Science.gov

Sample records for target analysis operating

  1. Analysis of Operating Strategies Using Different Target Designs For 238Pu Production

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Tomcy; Sherman, Steven R; Sawhney, Dr. Rapinder

    2017-01-01

    An engineering effort is underway to re-establish capability to produce 238Pu oxide at the kilogram scale in the United States. A multi-step batch process is being developed to produce this important material. Recently, a portion of this process was studied using discrete-event simulation tools to determine whether the conceptual process might achieve its yearly production goal. The study showed the conceptual process can meet the yearly production goal under some circumstances, but process improvements would be needed to ensure greater likelihood of success. This study extends the work performed previously by examining the effects of changing the reactor target designmore » on the yearly process output. Two new reactor target configurations are considered an aluminum-clad reactor target containing 50% greater 237Np oxide content than the original target, and a zirconium alloy-clad target using no aluminum. The results indicate that use of the new aluminum-clad target configuration may allow the process to achieve the same yearly production goal in less time using fewer targets. If the zirconium alloy-clad target is used, then even fewer targets would be needed to reach the production goal, but some process changes would be required to handle the zirconium cladding. The number of days needed to process a target batch to completion, and the steady state 238Pu oxide production rate, for each configuration are compared to the results from the initial simulation study.« less

  2. Analysis of radiation exposure for naval units of Operation Crossroads. Volume 2. (Appendix A) target ships. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Weitz, R.; Thomas, C.; Klemm, J.

    1982-03-03

    External radiation doses are reconstructed for crews of support and target ships of Joint Task Force One at Operation CROSSROADS, 1946. Volume I describes the reconstruction methodology, which consists of modeling the radiation environment, to include the radioactivity of lagoon water, target ships, and support ship contamination; retracing ship paths through this environment; and calculating the doses to shipboard personnel. The USS RECLAIMER, a support ship, is selected as a representative ship to demonstrate this methodology. Doses for all other ships are summarized. Volume II (Appendix A) details the results for target ship personnel. Volume III (Appendix B) details themore » results for support ship personnel. Calculated doses for more than 36,000 personnel aboard support ships while at Bikini range from zero to 1.7 rem. Of those, approximately 34,000 are less than 0.5 rem. From the models provided, doses due to target ship reboarding and doses accrued after departure from Bikini can be calculated, based on the individual circumstances of exposure.« less

  3. Targeting and Localization for Mars Rover Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark W.; Crockett, Thomas; Fox, Jason M.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Norris, Jeffrey S.; Rabe, Kenneth J.; McCurdy, Michael; Pyrzak, Guy

    2006-01-01

    In this work we discuss how the quality of localization knowledge impacts the remote operation of rovers on the surface of Mars. We look at the techniques of localization estimation used in the Mars Pathfinder and Mars Exploration Rover missions. We examine the motivation behind the modes of targeting for different types of activities, such as navigation, remote science, and in situ science. We discuss the virtues and shortcomings of existing approaches and new improvements in the latest operations tools used to support the Mars Exploration Rover missions and rover technology development tasks at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. We conclude with future directions we plan to explore in improving the localization knowledge available for operations and more effective targeting of rovers and their instrument payloads.

  4. Nuclear Security: Target Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Surinder Paul; Gibbs, Philip W.; Bultz, Garl A.

    2014-03-01

    This objectives of this session were to understand the basic steps of target identification; describe the SNRI targets in detail; characterize specific targets with more detail; prioritize targets based on guidance documents; understand the graded safeguards concept; identify roll up and understand why it is a concern; and recognize the category for different materials.

  5. Fighting Dark Networks: Using Social Network Analysis to Implement the Special Operations Targeting Process for Direct and Indirect Approaches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Wouter De Nooy, Andrej Mrvar and Vladimir Batagelj , Exploratory Social Network Analysis with Pajek, (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005), 5...Granovetter, “The Strength of Weak Ties,” 1350–1368. 151 de Nooy, Mrvar , and Batagelj , Exploratory Social Network Analysis with Pajek, 151. 152...Spacetime Wrinkles Exhibit (1995). de Nooy, Wouter, Andrej Mrvar , and Vladimir Batagelj . Exploratory Social Network Analysis with Pajek. Cambridge

  6. Synthetic aperture radar operator tactical target acquisition research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hershberger, M. L.; Craig, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    A radar target acquisition research study was conducted to access the effects of two levels of 13 radar sensor, display, and mission parameters on operator tactical target acquisition. A saturated fractional-factorial screening design was employed to examine these parameters. Data analysis computed ETA squared values for main and second-order effects for the variables tested. Ranking of the research parameters in terms of importance to system design revealed four variables (radar coverage, radar resolution/multiple looks, display resolution, and display size) accounted for 50 percent of the target acquisition probability variance.

  7. Analysis of structure and deformation behavior of AISI 316L tensile specimens from the second operational target module at the Spallation Neutron Source

    DOE PAGES

    Gussev, Maxim N.; McClintock, David A.; Garner, Frank

    2015-08-05

    In an earlier publication, tensile testing was performed on specimens removed from the first two operational targets of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). There were several anomalous features in the results. First, some specimens had very large elongations (up to 57%) while others had significantly smaller values. Second, there was a larger than the usual amount of data scatter in the elongation results. Third, the stress-strain diagrams of nominally similar specimens spanned a wide range of behavior ranging from expected irradiation-induced hardening to varying levels of force drop after yield point and indirect signs of "traveling deformation wave" behavior associatedmore » with strain-induced martensite formation. To investigate the cause(s) of such variable tensile behavior, several specimens from Target 2, spanning the range of observed tensile behavior, were chosen for detailed microstructural examination using electron backscattering analysis (EBSD). It was also shown that the steel employed in the construction of the target contained an unexpected bimodal grain size distribution, containing very large out-of-specification grains surrounded by necklaces of grains of within-specification sizes. The large grains were frequently comparable to the width of the gauge section of the tensile specimen. Moreover, the propensity to form martensite during deformation was shown to be accelerated by radiation but also to be very sensitive to the relative orientation of the grains with respect to the tensile axis. Specimens having large grains in the gauge that were most favorably oriented for production of martensite strongly exhibited the traveling deformation wave phenomenon, while those specimens with less favorably oriented grains had lesser or no degree of the wave effect, thereby accounting for the larger than expected data scatter.« less

  8. Exploring emergency department 4-hour target performance and cancelled elective operations: a regression analysis of routinely collected and openly reported NHS trust data.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Brad; Culliford, David; Guerrero-Ludueña, Richard; Monks, Thomas

    2018-05-24

    To quantify the effect of intrahospital patient flow on emergency department (ED) performance targets and indicate if the expectations set by the National Health Service (NHS) England 5-year forward review are realistic in returning emergency services to previous performance levels. Linear regression analysis of routinely reported trust activity and performance data using a series of cross-sectional studies. NHS trusts in England submitting routine nationally reported measures to NHS England. 142 acute non-specialist trusts operating in England between 2012 and 2016. The primary outcome measures were proportion of 4-hour waiting time breaches and cancelled elective operations. Univariate and multivariate linear regression models were used to show relationships between the outcome measures and various measures of trust activity including empty day beds, empty night beds, day bed to night bed ratio, ED conversion ratio and delayed transfers of care. Univariate regression results using the outcome of 4-hour breaches showed clear relationships with empty night beds and ED conversion ratio between 2012 and 2016. The day bed to night bed ratio showed an increasing ability to explain variation in performance between 2015 and 2016. Delayed transfers of care showed little evidence of an association. Multivariate model results indicated that the ability of patient flow variables to explain 4-hour target performance had reduced between 2012 and 2016 (19% to 12%), and had increased in explaining cancelled elective operations (7% to 17%). The flow of patients through trusts is shown to influence ED performance; however, performance has become less explainable by intratrust patient flow between 2012 and 2016. Some commonly stated explanatory factors such as delayed transfers of care showed limited evidence of being related. The results indicate some of the measures proposed by NHS England to reduce pressure on EDs may not have the desired impact on returning services to previous

  9. Operations and Modeling Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebeling, Charles

    2005-01-01

    The Reliability and Maintainability Analysis Tool (RMAT) provides NASA the capability to estimate reliability and maintainability (R&M) parameters and operational support requirements for proposed space vehicles based upon relationships established from both aircraft and Shuttle R&M data. RMAT has matured both in its underlying database and in its level of sophistication in extrapolating this historical data to satisfy proposed mission requirements, maintenance concepts and policies, and type of vehicle (i.e. ranging from aircraft like to shuttle like). However, a companion analyses tool, the Logistics Cost Model (LCM) has not reached the same level of maturity as RMAT due, in large part, to nonexistent or outdated cost estimating relationships and underlying cost databases, and it's almost exclusive dependence on Shuttle operations and logistics cost input parameters. As a result, the full capability of the RMAT/LCM suite of analysis tools to take a conceptual vehicle and derive its operations and support requirements along with the resulting operating and support costs has not been realized.

  10. Flight Operations Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easter, Robert; Herrell, Linda; Pomphrey, Richard; Chase, James; Wertz Chen, Julie; Smith, Jeffrey; Carter, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    Flight Operations Analysis Tool (FLOAT) is a computer program that partly automates the process of assessing the benefits of planning spacecraft missions to incorporate various combinations of launch vehicles and payloads. Designed primarily for use by an experienced systems engineer, FLOAT makes it possible to perform a preliminary analysis of trade-offs and costs of a proposed mission in days, whereas previously, such an analysis typically lasted months. FLOAT surveys a variety of prior missions by querying data from authoritative NASA sources pertaining to 20 to 30 mission and interface parameters that define space missions. FLOAT provides automated, flexible means for comparing the parameters to determine compatibility or the lack thereof among payloads, spacecraft, and launch vehicles, and for displaying the results of such comparisons. Sparseness, typical of the data available for analysis, does not confound this software. FLOAT effects an iterative process that identifies modifications of parameters that could render compatible an otherwise incompatible mission set.

  11. Target identification by image analysis.

    PubMed

    Fetz, V; Prochnow, H; Brönstrup, M; Sasse, F

    2016-05-04

    Covering: 1997 to the end of 2015Each biologically active compound induces phenotypic changes in target cells that are characteristic for its mode of action. These phenotypic alterations can be directly observed under the microscope or made visible by labelling structural elements or selected proteins of the cells with dyes. A comparison of the cellular phenotype induced by a compound of interest with the phenotypes of reference compounds with known cellular targets allows predicting its mode of action. While this approach has been successfully applied to the characterization of natural products based on a visual inspection of images, recent studies used automated microscopy and analysis software to increase speed and to reduce subjective interpretation. In this review, we give a general outline of the workflow for manual and automated image analysis, and we highlight natural products whose bacterial and eucaryotic targets could be identified through such approaches.

  12. Beyond Utility Targeting: Toward Axiological Air Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    encounter the leader- sociopath , bereft of values, quite willing to live underground in hiding and in- sensitive to the absence of human comforts...that is a mere one thousand value-analysis problems to begin solving. A more difficult problem to solve is the problem of the leader- sociopath

  13. Operational Dynamic Configuration Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lai, Chok Fung; Zelinski, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    Sectors may combine or split within areas of specialization in response to changing traffic patterns. This method of managing capacity and controller workload could be made more flexible by dynamically modifying sector boundaries. Much work has been done on methods for dynamically creating new sector boundaries [1-5]. Many assessments of dynamic configuration methods assume the current day baseline configuration remains fixed [6-7]. A challenging question is how to select a dynamic configuration baseline to assess potential benefits of proposed dynamic configuration concepts. Bloem used operational sector reconfigurations as a baseline [8]. The main difficulty is that operational reconfiguration data is noisy. Reconfigurations often occur frequently to accommodate staff training or breaks, or to complete a more complicated reconfiguration through a rapid sequence of simpler reconfigurations. Gupta quantified a few aspects of airspace boundary changes from this data [9]. Most of these metrics are unique to sector combining operations and not applicable to more flexible dynamic configuration concepts. To better understand what sort of reconfigurations are acceptable or beneficial, more configuration change metrics should be developed and their distribution in current practice should be computed. This paper proposes a method to select a simple sequence of configurations among operational configurations to serve as a dynamic configuration baseline for future dynamic configuration concept assessments. New configuration change metrics are applied to the operational data to establish current day thresholds for these metrics. These thresholds are then corroborated, refined, or dismissed based on airspace practitioner feedback. The dynamic configuration baseline selection method uses a k-means clustering algorithm to select the sequence of configurations and trigger times from a given day of operational sector combination data. The clustering algorithm selects a simplified

  14. Operational Benefits of Meeting California's Energy Storage Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Eichman, Josh; Denholm, Paul; Jorgenson, Jennie

    In October 2013, the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) finalized procurement targets and other requirements to its jurisdictional utilities for a minimum of 1,325 MW of 'viable and cost-effective' energy storage systems by 2020. The goal of this study is to explore several aspects of grid operations in California and the Western Interconnection resulting from meeting the CPUC storage targets. We perform this analysis using a set of databases and grid simulation tools developed and implemented by the CPUC, the California Independent System Operator (CAISO), and the California Energy Commission (CEC) for the CPUC's Long-term Procurement Plan (LTPP). The 2014more » version of this database contains information about generators, storage, transmission, and electrical demand, for California in the year 2024 for both 33% and 40% renewable energy portfolios. We examine the value of various services provided by energy storage in these scenarios. Sensitivities were performed relating to the services energy storage can provide, the capacity and duration of storage devices, export limitations, and negative price floor variations. Results show that a storage portfolio, as outlined by the CPUC, can reduce curtailment and system-wide production costs for 33% and 40% renewable scenarios. A storage device that can participate in energy and ancillary service markets provides the grid with the greatest benefit; the mandated storage requirement of 1,325 MW was estimated to reduce the total cost of production by about 78 million per year in the 33% scenario and 144 million per year in the 40% scenario. Much of this value is derived from the avoided start and stop costs of thermal generators and provision of ancillary services. A device on the 2024 California grid and participating in only ancillary service markets can provide the system with over 90% of the value as the energy and ancillary service device. The analysis points to the challenge of new storage providing

  15. ATC operational error analysis.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1972-01-01

    The primary causes of operational errors are discussed and the effects of these errors on an ATC system's performance are described. No attempt is made to specify possible error models for the spectrum of blunders that can occur although previous res...

  16. Multiple operating system rotation environment moving target defense

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Nathaniel; Thompson, Michael

    Systems and methods for providing a multiple operating system rotation environment ("MORE") moving target defense ("MTD") computing system are described. The MORE-MTD system provides enhanced computer system security through a rotation of multiple operating systems. The MORE-MTD system increases attacker uncertainty, increases the cost of attacking the system, reduces the likelihood of an attacker locating a vulnerability, and reduces the exposure time of any located vulnerability. The MORE-MTD environment is effectuated by rotation of the operating systems at a given interval. The rotating operating systems create a consistently changing attack surface for remote attackers.

  17. Time Critical Targeting Concept of Operations (CONOPS) Interactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    range of topics in force development and employment. Carl has participated in projects examining the interdiction of armoured ground forces , long...Critical Targeting Concept of Operations (CONOPS) Interactions Executive Summary In 2003, RAND Project Air Force examined the...Attack. ____________________ ________________________________________________ Carl Rhodes Project Air Force , RAND Corporation Carl Rhodes is the

  18. TDRSS operations control analysis study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The use of an operational Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) and the remaining ground stations for the STDN (GSTDN) was investigated. The operational aspects of TDRSS concepts, GSTDN as a 14-site network, and GSTDN as a 7 site-network were compared and operations control concepts for the configurations developed. Man/machine interface, scheduling system, and hardware/software tradeoff analyses were among the factors considered in the analysis.

  19. Vocational Education Operations Analysis Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Vocational Education Services.

    This manual on the vocational education operations analysis process is designed to provide vocational administrators/coordinators with an internal device to collect, analyze, and display vocational education performance data. The first section describes the system and includes the following: analysis worksheet, data sources, utilization, system…

  20. Morphological operators for enhanced polarimetric image target detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, João. M.; Rosario, Dalton S.

    2015-09-01

    We introduce an algorithm based on morphological filters with the Stokes parameters that augments the daytime and nighttime detection of weak-signal manmade objects immersed in a predominant natural background scene. The approach features a tailored sequence of signal-enhancing filters, consisting of core morphological operators (dilation, erosion) and higher level morphological operations (e.g., spatial gradient, opening, closing) to achieve a desired overarching goal. Using representative data from the SPICE database, the results show that the approach was able to automatically and persistently detect with a high confidence level the presence of three mobile military howitzer surrogates (targets) in natural clutter.

  1. Airport surface operations requirements analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groce, John L.; Vonbokern, Greg J.; Wray, Rick L.

    1993-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Airport Surface Operations Requirements Analysis (ASORA) study. This study was conducted in response to task 24 of NASA Contract NAS1-18027. This study is part of NASA LaRC's Low Visibility Surface Operations program, which is designed to eliminate the constraints on all-weather arrival/departure operations due to the airport/aircraft ground system. The goal of this program is to provide the capability for safe and efficient aircraft operations on the airport surface during low visibility conditions down to zero. The ASORA study objectives were to (1) develop requirements for operation on the airport surface in visibilities down to zero; (2) survey and evaluate likely technologies; (3) develop candidate concepts to meet the requirements; and (4) select the most suitable concept based on cost/benefit factors.

  2. Modal Analysis for Grid Operation

    SciTech Connect

    MANGO software is to provide a solution for improving small signal stability of power systems through adjusting operator-controllable variables using PMU measurement. System oscillation problems are one of the major threats to the grid stability and reliability in California and the Western Interconnection. These problems result in power fluctuations, lower grid operation efficiency, and may even lead to large-scale grid breakup and outages. This MANGO software aims to solve this problem by automatically generating recommended operation procedures termed Modal Analysis for Grid Operation (MANGO) to improve damping of inter-area oscillation modes. The MANGO procedure includes three steps: recognizing small signalmore » stability problems, implementing operating point adjustment using modal sensitivity, and evaluating the effectiveness of the adjustment. The MANGO software package is designed to help implement the MANGO procedure.« less

  3. Smart roadside initiative gap analysis : target functionality and gap analysis.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-02-01

    This document summarizes the target functionality for the Smart Roadside Initiative, as well as the operational, institutional, and technical gaps that currently impede the deployment of three of its operational scenarios (electronic mainline s...

  4. [Role-specific targets and teamwork in the operating room].

    PubMed

    Hoeper, K; Kriependorf, M; Felix, C; Nyhuis, P; Tecklenburg, A

    2017-12-01

    The primary goal of a surgical team is the successful performance of an operation on a patien; however, this primary goal can show discrepancies from the goals of individual team members. The main causes for differences of interests can be variations in subjective preferences and organizational differences. Subjective preferences are due to the values held by those involved. These values are of an intrinsic nature and therefore difficult to change. Another reason for individual goals is that hospitals and universities are professional bureaucracies. Experts working in professional bureaucracies are known to identify themselves to a greater extent with their respective profession than with their institution; however, teams in the operating room (OR) have to work together in multidisciplinary teams. The main goal of this analysis is to document role-specific targets and motivations within teams. This was a case study at a university hospital with 40 operating rooms. The data collection resulted from the three pillars of the goal documentation instrument, which includes expert interviews, a utility analysis and card placement as a basis for communicative validation. The results were analyzed with a systematic method as a qualitative content analysis. The four-pillar success model, which maps aspects of a successful hospital, was used as a deductive coding scheme. The four pillars represent the level of medical quality (process, structure and outcome quality), economy and efficiency, client satisfaction (patients and referring physicians) and employee satisfaction. At a university hospital an additional focus is on research and teaching. In addition to the four pillar success model as a deductive coding scheme, an inductive coding scheme was introduced. Approximately 10% of the employees from each professional group (surgeons, anesthesiologists, OR nurses, nurse anesthetists) were interviewed resulting in 65 interviews overall. The interviews were conducted

  5. Target Tracking Based Scene Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    1082 , pp 377-391. [21 S.T. Barnard and M.A. Fisch~ler, "Computational Stereo", Computing Surveys 14, 1082 , pp 553-572. 131 K.H. Bers, M. Bohner, and P...Braunlage/Harz. FRG, June 21 - July 2, 1082 Springer, Berlin, 1083. pp 10.1-124. [81 R.B. Cate, T.*1B. Dennis, J.T. Mallin, K.S. Nedelman, NEIL Trenchard, and...Institute on Pictorial Data Analysis, Bonas, France, August 1-12, 1082 ), Springer, Berlin, 1983. [181 G.R. Legters Jr. and T.Y. Young, "A Mathematical

  6. Propulsion Technology Lifecycle Operational Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, John W.; Rhodes, Russell E.

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a focused effort performed by the members of the Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) Functional Requirements Sub-team to develop propulsion data to support Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS). This is a spreadsheet application to analyze the impact of technology decisions at a system-of-systems level. Results are summarized in an Excel workbook we call the Technology Tool Box (TTB). The TTB provides data for technology performance, operations, and programmatic parameters in the form of a library of technical information to support analysis tools and/or models. The lifecycle of technologies can be analyzed from this data and particularly useful for system operations involving long running missions. The propulsion technologies in this paper are listed against Chemical Rocket Engines in a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) format. The overall effort involved establishing four elements: (1) A general purpose Functional System Breakdown Structure (FSBS). (2) Operational Requirements for Rocket Engines. (3) Technology Metric Values associated with Operating Systems (4) Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) of Chemical Rocket Engines The list of Chemical Rocket Engines identified in the WBS is by no means complete. It is planned to update the TTB with a more complete list of available Chemical Rocket Engines for United States (US) engines and add the Foreign rocket engines to the WBS which are available to NASA and the Aerospace Industry. The Operational Technology Metric Values were derived by the SPST Sub-team in the form of the TTB and establishes a database for users to help evaluate and establish the technology level of each Chemical Rocket Engine in the database. The Technology Metric Values will serve as a guide to help determine which rocket engine to invest technology money in for future development.

  7. MPCV Exercise Operational Volume Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godfrey, A.; Humphreys, B.; Funk, J.; Perusek, G.; Lewandowski, B. E.

    2017-01-01

    In order to minimize the loss of bone and muscle mass during spaceflight, the Multi-purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) will include an exercise device and enough free space within the cabin for astronauts to use the device effectively. The NASA Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) has been tasked with using computational modeling to aid in determining whether or not the available operational volume is sufficient for in-flight exercise.Motion capture data was acquired using a 12-camera Smart DX system (BTS Bioengineering, Brooklyn, NY), while exercisers performed 9 resistive exercises without volume restrictions in a 1g environment. Data were collected from two male subjects, one being in the 99th percentile of height and the other in the 50th percentile of height, using between 25 and 60 motion capture markers. Motion capture data was also recorded as a third subject, also near the 50th percentile in height, performed aerobic rowing during a parabolic flight. A motion capture system and algorithms developed previously and presented at last years HRP-IWS were utilized to collect and process the data from the parabolic flight [1]. These motions were applied to a scaled version of a biomechanical model within the biomechanical modeling software OpenSim [2], and the volume sweeps of the motions were visually assessed against an imported CAD model of the operational volume. Further numerical analysis was performed using Matlab (Mathworks, Natick, MA) and the OpenSim API. This analysis determined the location of every marker in space over the duration of the exercise motion, and the distance of each marker to the nearest surface of the volume. Containment of the exercise motions within the operational volume was determined on a per-exercise and per-subject basis. The orientation of the exerciser and the angle of the footplate were two important factors upon which containment was dependent. Regions where the exercise motion exceeds the bounds of the operational volume have been

  8. Uncertainty Prediction in Passive Target Motion Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-12

    fundamental property of bearings- only target motion analysis (TMA) is that bearing B to the Attorney Docket No. 300118 3 of 25 target 10 results...the measurements used to estimate them are often non-linear. This is true for the bearing observation: = tan −1 ( () () ) ( 3 ...Parameter Evaluation Plot ( PEP ) is one example of such a grid-based approach. U.S. Patent No. 7,020,046 discloses one version of this method and is

  9. Clinical target volume delineation in glioblastomas: pre-operative versus post-operative/pre-radiotherapy MRI

    PubMed Central

    Farace, P; Giri, M G; Meliadò, G; Amelio, D; Widesott, L; Ricciardi, G K; Dall'Oglio, S; Rizzotti, A; Sbarbati, A; Beltramello, A; Maluta, S; Amichetti, M

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Delineation of clinical target volume (CTV) is still controversial in glioblastomas. In order to assess the differences in volume and shape of the radiotherapy target, the use of pre-operative vs post-operative/pre-radiotherapy T1 and T2 weighted MRI was compared. Methods 4 CTVs were delineated in 24 patients pre-operatively and post-operatively using T1 contrast-enhanced (T1PRECTV and T1POSTCTV) and T2 weighted images (T2PRECTV and T2POSTCTV). Pre-operative MRI examinations were performed the day before surgery, whereas post-operative examinations were acquired 1 month after surgery and before chemoradiation. A concordance index (CI) was defined as the ratio between the overlapping and composite volumes. Results The volumes of T1PRECTV and T1POSTCTV were not statistically different (248 ± 88 vs 254 ± 101), although volume differences >100 cm3 were observed in 6 out of 24 patients. A marked increase due to tumour progression was shown in three patients. Three patients showed a decrease because of a reduced mass effect. A significant reduction occurred between pre-operative and post-operative T2 volumes (139 ± 68 vs 78 ± 59). Lack of concordance was observed between T1PRECTV and T1POSTCTV (CI = 0.67 ± 0.09), T2PRECTV and T2POSTCTV (CI = 0.39 ± 0.20) and comparing the portion of the T1PRECTV and T1POSTCTV not covered by that defined on T2PRECTV images (CI = 0.45 ± 0.16 and 0.44 ± 0.17, respectively). Conclusion Using T2 MRI, huge variations can be observed in peritumoural oedema, which are probably due to steroid treatment. Using T1 MRI, brain shifts after surgery and possible progressive enhancing lesions produce substantial differences in CTVs. Our data support the use of post-operative/pre-radiotherapy T1 weighted MRI for planning purposes. PMID:21045069

  10. The Holistic Targeting (HOT) Methodology as the Means to Improve Information Operations (IO) Target Development and Prioritization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    software facilitate targeting problem understanding and the network analysis tool, Palantir , as an efficient and tailored semi-automated means to...the use of compendium software facilitate targeting problem understanding and the network analysis tool, Palantir , as an efficient and tailored semi...OBJECTIVES USING COMPENDIUM SOFTWARE .....63 E. HOT TARGET PRIORITIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT USING PALANTIR SOFTWARE .................................69 1

  11. Clustering analysis of moving target signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martone, Anthony; Ranney, Kenneth; Innocenti, Roberto

    2010-04-01

    Previously, we developed a moving target indication (MTI) processing approach to detect and track slow-moving targets inside buildings, which successfully detected moving targets (MTs) from data collected by a low-frequency, ultra-wideband radar. Our MTI algorithms include change detection, automatic target detection (ATD), clustering, and tracking. The MTI algorithms can be implemented in a real-time or near-real-time system; however, a person-in-the-loop is needed to select input parameters for the clustering algorithm. Specifically, the number of clusters to input into the cluster algorithm is unknown and requires manual selection. A critical need exists to automate all aspects of the MTI processing formulation. In this paper, we investigate two techniques that automatically determine the number of clusters: the adaptive knee-point (KP) algorithm and the recursive pixel finding (RPF) algorithm. The KP algorithm is based on a well-known heuristic approach for determining the number of clusters. The RPF algorithm is analogous to the image processing, pixel labeling procedure. Both algorithms are used to analyze the false alarm and detection rates of three operational scenarios of personnel walking inside wood and cinderblock buildings.

  12. Operant Variability: A Conceptual Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barba, Lourenco de Souza

    2012-01-01

    Some researchers claim that variability is an operant dimension of behavior. The present paper reviews the concept of operant behavior and emphasizes that differentiation is the behavioral process that demonstrates an operant relation. Differentiation is conceived as change in the overlap between two probability distributions: the distribution of…

  13. Pandora Operation and Analysis Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Jay; Cede, Alexander; Abuhassan, Nader

    2012-01-01

    Pandora Operation and Analysis Software controls the Pandora Sun- and sky-pointing optical head and built-in filter wheels (neutral density, UV bandpass, polarization filters, and opaque). The software also controls the attached spectrometer exposure time and thermoelectric cooler to maintain the spectrometer temperature to within 1 C. All functions are available through a GUI so as to be easily accessible by the user. The data are automatically stored on a miniature computer (netbook) for automatic download to a designated server at user defined intervals (once per day, once per week, etc.), or to a USB external device. An additional software component reduces the raw data (spectrometer counts) to preliminary scientific products for quick-view purposes. The Pandora systems are built from off-the-shelf commercial parts and from mechanical parts machined using electronic machine shop drawings. The Pandora spectrometer system is designed to look at the Sun (tracking to within 0.1 ), or to look at the sky at any zenith or azimuth angle, to gather information about the amount of trace gases or aerosols that are present.

  14. Monitoring urban subsidence based on SAR lnterferometric point target analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Jiahua; Gong, W.; Lu, Z.

    2009-01-01

    lnterferometric point target analysis (IPTA) is one of the latest developments in radar interferometric processing. It is achieved by analysis of the interferometric phases of some individual point targets, which are discrete and present temporarily stable backscattering characteristics, in long temporal series of interferometric SAR images. This paper analyzes the interferometric phase model of point targets, and then addresses two key issues within IPTA process. Firstly, a spatial searching method is proposed to unwrap the interferometric phase difference between two neighboring point targets. The height residual error and linear deformation rate of each point target can then be calculated, when a global reference point with known height correction and deformation history is chosen. Secondly, a spatial-temporal filtering scheme is proposed to further separate the atmosphere phase and nonlinear deformation phase from the residual interferometric phase. Finally, an experiment of the developed IPTA methodology is conducted over Suzhou urban area. Totally 38 ERS-1/2 SAR scenes are analyzed, and the deformation information over 3 546 point targets in the time span of 1992-2002 are generated. The IPTA-derived deformation shows very good agreement with the published result, which demonstrates that the IPTA technique can be developed into an operational tool to map the ground subsidence over urban area.

  15. Transcriptome-wide Analysis of Exosome Targets

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Claudia; Kudla, Grzegorz; Wlotzka, Wiebke; Tuck, Alex; Tollervey, David

    2012-01-01

    Summary The exosome plays major roles in RNA processing and surveillance but the in vivo target range and substrate acquisition mechanisms remain unclear. Here we apply in vivo RNA crosslinking (CRAC) to the nucleases (Rrp44, Rrp6), two structural subunits (Rrp41, Csl4) and a cofactor (Trf4) of the yeast exosome. Analysis of wild-type Rrp44 and catalytic mutants showed that both the CUT and SUT classes of non-coding RNA, snoRNAs and, most prominently, pre-tRNAs and other Pol III transcripts are targeted for oligoadenylation and exosome degradation. Unspliced pre-mRNAs were also identified as targets for Rrp44 and Rrp6. CRAC performed using cleavable proteins (split-CRAC) revealed that Rrp44 endonuclease and exonuclease activities cooperate on most substrates. Mapping oligoadenylated reads suggests that the endonuclease activity may release stalled exosome substrates. Rrp6 was preferentially associated with structured targets, which frequently did not associate with the core exosome indicating that substrates follow multiple pathways to the nucleases. PMID:23000172

  16. Time reversal acoustics for small targets using decomposition of the time reversal operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simko, Peter C.

    The method of time reversal acoustics has been the focus of considerable interest over the last twenty years. Time reversal imaging methods have made consistent progress as effective methods for signal processing since the initial demonstration that physical time reversal methods can be used to form convergent wave fields on a localized target, even under conditions of severe multipathing. Computational time reversal methods rely on the properties of the so-called 'time reversal operator' in order to extract information about the target medium. Applications for which time reversal imaging have previously been explored include medical imaging, non-destructive evaluation, and mine detection. Emphasis in this paper will fall on two topics within the general field of computational time reversal imaging. First, we will examine previous work on developing a time reversal imaging algorithm based on the MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm. MUSIC, though computationally very intensive, has demonstrated early promise in simulations using array-based methods applicable to true volumetric (three-dimensional) imaging. We will provide a simple algorithm through which the rank of the time reversal operator subspaces can be properly quantified so that the rank of the associated null subspace can be accurately estimated near the central pulse wavelength in broadband imaging. Second, we will focus on the scattering from small acoustically rigid two dimensional cylindrical targets of elliptical cross section. Analysis of the time reversal operator eigenmodes has been well-studied for symmetric response matrices associated with symmetric systems of scattering targets. We will expand these previous results to include more general scattering systems leading to asymmetric response matrices, for which the analytical complexity increases but the physical interpretation of the time reversal operator remains unchanged. For asymmetric responses, the qualitative properties of the

  17. Dynamic Target Acquisition: Empirical Models of Operator Performance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    for 30,000 Ft Initial Slant Range VARIABLES MEAN Signature X Scene Complexity Low Medium High Active Target FLIR 22794 20162 20449 Inactive Target...Interactions for 30,000 Ft Initial Slant Range I Signature X Scene Complexity V * ORDERED MEANS 14867 18076 18079 18315 19105 19643 20162 20449 22794...14867 18076 1 183159 19105* 1 19643 20162* 20449 * 1 22794Signature X Speed I ORDERED MEANS 13429 15226 16604 17344 19033 20586 22641 24033 24491 1

  18. Molecular Composition Analysis of Distant Targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Gary B.; Lubin, Philip

    2017-01-01

    This document is the Final Report for NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Phase I Grant 15-NIAC16A-0145, titled Molecular Composition Analysis of Distant Targets. The research was focused on developing a system concept for probing the molecular composition of cold solar system targets, such as Asteroids, Comets, Planets and Moons from a distant vantage, for example from a spacecraft that is orbiting the target (Hughes et al., 2015). The orbiting spacecraft is equipped with a high-power laser, which is run by electricity from photovoltaic panels. The laser is directed at a spot on the target. Materials on the surface of the target are heated by the laser beam, and begin to melt and then evaporate, forming a plume of asteroid molecules in front of the heated spot. The heated spot glows, producing blackbody illumination that is visible from the spacecraft, via a path through the evaporated plume. As the blackbody radiation from the heated spot passes through the plume of evaporated material, molecules in the plume absorb radiation in a manner that is specific to the rotational and vibrational characteristics of the specific molecules. A spectrometer aboard the spacecraft is used to observe absorption lines in the blackbody signal. The pattern of absorption can be used to estimate the molecular composition of materials in the plume, which originated on the target. Focusing on a single spot produces a borehole, and shallow subsurface profiling of the targets bulk composition is possible. At the beginning of the Phase I research, the estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of the system was TRL-1. During the Phase I research, an end-to-end theoretical model of the sensor system was developed from first principles. The model includes laser energy and optical propagation, target heating, melting and evaporation of target material, plume density, thermal radiation from the heated spot, molecular cross section of likely asteroid materials, and estimation of the

  19. Prognostic Analysis System and Methods of Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacKey, Ryan M. E. (Inventor); Sneddon, Robert (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A prognostic analysis system and methods of operating the system are provided. In particular, a prognostic analysis system for the analysis of physical system health applicable to mechanical, electrical, chemical and optical systems and methods of operating the system are described herein.

  20. Reusable Rocket Engine Operability Modeling and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christenson, R. L.; Komar, D. R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology, model, input data, and analysis results of a reusable launch vehicle engine operability study conducted with the goal of supporting design from an operations perspective. Paralleling performance analyses in schedule and method, this requires the use of metrics in a validated operations model useful for design, sensitivity, and trade studies. Operations analysis in this view is one of several design functions. An operations concept was developed given an engine concept and the predicted operations and maintenance processes incorporated into simulation models. Historical operations data at a level of detail suitable to model objectives were collected, analyzed, and formatted for use with the models, the simulations were run, and results collected and presented. The input data used included scheduled and unscheduled timeline and resource information collected into a Space Transportation System (STS) Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) historical launch operations database. Results reflect upon the importance not only of reliable hardware but upon operations and corrective maintenance process improvements.

  1. Nuclear Security: Target Analysis-rev

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Surinder Paul; Gibbs, Philip W.; Bultz, Garl A.

    2014-03-01

    The objectives of this presentation are to understand target identification, including roll-up and protracted theft; evaluate target identification in the SNRI; recognize the target characteristics and consequence levels; and understand graded safeguards.

  2. Kill operation requires thorough analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Abel, L.W.

    1995-05-15

    Full control of a blowout well requires a properly designed post-capping kill operation because failures in regaining well control usually occur during the kill operation, not during capping. Capping (the installation of pressure control or diverter equipment on the wellhead) is generally very reliable in gaining control of a blowout well. The following techniques are some of the viable means of killing blowout wells once the capping assemblies are in place: direct shut in of the flow; bullheading; momentum kill; volumetric control for migration of fluids or lubrication after migration ceases; and dynamic kills (friction-based dynamic kills or mass flowmore » rate kills) The objective of most post-capping operations is to stop the flow and put the well under hydrostatic control. The means of killing a blowout once capping assemblies are in place should be chosen with care to avoid problems such as cratering, equipment failure, and underground blowouts. The particular circumstances and well integrity will dictate which kill method will be the most viable. Each of these five methods are explained.« less

  3. Targeted Killing: Managing American Perceptions On Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-01

    Requirements Proposal Advisor: Dr. Patricia Williams Lessane Project Advisor: Dr. Andrew Niesiobedzki Maxwell AFB, AL February 2016...epistemology of remote fighting." Ethics and Information Technology 15. no. 2. 87-98. Cullen , Peter. 2008. "The Role of Targeted Killing in the...in the Sky." New Statesman 19-25. June. 48. Patterson, Margot. 2015. "Are We Safer." America 212. no. 204. 12. Raven-Hansen, William C. Banks and

  4. Target-responsive DNA-capped nanocontainer used for fabricating universal detector and performing logic operations

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2014-01-01

    Nucleic acids have become a powerful tool in nanotechnology because of their controllable diverse conformational transitions and adaptable higher-order nanostructure. Using single-stranded DNA probes as the pore-caps for various target recognition, here we present an ultrasensitive universal electrochemical detection system based on graphene and mesoporous silica, and achieve sensitivity with all of the major classes of analytes and simultaneously realize DNA logic gate operations. The concept is based on the locking of the pores and preventing the signal-reporter molecules from escape by target-induced the conformational change of the tailored DNA caps. The coupling of ‘waking up’ gatekeeper with highly specific biochemical recognition is an innovative strategy for the detection of various targets, able to compete with classical methods which need expensive instrumentation and sophisticated experimental operations. The present study has introduced a new electrochemical signal amplification concept and also adds a new dimension to the function of graphene-mesoporous materials hybrids as multifunctional nanoscale logic devices. More importantly, the development of this approach would spur further advances in important areas, such as point-of-care diagnostics or detection of specific biological contaminations, and hold promise for use in field analysis. PMID:25249622

  5. Targeted Muscle Reinnervation for Transradial Amputation: Description of Operative Technique.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Emily N; Kyle Potter, Benjamin; Souza, Jason M; Tintle, Scott M; Nanos, George P

    2016-12-01

    Targeted muscle reinnervation (TMR) is a revolutionary surgical technique that, together with advances in upper extremity prostheses and advanced neuromuscular pattern recognition, allows intuitive and coordinated control in multiple planes of motion for shoulder disarticulation and transhumeral amputees. TMR also may provide improvement in neuroma-related pain and may represent an opportunity for sensory reinnervation as advances in prostheses and haptic feedback progress. Although most commonly utilized following shoulder disarticulation and transhumeral amputations, TMR techniques also represent an exciting opportunity for improvement in integrated prosthesis control and neuroma-related pain improvement in patients with transradial amputations. As there are no detailed descriptions of this technique in the literature to date, we provide our surgical technique for TMR in transradial amputations.

  6. Managing Science Operations during Planetary Surface Operations at Long Light Delay-Time Targets: The 2011 Desert RATS Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, D. B.

    2012-01-01

    Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) is a multi-year series of hardware and operations tests carried out annually in the high desert of Arizona in the San Francisco Volcanic Field. Conducted since 1997, these activities are designed to exercise planetary surface hardware and operations in conditions where multi-day tests are achievable. Desert RATS 2011 Science Operations Test simulated the management of crewed science operations at targets that were beyond the light delay time experienced during Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) and lunar surface missions, such as a mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO) or the martian surface. Operations at targets at these distances are likely to be the norm as humans move out of the Earth-Moon system. Operating at these distances places significant challenges on mission operations, as the imposed light-delay time makes normal, two-way conversations extremely inefficient. Consequently, the operations approach for space missions that has been exercised during the first half-century of human space operations is no longer viable, and new approaches must be devised.

  7. Identifying On-Orbit Test Targets for Space Fence Operational Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pechkis, D.; Pacheco, N.; Botting, T.

    2014-09-01

    Space Fence will be an integrated system of two ground-based, S-band (2 to 4 GHz) phased-array radars located in Kwajalein and perhaps Western Australia [1]. Space Fence will cooperate with other Space Surveillance Network sensors to provide space object tracking and radar characterization data to support U.S. Strategic Command space object catalog maintenance and other space situational awareness needs. We present a rigorous statistical test design intended to test Space Fence to the letter of the program requirements as well as to characterize the system performance across the entire operational envelope. The design uses altitude, size, and inclination as independent factors in statistical tests of dependent variables (e.g., observation accuracy) linked to requirements. The analysis derives the type and number of necessary test targets. Comparing the resulting sample sizes with the number of currently known targets, we identify those areas where modelling and simulation methods are needed. Assuming hypothetical Kwajalein radar coverage and a conservative number of radar passes per object per day, we conclude that tests involving real-world space objects should take no more than 25 days to evaluate all operational requirements; almost 60 percent of the requirements can be tested in a single day and nearly 90 percent can be tested in one week or less. Reference: [1] L. Haines and P. Phu, Space Fence PDR Concept Development Phase, 2011 AMOS Conference Technical Papers.

  8. Field Artillery And Fire Support At The Operational Level: An Analysis Of Operation Desert Storm and Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-25

    Field Artillery and Fire Support at the Operational Level: An Analysis of Operation Desert Storm and Operation Iraqi Freedom A Monograph...Defense, Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports (0704-0188), 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204...AND SUBTITLE Field Artillery and Fire Support at the Operational Level: An Analysis of Operation Desert Storm and Operation Iraqi Freedom 5a

  9. Targeting Human Serum Fucome by an Integrated Liquid-phase Multi Column Platform Operating in “Cascade” to Facilitate Comparative Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Disease-Free and Breast Cancer Sera

    PubMed Central

    Selvaraju, Subhashini; Rassi, Ziad El

    2013-01-01

    A fully integrated platform was developed for capturing/fractionating human fucome from disease-free and breast cancer sera. It comprised multicolumn operated by HPLC pumps and switching valves for the simultaneous depletion of high abundance proteins via affinity-based subtraction and the capturing of fucosylated glycoproteins via lectin affinity chromatography followed by the fractionation of the captured glycoproteins by reversed phase chromatography (RPC). Two lectin columns specific to fucose, namely Aleuria aurantia lectin (AAL) and Lotus tetragonolobus agglutinin (LTA) were utilized. The platform allowed the “cascading” of the serum sample from column-to-column in the liquid phase with no sample manipulation between the various steps. This guaranteed no sample loss and no propagation of experimental biases between the various columns. Finally, the fucome was fractionated by RPC yielding desalted fractions in volatile acetonitrile-rich mobile phase, which after vacuum evaporation were subjected to trypsinolysis for LC-MS/MS analysis. This permitted the identification of the differentially expressed proteins (DEP) in breast cancer serum yielding a broad panel of 35 DEP from the combined LTA and AAL captured proteins and a narrower panel of 8 DEP that were commonly differentially expressed in both LTA and AAL fractions, which are considered as more representative of cancer altered fucome. PMID:23533108

  10. Operational Modal Analysis of the Cablestayed Footbridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortiš, Ján; Daniel, Ľuboš; Farbák, Matúš; Maliar, Lukáš; Škarupa, Milan

    2017-12-01

    Modern architecture leads to design subtle bridge structures that are more sensitive to increased dynamic loading than the massive ones. This phenomenon can be especially observed on lightweight steel structures such as suspended footbridges. As a result, it is necessary to know precisely its dynamic characteristics, such as natural frequencies, natural shapes and damping of construction. This information can be used for further analysis such as damage detection, system identification, health monitoring, etc. or also for the design of new types of construction. For this purpose, classical modal analysis using trigger load or harmonic vibration exciter in combination with acceleration sensors is used in practice. However, there are many situations where it is not possible to stop the traffic or operation of the bridge. The article presents an experimental measurement of the dynamic parameters of the structure at the operating load using the operational modal analysis.

  11. MDA Challenges for Operational Research and Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    Analysis Dr. Ross Graham Director General Centre for Operational Research and Analysis Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public...AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Defence R&D Canada, Centre for...Awareness for the Gov’t of Canada. RJOC(W) RJOC(E) Regional Joint Operations Centres are key enablers Defence R&D Canada • R & D pour la défense

  12. Operation of Reliability Analysis Center (FY88)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    4.1 Current Projects 16 4.2 Completed Projects 22 6.0 FINANCIAL SUMMARY FY󈨜 23 7.0 INFORMATION FROM IAC USERS 24 7.1 User Feedback on IAC Services...22 6.0 FINANCIAL SUMMARY FY󈨜 Operating expenditures for carrying out the Reliability Analysis Center’s on-going operational functions and satisfying...Because the RAC does n~ot stand to benefit from either a favorable or unfavorable appraisal of any contractors design, an unbiased analysis can result

  13. Category-based attentional guidance can operate in parallel for multiple target objects.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Michael; Grubert, Anna; Eimer, Martin

    2018-05-01

    The question whether the control of attention during visual search is always feature-based or can also be based on the category of objects remains unresolved. Here, we employed the N2pc component as an on-line marker for target selection processes to compare the efficiency of feature-based and category-based attentional guidance. Two successive displays containing pairs of real-world objects (line drawings of kitchen or clothing items) were separated by a 10 ms SOA. In Experiment 1, target objects were defined by their category. In Experiment 2, one specific visual object served as target (exemplar-based search). On different trials, targets appeared either in one or in both displays, and participants had to report the number of targets (one or two). Target N2pc components were larger and emerged earlier during exemplar-based search than during category-based search, demonstrating the superior efficiency of feature-based attentional guidance. On trials where target objects appeared in both displays, both targets elicited N2pc components that overlapped in time, suggesting that attention was allocated in parallel to these target objects. Critically, this was the case not only in the exemplar-based task, but also when targets were defined by their category. These results demonstrate that attention can be guided by object categories, and that this type of category-based attentional control can operate concurrently for multiple target objects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Space Operations Center: A concept analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingston, L. E.

    1979-01-01

    The Space Operations Center is a concept for a shuttle-service, permanent, manned facility in low Earth orbit. An analysis of this concept was conducted and the results are reported. It is noted that there are no NASA plans at present to implement such a concept. The results are intended for consideration in future planning.

  15. A data mart for operations analysis.

    PubMed

    Isken, M W; Littig, S J; West, M

    2001-01-01

    In this article we describe the evolution and architecture of a data mart developed to address the modeling and analysis needs of healthcare operations analysts. More specifically, the data mart is used in projects relating to demand analysis, forecasting, capacity planning, and service system design for a healthcare system consisting of a large tertiary care hospital and a smaller community hospital. The primary focus of the mart is on the detailed movement of inpatients through each hospital, although most component data tables include outpatient information such as emergency center visits, surgical cases, cardiac catheterization cases, and short-stay visits. We show that the data mart goes well beyond consolidating data from different sources by including a number of complex, precalculated fields, data structures, and function libraries that are specific to the needs of operations analysts. We discuss several outstanding and challenging design issues that should be of interest to the data warehouse vendor community.

  16. Small Explorer project: Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS). Mission operations and data analysis plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melnick, Gary J.

    1990-01-01

    The Mission Operations and Data Analysis Plan is presented for the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS) Project. It defines organizational responsibilities, discusses target selection and navigation, specifies instrument command and data requirements, defines data reduction and analysis hardware and software requirements, and discusses mission operations center staffing requirements.

  17. Test Operations Procedure (TOP) 03-2-827 Test Procedures for Video Target Scoring Using Calibration Lights

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-04

    Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Test Operations Procedure (TOP) 03-2-827 Test Procedures for Video Target Scoring Using...ABSTRACT This Test Operations Procedure (TOP) describes typical equipment and procedures to setup and operate a Video Target Scoring System (VTSS) to...lights. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Video Target Scoring System, VTSS, witness screens, camera, target screen, light pole 16. SECURITY

  18. Effects of TEL Confusers on Operator Target Acquisition Performance with SAR Imagery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-12-01

    processing known as the theory of signal detection (TSD) (Gescheider, 1985; Green & Swets, 1966; Macmillan & Creelman , 1991; Wilson, 1992). A TSD...localizations (Hacker & Ratcliff, 1979; Macmillan & Creelman , 1991). The index of bias in a target localization task provides a measure of the operator’s...of correct localizations substituted for hits (Macmillan & Creelman , 1991). Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves. In addition to the calculation

  19. psRNATarget: a plant small RNA target analysis server

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xinbin; Zhao, Patrick Xuechun

    2011-01-01

    Plant endogenous non-coding short small RNAs (20–24 nt), including microRNAs (miRNAs) and a subset of small interfering RNAs (ta-siRNAs), play important role in gene expression regulatory networks (GRNs). For example, many transcription factors and development-related genes have been reported as targets of these regulatory small RNAs. Although a number of miRNA target prediction algorithms and programs have been developed, most of them were designed for animal miRNAs which are significantly different from plant miRNAs in the target recognition process. These differences demand the development of separate plant miRNA (and ta-siRNA) target analysis tool(s). We present psRNATarget, a plant small RNA target analysis server, which features two important analysis functions: (i) reverse complementary matching between small RNA and target transcript using a proven scoring schema, and (ii) target-site accessibility evaluation by calculating unpaired energy (UPE) required to ‘open’ secondary structure around small RNA’s target site on mRNA. The psRNATarget incorporates recent discoveries in plant miRNA target recognition, e.g. it distinguishes translational and post-transcriptional inhibition, and it reports the number of small RNA/target site pairs that may affect small RNA binding activity to target transcript. The psRNATarget server is designed for high-throughput analysis of next-generation data with an efficient distributed computing back-end pipeline that runs on a Linux cluster. The server front-end integrates three simplified user-friendly interfaces to accept user-submitted or preloaded small RNAs and transcript sequences; and outputs a comprehensive list of small RNA/target pairs along with the online tools for batch downloading, key word searching and results sorting. The psRNATarget server is freely available at http://plantgrn.noble.org/psRNATarget/. PMID:21622958

  20. Drug target inference through pathway analysis of genomics data

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Haisu; Zhao, Hongyu

    2013-01-01

    Statistical modeling coupled with bioinformatics is commonly used for drug discovery. Although there exist many approaches for single target based drug design and target inference, recent years have seen a paradigm shift to system-level pharmacological research. Pathway analysis of genomics data represents one promising direction for computational inference of drug targets. This article aims at providing a comprehensive review on the evolving issues is this field, covering methodological developments, their pros and cons, as well as future research directions. PMID:23369829

  1. Influence of ion source configuration and its operation parameters on the target sputtering and implantation process.

    PubMed

    Shalnov, K V; Kukhta, V R; Uemura, K; Ito, Y

    2012-06-01

    In the work, investigation of the features and operation regimes of sputter enhanced ion-plasma source are presented. The source is based on the target sputtering with the dense plasma formed in the crossed electric and magnetic fields. It allows operation with noble or reactive gases at low pressure discharge regimes, and, the resulting ion beam is the mixture of ions from the working gas and sputtering target. Any conductive material, such as metals, alloys, or compounds, can be used as the sputtering target. Effectiveness of target sputtering process with the plasma was investigated dependently on the gun geometry, plasma parameters, and the target bias voltage. With the applied accelerating voltage from 0 to 20 kV, the source can be operated in regimes of thin film deposition, ion-beam mixing, and ion implantation. Multi-component ion beam implantation was applied to α-Fe, which leads to the surface hardness increasing from 2 GPa in the initial condition up to 3.5 GPa in case of combined N(2)-C implantation. Projected range of the implanted elements is up to 20 nm with the implantation energy 20 keV that was obtained with XPS depth profiling.

  2. Driving ATHLETE: Analysis of Operational Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Julie; Mittman, David

    2012-01-01

    The All-Terrain Hex-Limbed Extra-Terrestrial Explorer (ATHLETE) is a modular mobility and manipulation platform being developed to support NASA operations in a variety of missions, including exploration of planetary surfaces. The agile system consists of a symmetrical arrangement of six limbs, each with seven articulated degrees of freedom and a powered wheel. This design enables transport of bulky payloads over a wide range of terrain and is envisioned as a tool to mobilize habitats, power-generation equipment, and other supplies for long-range exploration and outpost construction. In FY2010, ATHLETE traversed more than 80 km in field environments over eight weeks of testing, demonstrating that the concept is well suited to long-range travel. Although ATHLETE is designed to travel at speeds of up to 5 kilometers per hour, the observed average traverse rate during field-testing rarely exceeded 1.5 kilometers per hour. This paper investigates sources of inefficiency in ATHLETE traverse operations and identifies targets for improvement of overall traverse rate.

  3. Driving ATHLETE: Analysis of Operational Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Julie; Mittman, David

    2012-01-01

    The All-Terrain Hex-Limbed Extra-Terrestrial Explorer (ATHLETE) is a modular mobility and manipulation platform being developed to support NASA operations in a variety of missions, including exploration of planetary surfaces. The agile system consists of a symmetrical arrangement of six limbs, each with seven articulated degrees of freedom and a powered wheel. This design enables transport of bulky payloads over a wide range of terrain and is envisioned as a tool to mobilize habitats, power-generation equipment, and other supplies for long-range exploration and outpost construction. In 2010, ATHLETE traversed more than 80 km in field environments over eight weeks of testing, demonstrating that the concept is well suited to long-range travel. However, while ATHLETE is designed to travel at speeds of up to 5 kilometers per hour, the observed average traverse rate during field-testing rarely exceeded 1.5 kilometers per hour. This paper investigates sources of inefficiency in ATHLETE traverse operations and identifies targets for improvement of overall traverse rate.

  4. Operational Analysis in the Launch Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, George; Kaouk, Mo; Cao, Tim; Fogt, Vince; Rocha, Rodney; Schultz, Ken; Tucker, Jon-Michael; Rayos, Eli; Bell,Jeff; Alldredge, David; hide

    2012-01-01

    The launch environment is a challenging regime to work due to changing system dynamics, changing environmental loading, joint compression loads that cannot be easily applied on the ground, and control effects. Operational testing is one of the few feasible approaches to capture system level dynamics since ground testing cannot reproduce all of these conditions easily. However, the most successful applications of Operational Modal Testing involve systems with good stationarity and long data acquisition times. This paper covers an ongoing effort to understand the launch environment and the utility of current operational modal tools. This work is expected to produce a collection of operational tools that can be applied to non-stationary launch environment, experience dealing with launch data, and an expanding database of flight parameters such as damping. This paper reports on recent efforts to build a software framework for the data processing utilizing existing and specialty tools; understand the limits of current tools; assess a wider variety of current tools; and expand the experience with additional datasets as well as to begin to address issues raised in earlier launch analysis studies.

  5. Operating health analysis of electric power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fotuhi-Firuzabad, Mahmud

    The required level of operating reserve to be maintained by an electric power system can be determined using both deterministic and probabilistic techniques. Despite the obvious disadvantages of deterministic approaches there is still considerable reluctance to apply probabilistic techniques due to the difficulty of interpreting a single numerical risk index and the lack of sufficient information provided by a single index. A practical way to overcome difficulties is to embed deterministic considerations in the probabilistic indices in order to monitor the system well-being. The system well-being can be designated as healthy, marginal and at risk. The concept of system well-being is examined and extended in this thesis to cover the overall area of operating reserve assessment. Operating reserve evaluation involves the two distinctly different aspects of unit commitment and the dispatch of the committed units. Unit commitment health analysis involves the determination of which unit should be committed to satisfy the operating criteria. The concepts developed for unit commitment health, margin and risk are extended in this thesis to evaluate the response well-being of a generating system. A procedure is presented to determine the optimum dispatch of the committed units to satisfy the response criteria. The impact on the response wellbeing being of variations in the margin time, required regulating margin and load forecast uncertainty are illustrated. The effects on the response well-being of rapid start units, interruptible loads and postponable outages are also illustrated. System well-being is, in general, greatly improved by interconnection with other power systems. The well-being concepts are extended to evaluate the spinning reserve requirements in interconnected systems. The interconnected system unit commitment problem is decomposed into two subproblems in which unit scheduling is performed in each isolated system followed by interconnected system evaluation

  6. OCO-2 Observation and Validation Overview: Observations Data Modes and Target Observations, Taken During the First 15 Months of Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterman, G. B.; Fisher, B.; Wunch, D.; Eldering, A.; Wennberg, P. O.; Roehl, C. M.; Naylor, B. J.; Lee, R.; Pollock, R.; Gunson, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    The OCO-2 instrument was successfully launched on July 2, 2014 from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. The instrument reached its observational orbit about three weeks later. The spacecraft is at the head of the A-train satellites and began collecting operational data on Sept 5, 2014. OCO-2 makes measurements in three modes: nadir, glint and target. Target observations are designed to provide large amounts of data in a small area near a ground validation site. The instruments of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) provide the ground validation data for the OCO-2 XCO2 observations and comparisons to TCCON form the basis of the OCO-2 validation plan. There are now 27 locations at which OCO-2 can perform target observations and CCON sites make up 23 of those possible target locations. For its first year in orbit, OCO-2 operated in nadir mode for 16 days and then in glint mode for 16 days. Each 16-day cycle spans 233 orbits. On July 1, 2015, OCO-2 changed to an observational mode of alternating nadir and glint measurements on an orbit-by-orbit basis. By December 2015, this operational mode may be modified such that orbits that measure only over ocean will always observed in glint mode. In this presentation we will provide information on the observations made by OCO-2 during its first 15 month in operations. We will show maps of the OCO-2 ground tracks and XCO2 data, calendars illustrating the observational schedule and statistics on the target observations taken. We will provide more information on what is involved in making target observations and how it affects the standard operational data acquisition patterns. Changes to the standard observational patterns of OCO-2 and to the list of locations for target observations will be discussed as well. We will provide an overview of some of the validation related analysis being done using nadir and glint mode OCO-2 data in addition to an overview on validation analyses that do not directly utilize TCCON

  7. Analysis of DFW Perimeter Taxiway Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelland, Shawn A.; Ruszkowski, Louise Morgan

    2010-01-01

    This study examines operations of the perimeter taxiway system at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) to characterize and understand the impact of the perimeter taxiway system and to provide operational decision makers with guidance on use of this new airport resource. DFW s perimeter taxiway entered service in December 2008 and is representative of perimeter or end-around taxiways currently in use at several other airports worldwide. This perimeter taxiway analysis is a collaborative effort between NASA and various DFW stakeholders including the FAA, air carriers and the airport operator. The initial investigation has focused on quantifying perimeter taxiway usage and assessing effects on taxi times at both the local and global levels. Local-level results show taxi times via the perimeter taxiway to be about forty-five seconds longer on average, but with significantly less variability. Global-level results show average perimeter taxiway times to be a little more than one minute longer with variability that is comparable to that for other taxi paths.

  8. Evaluation of Radiation Exposure Hazard from Squaw Targets Used in Operations WIGWAM and HARDTACK-I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    scale model submarine hulls (called “Squaws”) were built for the U.S. Navy in 1954 for use as submerged targets for hull -damage testing at Operation...2 Section 2. History of the Squaw Targets Three 4/5-scale model submarine hulls (called “Squaws”) were built in 1954 at the Long Beach Naval...dimensions of 135 ft in length, 23 ft in height, and 20.5 ft in breadth (Ross, 1955; NAVSHIPS, circa 1971). The Squaw hulls were to be used as submerged

  9. Plasma physics analysis of SERT-2 operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of the major plasma processes involved in the SERT 2 spacecraft experiments was conducted to aid in the interpretation of recent data. A plume penetration model was developed for neutralization electron conduction to the ion beam and showed qualitative agreement with flight data. In the SERT 2 configuration conduction of neutralization electrons between thrusters was experimentally demonstrated in space. The analysis of this configuration suggests that the relative orientation of the two magnetic fields was an important factor in the observed results. Specifically, the opposed field orientation appeared to provide a high conductivity channel between thrusters and a barrier to the ambient low energy electrons in space. The SERT 2 neutralizer currents with negative neutralizer biases were up to about twice the theoretical prediction for electron collection by the ground screen. An explanation for the higher experimental values was a possible conductive path from the neutralizer plume to a nearby part of the ground screen. Plasma probe measurements of SERT 2 gave the clearest indication of plasma electron temperature, with normal operation being near 5 eV and discharge only operation near 2 eV.

  10. Systems Operations Studies for Automated Guideway Transit Systems : Quantitative Analysis of Alternative AGT Operational Control Strategies

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1981-10-01

    The objectives of the Systems Operation Studies (SOS) for automated guideway transit (AGT) systems are to develop models for the analysis of system operations, to evaluate performance and cost, and to establish guidelines for the design and operation...

  11. Rotation to a Partially Specified Target Matrix in Exploratory Factor Analysis: How Many Targets?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Nicholas D.; Ahn, Soyeon; Jin, Ying

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of the number of targets specified on the quality of exploratory factor analysis solutions with a complex underlying structure and incomplete substantive measurement theory. Three Monte Carlo studies were performed based on the ratio of the number of observed variables to the number of…

  12. Combating Terrorism: A Conceptual Framework for Targeting at the Operational Level

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-17

    for Joint Intelligence Preparation of the Battlespace. The key process is the JIPB which is tried and tested , offering a very logical and clear...Intelligence Preparation of the Battlespace (JIPB) process, as published in Joint Publication 2-01.3, Joint Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Joint...Intelligence Preparation of the Battlespace, 24 May 2000, for its application to targeting terrorism at the operational level. The

  13. SMART marine goals, targets and management - Is SDG 14 operational or aspirational, is 'Life Below Water' sinking or swimming?

    PubMed

    Cormier, Roland; Elliott, Michael

    2017-10-15

    The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), adopted in September 2015, are accompanied by targets which have to be met individually and collectively by the signatory states. SDG14 Life Below Water aims to lay the foundation for the integrated and sustainable management of the oceans. However, any environmental management has to be based around targets which are SMART - specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and time bounded - otherwise it is not possible to determine whether management actions are successful and achieve the desired aims. The discussion here shows that many of the targets adopted for SDG14, and especially a detailed analysis of Target 1, are aspirational rather than fully quantified. In order to move towards making the targets operational, we advocate merging the language of environmental management with that used by industry for linking risks to the environment, management performance and ensuing controls. By adopting an approach which uses Key Performance Indicators ('KPIs'), Key Risk Indicators ('KRIs') and Key Control Indicators ('KCIs'), we advocate that a degree of rigour leading to defendable actions can be brought to marine management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Segment analysis of the target market of physiotherapeutic services].

    PubMed

    Babaskin, D V

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to demonstrate the possibilities to analyse selected segments of the target market of physiotherapeutic services provided by medical and preventive-facilities of two major types. The main features of a target segment, such as provision of therapeutic massage, are illustrated in terms of two characteristics, namely attractiveness to the users and the ability of a given medical facility to satisfy their requirements. Based on the analysis of portfolio of the available target segments the most promising ones (winner segments) were selected for further marketing studies. This choice does not exclude the possibility of involvement of other segments of medical services in marketing activities.

  15. Targeting: Social Network Analysis in Counter IED Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    members caused havoc amongst both French and Algerian citizens by placing bombs in public buildings, police stations, cafes, cinemas , and dance halls in...lifted the city’s curfew, schools were reopened and people were no longer afraid to fill shopping malls or go to the cinemas . The actions taken by...was able to carry out the 2009 JW Marriot and Ritz-Carlton hotel bombings in Jakarta before being killed by Malaysian forces in 2009

  16. ISHM Decision Analysis Tool: Operations Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The state-of-the-practice Shuttle caution and warning system warns the crew of conditions that may create a hazard to orbiter operations and/or crew. Depending on the severity of the alarm, the crew is alerted with a combination of sirens, tones, annunciator lights, or fault messages. The combination of anomalies (and hence alarms) indicates the problem. Even with much training, determining what problem a particular combination represents is not trivial. In many situations, an automated diagnosis system can help the crew more easily determine an underlying root cause. Due to limitations of diagnosis systems,however, it is not always possible to explain a set of alarms with a single root cause. Rather, the system generates a set of hypotheses that the crew can select from. The ISHM Decision Analysis Tool (IDAT) assists with this task. It presents the crew relevant information that could help them resolve the ambiguity of multiple root causes and determine a method for mitigating the problem. IDAT follows graphical user interface design guidelines and incorporates a decision analysis system. I describe both of these aspects.

  17. Interacting with target tracking algorithms in a gaze-enhanced motion video analysis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hild, Jutta; Krüger, Wolfgang; Heinze, Norbert; Peinsipp-Byma, Elisabeth; Beyerer, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    Motion video analysis is a challenging task, particularly if real-time analysis is required. It is therefore an important issue how to provide suitable assistance for the human operator. Given that the use of customized video analysis systems is more and more established, one supporting measure is to provide system functions which perform subtasks of the analysis. Recent progress in the development of automated image exploitation algorithms allow, e.g., real-time moving target tracking. Another supporting measure is to provide a user interface which strives to reduce the perceptual, cognitive and motor load of the human operator for example by incorporating the operator's visual focus of attention. A gaze-enhanced user interface is able to help here. This work extends prior work on automated target recognition, segmentation, and tracking algorithms as well as about the benefits of a gaze-enhanced user interface for interaction with moving targets. We also propose a prototypical system design aiming to combine both the qualities of the human observer's perception and the automated algorithms in order to improve the overall performance of a real-time video analysis system. In this contribution, we address two novel issues analyzing gaze-based interaction with target tracking algorithms. The first issue extends the gaze-based triggering of a target tracking process, e.g., investigating how to best relaunch in the case of track loss. The second issue addresses the initialization of tracking algorithms without motion segmentation where the operator has to provide the system with the object's image region in order to start the tracking algorithm.

  18. Evaluation of methods for freeway operational analysis.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-10-01

    The ability to estimate accurately the operational performance of roadway segments has become increasingly critical as we move from a period of new construction into one of operations, maintenance, and, in some cases, reconstruction. In addition to m...

  19. Applying analysis tools in planning for operations

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-09-01

    More and more, transportation system operators are seeing the benefits of strengthening links between planning and operations. A critical element in improving transportation decision-making and the effectiveness of transportation systems related to o...

  20. Analysis of JT-60SA operational scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzotti, L.; Barbato, E.; Garcia, J.; Hayashi, N.; Voitsekhovitch, I.; Giruzzi, G.; Maget, P.; Romanelli, M.; Saarelma, S.; Stankiewitz, R.; Yoshida, M.; Zagórski, R.

    2018-02-01

    Reference scenarios for the JT-60SA tokamak have been simulated with one-dimensional transport codes to assess the stationary state of the flat-top phase and provide a profile database for further physics studies (e.g. MHD stability, gyrokinetic analysis) and diagnostics design. The types of scenario considered vary from pulsed standard H-mode to advanced non-inductive steady-state plasmas. In this paper we present the results obtained with the ASTRA, CRONOS, JINTRAC and TOPICS codes equipped with the Bohm/gyro-Bohm, CDBM and GLF23 transport models. The scenarios analysed here are: a standard ELMy H-mode, a hybrid scenario and a non-inductive steady state plasma, with operational parameters from the JT-60SA research plan. Several simulations of the scenarios under consideration have been performed with the above mentioned codes and transport models. The results from the different codes are in broad agreement and the main plasma parameters generally agree well with the zero dimensional estimates reported previously. The sensitivity of the results to different transport models and, in some cases, to the ELM/pedestal model has been investigated.

  1. A mathematical analysis of multiple-target SELEX.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yeon-Jung; Chen, Shiliang; Nilsen-Hamilton, Marit; Levine, Howard A

    2010-10-01

    SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment) is a procedure by which a mixture of nucleic acids can be fractionated with the goal of identifying those with specific biochemical activities. One combines the mixture with a specific target molecule and then separates the target-NA complex from the resulting reactions. The target-NA complex is separated from the unbound NA by mechanical means (such as by filtration), the NA is eluted from the complex, amplified by PCR (polymerase chain reaction), and the process repeated. After several rounds, one should be left with the nucleic acids that best bind to the target. The problem was first formulated mathematically in Irvine et al. (J. Mol. Biol. 222:739-761, 1991). In Levine and Nilsen-Hamilton (Comput. Biol. Chem. 31:11-25, 2007), a mathematical analysis of the process was given. In Vant-Hull et al. (J. Mol. Biol. 278:579-597, 1998), multiple target SELEX was considered. It was assumed that each target has a single nucleic acid binding site that permits occupation by no more than one nucleic acid. Here, we revisit Vant-Hull et al. (J. Mol. Biol. 278:579-597, 1998) using the same assumptions. The iteration scheme is shown to be convergent and a simplified algorithm is given. Our interest here is in the behavior of the multiple target SELEX process as a discrete "time" dynamical system. Our goal is to characterize the limiting states and their dependence on the initial distribution of nucleic acid and target fraction components. (In multiple target SELEX, we vary the target component fractions, but not their concentrations, as fixed and the initial pool of nucleic acids as a variable starting condition). Given N nucleic acids and a target consisting of M subtarget component species, there is an M × N matrix of affinities, the (i,j) entry corresponding to the affinity of the jth nucleic acid for the ith subtarget. We give a structure condition on this matrix that is equivalent to the following

  2. Real Time Intelligent Target Detection and Analysis with Machine Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Ayanna; Padgett, Curtis; Brown, Kenneth

    2000-01-01

    We present an algorithm for detecting a specified set of targets for an Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) application. ATR involves processing images for detecting, classifying, and tracking targets embedded in a background scene. We address the problem of discriminating between targets and nontarget objects in a scene by evaluating 40x40 image blocks belonging to an image. Each image block is first projected onto a set of templates specifically designed to separate images of targets embedded in a typical background scene from those background images without targets. These filters are found using directed principal component analysis which maximally separates the two groups. The projected images are then clustered into one of n classes based on a minimum distance to a set of n cluster prototypes. These cluster prototypes have previously been identified using a modified clustering algorithm based on prior sensed data. Each projected image pattern is then fed into the associated cluster's trained neural network for classification. A detailed description of our algorithm will be given in this paper. We outline our methodology for designing the templates, describe our modified clustering algorithm, and provide details on the neural network classifiers. Evaluation of the overall algorithm demonstrates that our detection rates approach 96% with a false positive rate of less than 0.03%.

  3. A Simulation Model to Evaluate Aircraft Survivability and Target Damage during Offensive Counterair Operations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    D-R14i 324 A SIMULATION MODEL TO EVALUATE AIRCRAFT SURVIVABILITY V/3 AND TARGET DAMAGE 0.. (U) AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH SCHOOL...MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS- 1963-A J.1 AFIT/GST/0S/84-18 TS I°TI w ’ i A SIMULATION MODEL TO E’VALLUATE AIRCRAFT...numberp Title: A SIMULATION MODEL TO EVALUATE AIRCRAFT SURVIVABILITY AND jARGET DAMAGE DURING OFFENSIVE COUNTERAIR OPERATIONS Thesis Chairma#: James R

  4. Photometric Analysis in the Kepler Science Operations Center Pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Twicken, Joseph D.; Clarke, Bruce D.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Tenenbaum, Peter; Wu, Hayley; Jenkins, Jon M.; Girouard, Forrest; Klaus, Todd C.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the Photometric Analysis (PA) software component and its context in the Kepler Science Operations Center (SOC) pipeline. The primary tasks of this module are to compute the photometric flux and photocenters (centroids) for over 160,000 long cadence (thirty minute) and 512 short cadence (one minute) stellar targets from the calibrated pixels in their respective apertures. We discuss the science algorithms for long and short cadence PA: cosmic ray cleaning; background estimation and removal; aperture photometry; and flux-weighted centroiding. We discuss the end-to-end propagation of uncertainties for the science algorithms. Finally, we present examples of photometric apertures, raw flux light curves, and centroid time series from Kepler flight data. PA light curves, centroid time series, and barycentric timestamp corrections are exported to the Multi-mission Archive at Space Telescope [Science Institute] (MAST) and are made available to the general public in accordance with the NASA/Kepler data release policy.

  5. Photometric analysis in the Kepler Science Operations Center pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twicken, Joseph D.; Clarke, Bruce D.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Tenenbaum, Peter; Wu, Hayley; Jenkins, Jon M.; Girouard, Forrest; Klaus, Todd C.

    2010-07-01

    We describe the Photometric Analysis (PA) software component and its context in the Kepler Science Operations Center (SOC) Science Processing Pipeline. The primary tasks of this module are to compute the photometric flux and photocenters (centroids) for over 160,000 long cadence (~thirty minute) and 512 short cadence (~one minute) stellar targets from the calibrated pixels in their respective apertures. We discuss science algorithms for long and short cadence PA: cosmic ray cleaning; background estimation and removal; aperture photometry; and flux-weighted centroiding. We discuss the end-to-end propagation of uncertainties for the science algorithms. Finally, we present examples of photometric apertures, raw flux light curves, and centroid time series from Kepler flight data. PA light curves, centroid time series, and barycentric timestamp corrections are exported to the Multi-mission Archive at Space Telescope [Science Institute] (MAST) and are made available to the general public in accordance with the NASA/Kepler data release policy.

  6. Computer-aided target tracking in motion analysis studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdick, Dominic C.; Marcuse, M. L.; Mislan, J. D.

    1990-08-01

    Motion analysis studies require the precise tracking of reference objects in sequential scenes. In a typical situation, events of interest are captured at high frame rates using special cameras, and selected objects or targets are tracked on a frame by frame basis to provide necessary data for motion reconstruction. Tracking is usually done using manual methods which are slow and prone to error. A computer based image analysis system has been developed that performs tracking automatically. The objective of this work was to eliminate the bottleneck due to manual methods in high volume tracking applications such as the analysis of crash test films for the automotive industry. The system has proven to be successful in tracking standard fiducial targets and other objects in crash test scenes. Over 95 percent of target positions which could be located using manual methods can be tracked by the system, with a significant improvement in throughput over manual methods. Future work will focus on the tracking of clusters of targets and on tracking deformable objects such as airbags.

  7. Penetration analysis of projectile with inclined concrete target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. B.; Kim, H. W.; Yoo, Y. H.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents numerical analysis result of projectile penetration with concrete target. We applied dynamic material properties of 4340 steels, aluminium and explosive for projectile body. Dynamic material properties were measured with static tensile testing machine and Hopkinson pressure bar tests. Moreover, we used three concrete damage models included in LS-DYNA 3D, such as SOIL_CONCRETE, CSCM (cap model with smooth interaction) and CONCRETE_DAMAGE (K&C concrete) models. Strain rate effect for concrete material is important to predict the fracture deformation and shape of concrete, and penetration depth for projectiles. CONCRETE_DAMAGE model with strain rate effect also applied to penetration analysis. Analysis result with CSCM model shows good agreement with penetration experimental data. The projectile trace and fracture shapes of concrete target were compared with experimental data.

  8. Operating room fires: a closed claims analysis.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Sonya P; Bhananker, Sanjay M; Posner, Karen L; Domino, Karen B

    2013-05-01

    To assess patterns of injury and liability associated with operating room (OR) fires, closed malpractice claims in the American Society of Anesthesiologists Closed Claims Database since 1985 were reviewed. All claims related to fires in the OR were compared with nonfire-related surgical anesthesia claims. An analysis of fire-related claims was performed to identify causative factors. There were 103 OR fire claims (1.9% of 5,297 surgical claims). Electrocautery was the ignition source in 90% of fire claims. OR fire claims more frequently involved older outpatients compared with other surgical anesthesia claims (P < 0.01). Payments to patients were more often made in fire claims (P < 0.01), but payment amounts were lower (median $120,166) compared to nonfire surgical claims (median $250,000, P < 0.01). Electrocautery-induced fires (n = 93) increased over time (P < 0.01) to 4.4% claims between 2000 and 2009. Most (85%) electrocautery fires occurred during head, neck, or upper chest procedures (high-fire-risk procedures). Oxygen served as the oxidizer in 95% of electrocautery-induced OR fires (84% with open delivery system). Most electrocautery-induced fires (n = 75, 81%) occurred during monitored anesthesia care. Oxygen was administered via an open delivery system in all high-risk procedures during monitored anesthesia care. In contrast, alcohol-containing prep solutions and volatile compounds were present in only 15% of OR fires during monitored anesthesia care. Electrocautery-induced fires during monitored anesthesia care were the most common cause of OR fires claims. Recognition of the fire triad (oxidizer, fuel, and ignition source), particularly the critical role of supplemental oxygen by an open delivery system during use of the electrocautery, is crucial to prevent OR fires. Continuing education and communication among OR personnel along with fire prevention protocols in high-fire-risk procedures may reduce the occurrence of OR fires.

  9. Analysis of the human operator subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Lynette A.; Hunter, Ian W.

    1991-01-01

    Except in low-bandwidth systems, knowledge of the human operator transfer function is essential for high-performance telerobotic systems. This information has usually been derived from detailed analyses of tracking performance, in which the human operator is considered as a complete system rather than as a summation of a number of subsystems, each of which influences the operator's output. Studies of one of these subsystems, the limb mechanics system, demonstrate that large parameter variations can occur that can have a profound effect on the stability of force-reflecting telerobot systems. An objective of this research was to decompose the performance of the human operator system in order to establish how the dynamics of each of the elements influence the operator's responses.

  10. Ergonomic factors and production target evaluation in eucalyptus timber harvesting operations in mountainous terrains.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Amaury Paulo; Minette, Luciano José; Sanches, André Luis Petean; da Silva, Emília Pio; Rodrigues, Valéria Antônia Justino; de Oliveira, Luciana Aparecida

    2012-01-01

    There are several forest operations involved in Eucalyptus timber harvesting. This study was carried out during brush-cutting; tree felling, bucking, delimbing, piling and manual extraction operations, with the following objectives: a) analyzing, ergonomically, two systems of brush-cutting: one manual and the other semi-mechanized, using two different machines; b) ergonomically evaluating three different brands of pruner machines used in delimbing felled trees. c) determining the feasible target of productivity as a function of ergonomic factors relevant to establish the time of resting pauses for workers in manual and semi-mechanized timber harvesting systems in mountainous terrain. Brush-cutting, either manual or semimechanized, is an activity carried out prior to timber harvesting. It is usually a hard work, with low productivity when compared with mechanized systems. Pruner machines have been used by forest companies, due to the great possibilities to improve productivity, quality and the health of workers. Ergonomics is a discipline that promotes the adequacy of work to the physical and mental characteristics of human beings, seeking to design production systems and products considering relevant aspects, including social, organizational and environmental factors. Companies should consider the ergonomic factor in the determination of daily worker production targets.

  11. CFD Analysis and Design of Detailed Target Configurations for an Accelerator-Driven Subcritical System

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, Adam; Merzari, Elia; Sofu, Tanju

    2016-08-01

    High-fidelity analysis has been utilized in the design of beam target options for an accelerator driven subcritical system. Designs featuring stacks of plates with square cross section have been investigated for both tungsten and uranium target materials. The presented work includes the first thermal-hydraulic simulations of the full, detailed target geometry. The innovative target cooling manifold design features many regions with complex flow features, including 90 bends and merging jets, which necessitate three-dimensional fluid simulations. These were performed using the commercial computational fluid dynamics code STAR-CCM+. Conjugate heat transfer was modeled between the plates, cladding, manifold structure, and fluid. Steady-statemore » simulations were performed but lacked good residual convergence. Unsteady simulations were then performed, which converged well and demonstrated that flow instability existed in the lower portion of the manifold. It was established that the flow instability had little effect on the peak plate temperatures, which were well below the melting point. The estimated plate surface temperatures and target region pressure were shown to provide sufficient margin to subcooled boiling for standard operating conditions. This demonstrated the safety of both potential target configurations during normal operation.« less

  12. Space Operations Center - A concept analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The Space Operations Center (SOC) which is a concept for a Shuttle serviced, permanent, manned facility in low earth orbit is viewed as a major candidate for the manned space flight following the completion of an operational Shuttle. The primary objectives of SOC are: (1) the construction, checkout, and transfer to operational orbit of large, complex space systems, (2) on-orbit assembly, launch, recovery, and servicing of manned and unmanned spacecraft, (3) managing operations of co-orbiting free-flying satellites, and (4) the development of reduced dependence on earth for control and resupply. The structure of SOC, a self-contained orbital facility containing several Shuttle launched modules, includes the service, habitation, and logistics modules as well as construction, and flight support facilities. A schedule is proposed for the development of SOC over ten years and costs for the yearly programs are estimated.

  13. Orbital operations study. Volume 1: Mission analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinwachs, W. L.

    1972-01-01

    The final report of the orbital operations study and a summary of the 25 elements in the study inventory are presented. Fourteen interfacing activities are defined. Eleven mission models encompassing all potential interfacing element pairs and interfacing activities are included.

  14. Buffalo Air Traffic Control Tower Operations Analysis.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1981-09-01

    This report provides a description of the non-surveillance aspects of the FAA air traffic control facility operation at Greater Buffalo International Airport from the air traffic controller's point of view. It includes photographs of all controller c...

  15. Reservoir Analysis Model for Battlefield Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    courtesy of the Imperial War Museum; Figure 2 is used courtesy of Frederick A. Praeger, Inc.; Figures 7, 8, and 9 are used courtesy of the Society of...operational and tactical levels of war . Military commanders today are confronted with problems of unprecedented complexity that require the application of...associated with operating reservoir systems in theaters of war . Without these tools the planner stands little chance of maximizing the utilization of his water

  16. Orbital operations study. Appendix A: Interactivity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Supplemental analyses conducted to verify that safe, feasible, design concepts exist for accomplishing the attendant interface activities of the orbital operations mission are presented. The data are primarily concerned with functions and concepts common to more than one of the interfacing activities or elements. Specific consideration is given to state vector update, payload deployment, communications links, jet plume impingement, attached element operations, docking and structural interface assessment, and propellant transfer.

  17. Single-Molecule Analysis for RISC Assembly and Target Cleavage.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hiroshi M; Tadakuma, Hisashi; Tomari, Yukihide

    2018-01-01

    RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) is a small RNA-protein complex that mediates silencing of complementary target RNAs. Biochemistry has been successfully used to characterize the molecular mechanism of RISC assembly and function for nearly two decades. However, further dissection of intermediate states during the reactions has been warranted to fill in the gaps in our understanding of RNA silencing mechanisms. Single-molecule analysis with total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy is a powerful imaging-based approach to interrogate complex formation and dynamics at the individual molecule level with high sensitivity. Combining this technique with our recently established in vitro reconstitution system of fly Ago2-RISC, we have developed a single-molecule observation system for RISC assembly. In this chapter, we summarize the detailed protocol for single-molecule analysis of chaperone-assisted assembly of fly Ago2-RISC as well as its target cleavage reaction.

  18. TARGET - TASK ANALYSIS REPORT GENERATION TOOL, VERSION 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, C. J.

    1994-01-01

    The Task Analysis Report Generation Tool, TARGET, is a graphical interface tool used to capture procedural knowledge and translate that knowledge into a hierarchical report. TARGET is based on VISTA, a knowledge acquisition tool developed by the Naval Systems Training Center. TARGET assists a programmer and/or task expert organize and understand the steps involved in accomplishing a task. The user can label individual steps in the task through a dialogue-box and get immediate graphical feedback for analysis. TARGET users can decompose tasks into basic action kernels or minimal steps to provide a clear picture of all basic actions needed to accomplish a job. This method allows the user to go back and critically examine the overall flow and makeup of the process. The user can switch between graphics (box flow diagrams) and text (task hierarchy) versions to more easily study the process being documented. As the practice of decomposition continues, tasks and their subtasks can be continually modified to more accurately reflect the user's procedures and rationale. This program is designed to help a programmer document an expert's task thus allowing the programmer to build an expert system which can help others perform the task. Flexibility is a key element of the system design and of the knowledge acquisition session. If the expert is not able to find time to work on the knowledge acquisition process with the program developer, the developer and subject matter expert may work in iterative sessions. TARGET is easy to use and is tailored to accommodate users ranging from the novice to the experienced expert systems builder. TARGET is written in C-language for IBM PC series and compatible computers running MS-DOS and Microsoft Windows version 3.0 or 3.1. No source code is supplied. The executable also requires 2Mb of RAM, a Microsoft compatible mouse, a VGA display and an 80286, 386 or 486 processor machine. The standard distribution medium for TARGET is one 5.25 inch 360K

  19. Molecular Analysis of Sarcoidosis Granulomas Reveals Antimicrobial Targets

    PubMed Central

    Celada, Lindsay J.; Polosukhin, Vasiliy V.; Atkinson, James B.; Drake, Wonder P.

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease of unknown cause. Prior molecular and immunologic studies have confirmed the presence of mycobacterial virulence factors, such as catalase peroxidase and superoxide dismutase A, within sarcoidosis granulomas. Molecular analysis of granulomas can identify targets of known antibiotics classes. Currently, major antibiotics are directed against DNA synthesis, protein synthesis, and cell wall formation. We conducted molecular analysis of 40 sarcoidosis diagnostic specimens and compared them with 33 disease control specimens for the presence of mycobacterial genes that encode antibiotic targets. We assessed for genes involved in DNA synthesis (DNA gyrase A [gyrA] and DNA gyrase B), protein synthesis (RNA polymerase subunit β), cell wall synthesis (embCAB operon and enoyl reductase), and catalase peroxidase. Immunohistochemical analysis was conducted to investigate the locale of mycobacterial genes such as gyrA within 12 sarcoidosis specimens and 12 disease controls. Mycobacterial DNA was detected in 33 of 39 sarcoidosis specimens by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction compared with 2 of 30 disease control specimens (P < 0.001, two-tailed Fisher’s test). Twenty of 39 were positive for three or more mycobacterial genes, compared with 1 of 30 control specimens (P < 0.001, two-tailed Fisher’s test). Immunohistochemistry analysis localized mycobacterial gyrA nucleic acids to sites of granuloma formation in 9 of 12 sarcoidosis specimens compared with 1 of 12 disease controls (P < 0.01). Microbial genes encoding enzymes that can be targeted by currently available antimycobacterial antibiotics are present in sarcoidosis specimens and localize to sites of granulomatous inflammation. Use of antimicrobials directed against target enzymes may be an innovative treatment alternative. PMID:26807608

  20. Fixed Route Comprehensive Operational Analysis, 1994 Operating Year. Fourth Installment Route 3: Mill Ridge/Mill Plain Analysis

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-05-01

    In October, of 1992, the Housatonic Area Regional Transit (HART) District published a planning study providing an in-depth analysis of its fixed route bus transit service. This comprehensive operational analysis (COA) was the first detailed analysis ...

  1. Fixed Route Comprehensive Operational Analysis, 1994 Operating Year. First Installment, Route 1: Medical Center/Golden Hill Analysis

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1994-07-01

    In October, of 1992, the Housatonic Area Regional Transit (HART) District published a planning study providing an in-depth analysis of its fixed route bus transit service. This comprehensive operational analysis (COA) was the first detailed analysis ...

  2. Fixed Route Comprehensive Operational Analysis, 1994 Operating Year. Third Installment, Route 6: Lake Avenue/Danbury Fair Mall Analysis

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-02-01

    In October, of 1992, the Housatonic Area Regional Transit (HART) District published a planning study providing an in-depth analysis of its fixed route bus transit service. This comprehensive operational analysis (COA) was the first detailed analysis ...

  3. Analysis of multibunch free electron laser operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellert, Thorsten; Decking, Winfried; Branlard, Julien

    2017-09-01

    At the SASE-FEL user facilities FLASH and European XFEL, superconducting TESLA type cavities are used for acceleration of the driving electron bunches. The high achievable duty cycle allows for operating with long bunch trains, hence considerably increasing the efficiency of the machine. However, multibunch free electron lasers (FEL) operation requires longitudinal and transverse stability within the bunch train. The purpose of this work is to investigate the intra-bunch-train transverse dynamics at FLASH and European XFEL. Key relationships of superconducting rf cavity operation and the resulting impact on the intrabunch-train trajectory variation are described. The observed trajectory variation during multibunch user runs at FLASH is analyzed and related to both, intrabunch-train variations of the rf and the following impact on the multibunch FEL performance.

  4. Sensitivity analysis of hydrodynamic stability operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, Peter J.; Henningson, Dan S.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Malik, Mujeeb R.

    1992-01-01

    The eigenvalue sensitivity for hydrodynamic stability operators is investigated. Classical matrix perturbation techniques as well as the concept of epsilon-pseudoeigenvalues are applied to show that parts of the spectrum are highly sensitive to small perturbations. Applications are drawn from incompressible plane Couette, trailing line vortex flow and compressible Blasius boundary layer flow. Parametric studies indicate a monotonically increasing effect of the Reynolds number on the sensitivity. The phenomenon of eigenvalue sensitivity is due to the non-normality of the operators and their discrete matrix analogs and may be associated with large transient growth of the corresponding initial value problem.

  5. A universal molecular translator for non-nucleic acid targets that enables dynamic DNA assemblies and logic operations.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wei; Hu, Shichao; Wang, Huaming; Zhao, Yan; Li, Na; Liu, Feng

    2014-11-28

    A universal molecular translator based on the target-triggered DNA strand displacement was developed, which was able to convert various kinds of non-nucleic acid targets into a unique output DNA. This translation strategy was successfully applied in directing dynamic DNA assemblies and in realizing three-input logic gate operations.

  6. Microchemical Analysis Of Space Operation Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cummings, Virginia J.; Kim, Hae Soo

    1995-01-01

    Report discusses techniques used in analyzing debris relative to space shuttle operations. Debris collected from space shuttle, expendable launch vehicles, payloads carried by space shuttle, and payloads carried by expendable launch vehicles. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectrometry, analytical electron microscopy with wavelength-dispersive spectrometry, and X-ray diffraction chosen as techniques used in examining samples of debris.

  7. Graduate Student Project: Employer Operations Management Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Lynn A.

    2008-01-01

    Part-time graduate students at an Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business-accredited college complete a unique project by applying operations management concepts to their current employer. More than 92% of 368 graduates indicated that this experiential project was a positive learning experience, and results show a positive impact on…

  8. Statistical analysis of target acquisition sensor modeling experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deaver, Dawne M.; Moyer, Steve

    2015-05-01

    The U.S. Army RDECOM CERDEC NVESD Modeling and Simulation Division is charged with the development and advancement of military target acquisition models to estimate expected soldier performance when using all types of imaging sensors. Two elements of sensor modeling are (1) laboratory-based psychophysical experiments used to measure task performance and calibrate the various models and (2) field-based experiments used to verify the model estimates for specific sensors. In both types of experiments, it is common practice to control or measure environmental, sensor, and target physical parameters in order to minimize uncertainty of the physics based modeling. Predicting the minimum number of test subjects required to calibrate or validate the model should be, but is not always, done during test planning. The objective of this analysis is to develop guidelines for test planners which recommend the number and types of test samples required to yield a statistically significant result.

  9. Analysis of Network Address Shuffling as a Moving Target Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Thomas E.; Crouse, Michael B.; Fulp, Errin W.

    2014-06-10

    Address shuffling is a type of moving target defense that prevents an attacker from reliably contacting a system by periodically remapping network addresses. Although limited testing has demonstrated it to be effective, little research has been conducted to examine the theoretical limits of address shuffling. As a result, it is difficult to understand how effective shuffling is and under what circumstances it is a viable moving target defense. This paper introduces probabilistic models that can provide insight into the performance of address shuffling. These models quantify the probability of attacker success in terms of network size, quantity of addresses scanned,more » quantity of vulnerable systems, and the frequency of shuffling. Theoretical analysis will show that shuffling is an acceptable defense if there is a small population of vulnerable systems within a large network address space, however shuffling has a cost for legitimate users. These results will also be shown empirically using simulation and actual traffic traces.« less

  10. Cyber Situational Awareness through Operational Streaming Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-07

    Our system makes use of two specific data sources from network traffic: raw packet data and NetFlow connection summary records (de- scribed below...implemented an operational prototype system using the following two data feeds. a) NetFlow Data: Our system processes the NetFlow records of all...Internet gateway traffic for a large enterprise network. It uses the standard Cisco NetFlow version 5 proto- col, which defines a flow as a

  11. Integrated operations payloads/fleet analysis study extension report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    An analysis of the factors affecting the cost effectiveness of space shuttle operations is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1)payload data bank, (2) program risk analysis, (3)navigation satellite program, and (4) reusable launch systems.

  12. Asteroid Redirect Mission Proximity Operations for Reference Target Asteroid 2008 EV5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, David M.; Mazanek, Daniel D.; Cichy, Benjamin D.; Broschart, Steve B.; Deweese, Keith D.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is composed of two segments, the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), and the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM). In March of 2015, NASA selected the Robotic Boulder Capture Option1 as the baseline for the ARRM. This option will capture a multi-ton boulder, (typically 2-4 meters in size) from the surface of a large (greater than approx.100 m diameter) Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) and return it to cis-lunar space for subsequent human exploration during the ARCM. Further human and robotic missions to the asteroidal material would also be facilitated by its return to cis-lunar space. In addition, prior to departing the asteroid, the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV) will perform a demonstration of the Enhanced Gravity Tractor (EGT) planetary defense technique2. This paper will discuss the proximity operations which have been broken into three phases: Approach and Characterization, Boulder Capture, and Planetary Defense Demonstration. Each of these phases has been analyzed for the ARRM reference target, 2008 EV5, and a detailed baseline operations concept has been developed.

  13. Prediction methodologies for target scene generation in the aerothermal targets analysis program (ATAP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Douglas J.; Torres, Manuel; Dougherty, Catherine; Rajendran, Natesan; Thompson, Rhoe A.

    2003-09-01

    The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Aerothermal Targets Analysis Program (ATAP) is a user-friendly, engineering-level computational tool that features integrated aerodynamics, six-degree-of-freedom (6-DoF) trajectory/motion, convective and radiative heat transfer, and thermal/material response to provide an optimal blend of accuracy and speed for design and analysis applications. ATAP is sponsored by the Kinetic Kill Vehicle Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulator (KHILS) facility at Eglin AFB, where it is used with the CHAMP (Composite Hardbody and Missile Plume) technique for rapid infrared (IR) signature and imagery predictions. ATAP capabilities include an integrated 1-D conduction model for up to 5 in-depth material layers (with options for gaps/voids with radiative heat transfer), fin modeling, several surface ablation modeling options, a materials library with over 250 materials, options for user-defined materials, selectable/definable atmosphere and earth models, multiple trajectory options, and an array of aerodynamic prediction methods. All major code modeling features have been validated with ground-test data from wind tunnels, shock tubes, and ballistics ranges, and flight-test data for both U.S. and foreign strategic and theater systems. Numerous applications include the design and analysis of interceptors, booster and shroud configurations, window environments, tactical missiles, and reentry vehicles.

  14. Stakeholder analysis and mapping as targeted communication strategy.

    PubMed

    Shirey, Maria R

    2012-09-01

    This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advancing organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tools, and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives. In this article, the author highlights the importance of stakeholder theory and discusses how to apply the theory to conduct a stakeholder analysis. This article also provides an explanation of how to use related stakeholder mapping techniques with targeted communication strategies.

  15. Vibration analysis of a hydro generator for different operating regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haţiegan, C.; Pădureanu, I.; Jurcu, M.; Nedeloni, M. D.; Hamat, C. O.; Chioncel, C. P.; Trocaru, S.; Vasile, O.; Bădescu, O.; Micliuc, D.; (Filip Nedeloni, L.; Băra, A.; (Barboni Haţiegan, L.

    2017-01-01

    Based on experimental measurements, this paper presents the vibration analysis of a hydro generator that equips a Kaplan hydraulic turbine of a Hydropower plant in Romania. This analysis means vibrations measurement to different operating regimes of the hydro generator respectively before installing it and into operation, namely putting off load mode (unexcited and excited) respectively putting on load mode. By comparing, through the experimental results obtained before and after the operation of hydro aggregates are observed vibrations improvements.

  16. Digital repeat analysis; setup and operation.

    PubMed

    Nol, J; Isouard, G; Mirecki, J

    2006-06-01

    Since the emergence of digital imaging, there have been questions about the necessity of continuing reject analysis programs in imaging departments to evaluate performance and quality. As a marketing strategy, most suppliers of digital technology focus on the supremacy of the technology and its ability to reduce the number of repeats, resulting in less radiation doses given to patients and increased productivity in the department. On the other hand, quality assurance radiographers and radiologists believe that repeats are mainly related to positioning skills, and repeat analysis is the main tool to plan training needs to up-skill radiographers. A comparative study between conventional and digital imaging was undertaken to compare outcomes and evaluate the need for reject analysis. However, digital technology still being at its early development stages, setting a credible reject analysis program became the major task of the study. It took the department, with the help of the suppliers of the computed radiography reader and the picture archiving and communication system, over 2 years of software enhancement to build a reliable digital repeat analysis system. The results were supportive of both philosophies; the number of repeats as a result of exposure factors was reduced dramatically; however, the percentage of repeats as a result of positioning skills was slightly on the increase for the simple reason that some rejects in the conventional system qualifying for both exposure and positioning errors were classified as exposure error. The ability of digitally adjusting dark or light images reclassified some of those images as positioning errors.

  17. STS-1 operational flight profile. Volume 5: Descent, cycle 3. Appendix C: Monte Carlo dispersion analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The results of three nonlinear the Monte Carlo dispersion analyses for the Space Transportation System 1 Flight (STS-1) Orbiter Descent Operational Flight Profile, Cycle 3 are presented. Fifty randomly selected simulation for the end of mission (EOM) descent, the abort once around (AOA) descent targeted line are steep target line, and the AOA descent targeted to the shallow target line are analyzed. These analyses compare the flight environment with system and operational constraints on the flight environment and in some cases use simplified system models as an aid in assessing the STS-1 descent flight profile. In addition, descent flight envelops are provided as a data base for use by system specialists to determine the flight readiness for STS-1. The results of these dispersion analyses supersede results of the dispersion analysis previously documented.

  18. Economic analysis for transmission operation and planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qun

    2011-12-01

    Restructuring of the electric power industry has caused dramatic changes in the use of transmission system. The increasing congestion conditions as well as the necessity of integrating renewable energy introduce new challenges and uncertainties to transmission operation and planning. Accurate short-term congestion forecasting facilitates market traders in bidding and trading activities. Cost sharing and recovery issue is a major impediment for long-term transmission investment to integrate renewable energy. In this research, a new short-term forecasting algorithm is proposed for predicting congestion, LMPs, and other power system variables based on the concept of system patterns. The advantage of this algorithm relative to standard statistical forecasting methods is that structural aspects underlying power market operations are exploited to reduce the forecasting error. The advantage relative to previously proposed structural forecasting methods is that data requirements are substantially reduced. Forecasting results based on a NYISO case study demonstrate the feasibility and accuracy of the proposed algorithm. Moreover, a negotiation methodology is developed to guide transmission investment for integrating renewable energy. Built on Nash Bargaining theory, the negotiation of investment plans and payment rate can proceed between renewable generation and transmission companies for cost sharing and recovery. The proposed approach is applied to Garver's six bus system. The numerical results demonstrate fairness and efficiency of the approach, and hence can be used as guidelines for renewable energy investors. The results also shed light on policy-making of renewable energy subsidies.

  19. Effects-based strategy development through center of gravity and target system analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Christopher M.; Prendergast, Michael; Pioch, Nicholas; Jones, Eric K.; Graham, Stephen

    2003-09-01

    This paper describes an approach to effects-based planning in which a strategic-theater-level mission is refined into operational-level and ultimately tactical-level tasks and desired effects, informed by models of the expected enemy response at each level of abstraction. We describe a strategy development system that implements this approach and supports human-in-the-loop development of an effects-based plan. This system consists of plan authoring tools tightly integrated with a suite of center of gravity (COG) and target system analysis tools. A human planner employs the plan authoring tools to develop a hierarchy of tasks and desired effects. Upon invocation, the target system analysis tools use reduced-order models of enemy centers of gravity to select appropriate target set options for the achievement of desired effects, together with associated indicators for each option. The COG analysis tools also provide explicit models of the causal mechanisms linking tasks and desired effects to one another, and suggest appropriate observable indicators to guide ISR planning, execution monitoring, and campaign assessment. We are currently implementing the system described here as part of the AFRL-sponsored Effects Based Operations program.

  20. Analysis of folded pulse forming line operation.

    PubMed

    Domonkos, M T; Watrous, J; Parker, J V; Cavazos, T; Slenes, K; Heidger, S; Brown, D; Wilson, D

    2014-09-01

    A compact pulse forming line (CPFL) concept based on a folded transmission line and high-breakdown strength dielectric was explored through an effort combining proof-of-principle experiments with electromagnetic modeling. A small-scale folded CPFL was fabricated using surface-mount ceramic multilayer capacitors. The line consisted of 150 capacitors close-packed in parallel and delivered a 300 ns flat-top pulse. The concept was carried to a 10 kV class device using a polymer-ceramic nanocomposite dielectric with a permittivity of 37.6. The line was designed for a 161 ns FWHM length pulse into a matched load. The line delivered a 110 ns FWHM pulse, and the pulse peak amplitude exceeded the matched load ideal. Transient electromagnetic analysis using the particle-in-cell code ICEPIC was conducted to examine the nature of the unexpected pulse shortening and distortion. Two-dimensional analysis failed to capture the anomalous behavior. Three-dimensional analysis replicated the pulse shape and revealed that the bends were largely responsible for the pulse shortening. The bends not only create the expected reflection of the incident TEM wave but also produce a non-zero component of the Poynting vector perpendicular to the propagation direction of the dominant electromagnetic wave, resulting in power flow largely external to the PFL. This analysis explains both the pulse shortening and the amplitude of the pulse.

  1. Analysis of folded pulse forming line operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domonkos, M. T.; Watrous, J.; Parker, J. V.; Cavazos, T.; Slenes, K.; Heidger, S.; Brown, D.; Wilson, D.

    2014-09-01

    A compact pulse forming line (CPFL) concept based on a folded transmission line and high-breakdown strength dielectric was explored through an effort combining proof-of-principle experiments with electromagnetic modeling. A small-scale folded CPFL was fabricated using surface-mount ceramic multilayer capacitors. The line consisted of 150 capacitors close-packed in parallel and delivered a 300 ns flat-top pulse. The concept was carried to a 10 kV class device using a polymer-ceramic nanocomposite dielectric with a permittivity of 37.6. The line was designed for a 161 ns FWHM length pulse into a matched load. The line delivered a 110 ns FWHM pulse, and the pulse peak amplitude exceeded the matched load ideal. Transient electromagnetic analysis using the particle-in-cell code ICEPIC was conducted to examine the nature of the unexpected pulse shortening and distortion. Two-dimensional analysis failed to capture the anomalous behavior. Three-dimensional analysis replicated the pulse shape and revealed that the bends were largely responsible for the pulse shortening. The bends not only create the expected reflection of the incident TEM wave but also produce a non-zero component of the Poynting vector perpendicular to the propagation direction of the dominant electromagnetic wave, resulting in power flow largely external to the PFL. This analysis explains both the pulse shortening and the amplitude of the pulse.

  2. Operation Team Spirit: Program Review and Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    research was strictly qualitative in nature. The specific method being used was exploratory case study analysis... study , method is used for the specific acts of conducting research , while methodology refers to the qualitative nature of research performed. While...the researcher . According to Leedy and Ormrod (2005), some of the types of methods and their respective purposes include: • Case study :

  3. Analysis of information systems for hydropower operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohn, R. L.; Becker, L.; Estes, J.; Simonett, D.; Yeh, W. W. G.

    1976-01-01

    The operations of hydropower systems were analyzed with emphasis on water resource management, to determine how aerospace derived information system technologies can increase energy output. Better utilization of water resources was sought through improved reservoir inflow forecasting based on use of hydrometeorologic information systems with new or improved sensors, satellite data relay systems, and use of advanced scheduling techniques for water release. Specific mechanisms for increased energy output were determined, principally the use of more timely and accurate short term (0-7 days) inflow information to reduce spillage caused by unanticipated dynamic high inflow events. The hydrometeorologic models used in predicting inflows were examined to determine the sensitivity of inflow prediction accuracy to the many variables employed in the models, and the results used to establish information system requirements. Sensor and data handling system capabilities were reviewed and compared to the requirements, and an improved information system concept outlined.

  4. Operational analysis for the drug detection problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoopengardner, Roger L.; Smith, Michael C.

    1994-10-01

    New techniques and sensors to identify the molecular, chemical, or elemental structures unique to drugs are being developed under several national programs. However, the challenge faced by U.S. drug enforcement and Customs officials goes far beyond the simple technical capability to detect an illegal drug. Entry points into the U.S. include ports, border crossings, and airports where cargo ships, vehicles, and aircraft move huge volumes of freight. Current technology and personnel are able to physically inspect only a small fraction of the entering cargo containers. The complexities of how to best utilize new technology to aid the detection process and yet not adversely affect the processing of vehicles and time-sensitive cargo is the challenge faced by these officials. This paper describes an ARPA sponsored initiative to develop a simple, yet useful, method for examining the operational consequences of utilizing various procedures and technologies in combination to achieve an `acceptable' level of detection probability. Since Customs entry points into the U.S. vary from huge seaports to a one lane highway checkpoint between the U.S. and Canadian or Mexico border, no one system can possibly be right for all points. This approach can examine alternative concepts for using different techniques/systems for different types of entry points. Operational measures reported include the average time to process vehicles and containers, the average and maximum numbers in the system at any time, and the utilization of inspection teams. The method is implemented via a PC-based simulation written in GPSS-PC language. Input to the simulation model is (1) the individual detection probabilities and false positive rates for each detection technology or procedure, (2) the inspection time for each procedure, (3) the system configuration, and (4) the physical distance between inspection stations. The model offers on- line graphics to examine effects as the model runs.

  5. Comparative Analysis of State Fish Consumption Advisories Targeting Sensitive Populations

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Alison C.; Tsuchiya, Ami; Younglove, Lisa R.; Burbacher, Thomas M.; Faustman, Elaine M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Fish consumption advisories are issued to warn the public of possible toxicological threats from consuming certain fish species. Although developing fetuses and children are particularly susceptible to toxicants in fish, fish also contain valuable nutrients. Hence, formulating advice for sensitive populations poses challenges. We conducted a comparative analysis of advisory Web sites issued by states to assess health messages that sensitive populations might access. Data sources We evaluated state advisories accessed via the National Listing of Fish Advisories issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Data extraction We created criteria to evaluate advisory attributes such as risk and benefit message clarity. Data synthesis All 48 state advisories issued at the time of this analysis targeted children, 90% (43) targeted pregnant women, and 58% (28) targeted women of childbearing age. Only six advisories addressed single contaminants, while the remainder based advice on 2–12 contaminants. Results revealed that advisories associated a dozen contaminants with specific adverse health effects. Beneficial health effects of any kind were specifically associated only with omega-3 fatty acids found in fish. Conclusions These findings highlight the complexity of assessing and communicating information about multiple contaminant exposure from fish consumption. Communication regarding potential health benefits conferred by specific fish nutrients was minimal and focused primarily on omega-3 fatty acids. This overview suggests some lessons learned and highlights a lack of both clarity and consistency in providing the breadth of information that sensitive populations such as pregnant women need to make public health decisions about fish consumption during pregnancy. PMID:19079708

  6. Motor current signature analysis method for diagnosing motor operated devices

    DOEpatents

    Haynes, Howard D.; Eissenberg, David M.

    1990-01-01

    A motor current noise signature analysis method and apparatus for remotely monitoring the operating characteristics of an electric motor-operated device such as a motor-operated valve. Frequency domain signal analysis techniques are applied to a conditioned motor current signal to distinctly identify various operating parameters of the motor driven device from the motor current signature. The signature may be recorded and compared with subsequent signatures to detect operating abnormalities and degradation of the device. This diagnostic method does not require special equipment to be installed on the motor-operated device, and the current sensing may be performed at remote control locations, e.g., where the motor-operated devices are used in accessible or hostile environments.

  7. Analysis of Vehicle-Based Security Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, Jason M; Paul, Nate R

    Vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications promises to increase roadway safety by providing each vehicle with 360 degree situational awareness of other vehicles in proximity, and by complementing onboard sensors such as radar or camera in detecting imminent crash scenarios. In the United States, approximately three hundred million automobiles could participate in a fully deployed V2V system if Dedicated Short-Range Communication (DSRC) device use becomes mandatory. The system s reliance on continuous communication, however, provides a potential means for unscrupulous persons to transmit false data in an attempt to cause crashes, create traffic congestion, or simply render the system useless. V2V communications mustmore » be highly scalable while retaining robust security and privacy preserving features to meet the intra-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication requirements for a growing vehicle population. Oakridge National Research Laboratory is investigating a Vehicle-Based Security System (VBSS) to provide security and privacy for a fully deployed V2V and V2I system. In the VBSS an On-board Unit (OBU) generates short-term certificates and signs Basic Safety Messages (BSM) to preserve privacy and enhance security. This work outlines a potential VBSS structure and its operational concepts; it examines how a vehicle-based system might feasibly provide security and privacy, highlights remaining challenges, and explores potential mitigations to address those challenges. Certificate management alternatives that attempt to meet V2V security and privacy requirements have been examined previously by the research community including privacy-preserving group certificates, shared certificates, and functional encryption. Due to real-world operational constraints, adopting one of these approaches for VBSS V2V communication is difficult. Timely misbehavior detection and revocation are still open problems for any V2V system. We explore the alternative approaches that

  8. Protein targeting in the analysis of learning and memory: a potential alternative to gene targeting.

    PubMed

    Gerlai, R; Williams, S P; Cairns, B; Van Bruggen, N; Moran, P; Shih, A; Caras, I; Sauer, H; Phillips, H S; Winslow, J W

    1998-11-01

    Gene targeting using homologous recombination in embryonic stem (ES) cells offers unprecedented precision with which one may manipulate single genes and investigate the in vivo effects of defined mutations in the mouse. Geneticists argue that this technique abrogates the lack of highly specific pharmacological tools in the study of brain function and behavior. However, by now it has become clear that gene targeting has some limitations too. One problem is spatial and temporal specificity of the generated mutation, which may appear in multiple brain regions or even in other organs and may also be present throughout development, giving rise to complex, secondary phenotypical alterations. This may be a disadvantage in the functional analysis of a number of genes associated with learning and memory processes. For example, several proteins, including neurotrophins--cell-adhesion molecules--and protein kinases, that play a significant developmental role have recently been suggested to be also involved in neural and behavioral plasticity. Knocking out genes of such proteins may lead to developmental alterations or even embryonic lethality in the mouse, making it difficult to study their function in neural plasticity, learning, and memory. Therefore, alternative strategies to gene targeting may be needed. Here, we suggest a potentially useful in vivo strategy based on systemic application of immunoadhesins, genetically engineered fusion proteins possessing the Fc portion of the human IgG molecule and, for example, a binding domain of a receptor of interest. These proteins are stable in vivo and exhibit high binding specificity and affinity for the endogenous ligand of the receptor, but lack the ability to signal. Thus, if delivered to the brain, immunoadhesins may specifically block signalling of the receptor of interest. Using osmotic minipumps, the protein can be infused in a localized region of the brain for a specified period of time (days or weeks). Thus, the location

  9. Operational resilience: concepts, design and analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ganin, Alexander A.; Massaro, Emanuele; Gutfraind, Alexander; Steen, Nicolas; Keisler, Jeffrey M.; Kott, Alexander; Mangoubi, Rami; Linkov, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Building resilience into today’s complex infrastructures is critical to the daily functioning of society and its ability to withstand and recover from natural disasters, epidemics, and cyber-threats. This study proposes quantitative measures that capture and implement the definition of engineering resilience advanced by the National Academy of Sciences. The approach is applicable across physical, information, and social domains. It evaluates the critical functionality, defined as a performance function of time set by the stakeholders. Critical functionality is a source of valuable information, such as the integrated system resilience over a time interval, and its robustness. The paper demonstrates the formulation on two classes of models: 1) multi-level directed acyclic graphs, and 2) interdependent coupled networks. For both models synthetic case studies are used to explore trends. For the first class, the approach is also applied to the Linux operating system. Results indicate that desired resilience and robustness levels are achievable by trading off different design parameters, such as redundancy, node recovery time, and backup supply available. The nonlinear relationship between network parameters and resilience levels confirms the utility of the proposed approach, which is of benefit to analysts and designers of complex systems and networks. PMID:26782180

  10. Operational resilience: concepts, design and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganin, Alexander A.; Massaro, Emanuele; Gutfraind, Alexander; Steen, Nicolas; Keisler, Jeffrey M.; Kott, Alexander; Mangoubi, Rami; Linkov, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Building resilience into today’s complex infrastructures is critical to the daily functioning of society and its ability to withstand and recover from natural disasters, epidemics, and cyber-threats. This study proposes quantitative measures that capture and implement the definition of engineering resilience advanced by the National Academy of Sciences. The approach is applicable across physical, information, and social domains. It evaluates the critical functionality, defined as a performance function of time set by the stakeholders. Critical functionality is a source of valuable information, such as the integrated system resilience over a time interval, and its robustness. The paper demonstrates the formulation on two classes of models: 1) multi-level directed acyclic graphs, and 2) interdependent coupled networks. For both models synthetic case studies are used to explore trends. For the first class, the approach is also applied to the Linux operating system. Results indicate that desired resilience and robustness levels are achievable by trading off different design parameters, such as redundancy, node recovery time, and backup supply available. The nonlinear relationship between network parameters and resilience levels confirms the utility of the proposed approach, which is of benefit to analysts and designers of complex systems and networks.

  11. Operational resilience: concepts, design and analysis.

    PubMed

    Ganin, Alexander A; Massaro, Emanuele; Gutfraind, Alexander; Steen, Nicolas; Keisler, Jeffrey M; Kott, Alexander; Mangoubi, Rami; Linkov, Igor

    2016-01-19

    Building resilience into today's complex infrastructures is critical to the daily functioning of society and its ability to withstand and recover from natural disasters, epidemics, and cyber-threats. This study proposes quantitative measures that capture and implement the definition of engineering resilience advanced by the National Academy of Sciences. The approach is applicable across physical, information, and social domains. It evaluates the critical functionality, defined as a performance function of time set by the stakeholders. Critical functionality is a source of valuable information, such as the integrated system resilience over a time interval, and its robustness. The paper demonstrates the formulation on two classes of models: 1) multi-level directed acyclic graphs, and 2) interdependent coupled networks. For both models synthetic case studies are used to explore trends. For the first class, the approach is also applied to the Linux operating system. Results indicate that desired resilience and robustness levels are achievable by trading off different design parameters, such as redundancy, node recovery time, and backup supply available. The nonlinear relationship between network parameters and resilience levels confirms the utility of the proposed approach, which is of benefit to analysts and designers of complex systems and networks.

  12. Numerical Ergonomics Analysis in Operation Environment of CNC Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, S. F.; Yang, Z. X.

    2010-05-01

    The performance of operator will be affected by different operation environments [1]. Moreover, poor operation environment may cause health problems of the operator [2]. Physical and psychological considerations are two main factors that will affect the performance of operator under different conditions of operation environment. In this paper, applying scientific and systematic methods find out the pivot elements in the field of physical and psychological factors. There are five main factors including light, temperature, noise, air flow and space that are analyzed. A numerical ergonomics model has been built up regarding the analysis results which can support to advance the design of operation environment. Moreover, the output of numerical ergonomic model can provide the safe, comfortable, more productive conditions for the operator.

  13. Generalized Wideband Harmonic Imaging of Nonlinearly Loaded Scatterers: Theory, Analysis, and Application for Forward-Looking Radar Target Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    signal) operations; it is general enough so that it can accommodate high - power (large-signal) sensing as well—which may be needed to detect targets... Generalized Wideband Harmonic Imaging of Nonlinearly Loaded Scatterers: Theory, Analysis, and Application for Forward-Looking Radar Target...Research Laboratory Adelphi, MD 20783-1138 ARL-TR-7121 September 2014 Generalized Wideband Harmonic Imaging of Nonlinearly Loaded

  14. Targeted fascicular biopsy of the sciatic nerve and its major branches: rationale and operative technique.

    PubMed

    Capek, Stepan; Amrami, Kimberly K; Dyck, P James B; Spinner, Robert J

    2015-09-01

    OBJECT Nerve biopsy is typically performed in distal, noncritical sensory nerves without using imaging to target the more involved regions. The yield of these procedures rarely achieves more than 50%. In selected cases where preoperative evaluation points toward a more localized (usually a more proximal) process, targeted biopsy would likely capture the disease. Synthesis of data obtained from clinical examination, electrophysiological testing, and MRI allows biopsy of a portion of the major mixed nerves safely and efficiently. Herein, experiences with the sciatic nerve are reported and a description of the operative technique is provided. METHODS All cases of sciatic nerve biopsy performed between 2000 and 2014 were reviewed. Only cases of fascicular nerve biopsy approached from the buttock or the posterior aspect of the thigh were included. Demographic data, clinical presentation, and the presence of percussion tenderness for each patient were recorded. Reviewed studies included electrodiagnostic tests and imaging. Previous nerve and muscle biopsies were noted. All details of the procedure, final pathology, and its treatment implications were recorded. The complication rate was carefully assessed for temporary as well as permanent complications. RESULTS One hundred twelve cases (63 men and 49 women) of sciatic nerve biopsy were performed. Mean patient age was 46.4 years. Seventy-seven (68.8%) patients presented with single lower-extremity symptoms, 16 (14.3%) with bilateral lower-extremity symptoms, and 19 (17%) with generalized symptoms. No patient had normal findings on physical examination. All patients underwent electrodiagnostic studies, the findings of which were abnormal in 110 (98.2%) patients. MRI was available for all patients and was read as pathological in 111 (99.1%). The overall diagnostic yield of biopsy was 84.8% (n = 95). The pathological diagnoses included inflammatory demyelination, perineurioma, nonspecific inflammatory changes

  15. SeedVicious: Analysis of microRNA target and near-target sites.

    PubMed

    Marco, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Here I describe seedVicious, a versatile microRNA target site prediction software that can be easily fitted into annotation pipelines and run over custom datasets. SeedVicious finds microRNA canonical sites plus other, less efficient, target sites. Among other novel features, seedVicious can compute evolutionary gains/losses of target sites using maximum parsimony, and also detect near-target sites, which have one nucleotide different from a canonical site. Near-target sites are important to study population variation in microRNA regulation. Some analyses suggest that near-target sites may also be functional sites, although there is no conclusive evidence for that, and they may actually be target alleles segregating in a population. SeedVicious does not aim to outperform but to complement existing microRNA prediction tools. For instance, the precision of TargetScan is almost doubled (from 11% to ~20%) when we filter predictions by the distance between target sites using this program. Interestingly, two adjacent canonical target sites are more likely to be present in bona fide target transcripts than pairs of target sites at slightly longer distances. The software is written in Perl and runs on 64-bit Unix computers (Linux and MacOS X). Users with no computing experience can also run the program in a dedicated web-server by uploading custom data, or browse pre-computed predictions. SeedVicious and its associated web-server and database (SeedBank) are distributed under the GPL/GNU license.

  16. Operational Aspects of Space Radiation Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weyland, M. D.; Johnson, A. S.; Semones, E. J.; Shelfer, T.; Dardano, C.; Lin, T.; Zapp, N. E.; Rutledge, R.; George, T.

    2005-01-01

    Minimizing astronaut's short and long-term medical risks arising from exposure to ionizing radiation during space missions is a major concern for NASA's manned spaceflight program, particularly exploration missions. For ethical and legal reasons, NASA follows the "as low as reasonably achievable" (ALARA) principal in managing astronaut's radiation exposures. One implementation of ALARA is the response to space weather events. Of particular concern are energetic solar particle events, and in low Earth orbit (LEO), electron belt enhancements. To properly respond to these events, NASA's Space Radiation Analysis Group (SRAG), in partnership with the NOAA Space Environment Center (SEC), provides continuous flight support during U.S. manned missions. In this partnership, SEC compiles space weather data from numerous ground and space based assets and makes it available in near real-time to SRAG (along with alerts and forecasts), who in turn uses these data as input to models to calculate estimates of the resulting exposure to astronauts. These calculations and vehicle instrument data form the basis for real-time recommendations to flight management. It is also important to implement ALARA during the design phase. In order to appropriately weigh the risks associated with various shielding and vehicle configuration concepts, the expected environment must be adequately characterized for nominal and worst case scenarios for that portion of the solar cycle and point in space. Even with the best shielding concepts and materials in place (unlikely), there will be numerous occasions where the crew is at greater risk due to being in a lower shielded environment (short term transit or lower shielded vehicles, EVAs), so that accurate space weather forecasts and nowcasts, of particles at the relevant energies, will be crucial to protecting crew health and safety.

  17. In-depth resistome analysis by targeted metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Lanza, Val F; Baquero, Fernando; Martínez, José Luís; Ramos-Ruíz, Ricardo; González-Zorn, Bruno; Andremont, Antoine; Sánchez-Valenzuela, Antonio; Ehrlich, Stanislav Dusko; Kennedy, Sean; Ruppé, Etienne; van Schaik, Willem; Willems, Rob J; de la Cruz, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M

    2018-01-15

    Antimicrobial resistance is a major global health challenge. Metagenomics allows analyzing the presence and dynamics of "resistomes" (the ensemble of genes encoding antimicrobial resistance in a given microbiome) in disparate microbial ecosystems. However, the low sensitivity and specificity of available metagenomic methods preclude the detection of minority populations (often present below their detection threshold) and/or the identification of allelic variants that differ in the resulting phenotype. Here, we describe a novel strategy that combines targeted metagenomics using last generation in-solution capture platforms, with novel bioinformatics tools to establish a standardized framework that allows both quantitative and qualitative analyses of resistomes. We developed ResCap, a targeted sequence capture platform based on SeqCapEZ (NimbleGene) technology, which includes probes for 8667 canonical resistance genes (7963 antibiotic resistance genes and 704 genes conferring resistance to metals or biocides), and 2517 relaxase genes (plasmid markers) and 78,600 genes homologous to the previous identified targets (47,806 for antibiotics and 30,794 for biocides or metals). Its performance was compared with metagenomic shotgun sequencing (MSS) for 17 fecal samples (9 humans, 8 swine). ResCap significantly improves MSS to detect "gene abundance" (from 2.0 to 83.2%) and "gene diversity" (26 versus 14.9 genes unequivocally detected per sample per million of reads; the number of reads unequivocally mapped increasing up to 300-fold by using ResCap), which were calculated using novel bioinformatic tools. ResCap also facilitated the analysis of novel genes potentially involved in the resistance to antibiotics, metals, biocides, or any combination thereof. ResCap, the first targeted sequence capture, specifically developed to analyze resistomes, greatly enhances the sensitivity and specificity of available metagenomic methods and offers the possibility to analyze genes

  18. APPLYING OPERATIONAL ANALYSIS TO URBAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS, A WORKING PAPER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SISSON, ROGER L.

    OPERATIONS RESEARCH CONCEPTS ARE POTENTIALLY USEFUL FOR STUDY OF SUCH LARGE URBAN SCHOOL DISTRICT PROBLEMS AS INFORMATION FLOW, PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF THE DISTRICT, ADMINISTRATIVE DECISION MAKING BOARD POLICY FUNCTIONS, AND THE BUDGET STRUCTURE. OPERATIONAL ANALYSIS REQUIRES (1) IDENTIFICATION OF THE SYSTEM UNDER STUDY, (2) IDENTIFICATION OF…

  19. Identification of human operator performance models utilizing time series analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holden, F. M.; Shinners, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    The results of an effort performed by Sperry Systems Management Division for AMRL in applying time series analysis as a tool for modeling the human operator are presented. This technique is utilized for determining the variation of the human transfer function under various levels of stress. The human operator's model is determined based on actual input and output data from a tracking experiment.

  20. NECAP - NASA's Energy Cost Analysis Program. Operations manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miner, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    The use of the NASA'S ENERGY COST ANALYSIS PROGRAM (NECAP) is described. Supplementary information on new capabilities and program options is also provided. The Control Data Corporation (CDC) NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEM (NOS) is discussed. The basic CDC NOS instructions which are required to successfully operate NECAP are provided.

  1. Traffic operational evaluation of traffic impact analysis (TIA) case sites.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-09-22

    This report summarizes traffic operational evaluation of six select traffic impact analysis (TIA) case sites and the effectiveness of forecasting methods used in TIA studies. Six TIA case sites comprising 15 signalized intersections and 2 unsignalize...

  2. Audible sonar images generated with proprioception for target analysis.

    PubMed

    Kuc, Roman B

    2017-05-01

    Some blind humans have demonstrated the ability to detect and classify objects with echolocation using palatal clicks. An audible-sonar robot mimics human click emissions, binaural hearing, and head movements to extract interaural time and level differences from target echoes. Targets of various complexity are examined by transverse displacements of the sonar and by target pose rotations that model movements performed by the blind. Controlled sonar movements executed by the robot provide data that model proprioception information available to blind humans for examining targets from various aspects. The audible sonar uses this sonar location and orientation information to form two-dimensional target images that are similar to medical diagnostic ultrasound tomograms. Simple targets, such as single round and square posts, produce distinguishable and recognizable images. More complex targets configured with several simple objects generate diffraction effects and multiple reflections that produce image artifacts. The presentation illustrates the capabilities and limitations of target classification from audible sonar images.

  3. Analysis of Operating Principles with S-system Models

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yun; Chen, Po-Wei; Voit, Eberhard O.

    2011-01-01

    Operating principles address general questions regarding the response dynamics of biological systems as we observe or hypothesize them, in comparison to a priori equally valid alternatives. In analogy to design principles, the question arises: Why are some operating strategies encountered more frequently than others and in what sense might they be superior? It is at this point impossible to study operation principles in complete generality, but the work here discusses the important situation where a biological system must shift operation from its normal steady state to a new steady state. This situation is quite common and includes many stress responses. We present two distinct methods for determining different solutions to this task of achieving a new target steady state. Both methods utilize the property of S-system models within Biochemical Systems Theory (BST) that steady-states can be explicitly represented as systems of linear algebraic equations. The first method uses matrix inversion, a pseudo-inverse, or regression to characterize the entire admissible solution space. Operations on the basis of the solution space permit modest alterations of the transients toward the target steady state. The second method uses standard or mixed integer linear programming to determine admissible solutions that satisfy criteria of functional effectiveness, which are specified beforehand. As an illustration, we use both methods to characterize alternative response patterns of yeast subjected to heat stress, and compare them with observations from the literature. PMID:21377479

  4. Economic Optimization Analysis of Chengdu Electric Community Bus Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yidong, Wang; Yun, Cai; Zhengping, Tan; Xiong, Wan

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, the government has strongly supported and promoted electric vehicles and has given priority to demonstration and popularization in the field of public transport. The economy of public transport operations has drawn increasing attention. In this paper, Chengdu wireless charging pure electric community bus is used as the research object, the battery, air conditioning, driver’s driving behavior and other economic influence factors were analyzed, and optimizing the operation plan through case data analysis, through the reasonable battery matching and mode of operation to help businesses effectively save operating costs and enhance economic efficiency.

  5. Operations Analysis of the 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noneman, Steven R.; Smith, C. A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Space Launch Initiative (SLI) program is developing a second-generation reusable launch vehicle. The program goals include lowering the risk of loss of crew to 1 in 10,000 and reducing annual operations cost to one third of the cost of the Space Shuttle. The SLI missions include NASA, military and commercial satellite launches and crew and cargo launches to the space station. The SLI operations analyses provide an assessment of the operational support and infrastructure needed to operate candidate system architectures. Measures of the operability are estimated (i.e. system dependability, responsiveness, and efficiency). Operations analysis is used to determine the impact of specific technologies on operations. A conceptual path to reducing annual operations costs by two thirds is based on key design characteristics, such as reusability, and improved processes lowering labor costs. New operations risks can be expected to emerge. They can be mitigated with effective risk management with careful identification, assignment, tracking, and closure. SLI design characteristics such as nearly full reusability, high reliability, advanced automation, and lowered maintenance and servicing coupled with improved processes are contributors to operability and large operating cost reductions.

  6. Stirling Convertor Extended Operation Testing and Data Analysis at GRC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornell, Peggy A.; Lewandowski, Edward J.; Oriti, Salvatore M.; Wilson, Scott D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on extended operation testing and data analysis of free-piston Stirling convertors at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). Extended operation testing is essential to the development of radioisotope power systems and their potential use for long duration missions. To document the reliability of the convertors, regular monitoring and analysis of the extended operation data is particularly valuable; allowing us to better understand and quantity the long life characteristics of the convertors. Further, investigation and comparison of the extended operation data to baseline performance data provides us an opportunity for understanding system behavior should any off-nominal performance occur. GRC currently has 14 Stirling convertors under 24-hour unattended extended operation testing, including two operating the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Unit (ASRG-EU). 10 of the 14 Stirling convertors at GRC are the Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASC) developed by Sunpower, Incorporated. These are highly efficient (up to > 33.5% conversion efficiency), low mass convertors that have evolved through technologically progressive convertor builds. The remaining four convertors at GRC are Technology Demonstration Convertors (TDC) from Infinia Corporation. They have achieved> 27% conversion efficiency and have accumulated over 178,000 of the total 250,622 hours of extended operation currently at GRC. A synopsis of the Stirling convertor extended operation testing and data analysis at NASA GRC is presented in this paper, as well as how this testing has contributed to the Stirling convertor's progression toward flight.

  7. Analysis of Special Operations Forces in Decision Aids: Recommendations,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    Soviet-made armored scout cars operated by Malaysian troops. By that time, the United States had lost 102 men-18 killed and 84 wounded. Somali leaders...designation of targets; attack by F-15E and F-16C using CBU-87, -89 Execution and GBU; attack by A-10 using Maverick and 30-mm cannon; attack by B-52 using...patrolling designated areas of the battlefield and attacking individual armored vehicles with precision-guided weapons such as Maverick . Discontinuity

  8. Target Bosnia: Integrating Information Activities in Peace Operations. NATO-Led Operations in Bosnia-Herzegovina, December 1995-1997

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services , Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215...encouraging foreign investment in Bosnia-Herzegovina. The international community’s effort benefited Bosnia. Some infrastruc- ture and basic services ...Most notably, the sub-CPIC personnel handled press registrations and ran errands away from the Task Force Eagle compound, 56 In a multi- service U.S

  9. Integrative analysis of RUNX1 downstream pathways and target genes

    PubMed Central

    Michaud, Joëlle; Simpson, Ken M; Escher, Robert; Buchet-Poyau, Karine; Beissbarth, Tim; Carmichael, Catherine; Ritchie, Matthew E; Schütz, Frédéric; Cannon, Ping; Liu, Marjorie; Shen, Xiaofeng; Ito, Yoshiaki; Raskind, Wendy H; Horwitz, Marshall S; Osato, Motomi; Turner, David R; Speed, Terence P; Kavallaris, Maria; Smyth, Gordon K; Scott, Hamish S

    2008-01-01

    Background The RUNX1 transcription factor gene is frequently mutated in sporadic myeloid and lymphoid leukemia through translocation, point mutation or amplification. It is also responsible for a familial platelet disorder with predisposition to acute myeloid leukemia (FPD-AML). The disruption of the largely unknown biological pathways controlled by RUNX1 is likely to be responsible for the development of leukemia. We have used multiple microarray platforms and bioinformatic techniques to help identify these biological pathways to aid in the understanding of why RUNX1 mutations lead to leukemia. Results Here we report genes regulated either directly or indirectly by RUNX1 based on the study of gene expression profiles generated from 3 different human and mouse platforms. The platforms used were global gene expression profiling of: 1) cell lines with RUNX1 mutations from FPD-AML patients, 2) over-expression of RUNX1 and CBFβ, and 3) Runx1 knockout mouse embryos using either cDNA or Affymetrix microarrays. We observe that our datasets (lists of differentially expressed genes) significantly correlate with published microarray data from sporadic AML patients with mutations in either RUNX1 or its cofactor, CBFβ. A number of biological processes were identified among the differentially expressed genes and functional assays suggest that heterozygous RUNX1 point mutations in patients with FPD-AML impair cell proliferation, microtubule dynamics and possibly genetic stability. In addition, analysis of the regulatory regions of the differentially expressed genes has for the first time systematically identified numerous potential novel RUNX1 target genes. Conclusion This work is the first large-scale study attempting to identify the genetic networks regulated by RUNX1, a master regulator in the development of the hematopoietic system and leukemia. The biological pathways and target genes controlled by RUNX1 will have considerable importance in disease progression in both

  10. Unified approach for two-target game analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinar, J.; Davidovitz, A.

    1988-01-01

    A two-target differential game is defined from the outset by a qualitative (game-of-kind) formulation. The solution of such a game is the decomposition of the space of admissible initial conditions into zones of different outcomes: two winning zones, one for each player, the zone of nowinning (draw) and (if the intersection of the two target sets is not empty) a zone of eventual mutual winning (mutual kill). In this paper it is shown that the solution of any two-target game can be constructed, based on solving first two single-target pursuit-evasion games of kind (one for each target set) in a systematic way.

  11. EOS/AMSU: A Blackbody Spacecraft Test Targets Operation and Maintenance Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the spacecraft test targets and readout console as described in section 5.3.3 of the performance specification S-480-80. The spacecraft targets are to be used to provide a well-known radiometric reference for testing the functionality of the AMSU-A instruments at the spacecraft contractor's facility.

  12. An Analysis of the Billing and Bookkeeping Machine Operator Occupation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Six, Joseph E., Jr.

    The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the billing and bookkeeping machine operating occupation. The analysis was written in general terms due to the diversity in bookkeeping machines on the market, increasing number and variation of the tasks…

  13. Impact of operative length on post-operative complications in meningioma surgery: a NSQIP analysis.

    PubMed

    Karhade, Aditya V; Fandino, Luis; Gupta, Saksham; Cote, David J; Iorgulescu, Julian B; Broekman, Marike L; Aglio, Linda S; Dunn, Ian F; Smith, Timothy R

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have implicated operative length as a predictor of post-operative complications, including venous thromboembolism [deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE)]. We analyzed the American College of Surgeons (ACS) National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database from 2006 to 2014, to evaluate whether length of operation had a statistically significant effect on post-operative complications in patients undergoing surgical resection of meningioma. Patients were included for this study if they had a post-operative diagnosis of meningioma. Patient demographics, pre-operative comorbidities, and post-operative 30-day complications were analyzed. Of 3743 patients undergoing craniotomy for meningioma, 13.6 % experienced any complication. The most common complications and their median time to occurrence were urinary tract infection (2.6 %) at 10 days postoperatively (IQR 7-15), unplanned intubation (2.5 %) at 3 days (IQR 1-7), failure to wean from ventilator (2.4 %) at 2.0 days (IQR 2-4), and DVT (2.4 %) at 6 days (IQR 11-19). Postoperatively, 3.6 % developed VTE; 2.4 % developed DVT and 1.7 % developed PE. Multivariable analysis identified older age (third and upper quartile), obesity, preoperative ventilator dependence, preoperative steroid use, anemia, and longer operative time as significant risk factors for VTE. Separate multivariable logistic regression models demonstrated longer operative time as a significant risk factor for VTE, all complications, major complications, and minor complications. Meningioma resection is associated with various post-operative complications that increase patient morbidity and mortality risk. this large, multi-institutional patient sample, longer operative length was associated with increased risk for postoperative venous thromboembolisms, as well as major and minor complications.

  14. Rotorcraft Low Altitude IFR Benefit/Cost Analysis: Operations Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    Anoll Len D. Dzamba Linda J. LaBelle Randahl N. Lindgren Robert B. Newman Deborah J. Peisen Systems Control Technology , Inc. 1611 N. Kent Street, Suite...Lindgren, Robert B. Newman, Deborah J. Peisen 9. Performing Organization Name and Address 10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS) Systems Control Technology , Inc. 1611...headquarters of United Technology /Sikorsky to get them through this area. 5.7.3.3 Communications Coverage Corporate/executive operators were well satisfied

  15. Using task analysis to understand the Data System Operations Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holder, Barbara E.

    1994-01-01

    The Data Systems Operations Team (DSOT) currently monitors the Multimission Ground Data System (MGDS) at JPL. The MGDS currently supports five spacecraft and within the next five years, it will support ten spacecraft simultaneously. The ground processing element of the MGDS consists of a distributed UNIX-based system of over 40 nodes and 100 processes. The MGDS system provides operators with little or no information about the system's end-to-end processing status or end-to-end configuration. The lack of system visibility has become a critical issue in the daily operation of the MGDS. A task analysis was conducted to determine what kinds of tools were needed to provide DSOT with useful status information and to prioritize the tool development. The analysis provided the formality and structure needed to get the right information exchange between development and operations. How even a small task analysis can improve developer-operator communications is described, and the challenges associated with conducting a task analysis in a real-time mission operations environment are examined.

  16. Functional Requirements of a Target Description System for Vulnerability Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    called GIFT .1,2 Together the COMGEOM description model and GIFT codes make up the BRL’s target description system. The significance of a target...and modifying target descriptions are described. 1 Lawrence W. Bain, Jr. and Mathew J. Reisinger, "The GIFT Code User Manual; Volume 1...34The GIFT Code User Manual; Volume II, The Output Options," unpublished draft of BRL report. II. UNDERLYING PHILOSOPHY The BRL has a computer

  17. Using decision analysis to choose phosphorus targets for Lake Erie.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R M; Hobbs, B F; Koonce, J F; Locci, A B

    2001-02-01

    Lake Erie water quality has improved dramatically since the degraded conditions of the 1960s. Additional gains could be made, but at the expense of further investment and reductions in fishery productivity. In facing such cross-jurisdictional issues, natural resource managers in Canada and the United States must grapple with conflicting objectives and important uncertainties, while considering the priorities of the public that live in the basin. The techniques and tools of decision analysis have been used successfully to deal with such decision problems in a range of environmental settings, but infrequently in the Great Lakes. The objective of this paper is to illustrate how such techniques might be brought to bear on an important, real decision currently facing Lake Erie resource managers and stakeholders: the choice of new phosphorus loading targets for the lake. The heart of our approach is a systematic elicitation of stakeholder preferences and an investigation of the degree to which different phosphorus-loading policies might satisfy ecosystem objectives. Results show that there are potential benefits to changing the historical policy of reducing phosphorus loads in Lake Erie. Copyright 2001 Springer-Verlag

  18. Zooplankton community analysis in the Changjiang River estuary by single-gene-targeted metagenomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Fangping; Wang, Minxiao; Li, Chaolun; Sun, Song

    2014-07-01

    DNA barcoding provides accurate identification of zooplankton species through all life stages. Single-gene-targeted metagenomic analysis based on DNA barcode databases can facilitate longterm monitoring of zooplankton communities. With the help of the available zooplankton databases, the zooplankton community of the Changjiang (Yangtze) River estuary was studied using a single-gene-targeted metagenomic method to estimate the species richness of this community. A total of 856 mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene sequences were determined. The environmental barcodes were clustered into 70 molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs). Forty-two MOTUs matched barcoded marine organisms with more than 90% similarity and were assigned to either the species (similarity>96%) or genus level (similarity<96%). Sibling species could also be distinguished. Many species that were overlooked by morphological methods were identified by molecular methods, especially gelatinous zooplankton and merozooplankton that were likely sampled at different life history phases. Zooplankton community structures differed significantly among all of the samples. The MOTU spatial distributions were influenced by the ecological habits of the corresponding species. In conclusion, single-gene-targeted metagenomic analysis is a useful tool for zooplankton studies, with which specimens from all life history stages can be identified quickly and effectively with a comprehensive database.

  19. Commissioning and Operation of a Cryogenic Target at HI γS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendellen, David; Compton@HIγS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a cryogenic target for use at the High Intensity γ-ray Source (HI γS). The target system is able to liquefy helium-4 (LHe) at 4 K, hydrogen (LH2) at 20 K, or deuterium (LD2) at 23 K to fill a 0.3 L Kapton cell. Liquid temperatures and condenser pressures are recorded throughout each run in order to ensure that the target's areal density is known to 1%. A low-temperature valve enables cycling between full and empty modes in less than 15 minutes. The target is being utilized in a series of experiments which probe the electromagnetic polarizabilities of the nucleon by Compton scattering high-energy photons from the liquid and detecting them with the HI γS NaI Detector Array (HINDA). During a 50-hour-long commissioning run, the target held LHe at 3.17 K, followed by 600 hours of production running with LD2 at 23.9 K. The design of the target will be presented and its performance during these runs will be discussed. Work supported by US Department of Energy contracts DE-FG02-97ER41033, DE-FG02-06ER41422, and DE-SCOO0536

  20. Commissioning and Operation of a Cryogenic Target at HI γS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendellen, David; Compton@HIγ Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    We have developed a cryogenic target for use at the High Intensity γ-ray Source (HI γS). The target system is able to liquefy helium-4 (LHe) at 4 K, hydrogen (LH2) at 20 K, or deuterium (LD2) at 23 K to fill a 0.3 L Kapton cell. Liquid temperatures and condenser pressures are recorded throughout each run in order to ensure that the target's areal density is known to 1 % . A low-temperature valve enables cycling between full and empty modes in less than 15 minutes. The target is being utilized in a series of experiments which probe the electromagnetic polarizabilities of the nucleon by Compton scattering high-energy photons from the liquid and detecting them with the HI γS NaI Detector Array (HINDA). During a 50-hour-long commissioning run last fall, the target held LHe at 3.17 K, followed by a 300-hour-long production run this spring with LD2 at 23.9 K. The design of the target will be presented and its performance during these two runs will be discussed. Work supported by US Department of Energy Contracts DE-FG02-97ER41033, DE-FG02-06ER41422, and DE-SCOO0536.

  1. Analysis of Fresnel Zone Plates Focusing Dependence on Operating Frequency

    PubMed Central

    Fuster, José Miguel; Candelas, Pilar; Castiñeira-Ibáñez, Sergio; Pérez-López, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    The focusing properties of Fresnel Zone Plates (FZPs) against frequency are analyzed in this work. It is shown that the FZP focal length depends almost linearly on the operating frequency. Focal depth and focal distortion are also considered, establishing a limit on the frequency span at which the operating frequency can be shifted. An underwater FZP ultrasound focusing system is demonstrated, and experimental results agree with the theoretical analysis and simulations. PMID:29206137

  2. Design and engineering analysis of material procurement mobile operation platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, H.; Li, J.

    2014-03-01

    The material procurement mobile operation platform (MPMOP) consists of six modules, including network operation, truck transportation, remote communication, satellite positioning, power supply and environment regulation. The MPMOP is designed to have six major functions, including online procurement, command control, remote communication, satellite positioning, information management and auxiliary decision. The paper implements an engineering analysis on the MPMOP from three aspects, including transportation transfinite, centroid, and power dissipation.

  3. Qweak Data Analysis for Target Modeling Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Michael; Covrig, Silviu

    2015-04-01

    The 2.5 kW liquid hydrogen (LH2) target used in the Qweak parity violation experiment is the highest power LH2 target in the world and the first to be designed with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) at Jefferson Lab. The Qweak experiment determined the weak charge of the proton by measuring the parity-violating elastic scattering asymmetry of longitudinally polarized electrons from unpolarized liquid hydrogen at small momentum transfer (Q2 = 0 . 025 GeV2). This target met the design goals of < 1 % luminosity reduction and < 5 % contribution to the total asymmetry width (the Qweak target achieved 2 % or 55 ppm). State of the art time dependent CFD simulations are being developed to improve the predictions of target noise on the time scale of the electron beam helicity period. These predictions will be bench-marked with the Qweak target data. This work is an essential ingredient in future designs of very high power low noise targets like MOLLER (5 kW, target noise asymmetry contribution < 25 ppm) and MESA (4.5 kW).

  4. Combined expressional analysis, bioinformatics and targeted proteomics identify new potential therapeutic targets in glioblastoma stem cells.

    PubMed

    Stangeland, Biljana; Mughal, Awais A; Grieg, Zanina; Sandberg, Cecilie Jonsgar; Joel, Mrinal; Nygård, Ståle; Meling, Torstein; Murrell, Wayne; Vik Mo, Einar O; Langmoen, Iver A

    2015-09-22

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is both the most common and the most lethal primary brain tumor. It is thought that GBM stem cells (GSCs) are critically important in resistance to therapy. Therefore, there is a strong rationale to target these cells in order to develop new molecular therapies.To identify molecular targets in GSCs, we compared gene expression in GSCs to that in neural stem cells (NSCs) from the adult human brain, using microarrays. Bioinformatic filtering identified 20 genes (PBK/TOPK, CENPA, KIF15, DEPDC1, CDC6, DLG7/DLGAP5/HURP, KIF18A, EZH2, HMMR/RHAMM/CD168, NOL4, MPP6, MDM1, RAPGEF4, RHBDD1, FNDC3B, FILIP1L, MCC, ATXN7L4/ATXN7L1, P2RY5/LPAR6 and FAM118A) that were consistently expressed in GSC cultures and consistently not expressed in NSC cultures. The expression of these genes was confirmed in clinical samples (TCGA and REMBRANDT). The first nine genes were highly co-expressed in all GBM subtypes and were part of the same protein-protein interaction network. Furthermore, their combined up-regulation correlated negatively with patient survival in the mesenchymal GBM subtype. Using targeted proteomics and the COGNOSCENTE database we linked these genes to GBM signalling pathways.Nine genes: PBK, CENPA, KIF15, DEPDC1, CDC6, DLG7, KIF18A, EZH2 and HMMR should be further explored as targets for treatment of GBM.

  5. Characterization of an elastic target in a shallow water waveguide by decomposition of the time-reversal operator.

    PubMed

    Philippe, Franck D; Prada, Claire; de Rosny, Julien; Clorennec, Dominique; Minonzio, Jean-Gabriel; Fink, Mathias

    2008-08-01

    This paper reports the results of an investigation into extracting of the backscattered frequency signature of a target in a waveguide. Retrieving the target signature is difficult because it is blurred by waveguide reflections and modal interference. It is shown that the decomposition of the time-reversal operator method provides a solution to this problem. Using a modal theory, this paper shows that the first singular value associated with a target is proportional to the backscattering form function. It is linked to the waveguide geometry through a factor that weakly depends on frequency as long as the target is far from the boundaries. Using the same approach, the second singular value is shown to be proportional to the second derivative of the angular form function which is a relevant parameter for target identification. Within this framework the coupling between two targets is considered. Small scale experimental studies are performed in the 3.5 MHz frequency range for 3 mm spheres in a 28 mm deep and 570 mm long waveguide and confirm the theoretical results.

  6. Rosetta CONSERT operations and data analysis preparation: simulation software tools.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogez, Yves; Hérique, Alain; Cardiet, Maël; Zine, Sonia; Westphal, Mathieu; Micallef, Mickael; Berquin, Yann; Kofman, Wlodek

    2014-05-01

    The CONSERT experiment onboard Rosetta and Philae will perform the tomography of the 67P/CG comet nucleus by measuring radio waves transmission from the Rosetta S/C to the Philae Lander. The accurate analysis of travel time measurements will deliver unique knowledge of the nucleus interior dielectric properties. The challenging complexity of CONSERT operations requirements, combining both Rosetta and Philae, allows only a few set of opportunities to acquire data. Thus, we need a fine analysis of the impact of Rosetta trajectory, Philae position and comet shape on CONSERT measurements, in order to take optimal decisions in a short time. The integration of simulation results and mission parameters provides synthetic information to evaluate performances and risks for each opportunity. The preparation of CONSERT measurements before space operations is a key to achieve the best science return of the experiment. In addition, during Rosetta space operations, these software tools will allow a "real-time" first analysis of the latest measurements to improve the next acquisition sequences. The software tools themselves are built around a 3D electromagnetic radio wave simulation, taking into account the signal polarization. It is based on ray-tracing algorithms specifically designed for quick orbit analysis and radar signal generation. This allows computation on big domains relatively to the wavelength. The extensive use of 3D visualization tools provides comprehensive and synthetic views of the results. The software suite is designed to be extended, after Rosetta operations, to the full 3D measurement data analysis using inversion methods.

  7. Targeting gender: A content analysis of alcohol advertising in magazines.

    PubMed

    Jung, A-Reum; Hovland, Roxanne

    2016-01-01

    Creating target specific advertising is fundamental to maximizing advertising effectiveness. When crafting an advertisement, message and creative strategies are considered important because they affect target audiences' attitudes toward advertised products. This study endeavored to find advertising strategies that are likely to have special appeal for men or women by examining alcohol advertising in magazines. The results show that the substance of the messages is the same for men and women, but they only differ in terms of presentation. However, regardless of gender group, the most commonly used strategies in alcohol advertising are appeals to the target audience's emotions.

  8. STS-1 operational flight profile. Volume 6: Abort analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The abort analysis for the cycle 3 Operational Flight Profile (OFP) for the Space Transportation System 1 Flight (STS-1) is defined, superseding the abort analysis previously presented. Included are the flight description, abort analysis summary, flight design groundrules and constraints, initialization information, general abort description and results, abort solid rocket booster and external tank separation and disposal results, abort monitoring displays and discussion on both ground and onboard trajectory monitoring, abort initialization load summary for the onboard computer, list of the key abort powered flight dispersion analysis.

  9. 46th Annual Targets, UAVs and Range Operations Symposium and Exhibition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-10

    introduction  mr. Ken Hislop , QF-16 Program manager, eglin aFB, FL 1:40 Pm - 2:00 Pm U.s. navy  CaPt Pat Buckley, Usn, Program manager...Bruce Ringstad Subscale & TCS Flight Lead Mr. Jim Cornwell Program Manager Mr. Ken Hislop Program Manager Ms. Lee Neugin Program Manager & Lead...Missiles Fired / 18 Kills AAC/PA 09-26-08-429 18 QF-16 Air Superiority Target Program Manager: Mr. Ken Hislop Description Full Scale Target for Threat

  10. An operational air quality objective analysis of surface pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menard, R.; Robichaud, A.

    2013-05-01

    As of December 2012 a surface analysis of O3, PM2.5 at a resolution of 10 km over Canada and USA has become an operational product of Environment Canada. Analyses based an optimum interpolation scheme adapted to the variability of surface pollutant is run each hour. We will briefly discuss the specifics of the scheme, the technical implementation that lead to an operational implementation, a description and validation of the product as it stands today. An analysis of NO2 and a map of an air quality health index is also under way. We are now developing a high resolution analysis, 2.5 km over major cities over the Montreal-Toronto area and over the Oil sands region. The effect of state-dependent error covariance modeling will be present with some early results of the high resolutions analysis/assimilation.

  11. Fixed Route Comprehensive Operational Analysis, 1994 Operating Year. Fourth Installment, Route 2: Berkshire Shopping Center Analysis

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-03-01

    The study evaluated the performance of the service, analyzed possible alternatives, and recommended several service changes, which took effect in August of 1993. By use of ongoing data collection, HART intends to provide continual analysis of the ser...

  12. One-Click Data Analysis Software for Science Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Vicente

    2015-12-01

    One of the important activities of ESA Science Operations Centre is to provide Data Analysis Software (DAS) to enable users and scientists to process data further to higher levels. During operations and post-operations, Data Analysis Software (DAS) is fully maintained and updated for new OS and library releases. Nonetheless, once a Mission goes into the "legacy" phase, there are very limited funds and long-term preservation becomes more and more difficult. Building on Virtual Machine (VM), Cloud computing and Software as a Service (SaaS) technologies, this project has aimed at providing long-term preservation of Data Analysis Software for the following missions: - PIA for ISO (1995) - SAS for XMM-Newton (1999) - Hipe for Herschel (2009) - EXIA for EXOSAT (1983) Following goals have guided the architecture: - Support for all operations, post-operations and archive/legacy phases. - Support for local (user's computer) and cloud environments (ESAC-Cloud, Amazon - AWS). - Support for expert users, requiring full capabilities. - Provision of a simple web-based interface. This talk describes the architecture, challenges, results and lessons learnt gathered in this project.

  13. Space system operations and support cost analysis using Markov chains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unal, Resit; Dean, Edwin B.; Moore, Arlene A.; Fairbairn, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates the use of Markov chain process in probabilistic life cycle cost analysis and suggests further uses of the process as a design aid tool. A methodology is developed for estimating operations and support cost and expected life for reusable space transportation systems. Application of the methodology is demonstrated for the case of a hypothetical space transportation vehicle. A sensitivity analysis is carried out to explore the effects of uncertainty in key model inputs.

  14. Hunting Leadership Targets in Counterinsurgency and Counterterrorist Operations: Selected Perspectives and Experience

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    issues are all pertinent to understanding operations and outcomes and to considering how different some perspectives, and how compelling some...tone for how Oper- ation Condor is generally viewed today, judgments in which some successor Latin American governments have concurred to various...complete statements from every person arrested, they now concentrate on simply get - ting more names and addresses quickly enough so that the

  15. Ultralow-Power Near Infrared Lamp Light Operable Targeted Organic Nanoparticle Photodynamic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ling; Li, Zhanjun; Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Yuanwei; Wu, Shuang; Zhao, Jianzhang; Han, Gang

    2016-11-09

    Tissue penetration depth is a major challenge in practical photodynamic therapy (PDT). A biocompatible and highly effective near infrared (NIR)-light-absorbing carbazole-substituted BODIPY (Car-BDP) molecule is reported as a class of imaging-guidable deep-tissue activatable photosensitizers for PDT. Car-BDP possesses an intense, broad NIR absorption band (600-800 nm) with a remarkably high singlet oxygen quantum yield (Φ Δ = 67%). After being encapsulated with biodegradable PLA-PEG-FA polymers, Car-BDP can form uniform and small organic nanoparticles that are water-soluble and tumor-targetable. Rather than using laser light, such nanoparticles offer an unprecedented deep-tissue, tumor targeting photodynamic therapeutic effect by using an exceptionally low-power-density and cost-effective lamp light (12 mW cm -2 ). In addition, these nanoparticles can be simultaneously traced in vivo due to their excellent NIR fluorescence. This study signals a major step forward in photodynamic therapy by developing a new class of NIR-absorbing biocompatible organic nanoparticles for effective targeting and treatment of deep-tissue tumors. This work also provides a potential new platform for precise tumor-targeting theranostics and novel opportunities for future affordable clinical cancer treatment.

  16. Visualization and Analysis of MiRNA-Targets Interactions Networks.

    PubMed

    León, Luis E; Calligaris, Sebastián D

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs are a class of small, noncoding RNA molecules of 21-25 nucleotides in length that regulate the gene expression by base-pairing with the target mRNAs, mainly leading to down-regulation or repression of the target genes. MicroRNAs are involved in diverse regulatory pathways in normal and pathological conditions. In this context, it is highly important to identify the targets of specific microRNA in order to understand the mechanism of its regulation and consequently its involvement in disease. However, the microRNA target identification is experimentally laborious and time-consuming. The in silico prediction of microRNA targets is an extremely useful approach because you can identify potential mRNA targets, reduce the number of possibilities and then, validate a few microRNA-mRNA interactions in an in vitro experimental model. In this chapter, we describe, in a simple way, bioinformatics guidelines to use miRWalk database and Cytoscape software for analyzing microRNA-mRNA interactions through their visualization as a network.

  17. Measurement and analysis of operating system fault tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, I.; Tang, D.; Iyer, R. K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a methodology to model and evaluate the fault tolerance characteristics of operational software. The methodology is illustrated through case studies on three different operating systems: the Tandem GUARDIAN fault-tolerant system, the VAX/VMS distributed system, and the IBM/MVS system. Measurements are made on these systems for substantial periods to collect software error and recovery data. In addition to investigating basic dependability characteristics such as major software problems and error distributions, we develop two levels of models to describe error and recovery processes inside an operating system and on multiple instances of an operating system running in a distributed environment. Based on the models, reward analysis is conducted to evaluate the loss of service due to software errors and the effect of the fault-tolerance techniques implemented in the systems. Software error correlation in multicomputer systems is also investigated.

  18. Dual ant colony operational modal analysis parameter estimation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitarz, Piotr; Powałka, Bartosz

    2018-01-01

    Operational Modal Analysis (OMA) is a common technique used to examine the dynamic properties of a system. Contrary to experimental modal analysis, the input signal is generated in object ambient environment. Operational modal analysis mainly aims at determining the number of pole pairs and at estimating modal parameters. Many methods are used for parameter identification. Some methods operate in time while others in frequency domain. The former use correlation functions, the latter - spectral density functions. However, while some methods require the user to select poles from a stabilisation diagram, others try to automate the selection process. Dual ant colony operational modal analysis parameter estimation method (DAC-OMA) presents a new approach to the problem, avoiding issues involved in the stabilisation diagram. The presented algorithm is fully automated. It uses deterministic methods to define the interval of estimated parameters, thus reducing the problem to optimisation task which is conducted with dedicated software based on ant colony optimisation algorithm. The combination of deterministic methods restricting parameter intervals and artificial intelligence yields very good results, also for closely spaced modes and significantly varied mode shapes within one measurement point.

  19. An Analysis of the Waste Water Treatment Operator Occupation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Anthony B.; And Others

    The occupational analysis contains a brief job description for the waste water treatment occupations of operator and maintenance mechanic and 13 detailed task statements which specify job duties (tools, equipment, materials, objects acted upon, performance knowledge, safety considerations/hazards, decisions, cues, and errors) and learning skills…

  20. Applying Cognitive Work Analysis to Time Critical Targeting Functionality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-01

    Cognitive Task Analysis , CTA, Cognitive Task Analysis , Human Factors, GUI, Graphical User Interface, Heuristic Evaluation... Cognitive Task Analysis MITRE Briefing January 2000 Dynamic Battle Management Functional Architecture 3-1 Section 3 Human Factors...clear distinction between Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) and Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA), therefore this document will refer to these

  1. Error analysis of filtering operations in pixel-duplicated images of diabetic retinopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrubeoglu, Mehrube; McLauchlan, Lifford

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, diabetic retinopathy is chosen for a sample target image to demonstrate the effectiveness of image enlargement through pixel duplication in identifying regions of interest. Pixel duplication is presented as a simpler alternative to data interpolation techniques for detecting small structures in the images. A comparative analysis is performed on different image processing schemes applied to both original and pixel-duplicated images. Structures of interest are detected and and classification parameters optimized for minimum false positive detection in the original and enlarged retinal pictures. The error analysis demonstrates the advantages as well as shortcomings of pixel duplication in image enhancement when spatial averaging operations (smoothing filters) are also applied.

  2. Risk Analysis for Unintentional Slide Deployment During Airline Operations.

    PubMed

    Ayra, Eduardo S; Insua, David Ríos; Castellanos, María Eugenia; Larbi, Lydia

    2015-09-01

    We present a risk analysis undertaken to mitigate problems in relation to the unintended deployment of slides under normal operations within a commercial airline. This type of incident entails relevant costs for the airline industry. After assessing the likelihood and severity of its consequences, we conclude that such risks need to be managed. We then evaluate the effectiveness of various countermeasures, describing and justifying the chosen ones. We also discuss several issues faced when implementing and communicating the proposed measures, thus fully illustrating the risk analysis process. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  3. Genome-wide analysis of Polycomb targets in Drosophila

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Yuri B.; Kahn, Tatyana G.; Nix, David A.

    2006-04-01

    Polycomb Group (PcG) complexes are multiprotein assemblages that bind to chromatin and establish chromatin states leading to epigenetic silencing. PcG proteins regulate homeotic genes in flies and vertebrates but little is known about other PcG targets and the role of the PcG in development, differentiation and disease. We have determined the distribution of the PcG proteins PC, E(Z) and PSC and of histone H3K27 trimethylation in the Drosophila genome. At more than 200 PcG target genes, binding sites for the three PcG proteins colocalize to presumptive Polycomb Response Elements (PREs). In contrast, H3 me3K27 forms broad domains including the entiremore » transcription unit and regulatory regions. PcG targets are highly enriched in genes encoding transcription factors but receptors, signaling proteins, morphogens and regulators representing all major developmental pathways are also included.« less

  4. Analysis of Dependencies and Impacts of Metroplex Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLaurentis, Daniel A.; Ayyalasomayajula, Sricharan

    2010-01-01

    This report documents research performed by Purdue University under subcontract to the George Mason University (GMU) for the Metroplex Operations effort sponsored by NASA's Airportal Project. Purdue University conducted two tasks in support of the larger efforts led by GMU: a) a literature review on metroplex operations followed by identification and analysis of metroplex dependencies, and b) the analysis of impacts of metroplex operations on the larger U.S. domestic airline service network. The tasks are linked in that the ultimate goal is an understanding of the role of dependencies among airports in a metroplex in causing delays both locally and network-wide. The Purdue team has formulated a system-of-systems framework to analyze metroplex dependencies (including simple metrics to quantify them) and develop compact models to predict delays based on network structure. These metrics and models were developed to provide insights for planners to formulate tailored policies and operational strategies that streamline metroplex operations and mitigate delays and congestion.

  5. A rail system for circular synthetic aperture sonar imaging and acoustic target strength measurements: design/operation/preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, J L; Marston, T M; Lee, K; Lopes, J L; Lim, R

    2014-01-01

    A 22 m diameter circular rail, outfitted with a mobile sonar tower trolley, was designed, fabricated, instrumented with underwater acoustic transducers, and assembled on a 1.5 m thick sand layer at the bottom of a large freshwater pool to carry out sonar design and target scattering response studies. The mobile sonar tower translates along the rail via a drive motor controlled by customized LabVIEW software. The rail system is modular and assembly consists of separately deploying eight circular arc sections, measuring a nominal center radius of 11 m and 8.64 m arc length each, and having divers connect them together in the underwater environment. The system enables full scale measurements on targets of interest with 0.1° angular resolution over a complete 360° aperture, without disrupting target setup, and affording a level of control over target environment conditions and noise sources unachievable in standard field measurements. In recent use, the mobile cart carrying an instrumented sonar tower was translated along the rail in 720 equal position increments and acoustic backscatter data were acquired at each position. In addition, this system can accommodate both broadband monostatic and bistatic scattering measurements on targets of interest, allowing capture of target signature phenomena under diverse configurations to address current scientific and technical issues encountered in mine countermeasure and unexploded ordnance applications. In the work discussed here, the circular rail apparatus is used for acoustic backscatter testing, but this system also has the capacity to facilitate the acquisition of magnetic and optical sensor data from targets of interest. A brief description of the system design and operation will be presented along with preliminary processed results for data acquired from acoustic measurements conducted at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Panama City Division Test Pond Facility. [Work Supported by the U.S. Office of Naval Research and

  6. A rail system for circular synthetic aperture sonar imaging and acoustic target strength measurements: Design/operation/preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, J. L.; Marston, T. M.; Lee, K.; Lopes, J. L.; Lim, R.

    2014-01-01

    A 22 m diameter circular rail, outfitted with a mobile sonar tower trolley, was designed, fabricated, instrumented with underwater acoustic transducers, and assembled on a 1.5 m thick sand layer at the bottom of a large freshwater pool to carry out sonar design and target scattering response studies. The mobile sonar tower translates along the rail via a drive motor controlled by customized LabVIEW software. The rail system is modular and assembly consists of separately deploying eight circular arc sections, measuring a nominal center radius of 11 m and 8.64 m arc length each, and having divers connect them together in the underwater environment. The system enables full scale measurements on targets of interest with 0.1° angular resolution over a complete 360° aperture, without disrupting target setup, and affording a level of control over target environment conditions and noise sources unachievable in standard field measurements. In recent use, the mobile cart carrying an instrumented sonar tower was translated along the rail in 720 equal position increments and acoustic backscatter data were acquired at each position. In addition, this system can accommodate both broadband monostatic and bistatic scattering measurements on targets of interest, allowing capture of target signature phenomena under diverse configurations to address current scientific and technical issues encountered in mine countermeasure and unexploded ordnance applications. In the work discussed here, the circular rail apparatus is used for acoustic backscatter testing, but this system also has the capacity to facilitate the acquisition of magnetic and optical sensor data from targets of interest. A brief description of the system design and operation will be presented along with preliminary processed results for data acquired from acoustic measurements conducted at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Panama City Division Test Pond Facility. [Work Supported by the U.S. Office of Naval Research and

  7. Filter parameter tuning analysis for operational orbit determination support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, J.; Cox, C.; Niklewski, D.; Mistretta, G.; Hart, R.

    1994-01-01

    The use of an extended Kalman filter (EKF) for operational orbit determination support is being considered by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Division (FDD). To support that investigation, analysis was performed to determine how an EKF can be tuned for operational support of a set of earth-orbiting spacecraft. The objectives of this analysis were to design and test a general purpose scheme for filter tuning, evaluate the solution accuracies, and develop practical methods to test the consistency of the EKF solutions in an operational environment. The filter was found to be easily tuned to produce estimates that were consistent, agreed with results from batch estimation, and compared well among the common parameters estimated for several spacecraft. The analysis indicates that there is not a sharply defined 'best' tunable parameter set, especially when considering only the position estimates over the data arc. The comparison of the EKF estimates for the user spacecraft showed that the filter is capable of high-accuracy results and can easily meet the current accuracy requirements for the spacecraft included in the investigation. The conclusion is that the EKF is a viable option for FDD operational support.

  8. Applying AI tools to operational space environmental analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krajnak, Mike; Jesse, Lisa; Mucks, John

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force and National Oceanic Atmospheric Agency (NOAA) space environmental operations centers are facing increasingly complex challenges meeting the needs of their growing user community. These centers provide current space environmental information and short term forecasts of geomagnetic activity. Recent advances in modeling and data access have provided sophisticated tools for making accurate and timely forecasts, but have introduced new problems associated with handling and analyzing large quantities of complex data. AI (Artificial Intelligence) techniques have been considered as potential solutions to some of these problems. Fielding AI systems has proven more difficult than expected, in part because of operational constraints. Using systems which have been demonstrated successfully in the operational environment will provide a basis for a useful data fusion and analysis capability. Our approach uses a general purpose AI system already in operational use within the military intelligence community, called the Temporal Analysis System (TAS). TAS is an operational suite of tools supporting data processing, data visualization, historical analysis, situation assessment and predictive analysis. TAS includes expert system tools to analyze incoming events for indications of particular situations and predicts future activity. The expert system operates on a knowledge base of temporal patterns encoded using a knowledge representation called Temporal Transition Models (TTM's) and an event database maintained by the other TAS tools. The system also includes a robust knowledge acquisition and maintenance tool for creating TTM's using a graphical specification language. The ability to manipulate TTM's in a graphical format gives non-computer specialists an intuitive way of accessing and editing the knowledge base. To support space environmental analyses, we used TAS's ability to define domain specific event analysis abstractions. The prototype system defines

  9. PROBLEM OF FORMING IN A MAN-OPERATOR A HABIT OF TRACKING A MOVING TARGET,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Cybernetics stimulated the large-scale use of the method of functional analogy which makes it possible to compare technical and human activity systems...interesting and highly efficient human activity because of the psychological control factor involved in its operation. The human tracking system is

  10. Automatic Target Cueing and Operator Performance with Enhanced APG-70 Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-11-01

    tasks (Gescheider, 1985; Green & Swets, 1966; Macmillan & Creelman , 1991; See & Kuperman, 1995; See, Riegler, Fitzhugh, & Kuperman, 1996; See, Warm...available for designation and the operator’s ensuing proportion of correct localization responses (Hacker & Ratcliff, 1979; Macmillan & Creelman ...substituted for hits (Macmillan & Creelman , 1991). The Present Study The techniques of signal detection theory were applied in the present study in

  11. Data-Driven Modeling of Target Human Behavior in Military Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-12

    Military Operations Elizabeth Mezzacappa, Ph.D. Gordon Cooke, MEME Gladstone Reid, MSBMS Robert DeMarco, MSBMS Charles Sheridan BA John...stress, and human behavior modeling and simulation issues. GORDON COOKE, MEME , is a Principal Investigator at the TBRL. He was also a Chief

  12. Multicriteria analysis of product operational effectiveness at design stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irzaev, G. Kh

    2018-03-01

    The multicriteria rapid assessment method of techno-economic parameters of new products is developed. It avoids expensive engineering changes during the operational stages through the analysis of external and internal factors at an early stage in the design that affect the maintainability and manufacturability of the product. The expert selection of the initial multitude of indicators from the five enlarged criteria groups and their subsequent pairwise comparison allow one to distinguish the complex compliance criteria of product design with the average and optimum values of the operational effectiveness. The values comparison provides an opportunity to decide on the continuation of the process for designing and preparation of the product manufacture.

  13. User's operating procedures. Volume 2: Scout project financial analysis program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, C. G.; Haris, D. K.

    1985-01-01

    A review is presented of the user's operating procedures for the Scout Project Automatic Data system, called SPADS. SPADS is the result of the past seven years of software development on a Prime mini-computer located at the Scout Project Office, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. SPADS was developed as a single entry, multiple cross-reference data management and information retrieval system for the automation of Project office tasks, including engineering, financial, managerial, and clerical support. This volume, two (2) of three (3), provides the instructions to operate the Scout Project Financial Analysis program in data retrieval and file maintenance via the user friendly menu drivers.

  14. Vertex Space Analysis for Model-Based Target Recognition.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-08-01

    performed in our unique invariant representation, Vertex Space, that reduces both the dimensionality and size of the required search space. Vertex Space ... mapping results in a reduced representation that serves as a characteristic target signature which is invariant to four of the six viewing geometry

  15. Teaching Inflation Targeting: An Analysis for Intermediate Macro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Carl E.

    2002-01-01

    States many central banks have adopted policies known as inflation targeting. Declares that students need experience with the implications of these policies. Provides a simple graphical device involving the output gap and the inflation rate to overcome these problems that can be used to teach intermediate macroeconomics students about inflation…

  16. Fully Bayesian Analysis of High-throughput Targeted Metabolomics Assays

    EPA Science Inventory

    High-throughput metabolomic assays that allow simultaneous targeted screening of hundreds of metabolites have recently become available in kit form. Such assays provide a window into understanding changes to biochemical pathways due to chemical exposure or disease, and are usefu...

  17. Cost Analysis In A Multi-Mission Operations Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newhouse, M.; Felton, L.; Bornas, N.; Botts, D.; Roth, K.; Ijames, G.; Montgomery, P.

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft control centers have evolved from dedicated, single-mission or single missiontype support to multi-mission, service-oriented support for operating a variety of mission types. At the same time, available money for projects is shrinking and competition for new missions is increasing. These factors drive the need for an accurate and flexible model to support estimating service costs for new or extended missions; the cost model in turn drives the need for an accurate and efficient approach to service cost analysis. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) provides operations services to a variety of customers around the world. HOSC customers range from launch vehicle test flights; to International Space Station (ISS) payloads; to small, short duration missions; and has included long duration flagship missions. The HOSC recently completed a detailed analysis of service costs as part of the development of a complete service cost model. The cost analysis process required the team to address a number of issues. One of the primary issues involves the difficulty of reverse engineering individual mission costs in a highly efficient multimission environment, along with a related issue of the value of detailed metrics or data to the cost model versus the cost of obtaining accurate data. Another concern is the difficulty of balancing costs between missions of different types and size and extrapolating costs to different mission types. The cost analysis also had to address issues relating to providing shared, cloud-like services in a government environment, and then assigning an uncertainty or risk factor to cost estimates that are based on current technology, but will be executed using future technology. Finally the cost analysis needed to consider how to validate the resulting cost models taking into account the non-homogeneous nature of the available cost data and the

  18. Cost Analysis in a Multi-Mission Operations Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felton, Larry; Newhouse, Marilyn; Bornas, Nick; Botts, Dennis; Ijames, Gayleen; Montgomery, Patty; Roth, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft control centers have evolved from dedicated, single-mission or single mission-type support to multi-mission, service-oriented support for operating a variety of mission types. At the same time, available money for projects is shrinking and competition for new missions is increasing. These factors drive the need for an accurate and flexible model to support estimating service costs for new or extended missions; the cost model in turn drives the need for an accurate and efficient approach to service cost analysis. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) provides operations services to a variety of customers around the world. HOSC customers range from launch vehicle test flights; to International Space Station (ISS) payloads; to small, short duration missions; and has included long duration flagship missions. The HOSC recently completed a detailed analysis of service costs as part of the development of a complete service cost model. The cost analysis process required the team to address a number of issues. One of the primary issues involves the difficulty of reverse engineering individual mission costs in a highly efficient multi-mission environment, along with a related issue of the value of detailed metrics or data to the cost model versus the cost of obtaining accurate data. Another concern is the difficulty of balancing costs between missions of different types and size and extrapolating costs to different mission types. The cost analysis also had to address issues relating to providing shared, cloud-like services in a government environment, and then assigning an uncertainty or risk factor to cost estimates that are based on current technology, but will be executed using future technology. Finally the cost analysis needed to consider how to validate the resulting cost models taking into account the non-homogeneous nature of the available cost data and

  19. An operational global-scale ocean thermal analysis system

    SciTech Connect

    Clancy, R. M.; Pollak, K.D.; Phoebus, P.A.

    1990-04-01

    The Optimum Thermal Interpolation System (OTIS) is an ocean thermal analysis system designed for operational use at FNOC. It is based on the optimum interpolation of the assimilation technique and functions in an analysis-prediction-analysis data assimilation cycle with the TOPS mixed-layer model. OTIS provides a rigorous framework for combining real-time data, climatology, and predictions from numerical ocean prediction models to produce a large-scale synoptic representation of ocean thermal structure. The techniques and assumptions used in OTIS are documented and results of operational tests of global scale OTIS at FNOC are presented. The tests involved comparisons of OTIS against an existingmore » operational ocean thermal structure model and were conducted during February, March, and April 1988. Qualitative comparison of the two products suggests that OTIS gives a more realistic representation of subsurface anomalies and horizontal gradients and that it also gives a more accurate analysis of the thermal structure, with improvements largest below the mixed layer. 37 refs.« less

  20. Harmonic component detection: Optimized Spectral Kurtosis for operational modal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dion, J.-L.; Tawfiq, I.; Chevallier, G.

    2012-01-01

    This work is a contribution in the field of Operational Modal Analysis to identify the modal parameters of mechanical structures using only measured responses. The study deals with structural responses coupled with harmonic components amplitude and frequency modulated in a short range, a common combination for mechanical systems with engines and other rotating machines in operation. These harmonic components generate misleading data interpreted erroneously by the classical methods used in OMA. The present work attempts to differentiate maxima in spectra stemming from harmonic components and structural modes. The detection method proposed is based on the so-called Optimized Spectral Kurtosis and compared with others definitions of Spectral Kurtosis described in the literature. After a parametric study of the method, a critical study is performed on numerical simulations and then on an experimental structure in operation in order to assess the method's performance.

  1. Power Consumption Analysis of Operating Systems for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lajara, Rafael; Pelegrí-Sebastiá, José; Perez Solano, Juan J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper four wireless sensor network operating systems are compared in terms of power consumption. The analysis takes into account the most common operating systems—TinyOS v1.0, TinyOS v2.0, Mantis and Contiki—running on Tmote Sky and MICAz devices. With the objective of ensuring a fair evaluation, a benchmark composed of four applications has been developed, covering the most typical tasks that a Wireless Sensor Network performs. The results show the instant and average current consumption of the devices during the execution of these applications. The experimental measurements provide a good insight into the power mode in which the device components are running at every moment, and they can be used to compare the performance of different operating systems executing the same tasks. PMID:22219688

  2. Power consumption analysis of operating systems for wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Lajara, Rafael; Pelegrí-Sebastiá, José; Perez Solano, Juan J

    2010-01-01

    In this paper four wireless sensor network operating systems are compared in terms of power consumption. The analysis takes into account the most common operating systems--TinyOS v1.0, TinyOS v2.0, Mantis and Contiki--running on Tmote Sky and MICAz devices. With the objective of ensuring a fair evaluation, a benchmark composed of four applications has been developed, covering the most typical tasks that a Wireless Sensor Network performs. The results show the instant and average current consumption of the devices during the execution of these applications. The experimental measurements provide a good insight into the power mode in which the device components are running at every moment, and they can be used to compare the performance of different operating systems executing the same tasks.

  3. An activity-based methodology for operations cost analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korsmeyer, David; Bilby, Curt; Frizzell, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes an activity-based cost estimation method, proposed for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), as an alternative to NASA's traditional mass-based cost estimation method. A case study demonstrates how the activity-based cost estimation technique can be used to identify the operations that have a significant impact on costs over the life cycle of the SEI. The case study yielded an operations cost of $101 billion for the 20-year span of the lunar surface operations for the Option 5a program architecture. In addition, the results indicated that the support and training costs for the missions were the greatest contributors to the annual cost estimates. A cost-sensitivity analysis of the cultural and architectural drivers determined that the length of training and the amount of support associated with the ground support personnel for mission activities are the most significant cost contributors.

  4. Special Forces Recruiting: The Operational Need for Targeted Recruitment of First and Second Generation Americans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    after the September 11, 2001 attacks and a number of Special Forces operational detachments trained and advised the Afghan Northern Alliance troops... Cara Wong, “Citizenship for Service: Substitution, Commutation, and “Green Card Troops,” Paper presented at the University of California, Berkeley...law.cornell.edu/uscode/8/1440.html (accessed December 2008). 49 James B. Jacobs, and Leslie Anne Hayes, Aliens in the U.S. Armed Forces (New York: Oxford

  5. Sollims Sampler Targeting Peace & Stability Operations Lessons & Best Practices. Volume 1, Issue 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    training, human trafficking, and civil strife, all of which have damaging spillover effects for the entire world. Second, genocide and mass atrocities...deployed to a conflict or post-conflict area. [ Read More ... ] • The military can be part of a whole-of-government response to threats of genocide and...mass atrocities. Although most militaries do not train specifically for counter- genocide operations, they often have the skills and capabilities to

  6. The Marine Corps Needs a Targeting, Sensors, and Surveillance Systems Operational Integration and Support Team

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-02

    triggerman is probably still close ; lately all IEDs in the area have been initiated via command-wire. The squad leader sets a cordon, ensures an IED 9...Operational Surveillance System (G-BOSS) with a Class IIIb laser pointer. This class of laser requires users to receive a laser safety class...2) The Keyhole kit of surveillance equipment. Designed to provide “snipers with an increased capability to visually detect the enemy emplacing IEDs

  7. An efficiency improvement in warehouse operation using simulation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samattapapong, N.

    2017-11-01

    In general, industry requires an efficient system for warehouse operation. There are many important factors that must be considered when designing an efficient warehouse system. The most important is an effective warehouse operation system that can help transfer raw material, reduce costs and support transportation. By all these factors, researchers are interested in studying about work systems and warehouse distribution. We start by collecting the important data for storage, such as the information on products, information on size and location, information on data collection and information on production, and all this information to build simulation model in Flexsim® simulation software. The result for simulation analysis found that the conveyor belt was a bottleneck in the warehouse operation. Therefore, many scenarios to improve that problem were generated and testing through simulation analysis process. The result showed that an average queuing time was reduced from 89.8% to 48.7% and the ability in transporting the product increased from 10.2% to 50.9%. Thus, it can be stated that this is the best method for increasing efficiency in the warehouse operation.

  8. Space Operations Analysis Using the Synergistic Engineering Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angster, Scott; Brewer, Laura

    2002-01-01

    The Synergistic Engineering Environment has been under development at the NASA Langley Research Center to aid in the understanding of the operations of spacecraft. This is accomplished through the integration of multiple data sets, analysis tools, spacecraft geometric models, and a visualization environment to create an interactive virtual simulation of the spacecraft. Initially designed to support the needs of the International Space Station, the SEE has broadened the scope to include spacecraft ranging from low-earth orbit to deep space missions. Analysis capabilities within the SEE include rigid body dynamics, kinematics, orbital mechanics, and payload operations. This provides the user the ability to perform real-time interactive engineering analyses in areas including flight attitudes and maneuvers, visiting vehicle docking scenarios, robotic operations, plume impingement, field of view obscuration, and alternative assembly configurations. The SEE has been used to aid in the understanding of several operational procedures related to the International Space Station. This paper will address the capabilities of the first build of the SEE, present several use cases of the SEE, and discuss the next build of the SEE.

  9. ILC TARGET WHEEL RIM FRAGMENT/GUARD PLATE IMPACT ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Hagler, L

    2008-07-17

    A positron source component is needed for the International Linear Collider Project. The leading design concept for this source is a rotating titanium alloy wheel whose spokes rotate through an intense localized magnetic field. The system is composed of an electric motor, flexible motor/drive-shaft coupling, stainless steel drive-shaft, two Plumber's Block tapered roller bearings, a titanium alloy target wheel, and electromagnet. Surrounding the target wheel and magnet is a steel frame with steel guarding plates intended to contain shrapnel in case of catastrophic wheel failure. Figure 1 is a layout of this system (guard plates not shown for clarity). Thismore » report documents the FEA analyses that were performed at LLNL to help determine, on a preliminary basis, the required guard plate thickness for three potential plate steels.« less

  10. Discomfort analysis in computerized numeric control machine operations.

    PubMed

    Muthukumar, Krishnamoorthy; Sankaranarayanasamy, Krishnasamy; Ganguli, Anindya Kumar

    2012-06-01

    The introduction of computerized numeric control (CNC) technology in manufacturing industries has revolutionized the production process, but there are some health and safety problems associated with these machines. The present study aimed to investigate the extent of postural discomfort in CNC machine operators, and the relationship of this discomfort to the display and control panel height, with a view to validate the anthropometric recommendation for the location of the display and control panel in CNC machines. The postural discomforts associated with CNC machines were studied in 122 male operators using Corlett and Bishop's body part discomfort mapping, subject information, and discomfort level at various time intervals from starting to end of a shift. This information was collected using a questionnaire. Statistical analysis was carried out using ANOVA. Neck discomfort due to the positioning of the machine displays, and shoulder and arm discomfort due to the positioning of controls were identified as common health issues in the operators of these machines. The study revealed that 45.9% of machine operators reported discomfort in the lower back, 41.8% in the neck, 22.1% in the upper-back, 53.3% in the shoulder and arm, and 21.3% of the operators reported discomfort in the leg. Discomfort increased with the progress of the day and was highest at the end of a shift; subject age had no effect on patient tendency to experience discomfort levels.

  11. Discomfort Analysis in Computerized Numeric Control Machine Operations

    PubMed Central

    Sankaranarayanasamy, Krishnasamy; Ganguli, Anindya Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The introduction of computerized numeric control (CNC) technology in manufacturing industries has revolutionized the production process, but there are some health and safety problems associated with these machines. The present study aimed to investigate the extent of postural discomfort in CNC machine operators, and the relationship of this discomfort to the display and control panel height, with a view to validate the anthropometric recommendation for the location of the display and control panel in CNC machines. Methods The postural discomforts associated with CNC machines were studied in 122 male operators using Corlett and Bishop's body part discomfort mapping, subject information, and discomfort level at various time intervals from starting to end of a shift. This information was collected using a questionnaire. Statistical analysis was carried out using ANOVA. Results Neck discomfort due to the positioning of the machine displays, and shoulder and arm discomfort due to the positioning of controls were identified as common health issues in the operators of these machines. The study revealed that 45.9% of machine operators reported discomfort in the lower back, 41.8% in the neck, 22.1% in the upper-back, 53.3% in the shoulder and arm, and 21.3% of the operators reported discomfort in the leg. Conclusion Discomfort increased with the progress of the day and was highest at the end of a shift; subject age had no effect on patient tendency to experience discomfort levels. PMID:22993720

  12. Critical analysis of submerged membrane sequencing batch reactor operating conditions.

    PubMed

    McAdam, Ewan; Judd, Simon J; Gildemeister, René; Drews, Anja; Kraume, Matthias

    2005-10-01

    To evaluate the Submerged Membrane Sequencing Batch Reactor process, several short-term studies were conducted to define critical flux, membrane aeration and intermittent filtration operation. Critical flux trials indicated that as mixed liquor suspended solids increased in concentration so would the propensity for membrane fouling. Consequently in order to characterise the impact of biomass concentration increase (that develops during permeate withdrawal) upon submerged microfiltration operation, two longer term studies were conducted, one with a falling hydraulic head and another with a continuous hydraulic head (as in membrane bio-reactors). Trans membrane pressure data was used to predict the maximum possible operating periods at 10 and 62 days for the falling hydraulic head and continuous hydraulic head respectively. Further analysis revealed that falling hydraulic head operation would require 21% more aeration to maintain a consistent crossflow velocity than continuous operation and would rely on pumping for full permeate withdrawal 80% earlier. This study concluded that further optimisation would be required to make this technology technically and economically viable.

  13. Compendium of Operations Research and Economic Analysis Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    robots , conveyor belts, etc. are modeled as well. Simulation results indicate that the IMC design for receiving and packing is feasible from a system...Logistics Services Center (DLSC) operation. Benef its were evaluated through analysis of a sample of data from recipients as to the use being made of...Modernization of the DPSC Manufacturing Facility (August 1969) This study explored the feasibility of a proposal to air condition and modernize the

  14. An operational modal analysis method in frequency and spatial domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tong; Zhang, Lingmi; Tamura, Yukio

    2005-12-01

    A frequency and spatial domain decomposition method (FSDD) for operational modal analysis (OMA) is presented in this paper, which is an extension of the complex mode indicator function (CMIF) method for experimental modal analysis (EMA). The theoretical background of the FSDD method is clarified. Singular value decomposition is adopted to separate the signal space from the noise space. Finally, an enhanced power spectrum density (PSD) is proposed to obtain more accurate modal parameters by curve fitting in the frequency domain. Moreover, a simulation case and an application case are used to validate this method.

  15. Wavelet and receiver operating characteristic analysis of heart rate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaffery, G.; Griffith, T. M.; Naka, K.; Frennaux, M. P.; Matthai, C. C.

    2002-02-01

    Multiresolution wavelet analysis has been used to study the heart rate variability in two classes of patients with different pathological conditions. The scale dependent measure of Thurner et al. was found to be statistically significant in discriminating patients suffering from hypercardiomyopathy from a control set of normal subjects. We have performed Receiver Operating Characteristc (ROC) analysis and found the ROC area to be a useful measure by which to label the significance of the discrimination, as well as to describe the severity of heart dysfunction.

  16. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) Model in Operation Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Meilisa; Efendi, Syahril; Zarlis, Muhammad

    2018-01-01

    Quality management is an effective system in operation management to develops, maintains, and improves quality from groups of companies that allow marketing, production, and service at the most economycal level as well as ensuring customer satisfication. Many companies are practicing quality management to improve their bussiness performance. One of performance measurement is through measurement of efficiency. One of the tools can be used to assess efficiency of companies performance is Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The aim of this paper is using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model to assess efficiency of quality management. In this paper will be explained CCR, BCC, and SBM models to assess efficiency of quality management.

  17. Using Operational Analysis to Improve Access to Pulmonary Function Testing.

    PubMed

    Ip, Ada; Asamoah-Barnieh, Raymond; Bischak, Diane P; Davidson, Warren J; Flemons, W Ward; Pendharkar, Sachin R

    2016-01-01

    Background. Timely pulmonary function testing is crucial to improving diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary diseases. Perceptions of poor access at an academic pulmonary function laboratory prompted analysis of system demand and capacity to identify factors contributing to poor access. Methods. Surveys and interviews identified stakeholder perspectives on operational processes and access challenges. Retrospective data on testing demand and resource capacity was analyzed to understand utilization of testing resources. Results. Qualitative analysis demonstrated that stakeholder groups had discrepant views on access and capacity in the laboratory. Mean daily resource utilization was 0.64 (SD 0.15), with monthly average utilization consistently less than 0.75. Reserved testing slots for subspecialty clinics were poorly utilized, leaving many testing slots unfilled. When subspecialty demand exceeded number of reserved slots, there was sufficient capacity in the pulmonary function schedule to accommodate added demand. Findings were shared with stakeholders and influenced scheduling process improvements. Conclusion. This study highlights the importance of operational data to identify causes of poor access, guide system decision-making, and determine effects of improvement initiatives in a variety of healthcare settings. Importantly, simple operational analysis can help to improve efficiency of health systems with little or no added financial investment.

  18. Analysis on singular spaces: Lie manifolds and operator algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nistor, Victor

    2016-07-01

    We discuss and develop some connections between analysis on singular spaces and operator algebras, as presented in my sequence of four lectures at the conference Noncommutative geometry and applications, Frascati, Italy, June 16-21, 2014. Therefore this paper is mostly a survey paper, but the presentation is new, and there are included some new results as well. In particular, Sections 3 and 4 provide a complete short introduction to analysis on noncompact manifolds that is geared towards a class of manifolds-called ;Lie manifolds; -that often appears in practice. Our interest in Lie manifolds is due to the fact that they provide the link between analysis on singular spaces and operator algebras. The groupoids integrating Lie manifolds play an important background role in establishing this link because they provide operator algebras whose structure is often well understood. The initial motivation for the work surveyed here-work that spans over close to two decades-was to develop the index theory of stratified singular spaces. Meanwhile, several other applications have emerged as well, including applications to Partial Differential Equations and Numerical Methods. These will be mentioned only briefly, however, due to the lack of space. Instead, we shall concentrate on the applications to Index theory.

  19. A Validated Task Analysis of the Single Pilot Operations Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolter, Cynthia A.; Gore, Brian F.

    2015-01-01

    The current day flight deck operational environment consists of a two-person Captain/First Officer crew. A concept of operations (ConOps) to reduce the commercial cockpit to a single pilot from the current two pilot crew is termed Single Pilot Operations (SPO). This concept has been under study by researchers in the Flight Deck Display Research Laboratory (FDDRL) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Ames (Johnson, Comerford, Lachter, Battiste, Feary, and Mogford, 2012) and researchers from Langley Research Centers (Schutte et al., 2007). Transitioning from a two pilot crew to a single pilot crew will undoubtedly require changes in operational procedures, crew coordination, use of automation, and in how the roles and responsibilities of the flight deck and ATC are conceptualized in order to maintain the high levels of safety expected of the US National Airspace System. These modifications will affect the roles and the subsequent tasks that are required of the various operators in the NextGen environment. The current report outlines the process taken to identify and document the tasks required by the crew according to a number of operational scenarios studied by the FDDRL between the years 2012-2014. A baseline task decomposition has been refined to represent the tasks consistent with a new set of entities, tasks, roles, and responsibilities being explored by the FDDRL as the move is made towards SPO. Information from Subject Matter Expert interviews, participation in FDDRL experimental design meetings, and study observation was used to populate and refine task sets that were developed as part of the SPO task analyses. The task analysis is based upon the proposed ConOps for the third FDDRL SPO study. This experiment possessed nine different entities operating in six scenarios using a variety of SPO-related automation and procedural activities required to guide safe and efficient aircraft operations. The task analysis presents the roles and

  20. Targeting ligand-operated chaperone sigma-1 receptors in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Teruo, Hayashi; Shang-Yi, Tsai; Tomohisa, Mori; Michiko, Fujimoto; Tsung-Ping, Su

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Current conventional therapeutic drugs for the treatment of psychiatric or neurodegenerative disorders have certain limitations of use. Psychotherapeutic drugs such as typical and atypical antipsychotics, tricyclic antidepressants, and selective monoamine reuptake inhibitors, aim to normalize the hyper- or hypo-neurotransmission of monoaminergic systems. Despite their great contribution to the outcomes of psychiatric patients, these agents often exert severe side effects and require chronic treatments to promote amelioration of symptoms. Furthermore, drugs available for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders are severely limited. Areas covered This review discusses recent evidence that has shed light on sigma-1 receptor ligands, which may serve as a new class of antidepressants or neuroprotective agents. Sigma-1 receptors are novel ligand-operated molecular chaperones regulating a variety of signal transduction, ER stress, cellular redox, cellular survival, and synaptogenesis. Selective sigma-1 receptor ligands exert rapid antidepressant-like, anxiolytic, antinociceptive and robust neuroprotective actions in preclinical studies. The review also looks at recent studies which suggest that reactive oxygen species might play a crucial role as signal integrators at the downstream of Sig-1Rs Expert opinion The significant advances in sigma receptor research in the last decade have begun to elucidate the intracellular signal cascades upstream and downstream of sigma-1 receptors. The novel ligand-operated properties of the sigma-1 receptor chaperone may enable a variety of interventions by which stress-related cellular systems are pharmacologically controlled. PMID:21375464

  1. Space Operations Center System Analysis: Requirements for a Space Operations Center, revision A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    The system and program requirements for a space operations center as defined by systems analysis studies are presented as a guide for future study and systems definition. Topics covered include general requirements for safety, maintainability, and reliability, service and habitat modules, the health maintenance facility; logistics modules; the docking tunnel; and subsystem requirements (structures, electrical power, environmental control/life support; extravehicular activity; data management; communications and tracking; docking/berthing; flight control/propulsion; and crew support). Facilities for flight support, construction, satellite and mission servicing, and fluid storage are included as well as general purpose support equipment.

  2. Target-based optimization of advanced gravitational-wave detector network operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szölgyén, Á.; Dálya, G.; Gondán, L.; Raffai, P.

    2017-04-01

    We introduce two novel time-dependent figures of merit for both online and offline optimizations of advanced gravitational-wave (GW) detector network operations with respect to (i) detecting continuous signals from known source locations and (ii) detecting GWs of neutron star binary coalescences from known local galaxies, which thereby have the highest potential for electromagnetic counterpart detection. For each of these scientific goals, we characterize an N-detector network, and all its (N  -  1)-detector subnetworks, to identify subnetworks and individual detectors (key contributors) that contribute the most to achieving the scientific goal. Our results show that aLIGO-Hanford is expected to be the key contributor in 2017 to the goal of detecting GWs from the Crab pulsar within the network of LIGO and Virgo detectors. For the same time period and for the same network, both LIGO detectors are key contributors to the goal of detecting GWs from the Vela pulsar, as well as to detecting signals from 10 high interest pulsars. Key contributors to detecting continuous GWs from the Galactic Center can only be identified for finite time intervals within each sidereal day with either the 3-detector network of the LIGO and Virgo detectors in 2017, or the 4-detector network of the LIGO, Virgo, and KAGRA detectors in 2019-2020. Characterization of the LIGO-Virgo detectors with respect to goal (ii) identified the two LIGO detectors as key contributors. Additionally, for all analyses, we identify time periods within a day when lock losses or scheduled service operations could result with the least amount of signal-to-noise or transient detection probability loss for a detector network.

  3. A combined experimental and numerical approach for the control and monitoring of the SPES target during operation at high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballan, Michele; Manzolaro, Mattia; Meneghetti, Giovanni; Andrighetto, Alberto; Monetti, Alberto; Bisoffi, Giovanni; Prete, Gianfranco

    2016-06-01

    The SPES project at INFN-LNL aims at the production of neutron-rich Radioactive Ion Beams (RIBs) using the ISOL (Isotope Separation On Line) technique. A 40 MeV 200 μA proton beam will directly impinge a uranium carbide target, generating approximately 1013 fissions per second. The target system is installed under vacuum inside a water-cooled chamber, and have to maintain high working temperatures, close to 2000 °C. During operation the proton beam provides the heating power required to keep the target at the desired temperature level. As a consequence, its characteristics have to be strictly controlled in order to avoid undesired overheating. According to the original design of the control system, the proton beam can be suddenly interrupted in case of out of range vacuum or cooling water flow levels. With the aim to improve the reliability of the control system a set of temperature sensors has been installed close to the target. Their types and installation positions were defined taking into consideration the detailed information coming from a dedicated thermal-electric model that allowed to investigate the most critical and inaccessible target hot-spots. This work is focused on the definition and experimental validation of the aforementioned numerical model. Its results were used to appropriately install two type C thermocouples, a PT100 thermo-resistance and a residual primary beam current detector. In addition the numerical model will be used for the definition of appropriate thresholds for each installed temperature sensor, since it allows to define a relationship between the locally measured values with the overall calculated temperature field. In case of over temperatures the monitoring system will send warning signals or in case interrupt the proton beam.

  4. Characterization of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets using PIXE, RBS, and STIM analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongqiang; Liu, Xue; Li, Xinyi; Liu, Yiyang; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Min; Shen, Hao

    2013-08-01

    Quality control of the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target in the laser fusion program is vital to ensure that energy deposition from the lasers results in uniform compression and minimization of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. The technique of nuclear microscopy with ion beam analysis is a powerful method to provide characterization of ICF targets. Distribution of elements, depth profile, and density image of ICF targets can be identified by particle-induced X-ray emission, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, and scanning transmission ion microscopy. We present examples of ICF target characterization by nuclear microscopy at Fudan University in order to demonstrate their potential impact in assessing target fabrication processes.

  5. Enhancing Electromagnetic Side-Channel Analysis in an Operational Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montminy, David P.

    Side-channel attacks exploit the unintentional emissions from cryptographic devices to determine the secret encryption key. This research identifies methods to make attacks demonstrated in an academic environment more operationally relevant. Algebraic cryptanalysis is used to reconcile redundant information extracted from side-channel attacks on the AES key schedule. A novel thresholding technique is used to select key byte guesses for a satisfiability solver resulting in a 97.5% success rate despite failing for 100% of attacks using standard methods. Two techniques are developed to compensate for differences in emissions from training and test devices dramatically improving the effectiveness of cross device template attacks. Mean and variance normalization improves same part number attack success rates from 65.1% to 100%, and increases the number of locations an attack can be performed by 226%. When normalization is combined with a novel technique to identify and filter signals in collected traces not related to the encryption operation, the number of traces required to perform a successful attack is reduced by 85.8% on average. Finally, software-defined radios are shown to be an effective low-cost method for collecting side-channel emissions in real-time, eliminating the need to modify or profile the target encryption device to gain precise timing information.

  6. Working session 5: Operational aspects and risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cizelj, L.; Donoghue, J.

    1997-02-01

    A general observation is that both operational aspects and risk analysis cannot be adequately discussed without information presented in other sessions. Some overlap of conclusions and recommendations is therefore to be expected. Further, it was assumed that recommendations concerning improvements in some related topics were generated by other sessions and are not repeated here. These include: (1) Knowledge on degradation mechanisms (initiation, progression, and failure). (2) Modeling of degradation (initiation, progression, and failure). (3) Capabilities of NDE methods. (4) Preventive maintenance and repair. One should note here, however, that all of these directly affect both operational and risk aspects ofmore » affected plants. A list of conclusions and recommendations is based on available presentations and discussions addressing risk and operational experience. The authors aimed at reaching as broad a consensus as possible. It should be noted here that there is no strict delineation between operational and safety aspects of degradation of steam generator tubes. This is caused by different risk perceptions in different countries/societies. The conclusions and recommendations were divided into four broad groups: human reliability; leakage monitoring; risk impact; and consequence assessment.« less

  7. Operational modal analysis applied to the concert harp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chomette, B.; Le Carrou, J.-L.

    2015-05-01

    Operational modal analysis (OMA) methods are useful to extract modal parameters of operating systems. These methods seem to be particularly interesting to investigate the modal basis of string instruments during operation to avoid certain disadvantages due to conventional methods. However, the excitation in the case of string instruments is not optimal for OMA due to the presence of damped harmonic components and low noise in the disturbance signal. Therefore, the present study investigates the least-square complex exponential (LSCE) and the modified least-square complex exponential methods in the case of a string instrument to identify modal parameters of the instrument when it is played. The efficiency of the approach is experimentally demonstrated on a concert harp excited by some of its strings and the two methods are compared to a conventional modal analysis. The results show that OMA allows us to identify modes particularly present in the instrument's response with a good estimation especially if they are close to the excitation frequency with the modified LSCE method.

  8. Grafting polyethylenimine with quinoline derivatives for targeted imaging of intracellular Zn(2+) and logic gate operations.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yi; Shi, Yupeng; Chen, Junying; Wong, Chap-Mo; Zhang, Heng; Li, Mei-Jin; Li, Cheuk-Wing; Yi, Changqing

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a highly sensitive and selective fluorescent Zn(2+) probe which exhibited excellent biocompatibility, water solubility, and cell-membrane permeability, was facilely synthesized in a single step by grafting polyethyleneimine (PEI) with quinoline derivatives. The primary amino groups in the branched PEI can increase water solubility and cell permeability of the probe PEIQ, while quinoline derivatives can specifically recognize Zn(2+) and reduce the potential cytotoxicity of PEI. Basing on fluorescence off-on mechanism, PEIQ demonstrated excellent sensing capability towards Zn(2+) in absolute aqueous solution, where a high sensitivity with a detection limit as low as 38.1nM, and a high selectivity over competing metal ions and potential interfering amino acids, were achieved. Inspired by these results, elementary logic operations (YES, NOT and INHIBIT) have been constructed by employing PEIQ as the gate while Zn(2+) and EDTA as chemical inputs. Together with the low cytotoxicity and good cell-permeability, the practical application of PEIQ in living cell imaging was satisfactorily demonstrated, emphasizing its wide application in fundamental biology research. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. [Brazilian psychosocial and operational research vis-à-vis the UNGASS targets].

    PubMed

    Bastos, Francisco Inácio; Hacker, Mariana A

    2006-04-01

    Items from the UNGASS Draft Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS (2001) are analyzed. The Brazilian experience of new methods for testing and counseling among vulnerable populations, preventive methods controlled by women, prevention, psychosocial support for people living with HIV/AIDS, and mother-child transmission, is discussed. These items were put into operation in the form of keywords, in systematic searches within the standard biomedicine databases, also including the subdivisions of the Web of Science relating to natural and social sciences. The Brazilian experience relating to testing and counseling strategies has been consolidated through the utilization of algorithms aimed at estimating incidence rates and identifying recently infected individuals, testing and counseling for pregnant women, and application of quick tests. The introduction of alternative methods and new technologies for collecting data from vulnerable populations has been allowing speedy monitoring of the epidemic. Psychosocial support assessments for people living with HIV/AIDS have gained impetus in Brazil, probably as a result of increased survival and quality of life among these individuals. Substantial advances in controlling mother-child transmission have been observed. This is one of the most important victories within the field of HIV/AIDS in Brazil, but deficiencies in prenatal care still constitute a challenge. With regard to prevention methods for women, Brazil has only shown a halting response. Widespread implementation of new technologies for data gathering and management depends on investments in infrastructure and professional skills acquisition.

  10. Landing and Population Hazard Analysis for Stardust Entry in Operations and Entry Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tooley, Jeffrey; Desai, Prasun N.; Lynos, Daniel T.; Hirst, Edward A.; Wahl, Tom E.; Wawrzyniak, Georffery G.

    2006-01-01

    Stardust is a comet sample return mission that successfully returned to Earth on January 15, 2006. Stardust's targeted landing area was the Utah Test and Training Range in the Northwest corner of Utah. Requirements for the risks associated with landing were levied on Stardust by the Utah Test and Training Range and NASA. This paper describes the analysis to verify that these requirements were met and and includes calculation of debris survivability, generation of landing site selection plots, and identification of keep-out zones, as well as appropriate selection of the landing site. Operationally the risk requirements were all met for both of the GOMO-GO polls, so entry was authorized.

  11. Study 2.6 operations analysis mission characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, R. R.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of the current operations concepts of NASA and DoD is presented to determine if alternatives exist which may improve the utilization of resources. The final product is intended to show how sensitive these ground rules and design approaches are relative to the total cost of doing business. The results are comparative in nature, and assess one concept against another as opposed to establishing an absolute cost value for program requirements. An assessment of the mission characteristics is explained to clarify the intent, scope, and direction of this effort to improve the understanding of what is to be accomplished. The characterization of missions is oriented toward grouping missions which may offer potential economic benefits by reducing overall program costs. Program costs include design, development, testing, and engineering, recurring unit costs for logistic vehicles, payload costs. and direct operating costs.

  12. A gap analysis of meteorological requirements for commercial space operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapleton, Nicholas James

    Commercial space companies will soon be the primary method of launching people and supplies into orbit. Among the critical aspects of space launches are the meteorological concerns. Laws and regulations pertaining to meteorological considerations have been created to ensure the safety of the space industry and those living around spaceports; but, are they adequate? Perhaps the commercial space industry can turn to the commercial aviation industry to help answer that question. Throughout its history, the aviation industry has dealt with lessons learned from mishaps due to failures in understanding the significance of weather impacts on operations. Using lessons from the aviation industry, the commercial space industry can preempt such accidents and maintain viability as an industry. Using Lanicci's Strategic Planning Model, this study identified the weather needs of the commercial space industry by conducting three gap analyses. First, a comparative analysis was done between laws and regulations in commercial aviation and those in the commercial space industry pertaining to meteorological support, finding a "legislative gap" between the two industries, as no legal guarantee is in place to ensure weather products remain available to the commercial space industry. A second analysis was conducted between the meteorological services provided for the commercial aviation industry and commercial space industry, finding a gap at facilities not located at an established launch facility or airport. At such facilities, many weather observational technologies would not be present, and would need to be purchased by the company operating the spaceport facility. A third analysis was conducted between the meteorological products and regulations that are currently in existence, and those needed for safe operations within the commercial space industry, finding gaps in predicting lightning, electric field charge, and space weather. Recommendations to address these deficiencies have

  13. Kinetic analysis of the effects of target structure on siRNA efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiawen; Zhang, Wenbing

    2012-12-01

    RNAi efficiency for target cleavage and protein expression is related to the target structure. Considering the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) as a multiple turnover enzyme, we investigated the effect of target mRNA structure on siRNA efficiency with kinetic analysis. The 4-step model was used to study the target cleavage kinetic process: hybridization nucleation at an accessible target site, RISC-mRNA hybrid elongation along with mRNA target structure melting, target cleavage, and enzyme reactivation. At this model, the terms accounting for the target accessibility, stability, and the seed and the nucleation site effects are all included. The results are in good agreement with that of experiments which show different arguments about the structure effects on siRNA efficiency. It shows that the siRNA efficiency is influenced by the integrated factors of target's accessibility, stability, and the seed effects. To study the off-target effects, a simple model of one siRNA binding to two mRNA targets was designed. By using this model, the possibility for diminishing the off-target effects by the concentration of siRNA was discussed.

  14. Analysis of space tug operating techniques. Volume 2: Study results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design requirements for space tug systems and cost analysis of the refurbishment phases are discussed. The vehicle is an integral propulsion stage using liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen as propellants and is capable of operating either as a fully or a partially autonomous vehicle. Structural features are an integral liquid hydrogen tank, a liquid oxygen tank, a meteoroid shield, an aft conical docking and structural support ring, and a staged combustion main engine. The vehicle is constructed of major modules for ease of maintenance. Line drawings and block diagrams are included to explain the maintenance requirements for the subsystems.

  15. SPECIAL ANALYSIS OF OPERATIONAL STORMWATER RUNOFF COVERS OVER SLIT TRENCHES

    SciTech Connect

    Collard, L; Luther Hamm, L

    2008-12-18

    Solid Waste Management (SWM) commissioned this Special Analysis (SA) to determine the effects of placing operational stormwater runoff covers (referred to as covers in the remainder of this document) over slit trench (ST) disposal units ST1 through ST7 (the center set of slit trenches). Previously the United States Department of Energy (DOE) entered into an agreement with the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) to place covers over Slit Trenches 1 and 2 to be able to continue disposing Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) solid wastemore » (see USDOE 2008). Because the covers changed the operating conditions, DOE Order 435.1 (DOE 1999) required that an SA be performed to assess the impact. This Special Analysis has been prepared to determine the effects of placing covers over slit trenches at about years 5, 10 and 15 of the 30-year operational period. Because some slit trenches have already been operational for about 15 years, results from analyzing covers at 5 years and 10 years provide trend analysis information only. This SA also examined alternatives of covering Slit Trenches 1 and 2 with one cover and Slit Trenches 3 and 4 with a second cover versus covering them all with a single cover. Based on modeling results, minimal differences exist between covering Slit Trench groups 1-2 and 3-4 with two covers or one large cover. This SA demonstrates that placement of covers over slit trenches will slow the subsequent release and transport of radionuclides in the vadose zone in the early time periods (from time of placement until about 100 years). Release and transport of some radionuclides in the vadose zone beyond 100 years were somewhat higher than for the case without covers. The sums-of-fractions (SOFs) were examined for the current waste inventory in ST1 and ST2 and for estimated inventories at closure for ST3 through ST7. In

  16. Hazardous-waste analysis plan for LLNL operations

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R.S.

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is involved in many facets of research ranging from nuclear weapons research to advanced Biomedical studies. Approximately 80% of all programs at LLNL generate hazardous waste in one form or another. Aside from producing waste from industrial type operations (oils, solvents, bottom sludges, etc.) many unique and toxic wastes are generated such as phosgene, dioxin (TCDD), radioactive wastes and high explosives. One key to any successful waste management program must address the following: proper identification of the waste, safe handling procedures and proper storage containers and areas. This section of the Waste Management Plan willmore » address methodologies used for the Analysis of Hazardous Waste. In addition to the wastes defined in 40 CFR 261, LLNL and Site 300 also generate radioactive waste not specifically covered by RCRA. However, for completeness, the Waste Analysis Plan will address all hazardous waste.« less

  17. Lay Worker Health Literacy: A Concept Analysis and Operational Definition.

    PubMed

    Cadman, Kathleen Paco

    2017-10-01

    The concept of lay worker health literacy is created by concurrently analyzing and synthesizing two intersecting concepts, lay workers and health literacy. Articulation of this unique intersection is the result of implementing a simplified Wilson's Concept Analysis Procedure. This process incorporates the following components: a) selecting a concept, b) determining the aims/purposes of analysis, c) identifying all uses of the concept, d) determining defining attributes, e) identifying a model case, f) identifying borderline, related, contrary, and illegitimate cases, g) identifying antecedents and consequences, and h) defining empirical referents. Furthermore, as current literature provides no operational definition for lay worker health literacy, one is created to contribute cohesion to the concept. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Progress in Operational Analysis of Launch Vehicles in Nonstationary Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, George; Kaouk, Mo; Cao, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents recent results in an ongoing effort to understand and develop techniques to process launch vehicle data, which is extremely challenging for modal parameter identification. The primary source of difficulty is due to the nonstationary nature of the situation. The system is changing, the environment is not steady, and there is an active control system operating. Hence, the primary tool for producing clean operational results (significant data lengths and data averaging) is not available to the user. This work reported herein uses a correlation-based two step operational modal analysis approach to process the relevant data sets for understanding and development of processes. A significant drawback for such processing of short time histories is a series of beating phenomena due to the inability to average out random modal excitations. A recursive correlation process coupled to a new convergence metric (designed to mitigate the beating phenomena) is the object of this study. It has been found in limited studies that this process creates clean modal frequency estimates but numerically alters the damping.

  19. Measurements and Analysis of Reverberation, Target Echo, and Clutter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-30

    for Problem 11 (isospeed water). Beyond a few seconds there is excellent agreement between the normal mode (NOGRP and CSNAP), ray (SAFFIRE), and energy...the reverberation, so energy flux or ray -based models are more realistic. More detailed analysis is being developed for a journal paper. 3...comparison of ray , normal-mode, and energy flux results for reverberation in a Pekeris waveguide,” to be presented at special session on Underwater

  20. CFD analysis of laboratory scale phase equilibrium cell operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jama, Mohamed Ali; Nikiforow, Kaj; Qureshi, Muhammad Saad; Alopaeus, Ville

    2017-10-01

    For the modeling of multiphase chemical reactors or separation processes, it is essential to predict accurately chemical equilibrium data, such as vapor-liquid or liquid-liquid equilibria [M. Šoóš et al., Chem. Eng. Process.: Process Intensif. 42(4), 273-284 (2003)]. The instruments used in these experiments are typically designed based on previous experiences, and their operation verified based on known equilibria of standard components. However, mass transfer limitations with different chemical systems may be very different, potentially falsifying the measured equilibrium compositions. In this work, computational fluid dynamics is utilized to design and analyze laboratory scale experimental gas-liquid equilibrium cell for the first time to augment the traditional analysis based on plug flow assumption. Two-phase dilutor cell, used for measuring limiting activity coefficients at infinite dilution, is used as a test case for the analysis. The Lagrangian discrete model is used to track each bubble and to study the residence time distribution of the carrier gas bubbles in the dilutor cell. This analysis is necessary to assess whether the gas leaving the cell is in equilibrium with the liquid, as required in traditional analysis of such apparatus. Mass transfer for six different bio-oil compounds is calculated to determine the approach equilibrium concentration. Also, residence times assuming plug flow and ideal mixing are used as reference cases to evaluate the influence of mixing on the approach to equilibrium in the dilutor. Results show that the model can be used to predict the dilutor operating conditions for which each of the studied gas-liquid systems reaches equilibrium.

  1. CFD analysis of laboratory scale phase equilibrium cell operation.

    PubMed

    Jama, Mohamed Ali; Nikiforow, Kaj; Qureshi, Muhammad Saad; Alopaeus, Ville

    2017-10-01

    For the modeling of multiphase chemical reactors or separation processes, it is essential to predict accurately chemical equilibrium data, such as vapor-liquid or liquid-liquid equilibria [M. Šoóš et al., Chem. Eng. Process Intensif. 42(4), 273-284 (2003)]. The instruments used in these experiments are typically designed based on previous experiences, and their operation verified based on known equilibria of standard components. However, mass transfer limitations with different chemical systems may be very different, potentially falsifying the measured equilibrium compositions. In this work, computational fluid dynamics is utilized to design and analyze laboratory scale experimental gas-liquid equilibrium cell for the first time to augment the traditional analysis based on plug flow assumption. Two-phase dilutor cell, used for measuring limiting activity coefficients at infinite dilution, is used as a test case for the analysis. The Lagrangian discrete model is used to track each bubble and to study the residence time distribution of the carrier gas bubbles in the dilutor cell. This analysis is necessary to assess whether the gas leaving the cell is in equilibrium with the liquid, as required in traditional analysis of such apparatus. Mass transfer for six different bio-oil compounds is calculated to determine the approach equilibrium concentration. Also, residence times assuming plug flow and ideal mixing are used as reference cases to evaluate the influence of mixing on the approach to equilibrium in the dilutor. Results show that the model can be used to predict the dilutor operating conditions for which each of the studied gas-liquid systems reaches equilibrium.

  2. Risk analysis for autonomous underwater vehicle operations in extreme environments.

    PubMed

    Brito, Mario Paulo; Griffiths, Gwyn; Challenor, Peter

    2010-12-01

    Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) are used increasingly to explore hazardous marine environments. Risk assessment for such complex systems is based on subjective judgment and expert knowledge as much as on hard statistics. Here, we describe the use of a risk management process tailored to AUV operations, the implementation of which requires the elicitation of expert judgment. We conducted a formal judgment elicitation process where eight world experts in AUV design and operation were asked to assign a probability of AUV loss given the emergence of each fault or incident from the vehicle's life history of 63 faults and incidents. After discussing methods of aggregation and analysis, we show how the aggregated risk estimates obtained from the expert judgments were used to create a risk model. To estimate AUV survival with mission distance, we adopted a statistical survival function based on the nonparametric Kaplan-Meier estimator. We present theoretical formulations for the estimator, its variance, and confidence limits. We also present a numerical example where the approach is applied to estimate the probability that the Autosub3 AUV would survive a set of missions under Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica in January-March 2009. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  3. Model validity and frequency band selection in operational modal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Au, Siu-Kui

    2016-12-01

    Experimental modal analysis aims at identifying the modal properties (e.g., natural frequencies, damping ratios, mode shapes) of a structure using vibration measurements. Two basic questions are encountered when operating in the frequency domain: Is there a mode near a particular frequency? If so, how much spectral data near the frequency can be included for modal identification without incurring significant modeling error? For data with high signal-to-noise (s/n) ratios these questions can be addressed using empirical tools such as singular value spectrum. Otherwise they are generally open and can be challenging, e.g., for modes with low s/n ratios or close modes. In this work these questions are addressed using a Bayesian approach. The focus is on operational modal analysis, i.e., with 'output-only' ambient data, where identification uncertainty and modeling error can be significant and their control is most demanding. The approach leads to 'evidence ratios' quantifying the relative plausibility of competing sets of modeling assumptions. The latter involves modeling the 'what-if-not' situation, which is non-trivial but is resolved by systematic consideration of alternative models and using maximum entropy principle. Synthetic and field data are considered to investigate the behavior of evidence ratios and how they should be interpreted in practical applications.

  4. Mission Analysis, Operations, and Navigation Toolkit Environment (Monte) Version 040

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunseri, Richard F.; Wu, Hsi-Cheng; Evans, Scott E.; Evans, James R.; Drain, Theodore R.; Guevara, Michelle M.

    2012-01-01

    Monte is a software set designed for use in mission design and spacecraft navigation operations. The system can process measurement data, design optimal trajectories and maneuvers, and do orbit determination, all in one application. For the first time, a single software set can be used for mission design and navigation operations. This eliminates problems due to different models and fidelities used in legacy mission design and navigation software. The unique features of Monte 040 include a blowdown thruster model for GRAIL (Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory) with associated pressure models, as well as an updated, optimalsearch capability (COSMIC) that facilitated mission design for ARTEMIS. Existing legacy software lacked the capabilities necessary for these two missions. There is also a mean orbital element propagator and an osculating to mean element converter that allows long-term orbital stability analysis for the first time in compiled code. The optimized trajectory search tool COSMIC allows users to place constraints and controls on their searches without any restrictions. Constraints may be user-defined and depend on trajectory information either forward or backwards in time. In addition, a long-term orbit stability analysis tool (morbiter) existed previously as a set of scripts on top of Monte. Monte is becoming the primary tool for navigation operations, a core competency at JPL. The mission design capabilities in Monte are becoming mature enough for use in project proposals as well as post-phase A mission design. Monte has three distinct advantages over existing software. First, it is being developed in a modern paradigm: object- oriented C++ and Python. Second, the software has been developed as a toolkit, which allows users to customize their own applications and allows the development team to implement requirements quickly, efficiently, and with minimal bugs. Finally, the software is managed in accordance with the CMMI (Capability Maturity Model

  5. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR DETECTION AND QUANTIFICATION OF TARGET ANALYTES BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY (GC/MS) (SOP-5.24)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This standard operating procedure describes the method used for the determination of target analytes in sample extracts and related quality assurance/quality control sample extracts generated in the CTEPP study.

  6. Targeted methods for quantitative analysis of protein glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Radoslav; Sanda, Miloslav

    2018-01-01

    Quantification of proteins by LC-MS/MS-MRM has become a standard method with broad projected clinical applicability. MRM quantification of protein modifications is, however, far less utilized, especially in the case of glycoproteins. This review summarizes current methods for quantitative analysis of protein glycosylation with a focus on MRM methods. We describe advantages of this quantitative approach, analytical parameters that need to be optimized to achieve reliable measurements, and point out the limitations. Differences between major classes of N- and O-glycopeptides are described and class-specific glycopeptide assays are demonstrated. PMID:25522218

  7. Orbital operations study. Volume 2: Interfacing activities analysis. Part 4: Support operations activity group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinwachs, W. L.; Patrick, J. W.; Galvin, D. M.; Turkel, S. H.

    1972-01-01

    The findings of the support operations activity group of the orbital operations study are presented. Element interfaces, alternate approaches, design concepts, operational procedures, functional requirements, design influences, and approach selection are presented. The following areas are considered: (1) crew transfer, (2) cargo transfer, (3) propellant transfer, (4) attached element operations, and (5) attached element transport.

  8. Targeted Approach for Proteomic Analysis of a Hidden Membrane Protein.

    PubMed

    Martins-Marques, Tania; Anjo, Sandra I; Ribeiro-Rodrigues, Teresa; Manadas, Bruno; Girao, Henrique

    2017-01-01

    Given the properties of plasma membrane proteins, namely, their hydrophobicity, low solubility, and high resistance to digestion and extraction, their identification by traditional mass spectrometry (MS) has been a challenging task. Hence, proteomic studies involving the transmembrane protein connexin43 (Cx43) are scarce. Additionally, studies demonstrating the presence of proteins embedded in the lipid bilayer of extracellular vesicles (EVs) are difficult to perform and require specific changes and fine adjustments in the experimental and technical procedure to allow their detection by MS. In this review, we provide a detailed description of the protocol we have used to detect Cx43 in EVs of human peripheral blood. This includes some of the modifications that we have introduced in order to improve the detection of Cx43 in EVs, including an optimization of vesicle isolation, Cx43 purification, MS acquisition data, and further analysis.

  9. Multiresidue pesticide analysis in ginseng and spinach by nontargeted and targeted screening procedures.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Douglas G; Wong, Jon W; Zhang, Kai; Chang, James; Shi, Feng; Banerjee, Kaushik; Yang, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Five different mass spectrometers interfaced to GC or LC were evaluated for their application to targeted and nontargeted screening of pesticides in two foods, spinach and ginseng. The five MS systems were capillary GC/MS/MS, GC-high resolution time-of-flight (GC/HR-TOF)-MS, TOF-MS interfaced with a comprehensive multidimensional GC (GCxGC/TOF-MS), an MS/MS ion trap hybrid mass (qTrap) system interfaced with an ultra-performance liquid chromatograph (UPLC-qTrap), and UPLC interfaced to an orbital trap high resolution mass spectrometer (UPLC/Orbitrap HR-MS). Each MS system was tested with spinach and ginseng extracts prepared through a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) procedure. Each matrix was fortified at 10 and 50 ng/g for spinach or 25 and 100 ng/g for ginseng with subsets of 486 pesticides, isomers, and metabolites representing most pesticide classes. HR-TOF-MS was effective in a targeted search for characteristic accurate mass ions and identified 97% of 170 pesticides in ginseng at 25 ng/g. A targeted screen of either ginseng or spinach found 94-95% of pesticides fortified for analysis at 10 ng/g with GC/MS/MS or LC/MS/MS using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) procedures. Orbitrap-MS successfully found 89% of 177 fortified pesticides in spinach at 25 ng/g using a targeted search of accurate mass pseudomolecular ions in the positive electrospray ionization mode. A comprehensive GCxGC/TOF-MS system provided separation and identification of 342 pesticides and metabolites in a single 32 min acquisition with standards. Only 67 or 81% of the pesticides were identified in ginseng and spinach matrixes at 25 ng/g or 10 ng/g, respectively. MS/MS or qTrap-MS operated in the MRM mode produced the lowest false-negative rates, at 10 ng/g. Improvements to instrumentation, methods, and software are needed for efficient use of nontargeted screens in parallel with triple quadrupole MS.

  10. Surgeon specialization and operative mortality in United States: retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Sahni, Nikhil R; Dalton, Maurice; Cutler, David M; Birkmeyer, John D; Chandra, Amitabh

    2016-07-21

     To measure the association between a surgeon's degree of specialization in a specific procedure and patient mortality.  Retrospective analysis of Medicare data.  US patients aged 66 or older enrolled in traditional fee for service Medicare.  25 152 US surgeons who performed one of eight procedures (carotid endarterectomy, coronary artery bypass grafting, valve replacement, abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, lung resection, cystectomy, pancreatic resection, or esophagectomy) on 695 987 patients in 2008-13.  Relative risk reduction in risk adjusted and volume adjusted 30 day operative mortality between surgeons in the bottom quarter and top quarter of surgeon specialization (defined as the number of times the surgeon performed the specific procedure divided by his/her total operative volume across all procedures).  For all four cardiovascular procedures and two out of four cancer resections, a surgeon's degree of specialization was a significant predictor of operative mortality independent of the number of times he or she performed that procedure: carotid endarterectomy (relative risk reduction between bottom and top quarter of surgeons 28%, 95% confidence interval 0% to 48%); coronary artery bypass grafting (15%, 4% to 25%); valve replacement (46%, 37% to 53%); abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (42%, 29% to 53%); lung resection (28%, 5% to 46%); and cystectomy (41%, 8% to 63%). In five procedures (carotid endarterectomy, valve replacement, lung resection, cystectomy, and esophagectomy), the relative risk reduction from surgeon specialization was greater than that from surgeon volume for that specific procedure. Furthermore, surgeon specialization accounted for 9% (coronary artery bypass grafting) to 100% (cystectomy) of the relative risk reduction otherwise attributable to volume in that specific procedure.  For several common procedures, surgeon specialization was an important predictor of operative mortality independent of volume in that specific

  11. Surgeon specialization and operative mortality in United States: retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Maurice; Cutler, David M; Birkmeyer, John D; Chandra, Amitabh

    2016-01-01

    Objective To measure the association between a surgeon’s degree of specialization in a specific procedure and patient mortality. Design Retrospective analysis of Medicare data. Setting US patients aged 66 or older enrolled in traditional fee for service Medicare. Participants 25 152 US surgeons who performed one of eight procedures (carotid endarterectomy, coronary artery bypass grafting, valve replacement, abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, lung resection, cystectomy, pancreatic resection, or esophagectomy) on 695 987 patients in 2008-13. Main outcome measure Relative risk reduction in risk adjusted and volume adjusted 30 day operative mortality between surgeons in the bottom quarter and top quarter of surgeon specialization (defined as the number of times the surgeon performed the specific procedure divided by his/her total operative volume across all procedures). Results For all four cardiovascular procedures and two out of four cancer resections, a surgeon’s degree of specialization was a significant predictor of operative mortality independent of the number of times he or she performed that procedure: carotid endarterectomy (relative risk reduction between bottom and top quarter of surgeons 28%, 95% confidence interval 0% to 48%); coronary artery bypass grafting (15%, 4% to 25%); valve replacement (46%, 37% to 53%); abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (42%, 29% to 53%); lung resection (28%, 5% to 46%); and cystectomy (41%, 8% to 63%). In five procedures (carotid endarterectomy, valve replacement, lung resection, cystectomy, and esophagectomy), the relative risk reduction from surgeon specialization was greater than that from surgeon volume for that specific procedure. Furthermore, surgeon specialization accounted for 9% (coronary artery bypass grafting) to 100% (cystectomy) of the relative risk reduction otherwise attributable to volume in that specific procedure. Conclusion For several common procedures, surgeon specialization was an important predictor

  12. Targeted mutation analysis of endometrial clear cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Lien N; McConechy, Melissa K; Meng, Bo; McIntyre, John B; Ewanowich, Carol; Gilks, Cyril Blake; Huntsman, David G; Köbel, Martin; Lee, Cheng-Han

    2015-04-01

    Endometrial clear cell carcinomas (CCC) constitute fewer than 5% of all carcinomas of the endometrium. Currently, little is known regarding the genetic basis of endometrial CCC. We performed genomic and immunohistochemical analyses on 14 rigorously reviewed pure endometrial CCC. The genomic analysis consisted of sequencing the coding regions of 26 genes implicated previously in endometrial carcinoma. Twelve of 14 tumours displayed a prototypical CCC immunophenotype [napsin A+, hepatocyte nuclear factor-1β (HNF1β(+) ) and oestrogen receptor(-) ] and all showed intact mismatch repair protein expression. We detected mutations in 11 of 14 tumours, and there was a predominance of mutations involving genes that are mutated more frequently in endometrial serous carcinomas than in endometrioid carcinomas. Two tumours displayed a prototypical serous carcinoma mutation profile (concurrent TP53 and PPP2R1A mutations, without PTEN, CTNNB1 or ARID1A mutation). No mutations in PTEN, CTNNB1 or POLE were identified. The overall mutation profile of this cohort of endometrial CCC appears to be more serous-like than endometrioid-like, with a minor subset in the TP53-mutated CCC showing serous carcinoma profile. These findings provide new insights into the molecular features of morphologically prototypical endometrial CCC, and underscore the need for further investigations into the oncogenesis of endometrial CCC. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Drug Target Mining and Analysis of the Chinese Tree Shrew for Pharmacological Testing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Lee, Wen-hui; Zhang, Yun

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of new drugs requires the development of improved animal models for drug testing. The Chinese tree shrew is considered to be a realistic candidate model. To assess the potential of the Chinese tree shrew for pharmacological testing, we performed drug target prediction and analysis on genomic and transcriptomic scales. Using our pipeline, 3,482 proteins were predicted to be drug targets. Of these predicted targets, 446 and 1,049 proteins with the highest rank and total scores, respectively, included homologs of targets for cancer chemotherapy, depression, age-related decline and cardiovascular disease. Based on comparative analyses, more than half of drug target proteins identified from the tree shrew genome were shown to be higher similarity to human targets than in the mouse. Target validation also demonstrated that the constitutive expression of the proteinase-activated receptors of tree shrew platelets is similar to that of human platelets but differs from that of mouse platelets. We developed an effective pipeline and search strategy for drug target prediction and the evaluation of model-based target identification for drug testing. This work provides useful information for future studies of the Chinese tree shrew as a source of novel targets for drug discovery research. PMID:25105297

  14. Drug target identification using network analysis: Taking active components in Sini decoction as an example

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Si; Jiang, Hailong; Cao, Yan; Wang, Yun; Hu, Ziheng; Zhu, Zhenyu; Chai, Yifeng

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the molecular targets for the beneficial effects of active small-molecule compounds simultaneously is an important and currently unmet challenge. In this study, we firstly proposed network analysis by integrating data from network pharmacology and metabolomics to identify targets of active components in sini decoction (SND) simultaneously against heart failure. To begin with, 48 potential active components in SND against heart failure were predicted by serum pharmacochemistry, text mining and similarity match. Then, we employed network pharmacology including text mining and molecular docking to identify the potential targets of these components. The key enriched processes, pathways and related diseases of these target proteins were analyzed by STRING database. At last, network analysis was conducted to identify most possible targets of components in SND. Among the 25 targets predicted by network analysis, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) was firstly experimentally validated in molecular and cellular level. Results indicated that hypaconitine, mesaconitine, higenamine and quercetin in SND can directly bind to TNF-α, reduce the TNF-α-mediated cytotoxicity on L929 cells and exert anti-myocardial cell apoptosis effects. We envisage that network analysis will also be useful in target identification of a bioactive compound. PMID:27095146

  15. Drug target identification using network analysis: Taking active components in Sini decoction as an example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Si; Jiang, Hailong; Cao, Yan; Wang, Yun; Hu, Ziheng; Zhu, Zhenyu; Chai, Yifeng

    2016-04-01

    Identifying the molecular targets for the beneficial effects of active small-molecule compounds simultaneously is an important and currently unmet challenge. In this study, we firstly proposed network analysis by integrating data from network pharmacology and metabolomics to identify targets of active components in sini decoction (SND) simultaneously against heart failure. To begin with, 48 potential active components in SND against heart failure were predicted by serum pharmacochemistry, text mining and similarity match. Then, we employed network pharmacology including text mining and molecular docking to identify the potential targets of these components. The key enriched processes, pathways and related diseases of these target proteins were analyzed by STRING database. At last, network analysis was conducted to identify most possible targets of components in SND. Among the 25 targets predicted by network analysis, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) was firstly experimentally validated in molecular and cellular level. Results indicated that hypaconitine, mesaconitine, higenamine and quercetin in SND can directly bind to TNF-α, reduce the TNF-α-mediated cytotoxicity on L929 cells and exert anti-myocardial cell apoptosis effects. We envisage that network analysis will also be useful in target identification of a bioactive compound.

  16. Identifying target processes for microbial electrosynthesis by elementary mode analysis.

    PubMed

    Kracke, Frauke; Krömer, Jens O

    2014-12-30

    Microbial electrosynthesis and electro fermentation are techniques that aim to optimize microbial production of chemicals and fuels by regulating the cellular redox balance via interaction with electrodes. While the concept is known for decades major knowledge gaps remain, which make it hard to evaluate its biotechnological potential. Here we present an in silico approach to identify beneficial production processes for electro fermentation by elementary mode analysis. Since the fundamentals of electron transport between electrodes and microbes have not been fully uncovered yet, we propose different options and discuss their impact on biomass and product yields. For the first time 20 different valuable products were screened for their potential to show increased yields during anaerobic electrically enhanced fermentation. Surprisingly we found that an increase in product formation by electrical enhancement is not necessarily dependent on the degree of reduction of the product but rather the metabolic pathway it is derived from. We present a variety of beneficial processes with product yield increases of maximal 36% in reductive and 84% in oxidative fermentations and final theoretical product yields up to 100%. This includes compounds that are already produced at industrial scale such as succinic acid, lysine and diaminopentane as well as potential novel bio-commodities such as isoprene, para-hydroxybenzoic acid and para-aminobenzoic acid. Furthermore, it is shown that the way of electron transport has major impact on achievable biomass and product yields. The coupling of electron transport to energy conservation could be identified as crucial for most processes. This study introduces a powerful tool to determine beneficial substrate and product combinations for electro-fermentation. It also highlights that the maximal yield achievable by bio electrochemical techniques depends strongly on the actual electron transport mechanisms. Therefore it is of great importance to

  17. Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Jesse L. M.; Norton, Anderson; Boyce, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has documented schemes and operations that undergird students' understanding of fractions. This prior research was based, in large part, on small-group teaching experiments. However, written assessments are needed in order for teachers and researchers to assess students' ways of operating on a whole-class scale. In this study,…

  18. Analysis of information systems for hydropower operations: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohn, R. L.; Becker, L.; Estes, J.; Simonett, D.; Yeh, W.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis was performed of the operations of hydropower systems, with emphasis on water resource management, to determine how aerospace derived information system technologies can effectively increase energy output. Better utilization of water resources was sought through improved reservoir inflow forecasting based on use of hydrometeorologic information systems with new or improved sensors, satellite data relay systems, and use of advanced scheduling techniques for water release. Specific mechanisms for increased energy output were determined, principally the use of more timely and accurate short term (0-7 days) inflow information to reduce spillage caused by unanticipated dynamic high inflow events. The hydrometeorologic models used in predicting inflows were examined in detail to determine the sensitivity of inflow prediction accuracy to the many variables employed in the models, and the results were used to establish information system requirements. Sensor and data handling system capabilities were reviewed and compared to the requirements, and an improved information system concept was outlined.

  19. Orion Rendezvous, Proximity Operations, and Docking Design and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Souza, Christopher; Hanak, F. Chad; Spehar, Pete; Clark, Fred D.; Jackson, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The Orion vehicle will be required to perform rendezvous, proximity operations, and docking with the International Space Station (ISS) and the Earth Departure Stage (EDS)/Lunar Landing Vehicle (LLV) stack in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) as well as with the Lunar Landing Vehicle in Low Lunar Orbit (LLO). The RPOD system, which consists of sensors, actuators, and software is being designed to be flexible and robust enough to perform RPOD with different vehicles in different environments. This paper will describe the design and the analysis which has been performed to date to allow the vehicle to perform its mission. Since the RPOD design touches on many areas such as sensors selection and placement, trajectory design, navigation performance, and effector performance, it is inherently a systems design problem. This paper will address each of these issues in order to demonstrate how the Orion RPOD has been designed to accommodate and meet all the requirements levied on the system.

  20. Bayesian operational modal analysis of Jiangyin Yangtze River Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brownjohn, James Mark William; Au, Siu-Kui; Zhu, Yichen; Sun, Zhen; Li, Binbin; Bassitt, James; Hudson, Emma; Sun, Hongbin

    2018-09-01

    Vibration testing of long span bridges is becoming a commissioning requirement, yet such exercises represent the extreme of experimental capability, with challenges for instrumentation (due to frequency range, resolution and km-order separation of sensor) and system identification (because of the extreme low frequencies). The challenge with instrumentation for modal analysis is managing synchronous data acquisition from sensors distributed widely apart inside and outside the structure. The ideal solution is precisely synchronised autonomous recorders that do not need cables, GPS or wireless communication. The challenge with system identification is to maximise the reliability of modal parameters through experimental design and subsequently to identify the parameters in terms of mean values and standard errors. The challenge is particularly severe for modes with low frequency and damping typical of long span bridges. One solution is to apply 'third generation' operational modal analysis procedures using Bayesian approaches in both the planning and analysis stages. The paper presents an exercise on the Jiangyin Yangtze River Bridge, a suspension bridge with a 1385 m main span. The exercise comprised planning of a test campaign to optimise the reliability of operational modal analysis, the deployment of a set of independent data acquisition units synchronised using precision oven controlled crystal oscillators and the subsequent identification of a set of modal parameters in terms of mean and variance errors. Although the bridge has had structural health monitoring technology installed since it was completed, this was the first full modal survey, aimed at identifying important features of the modal behaviour rather than providing fine resolution of mode shapes through the whole structure. Therefore, measurements were made in only the (south) tower, while torsional behaviour was identified by a single measurement using a pair of recorders across the carriageway. The

  1. Assessment of Oco-2 Target Mode Vulnerability Against Horizontal Variability of Surface Reflectivity Neglected in the Operational Forward Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, A. B.; Qu, Z.

    2014-12-01

    The main goal of NASA's OCO-2 mission is to perform XCO2 column measurements from space with an unprecedented (~1 ppm) precision and accuracy that will enable modelers to globally map CO2 sources and sinks. To achieve this goal, the mission is critically dependent on XCO2product validation that, in turn, is highly dependent on successful use of OCO-2's "target mode" data acquisition. In target mode, OCO-2 rotates in such a way that, as long as it is above the horizon, it looks at a Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) station equipped with a powerful Fourier Transform spectrometer. TCCON stations measure, among other things, XCO2by looking straight at the Sun. This translates to a far simpler forward model for TCCON than for OCO-2. In the ideal world, OCO-2's spectroscopic signals result from the cumulative gaseous absorption for one direct transmission of sunlight to the ground (like for TCCON), followed by one diffuse reflection, and one direct transmission to the instrument—at a variety of viewing angles in traget mode. In the real world, all manner of multiple surface reflections and/or scatterings contribute to the signal. See figure. In the idealized world of the OCO-2 operational forward model (used in nadir, glint and target modes), the horizontal variability of the scattering atmosphere and reflecting surface are ignored, leading to the adoption of a 1D vector radiative transfer (vRT) model. This is the source of forward model error that we are investigating, with a focus on target mode. In principle, atmospheric variability in the horizontal plane—largely due to clouds—can be avoided by careful screening. Also, it is straightforward to account for angular variability of the surface reflection model in the 1D vRT framework. But it is not clear how unavoidable horizontal variations of the surface reflectivity affects the OCO-2 signal, even if the reflection was isotropic (Lambertian). To characterize this OCO-2 "adjacency" effect, we use a

  2. Connectome analysis for pre-operative brain mapping in neurosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Michael G.; Price, Stephen J.; Suckling, John

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Object: Brain mapping has entered a new era focusing on complex network connectivity. Central to this is the search for the connectome or the brains ‘wiring diagram’. Graph theory analysis of the connectome allows understanding of the importance of regions to network function, and the consequences of their impairment or excision. Our goal was to apply connectome analysis in patients with brain tumours to characterise overall network topology and individual patterns of connectivity alterations. Methods: Resting-state functional MRI data were acquired using multi-echo, echo planar imaging pre-operatively from five participants each with a right temporal–parietal–occipital glioblastoma. Complex networks analysis was initiated by parcellating the brain into anatomically regions amongst which connections were identified by retaining the most significant correlations between the respective wavelet decomposed time-series. Results: Key characteristics of complex networks described in healthy controls were preserved in these patients, including ubiquitous small world organization. An exponentially truncated power law fit to the degree distribution predicted findings of general network robustness to injury but with a core of hubs exhibiting disproportionate vulnerability. Tumours produced a consistent reduction in local and long-range connectivity with distinct patterns of connection loss depending on lesion location. Conclusions: Connectome analysis is a feasible and novel approach to brain mapping in individual patients with brain tumours. Applications to pre-surgical planning include identifying regions critical to network function that should be preserved and visualising connections at risk from tumour resection. In the future one could use such data to model functional plasticity and recovery of cognitive deficits. PMID:27447756

  3. Whole-Genome Thermodynamic Analysis Reduces siRNA Off-Target Effects

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xi; Liu, Peng; Chou, Hui-Hsien

    2013-01-01

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are important tools for knocking down targeted genes, and have been widely applied to biological and biomedical research. To design siRNAs, two important aspects must be considered: the potency in knocking down target genes and the off-target effect on any nontarget genes. Although many studies have produced useful tools to design potent siRNAs, off-target prevention has mostly been delegated to sequence-level alignment tools such as BLAST. We hypothesize that whole-genome thermodynamic analysis can identify potential off-targets with higher precision and help us avoid siRNAs that may have strong off-target effects. To validate this hypothesis, two siRNA sets were designed to target three human genes IDH1, ITPR2 and TRIM28. They were selected from the output of two popular siRNA design tools, siDirect and siDesign. Both siRNA design tools have incorporated sequence-level screening to avoid off-targets, thus their output is believed to be optimal. However, one of the sets we tested has off-target genes predicted by Picky, a whole-genome thermodynamic analysis tool. Picky can identify off-target genes that may hybridize to a siRNA within a user-specified melting temperature range. Our experiments validated that some off-target genes predicted by Picky can indeed be inhibited by siRNAs. Similar experiments were performed using commercially available siRNAs and a few off-target genes were also found to be inhibited as predicted by Picky. In summary, we demonstrate that whole-genome thermodynamic analysis can identify off-target genes that are missed in sequence-level screening. Because Picky prediction is deterministic according to thermodynamics, if a siRNA candidate has no Picky predicted off-targets, it is unlikely to cause off-target effects. Therefore, we recommend including Picky as an additional screening step in siRNA design. PMID:23484018

  4. Comparative Analysis of Predicted Plastid-Targeted Proteomes of Sequenced Higher Plant Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Schaeffer, Scott; Harper, Artemus; Raja, Rajani; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Dhingra, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Plastids are actively involved in numerous plant processes critical to growth, development and adaptation. They play a primary role in photosynthesis, pigment and monoterpene synthesis, gravity sensing, starch and fatty acid synthesis, as well as oil, and protein storage. We applied two complementary methods to analyze the recently published apple genome (Malus × domestica) to identify putative plastid-targeted proteins, the first using TargetP and the second using a custom workflow utilizing a set of predictive programs. Apple shares roughly 40% of its 10,492 putative plastid-targeted proteins with that of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plastid-targeted proteome as identified by the Chloroplast 2010 project and ∼57% of its entire proteome with Arabidopsis. This suggests that the plastid-targeted proteomes between apple and Arabidopsis are different, and interestingly alludes to the presence of differential targeting of homologs between the two species. Co-expression analysis of 2,224 genes encoding putative plastid-targeted apple proteins suggests that they play a role in plant developmental and intermediary metabolism. Further, an inter-specific comparison of Arabidopsis, Prunus persica (Peach), Malus × domestica (Apple), Populus trichocarpa (Black cottonwood), Fragaria vesca (Woodland Strawberry), Solanum lycopersicum (Tomato) and Vitis vinifera (Grapevine) also identified a large number of novel species-specific plastid-targeted proteins. This analysis also revealed the presence of alternatively targeted homologs across species. Two separate analyses revealed that a small subset of proteins, one representing 289 protein clusters and the other 737 unique protein sequences, are conserved between seven plastid-targeted angiosperm proteomes. Majority of the novel proteins were annotated to play roles in stress response, transport, catabolic processes, and cellular component organization. Our results suggest that the current state of knowledge regarding

  5. Identification and analysis of potential targets in Streptococcus sanguinis using computer aided protein data analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Md Rabiul Hossain; Bhuiyan, Md IqbalKaiser; Saha, Ayan; Mosleh, Ivan MHAI; Mondol, Sobuj; Ahmed, C M Sabbir

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Streptococcus sanguinis is a Gram-positive, facultative aerobic bacterium that is a member of the viridans streptococcus group. It is found in human mouths in dental plaque, which accounts for both dental cavities and bacterial endocarditis, and which entails a mortality rate of 25%. Although a range of remedial mediators have been found to control this organism, the effectiveness of agents such as penicillin, amoxicillin, trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole, and erythromycin, was observed. The emphasis of this investigation was on finding substitute and efficient remedial approaches for the total destruction of this bacterium. Materials and methods In this computational study, various databases and online software were used to ascertain some specific targets of S. sanguinis. Particularly, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases were applied to determine human nonhomologous proteins, as well as the metabolic pathways involved with those proteins. Different software such as Phyre2, CastP, DoGSiteScorer, the Protein Function Predictor server, and STRING were utilized to evaluate the probable active drug binding site with its known function and protein–protein interaction. Results In this study, among 218 essential proteins of this pathogenic bacterium, 81 nonhomologous proteins were accrued, and 15 proteins that are unique in several metabolic pathways of S. sanguinis were isolated through metabolic pathway analysis. Furthermore, four essentially membrane-bound unique proteins that are involved in distinct metabolic pathways were revealed by this research. Active sites and druggable pockets of these selected proteins were investigated with bioinformatic techniques. In addition, this study also mentions the activity of those proteins, as well as their interactions with the other proteins. Conclusion Our findings helped to identify the type of protein to be considered as an efficient drug target. This study will pave the way for researchers to

  6. Identification and analysis of potential targets in Streptococcus sanguinis using computer aided protein data analysis.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Md Rabiul Hossain; Bhuiyan, Md IqbalKaiser; Saha, Ayan; Mosleh, Ivan Mhai; Mondol, Sobuj; Ahmed, C M Sabbir

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus sanguinis is a Gram-positive, facultative aerobic bacterium that is a member of the viridans streptococcus group. It is found in human mouths in dental plaque, which accounts for both dental cavities and bacterial endocarditis, and which entails a mortality rate of 25%. Although a range of remedial mediators have been found to control this organism, the effectiveness of agents such as penicillin, amoxicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and erythromycin, was observed. The emphasis of this investigation was on finding substitute and efficient remedial approaches for the total destruction of this bacterium. In this computational study, various databases and online software were used to ascertain some specific targets of S. sanguinis. Particularly, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases were applied to determine human nonhomologous proteins, as well as the metabolic pathways involved with those proteins. Different software such as Phyre2, CastP, DoGSiteScorer, the Protein Function Predictor server, and STRING were utilized to evaluate the probable active drug binding site with its known function and protein-protein interaction. In this study, among 218 essential proteins of this pathogenic bacterium, 81 nonhomologous proteins were accrued, and 15 proteins that are unique in several metabolic pathways of S. sanguinis were isolated through metabolic pathway analysis. Furthermore, four essentially membrane-bound unique proteins that are involved in distinct metabolic pathways were revealed by this research. Active sites and druggable pockets of these selected proteins were investigated with bioinformatic techniques. In addition, this study also mentions the activity of those proteins, as well as their interactions with the other proteins. Our findings helped to identify the type of protein to be considered as an efficient drug target. This study will pave the way for researchers to develop and discover more effective and specific

  7. Increasing operating room efficiency through electronic medical record analysis.

    PubMed

    Attaallah, A F; Elzamzamy, O M; Phelps, A L; Ranganthan, P; Vallejo, M C

    2016-05-01

    We used electronic medical record (EMR) analysis to determine errors in operating room (OR) time utilisation. Over a two year period EMR data of 44,503 surgical procedures was analysed for OR duration, on-time, first case, and add-on time performance, within 19 surgical specialties. Maximal OR time utilisation at our institution could have saved over 302,620 min or 5,044 hours of OR efficiency over a two year period. Most specialties (78.95%) had inaccurately scheduled procedure times and therefore used the OR more than their scheduled allotment time. Significant differences occurred between the mean scheduled surgical durations (101.38 ± 87.11 min) and actual durations (108.18 ± 102.27 min; P < 0.001). Significant differences also occurred between the mean scheduled add-on durations (111.4 ± 75.5 min) and the actual add-on scheduled durations (118.6 ± 90.1 minutes; P < 0.001). EMR quality improvement analysis can be used to determine scheduling error and bias, in order to improve efficiency and increase OR time utilisation.

  8. Identification of Historical Veziragasi Aqueduct Using the Operational Modal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ercan, E.; Nuhoglu, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a model updating study conducted on a historical aqueduct, called Veziragasi, in Turkey. The output-only modal identification results obtained from ambient vibration measurements of the structure were used to update a finite element model of the structure. For the purposes of developing a solid model of the structure, the dimensions of the structure, defects, and material degradations in the structure were determined in detail by making a measurement survey. For evaluation of the material properties of the structure, nondestructive and destructive testing methods were applied. The modal analysis of the structure was calculated by FEM. Then, a nondestructive dynamic test as well as operational modal analysis was carried out and dynamic properties were extracted. The natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes were determined from both theoretical and experimental modal analyses and compared with each other. A good harmony was attained between mode shapes, but there were some differences between natural frequencies. The sources of the differences were introduced and the FEM model was updated by changing material parameters and boundary conditions. Finally, the real analytical model of the aqueduct was put forward and the results were discussed. PMID:24511287

  9. Safety analysis, 200 Area, Savannah River Plant: Separations area operations

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, W.C.; Lee, R.; Allen, P.M.

    1991-07-01

    The nev HB-Line, located on the fifth and sixth levels of Building 221-H, is designed to replace the aging existing HB-Line production facility. The nev HB-Line consists of three separate facilities: the Scrap Recovery Facility, the Neptunium Oxide Facility, and the Plutonium Oxide Facility. There are three separate safety analyses for the nev HB-Line, one for each of the three facilities. These are issued as supplements to the 200-Area Safety Analysis (DPSTSA-200-10). These supplements are numbered as Sup 2A, Scrap Recovery Facility, Sup 2B, Neptunium Oxide Facility, Sup 2C, Plutonium Oxide Facility. The subject of this safety analysis, the, Plutoniummore » Oxide Facility, will convert nitrate solutions of {sup 238}Pu to plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) powder. All these new facilities incorporate improvements in: (1) engineered barriers to contain contamination, (2) barriers to minimize personnel exposure to airborne contamination, (3) shielding and remote operations to decrease radiation exposure, and (4) equipment and ventilation design to provide flexibility and improved process performance.« less

  10. Spatial analysis of ecosystem service relationships to improve targeting of payments for hydrological services

    PubMed Central

    Manson, Robert H.; Ricketts, Taylor H.; Geissert, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Payment for hydrological services (PHS) are popular tools for conserving ecosystems and their water-related services. However, improving the spatial targeting and impacts of PHS, as well as their ability to foster synergies with other ecosystem services (ES), remain challenging. We aimed at using spatial analyses to evaluate the targeting performance of México’s National PHS program in central Veracruz. We quantified the effectiveness of areas targeted for PHS in actually covering areas of high HS provision and social priority during 2003–2013. First, we quantified provisioning and spatial distributions of two target (water yield and soil retention), and one non-target ES (carbon storage) using InVEST. Subsequently, pairwise relationships among ES were quantified by using spatial correlation and overlap analyses. Finally, we evaluated targeting by: (i) prioritizing areas of individual and overlapping ES; (ii) quantifying spatial co-occurrences of these priority areas with those targeted by PHS; (iii) evaluating the extent to which PHS directly contribute to HS delivery; and (iv), testing if PHS targeted areas disproportionately covered areas with high ecological and social priority. We found that modelled priority areas exhibited non-random distributions and distinct spatial patterns. Our results show significant pairwise correlations between all ES suggesting synergistic relationships. However, our analysis showed a significantly lower overlap than expected and thus significant mismatches between PHS targeted areas and all types of priority areas. These findings suggest that the targeting of areas with high HS provisioning and social priority by Mexico’s PHS program could be improved significantly. This study underscores: (1) the importance of using maps of HS provisioning as main targeting criteria in PHS design to channel payments towards areas that require future conservation, and (2) the need for future research that helps balance ecological and

  11. Sentiment analysis enhancement with target variable in Kumar’s Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arman, A. A.; Kawi, A. B.; Hurriyati, R.

    2016-04-01

    Sentiment analysis (also known as opinion mining) refers to the use of text analysis and computational linguistics to identify and extract subjective information in source materials. Sentiment analysis is widely applied to reviews discussion that is being talked in social media for many purposes, ranging from marketing, customer service, or public opinion of public policy. One of the popular algorithm for Sentiment Analysis implementation is Kumar algorithm that developed by Kumar and Sebastian. Kumar algorithm can identify the sentiment score of the statement, sentence or tweet, but cannot determine the relationship of the object or target related to the sentiment being analysed. This research proposed solution for that challenge by adding additional component that represent object or target to the existing algorithm (Kumar algorithm). The result of this research is a modified algorithm that can give sentiment score based on a given object or target.

  12. Analysis of remote operating systems for space-based servicing operations, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    A two phase study was conducted to analyze and develop the requirements for remote operating systems as applied to space based operations for the servicing, maintenance, and repair of satellites. Phase one consisted of the development of servicing requirements to establish design criteria for remote operating systems. Phase two defined preferred system concepts and development plans which met the requirements established in phase one. The specific tasks in phase two were to: (1) identify desirable operational and conceptual approaches for selected mission scenarios; (2) examine the potential impact of remote operating systems incorporated into the design of the space station; (3) address remote operating systems design issues, such as mobility, which are effected by the space station configuration; and (4) define the programmatic approaches for technology development, testing, simulation, and flight demonstration.

  13. Environmental Assessment for the Installation of New Urban Operation Complex Targets and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Targets for the Nevada Test and Training Range

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    NTTR. The proposed target areas were selected due to topographic requirements for the targets. A canyon area would provide narrow ravines and...south end of the canyon (rim level) exists through R-76. An access road would be developed that extends from the mouth of the canyon south 1.8 to...buildings to represent barracks would be placed off and along the roads. A simulated fence would cross the mouth of the canyon at the north end. The

  14. Store-Operated Calcium Channel Complex in Postsynaptic Spines: A New Therapeutic Target for Alzheimer's Disease Treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Sun, Suya; Wu, Lili; Pchitskaya, Ekaterina; Zakharova, Olga; Fon Tacer, Klementina; Bezprozvanny, Ilya

    2016-11-23

    Mushroom dendritic spine structures are essential for memory storage and the loss of mushroom spines may explain memory defects in aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The stability of mushroom spines depends on stromal interaction molecule 2 (STIM2)-mediated neuronal-store-operated Ca 2+ influx (nSOC) pathway, which is compromised in AD mouse models, in aging neurons, and in sporadic AD patients. Here, we demonstrate that the Transient Receptor Potential Canonical 6 (TRPC6) and Orai2 channels form a STIM2-regulated nSOC Ca 2+ channel complex in hippocampal mushroom spines. We further demonstrate that a known TRPC6 activator, hyperforin, and a novel nSOC positive modulator, NSN21778 (NSN), can stimulate activity of nSOC pathway in the spines and rescue mushroom spine loss in both presenilin and APP knock-in mouse models of AD. We further show that NSN rescues hippocampal long-term potentiation impairment in APP knock-in mouse model. We conclude that the STIM2-regulated TRPC6/Orai2 nSOC channel complex in dendritic mushroom spines is a new therapeutic target for the treatment of memory loss in aging and AD and that NSN is a potential candidate molecule for therapeutic intervention in brain aging and AD. Mushroom dendritic spine structures are essential for memory storage and the loss of mushroom spines may explain memory defects in Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study demonstrated that Transient Receptor Potential Canonical 6 (TRPC6) and Orai2 form stromal interaction molecule 2 (STIM2)-regulated neuronal-store-operated Ca 2+ influx (nSOC) channel complex in hippocampal synapse and the resulting Ca 2+ influx is critical for long-term maintenance of mushroom spines in hippocampal neurons. A novel nSOC-positive modulator, NSN21778 (NSN), rescues mushroom spine loss and synaptic plasticity impairment in AD mice models. The TRPC6/Orai2 nSOC channel complex is a new therapeutic target and NSN is a potential candidate molecule for therapeutic intervention in brain aging

  15. Gait analysis in patients operated on for sacrococcygeal teratoma.

    PubMed

    Zaccara, Antonio; Iacobelli, Barbara D; Adorisio, Ottavio; Petrarca, Maurizio; Di Rosa, Giuseppe; Pierro, Marcello M; Bagolan, Pietro

    2004-06-01

    Long-term follow-up of sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT) is well established; however, little is known about the effects of extensive surgery in the pelvic and perineal region, which involves disruption of muscles providing maximal support in normal walking. Thirteen patients operated on at birth for SCT with extensive muscle dissection underwent gait studies with a Vicon 3-D motion analysis system with 6 cameras. Results were compared with 15 age-matched controls. Statistical analysis was performed with Mann-Whitney test; correlations were sought with Spearman's correlation coefficient. All subjects were independent ambulators, and no statistically significant differences were seen in walking velocity and stride length. However, in all patients, toe-off occurred earlier (at 58% +/- 1.82% of stride length) than controls (at 65.5% +/- 0.52%; P <.05). On kinetics, all patients exhibited, on both limbs, a significant reduction of hip extensory moment (-0.11 +/- 0.11 left; -0.16 +/- 0.15 right v 1.19 +/- 0.08 Newtonmeter/kg; P <.05) and of ankle dorsi/plantar moment (-0.07 +/- 0.09 right; -0.08 +/- 0.16 v -0.15 +/- 0.05 Nm/kg, p < 0.05). Knee power was also significantly reduced (0.44 +/- 0.55 right, 0.63 +/- 0.45 left v 0.04 +/- 0.05 W/kg), whereas ankle power was increased (3 +/- 1.5 right; 2.8 +/- 0.9 left v 1.97 +/- 0.2 W/kg; P <.05). No statistically significant correlation was found between tumor size and either muscle power generation or flexory/extensory moments. Patients operated on for SCT exhibit nearly normal gait patterns. However, this normal pattern is accompanied by abnormal kinetics of some ambulatory muscles, and the extent of these abnormalities appears to be independent of tumor size. A careful follow-up is warranted to verify if such modifications are stable or progress over the years, thereby impairing ambulatory potential or leading to early arthrosis.

  16. Global analysis of bacterial transcription factors to predict cellular target processes.

    PubMed

    Doerks, Tobias; Andrade, Miguel A; Lathe, Warren; von Mering, Christian; Bork, Peer

    2004-03-01

    Whole-genome sequences are now available for >100 bacterial species, giving unprecedented power to comparative genomics approaches. We have applied genome-context methods to predict target processes that are regulated by transcription factors (TFs). Of 128 orthologous groups of proteins annotated as TFs, to date, 36 are functionally uncharacterized; in our analysis we predict a probable cellular target process or biochemical pathway for half of these functionally uncharacterized TFs.

  17. Trace organic chemical pollutants from the lake waters of San Pablo City, Philippines by targeted and non-targeted analysis.

    PubMed

    Dimzon, Ian Ken D; Morata, Ann Selma; Müller, Janine; Yanela, Roy Kristian; Lebertz, Stephan; Weil, Heike; Perez, Teresita R; Müller, Jutta; Dayrit, Fabian M; Knepper, Thomas P

    2018-10-15

    More than half of the freshwater lakes in the Philippines are small with surface areas of <2 km 2 . The dynamics in these lakes are different from those in the bigger lakes. This study was conducted to determine the organic pollutants and their sources in three of the seven lakes of San Pablo City in Laguna, Philippines: lakes Palakpakin, Sampaloc, and Pandin. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Liquid Chromatography - Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were used in the targeted and non-targeted analysis of the lake water samples. The three lakes are all volcanic crater lakes but are exposed to different anthropogenic activities, which includes domestic activities, livelihood (farming and aquaculture) and eco-tourism. Due to the presence of rice fields and fruit plantations, chlorpyrifos was detected in the three lakes while other pesticides like cypermethrin, picolinafen and quinoxyfen were additionally found in Lake Sampaloc, which is the biggest of the three lakes and located within the urbanized section of the city. Traces of different surfactants (linear alkylbenzene sulfonates, secondary alkyl sulfonates, alkyl sulfates, alkyl ether sulfates), biocide benzalkonium chloride, insect repellent diethyltoluamide, antibiotics (sulfadiazine and sulfamethoxazole), hypertension drug telmisartan, phosphate-based fire retardants, and artificial sweeteners (acesulfame, cyclamate, saccharin and sucralose) were detected in lakes Sampaloc and Palakpakin. The same surfactants, artificial sweeteners, insect repellant and phosphate-based fire retardants were also found in Lake Pandin, which is mainly used for eco-tourism activities like swimming and boating. The results of this study suggest that the organic pollutants present in the small lakes can be linked to the various human activities in the immediate lake environment. Because small lakes are more prone to environmental stresses, human activities in the said lakes must be regulated to ensure sustainable

  18. Analysis of conductive target influence in plasma jet experiments through helium metastable and electric field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darny, T.; Pouvesle, J.-M.; Puech, V.; Douat, C.; Dozias, S.; Robert, Eric

    2017-04-01

    The use of cold atmospheric pressure plasma jets for in vivo treatments implies most of the time plasma interaction with conductive targets. The effect of conductive target contact on the discharge behavior is studied here for a grounded metallic target and compared to the free jet configuration. In this work, realized with a plasma gun, we measured helium metastable HeM (23S1) concentration (by laser absorption spectroscopy) and electric field (EF) longitudinal and radial components (by electro-optic probe). Both diagnostics were temporally and spatially resolved. Mechanisms after ionization front impact on the target surface have been identified. The remnant conductive ionized channel behind the ionization front electrically transiently connects the inner high voltage electrode to the target. Due to impedance mismatching between the ionized channel and the target, a secondary ionization front is initiated and rapidly propagates from the target surface to the inner electrode through this ionized channel. This leads to a greatly enhanced HeM production inside the plasma plume and the capillary. Forward and reverse dynamics occur with further multi reflections of more or less damped ionization fronts between the inner electrode and the target as long as the ionized channel is persisting. This phenomenon is very sensitive to parameters such as target distance and ionized channel conductivity affecting electrical coupling between these two and evidenced using positive or negative voltage polarity and nitrogen admixture. In typical operating conditions for the plasma gun used in this work, it has been found that after the secondary ionization front propagation, when the ionized channel is conductive enough, a glow like discharge occurs with strong conduction current. HeM production and all species excitation, especially reactive ones, are then driven by high voltage pulse evolution. The control of forward and reverse dynamics, impacting on the production of the glow

  19. Analysis of trust in autonomy for convoy operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gremillion, Gregory M.; Metcalfe, Jason S.; Marathe, Amar R.; Paul, Victor J.; Christensen, James; Drnec, Kim; Haynes, Benjamin; Atwater, Corey

    2016-05-01

    With growing use of automation in civilian and military contexts that engage cooperatively with humans, the operator's level of trust in the automated system is a major factor in determining the efficacy of the human-autonomy teams. Suboptimal levels of human trust in autonomy (TiA) can be detrimental to joint team performance. This mis-calibrated trust can manifest in several ways, such as distrust and complete disuse of the autonomy or complacency, which results in an unsupervised autonomous system. This work investigates human behaviors that may reflect TiA in the context of an automated driving task, with the goal of improving team performance. Subjects performed a simulated leaderfollower driving task with an automated driving assistant. The subjects had could choose to engage an automated lane keeping and active cruise control system of varying performance levels. Analysis of the experimental data was performed to identify contextual features of the simulation environment that correlated to instances of automation engagement and disengagement. Furthermore, behaviors that potentially indicate inappropriate TiA levels were identified in the subject trials using estimates of momentary risk and agent performance, as functions of these contextual features. Inter-subject and intra-subject trends in automation usage and performance were also identified. This analysis indicated that for poorer performing automation, TiA decreases with time, while higher performing automation induces less drift toward diminishing usage, and in some cases increases in TiA. Subject use of automation was also found to be largely influenced by course features.

  20. Turnaround operations analysis for OTV. Volume 2: Detailed technical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The objectives and accomplishments were to adapt and apply the newly created database of Shuttle/Centaur ground operations. Previously defined turnaround operations analyses were to be updated for ground-based OTVs (GBOTVs) and space-based OTVs (SBOTVs), design requirements identified for both OTV and Space Station accommodations hardware, turnaround operations costs estimated, and a technology development plan generated to develop the required capabilities. Technical and programmatic data were provided for NASA pertinent to OTV round and space operations requirements, turnaround operations, task descriptions, timelines and manpower requirements, OTV modular design and booster and Space Station interface requirements. SBOTV accommodations development schedule, cost and turnaround operations requirements, and a technology development plan for ground and space operations and space-based accommodations facilities and support equipment. Significant conclusion are discussed.

  1. Spectral analysis of difference and differential operators in weighted spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bichegkuev, M. S.

    2013-11-01

    This paper is concerned with describing the spectrum of the difference operator \\displaystyle \\mathscr{K}\\colon l_\\alpha^p( Z,X)\\to l_\\alpha^p( Z......athscr{K}x)(n)=Bx(n-1), \\ \\ n\\in{Z}, \\ \\ x\\in l_\\alpha^p( Z,X), with a constant operator coefficient B, which is a bounded linear operator in a Banach space X. It is assumed that \\mathscr{K} acts in the weighted space l_\\alpha^p( Z,X), 1\\leq p\\leq \\infty, of two-sided sequences of vectors from X. The main results are obtained in terms of the spectrum \\sigma(B) of the operator coefficient B and properties of the weight function. Applications to the study of the spectrum of a differential operator with an unbounded operator coefficient (the generator of a strongly continuous semigroup of operators) in weighted function spaces are given. Bibliography: 23 titles.

  2. Meta-Analysis of PECS with Individuals with ASD: Investigation of Targeted versus Non-Targeted Outcomes, Participant Characteristics, and Implementation Phase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganz, Jennifer B.; Davis, John L.; Lund, Emily M.; Goodwyn, Fara D.; Simpson, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a widely used picture/icon aided augmentative communication system designed for learners with autism and other developmental disorders. This meta-analysis analyzes the extant empirical literature for PECS relative to targeted (functional communication) and non-targeted concomitant outcomes…

  3. Advanced microgrid design and analysis for forward operating bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reasoner, Jonathan

    This thesis takes a holistic approach in creating an improved electric power generation system for a forward operating base (FOB) in the future through the design of an isolated microgrid. After an extensive literature search, this thesis found a need for drastic improvement of the FOB power system. A thorough design process analyzed FOB demand, researched demand side management improvements, evaluated various generation sources and energy storage options, and performed a HOMERRTM discrete optimization to determine the best microgrid design. Further sensitivity analysis was performed to see how changing parameters would affect the outcome. Lastly, this research also looks at some of the challenges which are associated with incorporating a design which relies heavily on inverter-based generation sources, and gives possible solutions to help make a renewable energy powered microgrid a reality. While this thesis uses a FOB as the case study, the process and discussion can be adapted to aide in the design of an off-grid small-scale power grid which utilizes high-penetration levels of renewable energy.

  4. Quantifying and managing uncertainty in operational modal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Au, Siu-Kui; Brownjohn, James M. W.; Mottershead, John E.

    2018-03-01

    Operational modal analysis aims at identifying the modal properties (natural frequency, damping, etc.) of a structure using only the (output) vibration response measured under ambient conditions. Highly economical and feasible, it is becoming a common practice in full-scale vibration testing. In the absence of (input) loading information, however, the modal properties have significantly higher uncertainty than their counterparts identified from free or forced vibration (known input) tests. Mastering the relationship between identification uncertainty and test configuration is of great interest to both scientists and engineers, e.g., for achievable precision limits and test planning/budgeting. Addressing this challenge beyond the current state-of-the-art that are mostly concerned with identification algorithms, this work obtains closed form analytical expressions for the identification uncertainty (variance) of modal parameters that fundamentally explains the effect of test configuration. Collectively referred as 'uncertainty laws', these expressions are asymptotically correct for well-separated modes, small damping and long data; and are applicable under non-asymptotic situations. They provide a scientific basis for planning and standardization of ambient vibration tests, where factors such as channel noise, sensor number and location can be quantitatively accounted for. The work is reported comprehensively with verification through synthetic and experimental data (laboratory and field), scientific implications and practical guidelines for planning ambient vibration tests.

  5. Incorporating operational flexibility into electric generation planning Impacts and methods for system design and policy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmintier, Bryan S.

    This dissertation demonstrates how flexibility in hourly electricity operations can impact long-term planning and analysis for future power systems, particularly those with substantial variable renewables (e.g., wind) or strict carbon policies. Operational flexibility describes a power system's ability to respond to predictable and unexpected changes in generation or demand. Planning and policy models have traditionally not directly captured the technical operating constraints that determine operational flexibility. However, as demonstrated in this dissertation, this capability becomes increasingly important with the greater flexibility required by significant renewables (>= 20%) and the decreased flexibility inherent in some low-carbon generation technologies. Incorporating flexibility can significantly change optimal generation and energy mixes, lower system costs, improve policy impact estimates, and enable system designs capable of meeting strict regulatory targets. Methodologically, this work presents a new clustered formulation that tractably combines a range of normally distinct power system models, from hourly unit-commitment operations to long-term generation planning. This formulation groups similar generators into clusters to reduce problem size, while still retaining the individual unit constraints required to accurately capture operating reserves and other flexibility drivers. In comparisons against traditional unit commitment formulations, errors were generally less than 1% while run times decreased by several orders of magnitude (e.g., 5000x). Extensive numerical simulations, using a realistic Texas-based power system show that ignoring flexibility can underestimate carbon emissions by 50% or result in significant load and wind shedding to meet environmental regulations. Contributions of this dissertation include: 1. Demonstrating that operational flexibility can have an important impact on power system planning, and describing when and how these

  6. EVA worksite analysis--use of computer analysis for EVA operations development and execution.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D

    1999-01-01

    To sustain the rate of extravehicular activity (EVA) required to assemble and maintain the International Space Station, we must enhance our ability to plan, train for, and execute EVAs. An underlying analysis capability has been developed to ensure EVA access to all external worksites as a starting point for ground training, to generate information needed for on-orbit training, and to react quickly to develop contingency EVA plans, techniques, and procedures. This paper describes the use of computer-based EVA worksite analysis techniques for EVA worksite design. EVA worksite analysis has been used to design 80% of EVA worksites on the U.S. portion of the International Space Station. With the launch of the first U.S. element of the station, EVA worksite analysis is being developed further to support real-time analysis of unplanned EVA operations. This paper describes this development and deployment of EVA worksite analysis for International Space Station (ISS) mission support.

  7. Calibration and performance of synchronous SIM/scan mode for simultaneous targeted and discovery (non-targeted) analysis of exhaled breath samples from firefighters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditionally, gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis has used a targeted approach called selected ion monitoring (SIM) to quantify specific compounds that may have adverse health effects. Due to method limitations and the constraints of preparing duplicat...

  8. Compass 2007 data analysis and reporting : operational report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-12-01

    The "Compass" program collects rating data each year to help the Wisconsin Department of Transportation (WisDOT) : understand current infrastructure conditions and trends. The data also helps WisDOT managers set reasonable : maintenance targets that ...

  9. Using cost-effectiveness analysis to evaluate targeting strategies: the case of vitamin A supplementation.

    PubMed

    Loevinsohn, B P; Sutter, R W; Costales, M O

    1997-03-01

    Given the demonstrated efficacy of vitamin A supplements in reducing childhood mortality, health officials now have to decide whether it would be efficient to target the supplements to high risk children. Decisions about targeting are complex because they depend on a number of factors; the degree of clustering of preventable deaths, the cost of the intervention, the side-effects of the intervention, the cost of identifying the high risk group, and the accuracy of the 'diagnosis' of risk. A cost-effectiveness analysis was used in the Philippines to examine whether vitamin A supplements should be given universally to all children 6-59 months, targeted broadly to children suffering from mild, moderate, or severe malnutrition, or targeted narrowly to pre-schoolers with moderate and severe malnutrition. The first year average cost of the universal approach was US$67.21 per death averted compared to $144.12 and $257.20 for the broad and narrow targeting approaches respectively. When subjected to sensitivity analysis the conclusion about the most cost-effective strategy was robust to changes in underlying assumptions such as the efficacy of supplements, clustering of deaths, and toxicity. Targeting vitamin A supplements to high risk children is not an efficient use of resources. Based on the results of this cost-effectiveness analysis and a consideration of alternate strategies, it is apparent that vitamin A, like immunization, should be provided to all pre-schoolers in the developing world. Issues about targeting public health interventions can usefully be addressed by cost-effectiveness analysis.

  10. Transient analysis mode participation for modal survey target mode selection using MSC/NASTRAN DMAP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Alan R.; Ibrahim, Omar M.; Sullivan, Timothy L.; Goodnight, Thomas W.

    1994-01-01

    Many methods have been developed to aid analysts in identifying component modes which contribute significantly to component responses. These modes, typically targeted for dynamic model correlation via a modal survey, are known as target modes. Most methods used to identify target modes are based on component global dynamic behavior. It is sometimes unclear if these methods identify all modes contributing to responses important to the analyst. These responses are usually those in areas of hardware design concerns. One method used to check the completeness of target mode sets and identify modes contributing significantly to important component responses is mode participation. With this method, the participation of component modes in dynamic responses is quantified. Those modes which have high participation are likely modal survey target modes. Mode participation is most beneficial when it is used with responses from analyses simulating actual flight events. For spacecraft, these responses are generated via a structural dynamic coupled loads analysis. Using MSC/NASTRAN DMAP, a method has been developed for calculating mode participation based on transient coupled loads analysis results. The algorithm has been implemented to be compatible with an existing coupled loads methodology and has been used successfully to develop a set of modal survey target modes.

  11. Ground-based characterization of Hayabusa2 mission target asteroid 162173 Ryugu: constraining mineralogical composition in preparation for spacecraft operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Corre, Lucille; Sanchez, Juan A.; Reddy, Vishnu; Takir, Driss; Cloutis, Edward A.; Thirouin, Audrey; Becker, Kris J.; Li, Jian-Yang; Sugita, Seiji; Tatsumi, Eri

    2018-03-01

    Asteroids that are targets of spacecraft missions are interesting because they present us with an opportunity to validate ground-based spectral observations. One such object is near-Earth asteroid (NEA) (162173) Ryugu, which is the target of the Japanese Space Agency's (JAXA) Hayabusa2 sample return mission. We observed Ryugu using the 3-m NASA Infrared Telescope Facility on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, on 2016 July 13 to constrain the object's surface composition, meteorite analogues, and link to other asteroids in the main belt and NEA populations. We also modelled its photometric properties using archival data. Using the Lommel-Seeliger model we computed the predicted flux for Ryugu at a wide range of viewing geometries as well as albedo quantities such as geometric albedo, phase integral, and spherical Bond albedo. Our computed albedo quantities are consistent with results from Ishiguro et al. Our spectral analysis has found a near-perfect match between our spectrum of Ryugu and those of NEA (85275) 1994 LY and Mars-crossing asteroid (316720) 1998 BE7, suggesting that their surface regoliths have similar composition. We compared Ryugu's spectrum with that of main belt asteroid (302) Clarissa, the largest asteroid in the Clarissa asteroid family, suggested as a possible source of Ryugu by Campins et al. We found that the spectrum of Clarissa shows significant differences with our spectrum of Ryugu, but it is similar to the spectrum obtained by Moskovitz et al. The best possible meteorite analogues for our spectrum of Ryugu are two CM2 carbonaceous chondrites, Mighei and ALH83100.

  12. Advances in large, transportable, highly spin-polarized, solid HD targets operable in the frozen-spin mode in a 1-4K temperature environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Aaron Paul

    The development of large, portable highly spin-polarized solid HD targets has been in progress at Syracuse University for the past 5 years. These targets are scheduled for deployment at Brookhaven National Laboratory, bearing the acronym SPHICE (Spin-Polarized Hydrogen Ice), for studies of the electro-magnetic spin structure of the nucleus via scattering of polarized gammas from the HD polarized protons and deuterons. The target work has just reached the milestone demonstration of the complete system, including polarization of triple targets containing 4 moles of solid HD, aging of these targets so that they retain their polarization for months under storage at a temperature of 1.3K and in an 8 Tesla field, and for at least a week at operational conditions of 1.3K and 0.7 Tesla in an in-beam cryostat. Cold-transfers of the polarized targets to a storage cryostat have been successfully carried out, and the storage cryostat has been trucked from Syracuse to BNL with one polarized target, sufficient to test the in-beam operations there. The complete system is presented here, with emphasis on innovations for engagement and disengagement of multiple targets, a solution to the challenge of attaining sufficiently strong RF fields in the large volume probe coils at acceptable power dissipation in the cables, and the polarization production and monitoring in the highly inhomogeneous magnetic fields owing to the multiple targets and the large dimensions of the targets. In this first multiple target production and extraction-to-storage cycle, air-ice accumulation in the dilution refrigerator due to repetitive use of cold sliding o-ring seals resulted in a rupture of one of the inserted targets, and a consequent partial thermal short from a solid HD ice bridge. The o-ring fault was cured with double evacuatable o-ring seals, and the air-ice was successfully cleaned out. However, the refrigerator operating base temperature was substantially higher than that normally obtained

  13. Evolution of egg target size: an analysis of selection on correlated characters.

    PubMed

    Podolsky, R D

    2001-12-01

    In broadcast-spawning marine organisms, chronic sperm limitation should select for traits that improve chances of sperm-egg contact. One mechanism may involve increasing the size of the physical or chemical target for sperm. However, models of fertilization kinetics predict that increasing egg size can reduce net zygote production due to an associated decline in fecundity. An alternate method for increasing physical target size is through addition of energetically inexpensive external structures, such as the jelly coats typical of eggs in species from several phyla. In selection experiments on eggs of the echinoid Dendraster excentricus, in which sperm was used as the agent of selection, eggs with larger overall targets were favored in fertilization. Actual shifts in target size following selection matched quantitative predictions of a model that assumed fertilization was proportional to target size. Jelly volume and ovum volume, two characters that contribute to target size, were correlated both within and among females. A cross-sectional analysis of selection partitioned the independent effects of these characters on fertilization success and showed that they experience similar direct selection pressures. Coupled with data on relative organic costs of the two materials, these results suggest that, under conditions where fertilization is limited by egg target size, selection should favor investment in low-cost accessory structures and may have a relatively weak effect on the evolution of ovum size.

  14. Fractal analysis of seafloor textures for target detection in synthetic aperture sonar imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabelek, T.; Keller, J.; Galusha, A.; Zare, A.

    2018-04-01

    Fractal analysis of an image is a mathematical approach to generate surface related features from an image or image tile that can be applied to image segmentation and to object recognition. In undersea target countermeasures, the targets of interest can appear as anomalies in a variety of contexts, visually different textures on the seafloor. In this paper, we evaluate the use of fractal dimension as a primary feature and related characteristics as secondary features to be extracted from synthetic aperture sonar (SAS) imagery for the purpose of target detection. We develop three separate methods for computing fractal dimension. Tiles with targets are compared to others from the same background textures without targets. The different fractal dimension feature methods are tested with respect to how well they can be used to detect targets vs. false alarms within the same contexts. These features are evaluated for utility using a set of image tiles extracted from a SAS data set generated by the U.S. Navy in conjunction with the Office of Naval Research. We find that all three methods perform well in the classification task, with a fractional Brownian motion model performing the best among the individual methods. We also find that the secondary features are just as useful, if not more so, in classifying false alarms vs. targets. The best classification accuracy overall, in our experimentation, is found when the features from all three methods are combined into a single feature vector.

  15. SSS-A attitude control prelaunch analysis and operations plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werking, R. D.; Beck, J.; Gardner, D.; Moyer, P.; Plett, M.

    1971-01-01

    A description of the attitude control support being supplied by the Mission and Data Operations Directorate is presented. Descriptions of the computer programs being used to support the mission for attitude determination, prediction, control, and definitive attitude processing are included. In addition, descriptions of the operating procedures which will be used to accomplish mission objectives are provided.

  16. Legitimacy as an Operational Factor: An Alternative Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-23

    Napoleon I9 In his book, Operational Warfare, Dr. Milan Vego notes, “All great military leaders had an uncommon ability to...elements of one, or perhaps both, of the remaining factors. 9 Milan Vego, Operational Warfare...44 Ibid., 161. 45 Richard Schultz , In the Aftermath of War (Newport RI: U.S. Naval War College, 2006; reprint, Montgomery, AL: Air University

  17. Analysis of operating reserve demand curves in power system operations in the presence of variable generation

    DOE PAGES

    Krad, Ibrahim; Gao, David Wenzhong; Ela, Erik; ...

    2017-06-07

    The electric power industry landscape is continually evolving. As emerging technologies such as wind and solar generating systems become more cost effective, traditional power system operating strategies will need to be re-evaluated. The presence of wind and solar generation (commonly referred to as variable generation or VG) can increase variability and uncertainty in the net-load profile. One mechanism to mitigate this issue is to schedule and dispatch additional operating reserves. These operating reserves aim to ensure that there is enough capacity online in the system to account for the increased variability and uncertainty occurring at finer temporal resolutions. A newmore » operating reserve strategy, referred to as flexibility reserve, has been introduced in some regions. A similar implementation is explored in this study, and its implications on power system operations are analyzed. Results show that flexibility reserve products can improve economic metrics, particularly in significantly reducing the number of scarcity pricing events, with minimal impacts on reliability metrics and production costs. Furthermore, the production costs increased due to increased VG curtailment - i.e. including the flexible ramping product in the commitment of excess thermal capacity that needed to remain online at the expense of VG output.« less

  18. Analysis of operating reserve demand curves in power system operations in the presence of variable generation

    SciTech Connect

    Krad, Ibrahim; Gao, David Wenzhong; Ela, Erik

    The electric power industry landscape is continually evolving. As emerging technologies such as wind and solar generating systems become more cost effective, traditional power system operating strategies will need to be re-evaluated. The presence of wind and solar generation (commonly referred to as variable generation or VG) can increase variability and uncertainty in the net-load profile. One mechanism to mitigate this issue is to schedule and dispatch additional operating reserves. These operating reserves aim to ensure that there is enough capacity online in the system to account for the increased variability and uncertainty occurring at finer temporal resolutions. A newmore » operating reserve strategy, referred to as flexibility reserve, has been introduced in some regions. A similar implementation is explored in this study, and its implications on power system operations are analyzed. Results show that flexibility reserve products can improve economic metrics, particularly in significantly reducing the number of scarcity pricing events, with minimal impacts on reliability metrics and production costs. Furthermore, the production costs increased due to increased VG curtailment - i.e. including the flexible ramping product in the commitment of excess thermal capacity that needed to remain online at the expense of VG output.« less

  19. Operations planning and analysis handbook for NASA/MSFC phase B development projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, Robert C.

    1986-01-01

    Current operations planning and analysis practices on NASA/MSFC Phase B projects were investigated with the objectives of (1) formalizing these practices into a handbook and (2) suggesting improvements. The study focused on how Science and Engineering (S&E) Operational Personnel support Program Development (PD) Task Teams. The intimate relationship between systems engineering and operations analysis was examined. Methods identified for use by operations analysts during Phase B include functional analysis, interface analysis methods to calculate/allocate such criteria as reliability, Maintainability, and operations and support cost.

  20. Genome-Wide Analysis of miRNA targets in Brachypodium and Biomass Energy Crops

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Pamela J.

    2015-08-11

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) contribute to the control of numerous biological processes through the regulation of specific target mRNAs. Although the identities of these targets are essential to elucidate miRNA function, the targets are much more difficult to identify than the small RNAs themselves. Before this work, we pioneered the genome-wide identification of the targets of Arabidopsis miRNAs using an approach called PARE (German et al., Nature Biotech. 2008; Nature Protocols, 2009). Under this project, we applied PARE to Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), a model plant in the Poaceae family, which includes the major food grain and bioenergy crops. Through in-depth global analysismore » and examination of specific examples, this research greatly expanded our knowledge of miRNAs and target RNAs of Brachypodium. New regulation in response to environmental stress or tissue type was found, and many new miRNAs were discovered. More than 260 targets of new and known miRNAs with PARE sequences at the precise sites of miRNA-guided cleavage were identified and characterized. Combining PARE data with the small RNA data also identified the miRNAs responsible for initiating approximately 500 phased loci, including one of the novel miRNAs. PARE analysis also revealed that differentially expressed miRNAs in the same family guide specific target RNA cleavage in a correspondingly tissue-preferential manner. The project included generation of small RNA and PARE resources for bioenergy crops, to facilitate ongoing discovery of conserved miRNA-target RNA regulation. By associating specific miRNA-target RNA pairs with known physiological functions, the research provides insights about gene regulation in different tissues and in response to environmental stress. This, and release of new PARE and small RNA data sets should contribute basic knowledge to enhance breeding and may suggest new strategies for improvement of biomass energy crops.« less

  1. Analysis of Infrared Signature Variation and Robust Filter-Based Supersonic Target Detection

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Sun-Gu; Kim, Kyung-Tae

    2014-01-01

    The difficulty of small infrared target detection originates from the variations of infrared signatures. This paper presents the fundamental physics of infrared target variations and reports the results of variation analysis of infrared images acquired using a long wave infrared camera over a 24-hour period for different types of backgrounds. The detection parameters, such as signal-to-clutter ratio were compared according to the recording time, temperature and humidity. Through variation analysis, robust target detection methodologies are derived by controlling thresholds and designing a temporal contrast filter to achieve high detection rate and low false alarm rate. Experimental results validate the robustness of the proposed scheme by applying it to the synthetic and real infrared sequences. PMID:24672290

  2. Targeted Analysis of Whole Genome Sequence Data to Diagnose Genetic Cardiomyopathy

    DOE PAGES

    Golbus, Jessica R.; Puckelwartz, Megan J.; Dellefave-Castillo, Lisa; ...

    2014-09-01

    Background—Cardiomyopathy is highly heritable but genetically diverse. At present, genetic testing for cardiomyopathy uses targeted sequencing to simultaneously assess the coding regions of more than 50 genes. New genes are routinely added to panels to improve the diagnostic yield. With the anticipated $1000 genome, it is expected that genetic testing will shift towards comprehensive genome sequencing accompanied by targeted gene analysis. Therefore, we assessed the reliability of whole genome sequencing and targeted analysis to identify cardiomyopathy variants in 11 subjects with cardiomyopathy. Methods and Results—Whole genome sequencing with an average of 37× coverage was combined with targeted analysis focused onmore » 204 genes linked to cardiomyopathy. Genetic variants were scored using multiple prediction algorithms combined with frequency data from public databases. This pipeline yielded 1-14 potentially pathogenic variants per individual. Variants were further analyzed using clinical criteria and/or segregation analysis. Three of three previously identified primary mutations were detected by this analysis. In six subjects for whom the primary mutation was previously unknown, we identified mutations that segregated with disease, had clinical correlates, and/or had additional pathological correlation to provide evidence for causality. For two subjects with previously known primary mutations, we identified additional variants that may act as modifiers of disease severity. In total, we identified the likely pathological mutation in 9 of 11 (82%) subjects. We conclude that these pilot data demonstrate that ~30-40× coverage whole genome sequencing combined with targeted analysis is feasible and sensitive to identify rare variants in cardiomyopathy-associated genes.« less

  3. Spectral analysis of difference and differential operators in weighted spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Bichegkuev, M S

    2013-11-30

    This paper is concerned with describing the spectrum of the difference operator K:l{sub α}{sup p}(Z,X)→l{sub α}{sup p}(Z......athscrKx)(n)=Bx(n−1),  n∈Z,  x∈l{sub α}{sup p}(Z,X), with a constant operator coefficient B, which is a bounded linear operator in a Banach space X. It is assumed that K acts in the weighted space l{sub α}{sup p}(Z,X), 1≤p≤∞, of two-sided sequences of vectors from X. The main results are obtained in terms of the spectrum σ(B) of the operator coefficient B and properties of the weight function. Applications to the study of the spectrum of a differential operator with an unbounded operator coefficient (the generator of a strongly continuous semigroup of operators) in weighted function spaces aremore » given. Bibliography: 23 titles.« less

  4. Centaur operations at the space station: Cost and transportation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A study was conducted to expand on the results of an initial study entitled Centaur Operations at the Space Station. The previous study developed technology demonstration missions (TDMs) that utilized the Centaur G-prime upper stage to advance OTV technologies required for accomodations and operations at the Space Station. An initial evaluation was performed of the cost to NASA for TDM implementation. Due to the potential for commercial communication satellite operation utilizing the TDM hardware, an evaluation of the Centaur's transportation potential was also performed.

  5. Technical information report: Plasma melter operation, reliability, and maintenance analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, D.W.

    1995-03-14

    This document provides a technical report of operability, reliability, and maintenance of a plasma melter for low-level waste vitrification, in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Low-Level Waste (LLW) Vitrification Program. A process description is provided that minimizes maintenance and downtime and includes material and energy balances, equipment sizes and arrangement, startup/operation/maintence/shutdown cycle descriptions, and basis for scale-up to a 200 metric ton/day production facility. Operational requirements are provided including utilities, feeds, labor, and maintenance. Equipment reliability estimates and maintenance requirements are provided which includes a list of failure modes, responses, and consequences.

  6. School Programs Targeting Stress Management in Children and Adolescents: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraag, Gerda; Zeegers, Maurice P.; Kok, Gerjo; Hosman, Clemens; Abu-Saad, Huda Huijer

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: This meta-analysis evaluates the effect of school programs targeting stress management or coping skills in school children. Methods: Articles were selected through a systematic literature search. Only randomized controlled trials or quasi-experimental studies were included. The standardized mean differences (SMDs) between baseline…

  7. Doing Televised Rhetorical Analysis as a Means of Promoting College Awareness in a Target Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnell, Jim

    This paper describes aspects of doing televised rhetorical analysis as they relate to the promotion of college awareness in a particular target market. Considerations in the paper include variables that most professors encounter in their efforts to address the "service" expectations of their employment and how these variables can be…

  8. SOHO Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) Mission Operations and Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, John L.; Gurman, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    path for wavelengths near H I Ly alpha is capable of observing the entire UVCS wavelength range. Since December 1998, the O VI Channel has been used for all UVCS observations. Although the H I Ly alpha Channel and detector are still operational, increases in the dark count up to about 5 x 10(exp -4) counts/sec/pixel and an increase in high voltage current to within a factor of two of the maximum used in the laboratory before flight led to the decision to not use that detector at the present time. There is no significant decrease in the scientific capability of UVCS owing to the O VI channel redundant optical path. UVCS data, data analysis software, calibration files and the mission log are available from the SOHO archive and SAO. All UVCS data is now available to scientists and the general public via the SOHO Data Archive and SAO within three months of the observations. UVCS has resulted in 46 scientific papers in 2002. There were numerous presentations at scientific meetings. All requests for observation time by qualified outside users have been granted.

  9. SOHO Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) Mission Operations and Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurman, Joseph (Technical Monitor); Kohl, John L.

    2004-01-01

    Channel with its redundant optical path for wavelengths near H I Lyalpha is capable of observing the entire UVCS wavelength range. The regions of the detector currently being used require different grating angles for direct OVI observations and redundant path H I Lyalpha observations, and so those can no longer be observed simultaneously. Since December 1998, the 0 VI Channel has been used for all UVCS observations. Although the H I Lyalpha Channel and detector are still operational, increases in the dark count up to about 5x10(exp 4) counts/sec/pixel and an increase in high voltage current to within a factor of two of the maximum used in the laboratory before flight led to the decision to not use that detector after 1998. The visible light channel functioned nominally during the reporting period. UVCS data, data analysis software, calibration files and the mission log are available from the SOHO archive and SAO. All UVCS data are now available within three months of the observations to scientists and the general public via the SOHO Data Archive and SAO. UVCS has resulted in 33 scientific papers in 2003. There were numerous presentations at scientific meetings. UVCS Education and Public Outreach activities involved nine members of the UVCS team. During the reporting period, there were over a dozen events directed at students and teachers, museum audiences, and public audiences via the mass media, internet and educational literature.

  10. Analysis of mental workload of electrical power plant operators of control and operation centers.

    PubMed

    Vitório, Daiana Martins; Masculo, Francisco Soares; Melo, Miguel O B C

    2012-01-01

    Electrical systems can be categorized as critical systems where failure can result in significant financial loss, injury or threats to human life. The operators of the electric power control centers perform an activity in a specialized environment and have to carry it out by mobilizing knowledge and reasoning to which they have adequate training under the terms of the existing rules. To reach this there is a common mental request of personnel involved in these centers due the need to maintain attention, memory and reasoning request. In this sense, this study aims to evaluate the Mental Workload of technical workers of the Control Centers of Electrical Energy. It was undertaken a research on operators control centers of the electricity sector in Northeast Brazil. It was used for systematic observations, followed by interview and application of the instrument National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index known as NASA-TLX. As a result there will be subsidies for an assessment of mental workload of operators, and a contribution to improving the processes of managing the operation of electric utilities and the quality of workers.

  11. Simulation analysis of operation respond in a field setting

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-01-01

    The Operation Respond system aims to facilitate rapid access to transportation carrier databases containing information on hazardous material cargo. As a consequence, first responders, such as police and fire department personnel, are expected to res...

  12. Operations analysis (study 2.1). Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    Subjects related to future STS operations concepts were investigated. The majority of effort was directed at assessing the benefits of automated space servicing concepts as related to improvements in payload procurement and shuttle utilization. Another subject was directed at understanding shuttle upper stage software development and recurring costs relative to total program projections. Space serving of automated payloads is addressed by examining the broad spectrum of payload applications with the belief that shared logistic operations will be a major contributor to reduction of future program costs. However, there are certain requirements for support of payload operations, such as availability of the payload, that may place demands upon the shuttle fleet. Because future projections of the NASA Mission Model are only representative of the payload traffic, it is important to recognize that it is the general character of operations that is significant rather than service to any single payload program.

  13. An analysis of short haul airline operating costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanafani, A.; Taghavi, S.

    1975-01-01

    The demand and supply characteristics of short haul air transportation systems are investigated in terms of airline operating costs. Direct, indirect, and ground handling costs are included. Supply models of short haul air transportation systems are constructed.

  14. Freeway operations analysis of I-80 to I-29 interchange.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1974-01-01

    At the request of the Iowa State Highway Commission, the Engineering Research Institute observed the traffic operations at the Interstate 29 (1-29) and Interstate 80 (1-80) interchange in the southwest part of Council Bluffs.

  15. Analysis of navigation and guidance requirements for commercial VTOL operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, W. C.; Zvara, J.; Hollister, W. M.

    1975-01-01

    The paper presents some results of a program undertaken to define navigation and guidance requirements for commercial VTOL operations in the takeoff, cruise, terminal and landing phases of flight in weather conditions up to and including Category III. Quantitative navigation requirements are given for the parameters range, coverage, operation near obstacles, horizontal accuracy, multiple landing aircraft, multiple pad requirements, inertial/radio-inertial requirements, reliability/redundancy, update rate, and data link requirements in all flight phases. A multi-configuration straw-man navigation and guidance system for commercial VTOL operations is presented. Operation of the system is keyed to a fully automatic approach for navigation, guidance and control, with pilot as monitor-manager. The system is a hybrid navigator using a relatively low-cost inertial sensor with DME updates and MLS in the approach/departure phases.

  16. Structuring modeling and simulation analysis for evacuation planning and operations.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-06-01

    This document is intended to provide guidance to decision-makers at agencies and jurisdictions considering the role of analytical tools in evacuation planning and operations. It is often unclear what kind of analytical approach may be of most value, ...

  17. An Independent Evaluation of the Switching Operations Facility Analysis 2010 Working Group's Processes

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-12-01

    The Switching Operations Fatality Analysis (SOFA) Working Group was formed to analyze the factors contributing to fatalities in switching operations. The 2010 Working Group invited an independent team of evaluators to assess the thoroughness of the S...

  18. Analysis of Soldier Radio Waveform Performance in Operational Test

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    different frequencies based on carrier, uplink/downlink, and generation. In general, 2G and 3G cellular phones operate at 850 MHz uplink, and 1,900 MHz...spectrum management that may not be operationally feasible. These issues are not unique to SRW, but rather have plagued the mobile ad-hoc network... mobile ad-hoc network (MANET), enabling communication through a self-configuring, infrastructure-less network of mobile nodes. In the SS domain, these

  19. Bioeconomic analysis of child-targeted subsidies for artemisinin combination therapies: a cost-effectiveness analysis

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Eili Y.; Smith, David L.; Cohen, Justin M.; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2015-01-01

    The Affordable Medicines Facility for malaria (AMFm) was conceived as a global market-based mechanism to increase access to effective malaria treatment and prolong effectiveness of artemisinin. Although results from a pilot implementation suggested that the subsidy was effective in increasing access to high-quality artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs), the Global Fund has converted AMFm into a country-driven mechanism whereby individual countries could choose to fund the subsidy from within their country envelopes. Because the initial costs of the subsidy in the pilot countries was higher than expected, countries are also exploring alternatives to a universal subsidy, such as subsidizing only child doses. We examined the incremental cost-effectiveness of a child-targeted policy using an age-structured bioeconomic model of malaria from the provider perspective. Because the vast majority of malaria deaths occur in children, targeting children could potentially improve the cost-effectiveness of the subsidy, though it would avert significantly fewer deaths. However, the benefits of a child-targeted subsidy (i.e. deaths averted) are eroded as leakage (i.e. older individuals taking young child-targeted doses) increases, with few of the benefits of a universal subsidy gained (i.e. reductions in overall prevalence). Although potentially more cost-effective, a child-targeted subsidy must contain measures to reduce the possibility of leakage. PMID:25994293

  20. Structural and sequencing analysis of local target DNA recognition by MLV integrase.

    PubMed

    Aiyer, Sriram; Rossi, Paolo; Malani, Nirav; Schneider, William M; Chandar, Ashwin; Bushman, Frederic D; Montelione, Gaetano T; Roth, Monica J

    2015-06-23

    Target-site selection by retroviral integrase (IN) proteins profoundly affects viral pathogenesis. We describe the solution nuclear magnetic resonance structure of the Moloney murine leukemia virus IN (M-MLV) C-terminal domain (CTD) and a structural homology model of the catalytic core domain (CCD). In solution, the isolated MLV IN CTD adopts an SH3 domain fold flanked by a C-terminal unstructured tail. We generated a concordant MLV IN CCD structural model using SWISS-MODEL, MMM-tree and I-TASSER. Using the X-ray crystal structure of the prototype foamy virus IN target capture complex together with our MLV domain structures, residues within the CCD α2 helical region and the CTD β1-β2 loop were predicted to bind target DNA. The role of these residues was analyzed in vivo through point mutants and motif interchanges. Viable viruses with substitutions at the IN CCD α2 helical region and the CTD β1-β2 loop were tested for effects on integration target site selection. Next-generation sequencing and analysis of integration target sequences indicate that the CCD α2 helical region, in particular P187, interacts with the sequences distal to the scissile bonds whereas the CTD β1-β2 loop binds to residues proximal to it. These findings validate our structural model and disclose IN-DNA interactions relevant to target site selection. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  1. Curation of inhibitor-target data: process and impact on pathway analysis.

    PubMed

    Devidas, Sreenivas

    2009-01-01

    The past decade has seen a significant emergence in the availability and use of pathway analysis tools. The workflow that is supported by most of the pathway analysis tools is limited to either of the following: a. a network of genes based on the input data set, or b. the resultant network filtered down by a few criteria such as (but not limited to) i. disease association of the genes in the network; ii. targets known to be the target of one or more launched drugs; iii. targets known to be the target of one or more compounds in clinical trials; and iv. targets reasonably known to be potential candidate or clinical biomarkers. Almost all the tools in use today are biased towards the biological side and contain little, if any, information on the chemical inhibitors associated with the components of a given biological network. The limitation resides as follows: The fact that the number of inhibitors that have been published or patented is probably several fold (probably greater than 10-fold) more than the number of published protein-protein interactions. Curation of such data is both expensive and time consuming and could impact ROI significantly. The non-standardization associated with protein and gene names makes mapping reasonably non-straightforward. The number of patented and published inhibitors across target classes increases by over a million per year. Therefore, keeping the databases current becomes a monumental problem. Modifications required in the product architectures to accommodate chemistry-related content. GVK Bio has, over the past 7 years, curated the compound-target data that is necessary for the addition of such compound-centric workflows. This chapter focuses on identification, curation and utility of such data.

  2. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER: Influence of a target on operation of a pulsed CO2 laser emitting microsecond pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, V. Yu; Dolgov, V. A.; Malyuta, D. D.; Mezhevov, V. S.; Semak, V. V.

    1987-12-01

    The profile of pulses emitted by a TEA CO2 laser with an unstable resonator changed as a result of interaction of laser radiation with the surface of a metal in the presence of a breakdown plasma. This influence of a target on laser operation and its possible applications in laser processing of materials are analyzed.

  3. Target-in-the-loop beam control: basic considerations for analysis and wave-front sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorontsov, Mikhail A.; Kolosov, Valeriy

    2005-01-01

    Target-in-the-loop (TIL) wave propagation geometry represents perhaps the most challenging case for adaptive optics applications that are related to maximization of irradiance power density on extended remotely located surfaces in the presence of dynamically changing refractive-index inhomogeneities in the propagation medium. We introduce a TIL propagation model that uses a combination of the parabolic equation describing coherent outgoing-wave propagation, and the equation describing evolution of the mutual correlation function (MCF) for the backscattered wave (return wave). The resulting evolution equation for the MCF is further simplified by use of the smooth-refractive-index approximation. This approximation permits derivation of the transport equation for the return-wave brightness function, analyzed here by the method of characteristics (brightness function trajectories). The equations for the brightness function trajectories (ray equations) can be efficiently integrated numerically. We also consider wave-front sensors that perform sensing of speckle-averaged characteristics of the wave-front phase (TIL sensors). Analysis of the wave-front phase reconstructed from Shack-Hartmann TIL sensor measurements shows that an extended target introduces a phase modulation (target-induced phase) that cannot be easily separated from the atmospheric-turbulence-related phase aberrations. We also show that wave-front sensing results depend on the extended target shape, surface roughness, and outgoing-beam intensity distribution on the target surface. For targets with smooth surfaces and nonflat shapes, the target-induced phase can contain aberrations. The presence of target-induced aberrations in the conjugated phase may result in a deterioration of adaptive system performance.

  4. Target-in-the-loop beam control: basic considerations for analysis and wave-front sensing.

    PubMed

    Vorontsov, Mikhail A; Kolosov, Valeriy

    2005-01-01

    Target-in-the-loop (TIL) wave propagation geometry represents perhaps the most challenging case for adaptive optics applications that are related to maximization of irradiance power density on extended remotely located surfaces in the presence of dynamically changing refractive-index inhomogeneities in the propagation medium. We introduce a TIL propagation model that uses a combination of the parabolic equation describing coherent outgoing-wave propagation, and the equation describing evolution of the mutual correlation function (MCF) for the backscattered wave (return wave). The resulting evolution equation for the MCF is further simplified by use of the smooth-refractive-index approximation. This approximation permits derivation of the transport equation for the return-wave brightness function, analyzed here by the method of characteristics (brightness function trajectories). The equations for the brightness function trajectories (ray equations) can be efficiently integrated numerically. We also consider wave-front sensors that perform sensing of speckle-averaged characteristics of the wave-front phase (TIL sensors). Analysis of the wave-front phase reconstructed from Shack-Hartmann TIL sensor measurements shows that an extended target introduces a phase modulation (target-induced phase) that cannot be easily separated from the atmospheric-turbulence-related phase aberrations. We also show that wave-front sensing results depend on the extended target shape, surface roughness, and outgoing-beam intensity distribution on the target surface. For targets with smooth surfaces and nonflat shapes, the target-induced phase can contain aberrations. The presence of target-induced aberrations in the conjugated phase may result in a deterioration of adaptive system performance.

  5. Pooled analysis of higher versus lower blood pressure targets for vasopressor therapy septic and vasodilatory shock.

    PubMed

    Lamontagne, François; Day, Andrew G; Meade, Maureen O; Cook, Deborah J; Guyatt, Gordon H; Hylands, Mathieu; Radermacher, Peter; Chrétien, Jean-Marie; Beaudoin, Nicolas; Hébert, Paul; D'Aragon, Frédérick; Meziani, Ferhat; Asfar, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Guidelines for shock recommend mean arterial pressure (MAP) targets for vasopressor therapy of at least 65 mmHg and, until recently, suggested that patients with underlying chronic hypertension and atherosclerosis may benefit from higher targets. We conducted an individual patient-data meta-analysis of recent trials to determine if patient variables modify the effect of different MAP targets. We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for randomized controlled trials of higher versus lower blood pressure targets for vasopressor therapy in adult patients in shock (until November 2017). After obtaining individual patient data from both eligible trials, we used a modified version of the Cochrane Collaboration's instrument to assess the risk of bias of included trials. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality. Included trials enrolled 894 patients. Controlling for trial and site, the OR for 28-day mortality for the higher versus lower MAP targets was 1.15 (95% CI 0.87-1.52). Treatment effect varied by duration of vasopressors before randomization (interaction p = 0.017), but not by chronic hypertension, congestive heart failure or age. Risk of death increased in higher MAP groups among patients on vasopressors > 6 h before randomization (OR 3.00, 95% CI 1.33-6.74). Targeting higher blood pressure targets may increase mortality in patients who have been treated with vasopressors for more than 6 h. Lower blood pressure targets were not associated with patient-important adverse events in any subgroup, including chronically hypertensive patients.

  6. Analysis of remote operating systems for space-based servicing operations. Volume 2: Study results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The developments in automation and robotics have increased the importance of applications for space based servicing using remotely operated systems. A study on three basic remote operating systems (teleoperation, telepresence and robotics) was performed in two phases. In phase one, requirements development, which consisted of one three-month task, a group of ten missions were selected. These included the servicing of user equipment on the station and the servicing of the station itself. In phase two, concepts development, which consisted of three tasks, overall system concepts were developed for the selected missions. These concepts, which include worksite servicing equipment, a carrier system, and payload handling equipment, were evaluated relative to the configurations of the overall worksite. It is found that the robotic/teleoperator concepts are appropriate for relatively simple structured tasks, while the telepresence/teleoperator concepts are applicable for missions that are complex, unstructured tasks.

  7. Time-frequency analysis of backscattered signals from diffuse radar targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenny, O. P.; Boashash, B.

    1993-06-01

    The need for analysis of time-varying signals has led to the formulation of a class of joint time-frequency distributions (TFDs). One of these TFDs, the Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD), has useful properties which can be applied to radar imaging. The authors discuss time-frequency representation of the backscattered signal from a diffuse radar target. It is then shown that for point scatterers which are statistically dependent or for which the reflectivity coefficient has a nonzero mean value, reconstruction using time of flight positron emission tomography on time-frequency images is effective for estimating the scattering function of the target.

  8. Hot-spot analysis for drug discovery targeting protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Rosell, Mireia; Fernández-Recio, Juan

    2018-04-01

    Protein-protein interactions are important for biological processes and pathological situations, and are attractive targets for drug discovery. However, rational drug design targeting protein-protein interactions is still highly challenging. Hot-spot residues are seen as the best option to target such interactions, but their identification requires detailed structural and energetic characterization, which is only available for a tiny fraction of protein interactions. Areas covered: In this review, the authors cover a variety of computational methods that have been reported for the energetic analysis of protein-protein interfaces in search of hot-spots, and the structural modeling of protein-protein complexes by docking. This can help to rationalize the discovery of small-molecule inhibitors of protein-protein interfaces of therapeutic interest. Computational analysis and docking can help to locate the interface, molecular dynamics can be used to find suitable cavities, and hot-spot predictions can focus the search for inhibitors of protein-protein interactions. Expert opinion: A major difficulty for applying rational drug design methods to protein-protein interactions is that in the majority of cases the complex structure is not available. Fortunately, computational docking can complement experimental data. An interesting aspect to explore in the future is the integration of these strategies for targeting PPIs with large-scale mutational analysis.

  9. Topological robustness analysis of protein interaction networks reveals key targets for overcoming chemotherapy resistance in glioma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo, Hátylas; Moreira-Filho, Carlos Alberto

    2015-11-01

    Biological networks display high robustness against random failures but are vulnerable to targeted attacks on central nodes. Thus, network topology analysis represents a powerful tool for investigating network susceptibility against targeted node removal. Here, we built protein interaction networks associated with chemoresistance to temozolomide, an alkylating agent used in glioma therapy, and analyzed their modular structure and robustness against intentional attack. These networks showed functional modules related to DNA repair, immunity, apoptosis, cell stress, proliferation and migration. Subsequently, network vulnerability was assessed by means of centrality-based attacks based on the removal of node fractions in descending orders of degree, betweenness, or the product of degree and betweenness. This analysis revealed that removing nodes with high degree and high betweenness was more effective in altering networks’ robustness parameters, suggesting that their corresponding proteins may be particularly relevant to target temozolomide resistance. In silico data was used for validation and confirmed that central nodes are more relevant for altering proliferation rates in temozolomide-resistant glioma cell lines and for predicting survival in glioma patients. Altogether, these results demonstrate how the analysis of network vulnerability to topological attack facilitates target prioritization for overcoming cancer chemoresistance.

  10. TargetVue: Visual Analysis of Anomalous User Behaviors in Online Communication Systems.

    PubMed

    Cao, Nan; Shi, Conglei; Lin, Sabrina; Lu, Jie; Lin, Yu-Ru; Lin, Ching-Yung

    2016-01-01

    Users with anomalous behaviors in online communication systems (e.g. email and social medial platforms) are potential threats to society. Automated anomaly detection based on advanced machine learning techniques has been developed to combat this issue; challenges remain, though, due to the difficulty of obtaining proper ground truth for model training and evaluation. Therefore, substantial human judgment on the automated analysis results is often required to better adjust the performance of anomaly detection. Unfortunately, techniques that allow users to understand the analysis results more efficiently, to make a confident judgment about anomalies, and to explore data in their context, are still lacking. In this paper, we propose a novel visual analysis system, TargetVue, which detects anomalous users via an unsupervised learning model and visualizes the behaviors of suspicious users in behavior-rich context through novel visualization designs and multiple coordinated contextual views. Particularly, TargetVue incorporates three new ego-centric glyphs to visually summarize a user's behaviors which effectively present the user's communication activities, features, and social interactions. An efficient layout method is proposed to place these glyphs on a triangle grid, which captures similarities among users and facilitates comparisons of behaviors of different users. We demonstrate the power of TargetVue through its application in a social bot detection challenge using Twitter data, a case study based on email records, and an interview with expert users. Our evaluation shows that TargetVue is beneficial to the detection of users with anomalous communication behaviors.

  11. An analysis of health promotion materials for Dutch truck drivers: Off target and too complex?

    PubMed

    Boeijinga, Anniek; Hoeken, Hans; Sanders, José

    2017-01-01

    Despite various health promotion initiatives, unfavorable figures regarding Dutch truck drivers' eating behaviors, exercise behaviors, and absenteeism have not improved. The aim was to obtain a better understanding of the low level of effectiveness of current health interventions for Dutch truck drivers by examining to what extent these are tailored to the target group's particular mindset (focus of content) and health literacy skills (presentation of content). The article analyzes 21 health promotion materials for Dutch truck drivers using a two-step approach: (a) an analysis of the materials' focus, guided by the Health Action Process Approach; and (b) an argumentation analysis, guided by pragma-dialectics. The corpus analysis revealed: (a) a predominant focus on the motivation phase; and (b) in line with the aim of motivating the target group, a consistent use of pragmatic arguments, which were typically presented in an implicit way. The results indicate that existing health promotion materials for Dutch truck drivers are not sufficiently tailored to the target group's mindset and health literacy skills. Recommendations are offered to develop more tailored/effective health interventions targeting this high-risk, underserved occupational group.

  12. Design Analysis of SNS Target StationBiological Shielding Monoligh with Proton Power Uprate

    SciTech Connect

    Bekar, Kursat B.; Ibrahim, Ahmad M.

    2017-05-01

    This report documents the analysis of the dose rate in the experiment area outside the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) target station shielding monolith with proton beam energy of 1.3 GeV. The analysis implemented a coupled three dimensional (3D)/two dimensional (2D) approach that used both the Monte Carlo N-Particle Extended (MCNPX) 3D Monte Carlo code and the Discrete Ordinates Transport (DORT) two dimensional deterministic code. The analysis with proton beam energy of 1.3 GeV showed that the dose rate in continuously occupied areas on the lateral surface outside the SNS target station shielding monolith is less than 0.25 mrem/h, which compliesmore » with the SNS facility design objective. However, the methods and codes used in this analysis are out of date and unsupported, and the 2D approximation of the target shielding monolith does not accurately represent the geometry. We recommend that this analysis is updated with modern codes and libraries such as ADVANTG or SHIFT. These codes have demonstrated very high efficiency in performing full 3D radiation shielding analyses of similar and even more difficult problems.« less

  13. Analysis of failure and maintenance experiences of motor operated valves in a Finnish nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simola, Kaisa; Laakso, Kari

    1992-01-01

    Eight years of operating experiences of 104 motor operated closing valves in different safety systems in nuclear power units were analyzed in a systematic way. The qualitative methods used were Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) and Maintenance Effects and Criticality Analysis (MECA). These reliability engineering methods are commonly used in the design stage of equipment. The successful application of these methods for analysis and utilization of operating experiences was demonstrated.

  14. Analysis and Modeling of Ground Operations at Hub Airports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkins, Stephen (Technical Monitor); Andersson, Kari; Carr, Francis; Feron, Eric; Hall, William D.

    2000-01-01

    Building simple and accurate models of hub airports can considerably help one understand airport dynamics, and may provide quantitative estimates of operational airport improvements. In this paper, three models are proposed to capture the dynamics of busy hub airport operations. Two simple queuing models are introduced to capture the taxi-out and taxi-in processes. An integer programming model aimed at representing airline decision-making attempts to capture the dynamics of the aircraft turnaround process. These models can be applied for predictive purposes. They may also be used to evaluate control strategies for improving overall airport efficiency.

  15. Globalization, Educational Targeting, and Stable Inequalities: A Comparative Analysis of Argentina, Brazil, and Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rambla, Xavier

    2006-05-01

    The present study analyzes educational targeting in Argentina, Brazil and Chile from a sociological point of view. It shows that a `logic of induction' has become the vehicle for anti-poverty education strategies meant to help targeted groups improve on their own. The analysis explores the influence of the global educational agenda, the empirical connection between the logic of induction and the mechanism of emulation, and the territorial aspects of educational inequalities. Emulation plays a main role inasmuch as the logic of induction leads targeted groups to compare their adverse situation with more privileged groups, which actually legitimizes inequalities. A brief statistical summary completes the study, showing that educational inequality has remained unchanged as far as urban-rural ratios (in Brazil and Chile) and regional disparities (in all three countries) are concerned.

  16. The Future of Molecular Analysis in Melanoma: Diagnostics to Direct Molecularly Targeted Therapy.

    PubMed

    Akabane, Hugo; Sullivan, Ryan J

    2016-02-01

    Melanoma is a malignancy of pigment-producing cells that is driven by a variety of genetic mutations and aberrations. In most cases, this leads to upregulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway through activating mutations of upstream mediators of the pathway including BRAF and NRAS. With the advent of effective MAPK pathway inhibitors, including the US FDA-approved BRAF inhibitors vemurafenib and dabrafenib and MEK inhibitor trametinib, molecular analysis has become an integral part of the care of patients with metastatic melanoma. In this article, the key molecular targets and strategies to inhibit these targets therapeutically are presented, and the techniques of identifying these targets, in both tissue and blood, are discussed.

  17. Accurate Analysis of Target Characteristic in Bistatic SAR Images: A Dihedral Corner Reflectors Case.

    PubMed

    Ao, Dongyang; Li, Yuanhao; Hu, Cheng; Tian, Weiming

    2017-12-22

    The dihedral corner reflectors are the basic geometric structure of many targets and are the main contributions of radar cross section (RCS) in the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. In stealth technologies, the elaborate design of the dihedral corners with different opening angles is a useful approach to reduce the high RCS generated by multiple reflections. As bistatic synthetic aperture sensors have flexible geometric configurations and are sensitive to the dihedral corners with different opening angles, they specially fit for the stealth target detections. In this paper, the scattering characteristic of dihedral corner reflectors is accurately analyzed in bistatic synthetic aperture images. The variation of RCS with the changing opening angle is formulated and the method to design a proper bistatic radar for maximizing the detection capability is provided. Both the results of the theoretical analysis and the experiments show the bistatic SAR could detect the dihedral corners, under a certain bistatic angle which is related to the geometry of target structures.

  18. FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF CURRENT OPERATIONS OF COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SWANSON, JOHN E.; AND OTHERS

    TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING FINANCIAL AND RELATED COST-EFFECTIVENESS DATA FOR PUBLIC AND PRIVATELY SUPPORTED AMERICAN COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES WERE STUDIED TO FORMULATE PRINCIPLES, PROCEDURES, AND STANDARDS FOR THE ACCUMULATION AND ANALYSES OF CURRENT OPERATING COSTS. AFTER SEPARATE ANALYSES OF INSTITUTIONAL PROCEDURES AND REPORTS, ANALYTIC UNITS…

  19. Flow analysis of airborne particles in a hospital operating room

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faeghi, Shiva; Lennerts, Kunibert

    2016-06-01

    Preventing airborne infections during a surgery has been always an important issue to deliver effective and high quality medical care to the patient. One of the important sources of infection is particles that are distributed through airborne routes. Factors influencing infection rates caused by airborne particles, among others, are efficient ventilation and the arrangement of surgical facilities inside the operating room. The paper studies the ventilation airflow pattern in an operating room in a hospital located in Tehran, Iran, and seeks to find the efficient configurations with respect to the ventilation system and layout of facilities. This study uses computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and investigates the effects of different inflow velocities for inlets, two pressurization scenarios (equal and excess pressure) and two arrangements of surgical facilities in room while the door is completely open. The results show that system does not perform adequately when the door is open in the operating room under the current conditions, and excess pressure adjustments should be employed to achieve efficient results. The findings of this research can be discussed in the context of design and controlling of the ventilation facilities of operating rooms.

  20. Implementation and Analysis of Hemodialysis in the Unit Operations Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madihally, Sundararajan V.; Lewis, Randy S.

    2007-01-01

    To enhance bioengineering in the chemical engineering curriculum, a Unit Operations experiment simulating the hemodialysis of creatinine was implemented. The blood toxin creatinine was used for developing a more realistic dialysis experiment. A dialysis model is presented that allows students to assess the validity of model assumptions. This work…

  1. Analysis of Navy Supply Corps Lines of Operation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-12-01

    Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget...Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE December 2017 3. REPORT TYPE AND...Chain Management .........................................................35 2. Acquisition Management

  2. IMP-J attitude control prelaunch analysis and operations plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooper, H. L.; Mckendrew, J. B.; Repass, G. D.

    1973-01-01

    A description of the attitude control support being supplied for the Explorer 50 mission is given. Included in the document are descriptions of the computer programs being used to support attitude determination, prediction, and control for the mission and descriptions of the operating procedures that will be used to accomplish mission objectives.

  3. Analysis of 2000 Financial Forecasts and Annual Operating Statements. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Funding Council for England, Bristol.

    This report provides a summary of financial projections for the higher education sector in England covering 1999-2000 to 2003-2004 and a summary of the sector's annual operating statements for 1999-2000 and 2000-2001. It is based on information provided by higher education institutions in July 2000. These forecasts were prepared before the outcome…

  4. Signal Analysis Van Hardware Operation General Description. Volume 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    safety and the prevention of equip- ment malfunction in high RF energy fields, a shielded enclosure was installed within the semitrailer shell. This...Clock B can be prgram -selected to operate at one of seven clock rates, one of five crystal-controlled frequencies (1 MHz, 100 kHz, 10 kHz, or 100 Hz

  5. A Quantitative Analysis of Children's Splitting Operations and Fraction Schemes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Anderson; Wilkins, Jesse L. M.

    2009-01-01

    Teaching experiments with pairs of children have generated several hypotheses about students' construction of fractions. For example, Steffe (2004) hypothesized that robust conceptions of improper fractions depends on the development of a splitting operation. Results from teaching experiments that rely on scheme theory and Steffe's hierarchy of…

  6. Analysis of Access Control Policies in Operating Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hong

    2009-01-01

    Operating systems rely heavily on access control mechanisms to achieve security goals and defend against remote and local attacks. The complexities of modern access control mechanisms and the scale of policy configurations are often overwhelming to system administrators and software developers. Therefore, mis-configurations are common, and the…

  7. An Analysis of Current Operational Contract Support Planning Doctrine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    P). This project argues for the balanced development of OCS planning acquisition and non-acquisition focused resources to effectively integrate this...planning guidance developed is appropriate for initial entry operations applicable to various levels of theater maturity. 14. SUBJECT TERMS...balanced development of OCS planning acquisition and non- acquisition focused resources to effectively integrate this function across disciplines. The

  8. Analysis of spectral operators in one-dimensional domains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maday, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Results are proven concerning certain projection operators on the space of all polynomials of degree less than or equal to N with respect to a class of one-dimensional weighted Sobolev spaces. The results are useful in the theory of the approximation of partial differential equations with spectral methods.

  9. Analysis of wave propagation and wavefront sensing in target-in-the-loop beam control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorontsov, Mikhail A.; Kolosov, Valeri V.

    2004-10-01

    Target-in-the-loop (TIL) wave propagation geometry represents perhaps the most challenging case for adaptive optics applications that are related with maximization of irradiance power density on extended remotely located surfaces in the presence of dynamically changing refractive index inhomogeneities in the propagation medium. We introduce a TIL propagation model that uses a combination of the parabolic equation describing outgoing wave propagation, and the equation describing evolution of the mutual intensity function (MIF) for the backscattered (returned) wave. The resulting evolution equation for the MIF is further simplified by the use of the smooth refractive index approximation. This approximation enables derivation of the transport equation for the returned wave brightness function, analyzed here using method characteristics (brightness function trajectories). The equations for the brightness function trajectories (ray equations) can be efficiently integrated numerically. We also consider wavefront sensors that perform sensing of speckle-averaged characteristics of the wavefront phase (TIL sensors). Analysis of the wavefront phase reconstructed from Shack-Hartmann TIL sensor measurements shows that an extended target introduces a phase modulation (target-induced phase) that cannot be easily separated from the atmospheric turbulence-related phase aberrations. We also show that wavefront sensing results depend on the extended target shape, surface roughness, and the outgoing beam intensity distribution on the target surface.

  10. A BRDF-BPDF database for the analysis of Earth target reflectances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breon, Francois-Marie; Maignan, Fabienne

    2017-01-01

    Land surface reflectance is not isotropic. It varies with the observation geometry that is defined by the sun, view zenith angles, and the relative azimuth. In addition, the reflectance is linearly polarized. The reflectance anisotropy is quantified by the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF), while its polarization properties are defined by the bidirectional polarization distribution function (BPDF). The POLDER radiometer that flew onboard the PARASOL microsatellite remains the only space instrument that measured numerous samples of the BRDF and BPDF of Earth targets. Here, we describe a database of representative BRDFs and BPDFs derived from the POLDER measurements. From the huge number of data acquired by the spaceborne instrument over a period of 7 years, we selected a set of targets with high-quality observations. The selection aimed for a large number of observations, free of significant cloud or aerosol contamination, acquired in diverse observation geometries with a focus on the backscatter direction that shows the specific hot spot signature. The targets are sorted according to the 16-class International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) land cover classification system, and the target selection aims at a spatial representativeness within the class. The database thus provides a set of high-quality BRDF and BPDF samples that can be used to assess the typical variability of natural surface reflectances or to evaluate models. It is available freely from the PANGAEA website (target="_blank">doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.864090). In addition to the database, we provide a visualization and analysis tool based on the Interactive Data Language (IDL). It allows an interactive analysis of the measurements and a comparison against various BRDF and BPDF analytical models. The present paper describes the input data, the selection principles, the database format, and the analysis tool

  11. Chemometric analysis for extraction of individual fluorescence spectrum and lifetimes from a target mixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallidy, William H. (Inventor); Chin, Robert C. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is a system for chemometric analysis for the extraction of the individual component fluorescence spectra and fluorescence lifetimes from a target mixture. The present invention combines a processor with an apparatus for generating an excitation signal to transmit at a target mixture and an apparatus for detecting the emitted signal from the target mixture. The present invention extracts the individual fluorescence spectrum and fluorescence lifetime measurements from the frequency and wavelength data acquired from the emitted signal. The present invention uses an iterative solution that first requires the initialization of several decision variables and the initial approximation determinations of intermediate matrices. The iterative solution compares the decision variables for convergence to see if further approximation determinations are necessary. If the solution converges, the present invention then determines the reduced best fit error for the analysis of the individual fluorescence lifetime and the fluorescence spectrum before extracting the individual fluorescence lifetime and fluorescence spectrum from the emitted signal of the target mixture.

  12. 45th Annual Targets, UAVs and Range Operations Symposium and Exhibition - Tools and Technologies for the Warfighter. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-30

    Flight Test wmv format Joint Ground Robotics Program, Mr. Duane Gotvald, Deputy Project Manager , PEO GCS Robotic Systems Joint Program 1...Mr. Al Brown, TMO Deputy Director, PMITTS, PEO STRI 1. Targets Management Office wmv format Strength through Industry & Technology National...Ferguson, RCN, NDHQ 10:20AM DTRMC, OSD Strategic Plan Jerry Christensen, DOT&E 10:40 Target Management Initiative Ken McCormick, DOT&E 11:10AM

  13. 45th Annual Targets, UAVs and Range Operations Symposium and Exhibition - Tools and Technologies for the Warfighter. Volume 2. Wednesday

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-31

    ENGINEER Ms. Jo-An Williams FINANCE Ms. Leanne Green CONTRACTING Mr. Ken Hislop QF-16 Ms. Lee Neugin QF-4 Mr. Jim Cornwell AFSAT Ms. Audrea Feist DEPUTY...Target Program Manager: Mr. Ken Hislop Description Fullscale Target for Threat-Representative Weapon System Evaluation Meets USAF, Army, Navy, Allied Test...1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Approved for Public Release: Control No. UMS-2007-927, October 2007 6 A Solid Future for Unmanned Missions

  14. Validating the performance of one-time decomposition for fMRI analysis using ICA with automatic target generation process.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shengnan; Zeng, Weiming; Wang, Nizhuan; Chen, Lei

    2013-07-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) has been proven to be effective for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data analysis. However, ICA decomposition requires to optimize the unmixing matrix iteratively whose initial values are generated randomly. Thus the randomness of the initialization leads to different ICA decomposition results. Therefore, just one-time decomposition for fMRI data analysis is not usually reliable. Under this circumstance, several methods about repeated decompositions with ICA (RDICA) were proposed to reveal the stability of ICA decomposition. Although utilizing RDICA has achieved satisfying results in validating the performance of ICA decomposition, RDICA cost much computing time. To mitigate the problem, in this paper, we propose a method, named ATGP-ICA, to do the fMRI data analysis. This method generates fixed initial values with automatic target generation process (ATGP) instead of being produced randomly. We performed experimental tests on both hybrid data and fMRI data to indicate the effectiveness of the new method and made a performance comparison of the traditional one-time decomposition with ICA (ODICA), RDICA and ATGP-ICA. The proposed method demonstrated that it not only could eliminate the randomness of ICA decomposition, but also could save much computing time compared to RDICA. Furthermore, the ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) power analysis also denoted the better signal reconstruction performance of ATGP-ICA than that of RDICA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Hybrid Airships: Intratheater Operations Cost-Benefit Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    airships (HA) in an intratheater humanitarian assistance scenario. A linear programming model was used to study various mixes of hybrid airships...i.e. 200 tons) must be moved as quickly as possible (or during sealift transit), then HA operating costs of $3,000 per hour or less also make them a ...for Future Research ................................................................................ 52 Appendix A : Examples of HA Concepts/Prototypes

  16. Supporting Marine Corps Enhanced Company Operations: A Quantitative Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    by decomposition into simple independent parts. o Agents interact with each other in non-linear ways, and “ adapt ” to their local environment . (p...Center Co Company CoLT Company Landing Team CAS Complex Adaptive Systems CSV Comma-separated Value DO Distributed Operations DODIC Department...SUMMARY The modern irregular warfare environment has dramatically impacted the battle space assignments and mission scope of tactical units that now

  17. Analysis and Algorithms for Imperfect Sensor Deployment and Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-23

    fortification-interdiction-routing games that take place over the traveling salesman problem (TSP) in reference 16. This study reveals that a straightforward...Journal on Optimization. 16. Lozano, L., Smith, J.C., and Kurz, M.E., Solving the Traveling Salesman Problem with Interdiction and Fortification...the Traveling Salesman Problem with Interdiction and Fortification, submitted to Operations Research Letters. Tadayon, B. and Smith, J.C., A Survey of

  18. Koopman Operator Framework for Time Series Modeling and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surana, Amit

    2018-01-01

    We propose an interdisciplinary framework for time series classification, forecasting, and anomaly detection by combining concepts from Koopman operator theory, machine learning, and linear systems and control theory. At the core of this framework is nonlinear dynamic generative modeling of time series using the Koopman operator which is an infinite-dimensional but linear operator. Rather than working with the underlying nonlinear model, we propose two simpler linear representations or model forms based on Koopman spectral properties. We show that these model forms are invariants of the generative model and can be readily identified directly from data using techniques for computing Koopman spectral properties without requiring the explicit knowledge of the generative model. We also introduce different notions of distances on the space of such model forms which is essential for model comparison/clustering. We employ the space of Koopman model forms equipped with distance in conjunction with classical machine learning techniques to develop a framework for automatic feature generation for time series classification. The forecasting/anomaly detection framework is based on using Koopman model forms along with classical linear systems and control approaches. We demonstrate the proposed framework for human activity classification, and for time series forecasting/anomaly detection in power grid application.

  19. Analysis and Prediction of Weather Impacted Ground Stop Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yao Xun

    2014-01-01

    When the air traffic demand is expected to exceed the available airport's capacity for a short period of time, Ground Stop (GS) operations are implemented by Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Traffic Flow Management (TFM). The GS requires departing aircraft meeting specific criteria to remain on the ground to achieve reduced demands at the constrained destination airport until the end of the GS. This paper provides a high-level overview of the statistical distributions as well as causal factors for the GSs at the major airports in the United States. The GS's character, the weather impact on GSs, GS variations with delays, and the interaction between GSs and Ground Delay Programs (GDPs) at Newark Liberty International Airport (EWR) are investigated. The machine learning methods are used to generate classification models that map the historical airport weather forecast, schedule traffic, and other airport conditions to implemented GS/GDP operations and the models are evaluated using the cross-validations. This modeling approach produced promising results as it yielded an 85% overall classification accuracy to distinguish the implemented GS days from the normal days without GS and GDP operations and a 71% accuracy to differentiate the GS and GDP implemented days from the GDP only days.

  20. 10 CFR 63.112 - Requirements for preclosure safety analysis of the geologic repository operations area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... geologic repository operations area. 63.112 Section 63.112 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Technical... repository operations area. The preclosure safety analysis of the geologic repository operations area must...

  1. An Analysis of Skill Requirements for Operators of Amphibious Air Cushion Vehicles (ACVs).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKnight, A. James; And Others

    This report describes the skills required in the operation of an amphibious air cushion vehicle (ACV) in Army tactical and logistic missions. The research involved analyzing ACV characteristics, operating requirements, environmental effects, and results of a simulation experiment. The analysis indicates that ACV operation is complicated by an…

  2. Analysis of Ticonderoga Class Cruiser Operating Targets for Other Consumables, Repair Parts, and Administrative Expenditures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    ASSEMBLY 012219456 $27,221 3 0 3 $81,663 5.40 0.00 PUMP UNIT, CENTRIFUG 013622973 $7,614 14 5 9 $68,526 7.05 4.01 AMPLIFIER, AUDIO FRE 013173676...COMPRESSOR ASSEMBLY 011979826 $6,335 13 6 2.36 1.35 PUMP UNIT, CENTRIFUGAL * 013622973 $25,830 9 8 6.65 7.32 DRUM, INNER 012510574 $60,789 1 2 1.74...CLOSE-IN WEAPON SYSTEM NOMENCLATURE NIIN UNIT COST PAC DMD LANT DMD % OF PAC SYS EXP % OF LANT SYS EXP PUMP UNIT, CENTRIFUG * 013622973

  3. Time Critical Targeting: Predictive Vs Reactionary Methods An Analysis For The Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    critical targets. To conduct the analysis, a four-step process is used. First, research is conducted to determine which future aircraft, spacecraft , and...the most promising aircraft, spacecraft , and weapons are determined , they are categorized for use in either the reactive or preemptive method. For...no significant delays, 292; Alan Vick et al., 17. 33 Ibid. 12 sensors are Electro-optical (EO) sensors, thermal imagers , and signal intelligence

  4. Use of eQTL Analysis for the Discovery of Target Genes Identified by GWAS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    the biologic pathways affected by these inherited factors, and ultimately to identify targets for disease prediction, risk stratification and...quality using an Agilent chip technology. Cases having a RIN number of 7.0 or greater were considered good quality. Once completed, the optimum set of...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0261 TITLE: Use of eQTL Analysis for the Discovery of

  5. Business Case Analysis: Continuous Integrated Logistics Support-Targeted Allowance Technique (CILS-TAT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    In this research, we examine the Naval Sea Logistics Command s Continuous Integrated Logistics Support Targeted Allowancing Technique (CILS TAT) and... the feasibility of program re-implementation. We conduct an analysis of this allowancing method s effectiveness onboard U.S. Navy Ballistic Missile...Defense (BMD) ships, measure the costs associated with performing a CILS TAT, and provide recommendations concerning possible improvements to the

  6. Business Case Analysis: Continuous Integrated Logistics Support-Targeted Allowance Technique (CILS-TAT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-30

    In this research, we examine the Naval Sea Logistics Command’s Continuous Integrated Logistics Support-Targeted Allowancing Technique (CILS-TAT) and... the feasibility of program re-implementation. We conduct an analysis of this allowancing method’s effectiveness onboard U.S. Navy Ballistic Missile...Defense (BMD) ships, measure the costs associated with performing a CILS-TAT, and provide recommendations concerning possible improvements to the

  7. Preliminary Analysis of Helicopter Options to Support Tunisian Counterterrorism Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-27

    locations along roads and tracks in border areas, and small settlements in complex terrain (Figure 1, right; examples shown in Figure 2). Analysis For...political implications. In this preliminary analysis , we focus on the question of cost-effectiveness in the UH-60M’s primary role: Which alternative...platforms could perform the assault mission, and at what cost? The core of our analysis is detailed modeling of key “mission tasks” on a sortie-by-sortie

  8. Payload analysis for space shuttle applications (study 2.2). Volume 3: Payload system operations analysis (task 2.2.1). [payload system operations analysis for shuttles and space tugs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The technical and cost analysis that was performed for the payload system operations analysis is presented. The technical analysis consists of the operations for the payload/shuttle and payload/tug, and the spacecraft analysis which includes sortie, automated, and large observatory type payloads. The cost analysis includes the costing tradeoffs of the various payload design concepts and traffic models. The overall objectives of this effort were to identify payload design and operational concepts for the shuttle which will result in low cost design, and to examine the low cost design concepts to identify applicable design guidelines. The operations analysis examined several past and current NASA and DoD satellite programs to establish a shuttle operations model. From this model the analysis examined the payload/shuttle flow and determined facility concepts necessary for effective payload/shuttle ground operations. The study of the payload/tug operations was an examination of the various flight timelines for missions requiring the tug.

  9. Label-Free Raman Microspectral Analysis for Comparison of Cellular Uptake and Distribution between Non-Targeted and EGFR-Targeted Biodegradable Polymeric Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Chernenko, Tatyana; Buyukozturk, Fulden; Miljkovic, Milos; Carrier, Rebecca; Diem, Max; Amiji, Mansoor

    2013-01-01

    Active targeted delivery of nanoparticle-encapsulated agents to tumor cells in vivo is expected to enhance therapeutic effect with significantly less non-specific toxicity. Active targeting is based on surface modification of nanoparticles with ligands that bind with extracellular targets and enhance payload delivery in the cells. In this study, we have used label-free Raman micro-spectral analysis and kinetic modeling to study cellular interactions and intracellular delivery of C6-ceramide using a non-targeted and an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeted biodegradable polymeric nano-delivery systems, in EGFR-expressing human ovarian adenocarcinoma (SKOV3) cells. The results show that EGFR peptide-modified nanoparticles were rapidly internalized in SKOV3 cells leading to significant intracellular accumulation as compared to non-specific uptake by the non-targeted nanoparticles. Raman micro-spectral analysis enables visualization and quantification of the carrier system, drug-load, and responses of the biological systems interrogated, without exogenous staining and labeling procedures. PMID:24298430

  10. Tertiary structure-based analysis of microRNA–target interactions

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Hin Hark; Gunsalus, Kristin C.

    2013-01-01

    Current computational analysis of microRNA interactions is based largely on primary and secondary structure analysis. Computationally efficient tertiary structure-based methods are needed to enable more realistic modeling of the molecular interactions underlying miRNA-mediated translational repression. We incorporate algorithms for predicting duplex RNA structures, ionic strength effects, duplex entropy and free energy, and docking of duplex–Argonaute protein complexes into a pipeline to model and predict miRNA–target duplex binding energies. To ensure modeling accuracy and computational efficiency, we use an all-atom description of RNA and a continuum description of ionic interactions using the Poisson–Boltzmann equation. Our method predicts the conformations of two constructs of Caenorhabditis elegans let-7 miRNA–target duplexes to an accuracy of ∼3.8 Å root mean square distance of their NMR structures. We also show that the computed duplex formation enthalpies, entropies, and free energies for eight miRNA–target duplexes agree with titration calorimetry data. Analysis of duplex–Argonaute docking shows that structural distortions arising from single-base-pair mismatches in the seed region influence the activity of the complex by destabilizing both duplex hybridization and its association with Argonaute. Collectively, these results demonstrate that tertiary structure-based modeling of miRNA interactions can reveal structural mechanisms not accessible with current secondary structure-based methods. PMID:23417009

  11. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR PREPARATION OF SURROGATE RECOVERY STANDARD AND INTERNAL STANDARD SOLUTIONS FOR NEUTRAL TARGET ANALYTES (SOP-5.25)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This standard operating procedure describes the method used for preparing internal standard, surrogate recovery standard and calibration standard solutions for neutral analytes used for gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis.

  12. Advanced Productivity Analysis Methods for Air Traffic Control Operations.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1976-12-01

    This report gives a description of the Air Traffic Control (ATC) productivity analysis methods developed, implemented, and refined by the Stanford Research Institute (SRI) under the sponsorship of FAA and TSC. Two models are included in the productiv...

  13. Operational Analysis of Time-Optimal Maneuvering for Imaging Spacecraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    imaging spacecraft. The analysis is facilitated through the use of AGI’s Systems Tool Kit ( STK ) software. An Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP)-based...the Singapore-developed X-SAT imaging spacecraft. The analysis is facilitated through the use of AGI’s Systems Tool Kit ( STK ) software. An Analytic...89  B.  FUTURE WORK................................................................................. 90  APPENDIX A. STK DATA AND BENEFIT

  14. A free-jet Hg target operating in a high magnetic field intersecting a high-power proton beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, Van; Spampinato, Philip; Gabriel, Tony; Kirk, Harold; Simos, Nicholas; Tsang, Thomas; McDonald, Kirk; Peter Titus; Fabich, Adrian; Haseroth, Helmut; Lettry, Jacques

    2006-06-01

    A proof-of-principal experiment to investigate the interaction of a proton beam, high magnetic field, and high-Z target is planned to take place at CERN in early 2007. This experiment is part of the Muon Collider Collaboration, with participants from Brookhaven National Laboratory, Princeton University, Massachusetts Institute Of Technology, European Organization for Nuclear Research-CERN, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. An unconstrained mercury jet target system that interacts with a high power (1 MW) proton beam in a high magnetic field (15 T) is being designed. The Hg jet diameter is 1-cm with a velocity up to 20 m/s. A laser optical diagnostic system will be incorporated into the target design to permit observation of the dispersal of the jet resulting from interaction with a 24 GeV proton beam with up to 20×1012 ppp. The target system includes instruments for sensing mercury vapor, temperature, flow rate, and sump tank level, and the means to position the jet relative to the magnetic axis of a solenoid and the proton beam. The design considerations for the system include all issues dealing with safely handling approximately 23 l of Hg, transporting the target system and the mercury to CERN, decommissioning the experiment, and returning the mildly activated equipment and Hg to the US.

  15. A free-jet Hg target operating in a high magnetic field intersecting a high-power proton beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Graves; Spampinato, Philip; Gabriel, Tony; Kirk, Harold; Simos, Nicholas; Tsang, Thomas; McDonald, Kirk; Peter Titus; Fabich, Adrian; Haseroth, Helmut; Lettry, Jacques

    2006-06-01

    A proof-of-principal experiment to investigate the interaction of a proton beam, high magnetic field, and high- Z target is planned to take place at CERN in early 2007. This experiment is part of the Muon Collider Collaboration, with participants from Brookhaven National Laboratory, Princeton University, Massachusetts Institute Of Technology, European Organization for Nuclear Research-CERN, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. An unconstrained mercury jet target system that interacts with a high power (1 MW) proton beam in a high magnetic field (15 T) is being designed. The Hg jet diameter is 1-cm with a velocity up to 20 m/s. A laser optical diagnostic system will be incorporated into the target design to permit observation of the dispersal of the jet resulting from interaction with a 24 GeV proton beam with up to 20×10 12 ppp. The target system includes instruments for sensing mercury vapor, temperature, flow rate, and sump tank level, and the means to position the jet relative to the magnetic axis of a solenoid and the proton beam. The design considerations for the system include all issues dealing with safely handling approximately 23 l of Hg, transporting the target system and the mercury to CERN, decommissioning the experiment, and returning the mildly activated equipment and Hg to the US.

  16. [Effect analysis of anterior cervical operation for severe cervical kyphosis].

    PubMed

    Shen, X L; Wu, H Q; Hu, Z H; Liu, Y; Wang, X W; Chen, H J; Cao, P; Tian, Y; Yang, C; Yuan, W

    2017-03-01

    Objective: To determine the feasibility and safety of anterior cervical decompression and fusion in severe cervical kyphosis treatment. Methods: Totally 29 patients with severe cervical kyphosis(Cobb angle>50°) underwent anterior cervical decompression and fusion from June 2008 to May 2016 were studied retrospectively. There were 19 males and 10 females. The average age was 32.6 years ranging from 14 to 53 years. According to the etiology, 12 patients had iatrogenic deformity (11 had post-laminectomy cervical kyphosis, 1 had kyphosis due to anterior graft subsidence), 5 had neurofibromatosis, 4 had infective kyphosis, 8 had idiopathic cervical kyphosis. The curvature of cervical angle was measured by two-line Cobb method. The severity of cervical kyphosis was evaluated by kyphosis index (KI). Parameters including kyphosis levels, the apex of the kyphosis, C(2-7) sagittal vertical axis(SVA) and T(1) slope were also measured on lateral radiographs in the neutral position in each patient. The pre- and post-operative Japanese Orthopaedic Association(JOA) scores, visual analogue scale (VAS) of neek pain, neck disability index (NDI) and cervical alignment were compared. All patients were treated by skull traction. Motor evoked potential and somatosensory evoked potential were applied intraoperation as the spinal cord monitor. Results: Skull traction was performed for an average of 6.3 days. The mean vertebral number in kyphotic region was 4.7. The average operation time was 155 minutes and blood loss was 135 ml. The preoperative C(2-7)Cobb angle was 46.6°±18.1° in average. It was reduced to 11.4°±6.4° in average after operation. The Cobb angle of operation region was 72.9°±19.6° in average before operation. It was reduced to 11.2°±6.4° in average after operation. The kyphosis region correction rate was 84.6%. The mean preoperative C(2-7)SVA changed from (3.8±14.6) mm to (12.6±7.8) mm postoperatively. The mean preoperative T(1) slope changed from -10.6

  17. Dataset of potential targets for Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv through comparative genome analysis.

    PubMed

    Asif, Siddiqui M; Asad, Amir; Faizan, Ahmad; Anjali, Malik S; Arvind, Arya; Neelesh, Kapoor; Hirdesh, Kumar; Sanjay, Kumar

    2009-12-31

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the causative agent of the disease, tuberculosis and H37Rv is the most studied clinical strain. We use comparative genome analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and human for the identification of potential targets dataset. We used DEG (Database of Essential Genes) to identify essential genes in the H37Rv strain. The analysis shows that 628 of the 3989 genes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv were found to be essential of which 324 genes lack similarity to the human genome. Subsequently hypothetical proteins were removed through manual curation. This further resulted in a dataset of 135 proteins with essential function and no homology to human.

  18. Functional Gap Analysis of the Maritime Operations Centers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    Messaging Services TBMCS , DJC2 MI.1.3.5 Manage Suspense Control Capability Gap MI.1.3.6 Provide Component IM Cell Services Capability Gap MI.1.4 Provide...Admin Support MSRT MI.1.3.3 Manage Electronic File Plan Capability Gap MI.1.3.4 Manage Messaging Services TBMCS , DJC2 MI.1.3.5 Manage Suspense...1.5.9 Execute C4 Policies & Procedures for the Joint Operations Area GCCS-J, DCGS-N, TBMCS , CENTRIX-M EHQ.1.11 Sub Component Interagency

  19. Operational testing of system for automatic sleep analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellaway, P.

    1972-01-01

    Tables on the performance, under operational conditions, of an automatic sleep monitoring system are presented. Data are recorded from patients who were undergoing heart and great vessel surgery. This study resulted in cap, electrode, and preamplifier improvements. Children were used to test the sleep analyzer and medical console write out units. From these data, an automatic voltage control circuit for the analyzer was developed. A special circuitry for obviating the possibility of incorrect sleep staging due to the presence of a movement artifact was also developed as a result of the study.

  20. Comprehensive analysis of a Radiology Operations Management computer system.

    PubMed

    Arenson, R L; London, J W

    1979-11-01

    The Radiology Operations Management computer system at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania is discussed. The scheduling and file room modules are based on the system at Massachusetts General Hospital. Patient delays are indicated by the patient tracking module. A reporting module allows CRT/keyboard entry by transcriptionists, entry of standard reports by radiologists using bar code labels, and entry by radiologists using a specialty designed diagnostic reporting terminal. Time-flow analyses demonstrate a significant improvement in scheduling, patient waiting, retrieval of radiographs, and report delivery. Recovery of previously lost billing contributes to the proved cost effectiveness of this system.

  1. Development and human factors analysis of an augmented reality interface for multi-robot tele-operation and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sam; Lucas, Nathan P.; Ellis, R. Darin; Pandya, Abhilash

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a seamlessly controlled human multi-robot system comprised of ground and aerial robots of semiautonomous nature for source localization tasks. The system combines augmented reality interfaces capabilities with human supervisor's ability to control multiple robots. The role of this human multi-robot interface is to allow an operator to control groups of heterogeneous robots in real time in a collaborative manner. It used advanced path planning algorithms to ensure obstacles are avoided and that the operators are free for higher-level tasks. Each robot knows the environment and obstacles and can automatically generate a collision-free path to any user-selected target. It displayed sensor information from each individual robot directly on the robot in the video view. In addition, a sensor data fused AR view is displayed which helped the users pin point source information or help the operator with the goals of the mission. The paper studies a preliminary Human Factors evaluation of this system in which several interface conditions are tested for source detection tasks. Results show that the novel Augmented Reality multi-robot control (Point-and-Go and Path Planning) reduced mission completion times compared to the traditional joystick control for target detection missions. Usability tests and operator workload analysis are also investigated.

  2. Space Operations Center system analysis. Volume 3, book 2: SOC system definition report, revision A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Space Operations Center (SOC) orbital space station program operations are described. A work breakdown structure for the general purpose support equipment, construction and transportation support, and resupply and logistics support systems is given. The basis for the design of each element is presented, and a mass estimate for each element supplied. The SOC build-up operation, construction, flight support, and satellite servicing operations are described. Detailed programmatics and cost analysis are presented.

  3. Case review analysis of operating room decisions to cancel surgery.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ju-Hsin; Chen, Ke-Wei; Chen, Kuen-Bao; Poon, Kin-Shing; Liu, Shih-Kai

    2014-07-23

    Cancellation of surgery close to scheduled time causes a waste of healthcare resources. The current study analyzes surgery cancellations occurring after the patient has been prepared for the operating room, in order to see whether improvements in the surgery planning process may reduce the number of cancellations. In a retrospective chart review of operating room surgery cancellations during the period from 2006 to 2011, cancellations were divided into the following categories: inadequate NPO; medical; surgical; system; airway; incomplete evaluation. The relative use of these reasons in relation to patient age and surgical department was then evaluated. Forty-one percent of cancellations were for other than medical reasons. Among these, 17.7% were due to incomplete evaluation, and 8.2% were due to family issues. Sixty seven percent of cancelled cases eventually received surgery. The relative use of individual reasons for cancellation varied with patient age and surgical department. The difference between cancellations before and after anesthesia was dependent on the causes of cancellation, but not age, sex, ASA status, or follow-up procedures required. Almost half of the cancellations were not due to medical reasons, and these cancellations could be reduced by better administrative and surgical planning and better communication with the patient and/or his family.

  4. Residual gas analysis for long-pulse, advanced tokamak operation.

    PubMed

    Klepper, C C; Hillis, D L; Bucalossi, J; Douai, D; Oddon, P; Vartanian, S; Colas, L; Manenc, L; Pégourié, B

    2010-10-01

    A shielded residual gas analyzer (RGA) system on Tore Supra can function during plasma operation and is set up to monitor the composition of the neutral gas in one of the pumping ducts of the toroidal pumped limited. This "diagnostic RGA" has been used in long-pulse (up to 6 min) discharges for continuous monitoring of up to 15 masses simultaneously. Comparison of the RGA-measured evolution of the H(2)/D(2) isotopic ratio in the exhaust gas to that measured by an energetic neutral particle analyzer in the plasma core provides a way to monitor the evolution of particle balance. RGA monitoring of corrective H(2) injection to maintain proper minority heating is providing a database for improved ion cyclotron resonance heating, potentially with RGA-base feedback control. In very long pulses (>4 min) absence of significant changes in the RGA-monitored, hydrocarbon particle pressures is an indication of proper operation of the actively cooled, carbon-based plasma facing components. Also H(2) could increase due to thermodesorption of overheated plasma facing components.

  5. An analysis of possible off target effects following CAS9/CRISPR targeted deletions of neuropeptide gene enhancers from the mouse genome.

    PubMed

    Hay, Elizabeth Anne; Khalaf, Abdulla Razak; Marini, Pietro; Brown, Andrew; Heath, Karyn; Sheppard, Darrin; MacKenzie, Alasdair

    2017-08-01

    We have successfully used comparative genomics to identify putative regulatory elements within the human genome that contribute to the tissue specific expression of neuropeptides such as galanin and receptors such as CB1. However, a previous inability to rapidly delete these elements from the mouse genome has prevented optimal assessment of their function in-vivo. This has been solved using CAS9/CRISPR genome editing technology which uses a bacterial endonuclease called CAS9 that, in combination with specifically designed guide RNA (gRNA) molecules, cuts specific regions of the mouse genome. However, reports of "off target" effects, whereby the CAS9 endonuclease is able to cut sites other than those targeted, limits the appeal of this technology. We used cytoplasmic microinjection of gRNA and CAS9 mRNA into 1-cell mouse embryos to rapidly generate enhancer knockout mouse lines. The current study describes our analysis of the genomes of these enhancer knockout lines to detect possible off-target effects. Bioinformatic analysis was used to identify the most likely putative off-target sites and to design PCR primers that would amplify these sequences from genomic DNA of founder enhancer deletion mouse lines. Amplified DNA was then sequenced and blasted against the mouse genome sequence to detect off-target effects. Using this approach we were unable to detect any evidence of off-target effects in the genomes of three founder lines using any of the four gRNAs used in the analysis. This study suggests that the problem of off-target effects in transgenic mice have been exaggerated and that CAS9/CRISPR represents a highly effective and accurate method of deleting putative neuropeptide gene enhancer sequences from the mouse genome. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Alzheimer's disease master regulators analysis: search for potential molecular targets and drug repositioning candidates.

    PubMed

    Vargas, D M; De Bastiani, M A; Zimmer, E R; Klamt, F

    2018-06-23

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial and complex neuropathology that involves impairment of many intricate molecular mechanisms. Despite recent advances, AD pathophysiological characterization remains incomplete, which hampers the development of effective treatments. In fact, currently, there are no effective pharmacological treatments for AD. Integrative strategies such as transcription regulatory network and master regulator analyses exemplify promising new approaches to study complex diseases and may help in the identification of potential pharmacological targets. In this study, we used transcription regulatory network and master regulator analyses on transcriptomic data of human hippocampus to identify transcription factors (TFs) that can potentially act as master regulators in AD. All expression profiles were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus database using the GEOquery package. A normal hippocampus transcription factor-centered regulatory network was reconstructed using the ARACNe algorithm. Master regulator analysis and two-tail gene set enrichment analysis were employed to evaluate the inferred regulatory units in AD case-control studies. Finally, we used a connectivity map adaptation to prospect new potential therapeutic interventions by drug repurposing. We identified TFs with already reported involvement in AD, such as ATF2 and PARK2, as well as possible new targets for future investigations, such as CNOT7, CSRNP2, SLC30A9, and TSC22D1. Furthermore, Connectivity Map Analysis adaptation suggested the repositioning of six FDA-approved drugs that can potentially modulate master regulator candidate regulatory units (Cefuroxime, Cyproterone, Dydrogesterone, Metrizamide, Trimethadione, and Vorinostat). Using a transcription factor-centered regulatory network reconstruction we were able to identify several potential molecular targets and six drug candidates for repositioning in AD. Our study provides further support for the use of bioinformatics

  7. Immune checkpoint inhibitors and targeted therapies for metastatic melanoma: A network meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pasquali, Sandro; Chiarion-Sileni, Vanna; Rossi, Carlo Riccardo; Mocellin, Simone

    2017-03-01

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors and targeted therapies, two new class of drugs for treatment of metastatic melanoma, have not been compared in randomized controlled trials (RCT). We quantitatively summarized the evidence and compared immune and targeted therapies in terms of both efficacy and toxicity. A comprehensive search for RCTs of immune checkpoint inhibitors and targeted therapies was conducted to August 2016. Using a network meta-analysis approach, treatments were compared with each other and ranked based on their effectiveness (as measured by the impact on progression-free survival [PFS]) and acceptability (the inverse of high grade toxicity). Twelve RCTs enrolling 6207 patients were included. Network meta-analysis generated 15 comparisons. Combined BRAF and MEK inhibitors were associated with longer PFS as compared to anti-CTLA4 (HR: 0.22; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.12-0.41) and anti-PD1 antibodies alone (HR: 0.38; CI: 0.20-0.72). However, anti-PD1 monoclonal antibodies were less toxic than anti-CTLA4 monoclonal antibodies (RR: 0.65; CI: 0.40-0.78) and their combination significantly increased toxicity compared to either single agent anti-CTLA4 (RR: 2.06; CI: 1.45-2.93) or anti-PD1 monoclonal antibodies (RR: 3.67; CI: 2.27-5.96). Consistently, ranking analysis suggested that the combination of targeted therapies is the most effective strategy, whereas single agent anti-PD1 antibodies have the best acceptability. The GRADE level of evidence quality for these findings was moderate to low. The simultaneous inhibition of BRAF and MEK appears the most effective treatment for melanomas harboring BRAF V600 mutation, although anti-PD1 antibodies appear to be less toxic. Further research is needed to increase the quality of evidence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Combined target factor analysis and Bayesian soft-classification of interference-contaminated samples: forensic fire debris analysis.

    PubMed

    Williams, Mary R; Sigman, Michael E; Lewis, Jennifer; Pitan, Kelly McHugh

    2012-10-10

    A bayesian soft classification method combined with target factor analysis (TFA) is described and tested for the analysis of fire debris data. The method relies on analysis of the average mass spectrum across the chromatographic profile (i.e., the total ion spectrum, TIS) from multiple samples taken from a single fire scene. A library of TIS from reference ignitable liquids with assigned ASTM classification is used as the target factors in TFA. The class-conditional distributions of correlations between the target and predicted factors for each ASTM class are represented by kernel functions and analyzed by bayesian decision theory. The soft classification approach assists in assessing the probability that ignitable liquid residue from a specific ASTM E1618 class, is present in a set of samples from a single fire scene, even in the presence of unspecified background contributions from pyrolysis products. The method is demonstrated with sample data sets and then tested on laboratory-scale burn data and large-scale field test burns. The overall performance achieved in laboratory and field test of the method is approximately 80% correct classification of fire debris samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. In-silico Metabolome Target Analysis Towards PanC-based Antimycobacterial Agent Discovery.

    PubMed

    Khoshkholgh-Sima, Baharak; Sardari, Soroush; Izadi Mobarakeh, Jalal; Khavari-Nejad, Ramezan Ali

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the main cause of tuberculosis (TB), has still remained a global health crisis especially in developing countries. Tuberculosis treatment is a laborious and lengthy process with high risk of noncompliance, cytotoxicity adverse events and drug resistance in patient. Recently, there has been an alarming rise of drug resistant in TB. In this regard, it is an unmet need to develop novel antitubercular medicines that target new or more effective biochemical pathways to prevent drug resistant Mycobacterium. Integrated study of metabolic pathways through in-silico approach played a key role in antimycobacterial design process in this study. Our results suggest that pantothenate synthetase (PanC), anthranilate phosphoribosyl transferase (TrpD) and 3-isopropylmalate dehydratase (LeuD) might be appropriate drug targets. In the next step, in-silico ligand analysis was used for more detailed study of chemical tractability of targets. This was helpful to identify pantothenate synthetase (PanC, Rv3602c) as the best target for antimycobacterial design procedure. Virtual library screening on the best ligand of PanC was then performed for inhibitory ligand design. At the end, five chemical intermediates showed significant inhibition of Mycobacterium bovis with good selectivity indices (SI) ≥10 according to Tuberculosis Antimicrobial Acquisition & Coordinating Facility of US criteria for antimycobacterial screening programs.

  10. Analysis on Target Detection and Classification in LTE Based Passive Forward Scattering Radar

    PubMed Central

    Raja Abdullah, Raja Syamsul Azmir; Abdul Aziz, Noor Hafizah; Abdul Rashid, Nur Emileen; Ahmad Salah, Asem; Hashim, Fazirulhisyam

    2016-01-01

    The passive bistatic radar (PBR) system can utilize the illuminator of opportunity to enhance radar capability. By utilizing the forward scattering technique and procedure into the specific mode of PBR can provide an improvement in target detection and classification. The system is known as passive Forward Scattering Radar (FSR). The passive FSR system can exploit the peculiar advantage of the enhancement in forward scatter radar cross section (FSRCS) for target detection. Thus, the aim of this paper is to show the feasibility of passive FSR for moving target detection and classification by experimental analysis and results. The signal source is coming from the latest technology of 4G Long-Term Evolution (LTE) base station. A detailed explanation on the passive FSR receiver circuit, the detection scheme and the classification algorithm are given. In addition, the proposed passive FSR circuit employs the self-mixing technique at the receiver; hence the synchronization signal from the transmitter is not required. The experimental results confirm the passive FSR system’s capability for ground target detection and classification. Furthermore, this paper illustrates the first classification result in the passive FSR system. The great potential in the passive FSR system provides a new research area in passive radar that can be used for diverse remote monitoring applications. PMID:27690051

  11. Analysis on Target Detection and Classification in LTE Based Passive Forward Scattering Radar.

    PubMed

    Raja Abdullah, Raja Syamsul Azmir; Abdul Aziz, Noor Hafizah; Abdul Rashid, Nur Emileen; Ahmad Salah, Asem; Hashim, Fazirulhisyam

    2016-09-29

    The passive bistatic radar (PBR) system can utilize the illuminator of opportunity to enhance radar capability. By utilizing the forward scattering technique and procedure into the specific mode of PBR can provide an improvement in target detection and classification. The system is known as passive Forward Scattering Radar (FSR). The passive FSR system can exploit the peculiar advantage of the enhancement in forward scatter radar cross section (FSRCS) for target detection. Thus, the aim of this paper is to show the feasibility of passive FSR for moving target detection and classification by experimental analysis and results. The signal source is coming from the latest technology of 4G Long-Term Evolution (LTE) base station. A detailed explanation on the passive FSR receiver circuit, the detection scheme and the classification algorithm are given. In addition, the proposed passive FSR circuit employs the self-mixing technique at the receiver; hence the synchronization signal from the transmitter is not required. The experimental results confirm the passive FSR system's capability for ground target detection and classification. Furthermore, this paper illustrates the first classification result in the passive FSR system. The great potential in the passive FSR system provides a new research area in passive radar that can be used for diverse remote monitoring applications.

  12. Analysis and Visualization Tool for Targeted Amplicon Bisulfite Sequencing on Ion Torrent Sequencers

    PubMed Central

    Pabinger, Stephan; Ernst, Karina; Pulverer, Walter; Kallmeyer, Rainer; Valdes, Ana M.; Metrustry, Sarah; Katic, Denis; Nuzzo, Angelo; Kriegner, Albert; Vierlinger, Klemens; Weinhaeusel, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Targeted sequencing of PCR amplicons generated from bisulfite deaminated DNA is a flexible, cost-effective way to study methylation of a sample at single CpG resolution and perform subsequent multi-target, multi-sample comparisons. Currently, no platform specific protocol, support, or analysis solution is provided to perform targeted bisulfite sequencing on a Personal Genome Machine (PGM). Here, we present a novel tool, called TABSAT, for analyzing targeted bisulfite sequencing data generated on Ion Torrent sequencers. The workflow starts with raw sequencing data, performs quality assessment, and uses a tailored version of Bismark to map the reads to a reference genome. The pipeline visualizes results as lollipop plots and is able to deduce specific methylation-patterns present in a sample. The obtained profiles are then summarized and compared between samples. In order to assess the performance of the targeted bisulfite sequencing workflow, 48 samples were used to generate 53 different Bisulfite-Sequencing PCR amplicons from each sample, resulting in 2,544 amplicon targets. We obtained a mean coverage of 282X using 1,196,822 aligned reads. Next, we compared the sequencing results of these targets to the methylation level of the corresponding sites on an Illumina 450k methylation chip. The calculated average Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.91 confirms the sequencing results with one of the industry-leading CpG methylation platforms and shows that targeted amplicon bisulfite sequencing provides an accurate and cost-efficient method for DNA methylation studies, e.g., to provide platform-independent confirmation of Illumina Infinium 450k methylation data. TABSAT offers a novel way to analyze data generated by Ion Torrent instruments and can also be used with data from the Illumina MiSeq platform. It can be easily accessed via the Platomics platform, which offers a web-based graphical user interface along with sample and parameter storage. TABSAT is freely

  13. PRT Impact Study - Operational Phase : Volume 1. Travel Analysis.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1979-03-01

    Part of a three-volume work, this report describes the analysis performed on travel data collected for the Pre-PRT Impact Study. The data analyzed consist of travel behavior, travel patterns, model utilization and travel costs of various modes of tra...

  14. Analysis and Operational Feasibility of Potable Water Production

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    III. MODELING, SIMULATION, AND TEST RESULTS ANALYSIS ..............27 A. INTRODUCTION...Regions of Study ......................57 Table 10. Drinking Water Tests ...chemicals, and coliform bacteria. Testing of the condensed water is important to ensure potability, as common tests have been conducted to ensure

  15. Single pilot IFR operating problems determined from accidental data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsyth, D. L.; Shaughnessy, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    The accident reports examined were restricted to instrument rated pilots flying in IFR weather. A brief examination was made of accidents which occurred during all phases of flight and which were due to all causes. A detailed examination was made of those accidents which involved a single pilot which occurred during the landing phases of flight, and were due to pilot error. Problem areas found include: (1) landing phase operations especially final approach, (2) pilot weather briefings, (3) night approaches in low IFR weather, (4) below minimum approaches, (5) aircraft icing, (6) imprecise navigation, (7) descending below minimum IFR altitudes, (8) fuel mismanagement, (9) pilot overconfidence, and (10) high pilot workload especially in twins. Some suggested areas of research included: (1) low cost deicing systems, (2) standardized navigation displays, (3) low cost low-altitude warning systems, (4) improved fuel management systems, (5) improved ATC communications, (6) more effective pilot training and experience acquisition methods, and (7) better weather data dissemination techniques.

  16. Operational Performance Analysis of Passive Acoustic Monitoring for Killer Whales

    SciTech Connect

    Matzner, Shari; Fu, Tao; Ren, Huiying

    2011-09-30

    For the planned tidal turbine site in Puget Sound, WA, the main concern is to protect Southern Resident Killer Whales (SRKW) due to their Endangered Species Act status. A passive acoustic monitoring system is proposed because the whales emit vocalizations that can be detected by a passive system. The algorithm for detection is implemented in two stages. The first stage is an energy detector designed to detect candidate signals. The second stage is a spectral classifier that is designed to reduce false alarms. The evaluation presented here of the detection algorithm incorporates behavioral models of the species of interest, environmentalmore » models of noise levels and potential false alarm sources to provide a realistic characterization of expected operational performance.« less

  17. COREnet: The Fusion of Social Network Analysis and Target Audience Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    misunderstanding of MISO (PSYOP) not only in doctrine, but also in practice, is easily understood. MISO has a long history of name changes starting ...TAA does not strictly adhere to any particular theory; studying dynamics is a valid starting point for analysis, and is naturally congruent with the...provides a starting point for further analysis. The PO is a pre-approved objective by the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) (JP 3–53, 2003, V-1

  18. Analysis, testing, and operation of the MAGI thermal control system

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Sonny; Hall, Jeffrey L.; Kasper, Brian P.

    2014-01-29

    The Aerospace Corporation has completed the development of the Mineral and Gas Identifier (MAGI) sensor - an airborne multi-spectral infrared instrument that is designed to discriminate surface composition and to detect gas emissions from the environment. Sensor performance was demonstrated in a series of flights aboard a Twin Otter aircraft in December 2011 as a stepping stone to a future satellite sensor design. To meet sensor performance requirements the thermal control system was designed to operate the HgCdTe focal plane array (FPA) at 50 K with a 1.79 W heat rejection load to a 44.7 K sink and the opticalmore » assembly at 100 K with a 7.5 W heat load to a 82.3 K sink. Two commercial off-theshelf (COTS) Sunpower Stirling cryocoolers were used to meet the instrument’s cooling requirements. A thermal model constructed in Thermal Desktop was used to run parametric studies that guided the mechanical design and sized the two cryocoolers. This paper discusses the development, validation, and operation of the MAGI thermal control system. Detailed energy balances and temperature predictions are presented for various test cases to demonstrate the utility and accuracy of the thermal model. Model inputs included measured values of heat lift as a function of input power and cold tip temperature for the two cryocoolers. These measurements were also used to make predictions of the cool-down behavior from ambient conditions. Advanced heater software was developed to meet unique requirements for both sensor cool-down rate and stability at the set point temperatures.« less

  19. The Analysis of Patients Operated for Frontal Sinus Osteomas

    PubMed Central

    Turan, Şükrü; Kaya, Ercan; Pınarbaşlı, Mehmet Özgür; Çaklı, Hamdi

    2015-01-01

    Objective Paranasal sinus osteomas are benign tumors that are smooth-walled, slow-growing, and induced by bone tissue. Although their most common localization is the frontal sinus, some osteomas are seen in the ethmoid, maxillary, and sphenoid sinuses. Frontal sinus osteomas are often asymptomatic; however, when they become symptomatic, headache is the most common complaint. In this study, we aimed to analyze the postoperative results of patients who were diagnosed with frontal sinus osteoma and were operated with appropriate surgical techniques. Methods We retrospectively evaluated 14 patients who were diagnosed with frontal sinus osteoma and were operated in our department between March 2009 and July 2014. The following parameters were analyzed: patients’ age and gender, complaints at the time of admission to our clinic, pathological findings from physically examination, tumor features observed in preoperative paranasal sinus computed tomography (size and localization), surgical methods applied, intra- and postoperative complications, and recurrence rates. All patients preoperatively provided informed consent. Results Of the 14 patients, 7 were males and 7 were females, with a mean age of 40.57 years. A total of 11 (79%) osteomas were located within the frontal sinus and 3 (21%) within the frontal recess. External surgical approach was performed to 11 patients, endoscopic approach was performed to 2 patients and external and endoscopic approach was performed to 1 patient together. Conclusion Although the preferred surgical method in frontal sinus osteoma depends depended on size and localization of tumors, experience of surgeon is also important. Although the external surgical approach is appropriate for large and laterally localized osteomas, the endoscopic approach is appropriate for small and inferomedially localized osteomas. In both surgical approaches the site of origin should be drilled. PMID:29391998

  20. Paired Exome Analysis Reveals Clonal Evolution and Potential Therapeutic Targets in Urothelial Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lamy, Philippe; Nordentoft, Iver; Birkenkamp-Demtröder, Karin; Thomsen, Mathilde Borg Houlberg; Villesen, Palle; Vang, Søren; Hedegaard, Jakob; Borre, Michael; Jensen, Jørgen Bjerggaard; Høyer, Søren; Pedersen, Jakob Skou; Ørntoft, Torben F; Dyrskjøt, Lars

    2016-10-01

    Greater knowledge concerning tumor heterogeneity and clonality is needed to determine the impact of targeted treatment in the setting of bladder cancer. In this study, we performed whole-exome, transcriptome, and deep-focused sequencing of metachronous tumors from 29 patients initially diagnosed with early-stage bladder tumors (14 with nonprogressive disease and 15 with progressive disease). Tumors from patients with progressive disease showed a higher variance of the intrapatient mutational spectrum and a higher frequency of APOBEC-related mutations. Allele-specific expression was also higher in these patients, particularly in tumor suppressor genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a common origin of the metachronous tumors, with a higher proportion of clonal mutations in the ancestral branch; however, 19 potential therapeutic targets were identified as both ancestral and tumor-specific alterations. Few subclones were present based on PyClone analysis. Our results illuminate tumor evolution and identify candidate therapeutic targets in bladder cancer. Cancer Res; 76(19); 5894-906. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Correlation analysis of targeted proteins and metabolites to assess and engineer microbial isopentenol production.

    PubMed

    George, Kevin W; Chen, Amy; Jain, Aakriti; Batth, Tanveer S; Baidoo, Edward E K; Wang, George; Adams, Paul D; Petzold, Christopher J; Keasling, Jay D; Lee, Taek Soon

    2014-08-01

    The ability to rapidly assess and optimize heterologous pathway function is critical for effective metabolic engineering. Here, we develop a systematic approach to pathway analysis based on correlations between targeted proteins and metabolites and apply it to the microbial production of isopentenol, a promising biofuel. Starting with a seven-gene pathway, we performed a correlation analysis to reduce pathway complexity and identified two pathway proteins as the primary determinants of efficient isopentenol production. Aided by the targeted quantification of relevant pathway intermediates, we constructed and subsequently validated a conceptual model of isopentenol pathway function. Informed by our analysis, we assembled a strain which produced isopentenol at a titer 1.5 g/L, or 46% of theoretical yield. Our engineering approach allowed us to accurately identify bottlenecks and determine appropriate pathway balance. Paired with high-throughput cloning techniques and analytics, this strategy should prove useful for the analysis and optimization of increasingly complex heterologous pathways. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Outlier analysis of functional genomic profiles enriches for oncology targets and enables precision medicine.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhou; Ihle, Nathan T; Rejto, Paul A; Zarrinkar, Patrick P

    2016-06-13

    Genome-scale functional genomic screens across large cell line panels provide a rich resource for discovering tumor vulnerabilities that can lead to the next generation of targeted therapies. Their data analysis typically has focused on identifying genes whose knockdown enhances response in various pre-defined genetic contexts, which are limited by biological complexities as well as the incompleteness of our knowledge. We thus introduce a complementary data mining strategy to identify genes with exceptional sensitivity in subsets, or outlier groups, of cell lines, allowing an unbiased analysis without any a priori assumption about the underlying biology of dependency. Genes with outlier features are strongly and specifically enriched with those known to be associated with cancer and relevant biological processes, despite no a priori knowledge being used to drive the analysis. Identification of exceptional responders (outliers) may not lead only to new candidates for therapeutic intervention, but also tumor indications and response biomarkers for companion precision medicine strategies. Several tumor suppressors have an outlier sensitivity pattern, supporting and generalizing the notion that tumor suppressors can play context-dependent oncogenic roles. The novel application of outlier analysis described here demonstrates a systematic and data-driven analytical strategy to decipher large-scale functional genomic data for oncology target and precision medicine discoveries.

  3. Integrated operations/payloads/fleet analysis. Volume 2: Payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The payloads for NASA and non-NASA missions of the integrated fleet are analyzed to generate payload data for the capture and cost analyses for the period 1979 to 1990. Most of the effort is on earth satellites, probes, and planetary missions because of the space shuttle's ability to retrieve payloads for repair, overhaul, and maintenance. Four types of payloads are considered: current expendable payload; current reusable payload; low cost expendable payload, (satellite to be used with expendable launch vehicles); and low cost reusable payload (satellite to be used with the space shuttle/space tug system). Payload weight analysis, structural sizing analysis, and the influence of mean mission duration on program cost are also discussed. The payload data were computerized, and printouts of the data for payloads for each program or mission are included.

  4. Air Cushion Vehicle Operator Training System (ACVOTS) Problem Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    Appendix A - Discussion of Fundemental Training Analysis Requirements. Appendix B - Data Sources. 9 SECTION II APPROACHES TO TRAINING PRESENT ASSAULT CRAFT...the training system is worth the investment of time and resources required to produce that output. A unique feature which distinguishes ISD from more...when they have been considered in the context of making alternative investment decisions. Investments in technology for certain long high-flow

  5. Advanced Productivity Analysis Methods for Air Traffic Control Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-01

    Routine Work ............................... 37 4.2.2. Surveillance Work .......................... 40 4.2.3. Conflict Prcessing Work ................... 41...crossing and overtake conflicts) includes potential- conflict recognition, assessment, and resolution decision making and A/N voice communications...makers to utilize £ .quantitative and dynamic analysis as a tool for decision - making. 1.1.3 Types of Simulation Models Although there are many ways to

  6. Compendium of Operations Research and Economic Analysis Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    Project 6034 ) 88-19. Enhanced DLA Distribution System (EDDS) - "Pooling" (June 1988) This study looked at the "pooling" concept as proposed under the EIDDS...1-3., Mi3 1 1 ionl. 81-19. LLt Warenousia, tiju Stkrj’.te t\\UL~jidJ’L ytot!ai .ca Analysis (mady 1961) *This r elpr L dOUCctIens anl UCOnIO:li

  7. Mechanism of MicroRNA-Target Interaction: Molecular Dynamics Simulations and Thermodynamics Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yonghua; Li, Yan; Ma, Zhi; Yang, Wei; Ai, Chunzhi

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenously produced ∼21-nt riboregulators that associate with Argonaute (Ago) proteins to direct mRNA cleavage or repress the translation of complementary RNAs. Capturing the molecular mechanisms of miRNA interacting with its target will not only reinforce the understanding of underlying RNA interference but also fuel the design of more effective small-interfering RNA strands. To address this, in the present work the RNA-bound (Ago-miRNA, Ago-miRNA-target) and RNA-free Ago forms were analyzed by performing both molecular dynamics simulations and thermodynamic analysis. Based on the principal component analysis results of the simulation trajectories as well as the correlation analysis in fluctuations of residues, we discover that: 1) three important (PAZ, Mid and PIWI) domains exist in Argonaute which define the global dynamics of the protein; 2) the interdomain correlated movements are so crucial for the interaction of Ago-RNAs that they not only facilitate the relaxation of the interactions between residues surrounding the RNA binding channel but also induce certain conformational changes; and 3) it is just these conformational changes that expand the cavity of the active site and open putative pathways for both the substrate uptake and product release. In addition, by thermodynamic analysis we also discover that for both the guide RNA 5′-end recognition and the facilitated site-specific cleavage of the target, the presence of two metal ions (of Mg2+) plays a predominant role, and this conclusion is consistent with the observed enzyme catalytic cleavage activity in the ternary complex (Ago-miRNA-mRNA). Our results find that it is the set of arginine amino acids concentrated in the nucleotide-binding channel in Ago, instead of the conventionally-deemed seed base-paring, that makes greater contributions in stabilizing the binding of the nucleic acids to Ago. PMID:20686687

  8. Maneuver Analysis and Targeting Strategy for the Stardust Re-Entry Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfrich, Cliff; Bhat, Ramachand S.; Kangas, Julie A.; Wilson, Roby S.; Wong, Mau C.; Potts, Christopher L.; Williams, Kenneth E.

    2006-01-01

    The Stardust Sample Return Capsule (SRC) returned to Earth on January 15, 2006 after seven years of collecting interstellar and comet particles over three heliocentric revolutions, as shown in Figure 1. The SRC was carried on board the Stardust spacecraft, as shown in Figure 2. Because the spacecraft was built with unbalanced thrusters, turns and attitude control maintenance resulted in undesirable delta-v being imparted to the trajectory. As a result, a carefully planned maneuver strategy was devised to accurately target the Stardust capsule to the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR). This paper provides an overview of the Stardust spacecraft and mission and describes the maneuver strategy that was employed to achieve the stringent targeting requirements for landing in Utah. In addition, an overview of Stardust maneuver analysis tools and techniques will also be presented.

  9. Strategic Protein Target Analysis for Developing Drugs to Stop Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Horst, J.A.; Pieper, U.; Sali, A.; Zhan, L.; Chopra, G.; Samudrala, R.; Featherstone, J.D.B.

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries is the most common disease to cause irreversible damage in humans. Several therapeutic agents are available to treat or prevent dental caries, but none besides fluoride has significantly influenced the disease burden globally. Etiologic mechanisms of the mutans group streptococci and specific Lactobacillus species have been characterized to various degrees of detail, from identification of physiologic processes to specific proteins. Here, we analyze the entire Streptococcus mutans proteome for potential drug targets by investigating their uniqueness with respect to non-cariogenic dental plaque bacteria, quality of protein structure models, and the likelihood of finding a drug for the active site. Our results suggest specific targets for rational drug discovery, including 15 known virulence factors, 16 proteins for which crystallographic structures are available, and 84 previously uncharacterized proteins, with various levels of similarity to homologs in dental plaque bacteria. This analysis provides a map to streamline the process of clinical development of effective multispecies pharmacologic interventions for dental caries. PMID:22899687

  10. Multilingual Connotation Frames: A Case Study on Social Media for Targeted Sentiment Analysis and Forecast

    SciTech Connect

    Rashkin, Hannah J.; Bell, Eric B.; Choi, Yejin

    People around the globe respond to major real world events through social media. To study targeted public sentiments across many languages and geographic locations, we introduce multilingual connotation frames: an extension from English connotation frames of Rashkin et al. (2016) with 10 additional European languages, focusing on the implied sentiments among event participants engaged in a frame. As a case study, we present large scale analysis on targeted public sentiments using 1.2 million multilingual connotation frames extracted from Twitter. We rely on connotation frames to build models to forecast country-specific connotation dynamics – perspective change over time towards salient entitiesmore » and events. Our results demonstrate that connotation dynamics can be accurately predicted up to half a week in advance.« less

  11. TARGET/CRYOCHIL - THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS AND SUBSCALE MODELING OF SPACE-BASED ORBIT TRANSFER VEHICLE CRYOGENIC PROPELLANT RESUPPLY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Defelice, D. M.

    1994-01-01

    The resupply of the cryogenic propellants is an enabling technology for space-based transfer vehicles. As part of NASA Lewis's ongoing efforts in micro-gravity fluid management, thermodynamic analysis and subscale modeling techniques have been developed to support an on-orbit test bed for cryogenic fluid management technologies. These efforts have been incorporated into two FORTRAN programs, TARGET and CRYOCHIL. The TARGET code is used to determine the maximum temperature at which the filling of a given tank can be initiated and subsequently filled to a specified pressure and fill level without venting. The main process is the transfer of the energy stored in the thermal mass of the tank walls into the inflowing liquid. This process is modeled by examining the end state of the no-vent fill process. This state is assumed to be at thermal equilibrium between the tank and the fluid which is well mixed and saturated at the tank pressure. No specific assumptions are made as to the processes or the intermediate thermodynamic states during the filling. It is only assumed that the maximum tank pressure occurs at the final state. This assumption implies that, during the initial phases of the filling, the injected liquid must pass through the bulk vapor in such a way that it absorbs a sufficient amount of its superheat so that moderate tank pressures can be maintained. It is believed that this is an achievable design goal for liquid injection systems. TARGET can be run with any fluid for which the user has a properties data base. Currently it will only run for hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen since pressure-enthalpy data sets have been included for these fluids only. CRYOCHIL's primary function is to predict the optimum liquid charge to be injected for each of a series of charge-hold-vent chilldown cycles. This information can then be used with specified mass flow rates and valve response times to control a liquid injection system for tank chilldown operations. This will

  12. Cognitive Task Analysis of the HALIFAX-Class Operations Room Officer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-03-10

    Image Cover Sheet CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM NUMBER 510918 UNCLASSIFIED llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll TITLE COGNITIVE TASK ANALYSIS OF THE...DATES COVERED 00-00-1999 to 00-00-1999 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Cognitive Task Analysis of the HALIFAX-Class Operations Room Officer 5a. CONTRACT...Ontario . ~ -- . ’ c ... - Incorporated Cognitive Task Analysis of the HALIFAX-Class Operations Room Officer: PWGSC Contract No. W7711-7-7404/001/SV

  13. The MIPAS2D: 2-D analysis of MIPAS observations of ESA target molecules and minor species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnone, E.; Brizzi, G.; Carlotti, M.; Dinelli, B. M.; Magnani, L.; Papandrea, E.; Ridolfi, M.

    2008-12-01

    Measurements from the MIPAS instrument onboard the ENVISAT satellite were analyzed with the Geofit Multi- Target Retrieval (GMTR) system to obtain 2-dimensional fields of pressure, temperature and volume mixing ratios of H2O, O3, HNO3, CH4, N2O, and NO2. Secondary target species relevant to stratospheric chemistry were also analysed and robust mixing ratios of N2O5, ClONO2, F11, F12, F14 and F22 were obtained. Other minor species with high uncertainties were not included in the database and will be the object of further studies. The analysis covers the original nominal observation mode from July 2002 to March 2004 and it is currently being extended to the ongoing reduced resolution mission. The GMTR algorithm was operated on a fixed 5 degrees latitudinal grid in order to ease the comparison with model calculations and climatological datasets. The generated database of atmospheric fields can be directly used for analyses based on averaging processes with no need of further interpolation. Samples of the obtained products are presented and discussed. The database of the retrieved quantities is made available to the scientific community.

  14. Statistical sensor fusion analysis of near-IR polarimetric and thermal imagery for the detection of minelike targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisenseel, Robert A.; Karl, William C.; Castanon, David A.; DiMarzio, Charles A.

    1999-02-01

    We present an analysis of statistical model based data-level fusion for near-IR polarimetric and thermal data, particularly for the detection of mines and mine-like targets. Typical detection-level data fusion methods, approaches that fuse detections from individual sensors rather than fusing at the level of the raw data, do not account rationally for the relative reliability of different sensors, nor the redundancy often inherent in multiple sensors. Representative examples of such detection-level techniques include logical AND/OR operations on detections from individual sensors and majority vote methods. In this work, we exploit a statistical data model for the detection of mines and mine-like targets to compare and fuse multiple sensor channels. Our purpose is to quantify the amount of knowledge that each polarimetric or thermal channel supplies to the detection process. With this information, we can make reasonable decisions about the usefulness of each channel. We can use this information to improve the detection process, or we can use it to reduce the number of required channels.

  15. Non-targeted analysis of unexpected food contaminants using LC-HRMS.

    PubMed

    Kunzelmann, Marco; Winter, Martin; Åberg, Magnus; Hellenäs, Karl-Erik; Rosén, Johan

    2018-03-29

    A non-target analysis method for unexpected contaminants in food is described. Many current methods referred to as "non-target" are capable of detecting hundreds or even thousands of contaminants. However, they will typically still miss all other possible contaminants. Instead, a metabolomics approach might be used to obtain "true non-target" analysis. In the present work, such a method was optimized for improved detection capability at low concentrations. The method was evaluated using 19 chemically diverse model compounds spiked into milk samples to mimic unknown contamination. Other milk samples were used as reference samples. All samples were analyzed with UHPLC-TOF-MS (ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry), using reversed-phase chromatography and electrospray ionization in positive mode. Data evaluation was performed by the software TracMass 2. No target lists of specific compounds were used to search for the contaminants. Instead, the software was used to sort out all features only occurring in the spiked sample data, i.e., the workflow resembled a metabolomics approach. Procedures for chemical identification of peaks were outside the scope of the study. Method, study design, and settings in the software were optimized to minimize manual evaluation and faulty or irrelevant hits and to maximize hit rate of the spiked compounds. A practical detection limit was established at 25 μg/kg. At this concentration, most compounds (17 out of 19) were detected as intact precursor ions, as fragments or as adducts. Only 2 irrelevant hits, probably natural compounds, were obtained. Limitations and possible practical use of the approach are discussed.

  16. Metallurgical Analysis of Ball Bearing Seized During Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Abhay K.; Swathi Kiranmayee, M.; Ramesh Narayanan, P.; Sreekumar, K.; Sinha, P. P.

    2012-06-01

    440C stainless steel of martensitic grade is being extensively used for bearing application because of its high wear and corrosion resistance. This alloy steel with 1 wt.% C along with 17 wt.% Cr, 1 wt.% Mn and up to 0.75 wt.% Mo has a number of primary carbides, which provide high hardness and good wear resistance. Owing to its unique performance characteristic, this steel finds a number of applications in space program. One such application is bearing used in booster pump assembly of propulsion system. During one of the ground tests of propulsion system, booster pump bearing seized operation after performing its partial intended function. The bearing was removed from the assembly and cut open. The ball and outer caging were analyzed using metallographic techniques and compared with another bearing taken from the fresh stock. Study indicated that ball as well as outer caging experienced exposure to high temperature and resulted in phase transformation. This article highlights the details of investigations carried out.

  17. Proximity operations analysis: Retrieval of the solar maximum mission observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yglesias, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Retrieval of the solar maximum mission (SMM) observatory is feasible in terms of orbiter primary reaction control system (PRCS) plume disturbance of the SMM, orbiter propellant consumed, and flight time required. Man-in-loop simulations will be required to validate these operational techniques before the verification process is complete. Candidate approach and flyaround techniques were developed that allow the orbiter to attain the proper alinement with the SMM for clear access to the grapple fixture (GF) prior grappling. Because the SMM has very little control authority (approximately 14.8 pound-foot-seconds in two axes and rate-damped in the third) it is necessary to inhibit all +Z (upfiring) PRCS jets on the orbiter to avoid tumbling the SMM. A profile involving a V-bar approach and an out-of-plane flyaround appears to be the best choice and is recommended at this time. The flyaround technique consists of alining the +X-axes of the two vehicles parallel with each other and then flying the orbiter around the SMM until the GF is in view. The out-of-plane flyaround technique is applicable to any inertially stabilized payload, and, the entire final approach profile could be considered as standard for most retrieval missions.

  18. Analysis of good practice of public health Emergency Operations Centers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Min; Li, Shi-Xue

    2015-08-01

    To study the public health Emergency Operations Centers (EOCs)in the US, the European Union, the UK and Australia, and summarize the good practice for the improvement of National Health Emergency Response Command Center in Chinese National Health and Family Planning Commission. Literature review was conducted to explore the EOCs of selected countries. The study focused on EOC function, organizational structure, human resources and information management. The selected EOCs had the basic EOC functions of coordinating and commanding as well as the public health related functions such as monitoring the situation, risk assessment, and epidemiological briefings. The organizational structures of the EOCs were standardized, scalable and flexible. Incident Command System was the widely applied organizational structure with a strong preference. The EOCs were managed by a unit of emergency management during routine time and surge staff were engaged upon emergencies. The selected EOCs had clear information management framework including information collection, assessment and dissemination. The performance of National Health Emergency Response Command Center can be improved by learning from the good practice of the selected EOCs, including setting clear functions, standardizing the organizational structure, enhancing the human resource capacity and strengthening information management. Copyright © 2015 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. An analysis of bipropellant neutralization for spacecraft refueling operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kauffman, David

    1987-01-01

    Refueling of satellites on orbit with storable propellants will involve venting part or all of the pressurant gas from the propellant tanks. This gas will be saturated with propellant vapor, and it may also have significant amounts of entrained fine droplets of propellant. The two most commonly used bipropellants, monomethyl hydrazine (MMH) and nitrogen tetroxide (N2O4), are highly reactive and toxic. Various possible ways of neutralizing the vented propellants are examined. The amount of propellant vented in a typical refueling operation is shown to be in the range of 0.2 to 5% of the tank capacity. Four potential neutralization schemes are examined: chemical decomposition, chemical reaction, condensation and adsorption. Chemical decomposition to essentially inert materials is thermodynamically feasible for both MMH and N2O4. It would be the simplest and easiest neutralization method to implement. Chemical decomposition would require more complex control. Condensation would require a refrigeration system and a very efficent phase separator. Adsorption is likely to be much heavier. A preliminary assessment of the four neutralization shemes is presented, along with suggested research and development plans.

  20. Combined analysis of job and task benzene air exposures among workers at four US refinery operations.

    PubMed

    Burns, Amanda; Shin, Jennifer Mi; Unice, Ken M; Gaffney, Shannon H; Kreider, Marisa L; Gelatt, Richard H; Panko, Julie M

    2017-03-01

    Workplace air samples analyzed for benzene at four US refineries from 1976 to 2007 were pooled into a single dataset to characterize similarities and differences between job titles, tasks and refineries, and to provide a robust dataset for exposure reconstruction. Approximately 12,000 non-task (>180 min) personal samples associated with 50 job titles and 4000 task (<180 min) samples characterizing 24 tasks were evaluated. Personal air sample data from four individual refineries were pooled based on a number of factors including (1) the consistent sampling approach used by refinery industrial hygienists over time, (2) the use of similar exposure controls, (3) the comparability of benzene content of process streams and end products, (4) the ability to assign uniform job titles and task codes across all four refineries, and (5) our analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the distribution of benzene air concentrations for select jobs/tasks across all four refineries. The jobs and tasks most frequently sampled included those with highest potential contact with refinery product streams containing benzene, which reflected the targeted sampling approach utilized by the facility industrial hygienists. Task and non-task data were analyzed to identify and account for significant differences within job-area, task-job, and task-area categories. This analysis demonstrated that in general, areas with benzene containing process streams were associated with greater benzene air concentrations compared to areas with process streams containing little to no benzene. For several job titles and tasks analyzed, there was a statistically significant decrease in benzene air concentration after 1990. This study provides a job and task-focused analysis of occupational exposure to benzene during refinery operations, and it should be useful for reconstructing refinery workers' exposures to benzene over the past 30 years.

  1. Combined analysis of job and task benzene air exposures among workers at four US refinery operations

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jennifer (Mi); Unice, Ken M; Gaffney, Shannon H; Kreider, Marisa L; Gelatt, Richard H; Panko, Julie M

    2016-01-01

    Workplace air samples analyzed for benzene at four US refineries from 1976 to 2007 were pooled into a single dataset to characterize similarities and differences between job titles, tasks and refineries, and to provide a robust dataset for exposure reconstruction. Approximately 12,000 non-task (>180 min) personal samples associated with 50 job titles and 4000 task (<180 min) samples characterizing 24 tasks were evaluated. Personal air sample data from four individual refineries were pooled based on a number of factors including (1) the consistent sampling approach used by refinery industrial hygienists over time, (2) the use of similar exposure controls, (3) the comparability of benzene content of process streams and end products, (4) the ability to assign uniform job titles and task codes across all four refineries, and (5) our analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the distribution of benzene air concentrations for select jobs/tasks across all four refineries. The jobs and tasks most frequently sampled included those with highest potential contact with refinery product streams containing benzene, which reflected the targeted sampling approach utilized by the facility industrial hygienists. Task and non-task data were analyzed to identify and account for significant differences within job-area, task-job, and task-area categories. This analysis demonstrated that in general, areas with benzene containing process streams were associated with greater benzene air concentrations compared to areas with process streams containing little to no benzene. For several job titles and tasks analyzed, there was a statistically significant decrease in benzene air concentration after 1990. This study provides a job and task-focused analysis of occupational exposure to benzene during refinery operations, and it should be useful for reconstructing refinery workers’ exposures to benzene over the past 30 years. PMID:26862134

  2. Systems biology approaches and tools for analysis of interactomes and multi-target drugs.

    PubMed

    Schrattenholz, André; Groebe, Karlfried; Soskic, Vukic

    2010-01-01

    Systems biology is essentially a proteomic and epigenetic exercise because the relatively condensed information of genomes unfolds on the level of proteins. The flexibility of cellular architectures is not only mediated by a dazzling number of proteinaceous species but moreover by the kinetics of their molecular changes: The time scales of posttranslational modifications range from milliseconds to years. The genetic framework of an organism only provides the blue print of protein embodiments which are constantly shaped by external input. Indeed, posttranslational modifications of proteins represent the scope and velocity of these inputs and fulfil the requirements of integration of external spatiotemporal signal transduction inside an organism. The optimization of biochemical networks for this type of information processing and storage results in chemically extremely fine tuned molecular entities. The huge dynamic range of concentrations, the chemical diversity and the necessity of synchronisation of complex protein expression patterns pose the major challenge of systemic analysis of biological models. One further message is that many of the key reactions in living systems are essentially based on interactions of moderate affinities and moderate selectivities. This principle is responsible for the enormous flexibility and redundancy of cellular circuitries. In complex disorders such as cancer or neurodegenerative diseases, which initially appear to be rooted in relatively subtle dysfunctions of multimodal physiologic pathways, drug discovery programs based on the concept of high affinity/high specificity compounds ("one-target, one-disease"), which has been dominating the pharmaceutical industry for a long time, increasingly turn out to be unsuccessful. Despite improvements in rational drug design and high throughput screening methods, the number of novel, single-target drugs fell much behind expectations during the past decade, and the treatment of "complex

  3. Assessing Canadian Bank Branch Operating Efficiency Using Data Envelopment Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zijiang

    2009-10-01

    In today's economy and society, performance analyses in the services industries attract more and more attention. This paper presents an evaluation of 240 branches of one big Canadian bank in Greater Toronto Area using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Special emphasis was placed on how to present the DEA results to management so as to provide more guidance to them on what to manage and how to accomplish the changes. Finally the potential management uses of the DEA results were presented. All the findings are discussed in the context of the Canadian banking market.

  4. Systematic analysis of EOS data system for operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moe, K. L.; Dasgupta, R.

    1985-01-01

    A data management analysis methodology is being proposed. The objective of the methodology is to assist mission managers by identifying a series of ordered activities to be systematically followed in order to arrive at an effective ground system design. Existing system engineering tools and concepts have been assembled into a structured framework to facilitate the work of a mission planner. It is intended that this methodology can be gainfully applied (with probable modifications and/or changes) to the EOS payloads and their associated data systems.

  5. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR PREPARATION OF SURROGATE RECOVERY STANDARD AND INTERNAL STANDARD SOLUTIONS FOR POLAR TARGET ANALYTES (SOP-5.26)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the method used for preparing surrogate recovery standard and internal standard solutions for the analysis of polar target analytes. It also describes the method for preparing calibration standard solutions for polar analytes used for gas chromatography/mass sp...

  6. The Empirical Analysis of Impact of Alliances on Airline Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iatrou, Kostas; Alamdari, Fariba

    2003-01-01

    Airline alliances are dominating the current air transport industry with the largest carriers of the world belonging to one of the four alliance groupings - "Wings", Star Alliance, one world, SkyTeam - which represent 56% of world Revenue Passenger Kilometers. Although much research has been carried out to evaluate the impact of alliance membership on performance of airlines, it would be of interest to ascertain the degree of impact perceived by participating airlines in alliances. It is the purpose of this paper to gather the opinion of all the airlines, belonging to the four global alliance groupings on the impact alliances have had on their traffic and on their performance in general To achieve this, a comprehensive survey of the alliance management departments of airlines participating in the four global strategic alliances was carried out. With this framework the survey has examined which type of cooperation among carriers (FFP, Code Share, Strategic Alliance without antitrust immunity, Strategic Alliance with antitrust immunity) has produced the most positive impact on traffic and which type of route (short haul, long haul, hub-hub, hub-non hub, non hub-non hub) has been mostly affected. In addition, the respondent airlines quantified the effect alliances have had on specific areas of their operation, such as load factors, traffic, costs, revenue and fares. Their responses have been analysed under each global alliances grouping, under airline and under geographic region to establish which group, type of carrier and geographic region has benefited most. The results show that each of the four global alliances groupings has experienced different results according to the type of collaboration agreed amongst their member airlines.

  7. Targeted nano analysis of water and ions using cryocorrelative light and scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Nolin, Frédérique; Ploton, Dominique; Wortham, Laurence; Tchelidze, Pavel; Balossier, Gérard; Banchet, Vincent; Bobichon, Hélène; Lalun, Nathalie; Terryn, Christine; Michel, Jean

    2012-11-01

    Cryo fluorescence imaging coupled with the cryo-EM technique (cryo-CLEM) avoids chemical fixation and embedding in plastic, and is the gold standard for correlated imaging in a close to native state. This multi-modal approach has not previously included elementary nano analysis or evaluation of water content. We developed a new approach allowing analysis of targeted in situ intracellular ions and water measurements at the nanoscale (EDXS and STEM dark field imaging) within domains identified by examination of specific GFP-tagged proteins. This method allows both water and ions- fundamental to cell biology- to be located and quantified at the subcellular level. We illustrate the potential of this approach by investigating changes in water and ion content in nuclear domains identified by GFP-tagged proteins in cells stressed by Actinomycin D treatment and controls. The resolution of our approach was sufficient to distinguish clumps of condensed chromatin from surrounding nucleoplasm by fluorescence imaging and to perform nano analysis in this targeted compartment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Differentiating in Number & Operations: A Guide for Ongoing Assessment, Grouping Students, Targeting Instruction, and Adjusting Levels of Cognitive Demand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor-Cox, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Differentiating is good teaching. As a math intervention tool, it's power packed. And as a math acceleration instrument it's unbeatable. And differentiation doesn't have to be difficult. Not with "Differentiation in Number & Operations and the Other Math Content Standards, PreK-Grade 2". The author's five-volume series shows you easy and effective…

  9. The effect of interventions targeting screen time reduction: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lei; Sun, Samio; He, Yao; Jiang, Bin

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies have evaluated the effectiveness of interventions aimed at screen time reduction, but the results have been inconsistent. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to summarize the accumulating evidence of the impact of interventions targeting screen time reduction on body mass index (BMI) reduction and screen time reduction. The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) databases were searched for RCTs on the effect of interventions targeting screen time reduction. The primary and secondary outcomes were the mean difference between the treatment and control groups in the changes in BMI and changes in screen viewing time. A random effects model was used to calculate the pooled mean differences. Fourteen trials including 2238 participants were assessed. The pooled analysis suggested that interventions targeting screen time reduction had a significant effect on BMI reduction (-0.15 kg/m, P < 0.001, I = 0) and on screen time reduction (-4.63 h/w, P = 0.003, I = 94.6%). Subgroup analysis showed that a significant effect of screen time reduction was observed in studies in which the duration of intervention was <7 months and that the types of interventions in those studies were health promotion curricula or counseling. Interventions for screen time reduction might be effective in reducing screen time and preventing excess weight. Further rigorous investigations with larger samples and longer follow-up periods are still needed to evaluate the efficacy of screen time reduction both in children and in adults.

  10. Target analysis of primary aromatic amines combined with a comprehensive screening of migrating substances in kitchen utensils by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sanchis, Yovana; Coscollà, Clara; Roca, Marta; Yusà, Vicent

    2015-06-01

    An analytical strategy including both the quantitative target analysis of 8 regulated primary aromatic amines (PAAs), as well as a comprehensive post-run target screening of 77 migrating substances, was developed for nylon utensils, using liquid chromatography-orbitrap-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) operating in full scan mode. The accurate mass data were acquired with a resolving power of 50,000 FWHM (scan speed, 2 Hz), and by alternating two acquisition events, ESI+ with and without fragmentation. The target method was validated after statistical optimization of the main ionization and fragmentation parameters. The quantitative method presented appropriate performance to be used in official monitoring with recoveries ranging from 78% to 112%, precision in terms of Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) was less than 15%, and the limits of quantification were between 2 and 2.5 µg kg(-1). For post-target screening, a customized theoretical database was built for food contact material migrants, including bisphenols, phthalates, and other amines. For identification purposes, accurate exact mass (<5 ppm) and some diagnostic ions including fragments were used. The strategy was applied to 10 real samples collected from different retailers in the Valencian Region (Spain) during 2014. Six out of eight target PAAs were detected in at least one sample in the target analysis. The most frequently detected compounds were 4,4'-methylenedianiline and aniline, with concentrations ranging from 2.4 to 19,715 µg kg(-1) and 2.5 to 283 µg kg(-1), respectively. Two phthalates were identified and confirmed in the post-run target screening analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Targeted quantitative analysis of Streptococcus pyogenes virulence factors by multiple reaction monitoring.

    PubMed

    Lange, Vinzenz; Malmström, Johan A; Didion, John; King, Nichole L; Johansson, Björn P; Schäfer, Juliane; Rameseder, Jonathan; Wong, Chee-Hong; Deutsch, Eric W; Brusniak, Mi-Youn; Bühlmann, Peter; Björck, Lars; Domon, Bruno; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2008-08-01

    In many studies, particularly in the field of systems biology, it is essential that identical protein sets are precisely quantified in multiple samples such as those representing differentially perturbed cell states. The high degree of reproducibility required for such experiments has not been achieved by classical mass spectrometry-based proteomics methods. In this study we describe the implementation of a targeted quantitative approach by which predetermined protein sets are first identified and subsequently quantified at high sensitivity reliably in multiple samples. This approach consists of three steps. First, the proteome is extensively mapped out by multidimensional fractionation and tandem mass spectrometry, and the data generated are assembled in the PeptideAtlas database. Second, based on this proteome map, peptides uniquely identifying the proteins of interest, proteotypic peptides, are selected, and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions are established and validated by MS2 spectrum acquisition. This process of peptide selection, transition selection, and validation is supported by a suite of software tools, TIQAM (Targeted Identification for Quantitative Analysis by MRM), described in this study. Third, the selected target protein set is quantified in multiple samples by MRM. Applying this approach we were able to reliably quantify low abundance virulence factors from cultures of the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes exposed to increasing amounts of plasma. The resulting quantitative protein patterns enabled us to clearly define the subset of virulence proteins that is regulated upon plasma exposure.

  12. Targeting, universalism, and single-mother poverty: a multilevel analysis across 18 affluent democracies.

    PubMed

    Brady, David; Burroway, Rebekah

    2012-05-01

    We examine the influence of individual characteristics and targeted and universal social policy on single-mother poverty with a multilevel analysis across 18 affluent Western democracies. Although single mothers are disproportionately poor in all countries, there is even more cross-national variation in single-mother poverty than in poverty among the overall population. By far, the United States has the highest rate of poverty among single mothers among affluent democracies. The analyses show that single-mother poverty is a function of the household's employment, education, and age composition, and the presence of other adults in the household. Beyond individual characteristics, social policy exerts substantial influence on single-mother poverty. We find that two measures of universal social policy significantly reduce single-mother poverty. However, one measure of targeted social policy does not have significant effects, and another measure is significantly negative only when controlling for universal social policy. Moreover, the effects of universal social policy are larger. Additional analyses show that universal social policy does not have counterproductive consequences in terms of family structure or employment, while the results are less clear for targeted social policy. Although debates often focus on altering the behavior or characteristics of single mothers, welfare universalism could be an even more effective anti-poverty strategy.

  13. Accurate Analysis of Target Characteristic in Bistatic SAR Images: A Dihedral Corner Reflectors Case

    PubMed Central

    Ao, Dongyang; Hu, Cheng; Tian, Weiming

    2017-01-01

    The dihedral corner reflectors are the basic geometric structure of many targets and are the main contributions of radar cross section (RCS) in the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. In stealth technologies, the elaborate design of the dihedral corners with different opening angles is a useful approach to reduce the high RCS generated by multiple reflections. As bistatic synthetic aperture sensors have flexible geometric configurations and are sensitive to the dihedral corners with different opening angles, they specially fit for the stealth target detections. In this paper, the scattering characteristic of dihedral corner reflectors is accurately analyzed in bistatic synthetic aperture images. The variation of RCS with the changing opening angle is formulated and the method to design a proper bistatic radar for maximizing the detection capability is provided. Both the results of the theoretical analysis and the experiments show the bistatic SAR could detect the dihedral corners, under a certain bistatic angle which is related to the geometry of target structures. PMID:29271917

  14. Proteomics Analysis of Nucleolar SUMO-1 Target Proteins upon Proteasome Inhibition*

    PubMed Central

    Matafora, Vittoria; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Mori, Silvia; Blasi, Francesco; Bachi, Angela

    2009-01-01

    Many cellular processes are regulated by the coordination of several post-translational modifications that allow a very fine modulation of substrates. Recently it has been reported that there is a relationship between sumoylation and ubiquitination. Here we propose that the nucleolus is the key organelle in which SUMO-1 conjugates accumulate in response to proteasome inhibition. We demonstrated that, upon proteasome inhibition, the SUMO-1 nuclear dot localization is redirected to nucleolar structures. To better understand this process we investigated, by quantitative proteomics, the effect of proteasome activity on endogenous nucleolar SUMO-1 targets. 193 potential SUMO-1 substrates were identified, and interestingly in several purified SUMO-1 conjugates ubiquitin chains were found to be present, confirming the coordination of these two modifications. 23 SUMO-1 targets were confirmed by an in vitro sumoylation reaction performed on nuclear substrates. They belong to protein families such as small nuclear ribonucleoproteins, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins, ribosomal proteins, histones, RNA-binding proteins, and transcription factor regulators. Among these, histone H1, histone H3, and p160 Myb-binding protein 1A were further characterized as novel SUMO-1 substrates. The analysis of the nature of the SUMO-1 targets identified in this study strongly indicates that sumoylation, acting in coordination with the ubiquitin-proteasome system, regulates the maintenance of nucleolar integrity. PMID:19596686

  15. Correlation between simulations and cavitation-induced erosion damage in Spallation Neutron Source target modules after operation

    SciTech Connect

    Riemer, Bernie; McClintock, David A; Kaminskas, Saulius

    2014-01-01

    An explicit finite element (FE) technique developed for estimating dynamic strain in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) mercury target module vessel is now providing insight into cavitation damage patterns observed in used targets. The technique uses an empirically developed material model for the mercury that describes liquid-like volumetric stiffness combined with a tensile pressure cut-off limit that approximates cavitation. The longest period each point in the mercury is at the tensile cut-off threshold is denoted its saturation time. Now, the pattern of saturation time can be obtained from these simulations and is being positively correlated with observed damage patterns andmore » is interpreted as a qualitative measure of damage potential. Saturation time has been advocated by collaborators at J-Parc as a factor in predicting bubble nuclei growth and collapse intensity. The larger the ratio of maximum bubble size to nucleus, the greater the bubble collapse intensity to be expected; longer saturation times result in greater ratios. With the recent development of a user subroutine for the FE solver saturation time is now provided over the entire mercury domain. Its pattern agrees with spots of damage seen above and below the beam axis on the SNS inner vessel beam window and elsewhere. The other simulation result being compared to observed damage patterns is mercury velocity at the wall. Related R&D has provided evidence for the damage mitigation that higher wall velocity provides. In comparison to observations in SNS targets, inverse correlation of high velocity to damage is seen. In effect, it is the combination of the patterns of saturation time and low velocity that seems to match actual damage patterns.« less

  16. Urine monitoring system failure analysis and operational verification test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glanfield, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    Failure analysis and testing of a prototype urine monitoring system (UMS) are reported. System performance was characterized by a regression formula developed from volume measurement test data. When the volume measurement test data. When the volume measurement data was imputted to the formula, the standard error of the estimate calculated using the regression formula was found to be within 1.524% of the mean of the mass of the input. System repeatability was found to be somewhat dependent upon the residual volume of the system and the evaporation of fluid from the separator. The evaporation rate was determined to be approximately 1cc/minute. The residual volume in the UMS was determined by measuring the concentration of LiCl in the flush water. Observed results indicated residual levels in the range of 9-10ml, however, results obtained during the flushing efficiency test indicated a residual level of approximately 20ml. It is recommended that the phase separator pumpout time be extended or the design modified to minimize the residual level.

  17. FRAPCON analysis of cladding performance during dry storage operations

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, David J.; Geelhood, Kenneth J.

    There is an increasing need in the U.S. and around the world to move used nuclear fuel from wet storage in fuel pools to dry storage in casks stored at independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSI) or interim storage sites. The NRC limits cladding temperature to 400°C while maintaining cladding hoop stress below 90 MPa in an effort to avoid radial hydride reorientation. An analysis was conducted with FRAPCON-4.0 on three modern fuel designs with three representative used nuclear fuel storage temperature profiles that peaked at 400 °C. Results were representative of the majority of U.S. LWR fuel. They conservativelymore » showed that hoop stress remains below 90 MPa at the licensing temperature limit. Results also show that the limiting case for hoop stress may not be at the highest rod internal pressure in all cases but will be related to the axial temperature and oxidation profiles of the rods at the end of life and in storage.« less

  18. Multiply Controlled Verbal Operants: An Analysis and Extension to the Picture Exchange Communication System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bondy, A.; Tincani, M.; Frost, L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior as a framework for understanding language acquisition in children with autism. We describe Skinner's analysis of pure and impure verbal operants and illustrate how this analysis may be applied to the design of communication training programs. The picture exchange communication system…

  19. A new approach to delineating lymph node target volumes for post-operative radiotherapy in gastric cancer: A phase II trial.

    PubMed

    Haijun, Yu; Qiuji, Wu; Zhenming, Fu; Yong, Huang; Zhengkai, Liao; Conghua, Xie; Yunfeng, Zhou; Yahua, Zhong

    2015-08-01

    In the context of gastric cancer, lymph node target volume delineation for post-operative radiotherapy is currently built on the traditional system of dividing the stomach and 2-D treatment methods. Here, we have proposed a new delineation approach with irradiation indications for lymph node stations. Its safety and efficacy were evaluated in a phase II clinical trial. Fifty-four gastric cancer patients with D2 lymph node dissection received 2 cycles of FOLFOX4. They subsequently received concurrent chemoradiotherapy (45 Gy at 1.8 Gy per fraction, 5 fractions per week for 5 weeks) with a 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin regimen, followed by 4 additional FOLFOX4 cycles. The target volume included the remnant stomach, anastomosis site, tumor bed, and regional lymph nodes selected through our new approach by taking gastric arteries as references. The most common grade 3-4 adverse event was neutropenia (14.8%). Neutropenia, anemia, and nausea were common grade 1-2 toxicities. No treatment-related deaths occurred during treatment. The 3-year overall, disease-free, and locoregional recurrence-free survival rates were 81.6%, 70.2%, and 91.1%, respectively. Eight patients developed peritoneal or distant metastases. Using our new approach and irradiation indications, delineation of the target volume of post-operative lymph node stations was feasible and well tolerated after D2 resection in patients with gastric cancer. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Meta-analysis of PECS with individuals with ASD: investigation of targeted versus non-targeted outcomes, participant characteristics, and implementation phase.

    PubMed

    Ganz, Jennifer B; Davis, John L; Lund, Emily M; Goodwyn, Fara D; Simpson, Richard L

    2012-01-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a widely used picture/icon aided augmentative communication system designed for learners with autism and other developmental disorders. This meta-analysis analyzes the extant empirical literature for PECS relative to targeted (functional communication) and non-targeted concomitant outcomes (behavior, social skills, and speech) for learners with autism, learners with autism and intellectual disabilities and those with autism and multiple disabilities. Effect size analyses were done using the Improvement Rate Difference method, an advanced metric. Effect sizes were independently analyzed for targeted and non-targeted outcomes, student age, learner disability, and number of phases in the PECS protocol acquired by learners. Results supported the judgment that PECS is a promising intervention method. Analysis also revealed that functional communication outcomes associated with the PECS protocol were most impacted, that preschool children and those with autism generally showed the strongest training effects, and that in general students who advanced through the most PECS protocol phases had the best outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Human microRNA target analysis and gene ontology clustering by GOmir, a novel stand-alone application

    PubMed Central

    Roubelakis, Maria G; Zotos, Pantelis; Papachristoudis, Georgios; Michalopoulos, Ioannis; Pappa, Kalliopi I; Anagnou, Nicholas P; Kossida, Sophia

    2009-01-01

    Background microRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded RNA molecules of about 20–23 nucleotides length found in a wide variety of organisms. miRNAs regulate gene expression, by interacting with target mRNAs at specific sites in order to induce cleavage of the message or inhibit translation. Predicting or verifying mRNA targets of specific miRNAs is a difficult process of great importance. Results GOmir is a novel stand-alone application consisting of two separate tools: JTarget and TAGGO. JTarget integrates miRNA target prediction and functional analysis by combining the predicted target genes from TargetScan, miRanda, RNAhybrid and PicTar computational tools as well as the experimentally supported targets from TarBase and also providing a full gene description and functional analysis for each target gene. On the other hand, TAGGO application is designed to automatically group gene ontology annotations, taking advantage of the Gene Ontology (GO), in order to extract the main attributes of sets of proteins. GOmir represents a new tool incorporating two separate Java applications integrated into one stand-alone Java application. Conclusion GOmir (by using up to five different databases) introduces miRNA predicted targets accompanied by (a) full gene description, (b) functional analysis and (c) detailed gene ontology clustering. Additionally, a reverse search initiated by a potential target can also be conducted. GOmir can freely be downloaded BRFAA. PMID:19534746

  2. Human microRNA target analysis and gene ontology clustering by GOmir, a novel stand-alone application.

    PubMed

    Roubelakis, Maria G; Zotos, Pantelis; Papachristoudis, Georgios; Michalopoulos, Ioannis; Pappa, Kalliopi I; Anagnou, Nicholas P; Kossida, Sophia

    2009-06-16

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded RNA molecules of about 20-23 nucleotides length found in a wide variety of organisms. miRNAs regulate gene expression, by interacting with target mRNAs at specific sites in order to induce cleavage of the message or inhibit translation. Predicting or verifying mRNA targets of specific miRNAs is a difficult process of great importance. GOmir is a novel stand-alone application consisting of two separate tools: JTarget and TAGGO. JTarget integrates miRNA target prediction and functional analysis by combining the predicted target genes from TargetScan, miRanda, RNAhybrid and PicTar computational tools as well as the experimentally supported targets from TarBase and also providing a full gene description and functional analysis for each target gene. On the other hand, TAGGO application is designed to automatically group gene ontology annotations, taking advantage of the Gene Ontology (GO), in order to extract the main attributes of sets of proteins. GOmir represents a new tool incorporating two separate Java applications integrated into one stand-alone Java application. GOmir (by using up to five different databases) introduces miRNA predicted targets accompanied by (a) full gene description, (b) functional analysis and (c) detailed gene ontology clustering. Additionally, a reverse search initiated by a potential target can also be conducted. GOmir can freely be downloaded BRFAA.

  3. Delivery of drugs to intracellular organelles using drug delivery systems: Analysis of research trends and targeting efficiencies.

    PubMed

    Maity, Amit Ranjan; Stepensky, David

    2015-12-30

    Targeting of drug delivery systems (DDSs) to specific intracellular organelles (i.e., subcellular targeting) has been investigated in numerous publications, but targeting efficiency of these systems is seldom reported. We searched scientific publications in the subcellular DDS targeting field and analyzed targeting efficiency and major formulation parameters that affect it. We identified 77 scientific publications that matched the search criteria. In the majority of these studies nanoparticle-based DDSs were applied, while liposomes, quantum dots and conjugates were used less frequently. The nucleus was the most common intracellular target, followed by mitochondrion, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. In 65% of the publications, DDSs surface was decorated with specific targeting residues, but the efficiency of this surface decoration was not analyzed in predominant majority of the studies. Moreover, only 23% of the analyzed publications contained quantitative data on DDSs subcellular targeting efficiency, while the majority of publications reported qualitative results only. From the analysis of publications in the subcellular targeting field, it appears that insufficient efforts are devoted to quantitative analysis of the major formulation parameters and of the DDSs' intracellular fate. Based on these findings, we provide recommendations for future studies in the field of organelle-specific drug delivery and targeting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Targeted mass spectrometric analysis of N-terminally truncated isoforms generated via alternative translation initiation.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Ryuji; Patenia, Rebecca; Ashizawa, Satoshi; Vykoukal, Jody

    2009-07-21

    Alternative translation initiation is a mechanism whereby functionally altered proteins are produced from a single mRNA. Internal initiation of translation generates N-terminally truncated protein isoforms, but such isoforms observed in immunoblot analysis are often overlooked or dismissed as degradation products. We identified an N-terminally truncated isoform of human Dok-1 with N-terminal acetylation as seen in the wild-type. This Dok-1 isoform exhibited distinct perinuclear localization whereas the wild-type protein was distributed throughout the cytoplasm. Targeted analysis of blocked N-terminal peptides provides rapid identification of protein isoforms and could be widely applied for the general evaluation of perplexing immunoblot bands.

  5. Human Factors Analysis of Pipeline Monitoring and Control Operations: Final Technical Report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-11-26

    The purpose of the Human Factors Analysis of Pipeline Monitoring and Control Operations project was to develop procedures that could be used by liquid pipeline operators to assess and manage the human factors risks in their control rooms that may adv...

  6. Identification of BAG3 target proteins in anaplastic thyroid cancer cells by proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Galdiero, Francesca; Bello, Anna Maria; Spina, Anna; Capiluongo, Anna; Liuu, Sophie; De Marco, Margot; Rosati, Alessandra; Capunzo, Mario; Napolitano, Maria; Vuttariello, Emilia; Monaco, Mario; Califano, Daniela; Turco, Maria Caterina; Chiappetta, Gennaro; Vinh, Joëlle; Chiappetta, Giovanni

    2018-01-30

    BAG3 protein is an apoptosis inhibitor and is highly expressed in Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer. We investigated the entire set of proteins modulated by BAG3 silencing in the human anaplastic thyroid 8505C cancer cells by using the Stable-Isotope Labeling by Amino acids in Cell culture strategy combined with mass spectrometry analysis. By this approach we identified 37 up-regulated and 54 down-regulated proteins in BAG3-silenced cells. Many of these proteins are reportedly involved in tumor progression, invasiveness and resistance to therapies. We focused our attention on an oncogenic protein, CAV1, and a tumor suppressor protein, SERPINB2, that had not previously been reported to be modulated by BAG3. Their expression levels in BAG3-silenced cells were confirmed by qRT-PCR and western blot analyses, disclosing two novel targets of BAG3 pro-tumor activity. We also examined the dataset of proteins obtained by the quantitative proteomics analysis using two tools, Downstream Effect Analysis and Upstream Regulator Analysis of the Ingenuity Pathways Analysis software. Our analyses confirm the association of the proteome profile observed in BAG3-silenced cells with an increase in cell survival and a decrease in cell proliferation and invasion, and highlight the possible involvement of four tumor suppressor miRNAs and TP53/63 proteins in BAG3 activity.

  7. Integrated vehicle-based safety systems (IVBSS) : light vehicle platform field operational test data analysis plan.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-12-22

    This document presents the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institutes plan to : perform analysis of data collected from the light vehicle platform field operational test of the : Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety Systems (IVBSS) progr...

  8. Switching operations fatality analysis : findings and recommendations of the SOFA working group

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1999-10-01

    On February 1998, a Switching Operations Fatality Analysis (SOFA) Working Group (WG) was formed at the request of the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) to review recent fatal incidents and develop recommendations for reducing fatalities in switch...

  9. Integrated vehicle-based safety systems (IVBSS) : heavy truck platform field operational test data analysis plan.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-11-23

    This document presents the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institutes plan to perform : analysis of data collected from the heavy truck platform field operational test of the Integrated Vehicle- : Based Safety Systems (IVBSS) progra...

  10. Integrated network analysis reveals potentially novel molecular mechanisms and therapeutic targets of refractory epilepsies

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guangming; Wang, Yiwei; Zhao, Pengyao; Zhu, Yizhun; Yang, Xiaohan; Zheng, Tiezheng; Zhou, Xuezhong; Jin, Weilin; Sun, Changkai

    2017-01-01

    Epilepsy is a complex neurological disorder and a significant health problem. The pathogenesis of epilepsy remains obscure in a significant number of patients and the current treatment options are not adequate in about a third of individuals which were known as refractory epilepsies (RE). Network medicine provides an effective approach for studying the molecular mechanisms underlying complex diseases. Here we integrated 1876 disease-gene associations of RE and located those genes to human protein-protein interaction (PPI) network to obtain 42 significant RE-associated disease modules. The functional analysis of these disease modules showed novel molecular pathological mechanisms of RE, such as the novel enriched pathways (e.g., “presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors”, “signaling by insulin receptor”). Further analysis on the relationships between current drug targets and the RE-related disease genes showed the rational mechanisms of most antiepileptic drugs. In addition, we detected ten potential novel drug targets (e.g., KCNA1, KCNA4-6, KCNC3, KCND2, KCNMA1, CAMK2G, CACNB4 and GRM1) located in three RE related disease modules, which might provide novel insights into the new drug discovery for RE therapy. PMID:28388656

  11. Biodiversity in targeted metabolomics analysis of filamentous fungal pathogens by 1H NMR-based studies.

    PubMed

    Ząbek, Adam; Klimek-Ochab, Magdalena; Jawień, Ewa; Młynarz, Piotr

    2017-07-01

    The taxonomical classification among fungi kingdom in the last decades was evolved. In this work the targeted metabolomics study based on 1 H NMR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics tools was reported to be useful for differentiation of three model of fungal strains, which represent various genus of Ascomycota (Aspergillus pallidofulvus, Fusarium oxysporum, Geotrichum candidum) were selected in order to perform metabolomics studies. Each tested species, revealed specific metabolic profile of primary endo-metabolites. The species of A. pallidofulvus is represented by the highest concentration of glycerol, glucitol and Unk5. While, F. oxysporum species is characterised by increased level of propylene glycol, ethanol, 4-aminobutyrate, succinate, xylose, Unk1 and Unk4. In G. candidum, 3-methyl-2-oxovalerate, glutamate, pyruvate, glutamine and citrate were elevated. Additionally, a detailed analysis of metabolic changes among A. pallidofulvus, F. oxysporum and G. candidum showed that A. pallidofulvus seems to be the most pathogenic fungi. The obtained results demonstrated that targeted metabolomics analysis could be utilized in the future as a supporting taxonomical tool for currently methods.

  12. Sejong Open Cluster Survey (SOS). 0. Target Selection and Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Hwankyung; Lim, Beomdu; Bessell, Michael S.; Kim, Jinyoung S.; Hur, Hyeonoh; Chun, Moo-Young; Park, Byeong-Gon

    2013-06-01

    Star clusters are superb astrophysical laboratories containing cospatial and coeval samples of stars with similar chemical composition. We initiate the Sejong Open cluster Survey (SOS) - a project dedicated to providing homogeneous photometry of a large number of open clusters in the SAAO Johnson-Cousins' UBVI system. To achieve our main goal, we pay much attention to the observation of standard stars in order to reproduce the SAAO standard system. Many of our targets are relatively small sparse clusters that escaped previous observations. As clusters are considered building blocks of the Galactic disk, their physical properties such as the initial mass function, the pattern of mass segregation, etc. give valuable information on the formation and evolution of the Galactic disk. The spatial distribution of young open clusters will be used to revise the local spiral arm structure of the Galaxy. In addition, the homogeneous data can also be used to test stellar evolutionary theory, especially concerning rare massive stars. In this paper we present the target selection criteria, the observational strategy for accurate photometry, and the adopted calibrations for data analysis such as color-color relations, zero-age main sequence relations, Sp - M_V relations, Sp - T_{eff} relations, Sp - color relations, and T_{eff} - BC relations. Finally we provide some data analysis such as the determination of the reddening law, the membership selection criteria, and distance determination.

  13. Space Operations Center system analysis study extension. Volume 4, book 2: SOC system analysis report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Space Operations Center (SOC) orbital space station research missions integration, crew requirements, SOC operations, and configurations are analyzed. Potential research and applications missions and their requirements are described. The capabilities of SOC are compared with user requirements. The SOC/space shuttle and shuttle-derived vehicle flight support operations and SOC orbital operations are described. Module configurations and systems options, SOC/external tank configurations, and configurations for geostationary orbits are described. Crew and systems safety configurations are summarized.

  14. Utility of the summation chromatographic peak integration function to avoid manual reintegrations in the analysis of targeted analytes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As sample preparation and analytical techniques have improved, data handling has become the main limitation in automated high-throughput analysis of targeted chemicals in many applications. Conventional chromatographic peak integration functions rely on complex software and settings, but untrustwor...

  15. Overview of the data analysis and new micro-pattern gas detector development for the Active Target Time Projection Chamber (AT-TPC) project.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayyad, Yassid; Mittig, Wolfgang; Bazin, Daniel; Cortesi, Marco

    2017-07-01

    The Active Target Time Projection Chamber (AT-TPC) project at the NSCL (National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University) is a novel active target detector tailored for low-energy nuclear reactions in inverse kinematics with radioactive ion beams. The AT-TPC allows for a full three dimensional reconstruction of the reaction and provides high luminosity without degradation of resolution by the thickness of the target. Since all the particles (and also the reaction vertex) are tracked inside the detector, the AT-TPC has full 4π efficiency. The AT-TPC can operate under a magnetic field (2 T) that improves the identification of the particles and the energy resolution through the measurement of the magnetic rigidity. Another important characteristic of the AT-TPC is the high-gain operation achieved by the hybrid thick Gas Electron Multipliers (THGEM)-Micromegas pad plane, that allow operation also in pure elemental gas. These two features make the AT-TPC a unique high resolution spectrometer with full acceptance for nuclear physics reactions. This work presents an overview of the project, focused on the data analysis and the development of new micro-pattern gas detectors.

  16. Analysis of Preconditioning and Relaxation Operators for the Discontinuous Galerkin Method Applied to Diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkins, H. L.; Shu, Chi-Wang

    2001-01-01

    The explicit stability constraint of the discontinuous Galerkin method applied to the diffusion operator decreases dramatically as the order of the method is increased. Block Jacobi and block Gauss-Seidel preconditioner operators are examined for their effectiveness at accelerating convergence. A Fourier analysis for methods of order 2 through 6 reveals that both preconditioner operators bound the eigenvalues of the discrete spatial operator. Additionally, in one dimension, the eigenvalues are grouped into two or three regions that are invariant with order of the method. Local relaxation methods are constructed that rapidly damp high frequencies for arbitrarily large time step.

  17. Remote image analysis for Mars Exploration Rover mobility and manipulation operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leger, Chris; Deen, Robert G.; Bonitz, Robert G.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers are two sixwheeled, 175-kg robotic vehicles which have operated on Mars for over a year as of March 2005. The rovers are controlled by teams who must understand the rover's surroundings and develop command sequences on a daily basis. The tight tactical planning timeline and everchanging environment call for tools that allow quick assessment of potential manipulator targets and traverse goals, since command sequences must be developed in a matter of hours after receipt of new data from the rovers. Reachability maps give a visual indication of which targets are reachable by each rover's manipulator, while slope and solar energy maps show the rover operator which terrain areas are safe and unsafe from different standpoints.

  18. Automated selected reaction monitoring data analysis workflow for large-scale targeted proteomic studies.

    PubMed

    Surinova, Silvia; Hüttenhain, Ruth; Chang, Ching-Yun; Espona, Lucia; Vitek, Olga; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2013-08-01

    Targeted proteomics based on selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry is commonly used for accurate and reproducible quantification of protein analytes in complex biological mixtures. Strictly hypothesis-driven, SRM assays quantify each targeted protein by collecting measurements on its peptide fragment ions, called transitions. To achieve sensitive and accurate quantitative results, experimental design and data analysis must consistently account for the variability of the quantified transitions. This consistency is especially important in large experiments, which increasingly require profiling up to hundreds of proteins over hundreds of samples. Here we describe a robust and automated workflow for the analysis of large quantitative SRM data sets that integrates data processing, statistical protein identification and quantification, and dissemination of the results. The integrated workflow combines three software tools: mProphet for peptide identification via probabilistic scoring; SRMstats for protein significance analysis with linear mixed-effect models; and PASSEL, a public repository for storage, retrieval and query of SRM data. The input requirements for the protocol are files with SRM traces in mzXML format, and a file with a list of transitions in a text tab-separated format. The protocol is especially suited for data with heavy isotope-labeled peptide internal standards. We demonstrate the protocol on a clinical data set in which the abundances of 35 biomarker candidates were profiled in 83 blood plasma samples of subjects with ovarian cancer or benign ovarian tumors. The time frame to realize the protocol is 1-2 weeks, depending on the number of replicates used in the experiment.

  19. In silico pathway analysis in cervical carcinoma reveals potential new targets for treatment

    PubMed Central

    van Dam, Peter A.; van Dam, Pieter-Jan H. H.; Rolfo, Christian; Giallombardo, Marco; van Berckelaer, Christophe; Trinh, Xuan Bich; Altintas, Sevilay; Huizing, Manon; Papadimitriou, Kostas; Tjalma, Wiebren A. A.; van Laere, Steven

    2016-01-01

    An in silico pathway analysis was performed in order to improve current knowledge on the molecular drivers of cervical cancer and detect potential targets for treatment. Three publicly available Affymetrix gene expression data-sets (GSE5787, GSE7803, GSE9750) were retrieved, vouching for a total of 9 cervical cancer cell lines (CCCLs), 39 normal cervical samples, 7 CIN3 samples and 111 cervical cancer samples (CCSs). Predication analysis of microarrays was performed in the Affymetrix sets to identify cervical cancer biomarkers. To select cancer cell-specific genes the CCSs were compared to the CCCLs. Validated genes were submitted to a gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and Expression2Kinases (E2K). In the CCSs a total of 1,547 probe sets were identified that were overexpressed (FDR < 0.1). Comparing to CCCLs 560 probe sets (481 unique genes) had a cancer cell-specific expression profile, and 315 of these genes (65%) were validated. GSEA identified 5 cancer hallmarks enriched in CCSs (P < 0.01 and FDR < 0.25) showing that deregulation of the cell cycle is a major component of cervical cancer biology. E2K identified a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of 162 nodes (including 20 drugable kinases) and 1626 edges. This PPI-network consists of 5 signaling modules associated with MYC signaling (Module 1), cell cycle deregulation (Module 2), TGFβ-signaling (Module 3), MAPK signaling (Module 4) and chromatin modeling (Module 5). Potential targets for treatment which could be identified were CDK1, CDK2, ABL1, ATM, AKT1, MAPK1, MAPK3 among others. The present study identified important driver pathways in cervical carcinogenesis which should be assessed for their potential therapeutic drugability. PMID:26701206

  20. Motion state analysis of space target based on optical cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Qichen; Li, Zhi; Xu, Can; Liu, Chenghao

    2017-10-01

    In order to solve the problem that the movement state analysis method of the space target based on OCS is not related to the real motion state. This paper proposes a method based on OCS for analyzing the state of space target motion. This paper first establish a three-dimensional model of real STSS satellite, then change the satellite's surface into element, and assign material to each panel according to the actual conditions of the satellite. This paper set up a motion scene according to the orbit parameters of STSS satellite in STK, and the motion states are set to three axis steady state and slowly rotating unstable state respectively. In these two states, the occlusion condition of the surface element is firstly determined, and the effective face element is selected. Then, the coordinates of the observation station and the solar coordinates in the satellite body coordinate system are input into the OCS calculation program, and the OCS variation curves of the three axis steady state and the slow rotating unstable state STSS satellite are obtained. Combining the satellite surface structure and the load situation, the OCS change curve of the three axis stabilized satellite is analyzed, and the conclude that the OCS curve fluctuates up and down when the sunlight is irradiated to the load area; By using Spectral analysis method, autocorrelation analysis and the cross residual method, the rotation speed of OCS satellite in slow rotating unstable state is analyzed, and the rotation speed of satellite is successfully reversed. By comparing the three methods, it is found that the cross residual method is more accurate.

  1. Expert diagnostics system as a part of analysis software for power mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Jennifer A.; Bahrami, Khosrow A.

    1993-01-01

    The operation of interplanetary spacecraft at JPL has become an increasingly complex activity. This complexity is due to advanced spacecraft designs and ambitious mission objectives which lead to operations requirements that are more demanding than those of any previous mission. For this reason, several productivity enhancement measures are underway at JPL within mission operations, particularly in the spacecraft analysis area. These measures aimed at spacecraft analysis include: the development of a multi-mission, multi-subsystem operations environment; the introduction of automated tools into this environment; and the development of an expert diagnostics system. This paper discusses an effort to integrate the above mentioned productivity enhancement measures. A prototype was developed that integrates an expert diagnostics system into a multi-mission, multi-subsystem operations environment using the Galileo Power / Pyro Subsystem as a testbed. This prototype will be discussed in addition to background information associated with it.

  2. Spacecraft Autonomy and Automation: A Comparative Analysis of Strategies for Cost Effective Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Nathaniel, Jr.

    2000-01-01

    The evolution of satellite operations over the last 40 years has drastically changed. October 4, 1957 (during the cold war) the Soviet Union launched the world's first spacecraft into orbit. The Sputnik satellite orbited Earth for three months and catapulted the United States into a race for dominance in space. A year after Sputnik, President Dwight Eisenhower formed the National Space and Aeronautics Administration (NASA). With a team of scientists and engineers, NASA successfully launched Explorer 1, the first US satellite to orbit Earth. During these early years, massive amounts of ground support equipment and operators were required to successfully operate spacecraft vehicles. Today, budget reductions and technological advances have forced new approaches to spacecraft operations. These approaches require increasingly complex, on board spacecraft systems, that enable autonomous operations, resulting in more cost-effective mission operations. NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, considered world class in satellite development and operations, has developed and operated over 200 satellites during its 40 years of existence. NASA Goddard is adopting several new millennium initiatives that lower operational costs through the spacecraft autonomy and automation. This paper examines NASA's approach to spacecraft autonomy and ground system automation through a comparative analysis of satellite missions for Hubble Space Telescope-HST, Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous-NEAR, and Solar Heliospheric Observatory-SoHO, with emphasis on cost reduction methods, risk analysis and anomalies and strategies employed for mitigating risk.

  3. Environmental analysis of the operation of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (X-10 site)

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, J.W.; Blumberg, R.; Cotter, S.J.

    1982-11-01

    An environmental analysis of the operation of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) facilities in Bethel Valley and Melton Valley was conducted to present to the public information concerning the extent to which recognizable effects, or potential effects, on the environment may occur. The analysis addresses current operations of the ORNL X-10 site and completed operations that may continue to have residual effects. Solid wastes from ORNL operations at the Y-12 site which are transported to the X-10 site for burial (e.g., Biology Division animal wastes) are included as part of X-10 site operation. Socioeconomic effects are associated primarily withmore » the communities where employees live and with the Knoxville Bureau of Economic Analysis economic area as a whole. Therefore, ORNL employees at both Y-12 and X-10 sites are included in the ORNL socioeconomic impact analysis. An extensive base of environmental data was accumulated for this report. Over 80 reports related to ORNL facilities and/or operations are cited as well as many open-literature citations. Environmental effects of the operation of ORNL result from operational discharges from the onsite facilities; construction and/or modification of facilities, transportation to and from the site of persons, goods and services; socioeconomic impacts to the local, regional, and general population; and accidental discharges if they should occur. Operational discharges to the environnment are constrained by federal, state, and local regulations and by criteria established by the US Department of Energy to minimize adverse impacts. It is the purpose of this document to evaluate the operation of the ORNL insofar as impacts beyond the site boundary may occur or have the potential for occurrence.« less

  4. Application of State Analysis and Goal-Based Operations to a MER Mission Scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, J. Richard; Ingham, Michel D.; Mishkin, Andrew H.; Rasmussen, Robert D.; Starbird, Thomas W.

    2006-01-01

    State Analysis is a model-based systems engineering methodology employing a rigorous discovery process which articulates operations concepts and operability needs as an integrated part of system design. The process produces requirements on system and software design in the form of explicit models which describe the behavior of states and the relationships among them. By applying State Analysis to an actual MER flight mission scenario, this study addresses the specific real world challenges of complex space operations and explores technologies that can be brought to bear on future missions. The paper describes the tools currently used on a daily basis for MER operations planning and provides an in-depth description of the planning process, in the context of a Martian day's worth of rover engineering activities, resource modeling, flight rules, science observations, and more. It then describes how State Analysis allows for the specification of a corresponding goal-based sequence that accomplishes the same objectives, with several important additional benefits.

  5. [Analysis of efficacy of radiofrequency obliteration with due regard for the target vein's diameter].

    PubMed

    Shaĭdakov, E V; Grigorian, A G; Iliukhin, E A; Bulatov, V L; Gal'chenko, M I

    2014-01-01

    Data concerning the effect of the target vein's diameter on efficacy of radiofrequency obliteration (RFO) in the current literature are limited. To assess efficacy of RFO and stripping, peculiarities of the postoperative period course with due regard for the diameter of the target veins, to compare the outcomes of RFO and classical phlebectomy in treatment of varicose disease during 1-year follow up by a composite end point. A multicenter prospective non-randomized study based on analysing therapeutic outcomes in a total of 218 patients presenting with varicose disease (C2-C3 according to the CEAP). RFO was performed in 108 patients and phlebectomy in 110 subjects. The results were assessed by means of a composite end point including four components: technical outcome at 1-year follow-up, pain, subcutaneous haemorrhage, and paresthesias. The groups of patients who endured RFO and phlebectomy were subdivided into two subgroups according to the target vein's diameter with a border of 14 mm. Statistical analysis. We used the methods of non-parametric statistics (contingency tables, chi squared test), calculating the odds ratio (OR) for a favourable outcome with a 95% confidential interval. Pain dynamics was assessed by means of intellectual data analysis (cluster analysis). «Phelbectomy ≥ 14 mm» and «RFO ≥ 14 mm». The incidence rate of a good outcome in the subgroups amounted to 20 (30.8%) and 61 (95.3%), respectively. The odds ratio for favourable outcome between the subgroups of RFA and phlebectomy amounted to 45.8; 95% CI (44.5-47.0). "RFA ≥ 14 mm" and "RFA < 14 mm". Favourable outcome rate in the subgroups amounted to 25 (39.1%) and 17 (38.6%), respectively. The differences were not statistically significant, p=0.24. The odds ratio for a good outcome between the RFO subgroups amounted to: OR=0.98; 95% CI (0.18-1.77). Comparative analysis of RFO outcomes between the clinics. Favourable outcome rate in the first clinic was 50 (92.6%), in the second 34 (87

  6. Content analysis of targeted food and beverage advertisements in a Chinese-American neighbourhood

    PubMed Central

    Bragg, Marie A; Pageot, Yrvane K; Hernández-Villarreal, Olivia; Kaplan, Sue A; Kwon, Simona C

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The current descriptive study aimed to: (i) quantify the number and type of advertisements (ads) located in a Chinese-American neighbourhood in a large, urban city; and (ii) catalogue the targeted marketing themes used in the food/beverage ads. Design Ten pairs of trained research assistants photographed all outdoor ads in a 0.6 mile2 (1.6 km2) area where more than 60.0 % of residents identify as Chinese American. We used content analysis to assess the marketing themes of ads, including references to: Asian cultures; health; various languages; children; food or beverage type (e.g. sugar-sweetened soda). Setting Lower East Side, a neighbourhood located in the borough of Manhattan in New York City, USA. Subjects Ads (n 1366) in the designated neighbourhood. Results Food/beverage ads were the largest ad category (29.7 %, n 407), followed by services (e.g. mobile phone services; 21.0 %, n 288). Sixty-seven per cent (66.9 %) of beverages featured were sugar-sweetened, and 50.8 % of food ads promoted fast food. Fifty-five per cent (54.9 %) of food/beverage ads targeted Asian Americans through language, ethnicity of person(s) in the ad or inclusion of culturally relevant images. Fifty per cent (50.2 %) of ads were associated with local/small brands. Conclusions Food/beverage marketing practices are known to promote unhealthy food and beverage products. Research shows that increased exposure leads to excessive short-term consumption among consumers and influences children’s food preferences and purchase requests. Given the frequency of racially targeted ads for unhealthy products in the current study and increasing rates of obesity-related diseases among Asian Americans, research and policies should address the implications of food and beverage ads on health. PMID:28587693

  7. Content analysis of targeted food and beverage advertisements in a Chinese-American neighbourhood.

    PubMed

    Bragg, Marie A; Pageot, Yrvane K; Hernández-Villarreal, Olivia; Kaplan, Sue A; Kwon, Simona C

    2017-08-01

    The current descriptive study aimed to: (i) quantify the number and type of advertisements (ads) located in a Chinese-American neighbourhood in a large, urban city; and (ii) catalogue the targeted marketing themes used in the food/beverage ads. Ten pairs of trained research assistants photographed all outdoor ads in a 0·6 mile2 (1·6 km2) area where more than 60·0 % of residents identify as Chinese American. We used content analysis to assess the marketing themes of ads, including references to: Asian cultures; health; various languages; children; food or beverage type (e.g. sugar-sweetened soda). Lower East Side, a neighbourhood located in the borough of Manhattan in New York City, USA. Ads (n 1366) in the designated neighbourhood. Food/beverage ads were the largest ad category (29·7 %, n 407), followed by services (e.g. mobile phone services; 21·0 %, n 288). Sixty-seven per cent (66·9 %) of beverages featured were sugar-sweetened, and 50·8 % of food ads promoted fast food. Fifty-five per cent (54·9 %) of food/beverage ads targeted Asian Americans through language, ethnicity of person(s) in the ad or inclusion of culturally relevant images. Fifty per cent (50·2 %) of ads were associated with local/small brands. Food/beverage marketing practices are known to promote unhealthy food and beverage products. Research shows that increased exposure leads to excessive short-term consumption among consumers and influences children's food preferences and purchase requests. Given the frequency of racially targeted ads for unhealthy products in the current study and increasing rates of obesity-related diseases among Asian Americans, research and policies should address the implications of food and beverage ads on health.

  8. Major Element Analysis of the Target Rocks at Meteor Crater, Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    See, Thomas H.; Hoerz, Friedrich; Mittlefehldt, David W.; Varley, Laura; Mertzman, Stan; Roddy, David

    2002-01-01

    We collected approximately 400 rock chips in continuous vertical profile at Meteor Crater, Arizona, representing, from bottom to top, the Coconino, Toroweap, Kaibab, and Moenkopi Formations to support ongoing compositional analyses of the impact melts and their stratigraphic source depth(s) and other studies at Meteor Crater that depend on the composition of the target rocks. These rock chips were subsequently pooled into 23 samples for compositional analysis by XRF (x ray fluorescence) methods, each sample reflecting a specific stratigraphic "subsection" approximately 5-10 in thick. We determined the modal abundance of quartz, dolomite, and calcite for the entire Kaibab Formation at vertical resolutions of 1-2 meters. The Coconino Formation composes the lower half of the crater cavity. It is an exceptionally pure sandstone. The Toroweap is only two inches thick and compositionally similar to Coconino, therefore, it is not a good compositional marker horizon. The Kaibab Formation is approximately 80 in thick. XRD (x ray diffraction) studies show that the Kaibab Formation is dominated by dolomite and quartz, albeit in highly variable proportions; calcite is a minor phase at best. The Kaibab at Meteor Crater is therefore a sandy dolomite rather than a limestone, consistent with pronounced facies changes in the Permian of SE Arizona over short vertical and horizontal distances. The Moenkopi forms the 12 in thick cap rock and has the highest Al2O3 and FeO concentrations of all target rocks. With several examples, we illustrate how this systematic compositional and modal characterization of the target ideologies may contribute to an understanding of Meteor Crater, such as the depth of its melt zone, and to impact cratering in general, such as the liberation of CO2 from shocked carbonates.

  9. An Approach for Identification of Novel Drug Targets in Streptococcus pyogenes SF370 Through Pathway Analysis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Satendra; Singh, Dev Bukhsh; Singh, Anamika; Gautam, Budhayash; Ram, Gurudayal; Dwivedi, Seema; Ramteke, Pramod W

    2016-12-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is one of the most important pathogens as it is involved in various infections affecting upper respiratory tract and skin. Due to the emergence of multidrug resistance and cross-resistance, S. Pyogenes is becoming more pathogenic and dangerous. In the present study, an in silico comparative analysis of total 65 metabolic pathways of the host (Homo sapiens) and the pathogen was performed. Initially, 486 paralogous enzymes were identified so that they can be removed from possible drug target list. The 105 enzymes of the biochemical pathways of S. pyogenes from the KEGG metabolic pathway database were compared with the proteins from the Homo sapiens by performing a BLASTP search against the non-redundant database restricted to the Homo sapiens subset. Out of these, 83 enzymes were identified as non-human homologous while 30 enzymes of inadequate amino acid length were removed for further processing. Essential enzymes were finally mined from remaining 53 enzymes. Finally, 28 essential enzymes were identified in S. pyogenes SF370 (serotype M1). In subcellular localization study, 18 enzymes were predicted with cytoplasmic localization and ten enzymes with the membrane localization. These ten enzymes with putative membrane localization should be of particular interest. Acyl-carrier-protein S-malonyltransferase, DNA polymerase III subunit beta and dihydropteroate synthase are novel drug targets and thus can be used to design potential inhibitors against S. pyogenes infection. 3D structure of dihydropteroate synthase was modeled and validated that can be used for virtual screening and interaction study of potential inhibitors with the target enzyme.

  10. Advancing prevention of sexually transmitted infections through point-of-care testing: target product profiles and landscape analysis.

    PubMed

    Toskin, Igor; Murtagh, Maurine; Peeling, Rosanna W; Blondeel, Karel; Cordero, Joanna; Kiarie, James

    2017-12-01

    Advancing the field of point-of-care testing (POCT) for STIs can rapidly and substantially improve STI control and prevention by providing targeted, essential STI services (case detection and screening). POCT enables definitive diagnosis and appropriate treatment in a single visit and home and community-based testing. Since 2014, the WHO Department of Reproductive Health and Research, in collaboration with technical partners, has completed four landscape analyses of promising diagnostics for use at or near the point of patient care to detect syphilis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae , Chlamydia trachomatis , Trichomonas vaginalis and the human papillomavirus. The analyses comprised a literature review and interviews. Two International Technical Consultations on STI POCTs (2014 and 2015) resulted in the development of target product profiles (TPP). Experts in STI microbiology, laboratory diagnostics, clinical management, public health and epidemiology participated in the consultations with representation from all WHO regions. The landscape analysis identified diagnostic tests that are either available on the market, to be released in the near future or in the pipeline. The TPPs specify 28 analytical and operational characteristics of POCTs for use in different populations for surveillance, screening and case management. None of the tests that were identified in the landscape analysis met all of the targets of the TPPs. More efforts of the global health community are needed to accelerate access to affordable quality-assured STI POCTs, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, by supporting the development of new diagnostic platforms as well as strengthening the validation and implementation of existing diagnostics according to internationally endorsed standards and the best available evidence. © World Health Organization 2017. Licensee BMJ Publishing Group Limited. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution IGO

  11. Risk analysis theory applied to fishing operations: A new approach on the decision-making problem

    SciTech Connect

    Cunha, J.C.S.

    1994-12-31

    In the past the decisions concerning whether to continue or interrupt a fishing operation were based primarily on the operator`s previous experience. This procedure often led to wrong decisions and unnecessary loss of money and time. This paper describes a decision-making method based on risk analysis theory and previous operation results from a field under study. The method leads to more accurate decisions on a daily basis allowing the operator to verify each day of the operation if the decision being carried out is the one with the highest probability to conduct to the best economical result. An example ofmore » the method application is provided at the end of the paper.« less

  12. Mining, identification and function analysis of microRNAs and target genes in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tingting; Hu, Shuhao; Yan, Caixia; Li, Chunjuan; Zhao, Xiaobo; Wan, Shubo; Shan, Shihua

    2017-02-01

    In the present investigation, a total of 60 conserved peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) microRNA (miRNA) sequences, belonging to 16 families, were identified using bioinformatics methods. There were 392 target gene sequences, identified from 58 miRNAs with Target-align software and BLASTx analyses. Gene Ontology (GO) functional analysis suggested that these target genes were involved in mediating peanut growth and development, signal transduction and stress resistance. There were 55 miRNA sequences, verified employing a poly (A) tailing test, with a success rate of up to 91.67%. Twenty peanut target gene sequences were randomly selected, and the 5' rapid amplification of the cDNA ends (5'-RACE) method were used to validate the cleavage sites of these target genes. Of these, 14 (70%) peanut miRNA targets were verified by means of gel electrophoresis, cloning and sequencing. Furthermore, functional analysis and homologous sequence retrieval were conducted for target gene sequences, and 26 target genes were chosen as the objects for stress resistance experimental study. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) technology was applied to measure the expression level of resistance-associated miRNAs and their target genes in peanut exposed to Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) infection and drought stress, respectively. In consequence, 5 groups of miRNAs & targets were found accorded with the mode of miRNA negatively controlling the expression of target genes. This study, preliminarily determined the biological functions of some resistance-associated miRNAs and their target genes in peanut. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Simulation-based cheminformatic analysis of organelle-targeted molecules: lysosomotropic monobasic amines

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinyuan; Zheng, Nan

    2008-01-01

    Cell-based molecular transport simulations are being developed to facilitate exploratory cheminformatic analysis of virtual libraries of small drug-like molecules. For this purpose, mathematical models of single cells are built from equations capturing the transport of small molecules across membranes. In turn, physicochemical properties of small molecules can be used as input to simulate intracellular drug distribution, through time. Here, with mathematical equations and biological parameters adjusted so as to mimic a leukocyte in the blood, simulations were performed to analyze steady state, relative accumulation of small molecules in lysosomes, mitochondria, and cytosol of this target cell, in the presence of a homogenous extracellular drug concentration. Similarly, with equations and parameters set to mimic an intestinal epithelial cell, simulations were also performed to analyze steady state, relative distribution and transcellular permeability in this non-target cell, in the presence of an apical-to-basolateral concentration gradient. With a test set of ninety-nine monobasic amines gathered from the scientific literature, simulation results helped analyze relationships between the chemical diversity of these molecules and their intracellular distributions. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10822-008-9194-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18338229

  14. Simulation-based cheminformatic analysis of organelle-targeted molecules: lysosomotropic monobasic amines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinyuan; Zheng, Nan; Rosania, Gus R

    2008-09-01

    Cell-based molecular transport simulations are being developed to facilitate exploratory cheminformatic analysis of virtual libraries of small drug-like molecules. For this purpose, mathematical models of single cells are built from equations capturing the transport of small molecules across membranes. In turn, physicochemical properties of small molecules can be used as input to simulate intracellular drug distribution, through time. Here, with mathematical equations and biological parameters adjusted so as to mimic a leukocyte in the blood, simulations were performed to analyze steady state, relative accumulation of small molecules in lysosomes, mitochondria, and cytosol of this target cell, in the presence of a homogenous extracellular drug concentration. Similarly, with equations and parameters set to mimic an intestinal epithelial cell, simulations were also performed to analyze steady state, relative distribution and transcellular permeability in this non-target cell, in the presence of an apical-to-basolateral concentration gradient. With a test set of ninety-nine monobasic amines gathered from the scientific literature, simulation results helped analyze relationships between the chemical diversity of these molecules and their intracellular distributions.

  15. Superpixel Based Factor Analysis and Target Transformation Method for Martian Minerals Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, X.; Zhang, X.; Lin, H.

    2018-04-01

    The Factor analysis and target transformation (FATT) is an effective method to test for the presence of particular mineral on Martian surface. It has been used both in thermal infrared (Thermal Emission Spectrometer, TES) and near-infrared (Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars, CRISM) hyperspectral data. FATT derived a set of orthogonal eigenvectors from a mixed system and typically selected first 10 eigenvectors to least square fit the library mineral spectra. However, minerals present only in a limited pixels will be ignored because its weak spectral features compared with full image signatures. Here, we proposed a superpixel based FATT method to detect the mineral distributions on Mars. The simple linear iterative clustering (SLIC) algorithm was used to partition the CRISM image into multiple connected image regions with spectral homogeneous to enhance the weak signatures by increasing their proportion in a mixed system. A least square fitting was used in target transformation and performed to each region iteratively. Finally, the distribution of the specific minerals in image was obtained, where fitting residual less than a threshold represent presence and otherwise absence. We validate our method by identifying carbonates in a well analysed CRISM image in Nili Fossae on Mars. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed method work well both in simulated and real data sets.

  16. SUMOFLUX: A Generalized Method for Targeted 13C Metabolic Flux Ratio Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kogadeeva, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic fluxes are a cornerstone of cellular physiology that emerge from a complex interplay of enzymes, carriers, and nutrients. The experimental assessment of in vivo intracellular fluxes using stable isotopic tracers is essential if we are to understand metabolic function and regulation. Flux estimation based on 13C or 2H labeling relies on complex simulation and iterative fitting; processes that necessitate a level of expertise that ordinarily preclude the non-expert user. To overcome this, we have developed SUMOFLUX, a methodology that is broadly applicable to the targeted analysis of 13C-metabolic fluxes. By combining surrogate modeling and machine learning, we trained a predictor to specialize in estimating flux ratios from measurable 13C-data. SUMOFLUX targets specific flux features individually, which makes it fast, user-friendly, applicable to experimental design and robust in terms of experimental noise and exchange flux magnitude. Collectively, we predict that SUMOFLUX's properties realistically pave the way to high-throughput flux analyses. PMID:27626798

  17. Controllability analysis of the directed human protein interaction network identifies disease genes and drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Vinayagam, Arunachalam; Gibson, Travis E.; Lee, Ho-Joon; Yilmazel, Bahar; Roesel, Charles; Hu, Yanhui; Kwon, Young; Sharma, Amitabh; Liu, Yang-Yu; Perrimon, Norbert; Barabási, Albert-László

    2016-01-01

    The protein–protein interaction (PPI) network is crucial for cellular information processing and decision-making. With suitable inputs, PPI networks drive the cells to diverse functional outcomes such as cell proliferation or cell death. Here, we characterize the structural controllability of a large directed human PPI network comprising 6,339 proteins and 34,813 interactions. This network allows us to classify proteins as “indispensable,” “neutral,” or “dispensable,” which correlates to increasing, no effect, or decreasing the number of driver nodes in the network upon removal of that protein. We find that 21% of the proteins in the PPI network are indispensable. Interestingly, these indispensable proteins are the primary targets of disease-causing mutations, human viruses, and drugs, suggesting that altering a network’s control property is critical for the transition between healthy and disease states. Furthermore, analyzing copy number alterations data from 1,547 cancer patients reveals that 56 genes that are frequently amplified or deleted in nine different cancers are indispensable. Among the 56 genes, 46 of them have not been previously associated with cancer. This suggests that controllability analysis is very useful in identifying novel disease genes and potential drug targets. PMID:27091990

  18. Proteomic analysis of Chlorella vulgaris: Potential targets for enhanced lipid accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Guarnieri, Michael T.; Nag, Ambarish; Yang, Shihui

    2013-11-01

    Oleaginous microalgae are capable of producing large quantities of fatty acids and triacylglycerides. As such, they are promising feedstocks for the production of biofuels and bioproducts. Genetic strain-engineering strategies offer a means to accelerate the commercialization of algal biofuels by improving the rate and total accumulation of microalgal lipids. However, the industrial potential of these organisms remains to be met, largely due to the incomplete knowledgebase surrounding the mechanisms governing the induction of algal lipid biosynthesis. Such strategies require further elucidation of genes and gene products controlling algal lipid accumulation. In this study, we have set out to examine thesemore » mechanisms and identify novel strain-engineering targets in the oleaginous microalga, Chlorella vulgaris. Comparative shotgun proteomic analyses have identified a number of novel targets, including previously unidentified transcription factors and proteins involved in cell signaling and cell cycle regulation. These results lay the foundation for strain-improvement strategies and demonstrate the power of translational proteomic analysis.« less

  19. Rapid targeted somatic mutation analysis of solid tumors in routine clinical diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Magliacane, Gilda; Grassini, Greta; Bartocci, Paola; Francaviglia, Ilaria; Dal Cin, Elena; Barbieri, Gianluca; Arrigoni, Gianluigi; Pecciarini, Lorenza; Doglioni, Claudio; Cangi, Maria Giulia

    2015-10-13

    Tumor genotyping is an essential step in routine clinical practice and pathology laboratories face a major challenge in being able to provide rapid, sensitive and updated molecular tests. We developed a novel mass spectrometry multiplexed genotyping platform named PentaPanel to concurrently assess single nucleotide polymorphisms in 56 hotspots of the 5 most clinically relevant cancer genes, KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, EGFR and PIK3CA for a total of 221 detectable mutations. To both evaluate and validate the PentaPanel performance, we investigated 1025 tumor specimens of 6 different cancer types (carcinomas of colon, lung, breast, pancreas, and biliary tract, and melanomas), systematically addressing sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of our platform. Sanger sequencing was also performed for all the study samples. Our data showed that PentaPanel is a high throughput and robust tool, allowing genotyping for targeted therapy selection of 10 patients in the same run, with a practical turnaround time of 2 working days. Importantly, it was successfully used to interrogate different DNAs isolated from routinely processed specimens (formalin-fixed paraffin embedded, frozen, and cytological samples), covering all the requirements of clinical tests. In conclusion, the PentaPanel platform can provide an immediate, accurate and cost effective multiplex approach for clinically relevant gene mutation analysis in many solid tumors and its utility across many diseases can be particularly relevant in multiple clinical trials, including the new basket trial approach, aiming to identify appropriate targeted drug combination strategies.

  20. A targeted change-detection procedure by combining change vector analysis and post-classification approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Su; Chen, Dongmei; Yu, Jie

    2016-04-01

    In remote sensing, conventional supervised change-detection methods usually require effective training data for multiple change types. This paper introduces a more flexible and efficient procedure that seeks to identify only the changes that users are interested in, here after referred to as "targeted change detection". Based on a one-class classifier "Support Vector Domain Description (SVDD)", a novel algorithm named "Three-layer SVDD Fusion (TLSF)" is developed specially for targeted change detection. The proposed algorithm combines one-class classification generated from change vector maps, as well as before- and after-change images in order to get a more reliable detecting result. In addition, this paper introduces a detailed workflow for implementing this algorithm. This workflow has been applied to two case studies with different practical monitoring objectives: urban expansion and forest fire assessment. The experiment results of these two case studies show that the overall accuracy of our proposed algorithm is superior (Kappa statistics are 86.3% and 87.8% for Case 1 and 2, respectively), compared to applying SVDD to change vector analysis and post-classification comparison.

  1. Targeted proteomic assays for quantitation of proteins identified by proteogenomic analysis of ovarian cancer

    DOE PAGES

    Song, Ehwang; Gao, Yuqian; Wu, Chaochao; ...

    2017-07-19

    Here, mass spectrometry (MS) based targeted proteomic methods such as selected reaction monitoring (SRM) are becoming the method of choice for preclinical verification of candidate protein biomarkers. The Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) of the National Cancer Institute has investigated the standardization and analytical validation of the SRM assays and demonstrated robust analytical performance on different instruments across different laboratories. An Assay Portal has also been established by CPTAC to provide the research community a resource consisting of large set of targeted MS-based assays, and a depository to share assays publicly, providing that assays meet the guidelines proposed bymore » CPTAC. Herein, we report 98 SRM assays covering 70 candidate protein biomarkers previously reported as associated with ovarian cancer that have been thoroughly characterized according to the CPTAC Assay Characterization Guidance Document. The experiments, methods and results for characterizing these SRM assays for their MS response, repeatability, selectivity, stability, and reproducible detection of endogenous analytes are described in detail.« less

  2. Integrated computational biology analysis to evaluate target genes for chronic myelogenous leukemia.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yu; Wang, Yu-Ping; Cao, Hongbao; Chen, Qiusheng; Zhang, Xi

    2018-06-05

    Although hundreds of genes have been linked to chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), many of the results lack reproducibility. In the present study, data across multiple modalities were integrated to evaluate 579 CML candidate genes, including literature‑based CML‑gene relation data, Gene Expression Omnibus RNA expression data and pathway‑based gene‑gene interaction data. The expression data included samples from 76 patients with CML and 73 healthy controls. For each target gene, four metrics were proposed and tested with case/control classification. The effectiveness of the four metrics presented was demonstrated by the high classification accuracy (94.63%; P<2x10‑4). Cross metric analysis suggested nine top candidate genes for CML: Epidermal growth factor receptor, tumor protein p53, catenin β 1, janus kinase 2, tumor necrosis factor, abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1, vascular endothelial growth factor A, B‑cell lymphoma 2 and proto‑oncogene tyrosine‑protein kinase. In addition, 145 CML candidate pathways enriched with 485 out of 579 genes were identified (P<8.2x10‑11; q=0.005). In conclusion, weighted genetic networks generated using computational biology may be complementary to biological experiments for the evaluation of known or novel CML target genes.

  3. Analysis of structure and dynamics of superfine polyhydroxybutyrate fibers for targeted drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olkhov, A.; Kucherenko, E.; Pantyukhov, P.; Zykova, A.; Karpova, S.; Iordanskii, A.

    2017-02-01

    Creation of polymer matrix systems for targeted drug delivery into a living organism is a challenging problem of modern treatment of various diseases and injuries. Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) is commonly used for development of therapeutic systems. The aim of this article is to examine the changes in structure and morphology of fibers in presence of dipyridamole (DPD) as model drug for controlled release. It was found that addition of dipyridamole led to disappearance of spindle-shaped nodules on fibers of PHB in comparison with pure PHB. The research of thermophysical parameters showed that specific melting enthalpy (and the degree of crystallinity) of PHB fibers increased with the addition of DPD. With the increasing of DPD content in PHB fibers, more perfect and equilibrium crystal structure was formed. According to analysis of intercrystalline regions of PHB fibers, it was found that as the crystallinity of PHB in intergranular regions rose, the corresponding decrease of radical rotation speed was observed. It was concluded that fibers of PHB can be used for creating therapeutic systems for targeted and prolonged drug delivery.

  4. RNA sequencing analysis of human podocytes reveals glucocorticoid regulated gene networks targeting non-immune pathways

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lulu; Hindmarch, Charles C. T.; Rogers, Mark; Campbell, Colin; Waterfall, Christy; Coghill, Jane; Mathieson, Peter W.; Welsh, Gavin I.

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are steroids that reduce inflammation and are used as immunosuppressive drugs for many diseases. They are also the mainstay for the treatment of minimal change nephropathy (MCN), which is characterised by an absence of inflammation. Their mechanisms of action remain elusive. Evidence suggests that immunomodulatory drugs can directly act on glomerular epithelial cells or ‘podocytes’, the cell type which is the main target of injury in MCN. To understand the nature of glucocorticoid effects on non-immune cell functions, we generated RNA sequencing data from human podocyte cell lines and identified the genes that are significantly regulated in dexamethasone-treated podocytes compared to vehicle-treated cells. The upregulated genes are of functional relevance to cytoskeleton-related processes, whereas the downregulated genes mostly encode pro-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors. We observed a tendency for dexamethasone-upregulated genes to be downregulated in MCN patients. Integrative analysis revealed gene networks composed of critical signaling pathways that are likely targeted by dexamethasone in podocytes. PMID:27774996

  5. A Posteriori Error Analysis and Uncertainty Quantification for Adaptive Multiscale Operator Decomposition Methods for Multiphysics Problems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    Barrier methods for critical exponent problems in geometric analysis and mathematical physics, J. Erway and M. Holst, Submitted for publication ...TR-14-33 A Posteriori Error Analysis and Uncertainty Quantification for Adaptive Multiscale Operator Decomposition Methods for Multiphysics...Problems Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited. April 2014 HDTRA1-09-1-0036 Donald Estep and Michael

  6. Autonomous Dirigible Airships: A Comparative Analysis and Operational Efficiency Evaluation for Logistical Use in Complex Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT Autonomous Dirigible Airships: A Comparative Analysis...COVERED MBA Professional Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE: Autonomous Dirigible Airships: A Comparative Analysis and Operational Efficiency Evaluation...NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) N/ A 10. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY REPORT NUMBER 11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The views expressed in this report are

  7. Analysis on establishing Chang'E-3 landing site as a reflectance calibration target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin; Fu, Xiaohui; Zeng, Xingguo; Yao, Meijuan; Zhang, Hongbo; Su, Yan; Zhao, Shu; Xue, Xiping; Li, Chunlai; Zou, Yongliao

    2015-04-01

    Recent lunar orbital observations suggested that the surface reflectance calculated based on the Apollo 16 standard area and Apollo 16 sample laboratory measurement is significantly different from its true value [1-3], one reason is the composition and maturity differences between the 62231 sampling site and the Apollo 16 standard site existed, the other reason is the physical properties of the returned lunar sample, such as porosity, have been changed during the sampling operations. So more new standard targets on the Moon, besides the widely used Apollo 16 area, are needed for imaging spectrometers on lunar missions to improve their reflectance calibration accuracies. The Chang'E-3 VIS/NIR Imaging Spectrometer (VNIS), which is just fixed at the front of the Yutu rover [4], equipped with a white spectralon panel as reflectance calibration standard, can perform in situ multispectral observations around the Chang'E-3 landing site without altering the physical and mineralogical natures of lunar soils. Therefore, it provides an opportunity to establish a new reliable standard target for in-flight reflectance calibration. The reflectance calibration target should be compositional homogeneous, the topography of which must be flat, and the reflectance should be identical with no nearby units of other different materials. As we have known, Chang'e-3 probe landed on the Mare Imbrium basin in the east part of Sinus Iridum, the landing site is relatively flat at a spatial coverage of ~660km2, and this region belongs to Eratosthenian low-Ti/high-Ti mare basalts [5-6]. According to much higher resolution topography data, elemental data and reflectance data of Chang'E-2 and Chang'E-3[7-8], we preliminary analyse the possibility on establishing Chang'E-3 landing site as a reflectance calibration target. Firstly, the overall terrain of the 4 km×4 km area around the landing site is flat, but there are still three bigger craters existed. Secondly, the composition on Chang'E-3

  8. Dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase as a potential UVB target in skin epidermis; using an integrated approach of label-free quantitative proteomics and targeted metabolite analysis.

    PubMed

    Moon, Eunjung; Park, Hye Min; Lee, Choong Hwan; Do, Seon-Gil; Park, Jong-Moon; Han, Na-Young; Do, Moon Ho; Lee, Jong Ha; Lee, Hookeun; Kim, Sun Yeou

    2015-03-18

    Photodamage is extrinsically induced by overexposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and it increases the risk of various skin disorders. Therefore, discovery of novel biomarkers of photodamage is important. In this study, using LC-MS/MS analysis of epidermis from UVB-irradiated hairless mice, we identified 57 proteins whose levels changed after UVB exposure, and selected 7 proteins related to the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle through pathway analysis. Dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD) was the only TCA cycle-associated protein that showed a decreased expression after the UVB exposure. We also performed targeted analysis to detect intermediates and products of the TCA cycle using GC-TOF-MS. Interestingly, malic acid and fumaric acid levels significantly decreased in the UVB-treated group. Our results demonstrate that DLD and its associated metabolites, malic acid and fumaric acid, may be candidate biomarkers of UVB-induced skin photoaging. Additionally, we showed that Aloe vera, a natural skin moisturizer, regulated DLD, malic acid and fumaric acid levels in UVB-exposed epidermis. Our strategy to integrate the proteome and targeted metabolite to detect novel UVB targets will lead to a better understanding of skin photoaging and photodamage. Our study also supports that A. vera exerts significant anti-photodamage activity via regulation of DLD, a novel UVB target, in the epidermis. This study is the first example of an integration of proteomic and metabolite analysis techniques to find new biomarker candidates for the regulation of the UVB-induced skin photoaging. DLD, malic acid, and fumaric acid can be used for development of cosmeceuticals and nutraceuticals regulating the change of skin metabolism induced by the UVB overexposure. Moreover, this is also the first attempt to investigate the role of the TCA cycle in photodamaged epidermis. Our integration of the proteomic and targeted metabolite analyses will lead to a better understanding of the unidentified

  9. Gottfried Sum Rule in QCD Nonsinglet Analysis of DIS Fixed-Target Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotikov, A. V.; Krivokhizhin, V. G.; Shaikhatdenov, B. G.

    2018-03-01

    Deep-inelastic-scattering data from fixed-target experiments on the structure function F 2 were analyzed in the valence-quark approximation at the next-to-next-to-leading-order accuracy level in the strong-coupling constant. In this analysis, parton distributions were parametrized by employing information from the Gottfried sum rule. The strong-coupling constant was found to be α s ( M 2 Z) = 0.1180 ± 0.0020 (total expt. error), which is in perfect agreement with the world-averaged value from an updated Particle Data Group (PDG) report, α PDG s ( M 2 Z) = 0.1181 ± 0.0011. Also, the value of < x> u- d = 0.187 ± 0.021 found for the second moment of the difference in the u- and d-quark distributions complies very well with the most recent lattice result < x>LATTICE u- d = 0.208 ± 0.024.

  10. Specter: linear deconvolution for targeted analysis of data-independent acquisition mass spectrometry proteomics.

    PubMed

    Peckner, Ryan; Myers, Samuel A; Jacome, Alvaro Sebastian Vaca; Egertson, Jarrett D; Abelin, Jennifer G; MacCoss, Michael J; Carr, Steven A; Jaffe, Jacob D

    2018-05-01

    Mass spectrometry with data-independent acquisition (DIA) is a promising method to improve the comprehensiveness and reproducibility of targeted and discovery proteomics, in theory by systematically measuring all peptide precursors in a biological sample. However, the analytical challenges involved in discriminating between peptides with similar sequences in convoluted spectra have limited its applicability in important cases, such as the detection of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and alternative site localizations in phosphoproteomics data. We report Specter (https://github.com/rpeckner-broad/Specter), an open-source software tool that uses linear algebra to deconvolute DIA mixture spectra directly through comparison to a spectral library, thus circumventing the problems associated with typical fragment-correlation-based approaches. We validate the sensitivity of Specter and its performance relative to that of other methods, and show that Specter is able to successfully analyze cases involving highly similar peptides that are typically challenging for DIA analysis methods.

  11. Effects of response bias and judgment framing on operator use of an automated aid in a target detection task.

    PubMed

    Rice, Stephen; McCarley, Jason S

    2011-12-01

    Automated diagnostic aids prone to false alarms often produce poorer human performance in signal detection tasks than equally reliable miss-prone aids. However, it is not yet clear whether this is attributable to differences in the perceptual salience of the automated aids' misses and false alarms or is the result of inherent differences in operators' cognitive responses to different forms of automation error. The present experiments therefore examined the effects of automation false alarms and misses on human performance under conditions in which the different forms of error were matched in their perceptual characteristics. Young adult participants performed a simulated baggage x-ray screening task while assisted by an automated diagnostic aid. Judgments from the aid were rendered as text messages presented at the onset of each trial, and every trial was followed by a second text message providing response feedback. Thus, misses and false alarms from the aid were matched for their perceptual salience. Experiment 1 found that even under these conditions, false alarms from the aid produced poorer human performance and engendered lower automation use than misses from the aid. Experiment 2, however, found that the asymmetry between misses and false alarms was reduced when the aid's false alarms were framed as neutral messages rather than explicit misjudgments. Results suggest that automation false alarms and misses differ in their inherent cognitive salience and imply that changes in diagnosis framing may allow designers to encourage better use of imperfectly reliable automated aids.

  12. A pupal transcriptomic screen identifies Ral as a target of store-operated calcium entry in Drosophila neurons

    PubMed Central

    Richhariya, Shlesha; Jayakumar, Siddharth; Abruzzi, Katharine; Rosbash, Michael; Hasan, Gaiti

    2017-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation by Store-operated Calcium Entry (SOCE) is well studied in non-excitable cells. However, the role of SOCE has been poorly documented in neuronal cells with more complicated calcium dynamics. Previous reports demonstrated a requirement for SOCE in neurons that regulate Drosophila flight bouts. We refine this requirement temporally to the early pupal stage and use RNA-sequencing to identify SOCE mediated gene expression changes in the developing Drosophila pupal nervous system. Down regulation of dStim, the endoplasmic reticular calcium sensor and a principal component of SOCE in the nervous system, altered the expression of 131 genes including Ral, a small GTPase. Disruption of Ral function in neurons impaired flight, whereas ectopic expression of Ral in SOCE-compromised neurons restored flight. Through live imaging of calcium transients from cultured pupal neurons, we confirmed that Ral does not participate in SOCE, but acts downstream of it. These results identify neuronal SOCE as a mechanism that regulates expression of specific genes during development of the pupal nervous system and emphasizes the relevance of SOCE-regulated gene expression to flight circuit maturation. PMID:28195208

  13. A pupal transcriptomic screen identifies Ral as a target of store-operated calcium entry in Drosophila neurons.

    PubMed

    Richhariya, Shlesha; Jayakumar, Siddharth; Abruzzi, Katharine; Rosbash, Michael; Hasan, Gaiti

    2017-02-14

    Transcriptional regulation by Store-operated Calcium Entry (SOCE) is well studied in non-excitable cells. However, the role of SOCE has been poorly documented in neuronal cells with more complicated calcium dynamics. Previous reports demonstrated a requirement for SOCE in neurons that regulate Drosophila flight bouts. We refine this requirement temporally to the early pupal stage and use RNA-sequencing to identify SOCE mediated gene expression changes in the developing Drosophila pupal nervous system. Down regulation of dStim, the endoplasmic reticular calcium sensor and a principal component of SOCE in the nervous system, altered the expression of 131 genes including Ral, a small GTPase. Disruption of Ral function in neurons impaired flight, whereas ectopic expression of Ral in SOCE-compromised neurons restored flight. Through live imaging of calcium transients from cultured pupal neurons, we confirmed that Ral does not participate in SOCE, but acts downstream of it. These results identify neuronal SOCE as a mechanism that regulates expression of specific genes during development of the pupal nervous system and emphasizes the relevance of SOCE-regulated gene expression to flight circuit maturation.

  14. GAMUT: GPU accelerated microRNA analysis to uncover target genes through CUDA-miRanda

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-coding sequences such as microRNAs have important roles in disease processes. Computational microRNA target identification (CMTI) is becoming increasingly important since traditional experimental methods for target identification pose many difficulties. These methods are time-consuming, costly, and often need guidance from computational methods to narrow down candidate genes anyway. However, most CMTI methods are computationally demanding, since they need to handle not only several million query microRNA and reference RNA pairs, but also several million nucleotide comparisons within each given pair. Thus, the need to perform microRNA identification at such large scale has increased the demand for parallel computing. Methods Although most CMTI programs (e.g., the miRanda algorithm) are based on a modified Smith-Waterman (SW) algorithm, the existing parallel SW implementations (e.g., CUDASW++ 2.0/3.0, SWIPE) are unable to meet this demand in CMTI tasks. We present CUDA-miRanda, a fast microRNA target identification algorithm that takes advantage of massively parallel computing on Graphics Processing Units (GPU) using NVIDIA's Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA). CUDA-miRanda specifically focuses on the local alignment of short (i.e., ≤ 32 nucleotides) sequences against longer reference sequences (e.g., 20K nucleotides). Moreover, the proposed algorithm is able to report multiple alignments (up to 191 top scores) and the corresponding traceback sequences for any given (query sequence, reference sequence) pair. Results Speeds over 5.36 Giga Cell Updates Per Second (GCUPs) are achieved on a server with 4 NVIDIA Tesla M2090 GPUs. Compared to the original miRanda algorithm, which is evaluated on an Intel Xeon E5620@2.4 GHz CPU, the experimental results show up to 166 times performance gains in terms of execution time. In addition, we have verified that the exact same targets were predicted in both CUDA-miRanda and the original mi

  15. Work Domain Analysis Methodology for Development of Operational Concepts for Advanced Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hugo, Jacques

    2015-05-01

    This report describes a methodology to conduct a Work Domain Analysis in preparation for the development of operational concepts for new plants. This method has been adapted from the classical method described in the literature in order to better deal with the uncertainty and incomplete information typical of first-of-a-kind designs. The report outlines the strategy for undertaking a Work Domain Analysis of a new nuclear power plant and the methods to be used in the development of the various phases of the analysis. Basic principles are described to the extent necessary to explain why and how the classical method wasmore » adapted to make it suitable as a tool for the preparation of operational concepts for a new nuclear power plant. Practical examples are provided of the systematic application of the method and the various presentation formats in the operational analysis of advanced reactors.« less

  16. Multivariate analysis for the estimation of target localization errors in fiducial marker-based radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Takamiya, Masanori; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro, E-mail: m-nkmr@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Akimoto, Mami

    Purpose: To assess the target localization error (TLE) in terms of the distance between the target and the localization point estimated from the surrogates (|TMD|), the average of respiratory motion for the surrogates and the target (|aRM|), and the number of fiducial markers used for estimating the target (n). Methods: This study enrolled 17 lung cancer patients who subsequently underwent four fractions of real-time tumor tracking irradiation. Four or five fiducial markers were implanted around the lung tumor. The three-dimensional (3D) distance between the tumor and markers was at maximum 58.7 mm. One of the markers was used as themore » target (P{sub t}), and those markers with a 3D |TMD{sub n}| ≤ 58.7 mm at end-exhalation were then selected. The estimated target position (P{sub e}) was calculated from a localization point consisting of one to three markers except P{sub t}. Respiratory motion for P{sub t} and P{sub e} was defined as the root mean square of each displacement, and |aRM| was calculated from the mean value. TLE was defined as the root mean square of each difference between P{sub t} and P{sub e} during the monitoring of each fraction. These procedures were performed repeatedly using the remaining markers. To provide the best guidance on the answer with n and |TMD|, fiducial markers with a 3D |aRM ≥ 10 mm were selected. Finally, a total of 205, 282, and 76 TLEs that fulfilled the 3D |TMD| and 3D |aRM| criteria were obtained for n = 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Multiple regression analysis (MRA) was used to evaluate TLE as a function of |TMD| and |aRM| in each n. Results: |TMD| for n = 1 was larger than that for n = 3. Moreover, |aRM| was almost constant for all n, indicating a similar scale for the marker’s motion near the lung tumor. MRA showed that |aRM| in the left–right direction was the major cause of TLE; however, the contribution made little difference to the 3D TLE because of the small amount of motion in the left–right direction

  17. Stirling Convertor Extended Operation Testing and Data Analysis at Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornell, Peggy A.; Lewandowski, Edward J.; Oriti, Salvatore M.; Wilson, Scott D.

    2010-01-01

    Extended operation of Stirling convertors is essential to the development of radioisotope power systems and their potential use for longduration missions. To document the reliability of the convertors, regular monitoring and analysis of the extended operation data is particularly valuable, allowing us to better understand and quantify long-life characteristics of the convertors. Furthermore, investigation and comparison of the extended operation data to baseline performance data provides an opportunity to understand system behavior should any off-nominal performance occur. Glenn Research Center (GRC) has tested 16 Stirling convertors under 24-hr unattended extended operation, including four that have operated in a thermal vacuum environment and two that are operating in the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Unit. Ten of the sixteen convertors are the Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASC) developed by Sunpower, Inc. with GRC. These are highly efficient (conversion efficiency of up to 38 percent for the ASC-1), low-mass convertors that have evolved through technologically progressive convertor builds. Six convertors at GRC are Technology Demonstration Convertors from Infinia Corporation. They have achieved greater than 27 percent conversion efficiency and have accumulated over 185,000 of the total 265,000 hr of extended operation at GRC. This paper presents the extended operation testing and data analysis of free-piston Stirling convertors at NASA GRC as well as how these tests have contributed to the Stirling convertor s progression toward flight.

  18. An Analysis of United States Marine Corps Enlisted Entry-Level Training Using Supply Chain and Operations Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    An Analysis of United States Marine Corps Enlisted Entry-Level Training Using Supply Chain and Operations Management ______________________________________ By...Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE: An Analysis of United States Marine Corps Enlisted Entry-Level Training Using Supply Chain and Operations Management 6...Level Training; United States Marine Corps; Operations Management ; Supply Chain Management; Process Analysis 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY

  19. Electro-optic analysis of the influence of target geometry on electromagnetic pulses generated by petawatt laser-matter interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Timothy; Giltrap, Samuel; Eardley, Samuel; Consoli, Fabrizio; De Angelis, Riccardo; Ingenito, Francesco; Stuart, Nicholas; Verona, Claudio; Smith, Roland A.

    2018-01-01

    We present an analysis of strong laser-driven electromagnetic pulses using novel electro-optic diagnostic techniques. A range of targets were considered, including thin plastic foils (20-550 nm) and mass-limited, optically-levitated micro-targets. Results from foils indicate a dependence of EMP on target thickness, with larger peak electric fields observed with thinner targets. Spectral analysis suggests high repeatability between shots, with identified spectral features consistently detected with <1 MHz standard deviations of the peak position. This deviation is reduced for shots taken on the same day, suggesting that local conditions, such as movement of metal objects within the target chamber, are more likely to lead to minor spectral modifications, highlighting the role of the local environment in determining the details of EMP production. Levitated targets are electrically isolated from their environment, hence these targets should be unable to draw a neutralization current from the earth following ejection of hot electrons from the plasma, in contrast to predictions for pin-mounted foils in the Poyé EMP generation model. With levitated targets, no EMP was measurable above the noise threshold of any diagnostic, despite observation of protons accelerated to >30 MeV energies, suggesting the discharge current contribution to EMP is dominant.

  20. Space-based infrared sensors of space target imaging effect analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Huayu; Zhang, Yasheng; Zhou, Haijun; Zhao, Shuang

    2018-02-01

    Target identification problem is one of the core problem of ballistic missile defense system, infrared imaging simulation is an important means of target detection and recognition. This paper first established the space-based infrared sensors ballistic target imaging model of point source on the planet's atmosphere; then from two aspects of space-based sensors camera parameters and target characteristics simulated atmosphere ballistic target of infrared imaging effect, analyzed the camera line of sight jitter, camera system noise and different imaging effects of wave on the target.