rebecca

    2009-02-01

    The potential impact of exposure to heavy metals and health problems was evaluated at the Tar Creek Superfund site, Ottawa County, Oklahoma, USA. Observed versus expected mortality was calculated for selected conditions in the County and exposed cities. Excess mortality was found for stroke and heart disease when comparing the exposed County to the state but not when comparing the exposed cities to the nonexposed rest of the County. However, sample sizes in the exposed area were small, population emigration has been ongoing, and geographic coding of mortality data was incomplete. In an exposed community, 62.5% of children under the age of 6 years had blood lead levels exceeding 10 microg/dl. The relationships between heavy-metal exposure and children's health and chronic disease in adults are suggestive that a more thorough investigation might be warranted. A number of possible environmental and health studies are suggested, including those focusing on possible central nervous system impacts. Unfortunately, the exposed population is dispersing. One lesson learned at this site is that health studies need to be conducted as soon as possible after an environmental problem is identified to both study the impact of the most acute exposures and to maximize study sample size-including those exposed to higher doses-and minimize the loss of individuals to follow-up.

  7. Boulder Creek Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingaman, Deirdre; Eitel, Karla Bradley

    2010-01-01

    Boulder Creek runs literally in the backyard of Donnelly Elementary School and happens to be on the EPA list of impaired water bodies. Therefore, a unique opportunity for problem solving opened the door to an exciting chance for students to become scientists, while also becoming active in their community. With the help of the Idaho Department of…

  8. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 6): Tar Creek (Ottawa County), Operable Unit 2, Ottawa County, OK, August 27, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for the residential areas of the Tar Creek Superfund Site (the Site), in Ottawa County, Oklahoma. The remedy addresses the contamination from mining waste in the residential areas of the Site. The major components of the selected remedy include: Excavation of lead-contaminated surface soil in residential areas; Replacement of excavated soil with clean soil and restoration of the remediated areas; Disposal of excavated soil on-Site in dry mining waste areas remote from the residential areas or, in the event of inability to dispose of excavated materials on-Site, disposal off-Site in an approved landfill; Covering or replacement of mining waste in traffic areas located near residences; Restriction of access to mining waste areas located near residences by use of physical barriers (e.g., fences and warning signs); and County-wide implementation of institutional controls, including community protective measures, to supplement engineering response actions.

  9. Chemical analyses of stream sediment in the Tar Creek basin of the Picher mining area, northeast Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parkhurst, David L.; Doughten, Michael; Hearn,, Paul P.

    1988-01-01

    Chemical analyses are presented for 47 sediment samples from the Tar Creek drainage in the Picher mining area of northeast Oklahoma. The samples were taken in December 1983, June 1984, and June 1985. All of the samples were taken downstream from mine-water discharge points of abandoned lead and zinc mines. The 34 samples taken in December 1983 and June 1984 were analyzed semiquantitatively by emission spectrography for 64 elements and quantitatively for cadmium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, sulfur, zinc, and organic carbon. The 13 samples taken in June 1985 were analyzed quantitatively for aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, phosphorus, lead, sulfur, silicon, titanium, vanadium, zinc, and organic carbon.

  10. Ground-water flow model of the Boone formation at the Tar Creek superfund site, Oklahoma and Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, T.B.; Czarnecki, John B.

    2006-01-01

    Extensive mining activities conducted at the Tar Creek Superfund site, one of the largest Superfund sites in the United States, pose substantial health and safety risks. Mining activities removed a total of about 6,000,000 tons of lead and zinc by 1949. To evaluate the effect of this mining on the ground-water flow, a MODFLOW 2000 digital model has been developed to simulate ground-water flow in the carbonate formations of Mississippian age underlying the Tar Creek Superfund site. The model consists of three layers of variable thickness and a grid of 580 rows by 680 columns of cells 164 feet (50 meters) on a side. Model flux boundary conditions are specified for rivers and general head boundaries along the northern boundary of the Boone Formation. Selected cells in layer 1 are simulated as drain cells. Model calibration has been performed to minimize the difference between simulated and observed water levels in the Boone Formation. Hydraulic conductivity values specified during calibration range from 1.3 to 35 feet per day for the Boone Formation with the larger values occurring along the axis of the Miami Syncline where horizontal anisotropy is specified as 10 to 1. Hydraulic conductivity associated with the mine void is set at 50,000 feet per day and a specific yield of 1.0 is specified to represent that the mine void is filled completely with water. Residuals (the difference between measured and simulated ground-water altitudes) has a root-mean-squared value of 8.53 feet and an absolute mean value of 7.29 feet for 17 observed values of water levels in the Boone Formation. The utility of the model for simulating and evaluating the possible consequences of remediation activities has been demonstrated. The model was used to simulate the emplacement of chat (mine waste consisting of fines and fragments of chert) back into the mine. Scenarios using 1,800,000 and 6,500,000 tons of chat were run. Hydraulic conductivity was reduced from 50,000 feet per day to 35 feet

  11. Water quality study at the Congaree Swamp National monument of Myers Creek, Reeves Creek and Toms Creek. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Rikard, M.

    1991-11-01

    The Congaree Swamp National Monument is one of the last significant near virgin tracts of bottom land hardwood forests in the Southeast United States. The study documents a water quality monitoring program on Myers Creek, Reeves Creek and Toms Creek. Basic water quality parameters were analyzed. High levels of aluminum and iron were found, and recommendations were made for further monitoring.

  12. Microbial community structure and biodegradation activity of particle-associated bacteria in a coal tar contaminated creek.

    PubMed

    Debruyn, Jennifer M; Sayler, Gary S

    2009-05-01

    The Chattanooga Creek Superfund site (Chattanooga, TN) is one of the most polluted waterways in the southeastern U.S. with high polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in the sediments. PAHs associate with suspended solids in the water column, and may be redeposited onto the floodplain. These suspended particles represent an interesting but understudied environment for PAH-degrading microbial communities. This study tested the hypotheses that particle-associated bacterial (PAB) communities have genotypic potential (PAH-dioxygenase genes) and activity (naphthalene and pyrene mineralization), and can contribute to natural attenuation of PAHs in Chattanooga Creek. Upstream of the Superfund site, mineralization ranged from 0.2 to 2.0% of added 14C-naphthalene and 0 to 0.1% 14C-pyrene (after 40 h), with first order biodegradation rate constants (k1) ranging from 1.09 to 9.18 x 10(-5) h(-1) and 0 to 1.13 x 10(-6) h(-1), respectively. Mineralization was significantly greater in PAB communities within the contaminated zone, with 11.8 to 31.2% 14C-naphthalene (k1 5.34 to 14.2 x 10(-4) h(-1)) and 1.3 to 6.6% 14C-pyrene mineralized (k1 2.89 to 15.0 x 10(-5) h(-1)). Abundances of nagAc (naphthalene dioxygenase) and nidA (pyrene dioxygenase) genes indicated that PAB communities harbored populations with genetic potential for both low- and high-molecularweight PAH degradation, and quantification of Mycobacterium 16S rDNA genes indicated that PAH-degrading mycobacteria are also prevalent in this environment. Phylogenetic comparisons (T-RFLPs) between PAB and sediments indicated these microbial communities were taxonomically distinct, but shared some functional similarities, namely PAH catabolic genotypes, mineralization capabilities, and community structuring along a contamination gradient

  13. Study on tar generated from downdraft gasification of oil palm fronds.

    PubMed

    Atnaw, Samson Mekbib; Kueh, Soo Chuan; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar

    2014-01-01

    One of the most challenging issues concerning the gasification of oil palm fronds (OPF) is the presence of tar and particulates formed during the process considering its high volatile matter content. In this study, a tar sampling train custom built based on standard tar sampling protocols was used to quantify the gravimetric concentration of tar (g/Nm3) in syngas produced from downdraft gasification of OPF. The amount of char, ash, and solid tar produced from the gasification process was measured in order to account for the mass and carbon conversion efficiency. Elemental analysis of the char and solid tar samples was done using ultimate analysis machine, while the relative concentration of the different compounds in the liquid tar was determined making use of a liquid gas chromatography (GC) unit. Average tar concentration of 4.928 g/Nm3 and 1.923 g/Nm3 was obtained for raw gas and cleaned gas samples, respectively. Tar concentration in the raw gas sample was found to be higher compared to results for other biomass materials, which could be attributed to the higher volatile matter percentage of OPF. Average cleaning efficiency of 61% which is comparable to that of sand bed filter and venturi scrubber cleaning systems reported in the literature was obtained for the cleaning system proposed in the current study.

  14. Study on Tar Generated from Downdraft Gasification of Oil Palm Fronds

    PubMed Central

    Atnaw, Samson Mekbib; Kueh, Soo Chuan; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar

    2014-01-01

    One of the most challenging issues concerning the gasification of oil palm fronds (OPF) is the presence of tar and particulates formed during the process considering its high volatile matter content. In this study, a tar sampling train custom built based on standard tar sampling protocols was used to quantify the gravimetric concentration of tar (g/Nm3) in syngas produced from downdraft gasification of OPF. The amount of char, ash, and solid tar produced from the gasification process was measured in order to account for the mass and carbon conversion efficiency. Elemental analysis of the char and solid tar samples was done using ultimate analysis machine, while the relative concentration of the different compounds in the liquid tar was determined making use of a liquid gas chromatography (GC) unit. Average tar concentration of 4.928 g/Nm3 and 1.923 g/Nm3 was obtained for raw gas and cleaned gas samples, respectively. Tar concentration in the raw gas sample was found to be higher compared to results for other biomass materials, which could be attributed to the higher volatile matter percentage of OPF. Average cleaning efficiency of 61% which is comparable to that of sand bed filter and venturi scrubber cleaning systems reported in the literature was obtained for the cleaning system proposed in the current study. PMID:24526899

  15. Microbial community structure and biodegradation activity of particle-associated bacteria in a coal tar contaminated creek

    SciTech Connect

    Jennifer M. DeBruyn; Gary S. Sayler

    2009-05-01

    The Chattanooga Creek Superfund site (Chattanooga, TN) is one of the most polluted waterways in the southeastern U.S. with high polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in the sediments. PAHs associate with suspended solids in the water column, and may be redeposited onto the floodplain. These suspended particles represent an interesting but understudied environment for PAH-degrading microbial communities. This study tested the hypotheses that particle-associated bacterial (PAB) communities have genotypic potential (PAH-dioxygenase genes) and activity (naphthalene and pyrene mineralization), and can contribute to natural attenuation of PAHs in Chattanooga Creek. Upstream of the Superfund site, mineralization ranged from 0.2 to 2.0% of added {sup 14}C-naphthalene and 0 to 0.1% {sup 14}C-pyrene (after 40 h), with first order biodegradation rate constants (k{sub 1}) ranging from 1.09 to 9.18 x 10{sup -5} h{sup -1} and 0 to 1.13 x 10{sup -6} h{sup -1}, respectively. Mineralization was significantly greater in PAB communities within the contaminated zone, with 11.8 to 31.2% {sup 14}C-naphthalene (k{sup 1} 5.34 to 14.2 x 10-4 h{sup -1}) and 1.3 to 6.6% {sup 14}C-pyrene mineralized (k{sub 1} 2.89 to 15.0 x 10{sup -5} h{sup -1}). Abundances of nagAc (naphthalene dioxygenase) and nidA (pyrene dioxygenase) genes indicated that PAB communities harbored populations with genetic potential for both low- and high-molecular weight PAH degradation, and quantification of Mycobacterium 16S rDNA genes indicated that PAH-degrading mycobacteria are also prevalent in this environment. Phylogenetic comparisons (T-RFLPs) between PAB and sediments indicated these microbial communities were taxonomically distinct, but shared some functional similarities, namely PAH catabolic genotypes, mineralization capabilities, and community structuring along a contamination gradient. 38 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. PADDY CREEK WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, MISSOURI.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, Walden P.; Ellis, Clarence

    1984-01-01

    The Paddy Creek Wilderness study area, Missouri was investigated by geologic and mineral surveys. There is no known record of mineral production, development, or prospecting in the area. Several rock units that underlie the study area are known to be the host rocks for important lead-zinc-silver-copper-nickel-cobalt deposits and magnetic iron-ore deposits of the Southeast Missouri district, about 52 mi east of the study area. Similar occurrences may exist in the Paddy Creek Wilderness study area, but the mineral-resource potential cannot be adequately evaluated without further study, specifically, deep drilling within or close to the area to test the potential for base-metal mineralization, and detailed magnetic surveys of the area to test for magnetic anomalies.

  17. DRY CREEK WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, ARKANSAS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haley, Boyd R.; Stroud, Raymond B.

    1984-01-01

    The Dry Creek Wilderness Study Area covers an area of about 10 sq mi in parts of Logan, Scott, and Yell Counties, Arkansas. A mineral evaluation study of the area indicated that the area has a probable resource potential for natural gas and little promise for the occurrence of other mineral commodities. Less than 100,000 cu ft/day of natural gas is being produced from one well about 4 mi north of the area.

  18. Studies of RF sheaths and diagnostics on IShTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crombé, K.; Devaux, S.; D'Inca, R.; Faudot, E.; Faugel, H.; Fünfgelder, H.; Heuraux, S.; Jacquot, J.; Louche, F.; Moritz, J.; Ochoukov, R.; Tripsky, M.; Van Eester, D.; Wauters, T.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.

    2015-12-01

    IShTAR (Ion cyclotron Sheath Test ARrangement) is a linear magnetised plasma test facility for RF sheaths studies at the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik in Garching. In contrast to a tokamak, a test stand provides more liberty to impose the parameters and gives better access for the instrumentation and antennas. The project will support the development of diagnostic methods for characterising RF sheaths and validate and improve theoretical predictions. The cylindrical vacuum vessel has a diameter of 1 m and is 1.1 m long. The plasma is created by an external cylindrical plasma source equipped with a helical antenna that has been designed to excite the m=1 helicon mode. In inductive mode, plasma densities and electron temperatures have been characterised with a planar Langmuir probe as a function of gas pressure and input RF power. A 2D array of RF compensated Langmuir probes and a spectrometer are planned. A single strap RF antenna has been designed; the plasma-facing surface is aligned to the cylindrical plasma to ease the modelling. The probes will allow direct measurements of plasma density profiles in front of the RF antenna, and thus a detailed study of the density modifications induced by RF sheaths, which influences the coupling. The RF antenna frequency has been chosen to study different plasma wave interactions: the accessible plasma density range includes an evanescent and propagative behaviour of slow or fast waves, and allows the study of the effect of the lower hybrid resonance layer.

  19. Studies of RF sheaths and diagnostics on IShTAR

    SciTech Connect

    Crombé, K.; D’Inca, R.; Faugel, H.; Fünfgelder, H.; Jacquot, J.; Ochoukov, R.; Louche, F.; Tripsky, M.; Van Eester, D.; Wauters, T.

    2015-12-10

    IShTAR (Ion cyclotron Sheath Test ARrangement) is a linear magnetised plasma test facility for RF sheaths studies at the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik in Garching. In contrast to a tokamak, a test stand provides more liberty to impose the parameters and gives better access for the instrumentation and antennas. The project will support the development of diagnostic methods for characterising RF sheaths and validate and improve theoretical predictions. The cylindrical vacuum vessel has a diameter of 1 m and is 1.1 m long. The plasma is created by an external cylindrical plasma source equipped with a helical antenna that has been designed to excite the m=1 helicon mode. In inductive mode, plasma densities and electron temperatures have been characterised with a planar Langmuir probe as a function of gas pressure and input RF power. A 2D array of RF compensated Langmuir probes and a spectrometer are planned. A single strap RF antenna has been designed; the plasma-facing surface is aligned to the cylindrical plasma to ease the modelling. The probes will allow direct measurements of plasma density profiles in front of the RF antenna, and thus a detailed study of the density modifications induced by RF sheaths, which influences the coupling. The RF antenna frequency has been chosen to study different plasma wave interactions: the accessible plasma density range includes an evanescent and propagative behaviour of slow or fast waves, and allows the study of the effect of the lower hybrid resonance layer.

  20. Study of catalytic upgrading of biomass tars using Indonesian iron ore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicakso, Doni Rahmat; Sutijan, Rochmadi, Budiman, Arief

    2017-03-01

    Catalytic decomposition is a promising way for chemical upgrading process of low quality oil such as biomass tars. In this experiment, catalytic decomposition of biomass tars was performed over Indonesian low grade iron ore catalyst. This process is carried out in a fixed bedreactor which is equipped with preheater to convert the tars into vapor form. The reaction was studied at the temperature range of 500 - 700°C. The kinetic study of catalytic decomposition of biomass tars is represented using first order reaction. The results show that value of constant of chemical reaction is in range 0.2514 - 0.9642 cm3.gr-1.min-1 with value of the frequency factor (A) and the activation energy (E) are 48.98 min-1 and 5724.94 cal.mol-1, respectively.

  1. RICHLAND CREEK WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, ARKANSAS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haley, Boyd R.; Stroud, Raymond B.

    1984-01-01

    The Richland Creek Wilderness Study Area covers an area of about 5 sq mi in parts of Newton and Searcy Counties, Arkansas. Geochemical studies of the outcropping rocks and stream sediments in the study area indicate that these rocks have little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources. There is little promise for the occurrence of natural gas within the area because the Pennsylvanian age rocks have been breached by erosion and the other potential reservoir rocks were reported as dry. Some of the sandstone and limestone could be used for commercial purposes.

  2. Case-control study of cumulative cigarette tar exposure and lung and upper aerodigestive tract cancers.

    PubMed

    Meyers, Travis J; Chang, Shen-Chih; Chang, Po-Yin; Morgenstern, Hal; Tashkin, Donald P; Rao, Jian-Yu; Cozen, Wendy; Mack, Thomas M; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2017-05-01

    The development of comprehensive measures for tobacco exposure is crucial to specify effects on disease and inform public health policy. In this population-based case-control study, we evaluated the associations between cumulative lifetime cigarette tar exposure and cancers of the lung and upper aerodigestive tract (UADT). The study included 611 incident cases of lung cancer; 601 cases of UADT cancers (oropharyngeal, laryngeal and esophageal cancers); and 1,040 cancer-free controls. We estimated lifetime exposure to cigarette tar based on tar concentrations abstracted from government cigarette records and self-reported smoking histories derived from a standardized questionnaire. We analyzed the associations for cumulative tar exposure with lung and UADT cancer, overall and according to histological subtype. Cumulative tar exposure was highly correlated with pack-years among ever smoking controls (Pearson coefficient = 0.90). The adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence limits) for the estimated effect of about 1 kg increase in tar exposure (approximately the interquartile range in all controls) was 1.61 (1.50, 1.73) for lung cancer and 1.21 (1.13, 1.29) for UADT cancers. In general, tar exposure was more highly associated with small, squamous and large cell lung cancer than adenocarcinoma. With additional adjustment for pack-years, positive associations between tar and lung cancer were evident, particularly for small cell and large cell subtypes. Therefore, incorporating the composition of tobacco carcinogens in lifetime smoking exposure may improve lung cancer risk estimation. This study does not support the claim of a null or inverse association between "low exposure" to tobacco smoke and risk of these cancer types.

  3. Optical, physical, and chemical properties of tar balls observed during the Yosemite Aerosol Characterization Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hand, J. L.; Malm, W. C.; Laskin, A.; Day, D.; Lee, T.; Wang, C.; Carrico, C.; Carrillo, J.; Cowin, J. P.; Collett, J.; Iedema, M. J.

    2005-11-01

    The Yosemite Aerosol Characterization Study of summer 2002 (YACS) occurred during an active fire season in the western United States and provided an opportunity to investigate many unresolved issues related to the radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols. Single particle analysis was performed on field-collected aerosol samples using an array of electron microscopy techniques. Amorphous carbon spheres, or "tar balls," were present in samples collected during episodes of high particle light scattering coefficients that occurred during the peak of a smoke/haze event. The highest concentrations of light-absorbing carbon from a dual-wavelength aethalometer (λ = 370 and 880 nm) occurred during periods when the particles were predominantly tar balls, indicating they do absorb light in the UV and near-IR range of the solar spectrum. Closure experiments of mass concentrations and light scattering coefficients during periods dominated by tar balls did not require any distinct assumptions of organic carbon molecular weight correction factors, density, or refractive index compared to periods dominated by other types of organic carbon aerosols. Measurements of the hygroscopic behavior of tar balls using an environmental SEM indicate that tar balls do not exhibit deliquescence but do uptake some water at high (˜83%) relative humidity. The ability of tar balls to efficiently scatter and absorb light and to absorb water has important implications for their role in regional haze and climate forcing.

  4. Quantitative analysis of the extent of heavy-metal contamination in soils near Picher, Oklahoma, within the Tar Creek Superfund Site.

    PubMed

    Beattie, Rachelle E; Henke, Wyatt; Davis, Conor; Mottaleb, M Abdul; Campbell, James H; McAliley, L Rex

    2017-04-01

    The Tri-State Mining District of Missouri, Kansas and Oklahoma was the site of large-scale mining operations primarily for lead and zinc until the mid-1950s. Although mining across the area has ceased, high concentrations of heavy metals remain in the region's soil and water systems. The town of Picher, Ottawa County, OK, lies within this district and was included in the Tar Creek Superfund Site by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1980 due to extensive contamination. To elucidate the extent of heavy-metal contamination, a soil-chemistry survey of the town of Picher was conducted. Samples (n = 111) were collected from mine tailings, locally known as chat, in Picher and along cardinal-direction transects within an 8.05-km radius of the town in August 2015. Samples were analyzed for soil pH, moisture, and metal content. Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) analyses of 20 metals showed high concentrations of lead (>1000 ppm), cadmium (>40 ppm) and zinc (>4000 ppm) throughout the sampled region. Soil moisture content ranged from 0.30 to 35.9%, and pH values ranged from 5.14 to 7.42. MANOVA of metal profiles determined that soils collected from the north transect and chat were significantly different (p < 0.01) than other sampled directions. Lead, cadmium and zinc were correlated with one another. These data show an unequal distribution of contamination surrounding the Picher mining site. Mapping heavy-metal contamination in these soils represents the first step in understanding the distribution of these contaminants at the Picher mining site.

  5. CITICO CREEK WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, TENNESSEE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, John F.; Behum, Paul T.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey of the Citico Creek Wilderness Study Area, in easternmost Tennessee, indicated that the area offers little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources. Geochemical sampling found traces of gold, copper, cobalt, barium, arsenic, lead, zinc, and thorium in rocks, stream sediments, and panned concentrates, but not in sufficient quantities to indicate the presence of metallic mineral deposits. The only apparent resources are nonmetallic commodities including rock suitable for construction materials, and small amounts of sand and gravel; however, these commodities are found in abundance outside the study area. The potential for oil and natural gas at great depths could not be evaluated by this study. Deep drilling would test the potential for hydrocarbon resources underlying the metamorphic rocks.

  6. MILL CREEK WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, VIRGINIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lesure, Frank G.; Williams, Bradford B.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Mill Creek Wilderness Study Area, Virginia concluded that the area contains gently folded clastic sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic age that have a substantiated iron resource potential and abundant rock suitable for construction materials. The area has an estimated 360 million long tons of inferred low-grade iron resources in hematitic sandstone that may average as much as 20 percent iron, or 72 million long tons of contained iron. Additional inferred iron resources of limonitic sandstone occurring at the Chestnut Flat iron mines in the southwest end of the area probably amount to less than 100,000 long tons rock containing 20 percent iron, or less than 20,000 long tons of contained iron.

  7. Skin cancer in patients with psoriasis treated with coal tar. A 25-year follow-up study

    SciTech Connect

    Pittelkow, M.R.; Perry, H.O.; Muller, S.A.; Maughan, W.Z.; O'Brien, P.C.

    1981-08-01

    For many years, crude coal tar has been used for the treatment of psoriasis. The possible carcinogenic effect of crude coal tar and ultraviolet (UV) radiation (Goeckerman regimen), considered individually or in combination, has been of some concern to physicians. A 25-year follow-up study was completed on 280 patients with psoriasis who were hospitalized and treated with crude coal tar and UV radiation at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn, during the years 1950 through 1954. The results of this study suggest that the incidence of skin cancer is not appreciably increased above the expected incidence for the general population when patients are treated with coal tar ointments. It seems that the Goeckerman regimen (topical crude coal tar combined with UV radiation) can be used with minimal risk for skin cancer in the treatment of psoriasis.

  8. Gold Creek: Preserving an Environmental Studies Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Suzanne

    In response to a Board of Trustees request for information and recommendations concerning the future use of the Gold Creek property owned by the Los Angeles Community College District, this report emphasizes that the use of this site for instructional field experiences enhances the quality of environmental education for the district's diverse…

  9. Gold Creek: An Environmental Studies Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodley, Laurel

    A description is provided of the Gold Creek Ecological Reserve, 240 acres of undisturbed land in Northeast Los Angeles County, which serves the Los Angeles Community College District (LACCD) as an outdoor laboratory for students and faculty in numerous disciplines. Section I provides introductory information on the reserve and its features, which…

  10. Mineral resources of the San Rafael Swell Wilderness Study Areas, including Muddy Creek, Crack Canyon, San Rafael Reef, Mexican Mountain, and Sids Mountain Wilderness Study Areas, Emery County, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Bartsch-Winkler, S.; Dickerson, R.P.; Barton, H.W.; McCafferty, A.E.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Koyuncu, H.; Lee, K.; Duval, J.S. ); Munts, S.R.; Benjamin, D.A.; Close, T.J.; Lipton, D.A.; Neumann, T.R.; Willet, S.L. )

    1990-09-01

    This paper reports on the San Rafael Swell Wilderness Study areas, which includes the Muddy Creek, Crack Canyon, San Rafael Reef, Mexican Mountain, and Sids Mountain Wilderness Study Areas, in Emery County, south-central Utah. Within and near the Crack Canyon Wilderness Study Area are identified subeconomic uranium and vanadium resources. Within the Carmel Formation are inferred subeconomic resources of gypsum in the Muddy Creek, San Rafael Reef, and Sids Mountain Wilderness Study Areas. Other commodities evaluated include geothermal energy, gypsum, limestone, oil and gas, sand and gravel, sandstone, semiprecious gemstones, sulfur petrified wood, and tar sand.

  11. SF6 Tracer Release Study: A Contaminant Fate Study in Newtown Creek

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmieder, P. J.; Ho, D. T.; Peter, S.; Simpson, H. J.; Flores, S.; Dugan, W. A.

    2004-12-01

    Newtown Creek is a 5.5km creek that discharges into the East River, a 25km strait connecting Long Island Sound to the north and the New York Harbor to the south. Surface runoff dominates the freshwater input into the creek, for natural tributaries no longer exist. The areas directly adjacent to the creek are highly industrialized, and New York City's largest Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP) discharges directly into creek. In August 2004, we injected sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) into Newtown creek to study the fate of oil seeping into the creek from an underground oil spill and the fate of nutrient rich effluent from the WPCP. We monitored SF6 in Newtown Creek, the East River, and the Upper Bay of New York Harbor for 7 consecutive days following the injection in order to investigate the spreading patterns and transport mechanics of waters exiting the creek, and to determine the ultimate fate of the contaminants/solutes originating in Newtown Creek. Dissolved oxygen (DO) measurements were collected simultaneously with SF6 measurements. A strong DO gradient exists in the creek, where waters in the upper reaches are anoxic. We use SF6 data to calculate mean residence times for Newtown Creek waters. SF6 was detected above background concentrations approximately 15km to the south of the creek at the Verrazano Bridge only 1 day after the tracer injection. By combining the movements of the SF6 distribution, the position of the oxygen gradient, and the residence time of Newtown Creek water, we can determine a lower boundary for oxygen consumption rates.

  12. A study on the effect of heat treatment temperature on mesophase development in coal tar pitch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soni, Neha; Shah, Raviraj K.; Shrivastava, Rakesh; Datar, Manoj

    2013-06-01

    In the present study, a zero quinoline insoluble (QI) isotropic coal tar pitch was taken for the preparation of mesophase pitch. The pitch was heated in inert atmosphere at different heat treatment temperatures keeping same heating rate and soaking time to study the formation, growth and coalescence of mesophase spheres in the pitch. Such pitches were characterized for insoluble content (QI & TI), mesophase content, sulphur content, weight loss in inert atmosphere, softening point, coking value (CVC), C/H ratio etc. Results show that the insoluble content (QI & TI) and mesophase content of pitch increase with increase of heat treatment temperature.

  13. Topical tar: Back to the future

    SciTech Connect

    Paghdal, K.V.; Schwartz, R.A.

    2009-08-15

    The use of medicinal tar for dermatologic disorders dates back to the ancient times. Although coal tar is utilized more frequently in modern dermatology, wood tars have also been widely employed. Tar is used mainly in the treatment of chronic stable plaque psoriasis, scalp psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and seborrheic dermatitis, either alone or in combination therapy with other medications, phototherapy, or both. Many modifications have been made to tar preparations to increase their acceptability, as some dislike its odor, messy application, and staining of clothing. One should consider a tried and true treatment with tar that has led to clearing of lesions and prolonged remission times. Occupational studies have demonstrated the carcinogenicity of tar; however, epidemiologic studies do not confirm similar outcomes when used topically. This article will review the pharmacology, formulations, efficacy, and adverse effects of crude coal tar and other tars in the treatment of selected dermatologic conditions.

  14. Partitioning studies of coal-tar constituents in a two-phase contaminated ground-water system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rostad, C.E.; Pereira, W.E.; Hult, M.F.

    1985-01-01

    Organic compounds derived from coal-tar wastes in a contaminated aquifer in St. Louis Park, Minnesota, were identified, and their partition coefficients between the tar phase and aqueous phase were determined and compared with the corresponding n-octanol/water partition coefficients. Coal tar contains numerous polycyclic aromatic compounds, many of which are suspected carcinogens or mutagens. Groundwater contamination by these toxic compounds may pose an environmental health hazard in nearby public water-supply wells. Fluid samples from this aquifer developed two phases upon settling: an upper aqueous phase, and a lower oily-tar phase. After separating the phases, polycyclic aromatic compounds in each phase were isolated using complexation with N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone and identified by fused-silica capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Thirty-one of the polycyclic aromatic compounds were chosen for further study from four different classes: 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 10 nitrogen heterocycles, 5 sulfur heterocycles, and 4 oxygen heterocycles. Within each compound class, the tar/water partition coefficients of these compounds were reasonably comparable with the respective n-octanol/water partition coefficient.

  15. Coal tar phototherapy for psoriasis reevaluated: erythemogenic versus suberythemogenic ultraviolet with a tar extract in oil and crude coal tar

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, N.J.; Wortzman, M.S.; Breeding, J.; Koudsi, H.; Taylor, L.

    1983-06-01

    Recent studies have questioned the therapeutic value of coal tar versus ultraviolet (UV) radiation and their relative necessity in phototherapy for psoriasis. In this investigation, different aspects of tar phototherapy have been studied in single-blind bilateral paired comparison studies. The effects of 1% crude coal tar were compared with those of petrolatum in conjunction with erythemogenic and suberythemogenic doses of ultraviolet light (UVB) using a FS72 sunlamp tubed cabinet. Crude coal tar was clinically superior to petrolatum with suberythemogenic ultraviolet. With the erythemogenic UVB, petrolatum was equal in efficacy to crude coal tar. Suberythemogenic UVB was also used adjunctively to compare the effects of a 5% concentration of a tar extract in an oil base to 5% crude coal tar in petrolatum or the oil base without tar. The tar extract in oil plus suberythemogenic UVB produced significantly more rapid improvement than the oil base plus UVB. The direct bilateral comparison of equal concentrations of tar extract in oil base versus crude coal tar in petrolatum in a suberythemogenic UV photo regimen revealed no statistical differences between treatments. In a study comparing tar extract in oil and the oil base without ultraviolet radiation, the tar extract in oil side responded more rapidly.

  16. Mechanistic studies of mini-TAR RNA/DNA annealing in the absence and presence of HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein.

    PubMed

    Vo, My-Nuong; Barany, George; Rouzina, Ioulia; Musier-Forsyth, Karin

    2006-10-13

    HIV-1 reverse transcription involves several nucleic acid rearrangements, which are catalyzed by the nucleocapsid protein (NC). Annealing of the trans-activation response element (TAR) DNA hairpin to a complementary TAR RNA hairpin, resulting in the formation of an extended 98-base-pair duplex, is an essential step in the minus-strand transfer step of reverse transcription. To elucidate the TAR RNA/DNA annealing reaction pathway, annealing kinetics were studied systematically by gel-shift assays performed in the presence or absence of HIV-1 NC. Truncated 27 nucleotide mini-TAR RNA and DNA constructs were used in this work. In the absence of NC, the annealing is slow, and involves the fast formation of an unstable extended "kissing" loop intermediate, followed by a slower strand exchange between the terminal stems. This annealing is very sensitive to loop-loop complementarity, as well as to nucleic acid concentration, ionic strength and temperature. NC stimulates the annealing approximately 5000-fold by stabilizing the bimolecular intermediate approximately 100 to 200-fold, and promoting the subsequent strand exchange reaction approximately 10 to 20-fold. NC concentration dependence studies suggest that there is a direct correlation between the amount of NC required to stabilize the intermediate and the amount needed to induce mini-TAR aggregation. Whereas saturating levels of NC are required to efficiently aggregate nucleic acids, sub-saturating NC is sufficient to significantly enhance duplex destabilization. Equilibrium levels of mini-TAR RNA/DNA annealing were also measured under a variety of conditions. Taken together, the results presented here provide a quantitative accounting of HIV-1 NC's aggregation and duplex destabilizing activity, and provide insights into the universal nucleic acid chaperone activity of this essential viral protein.

  17. Refining Lurgi tar acids

    SciTech Connect

    Greco, N.P.

    1984-04-17

    There is disclosed a process for removing tar bases and neutral oils from the Lurgi tar acids by treating the tar acids with aqueous sodium bisulfate to change the tar bases to salts and to hydrolyze the neutral oils to hydrolysis products and distilling the tar acids to obtain refined tar acid as the distillate while the tar base salts and neutral oil hydrolysis products remain as residue.

  18. Kentucky tar sand project

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, M.N.; Jones, H.D. II; Lewis, F.W.

    1985-03-01

    Engineering details and pilot-plant results from a pioneering investigation based on a Kentucky tar-sand reserve are presented. The tar sand deposits of Kentucky are generally situated in the southeastern rim of the Illinois Basin along the southern boundary of the Western Coal Field region. In a recent study of US tar sand reserves, it was reported that over 3.4 billion barrels of oil are in Kentucky tar sand deposits alone. In the 22,000 acres, estimated reserves are over 100 million barrels of recoverable heavy oil. The oil-impregnated section of the deposit ranges in heavy oil content from five gallons per ton to over fifteen gallons per ton. The ore body is up to thirty-five feet thick and the overall stripping ratio for a commercial plant is estimated to be one cubic yard of undisturbed overburden material per ton of tar sand ore. A shovel and truck-type strip mining operation would be used to provide feedstock to the plant.

  19. Study on kinetic model of microwave thermocatalytic treatment of biomass tar model compound.

    PubMed

    Anis, Samsudin; Zainal, Z A

    2014-01-01

    Kinetic model parameters for toluene conversion under microwave thermocatalytic treatment were evaluated. The kinetic rate constants were determined using integral method based on experimental data and coupled with Arrhenius equation for obtaining the activation energies and pre-exponential factors. The model provides a good agreement with the experimental data. The kinetic model was also validated with standard error of 3% on average. The extrapolation of the model showed a reasonable trend to predict toluene conversion and product yield both in thermal and catalytic treatments. Under microwave irradiation, activation energy of toluene conversion was lower in the range of 3-27 kJ mol(-1) compared to those of conventional heating reported in the literatures. The overall reaction rate was six times higher compared to conventional heating. As a whole, the kinetic model works better for tar model removal in the absence of gas reforming within a level of reliability demonstrated in this study.

  20. Mineral resources of the Fifteen Mile Creek, Oregon Canyon, Twelve Mile Creek, and Willow Creek Wilderness Study Areas, Malheur and Harney counties, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.A.; Rytuba, J.J.; Plouff, D.; Vercountere, T.L.; Turner, R.L.; Sawatzky, D.L. ); Leszcykowski, A.M.; Peters, T.J.; Schmauch, S.W.; Winters, R.A. )

    1988-01-01

    The four contiguous study areas are located in a volcanic terrane dominated by tuffs that were erupted from calderas of the McDermitt Caldera complex and the Whitehorse Caldera. None of these areas have identified resources, despite the proximity of mercury, uranium, and lithium mineralization to the south. The southern parts of the Fifteen Mile Creek and the Oregon Canyon Wilderness Study Areas have a low potential for mercury and uranium. The southern parts of the Fifteen Mile Creek, Oregon Canyon, and Willow Creek and the northwestern part of the Oregon Wilderness Study Areas have low potential for antimony, bismuth, mercury, silver,molybdenum, and zinc. In the Oregon Canyon Wilderness Study Area, the tuff of Oregon Canyon and the rim of the caldera of the McDermitt Caldera complex have a low potential for gold and silver in epithermal veins. The study areas have a low potential for zeolite minerals, oil and gas, and geothermal energy throughout, and restricted parts of the study areas have a low potential for pumice, rare-earth elements, zirconium, and decorative building stone.

  1. Hydrodynamic and geomorphological controls on suspended sediment transport in mangrove creek systems, a case study: Cocoa Creek, Townsville, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryce, S.; Larcombe, P.; Ridd, P. V.

    2003-03-01

    In tide-dominated sedimentary systems, close relationships exist between tidal hydrodynamics, sediment transport and geomorphology. Tropical coastlines contain many tide-dominated mangrove creeks, yet few studies to date have examined the detail of such relationships for these environments. Time-series observations of tidal height, currents and suspended sediment concentrations were taken between 1992 and 1996 in Cocoa Creek, a mangrove creek system near Townsville, NE Australia. The creek and surrounding mangrove swamps and salt flats were surveyed with an echo-sounder and total survey station, respectively. For 'within-channel' tides, the flood tide is always the fastest, at up to 0.5 m s -1. In contrast, for overbank tides (i.e. tidal height > + 1.5 m Australian Height Datum, AHD) ebb currents are fastest in July, December and January, but flood currents are fastest in August and September, at up to 1 m s -1 in both cases. The tidal asymmetry of overbank tides in Cocoa Creek is controlled by the interaction between offshore tidal forcing and the intertidal storage effect of the mangrove swamps and salt flats, with the result being that during certain periods of the year there tends to be a predominance of either faster flood or ebb velocities on overbank tides. Significant tidal suspended sediment transport in the channel is only initiated at overbank height. On overbank tides, measured net suspended sediment fluxes in the channel are mostly seaward-directed (up to 180 t per tidal cycle). However, the net flux measured over a neap-spring period may be either landwards or seawards (up to 465 and 60 t, respectively). Furthermore, on the larger overbank tides (where the maximum tidal height >+1.85 m AHD) net sediment fluxes may be reduced because of a limited supply of available material. Thus hydrodynamic and sediment sampling durations of up to a month may not be representative of long-term trends. Given that our large dataset has not identified a clear long

  2. Preliminary studies on the recovery of bitumen from Nigerian tar sands: I. Beneficiation and solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Ademodi, B.; Oshinowo, T.; Sanni, S.A.; Dawodu, O.F.

    1987-01-01

    Solvent extraction of bitumen from Nigerian tar sands using toluene has been investigated. Pulverization of the tar sands followed by agglomeration in a mechanical shaker resulted in spherical agglomerates having higher bitumen contents than the mined tar sand. The extent of beneficiation was 4% and 19% for the high grade and low grade sands, respectively. Temperature, agitation, and tar sand/solvent (S/L) ratios were found to be significant variables affecting the dissolution of bitumen from the sand. S/L ratio has the greatest effect on extraction efficiency. The rate of bitumen extraction, expressed as extractability eta* showed great dependence on agitation. About 16- and 15-fold increases in extractability were obtained for S/L ratios of 1/20 and 1/5 respectively for a 2.8 fold increase in agitation. At the initial stages of extraction, asphaltene content of the bitumen extracted at 50/sup 0/C was less than that in the bitumen extracted at 25/sup 0/C. This finding could have significant implications for the overall economics of upgrading processes. A high extraction efficiency of about 99% was obtained with stagewise extraction at high tar sand/solvent ratios.

  3. Tar sand

    SciTech Connect

    McLendon, T.R.; Bartke, T.C.

    1990-01-01

    Research on tar sand is briefly discussed. The research program supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE) includes a variety of surface extraction schemes. The University of Utah has process development units (PDU) employing fluidized bed, hot, water-assisted, and fluidized-bed/heat-pipe, coupled combustor technology. Considerable process variable test data have been gathered on these systems: (1) a rotary kiln unit has been built recently; (2) solvent extraction processing is being examined; and (3) an advanced hydrogenation upgrading scheme (hydropyrolysis) has been developed. The University of Arkansas, in collaboration with Diversified Petroleum, Inc., has been working on a fatty acid, solvent extraction process. Oleic acid is the solvent/surfactant. Solvent is recovered by adjusting processing fluid concentrations to separate without expensive operations. Western Research Institute has a PDU-scale scheme called the Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) process, which combines solvent (hot recycle bitumen) and pyrolytic extraction. 14 refs., 19 figs.

  4. Influence of laminar flow on preorientation of coal tar pitch structural units: Raman microspectroscopic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, O.; Jehlička, J.; Pokorný, J.; Rouzaud, J. N.

    2003-08-01

    In order to estimate the role of laminar flow of viscous, aromatic matter of carbonaceous precursor on microtextural preorientation in pregraphitization stage, we performed experiments with coal tar pitch (CTP). The principal hypothesis of preorientation of basic structural units (BSUs) in the case of laminar flow (pressure impregnation of CTP into porous matrix) and secondary release of volatiles during carbonization were studied. Glass microplates, planar porous medium with average distance between single microplates 5 μm were used as suitable porous matrix. Samples of CTP were carbonized up to 2500 °C. Optical microscopy reveals large flow domains in the sample of cokes carbonized between glass microplates. Raman microspectroscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) show that at nanometric scale, the samples do not support the proposed hypotheses. With increasing temperature of pyrolysis, the graphitization of CTP impregnated into porous matrix proceeds to lower degree of structural ordering in comparison with single pyrolyzed CTP. This is explained by the release of volatile matter during carbonization in geometrically restricted spaces. More evident structural changes were discovered with the sample of single coke, where parts of fine grain mosaics, relicts of 'so called QI parts', reveal higher structural organization, in comparison with large and prolonged flow domains, similar to flow domains of cokes from microplates.

  5. An Exploratory Study of Inhalers and Injectors Who Used Black Tar Heroin

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Jane Carlisle; Spence, Richard T.

    2011-01-01

    Aims To undertake an exploratory study to examine the characteristics of patients in narcotic treatment programs who started their use of black tar heroin either as inhalers or as injectors and to compare them with those who started as inhalers but shifted to injecting. Other studies in this area have used subjects using other forms of heroin more amenable to inhaling. Participants, Design, and Measurement A purposive sample of 199 patients in 6 methadone programs in Texas were interviewed in 2002-2003 using a structured instrument. Findings At admission to treatment, those who were heroin inhalers were more likely to be African American, to live with their families, to have income from wages, and to report fewer days of problems on most of the ASI measures. Those who shifted from inhaling to injecting were more likely to be Hispanic and to have had mental health problems that interfered with their lives and to have had less nurturing while growing up. Injectors were older at this treatment admission, had more treatment episodes and more times in jail, and were more likely to have hepatitis C, AIDS, or gonorrhea. There were high levels of physical and mental problems and histories of traumatization as children and adults for almost all the respondents. Males were as likely as females to have been sexually abused as children or as adults. Conclusions The high rates of mental and physical problems among all the clients interviewed showed the need for comprehensive services to be delivered within the substance abuse treatment programs. Histories of trauma and sexual abuse should be addressed for both male and female clients. PMID:21552428

  6. Water Conservation Study for Manastash Creek Water Users, Kittias County, Washington, Final Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery Watson Harza

    2002-12-31

    Manastash Creek is tributary of the Yakima River and is located southwest and across the Yakima River from the City of Ellensburg. The creek drains mountainous terrain that ranges in elevation from 2,000 feet to over 5,500 feet and is primarily snowmelt fed, with largest flows occurring in spring and early summer. The creek flows through a narrow canyon until reaching a large, open plain that slopes gently toward the Yakima River and enters the main stem of the Yakima River at river mile 154.5. This area, formed by the alluvial fan of the Creek as it leaves the canyon, is the subject of this study. The area is presently dominated by irrigated agriculture, but development pressures are evident as Ellensburg grows and develops as an urban center. Since the mid to late nineteenth century when irrigated agriculture was established in a significant manner in the Yakima River Basin, Manastash Creek has been used to supply irrigation water for farming in the area. Adjudicated water rights dating back to 1871 for 4,465 acres adjacent to Manastash Creek allow appropriation of up to 26,273 acre-feet of creek water for agricultural irrigation and stock water. The diversion of water from Manastash Creek for irrigation has created two main problems for fisheries. They are low flows or dewatered reaches of Manastash Creek and fish passage barriers at the irrigation diversion dams. The primary goal of this study, as expressed by Yakama Nation and BPA, is to reestablish safe access in tributaries of the Yakima River by removing physical barriers and unscreened diversions and by adding instream flow where needed for fisheries. The goal expressed by irrigators who would be affected by these projects is to support sustainable and profitable agricultural use of land that currently uses Manastash Creek water for irrigation. This study provides preliminary costs and recommendations for a range of alternative projects that will partially or fully meet the goal of establishing safe access

  7. Study of coal tar pitch microstructure by using spin probe technique

    SciTech Connect

    Shklyaev, A.A.; Ugay, M.Y.

    1994-12-31

    One of the copper porphyrin complexes has been adopted as a spin probe in order to provide insight into the nature of paramagnetic species of coal tar pitch. It was found that there are three kinds of nonequivalent radical centers displaying a different sensitivity to the spin probes. The majority of radical centers in original coal tar pitch cannot be detected in E.S.R. spectra due to considerable broadening of its lines. These invisible centers give rise to sudden broadening of E.S.R. signals of complex dissolved in the pitch heated over 400 C. The questions regarding the nature of radical states and the reason of abrupt high temperature broadening of pitch signals are discussed.

  8. Dual bed reactor for the study of catalytic biomass tars conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Ammendola, P.; Piriou, B.; Lisi, L.; Ruoppolo, G.; Chirone, R.; Russo, G.

    2010-04-15

    A dual fixed bed laboratory scale set up has been used to compare the activity of a novel Rh/LaCoO{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst to that of dolomite, olivine and Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, typical catalysts used in fluidized bed biomass gasification, to convert tars produced during biomass devolatilization stage. The experimental apparatus allows the catalyst to be operated under controlled conditions of temperature and with a real gas mixture obtained by the pyrolysis of the biomass carried out in a separate fixed bed reactor operated under a selected and controlled heating up rate. The proposed catalyst exhibits much better performances than conventional catalysts tested. It is able to completely convert tars and also to strongly decrease coke formation due to its good redox properties. (author)

  9. Pyridine and other coal tar constituents as inhibitors of potato polyphenol oxidase: A non-animal model for neurochemical studies

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, H.M.; Eskin, N.A.M.; Pinsky, C.; Bose, R.; Ashique, A.M. )

    1992-01-01

    Potato polyphenol oxidase activity was strongly and noncompetitively inhibited by the 'Perov mixture' of coal tar components and by pyridine alone, while phenol competitively inhibited the enzyme. These two inhibitors are structural components of the parkinsonogenic neurotoxin N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). By extension, dopamine and neuromelanin synthesis in the brain may be influenced by the inhibitory effects of such compounds upon the copper-dependent steps of tyrosine metabolism. The non-animal model used in this study may represent an alternative to the use of animal tissues in neurodegenerative disease research.

  10. Pyridine and other coal tar constituents as inhibitors of potato polyphenol oxidase: a non-animal model for neurochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Henderson, H M; Eskin, N A; Pinsky, C; Bose, R; Ashique, A M

    1992-01-01

    Potato polyphenol oxidase activity was strongly and noncompetitively inhibited by the "Perov mixture" of coal tar components and by pyridine alone, while phenol competitively inhibited the enzyme. These two inhibitors are structural components of the parkinsonogenic neurotoxin N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). By extension, dopamine and neuromelanin synthesis in the brain may be influenced by the inhibitory effects of such compounds upon the copper-dependent steps of tyrosine metabolism. The non-animal model used in this study may represent an alternative to the use of animal tissues in neurodegenerative disease research.

  11. Marine ecological habitat: a case study on projected thermal power plant around Dharamtar Creek, India.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Vikrant A; Naidu, Velamala S; Jagtap, Tanaji G

    2011-03-01

    Estuaries and tidal creeks, harboring mangroves particularly, face tremendous anthropogenic pressures. Expansion of mega cities and the thermal power plants are generally proposed in the vicinity of estuaries and creek, due to the feasibility of intake and discharge of water for cooling. Discharges from such developments remain constant threat of increasing thermal pollution and affecting the quality of environment. The baseline information on prevailing quality of aquatic environment comes handy for understanding alterations due to such activities. Principle component analysis (PCA) revealed that temperature, pH, salinity, suspended solids, DO, BOD and phaeophytins are major parameters influencing the creek system. Heated effluents may have direct and adverse impacts on these parameters, altering biotic constituents. Hence, periodic and detailed observations are necessary to estimate exact response of biotic communities to changing environment. The present paper is based on case study, projecting a power plant in the vicinity of major mangrove habitats of Dharamtar creek.

  12. Tar Management and Recycling in Biomass Gasification and Syngas Purification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaffrey, Zach

    Removal of tars is critical to the design and operation of biomass gasification systems as most syngas utilization processing equipment (e.g. internal combustion engines, gas turbines, fuel cells, and liquid fuel synthesis reactors) have a low tolerance for tar. Capturing and disposal of tar is expensive due to equipment costs, high hazardous waste disposal costs where direct uses cannot be found, and system energy losses incurred. Water scrubbing is an existing technique commonly used in gasification plants to remove contaminants and tar; however using water as the absorbent is non-ideal as tar compounds have low or no water solubility. Hydrophobic solvents can improve scrubber performance and this study evaluated tar solubility in selected solvents using slip-streams of untreated syngas from a laboratory fluidized bed reactor operated on almond composite feedstock using both air and steam gasification. Tar solubility was compared with Hansen's solubility theory to examine the extent to which the tar removal can be predicted. As collection of tar without utilization leads to a hazardous waste problem, the study investigated the effects of recycling tars back into the gasifier for destruction. Prior to experiments conducted on tar capture and recycle, characterizations of the air and steam gasification of the almond composite mix were made. This work aims to provide a better understanding of tar collection and solvent selection for wet scrubbers, and to provide information for designing improved tar management systems for biomass gasification.

  13. Kinetic study of the catalytic carbonization of coal tar pitch-petroleum coke mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, J.; Oeye, H.A.; Soerlie, M.

    1996-10-01

    The rate of carbonization has important impacts on the energy consumption and the productivity in baking process of reduction anodes. In the present work the carbonization of coal tar pitch-petroleum coke mixtures with catalysts, such as S, AlCl{sub 3}, AlF{sub 3}, and Fe{sub 2}Cp{sub 2}(CO){sub 4}, was investigated by thermogravimetry (TG) and kinetic analysis of the data. It was found that the pyrolysis temperature for non-coking volatiles decreased with catalysts, and that the coke yield of pitch binder increased. Almost all the sulfur and most of the iron from the additives can be removed during heat treatment, while the remaining aluminum in the residues may not be harmful.

  14. Hydraulic Characteristics of the San Gregorio Creek Drainage Basin, California: a Preliminary Study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J. R.; Snow, M. K.; Pestrong, R.; Sklar, L. S.; Vavro, M.; Sawachi, A.; Talapian, E.; Bailey, E.

    2004-12-01

    Population pressures within the greater San Francisco Bay Area are forcing development into nearby rural communities, and are impacting local environments. This study of the San Gregorio Creek Watershed is designed as a baseline for evaluating the effect increasing development within the drainage basin has on its river system. We hope to provide evidence for that impact through laboratory and field studies that provide a snap-shot of this drainage basin's current characteristics. The San Gregorio Creek watershed, in the Coast Ranges, is located in the southwestern portion of San Mateo County, California. It drains the western slopes of the Santa Cruz Mountains, in the Coast Ranges into the Pacific Ocean at the town of San Gregorio. Most of its fingertip tributaries flow into the trunk from the north and west, with elevations as high as 2050 feet. The watershed includes an area of approximately 51.6 square miles and San Gregorio Creek, the trunk stream, is roughly 12 miles long. San Gregorio Creek is a fourth order perennial stream. It is fed by a number of major tributaries, the largest of which are Alpine, Mindego, and La Honda creeks. The U.S. Geological Survey maintains a stream gauging station for San Gregorio Creek at the town of San Gregorio, where it has been monitoring stream flows for more than 30 years through its Water Resources Department. The resulting data indicate a mean discharge of 36.4 cfs. Map studies of hydraulic geometry for the drainage basin reveal geometric characteristics for San Gregorio Creek that coincide with similar streams in comparable climatic and environmental settings. Stream table studies are used to further investigate fundamental stream processes. Field studies at selected reaches throughout the drainage basin will document hydraulic characteristics. The results of this study will contribute to more comprehensive studies demonstrateing channel response to changing environmental conditions.

  15. Water Resources Study for Metropolitan Chester Creek Basin, Pennsylvania.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-09-01

    Chester Creek Basin tributaries origirate in an area which is characterized Ly a gently rolling countryside with occasional low hills and ridges which run...gently rounded hills . Erosion has also affected the area along the Delaware Fiver where beds of unconsolidated or poorly consolidated sediments have...resources and these include clay, sand, and gravel, the pegmatite minerals and I"I it i 5 ’I •m m m mm stone products. From the rocks of Chester County

  16. Additional mineral resources assessment of the Battle Creek, Bruneau River, Deep Creek-Owyhee River, Jarbidge River, Juniper Creek, Little Owyhee River, North Fork Owyhee River, Owyhee River Canyon, South Fork Owyhee River, Upper Deep Creek, and Yatahoney Creek Wilderness Study Areas, Owyhee County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diggles, Michael F.; Berger, Byron R.; Vander Meulen, Dean B.; Minor, Scott A.; Ach, Jay A.; Sawlan, Michael G.

    1989-01-01

    From 1984 to 1986, studies were conducted to assess the potential for undiscovered mineral resources in wilderness study areas on the Owyhee Plateau. The results of these studies have been published in a series of U.S. Geological Survey Bulletins. Since that time, low-grade, high-tonnage epithermal hot-spring gold-silver deposits have been recognized in the region north of the wilderness study areas. The recognition that this mineral-deposit model is applicable in the region, coupled with new data that has become available to the U.S. Geological Survey, reinterpretation of existing geochemical data, and known-deposit data suggest that similar deposits may be present elsewhere on the Owyhee Plateau. This report is an additional assessment of the Battle Creek, Bruneau River, Deep Creek-Owyhee River, Jarbidge River, Juniper Creek, Little Owyhee River, North Fork Owyhee River, Owyhee River Canyon, South Fork Owyhee River (ID-016-053), Upper Deep Creek, and Yatahoney Creek Wilderness Study Areas in Idaho Wilderness Study Areas in Idaho in light of those new data.

  17. Steam-Reforming Characteristics of Heavy and Light Tars Derived from Cellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Hirotatsu; Morinaga, Yosuke; Okazaki, Ken

    In this study, tar formation and steam-reforming mechanisms are discussed by separating the tars into heavy, middle, and light tars. Cellulose was heated in a drop-tube furnace under an Ar or Ar/steam atmosphere. After the tars were passed through the furnace for thermal cracking and polymerization, they were trapped by filters set at different temperatures (573, 393, and 273 K), and were respectively defined as heavy, middle, and light tars. Incondensable volatiles and gaseous products were measured using gas chromatography with thermal conductivity (GC-TCD), and flame ionization (GC-FID) detectors. The middle and light tars obtained under an Ar atmosphere were first characterized using time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). The analysis showed that the middle tar did not contain any low-boiling-point light tar components, while the light tar did contain them. It was also found that complex species in the tars were separated to a certain degree by changing the trap temperature. Moreover, the formation of heavy tar was quite different from that of the light tar. With increasing temperature, the formation of heavy tar was inhibited, while that of the light tar was enhanced during pyrolysis. The steam-reforming characteristics of these tars were also different. The heavy tar was barely reformed at a low temperature of 873 K, even with a long residence time, while the middle tar was well reformed by steam. While it was difficult to describe the tar formation and steam-reforming characteristics when the tar was considered as a single condensable matter, the tar formation and steam-reforming characteristics were clarified by separating the tars. This study shows that, to prevent tar emissions, the formation of heavy tar, which barely reacts with steam, should be inhibited during pyrolysis by controlling the heating.

  18. Redwood National Park studies; data release number 2, Redwood Creek, Humboldt County, and Mill Creek, Del Norte County, California, April 11, 1974-September 30, 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iwatsubo, Rick T.; Nolan, K.M.; Harden, D.R.; Glysson, G.D.

    1976-01-01

    An interdisciplinary study has been undertaken in Redwood National Park, Calif., to describe parts of the ecosystems and recent changes in the intensity of erosion and sedimentation, define processes that may alter the natural ecosystems, and assess the impact of recent road construction and timber harvest. This report is the second of a series that will present data collected in this study. Stream-discharge and water-quality data were collected at 53 sampling stations in the Redwood Creek and Mill Creek drainage basins. Measurements included the following variables: Stream stage and discharge; turbidity; sediment; onsite water-quality determinations of temperature, pH , total alkalinity, specific conductance, and dissolved-oxxygen concentration; chemical analyses of water samples for major dissolved solids, selected trace elements, nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon; chemical analyses of bottom sediment for organic carbon and pesticides; bacteria; benthic invertebrates; fish; periphyton; phytoplankton; and seston. Additional data include changes in geometry at 10 stream-channel cross sections along Mill Creek and the distribution of erosional landforms in the Mill Creek drainage basin; quantity and chemical composition of rainwater; and the intragravel-streambed condition at selected stations in the Redwood Creek drainage basin. (Woodard-USGS)

  19. Thermodynamic studies of a series of homologous HIV-1 TAR RNA ligands reveal that loose binders are stronger Tat competitors than tight ones

    PubMed Central

    Pascale, Lise; Azoulay, Stéphane; Di Giorgio, Audrey; Zenacker, Laura; Gaysinski, Marc; Clayette, Pascal; Patino, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    RNA is a major drug target, but the design of small molecules that modulate RNA function remains a great challenge. In this context, a series of structurally homologous ‘polyamide amino acids’ (PAA) was studied as HIV-1 trans-activating response (TAR) RNA ligands. An extensive thermodynamic study revealed the occurence of an enthalpy–entropy compensation phenomenon resulting in very close TAR affinities for all PAA. However, their binding modes and their ability to compete with the Tat fragment strongly differ according to their structure. Surprisingly, PAA that form loose complexes with TAR were shown to be stronger Tat competitors than those forming tight ones, and thermal denaturation studies demonstrated that loose complexes are more stable than tight ones. This could be correlated to the fact that loose and tight ligands induce distinct RNA conformational changes as revealed by circular dichroism experiments, although nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments showed that the TAR binding site is the same in all cases. Finally, some loose PAA also display promising inhibitory activities on HIV-infected cells. Altogether, these results lead to a better understanding of RNA interaction modes that could be very useful for devising new ligands of relevant RNA targets. PMID:23605042

  20. Effect of cavitation on the properties of coal-tar pitch as studied by gas-liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    M.I. Baikenov; T.B. Omarbekov; S.K. Amerkhanova

    2008-02-15

    The applicability of the cavitation-wave effect to coal-tar pitch processing is considered. The results of the GLC analysis of the test material before and after rotor-pulsation cavitation treatment are given. The organic matter of coal-tar pitch was found to degrade upon cavitation; as a result of this, the yields of light and medium fractions considerably increased. 5 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Basics of compounding with tars.

    PubMed

    Allen, Loyd V

    2013-01-01

    Tar has been used throughout history for numerous purposes; from sealing the hulls of ships to sealing roofs of dwellings and even for medical purposes. Produced by destructive distillation, commonly used tars are prepared from coal and wood. Coal tar, juniper tar, and pine tar are used for various medical purposes as described in the article. Also presented are the various characteristics and uses of each tar, along with commercial products and numerous compounding formulas. Techniques used to compound with tars are also presented.

  2. Study of the composition of tars produced from blends of coal and polyethylene wastes using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Díez, M A; Alvarez, R; Gayo, F; Barriocanal, C; Moinelo, S R

    2002-02-01

    Tars produced at semi-industrial scale in a coke oven of 6 x 10(3) kg capacity were used to investigate the effect of using polyethylene waste as an additive in the carbonization process with coal. The polyethylene wastes used were low-density polyethylene from the agriculture greenhouses and high-density polyethylene from domestic sources. The high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the soluble fractions in toluene and carbon disulfide, using two polystyrene-divinylbenzene columns and a mixture of dichloromethane-methanol as a mobile phase, provides useful information on the composition of tars and their derived pitches in terms of the substitution and molecular topology of polynuclear aromatic compounds (PACs). Differences in composition of tars produced with polyethylene waste at 1% (w/w) have been found to be negligible, while a higher amount of the waste (3%, w/w) promoted the formation of peri-condensed PACs at the expense of the substituted cata-condensed PACs. This behaviour is due to more extensive secondary reactions of tar precursors via dealkylation and aromatic condensation taking place during the carbonization process as a consequence of a more viscous co-carbonizing system. Changes in tar composition caused by this amount of polyethylene waste addition were comparable to those promoted by an increase in the carbonization temperature at semi-industrial and industrial ovens and by the coal preheating before the carbonization process. The characteristic features in tar composition were also found for the derived pitches from tars obtained with the polyethylene waste addition.

  3. Tar loads on Omani beaches

    SciTech Connect

    Badawy, M.I.; Al-Harthy, F.T. )

    1991-11-01

    Owing to Oman's geographic position and long coastal line, the coastal areas of Oman are particularly vulnerable to oil pollution from normal tanker operations, illegal discharges, and accidental spills as well as local sources of oil input. UNEP carried out a survey on the coasts of Oman to determine the major sources of oil pollution and concluded that the major shoreline pollution problems in Oman arose from operational discharges of oil from passing vessels traffic. The oil, because of the high sea and air temperatures in the area, was subjected to relatively high rates of evaporation and photo-oxidation and tended to arrive at the coast as heavy petroleum particulate residues (tar balls). The aim of the present study was to measure the loads of tar balls in Omani coastal areas and to identify the source of oil pollutants on beaches.

  4. Final safety assessment of Coal Tar as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    2008-01-01

    Coal Tar is a semisolid by-product obtained in the destructive distillation of bituminous coal, which functions in cosmetic products as a cosmetic biocide and denaturant--antidandruff agent is also listed as a function, but this is considered an over-the-counter (OTC) drug use. Coal Tar is a nearly black, viscous liquid, heavier than water, with a naphthalene-like odor and a sharp burning taste, produced in cooking ovens as a by-product in the manufacture of coke. Crude Coal Tar is composed of 48% hydrocarbons, 42% carbon, and 10% water. In 2002, Coal Tar was reported to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to be used in four formulations, all of which appear to be OTC drug products. Coal Tar is monographed by the FDA as Category I (safe and effective) OTC drug ingredient for use in the treatment of dandruff, seborrhoea, and psoriasis. Coal Tar is absorbed through the skin of animals and humans and is systemically distributed. In short-term studies, mice fed a diet containing Coal Tar found it unpalatable, but no adverse effects were reported other than weight loss; rats injected with Coal Tar experienced malaise in one study and decreased water intake and increased liver weights in another; rabbits injected with Coal Tar residue experienced eating avoidance, respiratory difficulty, sneezing, and weight loss. In a subchronic neurotoxicity study using mice, a mixture of phenols, cresols, and xylenols at concentrations approximately equal to those expected in Coal Tar extracts produced regionally selective effects, with a rank order of corpus striatum > cerebellum > cerebral cortex. Coal Tar applied to the backs of guinea pigs increases epidermal thickness. Painting female rabbits with tar decreases the absolute and relative weights of the ovaries and decreased the number of interstitial cells in the ovary. Four therapeutic Coal Tar preparations used in the treatment of psoriasis were mutagenic in the Ames assay. Urine and blood from patients treated with Coal Tar

  5. Correlation between structure and fluidity of coal tar pitch fractions studied by ambient {sup 13}C and high temperature in-situ {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Andresen, J.M.; Schober, H.H.; Rusinko, F.J. Jr.

    1999-07-01

    The unique properties of coal tar pitches have resulted in numerous applications for carbon products, such as binders for carbon artifacts. However, as the number of by-product coke ovens is diminishing, the design of superior binders from alternative materials or processes is sought by the carbon industry. Accordingly, structural characterization of coal tar pitches and their solvent fractions, using quantitative analytical techniques is required to successfully obtain this goal. Quantitative solid state {sup 13}C NMR has previously been shown to be a powerful technique to study the overall aromatic ring-size for coal tar pitches and their toluene insoluble (TI) fractions. The TI fraction can further be separated into its quinoline soluble part (beta-resin) and insoluble fraction (QI). Both these fractions affect the overall coking yield and especially the fluidity of the pitches. The assessment of fluidity interactions between coal tar pitch solvent fractions during heating is therefore important for the future design of pitches from untraditional sources or processes. High temperature {sup 1}H NMR is a useful technique to investigate the fluid and rigid components of pitches, especially with its interaction with coal and to quantify mesophase. However, very little work has been performed to correlate the overall fluidity behavior of pitch with the mobility of its different solubility fractions and their structure. Accordingly, this paper addresses the fluidity interactions between different pitch solvent fractions (TS, beta-resin and QI) by high temperature {sup 1}H NMR. Particularly, the fluidity studies on the beta-resin alone can verify whether this fraction becomes plastic during heating.

  6. Catalytic destruction of tars in biomass-derived gases

    SciTech Connect

    Mudge, L K; Baker, E G; Brown, M D; Wilcox, W A

    1988-02-01

    The Biomass and Municipal Waste Technology Division of the US Department of Energy is sponsoring studies at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory on catalytic destruction of condensible hydrocarbons (tars) in biomass-derived gases. Currently gasifiers generate a significant amount of tars in the product gases. These tars create problems with plugging in downstream equipment and with wastewater treatment. Partial oxidation of the gas stream in a secondary fluid bed of catalyst destroys the tars in biomass-derived gases while increasing the energy content of the product gas by over 20%. Catalysts that remain active for tar destruction are used in the secondary reactor which is specially designed to promote destruction of tars and minimize oxidation of combustible gases such as CO and H/sub 2/. Results of studies with different catalysts which have been tested for this application are described.

  7. Manufacture of road paving asphalt using coal tar

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, T.Y.

    1986-09-01

    Coal tar is a ready source of asphaltenes needed in asphalt production. Coal tar pitch itself, however, is unsuitable for making road-paving asphalt, since the resulting material has low ductility, high temperature sensitivity, and low resistance to wear. For this reason, in England, where replacing imported petroleum with local products was important 10 to 20 years ago, it was required that no more than 10 to 20 percent coal tar pitch be incorporated in road pavement. At higher concentrations, the pitch separates from the petroleum-derived asphalt, causing brittleness and cracking. To make a good asphalt from coal tar pitch, chemical modification or blending with additives appears necessary. In this study, the potentials are for producing road-paving asphalt from coal tar and available inexpensive petroleum fractions are explored. The objective of the study is to develop new uses of coal tar for asphalt production and to free the petroleum residue for upgrading to gasoline and diesel fuels.

  8. Extracting Oil From Tar Sands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, L. B.; Daly, D.

    1984-01-01

    Recovery of oil from tar sands possible by batch process, using steam produced by solar heater. In extraction process, solar heater provides steam for heating solvent boiler. Boiling solvent removes oil from tar sands in Soxhlet extractor.

  9. Blackbird Creek Monitoring Program to Study the impact of Climate Change and Land Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozbay, G.; Chintapenta, L. K.; Roeske, K. P.; Stone, M.; Phalen, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Blackbird Creek Monitoring Program at Delaware State University continues to utilize various perspectives to study the dynamics of one of Delaware's most pristine ecosystems. The water quality of Blackbird Creek has been constantly monitored for 3 years and correlated with the rain and storm events. Soil nutrients composition has been studied by extracting the water associated with soil aggregates and analyzing the levels of different nutrients. Soil quality is also assessed for heavy metals to identify potential human impact that may affect the health of ecosystem. Within the Blackbird Creek there is a threat to native plant communities from invasive plant species as they alter the ecosystem dynamics. Saltmarsh cord grass (Spartina alterniflora) and common reed (Phragmites australius) are the common wetland plants. Aerial mapping of the creek has been conducted to determine the area covered by invasive plant species. The microbial community structure plays a key role in soil carbon and nitrogen cycles in the ecosystem. Molecular analysis has been performed to study the microbial diversity with respect to the type of marsh grasses. This program has also incorporated the use of diatoms as biological indicators to assess the health of ecosystem and correlate that data with physical and chemical water quality data. The abundance and diversity of macro fauna such as blue crabs, fish and other significant species has also been studied. Stable isotopic analysis of these macro fauna has also been performed to study the food web. The results from this program will be helpful in addressing environmental challenges and designing management strategies.

  10. Absorptive removal of biomass tar using water and oily materials.

    PubMed

    Phuphuakrat, Thana; Namioka, Tomoaki; Yoshikawa, Kunio

    2011-01-01

    Water is the most common choice of absorption medium selected in many gasification systems. Because of poor solubility of tar in water, hydrophobic absorbents (diesel fuel, biodiesel fuel, vegetable oil, and engine oil) were studied on their absorption efficiency of biomass tar and compared with water. The results showed that only 31.8% of gravimetric tar was removed by the water scrubber, whereas the highest removal of gravimetric tar was obtained by a vegetable oil scrubber with a removal efficiency of 60.4%. When focusing on light PAH tar removal, the absorption efficiency can be ranked in the following order; diesel fuel>vegetable oil>biodiesel fuel>engine oil>water. On the other hand, an increase in gravimetric tar was observed for diesel fuel and biodiesel fuel scrubbers because of their easy evaporation. Therefore, the vegetable oil is recommended as the best absorbent to be used in gasification systems.

  11. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers; Field Activities Conducted on Clear and Pete King Creeks, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Gass, Carrie; Olson, Jim M.

    2004-11-01

    In 2001 the Idaho Fisheries Resource Office continued as a cooperator on the Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers (ISS) project on Pete King and Clear creeks. Data relating to supplementation treatment releases, juvenile sampling, juvenile PIT tagging, brood stock spawning and rearing, spawning ground surveys, and snorkel surveys were used to evaluate project data points and augment past data. Due to low adult spring Chinook returns to Kooskia National Fish Hatchery (KNFH) in brood year 1999 there was no smolt supplementation treatment release into Clear Creek in 2001. A 17,014 spring Chinook parr supplementation treatment (containing 1000 PIT tags) was released into Pete King Creek on July 24, 2001. On Clear Creek, there were 412 naturally produced spring Chinook parr PIT tagged and released. Using juvenile collection methods, Idaho Fisheries Resource Office staff PIT tagged and released 320 naturally produced spring Chinook pre-smolts on Clear Creek, and 16 natural pre-smolts on Pete King Creek, for minimum survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam. There were no PIT tag detections of brood year 1999 smolts from Clear or Pete King creeks. A total of 2261 adult spring Chinook were collected at KNFH. Forty-three females were used for supplementation brood stock, and 45 supplementation (ventral fin-clip), and 45 natural (unmarked) adults were released upstream of KNFH to spawn naturally. Spatial and temporal distribution of 37 adults released above the KNFH weir was determined through the use of radio telemetry. On Clear Creek, a total of 166 redds (8.2 redds/km) were observed and data was collected from 195 carcasses. Seventeen completed redds (2.1 redds/km) were found, and data was collected data from six carcasses on Pete King Creek.

  12. Evaluation of surfactant flushing for remediating EDC-tar contamination.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chenju; Hsieh, Cheng-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene dichloride tar (EDC-tar) is a dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) waste originated from the process of vinyl chloride production, with major constituents including chlorinated aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. This study investigated the feasibility of Surfactant Enhanced Aquifer Remediation (SEAR) for treating EDC-tar contaminated aquifers. Initial experiments explored the potential to enhance the apparent solubility of EDC-tar using single or mixed surfactants. The results showed that an aqueous solution mixed anionic and non-ionic surfactants (i.e., SDS/Tween 80) exhibited higher EDC-tar apparent solubility and lower surface tension than other surfactant systems tested. Additionally, alkaline pH aids in increasing the EDC-tar apparent solubility. In column flushing experiments, it was seen that the alkaline mixed SDS/Tween 80 solution showed better removal of pure EDC-tar from silica sand porous media. Furthermore, separation of EDC-tar in the surfactant solution was conducted employing a salting-out effect. Significant separation of DNAPL was observed when 13 wt.% or more NaCl was added to the solution. Overall, this study evaluates the feasibility of using SEAR for remediating EDC-tar contaminated subsurface soil and groundwater.

  13. Evaluation of surfactant flushing for remediating EDC-tar contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Chenju; Hsieh, Cheng-Lin

    2015-06-01

    Ethylene dichloride tar (EDC-tar) is a dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) waste originated from the process of vinyl chloride production, with major constituents including chlorinated aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. This study investigated the feasibility of Surfactant Enhanced Aquifer Remediation (SEAR) for treating EDC-tar contaminated aquifers. Initial experiments explored the potential to enhance the apparent solubility of EDC-tar using single or mixed surfactants. The results showed that an aqueous solution mixed anionic and non-ionic surfactants (i.e., SDS/Tween 80) exhibited higher EDC-tar apparent solubility and lower surface tension than other surfactant systems tested. Additionally, alkaline pH aids in increasing the EDC-tar apparent solubility. In column flushing experiments, it was seen that the alkaline mixed SDS/Tween 80 solution showed better removal of pure EDC-tar from silica sand porous media. Furthermore, separation of EDC-tar in the surfactant solution was conducted employing a salting-out effect. Significant separation of DNAPL was observed when 13 wt.% or more NaCl was added to the solution. Overall, this study evaluates the feasibility of using SEAR for remediating EDC-tar contaminated subsurface soil and groundwater.

  14. A siltation simulation and desiltation measurement study downstream of the Suzhou Creek Sluice, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Yong-xing; Yang, Fei; Zhang, Han-yun; Lu, Yong-jin

    2013-12-01

    The Suzhou Creek Sluice is currently the largest underwater plain gate in the world, with a single span of 100 m. It is located in a tidal estuary at the junction of the Huangpu River and Suzhou Creek in Shanghai, China. In this study, physical and 2D vertical mathematical models were used to investigate and distinguish the mechanism of siltation downstream of an underwater plain gate from that of other gates types. According to quantitative data obtained by site investigation and the application of the physical hydrodynamic models, it was found that the characteristics of the tidal estuary as well as the fact that the sluice span is equal to the creek width are the major reasons contributing to siltation. A possible desiltation treatment system is proposed for the underwater plain gate. The system includes selection of a suitable location that allows the determination of a reasonable top elevation of the sluice floor, reserving sufficient space under the gate to accommodate siltation, setting up a mechanical desiltation system, and flushing silt along with overflow over the top of the gate. Furthermore, on-site hydraulic silt flushing experiments and a topography survey were conducted. These results showed that the measurement system is effective, and by maintaining this scheduled operation once a month, the downstream riverbed has been maintained in a good condition.

  15. Tar burns in the southwest.

    PubMed

    Schiller, W R

    1983-07-01

    The burns which result from contact of human skin with hot tar may be quite serious in proportion to the body surface area involved. Although tending toward partial thickness burns, patchy areas of full thickness skin loss are commonly observed. The use of petrolatum-based ointments on the burn initially to dissolve the tar into the dressings seems like the most efficient and humane method of tar removal. Subsequently, care of the wound is like that of any other burn. Tar burns involving greater than 10 per cent of the body surface area are likely to be the most serious and require intravenous fluid resuscitation. Many tar burns appear to be preventable.

  16. A case study on effects of oil spills and tar-ball pollution on beaches of Goa (India).

    PubMed

    Rekadwad, Bhagwan N; Khobragade, Chandrahasya N

    2015-11-15

    This paper reports the impact of oil spills and tar-ball pollution on the coastal ecosystem of Goa. The factors responsible for degrading the marine ecosystem of the Goan coastline are analyzed. Uncontrolled activities were found to degrade the marine and coastal biodiversity, in turn polluting all beaches. This had a direct impact on the Goan economy through a decline in tourism. The government must adopt the necessary control measures to restore Goan beaches and the surrounding coastal areas.

  17. Water quality study of the Riley Creek (Blanchard River, Ottawa, Ohio)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiese, C. E.; Berry, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    Riley Creek in northwest central Ohio is one of the most heavily impacted tributaries in the Blanchard River watershed. Anthropogenic inputs of phosphorus and nitrogen from agriculture have led to heavy eutrophication over the past decades. Because the Blanchard River is part of the Lake Erie basin, controls on phosphorus and nitrogen, among other inputs, are critical for restoration of ecosystem health in Lake Erie. A previous study in the Riley Creek watershed has shown high historical loadings of both nitrogen and phosphorus. Additionally, bacterial impairment has been noted in the watershed, from both municipal sources and failing septic tanks. This study is the most recent data detailing water quality parameters both chemical and microbiological in Riley Creek. This is also the first data set in Riley Creek examining the spectral characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM). From May to August, 2012, dissolved oxygen concentrations at six sites in the watershed declined from a maximum of 13.2 mg/L (154% O2 saturation) to 1.1 mg/L (12.9%). Median dissolved oxygen during the same period was 5.96 mg/L. Water pH was relatively steady, ranging from 8.6 to 7.9, with values generally declining with time. All six sites were found to have nitrate concentrations above the enforcement target (1 mg/L NO3--N) at various times, with four out of 73 samples falling below this value. Dissolved reactive phosphorus was generally low, with concentrations ranging from 0.074 mg P/L to below detection limits (<0.005 mg P/L). Dissolved organic matter concentrations (measured as mg C/L, potassium hydrogen phthalate equivalent) ranged from 24.1 to 3.5 mg C/L (mean = 9.8 ± 3.8 mg C/L), with no apparent temporal trends. Spectral slope ratios, a proxy for molecular mass, were relatively constant at 0.9 ± 0.2, with only intermittent excursions. No correlation to either flow or time was observed. Tests for fecal coliform bacteria were almost universally positive at all sites, with 10

  18. VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS

    SciTech Connect

    Eric M. Suuberg; Vahur Oja

    1997-07-01

    This project had as its main focus the determination of vapor pressures of coal pyrolysis tars. It involved performing measurements of these vapor pressures and from them, developing vapor pressure correlations suitable for use in advanced pyrolysis models (those models which explicitly account for mass transport limitations). This report is divided into five main chapters. Each chapter is a relatively stand-alone section. Chapter A reviews the general nature of coal tars and gives a summary of existing vapor pressure correlations for coal tars and model compounds. Chapter B summarizes the main experimental approaches for coal tar preparation and characterization which have been used throughout the project. Chapter C is concerned with the selection of the model compounds for coal pyrolysis tars and reviews the data available to us on the vapor pressures of high boiling point aromatic compounds. This chapter also deals with the question of identifying factors that govern the vapor pressures of coal tar model materials and their mixtures. Chapter D covers the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary cellulose tars. Chapter E discusses the results of the main focus of this study. In summary, this work provides improved understanding of the volatility of coal and cellulose pyrolysis tars. It has resulted in new experimentally verified vapor pressure correlations for use in pyrolysis models. Further research on this topic should aim at developing general vapor pressure correlations for all coal tars, based on their molecular weight together with certain specific chemical characteristics i.e. hydroxyl group content.

  19. Mobilization of Manufactured Gas Plant Tar with Alkaline Flushing Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Hauswirth, Scott C.; Birak, Pamela Schultz; Rylander, Seth C.; Miller, Cass T.

    2011-01-01

    This experimental study investigates the use of alkaline and alkaline-polymer solutions for the mobilization of former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) tars. Tar-aqueous interfacial tensions (IFTs) and contact angles were measured, and column flushing experiments were conducted. NaOH solutions (0.01–1 wt.%) were found to significantly reduce tar-aqueous IFT. Contact angles indicated a shift to strongly water-wet, then to tar-wet conditions as NaOH concentration increased. Column experiments were conducted with flushing solutions containing 0.2, 0.35, and 0.5% NaOH, both with and without xanthan gum (XG). Between 10 and 44% of the residual tar was removed by solutions containing only NaOH, while solutions containing both NaOH and XG removed 81–93% of the tar with final tar saturations as low as 0.018. The mechanism responsible for the tar removal is likely a combination of reduced IFT, a favorable viscosity ratio, and tar bank formation. Such an approach may have practical applications and would be significantly less expensive than surfactant-based methods. PMID:22091957

  20. CSO DISINFECTION PILOT STUDY: SPRING CREEK CSO STORAGE FACILITY UPGRADE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research summary presents the results of a pilot-scale disinfection study performed for the New York City Department of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) under a contract to Camp Dresser & McKee of Woodbury, New York. The main ob...

  1. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 5

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This volume is in support of the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the Oak Ridge Reservation (for more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities there). It addresses the quality assurance objectives for measuring the data, presents selected historical data, contains data from several discrete water characterization studies, provides data supporting the sediment characterization, and contains data related to several biota characterization studies.

  2. Enhanced mesoscale climate projections in TAR and AR5 IPCC scenarios: a case study in a Mediterranean climate (Araucanía Region, south central Chile).

    PubMed

    Orrego, R; Abarca-Del-Río, R; Ávila, A; Morales, L

    2016-01-01

    Climate change scenarios are computed on a large scale, not accounting for local variations presented in historical data and related to human scale. Based on historical records, we validate a baseline (1962-1990) and correct the bias of A2 and B2 regional projections for the end of twenty-first century (2070-2100) issued from a high resolution dynamical downscaled (using PRECIS mesoscale model, hereinafter DGF-PRECIS) of Hadley GCM from the IPCC 3rd Assessment Report (TAR). This is performed for the Araucanía Region (Chile; 37°-40°S and 71°-74°W) using two different bias correction methodologies. Next, we study high-resolution precipitations to find monthly patterns such as seasonal variations, rainfall months, and the geographical effect on these two scenarios. Finally, we compare the TAR projections with those from the recent Assessment Report 5 (AR5) to find regional precipitation patterns and update the Chilean `projection. To show the effects of climate change projections, we compute the rainfall climatology for the Araucanía Region, including the impact of ENSO cycles (El Niño and La Niña events). The corrected climate projection from the high-resolution dynamical downscaled model of the TAR database (DGF-PRECIS) show annual precipitation decreases: B2 (-19.19 %, -287 ± 42 mm) and A2 (-43.38 %, -655 ± 27.4 mm per year. Furthermore, both projections increase the probability of lower rainfall months (lower than 100 mm per month) to 64.2 and 72.5 % for B2 and A2, respectively.

  3. Higher temperature coal tar enamel fights corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.R.; Henegar, S.; Roder, B.

    1996-10-01

    High temperatures create new challenges for pipeline coatings. Cracking, adhesion breakdown and electrochemical corrosion are accelerated by higher service temperatures. A new epoxy primer/coal tar pipeline coating system utilizes the latent heat of the coal tar application to fully cure the newly developed primer to achieve outstanding bonding integrity and high temperature cathodic disbondment resistance. A key reason for this overall high performance is the marriage of a newly developed epoxy primer that provides outstanding adhesion with coal tar enamel, which provides excellent long-term water resistance. The paper describes experimental studies, pilot plant application, cathodic disbondment testing, and results from hot water soak tests and the low temperature cracking test.

  4. Environmental stability of PAH source indices in pyrogenic tars

    SciTech Connect

    Uhler, A.D.; Emsbo-Mattingly, S.D.

    2006-04-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental contaminants found in soil, sediments, and airborne particulates. The majority of PAHs found in modern soils and sediments arise from myriad anthropogenic petrogenic and pyrogenic sources. Tars and tar products such as creosote produced from the industrial pyrolysis of coal or oil at former manufactured gas plants (MGPs) or in coking retorts are viscous, oily substances that contain significant concentrations of PAH, usually in excess of 30% w/w. Pyrogenic tars and tar products have unique PAH patterns (source signatures) that are a function of their industrial production. Among pyrogenic materials, certain diagnostic ratios of environmentally recalcitrant 4-, 5- and 6-ring PAHs have been identified as useful environmental markers for tracking the signature of tars and petroleum in the environment. The use of selected PAH source ratios is based on the concept that PAHs with similar properties (i.e., molecular weight, partial pressure, solubility, partition coefficients, and biotic/abiotic degradation) will weather at similar rates in the environment thereby yielding stable ratios. The stability of more than 30 high molecular weight PAH ratios is evaluated during controlled studies of tar evaporation and aerobic biodegradation. The starting materials in these experiments consisted of relatively unweathered tars derived from coal and petroleum, respectively. The PAH ratios from these laboratory studies are compared to those measured in PAH residues found in tar-contaminated soils at a former MGP that operated with a carburetted water gas process.

  5. Beach tar accumulation, transport mechanisms, and sources of variability at Coal Oil Point, California.

    PubMed

    Del Sontro, Tonya S; Leifer, Ira; Luyendyk, Bruce P; Broitman, Bernardo R

    2007-09-01

    A new field method for tar quantification was used at Coal Oil Point (COP), California to study the mechanisms transporting oil/tar from the nearby COP natural marine hydrocarbon seep field. This method segregates tar pieces into six size classes and assigns them an average mass based on laboratory or direct field measurements. Tar accumulation on the 19,927m(2) survey area was well resolved spatially by recording tar mass along twelve transects segmented into 4-m(2) blocks and then integrating over the survey area. A seasonal trend was apparent in total tar in which summer accumulations were an order of magnitude higher than winter accumulations. Based on multiple regression analyses between environmental data and tar accumulation, 34% of tar variability is explained by a combination of onshore advection via wind and low swell height inhibiting slick dispersion.

  6. Collection of short papers on Beaver Creek watershed studies in West Tennessee, 1989-94

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doyle, W. Harry.; Baker, Eva G.

    1995-01-01

    In 1989, the U.S. Geological Survey began a scientific investigation to evaluate the effect of agricultural activities on water quality and the effectiveness of agricultural best management practices in the Beaver Creek watershed, West Tennessee. The project is being conducted jointly with other Federal, State, county agencies, the farming community, and academic institutions, in support of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Hydrologic Unit Area program. The Beaver Creek project has evolved into a long-term watershed assessment and monitoring program. In 1991, a grant was received to develop and evaluate sampling strategies for higher order streams. During the summer of 1992, a reconnaissance of water-quality conditions for the shallow aquifers in Shelby, Tipton, Fayette, and Haywood Counties was conducted and included 89 domestic wells in the Beaver Creek watershed. Results from this effort lead to the development of a 1-year program to evaluate cause- and-effect relations that can explain the observed water-quality conditions for the shallow aquifers in the watershed. In 1992 the USGS, in cooperation with the Soil Conservation Service and the Shelby County Soil Conservation District, began an evaluation of in-stream processes and in-stream resource-management systems. In 1993, a biomonitoring program was established in the watershed. This collection of eight articles and abstracts was originally published in the American Water Resources Association National Symposium on Water Quality Proceedings for the national conference held in Chicago in 1994 and describes what has been learned in the study to date.

  7. Machine-smoking studies of cigarette filter color to estimate tar yield by visual assessment and through the use of a colorimeter.

    PubMed

    Morton, Michael J; Williams, David L; Hjorth, Heather B; Smith, Jennifer H

    2010-04-01

    This paper explores using the intensity of the stain on the end of the filter ("filter color") as a vehicle for estimating cigarette tar yield, both by instrument reading of the filter color and by visual comparison to a template. The correlation of machine-measured tar yield to filter color measured with a colorimeter was reasonably strong and was relatively unaffected by different puff volumes or different tobacco moistures. However, the correlation of filter color to machine-measured nicotine yield was affected by the moisture content of the cigarette. Filter color, as measured by a colorimeter, was generally comparable to filter extraction of either nicotine or solanesol in its correlation to machine-smoked tar yields. It was found that the color of the tar stain changes over time. Panelists could generally correctly order the filters from machine-smoked cigarettes by tar yield using the intensity of the tar stain. However, there was considerable variation in the panelist-to-panelist tar yield estimates. The wide person-to-person variation in tar yield estimates, and other factors discussed in the text could severely limit the usefulness and practicality of this approach for visually estimating the tar yield of machine-smoked cigarettes.

  8. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report Sep-Nov 81

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

    1982-06-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Competition among the species is being analyzed. In the fall of 1981, Teredo bartschi remained in Oyster Creek despite continuous prolonged outages of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station.

  9. Environmental flow studies of the Fort Collins Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey-Cherry Creek, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waddle, Terry J.; Bovee, Ken D.

    2010-01-01

    At the request of the U.S. Forest Service, an instream flow assessment was conducted at Cherry Creek, Ariz., to investigate habitat for native and introduced fish species and to describe the beneficial use of a possible instream flow water right. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Fort Collins Science Center performed an intensive field study of two sections of Cherry Creek in September 2008 to provide base data for hydrodynamic simulation of the flow conditions in the stream. The USGS Arizona Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, at the University of Arizona School of Natural Resources, conducted a survey of the habitat requirements of the resident fish species in Cherry Creek and provided the habitat suitability criteria used in this study. The habitat suitability criteria were combined with hydrodynamic simulation results to quantify fish habitat for the full range of daily flow experienced in the creek and to produce maps of habitat occurrence for those flows. The flow record at the Cherry Creek stream gage was used to generate habitat response values over time. The long-term habitat response was incorporated into an Excel (Registered) spreadsheet to allow evaluation of habitat occurrence with and without an instream water right under different hypothetical water withdrawal scenarios. The spreadsheet displays information about the time sequence of habitat events, the duration of critical events, and habitat retention.

  10. Juniper tar poisoning.

    PubMed

    Koruk, Suda Tekin; Ozyilkan, Esin; Kaya, Pinar; Colak, Dilsen; Donderici, Omer; Cesaretli, Yildirim

    2005-01-01

    Juniper tar (cade oil) is distilled from the branches and wood of Juniperus oxycedrus. It contains etheric oils, triterpene and phenols, and is used for many purposes in folk medicine. A case is reported of a previously healthy man who ingested a spoonful of home-made extract of Juniperus oxycedrus. The poisoning caused fever, severe hypotension, renal failure, hepatotoxicity, and severe cutaneous burns on the face. After supportive and symptomatic treatment, the patient improved and was discharged in a good condition on the eleventh day.

  11. Mineral resources of the Owl Creek Wilderness Study Area, Hot Springs County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Bove, D.J.; Carlson, R.R.; Kulik, D.M.; Lundby, W.

    1989-01-01

    At the request of the US Bureau of Land Management, 710 acres of the Owl Creek Wilderness Study Area were studied for mineral endowment. Field and laboratory studies were conducted by the US Geological Survey and the US Bureau of Mines. A search of US Bureau of Land Management, State, and County records showed no current or previous mining claim activity and, other than common-variety sand and gravel, no mineral resources were identified during field examination of this study area. Sand and gravel is classified as an inferred subeconomic resource; however, the remoteness of this area precludes much usage of this material. About two-thirds of this study area is under lease for oil and gas. This entire study area has a moderate resource potential for undiscovered oil and gas and a low resource potential for undiscovered metals, coal, zeolites, and geothermal energy.

  12. Mineral resources of the Owl Creek Wilderness Study Area, Hot Springs County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Bove, D.J.; Carlson, R.R.; Kulik, D.M.; Lundby, W.

    1989-01-01

    At the request of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, 710 acres of the Owl Creek Wilderness Study Area were studied for mineral endowment. Field and labortory studies were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines. A search of U.S. Bureau of Land Management, State, and county records showed no current or previous mining claim activity and, other than common-variety sand and gravel, no mineral resources were identified during field examination of the study area. Sand and gravel is classified as an inferred subeconomic resource; however, the remoteness of the area precludes much usage of the material. About two-thirds of the study area is under lease for oil and gas. The entire study area has moderate resource potential for undiscovered oil and gas and low resource potential for undiscovered metals, coal, zeolites, and geothermal energy.

  13. Centrifuge treatment of coal tar

    SciTech Connect

    L.A. Kazak; V.Z. Kaidalov; L.F. Syrova; O.S. Miroshnichenko; A.S. Minakov

    2009-07-15

    New technology is required for the removal of water and heavy fractions from regular coal tar. Centrifuges offer the best option. Purification of coal tar by means of centrifuges at OAO NLMK permits the production of pitch coke or electrode pitch that complies with current standards.

  14. Preliminary study of heavy metal pollution from Fe-Al oxides in Peihuang Creek, North Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, B.

    2012-12-01

    Tatun Volcano Group (TVG) is not active since late Pleistocene but the post-volcanic activities, such as hot spring and sulfur gas, still widespread around the volcano province. Peihuang Creek is the main watershed system in TVG. The creek water is characterized by higher temperature, low pH values (3.0-4.5) and high SO4 content (60-400 ppm) due to the mixing of hotspring. This would promote the geochemical interaction between water and andesitic rocks and results in waters with highly enriched iron, aluminum and silica. These elements prefer to form suspended colloidal particles in water and adsorb heavy metals. Once the pH of water increases under oxidation condition, the colloid would precipitate in the form of ochre colored powder on the riverbed. The previous study reports that the arsenic content can reach as high as hundreds ppm. It is very important to evaluate the desorption behavior of heavy metals, especially for the study area with highly developed agriculture. For the preliminary analysis, five samples of ochre colored powder were sampled along the creek. The results of XRF demonstrate that the powder is mainly composed of iron, aluminum and silica, which is Fe-Al hydroxide. The iron content of Fe-Al hydroxide decreases from 63% to 25% while the aluminum and silica contents gradually increase from 5% to 20% and from 9% to 30%, respectively. To evaluate the desorption of heavy metals, the sequential extraction procedure was conducted. In the first step for determining leachable metals, the Fe-Al oxides were extracted with deionized water in the room temperature for one week. All of the metals are in ppb level except copper. For determining reducible phase, Step 2 used reagent solution of 0.5 mol/L hydroxylamine hydrochloride, which was adjusted to pH=2 with ultrapure nitric acid, for one week. The extracted chromium, arsenic, lead and copper are in the dangerous level of tens to hundreds ppm. It is believed that only very small amounts of heavy metals

  15. Summary and Synthesis of Mercury Studies in the Cache Creek Watershed, California, 2000-01

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Domagalski, Joseph L.; Slotton, Darell G.; Alpers, Charles N.; Suchanek, Thomas H.; Churchill, Ronald; Bloom, Nicolas; Ayers, Shaun M.; Clinkenbeard, John

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the principal findings of the Cache Creek, California, components of a project funded by the CALFED Bay?Delta Program entitled 'An Assessment of Ecological and Human Health Impacts of Mercury in the Bay?Delta Watershed.' A companion report summarizes the key findings of other components of the project based in the San Francisco Bay and the Delta of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers. These summary documents present the more important findings of the various studies in a format intended for a wide audience. For more in-depth, scientific presentation and discussion of the research, a series of detailed technical reports of the integrated mercury studies is available at the following website: .

  16. In situ recovery of oil from Utah tar sand: a summary of tar sand research at the Laramie Energy Technology Center

    SciTech Connect

    Marchant, L.C.; Westhoff, J.D.

    1985-10-01

    This report describes work done by the United States Department of Energy's Laramie Energy Technology Center from 1971 through 1982 to develop technology for future recovery of oil from US tar sands. Work was concentrated on major US tar sand deposits that are found in Utah. Major objectives of the program were as follows: determine the feasibility of in situ recovery methods applied to tar sand deposits; and establish a system for classifying tar sand deposits relative to those characteristics that would affect the design and operation of various in situ recovery processes. Contents of this report include: (1) characterization of Utah tar sand; (2) laboratory extraction studies relative to Utah tar sand in situ methods; (3) geological site evaluation; (4) environmental assessments and water availability; (5) reverse combustion field experiment, TS-1C; (6) a reverse combustion followed by forward combustion field experiment, TS-2C; (7) tar sand permeability enhancement studies; (8) two-well steam injection experiment; (9) in situ steam-flood experiment, TS-1S; (10) design of a tar sand field experiment for air-stream co-injection, TS-4; (11) wastewater treatment and oil analyses; (12) economic evaluation of an in situ tar sand recovery process; and (13) appendix I (extraction studies involving Utah tar sands, surface methods). 70 figs., 68 tabs.

  17. Analyses and description of geochemical samples, Mill Creek Wilderness Study Area, Giles County, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mei, Leung; Lesure, Frank Gardner

    1978-01-01

    Semiquantitative emission spectrographic analyses for 64 elements on 62 stream sediment and 71 rock samples from Mill Creek Wilderness Study area, Giles County, Virginia, are reported here in detail. Locations for all samples are given in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinates. Brief descriptions of rock samples are also included. Rocks analysed are mostly sandstone. Samples of hematitic sandstone of the Rose Hill Formation and limonite-cemented sandstone of the Rocky Gap Sandstone contain high values of iron; these rocks are submarginal iron resources. Some of the same iron-rich samples have a little more barium, copper, cobalt, lead, silver, and/or zinc then is in average sandstone, but they do not suggest the presence of economic deposits of these metals. No other obviously anomalous values related to mineralized rock are present in the data.

  18. Monitored natural attenuation of manufactured gas plant tar mono- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ground water: a 14-year field study

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, E.F.; Ripp, J.A.; Azzolina, N.A.; Madsen, E.L.; Mauro, D.M.; Taylor, T.

    2009-07-01

    Site 24 was the subject of a 14-year (5110-day) study of a ground water plume created by the disposal of manufactured gas plant (MGP) tar into a shallow sandy aquifer approximately 25 years prior to the study. The ground water plume in 1988 extended from a well-defined source area to a distance of approximately 400 m down gradient. A system of monitoring wells was installed along six transects that ran perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the plume centerline. The MGP tar source was removed from the site in 1991 and a 14-year ground water monitored natural attenuation (MNA) study commenced. The program measured the dissolved mono- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs and PAHs) periodically over time, which decreased significantly over the 14-year period. Naphthalene decreased to less than 99% of the original dissolved mass, with mass degradation rates of 0.30 per year (half-life 2.3 years). Bulk attenuation rate constants for plume centerline concentrations over time ranged from 0.33 {+-} 0.09 per year (half-life 2.3 {+-} 0.8 years) for toluene and 0.45 {+-} 0.06 per year (half-life 1.6 {+-} 0.2 years) for naphthalene. The hydrogeologic setting at Site 24, having a sandy aquifer, shallow water table, clay confining layer, and aerobic conditions, was ideal for demonstrating MNA. However, these results demonstrate that MNA is a viable remedial strategy for ground water at sites impacted by MAHs and PAHs after the original source is removed, stabilized, or contained.

  19. Chemical and isotopic studies of granitic Archean rocks, Owl Creek Mountains, Wyoming: Uranium-thorium-lead systematics of an Archean granite from the Owl Creek Mountains, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Stuckless, J.S.; Nkomo, I.T.; Butt, K.A.

    1986-01-01

    Isotopic analyses of apparently unaltered whole-rock samples of a granite from the Owl Creek Mountains, Wyo., yield a lead-lead isochron age of 2730 {plus minus} 35 Ma, which is somewhat older than the age obtained by the rubidium-strontium whole-rock method. Thorium-lead data for the same samples deviate markedly from an isochronal relation; however, calculated initial {sup 208}Pb/{sup 204}Pb ratios correlate with whole-rock {delta}{sup 18}O values and lead to the conclusion that the {sup 232}Th-{sup 208}Pb data are not colinear because of an originally heterogeneous granitic magma. Relationships in the {sup 207}Pb/{sup 235}U-{sup 206}Pb/{sup 238}U system show that uranium was mobilized during early Laramide time or shortly before, such that most surface and shallow drill-core samples lost 60-80 percent of their uranium, and some fractured, deeper drill-core samples gained from 50 to 10,000 percent uranium. Fission-track maps show that much uranium is located along edges and cleavages of biotite and magnetic where it is readily accessible to oxidizing ground water. Furthermore, qualitative comparisons of uranium distribution in samples with excess radiogenic lead and in samples with approximately equilibrium amounts of uranium and lead suggest that the latter contain more uranium in these readily accessible sites. Unlike other granites that have uranium distributions and isotopic systematics similar to those observed in this study, the granite of the Owl Creek Mountains is not associated with economic uranium deposits.

  20. Multivalent Amino Sugars to Recognize Different TAR RNA Conformations†

    PubMed Central

    Kellish, Patrick C.; Kumar, Sunil; Mack, Todd S.; Spano, Meredith Newby; Hennig, Mirko; Arya, Dev P.

    2014-01-01

    Neomycin dimers synthesized using “click chemistry” with varying functionality and length in the linker region have been shown to be effective in targeting the HIV-1 TAR RNA region of the HIV virus. TAR (Transactivation Response) RNA region, a 59 base pair stem loop structure located at the 5′-end of all nascent viral transcripts interacts with its target, a key regulatory protein, Tat, and necessitates the replication of HIV-1 virus. Ethidium bromide displacement and FRET competition assays have revealed nanomolar binding affinity between neomycin dimers and wildtype TAR RNA while in case of neomycin, only a weak binding was detected. Here, NMR and FID-based comparisons reveal an extended binding interface for neomycin dimers involving the upper stem of the TAR RNA thereby offering an explanation for increased affinities. To further explore the potential of these modified aminosugars we have extended binding studies to include four TAR RNA mutants that display conformational differences with minimal sequence variation. The differences in binding between neomycin and neomycin dimers is characterized with TAR RNA mutants that include mutations to the bulge region, hairpin region, and both the bulge and hairpin regions. Our results demonstrate the effect of these mutations on neomycin binding and our results show that linker functionalities between dimeric units of neomycin can distinguish between the conformational differences of mutant TAR RNA structures. PMID:27076899

  1. TAR syndrome with orofacial clefting.

    PubMed

    Midro, A; Hubert, E; Preferansow, J; Iwaszkiewicz-Pawłowska, A

    1993-01-01

    A case of TAR syndrome with bilateral cleft lip and palate is presented. Bilateral symmetric focomelia, normal thumbs among five fingers of hands, synostosis of IVth and Vth metacarpal bones and some defects of lower limbs with associated thrombocytopenia were noted. Dysmorphic facial features included hypertelorism, epicanthus, blue sclerae, broad nasal root, micrognathia, low-set ears, sparse blond hair. To our knowledge this patient represents an unusual association of TAR syndrome with orofacial clefting. A common background of TAR and Roberts/SC syndrome is suggested.

  2. The TAR effect: when the ones who dislike become the ones who are disliked.

    PubMed

    Gawronski, Bertram; Walther, Eva

    2008-09-01

    Four studies tested whether a source's evaluations of other individuals can recursively transfer to the source, such that people who like others acquire a positive valence, whereas people who dislike others acquire a negative valence (Transfer of Attitudes Recursively; TAR). Experiment 1 provides first evidence for TAR effects, showing recursive transfers of evaluations regardless of whether participants did or did not have prior knowledge about the (dis)liking source. Experiment 2 shows that previously but not subsequently acquired knowledge about targets that were (dis)liked by a source overrode TAR effects in a manner consistent with cognitive balance. Finally, Experiments 3 and 4 demonstrate that TAR effects are mediated by higher order propositional inferences (in contrast to lower order associative processes), in that TAR effects on implicit attitude measures were fully mediated by TAR effects on explicit attitude measures. Commonalities and differences between the TAR effect and previously established phenomena are discussed.

  3. A small circular TAR RNA decoy specifically inhibits Tat-activated HIV-1 transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Bohjanen, P R; Colvin, R A; Puttaraju, M; Been, M D; Garcia-Blanco, M A

    1996-01-01

    Linear TAR RNA has previously been used as a decoy to inhibit HIV-1 transcription in vitro and HIV-1 replication in vivo. A 48 nucleotide circular RNA containing the stem, bulge and loop of the HIV-1 TAR element was synthesized using the self-splicing activity of a group I permuted intron-exon and was tested for its ability to function as a TAR decoy in vitro. This small circular TAR molecule was exceptionally stable in HeLa nuclear extracts, whereas a similar linear TAR molecule was rapidly degraded. The TAR circle bound specifically to Tfr38, a peptide containing the TAR-binding region of Tat. The ability of Tat to trans-activate transcription from the HIV-1 promoter in vitro was efficiently inhibited by circular TAR RNA but not by TAR circles that contained either bulge or loop mutations. TAR circles did not inhibit transactivation exclusively by binding to Tat since this inhibition was not reversed by adding excess Tat to the transcription reaction. Together, these data suggest that TAR circles act as decoys that inhibit transactivation by binding to Tat and at least one cellular factor. These data also demonstrate the utility of small circular RNA molecules as tools for biochemical studies. PMID:8871552

  4. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves and fouling organisms in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Final report, September 1976-December 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.

    1983-10-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves were studied using wood test panels at 20 stations in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Physiological tolerances of three teredinid species were investigated in the laboratory and correlated with field values of temperature, salinity, siltation, precipitation, and plant operations. The interaction of boring and fouling organisms was examined. There is a definite correlation between the operation of the power plant and teredinid outbreaks. Increased salinity and water flow as well as temperature are responsible. After 1976, most of the damage in Oyster Creek was done by the introduced subtropical species Teredo bartschi. It can respond faster than native species to environmental change. Although Oyster Creek contributed larvae to neighboring parts of Barnegat Bay, its role as a breeding ground was limited. Some elements of the fouling community may be antagonistic to shipworm growth. Fouling was increased in both biomass and species richness in Oyster Creek when compared with creek controls, but the fouling community in Oyster Creek was less stable than that in other areas. Lower salinity limits for the teredinids were within the salinity range found in Oyster Creek but not within the range found in the control creeks. 71 references, 9 figures, 39 tables.

  5. Reduction of Ammonia and Tar in Pressurized Biomass Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W.; Olofsson, G.

    2002-09-19

    The present paper intended to present the results of parametric study of the formation of ammonia and tar under pressurized gasification conditions. By the use of multivariate data analysis, the effects of operating parameters were determined and their influences could be quantified. In order to deal with cases in which high levels of ammonia and tar were produced, study of catalytic hot gas cleaning was performed, aiming to discuss the removal efficiency and test catalysts.

  6. Economic valuation of flood mitigation services: A case study from the Otter Creek, VT.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galford, G. L.; Ricketts, T.; Bryan, K. L.; ONeil-Dunne, J.; Polasky, S.

    2014-12-01

    The ecosystem services provided by wetlands are widely recognized but difficult to quantify. In particular, estimating the effect of landcover and land use on downstream flood outcomes remains challenging, but is increasingly important in light of climate change predictions of increased precipitation in many areas. Economic valuation can help incorporate ecosystem services into decisions and enable communities to plan for climate and flood resiliency. Here we estimate the economic value of Otter Creek wetlands for Middlebury, VT in mitigating the flood that followed Tropical Storm Irene, as well as for ten historic floods. Observationally, hydrographs above and below the wetlands in the case of each storm indicated the wetlands functioned as a temporary reservoir, slowing the delivery of water to Middlebury. We compare observed floods, based on Middlebury's hydrograph, with simulated floods for scenarios without wetlands. To simulate these "without wetlands" scenarios, we assume the same volume of water was delivered to Middlebury, but in a shorter time pulse similar to a hydrograph upstream of the wetlands. For scenarios with and without wetlands, we map the spatial extent of flooding using LiDAR digital elevation data. We then estimate flood depth at each affected building, and calculate monetary losses as a function of the flood depth and house value using established depth damage relationships. For example, we expect damages equal to 20% of the houses value for a flood depth of two feet in a two-story home with a basement. We define the value of flood mitigation services as the difference in damages between the with and without wetlands scenario, and find that the Otter Creek wetlands reduced flood damage in Middlebury by 88% following Hurricane Irene. Using the 10 additional historic floods, we estimate an ongoing mean value of $400,000 in avoided damages per year. Economic impacts of this magnitude stress the importance of wetland conservation and warrant the

  7. Investigation of the rank dependence of tar evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Freihaut, J.D.; Proscia, W.M.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to develop an improved understanding of the process of coal tar evolution, its relationship to the structural characteristics of the parent coal, and the dependence of the chemical and physical properties of the tar products on the conditions of devolatilization. Data from this study are expected to allow hypothesis testing and refinements of coal devolatilization models relevant to the pulverized coal combustion process. The program is divided into seven major technical areas: tar evolution rates in rapid heating conditions; molecular weight and vapor pressure characteristics of tars; chemical structure and calorific values of tars; influence of interphase mass transport phenomena; gas phase secondary reactions of primary'' tars; parent coal nitrogen evolution during devolatilization; and model hypothesis testing. A range of coal ranks, from a Texas lignite to a Pennsylvania anthracite, are employed in the investigation. In addition, a high temperature polymer, a polyimide, is utilized as an additional reference case. The polyimide serves as a truly polymeric reference material for examining the nitrogen evolution behavior of coal. The samples are subjected to elemental composition determination, infrared absorbance characteristics, calorific value, high temperature ash analysis, and maceral composition. Consideration is being given to NMR analysis as well as tetrahydrofuran (THF) solubility. Results are discussed. 4 refs., 27 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Oyster Creek cycle 10 nodal model parameter optimization study using PSMS

    SciTech Connect

    Dougher, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    The power shape monitoring system (PSMS) is an on-line core monitoring system that uses a three-dimensional nodal code (NODE-B) to perform nodal power calculations and compute thermal margins. The PSMS contains a parameter optimization function that improves the ability of NODE-B to accurately monitor core power distributions. This functions iterates on the model normalization parameters (albedos and mixing factors) to obtain the best agreement between predicted and measured traversing in-core probe (TIP) reading on a statepoint-by-statepoint basis. Following several statepoint optimization runs, an average set of optimized normalization parameters can be determined and can be implemented into the current or subsequent cycle core model for on-line core monitoring. A statistical analysis of 19 high-power steady-state state-points throughout Oyster Creek cycle 10 operation has shown a consistently poor virgin model performance. The normalization parameters used in the cycle 10 NODE-B model were based on a cycle 8 study, which evaluated only Exxon fuel types. The introduction of General Electric (GE) fuel into cycle 10 (172 assemblies) was a significant fuel/core design change that could have altered the optimum set of normalization parameters. Based on the need to evaluate a potential change in the model normalization parameters for cycle 11 and in an attempt to account for the poor cycle 10 model performance, a parameter optimization study was performed.

  9. Waste-assimilation study of Koshkonong Creek below sewage-treatment plant at Sun Prairie, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grant, R. Stephen

    1976-01-01

    A waste-load-assimilation study of a reach of Koshkonong Creek below the Sun Prairie, Wisconsin, sewage-treatment-plant outfall indicated that a high level of treatment would be required to meet Wisconsin water-quality standards. To maintain a minimum dissolved-oxygen concentration of 5 mg/liter during the critical summer low-flow period, 5-day carbonaceous biochemical-oxygen demand in waste discharges should not exceed 5 mg/liter and ammonium nitrogen should not exceed 1.5 mg/liter. Advanced treatment with denitrification is required because stream-reaeration coefficients are not high enough to offset deoxygenation caused by an abundance of attached biological slimes. The slimes apparently consumed dissolved oxygen at a rate of about 110 mg/liter per day at the time of the stream survey. During the critical summer low-flow period, natural stream discharge is very small compared to waste-water discharge , so benefits of dilution are insignificant. An evaluation of two proposed alternative waste-water discharge sites indicated that the present discharge site is hydraulically superior to these sites. Stream-reaeration coefficients used in the study were based on measurements using the radioactive-tracer method. (Woodard-USGS)

  10. The Australian tar derby: the origins and fate of a low tar harm reduction programme

    PubMed Central

    King, W; Carter, S; Borland, R; Chapman, S; Gray, N

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To document the development of the low tar harm reduction programme in Australia, including tobacco industry responses. Data sources: Tobacco industry documents, retail tobacco journals, newspapers, medical journals, and Anti-Cancer Council of Victoria (ACCV) newsletters and archival records. Study selection: Documents on the strategies and knowledge bases of the ACCV, other Australian health authorities, and the tobacco industry. Results: The ACCV built a durable system for measuring and publicising the tar and nicotine yields of Australian cigarettes and influencing their development. The tobacco industry initially sought to block the development of this system but later appeared to cooperate with it, as is evidenced by the current market dominance of low tar brands. However, behind the scenes, the industry used its substantial knowledge advantage regarding compensatory smoking and its ability to re-engineer cigarettes to gain effective control of the system and subvert the ACCV's objectives. Conclusions: Replacement of the low tar programme with new means of minimising the harms from cigarette smoking should be a policy priority for the Australian government. This will require regulation, rather than further voluntary agreements, and stringent monitoring of successor programmes will be necessary. PMID:14645950

  11. Technical review of managed underground storage of water study of the upper Catherine Creek watershed, Union County, northeastern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2014-01-01

    Because of water diversions during summer, flow in Catherine Creek, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River in northeastern Oregon, is insufficient to sustain several aquatic species for which the stream is listed as critical habitat. A feasibility study for managed underground storage (MUS) in the upper Catherine Creek watershed in Union County, Oregon, was undertaken by Anderson Perry and Associates, Inc., to address the issue of low flows in summer. The results of the study were released as a report titled “Upper Catherine Creek Storage Feasibility Study for Grande Ronde Model Watershed,” which evaluated the possibility of diverting Catherine Creek streamflow during winter (when stream discharge is high), storing the water by infiltration or injection into an aquifer adjacent to the stream, and discharging the water back to the stream in summer to augment low flows. The method of MUS would be accomplished using either (1) aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) that allows for the injection of water that meets drinking-water-quality standards into an aquifer for later recovery and use, or (2) artificial recharge (AR) that involves the intentional addition of water diverted from another source to a groundwater reservoir. Concerns by resource managers that the actions taken to improve water availability for upper Catherine Creek be effective, cost-efficient, long-term, and based on sound analysis led the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation to request that the U.S. Geological Survey conduct an independent review and evaluation of the feasibility study. This report contains the results of that review. The primary objectives of the Anderson Perry and Associates study reviewed here included (1) identifying potentially fatal flaws with the concept of using AR and (or) ASR to augment the streamflow of Catherine Creek, (2) identifying potentially favorable locations for augmenting streamflow, (3) developing and evaluating alternatives for implementing AR and (or) ASR, and

  12. Water-Quality Characteristics of Cottonwood Creek, Taggart Creek, Lake Creek, and Granite Creek, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Melanie L.; Wheeler, Jerrod D.; O'Ney, Susan E.

    2007-01-01

    To address water-resource management objectives of the National Park Service in Grand Teton National Park, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service has conducted water-quality sampling on streams in the Snake River headwaters area. A synoptic study of streams in the western part of the headwaters area was conducted during 2006. Sampling sites were located on Cottonwood Creek, Taggart Creek, Lake Creek, and Granite Creek. Sampling events in June, July, August, and October were selected to characterize different hydrologic conditions and different recreational-use periods. Stream samples were collected and analyzed for field measurements, major-ion chemistry, nutrients, selected trace elements, pesticides, and suspended sediment. Water types of Cottonwood Creek, Taggart Creek, Lake Creek, and Granite Creek were calcium bicarbonate. Dissolved-solids concentrations were dilute in Cottonwood Creek and Taggart Creek, which drain Precambrian-era rocks and materials derived from these rocks. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 11 to 31 milligrams per liter for samples collected from Cottonwood Creek and Taggart Creek. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 55 to 130 milligrams per liter for samples collected from Lake Creek and Granite Creek, which drain Precambrian-era rocks and Paleozoic-era rocks and materials derived from these rocks. Nutrient concentrations generally were small in samples collected from Cottonwood Creek, Taggart Creek, Lake Creek, and Granite Creek. Dissolved-nitrate concentrations were the largest in Taggart Creek. The Taggart Creek drainage basin has the largest percentage of barren land cover of the basins, and subsurface waters of talus slopes may contribute to dissolved-nitrate concentrations in Taggart Creek. Pesticide concentrations, trace-element concentrations, and suspended-sediment concentrations generally were less than laboratory reporting levels or were small for all samples. Water

  13. Seepage study for unnamed tributary to Alder Creek, Stevens County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, P.J.; Drost, B.W.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of seepage measurements in the Alder Creek basin, Stevens County, Wash., shows that approximately 50% of 0.2 cubic foot per second taken from an unnamed tributary and used for the 1978 irrigation season would have reached Alder Creek as surface flow. Differences in discharge and specific conductance are explained by the basin geology, physical characteristics, climate, and water use. Only general conclusions could be made from data collected for five seepage measurements because irrigation activities could not be scheduled to allow the hydrologic system to reach equilibrium. (USGS)

  14. Paleontological overview of oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming.

    SciTech Connect

    Murphey, P. C.; Daitch, D.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-02-11

    In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the ''Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005,'' Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. In addition, Congress declared that both research- and commercial-scale development of oil shale and tar sands should (1) be conducted in an environmentally sound manner using management practices that will minimize potential impacts, (2) occur with an emphasis on sustainability, and (3) benefit the United States while taking into account concerns of the affected states and communities. To support this declaration of policy, Congress directed the Secretary of the Interior to undertake a series of steps, several of which are directly related to the development of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands. One of these steps was the completion of a programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) to analyze the impacts of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands resources on public lands, with an emphasis on the most geologically prospective lands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. For oil shale, the scope of the PEIS analysis includes public lands within the Green River, Washakie, Uinta, and Piceance Creek Basins. For tar sands, the scope includes Special Tar Sand Areas (STSAs) located in Utah. This paleontological resources overview report was prepared in support of the Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and PEIS, and it is intended to be used by Bureau of Land Management (BLM) regional paleontologists and field office staff to support future projectspecific analyses

  15. Does switching to a tobacco-free waterpipe product reduce toxicant intake? A crossover study comparing CO, NO, PAH, volatile aldehydes, tar and nicotine yields

    PubMed Central

    Shihadeh, Alan; Salman, Rola; Jaroudi, Ezzat; Saliba, Najat; Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Blank, Melissa D.; Cobb, Caroline O.; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Waterpipe (hookah, narghile, shisha) use has become a global phenomenon, with numerous product variations. One variation is a class of products marketed as “tobacco-free” alternatives for the “health conscious user”. In this study toxicant yields from waterpipes smoked using conventional tobacco-based and tobacco-free preparations were compared. A human-mimic waterpipe smoking machine was used to replicate the puffing sequences of 31 human participants who completed two double-blind ad libitum smoking sessions in a controlled clinical setting: once with a tobacco-based product of their choosing and once with a flavor-matched tobacco-free product. Outcome measures included yields of carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, volatile aldehydes, nicotine, tar, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Smoke from both waterpipe preparations contained substantial quantities of toxicants. Nicotine yield was the only outcome that differed significantly between preparations. These findings contradict advertising messages that “herbal” waterpipe products are a healthy alternative to tobacco products. PMID:22406330

  16. IMPACT OF URBANIZATION ON THE HYDROLOGY OF THE POCONO CREEK WATERSHED: A MODEL STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pocono Creek watershed located in Monroe County, PA, is threatened by high population growth and urbanization. Of concern specifically is the potential impact of future developments in the watershed on the reduction of base flow and the consequent risk of degradation of wild ...

  17. Watershed management for erosion and sedimentation control Case Study: Goodwin Creek, Panola County, MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Goodwin Creek watershed is located within the loessal hills of northern Mississippi, a region of high erosion risk and elevated watershed sediment yields. This manuscript combines a regional history of land management and conservation issues from the time of European settlement to present with a...

  18. The bly creek ecosystem study: Phosphorus transport within a euhaline salt marsh basin, North Inlet, South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dame, Richard F.; Wolaver, Thomas G.; Williams, Thomas M.; Spurrier, John D.; Miller, Anne B.

    Phosphorus transport through the tidal creek linking the Bly Creek basin (North Inlet, South Carolina) and the surrounding water body was studied on 34 tidal cycles between 20 June 1983 and 19 June 1984. Annual estimates of phosphorus input to the basin via streamwater, groundwater, and via streamwater, groundwater, and rain totalled 19.6 kg P·y -1; PO 4 export from the basin was not significant. Within the basin, the salt marsh was shown to be an important sink for PO 4 (207 kg P·y -1) while the oyster reef community exported a statistically insignificant 7.7 kg P·y -1. The data suggest that the source of the PO 4 to the salt marsh is the water column or benthic sediments of the tidal creek. The salt marsh was a significant sink for particulate phosphorus, but those uptakes were less than the error on the insignificant fluxes into the basin via the water column. The oyster reef community was a statistically significant sink for total phosphorus (98 kg P·y -1).

  19. A study of radium bioaccumulation in freshwater mussels, Velesunio angasi, in the Magela Creek catchment, Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Bollhöfer, Andreas; Brazier, Jenny; Humphrey, Chris; Ryan, Bruce; Esparon, Andrew

    2011-10-01

    Freshwater mussels, Velesunio angasi, along Magela Creek in Australia's Northern Territory were examined to study radionuclide activities in mussel flesh and to investigate whether the Ranger Uranium mine is contributing to the radium loads in mussels downstream of the mine. Radium loads in mussels of the same age were highest in Bowerbird Billabong, located 20 km upstream of the mine site. Variations in the ratio of [Ra]:[Ca] in filtered water at the sampling sites accounted for the variations found in mussel radium loads with natural increases in calcium (Ca) in surface waters in a downstream gradient along the Magela Creek catchment gradually reducing radium uptake in mussels. At Mudginberri Billabong, 12 km downstream of the mine, concentration factors for radium have not significantly changed over the past 25 years since the mine commenced operations and this, coupled with a gradual decrease of the (228)Ra/(226)Ra activity ratios observed along the catchment, indicates that the (226)Ra accumulated in mussels is of natural rather than mine origin. The (228)Th/(228)Ra ratio has been used to model radium uptake and a radium biological half-life in mussels of approximately 13 years has been determined. The long biological half-life and the low Ca concentrations in the water account for the high radium concentration factor of 30,000-60,000 measured in mussels from the Magela Creek catchment.

  20. Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael

    2010-03-09

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may have one or more karsted zones. Methods may include providing heat from one or more heaters to one or more karsted zones of the tar sands formation to mobilize fluids in the formation. At least some of the mobilized fluids may be produced from the formation.

  1. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Interim report 1 Sep 79-28 Feb 80

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.; Turner, R.D.

    1980-11-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Relative destructiveness and competition among the species are being analyzed. Teredo bartschi caused almost complete destruction of panels in Oyster Creek during the summer of 1979. Reproduction and settlement of this species continued into October. The native species Teredo navalis and Bankia gouldi coexist with T. bartschi in Oyster Creek. The greatest shipworm damage is in Oyster Creek. Heavy mortality occurs in all species during winter, especially in winters such as 1979-80 when the generating station is not operating. Adults of all three species can survive for at least 30 days at salinities from 5 to 45 parts per thousand by weight. They can withstand abrupt salinity changes.

  2. Atmospheric tar balls from biomass burning in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, K.; Buseck, P. R.

    2009-12-01

    Tar balls are spherical, organic aerosol particles that result from biofuel or biomass burning. They absorb sunlight and cause warming of the atmosphere. Although distinctive when viewed with a transmission electron microscope (TEM) because of their spherical shape, much remains to be determined about details of their compositions, occurrences, and generation. Here we aim to characterize the occurrences of tar balls using individual-particle analyses with a TEM and to study their formation in young biomass-burning smoke. The samples were collected using the U.S. Forest Service Twin Otter aircraft during the MILAGRO (Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations) campaign conducted in March 2006. We analyzed 84 TEM grid samples from ~30 biomass-burning events near Mexico City and over Yucatan. Sixty samples were from young smoke (less than an hour old), and others were from haze that mainly occurred from biomass burning. Tar balls have neither an evident nucleus nor are they normally attached to other particles. They are almost perfectly spherical on TEM grids, indicating that they were solid when collected. It appears as if tar balls consist of lower volatility organic matter than many other organic aerosol particles. On average, 9% by number of biomass-burning aerosol particles were tar balls in samples collected between a few minutes to an hour after emission. On the other hand, samples collected within a few minutes after emission included few or no tar balls. The occurrences and abundances of atmospheric tar balls are important when evaluating the effects of smoke on local and regional climate.

  3. Hydrologic studies of small watersheds, Honey Creek basin, Collin and Grayson Counties, Texas, 1953-1959

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilbert, Clarence R.; Commons, G.G.; Koberg, G.E.; Kennon, F.W.

    1964-01-01

    The effect on the flood regimen at a downstream point because of floodwaterretarding structures in the headwaters will vary with the amount and intensity of the precipitation and with antecedent conditions. The beneficial effects of the structures on Honey Creek during the floods of April and May 1957 is illustrative. During the period April 19 to May 31, 1957, the total volume of inflow to the floodwater-retarding structures was equivalent to 4.3 times the combined capacities of the pools from an average basin rainfall of 30.31 inches. The retarding effects of the structures limited the flooding on Honey Creek at the gage to minor flooding on only five occasions during that period.

  4. Pollutant sensitivity of the endangered Tar River Spinymussel as assessed by single chemical and effluent toxicity tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Augspurger, Thomas P.; Wang, Ning; Kunz, James L.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    The federally endangered Tar River spinymussel (Elliptio steinstansana) is endemic to the Tar River and Neuse River systems in North Carolina. The extent to which water quality limits Tar River spinymussels’ recovery is important to establish, and one aspect of that is understanding the species’ pollutant sensitivity. The primary objectives of this study were to 1) develop captive propagation and culture methods for Tar River spinymussels; 2) determine the pollutant sensitivity of captively propagated Tar River spinymussels; 3) examine the utility of the non-endangered yellow lance (Elliptio lanceolata), yellow lampmussel (Lampsilis cariosa) and notched rainbow (Villosa constricta) as surrogates for the Tar River spinymussels’ chemical sensitivity; 4) develop a 7-d method for conducting effluent toxicity tests starting with newly transformed mussels; 5) assess the toxicity of municipal wastewater effluents discharged into the Tar River spinymussels’ current and historic habitat; and, 6) evaluate the protection afforded by existing effluent toxicity test requirements.

  5. Thermocatalytic treatment of biomass tar model compounds via radio frequency.

    PubMed

    Anis, Samsudin; Zainal, Z A; Bakar, M Z A

    2013-05-01

    A new effective RF tar thermocatalytic treatment process with low energy intensive has been proposed to remove tar from biomass gasification. Toluene and naphthalene as biomass tar model compounds were removed via both thermal and catalytic treatment over a wide temperature range from 850 °C to 1200 °C and 450 °C to 900 °C, respectively at residence time of 0-0.7 s. Thermal characteristics of the new technique are also described in this paper. This study clearly clarified that toluene was much easier to be removed than naphthalene. Soot was found as the final product of thermal treatment of the tar model and completely removed during catalytic treatment. Radical reactions generated by RF non-thermal effect improve the tar removal. The study showed that Y-zeolite has better catalytic activity compared to dolomite on toluene and naphthalene removal due to its acidic nature and large surface area, even at lower reaction temperature of about 550 °C.

  6. Chemistry of manganese precipitation in Pinal Creek, Arizona, USA: A laboratory study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hem, J.D.; Lind, Carol J.

    1994-01-01

    Groundwater underlying the valley of Pinal Creek downstream from Globe, Arizona, has been contaminated by low-pH metal-enriched wastewater from copper mining and ore processing at Miami, Arizona. At present, the acidity and most of the dissolved metal content, except for Mn, of the wastewater is removed by reactions with carbonate and other solids in the alluvial aquifer before the neutralized contaminated water enters the creek channel and becomes surface flow. Where flow in the creek is perennial, Mn-bearing precipitates are formed in the stream bed and in some places in the subsurface. As an aid to understanding the processes involved and explaining the mineralogy of the precipitates, closely controlled laboratory redox titration experiments were performed on samples of surface flow and groundwater taken near the head of perennial flow in the creek. The high content of dissolved Ca, Mg, Mn and COP2 species in the neutralized contaminated groundwater caused precipitation of some of the Mn as kutnahorite, (Mn, Mg)Ca(CO3)2, when the experimental system was held between pH 8.5 and 9.0 while CO2-free air was bubbled into the solution. Hausmannite and manganite also were precipitated, in somewhat lower amounts. When the concentrations of dissolved CO2 species in the groundwater sample were decreased before the experiment was started, the Mn precipitated was predominantly in the oxides hausmannite and manganite. In some of the experimental titrations clinoenstatite, (MgSiO3), was precipitated. After titrations were stopped the solutions and precipitates were allowed to stand, with limited access to the atmosphere, for several months. During this aging period the degree of oxidation of the precipitated Mn increased and in one precipitate from an experimental solution the Ca + Mn4+ oxides todorokite and takanelite were identified. These oxides also have been identified in streambed precipitates. Some of these precipitates also gave X-ray diffraction reflections for

  7. Solvent extraction of Southern US tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Penney, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Arkansas, in association with Diversified Petroleum Recovery, Inc. (DPR) of Little Rock, Arkansas, has been developing a solvent extraction process for the recovery of bitumen from tar sands for the past five years. The unique feature of the process is that the bitumen is recovered from the solvent by contacting with a co-solvent, which causes the bitumen to precipitate. The overall purpose of this project is to study both the technical and economic feasibility of applying this technology for recovery of bitumen from tar sands by (1) investigating the socioeconmic factors which affect (a) plant siting and (b) the market value of recovered bitumen; (2) operating a process demonstration unit at the rate of 1 lb/hr recovered bitumen while producing clean sand and recyclable solvents; and (3) determine the economic conditions which will make a bitumen recovery project economical. DPR has analyzed the historical trends of domestic production, consumption, discoveries and reserves of crude oil. They have started an investigation of the volatility in the price of crude oil and of gasoline prices and of the differential between gasoline and crude oil. DPR continues to analyze the geographical movement and demand for asphalt products. Utah does not appear economically attractive as a site for a bitumen from tar sands asphalt plant. Oklahoma sites are now being studied. This report also contains the quarterly progress report from a University of Nevada study to determine bitumen composition, oxygen uptake rates, and viscosities of Alabama and Utah bitumens. Both reports have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  8. Diatoms as a tracer of hydrological connectivity: the Oak Creek case study (Oregon, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonelli, Marta; Martínez-Carreras, Nuria; Frentress, Jay; Pfister, Laurent

    2015-04-01

    The vast heterogeneity and complexity of rainfall-runoff transformation processes expresses itself in a multitude of water sources and flowpaths - ultimately resulting in the well-known intricacy of hydrological connectivity. Pioneering work of Pfister et al. (2009) conducted in the Weierbach catchment (0.45 km2, NW Luxembourg, semi-oceanic climate) demonstrated the potential for diatoms (unicellular, eukaryotic algae) to be used as a tracer of hydrological connectivity. Diatoms originating from terrestrial habitats had been shown to be systematically flushed from the riparian areas into the stream during storm events. Here, we present a study conducted in the Oak Creek(0.17 km2, Oregon, Mediterranean climate), characterised by a large riparian area. Our first working hypothesis (H1) stipulates that diatoms are an ubiquitous tracer of fast hydrological flowpaths. The second hypothesis (H2) states that the riparian area is the major reservoir of terrestrial diatoms that contributes to the flushing process during rainfall events. A winter rainfall-runoff event was monitored in March 2012. Diatom samples were collected from soil, moss, epipelon and streamwater in order to characterise the communities along the hillslope-riparian-stream (HRS) continuum. Diatoms in each sample were also assigned to different wetness categories (according to Van Dam et al., 1994). The catchment was instrumented with an ISCO automatic streamwater sampler and the samples were analysed for conductivity, 18O, 2H, chemical elements and presence/abundance of diatoms belonging to different wetness categories. Our results show that the percentage of diatom species originating from habitats located outside of the stream evolves along the rising and falling limbs of the hydrograph. This observation confirms the event-related flushing of diatoms from terrestrial habitats to the stream and, consequently, the potential for diatoms to be used for the detection of hydrological connectivity in the

  9. Effect of wastewater treatment processes on the pyrolysis properties of the pyrolysis tars from sewage sludges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xia; Xie, Li-Ping; Li, Xin-Yu; Dai, Xiao-Hong; Fei, Xue-Ning; Jiang, Yuan-Guang

    2011-06-01

    The pyrolysis properties of five different pyrolysis tars, which the tars from 1# to 5# are obtained by pyrolyzing the sewage sludges of anaerobic digestion and indigestion from the A2/O wastewater treatment process, those from the activated sludge process and the indigested sludge from the continuous SBR process respectively, were studied by thermal gravimetric analysis at a heating rate of 10 °C/min in the nitrogen atmosphere. The results show that the pyrolysis processes of the pyrolysis tars of 1#, 2#, 3# and 5# all can be divided into four stages: the stages of light organic compounds releasing, heavy polar organic compounds decomposition, heavy organic compounds decomposition and the residual organic compounds decomposition. However, the process of 4# pyrolysis tar is only divided into three stages: the stages of light organic compounds releasing, decomposition of heavy polar organic compounds and the residual heavy organic compounds respectively. Both the sludge anaerobic digestion and the "anaerobic" process in wastewater treatment processes make the content of light organic compounds in tars decrease, but make that of heavy organic compounds with complex structure increase. Besides, both make the pyrolysis properties of the tars become worse. The pyrolysis reaction mechanisms of the five pyrolysis tars have been studied with Coats-Redfern equation. It shows that there are the same mechanism functions in the first stage for the five tars and in the second and third stage for the tars of 1#, 2#, 3# and 5#, which is different with the function in the second stage for 4# tar. The five tars are easy to volatile.

  10. Oil recovery from tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Boesiger, D.D.; Siefkin, J.M.

    1983-01-11

    A process for recovering oil from oil wet and particularly from oil-wet, acidic tar sands is described in which these sands are subjected to vigorous fluidization in the presence of water, air and a surfactant but in the absence of an extraneous hydrocarbon solvent. This step produces a multiphase mixture including an oil containing froth enabling gravity separation, E.G. In hydrocyclone.

  11. Trap-efficiency study, Highland Creek flood-retarding reservoir near Kelseyville, California, water years 1966-77

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trujillo, L.F.

    1982-01-01

    This investigation is part of a nationwide study of trap efficiency of detention reservoirs. In this report, trap efficiency was computed from reservoir inflow and outflow sediment data and from reservoir survey and outflow data. Highland Creek Reservoir is a flood-retarding reservoir located in Lake County, near Kelseyville, California. This reservoir has a maximum storage capacity of 3,199 acre-feet and permanent pool storage of 921 acre-feet. Mean annual rainfall for the 14.1 square-mile drainage area above Highland Creek Dam was 29 inches during the December 1965 to September 1977 study period. Resultant mean annual runoff was 17,100 acre-feet. Total reservoir inflow for the 11.8 yea r study period was 202,000 acre-feet, transporting an estimated 126,000 tons (10,700 tons per year) of suspended sediment. Total reservoir outflow for the same period was 188,700 acre-feet, including 15 ,230 tons (1,290 tons per year) of sediment. Estimated trap efficiency for the study period was 88 percent, based on estimated sediment inflow and measured sediment outflow.

  12. Identification of sources of tar balls deposited along the Southwest Caspian Coast, Iran using fingerprinting techniques.

    PubMed

    Shirneshan, Golshan; Bakhtiari, Alireza Riyahi; Memariani, Mahmoud

    2016-10-15

    In 2012, a significant number of tar balls occurred along the Southwest coasts of the Caspian Sea (Iran). Several oil fields of Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan and Iran might be sources of oil spills and lead to the formation of these tar balls. For source identification, 6 tar ball samples were collected from the Southwest beaches of the Caspian Sea and subjected to fingerprint analysis based on the distribution of the source-specific biomarkers of pentacyclic tri-terpanes and steranes. Comparing the diagenic ratios revealed that the tar balls were chemically similar and originated from the same source. Results of double ratio plots (e.g., C29/C30 versus ∑C31-C35/C30 and C28 αββ/(C27 αββ+C29 αββ) versus C29 αββ/(C27 αββ+C28 αββ)) in the tar balls and oils from Iran, Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan indicated that the tar balls might be the result of spills from Turkmenistan oil. Moreover, principle component analysis (PCA) using biomarker ratios on the tar balls and 20 crude oil samples from different wells of Azerbaijan, Iran and Turkmenistan oils showed that the tar balls collected at the Southwest beaches are highly similar to the Turkmenistan oil but one of the Azerbaijan oils (from Bahar field oils) was found to be also slightly close to the tar balls. The weathering characterizations based on the presence of UCM (unresolved complex mixture) and low/high molecular weight ratios (L/H) of alkanes and PAHs indicated the tar ball samples have been significantly influenced by natural weathering processes such as evaporation, photo-degradation and biodegradation. This is the first study of its kind in Iran to use fingerprinting for source identification of tar balls.

  13. Hydraulic testing plan for the Bear Creek Valley Treatability Study, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study is intended to provide site-specific data defining potential treatability technologies applicable to contaminated groundwater and surface water. The ultimate goal of this effort is to install a treatment system that will remove uranium, technetium, nitrate, and several metals from groundwater before it reaches Bear Creek. This project directly supports the BCV Feasibility Study. Part of the Treatability Study, Phase II Hydraulic Performance Testing, will produce hydraulic and treatment performance data required to design a long-term treatment system. This effort consists of the installation and testing of two groundwater collection systems: a trench in the vicinity of GW-835 and an angled pumping well adjacent to NT-1. Pumping tests and evaluations of gradients under ambient conditions will provide data for full-scale design of treatment systems. In addition to hydraulic performance, in situ treatment chemistry data will be obtained from monitoring wells installed in the reactive media section of the trench. The in situ treatment work is not part of this test plan. This Hydraulic Testing Plan describes the location and installation of the trench and NT-1 wells, the locations and purpose of the monitoring wells, and the procedures for the pumping tests of the trench and NT-1 wells.

  14. 1. EAGLE CREEK RECREATION AREA, VIEW OF EAGLE CREEK TRAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EAGLE CREEK RECREATION AREA, VIEW OF EAGLE CREEK TRAIL REGISTRY BOOTH. - Historic Columbia River Highway, Eagle Creek Recreation Area, Historic Columbia River Highway at Eagle Creek, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  15. A study of post-thermal recovery of the macroinvertebrate community of Four Mile Creek, June 1985--September 1987. [Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lauritsen, D.; Starkel, W.; Specht, W.

    1989-11-01

    Four Mile Creek is one of several streams at the Savannah River Site which has received thermal effluents ({le}70{degrees}C water) from nuclear production operations. From 1955--mid-1985, Four Mile Creek received thermal effluent from C-Reactor as well as non-thermal discharges from F and H Separation Areas. Total discharges from all of these facilities was about ten times higher than the natural flow of the creek (Firth et al. 1986). All water being discharged into Four Mile Creek was originally pumped from the Savannah River. This study reports the results of the artificial substrate sampling of macroinvertebrate communities of Four Mile Creek from June 1985 through September 1987, when sampling was terminated. Macroinvertebrate taxa richness, densities, and biomass data from this study are compared to Four Mile data collected prior to the shutdown of C-Reactor (Kondratieff and Kondratieff 1985 and Firth et al. 1986), and to comparable macroinvertebrate data from other Savannah River Site streams. 29 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. WELCOME CREEK WILDERNESS, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lidke, D.J.; Close, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    Mineral-resource surveys indicate probable or substantiated mineral-resource potential for small amounts of gold and other metals. Areas of alluvium in Welcome Creek and in part of Rock Creek are classed as having probable and substantiated mineral-resource potential for small quantities of gold in small and scattered placers and in placer tailings. A small area which contains the Cleveland mine, on Cleveland Mountain, near the west border of the wilderness was classed as having probable mineral-resource potential for silver and gold in veins. Although green mudstone strata that often are favorable hosts for stratabound copper occurrences were found in the northeast part of the wilderness, no copper deposits were found and these studies indicate little likelihood for the occurrence of copper resources. The nature of the geologic terrain indicates that there is little likelihood of the occurrence of energy resources.

  17. Phase 1 report on the Bear Creek Valley treatability study, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    Bear Creek Valley (BCV) is located within the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation and encompasses multiple waste units containing hazardous and radioactive wastes associated with past operations at the adjacent Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The BCV Remedial Investigation determined that disposal of wastes at the S-3 Site, Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY), and Bear Creek Burial Grounds (BCBG) has caused contamination of both deep and shallow groundwater. The primary contaminants include uranium, nitrate, and VOCs, although other metals such as aluminum, magnesium, and cadmium persist. The BCV feasibility study will describe several remedial options for this area, including both in situ and ex situ treatment of groundwater. This Treatability Study Phase 1 Report describes the results of preliminary screening of treatment technologies that may be applied within BCV. Four activities were undertaken in Phase 1: field characterization, laboratory screening of potential sorbents, laboratory testing of zero valent iron products, and field screening of three biological treatment systems. Each of these activities is described fully in technical memos attached in Appendices A through G.

  18. Lewin estimates 2 billion barrels of US tar sand recoverable at mid $20/bbl

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    In 1983, Lewin and Associates prepared a report which established that the US tar sands resource amounts to over 60 billion barrels of bitumen in-place. However, no estimate was made of the technically or economically recoverable portion of this resource. More recent work carried out by Lewin for the US Department of Energy presents an appraisal of technically and economically recoverable tar sands. The paper describes the tar sand resource in-place, tar sand recovery models used in the study, engineering cost models, the economics of the steam soak prospect, and the economics of a surface mining prospect. The results of the Lewin study show that 5.7 billion barrels of domestic tar sand are technically recoverable, using cyclic steam injection and surface extractive mining. Of this, 4.9 billion barrels are technically recoverable from surface mining methods, with 0.8 billion recoverable from steam soak applications. 1 figure, 3 tables.

  19. Remediation of Former Manufactured Gas Plant Tars Using Alkaline Flushing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauswirth, S.; Rylander, S.; Birak, P. S.; Miller, C. T.

    2010-12-01

    The remediation of former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) tars in the subsurface is particularly difficult due to the wetting behavior and high viscosities of these dense non-aqueous liquids (DNAPLs). Alkaline flooding is a technique which has proven effective in improving the recovery of crude oils, which share some characteristics with FMGP tars. For this study, we measured the effect of NaOH solutions on interfacial tension and conducted column experiments to investigate the feasibility of applying this technique to FMGP tars. The pendant drop technique was used to measure interfacial tensions for solutions ranging from 0-1% NaOH. Column experiments were conducted by contaminating sands with tars recovered from a FMGP then flushing the columns with NaOH solutions. A final, 70% v/v ethanol cosolvent flush was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of a two-stage remediation approach. The mass removal of tar, as well as 26 individual PAHs, was measured, along with the aqueous phase mass flux of PAHs after each flushing stage. The interfacial tension was reduced from about 20 mN/m with pure water to a minimum of 0.05 mN/m at a concentration of 0.1% NaOH. In the column experiments, alkaline flushing resulted in a 50% reduction of the residual saturation. Aqueous phase PAH concentrations, however, were similar before and after the alkaline flushing stage. The combination of alkaline and cosolvent flushing resulted in an overall reduction of 95% of the total mass of the 16 EPA PAHs. Final aqueous phase concentrations were reduced significantly for lower molecular weight PAHs, but increased slightly for the higher molecular weight compounds, likely due to their increased mole fraction within the remaining tar. Additional work is being conducted to improve the effectiveness of the alkaline flushing through the use of surfactants and polymers.

  20. Process for hydrogenation of hydrocarbon tars

    DOEpatents

    Dolbear, Geoffrey E.

    1978-07-18

    Hydrocarbon tars of high asphaltene content such as tars obtained from pyrolysis of coal are dissolved in a solvent formed from the hydrogenation of the coal tars, and the resultant mixture hydrogenated in the presence of a catalyst at a pressure from about 1500 to 5000 psig at a temperature from about 500.degree. F to about the critical temperature of the solvent to form a light hydrocarbon as a solvent for the tars. Hydrogen content is at least three times the amount of hydrogen consumed.

  1. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 1: Main text

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

  2. Relationship Between the Composition and Interfacial Tension of Former Manufactured Gas Plant Tars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauswirth, S.; Birak, P. S.; Miller, C. T.

    2011-12-01

    Former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) tars pose significant environmental hazards and present a challenge to regulators and industry professionals. The tars, which were produced as a byproduct of the gas manufacturing process, were frequently released into the environment through improper disposal or leaks in plant infrastructure. The interfacial tension (IFT) is a primary factor controlling the mobility of tars in porous media, and is therefore important to understand for both predicting the migration of tars and designing remediation strategies. In this study, we characterized nine field-collected FMGP tars and a commercially available coal tar by means of chemical extractions (asphaltenes, resins, acids, and bases), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Additionally, the IFT and contact angle of each tar was determined for a pH range of 3-11. The IFT was found to be similar for all tars at pH 5 and 7 regardless of composition. Slight decreases in IFT at lower pH were correlated with higher concentrations of extractable bases, which consisted primarily of nitrogen-containing heterocyclic aromatic compounds. Much greater reductions of IFT were observed at high pH. These reductions were found to be associated with the presence of carbonyl or carboxyl groups in the asphaltenes. It is likely that the larger size of the asphaltene molecules (as compared to the extractable compounds) resulted in species with greater surface activity when ionized.

  3. A long-term monitoring study of chlorophyll, microbial contaminants, and pesticides in a coastal residential stormwater pond and its adjacent tidal creek.

    PubMed

    DeLorenzo, Marie E; Thompson, Brian; Cooper, Emily; Moore, Janet; Fulton, Michael H

    2012-01-01

    Stormwater ponds are commonly used in residential and commercial areas to control flooding. The accumulation of urban contaminants in stormwater ponds can lead to water-quality problems including nutrient enrichment, chemical contamination, and bacterial contamination. This study presents 5 years of monitoring data assessing water quality of a residential subdivision pond and adjacent tidal creek in coastal South Carolina, USA. The stormwater pond is eutrophic, as described by elevated concentrations of chlorophyll and phosphorus, and experiences periodic cyanobacterial blooms. A maximum monthly average chlorophyll concentration of 318.75 μg/L was measured in the stormwater pond and 227.63 μg/L in the tidal creek. Fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) levels were measured in both the pond and the tidal creek that exceeded health and safety standards for safe recreational use. A maximum monthly average FCB level of 1,247 CFU/100 mL was measured in the stormwater pond and 12,850 CFU/100 mL in the tidal creek. In addition, the presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria and pathogenic bacteria were detected. Low concentrations of herbicides (atrazine and 2,4-D: ), a fungicide (chlorothalonil), and insecticides (pyrethroids and imidacloprid) were measured. Seasonal trends were identified, with the winter months having the lowest concentrations of chlorophyll and FCB. Statistical differences between the stormwater pond and the tidal creek were also noted within seasons. The tidal creek had higher FCB levels than the stormwater pond in the spring and summer, whereas the stormwater pond had higher chlorophyll levels than the tidal creek in the summer and fall seasons. Chlorophyll and FCB levels in the stormwater pond were significantly correlated with monthly average temperature and total rainfall. Pesticide concentrations were also significantly correlated with temperature and rainfall. Pesticide concentrations in the stormwater pond were significantly correlated with

  4. Mineral resources of the Fish Creek Canyon, Road Canyon, and Mule Canyon Wilderness Study Areas, San Juan County, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Bove, D.J.; Shawe, D.R.; Lee, G.K.; Hanna, W.F. ); Jeske, R.E. )

    1989-01-01

    This book reports the Fish Creek Canyon (UT-060-204), Road Canyon(UT-060-201), and Mule Canyon (UT-060-205B) Wilderness Study Areas, which comprise 40,160 acres, 52,420 acres, and 5,990 acres, respectively, studied for their mineral endowment. A search of federal, state, and county records showed no current or previous mining-claim activity. No mineral resources were identified during field examination of the study areas. Sandstone and sand and gravel have no unique qualities but could have limited local use for road metal or other construction purposes. However, similar materials are abundant outside the study areas. The three study areas have moderate resource potential for undiscovered oil and gas and low resource potential for undiscovered metals, including uranium and thorium, coal, and geothermal energy.

  5. Field and Laboratory Data From an Earthquake History Study of Scarps of the Lake Creek-Boundary Creek Fault Between the Elwha River and Siebert Creek, Clallam County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Alan R.; Personius, Stephen F.; Buck, Jason; Bradley, Lee-Ann; Wells, Ray E.; Schermer, Elizabeth R.

    2007-01-01

    Fault scarps recently discovered on Airborne Laser Swath Mapping (ALSM; also known as LiDAR) imagery show Holocene movement on the Lake Creek-Boundary Creek fault on the north flank of the Olympic Mountains of northwestern Washington State. Such recent movement suggests the fault is a potential source of large earthquakes. As part of the effort to assess seismic hazard in the Puget Sound region, we map scarps on ALSM imagery and show primary field and laboratory data from backhoe trenches across scarps that are being used to develop a latest Pleistocene and Holocene history of large earthquakes on the fault. Although some scarp segments 0.5-2 km long along the fault are remarkably straight and distinct on shaded ASLM imagery, most scarps displace the ground surface <1 m, and, therefore, are difficult to locate in dense brush and forest. We are confident of a surface-faulting or folding origin and a latest Pleistocene to Holocene age only for scarps between Lake Aldwell and the easternmost fork of Siebert Creek, a distance of 22 km. Stratigraphy in five trenches at four sites help determine the history of surface-deforming earthquakes since glacier recession and alluvial deposition 11-17 ka. Although the trend and plunge of indicators of fault slip were measured only in the weathered basalt exposed in one trench, upward-splaying fault patterns and inconsistent displacement of successive beds along faults in three of the five trenches suggest significant lateral as well as vertical slip during the surface-faulting or folding earthquakes that produced the scarps. Radiocarbon ages on fragments of wood charcoal from two wedges of scarp-derived colluvium in a graben-fault trench suggest two surface-faulting earthquakes between 2,000 and 700 years ago. The three youngest of nine radiocarbon ages on charcoal fragments from probable scarp-derived colluvum in a fold-scarp trench 1.2 km to the west suggest a possible earlier surface-faulting earthquake less than 5,000 years

  6. Catalytic decomposition of tar derived from wood waste pyrolysis using Indonesian low grade iron ore as catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicakso, Doni Rahmat; Sutijan, Rochmadi, Budiman, Arief

    2016-06-01

    Low grade iron ore can be used as an alternative catalyst for bio-tar decomposition. Compared to other catalysts, such as Ni, Rd, Ru, Pd and Pt, iron ore is cheaper. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of using low grade iron ore as catalyst for tar catalytic decomposition in fixed bed reactor. Tar used in this experiment was pyrolysis product of wood waste while the catalyst was Indonesian low grade iron ore. The variables studied were temperatures between 500 - 600 °C and catalyst weight between 0 - 40 gram. The first step, tar was evaporated at 450 °C to produce tar vapor. Then, tar vapor was flowed to fixed bed reactor filled low grade iron ore. Gas and tar vapor from reactor was cooled, then the liquid and uncondensable gas were analyzed by GC/MS. The catalyst, after experiment, was weighed to calculate total carbon deposited into catalyst pores. The results showed that the tar components that were heavy and light hydrocarbon were decomposed and cracked within the iron ore pores to from gases, light hydrocarbon (bio-oil) and carbon, thus decreasing content tar in bio-oil and increasing the total gas product. In conclusion, the more low grade iron ore used as catalyst, the tar content in the liquid decrease, the H2 productivity increased and calorimetric value of bio-oil increased.

  7. Chemical and isotopic studies of granitic Archean rocks, Owl Creek Mountains, Wyoming: Geochronology of an Archean granite, Owl Creek Mountains, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Hedge, C.E.; Simmons, K.R.; Stuckless, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    Rubidium-strontium analyses of whole-rock samples of an Archean granite from the Owl Creek Mountains, Wyo., indicate an intrusive age of 2640 {plus minus} 125 Ma. Muscovite-bearing samples give results suggesting that these samples were altered about 2300 Ma. This event may have caused extensive strontium loss from the rocks as potassium feldspar was altered to muscovite. Alteration was highly localized in nature as evidence by unaffected rubidium-strontium mineral ages in the Owl Creek Mountains area. Furthermore, the event probably involved a small volume of fluid relative to the volume of rock because whole-rock {delta}{sup 18}O values of altered rocks are not distinct from those of unaltered rocks. In contrast to the rubidium-strontium whole-rock system, zircons from the granite have been so severely affected by the alteration event, and possibly by a late-Precambrian uplift event, that the zircon system yields little usable age information. The average initial {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr (0.7033 {plus minus} 0.0042) calculated from the isochron intercept varies significantly. Calculated initial {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios for nine apparently unaltered samples yield a range of 0.7025 to 0.7047. These calculated initial ratios correlate positively with whole-rock {delta}{sup 18}O values; and, therefore, the granite was probably derived from an isotopically heterogeneous source. The highest initial {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio is lower than the lowest reported for the metamorphic rocks intruded by the granite as it would have existed at 2640 Ma. Thus, the metamorphic sequence, at its current level of exposure, can represent no more than a part of the protolith for the granite.

  8. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report, 1 March-31 May 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

    1980-12-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. The native species Teredo navalis and Bankia gouldi coexist with the introduced T. bartschi in Oyster Creek, at the mouth of Forked River and on the coast of the bay between the two creeks. Heavy mortality occurred in all species during winter and spring when the generating station was not operating. Temperature and salinity tolerance tests begun during April and May, 1980, were not completed by the end of May because the adult shipworms proved to be very resistant to drastic changes in these physical parameters.

  9. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report, March-May 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.

    1982-11-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Competition among the species is being analyzed. The adult population of Teredo bartschi survived the winter and spring of 1981-1982 better than it did previous cold periods without a thermal effluent. Lack of an effluent was due to a prolonged outage of the generating station. There was no spring outbreak of shipworms. The introduced species appears established at one station near but outside of Oyster Creek. Three teredinid species coexist in Oyster Creek. Larvae of T. bartschi and T. navalis have similar responses to reduced salinity. Bankia gouldi is the fastest-growing of the teredinids found in New Jersey, and as the lowest annual mortality.

  10. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Quarterly progress report 1 Dec 80-28 Feb 81

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

    1981-08-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Relative destructiveness and competition among the species are being analyzed. The native species Teredo navalis and Bankia gouldi coexist with the introduced T. bartschi in Oyster Creek and at the mouth of Forked River. An increase in mortality occurred in January. By February, Teredo bartschi was found only at Bayside.

  11. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Quarterly report, 1 September-30 November 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

    1981-04-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Relative destructiveness and competition among the species are being analyzed. The native species Teredo navalis and Bankia gouldi coexist with the introduced T. bartschi in Oyster Creek and at the mouth of Forked River.

  12. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report 1 Jun-31 Aug 80

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

    1981-02-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Relative destructiveness and competition among the species are being analyzed. The native species Teredo navalis and Bankia gouldi coexist with the introduced T. bartschi in Oyster Creek. Teredo bartschi can withstand higher temperatures than the native species, but all species suffer osmotic stress at 6 parts per thousand by weight.

  13. Sydney Tar Ponds Remediation: Experience to China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Fan; Bryson, Ken A.

    2009-01-01

    The infamous "Sydney Tar Ponds" are well known as one of the largest toxic waste sites of Canada, due to almost 100 years of steelmaking in Sydney, a once beautiful and peaceful city located on the east side of Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. This article begins with a contextual overview of the Tar Ponds issue including a brief…

  14. Restoring Fossil Creek

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaccus, Kathleen; Vlieg, Julie; Marks, Jane C.; LeRoy, Carri J.

    2004-01-01

    Fossil Creek had been dammed for the past 90 years, and plans were underway to restore the stream. The creek runs through Central Arizona and flows from the high plateaus to the desert, cutting through the same formations that form the Grand Canyon. This article discusses the Fossil Creek monitoring project. In this project, students and teachers…

  15. Trap-efficiency study, Highland Creek flood retarding reservoir near Kelseyville, California, water years 1966-77

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trujillo, L.F.

    1980-01-01

    This investigation is part of a nationwide study of trap efficiency of detention reservoirs. In this report, trap efficiency was computed from reservoir inflow and outflow sediment data and from reservoir survey and outflow data. Highland Creek Reservoir is a flood retarding reservoir located in Lake County, near Kelseyville, California. This reservoir has a maximum storage capacity of 3,199 acre-feet and permanent pool storage of 921 acre-feet. Mean annual rainfall for the 14.1-square-mile drainage area above Highland Creek Dam was 29 inches during the December 1965 to September 1977 study period. Resultant mean annual runoff was 17,100 acre-feet. Total reservoir inflow for the 11.8-year study period was 202,000 acre-feet, transporting an estimated 126,000 tons (10,700 tons per year) of suspended sediment. Total reservoir outflow for the same period was 188,700 acre-feet, including 15,230 tons (1,290 tons per year) of sediment. Estimated trap efficiency for the study period was 88%, based on estimated sediment inflow and measured sediment outflow. Reservoir surveys made in December 1965 and April 1972 revealed a storage capacity loss of 35.8 acre-feet during the 6.3-year period. Computed by using an estimated specific weight, this loss represents 54,600 tons of deposited sediment. Sediment outflow during the same period was 8,890 tons. Trap efficiency for the survey period was 86%. (USGS)

  16. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 4. Appendix F

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This section contains ecotoxicological profiles for the COPECs for the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The ecotoxicological information is presented for only those endpoints for which the chemicals are COPECs. The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include {sup 137}Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and {sup 137}Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River.

  17. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 1. Main text

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This is the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include {sup 137}Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and {sup 137}Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River.

  18. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 3. Appendix E

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This document contains Appendix E: Toxicity Information and Uncertainty Analysis, description of methods, from the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include {sup 137}Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and {sup 137}Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River.

  19. Iron(II) supramolecular helicates interfere with the HIV-1 Tat–TAR RNA interaction critical for viral replication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malina, Jaroslav; Hannon, Michael J.; Brabec, Viktor

    2016-07-01

    The interaction between the HIV-1 transactivator protein Tat and TAR (transactivation responsive region) RNA, plays a critical role in HIV-1 transcription. Iron(II) supramolecular helicates were evaluated for their in vitro activity to inhibit Tat–TAR RNA interaction using UV melting studies, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and RNase A footprinting. The results demonstrate that iron(II) supramolecular helicates inhibit Tat-TAR interaction at nanomolar concentrations by binding to TAR RNA. These studies provide a new insight into the biological potential of metallosupramolecular helicates.

  20. Hydrologic data from the study of acidic contamination in the Miami Wash-Pinal Creek area, Arizona, water years 1992-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gellenbeck, D.J.; Hunter, Yvonne R.

    1994-01-01

    Since 1984, hydrologic data have been collected as part of a U.S. Geological Survey study of the occurrence and movement of acidic contamination in the aquifer and streams of the Pinal Creek drainage basin near Globe, Arizona. Ground-water data from that study are presented for water years 1992 and 1993 and include location, construction information, site plans, water levels, chemical and physical field measurements, and selected chemical analyses of water samples for 10 monitoring well groups. During January 1993, a flood occurred in Pinal Creek that resulted in a record peak discharge of 5,700 cubic feet per second. During this flood, well group 450 was destroyed. Surface-water data are presented for 13 sites and include discharge measurements, chemical and physical field measure- ments, and chemical analyses of water. Data from a solute-transport study that was conducted in November 1992 are presented for shallow ground-water and surface-water sites along Pinal Creek. During this study, variations in metal chemistry with distance along Pinal Creek and depth below the streambed were determined and two filter sizes were used to quantify the partitioning of metals between dissolved and particulate phases. Monthly precipi- tation data and long-term precipitation statistics are presented for two sites.

  1. Coal tar-containing asphalt - resource or hazardous waste?

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson-Skold, Y.; Andersson, K.; Lind, B.; Claesson, A.; Larsson, L.; Suer, P.; Jacobson, T.

    2007-09-30

    Coal tar was used in Sweden for the production of asphalt and for the drenching of stabilization gravel until 1973. The tar has high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), some of which may be strongly carcinogenic. Approximately 20 million tonnes of tar-containing asphalt is present in the public roads in Sweden. Used asphalt from rebuilding can be classified as hazardous waste according to the Swedish Waste Act. The cost of treating the material removed as hazardous waste can be very high due to the large amount that has to be treated, and the total environmental benefit is unclear. The transport of used asphalt to landfill or combustion will affect other environmental targets. The present project, based on three case studies of road projects in Sweden, evaluates the consequences of four scenarios for handling the material: reuse, landfill, biological treatment, and incineration. The results show that reuse of the coal tar-containing materials in new road construction is the most favorable alternative in terms of cost, material use, land use, energy consumption, and air emissions.

  2. Data management implementation plan for the Bear Creek Valley treatability study phase 2 hydraulic performance testing, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The overall objective of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study is to provide site-specific data defining potential treatment technologies applicable to contaminated groundwater and surface water. The ultimate goal of this effort is to install a treatment system that will remove uranium, technetium, nitrate, and several metals from groundwater before it reaches Bear Creek. This project, the Bear Creek Valley treatability study Phase 2 hydraulic performance testing, directly supports the Bear Creek Valley Feasibility Study. Specific project objectives include (1) installing monitoring and extraction wells, (2) installing a groundwater extraction trench, (3) performing pumping tests of the extraction wells and trench, (4) determining hydraulic gradients, and (5) collecting water quality parameters. The primary purpose of environmental data management is to provide a system for generating and maintaining technically defensible data. To meet current regulatory requirements for the Environmental Restoration Program, complete documentation of the information flow must be established. To do so, each step in the data management process (collection, management, storage, and analysis) must be adequately planned and documented. This document will serve to identify data management procedures, expected data types and flow, and roles and responsibilities for all data management activities associated with this project.

  3. The Beaver Creek story

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doyle, W.H.; Whitworth, B.G.; Smith, G.F.; Byl, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    Beaver Creek watershed in West Tennessee includes about 95,000 acres of the Nation's most productive farmland and most highly erodible soils. In 1989 the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Tennessee Department of Agriculture, began a study to evaluate the effect of agricultural activities on water quality in the watershed and for best management practices designed to reduce agricultural nonpoint-source pollution. Agrichemical monitoring included testing the soils, ground water, and streams at four farm sites ranging from 27 to 420 acres. Monitoring stations were operated downstream to gain a better understanding of the water chemistry as runoff moved from small ditches into larger streams to the outlet of the Beaver Creek watershed. Prior to the implementation of best management practices at one of the farm study sites, some storms produced an average suspended-sediment concentration of 70,000 milligrams per liter. After the implementation of BMP's, however, the average value never exceeded 7,000 milligrams per liter. No-till crop production was the most effective best management practice for conserving soil on the farm fields tested. A natural bottomland hardwood wetland and a constructed wetland were evaluated as instream resource-management systems. The wetlands improved water quality downstream by acting as a filter and removing a significant amount of nonpoint-source pollution from the agricultural runoff. The constructed wetland reduced the sediment, pesticide, and nutrient load by approximately 50 percent over a 4-month period. The results of the Beaver Creek watershed study have increased the understanding of the effects of agriculture on water resources. Study results also demonstrated that BMP's do protect and improve water quality.

  4. Effects of human chromosome 12 on interactions between Tat and TAR of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, A; Cujec, T P; Peterlin, B M

    1994-01-01

    Rates of transcriptions of the human immunodeficiency virus are greatly increased by the viral trans activator Tat. In vitro, Tat binds to the 5' bulge of the trans-activation response (TAR) RNA stem-loop, which is present in all viral transcripts. In human cells, the central loop in TAR and its cellular RNA-binding proteins are also critical for the function of Tat. Previously, we demonstrated that in rodent cells (CHO cells), but not in those which contain the human chromosome 12 (CHO12 cells), Tat-TAR interactions are compromised. In this study, we examined the roles of the bulge and loop in TAR in Tat trans activation in these cells. Whereas low levels of trans activation depended solely on interactions between Tat and the bulge in CHO cells, high levels of trans activation depended also on interactions between Tat and the loop in CHO12 cells. Since the TAR loop binding proteins in these two cell lines were identical and different from their human counterpart, the human chromosome 12 does not encode TAR loop binding proteins. In vivo binding competition studies with TAR decoys confirmed that the binding of Tat to TAR is more efficient in CHO12 cells. Thus, the protein(s) encoded on human chromosome 12 helps to tether Tat to TAR via its loop, which results in high levels of trans activation. Images PMID:8083988

  5. Catalytic Tar Reduction for Assistance in Thermal Conversion of Space Waste for Energy Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caraccio, Anne Joan; Devor, Robert William; Hintze, Paul E.; Muscatello, Anthony C.; Nur, Mononita

    2014-01-01

    The Trash to Gas (TtG) project investigates technologies for converting waste generated during spaceflight into various resources. One of these technologies was gasification, which employed a downdraft reactor designed and manufactured at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for the conversion of simulated space trash to carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide would then be converted to methane for propulsion and water for life support systems. A minor byproduct of gasification includes large hydrocarbons, also known as tars. Tars are unwanted byproducts that add contamination to the product stream, clog the reactor and cause complications in analysis instrumentation. The objective of this research was to perform reduction studies of a mock tar using select catalysts and choose the most effective for primary treatment within the KSC downdraft gasification reactor. Because the KSC reactor is operated at temperatures below typical gasification reactors, this study evaluates catalyst performance below recommended catalytic operating temperatures. The tar reduction experimentation was observed by passing a model tar vapor stream over the catalysts at similar conditions to that of the KSC reactor. Reduction in tar was determined using gas chromatography. Tar reduction efficiency and catalyst performances were evaluated at different temperatures.

  6. Pulse dipolar ESR of doubly labeled mini TAR DNA and its annealing to mini TAR RNA.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan; Borbat, Peter P; Grigoryants, Vladimir M; Myers, William K; Freed, Jack H; Scholes, Charles P

    2015-02-17

    Pulse dipolar electron-spin resonance in the form of double electron electron resonance was applied to strategically placed, site-specifically attached pairs of nitroxide spin labels to monitor changes in the mini TAR DNA stem-loop structure brought on by the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein NCp7. The biophysical structural evidence was at Ångstrom-level resolution under solution conditions not amenable to crystallography or NMR. In the absence of complementary TAR RNA, double labels located in both the upper and the lower stem of mini TAR DNA showed in the presence of NCp7 a broadened distance distribution between the points of attachment, and there was evidence for several conformers. Next, when equimolar amounts of mini TAR DNA and complementary mini TAR RNA were present, NCp7 enhanced the annealing of their stem-loop structures to form duplex DNA-RNA. When duplex TAR DNA-TAR RNA formed, double labels initially located 27.5 Å apart at the 3'- and 5'-termini of the 27-base mini TAR DNA relocated to opposite ends of a 27 bp RNA-DNA duplex with 76.5 Å between labels, a distance which was consistent with the distance between the two labels in a thermally annealed 27-bp TAR DNA-TAR RNA duplex. Different sets of double labels initially located 26-27 Å apart in the mini TAR DNA upper stem, appropriately altered their interlabel distance to ~35 Å when a 27 bp TAR DNA-TAR RNA duplex formed, where the formation was caused either through NCp7-induced annealing or by thermal annealing. In summary, clear structural evidence was obtained for the fraying and destabilization brought on by NCp7 in its biochemical function as an annealing agent and for the detailed structural change from stem-loop to duplex RNA-DNA when complementary RNA was present.

  7. Wet scrubbing of biomass producer gas tars using vegetable oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhoi, Prakashbhai Ramabhai

    The overall aims of this research study were to generate novel design data and to develop an equilibrium stage-based thermodynamic model of a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system for the removal of model tar compounds (benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene) found in biomass producer gas. The specific objectives were to design, fabricate and evaluate a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system and to optimize the design and operating variables; i.e., packed bed height, vegetable oil type, solvent temperature, and solvent flow rate. The experimental wet packed bed scrubbing system includes a liquid distributor specifically designed to distribute a high viscous vegetable oil uniformly and a mixing section, which was designed to generate a desired concentration of tar compounds in a simulated air stream. A method and calibration protocol of gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy was developed to quantify tar compounds. Experimental data were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedure. Statistical analysis showed that both soybean and canola oils are potential solvents, providing comparable removal efficiency of tar compounds. The experimental height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP) was determined as 0.11 m for vegetable oil based scrubbing system. Packed bed height and solvent temperature had highly significant effect (p0.05) effect on the removal of model tar compounds. The packing specific constants, Ch and CP,0, for the Billet and Schultes pressure drop correlation were determined as 2.52 and 2.93, respectively. The equilibrium stage based thermodynamic model predicted the removal efficiency of model tar compounds in the range of 1-6%, 1-4% and 1-2% of experimental data for benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene, respectively, for the solvent temperature of 30° C. The NRTL-PR property model and UNIFAC for estimating binary interaction parameters are recommended for modeling absorption of tar compounds in vegetable oils. Bench scale

  8. Hulburt Creek Hydrology, Southwestern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gebert, Warren A.

    1971-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the hydrologic characteristics of Hulburt Creek, Sauk County, Wis., in order to evaluate a proposed reservoir. The streamflow characteristics estimated are the low flow, monthly flow, and inflow flood. The study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. The following estimates are for the point on Hulburt Creek at the proposed Dell Lake damsite near Wisconsin Dells. The drainage area is 11.2 square miles.

  9. Horizontal oil shale and tar sands retort

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.D.

    1982-08-31

    A horizontal retorting apparatus and method are disclosed designed to pyrolyze tar sands and oil shale, which are often found together in naturally occurring deposits. The retort is based on a horizontal retorting tube defining a horizontal retort zone having an upstream and a downstream end. Inlet means are provided for introducing the combined tar sands and oil shale into the upstream end of the retort. A screw conveyor horizontally conveys tar sands and oil shale from the upstream end of the retort zone to the downstream end of the retort zone while simultaneously mixing the tar sands and oil shale to insure full release of product gases. A firebox defining a heating zone surrounds the horizontal retort is provided for heating the tar sands and oil shale to pyrolysis temperatures. Spent shale and tar sands residue are passed horizontally beneath the retort tube with any carbonaceous residue thereon being combusted to provide a portion of the heat necessary for pyrolysis. Hot waste solids resulting from combustion of spent shale and tar sands residue are also passed horizontally beneath the retort tube whereby residual heat is radiated upward to provide a portion of the pyrolysis heat. Hot gas inlet holes are provided in the retort tube so that a portion of the hot gases produced in the heating zone are passed into the retort zone for contacting and directly heating the tar sands and oil shale. Auxiliary heating means are provided to supplement the heat generated from spent shale and tar sands residue combustion in order to insure adequate pyrolysis of the raw materials with varying residual carbonaceous material.

  10. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report, September-November 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

    1982-06-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Competition among the species is being analyzed. In the fall of 1981, Teredo bartschi remained in Oyster Creek despite continuous prolonged outages of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. It did not spread to Forked River or Waretown as it had done in other years when the effluent was present. The peak in larval production and settlement of T. bartschi occurred between September and October. Settlement of shipworms occurred on no monthly panels except those in Oyster Creek during the period of this report. Laboratory experiments revealed that T. bartschi becomes inactive at 5/sup 0/C (24/sup 0///sub 00/) and T. navalis shows signs of osmotic stress below 10/sup 0///sub 00/ at 18/sup 0/C. The shipworms in Barnegat Bay do not show a preference for settling at the mudline when the substrate is not limited.

  11. Application of organic geochemistry to coastal tar residues from Central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Hostettler, F.D.; Lorenson, T.D.

    2000-01-01

    Tar residues are common on the coastline of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. These coastal tar residues have been washed ashore and usually occur on headlands near the high-tide line. In this study, 18 coastal tar residues were collected and analyzed to determine their carbon isotopic compositions and the values of selected biomarker ratios. All of the residues have very heavy (13C-enriched) carbon isotopic compositions spanning a narrow range (??13C = -22.2 to -23.4???), and 28,30-bisnorhopane is present in all samples. These same geochemical characteristics are found in Monterey Formation oils from which the coastal tar residues were likely derived. These coastal residues could result from natural seeps or from accidental spills. Statistically the coastal tar residues can be organized into three groups, each of which may represent different spill or seep events. Seven samples of potential local representative sources for the tar residues were examined, but none could account for the coastal tars.

  12. Sampling of benzene in tar matrices from biomass gasification using two different solid-phase sorbents.

    PubMed

    Osipovs, Sergejs

    2008-06-01

    Biomass tar mainly consists of stable aromatic compounds such as benzene and polyaromatic hydrocarbons, benzene being the biggest tar component in real biomass gasification gas. For the analysis of individual tar compounds, the solid-phase adsorption method was chosen. According to this method, tar samples are collected on a column with an amino-phase sorbent. With a high benzene concentration in biomass tar, some of the benzene will not be collected on the amino-phase sorbent. To get over this situation, we have installed another column with activated charcoal which is intended for collection of volatile organic compounds, including benzene, after the column with the amino-phase sorbent. The study of maximal adsorption amounts of various compounds on both adsorbents while testing different sampling volumes led to the conclusion that benzene is a limiting compound. The research proved that the use of two sorbents (500 mg + 100 mg) connected in series allows for assessment of tar in synthesis gas with a tar concentration up to 30-40 g m(-3), which corresponds to the requirements of most gasifiers.

  13. Understanding the stability of pyrolysis tars from biomass in a view point of free radicals.

    PubMed

    He, Wenjing; Liu, Qingya; Shi, Lei; Liu, Zhenyu; Ci, Donghui; Lievens, Caroline; Guo, Xiaofen; Liu, Muxin

    2014-03-01

    Fast pyrolysis of biomass has attracted increasing attention worldwide to produce bio-tars that can be upgraded into liquid fuels and chemicals. However, the bio-tars are usually poor in quality and stability and are difficult to be upgraded. To better understand the nature of the bio-tars, this work reveals radical concentration of tars derived from pyrolysis of two kinds of biomass. The tars were obtained by condensing the pyrolysis volatiles in 3s. It shows that the tars contain large amounts of radicals, at a level of 10(16)spins/g, and are able to generate more radicals at temperatures of 573K or higher, reaching a level of 10(19)spins/g at 673K in less than 30min. The radical generation in the tar samples is attributed to the formation of THF insoluble matters (coke), which also contain radicals. The radical concentrations of the aqueous liquids obtained in pyrolysis are also studied.

  14. Steel Creek wildlife: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Giffin, M.A.; Patterson, K.K.

    1988-03-01

    Reptile and amphibian populations in Steel Creek below L-Lake were assessed in monthly or quarterly sampling programs. Thirty-eight species of reptiles or amphibians were collected during 1987 in the Steel Creek corridor below the L-Lake impoundment, and in the delta and channel. Juvenile turtles and alligators, and larval amphibians were observed or collected during the study, indicating continued reproduction in Steel Creek. The reptile and amphibian populations in Steel Creek show no indication of any effect due to the impoundment of the lake or the operation of L-Reactor. Waterfowl and associated birds in Steel Creek below L-Lake were observed, in conjunction with other sampling programs, during winter--spring and fall--winter migrations. Nine species of waterfowl and five species of associated birds were observed in 1987 in the Steel Creek corridor below the L-Lake impoundment and in the delta and channel.

  15. The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands. Annual report, July 1990--July 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1992-04-01

    Contents of this report include the following: executive summary; characterization of the native bitumen from the Whiterocks oil sand deposit; influence of carboxylic acid content on bitumen viscosity; water based oil sand separation technology; extraction of bitumen from western oil sands by an energy-efficient thermal method; large- diameter fluidized bed reactor studies; rotary kiln pyrolysis of oil sand; catalytic upgrading of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; ebullieted bed hydrotreating and hydrocracking; super critical fluid extraction; bitumen upgrading; 232 references; Appendix A--Whiterocks tar sand deposit bibliography; Appendix B--Asphalt Ridge tar sand deposit bibliography; and Appendix C--University of Utah tar sands bibliography.

  16. Treating tar sands formations with dolomite

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael

    2010-06-08

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may include dolomite and hydrocarbons. Methods may include providing heat at less than the decomposition temperature of dolomite from one or more heaters to at least a portion of the formation. At least some of the hydrocarbon fluids are mobilized in the formation. At least some of the hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  17. Hydrology of the Johnson Creek Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Karl K.; Snyder, Daniel T.

    2009-01-01

    The Johnson Creek basin is an important resource in the Portland, Oregon, metropolitan area. Johnson Creek forms a wildlife and recreational corridor through densely populated areas of the cities of Milwaukie, Portland, and Gresham, and rural and agricultural areas of Multnomah and Clackamas Counties. The basin has changed as a result of agricultural and urban development, stream channelization, and construction of roads, drains, and other features characteristic of human occupation. Flooding of Johnson Creek is a concern for the public and for water management officials. The interaction of the groundwater and surface-water systems in the Johnson Creek basin also is important. The occurrence of flooding from high groundwater discharge and from a rising water table prompted this study. As the Portland metropolitan area continues to grow, human-induced effects on streams in the Johnson Creek basin will continue. This report provides information on the groundwater and surface-water systems over a range of hydrologic conditions, as well as the interaction these of systems, and will aid in management of water resources in the area. High and low flows of Crystal Springs Creek, a tributary to Johnson Creek, were explained by streamflow and groundwater levels collected for this study, and results from previous studies. High flows of Crystal Springs Creek began in summer 1996, and did not diminish until 2000. Low streamflow of Crystal Springs Creek occurred in 2005. Flow of Crystal Springs Creek related to water-level fluctuations in a nearby well, enabling prediction of streamflow based on groundwater level. Holgate Lake is an ephemeral lake in Southeast Portland that has inundated residential areas several times since the 1940s. The water-surface elevation of the lake closely tracked the elevation of the water table in a nearby well, indicating that the occurrence of the lake is an expression of the water table. Antecedent conditions of the groundwater level and autumn

  18. Coal tar, material used in soil improvement for use in road engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa Díaz, R.; Montañez, A.; Cuentas, J.

    2016-02-01

    Coal tar is a by-product of coal distillation in the absence of oxygen to obtain metallurgical coke; its colour varies from dark coffee to black, slightly viscous and its density is greater than that of water. Taking into account the previous characteristics, this document presents a study of the feasibility of using coal tar for the improvement of physical properties, mechanics and dynamics of materials used in road engineering. In this way, the origin, characteristics, and properties of tar are first described. Next, its combination with which granular-based material is evaluated through the CBR test procedure to determine its resistance and to compare it with the non-stabilized material. Finally, the behaviour of the material when subjected to dead loads by means of resistant modules found with the NAT (Nottingham Asphalt Tester) is explored. As a result, the option of using coal tar as a stabilizer was identified due to its use under specific conditions.

  19. Upgrading producer gas quality from rubber wood gasification in a radio frequency tar thermocatalytic treatment reactor.

    PubMed

    Anis, Samsudin; Zainal, Z A

    2013-12-01

    This study focused on improving the producer gas quality using radio frequency (RF) tar thermocatalytic treatment reactor. The producer gas containing tar, particles and water was directly passed at a particular flow rate into the RF reactor at various temperatures for catalytic and thermal treatments. Thermal treatment generates higher heating value of 5.76 MJ Nm(-3) at 1200°C. Catalytic treatments using both dolomite and Y-zeolite provide high tar and particles conversion efficiencies of about 97% on average. The result also showed that light poly-aromatic hydrocarbons especially naphthalene and aromatic compounds particularly benzene and toluene were still found even at higher reaction temperatures. Low energy intensive RF tar thermocatalytic treatment was found to be effective for upgrading the producer gas quality to meet the end user requirements and increasing its energy content.

  20. Deciphering structure-activity relationships in a series of Tat/TAR inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pascale, Lise; González, Alejandro López; Di Giorgio, Audrey; Gaysinski, Marc; Teixido Closa, Jordi; Tejedor, Roger Estrada; Azoulay, Stéphane; Patino, Nadia

    2016-11-01

    A series of pentameric "Polyamide Amino Acids" (PAAs) compounds derived from the same trimeric precursor have been synthesized and investigated as HIV TAR RNA ligands, in the absence and in the presence of a Tat fragment. All PAAs bind TAR with similar sub-micromolar affinities but their ability to compete efficiently with the Tat fragment strongly differs, IC50 ranging from 35 nM to >2 μM. While NMR and CD studies reveal that all PAA interact with TAR at the same site and induce globally the same RNA conformational change upon binding, a comparative thermodynamic study of PAA/TAR equilibria highlights distinct TAR binding modes for Tat competitor and non-competitor PAAs. This led us to suggest two distinct interaction modes that have been further validated by molecular modeling studies. While the binding of Tat competitor PAAs induces a contraction at the TAR bulge region, the binding of non-competitor ones widens it. This could account for the distinct PAA ability to compete with Tat fragment. Our work illustrates how comparative thermodynamic studies of a series of RNA ligands of same chemical family are of value for understanding their binding modes and for rationalizing structure-activity relationships.

  1. Hydrologic Data from the Study of Acidic Contamination in the Miami Wash-Pinal Creek Area, Arizona, Water Years 1997-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konieczki, A.D.; Brown, J.G.; Parker, J.T.C.

    2008-01-01

    Since 1984, hydrologic data have been collected as part of a U.S. Geological Survey study of the occurrence and movement of acidic contamination in the aquifer and streams of the Pinal Creek drainage basin near Globe, Arizona. Ground-water data from that study are presented for water years 1997 through 2004 and include location, construction information, site plans, water levels, chemical and physical field measurements, and selected chemical analyses of water samples for 31 project wells. Hydrographs of depth to ground water are also included. Surface-water data for four sites are also presented and include selected chemical analyses of water samples. Monthly precipitation data and long-term precipitation statistics are presented for two sites. Chemical analyses of samples collected from the stream and shallow ground water in the perennial reach of Pinal Creek are also included.

  2. Analysis of coal tar pitch and smoke extract components and their cytotoxicity on human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhitao; Wu, Yongjun; Zhao, Yong; Wang, Lixia; Zhu, Hansong; Qin, Lijuan; Feng, Feifei; Wang, Wei; Wu, Yiming

    2011-02-28

    Coal tar pitch and its smoke are considered hazardous by-products and common pollutant generated from coal industry processing. In this study, coal tar pitch and its smoke extracts were characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with dimethylsulfoxide. We identified only 0.3025% of components in the total coal tar pitch using GC/MS. Among 18 identified compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has the highest relative abundance (0.19%). The remaining components were composed of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic compounds and alkenes. In contrast, among 38 coal tar pitch smoke extract constituents that have been profiled, 87.91% were PAHs, and the remaining 12.09% were composed of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic compounds and alkenes. The cytotoxic effect of coal tar pitch and its smoke extracts on BEAS-2B cells were also evaluated by MTT assay. BEAS-2B cells exposed to coal tar pitch showed a non dose-dependent U-shaped cytotoxicity with a dosage for maximal inhibitory of 3.75 mg/L. In contrast, BEAS-2B cells exposed to coal tar pitch smoke extracts showed a dose dependent cytotoxicity with a LC(50) of 8.64 mg/L. Our study demonstrated the significant different composition and cytotoxicity of coal tar pitch and its extracts, suggesting two different underlying mechanisms that are pending future investigation.

  3. Overcoming Murphy`s Law to gain ERP - a case study at Gibbons Creek Lignite Mine, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Lancaster, E.M.; Horbaczewski, J.K.

    1997-12-31

    As of January 1997, there are 2,586 acres of reclaimed land in the Extended Responsibility Period (ERP) at Gibbons Creek Lignite Mine, Texas. This achievement has taken approximately five years to accomplish - from 1991 to 1996. During this period, there were a number of issues, some of which appeared to follow Murphy`s Law (whatever can go wrong, will go wrong!). For example, the ERP candidate areas were split among three permit areas, which first had to be consolidated to facilitate the ERP process. Minesoil issues, identified as ERP prerequisites, became entangled in an overall renewal/revision of the newly-consolidated Permit 26B. Special-purpose vegetation studies were performed to investigate the effects of different minesoil textures. In the meantime, small depressional areas, wetland/wildlife enhancement areas, reclamation ponds and restored drainages became the subjects of attention from landowners and regulatory agencies. Some of these structures and features were subsequently reclaimed; others were approved via the permitting process. In some cases, the only way out of the impasse was through land acquisition. Finally, after all these issues had been resolved, an unforeseen oil-well drilling program crisscrossed the proposed ERP areas with a network of oil well pads and service roads, requiring a post-mining land use change. Eventually, whatever could go wrong, went right, and entry of lands into ERP was accomplished.

  4. Geology and coal resources of the Hanging Woman Creek Study Area, Big Horn and Powder River Counties, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Culbertson, William Craven; Hatch, Joseph R.; Affolter, Ronald H.

    1978-01-01

    In an area of 7,200 acres (29 sq km) In the Hanging Woman Creek study area, the Anderson coal bed contains potentially surface minable resources of 378 million short tons (343 million metric tons) of subbituminous C coal that ranges in thickness from 26 to 33 feet (7.9-10.1 m) at depths of less than 200 feet (60 m). Additional potentially surface minable resources of 55 million short tons (50 million metric tons) are contained in the 9-12 foot (2.7-3.7 m) thick Dietz coal bed which lies 50-100 feet (15-30 m) below the Anderson. Analyses of coal from 5 core holes indicates that the Anderson bed contains 0.4 percent sulfur, 5 percent ash, and has a heating value of 8,540 Btu/lb (4,750 Kcal/kg). The trace element content of the coal is generally similar to other coals in the Powder River Basin. The two coal beds are in the Fort Union Formation of Paleocene age which consists of sandstone, siltstone, shale, coal beds, and locally impure limestone. A northeast-trending normal fault through the middle of the area, downthrown on the southeast side, has displaced the generally flat lying strata as much as 300 feet (91 m). Most of the minable coal lies northwest of this fault.

  5. Gain-loss study of lower San Pedro Creek and the San Antonio River, San Antonio, Texas, May-October 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ockerman, Darwin J.

    2002-01-01

    Five streamflow gain-loss measurement surveys were made along lower San Pedro Creek and the San Antonio River from Mitchell Street to South Loop 410 east of Kelly Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas, during May–October 1999. All of the measurements were made during dry periods, when stormwater runoff was not occurring and effects of possible bank storage were minimized. San Pedro Creek and the San Antonio River were divided into six subreaches, and streamflow measurements were made simultaneously at the boundaries of these subreaches so that streamflow gains or losses and estimates of inflow from or outflow to shallow ground water could be quantified for each subreach. There are two possible sources of ground-water inflow to lower San Pedro Creek and the San Antonio River east of Kelly Air Force Base. One source is direct inflow of shallow ground water into the streams. The other source is ground water that enters tributaries that flow into the San Antonio River. The estimated mean direct inflow of ground water to the combined San Pedro Creek and San Antonio River study reach was 3.0 cubic feet per second or 1.9 million gallons per day. The mean tributary inflow of ground water was estimated to be 1.9 cubic feet per second or 1.2 million gallons per day. The total estimated inflow of shallow ground water was 4.9 cubic feet per second or 3.2 million gallons per day. The amount of inflow from springs and seeps (estimated by observation) is much less than the amount of direct ground-water inflow estimated from the gain-loss measurements. Therefore, the presence of springs and seeps might not be a reliable indicator of the source of shallow ground water entering the river. Most of the shallow ground water that enters the San Antonio River from tributary inflow enters from the west side, through Concepcion Creek, inflows near Riverside Golf Course, and Six-Mile Creek

  6. Engineering and Environmental Study of DDT Contamination of Huntsville Spring Branch, Indian Creek and Adjacent Lands and Waters, Wheeler Reservoir, Alabama. Revision,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    AD-A142 517 ENGINEERING AND ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY OF DDT CONTAMINATION OF HUNTSVILLE SP..(U) WATER AND AIR RESEARCH INC GAINESVILLE FL d H...DDT Con- tamination of Huntsville Spring Branch, Indian Creek and Adjacent Lands and Waters , Wheeler Reservoir, Alabama a. i irk ut iPOR...Pruitt and J. C. Nichols 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER)» DACW01-79-C-0224 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS Water and Air Research

  7. Shell Creek Summers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seier, Mark; Goedeken, Suzy

    2005-01-01

    In 2002 Shell Creek Watershed Improvement Group turned to the Newman Grove Public Schools' science department to help educate the public on water quality in the watershed and to establish a monitoring system that would be used to improve surface and groundwater quality in the creek's watershed. Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality provided…

  8. Flood-induced transport of PAHs from streambed coal tar deposits.

    PubMed

    Vulava, Vijay M; Vaughn, D Syreeta; McKay, Larry D; Driese, Steven G; Cooper, Lee W; Menn, Fu-Min; Levine, Norman S; Sayler, Gary S

    2017-01-01

    We assessed whether coal tar present in contaminated streambed sediments can be mobilized by flood events and be re-deposited in an adjacent floodplain. The study was conducted within a contaminated urban stream where coal tar wastes were released into a 4-km reach from a coke plant in Chattanooga, Tennessee, USA. Sediments containing visible amounts of coal tar were dredged from the streambed in 1997-98 and 2007 as part of a cleanup effort. However, post-dredging sampling indicated that very high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) remained in streambed sediments. Sampling of sediments in the floodplain at two sites downstream of the coke plant indicated that high concentrations of PAHs were also present in the floodplain, even though no coal tar was observed in the samples. Age-dating of the floodplain sediments using (137)Cs indicated that peak PAH concentrations were contemporary with coke plant operations. While there was little or any direct contamination of the floodplain sediments by coal tar, sediment contamination was likely a result of deposition of suspended streambed sediments containing sorbed PAHs. A flood model developed to delineate the extent of flooding in various flood recurrence scenarios confirmed the potential for contaminated streambed sediments to be transported into the adjacent floodplain. It was hypothesized that coal tar, which was visibly "sticky" during dredging-based stream cleanup, may act as a binding agent for streambed sediments, decreasing mobility and transport in the stream. Therefore, coal tar is likely to remain a persistent contaminant source for downstream reaches of the stream and the adjacent floodplain during flood events. This study also showed that even after excavation of tar-rich streambed sediments, PAH contaminated non-tarry sediments may be a source of flood-related contamination in the adjacent flood plain. A conceptual framework was developed to delineate specific mechanisms that can

  9. Bioventing PAH contamination at the Reilly Tar Site

    SciTech Connect

    Alleman, B.C.; Hinchee, R.E.; Brenner, R.C.; McCauley, P.T.

    1995-12-31

    A pilot-scale bioventing demonstration has been in progress since November 1992 to determine if bioventing is an effective remediation treatment for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The Reilly Tar and Chemical Corporation site in St. Louis Park, Minnesota, was selected for this demonstration. The location is the site of a former coal tar refinery and wood-preserving facility at which creosote in mineral oil served as the primary preservative. The goal of the project is to achieve 10% greater PAH removal over background degradation for each year of the 3-year study. Respiration measurements were made to estimate PAH biodegradation as a means of monitoring the progress of the technology. These measurements indicated that 13.4% and 17.3% degradation of the total PAH was possible during the first year and second year, respectively. Although not all of the respiration can be attributed conclusively to PAH metabolism, strong correlations were found between the PAH concentration and biodegradation rates.

  10. Ground-water levels and flow at selected study sites in the Walnut Creek Management System Evaluation Area, Boone and Story counties, Iowa, 1991-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchmiller, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Data collected from May 1991 through September 1993 to determine seasonal fluctuations in ground-water levels and to estimate directions of ground-water flow in the saturated zone at selected study sites at the Iowa Management Systems Evaluation Area in the Walnut Creek Watershed are presented. The Walnut Creek Watershed is located on glacial deposits of Wisconsinan age in central Iowa and includes about 20 square miles. The upper glacial materials appear to be supraglacial tills rather than basal glacial tills and contain both oxidized and unoxidized zones. Water levels were measured in 102 wells from 38 locations at 7 study sites in the watershed. Water levels fluctuated in response to local climatic conditions and ranged from at or near the land surface to more than 30 feet below land surface. In general, ground water flowed towards Walnut Creek or large drainage tiles. Potentiometric-surface maps at the selected study sites can be used to determine which locations might be affected by agricultural management practices in place at each site.

  11. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report, December 1981-February 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

    1982-08-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Competition among the species is being analyzed. In the winter of 1981, the generating station experienced a prolonged outage. The reproductive cycle of the shipworms was not extended. Teredo bartschi was very abundant at one station in Oyster Creek and moderately abundant at a second, but did not exist elsewhere in Barnegat Bay. Some specimens of Teredo bartschi contained larvae in the gills in February. According to laboratory experiments, Teredo navalis is able to remain active at temperatures as low as 4/sup 0/C, whereas T. bartschi ceases activity (withdraws its siphons) at about 13/sup 0/C. 12 tables.

  12. Flood discharges and hydraulics near the mouths of Wolf Creek, Craig Branch, Manns Creek, Dunloup Creek, and Mill Creek in the New River Gorge National River, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiley, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, studied the frequency and magnitude of flooding near the mouths of five tributaries to the New River in the New River Gorge National River. The 100-year peak discharge at each tributary was determined from regional frequency equations. The 100-year discharge at Wolf Creek, Craig Branch, Manns Creek, Dunloup Creek, and Mill Creek was 3,400 cubic feet per second, 640 cubic feet per second, 8,200 cubic feet per second, 7,100 cubic feet per second, and 9,400 cubic feet per second, respectively. Flood elevations for each tributary were determined by application of a steady-state, one-dimensional flow model. Manning's roughness coefficients for the stream channels ranged from 0.040 to 0.100. Bridges that would be unable to contain the 100-year flood within the bridge opening included: the State Highway 82 bridge on Wolf Creek, the second Fayette County Highway 25 bridge upstream from the confluence with New River on Dunloup Creek, and an abandoned log bridge on Mill Creek.

  13. Traditional Tar Production from the Anatolian Black Pine [Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe var. pallasiana] and its usages in Afyonkarahisar, Central Western Turkey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tar is one example of a plant product used in folk medicine and it is obtained from Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe, which is very common in the West Anatolian Region. Old trees that are good for kindling and have thick trucks are preferred to obtain tar. Tar is used not only as traditional medicine but also for protection against both endoparasites and ectoparasites. The objective of this study was to record the traditional method of obtaining tar and its usages in Afyonkarahisar which is located in the Western Anatolian Region of Turkey. Methods In order to record the traditional methods of obtaining tar, we visited the villages of Doğlat, Kürtyurdu and Çatağıl in Afyonkarahisar (Turkey) June-July, 2012. Ethnobotanical data about the method of collection and traditional usages of tar were obtained through informal interviews with 26 participants (16 men and 10 women). Data concerning the method of tar collection and its traditional usages were recorded and photographed. Results The traditional method for obtaining tar from Pinus nigra subsp. pallasiana by local people was recorded and the local usages (curing ear pain in children, osteomyelitis, wounds, ulcers, eczema, acne, alopecia, fungus, foot-and-mouth disease in animals, mouth sores in sheep and goats, protection against endo- and ectoparasites, repellent for snakes, mice, flies (Tabanus bovinus) and ticks, and the prevention of water leakage from roofs) of tar are described. Conclusion In this study, the traditional method for obtaining tar and the traditional usages of tar are explained. Documentation of the method of obtaining tar and its traditional usages may contribute to scientific research on the benefits and usages of tar in medicine, veterinary medicine, as well as other fields. PMID:24673846

  14. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 4. Information related to the feasibility study and ARARs. Appendixes G, H, I

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

  15. Recognition of HIV-TAR RNA using neomycin-benzimidazole conjugates.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Nihar; Kumar, Sunil; Watkins, Derrick; Wang, Deyun; Appella, Daniel H; Arya, Dev P

    2013-10-15

    Synthesis of a novel class of compounds and their biophysical studies with TAR-RNA are presented. The synthesis of these compounds was achieved by conjugating neomycin, an aminoglycoside, with benzimidazoles modeled from a B-DNA minor groove binder, Hoechst 33258. The neomycin-benzimidazole conjugates have varying linkers that connect the benzimidazole and neomycin units. The linkers of varying length (5-23 atoms) in these conjugates contain one to three triazole units. The UV thermal denaturation experiments showed that the conjugates resulted in greater stabilization of the TAR-RNA than either neomycin or benzimidazole used in the synthesis of conjugates. These results were corroborated by the FID displacement and tat-TAR inhibition assays. The binding of ligands to the TAR-RNA is affected by the length and composition of the linker. Our results show that increasing the number of triazole groups and the linker length in these compounds have diminishing effect on the binding to TAR-RNA. Compounds that have shorter linker length and fewer triazole units in the linker displayed increased affinity towards the TAR RNA.

  16. Toxicity of coal-tar pavement sealants and ultraviolet radiation to Ambystoma Maculatum.

    PubMed

    Bommarito, Thomas; Sparling, Donald W; Halbrook, Richard S

    2010-08-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can affect amphibians in lethal and many sublethal ways. There are many natural and anthropogenic sources of PAHs in aquatic environments. One potentially significant source is run off from surfaces of parking lots and roads that are protected with coal tar sealants. Coal tar is 50% or more PAH by wet weight and is used in emulsions to treat these surfaces. Break down of sealants can result in contamination of nearby waters. The toxicity of PAHs can be greatly altered by simultaneous exposure to ultraviolet radiation. This study exposes larvae of the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) to determine if coal tar sealant can have negative effects on aquatic amphibians and if coal tar toxicity is influenced by ultraviolet radiation. Spotted salamanders were exposed to 0, 60, 280 and 1500 mg coal tar sealant/kg sediment for 28 days. Half of the animals were exposed to conventional fluorescent lighting only and half were exposed to fluorescent lighting plus ultraviolet radiation. No significant mortality occurred during the experiment. Exposure to sealants resulted in slower rates of growth, and diminished ability to swim in a dose-dependent fashion. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation affected the frequencies of leukocytes and increased the incidence of micronucleated erythrocytes. There was an interactive effect of sealant and radiation on swimming behavior. We conclude that coal-tar sealant and ultraviolet radiation increased sublethal effects in salamanders, and may be a risk to salamanders under field conditions.

  17. Reduced tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide exposure while smoking ultralow- but not low-yield cigarettes

    SciTech Connect

    Benowitz, N.L.; Jacob, P. III; Yu, L.; Talcott, R.; Hall, S.; Jones, R.T.

    1986-07-11

    An unresolved public health issue is whether some modern cigarettes are less hazardous than other and whether patients who cannot stop smoking should be advised to switch to lower-yield cigarettes. The authors studied tar (estimated by urine mutagenicity), nicotine, and carbon monoxide exposure in habitual smokers switched from their usual brand to high- (15 mg of tar), low- (5 mg of tar), or ultralow-yield (1 mg of tar) cigarettes. There were no differences in exposure comparing high- or low-yield cigarettes, but tar and nicotine exposures were reduced by 49% and 56%, respectively, and carbon monoxide exposure by 36% while smoking ultralow-yield cigarettes. Similarly, in 248 subjects smoking their self-selected brand, nicotine intake, estimated by blood concentrations of its metabolite continine, was 40% lower in those who smoked ultralow but no different in those smoking higher yields of cigarettes. The data indicate that ultralow-yield cigarettes do deliver substantial doses of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide, but that exposure are considerably less than for other cigarettes.

  18. Pulse Dipolar ESR of Doubly Labeled Mini TAR DNA and Its Annealing to Mini TAR RNA

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yan; Borbat, Peter P.; Grigoryants, Vladimir M.; Myers, William K.; Freed, Jack H.; Scholes, Charles P.

    2015-01-01

    Pulse dipolar electron-spin resonance in the form of double electron electron resonance was applied to strategically placed, site-specifically attached pairs of nitroxide spin labels to monitor changes in the mini TAR DNA stem-loop structure brought on by the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein NCp7. The biophysical structural evidence was at Ångstrom-level resolution under solution conditions not amenable to crystallography or NMR. In the absence of complementary TAR RNA, double labels located in both the upper and the lower stem of mini TAR DNA showed in the presence of NCp7 a broadened distance distribution between the points of attachment, and there was evidence for several conformers. Next, when equimolar amounts of mini TAR DNA and complementary mini TAR RNA were present, NCp7 enhanced the annealing of their stem-loop structures to form duplex DNA-RNA. When duplex TAR DNA-TAR RNA formed, double labels initially located 27.5 Å apart at the 3′- and 5′-termini of the 27-base mini TAR DNA relocated to opposite ends of a 27 bp RNA-DNA duplex with 76.5 Å between labels, a distance which was consistent with the distance between the two labels in a thermally annealed 27-bp TAR DNA-TAR RNA duplex. Different sets of double labels initially located 26–27 Å apart in the mini TAR DNA upper stem, appropriately altered their interlabel distance to ∼35 Å when a 27 bp TAR DNA-TAR RNA duplex formed, where the formation was caused either through NCp7-induced annealing or by thermal annealing. In summary, clear structural evidence was obtained for the fraying and destabilization brought on by NCp7 in its biochemical function as an annealing agent and for the detailed structural change from stem-loop to duplex RNA-DNA when complementary RNA was present. PMID:25692594

  19. HIV-1 Nucleocapsid Protein Switches the Pathway of TAR RNA/DNA Annealing from Loop-Loop “Kissing” to “Zipper”

    PubMed Central

    Vo, My-Nuong; Barany, George; Rouzina, Ioulia; Musier-Forsyth, Karin

    2009-01-01

    Summary The chaperone activity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) nucleocapsid protein (NC) facilitates multiple nucleic acid rearrangements that are critical for reverse transcription of the single-stranded RNA genome into double-stranded DNA. Annealing of the trans-activation response element (TAR) RNA hairpin to a complementary TAR DNA hairpin is an essential step in the minus-strand transfer step of reverse transcription. Previously, we used truncated 27-nucleotide (nt) mini-TAR RNA and DNA constructs to investigate this annealing reaction pathway in the presence and absence of HIV-1 NC. In this work, full-length 59-nt TAR RNA and TAR DNA constructs were used to systematically study TAR hairpin annealing kinetics. In the absence of NC, full-length TAR hairpin annealing is ∼10-fold slower than mini-TAR annealing. Similar to mini-TAR annealing, the reaction pathway for TAR in the absence of NC involves the fast formation of an unstable “kissing” loop intermediate, followed by a slower conversion to an extended duplex. NC facilitates the annealing of TAR by ∼105-fold by stabilizing the bimolecular intermediate (∼104-fold) and promoting the subsequent exchange reaction (∼10-fold). In contrast to the mini-TAR annealing pathway, wherein NC-mediated annealing can initiate through both loop-loop kissing and a distinct “zipper” pathway involving nucleation at the 3′/5′ terminal ends, full-length TAR hairpin annealing switches predominantly to the zipper pathway in the presence of saturated NC. PMID:19154737

  20. Integrated Biomass Gasification with Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Selective Tar Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Lingzhi; Wei, Wei; Manke, Jeff; Vazquez, Arturo; Thompson, Jeff; Thompson, Mark

    2011-05-28

    . Major milestones include identification of syngas cleaning requirements for proposed system design, identification and selection of tar compounds and 2 mixtures for use in CPO tests, and preparation of CPO catalysts for validation. (Q3 2009 ~ Q4 2009) - Task C: Test CPO with biomass gasification product gas. Optimize CPO performance with selected tar compounds. Optimize CPO performance with multi-component mixtures. Milestones include optimizing CPO catalysts design, collecting CPO experimental data for next stage kinetic modeling and understanding the effect of relative reactivities on ultimate tar conversion and syngas yields. (Q1 2010 ~ Q3 2010) - Task D: Develop tar CPO kinetic model with CPO kinetic model and modeling results as deliverables. (Q3 2010 ~ Q2 2011) - Task E: Project management and reporting. Milestone: Quarterly reports and presentations, final report, work presented at national technical conferences (Q1 2009 ~ Q2 2011) At the beginning of the program, IP landscaping was conducted to understand the operation of various types of biomass gasifiers, their unique syngas/tar compositions and potential tar mitigation options using the catalytic partial oxidation technology. A process simulation model was developed to quantify the system performance and economics impact of CPO tar removal technology. Biomass gasification product compositions used for performance evaluation tests were identified after literature review and system modeling. A reaction system for tar conversion tests was designed, constructed, with each individual component shaken-down in 2009. In parallel, University of Minnesota built a lab-scale unit and evaluated the tar removal performance using catalytic reforming. Benzene was used as the surrogate compound. The biomass gasification raw syngas composition was provided by GE through system studies. In 2010, GE selected different tar compounds and evaluated the tar removal effectiveness of the CPO catalyst. The catalytic performance was

  1. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report, June-August 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.

    1982-12-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Competition among the species is being analyzed. Adult populations of Teredo bartschi existed in both Oyster Creek and Forked River in the summer of 1982, but the species was rare. There was no large settlement of this or any other teredinid species in Barnegat Bay. Teredo navalis was the most common species in the monthly panels. The fouling community reached its maximum yearly diversity in June-July. There was a thermal effluent causing a ..delta..T of 3 to 4/sup 0/C during most of the summer, and salinity in Oyster Creek and Forked River was similar to that of Barnegat Bay. The lack of a shipworm outbreak in 1982 may be related to the low ..delta..T in summer, plus the lack of a thermal effluent in the preceding winter-spring period.

  2. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 1, main text

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This document is the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit (CR/PC OU), an off-site OU associated with environmental restoration activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). As a result of past, present, and potential future releases of hazardous substances into the environment, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List in December 1989 (54 FR 48184). Sites on this list must be investigated for possible remedial action, as required by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, 42 U.S.C. 9601, et seq.). This report documents the findings of the remedial investigation of this OU and the feasibility of potential remedial action alternatives. These studies are authorized by Sect. 117 of CERCLA and were conducted in accordance with the requirements of the National Contingency Plan (40 CFR Part 300). DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) have entered into a Federal Facility Agreement (FFA), as authorized by Sect. 120 of CERCLA and Sects. 3008(h) and 6001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (42 U.S.C. 6901, et seq.). The purpose of this agreement is to ensure a coordinated and effective response for all environmental restoration activities occurring at the ORR. In addition to other responsibilities, the FFA parties mutually define the OU boundaries, set remediation priorities, establish remedial investigation priorities and strategies, and identify and select remedial actions. A copy of this FFA is available from the DOE Information Resource Center in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

  3. The search for a source rock for the giant Tar Sand triangle accumulation, southeastern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huntoon, J.E.; Hansley, P.L.; Naeser, N.D.

    1999-01-01

    for the White Rim oil. The most attractive potential sources for White Rim oil include beds within one or more of the following formations: the Proterozoic Chuar Group, which is present in the subsurface southwest of the Tar Sand triangle; the Mississippian Delle Phosphatic Member of the Deseret Limestone and equivalent formations, the Permian Kaibab Limestone, the Sinbad Limestone Member of the Triassic Moenkopi Formation, and the Jurassic Arapien Shale, Twin Creek Limestone, and Carmel Formation, which are present west of the Tar Sand triangle; the Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation in the Paradox basin east of the Tar Sand triangle; and the Permian Park City Formation northwest of the Tar Sand triangle. Each formation has a high total organic carbon content and is distributed over a wide enough geographic area to have provided a huge volume of oil. Source beds in all of the formations reached thermal maturity at times prior to or during the time that migration into the White Rim is interpreted to have occurred. Based on all available data, the most likely source for the Tar Sand triangle appears to be the Mississippian Delle Phosphatic Member of the Deseret Limestone. Secondary migration out of the Delle is interpreted to have occurred during the Cretaceous, during Sevier thrusting. Subsequent tertiary migration into the Tar Sand triangle reservoir is interpreted to have occurred later, during middle Tertiary Laramide deformation.

  4. Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations

    DOEpatents

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

    2010-06-08

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

  5. Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations

    DOEpatents

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

    2012-06-05

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons including mobilized hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

  6. Sensitivity of Orographic Moist Convection to Landscape Variability: A Study of the Buffalo Creek, Colorado, Flash Flood Case of 1996.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fei; Warner, Thomas T.; Manning, Kevin

    2001-11-01

    A number of numerical experiments with a high-resolution mesoscale model were conducted to study the convective rainfall event that caused the 1996 Buffalo Creek, Colorado, flash flood. Different surface conditions and treatments of land surface physics were utilized to assess the sensitivity of this orographic moist convection to local and regional landscape forcing.Given accurate large-scale synoptic conditions at the lateral boundaries, the mesoscale model with a convection-resolving grid shows reasonably good skill in simulating this convective event with a lead time of up to 12 h. Sensitivity experiments show that a primary reason for this success is the use of an advanced land surface model that provides time-varying soil-moisture fields. This land surface model plays an important role in capturing the complex interactions among the land surface, the PBL, cloud-modulated radiation, and precipitation. For the case simulated, such interactions contribute to the temporal and spatial distribution of surface heating at small scales, and the convective triggering and development.Tests show that the landscape variability at small and large scales significantly affects the location and intensity of the moist convection. For example, on timescales of 6 to 12 h, differences in initial soil moisture associated with irrigation in the plains affect the evolution of the convection near the Continental Divide. Also, the surface modification by a wildfire burn influences the path of the major convective event that caused the flash flood.A watershed-based quantitative-precipitation-forecast skill score is proposed and employed. The relative success with which this severe thunderstorm is simulated over complex terrain provides some hope that the careful treatment of land surface physics in convection-resolving models can perhaps provide some useful level of predictability.

  7. An Integrated Organic-Inorganic Geochemical Study of the 1.64 Ga Barney Creek Formation in Australia (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, A. E.; Love, G. D.; Lyons, T. W.; Anbar, A. D.

    2010-12-01

    The chemistry and redox structure of the ancient ocean played a key role in influencing the evolution of life throughout Earth’s history. Surface waters in the mid-Proterozoic ocean (~1.0-1.7 billion years old [Ga]) were likely oxygenated, while deeper anoxic waters contained metastable sulfidic (euxinic) zones at intermediate depths, which constitute a hostile aquatic environment for eukaryotes. Hydrocarbon biomarkers provide a means of analyzing both microbial communities and paleoenvironmental redox conditions. Iron (Fe) proxies are the most effective inorganic proxy for delineating ancient euxinia on the local scale and do not require photic-zone depths for the sulfidic waters. Additionally, Fe proxies allow us to distinguish between anoxic and oxic waters and Fe-rich (ferruginous) from euxinic conditions, the latter characterized by free sulfide in the water column. Viewing these parameters in an integrated fashion for the first time, we can explore the backdrop of ocean redox during the evolution of eukaryotes, fully revealing the complex redox structure and paleoecology. A suite of thermally well-preserved mid-Proterozoic sedimentary rocks collected from drill core of the 1.64 Ga Barney Creek Formation, spanning a range of depositional facies, has been studied using detailed biomarker and inorganic geochemical redox proxies. Iron speciation data indicate burial of the sediments under periodically euxinic conditions. Our biomarker data clearly show the presence of two organic facies and include bacterially-derived hopanes and much lower concentrations of dinosteranes with an absence of detectable regular steranes. In addition, in both the free bitumens and corresponding kerogen hydropyrolysates, the pattern of dinosterane isomers to 4α-methyl-24-ethylcholestane abundance is markedly different in the Barney Creek samples compared to typical Phanerozoic methylsterane patterns. Though both dinosteranes and 4α-methyl-24-ethylcholestane are diagnostic of

  8. Hydrologic study and evaluation of Ish Creek watershed (West Chestnut Ridge proposed disposal site)

    SciTech Connect

    Huff, D.D.; Elmore, J.L.; Farmer, D.C.

    1984-03-01

    As part of site characterization work for the proposed West Chestnut Ridge Central Waste Disposal Facility, hydrologic information has been assembled from literature sources and direct field measurements. Earlier studies provide the basis for estimating flow frequency and expected high and low flows for catchments on Knox Group formations. Seven waterflow-gaging installations were established and used to characterize runoff patterns in the study area. Based on findings of this study, a practical design capacity for a flume to measure site runoff would range between 1 and 3000 L/s, although flows up to 4500 L/s (10-year recurrence interval) may be encountered. 7 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

  9. San Mateo Creek Basin

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The San Mateo Creek Basin comprises approximately 321 square miles within the Rio San Jose drainage basin in McKinley and Cibola counties, New Mexico. This basin is located within the Grants Mining District (GMD).

  10. Partridge Creek Diversion Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Goal: prevent mercury contamination by keeping the creek from flowing through a mine pit. The project improved brook trout habitat, green infrastructure, the local economy, and decreased human health risks. Includes before-and-after photos.

  11. 7 CFR 3201.76 - Asphalt and tar removers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Asphalt and tar removers. 3201.76 Section 3201.76... Designated Items § 3201.76 Asphalt and tar removers. (a) Definition. Cleaning agents designed to remove asphalt or tar from equipment, roads, or other surfaces. (b) Minimum biobased content. The...

  12. 7 CFR 3201.76 - Asphalt and tar removers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Asphalt and tar removers. 3201.76 Section 3201.76... Designated Items § 3201.76 Asphalt and tar removers. (a) Definition. Cleaning agents designed to remove asphalt or tar from equipment, roads, or other surfaces. (b) Minimum biobased content. The...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10532 - Tar, brown coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tar, brown coal. 721.10532 Section 721... Tar, brown coal. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as tar, brown coal (PMN P-12-167, CAS No. 101316-83-0) is subject...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10532 - Tar, brown coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tar, brown coal. 721.10532 Section 721... Tar, brown coal. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as tar, brown coal (PMN P-12-167, CAS No. 101316-83-0) is subject...

  15. Best Practices Case Study: Insight Homes - Seaford, DE, Deep Creek, DE

    SciTech Connect

    2011-09-01

    Case Study of Insight Homes who built 36 identical houses, three at a time, with increasing energy-efficiency measures in each generation until they arrived at the most cost-effective mix. Advanced framing and high-efficiency HVAC located in a sealed, insulated crawlspace helped them achieve a HERS scores of 49 to 56 and average utility bills of $93 per year.

  16. Best Practices Case Study: Schneider Homes, Inc. - Village at Miller Creek, Burien, W

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-09-01

    Case study of Schneider Homes, who achieved 50% savings over the 2004 IECC with analysis and recommendations from DOE’s Building America including moving ducts and furnace into conditioned space, R-23 blown fiberglass in the walls and R-38 in the attics, and high-performance HVAC, lighting, appliances, and windows.

  17. Cancer risk estimation for mixtures of coal tars and benzo(a)pyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Gaylor, D.W.; Culp, S.J.; Goldstein, L.S.; Beland, F.A.

    2000-02-01

    Two-year chronic bioassays were conducted by using B6C3F1 female mice fed several concentrations of two different mixtures of coal tars from manufactured gas waste sites or benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). The purpose of the study was to obtain estimates of cancer potency of coal tar mixtures, by using conventional regulatory methods, for use in manufactured gas waste site remediation. A secondary purpose was to investigate the validity of using the concentration of a single potent carcinogen, in this case benzo(a)pyrene, to estimate the relative risk for a coal tar mixture. The study has shown that BaP dominates the cancer risk when its concentration is greater than 6,300 ppm in the coal tar mixture. In this case the most sensitive tissue site is the forestomach. Using low-dose linear extrapolation, the lifetime cancer risk for humans is estimated to be: Risk < 1.03 x 10{sup {minus}4} (ppm coal tar in total diet) + 240 x 10{sup {minus}4} (ppm BaP in total diet), based on forestomach tumors. If the BaP concentration in the coal tar mixture is less than 6,300 ppm, the more likely case, then lung tumors provide the largest estimated upper limit of risk, Risk < 2.55 x 10{sup {minus}4} (ppm coal tar in total diet), with no contribution of BaP to lung tumors. The upper limit of the cancer potency (slope factor) for lifetime oral exposure to benzo(a)pyrene is 1.2 x 10{sup {minus}3} per {micro}g per kg body weight per day from this Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) study compared with the current value of 7.3 x 10{sup {minus}3} per {micro}g per kg body weight per day listed in the US EPA Integrated Risk Information System.

  18. Cancer risk estimation for mixtures of coal tars and benzo(a)pyrene.

    PubMed

    Gaylor, D W; Culp, S J; Goldstein, L S; Beland, F A

    2000-02-01

    Two-year chronic bioassays were conducted by using B6C3F1 female mice fed several concentrations of two different mixtures of coal tars from manufactured gas waste sites or benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). The purpose of the study was to obtain estimates of cancer potency of coal tar mixtures, by using conventional regulatory methods, for use in manufactured gas waste site remediation. A secondary purpose was to investigate the validity of using the concentration of a single potent carcinogen, in this case benzo(a)pyrene, to estimate the relative risk for a coal tar mixture. The study has shown that BaP dominates the cancer risk when its concentration is greater than 6,300 ppm in the coal tar mixture. In this case the most sensitive tissue site is the forestomach. Using low-dose linear extrapolation, the lifetime cancer risk for humans is estimated to be: Risk < 1.03 x 10(-4) (ppm coal tar in total diet) + 240 x 10(-4) (ppm BaP in total diet), based on forestomach tumors. If the BaP concentration in the coal tar mixture is less than 6,300 ppm, the more likely case, then lung tumors provide the largest estimated upper limit of risk, Risk < 2.55 x 10(-4) (ppm coal tar in total diet), with no contribution of BaP to lung tumors. The upper limit of the cancer potency (slope factor) for lifetime oral exposure to benzo(a)pyrene is 1.2 x 10(-3) per microgram per kg body weight per day from this Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) study compared with the current value of 7.3 x 10(-3) per microgram per kg body weight per day listed in the U.S. EPA Integrated Risk Information System.

  19. Value engineering study report on Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Project. Alternative No. 3

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The project under study is Alternative No. 3 as identified in the Feasibility Study dated August 1994. This alternative is identified as Excavation and Disposal of Commercial/DOE, Other, and Residential Remedial Unit Soil. The assumptions used for generating baseline costs are discussed in site associated costs. It is further described as follows: Soils with mercury concentrations greater than 200 ppM in the Commercial/DOE and Other Remedial Units and greater than 180 ppM in the Residential Remedial Unit [41,300m{sup 3} (54,000yd{sup 3} a volume equivalent to approximately 6,750 dump truck loads)] would be excavated and disposed of in an approved, lined landfill at Y-12 with leachate collection and possible pretreatment of the leachate before discharge. Because 0.6 ha (1.5 acres) of wetland would be destroyed, wetlands banking would occur, whereby a 1.8-ha (4.5-acre) wetland would be constructed on DOE-owned land near K-25. Borrow soil would be obtained from the Y-12 West End Borrow Area or from excess soil located at Y-12 landfills to fill the excavation. It is estimated that 7.3 ha (18.2 acres, and area about the size of 17 football fields) of habitat would be adversely affected. This alternative would use BMPs to minimize any adverse affects and to comply substantively with regulatory requirements.

  20. Biological detoxification of tar-water.

    PubMed

    Jansen, J la C; Jönsson, K; Hagman, M

    2002-01-01

    Gasification is an important option for the swift implementation of biomass combined heat and power processes in the Danish energy supply system. Tar-water produced by the gas-cleaning system of gasifiers may contain substances toxic to nitrifying bacteria. As the gasification plants are small and often located in the catchment area of small wastewater treatment plants, discharge of the tar-water may be critical for wastewater treatment plants operated with nitrogen removal. Tar-water from a full-scale updraft gasifier has been thoroughly examined with respect to inhibition of nitrification and the toxicity for nitrifying bacteria has been evaluated for the dominating constituents in the tar-water. Simple organic substances make up the dominating part of the organic matter but phenol and phenolic compounds are also present in significant concentrations. The identified substances are biologically degradable and it has been demonstrated that most of the organic matter together with the toxicity can be eliminated in an aerobic activated sludge process.

  1. Hydrologic data from the study of acidic contamination in the Miami Wash-Pinal Creek area, Arizona, water years 1994-96

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konieczki, Alice D.; Angeroth, Cory E.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1984, hydrologic data have been collected as part of a U.S. Geological Survey study of the occurrence and movement of acidic contamination in the aquifer and streams of the Pinal Creek drainage basin near Globe, Arizona. Ground-water data from that study are presented for water years 1994, 1995, and 1996 and include location, construction information, site plans, water levels, chemical and physical field measurements, and selected chemical analyses of water samples for nine monitoring well groups. Monthly precipitation data and long-term precipitation statistics are presented for two sites.

  2. Creating a Research Experience in an Undergraduate Geophysics Course: Integrated Geophysical Study of the Silver Creek Fault, Santa Clara Valley, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, D. L.; Williams, R.

    2006-12-01

    An undergraduate geophysics course at the San Jose State University was redesigned to focus on providing students with an integrated research experience that included both formative and summative assessments of learning. To this end, the students carried out four geophysical studies (gravity, magnetic, refraction, and reflection) across the inferred location of the Silver Creek fault, which is buried by the Quaternary alluvium of the Santa Clara Valley within walking distance of the university. The seismic experiments were made possible with equipment loaned by Geometrics Inc. and seismic and borehole data first acquired during a joint study by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Santa Clara Valley Water District. Three field reports, one produced after each of the first three field experiments, provided formative assessment of each student's understanding of the geophysical method, its application to the primary research objective of defining the location and structure of the Silver Creek fault, and their ability to produce a manuscript of professional quality. After each of the field reports, students were required to rewrite the report, based on feedback provided by the instructor, as well as incorporate the analysis and interpretation of the subsequent geophysical study. Students also modified conclusions of the preceding surveys in order to produce an internally consistent interpretation with each new analysis. Regional geologic relations and borehole data provided additional constraints to interpretations based on the geophysical analyses. For summative assessment, students submitted a final manuscript that had undergone three revisions as well as presented an integrated geophysical study of the Silver Creek fault based on the four geophysical experiments. The quality of the field reports showed marked improvement with each successive submission during the semester and were significantly better than in previous versions of the course, which featured various

  3. A retrospective study of the chemical analysis cost for the remediation of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Klatt, L.N.

    1998-06-01

    A retrospective study of the remediation of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee was completed. The study was conducted by reviewing the public Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act record documents associated with the remediation of LEFPC and through discussions with the project staff involved or familiar with the project. The remediation took place in two phases. The first phase involved the excavation of about 5,560 yd{sup 3} of soil at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) locations in 1996. The second phase involved the excavation of 39,200 yd{sup 3} at another NOAA location and at the Bruner location in 1997. For the entire project (remedial investigation through cleanup), a total of 7,708 samples (1 sample for each 5.8 yd{sup 3} of soil remediated) were analyzed for mercury. The project obtained special regulatory approval to use two methods for the determination of mercury in soils that are not part of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act SW-846 methods manual. The mercury analysis cost was $678,000, which represents 9.6% of the cleanup cost. During the cleanup phase of the project, an on-site laboratory was used. The estimated cost savings that the on-site laboratory provided fall into two categories: direct reduction of costs associated with chemical analysis and sample shipment totaling approximately $38,000, which represents a 5.3% savings relative to the estimated cost of using an off-site laboratory, and savings in the amount of $890,000 (12.5% of the $7.1 M cleanup cost), associated with expediting execution of the cleanup work by providing rapid (< 3 hours) sample result turnaround time. The manner in which the analytical services were procured for the LEFPC project suggest that the development of new chemical analysis technology must address deployment, performance, regulatory, robustness, reliability, and business appropriateness factors if the technology is to be

  4. Effect of tar fractions from coal gasification on nickel-yttria stabilized zirconia and nickel-gadolinium doped ceria solid oxide fuel cell anode materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorente, E.; Berrueco, C.; Millan, M.; Brandon, N. P.

    2013-11-01

    The allowable tar content in gasification syngas is one of the key questions for the exploitation of the full potential of fuel cell concepts with integrated gasification systems. A better understanding of the interaction between tars and the SOFC anodes which leads to carbon formation and deposition is needed in order to design systems where the extent of gas cleaning operations is minimized. Model tar compounds (toluene, benzene, naphthalene) have been used in experimental studies to represent those arising from biomass/coal gasification. However, the use of toluene as a model tar overestimates the negative impact of a real gasification tar on SOFC anode degradation associated with carbon formation. In the present work, the effect of a gasification tar and its distillation fractions on two commercially available fuel cell anodes, Ni/YSZ (yttria stabilized zirconia) and Ni/CGO (gadolinium doped ceria), is reported. A higher impact of the lighter tar fractions was observed, in terms of more carbon formation on the anodes, in comparison with the whole tar sample. The characterization of the recovered tars after contact with the anode materials revealed a shift towards a heavier molecular weight distribution, reinforcing the view that these fractions have reacted on the anode.

  5. Characterization of Fish Creek, Teton County, Wyoming, 2004-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Peterson, David A.; Wheeler, Jerrod D.; Leemon, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    Fish Creek, a tributary to the Snake River, is about 15 river miles long and is located in Teton County in western Wyoming near the town of Wilson (fig. 1). Public concern about nuisance growths of aquatic plants in Fish Creek has been increasing since the early 2000s. To address this concern, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Teton Conservation District, began studying Fish Creek in 2004 to describe the hydrology of the creek and later (2007?08) to characterize the water quality and the biological communities. The purpose of this fact sheet is to summarize the study results from 2004 to 2008.

  6. Modeling the impact of bubbling bed hydrodynamics on tar yield and its fluctuations during biomass fast pyrolysis

    DOE PAGES

    Xiong, Qingang; Ramirez, Emilio; Pannala, Sreekanth; ...

    2015-10-09

    The impact of bubbling bed hydrodynamics on temporal variations in the exit tar yield for biomass fast pyrolysis was investigated using computational simulations of an experimental laboratory-scale reactor. A multi-fluid computational fluid dynamics model was employed to simulate the differential conservation equations in the reactor, and this was combined with a multi-component, multi-step pyrolysis kinetics scheme for biomass to account for chemical reactions. The predicted mean tar yields at the reactor exit appear to match corresponding experimental observations. Parametric studies predicted that increasing the fluidization velocity should improve the mean tar yield but increase its temporal variations. Increases in themore » mean tar yield coincide with reducing the diameter of sand particles or increasing the initial sand bed height. However, trends in tar yield variability are more complex than the trends in mean yield. The standard deviation in tar yield reaches a maximum with changes in sand particle size. As a result, the standard deviation in tar yield increases with the increases in initial bed height in freely bubbling state, while reaches a maximum in slugging state.« less

  7. Modeling the impact of bubbling bed hydrodynamics on tar yield and its fluctuations during biomass fast pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Qingang; Ramirez, Emilio; Pannala, Sreekanth; Daw, C. Stuart; Xu, Fei

    2015-10-09

    The impact of bubbling bed hydrodynamics on temporal variations in the exit tar yield for biomass fast pyrolysis was investigated using computational simulations of an experimental laboratory-scale reactor. A multi-fluid computational fluid dynamics model was employed to simulate the differential conservation equations in the reactor, and this was combined with a multi-component, multi-step pyrolysis kinetics scheme for biomass to account for chemical reactions. The predicted mean tar yields at the reactor exit appear to match corresponding experimental observations. Parametric studies predicted that increasing the fluidization velocity should improve the mean tar yield but increase its temporal variations. Increases in the mean tar yield coincide with reducing the diameter of sand particles or increasing the initial sand bed height. However, trends in tar yield variability are more complex than the trends in mean yield. The standard deviation in tar yield reaches a maximum with changes in sand particle size. As a result, the standard deviation in tar yield increases with the increases in initial bed height in freely bubbling state, while reaches a maximum in slugging state.

  8. Pyrolysis of aseptic packages (tetrapak) in a laboratory screw type reactor and secondary thermal/catalytic tar decomposition.

    PubMed

    Haydary, J; Susa, D; Dudáš, J

    2013-05-01

    Pyrolysis of aseptic packages (tetrapak cartons) in a laboratory apparatus using a flow screw type reactor and a secondary catalytic reactor for tar cracking was studied. The pyrolysis experiments were realized at temperatures ranging from 650 °C to 850 °C aimed at maximizing of the amount of the gas product and reducing its tar content. Distribution of tetrapak into the product yields at different conditions was obtained. The presence of H2, CO, CH4, CO2 and light hydrocarbons, HCx, in the gas product was observed. The Aluminum foil was easily separated from the solid product. The rest part of char was characterized by proximate and elemental analysis and calorimetric measurements. The total organic carbon in the tar product was estimated by elemental analysis of tars. Two types of catalysts (dolomite and red clay marked AFRC) were used for catalytic thermal tar decomposition. Three series of experiments (without catalyst in a secondary cracking reactor, with dolomite and with AFRC) at temperatures of 650, 700, 750, 800 and 850 °C were carried out. Both types of catalysts have significantly affected the content of tars and other components in pyrolytic gases. The effect of catalyst on the tetrapack distribution into the product yield on the composition of gas and on the total organic carbon in the tar product is presented in this work.

  9. Atmospheric tar balls: aged primary droplets from biomass burning?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, A.; Hoffer, A.; Nyirő-Kósa, I.; Pósfai, M.; Gelencsér, A.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric tar balls are particles of special morphology and composition that are abundant in the plumes of biomass smoke. These particles form a specific subset of brown carbon (BrC) which has been shown to play a significant role in atmospheric shortwave absorption and thus climate forcing. Formerly tar balls were hypothesized to be formed in secondary processes in the atmosphere from lignin pyrolysis products. Based on their typical size distributions, morphology, chemical characteristics and other features we now suggest that tar balls are initially produced by the emission of primary tar droplets upon biomass burning. To verify our hypothesis tar balls were produced under laboratory conditions with the total exclusion of flame processes. An all-glass apparatus was designed and tar ball particles were generated from liquid tar obtained previously by dry distillation of wood. The size range, morphology and the chemical composition of the laboratory-generated tar ball particles were similar to those observed in biomass smoke plumes or elsewhere in the atmosphere. Based on our results and the chemical and physical characteristics of tar we suggest that tar balls can be formed by the chemical transformation of emitted primary tar droplets.

  10. Hydrology and Flood Profiles of Duck Creek and Jordan Creek Downstream from Egan Drive, Juneau, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curran, Janet H.

    2007-01-01

    Hydrologic and hydraulic updates for Duck Creek and the lower part of Jordan Creek in Juneau, Alaska, included computation of new estimates of peak streamflow magnitudes and new water-surface profiles for the 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year floods. Computations for the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year recurrence interval flood magnitudes for both streams used data from U.S. Geological Survey stream-gaging stations weighted with regional regression equations for southeast Alaska. The study area for the hydraulic model consisted of three channels: Duck Creek from Taku Boulevard near the stream's headwaters to Radcliffe Road near the end of the Juneau International Airport runway, an unnamed tributary to Duck Creek from Valley Boulevard to its confluence with Duck Creek, and Jordan Creek from a pedestrian bridge upstream from Egan Drive to Crest Street at Juneau International Airport. Field surveys throughout the study area provided channel geometry for 206 cross sections, and geometric and hydraulic characteristics for 29 culverts and 15 roadway, driveway, or pedestrian bridges. Hydraulic modeling consisted of application of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) for steady-state flow at the selected recurrence intervals using an assumed high tide of 20 feet and roughness coefficients refined by calibration to measured water-surface elevations from a 2- to 5-year flood that occurred on November 21, 2005. Model simulation results identify inter-basin flow from Jordan Creek to the southeast at Egan Drive and from Duck Creek to Jordan Creek downstream from Egan Drive at selected recurrence intervals.

  11. Investigation of coal tar mobility at a former MGP site

    SciTech Connect

    Moo-Young, H.K.; Mo, X.H.; Waterman, R.; Coleman, A.; Saroff, S.

    2009-11-15

    The presence of coal tar in the subsurface of former manufactured gas plant sites poses an environmental hazard and a potential threat to public health. Coal tar can release various chemical compounds that are transported into the groundwater. Before any efforts can be made to remove coal tar from contaminated subsurface soils, it is recommended to characterize coal tar properties and composition and to delineate the residual saturation point between mobile and immobile coal tar. This paper presents a new innovative field device, the Res-SAT field tool, and laboratory procedures that can be used to determine the saturation-capillary pressure relationship for a soil-water coal-tar system and the critical pressure for coal tar mobility.

  12. Selected hydrologic data for Fountain Creek and Monument Creek basins, east-central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuhn, Gerhard; Ortiz, Roderick F.

    1989-01-01

    Selected hydrologic data were collected during 1986, 1987, and 1988 by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Fountain Creek and Monument Creek basins, east-central Colorado. The data were obtained as part of a study to determine the present and projected effects of wastewater discharges on the two creeks. The data, which are available for 129 surface-water sites, include: (1) About 1,100 water quality analyses; (2) about 420 measurements of discharge, (3) characteristics of about 50 dye clouds associated with measurements of traveltime and reaeration , and (4) about 360 measurements of channel geometry. (USGS)

  13. Remote sensor application studies report, July 1, 1968 to June 30, 1969: Remote sensing reconnaissance, Mill creek area, Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowan, L.C.; Offield, T.W.; Watson, Kenneth; Cannon, P.J.; Watson, R.D.

    1970-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Remote Sensor Application Studies program, infrared images and several kinds of photographs were obtained on reconnaissance flights over two areas in the Arbuckle Mountains near Mill Creek, Oklahoma. These data were used in a preliminary investigation (1) to determine the diagnostic reflection and emission characteristics of various rock types, and (2) io evaluate the perturbing influence of atmospheric conditions, surface coatings, rock texture, and topography on the observed reflected and emitted energy in the thermal infrared (8-14μ) part of the spectrum

  14. Characterization of the HIV-1 TAR RNA-Tat peptide and drug interactions by on-line acoustic wave sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tassew, Nardos Gobena

    This thesis presents the application of the thickness shear-mode (TSM) acoustic wave sensor to the study of RNA-protein and RNA-drug interactions at the solid-liquid interface. The binding of the human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 Tat protein to the trans-activation responsive RNA element (TAR) has been studied using this sensor. Data from such measurements show that the sensor is able to discriminate between different Tat peptides derived from the parent protein based on size. The effects of mutations introduced at specific sites in the protein and RNA on the TAR-Tat binding have also been examined in detail. Reduced level of response in acoustic parameters due to mutations was observed indicating that the decrease in binding in response to site specific mutations can be acoustically detected. Data from acoustic wave sensor measurements indicate that the TAR-Tat binding is also affected by ionic strength. Both the frequency and motional resistance signals show periodic responses when varying concentrations of salt are introduced on a TAR-modified surface. The binding of the two molecules seems to be a function of the response of the nucleic acid to salt concentrations. The kinetics of binding of Tat peptides to TAR RNA and to a bulge mutant analogue (MTAR) is also examined from the rate of change of the series resonant frequency. Results from such analysis illustrate longer Tat peptides formed more stable complexes with TAR RNA and exhibited increased discrimination between mutant and wild type TAR. The binding of two aminoglycoside antibiotics, neomycin and streptomycin, to TAR RNA and their effectiveness in preventing TAR-Tat complex formation has been studied in detail. Binding affinity is directly correlated with the inhibitory potency of these molecules and the TSM sensor shows that neomycin exhibits at least a ten fold greater affinity to TAR and that it is also a more potent inhibitor than streptomycin. The results from this research involving TAR-Tat and

  15. Best management practices plan for Phase II of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is currently under a Federal Agreement to define soil and groundwater contamination and develop remedies to protect human health and the environment. The western end of the site is known to have a former nitric acid disposal pit that has been remediated and capped. Remedial investigation data indicate this pit was a source of nitrate, uranium, technetium, and other metals contamination in groundwater. The downgradient receptor of this contamination includes Bear Creek and its tributaries. A feasibility study is under way to develop a remedy to prevent further contaminant migration to this receptor. To support the feasibility study, the treatability study is being completed to examine groundwater treatment at the S-3 site. This document serves as the top-level command medium for Phase II of the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study and, as such, will be the primary resource for management and implementation of field activities. Many of the details and standard operating procedures referred to herein can be found in other Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), documents. Several supporting documents specific to this project are also cited. These include the Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP), the Health and Safety Plan (HASP), and the Waste Management Plan (WMP).

  16. Use of coal tar pitch and petroleum bitumen in the production of thermally expanded graphite (Short Communication)

    SciTech Connect

    T.P. Miloshenko; O.Yu. Fetisova; M.L. Shchipko; B.N. Kuznetsov

    2008-06-15

    The applicability of coal tar pitch and petroleum bitumen to the production of thermally expanded graphite was studied. The dependence of the coefficient of thermal expansion and the specific surface area on the amount of added substances was examined.

  17. Soap Creek Associates NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number MT-0023183, Soap Creek Associates, Inc. is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility located in West, Bighorn County, Montana, to Soap Creek.

  18. Toxicity of coal-tar and asphalt sealants to eastern newts, Notophthalmus viridescens.

    PubMed

    Bommarito, Thomas; Sparling, Donald W; Halbrook, Richard S

    2010-09-01

    Between 1970 and 2000 the concentration of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (TPAH) in several lakes across the country increased whereas those of other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) tended to remain stable or declined. Urbanized watersheds experienced greater rises in TPAH concentration compared to non-urban lakes. Sources for urban PAHs include industrial wastes, vehicular exhausts and oil leaks and sealants from pavement surfaces. Both coal-tar and asphalt sealants are used to protect surfaces but runoff from surfaces coated with coal-tar can have mean concentrations of 3500 mg TPAHs kg(-1), much higher than runoff from asphalt-sealed or cement surfaces. Unaltered parent compounds of PAHs can have many lethal and sublethal toxic effects, but oxidation and UV radiation can alter the toxicity of these compounds, sometimes creating degradates that are many times more toxic than parent compounds. The purposes of this study were to determine if coal-tar sealants can be toxic to adult eastern newts (Notophthalmus viridescens) and to compare the toxicity of coal-tar sealant to that of asphalt sealant. Newts were exposed to sediments containing dried sealants ranging from 0 mg kg(-1) to 1500 mg kg(-1) under simultaneous exposure to UV radiation and visible light to determine concentration/response relationships. No significant mortality occurred with any treatment. Significant effects due to sealants included decreased righting ability and diminished liver enzyme activities. Coal-tar sealant was more effective in inducing these changes than was asphalt sealant.

  19. Effects of model coal tar components on adhesion strength of polyurethane coating on steel plate

    SciTech Connect

    Yokoyama, N.; Fujino, K.

    2005-04-15

    In order to study the effects of coal tar components on the adhesion strength of a heavy duty anticorrosive coating formed with tar-urethane resin oil on a steel plate, polyurethane coatings that were compounded with 15 kinds of polycyclic aromatic compounds as model coal tar components were prepared. In the model coal tar, components, naphthalene, quinoline, 2-naphthol, and phenanthrene showed good compatibility with polyurethane. To test their heavy duty anticorrosive properties, tensile adhesion strength of the cured coatings prepared with the compatible model coal tar components was measured, and the change in tensile adhesion strength as a function of time during salt-water spray treatment was measured. We found that the systems compounded with naphthalene, 2-naphthol, and phenanthrene showed good properties in an ordinary state for adhesion strength. However, only the system with 2-naphthol was found to have good properties in the change of tensile adhesion strength as a function or time during salt-water spray treatment. The curing time of the system with 2-naphthol was slower than that or the others, i.e., we found an inverse proportion between curing speed and adhesion durability. We also measured the dynamic viscoelasticity of cured coatings.

  20. Thermodynamic analysis of tar reforming through auto-thermal reforming process

    SciTech Connect

    Nurhadi, N. Diniyati, Dahlia; Efendi, M. Ade Andriansyah; Istadi, I.

    2015-12-29

    Fixed bed gasification is a simple and suitable technology for small scale power generation. One of the disadvantages of this technology is producing tar. So far, tar is not utilized yet and being waste that should be treated into a more useful product. This paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of tar conversion into gas producer through non-catalytic auto-thermal reforming technology. Tar was converted into components, C, H, O, N and S, and then reacted with oxidant such as mixture of air or pure oxygen. Thus, this reaction occurred auto-thermally and reached chemical equilibrium. The sensitivity analysis resulted that the most promising process performance occurred at flow rate of air was reached 43% of stoichiometry while temperature of process is 1100°C, the addition of pure oxygen is 40% and preheating of oxidant flow is 250°C. The yield of the most promising process performance between 11.15-11.17 kmol/h and cold gas efficiency was between 73.8-73.9%.The results of this study indicated that thermodynamically the conversion of tar into producer gas through non-catalytic auto-thermal reformingis more promising.

  1. Tar reduction in pyrolysis vapours from biomass over a hot char bed.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, P; Ryu, C; Sharifi, V; Swithenbank, J

    2009-12-01

    The behaviour of pyrolysis vapours over char was investigated in order to maximise tar conversion for the development of a new fixed bed gasifier. Wood samples were decomposed at a typical pyrolysis temperature (500 degrees C) and the pyrolysis vapours were then passed directly through a tar cracking zone in a tubular reactor. The product yields and properties of the condensable phases and non-condensable gases were studied for different bed lengths of char (0-450 mm), temperatures (500-800 degrees C), particle sizes (10 and 15 mm) and nitrogen purge rates (1.84-14.70 mm/s). The carbon in the condensable phases showed about 66% reduction by a 300 mm long char section at 800 degrees C, compared to that for pyrolysis at 500 degrees C. The amount of heavy condensable phase decreased with increasing temperature from about 18.4 wt% of the biomass input at 500 degrees C to 8.0 wt% at 800 degrees C, forming CO, H(2) and other light molecules. The main mode of tar conversion was found to be in the vapour phase when compared to the results without the presence of char. The composition of the heavy condensable phase was simplified into much fewer secondary and tertiary tar components at 800 degrees C. Additional measures were required to maximise the heterogeneous effect of char for tar reduction.

  2. Environmental setting of Maple Creek watershed, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fredrick, Brian S.; Linard, Joshua I.; Carpenter, Jennifer L.

    2006-01-01

    The Maple Creek watershed covers a 955-square-kilometer area in eastern Nebraska, which is a region dominated by agricultural land use. The Maple Creek watershed is one of seven areas currently included in a nationwide study of the sources, transport, and fate of water and chemicals in agricultural watersheds. This study, known as the topical study of 'Agricultural Chemicals: Sources, Transport, and Fate' is part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey. The Program is designed to describe water-quality conditions and trends based on representative surface- and ground-water resources across the Nation. The objective of the Agricultural Chemicals topical study is to investigate the sources, transport, and fate of selected agricultural chemicals in a variety of agriculturally diverse environmental settings. The Maple Creek watershed was selected for the Agricultural Chemicals topical study because its watershed represents the agricultural setting that characterizes eastern Nebraska. This report describes the environmental setting of the Maple Creek watershed in the context of how agricultural practices, including agricultural chemical applications and irrigation methods, interface with natural settings and hydrologic processes. A description of the environmental setting of a subwatershed within the drainage area of Maple Creek is included to improve the understanding of the variability of hydrologic and chemical cycles at two different scales.

  3. Hydrologic analysis of Steel Creek and L Lake and the effects of flow reduction on Steel Creek habitat

    SciTech Connect

    del Carmen, B.R.; Paller, M.H.

    1993-12-31

    This report was prepared to support a proposal to eliminate the EIS mandated spring flow requirements in Steel Creek below L Lake. The base flow in Steel Creek below L Lake was estimated using historical data. The water balance of L Lake was studied to evaluate the effects of flow reduction on the Steel Creek hydrologic system. The base flow in Steel Creek below L Lake is estimated as 0.28 cms (10 cfs). A reduction in L Lake discharge to 0.28 cms will result in a fish community similar to the one that existed before the impoundment of L Lake.

  4. Geologic map of the Skull Creek Quadrangle, Moffat County Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Loenen, R. E.; Selner, Gary; Bryant, W.A.

    1999-01-01

    The Skull Creek quadrangle is in northwestern Colorado a few miles north of Rangely. The prominent structural feature of the Skull Creek quadrangle is the Skull Creek monocline. Pennsylvanian rocks are exposed along the axis of the monocline while hogbacks along its southern flank expose rocks that are from Permian to Upper Cretaceous in age. The Wolf Creek monocline and the Wolf Creek thrust fault, which dissects the monocline, are salient structural features in the northern part of the quadrangle. Little or no mineral potential exists within the quadrangle. A geologic map of the Lazy Y Point quadrangle, which is adjacent to the Skull Creek quadrangle on the west, is also available (Geologic Investigations Series I-2646). This companian map shows similar geologic features, including the western half of the Skull Creek monocline. The geology of this quadrangle was mapped because of its proximity to Dinosaur National Monument. It is adjacent to quadrangles previously mapped to display the geology of this very scenic and popular National Monument. The Skull Creek quadrangle includes parts of the Skull Creek Wilderness Study Area, which was assessed for its mineral resource potential.

  5. Nigeria to step up tar sands activity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    The Nigerian government has directed its Ministry of Mines, Power and Steel to assume responsibility for the exploration and exploitation of tar sands deposits in Bendel, Ondo and Oyo States. The directive resulted from a survey report by the University of Ife's geological consultancy unit on bituminous sand deposits in the area. The statement said the government was satisfied that there were large commercial quantities of the sands in the three states. The survey had reported that Nigeria could recover between 31 and 40 billion barrels of heavy crude from the tar sand deposits. Exploration for hydrocarbons is currently going on in Anambra and Lake Chad basins as well as the Benue Trough. Apart from the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation, Shell Petroleum and Gulf Oil have begun exploration activities in the Ondo area. Meanwhile, Nigeria has had to import heavy crude from Venezuela, for processing at the Kaduna refinery.

  6. Catalyst specificities in high pressure hydroprocessing of pyrolysis and gasification tars

    SciTech Connect

    Soltes, E.J.; Lin, S.C.K.; Sheu, Y.H.E.

    1987-04-01

    Over a period of several years, the Department of Forest Science at Texas A and M University has been conducting studies in the hydroprocessing (catalytic high pressure hydrotreating or hydrodeoxygenation accompanied by hydrocracking) of pyrolytic tars produced in biomass pyrolysis and gasification. Upgrading through hydroprocessing results in good yields of volatile hydrocarbon and phenolic products. This paper compares the performance of twenty different catalysts selected for hydroprocessing of a pine pyrolysis oil, describes the use of noble metal catalysts with tars produced from nine different biomass feedstocks (oil from pine pyrolysis and the tars from pine wood chip, pine plywood trim, pecan shell, peanut shell, sugarcane bagasse, corncob, rice hull, and cottonseed hull gasification), and compares the use of several catalysts in a trickle bed reactor for kinetic studies of the hyroprocessing reaction.

  7. Aspects of tar sands development in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Adewusi, V.A. )

    1992-07-01

    Development of Nigerian massive reserves of crude bitumen and associated heavy oil is imminent in view of the impacts that the huge importation of these materials and their products have on the nation's economy, coupled with the depleting reserves of Nigeria and highlights the appropriate production technology options and their environmental implications. The utilization potentials of these resources are also enumerated, as well as the government's role in achieving accelerated, long-term tar sands development in the country.

  8. A method for using shoreline morphology to predict suspended sediment concentration in tidal creeks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ensign, Scott; Currin, Carolyn; Piehler, Michael; Tobias, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Improving mechanistic prediction of shoreline response to sea level rise is currently limited by 1) morphologic complexity of tidal creek shorelines that confounds application of mechanistic models, and 2) availability of suspended sediment measurements to parameterize mechanistic models. To address these challenges we developed a metric to distinguish two morphodynamic classes of tidal creek and tested whether this metric could be used to predict suspended sediment concentration. We studied three small tidal creeks in North Carolina, U.S.A. We collected suspended sediment at one non-tidal and two tidal sites in each creek and measured the wetland and channel width using a geographic information system. In each creek, tidal harmonics were measured for one year, sediment accretion on the salt marsh was measured for three years, and shoreline erosion was measured from aerial photographs spanning 50 years. Additional total suspended solids measurements from seven creeks reported in a national database supplemented our analysis. Among the three intensively studied creeks, shoreline erosion was highest in the most embayed creek (having a wider channel than the width of adjoining wetlands) and lowest in the wetland-dominated creek (having a channel narrower than the width of adjoining wetlands). Wetland sediment accretion rate in the wetland-dominated creek was four times higher than the accretion in the embayed creek. The wetland-dominated tidal creek had over twice the suspended sediment as the most embayed creek. Based on these results, we conclude that our metric of embayed and contrasting wetland-dominated creek morphology provides a guide for choosing between two types of morphodynamic models that are widely used to predict wetland shoreline change. This metric also allowed us to parse the 10 tidal creeks studied into two groups with different suspended sediment concentrations. This relationship between suspended sediment concentration and creek morphology provides

  9. Baseline Characteristics of Jordan Creek, Juneau, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Host, Randy H.; Neal, Edward G.

    2004-01-01

    Anadromous fish populations historically have found healthy habitat in Jordan Creek, Juneau, Alaska. Concern regarding potential degradation to the habitat by urban development within the Mendenhall Valley led to a cooperative study among the City and Borough of Juneau, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, and the U.S. Geological Survey, that assessed current hydrologic, water-quality, and physical-habitat conditions of the stream corridor. Periods of no streamflow were not uncommon at the Jordan Creek below Egan Drive near Auke Bay stream gaging station. Additional flow measurements indicate that periods of no flow are more frequent downstream of the gaging station. Although periods of no flow typically were in March and April, streamflow measurements collected prior to 1999 indicate similar periods in January, suggesting that no flow conditions may occur at any time during the winter months. This dewatering in the lower reaches likely limits fish rearing and spawning habitat as well as limiting the migration of juvenile salmon out to the ocean during some years. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations may not be suitable for fish survival during some winter periods in the Jordan Creek watershed. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations were measured as low as 2.8 mg/L at the gaging station and were measured as low as 0.85 mg/L in a tributary to Jordan Creek. Intermittent measurements of pH and dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the mid-reaches of Jordan Creek were all within acceptable limits for fish survival, however, few measurements of these parameters were made during winter-low-flow conditions. One set of water quality samples was collected at six different sites in the Jordan Creek watershed and analyzed for major ions and dissolved nutrients. Major-ion chemistry showed Jordan Creek is calcium bicarbonate type water with little variation between sampling sites.

  10. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit. Volume 5. Appendixes J, K, L, M, and N-other supporting information

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is Volume 5 of the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

  11. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit. Volume 3. Risk assessment information. Appendixes E, F

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is Volume 3 of the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

  12. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 3: Appendixes E and F -- Risk assessment information

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

  13. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit. Volume 2. Biota and representative concentrations of contaminants. Appendixes A, B, C, D

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OU`s). This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

  14. Mining-impacted sources of metal loading to an alpine stream based on a tracer-injection study, Clear Creek County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fey, David L.; Wirt, Laurie

    2007-01-01

    The largest sources of copper and zinc to the creek were from surface inflows from the adit, diffuse inflows from wetland areas, and leaching of dispersed mill tailings. Major instream processes included mixing between mining- and non-mining-impacted waters and the attenuation of iron, aluminum, manganese, and othermetals by precipitation or sorption. One year after the rerouting, the Zn and Cu loads in Leavenworth Creek from the adit discharge versus those from leaching of a large volume of dispersed mill tailings were approximately equal to, if not greater than, those before. The mine-waste dump does not appear to be a major source of metal loading. Any improvement that may have resulted from the elimination of adit flow across the dump was masked by higher adit discharge attributed to a larger snow pack. Although many mine remediation activities commonly proceed without prior scientific studies to identify the sources and pathways of metal transport, such strategies do not always translate to water-quality improvements in the stream. Assessment of sources and pathways to gain better understanding of the system is a necessary investment in the outcome of any successful remediation strategy.

  15. Numerical simulation of vortex pyrolysis reactors for condensable tar production from biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.S.; Bellan, J.

    1998-08-01

    A numerical study is performed in order to evaluate the performance and optimal operating conditions of vortex pyrolysis reactors used for condensable tar production from biomass. A detailed mathematical model of porous biomass particle pyrolysis is coupled with a compressible Reynolds stress transport model for the turbulent reactor swirling flow. An initial evaluation of particle dimensionality effects is made through comparisons of single- (1D) and multi-dimensional particle simulations and reveals that the 1D particle model results in conservative estimates for total pyrolysis conversion times and tar collection. The observed deviations are due predominantly to geometry effects while directional effects from thermal conductivity and permeability variations are relatively small. Rapid ablative particle heating rates are attributed to a mechanical fragmentation of the biomass particles that is modeled using a critical porosity for matrix breakup. Optimal thermal conditions for tar production are observed for 900 K. Effects of biomass identity, particle size distribution, and reactor geometry and scale are discussed.

  16. Citizen science identifies the effects of nitrogen dioxide and other environmental drivers on tar spot of sycamore.

    PubMed

    Gosling, Laura; Ashmore, Mike; Sparks, Tim; Bell, Nigel

    2016-07-01

    Elevated sulphur dioxide (SO2) concentrations were the major cause of the absence of symptoms of tar spot (Rhytisma acerinum) of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus), in urban areas in the 1970s. The subsequent large decline in SO2 concentrations has not always been accompanied by increased tar spot symptoms, for reasons that have remained unresolved. We used a large citizen science survey, providing over 1000 records across England, to test two competing hypotheses proposed in earlier studies. We were able to demonstrate the validity of both hypotheses; tar spot symptoms were reduced where there were fewer fallen leaves as a source of inoculum, and elevated nitrogen dioxide concentrations reduced tar spot symptoms above a threshold concentration of about 20 μg m(-3). Symptom severity was also lower at sites with higher temperature and lower rainfall. Our findings demonstrate the power of citizen science to resolve competing hypotheses about the impacts of air pollution and other environmental drivers.

  17. Model experiments of steam stimulation in Nigerian tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Omole, O.; Omolara, D.A. )

    1988-01-01

    The possibility of producing heavy oil from the Nigerian tar sand deposit by steam stimulation was investigated in the laboratory using a scaled and five unscaled physical models (tar sands packs). The effect of oil saturation and different matrix grain size on oil recovery were also studied. A fabricated 91.44 cm (diameter), 33 cm (high) high pressure cast iron vessel (prototype scaled down by a factor of 104), a 15 cm (diameter), 22.1 cm (high) high pressure stainless steel vessel, and two pressure reducing valves were used for the study. Steam was obtained from a locally fabricated boiler. Heavy oil was obtained from oil seeping from the deposit. The result of the study showed that heavy oil could be produced from the section of the deposit containing mobile heavy oil by steam stimulation. When the same amount of steam was injected into similar sand packs containing different oil saturation, the highest oil recovery was obtained from the sandpack with the lowest oil saturation. This implies that more steam will be required to produce from highly saturated heavy oil deposits. A greater amount of oil was produced from a sand pack with larger matrix grain size than from another sand pack with smaller matrix grain size for the same oil saturation steam quantity, and quality.

  18. A Creek to Bay Biological Assessment in Oakland, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahumada, E.; Ramirez, N.; Lopez, A.; Avila, M.; Ramirez, J.; Arroyo, D.; Bracho, H.; Casanova, A.; Pierson, E.

    2011-12-01

    In 2007, the Surface Water Ambient Monitoring Program (SWAMP) assessed the impact of trash on water quality in the Peralta Creek which is located in the Fruitvale district of Oakland, CA. This 2011 follow-up study will take further steps in evaluating the physical and biological impacts of pollution and human development on Peralta Creek and in the San Leandro Bay, where the Creek empties into the larger San Francisco Bay estuary. This study will utilize two forms of biological assessment in order to determine the level of water quality and ecosystem health of Peralta Creek and San Leandro Bay in Oakland, California. A Rapid Bioassesment Protocal (RBP) will be used as the method of biological assessment for Peralta Creek. RBP uses a biotic index of benthic macroinvertebrates to provide a measure of a water body's health. Larval trematodes found in two mud snails (Ilynassa obsoleta and Cerithidea californica) will be used to evaluate the health of the San Leandro Bay. Due to the complex life cycle of trematodes, the measure of trematode diversity and richness in host species serves as an indicator of estuarine health (Huspeni 2005). We have completed the assessment of one section of Peralta Creek, located at 2465 34th Avenue, Oakland, CA 94601. Abundance results indicate a moderately healthy creek because there were high levels of pollution tolerant benthic macroinvertebrates. The tolerant group of benthic macroinvertebrates includes such organisms as flatworms, leeches, and scuds. This is possibly due to this section of the creek being pumped up to the surface from culverts impacting the macroinvertebrate's life cycle. Another contributing factor to creek health is the amount of organic debris found in the creek, which inhibits the flow and oxygenation of the water, allowing for more pollution tolerant aquatic insects to persist. Further investigation is being conducted to fully assess the Peralta Creek watershed; from the preliminary results one can surmise that

  19. Water-quality study of Tulpehocken Creek, Berks County, Pennsylvania, prior to impoundment of Blue Marsh Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, James L.

    1977-01-01

    Blue Marsh Lake is planned as a multipurpose impoundment to be constructed on Tulpehocken Creek near Bernville, Berks County, Pennsylvania. Prior to construction, samples of water, bed material, and soil were collected throughout the impoundment site to determine concentrations of nutrients, insecticides, trace metals, suspended sediment, and bacteria. Analyses of water suggest the Tulpehocken Creek basin to be a highly fertile environment. Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations near the proposed dam site had median values of 4.5 and 0.13 mg/L, respectively. Suspended sediment discharges average between 100 and 200 tons (90.7 to 181.4 metric tons) per day during normal flows but may exceed 10,000 tons (9,070 metric tons) per day during storm runoff. Highest yields were measured during winter and early spring. Concentrations range from 3 mg/L to more than 500 mg/L. Bed material samples contain trace quantities of aldrin, DDT, DDD, DDE, dieldrin, and chlordane. Polychlorinated biphyenyls (PCB's) ranged from 10 to 100 μg/kg. Soils at the impoundment site are of average fertility. However, the silt loam texture is ideal for attachment and growth of aquatic plants. Bacteria populations indicative of recent fecal contamination are prevalent in the major inflows to the proposed lake. Fecal Coliform exceeded the standards recommended by the Federal Water Pollution Administration Committee on Water Quality Criteria for public water supply in 29 percent of the monthly samples, and exceeded the recommended public bathing waters standard in 83 percent of the samples collected from June to September. Arsenic from an industrial waste was found in the water, suspended sediment, and bed material of Tulpehocken Creek in concentrations of 0 to 30 μg/l, 2 to 879 μg/l, and 1 to 79 μg/g, respectively. It represents a potential environmental hazard; however, the measured concentrations are less than that known to be harmful to man, fish, or wildlife, according to published water

  20. Radiocarbon dating of extinct fauna in the Americas recovered from tar pits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jull, A. J. T.; Iturralde-Vinent, M.; O'Malley, J. M.; MacPhee, R. D. E.; McDonald, H. G.; Martin, P. S.; Moody, J.; Rincón, A.

    2004-08-01

    We have obtained radiocarbon dates by accelerator mass spectrometry on bones of extinct large mammals from tar pits. Results on some samples of Glyptodon and Holmesina (extinct large mammals similar to armadillos) yielded ages of >25 and >21 ka, respectively. We also studied the radiocarbon ages of three different samples of bones from the extinct Cuban ground sloth, Parocnus bownii, which yielded dates ranging from 4960 ± 280 to 11 880 ± 420 yr BP. In order to remove the tar component pretreat the samples sufficiently to obtain reliable dates, we cleaned the samples by Soxhlet extraction in benzene. Resulting samples of collagenous material were often small.

  1. Adsorption of nicotine and tar from the mainstream smoke of cigarettes by oxidized carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhigang; Zhang, Lisha; Tang, Yiwen; Jia, Zhijie

    2006-02-01

    The adsorption of nicotine and tar from the mainstream smoke (MS) by the filter tips filled respectively with oxidized carbon nanotubes (O-CNTs), activated carbon and zeolite (NaY) has been investigated. O-CNTs show exceptional removal efficiency and their adsorption mechanism is investigated. Capillary condensation of some ingredients from MS in the inner hole of O-CNTs is observed and may be the primary reason for their superior removal efficiency. The effect of O-CNTs mass on the removal efficiencies is also studied and the results show that about 20-30 mg O-CNTs per cigarette can effectively remove most of nicotine and tar.

  2. Does increased cigarette consumption nullify any reduction in lung cancer risk associated with low-tar filter cigarettes?

    PubMed

    Lee, Peter N; Sanders, Edward

    2004-12-01

    Epidemiological data suggest that smoking filter and lower tar cigarettes is associated with less lung cancer risk than is smoking plain and higher tar cigarettes. A recent National Cancer Institute monograph claimed these apparent benefits of lower delivery products may be illusory if relative risks are adjusted for daily consumption, and switching leads to "compensation" for reduced nicotine intake by increasing numbers of cigarettes smoked. To investigate this, we compared relative risks unadjusted and adjusted for daily cigarette consumption. Overall estimates of the filter/plain relative risk, using random-effects meta-analysis, were 0.61 (95%confidence interval 0.54 to 0.70) for unadjusted data and 0.66 (0.58 to 0.76) for adjusted data. The lower tar/higher tar relative risk was estimated as 0.60 (0.45 to 0.81) for unadjusted data and 0.73 (0.64 to 0.83) for adjusted data. The risk reductions were clearly seen regardless of gender, study location, period, or design, and when only studies providing both unadjusted and adjusted estimates were considered. Whether or not relative risk estimates are adjusted for cigarette consumption is not crucial to the conclusion of a clear advantage to filter cigarettes and tar reduction. Data on "compensation" for amount smoked were reviewed and any increase following switching to reduced-tar-yield cigarettes was shown to be quite small. Other biases in the epidemiology are also discussed, and we conclude that the apparent advantage to reduced-tar-delivery products is real and likely to be a marked underestimate of the reduction in lung cancer risk from lifetime smoking of low-tar cigarettes.

  3. Pyrolysis of aseptic packages (tetrapak) in a laboratory screw type reactor and secondary thermal/catalytic tar decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Haydary, J.; Susa, D.; Dudáš, J.

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Pyrolysis of aseptic packages was carried out in a laboratory flow reactor. ► Distribution of tetrapak into the product yields was obtained. ► Composition of the pyrolysis products was estimated. ► Secondary thermal and catalytic decomposition of tars was studied. ► Two types of catalysts (dolomite and red clay marked AFRC) were used. - Abstract: Pyrolysis of aseptic packages (tetrapak cartons) in a laboratory apparatus using a flow screw type reactor and a secondary catalytic reactor for tar cracking was studied. The pyrolysis experiments were realized at temperatures ranging from 650 °C to 850 °C aimed at maximizing of the amount of the gas product and reducing its tar content. Distribution of tetrapak into the product yields at different conditions was obtained. The presence of H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and light hydrocarbons, HCx, in the gas product was observed. The Aluminum foil was easily separated from the solid product. The rest part of char was characterized by proximate and elemental analysis and calorimetric measurements. The total organic carbon in the tar product was estimated by elemental analysis of tars. Two types of catalysts (dolomite and red clay marked AFRC) were used for catalytic thermal tar decomposition. Three series of experiments (without catalyst in a secondary cracking reactor, with dolomite and with AFRC) at temperatures of 650, 700, 750, 800 and 850 °C were carried out. Both types of catalysts have significantly affected the content of tars and other components in pyrolytic gases. The effect of catalyst on the tetrapack distribution into the product yield on the composition of gas and on the total organic carbon in the tar product is presented in this work.

  4. Analysis of geothermal electric-power generation at Big Creek Hot Springs, Lemhi County, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Struhsacker, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    Big Creek Hot Springs was evaluated as a source of electrical power for the Blackbird Cobalt Mine, approximately 13 miles south of the hot spring. An evaluaton of the geothermal potential of Big Creek Hot Springs, a suggested exploration program and budget, an engineering feasibility study of power generation at Big Creek Hot Springs, an economic analysis of the modeled power generating system, and an appraisal of the institutional factors influencing development at Big Creek Hot Springs are included.

  5. KANAB CREEK ROADLESS AREA, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Billingsley, George H.; Ellis, Clarence E.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey, the Kanab Creek Roadless Area in north-central Arizona has a probable mineral-resource potential for uranium and copper in four small areas around five collapse structures. Gypsum is abundant in layers along the canyon rim of Snake Gulch, but it is a fairly common mineral in the region outside the roadless area. There is little promise for the occurence of fossil fuels in the area. Studies of collapse structures in surrounding adjacent areas might reveal significant mineralization at depth, such as the recent discovery of the uranium ore body at depth in the Pigeon Pipe.

  6. Sampling and analysis plan for phase II of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study is intended to provide site-specific data defining potential treatment technologies applicable to contaminated groundwater and surface water. This project directly supports Alternative 5 of the base action in the BCV Feasibility Study, and indirectly supports other alternatives through proof of concept. In that role, the ultimate goal is to install a treatment system that will remove uranium and nitrate from groundwater before it reaches Bear Creek. A secondary goal is the concurrent removal of technetium and several metals that impact ecological risk. This project is intended to produce hydraulic and treatment performance data required to design the treatment system to reach those goals. This project will also generate information that can be applied at other facilities within the Oak Ridge Reservation. This report is the sampling and analysis plan (SAP) for the field work component of Phase II of the BCV Treatability Study. Field work for this phase of the BCV Treatability Study consists of media testing. In-field continuous flow tests will be conducted over an extended time period (5 weeks) to generate data on long-term treatment effects on potential treatment media including sorbents and zero valent iron, over 28 weeks for constructed wetlands treatment, and over 24 weeks for algal mats treatment. The SAP addresses environmental sampling at the S-3 Site at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Samples will be taken from groundwater, effluent from test columns, effluent from an algal mat reactor, and effluent from a pilot-scale wetlands. This plan will be implemented as part of the BCV Phase II Treatability Study Best Management Practices Plan and in conjunction with the BCV Phase II Treatability Study Health and Safety Plan and the BCV Phase II Treatability Study Waste Management Plan.

  7. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station: progress report June-August 1981. Quarterly progress report 1 Jun-31 Aug 81

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

    1982-01-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Competition among the species is being analyzed. In the summer of 1981, Teredo bartschi occurred in large numbers at one station in Oyster Creek, but did not appear in significant numbers in Forked River.

  8. 75 FR 71106 - Deer Creek Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Deer Creek Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for... October 14, 2010, Deer Creek Hydro, LLC (Deer Creek Hydro) filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of the...

  9. Geology and resources of the Tar Sand Triangle, southeastern Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Dana, G.F.; Oliver, R.L.; Elliott, J.R.

    1984-05-01

    The Tar Sand Triangle is located in southeastern Utah between the Dirty Devil and Colorado Rivers and covers an area of about 200 square miles. The geology of the area consists of gently northwest dipping strata exposed in the box canyons and slopes of the canyonlands morphology. Strata in the area range in age from Jurassic to Permian. The majority of tar sand saturation is found in the Permian White Rim Sandstone Member of the Cutler Formation. The White Rim Sandstone Member consists of a clean, well-sorted sandstone which was deposited in a shallow marine environment. Resources were calculated from analytical data from the three coreholes drilled by the Laramie Energy Technology Center and other available data. The total in-place resources, determined from this study, are 6.3 billion barels. Previous estimates ranged from 2.9 to 16 million barrels. More coring and analyses will be necessary before a more accurate determination of resources can be attempted. 8 references, 11 figures, 7 tables.

  10. Trace metals in heavy crude oils and tar sand bitumens

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.G.

    1990-11-28

    Fe, Ni, and V are considered trace impurities in heavy crude oils and tar sand bitumens. In order to understand the importance of these metals, we have examined several properties: (1) bulk metals levels, (2) distribution in separated fractions, (3) size behavior in feeds and during processing, (4) speciation as a function of size, and (5) correlations with rheological properties. Some of the results of these studies show: (1) V and Ni have roughly bimodal size distributions, (2) groupings were seen based on location, size distribution, and Ni/V ratio of the sample, (3) Fe profiles are distinctively different, having a unimodal distribution with a maximum at relatively large molecular size, (4) Fe concentrations in the tar sand bitumens suggest possible fines solubilization in some cases, (5) SARA separated fractions show possible correlations of metals with asphaltene properties suggesting secondary and tertiary structure interactions, and (6) ICP-MS examination for soluble ultra-trace metal impurities show the possibility of unexpected elements such as U, Th, Mo, and others at concentrations in the ppB to ppM range. 39 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. 43 CFR 3141.2 - Prelease exploration within Special Tar Sand Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Sand Areas. 3141.2 Section 3141.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.2 Prelease exploration within Special Tar Sand Areas....

  12. 43 CFR 3141.2 - Prelease exploration within Special Tar Sand Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Sand Areas. 3141.2 Section 3141.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.2 Prelease exploration within Special Tar Sand Areas....

  13. 43 CFR 3141.2 - Prelease exploration within Special Tar Sand Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Sand Areas. 3141.2 Section 3141.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.2 Prelease exploration within Special Tar Sand Areas....

  14. 43 CFR 3141.2 - Prelease exploration within Special Tar Sand Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Sand Areas. 3141.2 Section 3141.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.2 Prelease exploration within Special Tar Sand Areas....

  15. Sampling and analysis plan for Phase II of the Bear Creek Valley Treatability Study, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study is intended to provide site-specific data defining potential treatment technologies applicable to contaminated groundwater and surface water. This project directly supports Alternative 5 of the base action in the BCV Feasibility Study and indirectly supports other alternatives through proof of concept. In that role, the ultimate goal is to install a treatment system that will remove uranium and nitrate from groundwater before it reaches Bear Creek. A secondary goal is the concurrent removal of technetium and several metals that affect ecological risk. This project is intended to produce hydraulic and treatment performance data required to design the treatment system to reach those goals. This project will also generate information that can be applied at other facilities within the Oak Ridge Reservation. This report is the sampling and analysis plan (SAP) for the field work component of Phase II of the BCV Treatability Study. Field work for this phase of the BCV Treatability Study consists of environmental and media testing. The SAP addresses environmental sampling at the S-3 Site at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Samples will be taken from groundwater, surface water, seeps, effluent from test columns, effluent from an algal mat reactor, and effluent from a pilot-scale wetland. Groundwater, surface water, and seeps will be monitored continuously for field parameters and sampled for analytical parameters during pump tests conducted periodically during the investigation. In-field continuous flow tests will be conducted over an extended time period (5 weeks) to generate data on long-term treatment effects on potential treatment effects on potential treatment media including sorbents and zero valent iron, over 28 weeks for constructed wetlands treatment, and over 24 weeks for algal mats treatment.

  16. Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure

    DOEpatents

    Stegemeier, George Leo [Houston, TX; Beer, Gary Lee [Houston, TX; Zhang, Etuan [Houston, TX

    2010-01-12

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. A pressure in the majority of the section may be maintained below a fracture pressure of the formation. The pressure in the majority of the section may be reduced to a selected pressure after the average temperature reaches a temperature that is above 240.degree. C. and is at or below pyrolysis temperatures of hydrocarbons in the section. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  17. Heating tar sands formations to visbreaking temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Karanikas, John Michael; Colmenares, Tulio Rafael; Zhang, Etuan; Marino, Marian; Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Ryan, Robert Charles; Beer, Gary Lee; Dombrowski, Robert James; Jaiswal, Namit

    2009-12-22

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat may be controlled so that at least a majority of the section reaches an average temperature of between 200.degree. C. and 240.degree. C., which results in visbreaking of at least some hydrocarbons in the section. At least some visbroken hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  18. Hydrologic data for Mountain Creek, Trinity River basin, Texas, 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckner, H.D.

    1978-01-01

    The total drainage area of Mountain Creek, Texas, is 304 sq mi. The stream-gaging stations on Mountain Creek near Cedar Hill and Walnut Creek near Mansfield provide hydrologic data to define runoff characteristics from small drainage basins. They also serve as index stations for inflow into the reservoir and provide operational data for the reservoir. In addition, the station Walnut Creek near Mansfield is equipped with a recording rain gage. The stage station near Duncanville provides data pertinent to operation of the gates in the Mountain Creek Lake Dam. The reservoir-content station at the dam provides records of reservoir state and contents. The stream-gaging station Mountain Creek at Grand Prairie provides records of outflow from Mountain Creek Lake and the basin. Basin outflow for the 1976 water year was 78,660 acre-feet which is only 1,140 acre-feet above the 16-year (1960-76) average of 77,520 acre-feet. Storage in Mountain Creek Lake showed a net gain of 760 acre-feet during the water year. Rainfall over the study area for the 1976 water year was about 32 inches, which is about 2 inches below the long-term mean rainfall (1960-75) for the area. (Woodard-USGS)

  19. Natural and Anthropogenic Controls on the Ecosystem Services Provided by Dissolved Organic Matter: A Case Study of the Boulder Creek Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabor, R. S.; McKnight, D. M.

    2011-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) performs a number of vital functions in aquatic ecosystems, playing a substantial role in carbon and nitrogen cycles and the bioavailability of metals as well as generally affecting water chemistry. Additionally, it is considered the main cause of the the formation of harmful disinfection byproducts during water treatment processes. Because DOM is vital for ecosystem functioning, but potentially problematic for some direct human uses of water, it proves a complex case study for the application of the ecosystem services framework. To add to the complexity, human behavior can affect the amount and composition of DOM in water. Increasing concentrations of DOM have been observed in many areas of Northern Europe and North America. Hypotheses which have been suggested to explain these increased concentrations include changing land use, thawing peatlands, increased nitrogen deposition, and a lessening of acid rain, a particularly interesting idea because it would be an unintended consequence of a policy designed to protect other ecosystem functions. This multi-year study investigates DOM in the Boulder Creek Watershed in Colorado to better understand seasonal cycling of DOM and the link between DOM in the river and organic matter in the catchment, which is a substantial DOM source. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to analyze the chemical character of the DOM in an attempt to elucidate the watershed processes driving changes in DOM concentration. Because flow in Boulder Creek is partially controlled by Barker dam and reservoir, this study site provides an opportunity to investigate both natural DOM cycling and the impact of an anthropogenic influence. By better understanding DOM cycling and the ecosystem services it provides, we can better predict how DOM dynamics may shift in the future and be prepared to adjust our behavior and water treatment processes accordingly.

  20. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 2. Appendixes A, B, C, D

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This document contains appendices A (water characterization), B (sediment characterization), C (biota Characterization), D (applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements) from the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include {sup 137}Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and {sup 137}Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River.

  1. Tidal creek changes at the Sonoma Baylands restoration site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dingler, John R.; Cacchione, David A.; ,

    1998-01-01

    Over the past 150 years, human activity has had a major impact on tidal wetlands adjoining the San Francisco Bay-Delta estuary Growing concern about the effect of this change on the ecology of the estuary has prompted Bay area managers to attempt to reclaim tidal wetlands. The Sonoma Baylands Restoration Project is designed to use dredge material to convert 348 acres from farmland to wetland. This paper describes changes to a tidal creek that flows from that restoration site to San Pablo Bay (north San Francisco Bay) through an existing tidal wetland during different phases of the project. Hydrologic measurements near the bottom of the creek and cross-creek profiles show how the creek responded to non-tidal flow conditions introduced by filling the site with dredge materials. At the time of this study, the creek had deepened by approximately 40 cm but had not widened.

  2. The Boulder Creek Batholith, Front Range, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gable, Dolores J.

    1980-01-01

    the country rock, suggesting that emplacement was controlled by preexisting structures in the country rock. On a gross scale, chemical equilibrium in the Boulder Creek Granodiorite is expressed by a near 1:1 ratio, or straight-line relationship in the distribution of iron, magnesium, and manganese in biotite and hornblende. General mineralogical trends in the Boulder Creek Granodiorite indicate that modal biotite, hornblende, and plagioclase tend to increase and quartz and microcline tend to decrease as CaO increases. These trends were not found in the Twin Spruce Quartz Monzonite. Differentiation is believed to have played a major role and assimilation a minor role in the development of the Boulder Creek batholith. The Boulder Creek Granodiorite is of probable mantle or lower crust origin, and, based on the scant data available, the Twin Spruce Quartz Monzonite may be of crustal origin, but the magma was extensively altered by contaminants of ambiguous origin. Mafic inclusions, possibly derived from a dioritic magma which was an early differentiate associated temporally with the Boulder Creek Granodiorite and (or) the Twin Spruce Quartz Monzonite, were in jected into the Boulder Creek Granodiorite during the mush stage and before the batholith was completely crystallized. Biotite, hornblende, and potassium feldspar were studied extensively. Their chemistry and petrology indicate a homogeneity throughout the batholith not believed possible by a casual observance of the batholithic rocks in the field. The accessory minerals, where investigated, also tend to indicate this same pervasive homogeneity.

  3. Examination of the mining of heavy oil and tar sands by overburden substitution

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, R.L.

    1982-02-01

    A mining procedure which removes the geologic formations above an oil or tar sand bearing reservoir by strip mining techniques, then floods the upper surface of the reservoir with a pool of water, is examined by computational models and laboratory scale experiments. The results of the studies indicate low production rates are achieved by such a procedure.

  4. Analysis of reverse combustion in tar sands: a one-dimensional model

    SciTech Connect

    Amr, A.

    1980-08-01

    This paper describes a one-dimensional numerical model which simulates oil recovery from tar sands by reverse combustion. The method of lines is used to solve the nonlinear differential equations describing the flow. The effects of volumetric air flux on the peak temperature, flame velocity, and oil recovery efficiency are reported. The results are compared to the results of relevant experimental studies.

  5. Processing of Arroyo Grande tar sand using the Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE copyright ) process

    SciTech Connect

    King, S.B.

    1989-12-01

    The objectives of this study are to (1) evaluate the applications of the ROPE{copyright} process to a California tar sand using the screw pyrolysis reactor-process development unit (SPR-PDU) reactor, (2) produce kinetics data for the recycle product oil-spent sand interaction, and (3) produce oil for end-use evaluation. 6 refs., 1 fig., 23 tabs.

  6. Coal-tar-based pavement sealcoat, polycyclic aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), and environmental health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have identified coal-tar-based sealcoat-the black, viscous liquid sprayed or painted on asphalt pavement such as parking lots-as a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in urban areas for large parts of the Nation. Several PAHs are suspected human carcinogens and are toxic to aquatic life.

  7. Simulated water budgets and ground-water/surface-water interactions in Bushkill and parts of Monocacy Creek watersheds, Northampton County, Pennsylvania--a preliminary study with identification of data needs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risser, Dennis W.

    2006-01-01

    This report, prepared in cooperation with the Department of Environmental Protection, Office of Mineral Resources Management, provides a preliminary analysis of water budgets and generalized ground-water/surface-water interactions for Bushkill and parts of Monocacy Creek watersheds in Northampton County, Pa., by use of a ground-water flow model. Bushkill Creek watershed was selected for study because it has areas of rapid growth, ground-water withdrawals from a quarry, and proposed stream-channel modifications, all of which have the potential for altering ground-water budgets and the interaction between ground water and streams. Preliminary 2-dimensional, steady-state simulations of ground-water flow by the use of MODFLOW are presented to show the status of work through September 2005 and help guide ongoing data collection in Bushkill Creek watershed. Simulations were conducted for (1) predevelopment conditions, (2) a water table lowered for quarry operations, and (3) anthropogenic changes in hydraulic conductivity of the streambed and aquifer. Preliminary results indicated under predevelopment conditions, the divide between the Bushkill and Monocacy Creek ground-water basins may not have been coincident with the topographic divide and as much as 14 percent of the ground-water discharge to Bushkill Creek may have originated from recharge in the Monocacy Creek watershed. For simulated predevelopment conditions, Schoeneck Creek and parts of Monocacy Creek were dry, but Bushkill Creek was gaining throughout all reaches. Simulated lowering of the deepest quarry sump to an altitude of 147 feet for quarry operations caused ground-water recharge and streamflow leakage to be diverted to the quarry throughout about 14 square miles and caused reaches of Bushkill and Little Bushkill Creeks to change from gaining to losing streams. Lowering the deepest quarry sump to an altitude of 100 feet caused simulated ground-water discharge to the quarry to increase about 4 cubic feet

  8. Using Landsat and a Bayesian hard classifier to study forest change in the Salmon Creek Watershed area from 1972-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullis, David Stone

    The Salmon Creek Watershed in Sonoma County, California, USA, is home to a variety of wildlife, and many of its residents are mindful of their place in its ecology. In the past half century, several of its native and rare species have become threatened, endangered, or extinct, most notably the once common Coho salmon and Chinook salmon. The cause of this decline is believed to be a combination of global climate change, local land use, and land cover change. More specifically, the clearing of forested land to create vineyards, as well as other agricultural and residential uses, has led to a decline in biodiversity and habitat structure. I studied sub-scenes of Landsat data from 1972 to 2013 for the Salmon Creek Watershed area to estimate forest cover over this period. I used a maximum likelihood hard classifier to determine forest area, a Mahalanobis distance soft classifier to show the software's uncertainty in classification, and manually digitized forest cover to test and compare results for the 2013 30 m image. Because the earliest images were lower spatial resolution, I also tested the effects of resolution on these statistics. The images before 1985 are at 60 m spatial resolution while the later images are at 30 m resolution. Each image was processed individually and the training data were based on knowledge of the area and a mosaic of aerial photography. Each sub-scene was classified into five categories: water, forest, pasture, vineyard/orchard, and developed/barren. The research shows a decline in forest area from 1972 to around the mid-1990s, then an increase in forest area from the mid-1990s to present. The forest statistics can be helpful for conservation and restoration purposes, while the study on resolution can be helpful for landscape analysis on many levels.

  9. 48 CFR Appendix to Part 1252 - Tar Matrix

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tar Matrix Appendix to Part 1252 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Pt. 1252, App. Appendix to Part 1252—Tar Matrix...

  10. 33 CFR 117.831 - Pamlico and Tar Rivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pamlico and Tar Rivers. 117.831... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.831 Pamlico and Tar Rivers. The... Grimesland, shall open on signal if at least 24 hours notice is given. The bridge owners shall...

  11. 33 CFR 117.831 - Pamlico and Tar Rivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pamlico and Tar Rivers. 117.831... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.831 Pamlico and Tar Rivers. The... Grimesland, shall open on signal if at least 24 hours notice is given. The bridge owners shall...

  12. 33 CFR 117.831 - Pamlico and Tar Rivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pamlico and Tar Rivers. 117.831... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.831 Pamlico and Tar Rivers. The... Grimesland, shall open on signal if at least 24 hours notice is given. The bridge owners shall...

  13. 33 CFR 117.831 - Pamlico and Tar Rivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pamlico and Tar Rivers. 117.831... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.831 Pamlico and Tar Rivers. The... Grimesland, shall open on signal if at least 24 hours notice is given. The bridge owners shall...

  14. 33 CFR 117.831 - Pamlico and Tar Rivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pamlico and Tar Rivers. 117.831... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.831 Pamlico and Tar Rivers. The... Grimesland, shall open on signal if at least 24 hours notice is given. The bridge owners shall...

  15. The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1990-07-01

    Topics discussed include: characterization of bitumen impregnated sandstone, water based tar sand separation technology, electrophoretic characterization of bitumen and fine mineral particles, bitumen and tar sand slurry viscosity, the hot water digestion-flotation process, electric field use on breaking water-in-oil emulsions, upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids, solvent extraction.

  16. The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1990-07-01

    Topics discussed include: characterization of bitumen impregnated sandstone, water based tar sand separation technology, electrophoretic characterization of bitumen and fine mineral particles, bitumen and tar sand slurry viscosity, the hot water digestion-flotation process, electric field use on breaking water-in-oil emulsions, upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids, solvent extraction.

  17. Simulation of Water Quality in the Tull Creek and West Neck Creek Watersheds, Currituck Sound Basin, North Carolina and Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, Ana Maria

    2009-01-01

    A study of the Currituck Sound was initiated in 2005 to evaluate the water chemistry of the Sound and assess the effectiveness of management strategies. As part of this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to simulate current sediment and nutrient loadings for two distinct watersheds in the Currituck Sound basin and to determine the consequences of different water-quality management scenarios. The watersheds studied were (1) Tull Creek watershed, which has extensive row-crop cultivation and artificial drainage, and (2) West Neck Creek watershed, which drains urban areas in and around Virginia Beach, Virginia. The model simulated monthly streamflows with Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficients of 0.83 and 0.76 for Tull Creek and West Neck Creek, respectively. The daily sediment concentration coefficient of determination was 0.19 for Tull Creek and 0.36 for West Neck Creek. The coefficient of determination for total nitrogen was 0.26 for both watersheds and for dissolved phosphorus was 0.4 for Tull Creek and 0.03 for West Neck Creek. The model was used to estimate current (2006-2007) sediment and nutrient yields for the two watersheds. Total suspended-solids yield was 56 percent lower in the urban watershed than in the agricultural watershed. Total nitrogen export was 45 percent lower, and total phosphorus was 43 percent lower in the urban watershed than in the agricultural watershed. A management scenario with filter strips bordering the main channels was simulated for Tull Creek. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool model estimated a total suspended-solids yield reduction of 54 percent and total nitrogen and total phosphorus reductions of 21 percent and 29 percent, respectively, for the Tull Creek watershed.

  18. Design of a groundwater model to determine the feasibility of extending an artificial salmon-spawning stream: case study for Marx Creek, near Hyder, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, T. P.; Lachmar, T. E.

    2013-09-01

    Marx Creek is a groundwater-fed, artificial salmon-spawning stream near Hyder, Alaska. The purpose of this project was to develop a groundwater flow model to predict baseflow to a proposed 450-m extension of Marx Creek. To accomplish this purpose, water levels were monitored in 20 monitor wells and discharge measurements were recorded from Marx Creek. These data were used to create a three-dimensional groundwater flow model using Visual MODFLOW. Three predictive simulations were run after the model was calibrated to groundwater levels and stream discharge measurements. The proposed extension was added to the calibrated model during the first simulation, resulting in simulated baseflow to the extension stream exceeding simulated baseflow to the existing Marx Creek by 39 %. Sections of Marx Creek were removed from the model during the second simulation, resulting in a 5 % increase in simulated baseflow to the extension stream. A 32-cm reduction in the water table was simulated during the third simulation, resulting in an 18 % decrease in simulated baseflow to the extension stream. These modeling results were used by Tongass National Forest personnel to determine that baseflow to the proposed extension would likely be sufficient to provide habitat conducive to salmon spawning. The extension stream was constructed and portions of Marx Creek were decommissioned during the summer of 2008. It was observed that there is comparable or greater discharge in the extension stream than there was in the decommissioned sections of Marx Creek, although neither discharge nor stream stage measurements have yet been collected.

  19. Travels of the Cache Creek Terrane: a paleomagnetic, geobarometric and 40Ar/ 39Ar study of the Jurassic Fourth of July Batholith, Canadian Cordillera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Michael J.; Symons, David T. A.; Blackburn, William H.; Hart, Craig J. R.; Villeneuve, Mike

    2003-02-01

    The Middle Jurassic Fourth of July Batholith and cross-cutting mafic dikes have been studied geochronologically, geobarometrically and paleomagnetically to estimate subsequent tectonic motion of the Cache Creek Terrane (CCT) in the northern Canadian Cordillera. 40Ar/ 39Ar hornblende ages from a granodiorite phase are similar to U-Pb zircon ages and indicate rapid cooling of the batholith upon intrusion, suggesting that the magnetization age is coincident with the 173-Ma crystallization age. Argon ages of biotite from the granodiorite and two mafic dikes have similar ages of ˜165 Ma, which dates cooling through ˜280 °C. Aluminum-in-hornblende geobarometry indicates differential uplift of the batholith across a north-south fault zone along Atlin Lake with >6 km more uplift on its eastern side. Also, the eastern side has been tilted downward to the south-southwest by ˜9°. Combined paleomagnetic data from 20 granitoid and 11 mafic dike sites yield an in situ paleopole at 55°W, 63°N ( dp=5°, dm=5°) and a tilt-corrected paleopole at 81°W, 55°N ( dp=5°, dm=6°). Compared to the 173-Ma reference pole for the North American craton, the tilt-corrected pole suggests a significant southward translation of 16.1±3.7° and a significant clockwise rotation of 107±7°. The translation estimate is similar to the Jurassic Teslin Crossing pluton in the Stikine Terrane, however, the rotation estimate is very different. This could indicate that the Cache Creek Terrane was at a similar latitude of the Stikine Terrane, but the two were not yet amalgamated.

  20. Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands

    DOEpatents

    Westhoff, James D.; Harak, Arnold E.

    1989-01-01

    A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000.degree. F. in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs.

  1. Atmospheric Tar Balls: Particles From Biomass and Biofuel Burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posfai, M.; Gelencser, A.; Simonics, R.; Arato, K.; Li, J.; Hobbs, P. V.; Buseck, P. R.

    2003-12-01

    'Tar balls,' amorphous carbonaceous spherules that are locally abundant in the tropospheric aerosol through biomass and biofuel burning, form a distinct group of particles, readily identifiable with electron microscopy. They differ from soot in lacking a turbostratic microstructure, and their morphology and composition (~90 mol% carbon) renders them distinct from other carbonaceous particles. Tar balls are abundant in slightly aged (minutes to hours) biomass smoke, indicating that they likely form by gas-to-particle conversion within smoke plumes. Although the material of tar balls is initially hygroscopic, the particles become largely insoluble through free radical polymerization of their organic molecules. Tar balls are primarily externally mixed with other particle types, and they do not appreciably increase in size during aging. When they coagulate with water-bearing particles, their material may partly dissolve and no longer be recognizable as distinct particles. Tar balls may slightly absorb sunlight. They are a widespread and previously unrecognized type of carbonaceous (organic) atmospheric particle.

  2. Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands

    DOEpatents

    Westhoff, J.D.; Harak, A.E.

    1988-05-04

    A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000/degree/F in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  3. Bereavement Rituals in the Muscogee Creek Tribe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Andrea C.; Balk, David E.

    2007-01-01

    A qualitative, collective case study explores bereavement rituals in the Muscogee Creek tribe. Data from interviews with 27 participants, all adult members of the tribe, revealed consensus on participation in certain bereavement rituals. Common rituals included (a) conducting a wake service the night before burial; (b) never leaving the body alone…

  4. Integrated Geophysical Monitoring Program to Study Flood Performance and Incidental CO2 Storage Associated with a CO2 EOR Project in the Bell Creek Oil Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnison, S. A.; Ditty, P.; Gorecki, C. D.; Hamling, J. A.; Steadman, E. N.; Harju, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Plains CO2 Reduction (PCOR) Partnership, led by the Energy & Environmental Research Center, is working with Denbury Onshore LLC to determine the effect of a large-scale injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) into a deep clastic reservoir for the purpose of simultaneous CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and to study incidental CO2 storage at the Bell Creek oil field located in southeastern Montana. This project will reduce CO2 emissions by more than 1 million tons a year while simultaneously recovering an anticipated 30 million barrels of incremental oil. The Bell Creek project provides a unique opportunity to use and evaluate a comprehensive suite of technologies for monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) of CO2 on a large-scale. The plan incorporates multiple geophysical technologies in the presence of complementary and sometimes overlapping data to create a comprehensive data set that will facilitate evaluation and comparison. The MVA plan has been divided into shallow and deep subsurface monitoring. The deep subsurface monitoring plan includes 4-D surface seismic, time-lapse 3-D vertical seismic profile (VSP) surveys incorporating a permanent borehole array, and baseline and subsequent carbon-oxygen logging and other well-based measurements. The goal is to track the movement of CO2 in the reservoir, evaluate the recovery/storage efficiency of the CO2 EOR program, identify fluid migration pathways, and determine the ultimate fate of injected CO2. CO2 injection at Bell Creek began in late May 2013. Prior to injection, a monitoring and characterization well near the field center was drilled and outfitted with a distributed temperature-monitoring system and three down-hole pressure gauges to provide continuous real-time data of the reservoir and overlying strata. The monitoring well allows on-demand access for time-lapse well-based measurements and borehole seismic instrumentation. A 50-level permanent borehole array of 3-component geophones was installed in a

  5. Observation of HIV-1 Nucleocapsid Protein induced TAR DNA melting at the single molecule level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosa, Gonzalo; Harbron, Elizabeth; O'Connor, Donald; Musier-Forsyth, Karin; Barbara, Paul

    2003-03-01

    Reverse transcription of the HIV-1 RNA genome involves several nucleic acid rearrangement steps, and the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NC) plays a key role in this process. NC is a nucleic acid chaperone protein, which facilitates the formation of the most stable nucleic acid structures. Single molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (SM-FRET) measurements enable us to observe the NC-induced conformational fluctuations of a transactivation response region (TAR) DNA hairpin, which is part of the initial product of reverse transcription known as minus-strand strong-stop DNA. SM-FRET studies show that the majority of conformational fluctuations of the fluorescently-labeled TAR DNA hairpin in the presence of NC occur in <100 ms. A single molecule explores a wide range of confomations unpon NC binding, with fluctuations encompassing as many as 40 bases in both arms of the hairpin. No conformational fluctuations are observed with the dye-labeled TAR DNA hairpin in the absence of NC or when a labeled TAR DNA hairpin variant lacking bulges and internal loops is analyzed in the presence of NC. This study represents the first real-time observation of NC-mediated nucleic acid conformational fluctuations, revealing new insights into NC's nucleic acid chaperone activity.

  6. Carbon deposition in an SOFC fueled by tar-laden biomass gas: a thermodynamic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Devinder; Hernández-Pacheco, Eduardo; Hutton, Phillip N.; Patel, Nikhil; Mann, Michael D.

    This work presents a thermodynamic analysis of the carbon deposition in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) fueled by a biomass gasifier. Integrated biomass-SOFC units offer considerable benefits in terms of efficiency and fewer emissions. SOFC-based power plants can achieve a system efficiency of 70-80% (including heat utilization) as compared to 30-37% for conventional systems. The fuel from the biomass gasifier can contain considerable amounts of tars depending on the type of gasifier used. These tars can lead to the deposition of carbon at the anode side of SOFCs and affect the performance of the fuel cells. This paper thermodynamically studies the risk of carbon deposition due to the tars present in the feed stream and the effect various parameters like current density, steam, and temperature have on carbon deposition. Since tar is a complex mixture of aromatics, it is represented by a mixture of toluene, naphthalene, phenol, and pyrene. A total of 32 species are considered for the thermodynamic analysis, which is done by the Gibbs energy minimization technique. The carbon deposition is shown to decrease with an increase in current density and becomes zero after a critical current density. Steam in the feed stream also decreases the amount of carbon deposition. With the increase in temperature the amount of carbon first decreases and then increases.

  7. Effect of the bioemulsifier emulsan on naphthalene mineralization from coal tar in aqueous systems

    SciTech Connect

    Skubal, K.L.; Luthy, R.G.

    1994-09-01

    Coal tar in aerobic aqueous systems was treated with purified emulsan, the anionic heteropolysaccharide bioemulsifier produced by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG-1; with inocula of various concentrations of stationary phase RAG-1 cells; or with cell-free broth from stationary phase RAG-1 cultures. Naphthalene mineralization by a mixed PAH-degrading population was measured by recovering {sup 14}CO{sub 2} evolved during biotransformation of the [{sup 14}C]naphthalene-labeled coal tar. There was no evidence of naphthalene mineralization by RAG- 1 cells alone. The addition of emulsan, RAG-1 inocula, or cell-free broth to systems containing the PAH-degrading population did not significantly affect naphthalene mineralization in any of the systems tested. Coal tar in these experiments was present either as a free dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL), or as DNAPL imbibed into microporous silica particles. Emulsification of the tar was not observed in either case. The presence or absence of microporous silica did not affect the extent or rate of naphthalene mineralization, nor did the concentration of RAG-1 inocula or the amount of broth added. The addition of cell-free broth, emulsan, or RAG-1 cells late in the experiments did not yield significantly different results compared to initial addition of these substances. Thus, emulsan and related fractions from RAG-1 cultures were ineffective in altering naphthalene mineralization in this study.

  8. Treatability study on the Bear Creek Valley characterization area at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Phase II work plan for S-3 site contaminated groundwater interception--in-field media evaluation and groundwater capture methods

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    A treatability study is being conducted to support implementation:of early actions at the S-3 Site in the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Characterization Area (CA). The objectives of the early actions Will be (1) to reduce concentrations of uranium and nitrate in Bear Creek and (2) to reduce contaminants of concern in North Tributary (NT)-1 and NT-2. The BCV CA is located within the US DOE`s Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee. Hazardous and radioactive materials from the Y-12 Plant operations were, disposed of at various sites within BCV. Groundwater and surface water in the BCV CA have been contaminated. The remedial investigation (RI) for the BCV CA identified that the greatest mass flux of contaminants from the various sources migrates via groundwater at the source and discharges to surface water in Bear Creek and its tributaries. In the RI, the combined discharge from the S-3 Site and the Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY) was identified as accounting for 75% of the cancer risk and more than 80% of the chemical toxicity to Potential downgradient human receptors. In addition, the S-3 Site has caused degradation of surface water quality in upper Bear Creek and two of its tributaries. The BCV CA treatability study focuses on capture and treatment of shallow groundwater before it discharges to tributary waters. The objectives Of treatment of this groundwater are (1) to reduce the concentrations of uranium and nitrate in NT-1 and Bear Creek such that the concentrations of these chemicals in surface water and groundwater are reduced to acceptable levels, (2) to reduce the concentrations of nitrate and metals, and reduce the overall concentration of total dissolved solids; and (3) to hydraulically contain the plume of contaminated, groundwater that is moving in bedrock in the Nolichucky Shale such that the rate of contaminant discharge will be reduced in the long term. The objective of Phase II is to produce conceptual designs for treatment system configurations.

  9. 75 FR 27332 - AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC; Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC; Eagle Creek Land...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC; Eagle Creek Water Resources... Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, and Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC.... For the transferee: Mr. Paul Ho, Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC,...

  10. Line Creek improves efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Harder, P.

    1988-04-01

    Boosting coal recovery rate by 8% and reducing fuel expense $18,000 annually by replacing two tractors, are two tangible benefits that Crows Nest Resources of British Columbia has achieved since overseas coal markets weakened in 1985. Though coal production at the 4-million tpy Line Creek open pit mine has been cut 25% from its 1984 level, morale among the pit crew remains high. More efficient pit equipment, innovative use of existing equipment, and encouragement of multiple skill development among workers - so people can be assigned to different jobs in the operation as situations demand - contribute to a successful operation.

  11. Water Quality of Peralta and Courtland Creek Oakland, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahumada, A.; Zhen, K. L.; Ponce, X.; Johnson, A.; Varela, N.; Quintero, D.; Hernandez, G.; Oghogho, E.

    2014-12-01

    Authors: Allan Ahumada, Aminah Butler, Mellany Davis, Yarely Guzman, Micah Johnson, Xochitl Ponce, Kim Zhen Abstract: Beginning in the summer of 2012 and continuing to the present time our group has been assessing the water quality of Courtland Creek, which flows from Northeast to Southwest in East Oakland, California. During the summer of 2014 we began assessing the water quality at nearby Peralta Creek to compare the health of Courtland Creek with another one within the same watershed. In making our assessment we have analyzed samples collected from three different sites along both creeks for Nitrate, Phosphate, and Ammonia concentration levels. Additionally, we conducted benthic macroinvertebrate surveys at one site along each creek. Preliminary results indicate that nitrate levels in Courtland Creek waters are very high, which we believe is the result of human and animal waste entering into the creek. There were also unusually high levels of Phosphate and Ammonia detected in creek waters. Such high concentrations were noted in a past study and in an attempt to address this problem we initiated a native plant restoration project at one particular site located at the intersection of Courtland and Thompson avenues. This effort has resulted in a reduction in levels of Nitrate, Phosphate and Ammonia. The average levels of these compounds in waters collected near the restoration site were lower than those found in samples collected at other sites. However, they are still well above levels that are harmful to invertebrates and fish. Nitrate, Phosphate and Ammonia concentration levels in samples collected from Peralta Creek were significantly lower than those collected from Courtland Creek. For example, the maximum level of nitrate detected in Courtland Creek waters was 50 PPM while the maximum found in Peralta Creek waters was 15 PPM. We have concluded that the observed high levels of various compounds are the result of animal waste and human feces spilling directly

  12. Implication of Coal Tar and Asphalt on Black Carbon Quantification in Urban Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Werth, C. J.; Ligouis, B.; Razzaque, M.

    2008-12-01

    Sorption to black carbon (BC) is an important process that controls the transport and fate of persistent organic pollutants in aquatic environments. Efforts have been made to measure BC in different environmental matrices including aerosols, soils, and sediments; however, few studies have attempted to evaluate BC in dust from urban streets or parking lots, which can be an important BC source in urban lake sediments. Methods to quantify BC in soils and sediments usually involve the removal of non-BC carbonaceous materials with chemical and/or thermal oxidation followed by elemental analysis. The presence of coal tar pitch and asphalt in urban pavement dust is hypothesized to potentially result in an overestimate of BC. The primary objectives of this research are to identify the distribution of BC in a small urban watershed and to investigate the potential interference from coal tar and asphalt on BC quantification by method intercomparison. Samples were collected from the Lake Como watershed in Fort Worth, Texas. They include dust from coal-tar-sealed and unsealed parking lots and residential streets, soils from residential and commercial areas, stream bed sediments, and lake sediment cores. After density separation, samples were subjected to sequential chemical treatments and thermal treatment. Commercial coal tar pitch and asphalt products were subjected to these same treatments for comparison. BC contents quantified with chemical treatment and chemo-thermal oxidation at 375°C (CTO-375) were compared with those characterized using organic petrography. The chemical treatment predicted greater BC contents than organic petrography in all samples, and the greatest difference is in the sealed parking lot dust. CTO-375 method also predicted greater BC content in this sample than organic petrography. Commercial coal tar pitch was resistant to thermal oxidation and both coal tar pitch and asphalt were resistant to the chemical treatment. These results indicate that

  13. FY 80 Tar Sands Program first quarterly report, January 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, R.L.; Wayland, J.R.

    1980-05-01

    Research and development efforts in support of the Tar Sands program well completions and stimulation subactivity and new and novel concepts task have been initiated. The objectives of the well completion and stimulation efforts are to carry out research and development in areas with significant for long-range tar sand extraction development as well as provide potential interaction and support of the near-term tar sand field experiments. Evaluation testing of packers and computational analysis of well bore insulation for tar sands steam recovery injection wells have been investigated this quarter. Production well completions for the tar sand steam drive experiment have been examined, and a program to measure downhole steam quality in the experiment is under development. Initial examination of the application of the DOE downhole steam generator program to tar sand reservoirs has commenced. The examination of new and novel concepts for extraction of tar sands has been initiated. An overburden replacement technique was evaluated both computationally and in a laboratory scale experiment. Analyses of both microwave heating and in situ hydrogenation are being initiated.

  14. Atmospheric tar balls: aged primary droplets from biomass burning?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, A.; Hoffer, A.; Nyirő-Kósa, I.; Pósfai, M.; Gelencsér, A.

    2014-07-01

    Atmospheric tar balls are particles of special morphology and composition that are fairly abundant in the plumes of biomass smoke. These particles form a specific subset of brown carbon (BrC) which has been shown to play a significant role in atmospheric shortwave absorption and, by extension, climate forcing. Here we suggest that tar balls are produced by the direct emission of liquid tar droplets followed by heat transformation upon biomass burning. For the first time in atmospheric chemistry we generated tar-ball particles from liquid tar obtained previously by dry distillation of wood in an all-glass apparatus in the laboratory with the total exclusion of flame processes. The particles were perfectly spherical with a mean optical diameter of 300 nm, refractory, externally mixed, and homogeneous in the contrast of the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. They lacked any graphene-like microstructure and exhibited a mean carbon-to-oxygen ratio of 10. All of the observed characteristics of laboratory-generated particles were very similar to those reported for atmospheric tar-ball particles in the literature, strongly supporting our hypothesis regarding the formation mechanism of atmospheric tar-ball particles.

  15. Ultrasound assisted, thermally activated persulfate oxidation of coal tar DNAPLs.

    PubMed

    Peng, Libin; Wang, Li; Hu, Xingting; Wu, Peihui; Wang, Xueqing; Huang, Chumei; Wang, Xiangyang; Deng, Dayi

    2016-11-15

    The feasibility of ultrasound assisted, thermally activated persulfate for effective oxidation of twenty 2-6 ringed coal tar PAHs in a biphasic tar/water system and a triphasic tar/soil/water system were investigated and established. The results indicate that ultrasonic assistance, persulfate and elevated reaction temperature are all required to achieve effective oxidation of coal tar PAHs, while the heating needed can be provided by ultrasonic induced heating as well. Further kinetic analysis reveals that the oxidation of individual PAH in the biphasic tar/water system follows the first-order kinetics, and individual PAH oxidation rate is primary determined by the mass transfer coefficients, tar/water interfacial areas, the aqueous solubility of individual PAH and its concentration in coal tar. Based on the kinetic analysis and experimental results, the contributions of ultrasound, persulfate and elevated reaction temperature to PAHs oxidation were characterized, and the effects of ultrasonic intensity and oxidant dosage on PAHs oxidation efficiency were investigated. In addition, the results indicate that individual PAH degradability is closely related to its reactivity as well, and the high reactivity of 4-6 ringed PAHs substantially improves their degradability.

  16. Class I cultural resource overview for oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah and Wyoming.

    SciTech Connect

    O'Rourke, D.; Kullen, D.; Gierek, L.; Wescott, K.; Greby, M.; Anast, G.; Nesta, M.; Walston, L.; Tate, R.; Azzarello, A.; Vinikour, B.; Van Lonkhuyzen, B.; Quinn, J.; Yuen, R.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-11-01

    In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the 'Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005', Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is developing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) to evaluate alternatives for establishing commercial oil shale and tar sands leasing programs in Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah. This PEIS evaluates the potential impacts of alternatives identifying BLM-administered lands as available for application for commercial leasing of oil shale resources within the three states and of tar sands resources within Utah. The scope of the analysis of the PEIS also includes an assessment of the potential effects of future commercial leasing. This Class I cultural resources study is in support of the Draft Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and is an attempt to synthesize archaeological data covering the most geologically prospective lands for oil shale and tar sands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. This report is based solely on geographic information system (GIS) data held by the Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming State Historic Preservation Offices (SHPOs). The GIS data include the information that the BLM has provided to the SHPOs. The primary purpose of the Class I cultural resources overview is to provide information on the affected environment for the PEIS. Furthermore, this report provides recommendations to support planning decisions and the management of cultural resources that could be impacted by future oil shale and tar

  17. Lab-scale pyrolysis of the Automotive Shredder Residue light fraction and characterization of tar and solid products.

    PubMed

    Anzano, Manuela; Collina, Elena; Piccinelli, Elsa; Lasagni, Marina

    2017-03-16

    The general aim of this study is the recovery of Automotive Shredder Residue (ASR). The ASR light fraction, or car fluff, that was collected at an Italian shredding plant was pyrolysed at various temperatures (500-800°C) in a lab-scale reactor. The condensable gases (tar) and solid residue yields increased with decreasing temperature, and these products were characterized to suggest a potential use to reclaim them. The higher heating value (HHV) of tar was 34-37MJ/kg, which is comparable with those of fossil fuels. Furthermore, the ash content was low (0.06-4.98%). Thus, tar can be used as an alternative fuel. With this prospect, the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in tar were determined. The toxicity of tar changes with temperature (1-5ng I-TEQ/g), and the PCDFs significantly contribute to tar toxicity, which was 75-100% with a maximum of 99.6% at 700°C. Regarding the characterization of the solid residue, the low HHV (2.4-3.3MJ/kg) does not make it suitable for energy recovery. Regarding material recovery, we considered its use as a filler in construction materials or a secondary source for metals. It shows a high metal concentration (280,000-395,000mg/kg), which is similar at different pyrolysis temperatures. At 500°C, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were not detected in the solid residue, whereas the maximum total PAH concentration (19.41ng/g, 700°C) was lower than that in fly ash from MSWI. In conclusion, 500°C is a suitable pyrolysis temperature to obtain valuable tar and solid residue.

  18. Investigations into the effects of volatile biomass tar on the performance of Fe-based CLC oxygen carrier materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boot-Handford, Matthew E.; Florin, Nick; Fennell, Paul S.

    2016-11-01

    In this study we present findings from investigations into interactions between biomass tar and two iron based oxygen carrier materials (OCMs) designed for chemical-looping applications: a 100% Fe2O3 (100Fe) OCM and a 60 wt% Fe2O3/40 wt% Al2O3 (60Fe40Al) OCM. A novel 6 kWe two-stage, fixed-bed reactor was designed and constructed to simulate a chemical-looping combustion (CLC) process with ex situ gasification of biomass. Beech wood was pyrolysed in the first stage of the reactor at 773 K to produce a tar-containing fuel gas that was used to reduce the OCM loaded into the 2nd stage at 973 K. The presence of either OCM was found to significantly reduce the amount of biomass tars exiting the reactor by up to 71 wt% compared with analogous experiments in which the biomass tar compounds were exposed to an inert bed of sand. The tar cracking effect of the 60Fe40Al OCM was slightly greater than the 100Fe OCM although the reduction in the tar yield was roughly equivalent to the increase in carbon deposition observed for the 60Fe40Al OCM compared with the 100Fe OCM. In both cases, the tar cracking effect of the OCMs appeared to be independent of the oxidation state in which the OCM was exposed to the volatile biomass pyrolysis products (i.e. Fe2O3 or Fe3O4). Exposing the pyrolysis vapours to the OCMs in their oxidised (Fe2O3) form favoured the production of CO2. The production of CO was favoured when the OCMs were in their reduced (Fe3O4) form. Carbon deposition was removed in the subsequent oxidation phase with no obvious deleterious effects on the reactivity in subsequent CLC cycles with reduction by 3 mol% CO.

  19. TarNet: An Evidence-Based Database for Natural Medicine Research

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Guomin; Sun, Guibo; Sun, Xiaobo

    2016-01-01

    Background Complex diseases seriously threaten human health. Drug discovery approaches based on “single genes, single drugs, and single targets” are limited in targeting complex diseases. The development of new multicomponent drugs for complex diseases is imperative, and the establishment of a suitable solution for drug group-target protein network analysis is a key scientific problem that must be addressed. Herbal medicines have formed the basis of sophisticated systems of traditional medicine and have given rise to some key drugs that remain in use today. The search for new molecules is currently taking a different route, whereby scientific principles of ethnobotany and ethnopharmacognosy are being used by chemists in the discovery of different sources and classes of compounds. Results In this study, we developed TarNet, a manually curated database and platform of traditional medicinal plants with natural compounds that includes potential bio-target information. We gathered information on proteins that are related to or affected by medicinal plant ingredients and data on protein–protein interactions (PPIs). TarNet includes in-depth information on both plant–compound–protein relationships and PPIs. Additionally, TarNet can provide researchers with network construction analyses of biological pathways and protein–protein interactions (PPIs) associated with specific diseases. Researchers can upload a gene or protein list mapped to our PPI database that has been manually curated to generate relevant networks. Multiple functions are accessible for network topological calculations, subnetwork analyses, pathway analyses, and compound–protein relationships. Conclusions TarNet will serve as a useful analytical tool that will provide information on medicinal plant compound-affected proteins (potential targets) and system-level analyses for systems biology and network pharmacology researchers. TarNet is freely available at http://www.herbbol.org:8001/tarnet

  20. Physicochemical Approaches for the Remediation of Former Manufactured Gas Plant Tars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauswirth, S.; Miller, C. T.

    2014-12-01

    Former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) tars are one of the most challenging non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contaminants to remediate due to their complex chemical composition, high viscosities, and ability to alter wettability. In this work, we investigate several in situ remediation techniques for the removal of tar from porous media. Batch and column experiments were conducted to test the effectiveness of mobilization, solubilization, and chemical oxidation remediation approaches. Alkaline (NaOH), surfactant (Triton X-100), and polymer (xanthan gum) agents were used in various combinations to reduce tar-water interfacial tension, increase flushing solution viscosity, and increase the solubilities of tar components. Base-activated sodium persulfate was used alone and in combination with surfactant to chemically oxidized tar components. The effectiveness of each method was assessed in terms of both removal of PAHs from the system and reduction of dissolved-phase effluent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations. In column studies, alkaline-polymer (AP) and alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) solutions efficiently mobilized 81-93% and 95-96% of residual PAHs, respectively, within two pore volumes. The impact of AP flushing on dissolved-phase PAH concentrations was relatively low; however, the concentrations of several low molar mass PAHs were significantly reduced after ASP flushing. Surfactant-polymer (SP) solutions removed over 99% of residual PAHs through a combination of mobilization and solubilization, and reduced the post-remediation, dissolved-phase total PAH concentration by 98.4-99.1%. Degradation of residual PAHs by base-activated sodium persulfate was relatively low (30-50%), and had little impact on dissolved-phase PAH concentrations.

  1. Kiowa Creek Switching Station

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to construct, operate, and maintain a new Kiowa Creek Switching Station near Orchard in Morgan County, Colorado. Kiowa Creek Switching Station would consist of a fenced area of approximately 300 by 300 feet and contain various electrical equipment typical for a switching station. As part of this new construction, approximately one mile of an existing 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line will be removed and replaced with a double circuit overhead line. The project will also include a short (one-third mile) realignment of an existing line to permit connection with the new switching station. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 40 CFR Parts 1500--1508, the Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required for the proposed project. This determination is based on the information contained in this environmental assessment (EA) prepared by Western. The EA identifies and evaluates the environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and concludes that the advance impacts on the human environment resulting from the proposed project would not be significant. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Ship Creek bioassessment investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Cushing, C.E.; Mueller, R.P.; Murphy, M.T.

    1995-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked by Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB) personnel to conduct a series of collections of macroinvertebrates and sediments from Ship Creek to (1) establish baseline data on these populations for reference in evaluating possible impacts from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) activities at two operable units, (2) compare current population indices with those found by previous investigations in Ship Creek, and (3) determine baseline levels of concentrations of any contaminants in the sediments associated with the macroinvertebrates. A specific suite of indices established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was requested for the macroinvertebrate analyses; these follow the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol developed by Plafkin et al. (1989) and will be described. Sediment sample analyses included a Microtox bioassay and chemical analysis for contaminants of concern. These analyses included, volatile organic compounds, total gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons (EPA method 8015, CA modified), total organic carbon, and an inductive-coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) metals scan. Appendix A reports on the sediment analyses. The Work Plan is attached as Appendix B.

  3. Toxic substances in surface waters and sediments--A study to assess the effects of arsenic-contaminated alluvial sediment in Whitewood Creek, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuwabara, James S.; Fuller, Christopher C.

    2003-01-01

    Field measurements and bioassay experiments were done to investigate the effects of arsenic and phosphorus interactions on sorption of these solutes by the benthic flora (periphyton and submerged macrophytes) in Whitewood Creek, a stream in western South Dakota. Short-term (24-hour) sorption experiments were used to determine arsenic transport characteristics for algae (first-order rate constants for solute sorption, biomass, and accumulation factors) collected in the creek along a transect beginning upstream from a mine discharge point and downgradient through a 57-kilometer reach. Temporal changes in biomass differed significantly between and within sampling sites. Arsenic concentrations in plant tissue increased with distance downstream, but temporal changes in concentrations in tissues differed considerably from site to site. Cultures of Achnanthes minutissima (Bacillariophyceae) and Stichococcus sp. (Chlorophyceae) were isolated from four sites along a longitudinal concentration gradient of dissolved arsenic within the study reach and were maintained at ambient solute concentrations. Arsenic accumulation factors and sorption-rate constants for these isolates were determined as a function of dissolved arsenate and orthophosphate. Cell surfaces of algal isolates exhibited preferential orthophosphate sorption over arsenate. Initial sorption of both arsenate and orthophosphate followed first-order mass transfer for each culturing condition. Although sorption-rate constants increased slightly with increased dissolved-arsenate concentration, algae, isolated from a site with elevated dissolved arsenic in the stream channel, had a significantly slower rate of arsenic sorption compared with the same species isolated from an uncontaminated site upstream. In diel studies, amplitudes of the pH cycles increased with measured biomass except at a site immediately downstream from water-treatment-plant discharge. Inorganic pentavalent arsenic dominated arsenic speciation at

  4. 75 FR 40034 - Northeastern Tributary Reservoirs Land Management Plan, Beaver Creek, Clear Creek, Boone, Fort...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... Northeastern Tributary Reservoirs Land Management Plan, Beaver Creek, Clear Creek, Boone, Fort Patrick Henry... Land Management Plan (NTRLMP) for the 4,933 acres of TVA-managed public land on Beaver Creek, Clear... the Watauga River. Beaver Creek and Clear Creek reservoirs are on tributaries within the South...

  5. Recent Approaches to Modeling Transport of Mercury in Surface Water and Groundwater - Case Study in Upper East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, TN - 13349

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, Kent; Daniel, Anamary; Tachiev, Georgio; Malek-Mohammadi, Siamak

    2013-07-01

    In this case study, groundwater/surface water modeling was used to determine efficacy of stabilization in place with hydrologic isolation for remediation of mercury contaminated areas in the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) Watershed in Oak Ridge, TN. The modeling simulates the potential for mercury in soil to contaminate groundwater above industrial use risk standards and to contribute to surface water contamination. The modeling approach is unique in that it couples watershed hydrology with the total mercury transport and provides a tool for analysis of changes in mercury load related to daily precipitation, evaporation, and runoff from storms. The model also allows for simulation of colloidal transport of total mercury in surface water. Previous models for the watershed only simulated average yearly conditions and dissolved concentrations that are not sufficient for predicting mercury flux under variable flow conditions that control colloidal transport of mercury in the watershed. The transport of mercury from groundwater to surface water from mercury sources identified from information in the Oak Ridge Environmental Information System was simulated using a watershed scale model calibrated to match observed daily creek flow, total suspended solids and mercury fluxes. Mercury sources at the former Building 81-10 area, where mercury was previously retorted, were modeled using a telescopic refined mesh with boundary conditions extracted from the watershed model. Modeling on a watershed scale indicated that only source excavation for soils/sediment in the vicinity of UEFPC had any effect on mercury flux in surface water. The simulations showed that colloidal transport contributed 85 percent of the total mercury flux leaving the UEFPC watershed under high flow conditions. Simulation of dissolved mercury transport from liquid elemental mercury and adsorbed sources in soil at former Building 81-10 indicated that dissolved concentrations are orders of magnitude

  6. The contribution of low tar cigarettes to environmental tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Chortyk, O.T.; Schlotzhauer, W.S. )

    1989-05-01

    A series of low tar cigarettes (LTC) were smoked and the quantities of condensable mainstream (inhaled) and sidestream (between puffs) smoke compounds were determined and compared to those produced by a high tar, nonfilter cigarette. It was found that the LTC produced large quantities of sidestream smoke condensates, about equal to the high tar cigarette, and contained very high levels of toxic or cocarcinogenic phenols. On an equal weight basis, the LTC emitted more of these hazardous compounds into sidestream and environmental tobacco smoke. Higher smoke yields of a flavor additive and a sugar degradation product indicated addition of such compounds during the manufacture of LTC. It was concluded that, compared to a high tar cigarette, smoking LTC may be better for the smoker, but not for the nearby nonsmoker. Information should be developed to allow smokers to choose LTC that produce lower levels of hazardous compounds in their environmentally emitted sidestream smoke.

  7. Geochemical data for environmental studies of mineral deposits at Nabesna, Kennecott, Orange Hill, Bond Creek, Bremner, and Gold Hill, Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eppinger, R.G.; Briggs, P.H.; Rosenkrans, D.S.; Ballestrazze, Vanessa; Aldir, Jose; Brown, Z.A.; Crock, J.G.; d'Angelo, W. M.; Doughten, M.W.; Fey, D.L.; Hageman, P.L.; Hopkins, R.T.; Knight, R.J.; Malcolm, M.J.; McHugh, J.B.; Meier, A.L.; Motooka, J.M.; O'Leary, R. M.; Roushey, B.H.; Sultley, S.J.; Theodorakos, P.M.; Wilson, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    Environmental geochemical investigations were carried out between 1994 and 1997 in Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve (WRST), Alaska. Mineralized areas studied include the historic Nabesna gold mine/mill and surrounding areas; the historic Kennecott copper mill area and nearby Bonanza, Erie, Glacier, and Jumbo mines; the historic mill and gold mines in the Bremner district; the active gold placer mines at Gold Hill; and the unmined copper-molybdenum deposits at Orange Hill and Bond Creek. The purpose of the study was to determine the extent of possible environmental hazards associated with these mineralized areas and to establish background and baseline levels for selected elements. Thus, concentrations of a large suite of trace elements were determined to assess metal loadings in the various sample media collected. This report presents the methodology, analytical results, and sample descriptions for water, leachate, sediment, heavy-mineral concentrate, rock, and vegetation (willow) samples collected during these geochemical investigations. An interpretive U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper incorporating these geochemical data will follow.

  8. Influence of the presence of PAHs and coal tar on naphthalene sorption in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayard, Rémy; Barna, Ligia; Mahjoub, Borhane; Gourdon, Rémy

    2000-11-01

    The mobility of the most water-soluble polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as naphthalene in contaminated soils from manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites or other similar sites is influenced not only by the naturally occurring soil organic matter (SOM) but also, and in many cases mostly, by the nature and concentration of coal tar xenobiotic organic matter (XOM) and other PAH molecules present in the medium under various physical states. The objective of the present study was to quantify the effects of these factors using batch experiments, in order to simulate naphthalene transport in soil-tar-water systems using column experiments. Naphthalene sorption was studied in the presence of (i) solid coal tar particles, (ii) phenanthrene supplied as pure crystals, in the aqueous solution or already sorbed onto the soil, (iii) fluoranthene as pure crystals, and (iv) an aqueous solution of organic molecules extracted from a liquid tar. All experiments were conducted under abiotic conditions using short naphthalene/sorbent contact times of 24-60 h. Although these tests do not reflect true equilibrium conditions which usually take more time to establish, they were used to segregate relatively rapid sorption phenomena ("pseudo equilibrium") from slow sorption and other aging phenomena. For longer contact times, published data have shown that experimental biases due to progressive changes in the characteristics of the soil and the solution may drastically modify the affinity of the solutes for the soil. Slow diffusion in the microporosity and in dense organic phases may also become significant over the long term, along with some irreversible aging phenomena which have not been addressed in this work. Results showed that PAHs had no effect on naphthalene sorption when present in the aqueous solution or as pure crystals, due to their low solubility in water. Adsorbed phenanthrene was found to reduce naphthalene adsorption only when present at relatively high

  9. Levels-of-growing-stock cooperative study in douglas-fir: Report No. 12. The Iron Creek study. 1966-89. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, R.O.; Clendenen, G.W.

    1994-12-01

    This progress report summarizes results of Iron Creek levels-of-growing-stock (LOGS) installation. To age 42, volume growth has been strongly related to growing stock and partially offsets the decrease in growth percent expected with increasing growing stock. Basal area growth-growing stock relations were much weaker. Marked differences in size distributions resulted from thinning. Periodic annual volume increments were two to three times greater than mean annual increment at age 42; this stand is far from culmination. Results are generally similar to those from other installations in the LOGS series.

  10. GEE CREEK WILDERNESS, TENNESSEE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Epstein, Jack B.; Gazdik, Gertrude C.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of geologic, geochemical, and mine and prospect surveys, it was determined that the Gee Creek Wilderness, Tennessee has little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. Iron ore was formerly mined, but the deposits are small, have a high phosphorous content, and are inaccessible. Shale, suitable for brick or lightweight aggregate, and sandstone, which could be utilized for crushed stone or sand, are found in the area, but are also found in areas closer to potential markets. The geologic setting precludes the presence of oil and gas resources in the surface rocks, but the possibility of finding natural gas at depth below the rocks exposed in the area cannot be discounted. Geophysical exploration would be necessary to define the local structure in rocks at depth to properly evaluate the potential of the area for gas.

  11. PINEY CREEK WILDERNESS, MISSOURI.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, Walden P.; Ellis, Clarence

    1984-01-01

    The Piney Creek Wilderness in southwest Missouri was investigated by geologic, geochemical, and mineral-occurrence surveys. These is no evidence of metallic mineral deposits in the rock units exposed at the surface in the wilderness, but the entire area has a probable potential for significant zinc-lead deposits at depths of several hundred feet. A probable potential also exists for a small to moderate-sized iron ore deposit at a depth of at least 2100 ft along the northwest side of the wilderness. Evaluation of these potentials would require deep drilling, and in the case of the possible iron ore deposit, a detailed magnetic survey. No energy resource potential was identified within this area.

  12. Coyote Creek Trash Reduction Project: Clean Creeks, Healthy Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP Coyote Creek Trash Reduction Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  13. Creating and maintaining a gas cap in tar sands formations

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael; Dinkoruk, Deniz Sumnu; Wellington, Scott Lee

    2010-03-16

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are disclosed herein. Methods for treating a tar sands formation may include providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the formation. Pressure may be allowed to increase in an upper portion of the formation to provide a gas cap in the upper portion. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from a lower portion of the formation.

  14. Atmospheric tar balls: Particles from biomass and biofuel burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pósfai, MiháLy; GelencséR, AndráS.; Simonics, RenáTa; Arató, Krisztina; Li, Jia; Hobbs, Peter V.; Buseck, Peter R.

    2004-03-01

    "Tar balls" are amorphous, carbonaceous spherules that occur in the tropospheric aerosol as a result of biomass and biofuel burning. They form a distinct group of particles with diameters typically between 30 and 500 nm and readily identifiable with electron microscopy. Their lack of a turbostratic microstructure distinguishes them from soot, and their morphology and composition (˜90 mol % carbon) renders them distinct from other carbonaceous particles. Tar balls are particularly abundant in slightly aged (minutes to hours old) biomass smoke, indicating that they likely form by gas-to-particle conversion within smoke plumes. The material of tar balls is initially hygroscopic; however, the particles become largely insoluble as a result of free radical polymerization of their organic molecules. Consequently, tar balls are primarily externally mixed with other particle types, and they do not appreciably increase in size during aging. When tar balls coagulate with water-bearing particles, their material may partly dissolve and no longer be recognizable as distinct particles. Tar balls may contain organic compounds that absorb sunlight. They are an important, previously unrecognized type of carbonaceous (organic) atmospheric particle.

  15. Atmospheric Tar Balls: Particles from Biomass and Biofuel Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posfai, Mihaly; Gelencser, Andras; Simonics, Renata; Arato, Krisztina; Li, Jia; Hobbs, Peter V.; Buseck, Peter R.

    2004-01-01

    Tar balls are amorphous, carbonaceous spherules that occur in the tropospheric aerosol as a result of biomass and biofuel burning. They form a distinct group of particles with diameters typically between 30 and 500 nm and readily identifiable with electron microscopy. Their lack of a turbostratic microstructure distinguishes them from soot, and their morphology and composition (approximately 90 mol% carbon) renders them distinct from other carbonaceous particles. Tar balls are particularly abundant in slightly aged (minutes to hours old) biomass smoke, indicating that they likely form by gas-to-particle conversion within smoke plumes. The material of tar balls is initially hygroscopic; however, the particles become largely insoluble as a result of free radical polymerization of their organic molecules. Consequently, tar balls are primarily externally mixed with other particle types, and they do not appreciably increase in size during aging. When tar balls coagulate with water-bearing particles, their material may partly dissolve and no longer be recognizable as distinct particles. Tar balls may contain organic compounds that absorb sunlight. They are an important, previously unrecognized type of carbonaceous (organic) atmospheric particle.

  16. Health and safety plan for phase II of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    This Health and Safety Plan (HASP) addresses the health and safety (H&S) concerns and requirements for the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Samples will be collected from effluent following treatment tests of extraction columns, algal mats, and mature wetlands supplied by surface water locations and existing groundwater monitoring well locations. The project Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses the project description, technical objectives, procedures, and planned work activities in greater detail. It is the responsibility of the project managers, field manager, and site health and safety officer (SHSO) to determine that the requirements of this HASP are sufficiently protective. If it is determined that the requirements of this HASP are not sufficiently protective, a field change order(s) (FCO) will be prepared. FCOs will include a completed job hazard analysis or similar worksheet to ensure complete hazard assessment. FCOs must be approved by the Environmental Management and Enrichment Facilities (EMEF) project manager, EMEF H&S manager, subcontractor project or field manager, and subcontractor H&S representative. As a minimum, FCOs will be prepared if additional tasks will be performed or if contaminant exposure is anticipated.

  17. A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for Cedar Creek, Dekalb and Allen counties, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilber, William G.; Peters, J.G.; Ayers, M.A.; Crawford, Charles G.

    1979-01-01

    A digital model calibrated to conditions in Cedar Creek was used to develop alternatives for future waste loadings that would be compatible with Indiana stream water-quality standards defined for two critical hydrologic conditions, summer and winter low flows. The model indicates that the dissolved-oxygen concentration of the Auburn wastewater effluent and nitrification are the most significant factors affecting the dissolved-oxygen concentration in Cedar Creek during summer low flows. The observed dissolved-oxygen concentration of the Auburn wastewater effluent was low and averaged 30 percent of saturation. Projected nitrogenous biochemical-oxygen demand loads, from the Indiana State Board of Health, for the Auburn and Waterloo wastewater-treatment facilities will result in violations of the current instream dissolved-oxygen standard (5 mg/l), even with an effluent dissolved-oxygen concentration of 80 percent saturation. Natural streamflow for Cedar Creek upstream from the confluence of Willow and Little Cedar Creeks is small compared with the waste discharge, so benefits of dilution for Waterloo and Auburn are minimal. The model also indicates that, during winter low flows, ammonia toxicity, rather than dissolved oxygen, is the limiting water-quality criterion in the reach of Cedar Creek downstream from the wastewater-treatment facility at Auburn and the confluence of Garrett ditch. Ammonia-nitrogen concentrations predicted for 1978 through 2000 downstream from the Waterloo wastewater-treatment facility do not exceed Indiana water-quality standards for streams. Calculations of the stream 's assimilative capacity indicate that future waste discharge in the Cedar Creek basin will be limited to the reaches between the Auburn wastewater-treatment facility and County Road 68. (Kosco-USGS)

  18. Gasification of biomass in a fixed bed downdraft gasifier--a realistic model including tar.

    PubMed

    Barman, Niladri Sekhar; Ghosh, Sudip; De, Sudipta

    2012-03-01

    This study presents a model for fixed bed downdraft biomass gasifiers considering tar also as one of the gasification products. A representative tar composition along with its mole fractions, as available in the literature was used as an input parameter within the model. The study used an equilibrium approach for the applicable gasification reactions and also considered possible deviations from equilibrium to further upgrade the equilibrium model to validate a range of reported experimental results. Heat balance was applied to predict the gasification temperature and the predicted values were compared with reported results in literature. A comparative study was made with some reference models available in the literature and also with experimental results reported in the literature. Finally a predicted variation of performance of the gasifier by this validated model for different air-fuel ratio and moisture content was also discussed.

  19. Floodplain and wetlands assessment of the White Oak Creek Embayment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    This report describes the proposed methods for dealing with contaminants that have accumulated in White Oak Creek, White Oak Lake, and the White Oak Creek Embayment as a result of process releases and discharges from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Alternative methods of cleaning up the area which were considered in accordance with regulatory guidelines are listed, and information supporting the selected methods is provided. Also included are results of a site survey conducted at the White Oak Creek Embayment and the expected effects of the proposed control structures on the floodplain and wetlands. The appendix contains figures showing the nine cross-sections of the stream channel surveyed during studies of the White Oak Creek area.

  20. 1. DEADWOOD CREEK BRIDGE FACING SOUTHWEST. MOUNT RAINIER AND EMMONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. DEADWOOD CREEK BRIDGE FACING SOUTHWEST. MOUNT RAINIER AND EMMONS GLACIER VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND. - Deadwood Creek Bridge, Spanning Deadwood Creek on Mather Memorial Parkway, Longmire, Pierce County, WA

  1. Process for upgrading tar sand bitumen

    SciTech Connect

    Bartholic, D.B.; Reagan, W.J.

    1989-02-14

    A process is described for upgrading a charge of a tar sand bitumen concentrate containing metal impurities, colloidal calcium-containing clay and water. It consists of contacting the charge in a riser contacting zone in the presence of a low boiling organic solvent with hot fluidizable attrition-resistant substantially catalytically-inert microspheres, which are 20 to 150 microns in diameter and are composed of previously calcined kaolin clay. The contact takes place at high temperature and short contact time, which permits vaporization of the high hydrogen containing components of the bitumen. The period of time is less than that which induces substantial thermal cracking of the charge. At the end of the time the vaporized produce is separated from the microspheres of calcined kaolin clay, the microspheres of calcined kaolin clay now bearing a deposit of combustible solid, metal impurities and adherent particles of colloidal calcium-containing clay originally contained in the bitumen concentrate, immediately reducing the temperature of the vaporized product to minimize thermal cracking and recovering the product for further refining to produce one or more premium products.

  2. Alameda Creeks Healthy Watersheds Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP Alameda Creeks Healthy Watersheds Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resour

  3. Potential hydrologic impacts of a tar-sand industry in 11 special tar sand areas in eastern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindskov, K.L.

    1983-01-01

    About 93 percent of the Nation 's estimated 30 billion barrels of crude oil in tar sand deposits is in 11 tar-sand deposits in eastern Utah that were chosen for leasing by the Federal government. The Tar Sand Triangle area, which contains about 15 billion barrels of oil, is the largest. This area and the Sunnyside and P R Springs areas contain more than three-fourths of the Utah reserves. About 88,000 acre-feet of water per year would be required for a commercial tar-sand industry producing about 365,000 barrels per day. At this rate, most of the recoverable oil would be mined within 30 years. About 22,000 acre-feet of water per year would be required for a commercial tar-sand industry producing about 83,000 barrels per day. Impacts on local hydrology would be greatest in the Tar Sand Triangle, Sunnyside, and P R Springs areas. Impacts could be minimized with proper construction of surface facilities to decrease erosion, sediment transport, and impoundment of mining and retort water. Increases in salinity of the Colorado River at Imperial Dam, Ariz.-Calif., could be about 3 milligrams per liter, with a peak of 9 milligrams per liter, for a 365 ,000-barrel-per-day industry and less than 1 milligram per liter , with a peak of 2 milligrams per liter, for an 83 ,000-barrel-per-day industry. (USGS)

  4. Structure and Mechanism of Staphylococcus aureus TarS, the Wall Teichoic Acid β-glycosyltransferase Involved in Methicillin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    King, Dustin T.; Wasney, Gregory A.; Baumann, Lars; Gale, Robert T.; Brown, Eric D.; Withers, Stephen G.; Strynadka, Natalie C. J.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in teichoic acids as targets for antibiotic drug design against major clinical pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, reflecting the disquieting increase in antibiotic resistance and the historical success of bacterial cell wall components as drug targets. It is now becoming clear that β-O-GlcNAcylation of S. aureus wall teichoic acids plays a major role in both pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance. Here we present the first structure of S. aureus TarS, the enzyme responsible for polyribitol phosphate β-O-GlcNAcylation. Using a divide and conquer strategy, we obtained crystal structures of various TarS constructs, mapping high resolution overlapping N-terminal and C-terminal structures onto a lower resolution full-length structure that resulted in a high resolution view of the entire enzyme. Using the N-terminal structure that encapsulates the catalytic domain, we furthermore captured several snapshots of TarS, including the native structure, the UDP-GlcNAc donor complex, and the UDP product complex. These structures along with structure-guided mutants allowed us to elucidate various catalytic features and identify key active site residues and catalytic loop rearrangements that provide a valuable platform for anti-MRSA drug design. We furthermore observed for the first time the presence of a trimerization domain composed of stacked carbohydrate binding modules, commonly observed in starch active enzymes, but adapted here for a poly sugar-phosphate glycosyltransferase. PMID:27973583

  5. 77 FR 13592 - AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek Land...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources... Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, and Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC (transferees) filed an...) 805-1469. Transferees: Mr. Bernard H. Cherry, Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek...

  6. Waste management plan for phase II of the Bear Creek Valley Treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This Waste Management Plan (WMP) for the Bear Creek Valley Treatability Study addresses waste management requirements for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The study is intended to produce treatment performance data required to design a treatment system for contaminated groundwater. The treatability study will consist of an evaluation of various treatment media including continuous column tests, with up to six columns being employed to evaluate the performance of different media in the treatment of groundwater; an evaluation of the dentrifying capacity and metal uptake capacity of a wetland system; and the long-term dentrifying capacity and metal uptake capacity of algal mats. Additionally, the treatability study involves installation of a trench and incline well to evaluate and assess hydraulic impacts of pumping groundwater. The Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) covers the project description, technical objectives, procedures, and planned work activities in greater detail. The Health and Safety Plan (HASP) addresses the health and safety concerns and requirements for the proposed sampling activities. This WMP identifies the types and estimates the volumes of various wastes that may be generated during the proposed treatability studies. The approach to managing waste outlined in this WMP emphasizes the following points: (1) management of the waste generated in a manner that is protective of human health and the environment; (2) minimization of waste generation, thereby reducing unnecessary costs and usage of limited permitted storage and disposal capacities; and (3) compliance with federal, state, and site requirements. Prior sampling at the site has detected organic, radioactive, and metals contamination in groundwater and surface water. Proposed field operations are not expected to result in worker exposures greater than applicable exposure or action limits.

  7. Variability of Polychaete Secondary Production in Intertidal Creek Networks along a Stream-Order Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Tianjiang; Sheng, Qiang; Wang, Sikai; Wu, Jihua

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic tidal creek networks are important habitats for sustaining biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in salt marsh wetlands. To evaluate the importance of creek heterogeneity in supporting benthic secondary production, we assess the spatial distribution and secondary production of a representative polychaete species (Dentinephtys glabra) in creek networks along a stream-order gradient in a Yangtze River estuarine marsh. Density, biomass, and secondary production of polychaetes were found to be highest in intermediate order creeks. In high order (3rd and 4th) creeks, the density and biomass of D. glabra were higher in creek edge sites than in creek bottom sites, whereas the reverse was true for low order (1st and 2nd) creeks. Secondary production was highest in 2nd order creeks (559.7 mg AFDM m−2 year−1) and was ca. 2 folds higher than in 1st and 4th order creeks. Top fitting AIC models indicated that the secondary production of D. glabra was mainly associated with geomorphological characters including cross-sectional area and bank slope. This suggests that hydrodynamic forces are essential factors influencing secondary production of macrobenthos in salt marshes. This study emphasizes the importance of microhabitat variability when evaluating secondary production and ecosystem functions. PMID:24817092

  8. Importance of heterocylic aromatic compounds in monitored natural attenuation for coal tar contaminated aquifers: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, Philipp; Sagner, Anne; Tiehm, Andreas; Martus, Peter; Wendel, Thomas; Grathwohl, Peter

    2011-11-01

    NSO heterocycles (HET) are typical constituents of coal tars. However, HET are not yet routinely monitored, although HET are relatively toxic coal tar constituents. The main objectives of the study is therefore to review previous studies and to analyse HET at coal tar polluted sites in order to assess the relevance of HET as part of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) or any other long-term monitoring programme. Hence, natural attenuation of typical HET (indole, quinoline, carbazole, acridine, methylquinolines, thiophene, benzothiophene, dibenzothiophene, benzofuran, dibenzofuran, methylbenzofurans, dimethylbenzofurans and xanthene) were studied at three different field sites in Germany. Compound-specific plume lengths were determined for all main contaminant groups (BTEX, PAH and HET). The results show that the observed plume lengths are site-specific and are above 250 m, but less than 1000 m. The latter, i.e. the upper limit, however mainly depends on the level of investigation, the considered compound, the lowest measured concentration and/or the achieved compound-specific detection limit and therefore cannot be unequivocally defined. All downstream contaminant plumes exhibited HET concentrations above typical PAH concentrations indicating that some HET are generally persistent towards biodegradation compared to other coal tar constituents, which results in comparatively increased field-derived half-lives of HET. Additionally, this study provides a review on physicochemical and toxicological parameters of HET. For three well investigated sites in Germany, the biodegradation of HET is quantified using the centre line method (CLM) for the evaluation of bulk attenuation rate constants. The results of the present and previous studies suggest that implementation of a comprehensive monitoring programme for heterocyclic aromatic compounds is relevant at sites, if MNA is considered in risk assessment and for remediation.

  9. Occurrence and concentrations of selected trace elements, halogenated organic compounds, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in streambed sediments and results of water-toxicity testing in Westside Creeks and the San Antonio River, San Antonio, Texas, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crow, Cassi L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Kunz, James L.

    2016-12-01

    Sediment samples and samples for water-toxicity testing were collected during 2014 from several streams in San Antonio, Texas, known locally as the Westside Creeks (Alazán, Apache, Martínez, and San Pedro Creeks) and from the San Antonio River. Samples were collected during base flow and after periods of stormwater runoff (poststorm conditions) to determine baseline sediment- and water-quality conditions. Streambed-sediment samples were analyzed for selected constituents, including trace elements and organic contaminants such as pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), brominated flame retardants, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Potential risks of contaminants in sediment were evaluated by comparing concentrations of contaminants in sediment to two effects-based sediment-quality guidelines: (1) a lower level, called the threshold effect concentration, below which, harmful effects to benthic biota are not expected, and (2) a higher level, the probable effect concentration (PEC), above which harmful effects are expected to occur frequently. Samples for water-toxicity testing were collected from each stream to provide information about fish toxicity in the study area. The trace metal lead was detected at potentially toxic concentrations greater than the PEC in both the base-flow and poststorm samples collected at two sites sampled on San Pedro Creek. The PECs for the pesticides dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, and chlordane were exceeded in some of the samples at the same two sites on San Pedro Creek. Brominated flame retardants and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) 85, 153, and 154 were found in all streambed-sediment samples. Federal Environmental Quality Guidelines established by Environment Canada for PBDE 99 and PBDE 100 were exceeded in all samples in which PBDE 99 was detected and in a majority of the samples in which PBDE 100 was detected; the greatest concentrations

  10. Channel stability of Turkey Creek, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rus, David L.; Soenksen, Philip J.

    1998-01-01

    Channelization on Turkey Creek and its receiving stream, the South Fork Big Nemaha River, has disturbed the equilibrium of Turkey Creek and has led to channel-stability problems, such as degradation and channel widening, which pose a threat to bridges and land adjacent to the stream. As part of a multiagency study, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed channel stability at two bridge sites on upper and middle portions of Turkey Creek by analyzing streambed-elevation data for gradation changes, comparing recent cross-section surveys and historic accounts, identifying bank-failure blocks, and analyzing tree-ring samples. These results were compared to gradation data and trend results for a U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station near the mouth of Turkey Creek from a previous study. Examination of data on streambed elevations reveals that degradation has occurred. The streambed elevation declined 0.5 m at the upper site from 1967-97. The streambed elevation declined by 3.2 m at the middle site from 1948-97 and exposed 2 m of the pilings of the Nebraska Highway 8 bridge. Channel widening could not be verified at the two sites from 1967-97, but a historic account indicates widening at the middle site to be two to three times that of the 1949 channel width. Small bank failures were evident at the upper site and a 4-m-wide bank failure occurred at the middle site in 1987 according to tree ring analyses. Examination of streambed-elevation data from a previous study at the lower site reveals a statistically significant aggrading trend from 1958-93. Further examination of these data suggests minor degradation occurred until 1975, followed by aggradation.

  11. Macroseepage of Methane and Light Alkanes at the La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doezema, L. A.; Weber, D.; Schuffels, S.; Marquez, A.; Taylor, C.; Raya, P.; Howard, D.; Contreras, P.; Fusco, K.; Morales, F.; Nwachuku, I.

    2015-12-01

    Natural seepage of methane has been theorized to be an underreported source of global methane. Recent studies have also suggested that light alkane flux that is given off in combination with the methane also is underreported in local and global budgets. This study investigated macroseepage, visible seepage, at the La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles, CA. More than 100 samples were collected from individual seeps using stainless steel flux chambers and canisters and were analyzed for methane and C2-C5 alkanes using gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detectors (GC-FID). Maximum hourly fluxes from individual seeps were over 70 g of methane and over 720 mg, 670 mg, 200 mg, 20 mg, 14 mg, and 0.2 mg for ethane, propane, i-butane, n-butane, i-pentane, and n-pentane respectively. In addition to the active seepage sites, a significant amount of methane and light alkanes was also found to come from outgassing from standing tar deposits. Using gas ratios found in this study along with overall methane emission estimates from another recent study, the La Brea Tar Pits were found to be a significant source of light alkanes in the South Coast Air Basin, contributing approximately 2% towards the overall budget.

  12. Paleoflood investigations for Cherry Creek Basin, Eastern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarrett, R.D.

    2004-01-01

    In 1950 when Cherry Creek dam, which is located in Denver. Colorado, was completed, the design flood was 5,126 m3/s. Two recent probable maximum flood (PMF) estimates for the dam range from 14,840 to 18,750 m 3/s demonstrate the uncertainty in estimating extreme flooding in eastern Colorado. PMF difference is due in part to a lack of extreme rainfall and flood data in eastern Colorado. A paleoflood study was conducted to assist dam-safety officials in assessing the risk of large floods in Cherry Creek basin. An envelope curve encompassing maximum contemporary floods (19 sites) and paleofloods (99 sites) was developed for Cherry Creek basin streams; paleoflood data reflect maximum flooding during the last few hundred to many thousands of years. Maximum paleofloods in Cherry Creek range from about 1,050 m 3/s near Franktown (in about 5,000 to at least 10,000 years), about 2,100 m3/s near Melvin (in about 1,500 to 5,000 years), and about 2,270 m3/s at Cherry Creek Reservoir (also in about 1,500 to 5,000 years). Flood-frequency relations for Cherry Creek, which incorporate paleoflood data, indicate the 10,000-year flood (10-4 annual exceedence probability) ranges from about 1,200 m3/s (near Franktown) to about 2,200 m3/s (near Melvin). PMF estimates are about six to eight times larger than paleofloods in Cherry Creek basin. Additional research in flood hydrometeorology is needed to help dam safety officials evaluate potential safety problems related to large floods in Cherry Creek basin. Copyright ASCE 2004.

  13. Best management practices plan for Phase II of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant site is currently under a Federal Facilities Agreement to define soil and groundwater contamination and develop remedies to protect human health and the environment. The western end of the site is known to have a former nitric acid disposal pit that has been remediated and capped. Remedial investigation data indicate this pit was a source of nitrate, uranium, technetium, and other metals contamination in groundwater. The downgradient receptor of this contamination includes Bear Creek and its tributaries. A feasibility study is underway to develop a remedy to prevent further contaminant migration to this receptor. To support the feasibility study, a treatability study is being completed to examine groundwater treatment at the S-3 site. This document serves as the top level command medium for Phase II and as such will be the primary resource for management and implementation of field activities. Many of the details and standard operating procedures referred within this document can be found in other Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (Energy Systems) documents. Several supporting documents specific to this project are also cited. These include the Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP), the Health and Safety Plan (HASP), and the Waste Management Plan (WMP). Section 1 describes the results of Phase I efforts. Section 2 describes the objectives of Phase II. Section 3 provides details of field testing. Section 4 addresses the HASP. Section 5 describes the SAP. Section 6 introduces the WMP. Environmental compliance issues are discussed in Section 7, and sediment and erosion control is addressed in Section 8. Information about the project team is provided in Section 9.

  14. A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for Clear Creek, Monroe County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilber, William G.; Crawford, Charles G.; Peters, J.G.; Girardi, F.P.

    1979-01-01

    A digital model calibrated to conditions in Clear Creek, Monroe County, IN, was used to develop alternatives for future waste loadings that would be compatible with Indiana stream water-quality standards defined for two critical hydrologic conditions, summer and winter low flows. The Winston Thomas wastewater-treatment facility is the only point-source waste load affecting the modeled reach of Clear Creek. A new waste-water-treatment facility under construction at Dillman Road (river mile 13.78) will replace the Winston Thomas wastewater-treatment facility (river mile 16.96) in 1980. Natural streamflow during the summer and annual 7-day, 10-year low flow is zero, so no benefit from dilution is provided. The model indicates that ammonia-nitrogen toxicity is the most significant factor affecting the stream water quality during summer and winter low flows. The ammonia-nitrogen concentration of the wastewater effluent exceeds the maximum total ammonia-nitrogen concentration of 2.5 milligrams per liter for summer months (June through August) and 4.0 milligrams per liter for winter months (November through March) required for Indiana streams. Nitrification, benthic-oxygen demand, and algal respiration were the most significant factors affecting the dissolved-oxygen concentration in Clear Creek during the model calibration. Nitrification should not significantly affect the dissolved-oxygen concentration in Clear Creek during summer low flows when the ammonia-nitrogen toxicity standards are met. (USGS)

  15. Conservation of Thane Creek and Ulhas River Estuary, India.

    PubMed

    Nikam, Vinay S; Kumar, Arun; Lalla, Kamal; Gupta, Kapil

    2009-07-01

    There has been a steady decrease in the area occupied by wetlands in creeks and estuaries adjacent urban areas due to unprecedented urban growth in coastal cities, for example, Thane Creek and Ulhas River Estuary near Mumbai, India. Urban cities serve as centres of employment and attract a large number of migrants from other places. In case of coastal cities, due to inadequate infrastructure, wastewater and solid waste are disposed of into wetlands and estuary. Discharge of sediments and solid waste into the creeks from drains and construction activities has resulted in decreased flow depth in the coastal waters of Thane Creek and Ulhas River Estuary. Various researchers have studied individual elements of Thane Creek and Ulhas River Estuary at micro level. However, a holistic approach for restoration and conservation of the creek and estuary is required. This paper presents the details of an integrated approach incorporating different conservation measures such as sewerage and sewage treatment, urban drainage management, solid waste management, mangrove plantation and dredging.

  16. Development of Catalytic Tar Decomposition in an Internally Circulating Fluidized-Bed Gasifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xianbin; Le, Due Dung; Morishita, Kayoko; Li, Liuyun; Takarada, Takayuki

    Biomass gasification in an Internally Circulating Fluidized-bed Gasifier (ICFG) using Ni/Ah03 as tar cracking catalyst is studied at low temperature. Reaction conditions of the catalyst bed are discussed, including catalytic temperature and steam ratio. High energy efficiency and hydrogen-rich, low-tar product gas can be achieved in a properly designed multi-stage gasification process, together with high-performance catalyst. In addition, considering the economical feasibility, a newly-developed Ni-loaded brown coal char is developed and evaluated as catalyst in a lab-scale fluidized bed gasifier with catalyst fixed bed. The new catalyst shows a good ability and a hopeful prospect oftar decomposition, gas quality improvement and catalytic stability.

  17. Production of aromatics through current-enhanced catalytic conversion of bio-oil tar.

    PubMed

    Bi, Peiyan; Yuan, Yanni; Fan, Minghui; Jiang, Peiwen; Zhai, Qi; Li, Quanxin

    2013-05-01

    Biomass conversion into benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX) can provide basic feedstocks for the petrochemical industry, which also serve as the most important aromatic platform molecules for development of high-end chemicals. Present work explored a new route for transformation of bio-oil tar into BTX through current-enhanced catalytic conversion (CECC), involving the synergistic effect between the zeolite catalyst and current to promote the deoxygenation and cracking reactions. The proposed transformation shows an excellent BTX aromatics selectivity of 92.9 C-mol% with 25.1 wt.% yield at 400 °C over usual HZSM-5 catalyst. The study of the model compounds revealed that the groups such as methoxy, hydroxyl and methyl in aromatics can be effectively removed in the CECC process. Present transformation potentially provides an important approach for production of the key petrochemicals of BTX and the overall use of bio-oil tar derived from bio-oil or biomass.

  18. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit. Volume 4. Appendixes G, H, and I and information related to the feasibility study and ARARs

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is Volume 4 of the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

  19. A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for Silver Creek, Clark and Floyd counties, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilber, William G.; Crawford, Charles G.; Peters, James G.

    1979-01-01

    The Indiana State Board of Health is developing a State water-quality management plan that includes establishing limits for wastewater effluents discharged into Indiana streams. A digital model calibrated to conditions in Silver Creek was used to develop alternatives for future waste loadings that would be compatible with Indiana stream water-quality standards defined for two critical hydrologic conditions, summer and winter low flows. Effluents from the Sellersburg and Clarksville-North wastewater-treatment facilities are the only point-source waste loads that significantly affect the water quality in the modeled segment of Silver Creek. Model simulations indicate that nitrification is the most significant factor affecting the dissolved-oxygen concentration in Silver Creek during summer and winter low flows. Natural streamflow in Silver Creek during the summer and annual 7-day, 10-year low flow is zero, so no benefit from dilution is provided. Present ammonia-nitrogen and dissolved-oxygen concentrations of effluent from the Sellersburg and Clarksville-North wastewater-treatment facilities will violate current Indiana water-quality standards for ammonia toxicity and dissolved oxygen during summer and winter low flows. The current biochemical-oxygen demand limits for the Sellersburg and Clarksville-North wastewater-treatment facilities are not sufficient to maintain an average dissolved-oxygen concentration of at least 5 milligrams per liter, the State 's water-quality standard for streams. Calculations of the stream 's assimilative capacity indicate that Silver Creek cannot assimilate additional waste loadings and meet current Indiana water-quality standards. (Kosco-USGS)

  20. Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek Watershed Monitoring Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon; Smith, J.G.

    1999-03-01

    Biological monitoring of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks, which border the Paducah Site, has been conducted since 1987. Biological monitoring was conducted by University of Kentucky from 1987 to 1991 and by staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1991 through March 1999. In March 1998, renewed Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (KPDES) permits were issued to the US Department of Energy (DOE) and US Enrichment Corporation. The renewed DOE permit requires that a watershed monitoring program be developed for the Paducah Site within 90 days of the effective date of the renewed permit. This plan outlines the sampling and analysis that will be conducted for the watershed monitoring program. The objectives of the watershed monitoring are to (1) determine whether discharges from the Paducah Site and the Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) associated with the Paducah Site are adversely affecting instream fauna, (2) assess the ecological health of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks, (3) assess the degree to which abatement actions ecologically benefit Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek, (4) provide guidance for remediation, (5) provide an evaluation of changes in potential human health concerns, and (6) provide data which could be used to assess the impact of inadvertent spills or fish kill. According to the cleanup will result in these watersheds [Big Bayou and Little Bayou creeks] achieving compliance with the applicable water quality criteria.

  1. Light absorption properties of laboratory generated tar ball particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffer, A.; Tóth, A.; Nyirő-Kósa, I.; Pósfai, M.; Gelencsér, A.

    2015-06-01

    Tar balls (TBs) are a specific particle type which is abundant in the global troposphere, in particular in biomass smoke plumes. These particles belong to the family of atmospheric brown carbon (BrC) which can absorb light in the visible range of the solar spectrum. Albeit TBs are typically present as individual particles in biomass smoke plumes, their absorption properties have been only indirectly inferred from field observations or calculations based on their electron energy-loss spectra. This is because in biomass smoke TBs coexist with various other particle types (e.g. organic particles with inorganic inclusions and soot, the latter is emitted mainly during flaming conditions) from which they cannot be physically separated; thus, a direct experimental determination of their absorption properties is not feasible. Very recently we have demonstrated that TBs can be generated in the laboratory from droplets of wood tar that resemble atmospheric TBs in all of their observed properties. As a follow-up study we have installed on-line instruments to our laboratory set-up generating pure TB particles to measure the absorption and scattering, as well as size distribution of the particles. In addition, samples were collected for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and total carbon (TC) analysis. The effects of experimental parameters were also studied. The mass absorption coefficients of the laboratory generated TBs were found to be in the range of 0.8-3.0 m2 g-1 at 550 nm, with absorption Ångström exponents (AAE) between 2.7 and 3.4 (average 2.9) in the wavelength range 467-652 nm. The refractive index of TBs as derived from Mie calculations was about 1.84-0.21i at 550 nm. In the brown carbon continuum these values fall closer to those of soot than to other light-absorbing species such as humic-like substances (HULIS). Considering the abundance of TBs in biomass smoke and the global magnitude of biomass burning emissions, these findings may have substantial

  2. Light absorption properties of laboratory-generated tar ball particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffer, A.; Tóth, A.; Nyirő-Kósa, I.; Pósfai, M.; Gelencsér, A.

    2016-01-01

    Tar balls (TBs) are a specific particle type that is abundant in the global troposphere, in particular in biomass smoke plumes. These particles belong to the family of atmospheric brown carbon (BrC), which can absorb light in the visible range of the solar spectrum. Albeit TBs are typically present as individual particles in biomass smoke plumes, their absorption properties have been only indirectly inferred from field observations or calculations based on their electron energy-loss spectra. This is because in biomass smoke TBs coexist with various other particle types (e.g., organic particles with inorganic inclusions and soot, the latter emitted mainly during flaming conditions) from which they cannot be physically separated; thus, a direct experimental determination of their absorption properties is not feasible. Very recently we have demonstrated that TBs can be generated in the laboratory from droplets of wood tar that resemble atmospheric TBs in all of their observed properties. As a follow-up study, we have installed on-line instruments to our laboratory set-up, which generate pure TB particles to measure the absorption and scattering, as well as the size distribution of the particles. In addition, samples were collected for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and total carbon (TC) analysis. The effects of experimental parameters were also studied. The mass absorption coefficients of the laboratory-generated TBs were found to be in the range of 0.8-3.0 m2 g-1 at 550 nm, with absorption Ångström exponents (AAE) between 2.7 and 3.4 (average 2.9) in the wavelength range 467-652 nm. The refractive index of TBs as derived from Mie calculations was about 1.84 - 0.21i at 550 nm. In the brown carbon continuum, these values fall closer to those of soot than to other light-absorbing species such as humic-like substances (HULIS). Considering the abundance of TBs in biomass smoke and the global magnitude of biomass burning emissions, these findings may have

  3. Steam reforming of tar model compound using Pd catalyst on alumina tube.

    PubMed

    Nisamaneenate, Jurarat; Atong, Duangduen; Sricharoenchaikul, Viboon

    2012-12-01

    Gasification processing of biomass as a renewable energy source generates tar in the product gas. Tar leads to foul-up of the process equipment by corrosion and deposit formation. Catalytic elimination of tars is a crucial step to improve fuel gas quality from the process. In this study, a palladium catalyst on alumina (Pd/Al2O3) was used in steam reforming of benzene as a biomass gasification tar model compound. The reaction was carried out in a laboratory-scale tube reactor made of stainless steel to study the effect of reaction temperature, catalyst loading, quantity of palladium catalyst tubes, steam to carbon ratio (S/C), and residence time on catalytic performance and stability. Pd/Al2O3 showed high efficiency ofbenzene decomposition and enhanced the formation of fuel gas. Hydrogen and carbon conversions increased with reaction temperature. Although the benzene concentration increased from 2000 to 5000 mg/l, the catalytic performance at 600 degrees C and 800 degrees C was similar. 1.0 wt% Pd/Al2O3 showed excellent catalytic activity with the highest hydrogen and carbon conversions of 83% and 81%, respectively at 800 degrees C. This result is attributed to the smooth surface of the palladium, as noted from scanning electron microscopy imaging. An S/C of 2 provided the highest conversion. The addition of catalyst from four and seven tubes did not result in any great difference in terms of benzene cracking efficiency. The fourth cyclic usage of 1.0 wt% Pd/Al2O3 exhibited a higher conversion than that of 0.5 wt%.

  4. Feasibility Report and Environmental Statement for Water Resources Development, Cache Creek Basin, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-02-01

    classified as Porno , Lake Miwok, and Patwin. Recent surveys within the Clear Lake-Cache Creek Basin have located 28 archeological sites, some of which...additional 8,400 acre-feet annually to the Lakeport area. Porno Reservoir on Kelsey Creek, being studied by Lake County, also would supplement M&l water...project on Scotts Creek could provide 9,100 acre- feet annually of irrigation water. Also, as previously discussed, Porno Reservoir would furnish

  5. Cancer risk from incidental ingestion exposures to PAHs associated with coal-tar-sealed pavement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, E. Spencer; Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Recent (2009-10) studies documented significantly higher concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in settled house dust in living spaces and soil adjacent to parking lots sealed with coal-tar-based products. To date, no studies have examined the potential human health effects of PAHs from these products in dust and soil. Here we present the results of an analysis of potential cancer risk associated with incidental ingestion exposures to PAHs in settings near coal-tar-sealed pavement. Exposures to benzo[a]pyrene equivalents were characterized across five scenarios. The central tendency estimate of excess cancer risk resulting from lifetime exposures to soil and dust from nondietary ingestion in these settings exceeded 1 × 10–4, as determined using deterministic and probabilistic methods. Soil was the primary driver of risk, but according to probabilistic calculations, reasonable maximum exposure to affected house dust in the first 6 years of life was sufficient to generate an estimated excess lifetime cancer risk of 6 × 10–5. Our results indicate that the presence of coal-tar-based pavement sealants is associated with significant increases in estimated excess lifetime cancer risk for nearby residents. Much of this calculated excess risk arises from exposures to PAHs in early childhood (i.e., 0–6 years of age).

  6. Microbial Diversity in Natural Asphalts of the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits▿

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Shik; Crowley, David E.

    2007-01-01

    Bacteria commonly inhabit subsurface oil reservoirs, but almost nothing is known yet about microorganisms that live in naturally occurring terrestrial oil seeps and natural asphalts that are comprised of highly recalcitrant petroleum hydrocarbons. Here we report the first survey of microbial diversity in ca. 28,000-year-old samples of natural asphalts from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles, CA. Microbiological studies included analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences and DNA encoding aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases from two tar pits differing in chemical composition. Our results revealed a wide range of phylogenetic groups within the Archaea and Bacteria domains, in which individual taxonomic clusters were comprised of sets of closely related species within novel genera and families. Fluorescent staining of asphalt-soil particles using phylogenetic probes for Archaea, Bacteria, and Pseudomonas showed coexistence of mixed microbial communities at high cell densities. Genes encoding dioxygenases included three novel clusters of enzymes. The discovery of life in the tar pits provides an avenue for further studies of the evolution of enzymes and catabolic pathways for bacteria that have been exposed to complex hydrocarbons for millennia. These bacteria also should have application for industrial microbiology and bioremediation. PMID:17416692

  7. Screening method for solvent selection used in tar removal by the absorption process.

    PubMed

    Masurel, Eve; Authier, Olivier; Castel, Christophe; Roizard, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is the study of the treatment of flue gas issued from a process of biomass gasification in fluidized bed. The flue gas contains tar which should be selectively removed from the fuel components of interest (e.g. H2, CO and light hydrocarbons) to avoid condensation and deposits in internal combustion engine. The chosen flue gas treatment is the gas-liquid absorption using solvents, which present specific physicochemical properties (e.g. solubility, viscosity, volatility and chemical and thermal stability) in order to optimize the unit on energetic, technico-economic and environmental criteria. The rational choice of the proper solvent is essential for solving the tar issue. The preselection of the solvents is made using a Hansen parameter in order to evaluate the tar solubility and the saturation vapour pressure of the solvent is obtained using Antoine law. Among the nine families of screened solvents (alcohols, amines, ketones, halogenates, ethers, esters, hydrocarbons, sulphured and chlorinates), acids methyl esters arise as solvents of interest. Methyl oleate has then been selected and studied furthermore. Experimental liquid-vapour equilibrium data using bubbling point and absorption cell measurements and theoretical results obtained by the UNIFAC-Dortmund model confirm the high potential of this solvent and the good agreement between experimental and theoretical results.

  8. Fast microwave-assisted catalytic gasification of biomass for syngas production and tar removal.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qinglong; Borges, Fernanda Cabral; Cheng, Yanling; Wan, Yiqin; Li, Yun; Lin, Xiangyang; Liu, Yuhuan; Hussain, Fida; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2014-03-01

    In the present study, a microwave-assisted biomass gasification system was developed for syngas production. Three catalysts including Fe, Co and Ni with Al2O3 support were examined and compared for their effects on syngas production and tar removal. Experimental results showed that microwave is an effective heating method for biomass gasification. Ni/Al2O3 was found to be the most effective catalyst for syngas production and tar removal. The gas yield reached above 80% and the composition of tar was the simplest when Ni/Al2O3 catalyst was used. The optimal ratio of catalyst to biomass was determined to be 1:5-1:3. The addition of steam was found to be able to improve the gas production and syngas quality. Results of XRD analyses demonstrated that Ni/Al2O3 catalyst has good stability during gasification process. Finally, a new concept of microwave-assisted dual fluidized bed gasifier was put forward for the first time in this study.

  9. A Synoptic Study of Fecal-Indicator Bacteria in the Wind River, Bighorn River, and Goose Creek Basins, Wyoming, June-July 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Melanie L.; Gamper, Merry E.

    2003-01-01

    A synoptic study of fecal-indicator bacteria was conducted during June and July 2000 in the Wind River, Bighorn River, and Goose Creek Basins in Wyoming as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program for the Yellowstone River Basin. Fecal-coliform concentrations ranged from 2 to 3,000 col/100 mL (colonies per 100 milliliters) for 100 samples, and Escherichia coli concentrations ranged from 1 to 2,800 col/100 mL for 97 samples. Fecal-coliform concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's recommended limit for a single sample for recreational contact with water in 37.0 percent of the samples. Escherichia coli concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's recommended limit for a single sample for moderate use, full-body recreational contact with water in 38.1 percent of the samples and the recommended limit for infrequent use, full-body recreational contact with water in 24.7 percent of the samples. Fecal-indicator-bacteria concentrations varied by basin. Samples from the Bighorn River Basin had the highest median concentrations for fecal coliform of 340 col/100 mL and for Escherichia coli of 300 col/100 mL. Samples from the Wind River Basin had the lowest median concentrations for fecal coliform of 50 col/100 mL and for Escherichia coli of 62 col/100 mL. Fecal-indicator-bacteria concentrations varied by land cover. Samples from sites with an urban land cover had the highest median concentrations for fecal coliform of 540 col/100 mL and for Escherichia coli of 420 col/100 mL. Maximum concentrations for fecal coliform of 3,000 col/100 mL and for Escherichia coli of 2,800 col/100 mL were in samples from sites with an agricultural land cover. The lowest median concentrations for fecal coliform of 130 col/100 mL and for Escherichia coli of 67 col/100 mL were for samples from sites with a forested land cover. A strong and positive relation existed between fecal coliform and Escherichia coli

  10. Freshwater flow from estuarine creeks into northeastern Florida Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hittle, Clinton; Patino, Eduardo; Zucker, Mark A.

    2001-01-01

    Water-level, water-velocity, salinity, and temperature data were collected from selected estuarine creeks to compute freshwater flow into northeastern Florida Bay. Calibrated equations for determining mean velocity from acoustic velocity were obtained by developing velocity relations based on direct acoustic measurements, acoustic line velocity, and water level. Three formulas were necessary to describe flow patterns for all monitoring sites, with R2 (coefficient of determination) values ranging from 0.957 to 0.995. Cross-sectional area calculations were limited to the main channel of the creeks and did not include potential areas of overbank flow. Techniques also were used to estimate discharge at noninstrumented sites by establishing discharge relations to nearby instrumented sites. Results of the relation between flows at instrumented and noninstrumented sites varied with R2 values ranging from 0.865 to 0.99. West Highway Creek was used to estimate noninstrumented sites in Long Sound, and Mud Creek was used to estimate East Creek in Little Madeira Bay. Mean monthly flows were used to describe flow patterns and to calculate net flow along the northeastern coastline. Data used in the study were collected from October 1995 through September 1999, which includes the El Nino event of 1998. During this period, about 80 percent of the freshwater flowing into the bay occurred during the wet season (May-October). The mean freshwater discharge for all five instrumented sites during the wet season from 1996 to 1999 is 106 cubic feet per second. The El Nino event caused a substantial increase (654 percent) in mean flows during the dry season (November-April) at the instrumented sites, ranging from 8.5 cubic feet per second in 1996-97 to 55.6 cubic feet per second in 1997-98. Three main flow signatures were identified when comparing flows at all monitoring stations. The most significant was the magnitude of discharges at Trout Creek, which carries about 50 percent of the

  11. Assessment of tar pollution on the United Arab emirates beaches

    SciTech Connect

    Abu-Hilal, A.H.; Khordagui, H.K. )

    1993-01-01

    In light of the inadequate information concerning stranded tar on the southwest beaches of the Arabian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, particularly following the massive oil releases during the Gulf War, the present investigation was designed to provide reference-integrated information on the nature, location, and levels of stranded tar balls on the beaches of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The recorded levels appeared to be higher than expected or previously reported. The tar distribution pattern, in addition to the degree of weathering, indicates that the massive oil release during the Gulf War did not reach the UAE shorelines. The highest reported levels of stranded tar ever recorded in the Arabian Gulf at Jabal Dhannah apparently originated from oil spills and tankers' ballast water at the main oil terminal at the Al-Ruwaiss oil refinery some 10 km to the east. The surprising, relatively high levels of stranded tar on the beaches of the Gulf of Oman were solely attributed to the heavy navigation traffic close to the shorelines. 19 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Biodegradation of naphthalene from coal tar. Research progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Ghoshal, S.; Ramaswami, A.; Luthy, R.G.

    1994-02-07

    Biodegradation experiments were conducted to evaluate the mineralization of naphthalene released from coal tar entrapped in microporous silica media. Tests were performed with two coal tars recovered from former manufactured gas plant sites. Results from these tests showed that the degradation end point for naphthalene was significantly lower than the total amount of naphthalene present in coal tar. The role of physico-chemical and biological processes on the rate of biotransformation of naphthalene was evaluated. Mass transfer rates for dissolution of naphthalene from entrapped coal tar were measured in batch, flow-through systems. The rate of naphthalene mass transfer from the coal tar was found to be significantly greater than the rate of naphthalene biomineralization in batch slurry reactors. This implied that the rate acting factor for the biodegradation process was related to biokinetic phenomena rather than mass transfer processes. Further tests indicated that conditions inhibitory to bacteria limited the biodegradation of naphthalene, and in some cases the inhibition was reversible upon dilution of the reactor contents.

  13. Probing interaction of a fluorescent ligand with HIV TAR RNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Liang; Zhang, Jing; He, Tian; Huo, Yuan; Zhang, Zhi-Qi

    2017-02-01

    Trans-activator of Transcription (Tat) antagonists could block the interaction between Tat protein and its target, trans-activation responsive region (TAR) RNA, to inhibit Tat function and prevent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. For the first time, a small fluorescence ligand, ICR 191, was found to interact with TAR RNA at the Tat binding site and compete with Tat. It was also observed that the fluorescence of ICR 191 could be quenched when binding to TAR RNA and recovered when discharged via competition with Tat peptide or a well-known Tat inhibitor, neomycin B. The binding parameters of ICR 191 to TAR RNA were determined through theoretical calculations. Mass spectrometry, circular dichroism and molecular docking were used to further confirm the interaction of ICR 191 with TAR RNA. Inspired by these discoveries, a primary fluorescence model for the discovery of Tat antagonists was built using ICR 191 as a fluorescence indicator and the feasibility of this model was evaluated. This ligand-RNA interaction could provide a new strategy for research aimed at discovering Tat antagonists.

  14. Probing interaction of a fluorescent ligand with HIV TAR RNA.

    PubMed

    Qi, Liang; Zhang, Jing; He, Tian; Huo, Yuan; Zhang, Zhi-Qi

    2017-02-15

    Trans-activator of Transcription (Tat) antagonists could block the interaction between Tat protein and its target, trans-activation responsive region (TAR) RNA, to inhibit Tat function and prevent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. For the first time, a small fluorescence ligand, ICR 191, was found to interact with TAR RNA at the Tat binding site and compete with Tat. It was also observed that the fluorescence of ICR 191 could be quenched when binding to TAR RNA and recovered when discharged via competition with Tat peptide or a well-known Tat inhibitor, neomycin B. The binding parameters of ICR 191 to TAR RNA were determined through theoretical calculations. Mass spectrometry, circular dichroism and molecular docking were used to further confirm the interaction of ICR 191 with TAR RNA. Inspired by these discoveries, a primary fluorescence model for the discovery of Tat antagonists was built using ICR 191 as a fluorescence indicator and the feasibility of this model was evaluated. This ligand-RNA interaction could provide a new strategy for research aimed at discovering Tat antagonists.

  15. High numbers of Vibrio vulnificus in tar balls collected from oiled areas of the north-central Gulf of Mexico following the 2010 BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Tao, Zhen; Bullard, Stephen; Arias, Covadonga

    2011-12-01

    The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill was the largest oil spill in USA history releasing approximately 4.9 million barrels of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. Soon after the spill started, tar balls and other forms of weathered oil appeared in large numbers on beaches in Mississippi and Alabama. In this study, we analyzed tar balls for total aerobic bacterial (TAB) counts and also for the presence of Vibrio vulnificus, a human pathogen known to be abundant in the Gulf Coast environment and capable of causing severe wound infections by contact with contaminated surfaces. Our results showed that TAB counts were significantly higher in tar balls than in sand and seawater collected at the same location. In addition, V. vulnificus numbers were 10× higher in tar balls than in sand and up to 100× higher than in seawater. Densities of V. vulnificus were higher than 10(5) colony forming units/g of tar ball in all samples analyzed. Our data suggest that tar balls can act as reservoirs for bacteria including human pathogens.

  16. Identifying the source of tar balls deposited along the beaches of Goa in 2013 and comparing with historical data collected along the West Coast of India.

    PubMed

    Suneel, V; Vethamony, P; Naik, B G; Krishna, M S; Jadhav, Lakshmikant

    2015-09-15

    Deposition of oil residues, also known as tar balls, is a seasonal phenomenon, and it occurs only in the southwest monsoon season along the west coast of India. This has become a serious environmental issue, as Goa is a global tourist destination. The present work aims at identifying the source oil of the tar balls that consistently depositing along the Goa coast using multi-marker fingerprint technique. In this context, the tar ball samples collected in May 2013 from 9 beaches of Goa coast and crude oils from different oil fields and grounded ship were subject to multi-marker analyses such as n-alkanes, pentacyclic terpanes, regular steranes, compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) and principle component analysis (PCA). The n-alkane weathering index shows that samples have been weathered to various degrees, and the status of weathering is moderate. Since the international tanker route passes closer to the west coast of India (WCI), it is generally presumed that tanker wash is the source of the tar balls. We found that 2010/2011 tar balls are as tanker wash, but the present study demonstrates that the Bombay High (BH) oil fields can also contribute to oil contamination (tar balls) along ≈ 650 km stretch of the WCI, running from Gujarat in the north to Goa in the south. The simulated trajectories show that all the particles released in April traveled in the southeast direction, and by May, they reached the Goa coast with the influence of circulation of Indian monsoon system.

  17. Aggravated test of Intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells fed with tar-contaminated syngas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pumiglia, Davide; Vaccaro, Simone; Masi, Andrea; McPhail, Stephen J.; Falconieri, Mauro; Gagliardi, Serena; Della Seta, Livia; Carlini, Maurizio

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, the effects of a tar-containing simulated syngas on an IT-SOFC (Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell) are evaluated. Performance and degradation rate of a planar anode-supported cell, operating under a simulated syngas obtained from steam-enriched air gasification of biomass, have been studied. The simulated syngas was contaminated using toluene as a model tar. Polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy have been carried out under different toluene concentrations. A cell was then operated under a constant current density on a long run. EIS measurements were made during the operation to analyze the degradation, and the voltage evolution of the cell was compared to that obtained from another identical cell operated in clean syngas for 1000 h under similar conditions. A deep post-mortem characterization was performed by means of XRD measurements, Raman spectroscopy and SEM/EDS analysis. Results show that the presence of tar dramatically reduces the electrochemical performances of the cell, affecting both activation and mass transport processes. Post-mortem analysis shows the formation of carbon deposits, oxidation of Ni to NiO, segregation of ZrO2 from the YSZ phase, particle coarsening and enhanced fragility of the anode structure, in good agreement with what suggested from the electrochemical results.

  18. Relationship of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide yield of cigarettes

    SciTech Connect

    Krzyzanowski, M.; Sherrill, D.L.; Paoletti, P.; Lebowitz, M.D. )

    1991-02-01

    The data from consecutive surveys of the Tucson Epidemiologic Study (1981-1988) were used to evaluate the relationship in cigarette smokers of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide (CO) yields of the cigarette. There were 690 subjects who reported smoking regularly in at least one survey, over age 15. After adjustment for intensity and duration of smoking and for depth of inhalation, the risk of chronic phlegm, cough, and dyspnea were not related to the tar and nicotine yields. In 414 subjects with pulmonary function tested in at least one of the three surveys the spirometric indices used were significantly related to the daily dose of tar, nicotine, and CO (product of the cigarette yield and daily number of cigarettes smoked). The effects were more pronounced for past than for current doses. However, the differentiation of pulmonary function due to various yields of cigarettes was small in comparison to the difference in pulmonary function between smokers and nonsmokers.

  19. Tar-free fuel gas production from high temperature pyrolysis of sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Leguan; Xiao, Bo; Hu, Zhiquan; Liu, Shiming Cheng, Gong; He, Piwen; Sun, Lei

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • High temperature pyrolysis of sewage sludge was efficient for producing tar-free fuel gas. • Complete tar removal and volatile matter release were at elevated temperature of 1300 °C. • Sewage sludge was converted to residual solid with high ash content. • 72.60% of energy conversion efficiency for gas production in high temperature pyrolysis. • Investment and costing for tar cleaning were reduced. - Abstract: Pyrolysis of sewage sludge was studied in a free-fall reactor at 1000–1400 °C. The results showed that the volatile matter in the sludge could be completely released to gaseous product at 1300 °C. The high temperature was in favor of H{sub 2} and CO in the produced gas. However, the low heating value (LHV) of the gas decreased from 15.68 MJ/N m{sup 3} to 9.10 MJ/N m{sup 3} with temperature increasing from 1000 °C to 1400 °C. The obtained residual solid was characterized by high ash content. The energy balance indicated that the most heating value in the sludge was in the gaseous product.

  20. VARS2 and TARS2 mutations in patients with mitochondrial encephalomyopathies.

    PubMed

    Diodato, Daria; Melchionda, Laura; Haack, Tobias B; Dallabona, Cristina; Baruffini, Enrico; Donnini, Claudia; Granata, Tiziana; Ragona, Francesca; Balestri, Paolo; Margollicci, Maria; Lamantea, Eleonora; Nasca, Alessia; Powell, Christopher A; Minczuk, Michal; Strom, Tim M; Meitinger, Thomas; Prokisch, Holger; Lamperti, Costanza; Zeviani, Massimo; Ghezzi, Daniele

    2014-08-01

    By way of whole-exome sequencing, we identified a homozygous missense mutation in VARS2 in one subject with microcephaly and epilepsy associated with isolated deficiency of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) complex I and compound heterozygous mutations in TARS2 in two siblings presenting with axial hypotonia and severe psychomotor delay associated with multiple MRC defects. The nucleotide variants segregated within the families, were absent in Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) databases and are predicted to be deleterious. The amount of VARS2 and TARS2 proteins and valyl-tRNA and threonyl-tRNA levels were decreased in samples of afflicted patients according to the genetic defect. Expression of the corresponding wild-type transcripts in immortalized mutant fibroblasts rescued the biochemical impairment of mitochondrial respiration and yeast modeling of the VARS2 mutation confirmed its pathogenic role. Taken together, these data demonstrate the role of the identified mutations for these mitochondriopathies. Our study reports the first mutations in the VARS2 and TARS2 genes, which encode two mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, as causes of clinically distinct, early-onset mitochondrial encephalopathies.

  1. Impact of industrial effluents on geochemical association of metals within intertidal sediments of a creek.

    PubMed

    Volvoikar, Samida P; Nayak, G N

    2015-10-15

    Metal speciation studies were carried out on three intertidal core sediments of the industrially impacted Dudh creek located along west coast of India. Metals indicated a drastic increase in the bioavailable fraction towards the surface of the cores, suggesting an increase in anthropogenic metal input in recent years as compared to the past. Also, when compared with Vaitarna estuary and Khonda creek of Thane district, the speciation of metals in Dudh creek sediments was observed to have been highly modified in recent years. High concentrations of metals associated with bioavailable fractions therefore suggested a risk of toxicity to sediment associated biota of Dudh creek.

  2. Coal tar phototoxicity: characteristics of the smarting reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Diette, K.M.; Gange, R.W.; Stern, R.S.; Arndt, K.A.; Parrish, J.A.

    1985-04-01

    The properties and ultraviolet exposure parameters of tar smarts were examined in an effort to elucidate the mechanisms involved. It was show that irradiation with 1 minimal smarting dose (MSD) of UVA immediately following tar removal lowered the MSD for 6 h, demonstrated by subsequent challenge with UVA. Following 3 MSDs this memory effect was demonstrable for 24 h. The smarting reaction was area dependent--smaller areas of exposure require higher doses of UVA to induce smarting. Smarting followed reciprocity over a 6-fold range of irradiances (2-12.5 mW/cm2) but higher irradiances required higher doses of UVA, perhaps due to a delay in the recognition and reporting of smarting. The smarting reaction and delayed erythema due to UVA and tar were equally blocked by sunscreen.

  3. Fungicidal value of wood tar from pyrolysis of treated wood.

    PubMed

    Mazela, Bartłomiej

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the paper was to estimate the fungicidal value of wood tar extracted as a product of pyrolysis of wood previously treated with either creosote oil or CCB-type salt preservative. The effectiveness of wood treated with one of these two wood tar residuals was compared to the effectiveness of wood treated with virgin creosote oil (type WEI-B) and an untreated control. Wood was impregnated with alcohol solutions of the two extracted preservatives or virgin creosote oil and then subjected to the Coniophora puteana, Poria placenta and Coriolus versicolor fungi. The fungicidal values of the investigated preservatives were determined with the use of the short agar-block method and the aging test according to the standard EN 84. It was found that wood tar extracted by pyrolysis of old creosote-treated wood and then used to treat wood may have potential as a preservative for wood protection or as a component of preservatives.

  4. Feasibility of coal tar biodegradation by land treatment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fogel, S.

    1987-09-01

    Coal tar, a by-product of coal gasification, contains monoaromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) which have been identified as carcinogens. Billions of gallons of this waste have been disposed of at numerous gas manufacturing facilities in the United States. The treatment of tar-contaminated soil by bacterial degradation has shown great promise, since one-, two-, and three-ring PAH can be readily degraded by bacteria. Research was carried out to establish whether 4- and 5-ring PAH could also be degraded by bacteria. The data indicated that 4-ring PAH could degrade when dissolved in a hydrocarbon carrier or when applied to soil as a component of coal tar. Experiments to stimulate the bacterial degradation of benzo(a)pyrene, a 5-ring PAH, were unsuccessful.

  5. You're standing on it! Coal-tar-based pavement sealcoat and environmental and human health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    Results from a new study by researchers from Baylor University and the USGS indicate that living adjacent to a coal-tar-sealed pavement is associated with significant increases in estimated excess lifetime cancer risk, and that much of the increased risk occurs during early childhood.

  6. Ecological effects of contaminants and remedial actions in Bear Creek

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, G.R.; Loar, J.M.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Stewart, A.J. ); Burris, J.A. )

    1992-01-01

    Ecological studies of the Bear Creek watershed, which drains the area surrounding several Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant waste disposal facilities, were initiated in May 1984 and are continuing at present. These studies consisted of an initial, detailed characterization of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek, and they were followed by a presently ongoing monitoring phase that involves reduced sampling intensities. The characterization phase utilized two approaches: (1) instream sampling of benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek to identify spatial and temporal patterns in distribution and abundance and (2) laboratory bioassays on water samples from Bear Creek and selected tributaries to identify potential sources of toxicity to biota. The monitoring phase of the ecological program relates to the long-term goals of identifying and prioritizing contaminant sources and assessing the effectiveness of remedial actions. It continues activities of the characterization phase at less frequent intervals. The Bear Greek Valley is a watershed that drains the area surrounding several closed Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant waste disposal facilities. Past waste disposal practices in Bear Creek Valley resulted in contamination of Bear Creek and consequent ecological damage. Extensive remedial actions have been proposed at waste sites, and some of the have been implemented or are now underway. The proposed study plan consists of an initial, detailed characterization of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek in the first year followed by a reduction in sampling intensity during the monitoring phase of the plan. The results of sampling conducted from May 1984 through early 1989 are presented in this report.

  7. Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, D.; Holzmiller, J.; Koch, F.; Polumsky, S.; Schlee, D.; Thiessen, G.; Johnson, C.

    1995-04-01

    The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan is the first to be developed in Washington State which is specifically concerned with habitat protection and restoration for salmon and trout. The plan is consistent with the habitat element of the ``Strategy for Salmon``. Asotin Creek is similar in many ways to other salmon-bearing streams in the Snake River system. Its watershed has been significantly impacted by human activities and catastrophic natural events, such as floods and droughts. It supports only remnant salmon and trout populations compared to earlier years. It will require protection and restoration of its fish habitat and riparian corridor in order to increase its salmonid productivity. The watershed coordinator for the Asotin County Conservation District led a locally based process that combined local concerns and knowledge with technology from several agencies to produce the Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan.

  8. Water Quality of Camp Creek, Costello Creek, and Other Selected Streams on the South Side of Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabets, Timothy P.; Whitman, Matthew S.

    2002-01-01

    The Camp and Costello Creek watersheds are located on the south side of Denali National Park and Preserve. The Dunkle Mine, an abandoned coal mine, is located near the mouth of Camp Creek. Due to concern about runoff from the mine and its possible effects on the water quality and aquatic habitat of Camp Creek and its receiving stream, Costello Creek, these two streams were studied during the summer runoff months (June to September) in 1999 and 2000 as part of a cooperative study with the National Park Service. Since the south side of Denali National Park and Preserve is part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment Cook Inlet Basin study unit, an additional part of this study included analysis of existing water-quality data at 23 sites located throughout the south side of Denali National Park and Preserve to compare with the water quality of Camp and Costello Creeks and to obtain a broader understanding of the water quality in this area of the Cook Inlet Basin. Analysis of water column, bed sediment, fish, invertebrate, and algae data indicate no effects on the water quality of Camp Creek from the Dunkle Mine. Although several organic compounds were found in the streambed of Camp Creek, all concentrations were below recommended levels for aquatic life and most of the concentrations were below the minimum reporting level of 50 ?g/kg. Trace element concentrations of arsenic, chromium, and nickel in the bed sediments of Camp Creek exceeded threshold effect concentrations (TEC), but concentrations of these trace elements were also exceeded in streambed sediments of Costello Creek above Camp Creek. Since the percent organic carbon in Camp Creek is relatively high, the toxicity quotient of 0.55 is only slightly above the threshold value of 0.5. Costello Creek has a relatively low organic carbon content and has a higher toxicity quotient of 1.19. Analysis of the water-quality data for other streams located in the south side of Denali National Park

  9. Indications of mineral zoning in a fossil hydrothermal system at the Meager Creek geothermal prospect, British Columbia, Canada from induced polarization studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, S. H.; Zhao, J. X.; Groenwald, J.; Moore, J. N.

    1985-05-01

    By measuring the induced polarization parameters m (chargeability) and tau (time constant) evidence was found that the center of a presumed fossil hydrothermal system at Meager Creek, British Columbia, lies south of the main manifestation of the present day convective hydrothermal system. What implication this finding has for development of the present day system is unknown. However, some of the fractures formed during the development of the fossil hydrothermal system may serve as conduits for fluids of the present day system. The analysis is limited by the lack of availability of a good subsurface distribution of core samples. Nevertheless, a surface induced polarization survey is expected to yield information about the geometry of the fossil system. Such knowledge would have implications not only for Meager Creek but for other hydrothermal systems of Cascades volcano type.

  10. Indications of mineral zoning in a fossil hydrothermal system at the Meager Creek geothermal prospect, British Columbia, Canada, from induced polarization studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, S.H.; Zhao, J.X.; Groenwald, J.; Moore, J.N.

    1985-05-01

    By measuring the induced-polarization parameters m (chargeability) and tau (time-constant) we have found evidence that the center of a presumed fossil hydrothermal system at Meager Creek, British Columbia, lies south of the main manifestation of the present-day convective hydrothermal system. What implication this finding has for development of the present-day system is unknown. However, some of the fractures formed during the development of the fossil hydrothermal system may serve as conduits for fluids of the present-day system. The analysis is limited by the lack of availability of a good subsurface distribution of core samples. Nevertheless, a surface induced-polarization survey is expected to yield information about the geometry of the fossil system. Such knowledge would have implications not only for Meager Creek but for other hydrothermal systems of Cascades volcano type. 16 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Mass transfer and biodegradation of PAH compounds from coal tar. Quarterly technical report, January--March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Ramaswami, A.; Ghoshal, S.; Luthy, R.G.

    1994-09-01

    This study examines the role of physico-chemical mass transfer processes on the rate of biotransformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds released from non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) coal tar present at residual saturation within a microporous medium. A simplified coupled dissolution-degradation model is developed that describes the concurrent mass transfer and biokinetic processes occurring in the system. Model results indicate that a dimensionless Damkohler number can be utilized to distinguish between systems that are mass transfer limited, and those that are limited by biological phenomena. The Damkohler number is estimated from independent laboratory experiments that measure the rates of aqueous phase dissolution and biodegradation of naphthalene from coal tar. Experimental data for Stroudsburg coal tar imbibed within 236 {mu}m diameter silica particles yield Damkohler numbers smaller than unity, indicating, for the particular system under study, that the overall rate of biotransformation of naphthalene is not limited by the mass transfer of naphthalene from coal tar to the bulk aqueous phase. There is a need for investigation of mass transfer for larger particles and/or other PAH compounds, and study of microbial rate-limiting phenomena including toxicity, inhibition and competitive substrate utilization.

  12. Mass transfer and biodegradation of PAH compounds from coal tar. Quarterly technical report, April--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Ramaswami, A.; Ghoshal, S.; Luthy, R.G.

    1994-09-01

    This study, examines the role of physico-chemical mass transfer processes on the rate of biotransformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds released from non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) coal tar present at residual saturation within a microporous medium. A simplified coupled dissolution-degradation model is developed that describes the concurrent mass transfer and biokinetic processes occurring in the system. Model results indicate that a dimensionless Damkohler number can be utilized to distinguish between systems that are mass transfer limited, and those that are limited by biological phenomena. The Damkohler number is estimated from independent laboratory experiments that measure the rates of aqueous phase dissolution and biodegradation of naphthalene from coal tar. Experimental data for Stroudsburg coal tar imbibed within 236 {mu}m diameter silica particles yield Damkohler numbers smaller than unity, indicating, for the particular system under study, that the overall rate of biotransformation of naphthalene is not limited by the mass transfer of naphthalene from coal tar to the bulk aqueous phase. There is a need for investigation of mass transfer for larger particles and/or other PAH compounds, and study, of microbial rate-limiting phenomena including toxicity, inhibition and competitive substrate utilization.

  13. Skylab-EREP studies in computer mapping of terrain in the Cripple Creek-Canon City area of Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smedes, H. W.; Ranson, K. J.; Holstrom, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    Multispectral-scanner data from satellites are used as input to computers for automatically mapping terrain classes of ground cover. Some major problems faced in this remote-sensing task include: (1) the effect of mixtures of classes and, primarily because of mixtures, the problem of what constitutes accurate control data, and (2) effects of the atmosphere on spectral responses. The fundamental principles of these problems are presented along with results of studies of them for a test site of Colorado, using LANDSAT-1 data.

  14. Vehicular fuels and oxychemicals from biomass thermochemical tars

    SciTech Connect

    Soltes, E.J.; Lin, S.C.K.

    1983-01-01

    Catalytic hydroprocessing (hydrotreating and hydrocracking) of biomass thermochemical tars can yield mixtures of liquid hydrocarbons and alkyl aromatics of chemical compositions similar to those presently used in diesel and gasoline engine fuels. Phenolics can be coproduced. Compositions of hydroprocessed tars are similar regardless of biomass feedstock used, suggesting that the two-stage process of pyrolysis and hydroprocessing may afford a somewhat universal route to the generation of useful hydrocarbons and oxychemicals from a variety of agricultural and forestry residues. 26 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

  15. Combination of thermal cracking with vacuum distillation of cracked tar

    SciTech Connect

    Telyashev, G.G.; Gimaev, R.N.; Makhov, A.F.; Usmanov, R.M.; Baimbetov, A.M.; Vafin, I.A.

    1987-11-01

    A method of obtaining greater amounts of distillate feedstocks from the heavy gasoil recovered by vacuum distillation of the products of thermal cracking of petroleum resids was examined. At the Novo-Ufa Petroleum Refinery, a two-furnace thermal cracking unit was reconstructed, adding a vacuum section for distillation of the cracked tar. A simplified flow plan of this unit is shown. Vacuum resid from atmospheric-vacuum tubestill units is heated in double-pipe heat exchangers, using heat from the gasoil and cracked tar. The new method makes it possible to curtail production of boiler fuel, expand the resources of feed, and improve the quality of petroleum coke.

  16. 76 FR 35379 - Archers Creek, Ribbon Creek, and Broad River; U.S. Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, SC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 334 Archers Creek, Ribbon Creek, and Broad River; U.S... fishing shops. The public will continue to be able to use these portions of Archers Creek, Ribbon Creek.... 3). 2. Revise Sec. 334.480 to read as follows: Sec. 334.480 Archers Creek, Ribbon Creek, and...

  17. Surface-water quality of coal-mine lands in Raccoon Creek Basin, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, K.S.

    1985-01-01

    The Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Reclamation, plans to reclaim abandoned surface mines in the Raccoon Creek watershed in southern Ohio. Historic water-quality data collected between 1975 and 1983 were complied and analyzed in terms of eight selected mine-drainage characteristics to develop a data base for individual subbasin reclamation projects. Areas of mine drainage affecting Raccoon Creek basin, the study Sandy Run basin, the Hewett Fork basin, and the Little raccoon Creek basin. Surface-water-quality samples were collected from a 41-site network from November 1 through November 3, 1983, Results of the sampling reaffirmed that the major sources of mine drainage to Raccoon Creek are in the Little Raccoon Creek basin, and the Hewett Fork basin. However, water quality at the mouth of Sandy Run indicated that it is not a source of mine drainage to Raccoon Creek. Buffer Run, Goose Run, an unnamed tributary to Little Raccoon Creek, Mulga Run, and Sugar Run were the main sources of mine drainage sampled in the Little Raccoon Creek basin. All sites sampled in the East Branch Raccoon Creek basin were affected by mine drainage. This information was used to prepare a work plan for additional data collection before, during, and after reclamation. The data will be used to define the effectiveness of reclamation effects in the basin.

  18. 27 CFR 9.85 - Willow Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Willow Creek. 9.85 Section... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.85 Willow Creek. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Willow Creek.”...

  19. 27 CFR 9.85 - Willow Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Willow Creek. 9.85 Section... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.85 Willow Creek. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Willow Creek.”...

  20. 27 CFR 9.85 - Willow Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Willow Creek. 9.85 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.85 Willow Creek. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Willow Creek.”...

  1. 27 CFR 9.85 - Willow Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Willow Creek. 9.85 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.85 Willow Creek. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Willow Creek.”...

  2. 27 CFR 9.85 - Willow Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Willow Creek. 9.85 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.85 Willow Creek. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Willow Creek.”...

  3. 33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake Creek bridge, at Islamorada, Florida, shall open...

  4. A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for Little Laughery Creek, Ripley and Franklin counties, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crawford, Charles G.; Wilber, William G.; Peters, James G.

    1980-01-01

    A digital model calibrated to conditions in Little Laughery Creek triutary and Little Laughery Creek, Ripley and Franklin Counties, Ind., was used to predict alternatives for future waste loadings that would be compatible with Indiana stream water-quality standards defined for two critical hydrologic conditions, summer and winter low flows. Natural streamflow during the summer and annual 7-day, 10-year low flow is zero. Headwater flow upstream from the wastewater-treatment facilities consists solely of process cooling water from an industrial discharger. This flow is usually less than 0.5 cubic foot per second. Consequently, benefits from dilution are minimal. As a result, current and projected ammonia-nitrogen concentrations from the municipal discharges will result in in-stream ammonia-nitrogen concentrations that exceed the Indiana ammonia-nitrogen toxicity standards (maximum stream ammonia-nitrogen concentrations of 2.5 and 4.0 milligrams per liter during summer and winter low flows, respectively). Benthic-oxygen demand is probably the most significant factor affecting Little Laughery Creek and is probably responsible for the in-stream dissolved-oxygen concentration being less than the Indiana stream dissolved-oxygen standard (5.0 milligrams per liter) during two water-quality surveys. After municipal dischargers complete advanced waste-treatment facilities, benthic-oxygen demand should be less significant in the stream dissolved-oxygen dynamics. (USGS)

  5. Meta-analysis of lung cancer in asphalt roofing and paving workers with external adjustment for confounding by coal tar

    SciTech Connect

    Fayerweather, W.E.

    2007-07-01

    The study's objectives were to update Partanen's and Boffetta's 1994 meta-analysis of lung cancer among roofing and paving asphalt workers and explore the role of coal tar in explaining the statistical heterogeneity among these studies. Information retrieval strategies and eligibility criteria were defined for identifying the epidemiologic studies to be included in the analysis. The relative risk ratio (RR) for lung cancer was selected as the effect measure of interest. Coal tar bias factors were developed and used to externally adjust each eligible study's published RR for confounding by coal tar. The meta-Relative Risk (meta-RR) and its variance were estimated by general variance-based methods. Heterogeneity of the RRs was assessed by heterogeneity chi-square and I{sup 2} tests. The results from this update were similar to those in Partanen's and Boffetta's original meta-analysis. Although the meta-RRs for the roofers and the pavers were no longer statistically significantly different from one another, significant heterogeneity remained within each of the coal tar-adjusted sectors. Meta-analysis of non-experimental epidemiologic studies is subject to significant uncertainties as is externally correcting studies for confounding. Given these uncertainties, the specific quantitative estimates in this (or any similar) analysis must be viewed with caution. Nevertheless, this analysis provides support for the hypothesis proposed by several major reviewers that confounding by coal tar-related PAH exposures may explain most or all of the lung cancer risks found in the epidemiologic literature on asphalt roofing and paving workers.

  6. The frequency of channel-forming discharges in a tributary of Upper Big Walnut Creek, Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this study was to determine the frequency and magnitude of annual out-of-bank discharges in Sugar Creek, a tributary of the Upper Big Walnut Creek, in Ohio. To address this goal: a stream geomorphology study was conducted; measured discharge data at a downstream location were used to dev...

  7. 21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18... (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.18 Coal tar hair dyes... coal tar hair dye containing any ingredient listed in paragraph (b) of this section shall bear,...

  8. 21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18... (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.18 Coal tar hair dyes... coal tar hair dye containing any ingredient listed in paragraph (b) of this section shall bear,...

  9. 29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1910.1002... Hazardous Substances § 1910.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. As used in § 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the fused polycyclic hydrocarbons which volatilize from...

  10. 29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1910.1002... Hazardous Substances § 1910.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. As used in § 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the fused polycyclic hydrocarbons which volatilize from...

  11. 29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1910.1002... Hazardous Substances § 1910.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. As used in § 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the fused polycyclic hydrocarbons which volatilize from...

  12. 29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1910.1002... Hazardous Substances § 1910.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. As used in § 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the fused polycyclic hydrocarbons which volatilize from...

  13. 29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1910.1002... Hazardous Substances § 1910.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. As used in § 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the fused polycyclic hydrocarbons which volatilize from...

  14. Properties of gasification-derived char and its utilization for catalytic tar reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Kezhen

    Char is a low-value byproduct of biomass gasification and pyrolysis with many potential applications, such as soil amendment and the synthesis of activated carbon. The overall goal of the proposed research was to develop novel methods to use char derived from gasification for high-value applications in syngas conditioning. The first objective was to investigate effects of gasification condition and feedstock on properties of char derived from fluidized bed gasification. Results show that the surface areas of most of the char were 1--10 m 2/g and increased as the equivalence ratio increased. Char moisture and fixed carbon contents decreased while ash content increased as equivalence ratio increased. The next objective was to study the properties of sorghum and red cedar char derived from downdraft gasifier. Red cedar char contained more aliphatic carbon and o-alkyl carbon than sorghum char. Char derived from downdraft gasification had higher heating values and lower ash contents than char derived from fluidized bed gasification. The gasification reactivity of red cedar char was higher than that of sorghum char. Then, red cedar char based catalysts were developed with different preparation method to reform toluene and naphthalene as model tars. The catalyst prepared with nickel nitrate was found to be better than that with nickel acetate. The nickel particle size of catalyst impregnated with nickel nitrate was smaller than that of catalyst impregnated with nickel acetate. The particle size of catalyst impregnated with nickel acetate decreased by hydrazine reduction. The catalyst impregnated with nickel nitrate had the highest toluene removal efficiency, which was 70%--100% at 600--800 °C. The presence of naphthalene in tar reduced the catalyst efficiency. The toluene conversion was 36--99% and the naphthalene conversion was 37%--93% at 700--900 °C. Finally, effects of atmosphere and pressure on catalytic reforming of lignin-derived tars over the developed catalyst

  15. Effect of addition of coal-tar pitches on adhesive properties of copolymer of ethylene with vinyl acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Chernikov, O.I.; Mironov, V.A.; Mitrokhina, L.L.; Kuznetsova, L.S.; Nepomnyashchaya, A.S.; Kachan, A.A.

    1984-08-01

    Results of studies of the effect of the addition of coal-tar pitches on the water resistance and adhesive properties of the copolymer of ethylene with vinyl acetate (CEVA) used as an adhesive layer in polymer films for protection of oil and gas pipelines against corrosion are presented. The dependence of the adhesive strength of CEVA with 12% vinyl acetate (VA) on the concentration of coal-tar pitch additives with softening temperatures of 70, 85, and 107/sup 0/C was found to be extreme with maximum adhesive strength in the concentration range of 0.8-1.4%. This increase in adhesive strength at low concentrations is thought to be due to improvement in the wetability of the melt. After long exposure (30h) to boiling water, the water resistance of the adhesive joints was improved by the addition of coal-tar pitches; but in the initial period of boiling, a decrease in water resistance was produced by the addition of coal-tar pitches. Films with pitch additives with a softening temperature of 70/sup 0/C were noted to have the highest hydrophobicity at low concentrations of the pitch additive.

  16. Phytotoxicity and Plant Productivity Analysis of Tar-Enriched Biochars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, M. L.; Masiello, C. A.; Dugan, B.; Rudgers, J. A.; Capareda, S. C.

    2008-12-01

    Biochar is one of the three by-products obtained by the pyrolysis of organic material, the other two being syngas and bio-oil. The pyrolysis of biomass has generated a great amount of interest in recent years as all three by-products can be put toward beneficial uses. As part of a larger project designed to evaluate the hydrologic impact of biochar soil amendment, we generated a biochar through fast pyrolysis (less than 2 minutes) of sorghum stock at 600°C. In the initial biochar production run, the char bin was not purged with nitrogen. This inadvertent change in pyrolysis conditions produced a fast-pyrolysis biochar enriched with tars. We chose not to discard this batch, however, and instead used it to test the impact of tar-enriched biochars on plants. A suite of phytotoxicity tests were run to assess the effects of tar-rich biochar on plant germination and plant productivity. We designed the experiment to test for negative effects, using an organic carbon and nutrient-rich, greenhouse- optimized potting medium instead of soil. We used Black Seeded Simpson lettuce (Lactuca sativa) as the test organism. We found that even when tars are present within biochar, biochar amendment up to 10% by weight caused increased lettuce germination rates and increased biomass productivity. In this presentation, we will report the statistical significance of our germination and biomass data, as well as present preliminary data on how biochar amendment affects soil hydrologic properties.

  17. Semi-commercial solvent extraction of tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Hastings, L.W.

    1982-06-01

    A patented process built for Tarco in Southwest Kentucky is described. The basic flow pattern involves mining, crushing, feed to the plant, extraction, desolventizing of the sand and distillation of the solvent from the oil. The Tarco plant is also available for the developmental testing of other tar sand deposits. (JMT)

  18. Supercritical-Fluid Extraction of Oil From Tar Sands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L. E.

    1982-01-01

    New supercritical solvent mixtures have been laboratory-tested for extraction of oil from tar sands. Mixture is circulated through sand at high pressure and at a temperature above critical point, dissolving organic matter into the compressed gas. Extract is recovered from sand residues. Low-temperature super-critical solvents reduce energy consumption and waste-disposal problems.

  19. The impact of steam and current density on carbon formation from biomass gasification tar on Ni/YSZ, and Ni/CGO solid oxide fuel cell anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mermelstein, Joshua; Millan, Marcos; Brandon, Nigel

    The combination of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and biomass gasification has the potential to become an attractive technology for the production of clean renewable energy. However the impact of tars, formed during biomass gasification, on the performance and durability of SOFC anodes has not been well established experimentally. This paper reports an experimental study on the mitigation of carbon formation arising from the exposure of the commonly used Ni/YSZ (yttria stabilized zirconia) and Ni/CGO (gadolinium-doped ceria) SOFC anodes to biomass gasification tars. Carbon formation and cell degradation was reduced through means of steam reforming of the tar over the nickel anode, and partial oxidation of benzene model tar via the transport of oxygen ions to the anode while operating the fuel cell under load. Thermodynamic calculations suggest that a threshold current density of 365 mA cm -2 was required to suppress carbon formation in dry conditions, which was consistent with the results of experiments conducted in this study. The importance of both anode microstructure and composition towards carbon deposition was seen in the comparison of Ni/YSZ and Ni/CGO anodes exposed to the biomass gasification tar. Under steam concentrations greater than the thermodynamic threshold for carbon deposition, Ni/YSZ anodes still exhibited cell degradation, as shown by increased polarization resistances, and carbon formation was seen using SEM imaging. Ni/CGO anodes were found to be more resilient to carbon formation than Ni/YSZ anodes, and displayed increased performance after each subsequent exposure to tar, likely due to continued reforming of condensed tar on the anode.

  20. Biogeochemical characterisation of a coal tar distillate plume.

    PubMed

    Williams, G M; Pickup, R W; Thornton, S F; Lerner, D N; Mallinson, H E; Moore, Y; White, C

    2001-12-15

    The distillation of acidified coal tars for up to 50 years has given rise to a phenol plume approximately 500 m long, 50 m deep and containing up to 15 g l(-1) dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the Triassic Sandstones aquifer. A conceptual biogeochemical model based on chemical and microbiological analysis of groundwater samples has been developed as a preliminary to more detailed studies of the controls on natural attenuation. While the development of redox zones and the production of methane and carbon dioxide provide evidence of natural attenuation, it appears that degradation is slow. The existence of sulphate in the plume indicates that this electron acceptor has not been depleted and that consequently methanogenesis is probably limited. Based on a simple estimate of sulphate input concentration, a half-life of about 15 years has been estimated for sulphate reduction. Geochemical modelling predicts that increased alkalinity within the plume has not led to carbonate precipitation, and thus within the limits of accuracy of the measurement, alkalinity may reflect the degree of biodegradation. This implies a loss of around 18% of the DOC over a 30-year period. Despite limited degradation, microbial studies show that there are diverse microbial communities in the aquifer with the potential for both anaerobic and aerobic biodegradation. Microbial activity was found to be greatest at the leading edge of the plume where DOC concentrations are 60 mg l(-1) or less, but activity could still be observed in more contaminated samples even though cells could not be cultured. The study suggests that degradation may be limited by the high phenol concentrations within the core of the plume, but that once diluted by dispersion, natural attenuation may proceed. More detailed studies to confirm these initial findings are identified and form the basis of associated papers.

  1. 76 FR 8728 - Bear Creek Hydro Associates, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Bear Creek Hydro Associates, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application... 22, 2010, the Bear Creek Hydro Associates, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the ] feasibility of the...

  2. Surficial geology of the Cane Creek basin, Lauderdale County, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    The surficial geology of the Cane Creek basin, in Lauderdale County, West Tennessee, was studied from 1985-88. Peoria Loess is the parent material from which soils in the Cane Creek drainage basin were derived. In general, a brown silt grades into a gray silt from 5 to I7 feet below ground surface. This color change probably represents depth to water table prior to the channelization of Cane Creek. Only at river mile 11.9 does rock outcrop near the main channel. Lower reaches of major tributaries have surficial geology similar to the main channel. In upper reaches of Hyde Creek and Fain Spring Creek, the sequence from the St&ace is sand and gravels, red-brown sandstone, sand and clay layers, and then, an orange sand layer. Coarse-grained deposits are found most often along the northern boundary of the basin and only occasionally in areas to the west and south of the main channel. Depth to sand or gravel ranges from about 0 to 158 feet in the uplands, and generally deeper than 40 feet near the main channel.

  3. Water Quality in Courtland Creek, East Oakland, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracho, H.; Ahumada, A.; Hernandez, G.; Quintero, D.; Ramirez, J.; Ramirez, L.; Pham, T.; Holt, J.; Johnson, A.; Rubio, E.; Ponce, X.; Medina, S.; Limon, S.

    2013-12-01

    Courtland Creek is a tributary of the larger East Creek system that runs southeast from the Oakland Hills down to the San Leandro Bay in Oakland, California. In an effort to assess the overall health of Courtland Creek our team conducted a water quality research study. Stream water samples were collected from 4 sites between MacArthur Avenue (describe geographically as not all readers are familiar with Oakland geography) and Thompson Avenue (describe geographically as not all readers are familiar with Oakland geography) at accessible sections of this largely culverted stream. Dissolved oxygen, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate, and chlorine concentrations in were measured using wet chemistry procedures. Analysis of collected samples indicates that dissolved oxygen levels in the stream are sufficient for invertebrates, ranging from 5 and 9 parts per million (ppm). Nitrate levels were significantly high, with concentrations ranging from 15 and 40 ppm. Other chemical species associated with waste products--ammonia, nitrite, and phosphate--also were present, but at low concentrations. Small amounts of chlorine also were found in waters of the creek system. The presence of high concentrations of nitrate, together with chlorine, suggests that untreated sewage may be leaking into Courtland Creek at an unidentified location.

  4. Is promise of Alberta's tar sands nearing reality

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, T.

    1993-10-15

    Alberta's far north shares a vital element with Saudi Arabia: Many hundreds of billions of barrels of oil. The Energy Resources and Conservation Board counts one trillion barrels, four to five times above Saudi Arabia's reserves. To date, though, it has not been economic to tap these reserves, which are in the form of tar sands. Now, however, a new process, proven at the pilot stage, finally may transform these resources into a possible competitor to OPEC. Its unpronounceable acronym, SAGD, stands for steam-assisted gravity drainage. The SAGD technique involves a couple of major innovations. First, it reverses the traditional approach. Instead of mining the sands from the surface downward, the systems developed and proven by the Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority (AOSTRA) starts from the bottom up. The oil is produced from underneath the bedded tar sands. Second, the system is intrinsically small scale. It does not rely upon megaprojects to try to realize economies of scale. The earlier surface-mining projects were sized at 100,000-200,000 barrels per day (b/d). In contrast, the optimum economic scale of the SAGD system is roughly 30,000 b/d, making it a more manageable and less risky technology. SAGD involves the marriage of conventional shaft and tunnel mining with the new precision possible in horizontal drilling. The cost savings are dramatic, and the environmental insult from the operation is greatly reduced. Instead of stripping overburden and then strip-mining the tarry sands, the SAGD technique starts underground with tunnels drilled beneath the tar sands strata. From the tunnels, pairs of horizontal wells are drilled up into the beds. Steam injected into the upper well fluidizes the tar, creating a void, from which the liquid tar flows down into the lower producing well.

  5. Atmospheric tar balls from biomass burning in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Kouji; Buseck, Peter R.

    2011-03-01

    Atmospheric tar balls (TBs) are spherical, organic aerosol particles that occur in smoke from biomass burning (BB). They absorb sunlight and thereby cause warming of the atmosphere. This study reports a transmission electron microscope (TEM) study of TBs from BB smoke samples collected within minutes to hours from emission in a tropical area of Mexico. Their spherical shapes as seen in both scanning electron microscope images and with electron tomography indicate that they were solid when collected. They consist of C and minor O, S, K, and N. The hygroscopic growth factor for our relatively fresh TBs is 1.09 ± 0.04 at a relative humidity of 100%. In samples <0.6 km and >1.6 km from the fire, an average of ˜1 and 14%, respectively, of particles with aerodynamic diameter from 50 to 300 nm consisted of TBs. For the latter, more aged samples, the total volume was roughly double that of soot, and their total calculated light absorption at a wavelength of 550 nm was between 74 and 96% that of soot, with the exact amount depending on the size, shape, and coating of the soot. In general, the TBs that we analyzed were similar to those from North America, southern Africa, and Europe in terms of size, external mixing, relative freedom of inclusions, and composition. This and previous studies show that TBs result from a range of biomass fuels. Their distribution from various regions across the globe, combined with their optical properties, suggests they have important effects on regional and perhaps global climate.

  6. Geology of the west Bear Creek site

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.R.; Ketelle, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    A geological study was conducted at the Department of Energy's proposed ''tumulus'' low-level waste disposal site in west Bear Creek Valley on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The objective of the study was to describe the geologic characteristics of the site and to provide a foundation for concurrent geohydrologic studies. Methods for study included examination of existing rock core, acquisition of additional core, geophysical logging, study of sparse natural rock exposures, examination of weathered surficial bedrock, and acquisition of bedrock fracture orientation data. For construction of geologic cross sections and a geologic map, key subsurface data were projected to the surface using a typical bedrock attitude. The surface locations of these data were refined by examination of weathered bedrock. Consistent with the regional geologic setting and previous studies elsewhere in Bear Creek Valley, results of this study indicate that the site is underlain by generally uniform dipping strata of the Cambrian Conasauga Group. Detailed examination of the lithologic features of a portion of the Conasauga at the site indicates that direct application of regional stratigraphic nomenclature requires minor modification. Analysis of intermediate-scale (meter-scale) structural features leads to the development of two conceptual models. 17 refs., 11 figs.

  7. 3-D sedimentological and geophysical studies of clastic reservoir analogs: Facies architecture, reservoir properties, and flow behavior within delta front facies elements of the Cretaceous Wall Creek Member, Frontier Formation, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Janok P. Bhattacharya; George A. McMechan

    2007-02-16

    This project examined the internal architecture of delta front sandstones at two locations within the Turonian-age Wall Creek Member of the Frontier Formation, in Wyoming. The project involved traditional outcrop field work integrated with core-data, and 2D and 3D ground penetrating radar (GPR) imaging from behind the outcrops. The fluid-flow engineering work, handled through a collaborative grant given to PI Chris White at LSU, focused on effects on fluid flow of late-stage calcite cement nodules in 3D. In addition to the extensive field component, the work funded 2 PhD students (Gani and Lee) and resulted in publication of 10 technical papers, 17 abstracts, and 4 internal field guides. PI Bhattacharya also funded an additional 3 PhD students that worked on the Wall Creek sandstone funded separately through an industrial consortium, two of whom graduated in the fall 2006 ((Sadeque and Vakarelov). These additional funds provided significant leverage to expand the work to include a regional stratigraphic synthesis of the Wall Creek Member of the Frontier Formation, in addition to the reservoir-scale studies that DOE directly funded. Awards given to PI Bhattacharya included the prestigious AAPG Distinguished Lecture Award, which involved a tour of about 25 Universities and Geological Societies in the US and Canada in the fall of 2005 and Spring of 2006. Bhattacharya gave two talks, one entitled “Applying Deltaic and Shallow Marine Outcrop Analogs to the Subsurface”, which highlighted the DOE sponsored work and the other titled “Martian River Deltas and the Origin of Life”. The outcrop analog talk was given at about 1/2 of the venues visited.

  8. Geology and coal resources of the Foidel Creek EMRIA site and surrounding area, Routt County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryer, Thomas A.

    1977-01-01

    Terrigenous clastic sediments of the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group (Campanian) in the southeastern part of the Yampa coal field in Routt County, northwestern Colorado, contain many beds of bituminous coal. Lower, middle, and upper coal groups are recognized. The middle coal group, in the lower coal-bearing member of the Williams Fork Formation, contains two thick, persistent coal beds in the Foidel Creek area. The Wadge coal bed, stratigraphically the higher of the two, reaches thicknesses of 3.7 meters, and is strippable beneath large areas on the south slope of Eckman Park. Coal resources of the Wadge bed in the Foidel Creek area--an area of 134 square kilometers, as defined in this study--are estimated to be 317 million metric tons. The Foidel Creek EMRIA reclamation study site--an area of 10.9 square kilometers--contains about 36.1 million metric tons of Wadge coal, as much as 28.1 million metric tons of which occur beneath overburden 61 meters or less in thickness. About 52 meters lower in the section, the Wolf Creek coal bed locally exceeds 6.1 meters in thickness. Coal resources of the Wolf Creek bed in the Foidel Creek area are estimated to be 434 million metric tons. The Foidel Creek EMRIA reclamation study site contains an estimated 49.7 million metric tons of Wolf Creek coal.

  9. A fine-scale assessment of using barriers to conserve native stream salmonids: a case study in Akokala Creek, Glacier National Park, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; D'Angelo, Vincent S.; S. T. Kalinowski,; Landguth, Erin L.; C. C. Downs,; J. Tohtz,; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    Biologists are often faced with the difficult decision in managing native salmonids of where and when to install barriers as a conservation action to prevent upstream invasion of nonnative fishes. However, fine-scale approaches to assess long-term persistence of populations within streams and watersheds chosen for isolation management are often lacking. We employed a spatially-explicit approach to evaluate stream habitat conditions, relative abundance, and genetic diversity of native westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) within the Akokala Creek watershed in Glacier National Park- a population threatened by introgressive hybridization with nonnative rainbow trout (O. mykiss) from nearby sources. The systematic survey of 24 stream reaches showed broad overlap in fish population and suitable habitat characteristics among reaches and no natural barriers to fish migration were found. Analysis of population structure using 16 microsatellite loci showed modest amounts of genetic diversity among reaches, and that fish from Long Bow Creek were the only moderately distinct genetic group. We then used this information to assess the potential impacts of three barrier placement scenarios on long-term population persistence and genetic diversity. The two barrier placement scenarios in headwater areas generally failed to meet general persistence criteria for minimum population size (2,500 individuals, Ne = 500), maintenance of long-term genetic diversity (He), and no population subdivision. Conversely, placing a barrier near the stream mouth and selectively passing non-hybridized, migratory spawners entering Akokala Creek met all persistence criteria and may offer the best option to conserve native trout populations and life history diversity. Systematic, fine-scale stream habitat, fish distribution, and genetic assessments in streams chosen for barrier installation are needed in conjunction with broader scale assessments to understand the potential impacts of

  10. A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for Sand Creek, Decatur County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilber, William G.; Crawford, Charles G.; Peters, James G.

    1979-01-01

    A digital model calibrated to conditions in Sand Creek near Greensburg, Ind., was used to develop alternatives for future waste loadings that would be compatible with Indiana stream water-quality standards defined for two critical hydrologic conditions, summer and winter low flows. The only point-source waste load affecting Sand Creek in the vicinity of Greensburg is the Greensburg wastewater-treatment facility. Non-point, unrecorded waste loads seemed to be significant during three water-quality surveys done by the Indiana State Board of Health. Natural streamflow in Sand Creek during the summer and annual 7-day, 10-year low flow is zero so no benefit from dilution is provided. Effluent ammonia-nitrogen concentrations from the Greensburg wastewater-treatment facility will not meet Indiana water-quality standards during summer and winter low flows. To meet the water-quality standard the wastewater-effluent would be limited to a maximum total ammonia-nitrogen concentration of 2.5 mg/l for summer months (June through August) and 4.0 mg/l for winter months (November through March). Model simulations indicate that benthic-oxygen demand, nitrification, and the dissolved-oxygen concentration of the wastewater effluent are the most significant factors affecting the in-stream dissolved-oxygen concentration during summer low flows. The model predicts that with a benthic-oxygen demand of 1.5 grams per square meter per day at 20C the stream has no additional waste-load assimilative capacity. Present carbonaceous biochemical-oxygen demand loads from the Greensburg wastewater-treatment facility will not result in violations of the in-stream dissolved-oxygen standard (5 mg/l) during winter low flows. (Kosco-USGS)

  11. Comparative carcinogenic and mutagenic activity of coal tar and petroleum asphalt paints used in potable water supply systems.

    PubMed

    Robinson, M; Bull, R J; Munch, J; Meier, J

    1984-02-01

    Coal tar and petroleum asphalt paints are among the products used as coatings for water pipes and storage tanks to retard corrosion. Formulations of these coatings were tested in the Ames mutagenesis and the mouse skin carcinogenesis bioassays. To test the mutagenicity of the paints, six doses ranging from 0.005 to 10 microliters per plate were assayed. In the mouse skin bioassay, doses of the coal tar paints ranging from 0.2 to 200 microliters were administered topically to 30 SENCAR mice per group. These initiating doses were followed by applications of 1.0 micrograms of 12-o-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in 0.2 ml acetone topically, three times weekly for 20 weeks. Petroleum asphalt paints were tested in groups of 40 animals at 200 and 600 microliters doses. All coal tar paints showed mutagenic activity after metabolic activation with S-9, with the highest response being in strains TA 98 and TA 100. None of the petroleum asphalt paints gave mutagenic responses. Both types of coatings resulted in positive responses in the initiation/promotion study. The coal tar paints gave rise to 1000-1800 times the tumor response observed with petroleum asphalt products. One coal tar product was positive when tested as a complete carcinogen in the mouse at 2 microliters per application once weekly for 30 weeks, whereas the asphalt paint was negative at 100 times the dose. The biological responses to the products were greater than expected from their polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content. These findings suggest that the hazard posed by these coatings may not be fully explained by their PAH contents.

  12. Development of nano-niO/Al2O3 catalyst to be used for tar removal in biomass gasification.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianfen; Yan, Rong; Xiao, Bo; Liang, David Tee; Du, Lijuan

    2008-08-15

    The objective of this study isto develop a novel supported nano-NiO catalyst for tar removal in biomass gasification/pyrolysis, to significantly enhance the quality of the produced gases. For this purpose, the supported nano-NiO/gamma-Al2O3 catalyst was prepared by deposition-precipitation (DP) method. Different analytical approaches such as XRD, BET, TEM and SEM/EDX were used to characterize the synthesized catalysts. The results showed thatthe prepared nano-NiO/gamma-Al2O3 catalysts had a coated structure with a loading of NiO in catalysts over 12 wt %, and they had also a higher BET surface area over commercial nickel based catalysts. The active components of catalyst were spherical NiO nanoparticles coated on the surface of supports with a size range of 12-18 nm. Furthermore, the activity of the catalysts to remove tar in the process of biomass pyrolysis was also investigated using a bench-scale combined fixed bed reactor. The experiments demonstrated that the tar yield after addition of the catalyst was reduced significantly; the tar removal efficiency reached to 99% for catalytic pyrolysis at 800 degrees C, and the gas yield after addition of the catalyst increased markedly. The compositions of gas products before and after addition of the catalyst in the process also changed significantly. The percentages of CO2 and CH4 in the product gas after addition of the catalysts were obviously reduced, while those of the valuable H2 and CO strongly increased. Therefore, using the prepared NiO/gamma-Al2O3 catalyst in biomass gasification/pyrolysis can significantly improve the quality of the produced gas and meanwhile efficiently eliminate the tar generation.

  13. Comprehensive GC²/MS for the monitoring of aromatic tar oil constituents during biodegradation in a historically contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Vasilieva, Viktoriya; Scherr, Kerstin E; Edelmann, Eva; Hasinger, Marion; Loibner, Andreas P

    2012-02-20

    The constituents of tar oil comprise a wide range of physico-chemically heterogeneous pollutants of environmental concern. Besides the sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons defined as priority pollutants by the US-EPA (EPA-PAHs), a wide range of substituted (NSO-PAC) and alkylated (alkyl-PAC) aromatic tar oil compounds are gaining increased attention for their toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic and/or teratogenic properties. Investigations on tar oil biodegradation in soil are in part hampered by the absence of an efficient analytical tool for the simultaneous analysis of this wide range of compounds with dissimilar analytical properties. Therefore, the present study sets out to explore the applicability of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC²/MS) for the simultaneous measurement of compounds with differing polarity or that are co-eluting in one-dimensional systems. Aerobic tar oil biodegradation in a historically contaminated soil was analyzed over 56 days in lab-scale bioslurry tests. Forty-three aromatic compounds were identified with GC²/MS in one single analysis. The number of alkyl chains on a molecule was found to prime over alkyl chain length in hampering compound biodegradation. In most cases, substitution of carbon with nitrogen and oxygen was related to increased compound degradation in comparison to unalkylated and sulphur- or unsubstituted PAH with a similar ring number.The obtained results indicate that GC²/MS can be employed for the rapid assessment of a large variety of structurally heterogeneous environmental contaminants. Its application can contribute to facilitate site assessment, development and control of microbial cleanup technologies for tar oil contaminated sites.

  14. Engineering and Environmental Study of DDT Contamination of Huntsville Spring Branch, Indian Creek, and Ajacent Lands and Waters, Wheeler Reservoir, Alabama. Revision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-04

    Contamination of Huntsville Spring Branch, Indian Creek, and Adjacent Lands and Waters , Wheeler Reservoir, Alabama,Sprepared under contract by Water and Air...Sample Collect.-.o 1.2 3.1 Se-npling Schedule 12 3.2 Uischdrge Measurements 12 3.3 Water Quality Samples 31 4.U Sawiple Handling and Laboratory...Sample Location Maps Appendix A kaw Uata Tabulations Appendix 8 REVISED APRIL 1984 3.3 VULATILIZkTIUN FROM SUIL, WATER MNU UTHEli SURFAC.ES Tkie major

  15. Topical pine tar: History, properties and use as a treatment for common skin conditions.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Tanya M; Greive, Kerryn A

    2016-01-20

    Pine tar is the end product of pine wood carbonisation following distillation using extreme heat. An extensive literature search was conducted back to the 1950s for this review. Pine tar has been used in medicine for more than 2000 years to treat a range of skin conditions because of its soothing and antiseptic properties. Pine tar should not be confused with coal tar, which has been produced from coal for approximately a hundred years. Pine tar is thought to exert its effect by reducing DNA synthesis and mitotic activity, which promotes a return to normal keratinisation. In addition, pine tar has been shown to be antipruritic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antifungal. These properties make pine tar suitable for the topical treatment of eczema, psoriasis, seborrhoeic dermatitis and other dry, itchy, flaky or inflamed skin conditions. Topical products available over-the-counter in Australia today contain up to 2.3% pine tar, and come in several different formulations that can be used on the entire body, including the face. Modern day pine tar is manufactured with increased purity to eliminate toxic phenol and carcinogenic components, which have been of concern in the past. Primary irritation is uncommon. In conclusion, the long experience with topical pine tar therapy and its worldwide usage, together with the evidence presented in this review, suggests that pine tar is an effective treatment with minimal safety risk.

  16. Trophic states of creeks and their relationship to changes in water level in Xixi National Wetland Park, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yufeng; Liu, Hongyu; Hao, Jingfeng; Zheng, Nan; Cao, Xiao

    2012-04-01

    Urban wetland parks are a new type of urban park that have developed rapidly in recent years and have caught the attention of multiple governmental departments. The objective of this paper was to describe the trophic states of creeks and their relationship to water levels in an urban wetland park in Xixi, China. The study was based on temporal and spatial data collected monthly between March 2009 and March 2010. The results indicated that: (1) water quality significantly changed from upstream to downstream in study creeks. From upstream to downstream, water quality of creeks I and III improved; however, the water quality of creek IV and V declined; (2) trophic states in Xixi creeks differed according to seasons. Overall, the nutrition in creeks was measured at the slight eutrophication level. Nutrition was highest in summer and lowest in winter; (3) the relationship between water quality and water level differed dramatically between creeks. Water quality and water level in creek I was significantly negatively correlated, while no obvious trends were observed in other creeks. In order to improve water quality in creeks, the valid technique is to strengthen the management of inflowing water quality and then control water levels.

  17. Geology of the lower Yellow Creek Area, Northwestern Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Hail, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    The lower Yellow Creek area is located in Rio Blanco and Moffat Counties of northwestern Colorado, about midway between the towns of Rangely and Meeker. The study area is in the northwestern part of the Piceance Creek basin, a very deep structural and sedimentary basin that formed during the Laramide orogeny. Potentially important resources in the area are oil shale and related minerals, oil and gas, coal, and uranium. Topics discussed in the report include: Stratigraphy (Subsurface rocks, Cretaceous rocks, Tertiary rocks, and Quaternary deposits); Structure (Midland anticline, graben at Pinyon Ridge, and Crooked Wash syncline, Folds and faults in the vicinity of the White River, Red Wash syncline and central graben zone, Yellow Creek anticlinal nose); Economic geology (Oil shale and associated minerals, Coal, Oil and gas, Uranium, Gravel).

  18. Extraction of vanadium from athabasca tar sands fly ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Bueno, C. O.; Spink, D. R.; Rempel, G. L.

    1981-06-01

    The production of refinery grade oil from the Alberta tar sands deposits as currently practiced by Suncor (formally Great Canadian Oil Sands Ltd.—GCOS) generates a substantial amount of petroleum coke fly ash which contains appreciable amounts of valuable metals such as vanadium, nickel and titanium. Although the recovery of vanadium from petroleum ash is a well established commercial practice, it is shown in the present work that such processes are not suitable for recovery of vanadium from the GCOS fly ash. The fact that the GCOS fly ash behaves so differently when compared to other petroleum fly ash is attributed to its high silicon and aluminum contents which tie up the metal values in a silica-alumina matrix. Results of experiments carried out in this investigation indicate that such matrices can be broken down by application of a sodium chloride/water roast of the carbon-free fly ash. Based on results from a series of preliminary studies, a detailed investigation was undertaken in order to define optimum conditions for a vanadium extraction process. The process developed involves a high temperature (875 to 950 °C) roasting of the fly ash in the presence of sodium chloride and water vapor carried out in a rotary screw kiln, followed by dilute sodium hydroxide atmosphereic leaching (98 °C) to solublize about 85 pet of the vanadium originally present in the fly ash. It was found that the salt roasting operation, besides enhancing vanadium recovery, also inhibits silicon dissolution during the subsequent leaching step. The salt roasting treatment is found to improve vanadium recovery significantly when the fly ash is fully oxidized. This is easily achieved by burning off the carbon present in the “as received” fly ash under excess air. The basic leaching used in the new process selectively dissolves vanadium from the roasted ash, leaving nickel and titanium untouched.

  19. New perspective for the development of Bemolanga Tar Sand Project

    SciTech Connect

    Rakoto-Andriantsilavo, M.D.; Lalaharisaina, J.V.; Spariharijaona, A.

    1995-12-31

    As known, Madagascar has available tar sand deposit which is estimated at 3 billions tons. During the past ten years, OMNIS, a stage agency for hydrocarbons exploration, performed studies (prefeasibility and feasibility) the aim of which was to produce a 15,000 BPD of synthetic crude to satisfy domestic petroleum needs this potential resource. In the framework of this project, some bitumen extraction processes were tested at the scales of laboratory and/or pilot-unit (CLARK HOT WATER process, TOSCO process, L.R. process, RTR process, and AOSTRA/Taciuk process). In addition, mining and upgrading engineering evaluations were carried out. The results of these investigations display that an ore open-pit mining exploitation, bitumen extraction and upgrading are technically feasible. Nevertheless, some problems arise for the economy of the whole project which is capital intensive and marginal. In the actual petroleum industry environment, where crude prices continue to drop and no perspective price increase is anticipated in the near future, it is difficult or even impossible to promote the project and attract petroleum companies. This unfavourable situation leads to review and consideration of alternatives for the development of this huge resource which could assist the Malagasy Republic with its economy. After the presentation of the main results issued from Bemolanga syncrude production project, this paper deals with such alternative and attempts to elaborate an outline for a new concept of the development of Bemolanga resource. This preliminary outline, considered in the actual Malagasy economic framework where private national and/or international investment is encouraged, tries to overcome the requirement of a high initial investment cost for an industrial scale plant by an approach via a demonstration unit which produces a road bitumen and could further finance the extension to an industrial syncrude production plant.

  20. Lead, arsenic, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and house dust in the communities surrounding the Sydney, Nova Scotia, tar ponds.

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Timothy W; Lane, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated lead, arsenic, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in the residential communities adjacent to the Sydney, Nova Scotia, tar ponds, the area considered Canada's worst contaminated site. The tar pond remediation policy has been limited to the site and some residential properties. We compared background concentrations in 91 soil samples taken 5-20 km from the coke oven site with those in soil samples from the three communities surrounding the tar ponds: Whitney Pier, Ashby, and North End. These surrounding communities were statistically different from background regarding arsenic, lead, and PAHs. Twenty percent of the background soil samples and 95% of the tar pond soil samples were above the Canadian health-risk-based soil guidelines for arsenic (12 ppm), and 5% of the background samples and 80% of the tar pond soil samples were above the Canadian guidelines for lead (140 ppm). Regarding dust lead and arsenic loading, the results provide no evidence that Whitney Pier is significantly different than Ashby and North End. Children in these communities are predicted to have a 1-15% chance of blood lead > 10 microg/dL. The results suggest that lead and arsenic found in the homes originate outside. The lead content of paint in the homes was not evaluated, but consideration of painted wood at the doorway did not confound the results of the study. The results indicate that the residential environment has been adversely affected by PAHs, lead, and arsenic and should be considered for remediation. PMID:14698928

  1. Identification and characterization of wetlands in the Bear Creek watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Rosensteel, B.A.; Trettin, C.C.

    1993-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to identify, characterize, and map the wetlands in the Bear Creek watershed. A preliminary wetland categorization system based on the Cowardin classification system (Cowardin et al. 1979) with additional site-specific topographic, vegetation, and disturbance characteristic modifiers was developed to characterize the type of wetlands that exist in the Bear Creek watershed. An additional objective was to detect possible relationships among site soils, hydrology, and the occurrence of wetlands in the watershed through a comparison of existing data with the field survey. Research needs are discussed in the context of wetland functions and values and regulatory requirements for wetland impact assessment and compensatory mitigation.

  2. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index for Fanno Creek, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sobieszczyk, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Fanno Creek is a tributary to the Tualatin River and flows though parts of the southwest Portland metropolitan area. The stream is heavily influenced by urban runoff and shows characteristic flashy streamflow and poor water quality commonly associated with urban streams. This data set represents the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), or "greenness" of the Fanno Creek floodplain study area. Aerial photography was used to isolate areas of vegetation based on comparing different bandwidths within the imagery. In this case, the NDVI is calculated as the quotient of the near infrared band minus the red band divided by the near infared plus the red band. NDVI = (NIR - R)/(NIR + R).

  3. A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for South Fork, Wildcat Creek, Clinton County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crawford, Charles G.; Wilber, William G.; Peters, James G.

    1979-01-01

    The Indiana State Board of Health is developing a State water-quality management plan that includes establishing limits for wastewater effluents discharged into Indiana streams. A digital model calibrated to conditions in South Fork Wildcat Creek was used to predict alternatives for future waste loadings that would be compatible with Indiana stream water-quality standards defined for two critical hydrologic conditions, summer and winter low flows. Natural streamflow during the 7-day, 10-year low flow is zero, so no benefit from dilution is provided. The Indiana State Board of Health 's projected ammonia-nitrogen concentration for the Frankfort wastewater-treatment facility will violate the instream total ammonia-nitrogen standard of 2.5 mg/l and 4.0 mg/l during summer and winter low flows, respectively. The model indicates that nitrification and algal respiration were significant factors affecting the dissolved-oxygen dynamics of South Fork Wildcat Creek during two water-quality surveys. Stream water quality during the two water-quality surveys was degraded by the discharge of wastewater receiving only primary treatment. Benthic deposits resulting from this wastewater discharge seem to exert a considerable oxygen demand. The discharge of partially treated wastewater should be eliminated when a new wastewater-treatment facility becomes operational in mid-1979. Therefore, benthic-oxygen demand due to benthic deposits should become negligible at that time.

  4. RICHLAND CREEK ROADLESS AREA, ARKANSAS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Mary H.; Wood, Robert H.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of geologic and mineral surveys, Richland Creek Roadless Area, Arkanses, has little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources, gas and oil, or oil shale. The Boone Formation of Mississippian age and the Everton Formation of Ordovician age, both known to contain zinc and lead deposits in northern Arkansas, underlie the roadless area. The presence or absence of zinc and lead deposits in these formations in the subsurface can be neither confirmed nor ruled out without exploratory drilling. Most of the Richland Creek Roadless Area is under lease for oil and gas; however two wells drilled near the eastern boundary of the area did not show contained gas or oil.

  5. Water quality assessment of Malad Creek, Mumbai, India: an impact of sewage and tidal water.

    PubMed

    Sardar, V K; Vijay, R; Sohony, R A

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to carry out water quality assessment and to identify sources responsible for deterioration of quality in the Malad creek, Mumbai, India. Creek receives sewage and wastewater from various drains and partially treated effluent from Malad and Versova treatment facilities. To assess the water quality, sampling locations were identified in the creek based on discharges of wastewater and sewage. Identified locations were traced in physical space by a global positioning system. Samples were collected during low and high tides and analyzed for physical, chemical and bacteriological parameters such as pH, Turbidity, DO, BOD, NH(3)-N, PO(4) and FC and compared with SW-II Standards. Parameters were also analyzed statistically and correlated to determine the relationship amongst the parameters using SPSS software. The idea was to determine the probable causes contributing to the pollution in the creek. Various options were suggested for improvement in the creek quality based on water quality assessment.

  6. Evaluation of the Steel Creek ecosystem in relation to the proposed restart of L reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.H.; Sharitz, R.R.; Gladden, J.B.

    1981-10-01

    Information is presented on the following subjects: habitat and vegetation, the avifauna, semi-aquatic and terrestrial vertebrates, and aquatic communities of Steel Creek, species of special concern, and radiocesium in Steel Creek. Two main goals of the study were the compilation of a current inventory of the flora and fauna of the Steel Creek ecosystem and an assessment of the probable impacts of radionuclides, primarily /sup 137/Cs, that were released into Steel Creek during earlier reactor operations. Although a thorough evaluation of the impacts of the L reactor restart is impossible at this time, it is concluded that the effects on the Steel Creek ecosystem will be substantial if no mitigative measures are taken. (JGB)

  7. Water quality in three creeks in the backcountry of Grand Teton National Park, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farag, A.M.; Goldstein, J.N.; Woodward, D.F.

    2001-01-01

    This study was conducted in Grand Teton National Park during the summers of 1996 and 1997 to investigate the water quality in two high human use areas: Garnet Canyon and lower Cascade Canyon. To evaluate the water quality in these creeks, fecal coliform, Giardia lamblia, coccidia, and microparticulates were measured in water samples. No evidence of fecal coliform, Giardia lamblia, or coccidia, was found in Garnet Creek. The water quality and general water chemistry of Garnet Creek was similar to the reference site. No Giardia lamblia or coccidia were found in Cascade Creek, but fecal coliforms were present. The isolated colonies of Escherichia coli from Cascade Creek matched the ribosome patterns of avian, deer, canine, elk, rodent, and human coliforms.

  8. Otter Creek Wilderness, West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Warlow, R.C.; Behum, P.T.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey of the Otter Creek Wilderness conducted in 1978 resulted in the determination of demonstrated coal resources estimated to total about 24 million short tons in beds more than 28 in. thick and an additional 62 million short tons of coal in beds between 14 and 28 in. thick. There is little promise for the occurrence of mineral or other energy resources in the area.

  9. LUSK CREEK ROADLESS AREA, ILLINOIS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klasner, John S.; Thompson, Robert M.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic mapping and geochemical sampling show that the eastern third of the Lusk Creek Roadless Area in Illinois has a substantiated resource potential for fluorspar, lead, zinc, and barite, and other parts of the area have a probable resource potential for fluorspar. Fluorspar, which occurs along fault zones in the eastern part of the area, has been produced in the adjacent Illinois-Kentucky fluorspar district. There is little promise for the occurrence of other mineral or energy resources.

  10. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit. Volume 2. Appendixes A, B, C, and D-Biota and representative concentrations of contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is Volume 2 of the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

  11. Hydrologic pathways and stormflow hydrochemistry at South Creek, northeast Queensland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsenbeer, Helmut; West, Adam; Bonell, Mike

    1994-10-01

    Earlier investigations at South Creek in northeastern Queensland established the importance of overland flow as a hydrologic pathway in this tropical rainforest environment. Since this pathway is 'fast', transmitting presumably 'new' water, its importance should be reflected in the stormflow chemistry of South Creek: the greater the volumentric contribution to the stormflow hydrograph, the more similarity between the chemical composition of streamwater and of overland flow is to be expected. Water samples were taken during two storm events in an ephemeral gully (gully A), an intermittent gully (gully B) and at the South Creek catchment outlet; additional spot checks were made in several poorly defined rills. The chemical composition of 'old' water was determined from 45 baseflow samples collected throughout February. The two events differed considerably in their magnitudes, intensities and antecedent moisture conditions. In both events, the stormflow chemistry in South Creek was characterized by a sharp decrease in Ca, Mg, Na, Si, Cl, EC, ANC, alkalinity and total inorganic carbon. pH remained nearly constant with discharge, whereas K increased sharply, as did sulfate in an ill-defined manner. In event 1, this South Creek stormflow pattern was closely matched by the pattern in gully A, implying a dominant contribution of 'new' water. This match was confirmed by the spot samples from rills. Gully B behaved like South Creek itself, but with a dampened 'new' water signal, indicating less overland flow generation in its subcatchment. In event 2, which occurred five days later, the initial 'new' water signal in gully A was rapidly overwhelmed by a different signal which is attributed to rapid drainage from a perched water table. This study shows that stormflow in this rainforest catchment consists predominantly of 'new' water which reaches the stream channel via 'fast' pathways. Where the ephemeral gullies delivering overland flow are incised deeply enough to intersect

  12. Geodetic VLBI Observations with the Hat Creek Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaffer, D. B.; NASA/Gsfc Geodetic VLBI Group

    1993-05-01

    Geodetic VLBI observations made with the Hat Creek 85' antenna were important contributions to the NASA Crustal Dynamics Program (CDP). Among other things, the CDP studied motions of the Earth's crustal plates and deformation in the vicinity of the San Andreas Fault in California. The 85' antenna was one of the three fundamental anchor points in California east of the San Andreas fault that were used from 1983 to 1991 to determine the motions at various mobile VLBI sites along the San Andreas and to determine the Pacific plate motions at Vandenberg Air Force Base and Ft. Ord (California) and Kauai (Hawaii). The Hat Creek site itself was found to be moving 10.6 +/- 0.4 (one sigma ) mm/yr to the WNW (PA 305deg ) with respect to a ``stable" eastern North America. Hat Creek is located near the western edge of the Northern Basin and Range province. Its motion is thought to be a combination of WNW extension across the Basin and Range, and a small component of NW elastic deformation due to the interaction between the North American and Pacific plates. Geodetic VLBI measurements from Hat Creek to the nearby Quincy and the more distant Ely (Nevada) and Platteville (Colorado) mobile sites were the key measurements in defining the extension rate for the Northern Basin and Range as 8 +/- 2 mm/yr (PA ~ 300deg ). Hat Creek was also the anchor point for measuring a 5 cm northward seismic displacement at the Ft. Ord mobile site due to the Loma Prieta earthquake. We will show the motion of California and Pacific basin sites for which Hat Creek contributed important data.

  13. The number of positively charged amino acids in the basic domain of Tat is critical for trans-activation and complex formation with TAR RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Delling, U; Roy, S; Sumner-Smith, M; Barnett, R; Reid, L; Rosen, C A; Sonenberg, N

    1991-01-01

    The basic domain of Tat is required for trans-activation of viral gene expression. We have performed scanning peptide studies to demonstrate that only this domain is capable of binding to the TAR RNA stem-loop. Strikingly, the basic domain of the other human immunodeficiency virus trans-acting factor, Rev, but no other region, is also capable of binding to TAR. Peptide derivatives of Tat do not require the highly conserved glutamine residue at position 54 for TAR binding, since it may be substituted or deleted. In addition, the two lysine residues may be replaced by arginines. Analysis of binding and trans-activation demonstrated that homopolymers of arginine can completely substitute for the basic domain. Such homopolymers have high affinity for wild-type TAR RNA and lower affinity for mutant TAR. Homopolymers of six to nine arginines substituting for the basic domain of Tat enable full trans-activation in vivo. Homopolymers of at least seven arginines are required for detectable in vitro complex formation, although approximately 30% trans-activation is achieved with a mutant Tat containing only five arginines. Images PMID:2068104

  14. Lack of effect of menthol level and type on smokers' estimated mouth level exposures to tar and nicotine and perceived sensory characteristics of cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Ashley, Madeleine; Dixon, Mike; Sisodiya, Ajit; Prasad, Krishna

    2012-08-01

    Menthol can reduce sensory irritation and it has been hypothesised that this could result in smokers of mentholated cigarettes taking larger puffs and deeper post-puff inhalations thereby obtaining higher exposures to smoke constituents than smokers of non-mentholated cigarettes. The aim of our study was to use part-filter analysis methodology to assess the effects of cigarette menthol loading on regular and occasional smokers of mentholated cigarettes. We measured mouth level exposure to tar and nicotine and investigated the effects of mentholation on smokers' sensory perceptions such as cooling and irritation. Test cigarettes were produced containing no menthol and different loadings of synthetic and natural l-menthol at 1 and 4mg ISO tar yields. A target of 100 smokers of menthol cigarettes and 100 smokers who predominantly smoked non-menthol cigarettes from both 1 and 4mg ISO tar yield categories were recruited in Poland and Japan. Each subject was required to smoke the test cigarette types of their usual ISO tar yield. There were positive relationships between menthol loading and the perceived 'strength of menthol taste' and 'cooling' effect. However, we did not see marked menthol-induced reductions in perceived irritation or menthol-induced increases in mouth level exposure to tar and nicotine.

  15. Fundamentals of asphaltene phase behavior in heavy oil and tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Carnahan, N.F.; Quintero, L.

    1995-12-31

    As a continuation and update of work presented at the 5th UNITAR International Conference on Heavy Crude and Tar Sands, this presentation addresses the phase behavior of asphaltenes in terms of traditional thermodynamics of mixtures and in terms of interfacial phenomena known to be an integral part of the problem. Recent experimental studies have demonstrated the pressure effect on apparent reverse micelle behavior of asphaltenes in petroleum fluids. Published results have shown that certain commercial surfactants have been effective in ameliorating the problem of asphaltene precipitation in crude oils, and in solubilizing asphaltenes deposited in porous media. These recent observations correspond well with the concepts advanced in our previous studies. Phase behavior of asphaltenes in heavy crude and in tar sands is again addressed from the fundamental point of view, at the molecular level, to interpret observed behavior and to provide a logical means of forecasting expected behavior in these fluids under many different physical and chemical conditions. Interactions between resins and asphaltenes, in the presence of heavy crude or tar sands, do not follow classical thermodynamics, at least, not faithfully. Resins tend to interact as amphiphiles between the asphaltene-free material and the asphaltenes. Resins may be in solution with the asphaltene-free material; however, resins are adsorbed at the surface of the asphaltene aggregations, forming micelles or other amphiphilic structures. Phase behavior of asphaltenes, therefore, depends upon the thermodynamic equilibrium of resins distributed between the asphaltenes and the asphaltene-free material. In crude oils, resins may form solutions which reasonably conform to the Modified Regular Solution Theory, as described previously. At the asphaltene-resin interface, adsorption can be described in terms of classical theories of adsorption and/or similar association mechanisms for interfacial phenomena.

  16. 76 FR 62631 - Archers Creek, Ribbon Creek, and Broad River; U.S. Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, SC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 334 Archers Creek, Ribbon Creek, and Broad River; U.S... Depot Parris Island. The public will continue to be able to use these portions of Archers Creek, Ribbon... Archers Creek, Ribbon Creek, and Broad River; U.S. Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island,...

  17. Low solids content, coal tar based impregnating pitch

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, A.S.; Bart, E.F.; Cook, G.R.; Horbachewski, D.M.

    1987-05-12

    A method is described of obtaining a coal tar based impregnant pitch characterized by having a sulfur content of less than 0.5 weight percent and a quinoline insoluble, QI, content of less than about 0.5 percent and enhanced impregnation property. This method comprises: selecting coal tar oil feedstock having: (1) a distillation residue at 355/sup 0/C > 30 weight percent; and (2) a QI < 0.5 weight percent; heating the feedstock to a temperature of between about 150/sup 0/C and 390/sup 0/C; and oxidizing and stripping the feedstock until: an ASTM D-3104-77 softening point between about 90/sup 0/C and 150/sup 0/C; a coking value of at least 45 weight percent according to ASTM D-2416-73; and a flashpoint of at least 200/sup 0/C according to ASTM D92-72 are obtained.

  18. Simultaneous upgrading of tar sand bitumen and coal by corefining

    SciTech Connect

    Hsich, C.R.; Donaldson, W.I.

    1988-08-16

    A continuous process is described for simultaneously corefining a mixture of comminuted coal and tar sand bitumen to form a liquid refinery feed stock, having improved hydrocarbon content and viscosity and reduced organo-metallic and metal components, which process comprises: (a) combining bitumen substantially separated from tar sands with comminuted raw coal at a coal to liquid weight ratio of from about 1:2 to about 1 to 50 to form a slurry mixture; (b) subjecting the slurry mixture resulting from step (a) to hydrocracking conditions in the absence of added catalyst to produce off-gases and a mixture of co-refined bitumen and coal liquid and coal ash residues; and (c) recovering the corefined improve coal-bitumen liquid as a refinery feedstock.

  19. Raoult's law-based method for determination of coal tar average molecular weight

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.G.; Gupta, L.; Horace, H.K.; Coleman, A.J.

    2005-08-01

    A Raoult's law-based method for determining the number average molecular weight of coal tars is presented. The method requires data from two-phase coal tar/water equilibrium experiments, which readily are performed in environmental laboratories. An advantage of this method for environmental samples is that it is not impacted by the small amount of inert debris often present in coal tar samples obtained from contaminated sites. Results are presented for 10 coal tars from nine former manufactured gas plants located in the eastern United States. Vapor pressure osmometry (VPO) analysis provided similar average molecular weights to those determined with the Raoult's law-based method, except for one highly viscous coal tar sample. Use of the VPO-based average molecular weight for this coal tar resulted in underprediction of the coal tar constituents' aqueous concentrations. Additionally, one other coal tar was not completely soluble in solvents used for VPO analysis. The results indicate that the Raoult's law-based method is able to provide an average molecular weight that is consistent with the intended application of the data (e.g., modeling the dissolution of coal tar constituents into surrounding waters), and this method can be applied to coal tars that may be incompatible with other commonly used methods for determining average molecular weight, such as vapor pressure osmometry.

  20. Report on the biological monitoring program for Bear Creek at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 1989-1994

    SciTech Connect

    Hinzman, R.L.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Cada, G.F.; Peterson, M.J.

    1996-04-01

    The Bear Creek Valley watershed drains the area surrounding several closed Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant waste disposal facilities. Past waste disposal practices in the Bear Creek Valley resulted in the contamination of Bear Creek and consequent ecological damage. Ecological monitoring by the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was initiated in the Bear Creek watershed in May 1984 and continues at present. Studies conducted during the first year provided a detailed characterization of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek. The initial characterization was followed by a biological monitoring phase in which studies were conducted at reduced intensities.

  1. Environmentally Friendly Cleaners for Removing Tar from Metal Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    sions have lower viscosities than neat asphalts and can be used in low temperature applications. After applying the emulsion , the water evaporates...Derbyshire SK17 9RZ Tel : 01298 26226 sales@selden.co.uk Tar n’ Glue Remover 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene, Alcohol Ethoxylate Anionic Detergent...sales@soysolv.com SOYsolve Industrial Strength Mixed fatty & methyl esters Linoleic, Oleic, Palmitic, Linolenic, Stearic, Palmitoleic Erui

  2. The Kentucky tar sand project: Bitumen recovery by solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, M.N.; Fedde, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    Texas Gas Development Corporation selected the Dravo solvent extraction process for a proposed 5000-barrel-per-day plant to produce heavy oil from a tar sand deposit in Kentucky. A 200-ton-per-day pilot plant has demonstrated the process concept and collected design data. The company applied for financial assistance from the U.S. Synthetic Fuels Corporation for the proposed production plant.

  3. Traveltime characteristics of Gore Creek and Black Gore Creek, upper Colorado River basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gurdak, Jason J.; Spahr, Norman E.; Szmajter, Richard J.

    2002-01-01

    In the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, major highways are often constructed in stream valleys. In the event of a vehicular accident involving hazardous materials, the close proximity of highways to the streams increases the risk of contamination entering the streams. Recent population growth has contributed to increased traffic volume along Colorado highways and has resulted in increased movement of hazardous materials, particularly along Interstate 70. Gore Creek and its major tributary, Black Gore Creek, are vulnerable to such contamination from vehicular accidents along Interstate 70. Gore Creek, major tributary of the Eagle River, drains approximately 102 square miles, some of which has recently undergone significant urban development. The headwaters of Gore Creek originate in the Gore Range in the eastern part of the Gore Creek watershed. Gore Creek flows west to the Eagle River. Beginning at the watershed boundary on Vail Pass, southeast of Vail Ski Resort, Interstate 70 parallels Black Gore Creek and then closely follows Gore Creek the entire length of the watershed. Interstate 70 crosses Gore Creek and tributaries 20 times in the watershed. In the event of a vehicular accident involving a contaminant spill into Gore Creek or Black Gore Creek, a stepwise procedure has been developed for water-resource managers to estimate traveltimes of the leading edge and peak concentration of a conservative contaminant. An example calculating estimated traveltimes for a hypothetical contaminant release in Black Gore Creek is provided. Traveltime measurements were made during May and September along Black Gore Creek and Gore Creek from just downstream from the Black Lakes to the confluence with the Eagle River to account for seasonal variability in stream discharge. Fluorometric dye injection of rhodamine WT and downstream dye detection by fluorometry were used to measure traveltime characteristics of Gore Creek and Black Gore Creek. During the May traveltime measurements

  4. 78 FR 62616 - Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Transfer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Project, FERC No. 3730, originally issued August 10, 1981.\\1\\ The project is... Hydroelectric Project of 5 Megawatts or Less and Dismissing Application for Preliminary Permit. 2. Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC is now the exemptee of the Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Project, FERC No. 3730....

  5. Brown carbon in tar balls from smoldering biomass combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarty, R. K.; Moosmüller, H.; Chen, L.-W. A.; Lewis, K.; Arnott, W. P.; Mazzolen, C.; Dubey, M.; Wold, C. E.; Hao, W. M.; Kreidenweis, S. M.

    2010-03-01

    We report the direct observation of large-scale production of spherical, carbonaceous particles - "tar balls" - from smoldering combustion of two commonly occurring dry mid-latitude fuels. Real-time measurements indicate that brown carbon is an important component of tar balls. The spectrum of the imaginary parts of their complex refractive indices can be described with a Lorentzian-like model with an effective resonance wavelength in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral region. Sensitivity calculations for aerosols containing traditional organic carbon (no absorption at visible and UV wavelengths) and brown carbon suggest that accounting for UV absorption by brown carbon leads to a significant increase in aerosol radiative forcing efficiency and increased atmospheric warming. Since particles from smoldering combustion account for nearly three-fourths of the total carbonaceous aerosol mass emitted globally, inclusion of the optical properties of tar balls into radiative forcing models has significance for the Earth's radiation budget, optical remote sensing, and understanding of anomalous UV absorption in the troposphere.

  6. Brown carbon in tar balls from smoldering biomass combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarty, R. K.; Moosmüller, H.; Chen, L.-W. A.; Lewis, K.; Arnott, W. P.; Mazzoleni, C.; Dubey, M. K.; Wold, C. E.; Hao, W. M.; Kreidenweis, S. M.

    2010-07-01

    We report the direct observation of laboratory production of spherical, carbonaceous particles - "tar balls" - from smoldering combustion of two commonly occurring dry mid-latitude fuels. Real-time measurements of spectrally varying absorption Ångström coefficients (AAC) indicate that a class of light absorbing organic carbon (OC) with wavelength dependent imaginary part of its refractive index - optically defined as "brown carbon" - is an important component of tar balls. The spectrum of the imaginary parts of their complex refractive indices can be described with a Lorentzian-like model with an effective resonance wavelength in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral region. Sensitivity calculations for aerosols containing traditional OC (no absorption at visible and UV wavelengths) and brown carbon suggest that accounting for near-UV absorption by brown carbon leads to an increase in aerosol radiative forcing efficiency and increased light absorption. Since particles from smoldering combustion account for nearly three-fourths of the total carbonaceous aerosol mass emitted globally, inclusion of the optical properties of tar balls into radiative forcing models has significance for the Earth's radiation budget, optical remote sensing, and understanding of anomalous UV absorption in the troposphere.

  7. Spatial distribution of pipe collapses in Goodwin Creek Watershed, Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internal erosion of soil pipes can induce pipe collapses that affect soil erosion process and landform evolution. The objective of this study was to determine the spatial distribution of pipe collapses in agricultural fields of Goodwin Creek watershed. Ground survey was carried out to detect pipe co...

  8. Okanogan Focus Watershed Salmon Creek : Annual Report 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    Lyman, Hilary

    1999-11-01

    During FY 1999 the Colville Tribes and the Okanogan Irrigation District (OID) agreed to study the feasibility of restoring and enhancing anadromous fish populations in Salmon Creek while maintaining the ability of the district to continue full water service delivery to it members.

  9. Flood Plain Information Brandywine Creek, Chester County, Pennsylvania.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-03-01

    potential and flood hazards is important in land use planning and for management decisions concerning floodplain utilization. These projections of...the Federal Insurance Administration of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, Flood Insurance Studies generally provide different types of flood... management decisions concerning flood plain utilization. It includes a history of flooding along Brandywine Creek and identifies those areas that are

  10. Spatial and temporal variation of whirling disease risk in Montana spring creeks and rivers.

    PubMed

    Neudecker, Ryen A; McMahon, Thomas E; Vincent, E Richard

    2012-12-01

    Spring creeks are important spawning and rearing areas for wild trout, but the stable flows, cool temperatures, and high nutrient levels that characterize these unique habitats may also make them highly susceptible to establishment and proliferation of the whirling disease pathogen Myxobolus cerebralis. We evaluated the spatial and temporal dynamics in whirling disease risk by using sentinel rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss fry in nine different spring creeks and their conjoining rivers or reservoirs in Montana over a 20-month period. Whirling disease risk was high in five of the seven pathogen-positive spring creek study sites; at these sites, prevalence levels exceeded 90% and over 50% of sentinel fry had moderate to high infection severity scores. Spring creeks generally had higher disease prevalence and severity than paired river or reservoir sites. Fine sediment levels varied widely among springs creeks with high and low whirling disease risk, and we found no significant association between fine sediment level and infection severity. The low risk measured for some spring creeks was likely attributable to the pathogen invasion being in its early stages rather than to environmental characteristics limiting the severity of infection. High whirling disease risk occurred over a wide range of temperatures at spring creek sites (4.5-13°C) and river sites (1.7-12.5°C). There was an unusual seasonal cycle of infection in spring creeks, with peak infection levels occurring from late fall to early spring and declining to near zero in late spring to early fall. The low infection risk during spring suggests that spring-spawning trout would be at a low risk of infection, even in spring creeks with otherwise high disease severity. In contrast, fry of fall-spawning trout may be much more susceptible to infection in spring creek environments.

  11. Coop Creek Bridge with Checkerboard Mesa in background, historic photograph, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Co-op Creek Bridge with Checkerboard Mesa in background, historic photograph, no date, Zion National Park collection - Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, Co-op Creek Bridge, Spanning Co-op Creek, Springdale, Washington County, UT

  12. 2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  13. 8. DETAIL VIEW OF DATEPLATE WHICH READS 'HARP CREEK, LUTEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL VIEW OF DATEPLATE WHICH READS 'HARP CREEK, LUTEN BRIDGE CO., CONTRACTOR, ARKANSAS STATE HIGHWAY DEPARTMENT, 1928' - Harp Creek Bridge, Spans Harp Creek at State Highway 7, Harrison, Boone County, AR

  14. 59. Credit FM. Flood waters on South Battle Creek next ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. Credit FM. Flood waters on South Battle Creek next to powerhouse. Note height of water in relation to tailraces. - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  15. 2. Deep Creek Road, old bridge at campground entrance. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Deep Creek Road, old bridge at campground entrance. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Deep Creek Road, Between Park Boundary near Bryson City & Deep Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  16. 5. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, deck view. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  17. 4. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, elevation view. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  18. 1. Deep Creek Road, picnic pavilion Great Smoky Mountains ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Deep Creek Road, picnic pavilion - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Deep Creek Road, Between Park Boundary near Bryson City & Deep Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  19. 2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, headworks overflow weir to center left, view to east - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

  20. 1. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, weir (to left), sand and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, weir (to left), sand and silt sluice gate (center), main canal headworks (to right), view to northwest - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

  1. General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking northwest. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  2. Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking south. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking south. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  3. Topographic view of the Spring Creek Bridge and Collier State ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Topographic view of the Spring Creek Bridge and Collier State Park, view looking east. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  4. Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking north. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking north. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  5. General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking southeast. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  6. Elevation view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking east. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking east. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  7. General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking east. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  8. 2. View of Clear Creek Bridge railing and understructure, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View of Clear Creek Bridge railing and under-structure, looking northwest. - Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, 62-foot Concrete Arch Pine Creek Bridge, Spanning Clear Creek, Springdale, Washington County, UT

  9. 7. Cable Creek Bridge after completion. Zion National Park negative ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Cable Creek Bridge after completion. Zion National Park negative number 1485, classification series 002, 12. - Floor of the Valley Road, Cable Creek Bridge, Spanning Cable Creek on Floor of Valley, Springdale, Washington County, UT

  10. 121. Credit JE. Galpin Creek ditch, a feeder leading water ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    121. Credit JE. Galpin Creek ditch, a feeder leading water to the Keswick ditch, supplying Volta powerhouse. (JE, v. 12 1902 p. 235). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  11. 3. Threequarter view of Oak Creek Bridge behind visitor center ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Three-quarter view of Oak Creek Bridge behind visitor center facing southwest - Oak Creek Administrative Center, One half mile east of Zion-Mount Carmel Highway at Oak Creek, Springdale, Washington County, UT

  12. Detail view of 850 plate girder span directly over creek, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of 85-0 plate girder span directly over creek, looking west. - New York, Chicago & St. Louis Railroad, Elk Creek Trestle, Spanning Elk Creek, south of Elk Park Road, Lake City, Erie County, PA

  13. Perspective view showing 850 plate girder span directly over creek, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view showing 85-0 plate girder span directly over creek, looking west. - New York, Chicago & St. Louis Railroad, Elk Creek Trestle, Spanning Elk Creek, south of Elk Park Road, Lake City, Erie County, PA

  14. Study of LANDSAT-D thematic mapper performance as applied to hydrocarbon exploration. [Southern Ontario, Lawton, Oklahoma; Owl Creek, Wyoming; Washington, D.C.; and Death Valley California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everett, J. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    Improved delineation of known oil and gas fields in southern Ontario and a spectacularly high amount of structural information on the Owl Creek, Wyoming scene were obtained from analysis of TM data. The use of hue, saturation, and value image processing techniques on a Death Valley, California scene permitted direct comparison of TM processed imagery with existing 1:250,000 scale geological maps of the area and revealed small outcrops of Tertiary volcanic material overlying Paleozoic sections. Analysis of TM data over Lawton, Oklahoma suggests that the reducing chemical environment associated with hydrocarbon seepage change ferric iron to soluble ferrous iron, allowing it to be leached. Results of the band selection algorithm show a suprising consistency, with the 1,4,5 combination selected as optimal in most cases.

  15. Metal concentrations and sources in the Miller Creek watershed, Park County, Montana, August 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cleasby, Thomas E.; Nimick, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Miller Creek is a tributary of Soda Butte Creek in south-central Montana near the northeast corner of Yellowstone National Park. Surface-water and streambed-sediment samples were collected from streams and seeps throughout the Miller Creek watershed during low-flow conditions on August 28-31, 2000, to characterize metal concentrations and identify possible sources contributing metal to Miller Creek. Most water in Miller Creek appears to be unaffected by mining disturbances or natural weathering of mineralized rocks, although such effects are common elsewhere in the New World Mining District. Values for pH were near neutral to basic. Total-recoverable copper, lead, and zinc concentrations were low, relative to State of Montana water-quality standards, with many concentrations less than the analytical minimum reporting levels. Metal concentrations in Miller Creek during this study ranged from 1 to 6 micrograms per liter (?g/L) for total-recoverable copper, <1 to 5 ?g/L for total-recoverable lead, and <1 to 26 ?g/L for total-recoverable zinc. Concentrations of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in all samples from Miller Creek were less than the chronic aquatic-life criteria, except for one total-recoverable lead value (5 ?g/L) just downstream from the Black Warrior Mine inflow. Leachable lead and zinc concentrations in streambed-sediment samples collected during this study were highest at the Black Warrior Mine inflow. Leachable concentrations at this site were about 20 times greater for lead and 11 times greater for zinc than concentrations in the streambed-sediment sample collected from Miller Creek upstream from this inflow. However, these elevated concentrations had little effect on the leachable metal concentrations in the streambed-sediment sample collected downstream from the Black Warrior Mine inflow. Metal loading to Miller Creek during this low-flow study was relatively small. Three small left-bank inflows having elevated copper concentrations entered Miller

  16. Paleontology, paleoclimatology and paleoecology of the late middle miocene Musselshell Creek flora, Clearwater County Idaho. A preliminary study of a new fossil flora

    SciTech Connect

    Baghai, N.L.; Jorstad, R.B.

    1995-10-01

    The Musselshell Creek flora (12.0-10.5 Ma) of northern Idaho is used to reconstruct paleoclimatic and paleoecologic parameters of the Pacific Northwest during the late Middle Miocene. Other megafossil and microfossil floral records spanning 12.0-6.4 Ma are unknown from this region. The Musselshell Creek fossil flora, previously undescribed, is preserved in lacustrine clays and sediments that accumulated in a narrow valley surrounded by rugged terrain. Dominant taxa include dicotyledons and conifers. Most of the leaves are preserved as impressions or compressions. Some fossil leaves retained their original pigmentation, cellular anatomy, and organic constituents. Other fossils include excellent remains of pollen and spores, dispersed leaf cuticle, pyritized wood, and disarticulated fish bones. A destructive statistical analysis of one block of sediment, approximately 30 cm x 45 cm (1.5 sq. ft) recovered 14 orders, 23 families, and 34 genera of spermatophyte plant fossils. These floral elements are compared with two other earlier Miocene floras which were similarly sampled. Common megafossil genera include Quercus, Zizy-phoides, Taxodium, Alnus, Castanea, Magnolia, Acer, Ex-bucklandia, Sequoia, Populus, and Betula. The rare occurrence of Ginkgo leaves is a first record of this taxon in the Idaho Miocene. Additional plant taxa, are represented by palynomorphs. Common pollen taxa are Pinus, Abies, Carya, Quercus, and Tilia. Most of the megafossil and microfossil flora assemblage is characteristic of a streambank to floodplain environment that existed in a warm to cool temperate climate similar to the modern Mid-Atlantic coast of the United States. 47 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for Duck Creek, Madison, Tipton, and Hamilton counties, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crawford, Charles G.; Wilber, William G.; Peters, James G.

    1980-01-01

    The Indiana State Board of Health is developing a State water-quality plan that includes establishing limits for wastewater effluents discharged into Indiana streams. A digital model calibrated to conditions in Duck Creek was used to develop alternatives for future waste loadings that would be compatible with Indiana stream water-quality standards defined for two critical hydrologic conditions, summer and winter low flows. The major point-source waste load affecting Duck Creek is the Elwood wastewater-treatment facility. Natural streamflow during the low flow is zero, so no benefit from dilution is provided. Natural reaeration at the low-flow condition (approximately 3 cubic feet per second), also low, is estimated to be less than 1 per day (base e at 20 Celsius). Consequently, the wasteload assimilative capacity of the stream is low. Effluent ammonia-nitrogen concentrations, projected by the Indiana State Board of Health, will result in stream ammonia-nitrogen concentrations that exceed the State ammonia-nitrogen toxicity standards (2.5 milligrams per liter from April to October and 4.0 milligrams per liter from November through March). The projected effluent ammonia-nitrogen load will also result in the present Indiana stream dissolved-oxygen standard (5.0 milligrams per liter) not being met. Benthic-oxygen demand may also affect stream water quality. During the summer low-flow, a benthic-oxygen demand of only 0.6 gram per square meter per day would utilize all the streams 's available assimilative capacity. (USGS)

  18. Biomass waste gasification - Can be the two stage process suitable for tar reduction and power generation?

    SciTech Connect

    Sulc, Jindrich; Stojdl, Jiri; Richter, Miroslav; Popelka, Jan; Svoboda, Karel; Smetana, Jiri; Vacek, Jiri; Skoblja, Siarhei; Buryan, Petr

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of one stage (co-current) and two stage gasification of wood pellets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Original arrangement with grate-less reactor and upward moving bed of the pellets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two stage gasification leads to drastic reduction of tar content in gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer One stage gasification produces gas with higher LHV at lower overall ER. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Content of ammonia in gas is lower in two stage moving bed gasification. - Abstract: A pilot scale gasification unit with novel co-current, updraft arrangement in the first stage and counter-current downdraft in the second stage was developed and exploited for studying effects of two stage gasification in comparison with one stage gasification of biomass (wood pellets) on fuel gas composition and attainable gas purity. Significant producer gas parameters (gas composition, heating value, content of tar compounds, content of inorganic gas impurities) were compared for the two stage and the one stage method of the gasification arrangement with only the upward moving bed (co-current updraft). The main novel features of the gasifier conception include grate-less reactor, upward moving bed of biomass particles (e.g. pellets) by means of a screw elevator with changeable rotational speed and gradual expanding diameter of the cylindrical reactor in the part above the upper end of the screw. The gasifier concept and arrangement are considered convenient for thermal power range 100-350 kW{sub th}. The second stage of the gasifier served mainly for tar compounds destruction/reforming by increased temperature (around 950 Degree-Sign C) and for gasification reaction of the fuel gas with char. The second stage used additional combustion of the fuel gas by preheated secondary air for attaining higher temperature and faster gasification of the remaining char from the first stage. The measurements of gas composition and tar

  19. Hydrothermal Tar Mounds in Escanaba Trough, Southern Gorda Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koski, R. A.; Clague, D. A.; Rosenbauer, R. A.; Hostettler, F. D.; Kvenvolden, K. A.; Lamothe, P. J.

    2002-12-01

    Mounds of asphaltic petroleum were located and sampled by the submersible ROV Tiburon at two sites on the 3300-m-deep, sediment-covered floor of Escanaba Trough, southern Gorda Ridge. The northern site (41.01°N) consists of several individual mounds up to 1 m across and 25 cm high that occur within 100 m of active hydrothermal vents and polymetallic sulfide deposits. These mounds are not covered by sediment and serve as solid substrates for anemones and sponges. Fragments of a partly-buried tar mound at the southern site (40.69°N) were recovered near a field of inactive sulfide deposits. The mounds have a lobate morphology in which younger lobes with lustrous surfaces drape over older lobes encrusted by mud and faunal debris. In cross section, individual lobes have dense rinds, softer inner walls, and hollow cores. Coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of tar samples show the presence of a mixture of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. The aliphatic fractions have homologous n-alkane distributions from n-C12 to n-C36 with Cmax = n-C28, and a distinctive even-over-odd C-number predominance. Epimer ratios for hopanes and steranes indicate hydrocarbons that are relatively immature. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are dominated by high-molecular-weight parent molecules such as pyrene and phenanthrene; alkylated derivatives are minor constituents. The aromatic fractions also contain a large unresolved complex mixture (UCM). The presence of high-molecular-weight PAH (e.g., benzo-pyrene, indeno-pyrene) reflects formation at high temperatures compared to conventional petroleum. Microwave digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analyses of the soluble organic fraction from three tar samples reveal the following concentrations: 0.1 to 0.2 wt% S, 1 to 10 ppm Mg, Al, P, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, and Ba, 1 to 100 ppb Pd and Pt, and 1 to 10 ppb Au. The insoluble residues separated from these samples, analyzed by scanning

  20. Hydrographic characterization of two tidal creeks with implications for watershed land use, flushing times, and benthic production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buzzelli, C.; Holland, Austin F.; Sanger, D.M.; Conrads, P.C.

    2007-01-01

    Many coastal ecosystems are undergoing anthropogenic stress from large increases in population and urbanization. In many regions changes in freshwater and material inputs to the coastal zone are altering the biogeochemical and biological capacities of ecosystems. Despite increased watershed inputs, large tidal volumes and flushing indicative of macrotidal estuaries can modulate the fate of introduced materials masking some of the symptoms of eutrophication. The Land Use Coastal Ecosystem Study (LU-CES) examined linkages between land use and environmental properties of Malind and Okatee Creeks in South Carolina from 2001 to 2004. The objectives of this particular study were to assess the hydrography of the two macrotidal creek ecosystems, explore differences in dissolved oxygen (DO), and develop a better understanding of the variations in primary and benthic secondary production in southeastern creek ecosystems. Depth, pH, salinity, and DO were reduced and more variable in Malind Creek than in Okatee Creek, although both creeks had strong semidiurnal frequencies in salinity time signatures. While time series analyses of DO saturation in Malind Creek revealed a dominant semidiurnal pattern, Okatee Creek had a distinctly diel DO pattern. The strongly semidiurnal fluctuations in DO and reduced flushing time indicated that biological processes were not fast enough to influence DO in Malind Creek. The Okatee Creek system had a much greater storage volume, a wider marsh, and a dominant 25-h DO frequency. These attributes contributed to an estimated 8-10 times more phytoplankton-based carbon in Okatee Creek and twice the annual benthic production. As expected from their proximity to the upland, low surface area, and high organic content, both ecosystems were net heterotrophic. This fundamental understanding of tidal creek hydrography is being used to help define linkages among differential watershed land uses, flushing characteristics, and levels of biological production